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Sample records for magnetic nanoparticles coated

  1. Magnetism in nanoparticles: tuning properties with coatings.

    PubMed

    Crespo, Patricia; de la Presa, Patricia; Marín, Pilar; Multigner, Marta; Alonso, José María; Rivero, Guillermo; Yndurain, Félix; González-Calbet, José María; Hernando, Antonio

    2013-12-01

    This paper reviews the effect of organic and inorganic coatings on magnetic nanoparticles. The ferromagnetic-like behaviour observed in nanoparticles constituted by materials which are non-magnetic in bulk is analysed for two cases: (a) Pd and Pt nanoparticles, formed by substances close to the onset of ferromagnetism, and (b) Au and ZnO nanoparticles, which were found to be surprisingly magnetic at the nanoscale when coated by organic surfactants. An overview of theories accounting for this unexpected magnetism, induced by the nanosize influence, is presented. In addition, the effect of coating magnetic nanoparticles with biocompatible metals, oxides or organic molecules is also reviewed, focusing on their applications. PMID:24201075

  2. Multifunctional biocompatible coatings on magnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bychkova, A. V.; Sorokina, O. N.; Rosenfeld, M. A.; Kovarski, A. L.

    2012-11-01

    Methods for coating formation on magnetic nanoparticles used in biology and medicine are considered. Key requirements to the coatings are formulated, namely, biocompatibility, stability, the possibility of attachment of pharmaceutical agents, and the absence of toxicity. The behaviour of nanoparticle/coating nanosystems in the body including penetration through cellular membranes and the excretion rates and routes is analyzed. Parameters characterizing the magnetic properties of these systems and their magnetic controllability are described. Factors limiting the applications of magnetically controlled nanosystems for targeted drug delivery are discussed. The bibliography includes 405 references.

  3. Improving magnetic properties of ultrasmall magnetic nanoparticles by biocompatible coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costo, R.; Morales, M. P.; Veintemillas-Verdaguer, S.

    2015-02-01

    This paper deals with the effect of a biocompatible surface coating layer on the magnetic properties of ultrasmall iron oxide nanoparticles. Particles were synthesized by laser pyrolysis and fully oxidized to maghemite by acid treatment. The surface of the magnetic nanoparticles was systematically coated with either phosphonate (phosphonoacetic acid or pamidronic acid) or carboxylate-based (carboxymethyl dextran) molecules and the binding to the nanoparticle surface was analyzed. Magnetic properties at low temperature show a decrease in coercivity and an increase in magnetization after the coating process. Hysteresis loop displacement after field cooling is significantly reduced by the coating, in particular, for particles coated with pamidronic acid, which show a 10% reduction of the displacement of the loop. We conclude that the chemical coordination of carboxylates and phosphonates reduces the surface disorder and enhances the magnetic properties of ultrasmall maghemite nanoparticles.

  4. Polysaccharide-Coated Magnetic Nanoparticles for Imaging and Gene Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Uthaman, Saji; Cherukula, Kondareddy; Cho, Chong-Su; Park, In-Kyu

    2015-01-01

    Today, nanotechnology plays a vital role in biomedical applications, especially for the diagnosis and treatment of various diseases. Among the many different types of fabricated nanoparticles, magnetic metal oxide nanoparticles stand out as unique and useful tools for biomedical applications, because of their imaging characteristics and therapeutic properties such as drug and gene carriers. Polymer-coated magnetic particles are currently of particular interest to investigators in the fields of nanobiomedicine and fundamental biomaterials. Theranostic magnetic nanoparticles that are encapsulated or coated with polymers not only exhibit imaging properties in response to stimuli, but also can efficiently deliver various drugs and therapeutic genes. Even though a large number of polymer-coated magnetic nanoparticles have been fabricated over the last decade, most of these have only been used for imaging purposes. The focus of this review is on polysaccharide-coated magnetic nanoparticles used for imaging and gene delivery. PMID:26078971

  5. Functionalization of polydopamine coated magnetic nanoparticles with biological entities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mǎgeruşan, Lidia; Mrówczyński, Radosław; Turcu, Rodica

    2015-12-01

    New hybrid materials, obtained through introduction of cysteine, lysine and folic acid as biological entities into polydopamine-coated magnetite nanoparticles, are reported. The syntheses are straight forward and various methods were applied for structural and morphological characterization of the resulting nanoparticles. XPS proved a very powerful tool for surface chemical analysis and it evidences the functionalization of polydopamine coated magnetite nanoparticles. The superparamagnetic behavior and the high values of saturation magnetization recommend all products for further application where magnetism is important for targeting, separation, or heating by alternative magnetic fields.

  6. Technique to optimize magnetic response of gelatin coated magnetic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Parikh, Nidhi; Parekh, Kinnari

    2015-07-01

    The paper describes the results of optimization of magnetic response for highly stable bio-functionalize magnetic nanoparticles dispersion. Concentration of gelatin during in situ co-precipitation synthesis was varied from 8, 23 and 48 mg/mL to optimize magnetic properties. This variation results in a change in crystallite size from 10.3 to 7.8 ± 0.1 nm. TEM measurement of G3 sample shows highly crystalline spherical nanoparticles with a mean diameter of 7.2 ± 0.2 nm and diameter distribution (σ) of 0.27. FTIR spectra shows a shift of 22 cm(-1) at C=O stretching with absence of N-H stretching confirming the chemical binding of gelatin on magnetic nanoparticles. The concept of lone pair electron of the amide group explains the mechanism of binding. TGA shows 32.8-25.2% weight loss at 350 °C temperature substantiating decomposition of chemically bind gelatin. The magnetic response shows that for 8 mg/mL concentration of gelatin, the initial susceptibility and saturation magnetization is the maximum. The cytotoxicity of G3 sample was assessed in Normal Rat Kidney Epithelial Cells (NRK Line) by MTT assay. Results show an increase in viability for all concentrations, the indicative probability of a stimulating action of these particles in the nontoxic range. This shows the potential of this technique for biological applications as the coated particles are (i) superparamagnetic (ii) highly stable in physiological media (iii) possibility of attaching other drug with free functional group of gelatin and (iv) non-toxic. PMID:26152511

  7. Magnetic metal nanoparticles coated polyacrylonitrile textiles as microwave absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akman, O.; Kavas, H.; Baykal, A.; Toprak, M. S.; Çoruh, Ali; Aktaş, B.

    2013-02-01

    Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) textiles with 2 mm thickness are coated with magnetic nanoparticles in coating baths with Ni, Co and their alloys via an electroless metal deposition method. The crystal structure, morphology and magnetic nature of composites are investigated by X-ray Powder diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy, and dc magnetization measurement techniques. The frequency dependent microwave absorption measurements have been carried out in the frequency range of 12.4-18 GHz (X and P bands). Diamagnetic and ferromagnetic properties are also investigated. Finally, the microwave absorption of composites is found strongly dependent on the coating time. One absorption peak is observed between 14.3 and 15.8 GHz with an efficient absorption bandwidth of 3.3-4.1 GHz (under -20 dB reflection loss limit). The Reflection loss (RL) can be achieved between -30 and -50 dB. It was found that the RL is decreasing and absorption bandwidth is decreasing with increasing coating time. While absorption peak moves to lower frequencies in Ni coated PAN textile, it goes higher frequencies in Co coated ones. The Ni-Co alloy coated composites have fluctuating curve of absorption frequency with respect to coating time. These results encourage further development of magnetic nanoparticle coated textile absorbers for broadband applications.

  8. Magnetic nanoparticles coated with polyaniline to stabilize immobilized trypsin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maciel, J. C.; D. Mercês, A. A.; Cabrera, M.; Shigeyosi, W. T.; de Souza, S. D.; Olzon-Dionysio, M.; Fabris, J. D.; Cardoso, C. A.; Neri, D. F. M.; C. Silva, M. P.; Carvalho, L. B.

    2016-12-01

    It is reported the synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles via the chemical co-precipitation of Fe 3+ ions and their preparation by coating them with polyaniline. The electronic micrograph analysis showed that the mean diameter for the nanoparticles is ˜15 nm. FTIR, powder X-ray diffraction and Mössbauer spectroscopy were used to understand the chemical, crystallographic and 57Fe hyperfine structures for the two samples. The nanoparticles, which exhibited magnetic behavior with relatively high spontaneous magnetization at room temperature, were identified as being mainly formed by maghemite ( γFe2O3). The coated magnetic nanoparticles (sample labeled "mPANI") presented a real ability to bind biological molecules such as trypsin, forming the magnetic enzyme derivative (sample "mPANIG-Trypsin"). The amount of protein and specific activity of the immobilized trypsin were found to be 13±5 μg of protein/mg of mPANI (49.3 % of immobilized protein) and 24.1±0.7 U/mg of immobilized protein, respectively. After 48 days of storage at 4 ∘C, the activity of the immobilized trypsin was found to be 89 % of its initial activity. This simple, fast and low-cost procedure was revealed to be a promising way to prepare mPANI nanoparticles if technological applications addressed to covalently link biomolecules are envisaged. This route yields chemically stable derivatives, which can be easily recovered from the reaction mixture with a magnetic field and recyclable reused.

  9. Magnetic heating of silica-coated manganese ferrite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iqbal, Yousaf; Bae, Hongsub; Rhee, Ilsu; Hong, Sungwook

    2016-07-01

    Manganese ferrite nanoparticles were synthesized using the reverse micelle method; these particles were then coated with silica. The silica-coated nanoparticles were spherical in shape, with an average diameter of 14 nm. The inverse spinel crystalline structure was observed through X-ray diffraction patterns. The coating status of silica on the surface of the nanoparticles was confirmed with a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. The superparamagnetic properties were revealed by the zero coercive force in the hysteresis curve. Controllable heating at a fixed temperature of 42 °C was achieved by changing either the concentration of nanoparticles in the aqueous solution or the intensity of the alternating magnetic field. We found that at a fixed field strength of 5.5 kA/m, the 2.6 mg/ml sample showed a saturation temperature of 42 °C for magnetic hyperthermia. On the other hand, at a fixed concentration of 3.6 mg/ml, a field intensity of 4.57 kA/m satisfied the required temperature of 42 °C.

  10. Magnet-induced temporary superhydrophobic coatings from one-pot synthesized hydrophobic magnetic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Fang, Jian; Wang, Hongxia; Xue, Yuhua; Wang, Xungai; Lin, Tong

    2010-05-01

    In this paper, we report on the production of superhydrophobic coatings on various substrates (e.g., glass slide, silicon wafer, aluminum foil, plastic film, nanofiber mat, textile fabrics) using hydrophobic magnetic nanoparticles and a magnet-assembly technique. Fe(3)O(4) magnetic nanoparticles functionalized with a thin layer of fluoroalkyl silica on the surface were synthesized by one-step coprecipitation of Fe(2+)/Fe(3+) under an alkaline condition in the presence of a fluorinated alkyl silane. Under a magnetic field, the magnetic nanoparticles can be easily deposited on any solid substrate to form a thin superhydrophobic coating with water contact angle as high as 172 degrees , and the surface superhydrophobicity showed very little dependence on the substrate type. The particulate coating showed reasonable durability because of strong aggregation effect of nanoparticles, but the coating layer can be removed (e.g., by ultrasonication) to restore the original surface feature of the substrates. By comparison, the thin particle layer deposited under no magnetic field showed much lower hydrophobicity. The main reason for magnet-induced superhydrophobic surfaces is the formation of nano- and microstructured surface features. Such a magnet-induced temporary superhydrophobic coating may have wide applications in electronic, biomedical, and defense-related areas. PMID:20397642

  11. Iron oxide nanoparticles for magnetically assisted patterned coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodi, Gianina; Hritcu, Doina; Draganescu, Dan; Popa, Marcel I.

    2015-08-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles able to magnetically assemble during the curing stage of a polymeric support to create micro-scale surface protuberances in a controlled manner were prepared and characterized. The bare Fe3O4 particles were obtained by two methods: co-precipitation from an aqueous solution containing Fe3+/Fe2+ ions with a molar ratio of 2:1 and partial oxidation of ferrous ions in alkaline conditions. The products were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and magnetization measurement. They were subsequently functionalized using oleic acid, sodium oleate, or non-ionic surfactant mixtures with various hydrophilic to lipophilic balance (HLB) values. Composite nanoparticle-polymer films prepared by spraying were deposited and cured by drying on glass slides under a static magnetic field in the range of 1.5-5.5 mT. Magnetic field generated surface roughness was evidenced by optical and scanning electron microscopy. The optimum hierarchical patterning was obtained with the nanoparticles produced by partial oxidation and functionalized with hydrophobic surfactants. Possible applications may include ice-phobic composite coatings.

  12. Measurement of the nonmagnetic coating thickness of core-shell magnetic nanoparticles by controlled magnetization magnetic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angeloni, L.; Passeri, D.; Scaramuzzo, F. A.; Di Iorio, D.; Barteri, M.; Mantovani, D.; Rossi, M.

    2016-06-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) represent an interesting tool for several biomedical applications. In order to improve the dispersion stability, the biocompatibility and bio-functionality, MNPs need to be coated with non-magnetic films. The optimization of these systems requires the deep characterization not only of the magnetic core, but also of the coating features. Beside the chemical and physical properties of the coating, its thickness is another important property which can influence the size, the shape and the overall magnetic behavior of the NPs system. In this work we propose a possible method to measure the thickness of the non-magnetic coating of core-shell MNPs through the use of controlled magnetization-magnetic force microscopy (CM-MFM). A preliminary study on the applicability of the proposed method has been performed on Fe3O4 NPs coated with a Cu film.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of poly(divinylbenzene)-coated magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as precursor for the formation of air-stable carbon-coated iron crystalline nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Boguslavsky, Yonit; Margel, Shlomo

    2008-01-01

    Maghemite (gamma-Fe2O3) nanoparticles of 15 +/- 3 nm diameter were prepared by nucleation of gelatin/iron oxide followed by growth of gamma-Fe2O3 films onto these nuclei. The gamma-Fe2O3 nanoparticles were coated with polydivinylbenzene (PDVB) by emulsion polymerization of divinylbenzene (DVB) in an aqueous continuous phase containing the gamma-Fe2O3 nanoparticles. The PDVB-coated gamma-Fe2O3 nanoparticles, dispersed in water, were separated from homo-PDVB nanoparticles using the high gradient magnetic field (HGMF) technique. The influence of DVB concentration on the amount of PDVB coating, on the size and size distribution of the coated gamma-Fe2O3 nanoparticles and on their magnetic properties, has been investigated. Air-stable carbon-coated iron (alpha-Fe/C) crystalline nanoparticles of 41 +/- 12 nm diameter have been prepared by annealing the PDVB-coated gamma-Fe2O3 nanoparticles at 1050 degrees C in an inert atmosphere. These nanoparticles exhibit high saturation magnetization value (83 emu g(-1)) and excellent resistance to oxidation. Characterization of the PDVB-coated gamma-Fe2O3 and of the alpha-Fe/C nanoparticles has been accomplished by TEM, HRTEM, DLS, FTIR, XRD, thermal analysis, zeta-potential, and magnetic measurements. PMID:17927999

  14. Human-like collagen protein-coated magnetic nanoparticles with high magnetic hyperthermia performance and improved biocompatibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaoli; Zhang, Huan; Chang, Le; Yu, Baozhi; Liu, Qiuying; Wu, Jianpeng; Miao, Yuqing; Ma, Pei; Fan, Daidi; Fan, Haiming

    2015-01-01

    Human-like collagen (HLC)-coated monodispersed superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles have been successfully prepared to investigate its effect on heat induction property and cell toxicity. After coating of HLC, the sample shows a faster rate of temperature increase under an alternating magnetic field although it has a reduced saturation magnetization. This is most probably a result of the effective heat conduction and good colloid stability due to the high charge of HLC on the surface. In addition, compared with Fe3O4 nanoparticles before coating with HLC, HLC-coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles do not induce notable cytotoxic effect at higher concentration which indicates that HLC-coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles has improved biocompatibility. Our results clearly show that Fe3O4 nanoparticles after coating with HLC not only possess effective heat induction for cancer treatment but also have improved biocompatibility for biomedicine applications.

  15. Mechanisms of enhanced osteoblast gene expression in the presence of hydroxyapatite coated iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Nhiem; Hall, Douglas; Webster, Thomas J.

    2012-11-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) coated iron oxide (Fe3O4) magnetic nanoparticles have been shown to enhance osteoblast (bone forming cells) proliferation and osteoblast differentiation into calcium depositing cells (through increased secretion of alkaline phosphatase, collagen and calcium deposition) compared to control samples without nanoparticles. Such nanoparticles are, thus, very promising for numerous orthopedic applications including magnetically directed osteoporosis treatment. The objective of the current study was to elucidate the mechanisms of the aforementioned improved osteoblast responses in the presence of HA coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles. Results demonstrated large amounts of fibronectin (a protein known to increase osteoblast functions) adsorption on HA coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles. Specifically, fibronectin adsorption almost doubled when HA coated Fe3O4 nanoparticle concentrations increased from 12.5 to 100 μg ml-1, and from 12.5 to 200 μg ml-1, a four fold increase was observed. Results also showed greater osteoblast gene regulation (specifically, osteocalcin, type I collagen and cbfa-1) in the presence of HA coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles. Collectively, these results provide a mechanism for the observed enhanced osteoblast functions in the presence of HA coated iron oxide nanoparticles, allowing their further investigation for a number of orthopedic applications.

  16. Effect of different magnetic nanoparticle coatings on the efficiency of stem cell labeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horák, Daniel; Babič, Michal; Jendelová, Pavla; Herynek, Vít; Trchová, Miroslava; Likavčanová, Katarina; Kapcalová, Miroslava; Hájek, Milan; Syková, Eva

    2009-05-01

    Maghemite nanoparticles with various coatings were prepared by the coprecipitation method and characterized by transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering and IR in terms of morphology, size, polydispersity and surface coating. The labeling efficiency and the viability of both rat and human mesenchymal stem cells labeled with Endorem ®, poly( L-lysine) (PLL)-modified Endorem ®, uncoated γ-Fe 2O 3, D-mannose-, PLL- or poly( N,N-dimethylacrylamide) (PDMAAm)-coated γ-Fe 2O 3 nanoparticles were compared. Coated γ-Fe 2O 3 nanoparticles labeled cells better than did Endorem ®. High relaxation rates and in vitro magnetic resonance imaging of cells labeled with coated nanoparticles showed clearly visible contrast compared with unlabeled cells or cells labeled with Endorem ®.

  17. Accumulation of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles coated with variably sized polyethylene glycol in murine tumors.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Esben Kjær Unmack; Nielsen, Thomas; Wittenborn, Thomas; Rydtoft, Louise Munk; Lokanathan, Arcot R; Hansen, Line; Østergaard, Leif; Kingshott, Peter; Howard, Kenneth A; Besenbacher, Flemming; Nielsen, Niels Chr; Kjems, Jørgen

    2012-04-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles have found widespread applications in different areas including cell separation, drug delivery and as contrast agents. Due to water insolubility and stability issues, nanoparticles utilized for biological applications require coatings such as the commonly employed polyethylene glycol (PEG). Despite its frequent use, the influence of PEG coatings on the physicochemical and biological properties of iron nanoparticles has hitherto not been studied in detail. To address this, we studied the effect of 333-20,000 Da PEG coatings that resulted in larger hydrodynamic size, lower surface charge, longer circulation half-life, and lower uptake in macrophage cells when the particles were coated with high molecular weight (M(w)) PEG molecules. By use of magnetic resonance imaging, we show coating-dependent in vivo uptake in murine tumors with an optimal coating M(w) of 10,000 Da. PMID:22395568

  18. Effect of surface coating on magnetic properties of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chithra, M.; Anumol, C. N.; Sahoo, Subasa C.

    2016-05-01

    Cobalt ferrite nanoparticles were synthesized by coprecipitation method with and without surface coating. Oleic acid and citric acid were used as the surfactant during synthesis of nanoparticles. The sample prepared without coating and with (1M) oleic acid as surfactant showed crystalline nature whereas the sample prepared with (1M) citric acid was X-ray amorphous. The grain size was decreased with the addition of surfactant during synthesis. It was also observed that with the decrease in concentration of citric acid, grain size was increased. The sample prepared with (1M) citric acid was superparamagnetic and the other samples were ferrimagnetic in nature with magnetization value less than the bulk value of 80emu/g at 300K. Magnetization, remanence and coercivity values were decreased in the samples prepared with coating in comparison to the sample prepared without coating. As the temperature decreased from 300K to 60K all the magnetic properties mentioned above were enhanced. The observed magnetic properties of these nanoparticles can be attributed to the grain size, effect of surface coating and magnetic interactions in these nanoparticles.

  19. Monitoring colloidal stability of polymer-coated magnetic nanoparticles using AC susceptibility measurements.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Adriana P; Barrera, Carola; Zayas, Yashira; Rinaldi, Carlos

    2010-02-15

    The application of the response of magnetic nanoparticles to oscillating magnetic fields to probe transitions in colloidal state and structure of polymer-coated nanoparticles is demonstrated. Cobalt ferrite nanoparticles with narrow size distribution were prepared and shown to respond to oscillating magnetic fields through a Brownian relaxation mechanism, which is dependent on the mechanical coupling between the particle dipoles and the surrounding matrix. These nanoparticles were coated with covalently-attached poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (pNIPAM) or poly(N-isopropylmethacrylamide) (pNIPMAM) through free radical polymerization. The temperature induced transitions of colloidal suspensions of these nanoparticles were studied through a combination of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and AC susceptibility measurements. In the pNIPAM coated nanoparticles excellent agreement was found for a transition temperature of approximately 30 degrees C by all three methods, although the AC susceptibility measurements indicated aggregation which was not evident from the DLS results. Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) results obtained for pNIPAM coated nanoparticles confirmed that aggregation indeed occurs above the lower critical transition temperature of pNIPAM. For the pNIPMAM coated nanoparticles DLS and AC susceptibility measurements indicated aggregation at a temperature of approximately 33-35 degrees C, much lower than the transition temperature peak at 40 degrees C observed by DSC. However, the transition observed by DSC is very broad, hence it is possible that aggregation begins to occur at temperatures lower than the peak, as indicated by the AC susceptibility and DLS results. These experiments and observations demonstrate the possibility of using AC susceptibility measurements to probe transitions in colloidal suspensions induced by external stimuli. Because magnetic measurements do not require optical transparency, these

  20. Modular Fabrication of Polymer Brush Coated Magnetic Nanoparticles: Engineering the Interface for Targeted Cellular Imaging.

    PubMed

    Oz, Yavuz; Arslan, Mehmet; Gevrek, Tugce N; Sanyal, Rana; Sanyal, Amitav

    2016-08-01

    Development of efficient and rapid protocols for diversification of functional magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) would enable identification of promising candidates using high-throughput protocols for applications such as diagnostics and cure through early detection and localized delivery. Polymer brush coated magnetic nanoparticles find use in many such applications. A protocol that allows modular diversification of a pool of parent polymer coated nanoparticles will lead to a library of functional materials with improved uniformity. In the present study, polymer brush coated parent magnetic nanoparticles obtained using reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization are modified to obtain nanoparticles with different "clickable" groups. In this design, trithiocarbonate group terminated polymer brushes are "grafted from" MNPs using a catechol group bearing initiator. A postpolymerization radical exchange reaction allows installation of "clickable" functional groups like azides and maleimides on the chain ends of the polymers. Thus, modified MNPs can be functionalized using alkyne-containing and thiol-containing moieties like peptides and dyes using the alkyne-azide cycloaddition and the thiol-ene conjugation, respectively. Using the approach outlined here, a cell surface receptor targeting cyclic peptide and a fluorescent dye are attached onto nanoparticle surface. This multifunctional construct allows selective recognition of cancer cells that overexpress integrin receptors. Furthermore, the approach outlined here is not limited to the installation of azide and maleimide functional groups but can be expanded to a variety of "clickable" groups to allow nanoparticle modification using a broad range of chemical conjugations. PMID:27406320

  1. Chitosan-coated nickel-ferrite nanoparticles as contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Tanveer; Bae, Hongsub; Iqbal, Yousaf; Rhee, Ilsu; Hong, Sungwook; Chang, Yongmin; Lee, Jaejun; Sohn, Derac

    2015-05-01

    We report evidence for the possible application of chitosan-coated nickel-ferrite (NiFe2O4) nanoparticles as both T1 and T2 contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The coating of nickel-ferrite nanoparticles with chitosan was performed simultaneously with the synthesis of the nickel-ferrite nanoparticles by a chemical co-precipitation method. The coated nanoparticles were cylindrical in shape with an average length of 17 nm and an average width of 4.4 nm. The bonding of chitosan onto the ferrite nanoparticles was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The T1 and T2 relaxivities were 0.858±0.04 and 1.71±0.03 mM-1 s-1, respectively. In animal experimentation, both a 25% signal enhancement in the T1-weighted mage and a 71% signal loss in the T2-weighted image were observed. This demonstrated that chitosan-coated nickel-ferrite nanoparticles are suitable as both T1 and T2 contrast agents in MRI. We note that the applicability of our nanoparticles as both T1 and T2 contrast agents is due to their cylindrical shape, which gives rise to both inner and outer sphere processes of nanoparticles.

  2. Magnetic properties of magnetite nanoparticles coated with mesoporous silica by sonochemical method

    SciTech Connect

    Ursachi, Irina; Vasile, Aurelia; Chiriac, Horia; Postolache, Petronel; Stancu, Alexandru

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MCM-41-coating of magnetite nanoparticles performed under ultrasonic irradiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ultrasonic irradiation accelerates the formation of the MCM-41 framework. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The hysteretic response to an applied field was investigated applying FORC diagram. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The average coercive field of the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles increased after coating. -- Abstract: In this paper we present the magnetic properties of mesoporous silica-coated Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles. The coating of magnetite nanoparticles with mesoporous silica shell was performed under ultrasonic irradiation. The obtained mesoporous silica-coated magnetite nanoparticles were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms and vibrating sample magnetometer. The hysteretic behavior was studied using first-order reversal curves diagrams. The X-ray diffraction result indicates that the extreme chemical and physical conditions created by acoustic cavitations have an insignificant effect on crystallographic structural characteristic of magnetite nanoparticles. Changes in the coercivity distributions of the magnetite nanoparticles were observed on the first-order reversal curves diagrams for the samples with coated particles compared with the samples containing uncoated particles of magnetite. The coated particles show an increased most probable coercivity of about 20% compared with the uncoated particles which can be associated with an increased anisotropy due to coating even if the interaction field distribution measured on the diagrams are virtually identical for coated/uncoated samples.

  3. Surface functionalization of silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles for covalent attachment of cholesterol oxidase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šulek, Franja; Drofenik, Miha; Habulin, Maja; Knez, Željko

    2010-01-01

    A systematic approach towards the fabrication of highly functionalized silica shell magnetic nanoparticles, presently used for enzyme immobilization, is herein fully presented. The synthesis of bare maghemite (γ-Fe 2O 3) nanoparticles was accomplished by thermal co-precipitation of iron ions in ammonia alkaline solution at harsh reaction conditions, respectively. Primary surface engineering of maghemite nanoparticles was successfully performed by the proper deposition of silica onto nanoparticles surface under strictly regulated reaction conditions. Next, the secondary surface functionalization of the particles was achieved by coating the particles with organosilane followed by glutaraldehyde activation in order to enhance protein immobilization. Covalent immobilization of cholesterol oxidase was attempted afterwards. The structural and magnetic properties of magnetic silica nanocomposites were characterized by TEM and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) instruments. X-ray diffraction measurements confirmed the spinel structure and average size of uncoated maghemite nanoparticles to be around 20 nm in diameter. SEM-EDS spectra indicated a strong signal for Si, implying the coating procedure of silica onto the particles surface to be successfully accomplished. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra analysis confirmed the binding of amino silane molecules onto the surface of the maghemite nanoparticles mediated Si-O-Si chemical bonds. Compared to the free enzyme, the covalently bound cholesterol oxidase retained 50% of its activity. Binding of enzyme onto chemically modified magnetic nanoparticles via glutaraldehyde activation is a promising method for developing biosensing components in biomedicine.

  4. Gold-coated iron oxide nanoparticles as a T2 contrast agent in magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Tanveer; Bae, Hongsub; Rhee, Ilsu; Chang, Yongmin; Jin, Seong-Uk; Hong, Sungwook

    2012-07-01

    Gold-coated iron oxide (Fe3O4) nanoparticles were synthesized for use as a T2 contrast agent in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The coated nanoparticles were spherical in shape with an average diameter of 20 nm. The gold shell was about 2 nm thick. The bonding status of the gold on the nanoparticle surfaces was checked using a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR). The FTIR spectra confirmed the attachment of homocysteine, in the form of thiolates, to the Au shell of the Au-Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The relaxivity ratio, R2/R1, for the coated nanoparticles was 3-fold higher than that of a commercial contrast agent, Resovist, which showed the potential for their use as a T2 contrast agent with high efficacy. In animal experiments, the presence of the nanoparticles in rat liver resulted in a 71% decrease in signal intensity in T2-weighted MR images, indicating that our gold-coated iron oxide nanoparticles are suitable for use as a T2 contrast agent in MRI. PMID:22966533

  5. Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles: Synthesis and surface coating techniques for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Sheng-Nan; Wei, Chao; Zhu, Zan-Zan; Hou, Yang-Long; Subbu, S. Venkatraman; Xu, Zhi-Chuan

    2014-03-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles are the most popular magnetic nanoparticles used in biomedical applications due to their low cost, low toxicity, and unique magnetic property. Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, including magnetite (Fe3O4) and maghemite (γ-Fe2O3), usually exhibit a superparamagnetic property as their size goes smaller than 20 nm, which are often denoted as superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) and utilized for drug delivery, diagnosis, therapy, and etc. This review article gives a brief introduction on magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles in terms of their fundamentals of magnetism, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and drug delivery, as well as the synthesis approaches, surface coating, and application examples from recent key literatures. Because the quality and surface chemistry play important roles in biomedical applications, our review focuses on the synthesis approaches and surface modifications of iron oxide nanoparticles. We aim to provide a detailed introduction to readers who are new to this field, helping them to choose suitable synthesis methods and to optimize the surface chemistry of iron oxide nanoparticles for their interests.

  6. Copper Ferrocyanide-Functionalized Magnetic Adsorbents Using Polyethyleneimine Coated Fe3O4 Nanoparticles for the Removal of Radioactive Cesium.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hee-Man; Hong, Sang Bum; Cho, Yong Suk; Lee, Kune-Woo; Seo, Bum-Kyoung; Moon, Jei-Kwon

    2016-03-01

    Copper ferrocyanide-functionalized magnetic nano-adsorbents were successfully synthesized by electrostatic coating of citric acid coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles with polyethyleneimine, and immobilizing copper and ferrocyanide on the surfaces of polyethyleneimine-coated nanoparticles. Radioactive cesium (Cs) adsorption tests were conducted to investigate the effectiveness of the copper ferrocyanide-functionalized magnetic nano-adsorbents toward the removal of radioactive Cs. PMID:27455762

  7. Low biosorption of PVA coated engineered magnetic nanoparticles in granular sludge assessed by magnetic susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Herrling, Maria P; Fetsch, Katharina L; Delay, Markus; Blauert, Florian; Wagner, Michael; Franzreb, Matthias; Horn, Harald; Lackner, Susanne

    2015-12-15

    When engineered nanoparticles (ENP) enter into wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) their removal from the water phase is driven by the interactions with the biomass in the biological treatment step. While studies focus on the interactions with activated flocculent sludge, investigations on the detailed distribution of ENP in other types of biomass, such as granulated sludge, are needed to assess their potential environmental pollution. This study employed engineered magnetic nanoparticles (EMNP) coated with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as model nanoparticles to trace their fate in granular sludge from WWT. For the first time, magnetic susceptibility was used as a simple approach for the in-situ quantification of EMNP with a high precision (error <2%). Compared to other analytical methods, the magnetic susceptibility requires no sample preparation and enabled direct quantification of EMNP in both the aqueous phase and the granular sludge. In batch experiments granular sludge was exposed to EMNP suspensions for 18 h. The results revealed that the removal of EMNP from the water phase (5-35%) and biosorption in the granular sludge were rather low. Less than 2.4% of the initially added EMNP were associated with the biomass. Loosely bounded to the granular sludge, desorption of EMNP occurred. Consequently, the removal of EMNP was mainly driven by physical co-sedimentation with the biomass instead of sorption processes. A mass balance elucidated that the majority of EMNP were stabilized by particulate organic matter in the water phase and can therefore likely be transported further. The magnetic susceptibility enabled tracing EMNP in complex matrices and thus improves the understanding of the general distribution of ENP in technical as well as environmental systems. PMID:26282738

  8. Chitosan-Coated Magnetic Nanoparticles Prepared in One Step by Reverse Microemulsion Precipitation

    PubMed Central

    López, Raúl G.; Pineda, María G.; Hurtado, Gilberto; de León, Ramón Díaz; Fernández, Salvador; Saade, Hened; Bueno, Darío

    2013-01-01

    Chitosan-coated magnetic nanoparticles (CMNP) were obtained at 70 °C and 80 °C in a one-step method, which comprises precipitation in reverse microemulsion in the presence of low chitosan concentration in the aqueous phase. X-ray diffractometry showed that CMNP obtained at both temperatures contain a mixture of magnetite and maghemite nanoparticles with ≈4.5 nm in average diameter, determined by electron microscopy, which suggests that precipitation temperature does not affect the particle size. The chitosan coating on nanoparticles was inferred from Fourier transform infrared spectrometry measurements; furthermore, the carbon concentration in the nanoparticles allowed an estimation of chitosan content in CMNP of 6%–7%. CMNP exhibit a superparamagnetic behavior with relatively high final magnetization values (≈49–53 emu/g) at 20 kOe and room temperature, probably due to a higher magnetite content in the mixture of magnetic nanoparticles. In addition, a slight direct effect of precipitation temperature on magnetization was identified, which was ascribed to a possible higher degree of nanoparticles crystallinity as temperature at which they are obtained increases. Tested for Pb2+ removal from a Pb(NO3)2 aqueous solution, CMNP showed a recovery efficacy of 100%, which makes them attractive for using in heavy metals ion removal from waste water. PMID:24084716

  9. Synthesis of amino-rich silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles for the efficient capture of DNA for PCR.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yalong; Cui, Yan; Paoli, George C; Shi, Chunlei; Wang, Dapeng; Zhou, Min; Zhang, Lida; Shi, Xianming

    2016-09-01

    Magnetic separation has great advantages over traditional bio-separation methods and has become popular in the development of methods for the detection of bacterial pathogens, viruses, and transgenic crops. Functionalization of magnetic nanoparticles is a key factor for efficient capture of the target analytes. In this paper, we report the synthesis of amino-rich silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles using a one-pot method. This type of magnetic nanoparticle has a rough surface and a higher density of amino groups than the nanoparticles prepared by a post-modification method. Furthermore, the results of hydrochloric acid treatment indicated that the magnetic nanoparticles were stably coated. The developed amino-rich silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles were used to directly adsorb DNA. After magnetic separation and blocking, the magnetic nanoparticles and DNA complexes were used directly for the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), without onerous and time-consuming purification and elution steps. The results of real-time quantitative PCR showed that the nanoparticles with higher amino group density resulted in improved DNA capture efficiency. The results suggest that amino-rich silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles are of great potential for efficient bio-separation of DNA prior to detection by PCR. PMID:27187190

  10. Stability and magnetically induced heating behavior of lipid-coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles that are currently explored for various biomedical applications exhibit a high propensity to minimize total surface energy through aggregation. This study introduces a unique, thermoresponsive nanocomposite design demonstrating substantial colloidal stability of superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles (SPIONs) due to a surface-immobilized lipid layer. Lipid coating was accomplished in different buffer systems, pH 7.4, using an equimolar mixture of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) and l-α-dipalmitoylphosphatidyl glycerol (DPPG). Particle size and zeta potential were measured by dynamic laser light scattering. Heating behavior within an alternating magnetic field was compared between the commercial MFG-1000 magnetic field generator at 7 mT (1 MHz) and an experimental, laboratory-made magnetic hyperthermia system at 16.6 mT (13.7 MHz). The results revealed that product quality of lipid-coated SPIONs was significantly dependent on the colloidal stability of uncoated SPIONs during the coating process. Greatest stability was achieved at 0.02 mg/mL in citrate buffer (mean diameter = 80.0 ± 1.7 nm; zeta potential = -47.1 ± 2.6 mV). Surface immobilization of an equimolar DPPC/DPPG layer effectively reduced the impact of buffer components on particle aggregation. Most stable suspensions of lipid-coated nanoparticles were obtained at 0.02 mg/mL in citrate buffer (mean diameter = 179.3 ± 13.9 nm; zeta potential = -19.1 ± 2.3 mV). The configuration of the magnetic field generator significantly affected the heating properties of fabricated SPIONs. Heating rates of uncoated nanoparticles were substantially dependent on buffer composition but less influenced by particle concentration. In contrast, thermal behavior of lipid-coated nanoparticles within an alternating magnetic field was less influenced by suspension vehicle but dramatically more sensitive to particle concentration. These results underline the advantages of lipid-coated

  11. Dual-modality self-heating and antibacterial polymer-coated nanoparticles for magnetic hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Darwish, Mohamed S A; Nguyen, Nhung H A; Ševců, Alena; Stibor, Ivan; Smoukov, Stoyan K

    2016-06-01

    Multifunctional nanoparticles for magnetic hyperthermia which simultaneously display antibacterial properties promise to decrease bacterial infections co-localized with cancers. Current methods synthesize such particles by multi-step procedures, and systematic comparisons of antibacterial properties between coatings, as well as measurements of specific absorption rate (SAR) during magnetic hyperthermia are lacking. Here we report the novel simple method for synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles with shells of oleic acid (OA), polyethyleneimine (PEI) and polyethyleneimine-methyl cellulose (PEI-mC). We compare their antibacterial properties against single gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and gram-negative (Escherichia coli) bacteria as well as biofilms. Magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) with PEI-methyl cellulose were found to be most effective against both S. aureus and E. coli with concentration for 10% growth inhibition (EC10) of <150 mg/l. All the particles have high SAR and are effective for heat-generation in alternating magnetic fields. PMID:27040199

  12. Oleic acid coated magnetic nano-particles: Synthesis and characterizations

    SciTech Connect

    Panda, Biswajit Goyal, P. S.

    2015-06-24

    Magnetic nano particles of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} coated with oleic acid were synthesized using wet chemical route, which involved co-precipitation of Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+} ions. The nano particles were characterized using XRD, TEM, FTIR, TGA and VSM. X-ray diffraction studies showed that nano particles consist of single phase Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} having inverse spinel structure. The particle size obtained from width of Bragg peak is about 12.6 nm. TEM analysis showed that sizes of nano particles are in range of 6 to 17 nm with a dominant population at 12 - 14 nm. FTIR and TGA analysis showed that -COOH group of oleic acid is bound to the surface of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} particles and one has to heat the sample to 278° C to remove the attached molecule from the surface. Further it was seen that Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} particles exhibit super paramagnetism with a magnetization of about 53 emu/ gm.

  13. A magnetic poly(dimethylesiloxane) composite membrane incorporated with uniformly dispersed, coated iron oxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirmoradi, Fatemeh Nazly; Cheng, Luna; Chiao, Mu

    2010-01-01

    We report a new magnetic polymer membrane for MEMS application. The polymeric magnetic composite has coated iron oxide nanoparticles incorporated in a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) matrix. Existing magnetic polymeric materials have particle agglomeration problems, which result in rough surfaces and uneven mechanical and optical properties. We show that the use of iron oxide nanoparticles (10 nm in diameter) with fatty acid and hydrophobic coatings inhibits aggregation of particles in the PDMS polymer matrix. Agglomerated particle sizes in thin-film PDMS composites incorporated with uncoated and coated particles are 51 ± 24 µm and 1.6 ± 0.25 µm, respectively. The PDMS composites exhibit saturation magnetization of 22.8 to 23.94 emu g-1. Stress-strain curves of the composites are characterized by tensile tests. Free-standing magnetic PDMS membranes are fabricated in different sizes from 4 mm to 7 mm in diameter and with the thickness of 35.5 ± 1.5 µm. The membrane of 7 mm diameter achieves deflection of 625 µm in a 0.417 T magnetic field. The magnetic PDMS membranes may be used in micro-pumps and lab-on-a-chip applications.

  14. Biotransformation of magnetic nanoparticles as a function of coating in a rat model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, A.; Gutiérrez, L.; Cáceres-Vélez, P. R.; Santos, D.; Chaves, S. B.; Fascineli, M. L.; Garcia, M. P.; Azevedo, R. B.; Morales, M. P.

    2015-10-01

    Long-term in vivo studies in murine models have shown that DMSA-coated nanoparticles accumulate in spleen, liver and lung tissues during extended periods of time (at least up to 3 months) without any significant signs of toxicity detected. During that time, nanoparticles undergo a process of biotransformation either by reducing the size or the particle aggregation or both. Using a rat model, we have evaluated the transformations of magnetic nanoparticles injected at low doses. Particles with two different coatings, dimercaptosuccinic acid (NP-DMSA) and polyethylene glycol (NP-PEG-(NH2)2) have been administered to animals, to evaluate the role of coating in the degradation of the particles. We have found that low doses of magnetic nanoparticles are quickly metabolized by the animals. In fact, using a nanoparticle dose four times lower than in previous experiments, NP-DMSA were not observed 24 h after the administration either in the liver or in the lungs. Interestingly, an increased amount of ferritin, the iron storage protein, was observed in liver tissues from rats that were treated with the low dose of NP-DMSA in comparison with the control ones, suggesting a rapid metabolization of the particles into ferritin iron. On the other side we have found that, NP-PEG-(NH2)2 are still detectable in several organs 24 h after their administration at low doses. Probably, due to the longer circulation times of the NP-PEG-(NH2)2, there is a delay in the arrival of the particles to the tissue and this is the reason why we are able to see the particles 24 h post-administration. PEG coating could also be protecting the nanoparticles from rapid degradation of the reticuloendothelial system. Knowledge on the biodistribution, circulation time and degradation processes is required to gain a better understanding of the safety evaluation of this kind of nanomaterial for biomedical applications.

  15. Biotransformation of magnetic nanoparticles as a function of coating in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, A; Gutiérrez, L; Cáceres-Vélez, P R; Santos, D; Chaves, S B; Fascineli, M L; Garcia, M P; Azevedo, R B; Morales, M P

    2015-10-21

    Long-term in vivo studies in murine models have shown that DMSA-coated nanoparticles accumulate in spleen, liver and lung tissues during extended periods of time (at least up to 3 months) without any significant signs of toxicity detected. During that time, nanoparticles undergo a process of biotransformation either by reducing the size or the particle aggregation or both. Using a rat model, we have evaluated the transformations of magnetic nanoparticles injected at low doses. Particles with two different coatings, dimercaptosuccinic acid (NP-DMSA) and polyethylene glycol (NP-PEG-(NH2)2) have been administered to animals, to evaluate the role of coating in the degradation of the particles. We have found that low doses of magnetic nanoparticles are quickly metabolized by the animals. In fact, using a nanoparticle dose four times lower than in previous experiments, NP-DMSA were not observed 24 h after the administration either in the liver or in the lungs. Interestingly, an increased amount of ferritin, the iron storage protein, was observed in liver tissues from rats that were treated with the low dose of NP-DMSA in comparison with the control ones, suggesting a rapid metabolization of the particles into ferritin iron. On the other side we have found that, NP-PEG-(NH2)2 are still detectable in several organs 24 h after their administration at low doses. Probably, due to the longer circulation times of the NP-PEG-(NH2)2, there is a delay in the arrival of the particles to the tissue and this is the reason why we are able to see the particles 24 h post-administration. PEG coating could also be protecting the nanoparticles from rapid degradation of the reticuloendothelial system. Knowledge on the biodistribution, circulation time and degradation processes is required to gain a better understanding of the safety evaluation of this kind of nanomaterial for biomedical applications. PMID:26381991

  16. One-stop Genomic DNA Extraction by Salicylic Acid Coated Magnetic Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhongwu; Kadam, Ulhas; Irudayaraj, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Salicylic acid coated magnetic nanoparticles were prepared via a modified, one-step synthesis and used for a one-stop extraction of genomic DNA from mammalian cells. The synthesized magnetic particles were used for magnetic separation of cells from the media by non-specific binding of the particles, as well as extraction of genomic DNA from the lysate. The quantity and quality were confirmed by agarose gel electrophoresis and polymerase chain reaction. The entire process of extraction and isolation can be completed within 30 min. Compared to traditional methods based on centrifugation and filtration, the established method is fast, simple, reliable, and environmentally-friendly. PMID:23911528

  17. Preparation of silica coated cobalt ferrite magnetic nanoparticles for the purification of histidine-tagged proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aygar, Gülfem; Kaya, Murat; Özkan, Necati; Kocabıyık, Semra; Volkan, Mürvet

    2015-12-01

    Surface modified cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) nanoparticles containing Ni-NTA affinity group were synthesized and used for the separation of histidine tag proteins from the complex matrices through the use of imidazole side chains of histidine molecules. Firstly, CoFe2O4 nanoparticles with a narrow size distribution were prepared in an aqueous solution using the controlled co-precipitation method. In order to obtain small CoFe2O4 agglomerates, oleic acid and sodium chloride were used as dispersants. The CoFe2O4 particles were coated with silica and subsequently the surface of these silica coated particles (SiO2-CoFe2O4) was modified by amine (NH2) groups in order to add further functional groups on the silica shell. Then, carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups were added to the SiO2-CoFe2O4 magnetic nanoparticles through the NH2 groups. After that Nα,Nα-Bis(carboxymethyl)-L-lysine hydrate (NTA) was attached to carboxyl ends of the structure. Finally, the surface modified nanoparticles were labeled with nickel (Ni) (II) ions. Furthermore, the modified SiO2-CoFe2O4 magnetic nanoparticles were utilized as a new system that allows purification of the N-terminal His-tagged recombinant small heat shock protein, Tpv-sHSP 14.3.

  18. Influence of Surface Coating of Magnetic Nanoparticles on Mechanical Properties of Polymer Nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yarar, Ecem; Karakas, Gizem; Rende, Deniz; Ozisik, Rahmi; Malta, Seyda

    Polymer nanocomposites have emerged as promising materials due to improved properties when compared with conventional bulk polymers. Nanofillers are natural or synthetic organic/inorganic particles that are less than 100 nm in at least one dimension. Even the addition of trace amounts of nanofillers to polymers may lad to unique combinations of properties. Among variety of inorganic nanofillers, iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles are of great interest due to their unique physical and chemical properties, such as low toxicity, biocompatibility, large magnetization and conductivity, owing to their extremely small size and large specific surface area. In this study, approximately 8-10 nm magnetic nanoparticles coated with either citric acid or oleic acid are synthesized and blended with poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) or poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO). The hydrophobicity/hydrophillicity of the polymer and the surface coating on the iron oxide nanoparticles are exploited to control the dispersion state of nanoparticles, and the effect of dispersion on mechanical and thermal properties of the nanocomposite are investigated via experimental methods such as dynamic mechanical analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. This material is based upon work partially supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. CMMI-1538730 and TUBITAK 112M666.

  19. Structural and magnetic properties of polymer coated iron based nanoparticles for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balakrishnan, Srinivasan

    reduction of the metal salt solution. Since our intention is to synthesize iron based nanoparticles we used iron salts such as FeCl3. A polymer such as polyethylene glycol is coated onto the oxide shell to make it biocompatible. Parameters such as length of the tube, diameter of the Y-tube junction and concentration of the reactants were varied to study the effect on particle size, structure and morphology of the magnetic nanoparticles. X-ray diffraction measurements revealed that the particles typically contain three iron based phases such as a crystalline (alpha-Fe), nanocrystalline/amorphous (a-FeB/n-Fe) and Fe-oxide. By controlling the synthesis parameters such as length of the reaction tube, inner diameter of the Y-tube and concentration of the reagents the volume percentage of the three phases of the nanoparticles, viz. crystalline phase, amorphous phase and Fe-Oxide phases can be controlled effectively. The Fe-Oxide phase could not be determined whether is magnetite and maghemite phase because of the very broad nature of the peak. Transmission electron microscopy was used to study the particle size and the microstructural property of the samples. Samples with particle size in the range of 3 nm to 30 nm were fabricated. The magnetic properties of the nanoparticles studied were measured with a vibrating sample magnetometer with a maximum field of 1 Tesla. The particles magnetic properties such as magnetization and coercivity were typical of a soft ferromagnetic material with a high magnetization (in emu/g) and the coercivity was in range of 50 to 450 Oe. The nanoparticles synthesized were used to study their performance in magnetic fluid hyperthermia and magnetic resonance imaging applications. In the hyperthermia, the power loss due to an alternating magnetic field had a direct correlation with the magnetization and the particle size of the nanoparticle. The power loss in magnetic fluid hyperthermia is an outcome from four loss mechanism, they are Brownian rotational

  20. Preparation of Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles coated with gallic acid for drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Dorniani, Dena; Hussein, Mohd Zobir Bin; Kura, Aminu Umar; Fakurazi, Sharida; Shaari, Abdul Halim; Ahmad, Zalinah

    2012-01-01

    Background and methods Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles were prepared using a sonochemical method under atmospheric conditions at a Fe2+ to Fe3+ molar ratio of 1:2. The iron oxide nanoparticles were subsequently coated with chitosan and gallic acid to produce a core-shell structure. Results X-ray diffraction demonstrated that the magnetic nanoparticles were pure Fe3O4 with a cubic inverse spinel structure. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the Fe3O4 nanoparticles were of spherical shape with a mean diameter of 11 nm, compared with 13 nm for the iron oxide-chitosan-gallic acid (FCG) nanocarriers. Conclusion The magnetic nanocarrier enhanced the thermal stability of the drug, gallic acid. Release of the active drug from the FCG nanocarrier was found to occur in a controlled manner. The gallic acid and FCG nanoparticles were not toxic in a normal human fibroblast (3T3) line, and anticancer activity was higher in HT29 than MCF7 cell lines. PMID:23166439

  1. Glutaraldehyde mediated conjugation of amino-coated magnetic nanoparticles with albumin protein for nanothermotherapy.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lingyun; Yang, Bing; Dai, Xiaochen; Wang, Xiaowen; Gao, Fuping; Zhang, Xiaodong; Tang, Jintian

    2010-11-01

    A novel bioconjugation of amino saline capped Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) with bovine serum albumin (BSA) was developed by applying glutaraldehyde as activator. Briefly, Fe3O4 MNs were synthesized by the chemical co-precipitation method. Surface modification of the prepared MNPs was performed by employing amino saline as the coating agent. Glutaraldehyde was further applied as an activation agent through which BSA was conjugated to the amino-coated MNPs. The structure of the BSA-MNs was confirmed by FTIR analysis. Physico-chemical characterizations of the BSA-MNPs, such as surface morphology, surface charge and magnetic properties were investigated by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), zeta-Potential and Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM), etc. Magnetic inductive heating characteristics of the BSA-MNPs were analyzed by exposing the MNPs suspension (magnetic fluid) under alternative magnetic field (AMF). The results demonstrate that BSA was successfully conjugated with amino-coated MNs mediated through glutaraldehyde activation. The nanoparticles were spherical shaped with approximately 10 nm diameter. Possessing ideal magnetic inductive heating characteristics, which can generate very rapid and efficient heating while upon AMF exposure, BSA-MNPs can be applied as a novel candidature for magnetic nanothermotherapy for cancer treatment. In vitro cytotoxicity study on the human hepatocellular liver carcinoma cells (HepG-2) indicates that BSA-MNP is an efficient agent for cancer nanothermotherapy with satisfied biocompatibility, as rare cytotoxicity was observed in the absence of AMF. Moreover, our investigation provides a methodology for fabrication protein conjugated MNPs, for instance monoclonal antibody conjugated MNPs for targeting cancer nanothermotherapy. PMID:21137877

  2. A comparative study of neurotoxic potential of synthesized polysaccharide-coated and native ferritin-based magnetic nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Borysov, Arseniy; Krisanova, Natalia; Chunihin, Olexander; Ostapchenko, Ludmila; Pozdnyakova, Nataliya; Borisova, Тatiana

    2014-01-01

    Aim To analyze the neurotoxic potential of synthesized magnetite nanoparticles coated by dextran, hydroxyethyl starch, oxidized hydroxyethyl starch, and chitosan, and magnetic nanoparticles combined with ferritin as a native protein. Methods The size of nanoparticles was analyzed using photon correlation spectroscopy, their effects on the conductance of planar lipid membrane by planar lipid bilayer technique, membrane potential and acidification of synaptic vesicles by spectrofluorimetry, and glutamate uptake and ambient level of glutamate in isolated rat brain nerve terminals (synaptosomes) by radiolabeled assay. Results Uncoated synthesized magnetite nanoparticles and nanoparticles coated by different polysaccharides had no significant effect on synaptic vesicle acidification, the initial velocity of L-[14C]glutamate uptake, ambient level of L-[14C]glutamate and the potential of the plasma membrane of synaptosomes, and conductance of planar lipid membrane. Native ferritin-based magnetic nanoparticles had no effect on the membrane potential but significantly reduced L-[14C]glutamate transport in synaptosomes and acidification of synaptic vesicles. Conclusions Our study indicates that synthesized magnetite nanoparticles in contrast to ferritin have no effects on the functional state and glutamate transport of nerve terminals, and so ferritin cannot be used as a prototype, analogue, or model of polysaccharide-coated magnetic nanoparticle in toxicity risk assessment and manipulation of nerve terminals by external magnetic fields. Still, the ability of ferritin to change the functional state of nerve terminals in combination with its magnetic properties suggests its biotechnological potential. PMID:24891278

  3. Casein-Coated Fe5C2 Nanoparticles with Superior r2 Relaxivity for Liver-Specific Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Cowger, Taku A.; Tang, Wei; Zhen, Zipeng; Hu, Kai; Rink, David E.; Todd, Trever J.; Wang, Geoffrey D.; Zhang, Weizhong; Chen, Hongmin; Xie, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles have been extensively used as T2 contrast agents for liver-specific magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The applications, however, have been limited by their mediocre magnetism and r2 relaxivity. Recent studies show that Fe5C2 nanoparticles can be prepared by high temperature thermal decomposition. The resulting nanoparticles possess strong and air stable magnetism, suggesting their potential as a novel type of T2 contrast agent. To this end, we improve the synthetic and surface modification methods of Fe5C2 nanoparticles, and investigated the impact of size and coating on their performances for liver MRI. Specifically, we prepared 5, 14, and 22 nm Fe5C2 nanoparticles and engineered their surface by: 1) ligand addition with phospholipids, 2) ligand exchange with zwitterion-dopamine-sulfonate (ZDS), and 3) protein adsorption with casein. It was found that the size and surface coating have varied levels of impact on the particles' hydrodynamic size, viability, uptake by macrophages, and r2 relaxivity. Interestingly, while phospholipid- and ZDS-coated Fe5C2 nanoparticles showed comparable r2, the casein coating led to an r2 enhancement by more than 2 fold. In particular, casein coated 22 nm Fe5C2 nanoparticle show a striking r2 of 973 mM-1s-1, which is one of the highest among all of the T2 contrast agents reported to date. Small animal studies confirmed the advantage of Fe5C2 nanoparticles over iron oxide nanoparticles in inducing hypointensities on T2-weighted MR images, and the particles caused little toxicity to the host. The improvements are important for transforming Fe5C2 nanoparticles into a new class of MRI contrast agents. The observations also shed light on protein-based surface modification as a means to modulate contrast ability of magnetic nanoparticles. PMID:26379788

  4. The efficiency of magnetic hyperthermia and in vivo histocompatibility for human-like collagen protein-coated magnetic nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Le; Liu, Xiao Li; Di Fan, Dai; Miao, Yu Qing; Zhang, Huan; Ma, He Ping; Liu, Qiu Ying; Ma, Pei; Xue, Wei Ming; Luo, Yan E; Fan, Hai Ming

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic hyperthermia is a promising technique for the minimally invasive elimination of solid tumors. In this study, uniform magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) with different particle sizes were used as a model system to investigate the size and surface effects of human-like collagen protein-coated MNPs (HLC-MNPs) on specific absorption rate and biocompatibility. It was found that these HLC-MNPs possess rapid heating capacity upon alternating magnetic field exposure compared to that of MNPs without HLC coating, irrespective of the size of MNPs. The significant enhancement of specific absorption rate is favorable for larger sized nanoparticles. Such behavior is attributed to the reduced aggregation and increased stability of the HLC-MNPs. By coating HLC on the surface of certain sized MNPs, a significant increase in cell viability (up to 2.5-fold) can be achieved. After subcutaneous injection of HLC-MNPs into the back of Kunming mice, it was observed that the inflammatory reaction hardly occurred in the injection site. However, there was a significant presence of phagocytes and endocytosis after the injection of nonconjugated counterparts. The overall strategy to fabricate HLC-MNPs can serve as a general guideline to address the current challenges in clinical magnetic hyperthermia, improved biocompatibility, and enhanced heating characteristics through protein coating. PMID:27042065

  5. Effect of nano-hydroxyapatite-coated magnetic nanoparticles on axonal guidance growth of rat dorsal root ganglion neurons.

    PubMed

    Liu, Meili; Zhou, Gang; Hou, Yongzhao; Kuang, Gang; Jia, Zhengtai; Li, Ping; Fan, Yubo

    2015-09-01

    Proper extracellular substrate can stimulate neural regeneration in nerve tissue engineering, including magnetic nanoparticles (iron oxide nanoparticles, Fe3 O4 ), but they are always neurotoxic, with low saturation magnetization and so on. These nanomaterials cannot be used to stimulate the growth and elongation of axons. Therefore, this work attempts to overcome these deficiencies. Nano-hydroxyapatite (n-HA) coated magnetic nanoparticles were using an ultrasound-assisted co-precipitation method. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy were used to characterize the structure and chemical composition of the produced samples. These synthesized nanomaterials were added into the primary cultured dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons; our results showed that n-HA-coated magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3 O4 +n-HA) can effectively increase cell viability and promote axonal elongation, which enhanced saturation magnetization. In addition, we demonstrated that axonal guidance cues Netrin-1 increase significantly after n-HA-coated magnetic nanoparticles treatment by Western blots assay. n-HA-coated magnetic particles maybe applied to enhance or accelerate nerve regeneration, and it may provide guidance for regenerating axons in future. PMID:25690555

  6. Influences of surface coating, UV irradiation and magnetic field on the algae removal using magnetite nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Ge, Shijian; Agbakpe, Michael; Wu, Zhiyi; Kuang, Liyuan; Zhang, Wen; Wang, Xianqin

    2015-01-20

    Magnetophoretic separation is a promising and sustainable technology for rapid algal separation or removal from water. This work demonstrated the application of magnetic magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) coated with a cationic polymer, polyethylenimine (PEI), toward the separation of Scenedesmus dimorphus from the medium broth. The influences of surface coating, UV irradiation, and magnetic field on the magnetophoretic separation were systematically examined. After PEI coating, zeta potential of MNPs shifted from −7.9 ± 2.0 to +39.0 ± 3.1 mV at a pH of 7.0, which improved MNPs-algae interaction and helped reduce the dose demand of MNPs (e.g., from 0.2 to 0.1 g·g(–1) while the harvesting efficiency (HE) of over 80% remained unchanged). The extended Derjaguin–Landau–Verwey–Overbeek theory predicted a strong attractive force between PEI-coated MNPs and algae, which supported the improved algal harvesting. Moreover, the HE was greater under the UV365 irradiation than that under the UV254, and increased with the irradiation intensity. Continuous application of the external magnetic field at high strength remarkably improved the algal harvesting. Finally, the reuse of MNPs for multiple cycles of algal harvesting was studied, which aimed at increasing the sustainability and lowering the cost. PMID:25486124

  7. Gold coated ferric oxide nanoparticles based disposable magnetic genosensors for the detection of DNA hybridization processes.

    PubMed

    Loaiza, Óscar A; Jubete, Elena; Ochoteco, Estibalitz; Cabañero, German; Grande, Hans; Rodríguez, Javier

    2011-01-15

    In this article, a disposable magnetic DNA sensor using an enzymatic amplification strategy for the detection of specific hybridization processes, based on the coupling of streptavidin-peroxidase to biotinylated target sequences, has been developed. A thiolated 19-mer capture probe was attached to gold coated ferric oxide nanoparticles and hybridization with the biotinylated target was allowed to proceed. Then, a streptavidin-peroxide was attached to the biotinylated target and the resulting modified gold coated ferric oxide nanoparticles were captured by a magnetic field on the surface of a home-made carbon screen printed electrode (SPE). Using hydroquinone as a mediator, a square wave voltammetric procedure was chosen to detect the hybridization process after the addition of hydrogen peroxide. Different aspects concerning the assay protocol and nanoparticles fabrication were optimized in order to improve the sensitivity of the developed methodology. A low detection limit (31 pM) with good stability (RSD=7.04%, n=10) was obtained without the need of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification. PMID:20951565

  8. Influence of chitosan coating on magnetic nanoparticles in endothelial cells and acute tissue biodistribution.

    PubMed

    Agotegaray, Mariela; Campelo, Adrián; Zysler, Roberto; Gumilar, Fernanda; Bras, Cristina; Minetti, Alejandra; Massheimer, Virginia; Lassalle, Verónica

    2016-08-01

    Chitosan coating on magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) was studied on biological systems as a first step toward the application in the biomedical field as drug-targeted nanosystems. Composition of MNPs consists of magnetite functionalized with oleic acid and coated with the biopolymer chitosan or glutaraldehyde-cross-linked chitosan. The influence of the biopolymeric coating has been evaluated by in vitro and in vivo assays on the effects of these MNPs on rat aortic endothelial cells (ECs) viability and on the random tissue distribution in mice. Results were correlated with the physicochemical properties of the nanoparticles. Nitric oxide (NO) production by ECs was determined, considering that endothelial NO represents one of the major markers of ECs function. Cell viability was studied by MTT assay. Different doses of the MNPs (1, 10 and 100 μg/mL) were assayed, revealing that MNPs coated with non-cross-linked chitosan for 6 and 24 h did not affect neither NO production nor cell viability. However, a significant decrease in cell viability was observed after 36 h treatment with the highest dose of this nanocarrier. It was also revealed that the presence and dose of glutaraldehyde in the MNPs structureimpact on the cytotoxicity. The study of the acute tissue distribution was performed acutely in mice after 24 h of an intraperitoneal injection of the MNPs and sub acutely, after 28 days of weekly administration. Both formulations greatly avoided the initial clearance by the reticuloendothelial system (RES) in liver. Biological properties found for N1 and N2 in the performed assays reveal that chitosan coating improves biocompatibility of MNPs turning these magnetic nanosystems as promising devices for targeted drug delivery. PMID:27251857

  9. Succinate Functionalization of Hyperbranched Polyglycerol-Coated Magnetic Nanoparticles as a Draw Solute During Forward Osmosis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hee-Man; Choi, Hye Min; Jang, Sung-Chan; Han, Myeong Jin; Seo, Bum-Kyoung; Moon, Jei-Kwon; Lee, Kune-Woo

    2015-10-01

    Hyperbranched polyglycerol-coated magnetic nanoparticles (SHPG-MNPs) were functionalized with succinate groups to form a draw solute for use in a forward osmosis (FO). After the one-step synthesis of hyperbranched polyglycerol-coated magnetic nanoparticles (HPG-MNPs), the polyglycerol groups on the surfaces of the HPG-MNPs were functionalized with succinic anhydride moieties. The resulting SHPG-MNPs showed no change of size and magnetic property compared with HPG-MNPs and displayed excellent dispersibility in water up to the concentration of 400 g/L. SHPG-MNPs solution showed higher osmotic pressure than that of HPG-MNPs solution due to the presence of surface carboxyl groups in SHPG-MNPs and could draw water from a feed solution across an FO membrane without any reverse draw solute leakage during FO process. Moreover, the water flux remained nearly constant over several SHPG-MNP darw solute regeneration cycles applied to the ultrafiltration (UF) process. The SHPG-MNPs demonstrate strong potential for use as a draw solute in FO processes. PMID:26726503

  10. Preparation and characterization novel polymer-coated magnetic nanoparticles as carriers for doxorubicin.

    PubMed

    Li, Fang; Sun, Jing; Zhu, Huaishi; Wen, Xuejun; Lin, Chao; Shi, Donglu

    2011-11-01

    The poly(lactide-co-glycolide)-coated magnetic nanoparticles (PLGA MNPs) were prepared as carriers of doxorubicin (PLGA-DOX MNPs) through water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) emulsification method. The characteristics of PLGA-DOX MNPs were measured by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and vibrating-sampling magnetometry (VSM). It was found that the synthesized nanoparticles were spherical in shape with an average size of 100±20 nm, low aggregation and good magnetic responsivity. Meanwhile, the drug content and encapsulation efficiency of nanoparticles can be achieved by varying the feed weight ratios of PLGA and DOX particles. These PLGA-DOX MNPs also demonstrated sustained release of DOX at 37°C in buffer solution. Besides, influence of drug-loaded nanoparticles on in vitro cytotoxicity was determined by MTT assay, while cellular apoptosis was detected by Annexin V-FITC apoptosis detection kit. The results showed that PLGA-DOX MNPs retained significant antitumor activities. Therefore, PLGA-DOX MNPs might be considered a promising drug delivery system for cancer chemotherapy. PMID:21764271

  11. Genotoxicity assessment of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles with different particle sizes and surface coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yanping; Xia, Qiyue; Liu, Ying; Zhang, Shuyang; Cheng, Feng; Zhong, Zhihui; Wang, Li; Li, Hongxia; Xiao, Kai

    2014-10-01

    Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) have been widely used for various biomedical applications such as magnetic resonance imaging and drug delivery. However, their potential toxic effects, including genotoxicity, need to be thoroughly understood. In the present study, the genotoxicity of IONPs with different particle sizes (10, 30 nm) and surface coatings (PEG, PEI) were assessed using three standard genotoxicity assays, the Salmonella typhimurium reverse mutation assay (Ames test), the in vitro mammalian chromosome aberration test, and the in vivo micronucleus assay. In the Ames test, SMG-10 (PEG coating, 10 nm) showed a positive mutagenic response in all the five test bacterial strains with and without metabolic activation, whereas SEI-10 (PEI coating, 10 nm) showed no mutagenesis in all tester strains regardless of metabolic activation. SMG-30 (PEG coating, 30 nm) was not mutagenic in the absence of metabolic activation, and became mutagenic in the presence of metabolic activation. In the chromosomal aberration test, no increase in the incidence of chromosomal aberrations was observed for all three IONPs. In the in vivo micronucleus test, there was no evidence of increased micronuclei frequencies for all three IONPs, indicating that they were not clastogenic in vivo. Taken together, our results demonstrated that IONPs with PEG coating exhibited mutagenic activity without chromosomal and clastogenic abnormalities, and smaller IONPs (SMG-10) had stronger mutagenic potential than larger ones (SMG-30); whereas, IONPs with SEI coating (SEI-10) were not genotoxic in all three standard genotoxicity assays. This suggests that the mutagenicity of IONPs depends on their particle size and surface coating.

  12. Genotoxicity assessment of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles with different particle sizes and surface coatings.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanping; Xia, Qiyue; Liu, Ying; Zhang, Shuyang; Cheng, Feng; Zhong, Zhihui; Wang, Li; Li, Hongxia; Xiao, Kai

    2014-10-24

    Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) have been widely used for various biomedical applications such as magnetic resonance imaging and drug delivery. However, their potential toxic effects, including genotoxicity, need to be thoroughly understood. In the present study, the genotoxicity of IONPs with different particle sizes (10, 30 nm) and surface coatings (PEG, PEI) were assessed using three standard genotoxicity assays, the Salmonella typhimurium reverse mutation assay (Ames test), the in vitro mammalian chromosome aberration test, and the in vivo micronucleus assay. In the Ames test, SMG-10 (PEG coating, 10 nm) showed a positive mutagenic response in all the five test bacterial strains with and without metabolic activation, whereas SEI-10 (PEI coating, 10 nm) showed no mutagenesis in all tester strains regardless of metabolic activation. SMG-30 (PEG coating, 30 nm) was not mutagenic in the absence of metabolic activation, and became mutagenic in the presence of metabolic activation. In the chromosomal aberration test, no increase in the incidence of chromosomal aberrations was observed for all three IONPs. In the in vivo micronucleus test, there was no evidence of increased micronuclei frequencies for all three IONPs, indicating that they were not clastogenic in vivo. Taken together, our results demonstrated that IONPs with PEG coating exhibited mutagenic activity without chromosomal and clastogenic abnormalities, and smaller IONPs (SMG-10) had stronger mutagenic potential than larger ones (SMG-30); whereas, IONPs with SEI coating (SEI-10) were not genotoxic in all three standard genotoxicity assays. This suggests that the mutagenicity of IONPs depends on their particle size and surface coating. PMID:25274166

  13. Fe-nanoparticle coated anisotropic magnet powders for composite permanent magnets with enhanced properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinescu, M.; Liu, J. F.; Bonder, M. J.; Hadjipanayis, G. C.

    2008-04-01

    Utilizing the chemical reduction of FeCl2 with NaBH4 in the presence of 2:17 Sm-Co powders, we synthesized composite Sm(Co0.699Fe0.213Cu0.064Zr0.024)7.4/nano-Fe anisotropic hard magnetic powders. The average particle size of the hard magnetic core powder was 21μm while the soft magnetic Fe nanoparticles deposited uniformly on the core powder had a particle size smaller than 100nm. Different reaction protocols, such as immersion of the hard magnetic core powder in each reagent, the use of microemulsion (micelle) technique, or doubling the weight ratio of FeCl2 to core powder, led to different degrees of magnetic coupling of the hard and soft magnetic components of the composite powder. A reaction time of 180s led to deposition of 3.5wt% Fe nanoparticles and improved magnetic properties of the composite powder compared to the uncoated Sm(Co0.699Fe0.213Cu0.064Zr0.024)7.4 powder. The respective magnetic hysteresis parameters were 4πM18kOe=11.3kG, 4πMr=11kG, and Hci>20kOe with a smooth demagnetization curve.

  14. Magnetic studies of iron oxide nanoparticles coated with oleic acid and Pluronic® block copolymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, M. A.; Jain, Tapan Kumar; Labhasetwar, V.; Leslie-Pelecky, D. L.

    2005-05-01

    We have prepared and studied iron-oxide nanoparticles coated with oleic acid (OA) and Pluronic® polymer. The mean diameter of the iron-oxide nanoparticles was 9.3(±)0.8nm. Saturation magnetization values measured at 10K varied from 66.1(±0.7)emu/gto98.7(±0.5)emu/g. At 300K the loops showed negligible coercive field. The peaks in zero-field-cooled susceptibility decreased from 280to168K with increasing OA concentration up to 10.6wt%, and remained nearly constant for higher concentrations. This suggests that incomplete coverage of the OA allows small, interacting agglomerates to form.

  15. Uptake of dimercaptosuccinate-coated magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles by cultured brain astrocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geppert, Mark; Hohnholt, Michaela C.; Thiel, Karsten; Nürnberger, Sylvia; Grunwald, Ingo; Rezwan, Kurosch; Dringen, Ralf

    2011-04-01

    Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe-NP) are currently considered for various diagnostic and therapeutic applications in the brain. However, little is known on the accumulation and biocompatibility of such particles in brain cells. We have synthesized and characterized dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) coated Fe-NP and have investigated their uptake by cultured brain astrocytes. DMSA-coated Fe-NP that were dispersed in physiological medium had an average hydrodynamic diameter of about 60 nm. Incubation of cultured astrocytes with these Fe-NP caused a time- and concentration-dependent accumulation of cellular iron, but did not lead within 6 h to any cell toxicity. After 4 h of incubation with 100-4000 µM iron supplied as Fe-NP, the cellular iron content reached levels between 200 and 2000 nmol mg - 1 protein. The cellular iron content after exposure of astrocytes to Fe-NP at 4 °C was drastically lowered compared to cells that had been incubated at 37 °C. Electron microscopy revealed the presence of Fe-NP-containing vesicles in cells that were incubated with Fe-NP at 37 °C, but not in cells exposed to the nanoparticles at 4 °C. These data demonstrate that cultured astrocytes efficiently take up DMSA-coated Fe-NP in a process that appears to be saturable and strongly depends on the incubation temperature.

  16. Combination of carboxymethyl chitosan-coated magnetic nanoparticles and chitosan-citrate complex gel beads as a novel magnetic adsorbent.

    PubMed

    Mi, Fwu-Long; Wu, Shao-Jung; Chen, Yung-Chih

    2015-10-20

    Magnetic chitosan beads were synthesized by incorporating N,O-carboxymethyl chitosan-coated magnetic nanoparticles (NOCC-MNPs) into chitosan-citrate gel beads (CCGBs) for adsorbing Cu(II) ions. An increase of Cu(II) adsorption capacity was due to the combined chelation effects from the electron-donating functional groups in the CCGBs and NOCC-MNPs. Moreover, the paramagnetic susceptibility of Cu(II) citrate chelates could further improve the Cu(II) adsorption efficiency through the force of magnetic attraction. The adsorption data of the magnetic CCGBs fitted well with the Freundlich model, whereas the adsorption kinetics followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The maximal adsorption capacity as estimated by the Langmuir model was 294.11mg/g. The adsorption thermodynamic parameters indicated that the involved process should be spontaneous and exothermic. PMID:26256183

  17. Immobilization of invertase on chitosan coated γ-Fe2O3 magnetic nanoparticles to facilitate magnetic separation.

    PubMed

    Waifalkar, P P; Parit, S B; Chougale, A D; Sahoo, Subasa C; Patil, P S; Patil, P B

    2016-11-15

    Industrially important invertase enzyme was immobilized on chitosan coated sol gel derived γ-Fe2O3 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) to enable it for repetitive use by magnetic separation. MNPs were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), dynamic light scattering (DLS), field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer and magnetic measurements. FTIR studies confirmed successful immobilization of invertase on MNPs. The ability to convert sucrose into invert syrup was enhanced in immobilized invertase compared to that of free enzyme. Further it was found that invertase immobilized on MNPs (IIMNPs) were more stable at varying pH and temperature conditions. Magnetic separation technique was successfully employed for reuse of the IIMNPs for 20 times without significant loss of activity. PMID:27501039

  18. Magnetic heating properties and neutron activation of tungsten-oxide coated biocompatible FePt core-shell nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Seemann, K M; Luysberg, M; Révay, Z; Kudejova, P; Sanz, B; Cassinelli, N; Loidl, A; Ilicic, K; Multhoff, G; Schmid, T E

    2015-01-10

    Magnetic nanoparticles are highly desirable for biomedical research and treatment of cancer especially when combined with hyperthermia. The efficacy of nanoparticle-based therapies could be improved by generating radioactive nanoparticles with a convenient decay time and which simultaneously have the capability to be used for locally confined heating. The core-shell morphology of such novel nanoparticles presented in this work involves a polysilico-tungstate molecule of the polyoxometalate family as a precursor coating material, which transforms into an amorphous tungsten oxide coating upon annealing of the FePt core-shell nanoparticles. The content of tungsten atoms in the nanoparticle shell is neutron activated using cold neutrons at the Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRMII) neutron facility and thereby transformed into the radioisotope W-187. The sizeable natural abundance of 28% for the W-186 precursor isotope, a radiopharmaceutically advantageous gamma-beta ratio of γβ≈30% and a range of approximately 1mm in biological tissue for the 1.3MeV β-radiation are promising features of the nanoparticles' potential for cancer therapy. Moreover, a high temperature annealing treatment enhances the magnetic moment of nanoparticles in such a way that a magnetic heating effect of several degrees Celsius in liquid suspension - a prerequisite for hyperthermia treatment of cancer - was observed. A rise in temperature of approximately 3°C in aqueous suspension is shown for a moderate nanoparticle concentration of 0.5mg/ml after 15min in an 831kHz high-frequency alternating magnetic field of 250Gauss field strength (25mT). The biocompatibility based on a low cytotoxicity in the non-neutron-activated state in combination with the hydrophilic nature of the tungsten oxide shell makes the coated magnetic FePt nanoparticles ideal candidates for advanced radiopharmaceutical applications. PMID:25445697

  19. Facile, high efficiency immobilization of lipase enzyme on magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles via a biomimetic coating

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Immobilization of lipase on appropriate solid supports is one way to improve their stability and activity, and can be reused for large scale applications. A sample, cost- effective and high loading capacity method is still challenging. Results A facile method of lipase immobilization was developed in this study, by the use of polydopamine coated magnetic nanoparticles (PD-MNPs). Under optimal conditions, 73.9% of the available lipase was immobilized on PD-MNPs, yielding a lipase loading capacity as high as 429 mg/g. Enzyme assays revealed that lipase immobilized on PD-MNPs displayed enhanced pH and thermal stability compared to free lipase. Furthermore, lipase immobilized on PD-MNPs was easily isolated from the reaction medium by magnetic separation and retained more than 70% of initial activity after 21 repeated cycles of enzyme reaction followed by magnetic separation. Conclusions Immobilization of enzyme onto magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles via poly-dopamine film is economical, facile and efficient. PMID:21649934

  20. Graphite-coated magnetic nanoparticle microarray for few-cells enrichment and detection.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhuo; Hong, Guosong; Wang, Hailiang; Welsher, Kevin; Tabakman, Scott M; Sherlock, Sarah P; Robinson, Joshua T; Liang, Yongye; Dai, Hongjie

    2012-02-28

    Graphite-coated, highly magnetic FeCo core-shell nanoparticles were synthesized by a chemical vapor deposition method and solubilized in aqueous solution through a unique polymer mixture modification, which significantly improved the biocompatibility and stability of the magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). Such functionalized MNPs were proven to be very stable in different conditions which would be significant for biological applications. Cell staining, manipulation, enrichment, and detection were developed with these MNPs. Under external magnetic manipulation, the MNP-stained cells exhibited directed motions. Moreover, MNPs were printed on substrates to modulate the magnetic field distribution on the surface. Capture and detection of sparse populations of cancer cells spiked into whole blood has been explored in a microarray fashion. Cancer cells from hundreds down to only two were able to be simply and efficiently detected from 1 mL of whole blood on the MNP microarray chips. Interestingly, the cells captured through the MNP microarray still showed viability and adhered to the MNP spots after incubation, which could be utilized for cancer cell detection, localized growth, and proliferation. PMID:22229344

  1. Pharmaceutical formulation of HSA hybrid coated iron oxide nanoparticles for magnetic drug targeting.

    PubMed

    Zaloga, Jan; Pöttler, Marina; Leitinger, Gerd; Friedrich, Ralf P; Almer, Gunter; Lyer, Stefan; Baum, Eva; Tietze, Rainer; Heimke-Brinck, Ralph; Mangge, Harald; Dörje, Frank; Lee, Geoffrey; Alexiou, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    In this work we present a new formulation of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) for magnetic drug targeting. The particles were reproducibly synthesized from current good manufacturing practice (cGMP) - grade substances. They were surface coated using fatty acids as anchoring molecules for human serum albumin. We comprehensively characterized the physicochemical core-shell structure of the particles using sophisticated methods. We investigated biocompatibility and cellular uptake of the particles using an established flow cytometric method in combination with microwave-plasma assisted atomic emission spectroscopy (MP-AES). The cytotoxic drug mitoxantrone was adsorbed on the protein shell and we showed that even in complex media it is slowly released with a close to zero order kinetics. We also describe an in vitro proof-of-concept assay in which we clearly showed that local enrichment of this SPION-drug conjugate with a magnet allows site-specific therapeutic effects. PMID:26854862

  2. Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) covalently coated by PEO-PPO-PEO block copolymer for drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ning; Guan, Yueping; Yang, Liangrong; Jia, Lianwei; Wei, Xuetuan; Liu, Huizhou; Guo, Chen

    2013-04-01

    A stable drug carrier has been prepared by covalently coating magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) with PEO-PPO-PEO block copolymer Pluronic P85. The particles were characterized by TEM, XRD, DLS, VSM, FTIR, and TGA. A typical product has a 15 nm magnetite core and a 100 nm hydrodynamic diameter with a narrow size distribution and is superparamagnetic with large saturation magnetization (57.102 emu/g) at room temperature. The covalently-coated Pluronic-MNPs (MagPluronics) were proven to be stable in different conditions, such as aqueous solution, 0.2 M PBS solution, and pH 13.5 solution, which would be significant for biological applications. Furthermore, MagPluronics also possess temperature-responsive property acquired from the Pluronic copolymer layer on their surface, which can cause conformational change of Pluronics and improve load and delivery efficiency of the particles. The temperature-controlled loading and releasing of hydrophobic model drug curcumin were tested with these particles. A loading efficiency of 81.3% and a sustained release of more than 4 days were achieved in simulated human body condition. It indicates that the covalently-coated MagPluronics are stable carriers with good drug-loading capacity and controlled-release property. PMID:23305884

  3. Linear birefringence and dichroism in citric acid coated Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jing-Fung; Tsai, Chun-Chin; Lee, Meng-Zhe

    2014-12-01

    To prepare highly dispersed water-based Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), we adopted the co-precipitation method and used citric acid (CA) as the surfactant. Via transmission electronic microscopy, dynamic light scattering, and X-ray diffractometry, we characterized the dispersibility and size of the products. Through two single-parameter experiments, including the pH value of suspension and the action of double centrifugations, the appropriate parameters' values were determined. Further, to produce CA coated MNPs with good magneto-optical properties as high retardance and low dichroism, the orthogonal design method was used to find the optimal parameters' values, including pH value of suspension after coating was 5, molar ratio of CA to Fe3O4 MNPs was 0.06, volume of CA was 40 ml, and coating temperature was 70 °C. Above all, the linear birefringence and dichroism of the best CA coated ferrofluid we produced were measured by a Stokes polarimeter as 23.6294° and 0.3411 under 64.5 mT, respectively. Thus, the biomedical applications could be performed hereafter.

  4. Mixed Polymer-Coated Magnetic Nanoparticles as Forward Osmosis Draw Agents of Tuned Hydrophilicity.

    PubMed

    Dey, Priyanka; Izake, Emad L

    2016-08-01

    We recently reported a polymer-coated magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) draw agent for the forward osmosis (FO) water desalination process. The water flux was found to increase when the polymer poly(sodium acrylate) (PSA) was anchored to the MNP surface as compared to the polymer (or polyelectrolyte solution) alone, due to the polymer chains being stretched out and most of the hydrophilic groups on the polymer contributing to water flux. We herein report the use of a secondary polymer poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) PNIPAM to manipulate the PSA polymer conformation and influence inter- and intrachain interactions to enhance the efficiency of the FO draw agent. These PSA-PNIPAM-coated MNPs generated a much higher water flux of ∼11.66 LMH when compared to the 100 % PSA-coated MNPs featuring a value of ∼5.32 LMH under identical FO conditions. The osmotic pressure and water flux driven by the mixed polymer-coated MNPs were found to be a strong function of the net polymer coverage on MNPs, that is, net available hydrophilic groups. Our new draw agent demonstrates potential for use in the water industry due to its improved efficiency and cost effectiveness as it uses only ∼0.062 % (w/v) of the draw agent solution. PMID:27376360

  5. Silane-coated magnetic nanoparticles with surface thiol functions for conjugation with gold nanostars.

    PubMed

    Pallavicini, Piersandro; Cabrini, Elisa; Casu, Alberto; Dacarro, Giacomo; Diaz-Fernandez, Yuri Antonio; Falqui, Andrea; Milanese, Chiara; Vita, Francesco

    2015-12-28

    Small (d∼ 8 nm) magnetite nanoparticles, Fe3O4NP, are prepared and coated with mercaptopropyl trimethoxysilane (MPTS) to form Fe3O4NP@MPTS. In the coating step controlled MPTS/Fe3O4NP molar ratios are used, ranging from 1 to 7.8 × 10(4). The total quantity of MPTS per Fe3O4NP is determined by SEM-EDS analysis and the average number of free, reactive -SH groups per Fe3O4NP is calculated by a colorimetric method. At very low molar ratios MPTS forms a submonolayer on the Fe3O4NP surface with all -SH free to react, while on increasing the MPTS/Fe3O4NP molar ratio the (CH3O)3Si- groups of MPTS polymerize, forming a progressively thicker shell, in which only a small fraction of the -SH groups, positioned on the shell surface, is available for further reaction. The MPTS shell reduces the magnetic interactions occurring between the magnetite cores, lowering the occurrence and strength of collective magnetic states, with Fe3O4NP@MPTS showing the typical behaviour expected for a sample with a mono-modal size distribution of superparamagnetic nanoparticles. Interaction of Fe3O4NP@MPTS with gold nanostars (GNS) was tested, using both Fe3O4NP@MPTS with a MPTS submonolayer and with increasing shell thickness. Provided that a good balance is used between the number of available -SH and the overall size of Fe3O4NP@MPTS, the free thiols of such nanoparticles bind GNS decorating their surface, as shown by UV-Vis spectroscopy and TEM imaging. PMID:26594047

  6. Rapid and Efficient Protein Digestion using Trypsin Coated Magnetic Nanoparticles under Pressure Cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Byoungsoo; Lopez-Ferrer, Daniel; Kim, Byoung Chan; Na, Hyon Bin; Park, Yong Il; Weitz, Karl K.; Warner, Marvin G.; Hyeon, Taeghwan; Lee, Sang-Won; Smith, Richard D.; Kim, Jungbae

    2011-01-01

    Trypsin-coated magnetic nanoparticles (EC-TR/NPs), prepared via a simple crosslinking of the enzyme to magnetic nanoparticles, were highly stable and could be easily captured using a magnet after the digestion was complete. EC-TR/NPs showed a negligible loss of trypsin activity after multiple uses and continuous shaking, while a control sample of covalently-attached trypsin on NPs resulted in a rapid inactivation under the same conditions due to the denaturation and autolysis of trypsin. Digestions were carried out on a single model protein, a five protein mixture, and a whole mouse brain proteome, and also compared for digestion at atmospheric pressure and 37 ºC for 12 h, and in combination with pressure cycling technology (PCT) at room temperature for 1 min. In all cases, the EC-TR/NPs performed equally as well or better than free trypsin in terms of the number of peptide/protein identifications and reproducibility across technical replicates. However, the concomitant use of EC-TR/NPs and PCT resulted in very fast (~1 min) and more reproducible digestions.

  7. Doxorubicin loaded PEG-b-poly(4-vinylbenzylphosphonate) coated magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hałupka-Bryl, Magdalena; Bednarowicz, Magdalena; Dobosz, Bernadeta; Krzyminiewski, Ryszard; Zalewski, Tomasz; Wereszczyńska, Beata; Nowaczyk, Grzegorz; Jarek, Marcin; Nagasaki, Yukio

    2015-06-01

    Due to their unique physical properties, superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles are increasingly used in medical applications. They are very useful carriers for delivering antitumor drugs in targeted cancer treatment. Magnetic nanoparticles with chemiotherapeutic were synthesized by coprecipitation method followed by coating with biocompatible polymer. The aim of this work is to characterize physical and magnetic properties of synthesized nanoparicles. Characterization was carried out using EPR, HRTEM, X-ray diffraction, SQUID and NMR methods. The present findings show that synthesized nanosystem is promising tool for potential magnetic drug delivery.

  8. Magnetic nanoparticles coated with maltose-functionalized polyethyleneimine for highly efficient enrichment of N-glycopeptides.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinan; Wang, Fangjun; Wan, Hao; Liu, Jing; Liu, Zheyi; Cheng, Kai; Zou, Hanfa

    2015-12-18

    Hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) adsorbents have drawn increasing attention in recent years due to their high efficiency in N-glycopeptides enrichment. The hydrophilicity and binding capacity of HILIC adsorbents are crucial to the enrichment efficiency and mass spectrometry (MS) detection sensitivity of N-glycopeptides. Herein, magnetic nanoparticles coated with maltose-functionalized polyethyleneimine (Fe3O4-PEI-Maltose MNPs) were prepared by one-pot solvothermal reaction coupled with "click chemistry" and utilized for N-glycopeptides enrichment. Owing to the presence of hydrophilic and branched polyethyleneimine, the amount of immobilized disaccharide units was improved about four times. The N-glycopeptides capturing capacity was about 150mg/g (IgG/MNPs) and the MS detection limitation as low as 0.5fmol for IgG and 85% average enrichment recovery were feasibly achieved by using this hybrid magnetic adsorbent. Finally, 1237 unique N-glycosylation sites and 1567 unique N-glycopeptides from 684 N-glycoproteins were reliably characterized from 60μg protein sample extracted from mouse liver. Therefore, this maltose-functionalized polyethyleneimine coated adsorbent can play a promising role in highly efficient N-glycopeptides enrichment for glycoproteomic analyses of complex protein samples. PMID:26607318

  9. Preparation of composite with silica-coated nanoparticles of iron oxide spinels for applications based on magnetically induced hyperthermia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, Angela L.; Fabris, José D.; Pereira, Márcio C.; Domingues, Rosana Z.; Ardisson, José D.

    2013-04-01

    It is reported a novel method to prepare magnetic core (iron oxide spinels)-shell (silica) composites containing well-dispersed magnetic nanoparticles in aqueous solution. The synthetic process consists of two steps. In a first step, iron oxide nanoparticles obtained through co-precipitation are dispersed in an aqueous solution containing tetramethylammonium hydroxide; in a second step, particles of this sample are coated with silica, through hydrolyzation of tetraethyl orthosilicate. The intrinsic atomic structure and essential properties of the core-shell system were assessed with powder X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, Mössbauer spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The heat released by this ferrofluid under an AC-generated magnetic field was evaluated by following the temperature evolution under increasing magnetic field strengths. Results strongly indicate that this ferrofluid based on silica-coated iron oxide spinels is technologically a very promising material to be used in medical practices, in oncology.

  10. Synthesis of monodisperse biotinylated p(NIPAAm)-coated iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles and their bioconjugation to streptavidin.

    PubMed

    Narain, Ravin; Gonzales, Marcela; Hoffman, Allan S; Stayton, Patrick S; Krishnan, Kannan M

    2007-05-22

    We describe here the synthesis of 10 nm, monodisperse, iron oxide nanoparticles that we have coated with temperature-sensitive, biotinylated p(NIPAAm) (b-PNIPAAm). The PNIPAAm was prepared by the reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer polymerization (RAFT), and one end was biotinylated with a PEO maleimide-activated biotin to form a stable thioether linkage. The original synthesized iron oxide particles were stabilized with oleic acid. They were dispersed in dioxane, and the oleic acid molecules were then reversibly exchanged with a mixture of PNIPAAm and b-PNIPAAm at 60 degrees C. The b-PNIPAAm-coated magnetic nanoparticles were found to have an average diameter of approximately 15 nm by dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy. The ability of the biotin terminal groups on the b-PNIPAAm-coated nanoparticles to interact with streptavidin was confirmed by fluorescence and surface plasmon resonance. It was found that the b-PNIPAAm-coated iron oxide nanoparticles can still bind with high affinity to streptavidin in solution or when the streptavidin is immobilized on a surface. We have also demonstrated that the binding of the biotin ligands on the surface of the temperature-responsive magnetic nanoparticles to streptavidin can be turned on and off as a function of temperature. PMID:17451262

  11. Gold coated magnetic nanoparticles: from preparation to surface modification for analytical and biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Moraes Silva, Saimon; Tavallaie, Roya; Sandiford, Lydia; Tilley, Richard D; Gooding, J Justin

    2016-06-18

    Gold coated magnetic nanoparticles (Au@MNPs) have become increasingly interesting to nanomaterial scientists due to their multifunctional properties and their potential in both analytical chemistry and nanomedicine. The past decade has seen significant progress in the synthesis and surface modification of Au@MNPs. This progress is based on advances in the preparation and characterization of iron/iron oxide nanocrystals with the required surface functional groups. In this critical review, we summarize recent developments in the methods of preparing Au@MNPs, surface functionalization and their application in analytical sensing and biomedicine. We highlight some of the remaining major challenges, as well as the lessons learnt when working with Au@MNPs. PMID:27182032

  12. Control of the saturation temperature in magnetic heating by using polyethylene-glycol-coated rod-shaped nickel-ferrite (NiFe2O4) nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iqbal, Yousaf; Bae, Hongsub; Rhee, Ilsu; Hong, Sungwook

    2016-02-01

    Polyethylene-glycol (PEG)-coated nickel-ferrite nanoparticles were prepared for magnetic hyperthermia applications by using the co-precipitation method. The PEG coating occurred during the synthesis of the nanoparticles. The coated nanoparticles were rod-shaped with an average length of 16 nm and an average diameter of 4.5 nm, as observed using transmission electron microscopy. The PEG coating on the surfaces of the nanoparticles was confirmed from the Fourier-transform infrared spectra. The nanoparticles exhibited superparamagnetic characteristics with negligible coercive force. Further, magnetic heating effects were observed in aqueous solutions of the coated nanoparticles. The saturation temperature could be controlled at 42 ℃ by changing the concentration of the nanoparticles in the aqueous solution. Alternately, the saturation temperature could be controlled for a given concentration of nanoparticles by changing the intensity of the magnetic field. The Curie temperature of the nanoparticles was estimated to be 495 ℃. These results for the PEG-coated nickel-ferrite nanoparticles showed the possibility of utilizing them for controlled magnetic hyperthermia at 42 ℃.

  13. Polyethylene Glycol Modified, Cross-Linked Starch Coated Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Enhanced Magnetic Tumor Targeting

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Adam J.; David, Allan E.; Wang, Jianxin; Galbán, Craig J.; Hill, Hannah L.; Yang, Victor C.

    2010-01-01

    While successful magnetic tumor targeting of iron oxide nanoparticles has been achieved in a number of models, the rapid blood clearance of magnetically suitable particles by the reticuloendothelial system (RES) limits their availability for targeting. This work aimed to develop a long-circulating magnetic iron oxide nanoparticle (MNP) platform capable of sustained tumor exposure via the circulation and, thus, enhanced magnetic tumor targeting. Aminated, cross-linked starch (DN) and aminosilane (A) coated MNPs were successfully modified with 5 kDa (A5, D5) or 20 kDa (A20, D20) polyethylene glycol (PEG) chains using simple N-Hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) chemistry and characterized. Identical PEG-weight analogues between platforms (A5 & D5, A20 & D20) were similar in size (140–190 nm) and relative PEG labeling (1.5% of surface amines – A5/D5, 0.4% – A20/D20), with all PEG-MNPs possessing magnetization properties suitable for magnetic targeting. Candidate PEG-MNPs were studied in RES simulations in vitro to predict long-circulating character. D5 and D20 performed best showing sustained size stability in cell culture medium at 37°C and 7 (D20) to 10 (D5) fold less uptake in RAW264.7 macrophages when compared to previously targeted, unmodified starch MNPs (D). Observations in vitro were validated in vivo, with D5 (7.29 hr) and D20 (11.75 hr) showing much longer half-lives than D (0.12 hr). Improved plasma stability enhanced tumor MNP exposure 100 (D5) to 150 (D20) fold as measured by plasma AUC0-∞ Sustained tumor exposure over 24 hours was visually confirmed in a 9L-glioma rat model (12 mg Fe/kg) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Findings indicate that both D5 and D20 are promising MNP platforms for enhanced magnetic tumor targeting, warranting further study in tumor models. PMID:21176955

  14. Effect of a SiO2 coating on the magnetic properties of Fe3O4 nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Larumbe, S; Gómez-Polo, C; Pérez-Landazábal, J I; Pastor, J M

    2012-07-01

    In this work the effect of a SiO2 coating on the magnetic properties of Fe3O4 nanoparticles obtained by the sol-gel method is analyzed. Two sets of samples were prepared: Fe3O4 nanoparticles and Fe3O4@SiO2 core-shell composites. The samples display the characteristic spinel structure associated with the magnetite Fe3O4 phase, with the majority of grain sizes around 5-10 nm. At room temperature the nanoparticles show the characteristic superparamagnetic behavior with mean blocking temperatures around 160 and 120 K for Fe3O4 and Fe3O4@SiO2, respectively. The main effect of the SiO2 coating is reflected in the temperature dependence of the high field magnetization (μ(0)H = 6 T), i.e. deviations from the Bloch law at low temperatures (T < 20 K). Such deviations, enhanced by the introduction of the SiO2 coating, are associated with the occurrence of surface spin disordered effects. The induction heating effects (magnetic hyperthermia) are analyzed under the application of an AC magnetic field. Maximum specific absorption rate (SAR) values around 1.5 W g(-1) were achieved for the Fe3O4 nanoparticles. A significant decrease (around 26%) is found in the SAR values of the SiO2 coated nanocomposite. The different heating response is analyzed in terms of the decrease of the effective nanoparticle magnetization in the Fe3O4@SiO2 core-shell composites at room temperature. PMID:22700683

  15. Colorimetric detection of pathogenic bacteria using platinum-coated magnetic nanoparticle clusters and magnetophoretic chromatography.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Donghoon; Lee, Sanghee; Ahn, Myung Mo; Kang, In Seok; Park, Ki-Hwan; Jeon, Sangmin

    2015-07-01

    A colorimetric method that uses platinum-coated magnetic nanoparticle clusters (Pt/MNCs) and magnetophoretic chromatography is developed to detect pathogenic bacteria. Half-fragments of monoclonal Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EC) antibodies were functionalized to Pt/MNCs and used to capture E. coli bacteria in milk. After magnetic separation of free Pt/MNCs and Pt/MNC-EC complexes from the milk, a precision pipette was used to imbibe the E. coli-containing solution, then a viscous polyethylene glycol solution. Due to difference in viscosities, the solutions separate into two liquid layers inside the pipette tip. The Pt/MNC-EC complexes were separated from the free Pt/MNCs by applying an external magnetic field, then added to a tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) solution. Catalytic oxidation of TMB by Pt produced color changes of the solution, which enabled identification of the presence of 10 cfu mL(-1) E. coli bacteria with the naked eye. The total assay time including separation, binding and detection was 30 min. PMID:26088777

  16. Cell type-specific response to high intracellular loading of polyacrylic acid-coated magnetic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Lojk, Jasna; Bregar, Vladimir B; Rajh, Maruša; Miš, Katarina; Kreft, Mateja Erdani; Pirkmajer, Sergej; Veranič, Peter; Pavlin, Mojca

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) are a special type of NP with a ferromagnetic, electron-dense core that enables several applications such as cell tracking, hyperthermia, and magnetic separation, as well as multimodality. So far, superparamagnetic iron oxide NPs (SPIONs) are the only clinically approved type of metal oxide NPs, but cobalt ferrite NPs have properties suitable for biomedical applications as well. In this study, we analyzed the cellular responses to magnetic cobalt ferrite NPs coated with polyacrylic acid (PAA) in three cell types: Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO), mouse melanoma (B16) cell line, and primary human myoblasts (MYO). We compared the internalization pathway, intracellular trafficking, and intracellular fate of our NPs using fluorescence and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) as well as quantified NP uptake and analyzed uptake dynamics. We determined cell viability after 24 or 96 hours' exposure to increasing concentrations of NPs, and quantified the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) upon 24 and 48 hours' exposure. Our NPs have been shown to readily enter and accumulate in cells in high quantities using the same two endocytic pathways; mostly by macropinocytosis and partially by clathrin-mediated endocytosis. The cell types differed in their uptake rate, the dynamics of intracellular trafficking, and the uptake capacity, as well as in their response to higher concentrations of internalized NPs. The observed differences in cell responses stress the importance of evaluation of NP-cell interactions on several different cell types for better prediction of possible toxic effects on different cell and tissue types in vivo. PMID:25733835

  17. Cell type-specific response to high intracellular loading of polyacrylic acid-coated magnetic nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Lojk, Jasna; Bregar, Vladimir B; Rajh, Maruša; Miš, Katarina; Kreft, Mateja Erdani; Pirkmajer, Sergej; Veranič, Peter; Pavlin, Mojca

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) are a special type of NP with a ferromagnetic, electron-dense core that enables several applications such as cell tracking, hyperthermia, and magnetic separation, as well as multimodality. So far, superparamagnetic iron oxide NPs (SPIONs) are the only clinically approved type of metal oxide NPs, but cobalt ferrite NPs have properties suitable for biomedical applications as well. In this study, we analyzed the cellular responses to magnetic cobalt ferrite NPs coated with polyacrylic acid (PAA) in three cell types: Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO), mouse melanoma (B16) cell line, and primary human myoblasts (MYO). We compared the internalization pathway, intracellular trafficking, and intracellular fate of our NPs using fluorescence and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) as well as quantified NP uptake and analyzed uptake dynamics. We determined cell viability after 24 or 96 hours’ exposure to increasing concentrations of NPs, and quantified the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) upon 24 and 48 hours’ exposure. Our NPs have been shown to readily enter and accumulate in cells in high quantities using the same two endocytic pathways; mostly by macropinocytosis and partially by clathrin-mediated endocytosis. The cell types differed in their uptake rate, the dynamics of intracellular trafficking, and the uptake capacity, as well as in their response to higher concentrations of internalized NPs. The observed differences in cell responses stress the importance of evaluation of NP–cell interactions on several different cell types for better prediction of possible toxic effects on different cell and tissue types in vivo. PMID:25733835

  18. Effective Removal of Tetracycline from Aqueous Solution by Organic Acid-Coated Magnetic Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Guo, Liang; Liang, Yuyan; Chen, Xuelan; Xu, Wei; Wu, Kesheng; Wei, Hua; Xiong, Yonghua

    2016-03-01

    Self-assembled iron oxide nanocomposites are good magnetic nano-adsorbents that can be prepared using simple methods. Four types of organic acid-functionalised (oleic acid, undecenoic acid, caprylic acid or hexanoic acid) magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were synthesised through a one-pot chemisorption method for the removal of tetracycline (TC) from aqueous solution. The undecenoic acid-coated MNPs (UA-MNPs) exhibited the highest adsorption efficiency and can be easily retrieved with a low-gradient magnetic separator (0.4 Tesla) at pH 5.0 aqueous solution. The TC adsorption process on the UA-MNPs followed the Langmuir isotherm and the maximum adsorption capacities increased from 86.96 mg g(-1) to 222.2 mg g(-1) with the increase in temperature from 288 K to 318 K. The kinetics of adsorption fits pseudo-second-order model perfectly with a rate constant, 5.946 g mg(-1) min(-1) at 298 K. The positive values of the enthalpy (AH) and the negative value of the free energy (AG) indicated an endothermic and spontaneous adsorption process of TC on the UA-MNPs. Moreover, the UA-MNPs possessed excellent ability to adsorb the other three major types of TC antibiotics, including chlortetracycline, oxytetracycline and doxycycline. PMID:27455621

  19. Silica-coated Gd(DOTA)-loaded protein nanoparticles enable magnetic resonance imaging of macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Bruckman, Michael A.; Randolph, Lauren N.; Gulati, Neetu M.; Stewart, Phoebe L.; Steinmetz, Nicole F.

    2015-01-01

    The molecular imaging of in vivo targets allows non-invasive disease diagnosis. Nanoparticles offer a promising platform for molecular imaging because they can deliver large payloads of imaging reagents to the site of disease. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is often preferred for clinical diagnosis because it uses non-ionizing radiation and offers both high spatial resolution and excellent penetration. We have explored the use of plant viruses as the basis of for MRI contrast reagents, specifically Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), which can assemble to form either stiff rods or spheres. We loaded TMV particles with paramagnetic Gd ions, increasing the ionic relaxivity compared to free Gd ions. The loaded TMV particles were then coated with silica maintaining high relaxivities. Interestingly, we found that when Gd(DOTA) was loaded into the interior channel of TMV and the exterior was coated with silica, the T1 relaxivities increased by three-fold from 10.9 mM−1 s−1 to 29.7 mM−1s−1 at 60 MHz compared to uncoated Gd-loaded TMV. To test the performance of the contrast agents in a biological setting, we focused on interactions with macrophages because the active or passive targeting of immune cells is a popular strategy to investigate the cellular components involved in disease progression associated with inflammation. In vitro assays and phantom MRI experiments indicate efficient targeting and imaging of macrophages, enhanced contrast-to-noise ratio was observed by shape-engineering (SNP > TMV) and silica-coating (Si-TMV/SNP > TMV/SNP). Because plant viruses are in the food chain, antibodies may be prevalent in the population. Therefore we investigated whether the silica-coating could prevent antibody recognition; indeed our data indicate that mineralization can be used as a stealth coating option to reduce clearance. Therefore, we conclude that the silica-coated protein-based contrast agent may provide an interesting candidate material for further investigation

  20. Purification of 6×His-tagged phycobiliprotein using zinc-decorated silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yingjie; Jiang, Peng; Liu, Shaofang; Zhao, Hui; Cui, Yulin; Qin, Song

    2011-04-15

    Zinc-decorated silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles (ZnSiMNPs) were prepared by adsorbing zinc onto colloidal silica. These nanoparticles were used for the rapid purification of 6×His-tagged recombinant phycobiliprotein. The surface changes in the magnetic nanoparticles after zinc adsorption were characterized by transmission electron microscopy. The adsorption of the 6×His-tagged phycobiliprotein onto ZnSiMNPs in 10 mM PBS at 25°C was found to follow the Langmuir isotherm. ZnSiMNPs could be used to extract 6×His-tagged phycobiliprotein from lysate to single-band purity, as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. No spectral variation was observed in the purified phycobiliprotein. Thus, ZnSiMNPs served as a useful tool for the magnetic separation and delivery of the 6×His-tagged phycobiliprotein. PMID:21435956

  1. Mass Spectrometric Detection of Neuropeptides Using Affinity-Enhanced Microdialysis with Antibody-Coated Magnetic Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Schmerberg, Claire M.; Li, Lingjun

    2012-01-01

    Microdialysis (MD) is a useful sampling tool for many applications due to its ability to permit sampling from an animal concurrent with normal activity. MD is of particular importance in the field of neuroscience, in which it is used to sample neurotransmitters (NTs) while the animal is behaving in order to correlate dynamic changes in NTs with behavior. One important class of signaling molecules, the neuropeptides (NPs), however, presented significant challenges when studied with MD, due to the low relative recovery (RR) of NPs by this technique. Affinity-enhanced microdialysis (AE-MD) has previously been used to improve recovery of NPs and similar molecules. For AE-MD, an affinity agent (AA), such as an antibody-coated particle or free antibody, is added to the liquid perfusing the MD probe. This AA provides an additional mass transport driving force for analyte to pass through the dialysis membrane, and thus increases the RR. In this work, a variety of AAs have been investigated for AE-MD of NPs in vitro and in vivo, including particles with C18 surface functionality and antibody-coated particles. Antibody-coated magnetic nanoparticles (AbMnP) provided the best RR enhancement in vitro, with statistically significant (p<0.05) enhancements for 4 out of 6 NP standards tested, and RR increases up to 41-fold. These particles were then used for in vivo MD in the Jonah crab, Cancer borealis, during a feeding study, with mass spectrometric (MS) detection. 31 NPs were detected in a 30 min collection sample, compared to 17 when no AA was used. The use of AbMnP also increased the temporal resolution from 4–18 hrs in previous studies to just 30 min in this study. The levels of NPs detected were also sufficient for reliable quantitation with the MS system in use, permitting quantitative analysis of the concentration changes for 7 identified NPs on a 30 min time course during feeding. PMID:23249250

  2. Functionalized milk-protein-coated magnetic nanoparticles for MRI-monitored targeted therapy of pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jing; Qian, Weiping; Wang, Liya; Wu, Hui; Zhou, Hongyu; Wang, Andrew Yongqiang; Chen, Hongbo; Yang, Lily; Mao, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Engineered nanocarriers have emerged as a promising platform for cancer therapy. However, the therapeutic efficacy is limited by low drug loading efficiency, poor passive targeting to tumors, and severe systemic side effects. Herein, we report a new class of nanoconstructs based on milk protein (casein)-coated magnetic iron oxide (CNIO) nanoparticles for targeted and image-guided pancreatic cancer treatment. The tumor-targeting amino-terminal fragment (ATF) of urokinase plasminogen activator and the antitumor drug cisplatin (CDDP) were engineered on this nanoplatform. High drug loading (~25 wt%) and sustained release at physiological conditions were achieved through the exchange and encapsulation strategy. These ATF-CNIO-CDDP nanoparticles demonstrated actively targeted delivery of CDDP to orthotopic pancreatic tumors in mice. The effective accumulation and distribution of ATF-CNIO-CDDP was evidenced by magnetic resonance imaging, based on the T2-weighted contrast resulting from the specific accumulation of ATF-CNIO-CDDP in the tumor. Actively targeted delivery of ATF-CNIO-CDDP led to improved therapeutic efficacy in comparison with free CDDP and nontargeted CNIO-CDDP treatment. Meanwhile, less systemic side effects were observed in the nanocarrier-treated groups than that in the group treated with free CDDP. Hematoxylin and Eosin and Sirius Red staining of tumor sections revealed the possible disruption of stroma during the treatment with ATF-CNIO-CDDP. Overall, our results suggest that ATF-CNIO-CDDP can be an effective theranostic platform for active targeting-enhanced and image-guided cancer treatment while simultaneously reducing the systemic toxicity. PMID:27462153

  3. Doxorubicin loading, release, and stability of polyamidoamine dendrimer-coated magnetic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Rouhollah, Khodadust; Pelin, Mutlu; Serap, Yalcin; Gozde, Unsoy; Ufuk, Gunduz

    2013-06-01

    Nanotechnology is a promising alternative to overcome the limitations of classical chemotherapy. As a novel approach, dendrimer-coated magnetic nanoparticles (DcMNPs) maintain suitable drug delivery system because of their buildup of functional groups, symmetry perfection, nanosize, and internal cavities. They can also be targeted to the tumor site in a magnetic field. The aim of this study is to obtain an effective targeted delivery system for doxorubicin, using polyamidoamine (PAMAM) DcMNPs. Different generations (G2 , G3 , G4 , and G7 ) of PAMAM DcMNPs were synthesized. Doxorubicin loading, release, and stability efficiencies in these nanoparticles (NPs) were studied. The results showed that low-generation NPs obtained in this study have pH-sensitive drug release characteristics. G4 DcMNP, which releases most of the drug in lower pH, seems to be the most suitable generation for efficient Doxorubicin delivery. Furthermore, application of doxorubicin-loaded G4 DcMNPs may help to overcome doxorubicin resistance in MCF-7 cells. On the contrary, G2 and G3 DcMNPs would be suitable for the delivery of drugs such as vinca alkaloids (Johnson IS, Armstrong JG, Gorman M, Burnett JP. 1963. Cancer Res 23:1390-1427.) and taxenes (Clarke SJ, Rivory LP. 1999. Clin Pharmacokinet 36(2):99-114.), which show their effects in cytoplasm. The results of this study can provide new insights in the development of pH-sensitive targeted drug delivery systems to overcome drug resistance during cancer therapy. PMID:23558592

  4. Functionalized milk-protein-coated magnetic nanoparticles for MRI-monitored targeted therapy of pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jing; Qian, Weiping; Wang, Liya; Wu, Hui; Zhou, Hongyu; Wang, Andrew Yongqiang; Chen, Hongbo; Yang, Lily; Mao, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Engineered nanocarriers have emerged as a promising platform for cancer therapy. However, the therapeutic efficacy is limited by low drug loading efficiency, poor passive targeting to tumors, and severe systemic side effects. Herein, we report a new class of nanoconstructs based on milk protein (casein)-coated magnetic iron oxide (CNIO) nanoparticles for targeted and image-guided pancreatic cancer treatment. The tumor-targeting amino-terminal fragment (ATF) of urokinase plasminogen activator and the antitumor drug cisplatin (CDDP) were engineered on this nanoplatform. High drug loading (~25 wt%) and sustained release at physiological conditions were achieved through the exchange and encapsulation strategy. These ATF-CNIO-CDDP nanoparticles demonstrated actively targeted delivery of CDDP to orthotopic pancreatic tumors in mice. The effective accumulation and distribution of ATF-CNIO-CDDP was evidenced by magnetic resonance imaging, based on the T2-weighted contrast resulting from the specific accumulation of ATF-CNIO-CDDP in the tumor. Actively targeted delivery of ATF-CNIO-CDDP led to improved therapeutic efficacy in comparison with free CDDP and nontargeted CNIO-CDDP treatment. Meanwhile, less systemic side effects were observed in the nanocarrier-treated groups than that in the group treated with free CDDP. Hematoxylin and Eosin and Sirius Red staining of tumor sections revealed the possible disruption of stroma during the treatment with ATF-CNIO-CDDP. Overall, our results suggest that ATF-CNIO-CDDP can be an effective theranostic platform for active targeting-enhanced and image-guided cancer treatment while simultaneously reducing the systemic toxicity. PMID:27462153

  5. Novel magnetic nanoparticles coated by benzene- and β-cyclodextrin-bearing dextran, and the sorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon.

    PubMed

    Cho, Eunae; Tahir, Muhammad Nazir; Choi, Jae Min; Kim, Hwanhee; Yu, Jae-Hyuk; Jung, Seunho

    2015-11-20

    We present the synthesis of novel magnetic nanoparticles functionalized by benzene- and β-cyclodextrin-derivatized dextran. The grafting strategy was based on the [alkynyl-iron] cluster in the modified dextrans, which were prepared by click reaction from alkyne-modified dextran and benzyl azide or mono-6-O-deoxy-monoazido β-cyclodextrin. Characterization was then carried out by thermogravimetric analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and vibrating sample magnetometry. Using the developed magnetic nanoparticles, the potential for removing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons such as phenanthrene and pyrene by sorption onto the nanomaterials was assessed. In the sorption, pi-stacking interactions of the benzene-derivatized dextran and host-guest chemistry of the β-cyclodextrin-derivatized dextran were considered to be significant. Furthermore, the polysaccharide derivative-coated magnetic adsorbents could be recovered by an external magnet for reuse. PMID:26344275

  6. Iron-based soft magnetic composites with Mn-Zn ferrite nanoparticles coating obtained by sol-gel method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shen; Sun, Aizhi; Xu, Wenhuan; Zhang, Qian; Zhai, Fuqiang; Logan, Philip; Volinsky, Alex A.

    2012-11-01

    This paper focuses on iron-based soft magnetic composites which were synthesized by utilizing Mn-Zn ferrite nanoparticles to coat iron powder. The nanocrystalline iron powders, with an average particle diameter of 20 nm, were obtained via the sol-gel method. Scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and distribution maps show that the iron particle surface is covered with a thin layer of Mn-Zn ferrites. Mn-Zn ferrite uniformly coated the surface of the powder particles, resulting in a reduced imaginary permeability, increased electrical resistivity and a higher operating frequency of the synthesized magnets. Mn-Zn ferrite coated samples have higher permeability and lower magnetic loss when compared with the non-magnetic epoxy resin coated compacts. The real part of permeability increases by 33.5% when compared with the epoxy resin coated samples at 10 kHz. The effects of heat treatment temperature on crystalline phase formation and on the magnetic properties of the Mn-Zn ferrite were investigated via X-ray diffraction and a vibrating sample magnetometer. Ferrites decomposed to FeO and MnO after annealing above 400 °C in nitrogen; thus it is the optimum annealing temperature to attain the desired permeability.

  7. Cellular interactions of lauric acid and dextran-coated magnetite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, Pallab; Giri, Jyotsnendu; Banerjee, Rinti; Bellare, Jayesh; Bahadur, Dhirendra

    2007-04-01

    In vitro cytocompatibility and cellular interactions of lauric acid and dextran-coated magnetite nanoparticles were evaluated with two different cell lines (mouse fibroblast and human cervical carcinoma). Lauric acid-coated magnetite nanoparticles were less cytocompatible than dextran-coated magnetite nanoparticles and cellular uptake of lauric acid-coated magnetic nanoparticles was more than that of dextran-coated magnetite nanoparticles. Lesser cytocompatibility and higher uptake of lauric acid-coated magnetite nanoparticles as compared to dextran-coated magnetic nanoparticles may be due to different cellular interactions by coating material. Thus, coating plays an important role in modulation of biocompatibility and cellular interaction of magnetic nanoparticles.

  8. Synthesis of SiO2 coated NiFe2O4 nanoparticles and the effect of SiO2 shell thickness on the magnetic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coşkun, M.; Korkmaz, M.; Fırat, T.; Jaffari, G. H.; Shah, S. I.

    2010-05-01

    In this work, the results of synthesis of core-shell NiFe2O4 nanoparticles and influence of silica coating on the magnetic properties of nanoparticles are presented. Spherical NiFe2O4 nanoparticles were prepared via a normal micelles process. NiFe2O4 nanoparticles homogeneously coated with SiO2 of various shell thickness were synthesized by reverse microemulsion. The interparticle spacing was varied by changing the amount of added tetraethylorthosilicate. The microstructures and morphologies of these nanoparticles were studied by x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy techniques. The magnetic parameters such as saturation magnetizations, blocking temperatures, and magnetic anisotropies have been calculated from dc magnetization and ac susceptibility measurements.

  9. Gold-coated nanoparticles for use in biotechnology applications

    DOEpatents

    Berning, Douglas E.; Kraus, Jr., Robert H.; Atcher, Robert W.; Schmidt, Jurgen G.

    2007-06-05

    A process of preparing gold-coated magnetic nanoparticles is disclosed and includes forming a suspension of magnetic nanoparticles within a suitable liquid, adding an amount of a reducible gold compound and a reducing agent to the suspension, and, maintaining the suspension for time sufficient to form gold-coated magnetic nanoparticles.

  10. Gold-coated nanoparticles for use in biotechnology applications

    DOEpatents

    Berning, Douglas E.; Kraus, Jr., Robert H.; Atcher; Robert W.; Schmidt, Jurgen G.

    2009-07-07

    A process of preparing gold-coated magnetic nanoparticles is disclosed and includes forming a suspension of magnetic nanoparticles within a suitable liquid, adding an amount of a reducible gold compound and a reducing agent to the suspension, and, maintaining the suspension for time sufficient to form gold-coated magnetic nanoparticles.

  11. Synthesis, characterization and magnetic property of maghemite (γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanoparticles and their protective coating with pepsin for bio-functionalization

    SciTech Connect

    Bandhu, A.; Sutradhar, S.; Mukherjee, S.; Greneche, J.M.; Chakrabarti, P.K.

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Maghemite nanoparticles were prepared by a modified co-precipitation method. • Nanoparticles were then successfully coated with pepsin for bio-functionlization. • XRD and Mössbauer spectra confirmed the maghemite phase of the nanoparticles. • Magnetic data were analysed to evaluate particle size, anisotropy etc. - Abstract: Maghemite nanoparticles (γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) are prepared by co-precipitation method. To obtain bio-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles for magnetically controlled drug delivery, the prepared nanoparticles are successfully coated with pepsin, a bio-compatible polymer and digestive enzyme. Crystallographic phase of the nanoparticles is confirmed by X-ray diffractograms (XRD), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectrometry. The average size of nanoparticles/nanocrystallites is estimated from the (3 1 1) peak of the XRD pattern using Debye–Scherrer formula. Results of HRTEM of coated and bare samples are in good agreement with those extracted from the XRD analysis. The dynamic magnetic properties are observed and different quantities viz., coercive field, magnetization, remanence, hysteresis losses etc., are estimated, which confirmed the presence of superparamagnetic relaxation of nanoparticles. Mössbauer spectra of the samples recorded at both 300 and 77 K, confirmed that the majority of particles are maghemite together with a very small fraction of magnetite nanoparticles.

  12. Capture of Magnetic Nanoparticles in Simulated Blood Vessels: Effects of Proteins and Coating with Poly(ethylene glycol)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Jaimee; Brazel, Christopher

    2012-11-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have applications in cancer treatment as they can be captured and localized to a diseased site by use of an external magnetic field. After localization, cancer treatments such as magnetically targeted chemotherapy and localized hyperthermia can be applied. Previously, our lab has shown that the percent capture of MNPs is significantly reduced when MNPs are dispersed in protein solutions compared to water or aqueous polymer solutions. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of proteins on capture efficiency and to investigate the ability of poly(ethylene glycol), PEG, coatings to reduce aggregation of MNPs with proteins, allowing for a greater capture of MNPs in flow. Using Tygon® tubing to simulate blood vessels, a maghemite nanoparticle solution was pumped through a capture zone, where a magnetic field was applied. After passing through the capture zone, the fluid flowed to a spectrophotometer, which measured the absorbance of the solution. The introduction of proteins into the nanoparticle solution reduced the percent capture of MNPs. However, coating the MNPs with PEG aided in preventing aggregation and led to higher capture efficiencies in protein solutions. Additionally, the effects of capture length and protein exposure time were examined. It was found that a higher percent capture is attainable with a longer capture length. Furthermore, on a scale of hours, the percent capture is not affected by the protein exposure time. Funded by NSF REU Grant 1062611 and NIH NCI R21CA 141388.

  13. Preparation of Chitosan Coated Magnetic Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles and Application for Adsorption of Reactive Blue 19 and Ni2+ Ions

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Van Cuong; Pho, Quoc Hue

    2014-01-01

    An adsorbent called chitosan coated magnetic hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (CS-MHAP) was prepared with the purpose of improvement for the removal of Ni2+ ions and textile dye by coprecipitation. Structure and properties of CS-MHAP were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). Weight percent of chitosan was investigated by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The prepared CS-MHAP presents a significant improvement on the removal efficiency of Ni2+ ions and reactive blue 19 dye (RB19) in comparison with chitosan and magnetic hydroxyapatite nanoparticles. Moreover, the adsorption capacities were affected by several parameters such as contact time, initial concentration, adsorbent dosage, and initial pH. Interestingly, the prepared adsorbent could be easily recycled from an aqueous solution by an external magnet and reused for adsorption with high removal efficiency. PMID:24592158

  14. Proteomics Analysis Reveals Distinct Corona Composition on Magnetic Nanoparticles with Different Surface Coatings: Implications for Interactions with Primary Human Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Vogt, Carmen; Pernemalm, Maria; Kohonen, Pekka; Laurent, Sophie; Hultenby, Kjell; Vahter, Marie; Lehtiö, Janne; Toprak, Muhammet S.; Fadeel, Bengt

    2015-01-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) have emerged as promising contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging. The influence of different surface coatings on the biocompatibility of SPIONs has been addressed, but the potential impact of the so-called corona of adsorbed proteins on the surface of SPIONs on their biological behavior is less well studied. Here, we determined the composition of the plasma protein corona on silica-coated versus dextran-coated SPIONs using mass spectrometry-based proteomics approaches. Notably, gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis revealed distinct protein corona compositions for the two different SPIONs. Relaxivity of silica-coated SPIONs was modulated by the presence of a protein corona. Moreover, the viability of primary human monocyte-derived macrophages was influenced by the protein corona on silica-coated, but not dextran-coated SPIONs, and the protein corona promoted cellular uptake of silica-coated SPIONs, but did not affect internalization of dextran-coated SPIONs. PMID:26444829

  15. Nitrilotriacetic acid-coated magnetic nanoparticles as affinity probes for enrichment of histidine-tagged proteins and phosphorylated peptides.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi-Cheng; Lin, Ya-Shiuan; Tsai, Pei-Jane; Chen, Cheng-Tai; Chen, Wei-Yu; Chen, Yu-Chie

    2007-10-01

    We herein demonstrate superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles coated with nitrilotriacetic acid derivative (NTA) that can bind with different immobilized metal ions are capable of probing diverse target species. Immobilized Ni(II) on the surfaces of the NTA-magnetic nanoparticles have the capability of selectively trapping histidine (His)-tagged proteins such as a mutated streptopain tagged with 6x His, i.e., C192S (MW approximately 42 kDa), from cell lysates. Enrichment was achieved by vigorously mixing the sample solution and the nanoparticles by pipetting in and out of a sample vial for only 30 s. After enrichment, the probe-target species could be readily isolated by magnetic separation. We also characterized the proteins enriched on the affinity probes using on-probe tryptic digestion under microwave irradiation for only 2 min, followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry analysis. Using this enrichment and tryptic digestion, the target species can be rapidly enriched and characterized, reducing the time required for carrying out the complete analysis to less than 10 min. Furthermore, when either Zr(IV) or Ga (III) ions are immobilized on the surfaces of the NTA-magnetic nanoparticles, the nanoparticles have the capability of selectively enriching phosphorylated peptides from tryptic digests of alpha-, beta-caseins, and diluted milk. The detection limit for the tryptic digests of alpha- and beta-caseins is approximately 50 fmol. PMID:17784733

  16. Excellent improvement in the static and dynamic magnetic properties of carbon coated iron nanoparticles for microwave absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khani, Omid; Shoushtari, Morteza Zargar; Farbod, Mansoor

    2015-11-01

    Carbon coated iron nanoparticles were synthesized, using a simple arc-discharge method. The morphology and the internal structure of the core/shell nanoparticles were studied, using field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that both magnetic α-Fe and nonmagnetic γ-Fe phases existed in the as-prepared particles. In order to improve the static and dynamic magnetic properties of the core/shell nanoparticles, the produced nanocapsules were annealed in argon atmosphere at two different temperatures. Hysteresis loops revealed that the value of the saturation magnetization (MS) increased more than 4.1 times of its original value by annealing and this led to 70% increase in the imaginary part of the permeability. Phase analysis showed that heat treatment eliminated the nonmagnetic γ-Fe phase completely. The reflection loss plots were studied for composite layers containing 20 vol% of the annealed and not annealed nanocapsules. One of the absorber layers which contained annealed nanocapsules showed at least -10 dB loss in the whole G, C, X and Ku frequency bands and the optimal absorption exceeded -37 dB at 5.8 GHz for the as-prepared sample with a thickness of 3.2 mm. The results revealed that the magnetic properties of the arc-made Fe/C core/shell nanoparticle can be improved significantly by annealing in argon.

  17. Nanoparticles Affect PCR Primarily via Surface Interactions with PCR Components: Using Amino-Modified Silica-Coated Magnetic Nanoparticles as a Main Model.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yalong; Cui, Yan; Paoli, George C; Shi, Chunlei; Wang, Dapeng; Shi, Xianming

    2015-06-24

    Nanomaterials have been widely reported to affect the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). However, many studies in which these effects were observed were not comprehensive, and many of the proposed mechanisms have been primarily speculative. In this work, we used amino-modified silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles (ASMNPs, which can be collected very easily using an external magnetic field) as a model and compared them with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs, which have been studied extensively) to reveal the mechanisms by which nanoparticles affect PCR. We found that nanoparticles affect PCR primarily by binding to PCR components: (1) inhibition, (2) specifity, and (3) efficiency and yield of PCR are impacted. (1) Excess nanomaterials inhibit PCR by adsorbing to DNA polymerase, Mg(2+), oligonucleotide primers, or DNA templates. Nanoparticle surface-active groups are particularly important to this effect. (2, a) Nanomaterials do not inhibit nonspecific amplification products caused by false priming as previously surmised. It was shown that relatively low concentrations of nanoparticles inhibited the amplification of long amplicons, and increasing the amount of nanoparticles inhibited the amplification of short amplicons. This concentration phenomenon appears to be the result of the formation of "joints" upon the adsorption of ASMNPs to DNA templates. (b) Nanomaterials are able to inhibit nonspecific amplification products due to incomplete amplification by preferably adsorbing single-stranded incomplete amplification products. (3) Some types of nanomaterials, such as AuNPs, enhance the efficiency and yield of PCR because these types of nanoparticles can adsorb to single-stranded DNA more strongly than to double-stranded DNA. This behavior assists in the rapid and thorough denaturation of double-stranded DNA templates. Therefore, the interaction between the surface of nanoparticles and PCR components is sufficient to explain most of the effects of nanoparticles on PCR. PMID

  18. In vitro studies of heparin-coated magnetic nanoparticles for potential use in the treatment of neointimal hyperplasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargett, Andrew

    Purpose: Though recent decades have developed a myriad of treatments in response to atherosclerosis, prevalence remains high and complications, especially restenosis, may occur. Restenosis following stents is often caused by excessive vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMCS) migration and proliferation into the intima, known as neointimal hyperplasia. The shear number of angioplasty and stent procedures throughout the world makes this a major concern of all endovascular surgery. Our lab has proposed the pairing of heparin and magnetic nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery to the stent location. Utilizing the high surface area of nanoparticles, we hope to deliver higher heparin dosing to inhibit VSMC proliferation without systemic effects. This study evaluates synthesis of these particles as well as preliminary in vitro controls on relevant cell lines found within the vasculature system. Materials and Methods: Heparin-coated iron oxide nanoparticles were synthesized and characterized according to size (TEM), hydrodynamic diameter (DLS), zeta potential, iron concentration, and heparin loading (DMMB assay). Assays were then performed using these particles as experimental conditions on VSMCs, Endothelial Cells (PECs), and Fibroblasts (3T3s) for determination of cell uptake (Prussian Blue, TEM), effects on proliferation (MTS assay), cytotoxicity (Live/Dead assay), and phenotype changes (immunofluorescent staining). Experimental conditions were assessed against control nanoparticles without heparin and raw heparin in solution for dosage effects. Results: Particles were successfully synthesized, loaded with heparin, and characterized to validate each step of synthesis. Proliferation and cytotoxicity cell assays determined heparin-coated nanoparticles to be more potent in effects at lower concentrations of heparin when compared to raw heparin in solution. Immunostaining of VSMCs demonstrated a relatively higher tendency towards nonproliferative phenotypes following

  19. Synthesis and magnetic study of carbon coated iron oxide nanoparticles by laser ablation in solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prajapat, C. L.; Sharma, P.; Gonal, M. R.; Vatsa, R. K.; Singh, M. R.; Ravikumar, G.

    2016-05-01

    Magnetic Iron oxides nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared by Laser Ablation in Solution method. Formation and average size of iron oxide NPs (~8 nm) is confirmed by XRD pattern and magnetization studies. Detailed magnetic studies have been carried out using SQUID magnetometer. The saturation magnetization for the iron oxide NPs was found to be 60.07 emu/g. Below the blocking temperature of 150 K the hysteresis loop shows ferromagnetic nature, whereas it shows superparamagnetic behavior at 300 K, for the synthesized NPs.

  20. An electrochemical sulfite biosensor based on gold coated magnetic nanoparticles modified gold electrode.

    PubMed

    Rawal, Rachna; Chawla, Sheetal; Pundir, Chandra Shekhar

    2012-01-15

    A sulfite oxidase (SO(X)) (EC 1.8.3.1) purified from Syzygium cumini leaves was immobilized onto carboxylated gold coated magnetic nanoparticles (Fe(3)O(4)@GNPs) electrodeposited onto the surface of a gold (Au) electrode through N-ethyl-N'-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC)-N-hydroxy succinimide (NHS) chemistry. An amperometric sulfite biosensor was fabricated using SO(X)/Fe(3)O(4)@GNPs/Au electrode as working electrode, Ag/AgCl as standard and Pt wire as auxiliary electrode. The working electrode was characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy, Cyclic Voltammetry (CV), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) before and after immobilization of SO(X). The biosensor showed optimum response within 2s when operated at 0.2V (vs. Ag/AgCl) in 0.1 M Tris-HCl buffer, pH 8.5 and at 35 °C. Linear range and detection limit were 0.50-1000 μM and 0.15 μM (S/N=3) respectively. Biosensor was evaluated with 96.46% recovery of added sulfite in red wine and 1.7% and 3.3% within and between batch coefficients of variation respectively. Biosensor measured sulfite level in red and white wines. There was good correlation (r=0.99) between red wines sulfite value by standard DTNB (5,5'-dithio-bis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid)) method and the present method. Enzyme electrode was used 300 times over a period of 4 months, when stored at 4 °C. Biosensor has advantages over earlier biosensors that it has excellent electrocatalysis towards sulfite, lower detection limit, higher storage stability and no interference by ascorbate, cysteine, fructose and ethanol. PMID:22035973

  1. Caffeic acid-coated multifunctional magnetic nanoparticles for the treatment and bimodal imaging of tumours.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jun; Kim, Kyoung Sub; Na, Kun

    2016-07-01

    Accurate theragnosis of tumour is essential for improving the life rate of tumour patients. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) have been used as both diagnostic and therapeutic agents. However, their application is often limited because of a lack of water solubility, lack of cancer treatment efficacy, and ineffective targeting of tumour cells. In this report, a double ligand (caffeic acid-polyethylene glycol-folic acid; FA-PEG-CA, caffeic acid-polyethylene glycol-pheophorbide-a; PheoA-PEG-CA) coated iron oxide nanoparticle has been fabricated that overcomes the limitations of conventional SPION. Photosensitizer and tumour targeting ligands were coated on SPION using a ligand-substitution method. We confirmed the successful substitution of oleic acid ligands with FA-PEG-CA and PheoA-PEG-CA ligands by FT-IR spectroscopy. The caffeic acid coated iron oxide nanoparticles (CAMNPs) also demonstrated high water solubility in an aqueous environment and folate-mediated active tumour targeting. The water solubility of CAMNPs was evaluated by DLS measurement and TEM images. The cytotoxicity of CAMNPs increased two-fold in MDA-MB-231 cells at a laser irradiation condition. The fabricated CAMNPs retained their ability to function as both MRI diagnostic and tumour-selective therapeutic agents. These results suggest that these efficient characteristics of CAMNPs can be incorporated into applications, thus enhancing the efficacy of clinical cancer treatment. PMID:27107705

  2. Side-chain effect on Langmuir and Langmuir-Blodgett film properties of poly(N-alkylmethacrylamide)-coated magnetic nanoparticle.

    PubMed

    Parvin, Salina; Matsui, Jun; Sato, Eriko; Miyashita, Tokuji

    2007-09-01

    We report the fabrication of a Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) film of magnetic nanoparticles (iron oxide) coated by poly(N-alkylmethacrylamide)s with various alkyl chain lengths. The iron oxide nanoparticle (nP) was first modified with a reactive polymer, poly(N-hydroxysuccinimide methacrylate) (pSucMA) by applying surface initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) technique. Then the succinimide group was replaced by various amine derivatives. The monolayer behaviors of the resultant nanoparticles, as modified by various poly(N-alkylmethacrylamide)s, such as poly(octylmethacrylamide) (pOMA), poly(dodecylmethacrylamide) (pDDMA), polytetradecylmethacrylamide (pTDMA), and poly(hexadecylmethacrylamide) (pHDMA) were elucidated using surface pressure-area isotherm measurements. Results show that pTDMA-modified nanoparticles (nP-pTDMA) exhibit the highest collapse pressure with a steeply rising surface pressure. The monolayer of nP-pTDMA on the water surface was transferred onto a solid substrate using the LB technique. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) images of the transferred LB film show that nP-pTDMA particles form a uniform nanoparticle monolayer. The LB film of nP-pTDMA with multilayers was fabricated through sequential transfer of the particles monolayer onto the substrate surface. The resultant LB film of nanoparticles shows a superparamagnetic behavior at room temperature. PMID:17511997

  3. Facile Synthesis of Au-Coated Magnetic Nanoparticles and Their Application in Bacteria Detection via a SERS Method.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junfeng; Wu, Xuezhong; Wang, Chongwen; Rong, Zhen; Ding, Hongmei; Li, Hui; Li, Shaohua; Shao, Ningsheng; Dong, Peitao; Xiao, Rui; Wang, Shengqi

    2016-08-10

    This study proposes a facile method for synthesis of Au-coated magnetic nanoparticles (AuMNPs) core/shell nanocomposites with nanoscale rough surfaces. MnFe2O4 nanoparticles (NPs) were first modified with a uniform polyethylenimine layer (2 nm) through self-assembly under sonication. The negatively charged Au seeds were then adsorbed on the surface of the MnFe2O4 NPs through electrostatic interaction for Au shell formation. Our newly developed sonochemically assisted hydroxylamine seeding growth method was used to grow the adsorbed gold seeds into large Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) to form a nanoscale rough Au shell. Au-coated magnetic nanoparticles (AuMNPs) were obtained from the intermediate product (Au seeds decorated magnetic core) under sonication within 5 min. The AuMNPs were highly uniform in size and shape and exhibited satisfactory surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) activity and strong magnetic responsivity. PATP was used as a probe molecule to evaluate the SERS performance of the synthesized AuMNPs with a detection limit of 10(-9) M. The synthesized AuMNPs were conjugated with Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) antibody for bacteria capture and separation. The synthesized plasmonic AuNR-DTNB NPs, whose LSPR wavelength was adjusted to the given laser excitation wavelength (785 nm), were conjugated with S. aureus antibody to form a SERS tag for specific recognition and report of the target bacteria. S. aureus was indirectly detected through SERS based on sandwich-structured immunoassay, with a detection limit of 10 cells/mL. Moreover, the SERS intensity at Raman peak of 1331 cm(-1) exhibited a linear relationship to the logarithm of bacteria concentrations ranging from 10(1) cells/mL to 10(5) cells/mL. PMID:27420923

  4. Pheomelanin-coated iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles: a promising candidate for negative T2 contrast enhancement in magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Zottis, Alexandre D A; Beltrame, Jeovandro M; Lara, Luciano R S; Costa, Thiago G; Feldhaus, Mateus J; Pedrosa, Rozangela Curi; Ourique, Fabiana; de Campos, Carlos E M; Isoppo, Eduardo de A; da Silva Miranda, Fabio; Szpoganicz, Bruno

    2015-06-30

    We describe herein a novel type of monodisperse water-soluble magnetite nanoparticle coated with pheomelanin using an environmentally-friendly approach in aqueous medium. The results indicate superparamagnetic behaviour at room temperature and show improved negative contrast in T2-weighted MRI with a transverse relaxivity of 218 mM(-1) s(-1). PMID:26073290

  5. Labeling transplanted mice islet with polyvinylpyrrolidone coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for in vivo detection by magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Hai; Xie, Qiuping; Kang, Muxing; Zhang, Bo; Zhang, Hui; Chen, Jin; Zhai, Chuanxin; Yang, Deren; Jiang, Biao; Wu, Yulian

    2009-09-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIO) are emerging as a novel probe for noninvasive cell tracking with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and have potential wide usage in medical research. In this study, we have developed a method using high-temperature hydrolysis of chelate metal alkoxide complexes to synthesize polyvinylpyrrolidone coated iron oxide nanoparticles (PVP-SPIO), as a biocompatible magnetic agent that can efficiently label mice islet β-cells. The size, crystal structure and magnetic properties of the as-synthesized nanoparticles have been characterized. The newly synthesized PVP-SPIO with high stability, crystallinity and saturation magnetization can be efficiently internalized into β-cells, without affecting viability and function. The imaging of 100 PVP-SPIO-labeled mice islets in the syngeneic renal subcapsular model of transplantation under a clinical 3.0 T MR imager showed high spatial resolution in vivo. These results indicated the great potential application of the PVP-SPIO as an MRI contrast agent for monitoring transplanted islet grafts in the clinical management of diabetes in the near future.

  6. Preparation and characterization of polymer nanocomposites coated magnetic nanoparticles for drug delivery applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabha, G.; Raj, V.

    2016-06-01

    In the present research work, the anticancer drug 'curcumin' is loaded with Chitosan (CS)-polyethylene glycol (PEG)-polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) (CS-PEG-PVP) polymer nanocomposites coated with superparamagnetic iron oxide (Fe3O4) nanoparticles. The system can be used for targeted and controlled drug delivery of anticancer drugs with reduced side effects and greater efficiency. The prepared nanoparticles were characterized by Fourier transmission infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Curcumin drug loaded Fe3O4-CS, Fe3O4-CS-PEG and Fe3O4-CS-PEG-PVP nanoparticles exhibited the mean particle size in the range of 183-390 nm with a zeta potential value of 26-41 mV as measured using Malvern Zetasizer. The encapsulation efficiency, loading capacity and in-vitro drug release behavior of curcumin drug loaded Fe3O4-CS, Fe3O4-CS-PEG and Fe3O4-CS-PEG-PVP nanoparticles were studied using UV spectrophotometer. Besides, the cytotoxicity of the prepared nanoparticles using MTT assay was also studied. The curcumin drug release was examined at different pH medium and it was proved that the drug release depends upon the pH medium in addition to the nature of matrix.

  7. DNA templated magnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinsella, Joseph M.

    Recent discoveries in nanoscience are predicted to potentially revolutionize future technologies in an extensive number of fields. These developments are contingent upon discovering new and often unconventional methods to synthesize and control nanoscale components. Nature provides several examples of working nanotechnology such as the use of programmed self assembly to build and deconstruct complex molecular systems. We have adopted a method to control the one dimensional assembly of magnetic nanoparticles using DNA as a scaffold molecule. With this method we have demonstrated the ability to organize 5 nm particles into chains that stretch up to ˜20 mum in length. One advantage of using DNA compared is the ability of the molecule to interact with other biomolecules. After assembling particles onto DNA we have been able to cleave the molecule into smaller fragments using restriction enzymes. Using ligase enzymes we have re-connected these fragments, coated with either gold or iron oxide, to form long one-dimensional arrangements of the two different types of nanoparticles on a single molecular guide. We have also created a sensitive magnetic field sensor by incorporating magnetic nanoparticle coated DNA strands with microfabricated electrodes. The IV characteristics of the aligned nanoparticles are dependant on the magnitude of an externally applied magnetic field. This transport phenomenon known as tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR) shows room temperature resistance of our devices over 80% for cobalt ferrite coated DNA when a field of 20 kOe is applied. In comparison, studies using two dimensional nanoparticle films of irox oxides xii only exhibit a 35% MR effect. Confinement into one dimension using the DNA guide produces a TMR mechanism which produces significant increases in magnetoresistance. This property can be utilized for applications in magnetic field sensing, data storage, and logic elements.

  8. Thermal plasma synthesis of coated iron cobalt-iron cobalt vanadium nanoparticles as precursors for compacted nanocrystalline bulk magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turgut, Zafer

    2000-12-01

    High temperature power applications such as starter and generator components of the aircraft engines require soft magnetic materials with optimum magnetic properties. Thus creep resistance and yield strength become important material properties due to the high temperatures and high rotational forces. FeCo based alloys are the only material that can meet desired magnetic properties but they exhibit poor creep resistance at temperatures up to 775 K. Eddy current losses, which are strong dependent on the materials' volume resistivity, are also one of the main concerns designing the aforementioned devices. Current technology utilizes stacks of ˜150 mum thick FeCo alloy laminates and limitations on dimensions arising from the eddy currents and skin depth issues. It is a well known fact that any improvement in mechanical properties through a secondary phase hardening will result in poor magnetic properties due to the domain wall pinning effect of the secondary phase. Engineering of fiber re-enforced structures to improve the mechanical properties also is not feasible due to the dimensions of the material. This indicates that any improvement on mechanical properties will interfere with the magnetic performance of the system. Coated nanoparticles eventually compacted in a bulk form, may offer a solution to poor mechanical properties thus magnetic properties can be further improved, i.e. lower coercivities and higher permeabilities, by tailoring the grain sizes to be smaller than the magnetic exchange length, Lex . Presence of a highly resistive coating phase can also reduce the eddy current losses and ease the limitations on the materials thickness. Oxide and carbon coated FeCo and FeCoV nanoparticles were synthesized through thermal plasma processing as precursors for the compacted bulk magnets. Their densification characteristics as well as the magnetic, structural and microstructural properties were studied before and after compaction. A hot isostatic pressing (HIP

  9. The effect of two novel amino acid-coated magnetic nanoparticles on survival in vascular endothelial cells, bone marrow stromal cells, and macrophages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qinghua; Meng, Ning; Zhang, Yanru; Han, Lei; Su, Le; Zhao, Jing; Zhang, Shangli; Zhang, Yun; Zhao, Baoxiang; Miao, Junying

    2014-09-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have been popularly used in many fields. Recently, many kinds of MNPs are modified as new absorbents, which have attracted considerable attention and are promising to be applied in waste water. In our previous study, we synthesized two novel MNPs surface-coated with glycine or lysine, which could efficiently remove many anionic and cationic dyes under severe conditions. It should be considered that MNP residues in water may exert some side effects on human health. In the present study, we evaluated the potential nanotoxicity of MNPs in human endothelial cells, macrophages, and rat bone marrow stromal cells. The results showed that the two kinds of nanoparticles were consistently absorbed into the cell cytoplasm. The concentration of MNPs@Gly that could distinctly decrease survival was 15 μg/ml in human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) or bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) and 10 μg/ml in macrophages. While the concentration of MNPs@Lys that obviously reduced viability was 15 μg/ml in HUVECs or macrophages and 50 μg/ml in BMSCs. Furthermore, cell nucleus staining and cell integrity assay indicated that the nanoparticles induced cell apoptosis, but not necrosis even at a high concentration. Altogether, these data suggest that the amino acid-coated magnetic nanoparticles exert relatively high cytotoxicity. By contrast, lysine-coated magnetic nanoparticles are more secure than glycine-coated magnetic nanoparticles.

  10. Polymer-Coated Magnetic Nanoparticles for Curcumin Delivery to Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Mancarella, Serena; Greco, Valentina; Baldassarre, Francesca; Vergara, Daniele; Maffia, Michele; Leporatti, Stefano

    2015-10-01

    The new goal of anticancer agent research is the screening of natural origin drugs with lower systemic adverse effects than synthetic compounds. Here, we focus on curcumin, an important polyphenolic pigment classically used as spice in the Indian cuisine. The molecule has high pleiotropic activities including strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. However, its clinical potential is limited due its low solubility and bioavailability. We have developed a layer by layer functionalization of Fe3 O4 nanoparticles (nano-Fe3 O4 ) by coating biodegradable polyelectrolyte multilayers such as Dextran (DXS) and Poly(l-lysine) (PLL). Physico-chemical studies were performed to obtain a high upload of curcumin in Fe3 O4 nanoparticles. Nano-Fe3 O4 were then tested against an ovarian cancer cell line, SKOV-3, to demonstrate their therapeutic efficacy. PMID:26085082

  11. Synthesis, Magnetic Properties, Map Images, and Water Proton Relaxivities of D-Glucuronic Acid Coated Ln2O3 Nanoparticles (Ln = Ho and Er).

    PubMed

    Kattel, Krishna; Kim, Cho Rong; Xu, Wenlong; Kim, Tae Jeong; Park, Jang Woo; Chang, Yongmin; Lee, Gang Ho

    2015-09-01

    T2 MRI contrast agents cannot be synthesized by using molecules but nanoparticles because appreciable magnetic moments at room temperature are needed. Recently, some of lanthanide (Ln) oxide nanoparticles have shown decent magnetic moments at room temperature and even at ultrasmall particle diameters. In this study, we explored D-glucuronic acid coated Ln2O3 nanoparticles (Ln = Ho and Er) with ultrasmall particle diameters. They showed decent magnetic moments at room temperature and as a result, appreciable transverse water proton relaxivities (r2s) at 1.5 tesla MR field. Clear dose-dependent contrast enhancements in R2 map images were observed in both samples. These results showed that D-glucuronic acid coated Ln2O3 nanoparticles (Ln = Ho and Er) would be potential T2 MRI contrast agents at high MR fields. PMID:26716328

  12. Morphological Analysis of Reticuloendothelial System in Capuchin Monkeys (Sapajus spp.) after Meso-2,3-Dimercaptosuccinic Acid (DMSA) Coated Magnetic Nanoparticles Administration

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues da Silva, Jaqueline; Tomaz, Carlos; Tavares, Maria Clotilde; Pereira Garcia, Monica; Nair Báo, Sônia; Paulino Lozzi, Silene; Bentes de Azevedo, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles can be used for numerous in vitro and in vivo applications. However, since uptake by the reticuloendothelial system represents an obstacle for the achievement of nanoparticle diagnostic and therapeutic goals, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the uptake of dimercaptosuccinic acid coated magnetic nanoparticles by reticuloendothelial system phagocytic cells present in lymph nodes, spleen, and liver tissue and how the presence of these particles could have an impact on the morphology of these organs in capuchin monkeys (Sapajus spp.). Animals were intravenously injected with dimercaptosuccinic acid coated magnetic nanoparticles and euthanized 12 hours and 90 days post-injection. Organs were processed by transmission electron microscopy and histological techniques. Samples of spleen and lymph nodes showed no morphological changes. Nevertheless, liver samples collected 90 days post-administration showed slight morphological alteration in space of Disse. Moreover, morphometrical analysis of hepatic mitochondria was performed, suggesting a clear positive correlation between mitochondrial area and dimercaptosuccinic acid coated magnetic nanoparticles administration time. The present results are directly relevant to current safety considerations in clinical diagnostic and therapeutic uses of magnetic nanoparticles. PMID:26559061

  13. Rapid microwave-assisted synthesis of PVP-coated ultrasmall gadolinium oxide nanoparticles for magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vahdatkhah, Parisa; Madaah Hosseini, Hamid Reza; Khodaei, Azin; Montazerabadi, Ali Reza; Irajirad, Rasoul; Oghabian, Mohamad Ali; Delavari H., Hamid

    2015-05-01

    Synthesis of polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) coated ultrasmall Gd2O3 nanoparticles (NPs) with enhanced T1-weighted signal intensity and r2/r1 ratio close to unity is performed by a microwave-assisted polyol process. PVP coated Gd2O3NPs with spherical shape and uniform size of 2.5 ± 0.5 nm have been synthesized below 5 min and structure and morphology confirmed by HRTEM, XRD and FTIR. The longitudinal (r1) and transversal relaxation (r2) of Gd2O3NPs is measured by a 3 T MRI scanner. The results showed considerable increasing of relaxivity for Gd2O3NPs in comparison to gadolinium chelates which are commonly used for clinical magnetic resonance imaging. In addition, a mechanism for Gd2O3NPs formation and in situ surface modification of PVP-grafted Gd2O3NPs is proposed.

  14. Leach-proof magnetic thrombolytic nanoparticles and coatings of enhanced activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drozdov, Andrey S.; Vinogradov, Vasiliy V.; Dudanov, Ivan P.; Vinogradov, Vladimir V.

    2016-06-01

    Despite the fact that magnetic thrombolytic composites is an emerging area, all known so far systems are based on the similar mechanism of action: thrombolytic enzyme releases from the magnetic carrier leaving non-active matrix, thus making the whole system active only for a limited period of time. Such systems often have very complex structure organization and composition, consisting of materials not approved for parenteral injection, making them poor candidates for real clinical trials and implementation. Here we report, for the first time, the production of thrombolytic magnetic composite material with non-releasing behavior and prolonged action. Obtained composite shows good thrombolytic activity, consists of fully biocompatible materials and could be applied as infinitely active thrombolytic coatings or magnetically-targetable thrombolytic agents.

  15. Leach-proof magnetic thrombolytic nanoparticles and coatings of enhanced activity

    PubMed Central

    Drozdov, Andrey S.; Vinogradov, Vasiliy V.; Dudanov, Ivan P.; Vinogradov, Vladimir V.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the fact that magnetic thrombolytic composites is an emerging area, all known so far systems are based on the similar mechanism of action: thrombolytic enzyme releases from the magnetic carrier leaving non-active matrix, thus making the whole system active only for a limited period of time. Such systems often have very complex structure organization and composition, consisting of materials not approved for parenteral injection, making them poor candidates for real clinical trials and implementation. Here we report, for the first time, the production of thrombolytic magnetic composite material with non-releasing behavior and prolonged action. Obtained composite shows good thrombolytic activity, consists of fully biocompatible materials and could be applied as infinitely active thrombolytic coatings or magnetically-targetable thrombolytic agents. PMID:27321930

  16. Magnetic removal of Entamoeba cysts from water using chitosan oligosaccharide-coated iron oxide nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Sudeep; Arora, Vikas; Jadaun, Alka; Kumar, Jitender; Singh, Nishant; Jain, Vinod Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Amebiasis, a major health problem in developing countries, is the second most common cause of death due to parasitic infection. Amebiasis is usually transmitted by the ingestion of Entamoeba histolytica cysts through oral–fecal route. Herein, we report on the use of chitosan oligosaccharide-functionalized iron oxide nanoparticles for efficient capture and removal of pathogenic protozoan cysts under the influence of an external magnetic field. These nanoparticles were synthesized through a chemical synthesis process. The synthesized particles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and zeta potential analysis. The particles were found to be well dispersed and uniform in size. The capture and removal of pathogenic cysts were demonstrated by fluorescent microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Three-dimensional modeling of various biochemical components of cyst walls, and thereafter, flexible docking studies demonstrate the probable interaction mechanism of nanoparticles with various components of E. histolytica cyst walls. Results of the present study suggest that E. histolytica cysts can be efficiently captured and removed from contaminated aqueous systems through the application of synthesized nanoparticles. PMID:26261417

  17. Microgel coating of magnetic nanoparticles via bienzyme-mediated free-radical polymerization for colorimetric detection of glucose.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qing; Wang, Xia; Liao, Chuanan; Wei, Qingcong; Wang, Qigang

    2015-10-28

    This study describes a new strategy for the fabrication of magnetic core-shell microgels by free-radical polymerization triggered by the cascade reaction of glucose oxidase (GOx) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP). The mild polymerization around the interface of the magnetic nanoparticles permits the mild coating of the microgel layer with excellent characteristics for various applications in biocatalysis and medical diagnostics, as well as in clinical fields. The immobilized bienzyme within the microgel has a largely retained activity relative to the non-immobilized one. The confining effect of the microgel and the well designed distance between the two enzymes can benefit the diffusion of intermediates to the HRP active site. The final microgels can be incontestably employed as sensitive biosensors for colorimetric glucose detection. PMID:26412343

  18. Self-Assembly of an Optically-Responsive Polydiacetylene-Coating on Iron Ferrite Magnetic Nanoparticles for Tumor Detection and Targeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Vivian

    Nanoparticles are a promising diagnostic agent with applications in tumor imaging and targeted cancer treatment. They can offer multifunctional properties by combining imaging methods to improve cancer diagnosis, treatment, and disease monitoring. Two such complementary tools are magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and fluorescence imaging. In this thesis, a dual solvent exchange approach was chosen to facilitate the self-assembly of amphiphilic diacetylene monomers onto hydrophobic iron ferrite magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). Various concentrations of the diacetylene monomers, 10,12-pentacosadiynoic acid (PCDA) and 10,12-heptacosadiynoic acid (HCDA), were coated onto ˜14 nm iron ferrite MNPs. The diacetylene monomer coating were cross-linked to a stable blue colored polydiacetylene (PDA) coating after applying UV light. The resulting PDA-MNP hybrid displayed characteristic chromogenic and fluorogenic in response to thermal stress. This novel multifunctional nanoparticle system holds exciting potential for dual-modality diagnostics applications.

  19. Microgel coating of magnetic nanoparticles via bienzyme-mediated free-radical polymerization for colorimetric detection of glucose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qing; Wang, Xia; Liao, Chuanan; Wei, Qingcong; Wang, Qigang

    2015-10-01

    This study describes a new strategy for the fabrication of magnetic core-shell microgels by free-radical polymerization triggered by the cascade reaction of glucose oxidase (GOx) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP). The mild polymerization around the interface of the magnetic nanoparticles permits the mild coating of the microgel layer with excellent characteristics for various applications in biocatalysis and medical diagnostics, as well as in clinical fields. The immobilized bienzyme within the microgel has a largely retained activity relative to the non-immobilized one. The confining effect of the microgel and the well designed distance between the two enzymes can benefit the diffusion of intermediates to the HRP active site. The final microgels can be incontestably employed as sensitive biosensors for colorimetric glucose detection.This study describes a new strategy for the fabrication of magnetic core-shell microgels by free-radical polymerization triggered by the cascade reaction of glucose oxidase (GOx) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP). The mild polymerization around the interface of the magnetic nanoparticles permits the mild coating of the microgel layer with excellent characteristics for various applications in biocatalysis and medical diagnostics, as well as in clinical fields. The immobilized bienzyme within the microgel has a largely retained activity relative to the non-immobilized one. The confining effect of the microgel and the well designed distance between the two enzymes can benefit the diffusion of intermediates to the HRP active site. The final microgels can be incontestably employed as sensitive biosensors for colorimetric glucose detection. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details and ESI figures. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr05716g

  20. The effect of magnetically induced linear aggregates on proton transverse relaxation rates of aqueous suspensions of polymer coated magnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saville, Steven L.; Woodward, Robert C.; House, Michael J.; Tokarev, Alexander; Hammers, Jacob; Qi, Bin; Shaw, Jeremy; Saunders, Martin; Varsani, Rahi R.; St Pierre, Tim G.; Mefford, O. Thompson

    2013-02-01

    It has been recently reported that for some suspensions of magnetic nanoparticles the transverse proton relaxation rate, R2, is dependent on the time that the sample is exposed to an applied magnetic field. This time dependence has been linked to the formation of linear aggregates or chains in an applied magnetic field via numerical modeling. It is widely known that chain formation occurs in more concentrated ferrofluids systems and that this has an affect on the ferrofluid properties. In this work we examine the relationships between colloidal stability, the formation of these linear structures, and changes observed in the proton transverse relaxation rate of aqueous suspensions of magnetic particles. A series of iron oxide nanoparticles with varying stabilizing ligand brush lengths were synthesized. These systems were characterized with dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, dark-field optical microscopy, and proton transverse relaxation rate measurements. The dark field optical microscopy and R2 measurements were made in similar magnetic fields over the same time scale so as to correlate the reduction of the transverse relaxivity with the formation of linear aggregates. Our results indicate that varying the ligand length has a direct effect on the colloidal arrangement of the system in a magnetic field, producing differences in the rate and size of chain formation, and hence systematic changes in transverse relaxation rates over time. With increasing ligand brush length, attractive inter-particle interactions are reduced, which results in slower aggregate formation and shorter linear aggregate length. These results have implications for the stabilization, characterization and potentially the toxicity of magnetic nanoparticle systems used in biomedical applications.It has been recently reported that for some suspensions of magnetic nanoparticles the transverse proton relaxation rate, R2, is dependent on the time that the sample is exposed to

  1. The effect of magnetically induced linear aggregates on proton transverse relaxation rates of aqueous suspensions of polymer coated magnetic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Saville, Steven L; Woodward, Robert C; House, Michael J; Tokarev, Alexander; Hammers, Jacob; Qi, Bin; Shaw, Jeremy; Saunders, Martin; Varsani, Rahi R; St Pierre, Tim G; Mefford, O Thompson

    2013-03-01

    It has been recently reported that for some suspensions of magnetic nanoparticles the transverse proton relaxation rate, R(2), is dependent on the time that the sample is exposed to an applied magnetic field. This time dependence has been linked to the formation of linear aggregates or chains in an applied magnetic field via numerical modeling. It is widely known that chain formation occurs in more concentrated ferrofluids systems and that this has an affect on the ferrofluid properties. In this work we examine the relationships between colloidal stability, the formation of these linear structures, and changes observed in the proton transverse relaxation rate of aqueous suspensions of magnetic particles. A series of iron oxide nanoparticles with varying stabilizing ligand brush lengths were synthesized. These systems were characterized with dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, dark-field optical microscopy, and proton transverse relaxation rate measurements. The dark field optical microscopy and R(2) measurements were made in similar magnetic fields over the same time scale so as to correlate the reduction of the transverse relaxivity with the formation of linear aggregates. Our results indicate that varying the ligand length has a direct effect on the colloidal arrangement of the system in a magnetic field, producing differences in the rate and size of chain formation, and hence systematic changes in transverse relaxation rates over time. With increasing ligand brush length, attractive inter-particle interactions are reduced, which results in slower aggregate formation and shorter linear aggregate length. These results have implications for the stabilization, characterization and potentially the toxicity of magnetic nanoparticle systems used in biomedical applications. PMID:23389324

  2. Tuning surface coatings of optimized magnetite nanoparticle tracers for in vivo Magnetic Particle Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Khandhar, Amit P.; Ferguson, R. Matthew; Arami, Hamed; Kemp, Scott J.; Krishnan, Kannan M.

    2014-01-01

    Surface coatings are important components of Magnetic Particle Imaging (MPI) tracers – they preserve their key properties responsible for optimum tracer performance in physiological environments. In vivo, surface coatings form a physical barrier between the hydrophobic SPION cores and the physiological environment, and their design dictates the blood half-life and biodistribution of MPI tracers. Here we show the effect of tuning poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-based surface coatings on both in vitro and in vivo (mouse model) MPI performance of SPIONs. Our results showed that varying PEG molecular weight had a profound impact on colloidal stability, characterized using Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), and the m’(H) response of SPIONs, measured in a 25 kHz/20 mTμ0−1max Magnetic Particle Spectrometer (MPS). Increasing PEG molecular weight from 5 kDa to 20 kDa preserved colloidal stability and m’(H) response of ~25 nm SPIONs – the optimum core diameter for MPI – in serum-rich cell culture medium for up to 24 hours. Furthermore, we compared the in vivo circulation time of SPIONs as a function of hydrodynamic diameter and showed that clustered SPIONs can adversely affect blood half-life; critically, SPIONs with clusters had 5 times shorter blood half-life than individually coated SPIONs. We anticipate that the development of MPI SPION tracers with long blood half-lives have potential not only in vascular imaging applications, but also enable opportunities in molecular targeting and imaging – a critical step towards early cancer detection using the new MPI modality. PMID:25904816

  3. RGDS-functionalized polyethylene glycol hydrogel-coated magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles enhance specific intracellular uptake by HeLa cells

    PubMed Central

    Nazli, Caner; Ergenc, Tugba Ipek; Yar, Yasemin; Acar, Havva Yagci; Kizilel, Seda

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop thin, biocompatible, and biofunctional hydrogel-coated small-sized nanoparticles that exhibit favorable stability, viability, and specific cellular uptake. This article reports the coating of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MIONPs) with covalently cross-linked biofunctional polyethylene glycol (PEG) hydrogel. Silanized MIONPs were derivatized with eosin Y, and the covalently cross-linked biofunctional PEG hydrogel coating was achieved via surface-initiated photopolymerization of PEG diacrylate in aqueous solution. The thickness of the PEG hydrogel coating, between 23 and 126 nm, was tuned with laser exposure time. PEG hydrogel-coated MIONPs were further functionalized with the fibronectin-derived arginine-glycine-aspartic acid-serine (RGDS) sequence, in order to achieve a biofunctional PEG hydrogel layer around the nanoparticles. RGDS-bound PEG hydrogel-coated MIONPs showed a 17-fold higher uptake by the human cervical cancer HeLa cell line than that of amine-coated MIONPs. This novel method allows for the coating of MIONPs with nano-thin biofunctional hydrogel layers that may prevent undesirable cell and protein adhesion and may allow for cellular uptake in target tissues in a specific manner. These findings indicate that the further biofunctional PEG hydrogel coating of MIONPs is a promising platform for enhanced specific cell targeting in biomedical imaging and cancer therapy. PMID:22619531

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging of folic acid-coated magnetite nanoparticles reflects tissue biodistribution of long-acting antiretroviral therapy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tianyuzi; Gendelman, Howard E; Zhang, Gang; Puligujja, Pavan; McMillan, JoEllyn M; Bronich, Tatiana K; Edagwa, Benson; Liu, Xin-Ming; Boska, Michael D

    2015-01-01

    Regimen adherence, systemic toxicities, and limited drug penetrance to viral reservoirs are obstacles limiting the effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Our laboratory’s development of the monocyte-macrophage-targeted long-acting nanoformulated ART (nanoART) carriage provides a novel opportunity to simplify drug-dosing regimens. Progress has nonetheless been slowed by cumbersome, but required, pharmacokinetic (PK), pharmacodynamics, and biodistribution testing. To this end, we developed a small magnetite ART (SMART) nanoparticle platform to assess antiretroviral drug tissue biodistribution and PK using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. Herein, we have taken this technique a significant step further by determining nanoART PK with folic acid (FA) decorated magnetite (ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide [USPIO]) particles and by using SMART particles. FA nanoparticles enhanced the entry and particle retention to the reticuloendothelial system over nondecorated polymers after systemic administration into mice. These data were seen by MRI testing and validated by comparison with SMART particles and direct evaluation of tissue drug levels after nanoART. The development of alendronate (ALN)-coated magnetite thus serves as a rapid initial screen for the ability of targeting ligands to enhance nanoparticle-antiretroviral drug biodistribution, underscoring the value of decorated magnetite particles as a theranostic tool for improved drug delivery. PMID:26082630

  5. Silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles impair proteasome activity and increase the formation of cytoplasmic inclusion bodies in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Phukan, Geetika; Shin, Tae Hwan; Shim, Jeom Soon; Paik, Man Jeong; Lee, Jin-Kyu; Choi, Sangdun; Kim, Yong Man; Kang, Seong Ho; Kim, Hyung Sik; Kang, Yup; Lee, Soo Hwan; Mouradian, M. Maral; Lee, Gwang

    2016-01-01

    The potential toxicity of nanoparticles, particularly to neurons, is a major concern. In this study, we assessed the cytotoxicity of silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles containing rhodamine B isothiocyanate dye (MNPs@SiO2(RITC)) in HEK293 cells, SH-SY5Y cells, and rat primary cortical and dopaminergic neurons. In cells treated with 1.0 μg/μl MNPs@SiO2(RITC), the expression of several genes related to the proteasome pathway was altered, and proteasome activity was significantly reduced, compared with control and with 0.1 μg/μl MNPs@SiO2(RITC)-treated cells. Due to the reduction of proteasome activity, formation of cytoplasmic inclusions increased significantly in HEK293 cells over-expressing the α–synuclein interacting protein synphilin-1 as well as in primary cortical and dopaminergic neurons. Primary neurons, particularly dopaminergic neurons, were more vulnerable to MNPs@SiO2(RITC) than SH-SY5Y cells. Cellular polyamines, which are associated with protein aggregation, were significantly altered in SH-SY5Y cells treated with MNPs@SiO2(RITC). These findings highlight the mechanisms of neurotoxicity incurred by nanoparticles. PMID:27378605

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging of glioblastoma using aptamer conjugated magnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Bongjune; Yang, Jaemoon; Hwang, Myeonghwan; Suh, Jin-Suck; Huh, Yong-Min; Haam, Seungjoo

    2012-10-01

    Here we introduce a new class of smart imaging probes hybridizing polysorbate 80 coated-magnetic nanoparticles with vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2)-targetable aptamer for specific magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of angiogenesis from glioblastoma.

  7. Water-dispersible sugar-coated iron oxide nanoparticles. An evaluation of their relaxometric and magnetic hyperthermia properties.

    PubMed

    Lartigue, Lenaic; Innocenti, Claudia; Kalaivani, Thangavel; Awwad, Azzam; Sanchez Duque, Maria del Mar; Guari, Yannick; Larionova, Joulia; Guérin, Christian; Montero, Jean-Louis Georges; Barragan-Montero, Véronique; Arosio, Paolo; Lascialfari, Alessandro; Gatteschi, Dante; Sangregorio, Claudio

    2011-07-13

    Synthesis of functionalized magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) for biomedical applications represents a current challenge. In this paper we present the synthesis and characterization of water-dispersible sugar-coated iron oxide NPs specifically designed as magnetic fluid hyperthermia heat mediators and negative contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging. In particular, the influence of the inorganic core size was investigated. To this end, iron oxide NPs with average size in the range of 4-35 nm were prepared by thermal decomposition of molecular precursors and then coated with organic ligands bearing a phosphonate group on one side and rhamnose, mannose, or ribose moieties on the other side. In this way a strong anchorage of the organic ligand on the inorganic surface was simply realized by ligand exchange, due to covalent bonding between the Fe(3+) atom and the phosphonate group. These synthesized nanoobjects can be fully dispersed in water forming colloids that are stable over very long periods. Mannose, ribose, and rhamnose were chosen to test the versatility of the method and also because these carbohydrates, in particular rhamnose, which is a substrate of skin lectin, confer targeting properties to the nanosystems. The magnetic, hyperthermal, and relaxometric properties of all the synthesized samples were investigated. Iron oxide NPs of ca. 16-18 nm were found to represent an efficient bifunctional targeting system for theranostic applications, as they have very good transverse relaxivity (three times larger than the best currently available commercial products) and large heat release upon application of radio frequency (RF) electromagnetic radiation with amplitude and frequency close to the human tolerance limit. The results have been rationalized on the basis of the magnetic properties of the investigated samples. PMID:21604803

  8. A disposable glucose biosensor based on drop-coating of screen-printed carbon electrodes with magnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Bo-Wen; Chen, Wen-Chang

    2006-09-01

    Magnetic Fe 3O 4 nanoparticles (Nano-Fe 3O 4) were prepared by co-precipitation method and a disposable glucose biosensor was fabricated by drop coating of ferricyanide (Ferri)-Nano-Fe 3O 4 mixture onto the surface of screen-printed carbon electrodes (SPCEs), and then by layering-on glucose oxidase (GOD). The electrochemical characteristics of modified SPCEs were analyzed by cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and chronoamperometry (CA). The glucose biosensors exhibit a relatively fast response (<15 s) and high sensitivity (ca. 1.74 μA mM -1) with a wide linear range up to 33.3 mM (600 mg dL -1) of glucose.

  9. Trastuzumab-Conjugated Liposome-Coated Fluorescent Magnetic Nanoparticles to Target Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Mijung; Yoon, Young Il; Kwon, Yong Soo; Yoon, Tae-Jong; Lee, Hak Jong; Hwang, Sung Il; Yun, Bo La

    2014-01-01

    Objective To synthesize mesoporous silica-core-shell magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) encapsulated by liposomes (Lipo [MNP@m-SiO2]) in order to enhance their stability, allow them to be used in any buffer solution, and to produce trastuzumab-conjugated (Lipo[MNP@m-SiO2]-Her2Ab) nanoparticles to be utilized in vitro for the targeting of breast cancer. Materials and Methods The physiochemical characteristics of Lipo[MNP@m-SiO2] were assessed in terms of size, morphological features, and in vitro safety. The multimodal imaging properties of the organic dye incorporated into Lipo[MNP@m-SiO2] were assessed with both in vitro fluorescence and MR imaging. The specific targeting ability of trastuzumab (Her2/neu antibody, Herceptin®)-conjugated Lipo[MNP@m-SiO2] for Her2/neu-positive breast cancer cells was also evaluated with fluorescence and MR imaging. Results We obtained uniformly-sized and evenly distributed Lipo[MNP@m-SiO2] that demonstrated biological stability, while not disrupting cell viability. Her2/neu-positive breast cancer cell targeting by trastuzumab-conjugated Lipo[MNP@m-SiO2] was observed by in vitro fluorescence and MR imaging. Conclusion Trastuzumab-conjugated Lipo[MNP@m-SiO2] is a potential treatment tool for targeted drug delivery in Her2/neu-positive breast cancer. PMID:25053899

  10. Development and characterization of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles with a cisplatin-bearing polymer coating for targeted drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Unterweger, Harald; Tietze, Rainer; Janko, Christina; Zaloga, Jan; Lyer, Stefan; Dürr, Stephan; Taccardi, Nicola; Goudouri, Ourania-Menti; Hoppe, Alexander; Eberbeck, Dietmar; Schubert, Dirk W; Boccaccini, Aldo R; Alexiou, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    A highly selective and efficient cancer therapy can be achieved using magnetically directed superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) bearing a sufficient amount of the therapeutic agent. In this project, SPIONs with a dextran and cisplatin-bearing hyaluronic acid coating were successfully synthesized as a novel cisplatin drug delivery system. Transmission electron microscopy images as well as X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the individual magnetite particles were around 4.5 nm in size and monocrystalline. The small crystallite sizes led to the superparamagnetic behavior of the particles, which was exemplified in their magnetization curves, acquired using superconducting quantum interference device measurements. Hyaluronic acid was bound to the initially dextran-coated SPIONs by esterification. The resulting amide bond linkage was verified using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The additional polymer layer increased the vehicle size from 22 nm to 56 nm, with a hyaluronic acid to dextran to magnetite weight ratio of 51:29:20. A maximum payload of 330 μg cisplatin/mL nanoparticle suspension was achieved, thus the particle size was further increased to around 77 nm with a zeta potential of −45 mV. No signs of particle precipitation were observed over a period of at least 8 weeks. Analysis of drug-release kinetics using the dialysis tube method revealed that these were driven by inverse ligand substitution and diffusion through the polymer shell as well as enzymatic degradation of hyaluronic acid. The biological activity of the particles was investigated in a nonadherent Jurkat cell line using flow cytometry. Further, cell viability and proliferation was examined in an adherent PC-3 cell line using xCELLigence analysis. Both tests demonstrated that particles without cisplatin were biocompatible with these cells, whereas particles with the drug induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner, with secondary necrosis after prolonged incubation

  11. Low toxicity and long circulation time of Polyampholyte-coated magnetic nanoparticles for blood pool contrast agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qi; Shen, Ming; Zhao, Tao; Xu, Yuanyuan; Lin, Jiang; Duan, Yourong; Gu, Hongchen

    2015-01-01

    Polyampholyte-coated (poly(acrylic acid) (PAA)-co-3-(diethylamino)-propylamine (DEAPA)) magnetite nanoparticles (PAMNPs) have been prepared as contrasting agent used in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Excellent biocompatibility is required for contrasting agents used in high-resolution magnetic resonance angiography. To evaluate the biocompatibility of PAMNPs, some experiments have been conducted. The hemolysis, plasma recalcification, dynamic blood clotting, prothrombin time, inflammatory cytokine release and complement system activation assays were carried out to investigate the hemocompatibility. To evaluate the toxicity to vessel, MTT test and vascular irritation tests were conducted. Tissue toxicity test was also performed to investigate the biocompability in vivo. We also looked into the biodistribution. The results showed that PAMNPs at the working concentration (0.138 mM) present similar hemocompatibility with negative control, thus have no significant effect to vessels. PAMNPs were mainly distributed in the liver and the blood. The circulation time in blood was considerably long, with the half-time of 3.77 h in plasma. This property is advantageous for PAMNPs' use in angiography. PAMNPs could be metabolized rapidly in mice and were not observed to cause any toxic or adverse effect. In short, these results suggest that the PAMNPs have great potential to serve as safe contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

  12. Low toxicity and long circulation time of Polyampholyte-coated magnetic nanoparticles for blood pool contrast agents

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qi; Shen, Ming; Zhao, Tao; Xu, Yuanyuan; Lin, Jiang; Duan, Yourong; Gu, Hongchen

    2015-01-01

    Polyampholyte-coated (poly(acrylic acid) (PAA)-co-3-(diethylamino)-propylamine (DEAPA)) magnetite nanoparticles (PAMNPs) have been prepared as contrasting agent used in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Excellent biocompatibility is required for contrasting agents used in high-resolution magnetic resonance angiography. To evaluate the biocompatibility of PAMNPs, some experiments have been conducted. The hemolysis, plasma recalcification, dynamic blood clotting, prothrombin time, inflammatory cytokine release and complement system activation assays were carried out to investigate the hemocompatibility. To evaluate the toxicity to vessel, MTT test and vascular irritation tests were conducted. Tissue toxicity test was also performed to investigate the biocompability in vivo. We also looked into the biodistribution. The results showed that PAMNPs at the working concentration (0.138 mM) present similar hemocompatibility with negative control, thus have no significant effect to vessels. PAMNPs were mainly distributed in the liver and the blood. The circulation time in blood was considerably long, with the half-time of 3.77 h in plasma. This property is advantageous for PAMNPs' use in angiography. PAMNPs could be metabolized rapidly in mice and were not observed to cause any toxic or adverse effect. In short, these results suggest that the PAMNPs have great potential to serve as safe contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). PMID:25585607

  13. One pot synthesis of water-dispersible dehydroascorbic acid coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles under atmospheric air: blood cell compatibility and enhanced magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Hariom; Paul, P; Kumar, Naresh; Baxi, Seema; Das, Dipti P

    2014-09-15

    Water dispersible and biologically important molecule dehydroascorbic acid (DHA, capable to cross the blood brain barrier) coated Fe3O4 superparamagnetic nanoparticles having an average size of ∼6 nm were synthesized through one pot aqueous coprecipitation method under atmospheric air. An antioxidant ascorbic acid (AA) used in the synthesis oxidized itself to dehydroascorbic acid (DHA) to consume dissolved or available oxygen in reaction mixture which died away the oxidative impact of atmospheric air and formed DHA encapsulated the Fe3O4 nanoparticles which stabilized the Fe3O4 nanoparticles and significantly enhanced their colloidal solubility in water. Fe3O4 phase, superparamagnetic property, DHA coating and stable colloidal solubility in water were confirmed by means of XPS, VSM, IR and zeta potential analysis respectively. T1, T2 and T2(∗) weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and corresponding relaxivity (r1=0.416, r2=50.28 and r2(∗)=123.65 mM(-1) and r2/r1=120.86, r2(∗)r1=297.23) of colloidally dispersed DHA-coated nanoparticle water phantom revealed a strong contrast enhancement in T2 and T2(∗) weighted images. The compatibility of DHA-coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles toward human blood cells was examined by means of cell counting and cell morphological analysis with the use of optical microscope and scanning electron microscope imaging. PMID:24956575

  14. Oleate Coated Magnetic Cores Based on Magnetite, Zn Ferrite and Co Ferrite Nanoparticles - Preparation, Physical Characterization and Biological Impact on Helianthus Annuus Photosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Ursache-Oprisan, Manuela; Foca-nici, Ecaterina; Cirlescu, Aurelian; Caltun, Ovidiu; Creanga, Dorina

    2010-12-02

    Sodium oleate was used as coating shell for magnetite, Zn ferrite and Co ferrite powders to stabilize them in the form of aqueous magnetic suspensions. The physical characterization was carried out by applying X-ray diffraction and magnetization measurements. Both crystallite size and magnetic core diameter ranged between 7 and 11 nm. The influence of magnetic nanoparticle suspensions (corresponding to magnetic nanoparticle levels of 10{sup -14}-10{sup -15}/cm{sup 3}) on sunflower seedlings was studied considering the changes in the photosynthesis pigment levels. Similar responses were obtained for magnetite and cobalt ferrite nanoparticle treatment consisting in the apparent inhibition of chlorophyll biosynthesis while for zinc ferrite nanoparticles some concentrations seemed to have stimulatory effects on the chlorophylls as well as on the carotene levels. But the chlorophyll ratio was diminished in the case of all three types of magnetic nanoparticles meaning their slight negative effect on the light harvesting complex II (LHC II) from the chloroplast membranes and consequently on the photosynthesis efficiency.

  15. High MRI performance fluorescent mesoporous silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles for tracking neural progenitor cells in an ischemic mouse model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lu; Wang, Yao; Tang, Yaohui; Jiao, Zheng; Xie, Chengying; Zhang, Haijiao; Gu, Ping; Wei, Xunbin; Yang, Guo-Yuan; Gu, Hongchen; Zhang, Chunfu

    2013-05-01

    Multifunctional probes with high MRI sensitivity and high efficiency for cell labeling are desirable for MR cell imaging. Herein, we have fabricated fluorescent mesoporous silica-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (fmSiO4@SPIONs) for neural progenitor cell (C17.2) MR imaging. FmSiO4@SPIONs were discrete and uniform in size, and had a clear core-shell structure. The magnetic core size was about 10 nm and the fluorescent mesoporous silica coating layer was around 20 nm. Compared with fluorescent dense silica-coated SPIONs (fdSiO4@SPIONs) with a similar size, fmSiO4@SPIONs demonstrated higher MR sensitivity and cell labeling efficiency. When implanted into the right hemisphere of stroke mice, contralateral to the ischemic territory, a small amount of labeled cells were able to be tracked migrating to the lesion sites using a clinical MRI scanner (3 T). More impressively, even when administered intravenously, the labeled cells could also be monitored homing to the ischemic area. MRI observations were corroborated by histological studies of the brain tissues. Our study demonstrated that fmSiO4@SPIONs are highly effective for cell imaging and hold great promise for MRI cell tracking in future.Multifunctional probes with high MRI sensitivity and high efficiency for cell labeling are desirable for MR cell imaging. Herein, we have fabricated fluorescent mesoporous silica-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (fmSiO4@SPIONs) for neural progenitor cell (C17.2) MR imaging. FmSiO4@SPIONs were discrete and uniform in size, and had a clear core-shell structure. The magnetic core size was about 10 nm and the fluorescent mesoporous silica coating layer was around 20 nm. Compared with fluorescent dense silica-coated SPIONs (fdSiO4@SPIONs) with a similar size, fmSiO4@SPIONs demonstrated higher MR sensitivity and cell labeling efficiency. When implanted into the right hemisphere of stroke mice, contralateral to the ischemic territory, a small amount of

  16. Magnetic Nanoparticles in Non-magnetic CNTs and Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kayondo, Moses; Seifu, Dereje

    Magnetic nanoparticles were embedded in non-magnetic CNTs and graphene matrix to incorporate all the advantages and the unique properties of CNTs and graphene. Composites of CNTs and graphene with magnetic nanoparticles may offer new opportunities for a wide variety of potential applications such as magnetic data storage, magnetic force microscopy tip, electromagnetic interference shields, thermally conductive films, reinforced polymer composites, transparent electrodes for displays, solar cells, gas sensors, magnetic nanofluids, and magnetically guided drug delivery systems. Magnetic nanoparticles coated CNTs can also be used as an electrode in lithium ion battery to replace graphite because of the higher theoretical capacity. Graphene nanocomposites, coated with magnetic sensitive nanoparticles, have demonstrated enhanced magnetic property. We would like to acknowledge support by NSF-MRI-DMR-1337339.

  17. Pseudo-homogeneous immunoextraction of epitestosterone from human urine samples based on gold-coated magnetic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Shuang; Xu, Li; Cui, Yi-Ran; Deng, Qin-Pei; Wang, Wei; Chen, Hong-Xu; Zhang, Xin-Xiang

    2010-05-15

    A pseudo-homogeneous immunoextraction method based on gold-coated magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) for the specific extraction and quantitative analysis of epitestosterone (17alpha-hydroxy-4-androsten-3-one, abbreviated as "ET") from human urine samples by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) has been developed. Half-IgG of anti-ET monoclonal antibodies were covalently immobilized onto (Fe(3)O(4))(core)-Au(shell) (Fe(3)O(4)@Au) MNPs. An external magnetic field was applied to collect the MNPs which were then rinsed with distilled water followed by elution with absolute methanol to obtain ET as the analyte. The obtained extraction solution was analyzed by HPLC with UV detection (244nm) within 12min. The standard calibration curve for ET showed good linearity in the range of 20-200ngmL(-1) in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) solutions with acceptable accuracy and precision. Limit of detection for ET was 0.06ngmL(-1) due to an enrichment factor of 100-fold was achieved. The results obtained by the present method for spiked human urine samples were in agreement with those from indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunoadsorbent assays (ELISAs). The antibody-conjugated Fe(3)O(4)@Au MNPs are novel materials for immunoaffinity extraction. Compared with the conventional technique using immunoaffinity column, the method described here for sample pretreatment was fast, highly specific, and easy to operate. PMID:20298859

  18. Chitosan-coated magnetic nanoparticles prepared in one-step by precipitation in a high-aqueous phase content reverse microemulsion.

    PubMed

    Pineda, María Guadalupe; Torres, Silvia; López, Luis Valencia; Enríquez-Medrano, Francisco Javier; de León, Ramón Díaz; Fernández, Salvador; Saade, Hened; López, Raúl Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    Chitosan-coated magnetic nanoparticles (CMNP) were prepared in one-step by precipitation in a high-aqueous phase content reverse microemulsion in the presence of chitosan. The high-aqueous phase concentration led to productivities close to 0.49 g CMNP/100 g microemulsion; much higher than those characteristic of precipitation in reverse microemulsions for preparing magnetic nanoparticles. The obtained nanoparticles present a narrow particle size distribution with an average diameter of 4.5 nm; appearing to be formed of a single crystallite; furthermore they present superparamagnetism and high magnetization values; close to 49 emu/g. Characterization of CMNP suggests that chitosan is present as a non-homogeneous very thin layer; which explains the slight reduction in the magnetization value of CMNP in comparison with that of uncoated magnetic nanoparticles. The prepared nanoparticles show high heavy ion removal capability; as demonstrated by their use in the treatment of Pb2+ aqueous solutions; from which lead ions were completely removed within 10 min. PMID:24991759

  19. Plasmonic and silicon spherical nanoparticle antireflective coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baryshnikova, K. V.; Petrov, M. I.; Babicheva, V. E.; Belov, P. A.

    2016-03-01

    Over the last decade, plasmonic antireflecting nanostructures have been extensively studied to be utilized in various optical and optoelectronic systems such as lenses, solar cells, photodetectors, and others. The growing interest to all-dielectric photonics as an alternative optical technology along with plasmonics motivates us to compare antireflective properties of plasmonic and all-dielectric nanoparticle coatings based on silver and crystalline silicon respectively. Our simulation results for spherical nanoparticles array on top of amorphous silicon show that both silicon and silver coatings demonstrate strong antireflective properties in the visible spectral range. For the first time, we show that zero reflectance from the structure with silicon coatings originates from the destructive interference of electric- and magnetic-dipole responses of nanoparticle array with the wave reflected from the substrate, and we refer to this reflection suppression as substrate-mediated Kerker effect. We theoretically compare the silicon and silver coating effectiveness for the thin-film photovoltaic applications. Silver nanoparticles can be more efficient, enabling up to 30% increase of the overall absorbance in semiconductor layer. Nevertheless, silicon coatings allow up to 64% absorbance increase in the narrow band spectral range because of the substrate-mediated Kerker effect, and band position can be effectively tuned by varying the nanoparticles sizes.

  20. Plasmonic and silicon spherical nanoparticle antireflective coatings

    PubMed Central

    Baryshnikova, K. V.; Petrov, M. I.; Babicheva, V. E.; Belov, P. A.

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade, plasmonic antireflecting nanostructures have been extensively studied to be utilized in various optical and optoelectronic systems such as lenses, solar cells, photodetectors, and others. The growing interest to all-dielectric photonics as an alternative optical technology along with plasmonics motivates us to compare antireflective properties of plasmonic and all-dielectric nanoparticle coatings based on silver and crystalline silicon respectively. Our simulation results for spherical nanoparticles array on top of amorphous silicon show that both silicon and silver coatings demonstrate strong antireflective properties in the visible spectral range. For the first time, we show that zero reflectance from the structure with silicon coatings originates from the destructive interference of electric- and magnetic-dipole responses of nanoparticle array with the wave reflected from the substrate, and we refer to this reflection suppression as substrate-mediated Kerker effect. We theoretically compare the silicon and silver coating effectiveness for the thin-film photovoltaic applications. Silver nanoparticles can be more efficient, enabling up to 30% increase of the overall absorbance in semiconductor layer. Nevertheless, silicon coatings allow up to 64% absorbance increase in the narrow band spectral range because of the substrate-mediated Kerker effect, and band position can be effectively tuned by varying the nanoparticles sizes. PMID:26926602

  1. Plasmonic and silicon spherical nanoparticle antireflective coatings.

    PubMed

    Baryshnikova, K V; Petrov, M I; Babicheva, V E; Belov, P A

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade, plasmonic antireflecting nanostructures have been extensively studied to be utilized in various optical and optoelectronic systems such as lenses, solar cells, photodetectors, and others. The growing interest to all-dielectric photonics as an alternative optical technology along with plasmonics motivates us to compare antireflective properties of plasmonic and all-dielectric nanoparticle coatings based on silver and crystalline silicon respectively. Our simulation results for spherical nanoparticles array on top of amorphous silicon show that both silicon and silver coatings demonstrate strong antireflective properties in the visible spectral range. For the first time, we show that zero reflectance from the structure with silicon coatings originates from the destructive interference of electric- and magnetic-dipole responses of nanoparticle array with the wave reflected from the substrate, and we refer to this reflection suppression as substrate-mediated Kerker effect. We theoretically compare the silicon and silver coating effectiveness for the thin-film photovoltaic applications. Silver nanoparticles can be more efficient, enabling up to 30% increase of the overall absorbance in semiconductor layer. Nevertheless, silicon coatings allow up to 64% absorbance increase in the narrow band spectral range because of the substrate-mediated Kerker effect, and band position can be effectively tuned by varying the nanoparticles sizes. PMID:26926602

  2. Synthesis and characterization of functionalized magnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswal, Dipti; Peeples, Brianna N.; Spence, Destiny D.; Peeples, Caryn; Bell, Crystal N.; Pradhan, A. K.

    2012-04-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles have been used in a wide array of industrial and biomedical applications due to their unique properties at the nanoscale level. They are extensively used in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), magnetic hyperthermia treatment, drug delivery, and in assays for biological separations. Furthermore, superparamagnetic nanoparticles are of large interest for in vivo applications. However, these unmodified nanoparticles aggregate and consequently lose their superparamagnetic behaviors, due to high surface to volume ratio and strong dipole to dipole interaction. For these reasons, surface coating is necessary for the enhancement and effectiveness of magnetic nanoparticles to be used in various applications. In addition to providing increased stability to the nanoparticles in different solvents or media, stabilizers such as surfactants, organic/inorganic molecules, polymer and co-polymers are employed as surface coatings, which yield magnetically responsive systems. In this work we present the synthesis and magnetic characterization of Fe3O4 nanoparticles coated with 3-aminopropyltriethoxy silane (APS) and citric acid. The particles magnetic hysteresis was measured by a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer with an in-plane magnetic field. The uncoated and coated magnetic nanoparticles were characterized by using fourier transform infrared (FTIR), UV-vis, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and thermo-gravimetric analysis.

  3. Structural characterization of copolymer embedded magnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nedelcu, G. G.; Nastro, A.; Filippelli, L.; Cazacu, M.; Iacob, M.; Rossi, C. Oliviero; Popa, A.; Toloman, D.; Dobromir, M.; Iacomi, F.

    2015-10-01

    Small magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4) were synthesized by co-precipitation and coated by emulsion polymerization with poly(methyl methacrylate-co-acrylic acid) (PMMA-co-AAc) to create surface functional groups that can attach drug molecules and other biomolecules. The coated and uncoated magnetite nanoparticles were stored for two years in normal closed ships and than characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, vibrating sample magnetometry, and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. The solid phase transformation of magnetite to maghemite, as well as an increase in particle size were evidenced for the uncoated nanoparticles. The coated nanoparticles preserved their magnetite structure and magnetic properties. The influences of monomers and surfactant layers on interactions between the magnetic nanoparticles evidenced that the thickness of the polymer has a significant effect on magnetic properties.

  4. Facile non-hydrothermal synthesis of oligosaccharides coated sub-5 nm magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles with dual MRI contrast enhancement effect

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jing; Wang, Liya; Zhong, Xiaodong; Li, Yuancheng; Yang, Lily

    2014-01-01

    Ultrafine sub-5 nm magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles coated with oligosaccharides (SIO) with dual T1-T2 weighted contrast enhancing effect and fast clearance has been developed as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent. Excellent water solubility, biocompatibility and high stability of such sub-5 nm SIO nanoparticles were achieved by using the “in-situ polymerization” coating method, which enables glucose forming oligosaccharides directly on the surface of hydrophobic iron oxide nanocrystals. Reported ultrafine SIO nanoparticles exhibit a longitudinal relaxivity (r1) of 4.1 mM−1s−1 and a r1/r2 ratio of 0.25 at 3 T (clinical field strength), rendering improved T1 or “brighter” contrast enhancement in T1-weighted MRI in addition to typical T2 or “darkening” contrast of conventional iron oxide nanoparticles. Such dual contrast effect can be demonstrated in liver imaging with T2 “darkening” contrast in the liver parenchyma but T1 “bright” contrast in the hepatic vasculature. More importantly, this new class of ultrafine sub-5 nm iron oxide nanoparticles showed much faster body clearance than those with larger sizes, promising better safety for clinical applications. PMID:25181490

  5. FITC-Dextran entrapped and silica coated gadolinium oxide nanoparticles for synchronous optical and magnetic resonance imaging applications.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Shailja; Meena, Virendra Kumar; Hazari, Puja Panwar; Sharma, Rakesh Kumar

    2016-06-15

    We report, microemulsion mediated synthesis of FITC-dextran dye entrapped and silica coated Gd2O3 nanoparticles (NPs) for dual purpose of optical and magnetic resonance imaging, in the present study. TEM image revealed that the average size of the NPs is 18nm and hydrodynamic diameter of the particles as measured by DLS comes out to be about 16nm. Gd2O3 core show paramagnetism which is affirmed by the NMR line broadening effect on neighboring water proton spectrum and also by magnetization curve obtained in VSM analysis. The fluorescence of the entrapped dye is confirmed by the UV-vis and fluorescence spectroscopy. Nanoencapsulation of FITC-dextran fluorophore was found to increase its optical activity and provided a blanket against quenching. Moreover, TGA data revealed that entrapment of dye imparts thermal stability to it and enhances its fluorescence in comparison to bare dye. The release kinetic pattern (at pH 7.4) of the entrapped dye revealed that these particles behave as non-releasing system. The in-vitro cell viability (SRB) assay of the particles done on normal cell line (HEK-293) as well as cancerous cell line (A-549) indicated non-cytotoxic nature of the particles. In a nut-shell, these particles have the potential to be efficiently used for optical and magnetic resonance imaging. We anticipate that further optimization of these particles can be done by either conjugating or entrapping a drug for targeted drug delivery which would open more prospective options in biomedical field. PMID:27032564

  6. Coating Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles with humic acid for high efficient removal of heavy metals in water.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing-fu; Zhao, Zong-shan; Jiang, Gui-bin

    2008-09-15

    Humic acid (HA) coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles (Fe3O4/HA) were developed for the removal of toxic Hg(II), Pb(II), Cd(II), and Cu(II) from water. Fe3O4/HA were prepared by a coprecipitation procedure with cheap and environmentally friendly iron salts and HA. TOC and XPS analysis showed the as-prepared Fe3O4/HA contains approximately 11% (w/w) of HA which are fractions abundant in O and N-based functional groups. TEM images and laser particle size analysis revealed the Fe3O4/HA (with approximately 10 nm Fe3O4 cores) aggregated in aqueous suspensions to form aggregates with an average hydrodynamic size of approximately 140 nm. With a saturation magnetization of 79.6 emu/g, the Fe3O4/HA can be simply recovered from water with magnetic separations at low magnetic field gradients within a few minutes. Sorption of the heavy metals to Fe3O4/HA reached equilibrium in less than 15 min, and agreed well to the Langmuir adsorption model with maximum adsorption capacities from 46.3 to 97.7 mg/g. The Fe3O4/HA was stable in tap water, natural waters, and acidic/ basic solutions ranging from 0.1 M HCl to 2 M NaOH with low leaching of Fe (< or = 3.7%) and HA (< or = 5.3%). The Fe3O4/HA was able to remove over 99% of Hg(ll) and Pb(ll) and over 95% of Cu(II) and Cd(II) in natural and tap water at optimized pH. Leaching back of the Fe3O4/HA sorbed heavy metals in water was found to be negligible. PMID:18853814

  7. Fighting cancer with magnetic nanoparticles and immunotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez, L.; Mejías, R.; Barber, D. F.; Veintemillas-Verdaguer, S.; Serna, C. J.; Lázaro, F. J.; Morales, M. P.

    2012-03-01

    IFN-γ-adsorbed DMSA-coated magnetite nanoparticles can be used as an efficient in vivo drug delivery system for tumor immunotherapy. Magnetic nanoparticles, with adsorbed interferon-γ, were targeted to the tumor site by application of an external magnetic field. A relevant therapeutic dosage of interferon in the tumor was detected and led to a notable reduction in tumor size. In general, only 10% of the total injected nanoparticles after multiple exposures were found in tissues by AC susceptibility measurements of the corresponding resected tissues. Magnetic nanoparticle biodistribution is affected by the application of an external magnetic field.

  8. Surfactant-modified flowerlike layered double hydroxide-coated magnetic nanoparticles for preconcentration of phthalate esters from environmental water samples.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiaoli; Liu, Shuangliu; Wang, Peifang; Tang, Zhi; Niu, Hongyun; Cai, Yaqi; Wu, Fengchang; Wang, Hao; Meng, Wei; Giesy, John P

    2015-10-01

    A novel type of layered, flowerlike magnetic double hydroxide (MLDH) nanoparticles modified by surfactants has been successfully synthesized and was applied as an effective sorbent for pre-concentration of several phthalate ester pollutants (PAEs) from water prior to quantification. The MLDH was obtained via a simple ultrasound-assisted method by using silica coated Fe3O4 as the core and anisotropic Mg-Al layered double hydroxide (Mg-Al LDH) nanocrystals as the shell to which analytes were absorbed. Orientation and dimensionality hierarchical structure as well as the large expandable interlayer free space and positive charge of the Mg-Al LDH shell make it easier to form anionic surfactant micelles on its surface via self-assembly. Due to its high adsorption area, compared with non-mesoporous nano solid-phase extraction agents, mesoporous channel shell and reduction diffusion path, MLDH exhibited high extraction efficiency of organic target residues. Under optimized conditions, with a total of 30mg of adsorbant added to from samples containing 400mL water from the environment recoveries of DPP, DBP, DCP and DOP were consistent with ranges of 69-101%, 79-101%, 86-102% and 63-100%, respectively. Standard deviations of recoveries ranged from 1 to 7%, respectively and the method was sensitive with limits of detection of 12.3, 18.7, 36.5 and 15.6ngL(-1). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of use of surfactant-modified MLDH nanoparticles and its application as adsorbent to pre-concentration of PAEs from environmental water samples prior to instrumental analyses. PMID:26342875

  9. Synthesis of amino-rich silica coated magnetic nanoparticles and their application in the capture of DNA for PCR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Magnetic separation has great advantages over traditional bioseparation methods and has become popular in the development of methods for the detection of bacterial pathogens, viruses, and transgenic crops. Functionalization of magnetic nanoparticles is a key factor in allowing efficient capture of t...

  10. Magnetic solid phase adsorption, preconcentration and determination of methyl orange in water samples using silica coated magnetic nanoparticles and central composite design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shariati-Rad, Masoud; Irandoust, Mohsen; Amri, Somayyeh; Feyzi, Mostafa; Ja'fari, Fattaneh

    2014-10-01

    This work evaluates the efficiency of SiO2-coated Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (SMNPs) for adsorption of methyl orange (MO). Adsorption of MO on the studied nanoparticle was developed for removal, preconcentration and spectrophotometric determination of trace amounts of it. To find the optimum adsorption conditions, the influence of pH, dosage of the adsorbent and contact time was explored by central composite design. In pH 2.66, with 10.0 mg of the SMNPs and time of 30.0 min, the maximum adsorption of MO was obtained. The experimental adsorption data were analyzed by the Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms. Both models were fitted to the equilibrium data and the maximum monolayer capacity q max of 53.19 mg g-1 was obtained for MO. Moreover, the sorption kinetics was fitted well to the pseudo-second-order rate equation model. The results showed that desorption efficiencies higher than 99 % can be achieved in a short contact time and in one step elution by 2.0 mL of 0.1 mol L-1 NaOH. The SMNPs were washed with deionized water and reused for two successive removal processes with removal efficiencies more than 90 %. The calibration curve was linear in the range of 10.0-120.0 ng mL-1 for MO. A preconcentration factor of about 45 % was achieved by the method.

  11. Theranostic nanoparticles based on bioreducible polyethylenimine-coated iron oxide for reduction-responsive gene delivery and magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dan; Tang, Xin; Pulli, Benjamin; Lin, Chao; Zhao, Peng; Cheng, Jian; Lv, Zhongwei; Yuan, Xueyu; Luo, Qiong; Cai, Haidong; Ye, Meng

    2014-01-01

    Theranostic nanoparticles based on superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) have a great promise for tumor diagnosis and gene therapy. However, the availability of theranostic nanoparticles with efficient gene transfection and minimal toxicity remains a big challenge. In this study, we construct an intelligent SPIO-based nanoparticle comprising a SPIO inner core and a disulfide-containing polyethylenimine (SSPEI) outer layer, which is referred to as a SSPEI-SPIO nanoparticle, for redox-triggered gene release in response to an intracellular reducing environment. We reveal that SSPEI-SPIO nanoparticles are capable of binding genes to form nano-complexes and mediating a facilitated gene release in the presence of dithiothreitol (5–20 mM), thereby leading to high transfection efficiency against different cancer cells. The SSPEI-SPIO nanoparticles are also able to deliver small interfering RNA (siRNA) for the silencing of human telomerase reverse transcriptase genes in HepG2 cells, causing their apoptosis and growth inhibition. Further, the nanoparticles are applicable as T2-negative contrast agents for magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of a tumor xenografted in a nude mouse. Importantly, SSPEI-SPIO nanoparticles have relatively low cytotoxicity in vitro at a high concentration of 100 μg/mL. The results of this study demonstrate the utility of a disulfide-containing cationic polymer-decorated SPIO nanoparticle as highly potent and low-toxic theranostic nano-system for specific nucleic acid delivery inside cancer cells. PMID:25045265

  12. Acoustic wave in a suspension of magnetic nanoparticle with sodium oleate coating.

    PubMed

    Józefczak, A; Hornowski, T; Závišová, V; Skumiel, A; Kubovčíková, M; Timko, M

    2014-01-01

    The ultrasonic propagation in the water-based magnetic fluid with doubled layered surfactant shell was studied. The measurements were carried out both in the presence as well as in the absence of the external magnetic field. The thickness of the surfactant shell was evaluated by comparing the mean size of magnetic grain extracted from magnetization curve with the mean hydrodynamic diameter obtained from differential centrifugal sedimentation method. The thickness of surfactant shell was used to estimate volume fraction of the particle aggregates consisted of magnetite grain and surfactant layer. From the ultrasonic velocity measurements in the absence of the applied magnetic field, the adiabatic compressibility of the particle aggregates was determined. In the external magnetic field, the magnetic fluid studied in this article becomes acoustically anisotropic, i.e., velocity and attenuation of the ultrasonic wave depend on the angle between the wave vector and the direction of the magnetic field. The results of the ultrasonic measurements in the external magnetic field were compared with the hydrodynamic theory of Ovchinnikov and Sokolov (velocity) and with the internal chain dynamics model of Shliomis, Mond and Morozov (attenuation). PMID:24672282

  13. Magnetic Nanoparticle Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Isaac; Josephson, Lee

    2009-01-01

    Many types of biosensors employ magnetic nanoparticles (diameter = 5–300 nm) or magnetic particles (diameter = 300–5,000 nm) which have been surface functionalized to recognize specific molecular targets. Here we cover three types of biosensors that employ different biosensing principles, magnetic materials, and instrumentation. The first type consists of magnetic relaxation switch assay-sensors, which are based on the effects magnetic particles exert on water proton relaxation rates. The second type consists of magnetic particle relaxation sensors, which determine the relaxation of the magnetic moment within the magnetic particle. The third type is magnetoresistive sensors, which detect the presence of magnetic particles on the surface of electronic devices that are sensitive to changes in magnetic fields on their surface. Recent improvements in the design of magnetic nanoparticles (and magnetic particles), together with improvements in instrumentation, suggest that magnetic material-based biosensors may become widely used in the future. PMID:22408498

  14. Nanoparticles of Molybdenum Chlorophyllin Photosensitizer and Magnetic Citrate-Coated Cobalt Ferrite Complex Available to Hyperthermia and Photodynamic Therapy Clinical Trials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Primo, Fernando L.; Cordo, Paloma L. A. G.; Neto, Alberto F.; Morais, Paulo C.; Tedesco, Antonio C.

    2010-12-01

    This study report on the synthesis and characterization of molybdenum chlorophyllin (Mo-Chl) compounds associated in a complex with magnetic nanoparticles (citrate-coated cobalt ferrite), the latter prepared as a biocompatible magnetic fluid (MF). The complex material was developed for application as a synergic drug for cancer treatment using Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) and Hyperthermia (HPT). Chlorophyllin was obtained from alkaline extraction of Ilex paraguariensis following molybdenum insertion from hydrolysis with molybdate sodium. Fluorescence quantum yield (Φf) of Mo-Chl/dimethyl-sulphoxide (DMSO) was lower than 0.1, with a lifetime of 5.0 ns, as obtained from time-correlated single-photon counting technique. The oxygen quantum yield of Mo-Chl was carried out using laser flash-photolysis studies in homogeneous medium saturated with O2(g) (ΦΔ = 0.50). Cellular viability was also evaluated via the classical MTT assay using gingival fibroblasts cells as a biological model. Studies performed with the complex Mo-Chl (5.0 μmol.L-1)/MF at different magnetic nanoparticle concentrations (ranging from 1012 to 1015 particle.mL-1) revealed a cellular viability of approximately 95% for the ideal magnetic material concentration of 1×10 particle.mL-1. The present study shows that natural photosensitizers molecules Mo-Chl used in association with magnetic nanoparticles represent a promising generation of drug developed to work synergistically in the treatment of neoplastic tissues using PDT and HPT.

  15. Sequential Enrichment with Titania-coated Magnetic Mesoporous Hollow Silica Microspheres and Zirconium Arsenate-modified Magnetic Nanoparticles for the Study of Phosphoproteome of HL60 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Qiong-Wei; Li, Xiao-Shui; Xiao, Yongsheng; Guo, Lei; Zhang, Fan; Cai, Qian; Feng, Yu-Qi; Yuan, Bi-Feng; Wang, Yinsheng

    2014-01-01

    As one of the most important types of post-translational modifications, reversible phosphorylation of proteins plays crucial roles in a large number of biological processes. However, owing to the relatively low abundance and dynamic nature of phosphorylation and the presence of the unphosphorylated peptides in large excess, phosphopeptide enrichment is indispensable in large-scale phosphoproteomic analysis. Metal oxides including titanium dioxide have become prominent affinity materials to enrich phosphopeptides prior to their analysis using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). In the current study, we established a novel strategy, which encompassed strong cation exchange chromatography, sequential enrichment of phosphopeptides using titania-coated magnetic mesoporous hollow silica microspheres (TiO2/MHMSS) and zirconium arsenate-modified magnetic nanoparticles (ZrAs-Fe3O4@SiO2), and LC-MS/MS analysis, for the proteome-wide identification of phosphosites of proteins in HL60 cells. In total, we were able to identify 11579 unique phosphorylation sites in 3432 unique proteins. Additionally, our results suggested that TiO2/MHMSS and ZrAs-Fe3O4@SiO2 are complementary in phosphopeptide enrichment, where the two types of materials displayed preferential binding of peptides carrying multiple and single phosphorylation sites, respectively. PMID:25262027

  16. Magnetic and Mössbauer spectroscopy studies of hollow microcapsules made of silica-coated CoFe2O4 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyubutin, I. S.; Gervits, N. E.; Starchikov, S. S.; Lin, Chun-Rong; Tseng, Yaw-Teng; Shih, Kun-Yauh; Wang, Cheng-Chien; Chen, I.-Han; Ogarkova, Yu L.; Korotkov, N. Yu

    2016-01-01

    The hollow microcapsules made of silica-coated CoFe2O4 nanoparticles were synthesized using chemical co-precipitation, followed by the sol-gel method. Poly(MMA-co-MAA) microspheres were used as a core template which can be completely removed after annealing at 450 °C. The microcapsules are monodisperse with the outer diameter of about 450 nm and the thickness of the shell is about 50 nm. The nanoparticles of Co-ferrite are single crystalline. The size of the nanoparticles and magnetic properties of CoFe2O4/SiO2 hollow spheres can be tuned with high accuracy at the annealing stage. The Mössbauer data indicate that CoFe2O4 ferrite is an inverse spinel, in which Fe3+ and Co2+ ions are distributed in both octahedral and tetrahedral sites with the inversion degree close to the bulk ferrite value. At low temperature the CoFe2O4/SiO2 nanoparticles are in antiferromagnetic (AFM) state due to the canted or triangular magnetic structure. Under heating in the applied field, AFM structure transforms to the ferrimagnetic (FM) structure, that increases the magnetization. The Mössbauer data revealed that the small size CoFe2O4/SiO2 particles do not show superparamagnetic behavior, but they transit to the paramagnetic state by the jump-like first order magnetic transition (JMT). This effect is a specific property of the magnetic nanoparticles isolated by inert material. The suggested method of synthesis can be modified with various bio-ligands on the silane surface, and such materials can find many applications in diagnostics and bio-separation.

  17. Magneto-controllable capture and release of cancer cells by using a micropillar device decorated with graphite oxide-coated magnetic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaolei; He, Rongxiang; Li, Shasha; Cai, Bo; Zhao, Libo; Liao, Lei; Liu, Wei; Zeng, Qian; Wang, Hao; Guo, Shi-Shang; Zhao, Xing-Zhong

    2013-11-25

    Aiming to highly efficient capture and analysis of circulating tumor cells, a micropillar device decorated with graphite oxide-coated magnetic nanoparticles is developed for magneto-controllable capture and release of cancer cells. Graphite oxide-coated, Fe3 O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are synthesized by solution mixing and functionalized with a specific antibody, following by the immobilization of such modified MNPs on our designed micropillar device. For the proof-of-concept study, a HCT116 colorectal cancer cell line is employed to exam the capture efficiency. Under magnetic field manipulation, the high density packing of antibody-modified MNPs on the micropillars increases the local concentration of antibody, as well as the topographic interactions between cancer cells and micropillar surfaces. The flow rate and the micropillar geometry are optimized by studying their effects on capture efficiency. Then, a different number of HCT116 cells spiked in two kinds of cell suspension are investigated, yielding capture efficiency >70% in culture medium and >40% in blood sample, respectively. Moreover, the captured HCT116 cells are able to be released from the micropillars with a saturated efficiency of 92.9% upon the removal of applied magnetic field and it is found that 78% of the released cancer cells are viable, making them suitable for subsequent biological analysis. PMID:23650272

  18. Dual immobilization and magnetic manipulation of magnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, S. Y.; Jian, Z. F.; Horng, H. E.; Hong, Chin-Yih; Yang, H. C.; Wu, C. C.; Lee, Y. H.

    By suitably bio-functionalizing the surfaces, magnetic nanoparticles are able to bind specific biomolecules, and may serve as vectors for delivering bio-entities to target tissues. In this work, the synthesis of bio-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles with two kinds of bio-probes is developed. Here, the stem cell is selected as a to-be-delivered bio-entity and infarcted myocardium is the target issue. Thus, cluster designation-34 (CD-34) on stem cell and creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) (or troponin I) on infarcted myocardium are the specific biomolecules to be bound with bio-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles. In addition to demonstrating the co-coating of two kinds of bio-probes on a magnetic nanoparticle, the feasibility of manipulation on bio-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles by external magnetic fields is investigated.

  19. Oleate-based hydrothermal preparation of CoFe2O4 nanoparticles, and their magnetic properties with respect to particle size and surface coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Repko, Anton; Vejpravová, Jana; Vacková, Taťana; Zákutná, Dominika; Nižňanský, Daniel

    2015-09-01

    We present a facile and high-yield synthesis of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles by hydrothermal hydrolysis of Co-Fe oleate in the presence of pentanol/octanol/toluene and water at 180 or 220 °C. The particle size (6-10 nm) was controlled by the composition of the organic solvent and temperature. Magnetic properties were then investigated with respect to the particle size and surface modification with citric acid or titanium dioxide (leading to hydrophilic particles). The as-prepared hydrophobic nanoparticles (coated by oleic acid) had a minimum inter-particle distance of 2.5 nm. Their apparent blocking temperature (estimated as a maximum of the zero-field-cooled magnetization) was 180 K, 280 K and 330 K for the particles with size of 6, 9 and 10.5 nm, respectively. Replacement of oleic acid on the surface by citric acid decreased inter-particle distance to less than 1 nm, and increased blocking temperature by ca. 10 K. On the other hand, coating with titanium dioxide, supported by nitrilotri(methylphosphonic acid), caused increase of the particle spacing, and lowering of the blocking temperature by ca. 20 K. The CoFe2O4@TiO2 nanoparticles were sufficiently stable in water, methanol and ethanol. The particles were also investigated by Mössbauer spectroscopy and alternating-current (AC) susceptibility measurements, and their analysis with Vögel-Fulcher and power law. Effect of different particle coating and dipolar interactions on the magnetic properties is discussed.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of magnetite nanoparticles coated with lauric acid

    SciTech Connect

    Mamani, J.B.; Costa-Filho, A.J.; Cornejo, D.R.; Vieira, E.D.; Gamarra, L.F.

    2013-07-15

    Understanding the process of synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles is important for its implementation in in vitro and in vivo studies. In this work we report the synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles made from ferrous oxide through coprecipitation chemical process. The nanostructured material was coated with lauric acid and dispersed in aqueous medium containing surfactant that yielded a stable colloidal suspension. The characterization of magnetic nanoparticles with distinct physico-chemical configurations is fundamental for biomedical applications. Therefore magnetic nanoparticles were characterized in terms of their morphology by means of TEM and DLS, which showed a polydispersed set of spherical nanoparticles (average diameter of ca. 9 nm) as a result of the protocol. The structural properties were characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD). XRD pattern showed the presence of peaks corresponding to the spinel phase of magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}). The relaxivities r{sub 2} and r{sub 2}* values were determined from the transverse relaxation times T{sub 2} and T{sub 2}* at 3 T. Magnetic characterization was performed using SQUID and FMR, which evidenced the superparamagnetic properties of the nanoparticles. Thermal characterization using DSC showed exothermic events associated with the oxidation of magnetite to maghemite. - Highlights: • Synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles coated with lauric acid • Characterization of magnetic nanoparticles • Morphological, structural, magnetic, calorimetric and relaxometric characterization.

  1. Effect of external magnetic field on IV 99mTc-labeled aminosilane-coated iron oxide nanoparticles: demonstration in a rat model: special report.

    PubMed

    Liberatore, Mauro; Barteri, Mario; Megna, Valentina; D'Elia, Piera; Rebonato, Stefania; Latini, Augusto; De Angelis, Francesca; Scaramuzzo, Francesca Anna; De Stefano, Maria Egle; Guadagno, Noemi Antonella; Chondrogiannis, Sotirios; Maffione, Anna Margherita; Rubello, Domenico; Pala, Alessandro; Colletti, Patrick M

    2015-02-01

    Among the most interesting applications of ferromagnetic nanoparticles (NPs) in medicine is the potential for localizing pharmacologically or radioactively tagged agents directly to selected tissues selected by an adjustable external magnetic field. This concept is demonstrated by the application external magnetic field on IV Tc-labeled aminosilane-coated iron oxide NPs in a rat model. In a model comparing a rat with a 0.3-T magnet over a hind paw versus a rat without a magnet, a static acquisition at 45 minutes showed that 27% of the administered radioactivity was in the area subtended by the magnet, whereas the liver displays a percentage of binding of 14% in the presence of the magnet and of 16% in the absence of an external magnetic field. These preliminary results suggest that the application of an external magnetic field may be a viable route for the development of methods for the confinement of magnetic NPs labeled with radioactive isotopes targeted for predetermined sites of the body. PMID:25551623

  2. CpG oligodeoxynucleotide-loaded PAMAM dendrimer-coated magnetic nanoparticles promote apoptosis in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Taghavi Pourianazar, Negar; Gunduz, Ufuk

    2016-03-01

    One major application of nanotechnology in cancer treatment involves designing nanoparticles to deliver drugs, oligonucleotides, and genes to cancer cells. Nanoparticles should be engineered so that they could target and destroy tumor cells with minimal damage to healthy tissues. This research aims to develop an appropriate and efficient nanocarrier, having the ability of interacting with and delivering CpG-oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG-ODNs) to tumor cells. CpG-ODNs activate Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9), which can generate a signal cascade for cell death. In our study, we utilized three-layer magnetic nanoparticles composed of a Fe3O4 magnetic core, an aminosilane (APTS) interlayer and a cationic poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimer. This will be a novel targeted delivery system to enhance the accumulation of CpG-ODN molecules in tumor cells. The validation of CpG-ODN binding to DcMNPs was performed using agarose gel electrophoresis, UV-spectrophotometer, XPS analyses. Cytotoxicity of conjugates was assessed in MDA-MB231 and SKBR3 cancer cells based on cell viability by XTT assay and flow cytometric analysis. Our results indicated that the synthesized DcMNPs having high positive charges on their surface could attach to CpG-ODN molecules via electrostatic means. These nanoparticles with the average sizes of 40±10nm bind to CpG-ODN molecules efficiently and induce cell death in MDA-MB231 and SKBR3 tumor cells and could be considered a suitable targeted delivery system for CpG-ODN in biomedical applications. The magnetic core of these nanoparticles represents a promising option for selective drug targeting as they can be concentrated and held in position by means of an external magnetic field. PMID:26898428

  3. Super magnetic nanoparticles NiFe2O4, coated with aluminum-nickel oxide sol-gel lattices to safe, sensitive and selective purification of his-tagged proteins.

    PubMed

    Mirahmadi-Zare, Seyede Zohreh; Allafchian, Alireza; Aboutalebi, Fatemeh; Shojaei, Pendar; Khazaie, Yahya; Dormiani, Kianoush; Lachinani, Liana; Nasr-Esfahani, Mohammad-Hossein

    2016-05-01

    Super magnetic nanoparticle NiFe2O4 with high magnetization, physical and chemical stability was introduced as a core particle which exhibits high thermal stability (>97%) during the harsh coating process. Instead of multi-stage process for coating, the magnetic nanoparticles was mineralized via one step coating by a cheap, safe, stable and recyclable alumina sol-gel lattice (from bohemite source) saturated by nickel ions. The TEM, SEM, VSM and XRD imaging and BET analysis confirmed the structural potential of NiFe2O4@NiAl2O4 core-shell magnetic nanoparticles for selective and sensitive purification of His-tagged protein, in one step. The functionality and validity of the nickel magnetic nanoparticles were attested by purification of three different bioactive His-tagged recombinant fusion proteins including hIGF-1, GM-CSF and bFGF. The bonding capacity of the nickel magnetics nanoparticles was studied by Bradford assay and was equal to 250 ± 84 μg Protein/mg MNP base on protein size. Since the metal ion leakage is the most toxicity source for purification by nickel magnetic nanoparticles, therefor the nickel leakage in purified final protein was determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy and biological activity of final purified protein was confirmed in comparison with reference. Also, in vitro cytotoxicity of nickel magnetic nanoparticles and trace metal ions were investigated by MTS assay analysis. The results confirmed that the synthesized nickel magnetic nanoparticles did not show metal ion toxicity and not affected on protein folding. PMID:26792558

  4. Enzyme-functionalized gold-coated magnetite nanoparticles as novel hybrid nanomaterials: synthesis, purification and control of enzyme function by low-frequency magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Majouga, Alexander; Sokolsky-Papkov, Marina; Kuznetsov, Artem; Lebedev, Dmitry; Efremova, Maria; Beloglazkina, Elena; Rudakovskaya, Polina; Veselov, Maxim; Zyk, Nikolay; Golovin, Yuri; Klyachko, Natalia; Kabanov, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The possibility of remotely inducing a defined effect on NPs by means of electromagnetic radiation appears attractive. From a practical point of view, this effect opens horizons for remote control of drug release systems, as well as modulation of biochemical functions in cells. Gold-coated magnetite nanoparticles are perfect candidates for such application. Herein, we have successfully synthesized core-shell NPs having magnetite cores and gold shells modified with various sulphur containing ligands and developed a new, simple and robust procedure for the purification of the resulting nanoparticles. The carboxylic groups displayed at the surface of the NPs were utilized for NP conjugation with a model enzyme (ChT). In the present study, we report the effect of the low-frequency AC magnetic field on the catalytic activity of the immobilized ChT. We show that the enzyme activity decreases upon exposure of the NPs to the field. PMID:25460600

  5. Solvothermal synthesis of MnFe2O4 nanoparticles: The role of polymer coating on morphology and magnetic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aslibeiki, B.; Kameli, P.; Ehsani, M. H.; Salamati, H.; Muscas, G.; Agostinelli, E.; Foglietti, V.; Casciardi, S.; Peddis, D.

    2016-02-01

    Manganese spinel ferrite nanoparticles were synthesized by a solvothermal route based on high temperature decomposition of metal nitrates in the presence of different contents of Triethylene glycol. This simple and low cost method can be applied to prepare large quantities of nanoparticles (tens of grams). Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) confirmed that nanoparticles with a good crystalline quality were obtained. A good agreement between the average particle size calculated by PXRD and TEM was observed. Fourier-transform infrared spectra showed that polymer molecules have the tendency to form bonds with the surface of ferrite nanoparticles reducing the surface spin disorder, and then enhancing the saturation magnetization (MS). Therefore, much higher MS value (up to ∼91 emu/g at 5 K) was observed compared with that of bare nanoparticles without surfactant. The blocking temperature showed a remarkable shift to lower values with increasing the polymer starting amount. In addition, by increasing the polymer initial content, a more homogeneous size distribution was obtained and the initial strongly interacting superspin glass behavior changed to a weakly interacting superparamagnetic state.

  6. Iodinated oil-loaded, fluorescent mesoporous silica-coated iron oxide nanoparticles for magnetic resonance imaging/computed tomography/fluorescence trimodal imaging.

    PubMed

    Xue, Sihan; Wang, Yao; Wang, Mengxing; Zhang, Lu; Du, Xiaoxia; Gu, Hongchen; Zhang, Chunfu

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)/computed tomography (CT)/fluorescence trifunctional probe was prepared by loading iodinated oil into fluorescent mesoporous silica-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (i-fmSiO4@SPIONs). Fluorescent mesoporous silica-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (fmSiO4@SPIONs) were prepared by growing fluorescent dye-doped silica onto superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) directed by a cetyltrimethylammonium bromide template. As prepared, fmSiO4@SPIONs had a uniform size, a large surface area, and a large pore volume, which demonstrated high efficiency for iodinated oil loading. Iodinated oil loading did not change the sizes of fmSiO4@SPIONs, but they reduced the MRI T2 relaxivity (r2) markedly. I-fmSiO4@SPIONs were stable in their physical condition and did not demonstrate cytotoxic effects under the conditions investigated. In vitro studies indicated that the contrast enhancement of MRI and CT, and the fluorescence signal intensity of i-fmSiO4@SPION aqueous suspensions and macrophages, were intensified with increased i-fmSiO4@SPION concentrations in suspension and cell culture media. Moreover, for the in vivo study, the accumulation of i-fmSiO4@SPIONs in the liver could also be detected by MRI, CT, and fluorescence imaging. Our study demonstrated that i-fmSiO4@SPIONs had great potential for MRI/CT/fluorescence trimodal imaging. PMID:24904212

  7. Iodinated oil-loaded, fluorescent mesoporous silica-coated iron oxide nanoparticles for magnetic resonance imaging/computed tomography/fluorescence trimodal imaging

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Sihan; Wang, Yao; Wang, Mengxing; Zhang, Lu; Du, Xiaoxia; Gu, Hongchen; Zhang, Chunfu

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)/computed tomography (CT)/fluorescence trifunctional probe was prepared by loading iodinated oil into fluorescent mesoporous silica-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (i-fmSiO4@SPIONs). Fluorescent mesoporous silica-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (fmSiO4@SPIONs) were prepared by growing fluorescent dye-doped silica onto superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) directed by a cetyltrimethylammonium bromide template. As prepared, fmSiO4@SPIONs had a uniform size, a large surface area, and a large pore volume, which demonstrated high efficiency for iodinated oil loading. Iodinated oil loading did not change the sizes of fmSiO4@SPIONs, but they reduced the MRI T2 relaxivity (r2) markedly. I-fmSiO4@SPIONs were stable in their physical condition and did not demonstrate cytotoxic effects under the conditions investigated. In vitro studies indicated that the contrast enhancement of MRI and CT, and the fluorescence signal intensity of i-fmSiO4@SPION aqueous suspensions and macrophages, were intensified with increased i-fmSiO4@SPION concentrations in suspension and cell culture media. Moreover, for the in vivo study, the accumulation of i-fmSiO4@SPIONs in the liver could also be detected by MRI, CT, and fluorescence imaging. Our study demonstrated that i-fmSiO4@SPIONs had great potential for MRI/CT/fluorescence trimodal imaging. PMID:24904212

  8. Polydopamine-coated magnetic nanoparticles for isolation and enrichment of estrogenic compounds from surface water samples followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry determination.

    PubMed

    Capriotti, Anna Laura; Cavaliere, Chiara; La Barbera, Giorgia; Piovesana, Susy; Samperi, Roberto; Zenezini Chiozzi, Riccardo; Laganà, Aldo

    2016-06-01

    Estrogens, phytoestrogens, and mycoestrogens may enter into the surface waters from different sources, such as effluents of municipal wastewater treatment plants, industrial plants, and animal farms and runoff from agricultural areas. In this work, a multiresidue analytical method for the determination of 17 natural estrogenic compounds, including four steroid estrogens, six mycoestrogens, and seven phytoestrogens, in river water samples has been developed. (Fe3O4)-based magnetic nanoparticles coated by polydopamine (Fe3O4@pDA) were used for dispersive solid-phase extraction, and the final extract was analyzed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. The Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles were prepared by a co-precipitation procedure, coated by pDA, and characterized by scanning electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy, and elemental analysis. The sample preparation method was optimized in terms of extraction recovery, matrix effect, selectivity, trueness, precision, method limits of detection, and method limits of quantification (MLOQs). For all the 17 analytes, recoveries were >70 % and matrix effects were below 30 % when 25 mL of river water sample was treated with 90 mg of Fe3O4@pDA nanoparticles. Selectivity was tested by spiking river water samples with 50 other compounds (mycotoxins, antibacterials, conjugated hormones, UV filters, alkylphenols, etc.), and only aflatoxins and some benzophenones showed recoveries >60 %. This method proved to be simple and robust and allowed the determination of natural estrogenic compounds belonging to different classes in surface waters with MLOQs ranging between 0.003 and 0.1 μg L(-1). Graphical Abstract Determination of natural estrogenic compounds in water by magnetic solid phase extraction followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis. PMID:27032407

  9. The magnetic and oxidation behavior of bare and silica-coated iron oxide nanoparticles synthesized by reverse co-precipitation of ferrous ion (Fe2+) in ambient atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmed, N.; Heczko, O.; Lancok, A.; Hannula, S.-P.

    2014-03-01

    The synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles, i.e., magnetite was attempted by using only ferrous ion (Fe2+) as a magnetite precursor, under an ambient atmosphere. The room temperature reverse co-precipitation method was used, by applying two synthesis protocols. The freshly prepared iron oxide was also immediately coated with Stöber silica (SiO2) layer, forming the coreshell structure. The phase, stoichiometry, crystallite and the particle size of the synthesized powders were determined by using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscope (TEM), while the magnetic and oxidation behaviors were studied by using the vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and Mössbauer spectroscopy. Based on the results, the bare iron oxide nanoparticles are in the stoichiometry between the magnetite and the maghemite stoichiometry, i.e., oxidation occurs. This oxidation is depending on the synthesis protocols used. With the silica coating, the oxidation can be prevented, as suggested by the fits of Mössbauer spectra and low temperature magnetic measurement.

  10. Rapid detection of Staphylococcus aureus in dairy and meat foods by combination of capture with silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles and thermophilic helicase-dependent isothermal amplification.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xingxing; Wu, Xiaoli; Gan, Min; Xu, Feng; He, Lihua; Yang, Dong; Xu, Hengyi; Shah, Nagendra P; Wei, Hua

    2015-03-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the main pathogens in dairy and meat products; therefore, developing a highly sensitive and rapid method for its detection is necessary. In this study, a quantitative detection method for Staph. aureus was developed using silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles and thermophilic helicase-dependent isothermal amplification. First, genomic DNA was extracted from lysed bacteria using silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles and amplified using thermophilic helicase-dependent isothermal amplification. After adding the nucleic-acid dye SYBR Green I to the amplicons, the fluorescence intensity was observed using a UV lamp or recorded using a fluorescence spectrophotometer. This detection system had a detection limit of 5×10(0) cfu/mL in pure culture and milk-powder samples and 5×10(1) cfu/mL in pork samples using a UV light in less than 2h. In addition, a good linear relationship was obtained between fluorescence intensity and bacterial concentrations ranging from 10(2) to 10(4) cfu/mL under optimal conditions. Furthermore, the results from contaminated milk powder and pork samples suggested that the detection system could be used for the quantitative analysis of Staph. aureus and applied potentially to the food industry for the detection of this pathogen. PMID:25547304

  11. Production of Galactooligosaccharides Using β-Galactosidase Immobilized on Chitosan-Coated Magnetic Nanoparticles with Tris(hydroxymethyl)phosphine as an Optional Coupling Agent

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Su-Ching; Duan, Kow-Jen

    2015-01-01

    β-Galactosidase was immobilized on chitosan-coated magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles and was used to produce galactooligosaccharides (GOS) from lactose. Immobilized enzyme was prepared with or without the coupling agent, tris(hydroxymethyl)phosphine (THP). The two immobilized systems and the free enzyme achieved their maximum activity at pH 6.0 with an optimal temperature of 50 °C. The immobilized enzymes showed higher activities at a wider range of temperatures and pH. Furthermore, the immobilized enzyme coupled with THP showed higher thermal stability than that without THP. However, activity retention of batchwise reactions was similar for both immobilized systems. All the three enzyme systems produced GOS compound with similar concentration profiles, with a maximum GOS yield of 50.5% from 36% (w·v−1) lactose on a dry weight basis. The chitosan-coated magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles can be regenerated using a desorption/re-adsorption process described in this study. PMID:26047337

  12. Magnetic nanoparticle temperature estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, John B.; Rauwerdink, Adam M.; Hansen, Eric W.

    2009-05-15

    The authors present a method of measuring the temperature of magnetic nanoparticles that can be adapted to provide in vivo temperature maps. Many of the minimally invasive therapies that promise to reduce health care costs and improve patient outcomes heat tissue to very specific temperatures to be effective. Measurements are required because physiological cooling, primarily blood flow, makes the temperature difficult to predict a priori. The ratio of the fifth and third harmonics of the magnetization generated by magnetic nanoparticles in a sinusoidal field is used to generate a calibration curve and to subsequently estimate the temperature. The calibration curve is obtained by varying the amplitude of the sinusoidal field. The temperature can then be estimated from any subsequent measurement of the ratio. The accuracy was 0.3 deg. K between 20 and 50 deg. C using the current apparatus and half-second measurements. The method is independent of nanoparticle concentration and nanoparticle size distribution.

  13. Nanoparticles affect PCR primarily via surface interactions with PCR components: using amino-modified silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles as a main model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nanomaterials have been widely reported to affect the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). However, many studies in which these effects were observed were not comprehensive, and many of the proposed mechanisms have been primarily speculative. In this work, we used amino-modified silica-coated magnetic n...

  14. Nanocluster of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles coated with poly (dopamine) for magnetic field-targeting, highly sensitive MRI and photothermal cancer therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ming; Zhang, Da; Zeng, Yongyi; Wu, Lingjie; Liu, Xiaolong; Liu, Jingfeng

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, a core-shell nanocomposite of clusters of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles coated with poly(dopamine) (SPION clusters@PDA) is fabricated as a magnetic field-directed theranostic agent that combines the capabilities of highly sensitive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and photothermal cancer therapy. The highly concentrated SPION cluster core is suitable for sensitive MRI due to its superparamagnetic properties, and the poly(dopamine) coating layer can induce cancer cell death under near-infrared (NIR) laser irradiation because of the photothermal conversion ability of PDA. MRI scanning reveals that the nanocomposite has relatively high r2 and r2* relaxivities, and the r2* values are nearly threefold higher than the r2 values because of the clustering of the SPIONs in the nanocomposite core. Due to the rapid response to magnetic field gradients, enhanced cellular uptake of our nanocomposite mediated by an external magnetic field can be achieved, thus producing significantly enhanced local photothermal killing efficiency against cancer cells under NIR irritation.

  15. Biotemplated magnetic nanoparticle arrays.

    PubMed

    Galloway, Johanna M; Bramble, Jonathan P; Rawlings, Andrea E; Burnell, Gavin; Evans, Stephen D; Staniland, Sarah S

    2012-01-23

    Immobilized biomineralizing protein Mms6 templates the formation of uniform magnetite nanoparticles in situ when selectively patterned onto a surface. Magnetic force microscopy shows that the stable magnetite particles maintain their magnetic orientation at room temperature, and may be exchange coupled. This precision-mixed biomimetic/soft-lithography methodology offers great potential for the future of nanodevice fabrication. PMID:22052737

  16. Magnetic-Plasmonic Core-Shell Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Carly S.; Hofmann, Cristina; Ali, Tamer A.; Kelly, Anna T.; Morosan, Emilia; Nordlander, Peter; Whitmire, Kenton H.; Halas, Naomi J.

    2013-01-01

    Nanoparticles composed of magnetic cores with continuous Au shell layers simultaneously possess both magnetic and plasmonic properties. Faceted and tetracubic nanocrystals consisting of wüstite with magnetite-rich corners and edges retain magnetic properties when coated with an Au shell layer, with the composite nanostructures showing ferrimagnetic behavior. The plasmonic properties are profoundly influenced by the high dielectric constant of the mixed-iron-oxide nanocrystalline core. A comprehensive theoretical analysis that examines the geometric plasmon tunability over a range of core permittivities enables us to identify the dielectric properties of the mixed-oxide magnetic core directly from the plasmonic behavior of the core-shell nanoparticle. PMID:19441794

  17. Immunochromatographic strip for rapid detection of Cronobacter in powdered infant formula in combination with silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles separation and 16S rRNA probe.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fei; Ming, Xing; Chen, XingXing; Gan, Min; Wang, BaoGui; Xu, Feng; Wei, Hua

    2014-11-15

    Here we developed a sensitive, specific, and rapid immunochromatographic strip test for the detection of Cronobacter. Silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles were used to separate nucleic acid from Cronobacter lysate and eliminate the interference of food matrices successfully. A couple of 5'-end labeled probes, which was complementary to the 16S ribosomal DNA of Cronobacter, was used to hybridize with the nucleic acid. The hybrid product, labeled with digoxigenin on one side and biotin on the other side, was directly submitted to the immunochromatographic strip test and the anti-digoxigenin monoclonal antibody was immobilized on nitrocellulose membrane in the test line. The visualization was achieved by gold nanoparticles conjugated to streptavidin, and double red bands appearing in both test and control line indicated a positive result of the presence of Cronobacter in testing sample. The detection limit was 10(7) cfu mL(-1) in pure culture. After silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles treatment, the detection limit was 10(5) and 10(6) cfu mL(-1) in pure culture and powdered infant formula, respectively, and maintained stable even under the interference of 10(8) cfu mL(-1)Salmonella typhimurium. Furthermore, 100 positive powdered infant formula samples spiked 10(8) cfu mL(-1)Cronobacter and 20 negative samples with none bacteria were tested by the strip, and the sensitivity and specificity of the test were both as high as 100%. This approach showed promise for microbial detection concerning food safety or clinical diagnosis. PMID:24907538

  18. A new type of silica-coated Gd2(CO3)3:Tb nanoparticle as a bifunctional agent for magnetic resonance imaging and fluorescent imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yanli; Xu, Xianzhu; Tang, Qun; Li, Yongxiu

    2012-05-01

    We report a new type of dual modal nanoprobe to combine optical and magnetic resonance bioimaging. A simple reverse microemulsion method and coating process was introduced to synthesize silica-coated Gd2(CO3)3:Tb nanoparticles, and the particles, with an average diameter of 16 nm, can be dispersed in water. As in vitro cell imaging of the nanoprobe shows, the nanoprobe accomplishes delivery to gastric SGC7901 cancer cells successfully in a short time, as well as NCI-H460 lung cancer cells. Furthermore, it presents no evidence of cell toxicity or adverse affect on kidney cell growth under high dose, which makes the nanoprobe’s optical bioimaging modality available. The possibility of using the nanoprobe for magnetic resonance imaging is also demonstrated, and the nanoprobe displays a clear T1-weighted effect and could potentially serve as a bimodal T1-positive contrast agent. Therefore, the new nanoprobe formed from carbonate nanoprobe doped with rare earth ions provides the dual modality of optical and magnetic resonance imaging.

  19. Coating agents affected toward magnetite nanoparticles properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petcharoen, Karat; Sirivat, Anuvat

    2012-02-01

    Magnetite nanoparticles --MNPs-- are innovative materials used in biological and medical applications. They respond to magnetic field through the superparamagnetic behavior at room temperature. In this study, the MNPs were synthesized via the chemical co-precipitation method using various coating agents. Fatty acids, found naturally in the animal fats, can be used as a coating agent. Oleic acid and hexanoic acid were chosen as the surface modification agents to study the improvement in the suspension of MNPs in water and the magnetite properties. Suspension stability, particle size, and electrical conductivity of MNPs are critically affected by the modification process. The well-dispersed MNPs in water can be improved by the surface modification and the oleic acid coated MNPs possess excellent suspension stability over 1 week. The particle size of MNPs increases up to 40 nm using oleic acid coated MNPs. The electrical conductivity of the smallest particle size is 1.3x10-3 S/cm, which is 5 times higher than that of the largest particle, suggesting potential applications as a biomedical material under both of the electrical and magnetic fields.

  20. A rapid method for the detection of foodborne pathogens by extraction of a trace amount of DNA from raw milk based on label-free amino-modified silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles and polymerase chain reaction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A method based on amino-modified silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles (ASMNPs) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was developed to rapidly and sensitively detect foodborne pathogens in raw milk. After optimizing parameters such as pH, temperature, and time, a trace amount of genomic DNA of pathogen...

  1. Bcl-2-functionalized ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles coated with amphiphilic polymer enhance the labeling efficiency of islets for detection by magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Bin; Cai, Haolei; Qin, Wenjie; Zhang, Bo; Zhai, Chuanxin; Jiang, Biao; Wu, Yulian

    2013-01-01

    Based on their versatile, biocompatible properties, superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) or ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) nanoparticles are utilized for detecting and tracing cells or tumors in vivo. Here, we developed an innoxious and concise synthesis approach for a novel B-cell lymphoma (Bcl)-2 monoclonal antibody-functionalized USPIO nanoparticle coated with an amphiphilic polymer (carboxylated polyethylene glycol monooleyl ether [OE-PEG-COOH]). These nanoparticles can be effectively internalized by beta cells and label primary islet cells, at relatively low iron concentration. The biocompatibility and cytotoxicity of these products were investigated by comparison with the commercial USPIO product, FeraSpin™ S. We also assessed the safe dosage range of the product. Although some cases showed a hypointensity change at the site of transplant, a strong magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was detectable by a clinical MRI scanner, at field strength of 3.0 Tesla, in vivo, and the iron deposition/attached in islets was confirmed by Prussian blue and immunohistochemistry staining. It is noteworthy that based on our synthesis approach, in future, we could exchange the Bcl-2 with other probes that would be more specific for the targeted cells and that would have better labeling specificity in vivo. The combined results point to the promising potential of the novel Bcl-2-functionalized PEG-USPIO as a molecular imaging agent for in vivo monitoring of islet cells or other cells. PMID:24204136

  2. MAGNETIC NANOPARTICLE HYPERTHERMIA IN CANCER TREATMENT

    PubMed Central

    Giustini, Andrew J.; Petryk, Alicia A.; Cassim, Shiraz M.; Tate, Jennifer A.; Baker, Ian; Hoopes, P. Jack

    2013-01-01

    The activation of magnetic nanoparticles (mNPs) by an alternating magnetic field (AMF) is currently being explored as technique for targeted therapeutic heating of tumors. Various types of superparamagnetic and ferromagnetic particles, with different coatings and targeting agents, allow for tumor site and type specificity. Magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia is also being studied as an adjuvant to conventional chemotherapy and radiation therapy. This review provides an introduction to some of the relevant biology and materials science involved in the technical development and current and future use of mNP hyperthermia as clinical cancer therapy. PMID:24348868

  3. In-tube magnetic solid phase microextraction of some fluoroquinolones based on the use of sodium dodecyl sulfate coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles packed tube.

    PubMed

    Manbohi, Ahmad; Ahmadi, Seyyed Hamid

    2015-07-23

    In-tube magnetic solid phase microextraction (in-tube MSPME) of fluoroquinolones from water and urine samples based on the use of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles packed tube has been reported. After the preparation of Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) by a batch synthesis, these NPs were introduced into a stainless steel tube by a syringe and then a strong magnet was placed around the tube, so that the Fe3O4 NPs were remained in the tube and the tube was used in the in-tube SPME-HPLC/UV for the analysis of fluoroquinolones in water and urine samples. Plackett-Burman design was employed for screening the variables significantly affecting the extraction efficiency. Then, the significant factors were more investigated by Box-Behnken design. Calibration curves were linear (R(2)>0.990) in the range of 0.1-1000μgL(-1) for ciprofloxacin (CIP) and 0.5-500μgL(-1) for enrofloxacin (ENR) and ofloxacin (OFL), respectively. LODs for all studied fluoroquinolones ranged from 0.01 to 0.05μgL(-1). The main advantages of this method were rapid and easy automation and analysis, short extraction time, high sensitivity, possibility of fully sorbent collection after analysis, wide linear range and no need to organic solvents in extraction. PMID:26231896

  4. Ionic liquid coated magnetic core/shell Fe3O4@SiO2 nanoparticles for the separation/analysis of linuron in food samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jieping; Zhu, Xiashi

    2015-02-01

    Three hydrophobic ionic liquids (ILs) including 1-butyl-3-methylimidazole hexafluorophosphate ([BMIM]PF6), 1-hexyl-3-methyl-imidazole hexafluorophosphate ([HMIM]PF6), and 1-octyl-3-methylimidazole hexafluoro-phosphate ([OMIM]PF6) coated Fe3O4@SiO2 nanoparticles with core-shell structure to prepare magnetic solid phase extraction agent (Fe3O4@SiO2@ILs) and establish a new method of magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) coupled with UV spectrometry for separation/analysis of linuron. The results showed that linuron was adsorbed rapidly by Fe3O4@SiO2@[OMIM]PF6 and eluanted by ethanol. Under the optimal conditions, preconcentration factor of the proposed method was 10-fold. The linear range, detection limit, correlation coefficient (R) and relative standard deviation (RSD) were found to be 0.04-20.00 μg mL-1, 5.0 ng mL-1, 0.9993 and 2.8% (n = 3, c = 4.00 μg mL-1), respectively. The Fe3O4@SiO2 nanoparticles could be used repeatedly for 10 times. This proposed method has been successfully applied to the determination of linuron in food samples.

  5. Rapid degradation of Congo red by molecularly imprinted polypyrrole-coated magnetic TiO2 nanoparticles in dark at ambient conditions.

    PubMed

    Wei, Shoutai; Hu, Xiaolei; Liu, Hualong; Wang, Qiang; He, Chiyang

    2015-08-30

    A novel molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP)-coated magnetic TiO2 nanocomposite was prepared, using methyl orange (MO) as the dummy template and pyrrole as functional monomer, for degradation of Congo red (CR). The nanocomposite was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermo-gravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and vibrating sample magnetometer. The imprinting efficiency of the imprinted nanoparticles was investigated by static binding test, and their degradation ability toward CR was also studied. Moreover, the effects of pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen and oscillation rate on degradation rate of CR were investigated. Results showed that the imprinted nanocomposite had higher adsorption ability for MO compared with the non-imprinted one. Moreover, it could degrade CR rapidly in dark at room temperature and atmospheric pressure and could be recycled easily by a magnet with a good reusability. A degradation mechanism was proposed according to LC-MS analysis of degradation products of CR. The new imprinted nanoparticles showed high catalytic activity at ambient conditions without light illumination and additional chemicals, and therefore, it can be potentially applied to the rapid, "green" and low-cost degradation of CR in industrial printing and dyeing wastewater. PMID:25867589

  6. Generation of drugs coated iron nanoparticles through high energy ball milling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radhika Devi, A.; Chelvane, J. A.; Prabhakar, P. K.; Padma Priya, P. V.; Doble, Mukesh; Murty, B. S.

    2014-03-01

    The iron nanoparticles coated with oleic acid and drugs such as folic acid/Amoxicillin were synthesized by high energy ball milling and characterized by X-ray diffraction, Transmission electron microscope, zeta potential, dynamic light scattering, Fourier Transform Infra red (FT-IR) measurements, and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA). FT-IR and TGA measurements show good adsorption of drugs on oleic acid coated nanoparticles. Magnetic measurements indicate that saturation magnetization is larger for amoxicillin coated particles compared to folic acid coated particles. The biocompatibility of the magnetic nanoparticles prepared was evaluated by in vitro cytotoxicity assay using L929 cells as model cells.

  7. Generation of drugs coated iron nanoparticles through high energy ball milling

    SciTech Connect

    Radhika Devi, A.; Murty, B. S.; Chelvane, J. A.; Prabhakar, P. K.; Padma Priya, P. V.; Doble, Mukesh

    2014-03-28

    The iron nanoparticles coated with oleic acid and drugs such as folic acid/Amoxicillin were synthesized by high energy ball milling and characterized by X-ray diffraction, Transmission electron microscope, zeta potential, dynamic light scattering, Fourier Transform Infra red (FT-IR) measurements, and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA). FT-IR and TGA measurements show good adsorption of drugs on oleic acid coated nanoparticles. Magnetic measurements indicate that saturation magnetization is larger for amoxicillin coated particles compared to folic acid coated particles. The biocompatibility of the magnetic nanoparticles prepared was evaluated by in vitro cytotoxicity assay using L929 cells as model cells.

  8. Reduction of hematite with ethanol to produce magnetic nanoparticles of Fe3O4, Fe1 - x O or Fe0 coated with carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tristão, Juliana C.; Ardisson, José D.; Sansiviero, Maria Terezinha C.; Lago, Rochel M.

    2010-01-01

    The production of magnetic nanoparticles of Fe3O4 or Fe0 coated with carbon and carbon nanotubes was investigated by the reduction of hematite with ethanol in a Temperature Programmed Reaction up to 950°C. XRD and Mössbauer measurements showed after reaction at 350°C the partial reduction of hematite to magnetite. At 600°C the hematite is completely reduced to magnetite (59%), wüstite (39%) and metallic iron (7%). At higher temperatures, carbide and metallic iron are the only phases present. TG weight losses suggested the formation of 3-56 wt.% carbon deposits after reaction with ethanol. It was observed by SEM images a high concentration of nanometric carbon filaments on the material surface. BET analyses showed a slight increase in the surface area after reaction. These materials have potential application as catalyst support and removal of spilled oil contaminants.

  9. Magnetoacoustic Sensing of Magnetic Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellnberger, Stephan; Rosenthal, Amir; Myklatun, Ahne; Westmeyer, Gil G.; Sergiadis, George; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2016-03-01

    The interaction of magnetic nanoparticles and electromagnetic fields can be determined through electrical signal induction in coils due to magnetization. However, the direct measurement of instant electromagnetic energy absorption by magnetic nanoparticles, as it relates to particle characterization or magnetic hyperthermia studies, has not been possible so far. We introduce the theory of magnetoacoustics, predicting the existence of second harmonic pressure waves from magnetic nanoparticles due to energy absorption from continuously modulated alternating magnetic fields. We then describe the first magnetoacoustic system reported, based on a fiber-interferometer pressure detector, necessary for avoiding electric interference. The magnetoacoustic system confirmed the existence of previously unobserved second harmonic magnetoacoustic responses from solids, magnetic nanoparticles, and nanoparticle-loaded cells, exposed to continuous wave magnetic fields at different frequencies. We discuss how magnetoacoustic signals can be employed as a nanoparticle or magnetic field sensor for biomedical and environmental applications.

  10. Magnetoacoustic Sensing of Magnetic Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kellnberger, Stephan; Rosenthal, Amir; Myklatun, Ahne; Westmeyer, Gil G; Sergiadis, George; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2016-03-11

    The interaction of magnetic nanoparticles and electromagnetic fields can be determined through electrical signal induction in coils due to magnetization. However, the direct measurement of instant electromagnetic energy absorption by magnetic nanoparticles, as it relates to particle characterization or magnetic hyperthermia studies, has not been possible so far. We introduce the theory of magnetoacoustics, predicting the existence of second harmonic pressure waves from magnetic nanoparticles due to energy absorption from continuously modulated alternating magnetic fields. We then describe the first magnetoacoustic system reported, based on a fiber-interferometer pressure detector, necessary for avoiding electric interference. The magnetoacoustic system confirmed the existence of previously unobserved second harmonic magnetoacoustic responses from solids, magnetic nanoparticles, and nanoparticle-loaded cells, exposed to continuous wave magnetic fields at different frequencies. We discuss how magnetoacoustic signals can be employed as a nanoparticle or magnetic field sensor for biomedical and environmental applications. PMID:27015511

  11. Polypyrrole-coated magnetic nanoparticles as an efficient adsorbent for RB19 synthetic textile dye: Removal and kinetic study.

    PubMed

    Shanehsaz, Maryam; Seidi, Shahram; Ghorbani, Yousefali; Shoja, Seyed Mohammad Reza; Rouhani, Shohre

    2015-10-01

    The present work deals with the first attempt to study the removal of synthetic textile dye, reactive blue 19 (RB19), using the magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles modified by pyrrole (PPy@Fe3O4 MNPs) as an efficient adsorbent. The nanoadsorbent was synthesized using chemical co-precipitation. Scanning electron microscopy and FT-IR were used to characterize nanoparticles. Factors affecting the dye adsorption including the pH of the dye solution, amount of adsorbent and contact time were also further investigated. Sorption of the RB19 on PPy@Fe3O4 MNPs reached to equilibrium at contact time less than 10 min and fitted well to the Langmuir adsorption model with a maximum adsorption capacity of 112.36 mg g(-1). Experiments for adsorption kinetic were carried out and the data fitted well according to a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Moreover, the MNPs were recovered with over than 90% efficiency using methanol as elution agent. PMID:25978015

  12. Polypyrrole coated magnetite nanoparticles from water based nanofluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turcu, R.; Pana, O.; Nan, A.; Craciunescu, I.; Chauvet, O.; Payen, C.

    2008-12-01

    The synthesis and characterization of hybrid structures obtained by coating Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles from water based nanofluid with a polypyrrole (PPy) layer are reported. The thin amorphous layer of polypyrrole surrounding the crystalline magnetic core was observed by HRTEM. The FTIR spectra of the nanocomposites show that the absorption bands characteristic for pyrrole ring vibrations significantly shifted to lower frequencies in the nanocomposite spectra, which indicates a higher degree of oxidation of the PPy shell covering the magnetite as compared with conventional PPy. The existence of superparamagnetism in the investigated nanocomposites is evidenced by the missing hysterezis loop in the magnetization versus applied magnetic field dependences. The comparison between the physical size of nanoparticles determined from TEM analysis and the magnetic size deduced from magnetization measurements is discussed. The surface modification of magnetite by polypyrrole coating results in an increase in the saturation magnetization and of the apparent magnetic diameter of the nanoparticles. This novel effect is attributed to a charge transfer process from the conducting polymer to the surface iron ions of magnetite, producing an increase in the surface contribution to the overall magnetic moment of the nanoparticles.

  13. Synthesis of Polymer-Coated Magnetic Nanoparticles from Red Mud Waste for Enhanced Oil Recovery in Offshore Reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, T. P.; Le, U. T. P.; Ngo, K. T.; Pham, K. D.; Dinh, L. X.

    2016-04-01

    Buried red mud waste from groundwater refineries can cause pollution. The aim of this paper is to utilize this mud for the synthesis of Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). Then, MNPs are encapsulated by a copolymer of methyl methacrylate and 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonate via oleic acid linker. MNPs are prepared by a controlled co-precipitation method in the presence of a dispersant and surface-modified agents to achieve a high hydrophobic or hydrophilic surface. Mini-emulsion polymerization was conducted to construct a core-shell structure with MNPs as core and the copolymer as shell. The core-shell structure of the obtained particles enables them to disperse well in brine and to stabilize at high-temperature environments. The chemical structures and morphology of this nanocomposite were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and field emission scanning electron microscopy. The thermal stability of the nanocomposite was evaluated via a thermogravimetric analysis method for the solid state and an annealing experiment for the liquid state. The nanocomposite is about 14 nm, disperses well in brine and is thermally stable in the solid state. The blends of synthesized nanocomposite and carboxylate surfactant effectively reduced the interfacial tension between crude oil and brine, and remained thermally stable after 31 days annealed at 100°C. Therefore, a nanofluid of copolymer/magnetic nanocomposite can be applied as an enhanced oil recovery agent for harsh environments in offshore reservoirs.

  14. Synthesis of Polymer-Coated Magnetic Nanoparticles from Red Mud Waste for Enhanced Oil Recovery in Offshore Reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, T. P.; Le, U. T. P.; Ngo, K. T.; Pham, K. D.; Dinh, L. X.

    2016-07-01

    Buried red mud waste from groundwater refineries can cause pollution. The aim of this paper is to utilize this mud for the synthesis of Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). Then, MNPs are encapsulated by a copolymer of methyl methacrylate and 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonate via oleic acid linker. MNPs are prepared by a controlled co-precipitation method in the presence of a dispersant and surface-modified agents to achieve a high hydrophobic or hydrophilic surface. Mini-emulsion polymerization was conducted to construct a core-shell structure with MNPs as core and the copolymer as shell. The core-shell structure of the obtained particles enables them to disperse well in brine and to stabilize at high-temperature environments. The chemical structures and morphology of this nanocomposite were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and field emission scanning electron microscopy. The thermal stability of the nanocomposite was evaluated via a thermogravimetric analysis method for the solid state and an annealing experiment for the liquid state. The nanocomposite is about 14 nm, disperses well in brine and is thermally stable in the solid state. The blends of synthesized nanocomposite and carboxylate surfactant effectively reduced the interfacial tension between crude oil and brine, and remained thermally stable after 31 days annealed at 100°C. Therefore, a nanofluid of copolymer/magnetic nanocomposite can be applied as an enhanced oil recovery agent for harsh environments in offshore reservoirs.

  15. Copper(0) nanoparticles supported on silica-coated cobalt ferrite magnetic particles: cost effective catalyst in the hydrolysis of ammonia-borane with an exceptional reusability performance.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Murat; Zahmakiran, Mehmet; Ozkar, Saim; Volkan, Mürvet

    2012-08-01

    Herein we report the development of a new and cost-effective nanocomposite catalyst for the hydrolysis of ammonia-borane (NH(3)BH(3)), which is considered to be one of the most promising solid hydrogen carriers because of its high gravimetric hydrogen storage capacity (19.6% wt) and low molecular weight. The new catalyst system consisting of copper nanoparticles supported on magnetic SiO(2)/CoFe(2)O(4) particles was reproducibly prepared by wet-impregnation of Cu(II) ions on SiO(2)/CoFe(2)O(4) followed by in situ reduction of the Cu(II) ions on the surface of magnetic support during the hydrolysis of NH(3)BH(3) and characterized by ICP-MS, XRD, XPS, TEM, HR-TEM and N(2) adsorption-desorption technique. Copper nanoparticles supported on silica coated cobalt(II) ferrite SiO(2)/CoFe(2)O(4) (CuNPs@SCF) act as highly active catalyst in the hydrolysis of ammonia-borane, providing an initial turnover frequency of TOF = 2400 h(-1) at room temperature, which is not only higher than all the non-noble metal catalysts but also higher than the majority of the noble metal based homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts employed in the same reaction. More importantly, they were easily recovered by using a permanent magnet in the reactor wall and reused for up to 10 recycles without losing their inherent catalytic activity significantly, which demonstrates the exceptional reusability of the CuNPs@SCF catalyst. PMID:22856878

  16. 4-aminobenzoic acid-coated maghemite nanoparticles as potential anticancer drug magnetic carriers: a case study on highly cytotoxic Cisplatin-like complexes involving 7-azaindoles.

    PubMed

    Starha, Pavel; Stavárek, Martin; Tuček, Jiří; Trávníček, Zdeněk

    2014-01-01

    This study describes a one-pot synthesis of superparamagnetic maghemite-based 4-aminobenzoic acid-coated spherical core-shell nanoparticles (PABA@FeNPs) as suitable nanocomposites potentially usable as magnetic carriers for drug delivery. The PABA@FeNPs system was subsequently functionalized by the activated species (1* and 2*) of highly in vitro cytotoxic cis-[PtCl2(3Claza)2] (1; 3Claza stands for 3-chloro-7-azaindole) or cis-[PtCl2(5Braza)2] (2; 5Braza stands for 5-bromo-7-azaindole), which were prepared by a silver(I) ion assisted dechlorination of the parent dichlorido complexes. The products 1*@PABA@FeNPs and 2*@PABA@FeNPs, as well as an intermediate PABA@FeNPs, were characterized by a combination of various techniques, such as Mössbauer, FTIR and EDS spectroscopy, thermal analysis, SEM and TEM. The results showed that the products consist of well-dispersed maghemite-based nanoparticles of 13 nm average size that represent an easily obtainable system for delivery of highly cytotoxic cisplatin-like complexes in oncological practice. PMID:24476602

  17. Stabilizing Alginate Confinement and Polymer Coating of CO-Releasing Molecules Supported on Iron Oxide Nanoparticles To Trigger the CO Release by Magnetic Heating.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Hajo; Winkler, Felix; Kunz, Peter; Schmidt, Annette M; Hamacher, Alexandra; Kassack, Matthias U; Janiak, Christoph

    2015-12-01

    Maghemite (Fe2O3) iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) were synthesized, modified with covalent surface-bound CO-releasing molecules of a tri(carbonyl)-chlorido-phenylalaninato-ruthenium(II) complex (CORM), and coated with a dextran polymer. The time- and temperature-dependent CO release from this CORM-3 analogue was followed by a myoglobin assay. A new measurement method for the myoglobin assay was developed, based on confining "water-soluble" polymer-coated Dextran500k@CORM@IONP particles in hollow spheres of nontoxic and easily prepared calcium alginate. Dropping a mixture of Dextran500k@CORM@IONP and sodium alginate into a CaCl2 solution leads to stable hollow spheres of Ca(2+) cross-linked alginate which contain the Dextran500k@CORM@IONP particles. This "alginate-method" (i) protects CORM-3 analogues from rapid CO-displacement reactions with a protein, (ii) enables a spatial separation of the CORM from its surrounding myoglobin assay with the alginate acting as a CO-permeable membrane, and (iii) allows the use of substances with high absorptivity (such as iron oxide nanoparticles) in the myoglobin assay without interference in the optical path of the UV cell. Embedding the CORM@IONP nanoparticles in the alginate vessel represents a compartmentation of the reactive component and allows for close contact with, yet facile separation from, the surrounding myoglobin assay. The half-life of the CO release from Dextran500k@CORM@IONP particles surrounded by alginate was determined to be 890 ± 70 min at 20 °C. An acceleration of the CO release occurs at higher temperature with a half-life of 172 ± 27 min at 37 °C and 45 ± 7 min at 50 °C. The CO release can be triggered in an alternating current magnetic field (31.7 kA m(-1), 247 kHz, 39.9 mT) through local magnetic heating of the susceptible iron oxide nanoparticles. With magnetic heating at 20 °C in the bulk solution, the half-life of CO release from Dextran500k@CORM@IONP particles decreased to 155 ± 18 min

  18. Theranostic MUC-1 aptamer targeted gold coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for magnetic resonance imaging and photothermal therapy of colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Azhdarzadeh, Morteza; Atyabi, Fatemeh; Saei, Amir Ata; Varnamkhasti, Behrang Shiri; Omidi, Yadollah; Fateh, Mohsen; Ghavami, Mahdi; Shanehsazzadeh, Saeed; Dinarvand, Rassoul

    2016-07-01

    Favorable physiochemical properties and the capability to accommodate targeting moieties make superparamegnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) popular theranostic agents. In this study, we engineered SPIONs for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and photothermal therapy of colon cancer cells. SPIONs were synthesized by microemulsion method and were then coated with gold to reduce their cytotoxicity and to confer photothermal capabilities. Subsequently, the NPs were conjugated with thiol modified MUC-1 aptamers. The resulting NPs were spherical, monodisperse and about 19nm in size, as shown by differential light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). UV and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) confirmed the successful gold coating. MTT results showed that Au@SPIONs have insignificant cytotoxicity at the concentration range of 10-100μg/ml (P>0.05) and that NPs covered with protein corona exerted lower cytotoxicity than bare NPs. Furthermore, confocal microscopy confirmed the higher uptake of aptamer-Au@SPIONs in comparison with non-targeted SPIONs. MR imaging revealed that SPIONs produced significant contrast enhancement in vitro and they could be exploited as contrast agents. Finally, cells treated with aptamer-Au@SPIONs exhibited a higher death rate compared to control cells upon exposure to near infrared light (NIR). In conclusion, MUC1-aptamer targeted Au@SPIONs could serve as promising theranostic agents for simultaneous MR imaging and photothermal therapy of cancer cells. PMID:27015647

  19. Immobilization of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii CLH1 on APTES-Coated Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles and Its Potential in the Production of Chlorophyll Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Yen, Chih-Chung; Chuang, Yao-Chen; Ko, Chia-Yun; Chen, Long-Fang O; Chen, Sheau-Shyang; Lin, Chia-Jung; Chou, Yi-Li; Shaw, Jei-Fu

    2016-01-01

    Recombinant Chlamydomonas reinhardtii chlorophyllase 1 (CrCLH1) that could catalyze chlorophyll hydrolysis to chlorophyllide and phytol in vitro was successfully expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant CrCLH1 was immobilized through covalent binding with a cubic (3-aminopropyl) triethoxysilane (APTES) coating on magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MIONPs), which led to markedly improved enzyme performance and decreased biocatalyst costs for potential industrial application. The immobilized enzyme exhibited a high immobilization yield (98.99 ± 0.91 mg/g of gel) and a chlorophyllase assay confirmed that the immobilized recombinant CrCLH1 retained enzymatic activity (722.3 ± 50.3 U/g of gel). Biochemical analysis of the immobilized enzyme, compared with the free enzyme, showed higher optimal pH and pH stability for chlorophyll-a hydrolysis in an acidic environment (pH 3-5). In addition, compared with the free enzyme, the immobilized enzyme showed higher activity in chlorophyll-a hydrolysis in a high temperature environment (50-60 °C). Moreover, the immobilized enzyme retained a residual activity of more than 64% of its initial enzyme activity after 14 cycles in a repeated-batch operation. Therefore, APTES-coated MIONP-immobilized recombinant CrCLH1 can be repeatedly used to lower costs and is potentially useful for the industrial production of chlorophyll derivatives. PMID:27472309

  20. Study on iron oxide nanoparticles coated with glucose-derived polymers for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herea, D. D.; Chiriac, H.; Lupu, N.; Grigoras, M.; Stoian, G.; Stoica, B. A.; Petreus, T.

    2015-10-01

    This study reports an approach for a facile one-step synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) coated with glucose-derived polymers (GDP) through a mechanochemical hydrothermal process for biomedical applications. Polymer-coated magnetic nanoparticles (Fe2O3/Fe3O4), with sizes below 10 nm, exhibited superparamagnetic behavior, with a specific magnetization saturation value of about 40 emu/g, and a maximum specific absorption rate (SAR) of 30 W/g in AC magnetic fields. Depending on the intensity of the applied AC magnetic field, a temperature of 42 °C can be achieved in 4-17 min. The surface polymerized layer affords functional hydroxyl groups for binding to biomolecules containing carboxyl, thiol, or amino groups, thereby making the coated nanoparticles feasible for bio-conjugation. In vitro cytotoxicity evaluation pointed out that a relatively high concentration of polymer-coated magnetic nanoparticles (GDP-MNPs) did not induce severe cell alteration, suggesting a good biocompatibility.

  1. Evaluation of oxidative response and tissular damage in rat lungs exposed to silica-coated gold nanoparticles under static magnetic fields

    PubMed Central

    Ferchichi, Soumaya; Trabelsi, Hamdi; Azzouz, Inès; Hanini, Amel; Rejeb, Ahmed; Tebourbi, Olfa; Sakly, Mohsen; Abdelmelek, Hafedh

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of our study was the evaluation of toxicological effects of silica-coated gold nanoparticles (GNPs) and static magnetic fields (SMFs; 128 mT) exposure in rat lungs. Animals received a single injection of GNPs (1,100 µg/kg, 100 nm, intraperitoneally) and were exposed to SMFs, over 14 days (1 h/day). Results showed that GNPs treatment induced a hyperplasia of bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue. Fluorescence microscopy images showed that red fluorescence signal was detected in rat lungs after 2 weeks from the single injection of GNPs. Oxidative response study showed that GNPs exposure increased malondialdehyde level and decreased CuZn-superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase activities in rat lungs. Furthermore, the histopathological study showed that combined effects of GNPs and SMFs led to more tissular damages in rat lungs in comparison with GNPs-treated rats. Interestingly, intensity of red fluorescence signal was enhanced after exposure to SMFs indicating a higher accumulation of GNPs in rat lungs under magnetic environment. Moreover, rats coexposed to GNPs and SMFs showed an increased malondialdehyde level, a fall of CuZn-superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase activities in comparison with GNPs-treated group. Hence, SMFs exposure increased the accumulation of GNPs in rat lungs and led to more toxic effects of these nanocomplexes. PMID:27354800

  2. Evaluation of oxidative response and tissular damage in rat lungs exposed to silica-coated gold nanoparticles under static magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Ferchichi, Soumaya; Trabelsi, Hamdi; Azzouz, Inès; Hanini, Amel; Rejeb, Ahmed; Tebourbi, Olfa; Sakly, Mohsen; Abdelmelek, Hafedh

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of our study was the evaluation of toxicological effects of silica-coated gold nanoparticles (GNPs) and static magnetic fields (SMFs; 128 mT) exposure in rat lungs. Animals received a single injection of GNPs (1,100 µg/kg, 100 nm, intraperitoneally) and were exposed to SMFs, over 14 days (1 h/day). Results showed that GNPs treatment induced a hyperplasia of bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue. Fluorescence microscopy images showed that red fluorescence signal was detected in rat lungs after 2 weeks from the single injection of GNPs. Oxidative response study showed that GNPs exposure increased malondialdehyde level and decreased CuZn-superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase activities in rat lungs. Furthermore, the histopathological study showed that combined effects of GNPs and SMFs led to more tissular damages in rat lungs in comparison with GNPs-treated rats. Interestingly, intensity of red fluorescence signal was enhanced after exposure to SMFs indicating a higher accumulation of GNPs in rat lungs under magnetic environment. Moreover, rats coexposed to GNPs and SMFs showed an increased malondialdehyde level, a fall of CuZn-superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase activities in comparison with GNPs-treated group. Hence, SMFs exposure increased the accumulation of GNPs in rat lungs and led to more toxic effects of these nanocomplexes. PMID:27354800

  3. The effect of coating on heat generation properties of Iron oxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Yuan

    Magnetic nanoparticles have attracted more and more attention for their potential application as heating agents in cancer hyperthermia. The effectiveness of cancer hyperthermia can be increased by using particles that have a higher heat generation rate, quantified by specific absorption rate (SAR), at a smaller applied field. In order to optimize the functionality of nanoparticles as heating agents, it is essential to have a comprehensive understanding of factors that may influence SAR including coating and aggregation. In all biomedical applications, the magnetic particles are coated with surfactants and polymers to enhance biocompatibility, prevent agglomeration and add functionality. Coatings may profoundly influence particles' clustering behavior and magnetic properties. Yet its effect on the heat generation rate of the nanoparticles has been scarcely investigated. In this context, a systematic investigation was carried out in this dissertation in order to understand the impact of the surface coating of magnetic nanoparticles on their heat generation rate. The study also includes investigation of normal nerve cell viability in presence of biofunctionalized magnetic nanoparticles with and without exposure to magnetic heating. Commercially available suspensions of iron oxide nanoparticles with a diameter of approximately 10 nm and different coatings relevant to biomedical applications such as aminosilane, carboxymethyl-dextran, protein A, biotin were extensively characterized. First of all, magnetic phase reduction of magnetite nanoparticles was examined by studying the discrepancy between the volume fraction of magnetic phase calculated from magnetization curve and the magnetic core concentration obtained from Tiron chelation test. The findings indicated that coatings might interact with the surface atoms of the magnetic core and form a magnetically disordered layer reducing the total amount of the magnetic phase. Secondly, the impact of coating and aggregation

  4. Facile synthesis of zwitterionic polymer-coated core-shell magnetic nanoparticles for highly specific capture of N-linked glycopeptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yajing; Xiong, Zhichao; Zhang, Lingyi; Zhao, Jiaying; Zhang, Quanqing; Peng, Li; Zhang, Weibing; Ye, Mingliang; Zou, Hanfa

    2015-02-01

    Highly selective and efficient capture of glycosylated proteins and peptides from complex biological samples is of profound significance for the discovery of disease biomarkers in biological systems. Recently, hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC)-based functional materials have been extensively utilized for glycopeptide enrichment. However, the low amount of immobilized hydrophilic groups on the affinity material has limited its specificity, detection sensitivity and binding capacity in the capture of glycopeptides. Herein, a novel affinity material was synthesized to improve the binding capacity and detection sensitivity for glycopeptides by coating a poly(2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl)-dimethyl-(3-sulfopropyl) ammonium hydroxide (PMSA) shell onto Fe3O4@SiO2 nanoparticles, taking advantage of reflux-precipitation polymerization for the first time (denoted as Fe3O4@SiO2@PMSA). The thick polymer shell endows the nanoparticles with excellent hydrophilic property and several functional groups on the polymer chains. The resulting Fe3O4@SiO2@PMSA demonstrated an outstanding ability for glycopeptide enrichment with high selectivity, extremely high detection sensitivity (0.1 fmol), large binding capacity (100 mg g-1), high enrichment recovery (above 73.6%) and rapid magnetic separation. Furthermore, in the analysis of real complicated biological samples, 905 unique N-glycosylation sites from 458 N-glycosylated proteins were reliably identified in three replicate analyses of a 65 μg protein sample extracted from mouse liver, showing the great potential of Fe3O4@SiO2@PMSA in the detection and identification of low-abundance N-linked glycopeptides in biological samples.Highly selective and efficient capture of glycosylated proteins and peptides from complex biological samples is of profound significance for the discovery of disease biomarkers in biological systems. Recently, hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC)-based functional materials have

  5. Ac magnetic susceptibility study of in vivo nanoparticle biodistribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez, L.; Mejías, R.; Barber, D. F.; Veintemillas-Verdaguer, S.; Serna, C. J.; Lázaro, F. J.; Morales, M. P.

    2011-06-01

    We analysed magnetic nanoparticle biodistribution, before and after cytokine conjugation, in a mouse model by ac susceptibility measurements of the corresponding resected tissues. Mice received repeated intravenous injections of nanoparticle suspension for two weeks and they were euthanized 1 h after the last injection. In general, only 10% of the total injected nanoparticles after multiple exposures were found in tissues. The rest of the particles may probably be metabolized or excreted by the organism. Our findings indicate that the adsorption of interferon to DMSA-coated magnetic nanoparticles changes their biodistribution, reducing the presence of nanoparticles in lungs and therefore their possible toxicity. The specific targeting of the particles to tumour tissues by the use of an external magnetic field has also been studied. Magnetic nanoparticles were observed by transmission electron microscopy in the targeted tissue and quantified by ac magnetic susceptibility.

  6. Targeting intracellular compartments by magnetic polymeric nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kocbek, Petra; Kralj, Slavko; Kreft, Mateja Erdani; Kristl, Julijana

    2013-09-27

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) show a great promise for a wide specter of bioapplications, due to their characteristic magnetic properties exhibited only in the presence of magnetic field. Their advantages in the fields of magnetic drug targeting and imaging are well established and their safety is assumed, since iron oxide nanoparticles have already been approved for in vivo application, however, according to many literature reports the bare metal oxide nanoparticles may cause toxic effects on treated cells. Therefore, it is reasonable to prevent the direct interactions between metal oxide core and surrounding environment. In the current research ricinoleic acid coated maghemite nanoparticles were successfully synthesized, characterized and incorporated in the polymeric matrix, resulting in nanosized magnetic polymeric particles. The carrier system was shown to exhibit superparamagnetic properties and was therefore responsive towards external magnetic field. Bioevaluation using T47-D breast cancer cells confirmed internalization of magnetic polymeric nanoparticles (MNPs) and their intracellular localization in various subcellular compartments, depending on presence/absence of external magnetic field. However, the number of internalized MNPs observed by fluorescent and transmission electron microscopy was relatively low, making such way of targeting effective only for delivery of highly potent drugs. The scanning electron microscopy of treated cells revealed that MNPs influenced the cell adhesion, when external magnetic field was applied, and that treatment resulted in damaged apical plasma membrane right after exposure to the magnetic carrier. On the other hand, MNPs showed only reversibly reduced cellular metabolic activity in concentrations up to 200 μg/ml and, in the tested concentration the cell cycle distribution was within the normal range, indicating safety of the established magnetic carrier system for the treated cells. PMID:23603023

  7. Nanoparticle/Polymer Nanocomposite Bond Coat or Coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Sandi G.

    2011-01-01

    This innovation addresses the problem of coatings (meant to reduce gas permeation) applied to polymer matrix composites spalling off in service due to incompatibility with the polymer matrix. A bond coat/coating has been created that uses chemically functionalized nanoparticles (either clay or graphene) to create a barrier film that bonds well to the matrix resin, and provides an outstanding barrier to gas permeation. There is interest in applying clay nanoparticles as a coating/bond coat to a polymer matrix composite. Often, nanoclays are chemically functionalized with an organic compound intended to facilitate dispersion of the clay in a matrix. That organic modifier generally degrades at the processing temperature of many high-temperature polymers, rendering the clay useless as a nano-additive to high-temperature polymers. However, this innovation includes the use of organic compounds compatible with hightemperature polymer matrix, and is suitable for nanoclay functionalization, the preparation of that clay into a coating/bondcoat for high-temperature polymers, the use of the clay as a coating for composites that do not have a hightemperature requirement, and a comparable approach to the preparation of graphene coatings/bond coats for polymer matrix composites.

  8. RF susceptibility of magnetic nanoparticles and nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hariharan, Srikanth; Hajndl, Ranko; Sanders, Jeff; Carpenter, Everett; Sudarshan, T.

    2002-03-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles embedded in non-magnetic matrices like polymers or dielectric oxides are of great technological interest as the coating provides encapsulation and prevents grain growth and agglomeration. Moreover, in electromagnetic applications, the systems can be considered as nanocomposites with possible multi-functionality resulting from the magnetic and dielectric response. We have studied the static and dynamic magnetic properties of as-prepared nanoparticles (Fe, Co, γ-Fe_2O_3, MnFe_2O_4) and particles dispersed in a matrix (like polystyrene, SiO_2). The systems ranged from polymerized magnetic nanopowders synthesized using a microwave plasma method to highly monodisperse nanoparticles prepared by reverse-micelle techniques. The magnetic anisotropy and switching fields in these materials were systematically tracked over a wide range in temperatures and fields using a novel resonant RF method based on a tunnel-diode oscillator (TDO) operating at 10 MHz. This technique accurately probes the dynamic transverse susceptibility and has been validated in several nanoparticle systems. While the overall behavior of the transverse susceptibility can be described by standard Stoner-Wohlfarth formalism, there are subtle variations in the transverse susceptibility features including the approach to saturation that are different in the particles embedded in a dielectric matrix. A comparison between several systems and the role of matrix-mediated interactions will be discussed. HS acknowledges support from NSF through grant # NSF-ECS-0102622

  9. Enhancing Tumor Cell Response to Chemotherapy through the Targeted Delivery of Platinum Drugs Mediated by Highly Stable, Multifunctional Carboxymethylcellulose-Coated Magnetic Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Medříková, Zdenka; Novohradsky, Vojtech; Zajac, Juraj; Vrána, Oldřich; Kasparkova, Jana; Bakandritsos, Aristides; Petr, Martin; Zbořil, Radek; Brabec, Viktor

    2016-07-01

    The fabrication of nanoparticles using different formulations, and which can be used for the delivery of chemotherapeutics, has recently attracted considerable attention. We describe herein an innovative approach that may ultimately allow for the selective delivery of anticancer drugs to tumor cells by using an external magnet. A conventional antitumor drug, cisplatin, has been incorporated into new carboxymethylcellulose-stabilized magnetite nanoparticles conjugated with the fluorescent marker Alexa Fluor 488 or folic acid as targeting agent. The magnetic nanocarriers possess exceptionally high biocompatibility and colloidal stability. These cisplatin-loaded nanoparticles overcome the resistance mechanisms typical of free cisplatin. Moreover, experiments aimed at the localization of the nanoparticles driven by an external magnet in a medium that mimics physiological conditions confirmed that this localization can inhibit tumor cell growth site-specifically. PMID:27246144

  10. Extraction and preconcentration of formaldehyde in water by polypyrrole-coated magnetic nanoparticles and determination by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Safari, Meysam; Yamini, Yadollah; Tahmasebi, Elham; Latifeh, Farzad

    2015-10-01

    In this study, a simple and rapid extraction method based on the application of polypyrrole-coated Fe3 O4 nanoparticles as a magnetic solid-phase extraction sorbent was successfully developed for the extraction and preconcentration of trace amounts of formaldehyde after derivatization with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine. The analyses were performed by high-performance liquid chromatography followed by UV detection. Several variables affecting the extraction efficiency of the formaldehyde, i.e., sample pH, amount of sorbent, salt concentration, extraction time and desorption conditions were investigated and optimized. The best working conditions were as follows: sample pH, 5; amount of sorbent, 40 mg; NaCl concentration, 20% w/v; sample volume, 20 mL; extraction time, 12 min; and 100 μL of methanol for desorption of the formaldehyde within 3 min. Under the optimal conditions, the performance of the proposed method was studied in terms of linear dynamic range (10-500 μg/L), correlation coefficient (R(2) ≥ 0.998), precision (RSD% ≤ 5.5) and limit of detection (4 μg/L). Finally, the developed method was successfully applied for extraction and determination of formaldehyde in tap, rain and tomato water samples, and satisfactory results were obtained. PMID:26205228

  11. Dissolvable layered double hydroxide coated magnetic nanoparticles for extraction followed by high performance liquid chromatography for the determination of phenolic acids in fruit juices.

    PubMed

    Saraji, Mohammad; Ghani, Milad

    2014-10-31

    A magnesium-aluminum layered double hydroxide coated on magnetic nanoparticles was synthesized and used as a sorbent to extract some phenolic acids including p-hydroxy benzoic acid, caffeic acid, syringic acid, p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid from fruit juices. After extraction, the elution step was performed through dissolving double hydroxide layers containing the analytes by changing the solution pH. The extracted phenolic acids were separated and quantified using high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection. Experimental parameters such as sorbent amount, solution pH, desorption solvent volume and extraction time were studied and optimized. The linearity range of the method was between 2 and 500μgL(-1) with the determination coefficient (r(2)) higher than 0.991. Relative standard deviations for intra- and inter-day precision for the analytes at 100μgL(-1) were in the range of 4.3-9.2% and 4.9-8.6%, respectively. Batch-to-batch reproducibility at 100μgL(-1) concentration level was in the range of 7.8-11% (n=3). The limits of detection were between 0.44 and 1.3μgL(-1). Relative recoveries higher than 81% with RSDs in the range of 4.2-9.7% were obtained in the analysis of fruit juice samples. PMID:25260344

  12. Producing ultra-thin silica coatings on iron-oxide nanoparticles to improve their surface reactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kralj, Slavko; Makovec, Darko; Čampelj, Stanislav; Drofenik, Miha

    2010-07-01

    The reactivity of the relatively inert surfaces of iron-oxide magnetic nanoparticles can be significantly improved by coating the surfaces with silica. Unfortunately, however, this nonmagnetic silica layer tends to dilute the magnetic properties of the nanoparticles. Therefore, the silica layer should be as continuous, homogeneous, and as thin as possible. In this investigation we coated superparamagnetic maghemite nanoparticles by hydrolysis and the polycondensation of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS), with the ethanol solution of TEOS being added to a stable suspension of citric acid-coated nanoparticles. The influences of the various parameters of the procedure on the quality of the coatings were systematically evaluated. The quality of the silica layer was characterized using electron microscopy and by performing leaching of the nanoparticles in HCl, while the surface reactivity was tested by grafting (3-aminopropyl) triethoxysilane (APS) onto the nanoparticles. We observed that the surface concentration of the grafted APS strongly increased when the nanoparticles were coated with a silica layer. The choice of experimental conditions for the coating procedure that favors the heterogeneous nucleation of silica on the surfaces of the nanoparticles enabled the preparation of very thin silica layers, less than 2 nm thick. By decreasing the amount of added TEOS to correspond to a monolayer of -Si-OH at the nanoparticles' surfaces, their surface reactivity could be very much improved, and with a reduction in their magnetization of only ˜10%.

  13. Interaction of polyacrylic acid coated and non-coated iron oxide nanoparticles with human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Couto, Diana; Freitas, Marisa; Vilas-Boas, Vânia; Dias, Irene; Porto, Graça; Lopez-Quintela, M Arturo; Rivas, José; Freitas, Paulo; Carvalho, Félix; Fernandes, Eduarda

    2014-02-10

    Iron oxide nanoparticles (ION), with different coatings and sizes, have attracted extensive interest in the last years to be applied in drug delivery, cancer therapy and as contrast agents in imagiologic techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging. However, the safety of these nanoparticles is still not completely established, particularly to host defense systems that are usually recruited for their clearance from the body. In this paper, given the importance of neutrophils in the immune response of the organism to nanoparticles, the effect of polyacrylic acid (PAA)-coated and non-coated ION on human neutrophils was evaluated in vitro, namely their capacity to activate the oxidative burst and to modify their lifespan. The obtained results showed that the studied PAA-coated and non-coated ION triggered neutrophils' oxidative burst in a NADPH oxidase dependent manner, and that PAA-coated ION increased - while non-coated ION prevented - apoptotic signaling and apoptosis. These effects may have important clinical implications in biomedical applications of ION. PMID:24291037

  14. Tailoring magnetic nanoparticle for transformers application.

    PubMed

    Morais, P C; Silva, A S; Leite, E S; Garg, V K; Oliveira, A C; Viali, W R; Sartoratto, P P C

    2010-02-01

    In this study photoacoustic spectroscopy was used to investigate the effect of dilution of an oil-based magnetic fluid sample on the magnetic nanoparticle surface-coating. Changes of the photoacoustic signal intensity on the band-L region (640 to 830 nm) upon dilution of the stock magnetic fluid sample were discussed in terms of molecular surface desorption. The model proposed here assumes that the driving force taking the molecules out from the nanoparticle surface into the bulk solvent is the gradient of osmotic pressure. This gradient of osmotic pressure is established between the nanoparticle surface and the bulk suspension. It is further assumed that the photoacoustic signal intensity (area under the photoacoustic spectra) scales linearly with the number of coating molecules (surface grafting) at the nanoparticle surface. This model picture provides a non-linear analytical description for the reduction of the surface grafting coefficient upon dilution, which was successfully-used to curve-fit the photoacoustic experimental data. PMID:20352784

  15. Dielectrophoresis-magnetophoresis force driven magnetic nanoparticle movement in transformer oil based magnetic fluids.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong-Chul; Lee, Sangyoup

    2013-09-01

    Magnetic fluid is a stable colloidal mixture contained magnetic nanoparticles coated with a surfactant. Recently, it was found that the fluid has properties to increase heat transfer and dielectric characteristics due to the added magnetic nanoparticles in transformer oils. The magnetic nanoparticles in the fluid experience an electrical force directed toward the place of maximum electric field strength when the electric field is applied. And when the external magnetic field is applied, the magnetic nanoparticles form long chains oriented along the direction of the field. The behaviors of magnetic nanoparticles in both the fields must play an important role in changing the heat transfer and dielectric characteristics of the fluids. In this study, we visualized the movement of magnetic nanoparticles influenced by both the fields applied in-situ. It was found that the magnetic nanoparticles travel in the region near the electrode by the electric field and form long chains along the field direction by the magnetic field. It can be inferred that the movement of magnetic nanoparticles appears by both the fields, and the breakdown voltage of transformer oil based magnetic fluids might be influenced according to the dispersion of magnetic nanoparticles. PMID:24205624

  16. Versatile ferrofluids based on polyethylene glycol coated iron oxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brullot, W.; Reddy, N. K.; Wouters, J.; Valev, V. K.; Goderis, B.; Vermant, J.; Verbiest, T.

    2012-06-01

    Versatile ferrofluids based on polyethylene glycol coated iron oxide nanoparticles were obtained by a facile protocol and thoroughly characterized. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles synthesized using a modified forced hydrolysis method were functionalized with polyethylene glycol silane (PEG silane), precipitated and dried. These functionalized particles are dispersable in a range of solvents and concentrations depending on the desired properties. Examples of tunable properties are magnetic behavior, optical and magneto-optical response, thermal features and rheological behavior. As such, PEG silane functionalized particles represent a platform for the development of new materials that have broad applicability in e.g. biomedical, industrial or photonic environments. Magnetic, optical, magneto-optical, thermal and rheological properties of several ferrofluids based on PEG coated particles with different concentrations of particles dispersed in low molecular mass polyethylene glycol were investigated, establishing the applicability of such materials.

  17. Pulsed Plasma Synthesis of Iron and Nickel Nanoparticles Coated by Carbon for Medical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullaeva, Zhypargul; Omurzak, Emil; Iwamoto, Chihiro; Ihara, Hirotaka; Subban Ganapathy, Hullathy; Sulaimankulova, Saadat; Koinuma, Michio; Mashimo, Tsutomu

    2013-01-01

    Fe and Ni magnetic nanoparticles coated by carbon were synthesized between the Fe-Fe and Ni-Ni metal electrodes, submerged in ethanol using pulsed plasma in a liquid method. Iron coated carbon (Fe@C) nanoparticles have an average size of 32 nm, and Ni@C nanoparticles are 40 nm. Obtained samples exhibit a well-defined crystalline structure of the inner Fe and Ni cores, encapsulated in the graphitic carbon coatings. Cytotoxicity studies performed on the MCF-7 (breast cancer) cell line showed small toxicity about 88-74% at 50 µg/mL of Fe@C and Ni@C nanoparticles, which can be significant criteria for use them in medical cancer treatment. In addition, appropriate sizes, good magnetic properties and well-organized graphitic carbon coatings are highlight merits of Fe@C and Ni@C nanoparticles synthesized by pulsed plasma.

  18. The effect of coating on heat generation properties of Iron oxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Yuan

    Magnetic nanoparticles have attracted more and more attention for their potential application as heating agents in cancer hyperthermia. The effectiveness of cancer hyperthermia can be increased by using particles that have a higher heat generation rate, quantified by specific absorption rate (SAR), at a smaller applied field. In order to optimize the functionality of nanoparticles as heating agents, it is essential to have a comprehensive understanding of factors that may influence SAR including coating and aggregation. In all biomedical applications, the magnetic particles are coated with surfactants and polymers to enhance biocompatibility, prevent agglomeration and add functionality. Coatings may profoundly influence particles' clustering behavior and magnetic properties. Yet its effect on the heat generation rate of the nanoparticles has been scarcely investigated. In this context, a systematic investigation was carried out in this dissertation in order to understand the impact of the surface coating of magnetic nanoparticles on their heat generation rate. The study also includes investigation of normal nerve cell viability in presence of biofunctionalized magnetic nanoparticles with and without exposure to magnetic heating. Commercially available suspensions of iron oxide nanoparticles with a diameter of approximately 10 nm and different coatings relevant to biomedical applications such as aminosilane, carboxymethyl-dextran, protein A, biotin were extensively characterized. First of all, magnetic phase reduction of magnetite nanoparticles was examined by studying the discrepancy between the volume fraction of magnetic phase calculated from magnetization curve and the magnetic core concentration obtained from Tiron chelation test. The findings indicated that coatings might interact with the surface atoms of the magnetic core and form a magnetically disordered layer reducing the total amount of the magnetic phase. Secondly, the impact of coating and aggregation

  19. Polyelectrolyte coating of ferumoxytol nanoparticles for labeling of dendritic cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celikkin, Nehar; Jakubcová, Lucie; Zenke, Martin; Hoss, Mareike; Wong, John Erik; Hieronymus, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Engineered magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are emerging to be used as cell tracers, drug delivery vehicles, and contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for enhanced theragnostic applications in biomedicine. In vitro labeling of target cell populations with MNPs and their implantation into animal models and patients shows promising outcomes in monitoring successful cell engraftment, differentiation and migration by using MRI. Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen-presenting cells that initiate adaptive immune responses. Thus, DCs have been the focus of cellular immunotherapy and are increasingly applied in clinical trials. Here, we addressed the coating of different polyelectrolytes (PE) around ferumoxytol particles using the layer-by-layer technique. The impact of PE-coated ferumoxytol particles for labeling of DCs and Flt3+ DC progenitors was then investigated. The results from our studies revealed that PE-coated ferumoxytol particles can be readily employed for labeling of DC and DC progenitors and thus are potentially suitable as contrast agents for MRI tracking.

  20. Magnetic Nanoparticles for Biomedical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Ying

    Nanotechnology is revolutionizing human's life. Synthesis and application of magnetic nanoparticles is a fast burgeoning field which has potential to bring significant advance in many fields, for example diagnosis and treatment in biomedical area. Novel nanoparticles to function efficiently and intelligently are in desire to improve the current technology. We used a magnetron-sputtering-based nanocluster deposition technique to synthesize magnetic nanoparticles in gas phase, and specifically engineered nanoparticles for different applications. Alternating magnetic field heating is emerging as a technique to assist cancer treatment or drug delivery. We proposed high-magnetic-moment Fe3Si particles with relatively large magnetic anisotropy energy should in principle provide superior performance. Such nanoparticles were experimentally synthesized and characterized. Their promising magnetic properties can contribute to heating performance under suitable alternating magnetic field conditions. When thermal energy is used for medical treatment, it is ideal to work in a designed temperature range. Biocompatible and "smart" magnetic nanoparticles with temperature self-regulation were designed from both materials science and biomedicine aspects. We chose Fe-Si material system to demonstrate the concept. Temperature dependent physical property was adjusted by tuning of exchange coupling between Fe atoms through incorporation of various amount of Si. The magnetic moment can still be kept in a promising range. The two elements are both biocompatible, which is favored by in-vivo medical applications. A combination of "smart" magnetic particles and thermo-sensitive polymer were demonstrated to potentially function as a platform for drug delivery. Highly sensitive diagnosis for point-of-care is in desire nowadays. We developed composition- and phase-controlled Fe-Co nanoparticles for bio-molecule detection. It has been demonstrated that Fe70Co30 nanoparticles and giant

  1. Effect of coating thickness of iron oxide nanoparticles on their relaxivity in the MRI

    PubMed Central

    Hajesmaeelzadeh, Farzaneh; Shanehsazzadeh, Saeed; Grüttner, Cordula; Daha, Fariba Johari; Oghabian, Mohammad Ali

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Iron oxide nanoparticles have found prevalent applications in various fields including drug delivery, cell separation and as contrast agents. Super paramagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles allow researchers and clinicians to enhance the tissue contrast of an area of interest by increasing the relaxation rate of water. In this study, we evaluate the dependency of hydrodynamic size of iron oxide nanoparticles coated with Polyethylene glycol (PEG) on their relativities with 3 Tesla clinical MRI. Materials and Methods: We used three groups of nanoparticles with nominal sizes 20, 50 and 100 nm with a core size of 8.86 nm, 8.69 nm and 10.4 nm that they were covered with PEG 300 and 600 Da. A clinical magnetic resonance scanner determines the T1 and T2 relaxation times for various concentrations of PEG-coated nanoparticles. Results: The size measurement by photon correlation spectroscopy showed the hydrodynamic sizes of MNPs with nominal 20, 50 and 100 nm with 70, 82 and 116 nm for particles with PEG 600 coating and 74, 93 and 100 nm for particles with PEG 300 coating, respectively. We foud that the relaxivity decreased with increasing overall particle size (via coating thickness). Magnetic resonance imaging showed that by increasing the size of the nanoparticles, r2/r1 increases linearly. Conclusion: According to the data obtained from this study it can be concluded that increments in coating thickness have more influence on relaxivities compared to the changes in core size of magnetic nanoparticles. PMID:27081461

  2. Photo-Switching of Magnetization in Iron Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Aqtash, Nabil; Hostetter, Alexander; Sabirianov, Renat

    2012-02-01

    We report the theoretical studies of light induced switching in core-shell nanoparticles. The core of the nanoparticle is made of Fe coated with the shell of azobenzene. The latter is a photochromic material with the reversible trans-cis photoisomerization upon irradiation by UV and visible light. The magnetization of nanoparticles can be reversibly switched by using specific wavelengths of light. trans-cis photoisomerization of azobenzene induces both the change in surface local magnetic moments and alters the exchange interactions on the surfaces of the nanoparticles. These two mechanisms can lead to induced magnetization switchable by light pulse. We study the effects of photoisomerization of azobenzene on iron (Fe) nanoparticle. Ab initio calculations using SIESTA code show that the ferromagnetic (FM) and antiferromagnetic (AFM) exchange interaction in Fe dimer increase by 40% due to photoisomerization of azobenzene. While an infinite flat Fe monolayer shows variation on the exchange interactions on the surfaces as result of photoisomerization. The local magnetic moments of Fe sheet increase by 6% due to photoisomerization. Using an ab initio parameterization of magnetic interactions, we propose statistical model based on competing exchange interactions for the investigation of Fe nanoparticle magnetization. We performed Monte Carlo simulations of magnetization of the core-shell nanoparticle as a function of temperature. The results show that Fe nanoparticles magnetization at room temperature can change by at least 40% due to photoisomerization of azobenzene.

  3. Surface functionalization for tailoring the aggregation and magnetic behaviour of silica-coated iron oxide nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roca, A. G.; Carmona, D.; Miguel-Sancho, N.; Bomatí-Miguel, O.; Balas, F.; Piquer, C.; Santamaría, J.

    2012-04-01

    We report here a detailed structural and magnetic study of different silica nanocapsules containing uniform and highly crystalline maghemite nanoparticles. The magnetic phase consists of 5 nm triethylene glycol (TREG)- or dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA)-coated maghemite particles. TREG-coated nanoparticles were synthesized by thermal decomposition. In a second step, TREG ligands were exchanged by DMSA. After the ligand exchange, the ζ potential of the particles changed from - 10 to - 40 mV, whereas the hydrodynamic size remained constant at around 15 nm. Particles coated by TREG and DMSA were encapsulated in silica following a sol-gel procedure. The encapsulation of TREG-coated nanoparticles led to large magnetic aggregates, which were embedded in coalesced silica structures. However, DMSA-coated nanoparticles led to small magnetic clusters inserted in silica spheres of around 100 nm. The final nanostructures can be described as the result of several competing factors at play. Magnetic measurements indicate that in the TREG-coated nanoparticles the interparticle magnetic interaction scenario has not dramatically changed after the silica encapsulation, whereas in the DMSA-coated nanoparticles, the magnetic interactions were screened due to the function of the silica template. Moreover, the analysis of the AC susceptibility suggests that our systems essentially behave as cluster spin glass systems.

  4. Photodegradation of Eosin Y Using Silver-Doped Magnetic Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Alzahrani, Eman

    2015-01-01

    The purification of industrial wastewater from dyes is becoming increasingly important since they are toxic or carcinogenic to human beings. Nanomaterials have been receiving significant attention due to their unique physical and chemical properties compared with their larger-size counterparts. The aim of the present investigation was to fabricate magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) using a coprecipitation method, followed by coating with silver (Ag) in order to enhance the photocatalytic activity of the MNPs by loading metal onto them. The fabricated magnetic nanoparticles coated with Ag were characterised using different instruments such as a scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDAX) spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The average size of the magnetic nanoparticles had a mean diameter of about 48 nm, and the average particle size changed to 55 nm after doping. The fabricated Ag-doped magnetic nanoparticles were used for the degradation of eosin Y under UV-lamp irradiation. The experimental results revealed that the use of fabricated magnetic nanoparticles coated with Ag can be considered as reliable methods for the removal of eosin Y since the slope of evaluation of pseudo-first-order rate constant from the slope of the plot between ln⁡(Co/C) and the irradiation time was found to be linear. Ag-Fe3O4 nanoparticles would be considered an efficient photocatalyst to degrade textile dyes avoiding the tedious filtration step. PMID:26617638

  5. Photodegradation of Eosin Y Using Silver-Doped Magnetic Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Alzahrani, Eman

    2015-01-01

    The purification of industrial wastewater from dyes is becoming increasingly important since they are toxic or carcinogenic to human beings. Nanomaterials have been receiving significant attention due to their unique physical and chemical properties compared with their larger-size counterparts. The aim of the present investigation was to fabricate magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) using a coprecipitation method, followed by coating with silver (Ag) in order to enhance the photocatalytic activity of the MNPs by loading metal onto them. The fabricated magnetic nanoparticles coated with Ag were characterised using different instruments such as a scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDAX) spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The average size of the magnetic nanoparticles had a mean diameter of about 48 nm, and the average particle size changed to 55 nm after doping. The fabricated Ag-doped magnetic nanoparticles were used for the degradation of eosin Y under UV-lamp irradiation. The experimental results revealed that the use of fabricated magnetic nanoparticles coated with Ag can be considered as reliable methods for the removal of eosin Y since the slope of evaluation of pseudo-first-order rate constant from the slope of the plot between ln⁡(C o /C) and the irradiation time was found to be linear. Ag-Fe3O4 nanoparticles would be considered an efficient photocatalyst to degrade textile dyes avoiding the tedious filtration step. PMID:26617638

  6. Analytical characteristics and application of novel chitosan coated magnetic nanoparticles as an efficient drug delivery system for ciprofloxacin. Enhanced drug release kinetics by low-frequency ultrasounds.

    PubMed

    Kariminia, Samira; Shamsipur, Ali; Shamsipur, Mojtaba

    2016-09-10

    A pH-responsive drug carrier based on chitosan coated iron oxide nanoparticles (CS-Fe3O4) for prolonged antibiotic release in a controlled manner is reported. As an antibiotic drug model, ciprofloxacin was loaded onto the nanocarrier via H-bonding interactions. The nanoparticles were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, photon correlation spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The particle size of CS-Fe3O4 nanoparticles were found to lie in the range of 30-80nm. The analytical characteristics of the designed system were thoroughly investigated. The in vitro drug loading at pH 4.8 and release kinetics at pH 7.4 studies revealed that the drug delivery system can take 99% of ciprofloxacin load and quantitatively release the drug over a sustained period of 5 days. The release kinetics study indicated that the system follows a zero order kinetics via a diffusion-controlled mechanism. These results indicated that CS-Fe3O4 nanoparticles have the potential for use as controlled antibiotic delivery systems through oral administration by avoiding the drug release in the highly acidic gastric fluid region of the stomach. Furthermore, the ability of low-frequency ultrasound in fast release of the encapsulated drug in less than 60min from the CS-Fe3O4 nanoparticles in a controlled manner was confirmed. PMID:27497305

  7. Determination of Montelukast in Plasma Using β - Cyclodextrins Coated on CoFe2O4 Magnetic Nanoparticles in Luminol-H2O2 Chemiluminescence System Optimized by Doehlert Design.

    PubMed

    Samadi-Maybodi, Abdolraouf; Bakhtiar, Alireza; Fatemi, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-05-01

    A novel chemiluminescence method using β - cyclodextrins coated on CoFe2O4 magnetic nanoparticles is proposed for the chemiluminometric determination of montelukast in plasma. The effect of coated β - cyclodexterinon CoFe2O4 magnetic nanoparticles in the chemiluminescence of luminol-H2O2 system was investigated. It was found that β - cyclodexterin coated on CoFe2O4 magnetic nanoparticles could greatly enhance the chemiluminescence of the luminol-H2O2 system. Doehlert design was applied in order to optimize the number of experiments to be carried out to ascertain the possible interactions between the parameters and their effects on the chemiluminescence emission intensity. This design was selected because the levels of each variable may vary in a very efficient way with few experiments. Doehlert design and response surface methodology have been employed for optimization pH and concentrations of the components. Results showed under the optimized experimental conditions, the relative CL intensity (ΔI) is increased linearly in the concentration range of 0.003-0.586 μgml(-1) of montelukast with limit of detection (LOD) 1.09 × 10(-4) μgml(-1) at S/N ratio of 3, limit of quantitative (LOQ) 3.59 × 10(-4) μgml(-1) and the relative standard deviation 2.63 %. The method has been successfully applied to the determination of montelukast in plasma of human body. Results specified that relative chemiluminescence intensity (ΔI) has good proportional with the montelukast concentration with R(2) = 0.99979. The test of the recovery efficiency for known amounts of montelukast was also performed, the recoveries range obtained from 98.2 to 103.3 %, with RSDs of <4 % indicated that the proposed method was reliable. PMID:26979057

  8. Enzymatic Synthesis of Magnetic Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Kolhatkar, Arati G.; Dannongoda, Chamath; Kourentzi, Katerina; Jamison, Andrew C.; Nekrashevich, Ivan; Kar, Archana; Cacao, Eliedonna; Strych, Ulrich; Rusakova, Irene; Martirosyan, Karen S.; Litvinov, Dmitri; Lee, T. Randall; Willson, Richard C.

    2015-01-01

    We report the first in vitro enzymatic synthesis of paramagnetic and antiferromagnetic nanoparticles toward magnetic ELISA reporting. With our procedure, alkaline phosphatase catalyzes the dephosphorylation of l-ascorbic-2-phosphate, which then serves as a reducing agent for salts of iron, gadolinium, and holmium, forming magnetic precipitates of Fe45±14Gd5±2O50±15 and Fe42±4Ho6±4O52±5. The nanoparticles were found to be paramagnetic at 300 K and antiferromagnetic under 25 K. Although weakly magnetic at 300 K, the room-temperature magnetization of the nanoparticles found here is considerably greater than that of analogous chemically-synthesized LnxFeyOz (Ln = Gd, Ho) samples reported previously. At 5 K, the nanoparticles showed a significantly higher saturation magnetization of 45 and 30 emu/g for Fe45±14Gd5±2O50±15 and Fe42±4Ho6±4O52±5, respectively. Our approach of enzymatically synthesizing magnetic labels reduces the cost and avoids diffusional mass-transfer limitations associated with pre-synthesized magnetic reporter particles, while retaining the advantages of magnetic sensing. PMID:25854425

  9. Enzymatic synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kolhatkar, Arati G; Dannongoda, Chamath; Kourentzi, Katerina; Jamison, Andrew C; Nekrashevich, Ivan; Kar, Archana; Cacao, Eliedonna; Strych, Ulrich; Rusakova, Irene; Martirosyan, Karen S; Litvinov, Dmitri; Lee, T Randall; Willson, Richard C

    2015-01-01

    We report the first in vitro enzymatic synthesis of paramagnetic and antiferromagnetic nanoparticles toward magnetic ELISA reporting. With our procedure, alkaline phosphatase catalyzes the dephosphorylation of l-ascorbic-2-phosphate, which then serves as a reducing agent for salts of iron, gadolinium, and holmium, forming magnetic precipitates of Fe45±14Gd5±2O50±15 and Fe42±4Ho6±4O52±5. The nanoparticles were found to be paramagnetic at 300 K and antiferromagnetic under 25 K. Although weakly magnetic at 300 K, the room-temperature magnetization of the nanoparticles found here is considerably greater than that of analogous chemically-synthesized LnxFeyOz (Ln = Gd, Ho) samples reported previously. At 5 K, the nanoparticles showed a significantly higher saturation magnetization of 45 and 30 emu/g for Fe45±14Gd5±2O50±15 and Fe42±4Ho6±4O52±5, respectively. Our approach of enzymatically synthesizing magnetic labels reduces the cost and avoids diffusional mass-transfer limitations associated with pre-synthesized magnetic reporter particles, while retaining the advantages of magnetic sensing. PMID:25854425

  10. Magnetic hyperthermia with hard-magnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashevsky, Bronislav E.; Kashevsky, Sergey B.; Korenkov, Victor S.; Istomin, Yuri P.; Terpinskaya, Tatyana I.; Ulashchik, Vladimir S.

    2015-04-01

    Recent clinical trials of magnetic hyperthermia have proved, and even hardened, the Ankinson-Brezovich restriction as upon magnetic field conditions applicable to any site of human body. Subject to this restriction, which is harshly violated in numerous laboratory and small animal studies, magnetic hyperthermia can relay on rather moderate heat source, so that optimization of the whole hyperthermia system remains, after all, the basic problem predetermining its clinical perspectives. We present short account of our complex (theoretical, laboratory and small animal) studies to demonstrate that such perspectives should be related with the hyperthermia system based on hard-magnetic (Stoner-Wohlfarth type) nanoparticles and strong low-frequency fields rather than with superparamagnetic (Brownian or Neél) nanoparticles and weak high-frequency fields. This conclusion is backed by an analytical evaluation of the maximum absorption rates possible under the field restriction in the ideal hard-magnetic (Stoner-Wohlarth) and the ideal superparamagnetic (single relaxation time) systems, by theoretical and experimental studies of the dynamic magnetic hysteresis in suspensions of movable hard-magnetic particles, by producing nanoparticles with adjusted coercivity and suspensions of such particles capable of effective energy absorption and intratumoral penetration, and finally, by successful treatment of a mice model tumor under field conditions acceptable for whole human body.

  11. Versatile magnetometer assembly for characterizing magnetic properties of nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araujo, J. F. D. F.; Bruno, A. C.; Louro, S. R. W.

    2015-10-01

    We constructed a versatile magnetometer assembly for characterizing iron oxide nanoparticles. The magnetometer can be operated at room temperature or inside a cryocooler at temperatures as low as 6 K. The magnetometer's sensor can be easily exchanged and different detection electronics can be used. We tested the assembly with a non-cryogenic commercial Hall sensor and a benchtop multimeter in a four-wire resistance measurement scheme. A magnetic moment sensitivity of 8.5 × 10-8 Am2 was obtained with this configuration. To illustrate the capability of the assembly, we synthesized iron oxide nanoparticles coated with different amounts of a triblock copolymer, Pluronic F-127, and characterized their magnetic properties. We determined that the polymer coating does not affect the magnetization of the particles at room temperature and demonstrates that it is possible to estimate the average size of coating layers from measurements of the magnetic field of the sample.

  12. Versatile magnetometer assembly for characterizing magnetic properties of nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Araujo, J. F. D. F.; Bruno, A. C.; Louro, S. R. W.

    2015-10-15

    We constructed a versatile magnetometer assembly for characterizing iron oxide nanoparticles. The magnetometer can be operated at room temperature or inside a cryocooler at temperatures as low as 6 K. The magnetometer’s sensor can be easily exchanged and different detection electronics can be used. We tested the assembly with a non-cryogenic commercial Hall sensor and a benchtop multimeter in a four-wire resistance measurement scheme. A magnetic moment sensitivity of 8.5 × 10{sup −8} Am{sup 2} was obtained with this configuration. To illustrate the capability of the assembly, we synthesized iron oxide nanoparticles coated with different amounts of a triblock copolymer, Pluronic F-127, and characterized their magnetic properties. We determined that the polymer coating does not affect the magnetization of the particles at room temperature and demonstrates that it is possible to estimate the average size of coating layers from measurements of the magnetic field of the sample.

  13. Silica-coated La0.75Sr0.25MnO3 nanoparticles for magnetically driven DNA isolation.

    PubMed

    Trachtová, Stěpánka; Kaman, Ondřej; Spanová, Alena; Veverka, Pavel; Pollert, Emil; Rittich, Bohuslav

    2011-11-01

    Magnetic La(0.75)Sr(0.25)MnO(3) nanoparticles possessing an approximately 20-nm-thick silica shell (LSMO(0.25)@SiO(2) ) were characterised and tested for the isolation of PCR-ready bacterial DNA. The results presented here show that the nanoparticles do not interfere in PCR. DNA was apparently reversibly adsorbed on their silica shell from the aqueous phase system (16% PEG 6000-2 M NaCl). The method proposed was used for DNA isolation from complex food samples (dairy products and probiotic food supplements). The isolated DNA was compatible with PCR. The main advantages of the nanoparticles tested for routine use were their high colloidal stability allowing a more precise dosage and therefore high reproducibility of DNA isolation. PMID:21919199

  14. Water-soluble rhamnose-coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Lartigue, Lenaic; Oumzil, Khalid; Guari, Yannick; Larionova, Joulia; Guérin, Christian; Montero, Jean-Louis; Barragan-Montero, Veronique; Sangregorio, Claudio; Caneschi, Andrea; Innocenti, Claudia; Kalaivani, T; Arosio, P; Lascialfari, A

    2009-07-16

    Water-soluble biocompatible rhamnose-coated Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles of 4.0 nm are obtained by covalent anchorage of rhamnose on the nanoparticles surface via a phosphate linker. These nanoparticles present superparamagnetic behavior and nuclear relaxivities in the same order of magnitude as Endorem that make them potential magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents of a second generation, where the saccharides represent also specific ligands able to target lectins on skin cells. PMID:19545163

  15. Cetyltrimethylammonium Bromide-Coated Fe₃O₄ Magnetic Nanoparticles for Analysis of 15 Trace Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Aquatic Environments by Ultraperformance, Liquid Chromatography With Fluorescence Detection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hao; Zhao, Xiaoli; Meng, Wei; Wang, Peifang; Wu, Fengchang; Tang, Zhi; Han, Xuejiao; Giesy, John P

    2015-08-01

    Accurate determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface waters is necessary for protection of the environment from adverse effects that can occur at concentrations which require preconcentration to be detected. In this study, an effective solid phase extraction (SPE) method based on cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)-coated Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) was developed for extraction of trace quantities of PAHs from natural waters. An enrichment factor of 800 was achieved within 5 min by use of 100 mg of Fe3O4 MNPs and 50 mg of CTAB. Compared with conventional liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), C18 SPE cartridge and some newly developed methods, the SPE to determine bioaccessible fraction was more convenient, efficient, time-saving, and cost-effective. To evaluate the performance of this novel sorbent, five natural samples including rainwater, river waters, wastewater, and tap water spiked with 15 PAHs were analyzed by use of ultraperformance, liquid chromatography (UPLC) with fluorescence detection (FLD). Limits of determination (LOD) of PAHs (log Kow ≥ 4.46) ranged from 0.4 to 10.3 ng/L, with mean recoveries of 87.95 ± 16.16, 85.92 ± 10.19, 82.89 ± 5.25, 78.90 ± 9.90, and 59.23 ± 3.10% for rainwater, upstream and downstream river water, wastewater, and tap water, respectively. However, the effect of dissolved organic matter (DOM) on recovery of PAHs varied among matrixes. Because of electrostatic adsorption and hydrophobicity, DOM promoted adsorption of Fe3O4 MNPs to PAHs from samples of water from the field. This result was different than the effect of DOM under laboratory conditions. Because of competitive adsorption with the site of action on the surface of Fe3O4 MNPs for CTAB, recoveries of PAHs were inversely proportional to concentrations of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+). This novel sorbent based on nanomaterials was effective at removing PAHs at environmentally relevant concentrations from waters containing relevant concentrations of

  16. Magnetic nanoparticles for "smart liposomes".

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Yoshitaka; Mustapić, Mislav; Ebrahimian, Haleh; Wagner, Pawel; Kim, Jung Ho; Hossain, Md Shahriar Al; Horvat, Joseph; Martinac, Boris

    2015-12-01

    Liposomal drug delivery systems (LDDSs) are promising tools used for the treatment of diseases where highly toxic pharmacological agents are administered. Currently, destabilising LDDSs by a specific stimulus at a target site remains a major challenge. The bacterial mechanosensitive channel of large conductance (MscL) presents an excellent candidate biomolecule that could be employed as a remotely controlled pore-forming nanovalve for triggered drug release from LDDSs. In this study, we developed superparamagnetic nanoparticles for activation of the MscL nanovalves by magnetic field. Synthesised CoFe2O4 nanoparticles with the radius less than 10 nm were labelled by SH groups for attachment to MscL. Activation of MscL by magnetic field with the nanoparticles attached was examined by the patch clamp technique showing that the number of activated channels under ramp pressure increased upon application of the magnetic field. In addition, we have not observed any cytotoxicity of the nanoparticles in human cultured cells. Our study suggests the possibility of using magnetic nanoparticles as a specific trigger for activation of MscL nanovalves for drug release in LDDSs. PMID:26184724

  17. Size and polydispersity effect on the magnetization of densely packed magnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russier, Vincent; de Montferrand, Caroline; Lalatonne, Yoann; Motte, Laurence

    2012-10-01

    The magnetic properties of densely packed magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) assemblies are investigated from Monte Carlo simulations. The case of iron oxide nanoparticles is considered as a typical example of MNP. The main focus is put on particle size, and size polydispersity influences on the magnetization curve. The particles are modeled as uniformly magnetized spheres isolated one from each other by a non magnetic layer representing the organic coating. A comparison with recent experimental results on γ -Fe2O3 powder samples differing by their size is given.

  18. Design and construction of polymerized-chitosan coated Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles and its application for hydrophobic drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yongling; Shen, Shirley Z; Sun, Huadong; Sun, Kangning; Liu, Futian; Qi, Yushi; Yan, Jun

    2015-03-01

    In this study, a novel hydrogel, chitosan (CS) crosslinked carboxymethyl-β-cyclodextrin (CM-β-CD) polymer modified Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles was synthesized for delivering hydrophobic anticancer drug 5-fluorouracil (CS-CDpoly-MNPs). Carboxymethyl-β-cyclodextrin being grafted on the Fe3O4 nanoparticles (CDpoly-MNPs) contributed to an enhancement of adsorption capacities because of the inclusion abilities of its hydrophobic cavity with insoluble anticancer drugs through host-guest interactions. Experimental results indicated that the amounts of crosslinking agent and bonding times played a crucial role in determining morphology features of the hybrid nanocarriers. The nanocarriers exhibited a high loading efficiency (44.7±1.8%) with a high saturation magnetization of 43.8emu/g. UV-Vis spectroscopy results showed that anticancer drug 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu) could be successfully included into the cavities of the covalently linked CDpoly-MNPs. Moreover, the free carboxymethyl groups could enhance the bonding interactions between the covalently linked CDpoly-MNPs and anticancer drugs. In vitro release studies revealed that the release behaviors of CS-CDpoly-MNPs carriers were pH dependent and demonstrated a swelling and diffusion controlled release. A lower pH value led to swelling effect and electrostatic repulsion contributing to the protonation amine impact of NH3(+), and thus resulted in a higher release rate of 5-Fu. The mechanism of 5-Fu encapsulated into the magnetic chitosan nanoparticles was tentatively proposed. PMID:25579950

  19. Amphiphilic polymer-coated hybrid nanoparticles as CT/MRI dual contrast agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dongkyu; Yu, Mi Kyung; Lee, Tae Sup; Park, Jae Jun; Jeong, Yong Yeon; Jon, Sangyong

    2011-04-01

    We describe hybrid nanoparticles, composed of iron oxide and gold nanoparticles, as potential dual contrast agents for both computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The hybrid nanoparticles are synthesized by thermal decomposition of mixtures of Fe-oleate and Au-oleylamine complexes. Using a nano-emulsion method, the nanoparticles are coated with amphiphilic poly(DMA-r-mPEGMA-r-MA) to impart water-dispersity and antibiofouling properties. An in vitro phantom study shows that the hybrid nanoparticles have high CT attenuation, because of the constituent gold nanoparticles, and afford a good MR signal, attributable to the contained iron oxide nanoparticles. Intravenous injection of the hybrid nanoparticles into hepatoma-bearing mice results in high contrast between the hepatoma and normal hepatic parenchyma in both CT and MRI. These results suggest that the hybrid nanoparticles may be useful as CT/MRI dual contrast agents for in vivo hepatoma imaging.

  20. Sheddable Coatings for Long-Circulating Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Romberg, Birgit; Hennink, Wim E.

    2007-01-01

    Nanoparticles, such as liposomes, polymeric micelles, lipoplexes and polyplexes are frequently studied as targeted drug carrier systems. The ability of these particles to circulate in the bloodstream for a prolonged period of time is often a prerequisite for successful targeted delivery. To achieve this, hydrophilic ‘stealth’ polymers, such as poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), are used as coating materials. Such polymers shield the particle surface and thereby reduce opsonization by blood proteins and uptake by macrophages of the mononuclear phagocyte system. Yet, after localizing in the pathological site, nanoparticles should deliver their contents in an efficient manner to achieve a sufficient therapeutic response. The polymer coating, however, may hinder drug release and target cell interaction and can therefore be an obstacle in the realization of the therapeutic response. Attempts have been made to enhance the therapeutic efficacy of sterically stabilized nanoparticles by means of shedding, i.e. a loss of the coating after arrival at the target site. Such an ‘unmasking’ process may facilitate drug release and/or target cell interaction processes. This review presents an overview of the literature regarding different shedding strategies that have been investigated for the preparation of sterically stabilized nanoparticulates. Detach mechanisms and stimuli that have been used are described. PMID:17551809

  1. Magnetic nanoparticles for applications in oscillating magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Peeraphatdit, Chorthip

    2009-01-01

    Enzymatic and thermochemical catalysis are both important industrial processes. However, the thermal requirements for each process often render them mutually exclusive: thermochemical catalysis requires high temperature that denatures enzymes. One of the long-term goals of this project is to design a thermocatalytic system that could be used with enzymatic systems in situ to catalyze reaction sequences in one pot; this system would be useful for numerous applications e.g. conversion of biomass to biofuel and other commodity products. The desired thermocatalytic system would need to supply enough thermal energy to catalyze thermochemical reactions, while keeping the enzymes from high temperature denaturation. Magnetic nanoparticles are known to generate heat in an oscillating magnetic field through mechanisms including hysteresis and relaxational losses. We envisioned using these magnetic nanoparticles as the local heat source embedded in sub-micron size mesoporous support to spatially separate the particles from the enzymes. In this study, we set out to find the magnetic materials and instrumental conditions that are sufficient for this purpose. Magnetite was chosen as the first model magnetic material in this study because of its high magnetization values, synthetic control over particle size, shape, functionalization and proven biocompatibility. Our experimental designs were guided by a series of theoretical calculations, which provided clues to the effects of particle size, size distribution, magnetic field, frequency and reaction medium. Materials of theoretically optimal size were synthesized, functionalized, and their effects in the oscillating magnetic field were subsequently investigated. Under our conditions, the materials that clustered e.g. silica-coated and PNIPAM-coated iron oxides exhibited the highest heat generation, while iron oxides embedded in MSNs and mesoporous iron oxides exhibited the least bulk heating. It is worth noting that the specific

  2. Magnetic solid phase extraction using ionic liquid-coated core-shell magnetic nanoparticles followed by high-performance liquid chromatography for determination of Rhodamine B in food samples.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jieping; Zhu, Xiashi

    2016-06-01

    Three hydrophobic ionic liquids (ILs) (1-butyl-3-methylimidazole hexafluorophosphate ([BMIM]PF6), 1-hexyl-3-methyl-imidazole hexafluoro-phosphate ([HMIM]PF6), and 1-octyl-3-methylimidazole hexafluorophosphate ([OMIM]PF6)) were used to coat Fe3O4@SiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) with core-shell structures to prepare magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) agents (Fe3O4@SiO2@IL). A novel method of MSPE coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography for the separation/analysis of Rhodamine B was then established. The results showed that Rhodamine B was adsorbed rapidly on Fe3O4@SiO2@[OMIM]PF6 and was released using ethanol. Under optimal conditions, the pre-concentration factor for the proposed method was 25. The linear range, limit of detection (LOD), correlation coefficient (R), and relative standard deviation (RSD) were found to be 0.50-150.00 μgL(-1), 0.08 μgL(-1), 0.9999, and 0.51% (n=3, c=10.00 μgL(-1)), respectively. The Fe3O4@SiO2 NPs could be re-used up to 10 times. The method was successfully applied to the determination of Rhodamine B in food samples. PMID:26830554

  3. Study of maghemite nanoparticles as prepared and coated with DMSA using Mössbauer spectroscopy with a high velocity resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshtrakh, M. I.; Ushakov, M. V.; Semionkin, V. A.; Lima, E. C. D.; Morais, P. C.

    2014-04-01

    Study of maghemite nanoparticles, native and coated with DMSA as magnetic fluid for biomedical applications, was carried out using Mössbauer spectroscopy with a high velocity resolution at 295 and 90 K. The obtained results demonstrated differences in Mössbauer hyperfine parameters for uncoated and DMSA-coated nanoparticles which were related to the interactions of DMSA molecules with Fe3+ ions on maghemite nanoparticle's surface.

  4. Magnetite Nanoparticles Coated with Rifampicin and Chlortetracycline for Drug Delivery Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nǎdejde, Claudia; Ciurlicǎ, Ecaterina Foca-nici; Creangǎ, Dorina; Cârlescu, Aurelian; Bǎdescu, Vasile

    2010-12-01

    Four types of biocompatible magnetic fluids based on superparamagnetic nanoparticles with Fe3O4 cores were functionalized with antibiotics (rifampicin or chlortetracycline) as potential candidates for in vivo biomedical applications, such as magnetically controlled drug delivery. The synthesis consisted in coprecipitation of iron oxide in basic, as well as in acid medium, followed by the dispersion of the resulted magnetite nanoparticles in aqueous solution containing the antibiotic. The chosen method to prepare the magnetite-core/drug-shell systems avoided intermediate organic coating of the magnetic nanoparticles. Comparative analysis of the rheological features of the aqueous magnetic fluid samples was performed. The structural features of the coated magnetic particles were investigated by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Vibrating Sample Magnetometry (VSM). Good crystallinity and adequate stability in time were evidenced. Drug delivery curves were spectrophotometrically provided.

  5. Magnetite Nanoparticles Coated with Rifampicin and Chlortetracycline for Drug Delivery Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Nadejde, Claudia; Ciurlica, Ecaterina Foca-nici; Creanga, Dorina; Carlescu, Aurelian; Badescu, Vasile

    2010-12-02

    Four types of biocompatible magnetic fluids based on superparamagnetic nanoparticles with Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} cores were functionalized with antibiotics (rifampicin or chlortetracycline) as potential candidates for in vivo biomedical applications, such as magnetically controlled drug delivery. The synthesis consisted in coprecipitation of iron oxide in basic, as well as in acid medium, followed by the dispersion of the resulted magnetite nanoparticles in aqueous solution containing the antibiotic. The chosen method to prepare the magnetite-core/drug-shell systems avoided intermediate organic coating of the magnetic nanoparticles. Comparative analysis of the rheological features of the aqueous magnetic fluid samples was performed. The structural features of the coated magnetic particles were investigated by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Vibrating Sample Magnetometry (VSM). Good crystallinity and adequate stability in time were evidenced. Drug delivery curves were spectrophotometrically provided.

  6. Magnetic nanoparticle-based drug delivery for cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Tietze, Rainer; Zaloga, Jan; Unterweger, Harald; Lyer, Stefan; Friedrich, Ralf P; Janko, Christina; Pöttler, Marina; Dürr, Stephan; Alexiou, Christoph

    2015-12-18

    Nanoparticles have belonged to various fields of biomedical research for quite some time. A promising site-directed application in the field of nanomedicine is drug targeting using magnetic nanoparticles which are directed at the target tissue by means of an external magnetic field. Materials most commonly used for magnetic drug delivery contain metal or metal oxide nanoparticles, such as superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs). SPIONs consist of an iron oxide core, often coated with organic materials such as fatty acids, polysaccharides or polymers to improve colloidal stability and to prevent separation into particles and carrier medium [1]. In general, magnetite and maghemite particles are those most commonly used in medicine and are, as a rule, well-tolerated. The magnetic properties of SPIONs allow the remote control of their accumulation by means of an external magnetic field. Conjugation of SPIONs with drugs, in combination with an external magnetic field to target the nanoparticles (so-called "magnetic drug targeting", MDT), has additionally emerged as a promising strategy of drug delivery. Magnetic nanoparticle-based drug delivery is a sophisticated overall concept and a multitude of magnetic delivery vehicles have been developed. Targeting mechanism-exploiting, tumor-specific attributes are becoming more and more sophisticated. The same is true for controlled-release strategies for the diseased site. As it is nearly impossible to record every magnetic nanoparticle system developed so far, this review summarizes interesting approaches which have recently emerged in the field of targeted drug delivery for cancer therapy based on magnetic nanoparticles. PMID:26271592

  7. Magnetic Separation Dynamics of Colloidal Magnetic Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Kaur, M.; Huijin Zhang,; You Qiang,

    2013-01-01

    Surface functionalized magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are appealing candidates for analytical separation of heavy metal ions from waste water and separation of actinides from spent nuclear fuel. This work studies the separation dynamics and investigates the appropriate magnetic-field gradients. A dynamic study of colloidal MNPs was performed for steady-state flow. Measurements were conducted to record the separation time of particles as a function of magnetic field gradient. The drag and magnetic forces play a significant role on the separation time. A drop in saturation magnetization and variation of particle size occurs after surface functionalization of the MNPs; these are the primary factors that affect the separation time and velocity of the MNPs. The experimental results are correlated to a theoretical one-dimensional model.

  8. Experimental demonstration of all-optical weak magnetic field detection using beam-deflection of single-mode fiber coated with cobalt-doped nickel ferrite nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Somarpita; Chaudhuri, Partha Roy

    2015-07-10

    We experimentally demonstrate single-mode optical-fiber-beam-deflection configuration for weak magnetic-field-detection using an optimized (low coercive-field) composition of cobalt-doped nickel ferrite nanoparticles. Devising a fiber-double-slit type experiment, we measure the surrounding magnetic field through precisely measuring interference-fringe yielding a minimum detectable field ∼100  mT and we procure magnetization data of the sample that fairly predicts SQUID measurement. To improve sensitivity, we incorporate etched single-mode fiber in double-slit arrangement and recorded a minimum detectable field, ∼30  mT. To further improve, we redefine the experiment as modulating fiber-to-fiber light-transmission and demonstrate the minimum field as 2.0 mT. The device will be uniquely suited for electrical or otherwise hazardous environments. PMID:26193403

  9. Peptide-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles for cancer therapy applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauser, Anastasia Kruse

    Lung cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer deaths in the United States. Radiation and chemotherapy are conventional treatments, but they result in serious side effects and the probability of tumor recurrence remains high. Therefore, there is an increasing need to enhance the efficacy of conventional treatments. Magnetic nanoparticles have been previously studied for a variety of applications such as magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents, anemia treatment, magnetic cell sorting and magnetically mediated hyperthermia (MMH). In this work, dextran coated iron oxide nanoparticles were developed and functionalized with peptides to target the nanoparticles to either the extracellular matrix (ECM) of tumor tissue or to localize the nanoparticles in subcellular regions after cell uptake. The magnetic nanoparticles were utilized for a variety of applications. First, heating properties of the nanoparticles were utilized to administer hyperthermia treatments combined with chemotherapy. The nanoparticles were functionalized with peptides to target fibrinogen in the ECM and extensively characterized for their physicochemical properties, and MMH combined with chemotherapy was able to enhance the toxicity of chemotherapy. The second application of the nanoparticles was magnetically mediated energy delivery. This treatment does not result in a bulk temperature rise upon actuation of the nanoparticles by an alternating magnetic field (AMF) but rather results in intracellular damage via friction from Brownian rotation or nanoscale heating effects from Neel relaxations. The nanoparticles were functionalized with a cell penetrating peptide to facilitate cell uptake and lysosomal escape. The intracellular effects of the internalized nanoparticles alone and with activation by an AMF were evaluated. Iron concentrations in vivo are highly regulated as excess iron can catalyze the formation of the hydroxyl radical through Fenton chemistry. Although often a concern of using iron

  10. Design and Application of Magnetic-based Theranostic Nanoparticle Systems

    PubMed Central

    Wadajkar, Aniket S.; Menon, Jyothi U.; Kadapure, Tejaswi; Tran, Richard T.; Yang, Jian; Nguyen, Kytai T.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, magnetic-based theranostic nanoparticle (MBTN) systems have been studied, researched, and applied extensively to detect and treat various diseases including cancer. Theranostic nanoparticles are advantageous in that the diagnosis and treatment of a disease can be performed in a single setting using combinational strategies of targeting, imaging, and/or therapy. Of these theranostic strategies, magnetic-based systems containing magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have gained popularity because of their unique ability to be used in magnetic resonance imaging, magnetic targeting, hyperthermia, and controlled drug release. To increase their effectiveness, MNPs have been decorated with a wide variety of materials to improve their biocompatibility, carry therapeutic payloads, encapsulate/bind imaging agents, and provide functional groups for conjugation of biomolecules that provide receptor-mediated targeting of the disease. This review summarizes recent patents involving various polymer coatings, imaging agents, therapeutic agents, targeting mechanisms, and applications along with the major requirements and challenges faced in using MBTN for disease management. PMID:23795343

  11. Efficient internalization of silica-coated iron oxide nanoparticles of different sizes by primary human macrophages and dendritic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kunzmann, Andrea; Andersson, Britta; Vogt, Carmen; Feliu, Neus; Ye Fei; Gabrielsson, Susanne; Toprak, Muhammet S.; Buerki-Thurnherr, Tina; Laurent, Sophie; Vahter, Marie; Krug, Harald; Muhammed, Mamoun; Scheynius, Annika; Fadeel, Bengt

    2011-06-01

    Engineered nanoparticles are being considered for a wide range of biomedical applications, from magnetic resonance imaging to 'smart' drug delivery systems. The development of novel nanomaterials for biomedical applications must be accompanied by careful scrutiny of their biocompatibility. In this regard, particular attention should be paid to the possible interactions between nanoparticles and cells of the immune system, our primary defense system against foreign invasion. On the other hand, labeling of immune cells serves as an ideal tool for visualization, diagnosis or treatment of inflammatory processes, which requires the efficient internalization of the nanoparticles into the cells of interest. Here, we compare novel monodispersed silica-coated iron oxide nanoparticles with commercially available dextran-coated iron oxide nanoparticles. The silica-coated iron oxide nanoparticles displayed excellent magnetic properties. Furthermore, they were non-toxic to primary human monocyte-derived macrophages at all doses tested whereas dose-dependent toxicity of the smaller silica-coated nanoparticles (30 nm and 50 nm) was observed for primary monocyte-derived dendritic cells, but not for the similarly small dextran-coated iron oxide nanoparticles. No macrophage or dendritic cell secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines was observed upon administration of nanoparticles. The silica-coated iron oxide nanoparticles were taken up to a significantly higher degree when compared to the dextran-coated nanoparticles, irrespective of size. Cellular internalization of the silica-coated nanoparticles was through an active, actin cytoskeleton-dependent process. We conclude that these novel silica-coated iron oxide nanoparticles are promising materials for medical imaging, cell tracking and other biomedical applications.

  12. Biocompatible core-shell magnetic nanoparticles for cancer treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Amit M.; Qiang, You; Meyer, Daniel R.; Souza, Ryan; Mcconnaughoy, Alan; Muldoon, Leslie; Baer, Donald R.

    2008-04-01

    Non-toxic magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have expanded the treatment delivery options in the medical world. With a size range from 2 to 200 nm MNPs can be compiled with most of the small cells and tissues in living body. Monodispersive iron-iron oxide core shell nanoparticles were prepared in our novel cluster deposition system. This unique method of preparing the core shell MNPs gives nanoparticles very high magnetic moment. We tested the nontoxicity and uptake of MNPs coated with/without dextrin by incubating them with rat LX-1 small cell lung cancer cells (SCLC). Since core iron enhances the heating effect [7] the rate of oxidation of iron nanoparticles was tested in deionized water at certain time interval. Both coated and noncoated MNPs were successfully uptaken by the cells, indicating that the nanoparticles were not toxic. The stability of MNPs was verified by X-ray diffraction (XRD) scan after 0, 24, 48, 96, 204 hours. Due to the high magnetic moment offered by MNPs produced in our lab, we predict that even in low applied external alternating field desired temperature can be reached in cancer cells in comparison to the commercially available nanoparticles. Moreover, our MNPs do not require additional anti-coagulating agents and provide a cost effective means of treatment with significantly lower dosage in the body in comparison to commercially available nanoparticles.

  13. Binding of biological effectors on magnetic nanoparticles measured by a magnetically induced transient birefringence experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilhelm, C.; Gazeau, F.; Roger, J.; Pons, J. N.; Salis, M. F.; Perzynski, R.; Bacri, J. C.

    2002-03-01

    We have investigated the relaxation of the magnetically induced birefringence in a suspension of magnetic nanoparticles in order to detect the binding reaction of polyclonal antibodies on the particle surface. The birefringence relaxation is driven by the rotational diffusion of the complex formed by the magnetic nanoparticles bound to the antibody and thus is directly related to the hydrodynamic size of this complex. Birefringence relaxations are well described by stretched exponential laws revealing a polydisperse distribution of hydrodynamic diameters. Comparing the size distribution of samples with different initial ratios of immunoglobuline added per magnetic nanoparticles, we evidence the graft of an antibody on particle and eventually the onset of particles agregation. Measurements on samples separated in size by gel filtration demonstrate the robustness of our experiment for the determination of size distribution and its modification due to the adsorption of a macromolecule. The immunoglobuline binding assay is performed comparatively for ionic magnetic nanoparticles with different coatings.

  14. Formulation and Characterization of a Covalently Coated Magnetic Nanogel

    PubMed Central

    Rahimi, Maham; Yousef, Monet; Cheng, Yuhang; Meletis, Efstathios I.; Eberhart, Robert C.; Nguyen, Kytai

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a novel method to encapsulate magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) with polymer via covalent bonding, in order to increase the magnetic nanoparticle stability and ease the synthesis process. In this technique, silane coated MNPs act as a template for polymerization of the monomer N-isopropylacrylamide, (NIPA) via radical polymerization. Transmission and scanning electron microscopy indicated the size of the original MNP was approximately 10 nm, the silane-coated MNP was 40 nm and the NIPA silane-coated MNP was 100 ± 10 nm. Chemical composition and chemical state analysis of NIPA MNPs by FTIR and XPS showed that the MNPs were actually encapsulated by silane and NIPA. Furthermore, the magnetic properties of different layers on the MNP, analyzed by SQUID, indicated a decrease in saturation magnetization for each layer. The results demonstrate the feasibility of encapsulation of the MNP with NIPA by means of silane covalent bonding. Future work will investigate the phase transition and biocompatibility properties of the NIPA-coated MNP for drug delivery and tissue engineering applications. PMID:19916419

  15. Intravenous magnetic nanoparticle cancer hyperthermia

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hui S; Hainfeld, James F

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles heated by an alternating magnetic field could be used to treat cancers, either alone or in combination with radiotherapy or chemotherapy. However, direct intratumoral injections suffer from tumor incongruence and invasiveness, typically leaving undertreated regions, which lead to cancer regrowth. Intravenous injection more faithfully loads tumors, but, so far, it has been difficult achieving the necessary concentration in tumors before systemic toxicity occurs. Here, we describe use of a magnetic nanoparticle that, with a well-tolerated intravenous dose, achieved a tumor concentration of 1.9 mg Fe/g tumor in a subcutaneous squamous cell carcinoma mouse model, with a tumor to non-tumor ratio > 16. With an applied field of 38 kA/m at 980 kHz, tumors could be heated to 60°C in 2 minutes, durably ablating them with millimeter (mm) precision, leaving surrounding tissue intact. PMID:23901270

  16. Particle Size Control of Polyethylene Glycol Coated Fe Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, B.; Bonder, M. J.; Zhang, Y.; Gallo, D.; Hadjipanayis, G. C.

    2006-03-01

    Recent interest in Fe nanoparticles with high magnetization is driven by their potential use in biomedical applications such as targeted drug delivery, MRI contrast enhancement and hyperthermia treatment of cancer. This study looks at the use of a polyethylene glycol (PEG) solution to mediate the particle size and therefore control the coercivity of the resulting nanoparticles. Iron nanoparticles were synthesized using an aqueous sodium borohydride reduction of ferrous chloride by a simultaneous introduction of reagents in a Y- junction. The resulting product was collected in a vessel containing a 15 mg/ml carboxyl terminated polyethylene glycol (cPEG) in ethyl alcohol solution located under the Y junction. By varying the length of tubing below the Y junction, the particle size was varied from 5-25 nm. X-ray diffraction data indicates the presence of either amorphous Fe-B or crystalline alpha Fe, depending on the molar ratio of reagents. Magnetic measurements indicate the particles are ferromagnetic with values of coercivity ranging from 200-500 Oe and a saturation magnetization in range of 70-110 emu/g. The XRD shows that the particles are not affected by the polymer coating.

  17. Polyaniline-coated chitosan-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles: Preparation for the extraction and analysis of endocrine-disrupting phenols in environmental water and juice samples.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xilan; Cheng, Jing; Zhou, Hongbin; Li, Feng; Wu, Wenlin; Ding, Kerong

    2015-08-15

    In the present study, chitosan (CHI) functionalized Fe3O4 magnetic microspheres coated with polyaniline (PANI) were synthesized for the first time. The chitosan-functionalized magnetic microspheres (Fe3O4@CHI) were synthesized by a co-precipitation method, and then aniline was polymerized on the magnetic core. The obtained Fe3O4@CHI@PANI microspheres were spherical core-shell structure with uniform size at about 100nm with 20-30nm diameter core. The microspheres had a high saturation magnetization of 32emu g(-)(1), which was sufficient for magnetic separation. The obtained Fe3O4@CHI@PANI magnetic microspheres were applied as magnetic adsorbents for the extraction of aromatic compounds via π-π interaction between polyaniline shell and aromatic compounds. Three endocrine-disrupting phenols, including bisphenol A (BPA), 2, 4-dichlorophenol (2, 4-DCP), and triclosan (TCS) were selected as the model analytes to verify the extraction ability of Fe3O4@CHI@PANI. The hydrophilic chitosan-functionalized Fe3O4 core (Fe3O4@CHI) improved the dispersibility of Fe3O4@CHI@PANI microspheres, and then improve its extraction efficiency. The dominant parameters affecting enrichment efficiency were investigated and optimized. Under optimal condition, the proposed method was evaluated, and applied to the analysis of phenols in real water and juice samples. The results demonstrated the method based on Fe3O4@CHI@PANI magnetic microspheres had good linearity (R(2)>0.996), and limits of detection (0.10-0.13ng mL(-1)), high repeatability (RSD<6.6%) and good recovery (85.0-106.7%). PMID:25966409

  18. Mixed hemimicelles solid-phase extraction of cephalosporins in biological samples with ionic liquid-coated magnetic graphene oxide nanoparticles coupled with high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jianrong; Zhao, Hongyan; Xiao, Deli; Chuong, Pham-Huy; He, Jia; He, Hua

    2016-07-01

    A novel mixed hemimicelles solid phase extraction based on magnetic graphene oxide (Fe3O4/GO) and ionic liquid (IL) was developed for the simultaneous extraction and determination of trace cephalosporins in spiked human urine. The high surface area and excellent adsorption capacity of the graphene oxide after modification with1-hexadecyl-3-methylmidazoliumbromide(C16mimBr) were utilized adequately in the solid phase extraction(SPE) process. A comprehensive study of the parameters affecting the extraction recovery, such as the zeta-potential of magnetic graphene oxide, amounts of magnetic graphene oxide and surfactant, pH of solution, ionic strength, extraction time, and desorption condition were optimized. A comparative study on the use of different surfacant-coated Fe3O4/GO NPs as sorbents was presented. Good linearity (R(2)>0.9987) for all calibration curves was obtained. The LODs were ranged between 0.6 and 1.9ng mL(-1) for the cephalosporins and the LOQs were 1.5 to 5.5, respectively. Satisfactory recoveries(84.3% to 101.7%)and low relative standard deviations from 1.7% to 6.3% in biological matrices were achieved. The mixed hemimicelles magnetic SPE (MSPE) method based on ILs and Fe3O4/GO NPs magnetic separation has ever been successfully used for pretreatment of complex biological samples. PMID:27266334

  19. Magnetic Nanoparticles: Surface Effects and Properties Related to Biomedicine Applications

    PubMed Central

    Issa, Bashar; Obaidat, Ihab M.; Albiss, Borhan A.; Haik, Yousef

    2013-01-01

    Due to finite size effects, such as the high surface-to-volume ratio and different crystal structures, magnetic nanoparticles are found to exhibit interesting and considerably different magnetic properties than those found in their corresponding bulk materials. These nanoparticles can be synthesized in several ways (e.g., chemical and physical) with controllable sizes enabling their comparison to biological organisms from cells (10–100 μm), viruses, genes, down to proteins (3–50 nm). The optimization of the nanoparticles’ size, size distribution, agglomeration, coating, and shapes along with their unique magnetic properties prompted the application of nanoparticles of this type in diverse fields. Biomedicine is one of these fields where intensive research is currently being conducted. In this review, we will discuss the magnetic properties of nanoparticles which are directly related to their applications in biomedicine. We will focus mainly on surface effects and ferrite nanoparticles, and on one diagnostic application of magnetic nanoparticles as magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents. PMID:24232575

  20. Synthesis of superparamagnetic silica-coated magnetite nanoparticles for biomedical applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kaur, Navjot Chudasama, Bhupendra

    2015-05-15

    Multifunctional superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) coated with silica are widely researched for biomedical applications such as magnetic resonance imaging, tissue repair, cell separation, hyperthermia, drug delivery, etc. In this article synthesis of magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) nanoparticles and their coating with SiO{sub 2} is reported. Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles were synthesized by chemical co-precipitation and it was coated with silica by hydrolysis and condensation of tetraethylorthosilicate. XRD, FTIR, TEM and VSM techniques were used to characterize bare and coated nanoparticles. Results indicated that the average size of SPIONS was 8.4 nm. X-ray diffraction patterns of silica coated SPIONS were identical to that of SPIONS confirming the inner spinal structure of SPIONS. FTIR results confirmed the binding of silica with the magnetite and the formation of the silica shell around the magnetite core. Magnetic properties of SPIONS and silica coated SPIONS are determined by VSM. They are superparamagnetic. The major conclusion drawn from this study is that the synthesis route yields stable, non-aggregated magnetite-silica core-shell nanostructures with tailored morphology and excellent magnetic properties.

  1. Synthesis of superparamagnetic silica-coated magnetite nanoparticles for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Navjot; Chudasama, Bhupendra

    2015-05-01

    Multifunctional superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) coated with silica are widely researched for biomedical applications such as magnetic resonance imaging, tissue repair, cell separation, hyperthermia, drug delivery, etc. In this article synthesis of magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles and their coating with SiO2 is reported. Fe3O4 nanoparticles were synthesized by chemical co-precipitation and it was coated with silica by hydrolysis and condensation of tetraethylorthosilicate. XRD, FTIR, TEM and VSM techniques were used to characterize bare and coated nanoparticles. Results indicated that the average size of SPIONS was 8.4 nm. X-ray diffraction patterns of silica coated SPIONS were identical to that of SPIONS confirming the inner spinal structure of SPIONS. FTIR results confirmed the binding of silica with the magnetite and the formation of the silica shell around the magnetite core. Magnetic properties of SPIONS and silica coated SPIONS are determined by VSM. They are superparamagnetic. The major conclusion drawn from this study is that the synthesis route yields stable, non-aggregated magnetite-silica core-shell nanostructures with tailored morphology and excellent magnetic properties.

  2. Monolayer coated gold nanoparticles for delivery applications

    PubMed Central

    Rana, Subinoy; Bajaj, Avinash; Mout, Rubul; Rotello, Vincent M.

    2011-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) provide attractive vehicles for delivery of drugs, genetic materials, proteins, and small molecules. AuNPs feature low core toxicity coupled with the ability to parametrically control particle size and surface properties. In this review, we focus on engineering of the AuNP surface monolayer, highlighting recent advances in tuning monolayer structures for efficient delivery of drugs and biomolecules. This review covers two broad categories of particle functionalization, organic monolayers and biomolecule coatings, and discusses their applications in drug, DNA/RNA, protein and small molecule delivery. PMID:21925556

  3. Biomedical Applications of Magnetic Nanoparticles: Delivering Genes and Remote Control of Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobson, Jon

    2013-03-01

    The use of magnetic micro- and nanoparticles for biomedical applications was first proposed in the 1920s as a way to measure the rehological properties of the cell's cytoplasm. Since that time, magnetic micro- and nanoparticle synthesis, coating and bio-functionalization have advanced significantly, as have the applications for these particles. Magnetic micro- and nanoparticles are now used in a variety of biomedical techniques such as targeted drug delivery, MRI contrast enhancement, gene transfection, immno-assay and cell sorting. More recently, magnetic micro- and nanoparticles have been used to investigate and manipulate cellular processes both in vitro and in vivo. This talk will focus on magnetic nanoparticle targeting to and actuation of cell surface receptors to control cell signaling cascades to control cell behavior. This technology has applications in disease therapy, cell engineering and regenerative medicine. The use of magnetic nanoparticles and oscillating magnet arrays for enhanced gene delivery will also be discussed.

  4. Cell labeling with magnetic nanoparticles: Opportunity for magnetic cell imaging and cell manipulation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This tutorial describes a method of controlled cell labeling with citrate-coated ultra small superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. This method may provide basically all kinds of cells with sufficient magnetization to allow cell detection by high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to enable potential magnetic manipulation. In order to efficiently exploit labeled cells, quantify the magnetic load and deliver or follow-up magnetic cells, we herein describe the main requirements that should be applied during the labeling procedure. Moreover we present some recommendations for cell detection and quantification by MRI and detail magnetic guiding on some real-case studies in vitro and in vivo. PMID:24564857

  5. Growth of textured thin Au coatings on iron oxide nanoparticles with near infrared absorbance

    PubMed Central

    Ma, L L; Borwankar, A U; Willsey, B W; Yoon, K Y; Tam, J O; Sokolov, K V; Feldman, M D; Milner, T E; Johnston, K P

    2013-01-01

    A homologous series of Au-coated iron oxide nanoparticles, with hydrodynamic diameters smaller than 60 nm was synthesized with very low Auto-iron mass ratios as low as 0.15. The hydrodynamic diameter was determined by dynamic light scattering and the composition by atomic absorption spectroscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Unusually low Au precursor supersaturation levels were utilized to nucleate and grow Au coatings on iron oxide relative to formation of pure Au nanoparticles. This approach produced unusually thin coatings, by lowering autocatalytic growth of Au on Au, as shown by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Nearly all of the nanoparticles were attracted by a magnet indicating a minimal amount of pure Au particles The coatings were sufficiently thin to shift the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) to the near infrared (NIR), with large extinction coefficients., despite the small particle hydrodynamic diameters, observed from dynamic light scattering to be less than 60 nm. PMID:23238021

  6. Hexamodal imaging with porphyrin-phospholipid-coated upconversion nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Rieffel, James; Chen, Feng; Kim, Jeesu; Chen, Guanying; Shao, Wei; Shao, Shuai; Chitgupi, Upendra; Hernandez, Reinier; Graves, Stephen A; Nickles, Robert J; Prasad, Paras N; Kim, Chulhong; Cai, Weibo; Lovell, Jonathan F

    2015-03-11

    Hexamodal imaging using simple nanoparticles is demonstrated. Porphyrin-phospholipids are used to coat upconversion nanoparticles in order to generate a new biocompatible material. The nanoparticles are characterized in vitro and in vivo for imaging via fluorescence, upconversion, positron emission tomography, computed tomography, Cerenkov luminescence, and photoacoustic tomography. PMID:25640213

  7. The influence of colloidal parameters on the specific power absorption of PAA-coated magnetite nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The suitability of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) to act as heat nano-sources by application of an alternating magnetic field has recently been studied due to their promising applications in biomedicine. The understanding of the magnetic relaxation mechanism in biocompatible nanoparticle systems is crucial in order to optimize the magnetic properties and maximize the specific absorption rate (SAR). With this aim, the SAR of magnetic dispersions containing superparamagnetic magnetite nanoparticles bio-coated with polyacrylic acid of an average particle size of ≈10 nm has been evaluated separately by changing colloidal parameters such as the MNP concentration and the viscosity of the solvent. A remarkable decrease of the SAR values with increasing particle concentration and solvent viscosity was found. These behaviours have been discussed on the basis of the magnetic relaxation mechanisms involved. PACS: 80; 87; 87.85jf PMID:21711915

  8. Magnetic nanoparticles for gene and drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    McBain, Stuart C; Yiu, Humphrey HP; Dobson, Jon

    2008-01-01

    Investigations of magnetic micro- and nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery began over 30 years ago. Since that time, major progress has been made in particle design and synthesis techniques, however, very few clinical trials have taken place. Here we review advances in magnetic nanoparticle design, in vitro and animal experiments with magnetic nanoparticle-based drug and gene delivery, and clinical trials of drug targeting. PMID:18686777

  9. Monodisperse magnetic nanoparticles for theranostic applications.

    PubMed

    Ho, Don; Sun, Xiaolian; Sun, Shouheng

    2011-10-18

    Effective medical care requires the concurrent monitoring of medical treatment. The combination of imaging and therapeutics allows a large degree of control over the treatment efficacy and is now commonly referred to as "theranostics". Magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) provide a unique nanoplatform for theranostic applications because of their biocompatibility, their responses to the external magnetic field, and their sizes which are comparable to that of functional biomolecules. Recent studies of magnetic NPs for both imaging and therapeutic applications have led to greater control over size, surface functionalization, magnetic properties, and specific binding capabilities of the NPs. The combination of the deep tissue penetration of the magnetic field and the ability of magnetic NPs to enhance magnetic resonance imaging sensitivity and magnetic heating efficiency makes magnetic NPs promising candidates for successful future theranostics. In this Account, we review recent advances in the synthesis of magnetic NPs for biomedical applications such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH). Our focus is on iron oxide (Fe(3)O(4)) NPs, gold-iron oxide (Au-Fe(3)O(4)) NPs, metallic iron (Fe) NPs, and Fe-based alloy NPs, such as iron-cobalt (FeCo) and iron-platinum (FePt) NPs. Because of the ease of fabrication and their approved clinical usage, Fe(3)O(4) NPs with controlled sizes and surface chemistry have been studied extensively for MRI and MFH applications. Porous hollow Fe(3)O(4) NPs are expected to have similar magnetic, chemical, and biological properties as the solid Fe(3)O(4) NPs, and their structures offer the additional opportunity to store and release drugs at a target. The Au-Fe(3)O(4) NPs combine both magnetically active Fe(3)O(4) and optically active Au within one nanostructure and are a promising NP platform for multimodal imaging and therapeutics. Metallic Fe and FeCo NPs offer the opportunity for probes with even higher

  10. Bifunctional magnetic-fluorescent nanoparticles: synthesis, characterization, and cell imaging.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yanjiao; Zheng, Yang; You, Shusen; Wang, Feng; Gao, Zhuo; Shen, Jie; Yang, Wantai; Yin, Meizhen

    2015-03-11

    A new type of bifunctional magnetic-fluorescent Fe3O4@SiO2-PDI-PAA/Ca(2+) nanoparticles has been prepared by coating PDI-cored star polymers (PDI-PAA) onto the surface of Fe3O4@SiO2 core-shell nanostructures. The morphology and properties of the composite nanoparticles are investigated by transmission electron microscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectrometry, fluorescence spectrometry, and vibrating sample magnetometry. The composite nanoparticles display a strong red emission and superparamagnetic behavior at room temperature. The cell viability and uptake assays reveal good biocompatibility of these hybrid nanoparticles. Hence, the composite nanoparticles are of potential to be further explored as therapeutic vector in biomedical field. PMID:25691125

  11. Measurements of Individual Magnetic Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wernsdorfer, Wolfgang

    2002-03-01

    Studying the limits between classical and quantum physics has become a very attractive field of research which is known as 'mesoscopic' physics. New and fascinating mesoscopic effects are expected. Nanometer-sized magnetic particles are situated at the frontier between classical and quantum magnetism. In addition, their magnetic properties are technologically very challenging (permanent magnets, information storage, etc.). First, we review briefly our micro-SQUID technique (For a review, see W. Wernsdorfer, Adv. Chem. Phys., 118, 99 (2001) or http://xxx.lanl.gov/abs/cond-mat/0101104) which allows us to study single nanometer-sized magnetic particles containing less than 1000 atoms, crystals of molecular clusters, or quantum spin chains. Then, we discuss our recent results concerning the magnetization reversal of individual Co and Fe clusters (3 nm). (M. Jamet, W. Wernsdorfer, C. Thirion, D. Mailly, V. Dupuis, P. Melinon, and A. Perez, Phys. Rev. Lett 86, 4676 (2001).) Using a generalized Stoner-Wohlfarth model, (E. Bonet, W. Wernsdorfer, B. Barbara, A. Benoit, D. Mailly, and A. Thiaville Phys. Rev. Lett., 83, 4188 (1999)) we show that 3D measurements of the angular dependence of the magnetization reversal yields the effective magnetic anisotropy function. The latter is important for our studies of the influence of temperature on the magnetization reversal. A new method allows us to study the magnetization switching up to the blocking temperature which is typically below 30 K. We achieved a new insight in the dynamics of magnetization reversal using ns-field pulses and micro-wave radiations. We conclude by showing how one might give a definite proof of the quantum character of a nanoparticle (S > 1000) at low temperatures.

  12. Effect of iron oxide nanoparticles coating type on the relationship between nanoparticles concentration and signal intensity in inversion recovery T1-weighted MRI

    PubMed Central

    Gharehaghaji, Nahideh; Nazarpoor, Mahmood; Saharkhiz, Hodaiseh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) nanoparticles are used as blood pool contrast agent for magnetic resonance angiography and perfusion imaging. Our aim in this study was to investigate the effect of the two coating types of iron oxide nanoparticles on the relationship between nanoparticles concentration and signal intensity (SI) in T1-weighted MR images. Methods: Different concentrations of the polyethylene glycol (PEG), and carboxydextran-coated iron oxide nanoparticles were imaged using inversion recovery Turbo-FLASH (Turbo fast low-angle shot) pulse sequence with inversion times (TIs) of 300-900 ms (interval of 100 ms). The maximum non-linear and linear relationship between the corrected SI (after non-uniformity correction) and the concentration of the two coated nanoparticles were calculated in T1-weighted images. Results: The maximum non-linear relationship between the corrected SI and the concentration of the PEG, and carboxydextran-coated nanoparticles were obtained at concentrations of 400 and 200 μmol Fe/L at a TI of 900 ms, respectively. In addition, the maximum linear relationship between the corrected SI and the concentration of the PEG, and carboxydextran-coated nanoparticles (R2=0.99) appeared at 228.184 and 205.654 μmolFe/L with a TI of 300 ms, respectively. Conclusion: The maximum non-linear corrected SI of the carboxydextran-coated nanoparticles was slightly higher than that of the PEG-coated nanoparticles at similar TIs. However, the PEG-coated nanoparticles were better than the carboxydextran-coated nanoparticles as a T1 contrast agent for perfusion measurements. PMID:26478869

  13. Synthesis and Characterization of Polymer-Templated Magnetic Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamakloe, Beatrice

    This research reports on the investigation into the synthesis and stabilization of iron oxide nanoparticles for theranostic applications using amine-epoxide polymers. Although theranostic agents such as magnetic nanoparticles have been designed and developed for a few decades, there is still more work that needs to be done with the type of materials that can be used to stabilize or functionalize these particles if they are to be used for applications such as drug delivery, imaging and hyperthermia. For in-vivo applications, it is crucial that organic coatings enclose the nanoparticles in order to prevent aggregation and facilitate efficient removal from the body as well as protect the body from toxic material. The objective of this thesis is to design polymer coated magnetite nanoparticles with polymers that are biocompatible and can stabilize the iron oxide nanoparticle to help create mono-dispersed particles in solution. It is desirable to also have these nanoparticles possess high magnetic susceptibility in response to an applied magnetic field. The co-precipitation method was selected because it is probably the simplest and most efficient chemical pathway to obtain magnetic nanoparticles. In literature, cationic polymers such as Polyethylenimine (PEI), which is the industry standard, have been used to stabilize IONPs because they can be used in magnetofections to deliver DNA or RNA. PEI however is known to interact very strongly with proteins and is cytotoxic, so as mentioned previously the Iron Oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) synthesized in this study were stabilized with amine-epoxide polymers because of the limitations of PEI. Four different amine-epoxide polymers which have good water solubility, biodegradability and less toxic than PEI were synthesized and used in the synthesis and stabilization of the magnetic nanoparticles and compared to PEI templated IONPs. These polymer-templated magnetic nanoparticles were also characterized by size, surface charge, Iron

  14. Insulator coated magnetic nanoparticulate composites with reduced core loss and method of manufacture thereof

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Yide (Inventor); Wang, Shihe (Inventor); Xiao, Danny (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A series of bulk-size magnetic/insulating nanostructured composite soft magnetic materials with significantly reduced core loss and its manufacturing technology. This insulator coated magnetic nanostructured composite is comprises a magnetic constituent, which contains one or more magnetic components, and an insulating constituent. The magnetic constituent is nanometer scale particles (1-100 nm) coated by a thin-layered insulating phase (continuous phase). While the intergrain interaction between the immediate neighboring magnetic nanoparticles separated by the insulating phase (or coupled nanoparticles) provide the desired soft magnetic properties, the insulating material provides the much demanded high resistivity which significantly reduces the eddy current loss. The resulting material is a high performance magnetic nanostructured composite with reduced core loss.

  15. A magnonic gas sensor based on magnetic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Matatagui, D; Kolokoltsev, O V; Qureshi, N; Mejía-Uriarte, E V; Saniger, J M

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we propose an innovative, simple and inexpensive gas sensor based on the variation in the magnetic properties of nanoparticles due to their interaction with gases. To measure the nanoparticle response a magnetostatic spin wave (MSW) tunable oscillator has been developed using an yttrium iron garnet (YIG) epitaxial thin film as a delay line (DL). The sensor has been prepared by coating a uniform layer of CuFe2O4 nanoparticles on the YIG film. The unperturbed frequency of the oscillator is determined by a bias magnetic field, which is applied parallel to the YIG film and perpendicularly to the wave propagation direction. In this device, the total bias magnetic field is the superposition of the field of a permanent magnet and the field associated with the layer of magnetic nanoparticles. The perturbation produced in the magnetic properties of the nanoparticle layer due to its interaction with gases induces a frequency shift in the oscillator, allowing the detection of low concentrations of gases. In order to demonstrate the ability of the sensor to detect gases, it has been tested with organic volatile compounds (VOCs) which have harmful effects on human health, such as dimethylformamide, isopropanol and ethanol, or the aromatic hydrocarbons like benzene, toluene and xylene more commonly known by its abbreviation (BTX). All of these were detected with high sensitivity, short response time, and good reproducibility. PMID:25952501

  16. A magnonic gas sensor based on magnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matatagui, D.; Kolokoltsev, O. V.; Qureshi, N.; Mejía-Uriarte, E. V.; Saniger, J. M.

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we propose an innovative, simple and inexpensive gas sensor based on the variation in the magnetic properties of nanoparticles due to their interaction with gases. To measure the nanoparticle response a magnetostatic spin wave (MSW) tunable oscillator has been developed using an yttrium iron garnet (YIG) epitaxial thin film as a delay line (DL). The sensor has been prepared by coating a uniform layer of CuFe2O4 nanoparticles on the YIG film. The unperturbed frequency of the oscillator is determined by a bias magnetic field, which is applied parallel to the YIG film and perpendicularly to the wave propagation direction. In this device, the total bias magnetic field is the superposition of the field of a permanent magnet and the field associated with the layer of magnetic nanoparticles. The perturbation produced in the magnetic properties of the nanoparticle layer due to its interaction with gases induces a frequency shift in the oscillator, allowing the detection of low concentrations of gases. In order to demonstrate the ability of the sensor to detect gases, it has been tested with organic volatile compounds (VOCs) which have harmful effects on human health, such as dimethylformamide, isopropanol and ethanol, or the aromatic hydrocarbons like benzene, toluene and xylene more commonly known by its abbreviation (BTX). All of these were detected with high sensitivity, short response time, and good reproducibility.

  17. Nano-magnetic particles used in biomedicine: core and coating materials.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Z; Karimi, L; Shokrollahi, H

    2013-07-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles for medical applications have been developed by many researchers. Separation, immunoassay, drug delivery, magnetic resonance imaging and hyperthermia are enhanced by the use of suitable magnetic nanoparticles and coating materials in the form of ferrofluids. Due to their low biocompatibility and low dispersion in water solutions, nanoparticles that are used for biomedical applications require surface treatment. Various kinds of coating materials including organic materials (polymers), inorganic metals (gold, platinum) or metal oxides (aluminum oxide, cobalt oxide) have been attracted during the last few years. Based on the recent advances and the importance of nanomedicine in human life, this paper attempts to give a brief summary on the different ferrite nano-magnetic particles and coatings used in nanomedicine. PMID:23623057

  18. Magnetic nanoparticles for medical applications: Progress and challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Doaga, A.; Cojocariu, A. M.; Constantin, C. P.; Caltun, O. F.; Hempelmann, R.

    2013-11-13

    Magnetic nanoparticles present unique properties that make them suitable for applications in biomedical field such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), hyperthermia and drug delivery systems. Magnetic hyperthermia involves heating the cancer cells by using magnetic particles exposed to an alternating magnetic field. The cell temperature increases due to the thermal propagation of the heat induced by the nanoparticles into the affected region. In order to increase the effectiveness of the treatment hyperthermia can be combined with drug delivery techniques. As a spectroscopic technique MRI is used in medicine for the imaging of tissues especially the soft ones and diagnosing malignant or benign tumors. For this purpose Zn{sub x}Co{sub 1−x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} ferrite nanoparticles with x between 0 and 1 have been prepared by co-precipitation method. The cristallite size was determined by X-ray diffraction, while the transmission electron microscopy illustrates the spherical shape of the nanoparticles. Magnetic characterizations of the nanoparticles were carried out at room temperature by using a vibrating sample magnetometer. The specific absorption rate (SAR) was measured by calorimetric method at different frequencies and it has been observed that this value depends on the chemical formula, the applied magnetic fields and the frequency. The study consists of evaluating the images, obtained from an MRI facility, when the nanoparticles are dispersed in agar phantoms compared with the enhanced ones when Omniscan was used as contrast agent. Layer-by-layer technique was used to achieve the necessary requirement of biocompatibility. The surface of the magnetic nanoparticles was modified by coating it with oppositely charged polyelectrolites, making it possible for the binding of a specific drug.

  19. Magnetic nanoparticles for medical applications: Progress and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doaga, A.; Cojocariu, A. M.; Constantin, C. P.; Hempelmann, R.; Caltun, O. F.

    2013-11-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles present unique properties that make them suitable for applications in biomedical field such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), hyperthermia and drug delivery systems. Magnetic hyperthermia involves heating the cancer cells by using magnetic particles exposed to an alternating magnetic field. The cell temperature increases due to the thermal propagation of the heat induced by the nanoparticles into the affected region. In order to increase the effectiveness of the treatment hyperthermia can be combined with drug delivery techniques. As a spectroscopic technique MRI is used in medicine for the imaging of tissues especially the soft ones and diagnosing malignant or benign tumors. For this purpose ZnxCo1-xFe2O4 ferrite nanoparticles with x between 0 and 1 have been prepared by co-precipitation method. The cristallite size was determined by X-ray diffraction, while the transmission electron microscopy illustrates the spherical shape of the nanoparticles. Magnetic characterizations of the nanoparticles were carried out at room temperature by using a vibrating sample magnetometer. The specific absorption rate (SAR) was measured by calorimetric method at different frequencies and it has been observed that this value depends on the chemical formula, the applied magnetic fields and the frequency. The study consists of evaluating the images, obtained from an MRI facility, when the nanoparticles are dispersed in agar phantoms compared with the enhanced ones when Omniscan was used as contrast agent. Layer-by-layer technique was used to achieve the necessary requirement of biocompatibility. The surface of the magnetic nanoparticles was modified by coating it with oppositely charged polyelectrolites, making it possible for the binding of a specific drug.

  20. PVA and PEG functionalised LSMO nanoparticles for magnetic fluid hyperthermia application

    SciTech Connect

    Jadhav, S.V.; Nikam, D.S.; Khot, V.M.; Mali, S.S.; Hong, C.K.; Pawar, S.H.

    2015-04-15

    La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} magnetic nanoparticles are synthesized by a solution combustion method and functionalised with polyvinyl alcohol and polyethylene glycol. The induction heating characteristics of coated magnetic nanoparticles (42 °C) were observed at a reasonably low concentration (5 mg/mL). Remarkably, coated magnetic nanoparticles exhibited a promisingly high specific absorption rate with varying magnetic field and constant frequency. The surface analysis is carried out by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. A reduction in the agglomeration of the particles was observed when the magnetic nanoparticles were functionalised with polyvinyl alcohol or polyethylene glycol and can be confirmed by transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering studies. Vibrating sample magnetometer measurements indicate superparamagnetic behaviour at room temperature before and after coating. Colloidal stability revealed a considerably higher zeta potential value for coated system. In vitro cytotoxicity test of the magnetic nanoparticles indicates that coated nanoparticles have no significant effect on cell viability within the tested concentrations (1–5 mg mL{sup -1}) as compared to uncoated La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3}. All these findings explore the potentiality of La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} nanoparticles for magnetic fluid hyperthermia. - Highlights: • Surface functionalization of LSMO nanoparticles — first time with PVA • Surface functionalization of LSMO nanoparticles — first time with PEG • BSA protein — first time used as dispersion medium for stability of LSMO nanoparticles • The heating ability observed at low concentration • Improved efficiency of magnetic fluid hyperthermia treatment with surfactants.

  1. Preparation of polydopamine-coated magnetic nanoparticles for dispersive solid-phase extraction of water-soluble synthetic colorants in beverage samples with HPLC analysis.

    PubMed

    Chai, Weibo; Wang, Huijuan; Zhang, Ying; Ding, Guosheng

    2016-03-01

    A facile and sensitive dispersive solid-phase extraction (D-SPE) method for the extraction and enrichment of four representative synthetic colorants prior to high performance liquid chromatography analysis was introduced. As highly efficient adsorbents, polydopamine-coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles (Fe3O4@PDA NPs) were prepared by a simple and green procedure. Several factors affecting the extraction efficiency, mainly including the polymerization time of dopamine, pH of the sample solution, the amount of adsorbent, extraction time and the desorption conditions, were systematically studied. Under the optimized conditions, the enrichment factors for the four colorants were both higher than 176. The limits of detection (LODs) for the established d-SPE-HPLC method were found to be 0.20-0.25μgL(-1), which were lower than most chromatographic methods previously reported for synthetic colorant analysis. When used for quantitative analysis, wide linearity ranges (1-500μgL(-1) for amaranth and Ponceau 4R, and 0.80-500μgL(-1) for sunset yellow and allure red) were achieved with good correlation (R(2)≥0.9995). The developed method was also successfully applied to the analysis of colorants in beverage samples with satisfactory results, demonstrating its reliability and feasibility in real sample analysis. PMID:26717809

  2. Characterization of magnetic nanoparticles using programmed quadrupole magnetic field-flow fractionation

    PubMed Central

    Williams, P. Stephen; Carpino, Francesca; Zborowski, Maciej

    2010-01-01

    Quadrupole magnetic field-flow fractionation is a relatively new technique for the separation and characterization of magnetic nanoparticles. Magnetic nanoparticles are often of composite nature having a magnetic component, which may be a very finely divided material, and a polymeric or other material coating that incorporates this magnetic material and stabilizes the particles in suspension. There may be other components such as antibodies on the surface for specific binding to biological cells, or chemotherapeutic drugs for magnetic drug delivery. Magnetic field-flow fractionation (MgFFF) has the potential for determining the distribution of the magnetic material among the particles in a given sample. MgFFF differs from most other forms of field-flow fractionation in that the magnetic field that brings about particle separation induces magnetic dipole moments in the nanoparticles, and these potentially can interact with one another and perturb the separation. This aspect is examined in the present work. Samples of magnetic nanoparticles were analysed under different experimental conditions to determine the sensitivity of the method to variation of conditions. The results are shown to be consistent and insensitive to conditions, although magnetite content appeared to be somewhat higher than expected. PMID:20732895

  3. Synthesis of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles coated with a DDNP-carboxyl derivative for in vitro magnetic resonance imaging of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jingting; Fa, Huanbao; Yin, Wei; Zhang, Jin; Hou, Changjun; Huo, Danqun; Zhang, Dong; Zhang, Haifeng

    2014-04-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) have been proposed for use in magnetic resonance imaging as versatile ultra-sensitive nanoprobes for Alzheimer's disease imaging. In this work, we synthetized an efficient contrast agent of Alzheimer's disease using 1,1-dicyano-2-[6-(dimethylamino)naphthalene-2-yl]propene (DDNP) carboxyl derivative to functionalize the surface of SPIONs. The DDNP-SPIONs are prepared by conjugating DDNP carboxyl derivative to oleic acid-treated SPIONs through ligand exchange. The structure, size distribution and magnetic property were identified by IR, TGA-DTA, XRD, TEM, Zetasizer Nano and VSM. TEM and Zetasizer Nano observations indicated that the DDNP-SPIONs are relatively mono-dispersed spherical distribution with an average size of 11.7nm. The DDNP-SPIONs were then further analyzed for their MRI relaxation properties using MR imaging and demonstrated high T2 relaxivity of 140.57s(-1)FemM(-1), and the vitro experiment that DDNP-SPIONs binding to β-Amyloid aggregates were then investigated by fluorophotometry, the results showed that the combination had induced the fluorescence enhancement of the DDNP-SPIONs and displayed tremendous promise for use as a contrast agent of Alzheimer's disease in MRI. PMID:24582259

  4. Materials science: Magnetic nanoparticles line up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faivre, Damien; Bennet, Mathieu

    2016-07-01

    Certain bacteria contain strings of magnetic nanoparticles and therefore align with magnetic fields. Inspired by these natural structures, researchers have now fabricated synthetic one-dimensional arrays of such particles.

  5. Synthesis and Characteristics of FePt Nanoparticle Films Under In Situ-Applied Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Xu; Gao, Mo-Yun; Li, Ai-Dong; Zhou, Xiao-Yu; Liu, Xiao-Jie; Cao, Yan-Qiang; Li, Chen; Wu, Di

    2016-07-01

    In situ external magnetic field was applied during the synthesis of FePt nanoparticles via a chemical solution method. FePt nanoparticle films were prepared on Si by a drop-coating method with and without a magnetic field. Annealing at 700 °C in reductive atmosphere was explored to obtain ferromagnetic FePt L10 phase. The effect of in situ-applied magnetic field on the structure, morphology, and magnetic properties of FePt nanoparticle films was characterized. It is found that the applied magnetic field during the chemical synthesis of FePt nanoparticles plays a key role in the crystallinity and magnetic property of FePt nanoparticle films. As-synthesized FePt nanoparticles under the magnetic field are monodispersed and can be self-assembled over a larger area by a dropping method. The applied magnetic field during the synthesis of FePt nanoparticles not only significantly improves the nanoparticles' c-axis preferred orientation but also benefits the phase transition of FePt nanoparticles from face-centered cubic to face-centered tetragonal structure during the annealing process. The FePt nanoparticle films derived under magnetic field also show some magnetic anisotropy.

  6. Synthesis and Characteristics of FePt Nanoparticle Films Under In Situ-Applied Magnetic Field.

    PubMed

    Qian, Xu; Gao, Mo-Yun; Li, Ai-Dong; Zhou, Xiao-Yu; Liu, Xiao-Jie; Cao, Yan-Qiang; Li, Chen; Wu, Di

    2016-12-01

    In situ external magnetic field was applied during the synthesis of FePt nanoparticles via a chemical solution method. FePt nanoparticle films were prepared on Si by a drop-coating method with and without a magnetic field. Annealing at 700 °C in reductive atmosphere was explored to obtain ferromagnetic FePt L10 phase. The effect of in situ-applied magnetic field on the structure, morphology, and magnetic properties of FePt nanoparticle films was characterized. It is found that the applied magnetic field during the chemical synthesis of FePt nanoparticles plays a key role in the crystallinity and magnetic property of FePt nanoparticle films. As-synthesized FePt nanoparticles under the magnetic field are monodispersed and can be self-assembled over a larger area by a dropping method. The applied magnetic field during the synthesis of FePt nanoparticles not only significantly improves the nanoparticles' c-axis preferred orientation but also benefits the phase transition of FePt nanoparticles from face-centered cubic to face-centered tetragonal structure during the annealing process. The FePt nanoparticle films derived under magnetic field also show some magnetic anisotropy. PMID:27401088

  7. Novel hybrid materials of magnetic nanoparticles and cellulose fibers.

    PubMed

    Small, Aaron C; Johnston, James H

    2009-03-01

    In this study, magnetic cellulose fibers have been prepared by coating bleached Kraft fibers (Pinus radiata) with magnetite nanoparticles. In doing so, the inherent properties of the fiber (such as tensile strength and flexibility) have been preserved, but imparted to it are the magnetic properties of the coating. The surface coating approach used differs from other methods in the literature in which the lumen loading or in situ approach is taken. After successive washings and sonication, the particles remained bonded to the surface of the fiber, and the fibers could be formed into a paper sheet. The chemical and physical characterization of these materials were carried out using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and SQUID magnetometry. SEM shows the surface of the fibers to be completely encapsulated by the ferrite nanoparticles. This is also confirmed by EDS. XRD line broadening analysis shows the average particle sizes of the nanoparticles range from 12-26 nm. Magnetically responsive cellulose fibers such as those synthesized in this study, will allow the investigation of new concepts in papermaking and packaging, security paper, and information storage. Potential applications are in electromagnetic shielding, magnetographic printing and magnetic filtering. PMID:19062033

  8. Targeting of systemically-delivered magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia using a noninvasive, static, external magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulauf, Grayson D.; Trembly, B. Stuart; Giustini, Andrew J.; Flint, Brian R.; Strawbridge, Rendall R.; Hoopes, P. Jack

    2013-02-01

    One of the greatest challenges of nanoparticle cancer therapy is the delivery of adequate numbers of nanoparticles to the tumor site. Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) have many favorable qualities, including their nontoxic composition, the wide range of diameters in which they can be produced, the cell-specific cytotoxic heating that results from their absorption of energy from a nontoxic, external alternating magnetic field (AMF), and the wide variety of functional coatings that can be applied. Although IONPs can be delivered via an intra-tumoral injection to some tumors, the resulting tumor IONP distribution is generally inadequate; additionally, local tumor injections do not allow for the treatment of systemic or multifocal disease. Consequently, the ultimate success of nanoparticle based cancer therapy likely rests with successful systemic, tumor-targeted IONP delivery. In this study, we used a surface-based, bilateral, noninvasive static magnetic field gradient produced by neodymiumboron- iron magnets (80 T/m to 130 T/m in central plane between magnets), a rabbit ear model, and systemicallydelivered starch-coated 100 nm magnetic (iron oxide) nanoparticles to demonstrate a spatially-defined increase in the local tissue accumulation of IONPs. In this non-tumor model, the IONPs remained within the local vascular space. It is anticipated that this technique can be used to enhance IONP delivery significantly to the tumor parenchyma/cells.

  9. Ethylene glycol-assisted coating of titania on nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Dahl, Michael; Castaneda, Fernando; Joo, Ji Bong; Reyes, Victor; Goebl, James; Yin, Yadong

    2016-06-14

    Coating titania shells onto sub-micron sized particles has been widely studied recently, with success mainly limited to objects with sizes above 50 nm. Direct coating on particles below this size has been difficult to attain especially with good control over properties such as thickness and crystallinity. Here we demonstrate that titanium-glycolate formed by reacting titanium alkoxide and ethylene glycol is an excellent precursor for coating titania on aqueous nanoparticles. The new coating method is particularly useful for its ability to coat materials lacking strong polymers or ligands which are frequently needed to facilitate typical titania coatings. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the process of coating titania on metal nanoparticles ranging from citrate-stabilized gold and silver spheres to gold nanorods and silver nanoplates, and larger particles such as SiO2 microspheres and polymer spheres. Further the thickness of these coatings can be tuned from a few nanometers to ∼40 nm through sequential coatings. These coatings can subsequently be crystallized into TiO2 through refluxing in water or by calcination to obtain crystalline shells. This procedure can be very useful for the production of TiO2 coatings with tunable thickness and crystallinity as well as for further study on the effect of TiO2 coatings on nanoparticles. PMID:26673403

  10. Non-Bleaching Photoluminescent Magnetic Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Lu; Kim, Chanjoong; Girgis, Emad; Khalil, Wagdy K. B.

    2013-03-01

    We report a new type of photoluminescent magnetic nanoparticles produced by a very simple process. The nanoparticle consists of an ordinary magnetic nanoparticle as core and a non-toxic polymer shell. The biocompatibility is evaluated using in-vivo tests on mice. They are non-bleaching photoluminescent without any addition of fluorophores, such as quantum dots or fluorescent dyes that can be toxic and easily photobleached, respectively. This work provides a low-cost, bio-safe, non-bleaching alternative of conventional fluoroscent magnetic nanoparticles which covers a wide range of applications, from bio-imaging to biomedical diagnostics and therapeutics, such as hyperthermia.

  11. Chromenone-conjugated magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. Toward conveyable DNA binders.

    PubMed

    Yousuf, Sameena; Enoch, Israel V M V; Paulraj, Mosae Selvalumar; Dhanaraj, Premnath

    2015-11-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles can transport drug and possibly target cancer. DNA-binding of ligands loaded in dextran coated magnetic nanoparticles, could aid their better target-specific binding. In this work, we report the loading of chromenones onto aminoethylamino-modified dextran coated iron oxide nanoparticles, their loading efficiency, and openness for binding to DNA. The magnetic behavior, the size, and the morphology of the nanoparticles are analyzed. The crystallite size of the magnetic nanoparticles is around 40 nm. The chromenones are present on the surface of the dextran shell, as revealed by their cyclodextrin-binding characteristics, which is a new approach in comprehending the accessibility of the surface-bound molecules by macromolecules. The mode of binding of the chromenones to DNA is not altered on surface loading on dextran shell, although the binding strength is generally diminished, compared to the strength of binding of the free chromenones to DNA. PMID:26280819

  12. Interfacial Behavior of Polymer Coated Nanoparticle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Luqing; Shamsijazeyi, Hadi; Mann, Jason; Verduzco, Rafael; Hirasaki, George; Rice University Team

    2015-03-01

    Oxidized carbon black (OCB) nanoparticle is functionalized with different coatings, i.e. alkyl group, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and partially sulfonated polyvinyl alcohol (sPVA). In oil and water systems, the functionalized nanoparticle is found to have a versatile dispersion i.e. in lower aqueous phase, in upper oil phase, or in middle phase microemulsion. Oil substitute n-octane and commercial oil IOSPAR have been test as oil phase; series of commercially available surfactant, C12-4,5 orthoxylene sulfonate(OXS), i-C13-(PO)7 -SO4Na (S13B), surfactant blend of anionic Alfoterra with nonionic Tergitol have been test as additive to help with the OCB dispersion. It is found that the OCB with sulfonated polyvinyl alcohol attachment (sPVA-OCB) stays in microemulsion; with the increase of salinity, it follows the microemulsion to go from lower phase, to middle phase, and to upper phase. The dispersion of sPVA and alkyl functionalized OCB (Cn-OCB-sPVA) is the balance of the length of alkyl and sPVA and the degree of sulfonation of PVA, depending on which, it can either disperse into microemulsion or form a separate layer. The sPVA-OCB also indicates a tolerance of high salinity; this is shown by the stable dispersion of it in blend surfactant solution of anionic Alfoterra and nonionic Tergitol at high salinity API brine(8% NaCl and 2% CaCl2). The study of different functionality on OCB dispersion can help design appropriate modified nanoparticle as additive for enhanced oil recovery either to reduce the interfacial tension between oil and water, or to stabilize microemulsion.

  13. Magnetization studies of embedded and coated thin films using Magneto-Optic Kerr Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balasubramanian, Srinath

    The advancements made in electronic storage demand characterization of new materials and magnetic structures. The Magneto-Optic Kerr Effect (MOKE) is an interesting tool to characterize materials for usage in modern electronic storage devices such as magneto-optical drive, magnetic random access memory and spin valve devices. In this work, an attempt was made to characterize embedded and coated films using Magneto-Optic Kerr Effect technique. An experimental system was built for the measurement of Kerr rotation. Magnetization studies of PMMA (Poly(methyl methacrylate)) films embedded with iron nanoparticles and quartz films coated with hematite nanoparticles were carried out using MOKE. The embedded films exhibited weak magnetic response. For the coated films, the hysteresis loops were shifted from the origin indicating the presence of exchange bias in the system. Symmetric and asymmetric magnetization reversals were observed due to the presence of antiferromagnetic regions non-collinear with the external magnetic field. The samples with higher concentrations of nanoparticles showed dipolar interactions at relatively low fields. The coated films showed better magneto-optic response as compared to the embedded films. The exchange bias effects in the coated films makes it a candidate for various applications such as permanent magnets, magnetic recording media and stabilizers in recording heads.

  14. Bioinspired synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    David, Anand

    2009-01-01

    The synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles has long been an area of active research. Magnetic nanoparticles can be used in a wide variety of applications such as magnetic inks, magnetic memory devices, drug delivery, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents, and pathogen detection in foods. In applications such as MRI, particle uniformity is particularly crucial, as is the magnetic response of the particles. Uniform magnetic particles with good magnetic properties are therefore required. One particularly effective technique for synthesizing nanoparticles involves biomineralization, which is a naturally occurring process that can produce highly complex nanostructures. Also, the technique involves mild conditions (ambient temperature and close to neutral pH) that make this approach suitable for a wide variety of materials. The term 'bioinspired' is important because biomineralization research is inspired by the naturally occurring process, which occurs in certain microorganisms called 'magnetotactic bacteria'. Magnetotactic bacteria use biomineralization proteins to produce magnetite crystals having very good uniformity in size and morphology. The bacteria use these magnetic particles to navigate according to external magnetic fields. Because these bacteria synthesize high quality crystals, research has focused on imitating aspects of this biomineralization in vitro. In particular, a biomineralization iron-binding protein found in a certain species of magnetotactic bacteria, magnetospirillum magneticum, AMB-1, has been extracted and used for in vitro magnetite synthesis; Pluronic F127 gel was used to increase the viscosity of the reaction medium to better mimic the conditions in the bacteria. It was shown that the biomineralization protein mms6 was able to facilitate uniform magnetite synthesis. In addition, a similar biomineralization process using mms6 and a shorter version of this protein, C25, has been used to synthesize cobalt ferrite particles. The overall

  15. Compact Zwitterion-coated Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for In Vitro and In Vivo Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Wei, He; Bruns, Oliver T.; Chen, Ou

    2012-01-01

    We have recently developed compact and water-soluble zwitterionic dopamine sulfonate (ZDS) ligand coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) for use in various biomedical applications. The defining characteristics of ZDS-coated SPIONs are small hydrodynamic diameters, low non-specific interactions with fetal bovine serum, the opportunity for specific labeling, and stability with respect to time, pH, and salinity. We report here on the magnetic characterization of ZDS-coated SPIONs and their in vitro and in vivo performance relative to non-specific interactions with HeLa cells and in mice, respectively. ZDS-coated SPIONs retained the superparamagnetism and saturation magnetization (Ms) of as-synthesized hydrophobic SPIONs, with Ms=74 emu/g [Fe]. Moreover, ZDS-coated SPIONs showed only small non-specific uptake into HeLa cancer cells in vitro and low non-specific binding to serum proteins in vivo in mice. PMID:23042209

  16. Magnetic Carbon Nanotubes Tethered with Maghemite Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Il Tae; Nunnery, Grady; Jacob, Karl; Schwartz, Justin; Liu, Xiaotao; Tannenbaum, Rina

    2011-03-01

    We describe a novel, facile method for the synthesis of magnetic carbon nanotubes (m-CNTs) decorated with monodisperse γ - Fe 2 O3 magnetic (maghemite) nanoparticles and their aligned feature in a magnetic field. The tethering of the nanoparticles was achieved by the initial activation of the surface of the CNTs with carboxylic acid groups, followed by the attachment of the γ - Fe 2 O3 nanoparticles via a modified sol-gel process. Sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (NaDDBS) was introduced into the suspension to prevent the formation of an iron oxide 3D network. Various characterization methods were used to confirm the formation of well-defined maghemite nanoparticles. The tethered nanoparticles imparted magnetic characteristics to the CNTs, which became superparamagnetic. The m-CNTs were oriented parallel to the direction of a magnetic field. This has the potential of enhancing various properties, e.g. mechanical and electrical properties, in composite materials.

  17. Radiation pressure efficiency measurements of nanoparticle coated microspheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Soo Y.; Taylor, Joseph D.; Ladouceur, Harold D.; Hart, Sean J.; Terray, Alex

    2013-12-01

    Experimental measurements of the radiation pressure efficiency (Qpr) for several microparticles have been compared to theoretical calculations extrapolated from the Bohren-Huffman code for Mie scattering of coated particles. An increased shift of the Qpr parameter was observed for 2 μm SiO2 core particles coated with nanoparticles of higher refractive indices. Coatings of 14 nm melamine particles were found to increase the Qpr parameter 135 times over similar coatings using SiO2 particles of the same size. While a coating of 100 nm polystyrene particles also showed a significant increase, they did not agree well with theoretical values. It is hypothesized that other factors such as increased scatter, drag, and finite coating coverage are no longer negligible for coatings using nanoparticles in this size regime.

  18. Radiation pressure efficiency measurements of nanoparticle coated microspheres

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Soo Y.; Taylor, Joseph D.; Ladouceur, Harold D.; Hart, Sean J.; Terray, Alex

    2013-12-02

    Experimental measurements of the radiation pressure efficiency (Q{sub pr}) for several microparticles have been compared to theoretical calculations extrapolated from the Bohren-Huffman code for Mie scattering of coated particles. An increased shift of the Q{sub pr} parameter was observed for 2 μm SiO{sub 2} core particles coated with nanoparticles of higher refractive indices. Coatings of 14 nm melamine particles were found to increase the Q{sub pr} parameter 135 times over similar coatings using SiO{sub 2} particles of the same size. While a coating of 100 nm polystyrene particles also showed a significant increase, they did not agree well with theoretical values. It is hypothesized that other factors such as increased scatter, drag, and finite coating coverage are no longer negligible for coatings using nanoparticles in this size regime.

  19. Magnetic alignment of nickel-coated carbon fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Hao, Chuncheng; State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, 710049 ; Li, Xiaojiao; Wang, Guizhen

    2011-11-15

    Graphical abstract: Carbon nanofibers were subjected to a two-step pretreatment, sensitization and activation. Carbon nanofibers were encapsulated by a uniform layer of nickel nanoparticles. The prepared composites are ferromagnetic and with a small value of coercivity. Upon such functionalization, the carbon nanofibers can be aligned in a relatively small external magnetic field. Highlights: {center_dot} A simple microwave-assisted procedure for the magnetic composite. {center_dot} Dense layer of nickel on pretreated carbon nanofibers. {center_dot} Ferromagnetic properties and low coercivity. {center_dot} A long-chain aligned structure under magnetic field. -- Abstract: Magnetic composites of nickel-coated carbon nanofibers have been successfully fabricated by employing a simple microwave-assisted procedure. The scanning electron microscopy images show that a complete and uniform nickel coating with mean size of 25 nm could be deposited on carbon fibers. Magnetization curves demonstrate that the prepared composites are ferromagnetic and that the coercivity is 96 Oe. The magnetic carbon nanofibers can be aligned as a long-chain structure in an external magnetic field.

  20. Polyethylene glycol coated CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles: A potential spinel ferrite for biomedical applications

    SciTech Connect

    Humbe, Ashok V.; Birajdar, Shankar D.; Jadhav, K. M.; Bhandari, J. M.; Waghule, N. N.; Bhagwat, V. R.

    2015-06-24

    The structural and magnetic properties of the polyethylene glycol (PEG) coated cobalt spinel ferrite (CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) nanoparticles have been reported in the present study. CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles were prepared by sol-gel auto-combustion method using citric acid + ethylene glycol as a fuel. The prepared powder of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles was annealed at 600°C for 6h and used for further study. The structural characterization of CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles were carried out by X-ray diffraction technique. The X-ray analysis confirmed the formation of single phase cubic spinel structure. The crystallite size, Lattice constant and X-ray density of the PEG coated CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles were calculated by using XRD data. The presence of PEG on CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles and reduced agglomeration in the CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles were revealed by SEM studies. The magnetic properties were studied by pulse field hysteresis loop tracer technique at a room temperature. The magnetic parameters such as saturation magnetization, remanence magnetization, coercivity etc have been obtained. These magnetic parameters were get decreased by PEG coating.

  1. Magnetic Nanoparticles in Cancer Theranostics.

    PubMed

    Gobbo, Oliviero L; Sjaastad, Kristine; Radomski, Marek W; Volkov, Yuri; Prina-Mello, Adriele

    2015-01-01

    In a report from 2008, The International Agency for Research on Cancer predicted a tripled cancer incidence from 1975, projecting a possible 13-17 million cancer deaths worldwide by 2030. While new treatments are evolving and reaching approval for different cancer types, the main prevention of cancer mortality is through early diagnosis, detection and treatment of malignant cell growth. The last decades have seen a development of new imaging techniques now in widespread clinical use. The development of nano-imaging through fluorescent imaging and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has the potential to detect and diagnose cancer at an earlier stage than with current imaging methods. The characteristic properties of nanoparticles result in their theranostic potential allowing for simultaneous detection of and treatment of the disease. This review provides state of the art of the nanotechnological applications for cancer therapy. Furthermore, it advances a novel concept of personalized nanomedical theranostic therapy using iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles in conjunction with MRI imaging. Regulatory and industrial perspectives are also included to outline future perspectives in nanotechnological cancer research. PMID:26379790

  2. Magnetic Nanoparticles in Cancer Theranostics

    PubMed Central

    Gobbo, Oliviero L.; Sjaastad, Kristine; Radomski, Marek W.; Volkov, Yuri; Prina-Mello, Adriele

    2015-01-01

    In a report from 2008, The International Agency for Research on Cancer predicted a tripled cancer incidence from 1975, projecting a possible 13-17 million cancer deaths worldwide by 2030. While new treatments are evolving and reaching approval for different cancer types, the main prevention of cancer mortality is through early diagnosis, detection and treatment of malignant cell growth. The last decades have seen a development of new imaging techniques now in widespread clinical use. The development of nano-imaging through fluorescent imaging and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has the potential to detect and diagnose cancer at an earlier stage than with current imaging methods. The characteristic properties of nanoparticles result in their theranostic potential allowing for simultaneous detection of and treatment of the disease. This review provides state of the art of the nanotechnological applications for cancer therapy. Furthermore, it advances a novel concept of personalized nanomedical theranostic therapy using iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles in conjunction with MRI imaging. Regulatory and industrial perspectives are also included to outline future perspectives in nanotechnological cancer research. PMID:26379790

  3. Surface functionalized magnetic nanoparticles for cancer therapy applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wydra, Robert John

    Despite recent advances, cancer remains the second leading cause of deaths in the United States. Magnetic nanoparticles have found various applications in cancer research as drug delivery platforms, enhanced contrast agents for improved diagnostic imaging, and the delivery of thermal energy as standalone therapy. Iron oxide nanoparticles absorb the energy from an alternating magnetic field and convert it into heat through Brownian and Neel relaxations. To better utilize magnetic nanoparticles for cancer therapy, surface functionalization is essential for such factors as decreasing cytotoxicity of healthy tissue, extending circulation time, specific targeting of cancer cells, and manage the controlled delivery of therapeutics. In the first study, iron oxide nanoparticles were coated with a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) based polymer shell. The PEG coating was selected to prevent protein adsorption and thus improve circulation time and minimize host response to the nanoparticles. Thermal therapy application feasibility was demonstrated in vitro with a thermoablation study on lung carcinoma cells. Building on the thermal therapy demonstration with iron oxide nanoparticles, the second area of work focused on intracellular delivery. Nanoparticles can be appropriately tailored to enter the cell and deliver energy on the nanoscale eliminating individual cancer cells. The underlying mechanism of action is still under study, and we were interested in determining the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) catalytically generated from the surface of iron oxide nanoparticles in this measured cytotoxicity. When exposed to an AMF, the nanoscale heating effects are capable of enhancing the Fenton-like generation of ROS determined through a methylene blue degradation assay. To deliver this enhanced ROS effect to cells, monosaccharide coated nanoparticles were developed and successfully internalized by colon cancer cell lines. Upon AMF exposure, there was a measured increase in

  4. Glass frits coated with silver nanoparticles for silicon solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yingfen; Gan, Weiping; Zhou, Jian; Li, Biyuan

    2015-06-01

    Glass frits coated with silver nanoparticles were prepared by electroless plating. Gum Arabic (GA) was used as the activating agent of glass frits without the assistance of stannous chloride or palladium chloride. The silver-coated glass frits prepared with different GA dosages were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The characterization results indicated that silver-coated glass frits had the structures of both glass and silver. Spherical silver nanoparticles were distributed on the glass frits evenly. The density and particle size of silver nanoparticles on the glass frits can be controlled by adjusting the GA dosage. The silver-coated glass frits were applied to silver pastes to act as both the densification promoter and silver crystallite formation aid in the silver electrodes. The prepared silver-coated glass frits can improve the photovoltaic performances of solar cells.

  5. Spin coating of Ag nanoparticles: Effect of reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Ansari, A. A. Sartale, S. D.

    2014-04-24

    A surfactant free method for the growth of Ag nanoparticles on glass substrate by spin coating of Ag ions solution followed by chemical reduction in aqueous hydrazine hydrate (HyH) solution has been presented. Appearance of surface plasmon resonance confirms the formation of Ag nanoparticles. Morphology and absorbance spectra of Ag nanoparticles films are used to examine effect of hydrazine concentration on the growth of Ag nanoparticles. SEM images show uniformly distributed Ag nanoparticles. Rate constant was found to be dependent on HyH concentration as a consequence influence particle size.

  6. Magnetostriction in glass-coated magnetic microwires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhukov, A.; Zhukova, V.; Blanco, J. M.; Cobeño, A. F.; Vazquez, M.; Gonzalez, J.

    2003-03-01

    The hysteretic magnetic properties of glass coated magnetic microwires depend on the magnetostriction constant: Co-rich microwires with negative magnetostriction constant present an almost non-hysteretic loop with relatively high magnetic anisotropy field up to around 8 kA/m. In contrast, Fe-rich microwires with positive magnetostriction show rectangular hysteresis loops with switching field depending on diameter of the metallic nucleus and the thickness of the glass coating. The softest magnetic properties, such as large magnetic permeability, are observed in nearly zero magnetostrictive alloys. It is then obvious that the experimental determination of the saturation magnetostriction λs of glass-coated microwires is very important to predict their magnetic behaviour. Different methods for the determination of the saturation magnetostriction λs of tiny glass coated microwires have been reviewed and compared in this manuscript. Small angle magnetization rotation (SAMR) method and change of the giant magneto-impedance spectrum under applied stress have been employed in nearly zero magnetostrictive in as-prepared and current annealed glass-covered microwires. The conditions of applicability of these methods to the microwires have been analysed, taking into account the domain structure expected for vanishing magnetostriction constant of the metallic nucleus. These different techniques give similar saturation magnetostriction constant values. Heat treatment results in a significant change of λs.

  7. Engineering biofunctional magnetic nanoparticles for biotechnological applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moros, Maria; Pelaz, Beatriz; López-Larrubia, Pilar; García-Martin, Maria L.; Grazú, Valeria; de La Fuente, Jesus M.

    2010-09-01

    Synthesis and characterization of magnetic nanoparticles with excellent size control are showed here. Their functionalization using an amphiphilic polymer is also described. This strategy allows the stabilization of magnetic nanoparticles in aqueous solvents and in addition, the polymer shell serves as a platform to incorporate relevant biomolecules, such as poly(ethylene glycol) and a number of carbohydrates. Nanoparticles functionalized with carbohydrates show the ability to avoid unspecific interactions between proteins present in the working medium and the nanoparticles, so can be used as an alternative to poly(ethylene glycol) molecules. Results confirm these nanoparticles as excellent contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging. Changes in the spin-spin transversal relaxation times of the surrounding water protons due to nanoparticle aggregation demonstrates the bioactivity of these nanoparticles functionalized with carbohydrates. To finish with, nanoparticle toxicity is evaluated by means of MTT assay. The obtained results clearly indicate that these nanoparticles are excellent candidates for their further application in nanomedicine or nanobiotechnology.Synthesis and characterization of magnetic nanoparticles with excellent size control are showed here. Their functionalization using an amphiphilic polymer is also described. This strategy allows the stabilization of magnetic nanoparticles in aqueous solvents and in addition, the polymer shell serves as a platform to incorporate relevant biomolecules, such as poly(ethylene glycol) and a number of carbohydrates. Nanoparticles functionalized with carbohydrates show the ability to avoid unspecific interactions between proteins present in the working medium and the nanoparticles, so can be used as an alternative to poly(ethylene glycol) molecules. Results confirm these nanoparticles as excellent contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging. Changes in the spin-spin transversal relaxation times of the

  8. Platinum dendritic nanoparticles with magnetic behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wenxian; Sun, Ziqi; Tian, Dongliang; Nevirkovets, Ivan P.; Dou, Shi-Xue

    2014-07-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles have attracted increasing attention for biomedical applications in magnetic resonance imaging, high frequency magnetic field hyperthermia therapies, and magnetic-field-gradient-targeted drug delivery. In this study, three-dimensional (3D) platinum nanostructures with large surface area that features magnetic behavior have been demonstrated. The well-developed 3D nanodendrites consist of plentiful interconnected nano-arms ˜4 nm in size. The magnetic behavior of the 3D dendritic Pt nanoparticles is contributed by the localization of surface electrons due to strongly bonded oxygen/Pluronic F127 and the local magnetic moment induced by oxygen vacancies on the neighboring Pt and O atoms. The magnetization of the nanoparticles exhibits a mixed paramagnetic and ferromagnetic state, originating from the core and surface, respectively. The 3D nanodendrite structure is suitable for surface modification and high amounts of drug loading if the transition temperature was enhanced to room temperature properly.

  9. Platinum dendritic nanoparticles with magnetic behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Wenxian; Sun, Ziqi; Nevirkovets, Ivan P.; Dou, Shi-Xue; Tian, Dongliang

    2014-07-21

    Magnetic nanoparticles have attracted increasing attention for biomedical applications in magnetic resonance imaging, high frequency magnetic field hyperthermia therapies, and magnetic-field-gradient-targeted drug delivery. In this study, three-dimensional (3D) platinum nanostructures with large surface area that features magnetic behavior have been demonstrated. The well-developed 3D nanodendrites consist of plentiful interconnected nano-arms ∼4 nm in size. The magnetic behavior of the 3D dendritic Pt nanoparticles is contributed by the localization of surface electrons due to strongly bonded oxygen/Pluronic F127 and the local magnetic moment induced by oxygen vacancies on the neighboring Pt and O atoms. The magnetization of the nanoparticles exhibits a mixed paramagnetic and ferromagnetic state, originating from the core and surface, respectively. The 3D nanodendrite structure is suitable for surface modification and high amounts of drug loading if the transition temperature was enhanced to room temperature properly.

  10. Carbogenically coated silica nanoparticles and their forensic applications.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, D; Krysmann, M J; Kelarakis, A

    2016-07-01

    Carbogenically coated silica nanoparticles (C-SiO2) exhibit color-tunability and carry great promise for two important forensic applications. First, the C-SiO2 nanopowders are ideal for fingerprint development, yielding strong contrast against multicoloured and patterned backgrounds. Second, spontaneous nanoparticle aggregation leads to non-duplicable, inexpensive nanotags that can support sustainable technologies to combat counterfeiting. PMID:27294695

  11. Synthesis of magnetic rhenium sulfide composite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Naimei; Tu, Weixia

    2009-10-01

    Rhenium sulfide nanoparticles are associated with magnetic iron oxide through coprecipitation of iron salts with tetramethylammonium hydroxide. Sizes of the formed magnetic rhenium sulfide composite particles are in the range 5.5-12.5 nm. X-ray diffraction and energy-dispersive analysis of X-rays spectra demonstrate the coexistence of Fe 3O 4 and ReS 2 in the composite particle, which confirm the formation of the magnetic rhenium sulfide composite nanoparticles. The association of rhenium sulfide with iron oxide not only keeps electronic state and composition of the rhenium sulfide nanoparticles, but also introduces magnetism with the level of 24.1 emu g -1 at 14 kOe. Surface modification with monocarboxyl-terminated poly(ethylene glycol) (MPEG-COOH) has the role of deaggregating the composite nanoparticles to be with average hydrodynamic size of 27.3 nm and improving the dispersion and the stability of the composite nanoparticles in water.

  12. Development of Novel Magnetic Nanoparticles for Hyperthermia Cancer Therapy.

    PubMed

    Cassim, Shiraz M; Giustini, Andrew J; Baker, Ian; Hoopes, P Jack

    2011-02-23

    Advances in magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia are opening new doors in cancer therapy. As a standalone or adjuvant therapy this new modality has the opportunity significantly advance thermal medicine. Major advantages of using magnetic magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles are their highly localized power deposition and the fact that the alternating magnetic fields (AMF) used to excite them can penetrate deeply into the body without harmful effect. One limitation, however, which hinders the technology, is the problem of inductive heating of normal tissue by the AMF if the frequency and fields strength are not appropriately matched to the tissue. Restricting AMF amplitude and frequency limits the heat dose which can be selectively applied to cancerous tissue via the magnetic nanoparticle, thus lowering therapeutic effect. In an effort to address this problem, particles with optimized magnetic properties must be developed. Using particles with higher saturation magnetizations and coercivity will enhance hysteresis heating increasing particle power density at milder AMF strengths and frequencies. In this study we used oil in water microemulsions to develop nanoparticles with zero-valent Fe cores and magnetite shells. The superior magnetic properties of zero-valent Fe give these particles the potential for improved SAR over pure magnetite particles. Silane and subsequently dextran have been attached to the particle surface in order to provide a biocompatible surfactant coating. The heating capability of the particles was tested in-vivo using a mouse tumor model. Although we determined that the final stage of synthesis, purification of the dextran coated particles, permits significant corrosion/oxidation of the iron core to hematite, the particles can effectively heat tumor tissue. Improving the purification procedure will allow the generation Fe/Fe3O4 with superior SAR values. PMID:24619487

  13. Development of novel magnetic nanoparticles for hyperthermia cancer therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassim, Shiraz M.; Giustini, Andrew J.; Baker, Ian; Hoopes, P. Jack

    2011-03-01

    Advances in magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia are opening new doors in cancer therapy. As a standalone or adjuvant therapy this new modality has the opportunity significantly advance thermal medicine. Major advantages of using magnetic magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles are their highly localized power deposition and the fact that the alternating magnetic fields (AMF) used to excite them can penetrate deeply into the body without harmful effect. One limitation, however, which hinders the technology, is the problem of inductive heating of normal tissue by the AMF if the frequency and fields strength are not appropriately matched to the tissue. Restricting AMF amplitude and frequency limits the heat dose which can be selectively applied to cancerous tissue via the magnetic nanoparticle, thus lowering therapeutic effect. In an effort to address this problem, particles with optimized magnetic properties must be developed. Using particles with higher saturation magnetizations and coercivity will enhance hysteresis heating increasing particle power density at milder AMF strengths and frequencies. In this study we used oil in water microemulsions to develop nanoparticles with zero-valent Fe cores and magnetite shells. The superior magnetic properties of zero-valent Fe give these particles the potential for improved SAR over pure magnetite particles. Silane and subsequently dextran have been attached to the particle surface in order to provide a biocompatible surfactant coating. The heating capability of the particles was tested in-vivo using a mouse tumor model. Although we determined that the final stage of synthesis, purification of the dextran coated particles, permits significant corrosion/oxidation of the iron core to hematite, the particles can effectively heat tumor tissue. Improving the purification procedure will allow the generation Fe/Fe3O4 with superior SAR values.

  14. Development of Novel Magnetic Nanoparticles for Hyperthermia Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Cassim, Shiraz M.; Giustini, Andrew J.; Baker, Ian; Hoopes, P. Jack

    2013-01-01

    Advances in magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia are opening new doors in cancer therapy. As a standalone or adjuvant therapy this new modality has the opportunity significantly advance thermal medicine. Major advantages of using magnetic magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles are their highly localized power deposition and the fact that the alternating magnetic fields (AMF) used to excite them can penetrate deeply into the body without harmful effect. One limitation, however, which hinders the technology, is the problem of inductive heating of normal tissue by the AMF if the frequency and fields strength are not appropriately matched to the tissue. Restricting AMF amplitude and frequency limits the heat dose which can be selectively applied to cancerous tissue via the magnetic nanoparticle, thus lowering therapeutic effect. In an effort to address this problem, particles with optimized magnetic properties must be developed. Using particles with higher saturation magnetizations and coercivity will enhance hysteresis heating increasing particle power density at milder AMF strengths and frequencies. In this study we used oil in water microemulsions to develop nanoparticles with zero-valent Fe cores and magnetite shells. The superior magnetic properties of zero-valent Fe give these particles the potential for improved SAR over pure magnetite particles. Silane and subsequently dextran have been attached to the particle surface in order to provide a biocompatible surfactant coating. The heating capability of the particles was tested in-vivo using a mouse tumor model. Although we determined that the final stage of synthesis, purification of the dextran coated particles, permits significant corrosion/oxidation of the iron core to hematite, the particles can effectively heat tumor tissue. Improving the purification procedure will allow the generation Fe/Fe3O4 with superior SAR values. PMID:24619487

  15. Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Sophie; Bridot, Jean-Luc; Elst, Luce Vander; Muller, Robert N

    2010-03-01

    Due to their high magnetization, superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles induce an important decrease in the transverse relaxation of water protons and are, therefore, very efficient negative MRI contrast agents. The knowledge and control of the chemical and physical characteristics of nanoparticles are of great importance. The choice of the synthesis method (microemulsions, sol-gel synthesis, laser pyrolysis, sonochemical synthesis or coprecipitation) determines the magnetic nanoparticle's size and shape, as well as its size distribution and surface chemistry. Nanoparticles can be used for numerous in vivo applications, such as MRI contrast enhancement and hyperthermia drug delivery. New developments focus on targeting through molecular imaging and cell tracking. PMID:21426176

  16. Magnetic Nanoparticles in-vivo Detection of Transplant Rejection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flynn, E. R.; Bryant, H. C.; Larson, R. S.; Sergatskov, D. A.

    2006-03-01

    Superparamagnetic nanoparticles are being used to develop methodology for the in-vivo detection and imaging of immune system attacks on transplanted organs. The signature for impending rejection of a transplant is enhanced presence of T-cells. Magnetic nanoparticles coated with specific antibodies (CD-2 and CD-3) will target and attach to these T-cells. Approximately 3 .10^5 nanoparticles can attach to each cell. When a pulsed external magnetic field is applied to the decorated cells for a fraction of a second, magnetic moments of the nanoparticles aligned with the field. After the pulse is switched off, the net magnetic moment decays over several seconds by the Nèel mechanism. The resulting magnetic remanence field (typically 10-11 T) is measured using a multi-channel SQUID array. We present the data from live T-cells placed in realistic kidney phantom. The detection sensitivity was ˜2.10^3 T-cells - a small fraction of the number actually invading the rejected transplant. The 7-channel SQUID array allows us to image the cell clusters with a few millimeters resolution.

  17. Cobalt Zinc Ferrite Nanoparticles as a Potential Magnetic Resonance Imaging Agent: An In vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Ghasemian, Zeinab; Shahbazi-Gahrouei, Daryoush; Manouchehri, Sohrab

    2015-01-01

    Background: Magnetic Nanoparticles (MNP) have been used for contrast enhancement in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). In recent years, research on the use of ferrite nanoparticles in T2 contrast agents has shown a great potential application in MR imaging. In this work, Co0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 and Co0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4-DMSA magnetic nanoparticles, CZF-MNPs and CZF-MNPs-DMSA, were investigated as MR imaging contrast agents. Methods: Cobalt zinc ferrite nanoparticles and their suitable coating, DMSA, were investigated under in vitro condition. Human prostate cancer cell lines (DU145 and PC3) with bare (uncoated) and coated magnetic nanoparticles were investigated as nano-contrast MR imaging agents. Results: Using T2-weighted MR images identified that signal intensity of bare and coated MNPs was enhanced with increasing concentration of MNPs in water. The values of 1/T2 relaxivity (r2) for bare and coated MNPs were found to be 88.46 and 28.80 (mM−1 s−1), respectively. Conclusion: The results show that bare and coated MNPs are suitable as T2-weighted MR imaging contrast agents. Also, the obtained r2/r1 values (59.3 and 50) for bare and coated MNPs were in agreement with the results of other previous relevant works. PMID:26140183

  18. Reliable methods for silica coating of Au nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Pastoriza-Santos, Isabel; Liz-Marzán, Luis M

    2013-01-01

    The inherent properties of silica, such as optical transparency, high biocompatibility, chemical and colloidal stability, controllable porosity, and easy surface modification, provide silica materials with a tremendous potential in biomedicine. Therefore, the coating of Au nanoparticles with silica largely contributes to enhance the important applications of metal nanoparticles in biomedicine. We describe in this chapter a number of reliable strategies that have been reported for silica coating of different types of Au nanoparticles. All descriptions are based on tested protocols and are expected to provide a reference for scientists with an interest in this field. PMID:23918330

  19. Relaxation of biofunctionalized magnetic nanoparticles in ultra-low magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, H. C.; Chiu, L. L.; Liao, S. H.; Chen, H. H.; Horng, H. E.; Liu, C. W.; Liu, C. I.; Chen, K. L.; Chen, M. J.; Wang, L. M.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, the spin-spin relaxation rate, 1/T2, and spin-lattice relaxation rate, 1/T1, of protons' spins induced by biofunctionalized magnetic nanoparticles and ferrofluids are investigated using a high-Tc superconducting quantum interference device-detected magnetometer in ultra-low fields. The biofunctionalized magnetic nanoparticles are the anti-human C-reactive protein (antiCRP) coated onto dextran-coated superparamagnetic iron oxides Fe3O4, which is labeled as Fe3O4-antiCRP. The ferrofluids are dextran-coated iron oxides. It was found that both 1/T2 and 1/T1 of protons in Fe3O4-antiCRP are enhanced by the presence of magnetic nanoparticles. Additionally, both the 1/T1 and 1/T2 of Fe3O4-antiCRP are close to that of ferrofluids, which are dextran-coated Fe3O4 dispersed in phosphate buffer saline. Characterizing the relaxation of Fe3O4-antiCRP can be useful for biomedical applications.

  20. Contact potential induced enhancement of magnetization in polyaniline coated nanomagnetic iron oxides by plasma polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sethulakshmi, N.; Sooraj, V.; Sajeev, U. S.; Nair, Swapna S.; Narayanan, T. N.; Joy, Lija K.; Joy, P. A.; Ajayan, P. M.; Anantharaman, M. R.

    2013-10-01

    The present work derives motivation from the so called surface/interfacial magnetism in core shell structures and commercial samples of Fe3O4 and γ Fe2O3 with sizes ranging from 20 to 30 nm were coated with polyaniline using plasma polymerization and studied. The High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy images indicate a core shell structure after polyaniline coating and exhibited an increase in saturation magnetization by 2 emu/g. For confirmation, plasma polymerization was performed on maghemite nanoparticles which also exhibited an increase in saturation magnetization. This enhanced magnetization is rather surprising and the reason is found to be an interfacial phenomenon resulting from a contact potential.

  1. Predictable Heating and Positive MRI Contrast from a Mesoporous Silica-Coated Iron Oxide Nanoparticle.

    PubMed

    Hurley, Katie R; Ring, Hattie L; Etheridge, Michael; Zhang, Jinjin; Gao, Zhe; Shao, Qi; Klein, Nathan D; Szlag, Victoria M; Chung, Connie; Reineke, Theresa M; Garwood, Michael; Bischof, John C; Haynes, Christy L

    2016-07-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles have great potential as diagnostic and therapeutic agents in cancer and other diseases; however, biological aggregation severely limits their function in vivo. Aggregates can cause poor biodistribution, reduced heating capability, and can confound their visualization and quantification by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Herein, we demonstrate that the incorporation of a functionalized mesoporous silica shell can prevent aggregation and enable the practical use of high-heating, high-contrast iron oxide nanoparticles in vitro and in vivo. Unmodified and mesoporous silica-coated iron oxide nanoparticles were characterized in biologically relevant environments including phosphate buffered saline, simulated body fluid, whole mouse blood, lymph node carcinoma of prostate (LNCaP) cells, and after direct injection into LNCaP prostate cancer tumors in nude mice. Once coated, iron oxide nanoparticles maintained colloidal stability along with high heating and relaxivity behaviors (SARFe = 204 W/g Fe at 190 kHz and 20 kA/m and r1 = 6.9 mM(-1) s(-1) at 1.4 T). Colloidal stability and minimal nonspecific cell uptake allowed for effective heating in salt and agarose suspensions and strong signal enhancement in MR imaging in vivo. These results show that (1) aggregation can lower the heating and imaging performance of magnetic nanoparticles and (2) a coating of functionalized mesoporous silica can mitigate this issue, potentially improving clinical planning and practical use. PMID:26991550

  2. A Novel Method of Coating Orthodontic Archwires with Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Syed, Shibli S; Kulkarni, Dinraj; Todkar, Rohit; Bagul, Ravikiran S; Parekh, Kreena; Bhujbal, Nikita

    2015-01-01

    Background: The major hazard to the orthodontic tooth movement is the friction developing at the bracket wire interface. In the past, there have been various attempts to reduce this friction. We believe that coating the commercially available orthodontic wires with nanoparticles can result in a successful reduction of this friction. The objective of this study is to develop a novel method of coating orthodontic archwires with nanoparticles. Materials and Methods: Stainless steel (Ormco, CA, USA), titanium molybdenum alloy (Ormco, CA, USA) and nickel-titanium (G and H Wire Company, USA) orthodontic wires with a rectangular cross-section dimension of 0.019”× 0.025”, were selected. The wires were later coated with a uniform and smooth nanoparticle film using 100 ml nanocremics. The coating procedure described in this article is a sol-gel thin film dip coating method. Results: The coating procedure was verified by comparing the surface topography of nanocoated archwires with the commercially available archwires in an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM). The ESEM images prove that the surface topography of the coated wires was found to be smoother with less surface deteriorations as compared to the commercially available wires. Conclusion: Commercially available orthodontic wires can be successfully coated using a novel method of sol-gel thin film dip coating method. PMID:26028899

  3. Zirconia coating for enhanced thermal stability of gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastre, A.; Cristini-Robbe, O.; Bois, L.; Chassagneux, F.; Branzea, D.; Boé, A.; Kinowski, C.; Raulin, K.; Rolland, N.; Bernard, R.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a rapid, simple and one-step method for the preparation of 2-4 nm diameter zirconia-coated gold nanoparticles at room temperature. These nanoparticles were synthesized by two simultaneous processes: the chemical reduction of tetrachloroauric acid with sodium borohydride and the formation of zirconia sol-gel matrices. All the gold nanoparticle sols were characterized by UV-visible absorption and transmission electron microscopy to determine the nanoparticle size and shape. The synthesis method is a combination of a polymeric structure of the amorphous zirconia and the use of a strong reducing agent, and it yields to very small quasi-spherical gold nanoparticles at room temperature. The thermal stability up to 1200 °C of the coated nanoparticles was studied by x-ray diffraction. The metastable tetragonal phase of the zirconia coating was obtained at 400 °C, and a progressive transformation from tetragonal to monoclinic phases of the zirconia coating was observed up to 1100 °C. After the heat treatment at 400 °C, the crystallite size of the gold nanoparticles was about 29 nm, and it remained unchanged from 400 °C to 1200 °C. These results are promising for the development of such materials as doping elements for optical fiber applications.

  4. Gold-Coated Cementite Nanoparticles: An Oxidation-Resistant Alternative to -Iron

    SciTech Connect

    Shultz, M.; Calvin, S; Gonzalez-Jimenez, F; Mujica, V; Alleluia, B; Carpenter, E

    2009-01-01

    Iron-based nanoparticles are desirable for many applications because of their magnetic properties and inherent biocompatibility. Metallic iron, or {alpha}-Fe, is the most sought after because of its high saturation magnetization (up to 220 emu/g). This magnetization in iron nanoparticles is difficult to reach or maintain because of the ease of oxidation, which greatly reduces the magnetization values (90 emu/g or less). Here, we report the synthesis of an iron-based nanoparticle comprising a magnetic cementite core (Fe{sub 3}C) that is more oxidation-resistant than {alpha}-Fe, an oxide layer, and a gold coating for passivation and easy functionalization. The nanoparticle structure was confirmed via X-ray absorption fine structure and Moessbauer experiments, and morphology was confirmed using transmission electron microscopy. Magnetic characterization yielded a saturation magnetization of 110 emu/g, thus demonstrating cementite as more stable alternative to {alpha}-Fe with higher magnetic moments than the iron oxides.

  5. Synthesis of carbon-coated iron nanoparticles by detonation technique

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Guilei; Li, Xiaojie; Wang, Qiquan; Yan, Honghao

    2010-05-15

    Carbon-coated iron nanoparticles were synthesized by detonating a mixture of ferrocene, naphthalene and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in an explosion vessel under low vacuum conditions (8.1 kPa). The RDX functioned as an energy source for the decomposition of ferrocene and naphthalene. The carbon-coated iron nanoparticles were formed as soot-like deposits on the inner surface of the reactor, which were characterized by XRD, TEM, HRTEM, Raman spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometer. And a portion of the detonation soot was treated with hydrochloric acid. The product was carbon-coated nanoparticles in perfect core-shell structures with graphitic shells and bcc-Fe cores. The detonation technique offers an energy-saving route to the synthesis of carbon-coated nanomaterials.

  6. Investigations on the interactions of proteins with polyampholyte-coated magnetite nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Tao; Chen, Kaimin; Gu, Hongchen

    2013-11-14

    Magnetite nanoparticles have been widely used in biomedical applications, especially as contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging. In this work, the antifouling property of polyampholyte-coating (poly(acrylic acid) (PAA)-co-3-(diethylamino)-propylamine (DEAPA)) is systematically demonstrated. Polyampholyte-coated magnetite nanoparticles (NP1) and PAA-coated magnetite nanoparticles (NP2) were synthesized to investigate their interactions with BSA and lysozyme (LYZ) by high-resolution turbidimetric titration, dynamic light scattering (DLS), and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) buffer with pH 7.4. The abundant carboxyl groups of NP2 and polyampholyte coating of NP1 were well proven by TGA, ζ-potential, and titration methods. Turbidity change shows that NP1 have no interaction with both proteins other than NP2 having adsorption with LYZ, which was further confirmed by DLS. Besides, ITC gives the exact enthalpy change and unveils the binding stoichiometry for each interaction. All characterizations demonstrate the antifouling property of NP1 to both negatively charged protein BSA and positively charged protein LYZ. The polyampholyte-coated magnetite nanoparticles were shown to be a promising material to eliminate the strong interaction with proteins in complex medium, for example, when it is applied for MRA contrast agents with long in vivo circulation time. PMID:24063374

  7. Magnetic nanoparticle-based cancer therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jing; Huang, Dong-Yan; Muhammad Zubair, Yousaf; Hou, Yang-Long; Gao, Song

    2013-02-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) with easily modified surfaces have been playing an important role in biomedicine. As cancer is one of the major causes of death, tremendous efforts have been devoted to advance the methods of cancer diagnosis and therapy. Recently, magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) that are responsive to a magnetic field have shown great promise in cancer therapy. Compared with traditional cancer therapy, magnetic field triggered therapeutic approaches can treat cancer in an unconventional but more effective and safer way. In this review, we will discuss the recent progress in cancer therapies based on MNPs, mainly including magnetic hyperthermia, magnetic specific targeting, magnetically controlled drug delivery, magnetofection, and magnetic switches for controlling cell fate. Some recently developed strategies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) monitoring cancer therapy and magnetic tissue engineering are also addressed.

  8. Preparation and characterization of 6-mercaptopurine-coated magnetite nanoparticles as a drug delivery system

    PubMed Central

    Dorniani, Dena; Hussein, Mohd Zobir bin; Kura, Aminu Umar; Fakurazi, Sharida; Shaari, Abdul Halim; Ahmad, Zalinah

    2013-01-01

    Background Iron oxide nanoparticles are of considerable interest because of their use in magnetic recording tape, ferrofluid, magnetic resonance imaging, drug delivery, and treatment of cancer. The specific morphology of nanoparticles confers an ability to load, carry, and release different types of drugs. Methods and results We synthesized superparamagnetic nanoparticles containing pure iron oxide with a cubic inverse spinal structure. Fourier transform infrared spectra confirmed that these Fe3O4 nanoparticles could be successfully coated with active drug, and thermogravimetric and differential thermogravimetric analyses showed that the thermal stability of iron oxide nanoparticles coated with chitosan and 6-mercaptopurine (FCMP) was markedly enhanced. The synthesized Fe3O4 nanoparticles and the FCMP nanocomposite were generally spherical, with an average diameter of 9 nm and 19 nm, respectively. The release of 6-mercaptopurine from the FCMP nanocomposite was found to be sustained and governed by pseudo-second order kinetics. In order to improve drug loading and release behavior, we prepared a novel nanocomposite (FCMP-D), ie, Fe3O4 nanoparticles containing the same amounts of chitosan and 6-mercaptopurine but using a different solvent for the drug. The results for FCMP-D did not demonstrate “burst release” and the maximum percentage release of 6-mercaptopurine from the FCMP-D nanocomposite reached about 97.7% and 55.4% within approximately 2,500 and 6,300 minutes when exposed to pH 4.8 and pH 7.4 solutions, respectively. By MTT assay, the FCMP nanocomposite was shown not to be toxic to a normal mouse fibroblast cell line. Conclusion Iron oxide coated with chitosan containing 6-mercaptopurine prepared using a coprecipitation method has the potential to be used as a controlled-release formulation. These nanoparticles may serve as an alternative drug delivery system for the treatment of cancer, with the added advantage of sparing healthy surrounding cells and

  9. Aggregation kinetics and dissolution of coated silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuan; Lenhart, John J; Walker, Harold W

    2012-01-17

    Determining the fate of manufactured nanomaterials in the environment is contingent upon understanding how stabilizing agents influence the stability of nanoparticles in aqueous systems. In this study, the aggregation and dissolution tendencies of uncoated silver nanoparticles and the same particles coated with three common coating agents, trisodium citrate, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and Tween 80 (Tween), were evaluated. Early stage aggregation kinetics of the uncoated and coated silver nanoparticles were assessed by dynamic light scattering over a range of electrolyte types (NaCl, NaNO(3), and CaCl(2)) and concentrations that span those observed in natural waters. Although particle dissolution was observed, aggregation of all particle types was still consistent with classical Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory. The aggregation of citrate-coated particles and SDS-coated particles were very similar to that for the uncoated particles, as the critical coagulation concentrations (CCC) of the particles in different electrolytes were all approximately the same (40 mM NaCl, 30 mM NaNO(3), and 2 mM CaCl(2)). The Tween-stabilized particles were significantly more stable than the other particles, however, and in NaNO(3) aggregation was not observed up to an electrolyte concentration of 1 M. Differences in the rate of aggregation under diffusion-limited aggregation conditions at high electrolyte concentrations for the SDS and Tween-coated particles, in combination with the moderation of their electrophoretic mobilities, suggest SDS and Tween imparted steric interactions to the particles. The dissolution of the silver nanoparticles was inhibited by the SDS and Tween coatings, but not by the citrate coating, and in chloride-containing electrolytes a secondary precipitate of AgCl was observed bridging the individual particles. These results indicate that coating agents could significant influence the fate of silver nanoparticles in aquatic systems, and in some

  10. Terahertz magnetic modulator based on magnetically clustered nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shalaby, Mostafa; Peccianti, Marco; Ozturk, Yavuz; Al-Naib, Ibraheem; Hauri, Christoph P.; Morandotti, Roberto

    2014-10-01

    Random orientation of liquid-suspended magnetic nanoparticles (Ferrofluids) gives rise to a zero net magnetic orientation. An external magnetic field tends to align these nanoparticles into clusters, leading to a strong linear dichroism on a propagating wave. Using 10 nm-sized Fe3O4, we experimentally realize a polarization-sensitive magnetic modulator operating at terahertz wavelengths. We reached a modulation depth of 66% using a field as low as 35 mT. The proposed concept offers a solution towards fundamental terahertz magnetic modulators.

  11. In-vitro investigations of nanoparticle magnetic thermotherapy: adjuvant effects and comparison to conventional heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce, Z.; Strawbridge, R.; Gaito, C.; Dulatas, L.; Tate, J.; Ogden, J.; Hoopes, P. J.

    2007-02-01

    Thermotherapy, particularly magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia, is a promising modality both as a direct cancer cell killing and as a radiosensitization technique for adjuvant therapy. Dextran-coated iron oxide nanoparticles were mixed with multiple tumor cell lines in solution and exposed to varying magnetic field regimes and combined with traditional external radiotherapy. Heating of cell lines by water bath in temperature patterns comparable to those achieved by nanoparticle hyperthermia was conducted to assess the relative value of nano-magnetic thermotherapy compared with conventional bulk heating techniques and data.

  12. NMR Relaxation in Systems with Magnetic Nanoparticles: A Temperature Study

    PubMed Central

    Issa, Bashar; Obaidat, Ihab M.; Hejasee, Rola H.; Qadri, Shahnaz; Haik, Yousef

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To measure and model NMR relaxation enhancement due to the presence of Gd substituted Zn-Mn ferrite magnetic nanoparticles at different temperatures. Materials and Methods Relaxation rates were measured at 1.5 T using FSE sequences in samples of agarose gel doped with uncoated and polyethylene glycol (PEG) coated Mn0.5Zn0.5Gd0.02Fe1.98O4 nanoparticles over the temperature range 8 to 58°C. Physical characterization of the magnetic nanoparticles synthesized using chemical co-precipitation included scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopy, inductively coupled plasma (ICP), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and magnetometry. Results Relaxivity (in s−1 mM−1 Fe) for the uncoated and coated particles, respectively, increased as follows: from 2.5 to 3.2 and 0.4 to 0.7 for T1, while for T2 it increased from 162.3 to 253.7 and 59.7 to 82.2 over the temperature range 8 to 58°C. T2 data was fitted to the echo limited motional regime using one fitting parameter that reflects the degree of agglomeration of particles into a cluster. This parameter was found to increase linearly with temperature and was larger for the PEG coated particles than the uncoated ones. Conclusion The increase of 1/T2 with temperature is modeled successfully using echo limited motional regime where both diffusion of the protons and nanoparticle cluster size increase with temperature. Both transverse and longitudinal relaxation efficiencies are reduced by PEG coating at all temperatures. If prediction of relaxation rates under different particle concentrations and operating temperatures is possible then the use of MNP in temperature monitoring and hyperthermia applications may be achieved. PMID:23720101

  13. Current methods for synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Majidi, Sima; Sehrig, Fatemeh Zeinali; Farkhani, Samad Mussa; Goloujeh, Mehdi Soleymani; Akbarzadeh, Abolfazl

    2016-01-01

    The synthesis of different kinds of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) has attracted much attention. During the last few years, a large portion of the articles published about MNPs have described efficient routes to attain shape-controlled and highly stable MNPs with narrow size distribution. In this review, we have reported several popular methods including co-precipitation, microemulsion, thermal decomposition, solvothermal, sonochemical, microwave-assisted, chemical vapor deposition, combustion, carbon arc, and laser pyrolysis, for the synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles. PMID:25435409

  14. Magnetic Nanoparticles for Local Drug Delivery Using Magnetic Implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Pacheco, Rodrigo; Valdivia, J. Gabriel; Ibarra, M. Ricardo

    This chapter is a brief description of the state of the art of the field of targeted drug delivery using magnetic implants. It describes the advantages and drawbacks of the use of internal magnets to concentrate magnetic nanoparticles near tumor locations, and the different approaches to this task performed in vitro and in vivo reviewed in literature are presented.

  15. Magnetic Properties of Polyvinyl Alcohol and Doxorubicine Loaded Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Anticancer Drug Delivery Applications

    PubMed Central

    Nadeem, Muhammad; Ahmad, Munir; Akhtar, Muhammad Saeed; Shaari, Amiruddin; Riaz, Saira; Naseem, Shahzad; Masood, Misbah; Saeed, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    The current study emphasizes the synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) and impact of hydrophilic polymer polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) coating concentration as well as anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) loading on saturation magnetization for target drug delivery applications. Iron oxide nanoparticles particles were synthesized by a reformed version of the co-precipitation method. The coating of polyvinyl alcohol along with doxorubicin loading was carried out by the physical immobilization method. X-ray diffraction confirmed the magnetite (Fe3O4) structure of particles that remained unchanged before and after polyvinyl alcohol coating and drug loading. Microstructure and morphological analysis was carried out by transmission electron microscopy revealing the formation of nanoparticles with an average size of 10 nm with slight variation after coating and drug loading. Transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive, and Fourier transform infrared spectra further confirmed the conjugation of polymer and doxorubicin with iron oxide nanoparticles. The room temperature superparamagnetic behavior of polymer-coated and drug-loaded magnetite nanoparticles were studied by vibrating sample magnetometer. The variation in saturation magnetization after coating evaluated that a sufficient amount of polyvinyl alcohol would be 3 wt. % regarding the externally controlled movement of IONPs in blood under the influence of applied magnetic field for in-vivo target drug delivery. PMID:27348436

  16. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Nanoparticles Coated with Charged Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Chengyuan; Cheng, Shengfeng

    Polymer coating is frequently used to stabilize colloidal and nano-sized particles. We employ molecular dynamics simulations to study nanoparticles coated with polymer chains that contain ionizable groups. In a polar solvent, the chains become charged with counterions dissociated. In the computational model, we treat the solvent as a uniform dielectric background and use the bead-spring model for the polymer chains. Counterions are explicitly included as mobile beads. The nanoparticle is modeled as a layer of sites uniformly distributed on a spherical surface with a certain fraction of sites serving as the tether points of the grafted polymer brush. We vary the grafting density and calculate the distribution of polymer beads and counterions around the nanoparticle. Our results indicate that charged chains adopt extended conformations because of their mutual repulsions. We further study the interactions between two polymer-coated nanoparticles and obtain the potential of mean force. We also find an interesting transition of a confined single layer of such polymer-coated nanoparticles into two layers when the confinement is removed. Results show that the brush-brush contact has a nonuniform distribution and the nanoparticles tend to form dipole-like structures.

  17. Versatile theranostics agents designed by coating ferrite nanoparticles with biocompatible polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahraei, M.; Marciello, M.; Lazaro-Carrillo, A.; Villanueva, A.; Herranz, F.; Talelli, M.; Costo, R.; Monshi, A.; Shahbazi-Gahrouei, D.; Amirnasr, M.; Behdadfar, B.; Morales, M. P.

    2016-06-01

    Three biocompatible polymers, polyethylene glycol (PEG), dextran and chitosan, have been used in this work to control the colloidal stability of magnetic nanoparticles (14 ± 5 nm in diameter) and to vary the aggregation state in order to study their effect on relaxometric and heating properties. Two different coating strategies have been deeply developed; one based on the formation of an amide bond between citric acid coated nanoparticles (NPs) and amine groups present on the polymer surface and the other based on the NP encapsulation. Relaxometric properties revealed that proton relaxation rates strongly depend on the coating layer hydrophilicity and the aggregation state of the particles due to the presence of magnetic interactions. Thus, while PEG coating reduces particle aggregation by increasing inter-particle spacing leading to reduction of both T1 and T2 relaxation, dextran and chitosan lead to an increase mainly in T2 values due to the aggregation of particles in bigger clusters where they are in close contact. Dextran and chitosan coated NPs have also shown a remarkable heating effect during the application of an alternating magnetic field. They have proved to be potential candidates as theranostic agents for cancer diagnosis and treatment. Finally, cytotoxicity of PEG conjugated NPs, which seem to be ideal for intravenous administration because of their small hydrodynamic size, was investigated resulting in high cell viability even at 0.2 mg Fe ml‑1 after 24 h of incubation. This suspension can be used as drug/biomolecule carrier for in vivo applications.

  18. Investigation of magnetic properties of Fe3O4 nanoparticles using temperature dependent magnetic hyperthermia in ferrofluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemala, H.; Thakur, J. S.; Naik, V. M.; Vaishnava, P. P.; Lawes, G.; Naik, R.

    2014-07-01

    Rate of heat generated by magnetic nanoparticles in a ferrofluid is affected by their magnetic properties, temperature, and viscosity of the carrier liquid. We have investigated temperature dependent magnetic hyperthermia in ferrofluids, consisting of dextran coated superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles, subjected to external magnetic fields of various frequencies (188-375 kHz) and amplitudes (140-235 Oe). Transmission electron microscopy measurements show that the nanoparticles are polydispersed with a mean diameter of 13.8 ± 3.1 nm. The fitting of experimental dc magnetization data to a standard Langevin function incorporating particle size distribution yields a mean diameter of 10.6 ± 1.2 nm, and a reduced saturation magnetization (˜65 emu/g) compared to the bulk value of Fe3O4 (˜95 emu/g). This is due to the presence of a finite surface layer (˜1 nm thickness) of non-aligned spins surrounding the ferromagnetically aligned Fe3O4 core. We found the specific absorption rate, measured as power absorbed per gram of iron oxide nanoparticles, decreases monotonically with increasing temperature for all values of magnetic field and frequency. Using the size distribution of magnetic nanoparticles estimated from the magnetization measurements, we have fitted the specific absorption rate versus temperature data using a linear response theory and relaxation dissipation mechanisms to determine the value of magnetic anisotropy constant (28 ± 2 kJ/m3) of Fe3O4 nanoparticles.

  19. The Effect of Magnetic Fields on the Capture of Magnetic Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujinaka, Chelsea; Brazel, Chris; Shah, Rhythm

    2013-11-01

    It is hypothesized that magnetic nanoparticles may be used in active targeting cancer treatment by localizing the particles in the area of the tumor. To test this hypothesis static and electromagnetic fields were applied to a flow system, and UV-VIS spectroscopy was used to calculate the percentage of particles captured. Uncoated Maghemite nanopowder and FluidMAG-PAD (Chemicell) nanoparticles coated with polyacrylamide were used. Dynamic light scattering was used to look at particles size with and without proteins. Proteins caused the uncoated particles to aggregate. The static field captured approximately 15% of the maghemite nanoparticles in water in a flowing at 0.1 mL/s when using two neodymium magnets laid lengthwise along 2 mm inner diameter tubing. The electromagnetic field pulled the uncoated particles out of the dispersion, but did not capture any in one place. The FluidMAG-PAD particles could not be pulled out of solution by the static field or the electromagnetic field. In order to effectively treat cancer, nanoparticles with a coating would have to be used to avoid opsonization and aggregation within the blood stream; however they cannot be so well dispersed as to not be affected by the magnetic field. The uncoated particles exhibited the capture desired, but do not interact well with proteins. A stronger magnetic field may allow the same capture of the coated particles, but it may also be important to look for a dispersion of nanoparticles not quite as well dispersed as the FluidMAG-PAD. Support from NSF grant #1062611 is gratefully acknowledged.

  20. Thermal potentiation of chemotherapy by magnetic nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Lugo, Madeline; Rinaldi, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Clinical studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of hyperthermia as an adjuvant for chemotherapy and radiotherapy. However, significant clinical challenges have been encountered, such as a broader spectrum of toxicity, lack of patient tolerance, temperature control and significant invasiveness. Hyperthermia induced by magnetic nanoparticles in high-frequency oscillating magnetic fields, commonly termed magnetic fluid hyperthermia, is a promising form of heat delivery in which thermal energy is supplied at the nanoscale to the tumor. This review discusses the mechanisms of heat dissipation of iron oxide-based magnetic nanoparticles, current methods and challenges to deliver heat in the clinic, and the current work related to the use of magnetic nanoparticles for the thermal-chemopotentiation of therapeutic drugs. PMID:24074390

  1. Polymer Coated Echogenic Lipid Nanoparticles with Dual Release Triggers

    PubMed Central

    Nahire, Rahul; Haldar, Manas K.; Paul, Shirshendu; Mergoum, Anaas; Ambre, Avinash H.; Katti, Kalpana S.; Gange, Kara N.; Srivastava, D. K.; Sarkar, Kausik; Mallik, Sanku

    2013-01-01

    Although lipid nanoparticles are promising drug delivery vehicles, passive release of encapsulated contents at the target site is often slow. Herein, we report contents release from targeted, polymer coated, echogenic lipid nanoparticles in the cell cytoplasm by redox trigger and simultaneously enhanced by diagnostic frequency ultrasound. The lipid nanoparticles were polymerized on the external leaflet using a disulfide cross-linker. In the presence of cytosolic concentrations of glutathione, the lipid nanoparticles released 76% of encapsulated contents. Plasma concentrations of glutathione failed to release the encapsulated contents. Application of 3 MHz ultrasound for 2 minutes simultaneously with the reducing agent enhanced the release to 96%. Folic acid conjugated, doxorubicin loaded nanoparticles showed enhanced uptake and higher cytotoxicity in cancer cells overexpressing the folate receptor (compared to the control). With further developments, these lipid nanoparticles have the potential to be used as multimodal nanocarriers for simultaneous targeted drug delivery and ultrasound imaging. PMID:23394107

  2. Shellac-coated iron oxide nanoparticles for removal of cadmium(II) ions from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Gong, Jilai; Chen, Long; Zeng, Guangming; Long, Fei; Deng, Jiuhua; Niu, Qiuya; He, Xun

    2012-01-01

    This study describes a new effective adsorbent for cadmium removal from aqueous solution synthesized by coating a shellac layer, a natural biodegradable and renewable resin with abundant hydroxyl and carboxylic groups, on the surface of iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) imaging showed shellac-coated magnetic nanoparticle (SCMN) adsorbents had a core-shell structure with a core of 20 nm and shell of 5 nm. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopic analysis suggested the occurrence of reaction between carboxyl groups on the SCMN adsorbent surface and cadmium ions in aqueous solution. Kinetic data were well described by pseudo second-order model and adsorption isotherms were fitted with both Langmuir and Freundlich models with maximum adsorption capacity of 18.80 mg/g. SCMN adsorbents provided a favorable adsorption capacity under high salinity conditions, and cadmium could easily be desorbed using mild organic acid solutions at low concentration. PMID:23513435

  3. Thiol-modified gold nanoparticles deposited on silica support using dip coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magura, Jozef; Zeleňáková, Adriana; Zeleňák, Vladimír; Kaňuchová, Maria

    2014-10-01

    In our work, we have prepared thin layers of gold nanoparticles deposited via dip coating technique on silica glass substrate. The prepared thin layers were modified by two different ligands, namely 1,4-dithiothreitol (sample Au-DTT NPs) and L-glutathione (sample Au-GSH NPs). The spectral, structural and magnetic properties of the prepared samples were investigated. The modification of Au nanoparticles with thiol ligands leads to change of their plasmon resonance fields, as indicated by UV-vis spectra. The magnetic measurements showed that the magnetization of the samples is composed from two magnetic contributions: diamagnetic contribution and low field ferromagnetic contribution. Our experimental results show that the charge transfer between Au and S atoms gives rise to the ferromagnetic behaviour of prepared thin layers.

  4. Quantifying the complex permittivity and permeability of magnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, B. M.; Gui, Y. S.; Worden, M.; Hegmann, T.; Xing, M.; Chen, X. S.; Lu, W.; Wroczynskyj, Y.; van Lierop, J.; Hu, C.-M.

    2015-04-01

    The complex permittivity and permeability of superparamagnetic iron-oxide nanoparticles has been quantified using a circular waveguide assembly with a static magnetic field to align the nanoparticle's magnetization. The high sensitivity of the measurement provides the precise resonant feature of nanoparticles. The complex permeability in the vicinity of ferromagnetic resonance is in agreement with the nanoparticle's measured magnetization via conventional magnetometry. A rigorous and self-consistent measure of complex permittivities and permeabilities of nanoparticles is crucial to ascertain accurately the dielectric behaviour as well as the frequency response of nanoparticle magnetization, necessary ingredients when designing and optimizing magnetic nanoparticles for biomedical applications.

  5. Optical bistability in a nonlinear-shell-coated metallic nanoparticle

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hongli; Zhang, Youming; Zhang, Baile; Gao, Lei

    2016-01-01

    We provide a self-consistent mean field approximation in the framework of Mie scattering theory to study the optical bistability of a metallic nanoparticle coated with a nonlinear shell. We demonstrate that the nanoparticle coated with a weakly nonlinear shell exhibits optical bistability in a broad range of incident optical intensity. This optical bistability critically relies on the geometry of the shell-coated nanoparticle, especially the fractional volume of the metallic core. The incident wavelength can also affect the optical bistability. Through an optimization-like process, we find a design with broader bistable region and lower threshold field by adjusting the size of the nonlinear shell, the fractional volume of the metallic core, and the incident wavelength. These results may find potential applications in optical bistable devices such as all-optical switches, optical transistors and optical memories. PMID:26907967

  6. Optical bistability in a nonlinear-shell-coated metallic nanoparticle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hongli; Zhang, Youming; Zhang, Baile; Gao, Lei

    2016-02-01

    We provide a self-consistent mean field approximation in the framework of Mie scattering theory to study the optical bistability of a metallic nanoparticle coated with a nonlinear shell. We demonstrate that the nanoparticle coated with a weakly nonlinear shell exhibits optical bistability in a broad range of incident optical intensity. This optical bistability critically relies on the geometry of the shell-coated nanoparticle, especially the fractional volume of the metallic core. The incident wavelength can also affect the optical bistability. Through an optimization-like process, we find a design with broader bistable region and lower threshold field by adjusting the size of the nonlinear shell, the fractional volume of the metallic core, and the incident wavelength. These results may find potential applications in optical bistable devices such as all-optical switches, optical transistors and optical memories.

  7. Optical bistability in a nonlinear-shell-coated metallic nanoparticle.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hongli; Zhang, Youming; Zhang, Baile; Gao, Lei

    2016-01-01

    We provide a self-consistent mean field approximation in the framework of Mie scattering theory to study the optical bistability of a metallic nanoparticle coated with a nonlinear shell. We demonstrate that the nanoparticle coated with a weakly nonlinear shell exhibits optical bistability in a broad range of incident optical intensity. This optical bistability critically relies on the geometry of the shell-coated nanoparticle, especially the fractional volume of the metallic core. The incident wavelength can also affect the optical bistability. Through an optimization-like process, we find a design with broader bistable region and lower threshold field by adjusting the size of the nonlinear shell, the fractional volume of the metallic core, and the incident wavelength. These results may find potential applications in optical bistable devices such as all-optical switches, optical transistors and optical memories. PMID:26907967

  8. Characterization of magnetic nanoparticle by dynamic light scattering

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Here we provide a complete review on the use of dynamic light scattering (DLS) to study the size distribution and colloidal stability of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). The mathematical analysis involved in obtaining size information from the correlation function and the calculation of Z-average are introduced. Contributions from various variables, such as surface coating, size differences, and concentration of particles, are elaborated within the context of measurement data. Comparison with other sizing techniques, such as transmission electron microscopy and dark-field microscopy, revealed both the advantages and disadvantages of DLS in measuring the size of magnetic nanoparticles. The self-assembly process of MNP with anisotropic structure can also be monitored effectively by DLS. PMID:24011350

  9. Multi-functional Magnetic Nanoparticles for Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Yallapu, Murali M.; Othman, Shadi F.; Curtis, Evan T.; Gupta, Brij K.; Jaggi, Meena; Chauhan, Subhash C.

    2010-01-01

    We have developed a multi-layer approach for the synthesis of water-dispersible superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for hyperthermia, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and drug delivery applications. In this approach, iron oxide core nanoparticles were obtained by precipitation of iron salts in the presence of ammonia and provided β-cyclodextrin and pluronic polymer (F127) coatings. This formulation (F127250) was highly water dispersible which allowed encapsulation of the anti-cancer drug(s) in β-cyclodextrin and pluronic polymer for sustained drug release. The F127250 formulation has exhibited superior hyperthermia effects over time under alternating magnetic field compared to pure magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) and β-cyclodextrin coated nanoparticles (CD200). Additionally, the improved MRI characteristics were also observed for the F127250 formulation in agar gel and in cisplatin resistant ovarian cancer cells (A12780CP) compared to MNP and CD200 formulations. Furthermore, the drug loaded formulation of F127250 exhibited many folds of imaging contrast properties. Due to the internalization capacity of the F127250 formulation, its curcumin loaded formulation (F127250-CUR) exhibited almost equivalent inhibition effects on A2780CP (ovarian), MDA-MB-231 (breast), and PC3 (prostate) cancer cells even though curcumin release was only 40%. The improved therapeutic effects were verified by examining molecular effects using Western blotting and transmission electron microscopic (TEM) studies. F127250-CUR also exhibited haemocompatibility, suggesting a nanochemo-therapuetic agent for cancer therapy. PMID:21167595

  10. Magnetic Nanoparticles for Imaging Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kobukai, Saho; Baheza, Richard; Cobb, Jared G.; Virostko, Jack; Xie, Jingping; Gillman, Amelie; Koktysh, Dmitry; Kerns, Denny; Does, Mark; Gore, John C.; Pham, Wellington

    2015-01-01

    We report the development of superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIOs) nanoparticles and investigate the migration of SPIO-labeled dendritic cells (DCs) in a syngeneic mouse model using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. The size of the dextran-coated SPIO is roughly 30 nm, and the DCs are capable of independent uptake of these particles, although not at levels comparable to particle uptake in the presence of a transfecting reagent. On average, with the assistance of polylysine, the particles were efficiently delivered inside DCs within one hour of incubation. The SPIO particles occupy approximately 0.35% of cell surface and are equivalent to 34.6 pg of iron per cell. In vivo imaging demonstrated that the labeled cells migrated from the injection site in the footpad to the corresponding popliteal lymph node. The homing of labeled cells in the lymph nodes resulted in a signal drop of up to 79%. Furthermore, labeling DCs with SPIO particles did not compromise cell function, we demonstrated that SPIO-enhanced MR imaging can be used to track the migration of DCs effectively in vivo. Magn Reson Med 63:1383–1390, 2010. PMID:20432309

  11. Synthesis and structures of iron nanoparticles coated with boron nitride nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Narita, Ichihito; Oku, Takeo; Tokoro, Hisato; Suganuma, Katsuaki

    2006-06-01

    Iron (Fe) nanoparticles coated with boron nitride (BN) nanomaterials were synthesized by using Fe(4)N and B powders as raw materials. The Fe(4)N was reduced to alpha-Fe during annealing at 1000 degrees C for several hours with flowing 100 sccm N(2) gas. The reaction was predicted by Ellingham diagram. The atomic structure and magnetic properties were investigated by high-resolution electron microscopy and vibrating sample magnetometer system. PMID:16585048

  12. Magnetoelectric behavior of carbonyl iron mixed Mn oxide-coated ferrite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahad, Faris B. Abdul; Lee, Shang-Fan; Hung, Dung-Shing; Yao, Yeong-Der; Yang, Ruey-Bin; Lin, Chung-Kwei; Tsay, Chien-Yie

    2010-05-01

    The dielectric and magnetic properties of manganese oxide-coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) were measured by the cavity perturbation method at x-band microwave frequencies ranging from 7-12.5 GHz with controlled external magnetic field up to 2.2 kOe at room temperature. Different ratios (5%, 10%, and 20% by weight) of coated NPs were prepared by sol-gel method then mixed with carbonyl iron powder in epoxy matrix. The saturation magnetization is inversely proportional to the NPs ratio in the mixture between 150 and 180 emu/g. The real part of the permittivity decreased with increasing NPs concentration, but the permittivity change by magnetic field increased. The tunability behavior is explained by insulator-ferromagnetic interface magnetoelectricity and the large surface volume ratio for the NPs.

  13. Magnetic nanoparticles for bio-analytical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yedlapalli, Sri Lakshmi

    Magnetic nanoparticles are widely being used in various fields of medicine, biology and separations. This dissertation focuses on the synthesis and use of magnetic nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery and analytical separations. The goals of this research include synthesis of biocompatible surface modified monodisperse superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) by novel techniques for targeted drug delivery and use of SPIONs as analytical sensing tools. Surface modification of SPIONs was performed with two different co-polymers: tri block co-polymer Pluronics and octylamine modified polyacrylic acid. Samples of SPIONs were subsequently modified with 4 different commercially available, FDA approved tri-block copolymers (Pluronics), covering a wide range of molecular weights (5.75-14.6 kDa). A novel, technically simpler and faster phase transfer approach was developed to surface modify the SPIONs with Pluronics for drug delivery and other biomedical applications. The hydrodynamic diameter and aggregation properties of the Pluronic modified SPIONs were studied by dynamic light scattering (DLS). The coverage of SPIONs with Pluronics was supported with IR Spectroscopy and characterized by Thermo gravimetric Analysis (TGA). The drug entrapment capacity of SPIONs was studied by UV-VIS spectroscopy using a hydrophobic carbocyanine dye, which serves as a model for hydrophobic drugs. These studies resulted in a comparison of physical properties and their implications for drug loading capacities of the four types of Pluronic coated SPIONs for drug delivery assessment. These drug delivery systems could be used for passive drug targeting. However, Pluronics lack the functional group necessary for bioconjugation and hence cannot achieve active targeting. SPIONs were functionalized with octylamine modified polyacrylic acid-based copolymer, providing water solubility and facile biomolecular conjugation. Epirubicin was loaded onto SPIONs and the drug entrapment was

  14. Superparamagnetic nanoparticles for enhanced magnetic resonance and multimodal imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikma, Elise Ann Schultz

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a powerful tool for noninvasive tomographic imaging of biological systems with high spatial and temporal resolution. Superparamagnetic (SPM) nanoparticles have emerged as highly effective MR contrast agents due to their biocompatibility, ease of surface modification and magnetic properties. Conventional nanoparticle contrast agents suffer from difficult synthetic reproducibility, polydisperse sizes and weak magnetism. Numerous synthetic techniques and nanoparticle formulations have been developed to overcome these barriers. However, there are still major limitations in the development of new nanoparticle-based probes for MR and multimodal imaging including low signal amplification and absence of biochemical reporters. To address these issues, a set of multimodal (T2/optical) and dual contrast (T1/T2) nanoparticle probes has been developed. Their unique magnetic properties and imaging capabilities were thoroughly explored. An enzyme-activatable contrast agent is currently being developed as an innovative means for early in vivo detection of cancer at the cellular level. Multimodal probes function by combining the strengths of multiple imaging techniques into a single agent. Co-registration of data obtained by multiple imaging modalities validates the data, enhancing its quality and reliability. A series of T2/optical probes were successfully synthesized by attachment of a fluorescent dye to the surface of different types of nanoparticles. The multimodal nanoparticles generated sufficient MR and fluorescence signal to image transplanted islets in vivo. Dual contrast T1/T2 imaging probes were designed to overcome disadvantages inherent in the individual T1 and T2 components. A class of T1/T2 agents was developed consisting of a gadolinium (III) complex (DTPA chelate or DO3A macrocycle) conjugated to a biocompatible silica-coated metal oxide nanoparticle through a disulfide linker. The disulfide linker has the ability to be reduced

  15. Using magnetic nanoparticles to manipulate biological objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yi; Gao, Yu; Xu, Chenjie

    2013-09-01

    The use of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) for the manipulation of biological objects, including proteins, genes, cellular organelles, bacteria, cells, and organs, are reviewed. MNPs are popular candidates for controlling and probing biological objects with a magnetic force. In the past decade, progress in the synthesis and surface engineering of MNPs has further enhanced this popularity.

  16. Modulating Antibacterial Immunity via Bacterial Membrane-Coated Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Weiwei; Fang, Ronnie H.; Thamphiwatana, Soracha; Luk, Brian T.; Li, Jieming; Angsantikul, Pavimol; Zhang, Qiangzhe; Hu, Che-Ming J.; Zhang, Liangfang

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic nanoparticles coated with cellular membranes have been increasingly explored to harness natural cell functions toward the development of novel therapeutic strategies. Herein, we report on a unique bacterial membrane-coated nanoparticle system as a new and exciting antibacterial vaccine. Using Escherichia coli as a model pathogen, we collect bacterial outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) and successfully coat them onto small gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with a diameter of 30 nm. The resulting bacterial membrane-coated AuNPs (BM-AuNPs) show markedly enhanced stability in biological buffer solutions. When injected subcutaneously, the BM-AuNPs induce rapid activation and maturation of dendritic cells in the lymph nodes of the vaccinated mice. In addition, vaccination with BM-AuNPs generates antibody responses that are durable and of higher avidity than those elicited by OMVs only. The BM-AuNPs also induce an elevated production of interferon gamma (INFγ) and interleukin-17 (IL-17), but not interleukin-4 (IL-4), indicating its capability of generating strong Th1 and Th17 biased cell responses against the source bacteria. These observed results demonstrate that using natural bacterial membranes to coat synthetic nanoparticles holds great promise for designing effective antibacterial vaccines. PMID:25615236

  17. Approaches for modeling magnetic nanoparticle dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Reeves, Daniel B; Weaver, John B

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles are useful biological probes as well as therapeutic agents. There have been several approaches used to model nanoparticle magnetization dynamics for both Brownian as well as Néel rotation. The magnetizations are often of interest and can be compared with experimental results. Here we summarize these approaches including the Stoner-Wohlfarth approach, and stochastic approaches including thermal fluctuations. Non-equilibrium related temperature effects can be described by a distribution function approach (Fokker-Planck equation) or a stochastic differential equation (Langevin equation). Approximate models in several regimes can be derived from these general approaches to simplify implementation. PMID:25271360

  18. Acetylcholinesterase immobilized onto PEI-coated silica nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Tumturk, Hayrettin; Yüksekdag, Hazer

    2016-01-01

    Polyethyleneimine (PEI) coated-silica nanoparticles were prepared by the Stöber method. The formation and the structure of the nanoparticles were characterized by ATR-FT-IR spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). TEM images of the silica and PEI-coated nanoparticles revealed that they were well dispersed and that there was no agglomeration. The acetylcholineesterase enzyme was immobilized onto these nanoparticles. The effects of pH and temperature on the storage stability of the free and immobilized enzyme were investigated. The optimum pHs for free and immobilized enzymes were determined as 7.0 and 8.0, respectively. The optimum temperatures for free and immobilized enzymes were found to be 30.0 and 35.0°C, respectively. The maximum reaction rate (Vmax) and the Michaelis-Menten constant (Km) were investigated for the free and immobilized enzyme. The storage stability of acetylcholinesterase was increased when immobilized onto the novel PEI-coated silica nanoparticles. The reuse numbers of immobilized enzyme were also studied. These hybrid nanoparticles are desirable as carriers for biomedical applications. PMID:25365355

  19. Nanoparticle coated emulsions as novel dermal delivery vehicles.

    PubMed

    Eskandar, Nasrin Ghouchi; Simovic, Spomenka; Prestidge, Clive A

    2009-08-01

    The dermal delivery characteristics of hydrophilic silica nanoparticle coated medium chain triglyceride oil-in-water emulsions are reported and correlated with the physicochemical and interfacial properties of the emulsion based drug carriers. The synergistic drug/stabiliser/nanoparticle interactions are demonstrated to be a function of the charge and concentration of the initial emulsion stabiliser; charge and initial loading phase of nanoparticles and physicochemical properties of the drug molecule. The improved physical stability of the emulsions and the chemical stability of two model lipophilic agents (all-trans-retinol and acridine orange 10-nonyl bromide) confirm that engineered nanoparticle layers can enhance the shelf-life of liable lipophilic agents. Nanoparticle coatings are shown to control the in-vitro release of active agents from emulsions and significantly promote skin retention. The lipophilic agents distributed into the deeper viable skin layers without permeation through full-thickness skin and hence systemic exposure. Nanoparticle-coated submicron oil-in-water emulsions can serve as novel dermal carriers with controlled release kinetics and targeted drug delivery. PMID:19534710

  20. Biomedical Applications of Advanced Multifunctional Magnetic Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Long, Nguyen Viet; Yang, Yong; Teranishi, Toshiharu; Thi, Cao Minh; Cao, Yanqin; Nogami, Masayuki

    2015-12-01

    In this review, we have presented the latest results and highlights on biomedical applications of a class of noble metal nanoparticles, such as gold, silver and platinum, and a class of magnetic nanoparticles, such as cobalt, nickel and iron. Their most important related compounds are also discussed for biomedical applications for treating various diseases, typically as cancers. At present, both physical and chemical methods have been proved very successful to synthesize, shape, control, and produce metal- and oxide-based homogeneous particle systems, e.g., nanoparticles and microparticles. Therefore, we have mainly focused on functional magnetic nanoparticles for nanomedicine because of their high bioadaptability to the organs inside human body. Here, bioconjugation techniques are very crucial to link nanoparticles with conventional drugs, nanodrugs, biomolecules or polymers for biomedical applications. Biofunctionalization of engineered nanoparticles for biomedicine is shown respective to in vitro and in vivo analysis protocols that typically include drug delivery, hyperthermia therapy, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and recent outstanding progress in sweep imaging technique with Fourier transformation (SWIFT) MRI. The latter can be especially applied using magnetic nanoparticles, such as Co-, Fe-, Ni-based nanoparticles, α-Fe2O3, and Fe3O4 oxide nanoparticles for analysis and treatment of malignancies. Therefore, this review focuses on recent results of scientists, and related research on diagnosis and treatment methods of common and dangerous diseases by biomedical engineered nanoparticles. Importantly, nanosysems (nanoparticles) or microsystems (microparticles) or hybrid micronano systems are shortly introduced into nanomedicine. Here, Fe oxide nanoparticles ultimately enable potential and applicable technologies for tumor-targeted imaging and therapy. Finally, we have shown the latest aspects of the most important Fe-based particle systems, such as Fe,

  1. Thermal and magnetic properties of chitosan-iron oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Soares, Paula I P; Machado, Diana; Laia, César; Pereira, Laura C J; Coutinho, Joana T; Ferreira, Isabel M M; Novo, Carlos M M; Borges, João Paulo

    2016-09-20

    Chitosan is a biopolymer widely used for biomedical applications such as drug delivery systems, wound healing, and tissue engineering. Chitosan can be used as coating for other types of materials such as iron oxide nanoparticles, improving its biocompatibility while extending its range of applications. In this work iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe3O4 NPs) produced by chemical precipitation and thermal decomposition and coated with chitosan with different molecular weights were studied. Basic characterization on bare and chitosan-Fe3O4 NPs was performed demonstrating that chitosan does not affect the crystallinity, chemical composition, and superparamagnetic properties of the Fe3O4 NPs, and also the incorporation of Fe3O4 NPs into chitosan nanoparticles increases the later hydrodynamic diameter without compromising its physical and chemical properties. The nano-composite was tested for magnetic hyperthermia by applying an alternating current magnetic field to the samples demonstrating that the heating ability of the Fe3O4 NPs was not significantly affected by chitosan. PMID:27261762

  2. Magnetic Nanoparticles with High Specific Absorption Rate at Low Alternating Magnetic Field

    PubMed Central

    Kekalo, K.; Baker, I.; Meyers, R.; Shyong, J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the synthesis and properties of a new type of magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) for use in the hyperthermia treatment of tumors. These particles consist of 2–4 nm crystals of gamma-Fe2O3 gathered in 20–40 nm aggregates with a coating of carboxymethyl-dextran, producing a zetasize of 110–120 nm. Despite their very low saturation magnetization (1.5–6.5 emu/g), the specific absorption rate (SAR) of the nanoparticles is 22–200 W/g at applied alternating magnetic field (AMF) with strengths of 100–500 Oe at a frequency of 160 kHz. PMID:26884816

  3. Aptamer conjugated magnetic nanoparticles as nanosurgeons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nair, Baiju G.; Nagaoka, Yutaka; Morimoto, Hisao; Yoshida, Yasuhiko; Maekawa, Toru; Sakthi Kumar, D.

    2010-11-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles have shown promise in the fields of targeted drug delivery, hyperthermia and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in cancer therapy. The ability of magnetic nanoparticles to undergo surface modification and the effect of external magnetic field in the dynamics of their movement make them an excellent nanoplatform for cancer destruction. Surgical removal of cancerous or unwanted cells selectively from the interior of an organ or tissue without any collateral damage is a serious problem due to the highly infiltrative nature of cancer. To address this problem in surgery, we have developed a nanosurgeon for the selective removal of target cells using aptamer conjugated magnetic nanoparticles controlled by an externally applied three-dimensional rotational magnetic field. With the help of the nanosurgeon, we were able to perform surgical actions on target cells in in vitro studies. LDH and intracellular calcium release assay confirmed the death of cancer cells due to the action of the nanosurgeon which in turn nullifies the possibility of proliferation by the removed cells. The nanosurgeon will be a useful tool in the medical field for selective surgery and cell manipulation studies. Additionally, this system could be upgraded for the selective removal of complex cancers from diverse tissues by incorporating various target specific ligands on magnetic nanoparticles.

  4. Biological cell manipulation by magnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gertz, Frederick; Khitun, Alexander

    2016-02-01

    We report a manipulation of biological cells (erythrocytes) by magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles in the presence of a magnetic field. The experiment was accomplished on the top of a micro-electromagnet consisting of two magnetic field generating contours. An electric current flowing through the contour(s) produces a non-uniform magnetic field, which is about 1.4 mT/μm in strength at 100 mA current in the vicinity of the current-carrying wire. In responses to the magnetic field, magnetic nanoparticles move towards the systems energy minima. In turn, magnetic nanoparticles drag biological cells in the same direction. We present experimental data showing cell manipulation through the control of electric current. This technique allows us to capture and move cells located in the vicinity (10-20 microns) of the current-carrying wires. One of the most interesting results shows a periodic motion of erythrocytes between the two conducting contours, whose frequency is controlled by an electric circuit. The obtained results demonstrate the feasibility of non-destructive cell manipulation by magnetic nanoparticles with micrometer-scale precision.

  5. Protein corona composition of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles with various physico-chemical properties and coatings.

    PubMed

    Sakulkhu, Usawadee; Mahmoudi, Morteza; Maurizi, Lionel; Salaklang, Jatuporn; Hofmann, Heinrich

    2014-01-01

    Because of their biocompatibility and unique magnetic properties, superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles NPs (SPIONs) are recognized as some of the most prominent agents for theranostic applications. Thus, understanding the interaction of SPIONs with biological systems is important for their safe design and efficient applications. In this study, SPIONs were coated with 2 different polymers: polyvinyl alcohol polymer (PVA) and dextran. The obtained NPs with different surface charges (positive, neutral, and negative) were used as a model study of the effect of surface charges and surface polymer materials on protein adsorption using a magnetic separator. We found that the PVA-coated SPIONs with negative and neutral surface charge adsorbed more serum proteins than the dextran-coated SPIONs, which resulted in higher blood circulation time for PVA-coated NPs than the dextran-coated ones. Highly abundant proteins such as serum albumin, serotransferrin, prothrombin, alpha-fetoprotein, and kininogen-1 were commonly found on both PVA- and dextran-coated SPIONs. By increasing the ionic strength, soft- and hard-corona proteins were observed on 3 types of PVA-SPIONs. However, the tightly bound proteins were observed only on negatively charged PVA-coated SPIONs after the strong protein elution. PMID:24846348

  6. Protein Corona Composition of Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles with Various Physico-Chemical Properties and Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakulkhu, Usawadee; Mahmoudi, Morteza; Maurizi, Lionel; Salaklang, Jatuporn; Hofmann, Heinrich

    2014-05-01

    Because of their biocompatibility and unique magnetic properties, superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles NPs (SPIONs) are recognized as some of the most prominent agents for theranostic applications. Thus, understanding the interaction of SPIONs with biological systems is important for their safe design and efficient applications. In this study, SPIONs were coated with 2 different polymers: polyvinyl alcohol polymer (PVA) and dextran. The obtained NPs with different surface charges (positive, neutral, and negative) were used as a model study of the effect of surface charges and surface polymer materials on protein adsorption using a magnetic separator. We found that the PVA-coated SPIONs with negative and neutral surface charge adsorbed more serum proteins than the dextran-coated SPIONs, which resulted in higher blood circulation time for PVA-coated NPs than the dextran-coated ones. Highly abundant proteins such as serum albumin, serotransferrin, prothrombin, alpha-fetoprotein, and kininogen-1 were commonly found on both PVA- and dextran-coated SPIONs. By increasing the ionic strength, soft- and hard-corona proteins were observed on 3 types of PVA-SPIONs. However, the tightly bound proteins were observed only on negatively charged PVA-coated SPIONs after the strong protein elution.

  7. Capture Efficiency of Biocompatible Magnetic Nanoparticles in Arterial Flow: A Computer Simulation for Magnetic Drug Targeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunnoo, Thodsaphon; Puangmali, Theerapong

    2015-10-01

    The primary limitation of magnetic drug targeting (MDT) relates to the strength of an external magnetic field which decreases with increasing distance. Small nanoparticles (NPs) displaying superparamagnetic behaviour are also required in order to reduce embolization in the blood vessel. The small NPs, however, make it difficult to vector NPs and keep them in the desired location. The aims of this work were to investigate parameters influencing the capture efficiency of the drug carriers in mimicked arterial flow. In this work, we computationally modelled and evaluated capture efficiency in MDT with COMSOL Multiphysics 4.4. The studied parameters were (i) magnetic nanoparticle size, (ii) three classes of magnetic cores (Fe3O4, Fe2O3, and Fe), and (iii) the thickness of biocompatible coating materials (Au, SiO2, and PEG). It was found that the capture efficiency of small particles decreased with decreasing size and was less than 5 % for magnetic particles in the superparamagnetic regime. The thickness of non-magnetic coating materials did not significantly influence the capture efficiency of MDT. It was difficult to capture small drug carriers ( D<200 nm) in the arterial flow. We suggest that the MDT with high-capture efficiency can be obtained in small vessels and low-blood velocities such as micro-capillary vessels.

  8. Capture Efficiency of Biocompatible Magnetic Nanoparticles in Arterial Flow: A Computer Simulation for Magnetic Drug Targeting.

    PubMed

    Lunnoo, Thodsaphon; Puangmali, Theerapong

    2015-12-01

    The primary limitation of magnetic drug targeting (MDT) relates to the strength of an external magnetic field which decreases with increasing distance. Small nanoparticles (NPs) displaying superparamagnetic behaviour are also required in order to reduce embolization in the blood vessel. The small NPs, however, make it difficult to vector NPs and keep them in the desired location. The aims of this work were to investigate parameters influencing the capture efficiency of the drug carriers in mimicked arterial flow. In this work, we computationally modelled and evaluated capture efficiency in MDT with COMSOL Multiphysics 4.4. The studied parameters were (i) magnetic nanoparticle size, (ii) three classes of magnetic cores (Fe3O4, Fe2O3, and Fe), and (iii) the thickness of biocompatible coating materials (Au, SiO2, and PEG). It was found that the capture efficiency of small particles decreased with decreasing size and was less than 5 % for magnetic particles in the superparamagnetic regime. The thickness of non-magnetic coating materials did not significantly influence the capture efficiency of MDT. It was difficult to capture small drug carriers (D<200 nm) in the arterial flow. We suggest that the MDT with high-capture efficiency can be obtained in small vessels and low-blood velocities such as micro-capillary vessels. PMID:26515074

  9. Rhamnose-coated superparamagnetic iron-oxide nanoparticles: an evaluation of their in vitro cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and carcinogenicity.

    PubMed

    Paolini, Alessandro; Guarch, Constança Porredon; Ramos-López, David; de Lapuente, Joaquín; Lascialfari, Alessandro; Guari, Yannick; Larionova, Joulia; Long, Jerome; Nano, Rosanna

    2016-04-01

    Tumor recurrence after the incomplete removal of a tumor mass inside brain tissue is the main reason that scientists are working to identify new strategies in brain oncologic therapy. In particular, in the treatment of the most malignant astrocytic tumor glioblastoma, the use of magnetic nanoparticles seems to be one of the most promising keys in overcoming this problem, namely by means of magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) treatment. However, the major unknown issue related to the use of nanoparticles is their toxicological behavior when they are in contact with biological tissues. In the present study, we investigated the interaction of glioblastoma and other tumor cell lines with superparamagnetic iron-oxide nanoparticles covalently coated with a rhamnose derivative, using proper cytotoxic assays. In the present study, we focused our attention on different strategies of toxicity evaluation comparing different cytotoxicological approaches in order to identify the biological damages induced by the nanoparticles. The data show an intensive internalization process of rhamnose-coated iron oxide nanoparticles by the cells, suggesting that rhamnose moiety is a promising biocompatible coating in favoring cells' uptake. With regards to cytotoxicity, a 35% cell death at a maximum concentration, mainly as a result of mitochondrial damages, was found. This cytotoxic behavior, along with the high uptake ability, could facilitate the use of these rhamnose-coated iron-oxide nanoparticles for future MFH therapeutic treatments. PMID:26708321

  10. Crosswell Magnetic Sensing of Superparamagnetic Nanoparticles for Subsurface Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmani, A.; Athey, A.; Wilt, M.; Chen, J.

    2012-12-01

    Stable dispersions of superparamagnetic nanoparticles, already used in biomedicine as image-enhancing agents, have potential in subsurface applications. The surface-coated nanoparticles are capable of flowing through micron-size pores across long distances in a reservoir with minimal retention in rock. These particles change the magnetic permeability of the flooded region, and when added to the injected fluid during enhanced oil recovery processes, they can be used to tag the flood. In this paper, we model the propagation of a "ferrofluid" slug in a reservoir and its response to a crosswell magnetic tomography system. The magnetic response to these contrast agents can thus help characterize the formation and fluid displacement mechanisms. The monitoring of fluid injections into reservoirs builds upon the established EM conductivity monitoring technology. In this work, however, particular attention is paid to distinguish the injected and resident fluids when they have similar conductivities but different magnetic permeabilities. Specifically, we focus on low-frequency (less than 100 Hz) magnetic excitations generated by a vertical magnetic dipole source positioned at the injection well. At such low frequencies, the induction effect is small, the casing effect is manageable, and the crosswell response originates purely from the magnetic contrast in the formation. In this study, we assume a 2d axisymmetric model and track a donut-shaped ferrofluid slug of magnetic permeability 2 as it propagates toward an observatory well, housing magnetic field receivers and located 100 m away from the injection well. We apply vertical magnetic dipole source and receivers at multiple levels within the tomography section. A non-magnetic and non-conductive casing is assumed for both wells. The ferrofluid slug volume is conserved throughout the dispersionless propagation and confined within a 20 m thick reservoir layer at a depth of 1 Km. We compare the response of a conductive slug

  11. Multifunctional particles: Magnetic nanocrystals and gold nanorods coated with fluorescent dye-doped silica shells

    SciTech Connect

    Heitsch, Andrew T.; Smith, Danielle K.; Patel, Reken N.; Ress, David; Korgel, Brian A.

    2008-07-15

    Multifunctional colloidal core-shell nanoparticles of magnetic nanocrystals (of iron oxide or FePt) or gold nanorods encapsulated in silica shells doped with the fluorescent dye, Tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)dichlororuthenium(II) hexahydrate (Rubpy) were synthesized. The as-prepared magnetic nanocrystals are initially hydrophobic and were coated with silica using a microemulsion approach, while the as-prepared gold nanorods are hydrophilic and were coated with silica using a Stoeber type of process. Each approach yielded monodisperse nanoparticles with uniform fluorescent dye-doped silica shells. These colloidal heterostructures have the potential to be used as dual-purpose tags-exhibiting a fluorescent signal that could be combined with either dark-field optical contrast (in the case of the gold nanorods), or enhanced contrast in magnetic resonance images (in the case of magnetic nanocrystal cores). The optical and magnetic properties of the fluorescent silica-coated gold nanorods and magnetic nanocrystals are reported. - Graphical abstract: Colloidal gold nanorods and iron platinum and iron oxide nanocrystals were encapsulated with fluorescent dye-doped silica shells using a generic coating strategy. These heterostructures are promising contrast agents for dual-mode medical imaging. Their optical and magnetic properties were studied and are reported here.

  12. Effect of magnetic field in malaria diagnosis using magnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Quan; Yuen, Clement

    2011-07-01

    The current gold standard method of Malaria diagnosis relies on the blood smears examination. The method is laborintensive, time consuming and requires the expertise for data interpretation. In contrast, Raman scattering from a metabolic byproduct of the malaria parasite (Hemozoin) shows the possibility of rapid and objective diagnosis of malaria. However, hemozoin concentration is usually extremely low especially at the early stage of malaria infection, rendering weak Raman signal. In this work, we propose the sensitive detection of enriched β-hematin, whose spectroscopic properties are equivalent to hemozoin, based on surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) by using magnetic nanoparticles. A few orders of magnitude enhancement in the Raman signal of β-hematin can be achieved using magnetic nanoparticles. Furthermore, the effect of magnetic field on SERS enhancement is investigated. Our result demonstrates the potential of SERS using magnetic nanoparticles in the effective detection of hemozoin for malaria diagnosis.

  13. Functionalized magnetic nanoparticles: A novel heterogeneous catalyst support

    EPA Science Inventory

    Functionalized magnetic nanoparticles have emerged as viable alternatives to conventional materials, as robust, high-surface-area heterogeneous catalyst supports. Post-synthetic surface modification protocol for magnetic nanoparticles has been developed that imparts desirable che...

  14. Biocide silver nanoparticles in two different silica-based coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babapour, A.; Yang, B.; Bahang, S.; Cao, W.

    2012-09-01

    Silica-based coatings containing biocide silver nanoparticles have been synthesized using low temperature sol-gel method. Two different silane based matrices, phenyltriethoxysilane (PhTEOS) and tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS), were selected as precursor to prepare silica-based film. The films were analyzed by using UV-visible spectrophotometry, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for their optical, surface morphological as well as structural properties. Optical properties of nanosilver in these two matrices showed that the peak absorption observed at different wavelength, which is due to the fact that optical absorption of nanoparticles is affected by the surrounding medium. It is also found that the silver absorption has higher intensity in PhTEOS than in TEOS matrix, indicating higher concentration of silver nanoparticles being loaded into the coating. To study silver release property, the films were immersed in water for 12 and 20 days. AFM and SEM analyzes present that higher concentration of silver nanoparticles and smaller particle sizes were synthesis in PhTEOS coating and consequently, more particles remains on the surfaces after 20 days which leads to longer antibacterial activity of PhTEOS coating.

  15. Nano- and microstructures of magnetic field-guided maghemite nanoparticles in diblock copolymer films.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yuan; Metwalli, Ezzeldin; Niedermeier, Martin A; Opel, Matthias; Lin, Chen; Ning, Jing; Perlich, Jan; Roth, Stephan V; Müller-Buschbaum, Peter

    2014-04-01

    The control over the alignment of nanoparticles within a block copolymer matrix was investigated for different external magnetic fields with respect to producing well-aligned, highly oriented metal-oxide-polymer nanopatterns. Hybrid films were prepared by solution casting under a range of external magnetic fields. The nano- and microstructure of maghemite nanoparticles within poly(styrene-b-methyl methacrylate) diblock copolymer films as a function of the nanoparticle concentration was studied using optical microscopy, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering. Because of a polystyrene (PS) coating, the nanoparticles are incorporated in the PS domains of the diblock copolymer morphology. At higher nanoparticle concentrations, nanoparticle aggregates perturb the block copolymer structure and accumulate at the films surface into wire-shaped stripes. These wire-shaped nanoparticle aggregates form mainly because of the competition between nanoparticle-polymer friction and magnetic dipolar interaction. The magnetic behavior of the hybrid films was probed at different temperatures for two orthogonal directions (with the line-shaped particle aggregates parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic field). The hybrid film systems show superparamagnetic behavior and remarkable shape anisotropy that render them interesting for magnetic applications. PMID:24621173

  16. Tuning the Magnetic Properties of Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Kolhatkar, Arati G.; Jamison, Andrew C.; Litvinov, Dmitri; Willson, Richard C.; Lee, T. Randall

    2013-01-01

    The tremendous interest in magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) is reflected in published research that ranges from novel methods of synthesis of unique nanoparticle shapes and composite structures to a large number of MNP characterization techniques, and finally to their use in many biomedical and nanotechnology-based applications. The knowledge gained from this vast body of research can be made more useful if we organize the associated results to correlate key magnetic properties with the parameters that influence them. Tuning these properties of MNPs will allow us to tailor nanoparticles for specific applications, thus increasing their effectiveness. The complex magnetic behavior exhibited by MNPs is governed by many factors; these factors can either improve or adversely affect the desired magnetic properties. In this report, we have outlined a matrix of parameters that can be varied to tune the magnetic properties of nanoparticles. For practical utility, this review focuses on the effect of size, shape, composition, and shell-core structure on saturation magnetization, coercivity, blocking temperature, and relaxation time. PMID:23912237

  17. Mixed Hemi/Ad-Micelle Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate-Coated Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for the Efficient Removal and Trace Determination of Rhodamine-B and Rhodamine-6G.

    PubMed

    Ranjbari, Elias; Hadjmohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Kiekens, Filip; De Wael, Karolien

    2015-08-01

    Mixed hemi/ad-micelle sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-coated magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MHAMS-MIONPs) were used as an efficient adsorbent for both removal and preconcentration of two important carcinogenic xanthine dyes named rhodamine-B (RB) and rhodamine-6G (RG). To gain insight in the configuration of SDS molecules on the surface of MIONPs, zeta potential measurements were performed in different [SDS]/[MIONP] ratios. Zeta potential data indicated that mixed hemi/ad-micelle MHAM was formed in [SDS]/[MIONP] ratios over the range of 1.1 to 7.3. Parameters affecting the adsorption of dyes were optimized as removal efficiency by one variable at-a-time and response surface methodology; the obtained removal efficiencies were ∼100%. Adsorption kinetic and equilibrium studies, under the optimum condition (pH = 2; amount of MIONPs = 87.15 mg; [SDS]/[MIONP] ratio = 2.9), showed that adsorption of both dyes are based on the pseudo-second-order and the Langmuir isotherm models, respectively. The maximum adsorption capacities for RB and RG were 385 and 323 mg g(-1), respectively. MHAMS-MIONPs were also applied for extraction of RB and RG. Under optimum conditions (pH = 2; amount of damped MHAMS-MIONPs = 90 mg; eluent solvent volume = 2.6 mL of 3% acetic acid in acetonitrile), extraction recoveries for 0.5 mg L(-1) of RB and RG were 98% and 99%, with preconcentration factors of 327 and 330, respectively. Limit of detection obtained for rhodamine dyes were <0.7 ng mL(-1). Finally, MHAMS-MIONPs were successfully applied for both removal and trace determination of RB and RG in environmental and wastewater samples. PMID:26154872

  18. Microfluidic Biosensing Systems Using Magnetic Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Giouroudi, Ioanna; Keplinger, Franz

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, there has been rapidly growing interest in developing hand held, sensitive and cost-effective on-chip biosensing systems that directly translate the presence of certain bioanalytes (e.g., biomolecules, cells and viruses) into an electronic signal. The impressive and rapid progress in micro- and nanotechnology as well as in biotechnology enables the integration of a variety of analytical functions in a single chip. All necessary sample handling and analysis steps are then performed within the chip. Microfluidic systems for biomedical analysis usually consist of a set of units, which guarantees the manipulation, detection and recognition of bioanalytes in a reliable and flexible manner. Additionally, the use of magnetic fields for performing the aforementioned tasks has been steadily gaining interest. This is because magnetic fields can be well tuned and applied either externally or from a directly integrated solution in the biosensing system. In combination with these applied magnetic fields, magnetic nanoparticles are utilized. Some of the merits of magnetic nanoparticles are the possibility of manipulating them inside microfluidic channels by utilizing high gradient magnetic fields, their detection by integrated magnetic microsensors, and their flexibility due to functionalization by means of surface modification and specific binding. Their multi-functionality is what makes them ideal candidates as the active component in miniaturized on-chip biosensing systems. In this review, focus will be given to the type of biosening systems that use microfluidics in combination with magnetoresistive sensors and detect the presence of bioanalyte tagged with magnetic nanoparticles. PMID:24022689

  19. Simulations of magnetic nanoparticle Brownian motion

    PubMed Central

    Reeves, Daniel B.; Weaver, John B.

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles are useful in many medical applications because they interact with biology on a cellular level thus allowing microenvironmental investigation. An enhanced understanding of the dynamics of magnetic particles may lead to advances in imaging directly in magnetic particle imaging or through enhanced MRI contrast and is essential for nanoparticle sensing as in magnetic spectroscopy of Brownian motion. Moreover, therapeutic techniques like hyperthermia require information about particle dynamics for effective, safe, and reliable use in the clinic. To that end, we have developed and validated a stochastic dynamical model of rotating Brownian nanoparticles from a Langevin equation approach. With no field, the relaxation time toward equilibrium matches Einstein's model of Brownian motion. In a static field, the equilibrium magnetization agrees with the Langevin function. For high frequency or low amplitude driving fields, behavior characteristic of the linearized Debye approximation is reproduced. In a higher field regime where magnetic saturation occurs, the magnetization and its harmonics compare well with the effective field model. On another level, the model has been benchmarked against experimental results, successfully demonstrating that harmonics of the magnetization carry enough information to infer environmental parameters like viscosity and temperature. PMID:23319830

  20. Simulations of magnetic nanoparticle Brownian motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reeves, Daniel B.; Weaver, John B.

    2012-12-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles are useful in many medical applications because they interact with biology on a cellular level thus allowing microenvironmental investigation. An enhanced understanding of the dynamics of magnetic particles may lead to advances in imaging directly in magnetic particle imaging or through enhanced MRI contrast and is essential for nanoparticle sensing as in magnetic spectroscopy of Brownian motion. Moreover, therapeutic techniques like hyperthermia require information about particle dynamics for effective, safe, and reliable use in the clinic. To that end, we have developed and validated a stochastic dynamical model of rotating Brownian nanoparticles from a Langevin equation approach. With no field, the relaxation time toward equilibrium matches Einstein's model of Brownian motion. In a static field, the equilibrium magnetization agrees with the Langevin function. For high frequency or low amplitude driving fields, behavior characteristic of the linearized Debye approximation is reproduced. In a higher field regime where magnetic saturation occurs, the magnetization and its harmonics compare well with the effective field model. On another level, the model has been benchmarked against experimental results, successfully demonstrating that harmonics of the magnetization carry enough information to infer environmental parameters like viscosity and temperature.

  1. Design and optimization of lipid-modified poly(amidoamine) dendrimer coated iron oxide nanoparticles as probes for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boni, A.; Bardi, G.; Bertero, A.; Cappello, V.; Emdin, M.; Flori, A.; Gemmi, M.; Innocenti, C.; Menichetti, L.; Sangregorio, C.; Villa, S.; Piazza, V.

    2015-04-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles with a wide size range (2.6-14.1 nm) were synthesized and coated with the amphiphilic poly(amidoamine) PAMAM-C12 dendrimer. The resulting well dispersed and stable water suspensions were fully characterized in order to explore their possible use in biomedical applications. The structural and magnetic properties of the nanoparticles were preserved during the coating and were related to their relaxometric behaviour. The Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Dispersion (NMRD) profiles were found to be in accordance with the Roch model. The biocompatibility was assessed by means of cell viability tests and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) analysis. The nanoparticles' capability of being detected via Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) was investigated by means of clinical MRI scanners both in water and agar gel phantoms, and in a mouse model.Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles with a wide size range (2.6-14.1 nm) were synthesized and coated with the amphiphilic poly(amidoamine) PAMAM-C12 dendrimer. The resulting well dispersed and stable water suspensions were fully characterized in order to explore their possible use in biomedical applications. The structural and magnetic properties of the nanoparticles were preserved during the coating and were related to their relaxometric behaviour. The Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Dispersion (NMRD) profiles were found to be in accordance with the Roch model. The biocompatibility was assessed by means of cell viability tests and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) analysis. The nanoparticles' capability of being detected via Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) was investigated by means of clinical MRI scanners both in water and agar gel phantoms, and in a mouse model. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr01148e

  2. Surface-enhanced raman scattering detection of DNAs derived from virus genomes using au-coated paramagnetic nanoparticles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A magnetic capture-based, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) assay for DNA detection has been developed which utilizes Au-coated paramagnetic nanoparticles (Au@PMPs) as both a SERS substrate and effective bio-separation reagent for the selective removal of target DNAs from solution. Hybridizat...

  3. Characterization of PEI-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for transfection: Size distribution, colloidal properties and DNA interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steitz, Benedikt; Hofmann, Heinrich; Kamau, Sarah W.; Hassa, Paul O.; Hottiger, Michael O.; von Rechenberg, Brigitte; Hofmann-Amtenbrink, Magarethe; Petri-Fink, Alke

    2007-04-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) were coated with polyethylenimine. Here, we briefly describe the synthesis as well as DNA:PEI:SPION complexes and the characterization of the compounds according to their particle size, ζ-potential, morphology, DNA complexing ability, magnetic sedimentation, and colloidal stability. PEI coating of SPIONs led to colloidally stable beads even in high salt concentrations over a wide pH range. DNA plasmids and PCR products encoding for green fluorescent protein were associated with the described beads. The complexes were added to cells and exposed to permanent and pulsating magnetic fields. Presence of these magnetic fields significantly increased the transfection efficiency.

  4. Synthesis and characterization of ultra-small superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles thinly coated with silica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bumb, A.; Brechbiel, M. W.; Choyke, P. L.; Fugger, L.; Eggeman, A.; Prabhakaran, D.; Hutchinson, J.; Dobson, P. J.

    2008-08-01

    Ultra-small superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by co-precipitation of iron chloride salts with ammonia and then encapsulated with thin (~2 nm) layers of silica. The particles have been characterized for size, diffraction pattern, surface charge, and magnetic properties. This rapid and economical synthesis has a number of industrial applications; however, the silica-coated particles have been optimized for use in medical applications such as magnetic resonance contrast agents and biosensors, and in DNA capturing, bioseparation and enzyme immobilization.

  5. Moving magnetic nanoparticles through soft-hard magnetic composite system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramanian, Hemachander; Han, Jong

    2007-03-01

    An important requirement during the design of a nano-electromechanical system is the ability to move a nanoparticle from one point to another in a predictable way. Through simulations, we demonstrate that soft-hard magnetic stuctures can help us move nanoparticles predictably. We simulated a 2-D system, in which the exchange-coupled soft-magnetic magnetization is frustrated with the boundary condition set by a hard magnetic array and rotating external field. We consider a geometry with three-fold degenerate magnetic local minima and show that the hysteretic transitions are manipulated by an external field. Due to the reduced interfacial energy from weak demagnetization energy in the composite magnets and magnetic hysteresis, the energy landscape can be manipulated in a well-defined and predictable manner. We apply this idea to control the movement of a magnetic particle placed on a non-magnetic layer on top of the structure. We are interested in extending this simple, preliminary study to include complex geometries. We expect that complex geometrical constraints would lead to interesting orbits of nanoparticles in these systems.

  6. Monodisperse Magnetic Nanoparticles for Theranostic Applications

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Don; Sun, Xiaolian; Sun, Shouheng

    2011-01-01

    Conspectus The development of highly effective medicine requires the on-time monitoring of the medical treatment process. This combination of monitoring and therapeutics allows a large degree of control on the treatment efficacy and is now commonly referred to as “theranostics”. Magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) provide a unique nano-platform for theranostic applications due to their comparable sizes with various functional biomolecules, their biocompatibility and their responses to the external magnetic field. Recent efforts in studying magnetic NPs for both imaging and therapeutic applications have led to great advances in NP fabrication with controls in dimension, surface functionalization and magnetic property. These magnetic NPs have been proven to be robust agents that can be target-specific for enhancing magnetic resonance imaging sensitivity and magnetic heating efficiency. These, plus the deep tissue penetration of magnetic field, make magnetic NPs the most promising candidates for successful theranostics in the future. In this Account, we review the recent advances in the synthesis of magnetic NPs of iron oxide, Fe, as well as FePt and FeCo NPs for imaging and therapeutic applications. We will first introduce briefly nanomagnetism, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH). We will then focus on chemical synthesis of monodisperse magnetic NPs with controlled sizes, morphologies, and magnetic properties. Typical examples in using monodisperse magnetic NPs for MRI and MFH are highlighted. PMID:21661754

  7. Sonochemical coating of textile fabrics with antibacterial nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beddow, Jamie; Singh, Gagandeep; Blanes, María; Molla, Korina; Perelshtein, Ilana; Gedanken, Aharon; Joyce, Eadaoin; Mason, Timothy

    2012-05-01

    The high incidence of hospital-acquired infections places a huge financial burden on our healthcare systems. These infections are also responsible for many millions of deaths each year. Antibacterial fabrics for use in medical textiles, such as hospital uniforms, bedding and wound dressings, can provide a useful weapon in the on-going fight against these infections. The aim of this EU funded Framework 7 project is to develop a pilot line sonochemical coating machine for the production of antibacterial fabrics. The sonochemical coating technology under development is based on a lab scale process that was developed at Bar-Ilan University (BIU). It involves two processes that are driven by acoustic cavitation; the in situ generation of the metal oxide (MO) nanoparticles and the simultaneous high velocity propulsion of these nanoparticles onto a fabric leading to impregnation. Here we report on a comparison of 2 different MO nanoparticle coatings, ZnO and CuO, that were sonochemically applied on to a plain cotton fabric. Both of these coatings were prepared by BIU. In this work, the antibacterial efficacy of the coated fabrics was quantitatively assessed using the absorption method from BS EN ISO 20743:2007. Both types of metal oxide nanoparticle displayed antibacterial activity against all of the test bacteria with particularly high levels of bacterial reduction observed with the CuO coating. The results presented here are from an EU Framework 7 funded project (SONO, EU Project Number: 228730). The project is a collaboration between 17 partner organizations from 10 different European countries. Further details can be found on the project website at: www.fp7-sono.eu.

  8. Functionalized magnetic nanoparticle analyte sensor

    DOEpatents

    Yantasee, Wassana; Warner, Maryin G; Warner, Cynthia L; Addleman, Raymond S; Fryxell, Glen E; Timchalk, Charles; Toloczko, Mychailo B

    2014-03-25

    A method and system for simply and efficiently determining quantities of a preselected material in a particular solution by the placement of at least one superparamagnetic nanoparticle having a specified functionalized organic material connected thereto into a particular sample solution, wherein preselected analytes attach to the functionalized organic groups, these superparamagnetic nanoparticles are then collected at a collection site and analyzed for the presence of a particular analyte.

  9. Size-dependent magnetic properties of iron oxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patsula, Vitalii; Moskvin, Maksym; Dutz, Silvio; Horák, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Uniform iron oxide nanoparticles in the size range from 10 to 24 nm and polydisperse 14 nm iron oxide particles were prepared by thermal decomposition of Fe(III) carboxylates in the presence of oleic acid and co-precipitation of Fe(II) and Fe(III) chlorides by ammonium hydroxide followed by oxidation, respectively. While the first method produced hydrophobic oleic acid coated particles, the second one formed hydrophilic, but uncoated, nanoparticles. To make the iron oxide particles water dispersible and colloidally stable, their surface was modified with poly(ethylene glycol) and sucrose, respectively. Size and size distribution of the nanoparticles was determined by transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering and X-ray diffraction. Surface of the PEG-functionalized and sucrose-modified iron oxide particles was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and Raman spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Magnetic properties were measured by means of vibration sample magnetometry and specific absorption rate in alternating magnetic fields was determined calorimetrically. It was found, that larger ferrimagnetic particles showed higher heating performance than smaller superparamagnetic ones. In the transition range between superparamagnetism and ferrimagnetism, samples with a broader size distribution provided higher heating power than narrow size distributed particles of comparable mean size. Here presented particles showed promising properties for a possible application in magnetic hyperthermia.

  10. Triggered self-assembly of magnetic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Ye, L; Pearson, T; Cordeau, Y; Mefford, O T; Crawford, T M

    2016-01-01

    Colloidal magnetic nanoparticles are candidates for application in biology, medicine and nanomanufacturing. Understanding how these particles interact collectively in fluids, especially how they assemble and aggregate under external magnetic fields, is critical for high quality, safe, and reliable deployment of these particles. Here, by applying magnetic forces that vary strongly over the same length scale as the colloidal stabilizing force and then varying this colloidal repulsion, we can trigger self-assembly of these nanoparticles into parallel line patterns on the surface of a disk drive medium. Localized within nanometers of the medium surface, this effect is strongly dependent on the ionic properties of the colloidal fluid but at a level too small to cause bulk colloidal aggregation. We use real-time optical diffraction to monitor the dynamics of self-assembly, detecting local colloidal changes with greatly enhanced sensitivity compared with conventional light scattering. Simulations predict the triggering but not the dynamics, especially at short measurement times. Beyond using spatially-varying magnetic forces to balance interactions and drive assembly in magnetic nanoparticles, future measurements leveraging the sensitivity of this approach could identify novel colloidal effects that impact real-world applications of these nanoparticles. PMID:26975332

  11. Triggered self-assembly of magnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, L.; Pearson, T.; Cordeau, Y.; Mefford, O. T.; Crawford, T. M.

    2016-03-01

    Colloidal magnetic nanoparticles are candidates for application in biology, medicine and nanomanufac-turing. Understanding how these particles interact collectively in fluids, especially how they assemble and aggregate under external magnetic fields, is critical for high quality, safe, and reliable deployment of these particles. Here, by applying magnetic forces that vary strongly over the same length scale as the colloidal stabilizing force and then varying this colloidal repulsion, we can trigger self-assembly of these nanoparticles into parallel line patterns on the surface of a disk drive medium. Localized within nanometers of the medium surface, this effect is strongly dependent on the ionic properties of the colloidal fluid but at a level too small to cause bulk colloidal aggregation. We use real-time optical diffraction to monitor the dynamics of self-assembly, detecting local colloidal changes with greatly enhanced sensitivity compared with conventional light scattering. Simulations predict the triggering but not the dynamics, especially at short measurement times. Beyond using spatially-varying magnetic forces to balance interactions and drive assembly in magnetic nanoparticles, future measurements leveraging the sensitivity of this approach could identify novel colloidal effects that impact real-world applications of these nanoparticles.

  12. Triggered self-assembly of magnetic nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Ye, L.; Pearson, T.; Cordeau, Y.; Mefford, O. T.; Crawford, T. M.

    2016-01-01

    Colloidal magnetic nanoparticles are candidates for application in biology, medicine and nanomanufac-turing. Understanding how these particles interact collectively in fluids, especially how they assemble and aggregate under external magnetic fields, is critical for high quality, safe, and reliable deployment of these particles. Here, by applying magnetic forces that vary strongly over the same length scale as the colloidal stabilizing force and then varying this colloidal repulsion, we can trigger self-assembly of these nanoparticles into parallel line patterns on the surface of a disk drive medium. Localized within nanometers of the medium surface, this effect is strongly dependent on the ionic properties of the colloidal fluid but at a level too small to cause bulk colloidal aggregation. We use real-time optical diffraction to monitor the dynamics of self-assembly, detecting local colloidal changes with greatly enhanced sensitivity compared with conventional light scattering. Simulations predict the triggering but not the dynamics, especially at short measurement times. Beyond using spatially-varying magnetic forces to balance interactions and drive assembly in magnetic nanoparticles, future measurements leveraging the sensitivity of this approach could identify novel colloidal effects that impact real-world applications of these nanoparticles. PMID:26975332

  13. The influence of surface functionalization on the enhanced internalization of magnetic nanoparticles in cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villanueva, Angeles; Cañete, Magdalena; Roca, Alejandro G; Calero, Macarena; Veintemillas-Verdaguer, Sabino; Serna, Carlos J; del Puerto Morales, María; Miranda, Rodolfo

    2009-03-01

    The internalization and biocompatibility of iron oxide nanoparticles surface functionalized with four differently charged carbohydrates have been tested in the human cervical carcinoma cell line (HeLa). Neutral, positive, and negative iron oxide nanoparticles were obtained by coating with dextran, aminodextran, heparin, and dimercaptosuccinic acid, resulting in colloidal suspensions stable at pH 7 with similar aggregate size. No intracellular uptake was detected in cells incubated with neutral charged nanoparticles, while negative particles showed different behaviour depending on the nature of the coating. Thus, dimercaptosuccinic-coated nanoparticles showed low cellular uptake with non-toxic effects, while heparin-coated particles showed cellular uptake only at high nanoparticle concentrations and induced abnormal mitotic spindle configurations. Finally, cationic magnetic nanoparticles show excellent properties for possible in vivo biomedical applications such as cell tracking by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and cancer treatment by hyperthermia: (i) they enter into cells with high effectiveness, and are localized in endosomes; (ii) they can be easily detected inside cells by optical microscopy, (iii) they are retained for relatively long periods of time, and (iv) they do not induce any cytotoxicity.

  14. Potential of magnetic nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hung-Wei; Hua, Mu-Yi; Liu, Hao-Li; Huang, Chiung-Yin; Wei, Kuo-Chen

    2012-01-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) play an important role in the molecular diagnosis, treatment, and monitoring of therapeutic outcomes in various diseases. Their nanoscale size, large surface area, unique capabilities, and negligible side effects make NPs highly effective for biomedical applications such as cancer therapy, thrombolysis, and molecular imaging. In particular, nontoxic superparamagnetic magnetic NPs (MNPs) with functionalized surface coatings can conjugate chemotherapeutic drugs or be used to target ligands/proteins, making them useful for drug delivery, targeted therapy, magnetic resonance imaging, transfection, and cell/protein/DNA separation. To optimize the therapeutic efficacy of MNPs for a specific application, three issues must be addressed. First, the efficacy of magnetic targeting/guidance is dependent on particle magnetization, which can be controlled by adjusting the reaction conditions during synthesis. Second, the tendency of MNPs to aggregate limits their therapeutic use in vivo; surface modifications to produce high positive or negative charges can reduce this tendency. Finally, the surface of MNPs can be coated with drugs which can be rapidly released after injection, resulting in targeting of low doses of the drug. Drugs therefore need to be conjugated to MNPs such that their release is delayed and their thermal stability enhanced. This chapter describes the creation of nanocarriers with a high drug-loading capacity comprised of a high-magnetization MNP core and a shell of aqueous, stable, conducting polyaniline derivatives and their applications in cancer therapy. It further summarizes some newly developed methods to synthesize and modify the surfaces of MNPs and their biomedical applications. PMID:24198498

  15. Antimicrobial selenium nanoparticle coatings on polymeric medical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Phong A.; Webster, Thomas J.

    2013-04-01

    Bacteria colonization on medical devices remains one of the most serious complications following implantation. Traditional antibiotic treatment has proven ineffective, creating an increasingly high number of drug-resistant bacteria. Polymeric medical devices represent a significant portion of the total medical devices used today due to their excellent mechanical properties (such as durability, flexibility, etc). However, many polymers (such as polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyurethane (PU) and silicone) become readily colonized and infected by bacteria immediately after use. Therefore, in this study, a novel antimicrobial coating was developed to inhibit bacterial growth on PVC, PU and silicone. Specifically, here, the aforementioned polymeric substrates were coated with selenium (Se) nanoparticles in situ. The Se-coated substrates were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and bacteria assays. Most importantly, bacterial growth was significantly inhibited on the Se-coated substrates compared to their uncoated counterparts. The reduction of bacteria growth directly correlated with the density of Se nanoparticles on the coated substrate surfaces. In summary, these results demonstrate that Se should be further studied as a novel anti-bacterial polymeric coating material which can decrease bacteria functions without the use of antibiotics.

  16. Antimicrobial selenium nanoparticle coatings on polymeric medical devices.

    PubMed

    Tran, Phong A; Webster, Thomas J

    2013-04-19

    Bacteria colonization on medical devices remains one of the most serious complications following implantation. Traditional antibiotic treatment has proven ineffective, creating an increasingly high number of drug-resistant bacteria. Polymeric medical devices represent a significant portion of the total medical devices used today due to their excellent mechanical properties (such as durability, flexibility, etc). However, many polymers (such as polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyurethane (PU) and silicone) become readily colonized and infected by bacteria immediately after use. Therefore, in this study, a novel antimicrobial coating was developed to inhibit bacterial growth on PVC, PU and silicone. Specifically, here, the aforementioned polymeric substrates were coated with selenium (Se) nanoparticles in situ. The Se-coated substrates were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and bacteria assays. Most importantly, bacterial growth was significantly inhibited on the Se-coated substrates compared to their uncoated counterparts. The reduction of bacteria growth directly correlated with the density of Se nanoparticles on the coated substrate surfaces. In summary, these results demonstrate that Se should be further studied as a novel anti-bacterial polymeric coating material which can decrease bacteria functions without the use of antibiotics. PMID:23519147

  17. Antioxidant activity of levan coated cerium oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun-Jung; Chung, Bong Hyun

    2016-10-01

    Levan coated cerium oxide nanoparticles (LCNPs) with the enhanced antioxidant activity were successfully synthesized and characterized. Levan and their derivatives are attractive for biomedical applications attributable to their antioxidant, anti-inflammation and anti-tumor properties. LCNPs were synthesized using the one-pot and green synthesis system with levan. For production of nanoparticles, levan plays a role as a stabilizing and reducing agent. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis showed that LCNPs successfully synthesized. The morphology and size of nanoparticles were confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). LCNPs have good water solubility and stability. The conjugation of levan with cerium oxide nanoparticles improved antioxidant activity. Moreover the level of ROS was reduced after treatment of LCNPs to H2O2 stimulated NIH3T3 cells. These results demonstrate that the LCNPs are useful for applying of treatment of ROS induced diseases. PMID:27312651

  18. Optimized steric stabilization of aqueous ferrofluids and magnetic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Jain, Nirmesh; Wang, Yanjun; Jones, Stephen K; Hawkett, Brian S; Warr, Gregory G

    2010-03-16

    The preparation and properties of an aqueous ferrofluid consisting of a concentrated (>65 wt %) dispersion of sterically stabilized superparamagnetic, iron oxide (maghemite) nanoparticles stable for several months at high ionic strength and over a broad pH range is described. The 6-8 nm diameter nanoparticles are individually coated with a short poly(acrylic acid)-b-poly(acrylamide) copolymer, designed to form the thinnest possible steric stabilizing layer while remaining strongly attached to the iron oxide surface over a wide range of nanoparticle concentrations. Thermogravimetric analysis yields an iron oxide content of 76 wt % in the dried particles, consistent with a dry polymer coating of approximately 1 nm in thickness, while the poly(acrylamide) chain length indicated by electrospray mass spectrometry is consistent with the 4-5 nm increase in the hydrodynamic radius observed by light scattering when the poly(acrylamide) stabilizing chains are solvated. Saturation magnetization experiments indicate nonmagnetic surface layers resulting from the strong chemical attachment of the poly(acrylic acid) block to the particle surface, also observed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. PMID:19950943

  19. Static magnetic properties of Maghemite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulfiqar; Rahman, Muneeb Ur; Usman, M.; Hasanain, Syed Khurshid; Zia-ur-Rahman; Ullah, Amir; Kim, Ill Won

    2014-12-01

    We report the static magnetic properties of Maghemite (γ-Fe2O3) nanoparticles with an average crystallite size of 14 ± 1.8 nm synthesized via a co-precipitation method. The zero-field-cooled (ZFC) and the field-cooled (FC) magnetization measurements were performed using a physical properties measurements system (PPMS) at temperatures from 5 K to 300 K. The ZFC/FC measurements showed a typical superparamagnetic behavior with a narrow size distribution.

  20. Gold-Coated Superparamagnetic Nanoparticles for Single Methyl Discrimination in DNA Aptamers

    PubMed Central

    Tintoré, Maria; Mazzini, Stefania; Polito, Laura; Marelli, Marcello; Latorre, Alfonso; Somoza, Álvaro; Aviñó, Anna; Fàbrega, Carme; Eritja, Ramon

    2015-01-01

    Au- and iron-based magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) are promising NPs for biomedical applications due to their unique properties. The combination of a gold coating over a magnetic core puts together the benefits from adding the magnetic properties to the robust chemistry provided by the thiol functionalization of gold. Here, the use of Au-coated magnetic NPs for molecular detection of a single methylation in DNA aptamer is described. Binding of α-thrombin to two aptamers conjugated to these NPs causes aggregation, a phenomenon that can be observed by UV, DLS and MRI. These techniques discriminate a single methylation in one of the aptamers, preventing aggregation due to the inability of α-thrombin to recognize it. A parallel study with gold and ferromagnetic NPs is detailed, concluding that the Au coating of FexOy NP does not affect their performance and that they are suitable as complex biosensors. These results prove the high detection potency of Au-coated SPIONs for biomedical applications especially for DNA repair detection. PMID:26593913

  1. Gold-Coated Superparamagnetic Nanoparticles for Single Methyl Discrimination in DNA Aptamers.

    PubMed

    Tintoré, Maria; Mazzini, Stefania; Polito, Laura; Marelli, Marcello; Latorre, Alfonso; Somoza, Álvaro; Aviñó, Anna; Fàbrega, Carme; Eritja, Ramon

    2015-01-01

    Au- and iron-based magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) are promising NPs for biomedical applications due to their unique properties. The combination of a gold coating over a magnetic core puts together the benefits from adding the magnetic properties to the robust chemistry provided by the thiol functionalization of gold. Here, the use of Au-coated magnetic NPs for molecular detection of a single methylation in DNA aptamer is described. Binding of α-thrombin to two aptamers conjugated to these NPs causes aggregation, a phenomenon that can be observed by UV, DLS and MRI. These techniques discriminate a single methylation in one of the aptamers, preventing aggregation due to the inability of α-thrombin to recognize it. A parallel study with gold and ferromagnetic NPs is detailed, concluding that the Au coating of FexOy NP does not affect their performance and that they are suitable as complex biosensors. These results prove the high detection potency of Au-coated SPIONs for biomedical applications especially for DNA repair detection. PMID:26593913

  2. EDITORIAL: Biomedical applications of magnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Grady, K.

    2002-07-01

    Magnetic materials have been used with grain sizes down to the nanoscale for longer than any other type of material. This is because of a fundamental change in the magnetic structure of ferro- and ferrimagnetic materials when grain sizes are reduced. In these circumstances, the normal macroscopic domain structure transforms into a single domain state at a critical size which typically lies below 100 nm. Once this transformation occurs the mechanism of magnetisation reversal can only be via the rotation of the magnetisation vector from one magnetic easy axis to another via a magnetically hard direction. This change of reversal mechanism has led to a new class of magnetic materials whose properties and the basic underlying physical mechanism governing them were defined in a seminal work first published by E C Stoner and E P Wolhfarth in 1949. As a consequence of this rotation mechanism, magnetic nanoparticles exist having coercivities which are highly controllable and lie between soft materials and normal permanent magnet materials. This ability to control coercivity in such particles has led to a number of significant technological advances, particularly in the field of information storage. The high value of information storage technology has meant that since the 1950s an enormous research and development effort has gone into techniques for the preparation of magnetic particles and thin films having well defined properties. Hence, certainly since the 1960s, a wide range of techniques to produce both metallic and oxide magnetic nanoparticles with sizes ranging from 4-100 nm has been developed. The availability of this wide range of materials led to speculation from the 1960s onwards that they may have applications in biology and medicine. The fact that a magnetic field gradient can be used to either remotely position or selectively filter biological materials leads to a number of obvious applications. These applications fall broadly into two categories: those

  3. Magnetic poly(PEGMA-MAA) nanoparticles: photochemical preparation and potential application in drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Sun, Han-Wen; Zhang, Lian-Ying; Zhu, Xin-Jun; Wang, Xin-Fang

    2009-01-01

    Poly(PEGMA-MAA)-coated superparamagnetic nanoparticles were synthesized by in situ photochemical polymerization in magnetite aqueous suspension under UV irradiation. The magnetic poly(PEGMA-MAA) nanoparticles were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), photo correlation spectroscopy (PCS) and vibration sample magnetometry (VSM), respectively. The results indicated that the magnetic poly(PEGMA-MAA) nanoparticles were of regularly spherical shape and remained monodisperse. The average size measured in aqueous media was 96.4 nm, which was much bigger than that in dry state, the nanoparticles behaved superparamagnetic with saturated magnetization of 64.8 emu/g, the zeta potential was -18.3 mV at physiological pH 7.2, and the magnetic poly(PEGMA-MAA) nanoparticles had a high stability in vitro. A typical anti-inflammatory drug, ibuprofen, was used for drug loading, and the release behavior of ibuprofen in a simulated body fluid (SBF, pH 7.4) was studied. The results indicated that these novel magnetic nanoparticles had a high drug-loading capacity and favorable release properties for ibuprofen. The magnetic poly(PEGMA-MAA) nanoparticles are very promising for application in drug delivery. PMID:19723435

  4. Protein-based nanoparticles for hydrophilic coating

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cyanoacrylate nanoparticles have been studied in great detail over the past three decades. Conventionally, the mechanism of polymerization is anionic where the initiating species is the hydroxyl anion that was derived from dissociation of water. In the current research, amphiphilic copolymers were s...

  5. Protein-based nanoparticles for hydrophilic coating

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cyanoacrylate nanoparticles have been studied in great detail over the past three decades with a view to their use as controlled release drug delivery materials. Their ease of production was first shown in 1979 by Couvreur et al. [1], who demonstrated that sub-micron sized particles could be made by...

  6. Surface Functionalization of Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for MRI Applications – Effect of Anchoring Group and Ligand Exchange Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Smolensky, Eric D.; Park, Hee-Yun E.; Berquó, Thelma S.; Pierre, Valérie C.

    2011-01-01

    Hydrophobic magnetite nanoparticles synthesized from thermal decomposition of iron salts must be rendered hydrophilic for their application as MRI contrast agents. This process requires refunctionalizing the surface of the nanoparticles with a hydrophilic organic coating such as polyethylene glycol. Two parameters were found to influence the magnetic behavior and relaxivity of the resulting hydrophilic iron oxide nanoparticles: the functionality of the anchoring group and the protocol followed for the functionalization. Nanoparticles coated with PEGs via a catecholate-type anchoring moiety maintain the saturation magnetization and relaxivity of the hydrophobic magnetite precursor. Other anchoring functionalities, such as phosphonate, carboxylate, and dopamine decrease the magnetization and relaxivity of the contrast agent. The protocol for functionalizing the nanoparticles also influences the magnetic behavior of the material. Nanoparticles refunctionalized according to a direct biphasic protocol exhibit higher relaxivity than those refunctionalized according to a two-step procedure which first involves stripping the nanoparticles. This research presents the first systematic study of both the binding moiety and the functionalization protocol on the relaxivity and magnetization of water-soluble coated iron oxide nanoparticles used as MRI contrast agents. PMID:21861279

  7. Activity estimation in radioimmunotherapy using magnetic nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Rajabi, Hossein; Johari Daha, Fariba

    2015-01-01

    Objective Estimation of activity accumulated in tumor and organs is very important in predicting the response of radiopharmaceuticals treatment. In this study, we synthesized 177Lutetium (177Lu)-trastuzumab-iron oxide nanoparticles as a double radiopharmaceutical agent for treatment and better estimation of organ activity in a new way by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods 177Lu-trastuzumab-iron oxide nanoparticles were synthesized and all the quality control tests such as labeling yield, nanoparticle size determination, stability in buffer and blood serum up to 4 d, immunoreactivity and biodistribution in normal mice were determined. In mice bearing breast tumor, liver and tumor activities were calculated with three methods: single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), MRI and organ extraction, which were compared with each other. Results The good results of quality control tests (labeling yield: 61%±2%, mean nanoparticle hydrodynamic size: 41±15 nm, stability in buffer: 86%±5%, stability in blood serum: 80%±3%, immunoreactivity: 80%±2%) indicated that 177Lu-trastuzumab-iron oxide nanoparticles could be used as a double radiopharmaceutical agent in mice bearing tumor. Results showed that 177Lu-trastuzumab-iron oxide nanoparticles with MRI had the ability to measure organ activities more accurate than SPECT. Conclusions Co-conjugating radiopharmaceutical to MRI contrast agents such as iron oxide nanoparticles may be a good way for better dosimetry in nuclear medicine treatment. PMID:25937783

  8. Nonlinear energy dissipation of magnetic nanoparticles in oscillating magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soto-Aquino, D.; Rinaldi, C.

    2015-11-01

    The heating of magnetic nanoparticle suspensions subjected to alternating magnetic fields enables a variety of emerging applications such as magnetic fluid hyperthermia and triggered drug release. Rosensweig (2002) [25] obtained a model for the heat dissipation rate of a collection of non-interacting particles. However, the assumptions made in this analysis make it rigorously valid only in the limit of small applied magnetic field amplitude and frequency (i.e., values of the Langevin parameter that are much less than unity and frequencies below the inverse relaxation time). In this contribution we approach the problem from an alternative point of view by solving the phenomenological magnetization relaxation equation exactly for the case of arbitrary magnetic field amplitude and frequency and by solving a more accurate magnetization relaxation equation numerically. We also use rotational Brownian dynamics simulations of non-interacting magnetic nanoparticles subjected to an alternating magnetic field to estimate the rate of energy dissipation and compare the results of the phenomenological theories to the particle-scale simulations. The results are summarized in terms of a normalized energy dissipation rate and show that Rosensweig's expression provides an upper bound on the energy dissipation rate achieved at high field frequency and amplitude. Estimates of the predicted dependence of energy dissipation rate, quantified as specific absorption rate (SAR), on magnetic field amplitude and frequency, and particle core and hydrodynamic diameter, are also given.

  9. Sectorial oscillation of acoustically levitated nanoparticle-coated droplet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zang, Duyang; Chen, Zhen; Geng, Xingguo

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated the dynamics of a third mode sectorial oscillation of nanoparticle-coated droplets using acoustic levitation in combination with active modulation. The presence of nanoparticles at the droplet surface changes its oscillation amplitude and frequency. A model linking the interfacial rheology and oscillation dynamics has been proposed in which the compression modulus ɛ of the particle layer is introduced into the analysis. The ɛ obtained with the model is in good agreement with that obtained by the Wilhelmy plate approach, highlighting the important role of interfacial rheological properties in the sectorial oscillation of droplets.

  10. The effects of synthesis method on the physical and chemical properties of dextran coated iron oxide nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Hauser, Anastasia K.; Mathias, Ronita; Anderson, Kimberly W.; Hilt, J. Zach

    2015-01-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles coated with dextran were synthesized via four variations on the co-precipitation method. The methods ranged from in situ formation of the nanoparticles within the dextran solution to the adsorption of dextran to the nanoparticle surface following nucleation and extensive washing. The timing of the addition of dextran into the reaction mixture was found to greatly influence the physical and chemical properties of the magnetic nanoparticles. Batches of dextran coated iron oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by each method in triplicate, and the nanoparticles were further crosslinked with epichlorohydrin. The properties of the nanoparticles such as size, percentage of dextran coating, stability in solution, crystallinity, and magnetic properties were evaluated. The simultaneous semi-two-step method injected the reducing agent and the dextran solution into the reaction vessel at the same time. This method resulted in the greatest batch-to-batch reproducibility of nanoparticle properties and the least variation in nanoparticles synthesized in the same batch. The two-step method resulted in the greatest variation of the characteristics examined between batches. The one-step method was synthesized with both five grams and one gram of dextran to investigate the effects of solution viscosity on the resulting nanoparticle characteristics. The one-step method with five grams of dextran resulted in nanoparticles with significantly smaller crystal sizes (5.4 ± 1.9 nm) and lower specific adsorption rate (SAR) values (138.4 ± 13.6 W/g) in an alternating magnetic field (58 kA/m, 292 kHz). However, this method resulted in nanoparticles that were very stable in PBS over 12 hours, which is most likely due to the greater dextran coating (60.0 ± 2.7 weight percent). For comparison, the simultaneous semi-two-step method generated nanoparticles 179.2 ± 18.3 nm in diameter (crystal size 12.1 ± 0.2 nm) containing 18.3 ± 1.2 weight percent dextran with a SAR

  11. Plasmonic-magnetic bifunctional nanoparticles.

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, S.; Lei, C.; Ren, Y.; Cook, R. E.; Sun, Y.

    2011-03-01

    An amorphous seed-mediated strategy has been developed for the synthesis of hybrid nanoparticles that are composed of silver (yellow) and iron oxide (blue) nanodomains and exhibit unique optical properties. These properties originate from both the strong surface plasmon resonance of the silver and the strong superparamagnetic responses of the iron oxide nanodomains.

  12. The One Year Fate of Iron Oxide Coated Gold Nanoparticles in Mice.

    PubMed

    Kolosnjaj-Tabi, Jelena; Javed, Yasir; Lartigue, Lénaic; Volatron, Jeanne; Elgrabli, Dan; Marangon, Iris; Pugliese, Giammarino; Caron, Benoit; Figuerola, Albert; Luciani, Nathalie; Pellegrino, Teresa; Alloyeau, Damien; Gazeau, Florence

    2015-08-25

    Safe implementation of nanotechnology and nanomedicine requires an in-depth understanding of the life cycle of nanoparticles in the body. Here, we investigate the long-term fate of gold/iron oxide heterostructures after intravenous injection in mice. We show these heterostructures degrade in vivo and that the magnetic and optical properties change during the degradation process. These particles eventually eliminate from the body. The comparison of two different coating shells for heterostructures, amphiphilic polymer or polyethylene glycol, reveals the long lasting impact of initial surface properties on the nanocrystal degradability and on the kinetics of elimination of magnetic iron and gold from liver and spleen. Modulation of nanoparticles reactivity to the biological environment by the choice of materials and surface functionalization may provide new directions in the design of multifunctional nanomedicines with predictable fate. PMID:26168364

  13. Magnetic manipulation of bacterial magnetic nanoparticle-loaded neurospheres.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jaeha; Lee, Kyung-Mee; Lee, Jae Hyup; Lee, Junghoon; Cha, Misun

    2014-05-01

    Specific targeting of cells to sites of tissue damage and delivery of high numbers of transplanted cells to lesion tissue in vivo are critical parameters for the success of cell-based therapies. Here, we report a promising in vitro model system for studying the homing of transplanted cells, which may eventually be applicable for targeted regeneration of damaged neurons in spinal cord injury. In this model system, neurospheres derived from human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells labeled with bacterial magnetic nanoparticles were guided by a magnetic field and successfully accumulated near the focus site of the magnetic field. Our results demonstrate the effectiveness of using an in vitro model for testing bacterial magnetic nanoparticles to develop successful stem cell targeting strategies during fluid flow, which may ultimately be translated into in vivo targeted delivery of cells through circulation in various tissue-repair models. PMID:24638869

  14. Building nanocomposite magnets by coating a hard magnetic core with a soft magnetic shell.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fei; Zhu, Jinghan; Yang, Wenlong; Dong, Yunhe; Hou, Yanglong; Zhang, Chenzhen; Yin, Han; Sun, Shouheng

    2014-02-17

    Controlling exchange coupling between hard magnetic and soft magnetic phases is the key to the fabrication of advanced magnets with tunable magnetism and high energy density. Using FePt as an example, control over the magnetism in exchange-coupled nanocomposites of hard magnetic face-centered tetragonal (fct) FePt and soft magnetic Co (or Ni, Fe2C) is shown. The dispersible hard magnetic fct-FePt nanoparticles are first prepared with their coercivity (Hc) reaching 33 kOe. Then core/shell fct-FePt/Co (or Ni, Fe2C) nanoparticles are synthesized by reductive thermal decomposition of the proper metal precursors in the presence of fct-FePt nanoparticles. These core/shell nanoparticles are strongly coupled by exchange interactions and their magnetic properties can be rationally tuned by the shell thickness of the soft phase. This work provides an ideal model system for the study of exchange coupling at the nanoscale, which will be essential for building superstrong magnets for various permanent magnet applications in the future. PMID:24453167

  15. Engineered Theranostic Magnetic Nanostructures: Role of Composition and Surface Coating on Magnetic Resonance Imaging Contrast and Thermal Activation.

    PubMed

    Nandwana, Vikas; Ryoo, Soo-Ryoon; Kanthala, Shanthi; De, Mrinmoy; Chou, Stanley S; Prasad, Pottumarthi V; Dravid, Vinayak P

    2016-03-23

    Magnetic nanostructures (MNS) have emerged as promising functional probes for simultaneous diagnostics and therapeutics (theranostic) applications due to their ability to enhance localized contrast in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and heat under external radio frequency (RF) field, respectively. We show that the "theranostic" potential of the MNS can be significantly enhanced by tuning their core composition and architecture of surface coating. Metal ferrite (e.g., MFe2O4) nanoparticles of ∼8 nm size and nitrodopamine conjugated polyethylene glycol (NDOPA-PEG) were used as the core and surface coating of the MNS, respectively. The composition was controlled by tuning the stoichiometry of MFe2O4 nanoparticles (M = Fe, Mn, Zn, ZnxMn1-x) while the architecture of surface coating was tuned by changing the molecular weight of PEG, such that larger weight is expected to result in longer length extended away from the MNS surface. Our results suggest that both core as well as surface coating are important factors to take into consideration during the design of MNS as theranostic agents which is illustrated by relaxivity and thermal activation plots of MNS with different core composition and surface coating thickness. After optimization of these parameters, the r2 relaxivity and specific absorption rate (SAR) up to 552 mM(-1) s(-1) and 385 W/g were obtained, respectively, which are among the highest values reported for MNS with core magnetic nanoparticles of size below 10 nm. In addition, NDOPA-PEG coated MFe2O4 nanostructures showed enhanced biocompatibility (up to [Fe] = 200 μg/mL) and reduced nonspecific uptake in macrophage cells in comparison to other well established FDA approved Fe based MR contrast agents. PMID:26936392

  16. Versatile theranostics agents designed by coating ferrite nanoparticles with biocompatible polymers.

    PubMed

    Zahraei, M; Marciello, M; Lazaro-Carrillo, A; Villanueva, A; Herranz, F; Talelli, M; Costo, R; Monshi, A; Shahbazi-Gahrouei, D; Amirnasr, M; Behdadfar, B; Morales, M P

    2016-06-24

    Three biocompatible polymers, polyethylene glycol (PEG), dextran and chitosan, have been used in this work to control the colloidal stability of magnetic nanoparticles (14 ± 5 nm in diameter) and to vary the aggregation state in order to study their effect on relaxometric and heating properties. Two different coating strategies have been deeply developed; one based on the formation of an amide bond between citric acid coated nanoparticles (NPs) and amine groups present on the polymer surface and the other based on the NP encapsulation. Relaxometric properties revealed that proton relaxation rates strongly depend on the coating layer hydrophilicity and the aggregation state of the particles due to the presence of magnetic interactions. Thus, while PEG coating reduces particle aggregation by increasing inter-particle spacing leading to reduction of both T1 and T2 relaxation, dextran and chitosan lead to an increase mainly in T2 values due to the aggregation of particles in bigger clusters where they are in close contact. Dextran and chitosan coated NPs have also shown a remarkable heating effect during the application of an alternating magnetic field. They have proved to be potential candidates as theranostic agents for cancer diagnosis and treatment. Finally, cytotoxicity of PEG conjugated NPs, which seem to be ideal for intravenous administration because of their small hydrodynamic size, was investigated resulting in high cell viability even at 0.2 mg Fe ml(-1) after 24 h of incubation. This suspension can be used as drug/biomolecule carrier for in vivo applications. PMID:27184442

  17. Multi-vortex states in magnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, W. L.; Chandra Sekhar, M.; Wong, D. W.; Purnama, I.; Chiam, S. Y.; Wong, L. M.; Lew, W. S.

    2014-10-01

    We demonstrate a fabrication technique to create cylindrical NiFe magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) with controlled dimensions and composition. MNPs thicker than 200 nm can form a double vortex configuration, which consists of a pair of vortices with opposite chirality. When MNPs thicker than 300 nm are relaxed after saturation, it forms a frustrated triple vortex state which produces a higher net magnetization as verified by light transmissivity measurements. Therefore, a greater magnetic torque can be actuated on a MNP in the triple vortex state.

  18. Nonlinear simulations to optimize magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia

    SciTech Connect

    Reeves, Daniel B. Weaver, John B.

    2014-03-10

    Magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia is an attractive emerging cancer treatment, but the acting microscopic energy deposition mechanisms are not well understood and optimization suffers. We describe several approximate forms for the characteristic time of Néel rotations with varying properties and external influences. We then present stochastic simulations that show agreement between the approximate expressions and the micromagnetic model. The simulations show nonlinear imaginary responses and associated relaxational hysteresis due to the field and frequency dependencies of the magnetization. This suggests that efficient heating is possible by matching fields to particles instead of resorting to maximizing the power of the applied magnetic fields.

  19. Arranging matter by magnetic nanoparticle assemblers

    PubMed Central

    Yellen, Benjamin B.; Hovorka, Ondrej; Friedman, Gary

    2005-01-01

    We introduce a method for transporting colloidal particles, large molecules, cells, and other materials across surfaces and for assembling them into highly regular patterns. In this method, nonmagnetic materials are manipulated by a fluid dispersion of magnetic nanoparticles. Manipulation of materials is guided by a program of magnetic information stored in a substrate. Dynamic control over the motion of nonmagnetic particles can be achieved by reprogramming the substrate magnetization on the fly. The unexpectedly large degree of control over particle motion can be used to manipulate large ensembles of particles in parallel, potentially with local control over particle trajectory. PMID:15956215

  20. The synthesis and characterization of monodispersed chitosan-coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles via a facile one-step solvothermal process for adsorption of bovine serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Shen, Mao; Yu, Yujing; Fan, Guodong; Chen, Guang; Jin, Ying Min; Tang, Wenyuan; Jia, Wenping

    2014-01-01

    Preparation of magnetic nanoparticles coated with chitosan (CS-coated Fe3O4 NPs) in one step by the solvothermal method in the presence of different amounts of added chitosan is reported here. The magnetic property of the obtained magnetic composite nanoparticles was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and magnetic measurements (VSM). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) allowed the identification of spherical nanoparticles with about 150 nm in average diameter. Characterization of the products by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) demonstrated that CS-coated Fe3O4 NPs were obtained. Chitosan content in the obtained nanocomposites was estimated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The adsorption properties of the CS-coated Fe3O4 NPs for bovine serum albumin (BSA) were investigated under different concentrations of BSA. Compared with naked Fe3O4 nanoparticles, the CS-coated Fe3O4 NPs showed a higher BSA adsorption capacity (96.5 mg/g) and a fast adsorption rate (45 min) in aqueous solutions. This work demonstrates that the prepared magnetic nanoparticles have promising applications in enzyme and protein immobilization. PMID:24994954

  1. M13-templated magnetic nanoparticles for targeted in vivo imaging of prostate cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Debadyuti; Lee, Youjin; Thomas, Stephanie; Kohli, Aditya G.; Yun, Dong Soo; Belcher, Angela M.; Kelly, Kimberly A.

    2012-10-01

    Molecular imaging allows clinicians to visualize the progression of tumours and obtain relevant information for patient diagnosis and treatment. Owing to their intrinsic optical, electrical and magnetic properties, nanoparticles are promising contrast agents for imaging dynamic molecular and cellular processes such as protein-protein interactions, enzyme activity or gene expression. Until now, nanoparticles have been engineered with targeting ligands such as antibodies and peptides to improve tumour specificity and uptake. However, excessive loading of ligands can reduce the targeting capabilities of the ligand and reduce the ability of the nanoparticle to bind to a finite number of receptors on cells. Increasing the number of nanoparticles delivered to cells by each targeting molecule would lead to higher signal-to-noise ratios and would improve image contrast. Here, we show that M13 filamentous bacteriophage can be used as a scaffold to display targeting ligands and multiple nanoparticles for magnetic resonance imaging of cancer cells and tumours in mice. Monodisperse iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles assemble along the M13 coat, and its distal end is engineered to display a peptide that targets SPARC glycoprotein, which is overexpressed in various cancers. Compared with nanoparticles that are directly functionalized with targeting peptides, our approach improves contrast because each SPARC-targeting molecule delivers a large number of nanoparticles into the cells. Moreover, the targeting ligand and nanoparticles could be easily exchanged for others, making this platform attractive for in vivo high-throughput screening and molecular detection.

  2. M13-templated magnetic nanoparticles for targeted in vivo imaging of prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Debadyuti; Lee, Youjin; Thomas, Stephanie; Kohli, Aditya G.; Yun, Dong Soo; Belcher, Angela M.; Kelly, Kimberly A.

    2014-01-01

    Molecular imaging allows clinicians to visualize the progression of tumours and obtain relevant information for patient diagnosis and treatment1. Owing to their intrinsic optical, electrical and magnetic properties, nanoparticles are promising contrast agents for imaging dynamic molecular and cellular processes such as protein-protein interactions, enzyme activity or gene expression2. Until now, nanoparticles have been engineered with targeting ligands such as antibodies and peptides to improve tumour specificity and uptake. However, excessive loading of ligands can reduce the targeting capabilities of the ligand3,4,5 and reduce the ability of the nanoparticle to bind to a finite number of receptors on cells6. Increasing the number of nanoparticles delivered to cells by each targeting molecule would lead to higher signal-to-noise ratios and improve image contrast. Here, we show that M13 filamentous bacteriophage can be used as a scaffold to display targeting ligands and multiple nanoparticles for magnetic resonance imaging of cancer cells and tumours in mice. Monodisperse iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles assemble along the M13 coat, and its distal end is engineered to display a peptide that targets SPARC glycoprotein, which is overexpressed in various cancers. Compared with nanoparticles that are directly functionalized with targeting peptides, our approach improves contrast because each SPARC-targeting molecule delivers a large number of nanoparticles into the cells. Moreover, the targeting ligand and nanoparticles could be easily exchanged for others, making this platform attractive for in vivo high-throughput screening and molecular detection. PMID:22983492

  3. Functionalization of magnetic nanoparticles with 3-aminopropyl silane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čampelj, Stanislav; Makovec, Darko; Drofenik, Miha

    2009-05-01

    Superparamagnetic maghemite nanoparticles were functionalized with 3-aminopropyl triethoxy silane (APS). The influence of the different experimental parameters (temperature, pH, and reactant concentration) on the efficiency of the APS bonding directly to the maghemite nanoparticles or after their coating with a thin layer of silica was systematically studied. The functionalization was followed with measurements of the ζ-potential and direct measurements of the surface APS concentration on the nanoparticles. The surface concentration of the APS was much higher in the case when the APS was bonded to the silica-coated nanoparticles compared to bonding directly to the surfaces of the iron-oxide nanoparticles.

  4. Sticky tubes and magnetic hydrogels co-assembled by a short peptide and melanin-like nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Das, Priyadip; Yuran, Sivan; Yan, Jian; Lee, Pooi See; Reches, Meital

    2015-03-28

    This communication describes the co-assembly of polydopamine spheres, either bare or coated with Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles, with the short aromatic peptide diphenylalanine. The combination of polydopamine particles and diphenylalanine generated tubular structures decorated with adhesive spherical particles, while the co-assembly of the polydopamine spheres coated with magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles with diphenylalanine resulted in the formation of a magnetic hydrogel. These new architectures may be useful as new vehicles for several applications including tissue regeneration and drug delivery. PMID:25470201

  5. Effect of surface modification on magnetization of iron oxide nanoparticle colloids.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yuan; Rende, Deniz; Altan, Cem Levent; Bucak, Seyda; Ozisik, Rahmi; Borca-Tasciuc, Diana-Andra

    2012-09-11

    Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles have numerous applications in the biomedical field, some more mature, such as contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and some emerging, such as heating agents in hyperthermia for cancer therapy. In all of these applications, the magnetic particles are coated with surfactants and polymers to enhance biocompatibility, prevent agglomeration, and add functionality. However, the coatings may interact with the surface atoms of the magnetic core and form a magnetically disordered layer, reducing the total amount of the magnetic phase, which is the key parameter in many applications. In the current study, amine and carboxyl functionalized and bare iron oxide nanoparticles, all suspended in water, were purchased and characterized. The presence of the coatings in commercial samples was verified with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The class of iron oxide (magnetite) was verified via Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. In addition to these, in-house prepared iron oxide nanoparticles coated with oleic acid and suspended in heptane and hexane were also investigated. The saturation magnetization obtained from vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) measurements was used to determine the effective concentration of magnetic phase in all samples. The Tiron chelation test was then utilized to check the real concentration of the iron oxide in the suspension. The difference between the concentration results from VSM and the Tiron test confirmed the reduction of magnetic phase of magnetic core in the presence of coatings and different suspension media. For the biocompatible coatings, the largest reduction was experienced by amine particles, where the ratio of the effective weight of magnetic phase reported to the real weight was 0.5. Carboxyl-coated samples experienced smaller reduction with a ratio of 0.64. Uncoated sample also exhibits a reduction with a ratio of 0.6. Oleic acid covered samples show a solvent

  6. Multifunctional Particles: Magnetic Nanocrystals and Gold Nanorods Coated with Fluorescent Dye-Doped Silica Shells

    PubMed Central

    Heitsch, Andrew T.; Smith, Danielle K.; Patel, Reken E.; Ress, David; Korgel, Brian A.

    2008-01-01

    Multifunctional colloidal core-shell nanoparticles of magnetic nanocrystals (of iron oxide or FePt) or gold nanorods encapsulated in silica shells doped with the fluorescent dye, Tris(2,2′-bipyridyl)dichlororuthenium(II) hexahydrate (Rubpy) were synthesized. The as-prepared magnetic nanocrystals are initially hydrophobic and were coated with silica using a microemulsion approach, while the as-prepared gold nanorods are hydrophilic and were coated with silica using a Stöber-type of process. Each approach yielded monodisperse nanoparticles with uniform fluorescent dye-doped silica shells. These colloidal heterostructures have the potential to be used as dual-purpose tags—exhibiting a fluorescent signal that could be combined with either dark-field optical contrast (in the case of the gold nanorods), or enhanced contrast in magnetic resonance images (in the case of magnetic nanocrystal cores). The optical and magnetic properties of the fluorescent silica-coated gold nanorods and magnetic nanocrystals are reported. PMID:19578476

  7. Magnetically anisotropic additive for scalable manufacturing of polymer nanocomposite: iron-coated carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Namiko; Manohara, Harish; Platzman, Ellen

    2016-02-01

    Novel nanoparticles additives for polymer nanocomposites were prepared by coating carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with ferromagnetic iron (Fe) layers, so that their micro-structures can be bulk-controlled by external magnetic field application. Application of magnetic fields is a promising, scalable method to deliver bulk amount of nanocomposites while maintaining organized nanoparticle assembly throughout the uncured polymer matrix. In this work, Fe layers (˜18 nm thick) were deposited on CNTs (˜38 nm diameter and ˜50 μm length) to form thin films with high aspect ratio, resulting in a dominance of shape anisotropy and thus high coercivity of ˜50-100 Oe. The Fe-coated CNTs were suspended in water and applied with a weak magnetic field of ˜75 G, and yet preliminary magnetic assembly was confirmed. Our results demonstrate that the fabricated Fe-coated CNTs are magnetically anisotropic and effectively respond to magnetic fields that are ˜103 times smaller than other existing work (˜105 G). We anticipate this work will pave the way for effective property enhancement and bulk application of CNT-polymer nanocomposites, through controlled micro-structure and scalable manufacturing.

  8. Hydrophobicity of biofilm coatings influences the transport dynamics of polystyrene nanoparticles in biofilm-coated sand.

    PubMed

    Mitzel, Michael R; Sand, Stefanie; Whalen, Joann K; Tufenkji, Nathalie

    2016-04-01

    Engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) are used in the manufacture of over 2000 industrial and consumer products to enhance their material properties and functions or to enable new nanoparticle-dependent functions. The widespread use of ENPs will result in their release to the subsurface and aquatic environments, where they will interact with indigenous biota. Laboratory column experiments were designed to understand the influence of two different Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms on the mobility of polystyrene latex nanoparticles in granular porous media representative of groundwater aquifers or riverbank filtration settings. The transport behavior of 20 nm carboxylate-modified (CLPs) and sulfate (SLPs) polystyrene latex ENPs suspended in NaCl or CaCl2 (1 and 10 mM ionic strength, pH 7) was studied in columns packed with quartz sand coated with biofilms formed by two P. aeruginosa strains that differed in cell surface hydrophobicity (P. aeruginosa 9027™, relatively hydrophilic and P. aeruginosa PAO1, relatively hydrophobic). Biofilm-coated quartz sand retained more of the electrostatically-stabilized latex ENPs than clean, uncoated sand, regardless of the serotype. As IS increased, clear differences in the shape of the ENP breakthrough curves were observed for each type of biofilm coating. ENP breakthrough in the P. aeruginosa PAO1 biofilm-coated sand was generally constant with time whereby breakthrough in the P. aeruginosa 9027 biofilm-coated sand showed dynamic behavior. This indicates a fundamental difference in the mechanisms of ENP deposition onto hydrophilic or hydrophobic biofilm coatings due to the hydration properties of these biofilms. The results of this study demonstrate the importance of considering the surface properties of aquifer grain coatings when evaluating ENP fate in natural subsurface environments. PMID:26845456

  9. Transport and viability of Escherichia coli cells in clean and iron oxide coated sand following coating with silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Ngwenya, Bryne T; Curry, Philip; Kapetas, Leon

    2015-08-01

    A mechanistic understanding of processes controlling the transport and viability of bacteria in porous media is critical for designing in situ bioremediation and microbiological water decontamination programs. We investigated the combined influence of coating sand with iron oxide and silver nanoparticles on the transport and viability of Escherichia coli cells under saturated conditions. Results showed that iron oxide coatings increase cell deposition which was generally reversed by silver nanoparticle coatings in the early stages of injection. These observations are consistent with short-term, particle surface charge controls on bacteria transport, where a negatively charged surface induced by silver nanoparticles reverses the positive charge due to iron oxide coatings, but columns eventually recovered irreversible cell deposition. Silver nanoparticle coatings significantly increased cell inactivation during transit through the columns. However, when viability data is normalised to volume throughput, only a small improvement in cell inactivation is observed for silver nanoparticle coated sands relative to iron oxide coating alone. This counterintuitive result underscores the importance of net surface charge in controlling cell transport and inactivation and implies that the extra cost for implementing silver nanoparticle coatings on porous beds coated with iron oxides may not be justified in designing point of use water filters in low income countries. PMID:26042624

  10. Highly efficient antibody immobilization with multimeric protein Gs coupled magnetic silica nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J. H.; Choi, H. K.; Chang, J. H.

    2011-10-01

    This work reports the immobilization of monomeric, dimeric and trimer protein Gs onto silica magnetic nanoparticles for self-oriented antibody immobilization. To achieve this, we initially prepared the silica-coated magnetic nanoparticle having about 170 nm diameters. The surface of the silica coated magnetic nanoparticles was modified with 3- aminopropyl-trimethoxysilane (APTMS) to chemically link to multimeric protein Gs. The conjugation of amino groups on the SiO2-MNPs to cysteine tagged in multimeric protein Gs was performed using a sulfo-SMCC coupling procedure. The binding efficiencies of monomer, dimer and trimer were 77 %, 67 % and 55 % respectively. However, the efficiencies of antibody immobilization were 70 %, 83 % and 95 % for monomeric, dimeric and trimeric protein G, respectively. To prove the enhancement of accessibility by using multimeric protein G, FITC labeled goat-anti-mouse IgG was treated to mouse IgG immobilized magnetic silica nanoparticles through multimeric protein G. FITC labeled goat anti-mouse IgGs were more easily bound to mouse IgG immobilized by trimeric protein G than others. Finally protein G bound silica magnetic nanoparticles were utilized to develop highly sensitive immunoassay to detect hepatitis B antigen.

  11. Structural and magnetic study of dysprosium substituted cobalt ferrite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Hemaunt; Srivastava, R. C.; Pal Singh, Jitendra; Negi, P.; Agrawal, H. M.; Das, D.; Hwa Chae, Keun

    2016-03-01

    The present work investigates the magnetic behavior of Dy3+ substituted cobalt ferrite nanoparticles. X-ray diffraction studies reveal presence of cubic spinel phases in these nanoparticles. Raman spectra of these nanoparticles show change in intensity of Raman bands, which reflects cation redistribution in cubic spinel lattice. Saturation magnetization and coercivity decrease with increase of Dy3+concentration in these nanoparticles. Room temperature Mössbauer measurements show the cation redistribution in these nanoparticles and corroborates the results obtained from Raman Spectroscopic measurements. Decrease in magnetization of Dy3+ substituted cobalt ferrite is attributed to the reduction in the magnetic interaction and cation redistribution.

  12. Monodisperse sodium oleate coated magnetite high susceptibility nanoparticles for hyperthermia applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araújo-Neto, R. P.; Silva-Freitas, E. L.; Carvalho, J. F.; Pontes, T. R. F.; Silva, K. L.; Damasceno, I. H. M.; Egito, E. S. T.; Dantas, Ana L.; Morales, Marco A.; Carriço, Artur S.

    2014-09-01

    We report a simple and low cost methodology to synthesize sodium oleate coated magnetite nanoparticles for hyperthermia applications. The system consists of oleate coated magnetite nanoparticles with large susceptibility (1065 emu/gT), induced by the dipolar inter-particle interaction, with a magnetic core diameter in the 6 nm-12 nm size range. In aqueous medium, the nanoparticles agglomerate to form a monodisperse system, exhibiting a mean hydrodynamic diameter of 60.6 nm±4.1 nm, with a low average polydispersity index of 0.128±0.003, as required for intravenous applications. The system exhibits promising efficiency for magnetic hyperthermia, with a specific absorption rate of 14 W/g at a low field amplitude of 15.9 kA/m and frequency of 62 kHz. In a 50 mg/mL density in 1 mL, the temperature rises to 42.5 °C in 1.9 min.

  13. Water dispersible oleic acid-coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shete, P. B.; Patil, R. M.; Tiwale, B. M.; Pawar, S. H.

    2015-03-01

    Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have proved their tremendous potential to be used for various biomedical applications. Oleic acid (OA) is widely used in ferrite nanoparticle synthesis because it can form a dense protective monolayer, thereby producing highly uniform and monodispersed particles. Capping agents such as oleic acid are often used because they form a protective monolayer, which is strongly bonded to the surface of nanoparticles. This is necessary for making monodisperse and highly uniform MNPs. Coating of Fe3O4 MNPs with OA makes the particles dispersible only in organic solvents and consequently limits their use for biomedical applications. Hence, in this work, the OA coated MNPs were again functionalized with chitosan (CS), in order to impart hydrophilicity on their surface. All the morphological, magnetic, colloidal and cytotoxic characteristics of the resulting core-shells were studied thoroughly. Their heating induction ability was studied to predict their possible use in hyperthermia therapy of cancer. Specific absorption rate was found to be increased than that of bare MNPs.

  14. A facile hydrothermal approach for construction of carbon coating on TiO2 nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Olurode, Kehinde; Neelgund, Gururaj M.; Oki, Aderemi; Luo, Zhiphing

    2012-01-01

    Herein a facile hydrothermal approach is used to construct carbon coated TiO2 nanoparticles employing dextrose as the source of carbon. The procedure is operated at a low temperature of 200 °C. Fourier infrared spectroscopy demonstrated the successful coating of carbon on TiO2 nanoparticles. The phase composition of TiO2 and carbon coated TiO2 nanoparticles were studied using X-ray diffraction and the surface morphology was analyzed by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The existence of carbon coating on TiO2 nanoparticles was revealed by thermogravimetric analysis through different thermograms exhibited for TiO2 and carbon coated TiO2 nanoparticles. The reported method offers a simple and efficient approach for production of carbon coating TiO2 nanoparticles. PMID:22297036

  15. Silver nanoparticles-coated glass frits for silicon solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yingfen; Gan, Weiping; Li, Biyuan

    2016-04-01

    Silver nanoparticles-coated glass frit composite powders for silicon solar cells were prepared by electroless plating. Silver colloids were used as the activating agent of glass frits. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry. The characterization results indicated that silver nanoparticles with the melting temperature of 838 °C were uniformly deposited on glass frit surface. The particle size of silver nanoparticles could be controlled by adjusting the [Ag(NH3)2]NO3 concentration. The as-prepared composite powders were applied in the front side metallization of silicon solar cells. Compared with those based on pure glass frits, the solar cells containing the composite powders had the denser silver electrodes and the better silver-silicon ohmic contacts. Furthermore, the photovoltaic performances of solar cells were improved after the electroless plating.

  16. Photocatalytic TiO2 nanoparticles enhanced polymer antimicrobial coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xiaojin; Yang, Zhendi; Tay, See Leng; Gao, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Copper (Cu) containing coatings can provide sustainable protection against microbial contamination. However, metallic Cu coatings have not been widely used due to the relatively high cost, poor corrosion resistance, and low compatibility with non-metal substrates. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) possesses antibacterial functions by its photocatalytic properties which can destroy bacteria or suppress their reproduction. TiO2 also has the function of improving the mechanical properties through particle dispersion strengthening. We have recently developed an innovative polymer based coating system containing fine particles of Cu and TiO2 nanoparticles. These polymer based coatings simultaneously display excellent antimicrobial and good mechanical properties. The results showed that the addition of TiO2 has improved the antimicrobial property under sunlight, which provides extended applications in outdoor environment. The elimination of 106 bacterial by contacting the coatings without TiO2 needs 5 h, while contacting with the Cu/TiO2- 1 wt.% TiO2 took only 2 h to kill the same amount of bacteria. The coatings also presented enhanced hardness and wear resistance after adding TiO2. The width of wear track decreased from 270 μm of the Cu-polymer coating to 206 μm of Cu/TiO2-polymer coatings with 10 wt.% TiO2. Synchrotron Infrared Microscopy was used to in-situ and in-vivo study the bacteria killing process at the molecular level. The real-time chemical images of bacterial activities showed that the bacterial cell membranes were damaged by the Cu and TiO2 containing coatings

  17. Cleaved iron oxide nanoparticles as T2 contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Sung Lan; Chae, Min Kyung; Jang, Eun Ju; Lee, Chulhyun

    2013-03-25

    Iron oxide nanoparticles as contrast agents are reported to effectively improve magnetic resonance imaging of tissues and cells. In this work, cleaved iron oxide nanoparticles (CIONPs) were generated from hydrophobic FeO nanoparticles (HIONPs) by coating their surfaces with PEG-phospholipids, oxidizing them under water, and slowly removing the residual FeO phase in phthalate buffer. The synthesized CIONPs showed good r2 values of up to 258 s(-1)  mM(-1). Thus, the CIONPs can be employed as vectors for drug delivery due to their unique structure with an empty inner space, which enables their use in a wide range of applications. PMID:23345158

  18. Ion Beam Stabilization of FePt Nanoparticle Arrays for Magnetic Storage Media

    SciTech Connect

    Toney, Michael F

    2003-07-31

    The authors describe the use of ion beam induced crosslinking to harden the organic matrix material of self-assembled arrays of monodisperse (4 nm) FePt nanoparticles, providing diamondlike carbon barriers to inhibit agglomeration of the nanoparticles under heat treatment. Such stabilization is necessary for the particles to survive the > 500 C annealing required for growth of the fct L 1{sub 0} phase of FePt, whose magnetic anisotropy is necessary for application of such arrays for high density perpendicular recording. Selective area irradiation of continuous nanoparticle coatings, using ion beams patterned over a full disk by stencil mask or with ion projection optics, followed by dissolution of the unexposed coating, is proposed as a means of fabricating extended bit patterns consisting of isolated islands of FePt nanoparticles, with characteristic dimensions of tens of nanometers.

  19. Design and fabrication of magnetic nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery and imaging

    PubMed Central

    Veiseh, Omid; Gunn, Jonathan; Zhang, Miqin

    2009-01-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) represent a class of non-invasive imaging agents that have been developed for magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. These MNPs have traditionally been used for disease imaging via passive targeting, but recent advances have opened the door to cellular-specific targeting, drug delivery, and multi-modal imaging by these nanoparticles. As more elaborate MNPs are envisioned, adherence to proper design criteria (e.g. size, coating, molecular functionalization) becomes even more essential. This review summarizes the design parameters that affect MNP performance in vivo, including the physicochemical properties and nanoparticle surface modifications, such as MNP coating and targeting ligand functionalizations that can enhance MNP management of biological barriers. A careful review of the chemistries used to modify the surfaces of MNPs is also given, with attention paid to optimizing the activity of bound ligands while maintaining favorable physicochemical properties. PMID:19909778

  20. The ability of streptomycin-loaded chitosan-coated magnetic nanocomposites to possess antimicrobial and antituberculosis activities

    PubMed Central

    El Zowalaty, Mohamed Ezzat; Hussein Al Ali, Samer Hassan; Husseiny, Mohamed I; Geilich, Benjamin M; Webster, Thomas J; Hussein, Mohd Zobir

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were synthesized by the coprecipitation of Fe2+ and Fe3+ iron salts in alkali media. MNPs were coated by chitosan (CS) to produce CS-MNPs. Streptomycin (Strep) was loaded onto the surface of CS-MNPs to form a Strep-CS-MNP nanocomposite. MNPs, CS-MNPs, and the nanocomposites were subsequently characterized using X-ray diffraction and were evaluated for their antibacterial activity. The antimicrobial activity of the as-synthesized nanoparticles was evaluated using different Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, as well as Mycobacterium tuberculosis. For the first time, it was found that the nanoparticles showed antimicrobial activities against the tested microorganisms (albeit with a more pronounced effect against Gram-negative than Gram-positive bacteria), and thus, should be further studied as a novel nano-antibiotic for numerous antimicrobial and antituberculosis applications. Moreover, since these nanoparticle bacteria fighters are magnetic, one can easily envision magnetic field direction of these nanoparticles to fight unwanted microorganism presence on demand. Due to the ability of magnetic nanoparticles to increase the sensitivity of imaging modalities (such as magnetic resonance imaging), these novel nanoparticles can also be used to diagnose the presence of such microorganisms. In summary, although requiring further investigation, this study introduces for the first time a new type of magnetic nanoparticle with microorganism theranostic properties as a potential tool to both diagnose and treat diverse microbial and tuberculosis infections. PMID:25995633

  1. The ability of streptomycin-loaded chitosan-coated magnetic nanocomposites to possess antimicrobial and antituberculosis activities.

    PubMed

    El Zowalaty, Mohamed Ezzat; Hussein Al Ali, Samer Hassan; Husseiny, Mohamed I; Geilich, Benjamin M; Webster, Thomas J; Hussein, Mohd Zobir

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were synthesized by the coprecipitation of Fe(2+) and Fe(3+) iron salts in alkali media. MNPs were coated by chitosan (CS) to produce CS-MNPs. Streptomycin (Strep) was loaded onto the surface of CS-MNPs to form a Strep-CS-MNP nanocomposite. MNPs, CS-MNPs, and the nanocomposites were subsequently characterized using X-ray diffraction and were evaluated for their antibacterial activity. The antimicrobial activity of the as-synthesized nanoparticles was evaluated using different Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, as well as Mycobacterium tuberculosis. For the first time, it was found that the nanoparticles showed antimicrobial activities against the tested microorganisms (albeit with a more pronounced effect against Gram-negative than Gram-positive bacteria), and thus, should be further studied as a novel nano-antibiotic for numerous antimicrobial and antituberculosis applications. Moreover, since these nanoparticle bacteria fighters are magnetic, one can easily envision magnetic field direction of these nanoparticles to fight unwanted microorganism presence on demand. Due to the ability of magnetic nanoparticles to increase the sensitivity of imaging modalities (such as magnetic resonance imaging), these novel nanoparticles can also be used to diagnose the presence of such microorganisms. In summary, although requiring further investigation, this study introduces for the first time a new type of magnetic nanoparticle with microorganism theranostic properties as a potential tool to both diagnose and treat diverse microbial and tuberculosis infections. PMID:25995633

  2. Rapid coating of surfaces with functionalized nanoparticles for regulation of cell behavior.

    PubMed

    Tang, Rui; Moyano, Daniel F; Subramani, Chandramouleeswaran; Yan, Bo; Jeoung, Eunhee; Tonga, Gülen Yesilbag; Duncan, Bradley; Yeh, Yi-Cheun; Jiang, Ziwen; Kim, Chaekyu; Rotello, Vincent M

    2014-05-28

    A robust monolayer of nanoparticles is formed via dip-coating of cell culture plates. These surfaces provide cell type-specific modulation of growth behavior without the uptake of nanoparticles. PMID:24677290

  3. Liquid Marbles Based on Magnetic Upconversion Nanoparticles as Magnetically and Optically Responsive Miniature Reactors for Photocatalysis and Photodynamic Therapy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan; Zhu, Lin; Chen, Jian-Feng; Dai, Liming

    2016-08-26

    Magnetic liquid marbles have recently attracted extensive attention for various potential applications. However, conventional liquid marbles based on iron oxide nanoparticles are opaque and inadequate for photo-related applications. Herein, we report the first development of liquid marbles coated with magnetic lanthanide-doped upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) that can convert near-infrared light into visible light. Apart from their excellent magnetic and mechanical properties, which are attractive for repeatable tip opening and magnetically directed movements, the resultant UCNP-based liquid marbles can act as ideal miniature reactors for photodynamic therapy of cancer cells. This work opens new ways for the development of liquid marbles, and shows great promise for liquid marbles based on UCNPs to be used in a large variety of potential applications, such as photodynamic therapy for accelerated drug screening, magnetically guided controlled drug delivery and release, and multifunctional actuation. PMID:27487265

  4. Magnetic hyperthermia in phosphate coated iron oxide nanofluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahiri, B. B.; Muthukumaran, T.; Philip, John

    2016-06-01

    We study the magnetic field induced hyperthermia in water based phosphate coated Fe3O4 nanofluids, synthesized by a co-precipitation method using ferrous and ferric salt solutions, ammonia and orthophosphoric acid. The specific absorption rate (SAR) values were measured at a fixed frequency of 126 kHz and at extremely low field amplitudes. The SAR values were determined from the initial rate of temperature rise curves under non-adiabatic conditions. It was observed that the SAR initially increases with sample concentration, attains a maximum at an optimum concentration and beyond which SAR decreases. The decrease in SAR values beyond the optimum concentration was attributed to the enhancement of dipolar interaction and agglomeration of the particles. The system independent intrinsic loss power (ILP) values, obtained by normalizing the SAR values with respect to field amplitude and frequency, were found to vary between 158-125 nHm2 kg-1, which were the highest benchmark values reported in the biologically safe experimental limit of 1.03-0.92×108 Am-1 s-1. The very high value of ILP observed in the bio-compatible phosphate coated iron oxide nanofluids may find practical applications for these nanoparticles in tumor targeted hyperthermia treatment.

  5. Effect of magnetic nanoparticles on the lightning impulse breakdown voltage of transformer oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghasemi, J.; Jafarmadar, S.; Nazari, M.

    2015-09-01

    In this study, the lightning impulse breakdown voltage of magnetic nanofluids based on transformer mineral oil for use in power systems was reviewed. Magnetic nanofluids are obtained from dispersion of the magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3 O4) within transformer oil, as the base fluid. The Fe3 O4 nanoparticles, using a coprecipitation method, were synthesized, coated with a surfactant, and dispersed using an ultrasonic processor, within the uninhibited transformer mineral oil NYTRO LIBRA. The lightning impulse breakdown voltage was obtained using sphere-sphere electrodes in an experimental setup for nano-oil, in volume concentration of 0.1-0.6%. Results indicate improved lightning impulse breakdown voltage under optimal conditions. Increase in the lightning impulse breakdown voltage of the nano-oil is mainly due to the dielectric and magnetic properties of Fe3 O4 nanoparticles, acting as free electrons snapper, and reduce the rate of free electrons production in the ionization process.

  6. Magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia enhancement of cisplatin chemotherapy cancer treatment

    PubMed Central

    Petryk, Alicia A.; Giustini, Andrew J.; Gottesman, Rachel E.; Kaufman, Peter A.; Hoopes, P. Jack

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine the therapeutic effect of magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia (mNPH) combined with systemic cisplatin chemotherapy in a murine mammary adenocarcinoma model (MTGB). Materials and methods An alternating magnetic field (35.8 kA/m at 165 kHz) was used to activate 110 nm hydroxyethyl starch-coated magnetic nanoparticles (mNP) to a thermal dose of 60 min at 43 °C. Intratumoral mNP were delivered at 7.5 mg of Fe/cm3 of tumour (four equal tumour quadrants). Intraperitoneal cisplatin at 5 mg/kg body weight was administered 1 h prior to mNPH. Tumour regrowth delay time was used to assess the treatment efficacy. Results mNP hyperthermia, combined with cisplatin, was 1.7 times more effective than mNP hyperthermia alone and 1.4 times more effective than cisplatin alone (p<0.05). Conclusions Our results demonstrate that mNP hyperthermia can result in a safe and significant therapeutic enhancement for cisplatin cancer therapy. PMID:24144336

  7. Electrochemical fabrication of nanocomposite films containing magnetic metal nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Yoshiaki; Hashi, Shuichiro; Kura, Hiroaki; Yanai, Takeshi; Ogawa, Tomoyuki; Ishiyama, Kazushi; Nakano, Masaki; Fukunaga, Hirotoshi

    2015-07-01

    Controlling the structure composed of soft and hard magnetic phases at the nanoscale is the key to fabricating nanocomposite magnets with efficient exchange coupling. In our previous study, nanocomposite films containing ferrite nanoparticles were fabricated by a combination of electrophoretic deposition and electroplating to show one possibility of controlling the structure of nanocomposite magnets three-dimensionally by applying self-assembly of magnetic nanoparticles. To expand this combination method to the fabrication of nanocomposite magnets, the use of magnetic metal nanoparticles is desired. In this paper, we attempted to fabricate nanocomposite films composed of Fe-Co nanoparticles in a Fe-Pt matrix by this combination method. Through cross-sectional observation and XRD analysis, a nanostructure composed of Fe-Co nanoparticles embedded in a L10 Fe-Pt matrix was confirmed. These results indicate that this method is capable of producing composite materials containing metal magnetic nanoparticles.

  8. Single-step bifunctional coating for selectively conjugable nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voliani, Valerio; Luin, Stefano; Ricci, Fernanda; Beltram, Fabio

    2010-12-01

    A single-step method to coat and bifunctionalize water-reduced gold nanoparticles (NPs) with two distinct reactive groups is reported. The coating is based on a peptide that bonds to the NPs surface by its N-cysteine amino acid, terminates with a C-terminal lysine, and stabilizes the colloids, thanks to the surface organization provided by the rest of the non-polar chain. The process yields stable, non-cytotoxic NPs presenting reactive amine and carboxylic groups on the surface; these allow rapid, selective and modular conjugation of virtually any chosen biomolecule or fluorophore. Functionalized and conjugated nanostructures are analyzed by electrophoresis, SEM, SERS; their biocompatibility and delivery capability are tested by cellular-uptake experiments.A single-step method to coat and bifunctionalize water-reduced gold nanoparticles (NPs) with two distinct reactive groups is reported. The coating is based on a peptide that bonds to the NPs surface by its N-cysteine amino acid, terminates with a C-terminal lysine, and stabilizes the colloids, thanks to the surface organization provided by the rest of the non-polar chain. The process yields stable, non-cytotoxic NPs presenting reactive amine and carboxylic groups on the surface; these allow rapid, selective and modular conjugation of virtually any chosen biomolecule or fluorophore. Functionalized and conjugated nanostructures are analyzed by electrophoresis, SEM, SERS; their biocompatibility and delivery capability are tested by cellular-uptake experiments. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: SEM pictures, UV-Vis spectra and DLS measurements of bare, coated and functionalized gold nanospheres, confocal fluorescence images of cell-internalized systems with PI-staining, electrophoresis of AuNs coated with glutathione and of AuNsK and AuNsN in the presence of glutathione. See DOI: 10.1039/c0nr00350f

  9. Laser and radiofrequency-induced hyperthermia treatment via gold-coated magnetic nanocomposites

    PubMed Central

    Elsherbini, Alsayed AM; Saber, Mahmoud; Aggag, Mohamed; El-Shahawy, Ahmed; Shokier, Hesham AA

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The current radiofrequency ablation technique requires invasive needle placement. On the other hand, most of the common photothermal therapeutic methods are limited by lack of accuracy of targeting. Gold and magnetic nanoparticles offer the potential to heat tumor tissue selectively at the cellular level by noninvasive interaction with laser and radiofrequency. Methods Gold nanospheres and gold-coated magnetic nanocomposites were used for inducing hyperthermia to treat subcutaneous Ehrlich carcinoma implanted in female mice. Results In mice treated with gold nanospheres, tumors continued to grow but at a slow rate. In contrast, more than 50% of the tumors treated with gold-coated magnetic nanocomposites completely disappeared. Conclusion This simple and noninvasive method shows great promise as a technique for selective magnetic photothermal treatment. PMID:22114479

  10. Microwave-assisted silica coating and photocatalytic activities of ZnO nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Siddiquey, Iqbal Ahmed; Furusawa, Takeshi; Sato, Masahide; Suzuki, Noboru

    2008-12-01

    A new and rapid method for silica coating of ZnO nanoparticles by the simple microwave irradiation technique is reported. Silica-coated ZnO nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), CHN elemental analysis and zeta potential measurements. The FT-IR spectra and XPS clearly confirmed the silica coating on ZnO nanoparticles. The results of XPS analysis showed that the elements in the coating at the surface of the ZnO nanoparticles were Zn, O and Si. HR-TEM micrographs revealed a continuous and uniform dense silica coating layer of about 3 nm in thickness on the surface of ZnO nanoparticles. In addition, the silica coating on the ZnO nanoparticles was confirmed by the agreement in the zeta potential of the silica-coated ZnO nanoparticles with that of SiO{sub 2}. The results of the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) in aqueous solution showed that silica coating effectively reduced the photocatalytic activity of ZnO nanoparticles. Silica-coated ZnO nanoparticles showed excellent UV shielding ability and visible light transparency.

  11. Enhancement of irradiation effects on cancer cells by cross-linked dextran-coated iron oxide (CLIO) nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Fu-Kuo; Chen, Wen-Chang; Lai, Sheng-Feng; Liu, Chi-Jen; Wang, Cheng-Liang; Wang, Chang-Hai; Chen, Hsiang-Hsin; Hua, Tzu-En; Cheng, Yi-Yun; Wu, M. K.; Hwu, Y.; Yang, Chung-Shi; Margaritondo, G.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated iron oxide nanoparticles with two different surface modifications, dextran coating and cross-linked dextran coating, showing that their different internalization affects their capability to enhance radiation damage to cancer cells. The internalization was monitored with an ultrahigh resolution transmission x-ray microscope (TXM), indicating that the differences in the particle surface charge play an essential role and dominate the particle-cell interaction. We found that dextran-coated iron oxide nanoparticles cannot be internalized by HeLa and EMT-6 cells without being functionalized with amino groups (the cross-linked dextran coating) that modify the surface potential from -18 mV to 13.4 mV. The amount of cross-linked dextran-coated iron oxide nanoparticles uptaken by cancer cells reached its maximum, 1.33 × 109 per HeLa cell, when the co-culture concentration was 40 µg Fe mL-1 or more. Standard tests indicated that these internalized nanoparticles increased the damaging effects of x-ray irradiation, whereas they are by themselves biocompatible. These results could lead to interesting therapy applications; furthermore, iron oxide also produces high contrast for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the diagnosis and therapy stages.

  12. Enhancement of irradiation effects on cancer cells by cross-linked dextran-coated iron oxide (CLIO) nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Huang, Fu-Kuo; Chen, Wen-Chang; Lai, Sheng-Feng; Liu, Chi-Jen; Wang, Cheng-Liang; Wang, Chang-Hai; Chen, Hsiang-Hsin; Hua, Tzu-En; Cheng, Yi-Yun; Wu, M K; Hwu, Y; Yang, Chung-Shi; Margaritondo, G

    2010-01-21

    We investigated iron oxide nanoparticles with two different surface modifications, dextran coating and cross-linked dextran coating, showing that their different internalization affects their capability to enhance radiation damage to cancer cells. The internalization was monitored with an ultrahigh resolution transmission x-ray microscope (TXM), indicating that the differences in the particle surface charge play an essential role and dominate the particle-cell interaction. We found that dextran-coated iron oxide nanoparticles cannot be internalized by HeLa and EMT-6 cells without being functionalized with amino groups (the cross-linked dextran coating) that modify the surface potential from -18 mV to 13.4 mV. The amount of cross-linked dextran-coated iron oxide nanoparticles uptaken by cancer cells reached its maximum, 1.33 x 10(9) per HeLa cell, when the co-culture concentration was 40 microg Fe mL(-1) or more. Standard tests indicated that these internalized nanoparticles increased the damaging effects of x-ray irradiation, whereas they are by themselves biocompatible. These results could lead to interesting therapy applications; furthermore, iron oxide also produces high contrast for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the diagnosis and therapy stages. PMID:20023329

  13. Understanding magnetic nanoparticle osteoblast receptor-mediated endocytosis using experiments and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Nhiem; Webster, Thomas J.

    2013-05-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles are promising candidates for controlling drug delivery through an external magnetic force to treat a wide range of diseases, including osteoporosis. Previous studies have demonstrated that in the presence of hydroxyapatite coated magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles, osteoblast (or bone forming cell) proliferation and long-term functions (such as calcium deposition) were significantly enhanced. Hydroxyapatite is the major inorganic component of bone. As a further attempt to understand why, in the current study, the uptake of such nanoparticles into osteoblasts was experimentally investigated and mathematically modeled. Magnetite nanoparticles were synthesized using a co-precipitation method and were coated with hydroxyapatite. A cellular uptake experiment at low temperatures indicated that receptor-mediated endocytosis contributed to the internalization of the magnetic nanoparticles into osteoblasts. A model was further developed to explain the uptake of magnetic nanoparticles into osteoblasts using receptor-mediated endocytosis. This model may explain the internalization of hydroxyapatite into osteoblasts to elevate intracellular calcium levels necessary to promote osteoblast functions to treat a wide range of orthopedic problems, including osteoporosis.

  14. Targeting vascular amyloid in arterioles of Alzheimer disease transgenic mice with amyloid β protein antibody-coated nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Poduslo, Joseph F; Hultman, Kristi L; Curran, Geoffry L; Preboske, Gregory M; Chamberlain, Ryan; Marjańska, Małgorzata; Garwood, Michael; Jack, Clifford R; Wengenack, Thomas M

    2011-08-01

    The relevance of cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD) and dementia in general emphasizes the importance of developing novel targeting approaches for detecting and treating cerebrovascular amyloid (CVA) deposits. We developed a nanoparticle-based technology that uses a monoclonal antibody against fibrillar human amyloid-β42 that is surface coated onto a functionalized phospholipid monolayer. We demonstrate that this conjugated nanoparticle binds to CVA deposits in arterioles of AD transgenic mice (Tg2576) after infusion into the external carotid artery using 3 different approaches. The first 2 approaches use a blood vessel enrichment of homogenized brain and a leptomeningeal vessel preparation from thin tangential brain slices from the surface of the cerebral cortex. Targeting of CVA by the antibody-coated nanoparticle was visualized using fluorescent lissamine rhodamine-labeled phospholipids in the nanoparticles, which were compared with fluorescent staining of the endothelial cells and amyloid deposits using confocal laser scanning microscopy. The third approach used high-field strength magnetic resonance imaging of antibody-coated iron oxide nanoparticles after infusion into the external carotid artery. Dark foci of contrast enhancement in cortical arterioles were observed in T2*-weighted images of ex vivo AD mouse brains that correlated histologically with CVA deposits. The targeting ability of these nanoparticles to CVA provides opportunities for the prevention and treatment of CAA. PMID:21760540

  15. In vivo integrity of polymer-coated gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreyling, Wolfgang G.; Abdelmonem, Abuelmagd M.; Ali, Zulqurnain; Alves, Frauke; Geiser, Marianne; Haberl, Nadine; Hartmann, Raimo; Hirn, Stephanie; de Aberasturi, Dorleta Jimenez; Kantner, Karsten; Khadem-Saba, Gülnaz; Montenegro, Jose-Maria; Rejman, Joanna; Rojo, Teofilo; de Larramendi, Idoia Ruiz; Ufartes, Roser; Wenk, Alexander; Parak, Wolfgang J.

    2015-07-01

    Inorganic nanoparticles are frequently engineered with an organic surface coating to improve their physicochemical properties, and it is well known that their colloidal properties may change upon internalization by cells. While the stability of such nanoparticles is typically assayed in simple in vitro tests, their stability in a mammalian organism remains unknown. Here, we show that firmly grafted polymer shells around gold nanoparticles may degrade when injected into rats. We synthesized monodisperse radioactively labelled gold nanoparticles (198Au) and engineered an 111In-labelled polymer shell around them. Upon intravenous injection into rats, quantitative biodistribution analyses performed independently for 198Au and 111In showed partial removal of the polymer shell in vivo. While 198Au accumulates mostly in the liver, part of the 111In shows a non-particulate biodistribution similar to intravenous injection of chelated 111In. Further in vitro studies suggest that degradation of the polymer shell is caused by proteolytic enzymes in the liver. Our results show that even nanoparticles with high colloidal stability can change their physicochemical properties in vivo.

  16. Antibacterial Activity of Polymer Coated Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Vishal; Shah, Shreya; Shah, Hirsh; Rispoli, Fred J.; McDonnell, Kevin T.; Workeneh, Selam; Karakoti, Ajay; Kumar, Amit; Seal, Sudipta

    2012-01-01

    Cerium oxide nanoparticles have found numerous applications in the biomedical industry due to their strong antioxidant properties. In the current study, we report the influence of nine different physical and chemical parameters: pH, aeration and, concentrations of MgSO4, CaCl2, KCl, natural organic matter, fructose, nanoparticles and Escherichia coli, on the antibacterial activity of dextran coated cerium oxide nanoparticles. A least-squares quadratic regression model was developed to understand the collective influence of the tested parameters on the anti-bacterial activity and subsequently a computer-based, interactive visualization tool was developed. The visualization allows us to elucidate the effect of each of the parameters in combination with other parameters, on the antibacterial activity of nanoparticles. The results indicate that the toxicity of CeO2 NPs depend on the physical and chemical environment; and in a majority of the possible combinations of the nine parameters, non-lethal to the bacteria. In fact, the cerium oxide nanoparticles can decrease the anti-bacterial activity exerted by magnesium and potassium salts. PMID:23110109

  17. The Effects of Magnetic Nanoparticles on Magnetic Fluid Hyperthermia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liangruksa, Monrudee; Kappiyoor, Ravi; Ganguly, Ranjan; Puri, Ishwar

    2010-11-01

    Magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) is a cancer treatment in which biocompatible magnetic nanoparticles are dispersed into a tumor and heated by an external AC magnetic field. Over a period of time, the tumor cells are locally heated, leading to hyperthermia which damages and kills the tumor cells with minimal damage to the surrounding normal tissue. The applied magnetic field must be high enough to induce hyperthermia for a specified magnetic particle concentration in the tumor but also lies within the safe limit for human exposure. Six materials, barium ferrite, cobalt ferrite, iron-cobalt, iron-platinum, magnetite and maghemite, are considered as candidates for MFH use. We find that fcc iron-platinum, magnetite and maghemite generate useful treatment temperatures and, when included in a ferrofluid, can produce sufficient and effective MFH for which optimal conditions are explored.

  18. Monodisperse polyvinylpyrrolidone-coated CoFe2O4 nanoparticles: Synthesis, characterization and cytotoxicity study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guangshuo; Ma, Yingying; Mu, Jingbo; Zhang, Zhixiao; Zhang, Xiaoliang; Zhang, Lina; Che, Hongwei; Bai, Yongmei; Hou, Junxian; Xie, Hailong

    2016-03-01

    In this study, monodisperse cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) nanoparticles were prepared successfully with various additions of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) by sonochemical method, in which PVP served as a stabilizer and dispersant. The effects and roles of PVP on the morphology, microstructure and magnetic properties of the obtained CoFe2O4 were investigated in detail by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID). It was found that PVP-coated CoFe2O4 showed relatively well dispersion with narrow size distribution. The field-dependent magnetization curves indicated superparamagnetic behavior of PVP-coated CoFe2O4 with moderate saturation magnetization and hydrophilic character at room temperature. More importantly, the in vitro cytotoxicity testing exhibited negligible cytotoxicity of as-prepared PVP-CoFe2O4 even at the concentration as high as 150 μg/mL after 24 h treatment. Considering the superparamagnetic properties, hydrophilic character and negligible cytotoxicity, the monodisperse CoFe2O4 nanoparticles hold great potential in a variety of biomedical applications.

  19. Monitoring of the aging of magnetic nanoparticles using Mössbauer spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rümenapp, Christine; Wagner, Friedrich E.; Gleich, Bernhard

    2015-04-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles made of magnetite have the advantage to be biocompatible and to have a good saturation magnetisation. In this work we show that magnetite nanoparticles change their magnetic and chemical characteristics over time, depending on their storage conditions. To determine the oxidation state of the iron in the core of the nanoparticles Mössbauer spectroscopy was used at 4.2 K. This method is very accurate, especially in distinguishing maghemite and magnetite. The nanoparticles prepared by a co-precipitation method and peptized using acidic media had a core diameter of 5-7 nm. The aging process was monitored until the core was completely oxidised to maghemite and no further change occurred. The greatest change in the magnetite content of the particles was seen during the first 12 h after preparation. To preserve the good magnetic characteristics of magnetite nanoparticles a coating that prevents oxidation is therefore essential. Our results show that the point in time of the characterisation of small magnetic nanoparticles is crucial for the results. Even though magnetite nanoparticles have been formed nearly stoichiometrically, their chemical properties change over time.

  20. Magnetically encoded luminescent composite nanoparticles through layer-by-layer self-assembly.

    PubMed

    Song, Erqun; Han, Weiye; Xu, Hongyan; Jiang, Yunfei; Cheng, Dan; Song, Yang; Swihart, Mark T

    2014-11-01

    Sensitive and rapid detection of multiple analytes and the collection of components from complex samples are important in fields ranging from bioassays/chemical assays, clinical diagnosis, to environmental monitoring. A convenient strategy for creating magnetically encoded luminescent CdTe@SiO2 @n Fe3 O4 composite nanoparticles, by using a layer-by-layer self-assembly approach based on electrostatic interactions, is described. Silica-coated CdTe quantum dots (CdTe@SiO2 ) serve as core templates for the deposition of alternating layers of Fe3 O4 magnetic nanoparticles and poly(dimethyldiallyl ammonium chloride), to construct CdTe@SiO2 @n Fe3 O4 (n=1, 2, 3, …︁) composite nanoparticles with a defined number (n) of Fe3 O4 layers. Composite nanoparticles were characterized by zeta-potential analysis, fluorescence spectroscopy, vibrating sample magnetometry, and transmission electron microscopy, which showed that the CdTe@SiO2 @n Fe3 O4 composite nanoparticles exhibited excellent luminescence properties coupled with well-defined magnetic responses. To demonstrate the utility of these magnetically encoded nanoparticles for near-simultaneous detection and separation of multiple components from complex samples, three different fluorescently labeled IgG proteins, as model targets, were identified and collected from a mixture by using the CdTe@SiO2 @n Fe3 O4 nanoparticles. PMID:25258095

  1. Scaffold-independent Patterning of Cells using Magnetic Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Suvojit; Biswas, Moanaro; Elankumaran, Subbiah; Puri, Ishwar

    2013-03-01

    Spatial patterning of cells in vitro relies on direct contact of cells on to solid surfaces. Scaffold independent patterning of cells has never been achieved so far. Patterning of cells has wide applications including stem cell biology, tissue architecture and regenerative medicine besides fundamental biology. Magnetized cells in a suspension can be manipulated using an externally applied magnetic field enabling directed patterning. We magnetized mammalian cells by internalization of superparamagnetic nanoparticles coated with bovine serum albumin (BSA). A magnetic field is then used to arrange cells in a desired pattern on a substrate or in suspension. The control strategy is derived from the self-assembly of magnetic colloids in a liquid considering magnetostatic interactions. The range of achievable structural features promise novel experimental methods investigating the influence of tissue shape and size on cell population dynamics wherein Fickian diffusion of autocrine growth signals are known to play a significant role. By eliminating the need for a scaffold, intercellular adhesion mechanics and the effects of temporally regulated signals can be investigated. The findings can be applied to novel tissue engineering methods.