Science.gov

Sample records for magnetic properties complexes

  1. Magnetic Properties of Radical, Crystalline Mixed Cyclopentadienyl/Dithiolene Complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fourmigué, Marc

    This chapter describes in detail a class of heteroleptic complexes associating cyclopentadienyl (Cp) and dithiolene (dt) ligands, essentially known with the Cp2M(dt), CpM(dt)2, [CpM(dt)]2 and CpM(dt) stoichiometries. The three first classes are reported with early transition metals (groups 4-7), while the latter is restricted to group 9 and 10 metal centers. Depending on the metal and the complex oxidation state, paramagnetic species can be isolated, as for example the formally d 1 species Cp2V(dt), [Cp2Mo(dt)]+ or [CpMo(dt)2], or the formally d 7 CpNi(dt). They all exhibit a rich structural chemistry and variable spin density distribution between Cp, M and dt fragments. Their magnetic properties in the solid state are a combination of an original spin density distribution and specific intermolecular interactions in the crystalline phase. They lead to a variety of behaviors, from independent spins with their associated Curie-type law, singlet-triplet systems and their extension to alternated spin chains and spin ladders, uniform spin chains or ordered antiferromagnetic ground states. Besides the S• • •S and S• • •M interactions which control most of the antiferromagnetic interactions observed so far in these magnetic organometallic complexes, the contribution of direct Cp• • •Cp and Cp• • •S interactions is shown to control in some cases the magnetic behavior of the complexes, an original feature in organometallic chemistry.

  2. Structural, magnetic and luminescent properties of lanthanide complexes with N-salicylideneglycine.

    PubMed

    Van?o, Ján; Trávní?ek, Zden?k; Kozák, Ond?ej; Bo?a, Roman

    2015-01-01

    A series of anionic heavy lanthanide complexes, involving the N-salicylideneglycinato(2-) Schiff base ligand (salgly) and having the general formula K[Ln(salgly)?(H?O)?]?H?O (1-6), where Ln stands for Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er and Tm, was prepared using the one-pot template synthesis. The complexes were thoroughly characterized by elemental and Thermogravimetric/Differential Thermal Analyses (TG/DTA), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), and photoluminescence spectroscopies, electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry, and their magnetic properties were studied by temperature-dependent dc magnetic measurements using the superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID). The X-ray structure of the terbium(III) complex (2), representing the unique structure between the lanthanide complexes of N-salicylideneamino acids, was determined. The results of spectral and structural studies revealed the isostructural nature of the prepared complexes, in which the lanthanide ion is octacoordinated by two O,N,O-donor salgly ligands and two aqua ligands. The analysis of magnetic data confirmed that the complexes behave as paramagnets obeying the Curie law. The results of photoluminescence spectral studies of the complexes showed the different origin in their luminescent properties between the solid state and solution. An antenna effect of the Schiff base ligand was observed in a powder form of the complex only, while it acts as a fluorophore in a solution. PMID:25927576

  3. Structural, Magnetic and Luminescent Properties of Lanthanide Complexes with N-Salicylideneglycine

    PubMed Central

    Van?o, Ján; Trávní?ek, Zden?k; Kozák, Ond?ej; Bo?a, Roman

    2015-01-01

    A series of anionic heavy lanthanide complexes, involving the N-salicylideneglycinato(2-) Schiff base ligand (salgly) and having the general formula K[Ln(salgly)2(H2O)2]?H2O (1–6), where Ln stands for Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er and Tm, was prepared using the one-pot template synthesis. The complexes were thoroughly characterized by elemental and Thermogravimetric/Differential Thermal Analyses (TG/DTA), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), and photoluminescence spectroscopies, electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry, and their magnetic properties were studied by temperature-dependent dc magnetic measurements using the superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID). The X-ray structure of the terbium(III) complex (2), representing the unique structure between the lanthanide complexes of N-salicylideneamino acids, was determined. The results of spectral and structural studies revealed the isostructural nature of the prepared complexes, in which the lanthanide ion is octacoordinated by two O,N,O-donor salgly ligands and two aqua ligands. The analysis of magnetic data confirmed that the complexes behave as paramagnets obeying the Curie law. The results of photoluminescence spectral studies of the complexes showed the different origin in their luminescent properties between the solid state and solution. An antenna effect of the Schiff base ligand was observed in a powder form of the complex only, while it acts as a fluorophore in a solution. PMID:25927576

  4. Magnetic and transport properties of Co-Si-B metallic glasses with complex dopants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yarmoshchuk, Yevhenii I.; Nakonechna, Olesya I.; Semenko, Mykhailo P.; Zakharenko, Mykola I.

    2014-10-01

    The structure, magnetic and resistivity characteristics of Co-Si-B metallic glasses containing complex dopants have been investigated. The intervals of thermal stability of the phases existing in the alloys studied have been determined. The temperature dependences of the resistivity were shown to be essentially nonlinear up to a certain temperature, evidencing for the contribution of several scattering mechanisms. Magnetic and resistivity behavior of these alloys are substantially governed by the phase separation within the region of the amorphous state stability and magnetic clusters formation. In the as-cast alloys these clusters are estimated to contain 2-4 Co atoms. Heat treatment significantly affects the structure and magnetic properties. It leads to increase of the Curie temperature and localized magnetic moment, whereas the crystallization temperature remains almost invariable.

  5. Syntheses, crystal structures, magnetic and luminescence properties of five novel lanthanide complexes of nitronyl nitroxide radical

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Ya-Li; Gao, Yuan-Yuan; Ma, Yue; Wang, Qing-Lun; Li, Li-Cun; Liao, Dai-Zheng

    2013-06-01

    Five novel Ln(III) complexes based on a new nitronyl nitroxide radical have been synthesized, characterized structurally and magnetically: [Ln(hfac)?(NITPh-3-Br-4-OMe)?] (Ln(III)=Eu(1), Gd(2), Tb(3), Dy(4), Ho(5); hfac=hexafluoroacetylacetonate; and NITPh-3-Br-4-OMe=2-3´-Br-4´-methoxyphenyl-4,4,5,5 -tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide). The single-crystal structures analyses show that these complexes have similar mononuclear tri-spin structures, in which central Ln(III) ions are all eight coordinated by three hfac molecules and two NITPh-3-Br-4-OMe radicals. The variable-temperature magnetic susceptibility studies reveal the antiferromagnetic interactions between the paramagnetic ions (Ln(III) and radicals) in complexes 1, 2, 3 and 5 and ferromagnetic interaction in complex 4. The luminescence characterizations of complexes Eu(1), Tb(3) and Dy(4) are also studied in this paper. - Graphical abstract: Using a novel halogen phenyl-substituted nitronyl-nitroxide radical, we obtained and characterized five isostructural lanthanide mononuclear tri-spin compounds. Highlights: • A new halogen phenyl-substituted nitronyl-nitroxide radical was designed. • Five new Ln(III) radical complexes have been synthesized and characterized. • The reasonable evaluation the magnetic interactions between Ln(III) ions and radical is meaningful. • These complexes show good luminescent properties.

  6. Role of the electron transfer and magnetic exchange interactions in the magnetic properties of mixed-valence polyoxovanadate complexes.

    PubMed

    Calzado, Carmen J; Clemente-Juan, Juan M; Coronado, Eugenio; Gaita-Arino, Alejandro; Suaud, Nicolas

    2008-07-01

    Modeling the properties of high-nuclearity, high-electron-population, mixed-valence (MV) magnetic systems remains one of the open challenges in molecular magnetism. In this work, we analyze the magnetic properties of a series of polyoxovananadate clusters of formula [V 18O 42] (12-) and [V 18O 42] (4-). The first compound is a fully localized spin cluster that contains 18 unpaired electrons located at the metal sites, while the second one is a MV cluster with 10 unpaired electrons largely delocalized over the 18 metal sites. A theoretical model that takes into account the interplay between electron transfer and magnetic exchange interactions is developed to explain the unexpected enhancement of the antiferromagnetic coupling when the number of unpaired electrons is reduced from 18 to 10 in these clusters. In the MV area, these systems represent the most complex magnetic clusters studied theoretically so far. Because of the high complexity of the systems, the number of relevant parameters is too large for a conventional model Hamiltonian approach. We therefore perform a theoretical study that combines ab initio calculations with the model Hamiltonian. In this way, we use ab initio calculations performed on small fragments of the cluster to lower the degrees of freedom of the parameter set of the model Hamiltonian that operates in the whole MV cluster. This approach shows the usefulness of combining ab initio calculations with model Hamiltonians in order to explore the magnetic properties of large and complex molecular systems, emphasizing the key role played by the electron transfer in these model magnetic materials. PMID:18498158

  7. A novel 18-metallacrown-6 complex: Synthesis, structural characterization and magnetic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Tian-Pin; Wen, Jun-Long; Feng, Hai-Mei; Lei, Ke-Wei; Liang, Hong-Ze

    2009-11-01

    The novel 18-metallacrown-6 complex, with the formula of [Mn 6(C 11H 11N 2O 3) 6(CH 3CH 2OH) 6]·3C 3H 7NO·2CH 3CH 2OH ( 1) (pmshz = N-propanoyl-3-methyl-salicylhydrazide), has been prepared and characterized. The self-assembled, manganese complex assumes a nearly planar cyclic structure with an [Mn-N-N] 6 backbone. Due to the coordination, the ligand enforces the stereochemistry of the Mn 3+ ions as a propeller shape with alternating …????… configurations. The magnetic properties of the metallacrown molecule are characterized by a weak antiferromagnetic exchange interaction between the Mn 3+ ion spins with S = 2 in the cyclic system.

  8. Selected spectroscopic and magnetic properties of lanthanide complexes in polyimide XU-218

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoakley, D. M.; Shillady, D. D.; Vallarino, L. M.; Gootee, W. A.; Smailes, D. L.

    1987-01-01

    Polyimide XU-218 films containing approximately 5 wt pct of Eu(III), Gd(III), Tb(III), and Er(III) were prepared, and the effects of complexing each of the metals with the following four ligands were investigated: N-phenylphthalamate (NPPA), 2,4-pentanedionate (AcAc), 1,3-diphenyl 1,3-propanedionate (DBM), and a new hexa-aza-macrocyclic (MAC) ligand. The tris-chelated complexes of the mononegative ligands NPPA, AcAc, and DBM produced transparent, flexible films, which had magnetic and spectral properties very similar to those of the parent lanthanide complexes, while complexes of MAC showed problems due to the presence of lattice water and yielded dark brittle films. AcAc caused little or no effect on the glass transition temperature (Tg), while NPPA and DBM complexes lowered Tg to 269-290 C, and MAC indicated moisture by inflexion at 95-100 C with a true Tg at 320 C. All lanthanide-containing films were paramagnetic.

  9. Synthesis, spectroscopic properties, and magnetic properties of complexes of VO(II) with salicylaldimines containing sterically hindered phenols

    SciTech Connect

    Kasumov, V.T.; Medzhidov, A.A.

    1987-11-01

    Complexes of VO(II) with salicylaldimines obtained from derivatives of salicylaldehyde and 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4 aminophenol have been synthesized. The spectroscopic (IR, ESR, and optical) and magnetic properties have been studied. The IR spectra of the complexes display stretching vibrations of OH, C=N, and V=O groups at 3625-3640, 1608-1615, and 985-990 cm/sup -1/, respectively. The electronic spectra in THF, in contrast to the case of CHCl/sub 3/, do not show a band with a frequency corresponding to 590 nm, and they show a shift to longer wavelengths at 930 nm, apparently due to the interaction of the complexes with THF molecules. The parameters of the spin Hamiltonian have been determined from the ESR spectra. The values found for the magnetic moments (1.66-1.83 Bohr magnetons) indicate that weak ferromagnetism is observed in the polycrystalline stage in cases of disubstituted compounds. When the complexes are oxidized with PbO/sub 2/ in solutions in toluene and CHCl/sub 3/, a decrease in the intensity of the ESR signal of the vanadyl ions and the formation of free phenoxyl radicals are observed.

  10. Structural and magnetic properties of cobalt(II) complexes with pyridinecarboxamide ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dojer, Brina; Pevec, Andrej; Belaj, Ferdinand; Jagli?i?, Zvonko; Kristl, Matjaž; Drofenik, Miha

    2014-11-01

    The synthesis and characterization of two new cobalt(II) coordination compounds with nicotinamide (nia) and isonicotinamide (isn) are reported. The products were characterized magnetically, structurally by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis and spectrally by FT-IR spectroscopy. Using the reaction of cobalt(II) acetate tetrahydrate and nicotinamide in methanol we obtained light-red crystals of the mononuclear complex [Co(nia)2(H2O)4](CH3COO)2·2H2O (1). The synthesis in a system cobalt(II) acetate dihydrathe, isonicotinamide and dimethylformamide-methanol mixture gave a new dinuclear coordination compound with the formula [Co2(CH3COO)4(isn)4]·2C3H7NO (2). In both compounds a trans arrangement of pyridinecarboxamide ligands was found. Intermolecular hydrogen bonds in the crystal structures of both complexes are discussed. The magnetic properties were studied between 2 K and 300 K giving the result ?eff = 4.6 BM for 1 and ?eff = 4.7 BM for 2 in the paramagnetic region.

  11. Synthesis, crystal structure and magnetic properties of a novel copper(II) complex with sulfoisophthalic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurc, Teresa; Videnova-Adrabinska, Veneta; Turowska-Tyrk, Ilona; Duczmal, Marek; Jerzykiewicz, Maria

    2013-12-01

    A new Cu(II) complex, [Cu2(?2-OH2)2(HSIP)2(H2O)6] (H3SIP = 5-sulfoisophthalic acid), has been synthesized and characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction, EPR spectroscopy (X- (9.5 GHz) and Q-band (35 GHz)) and magnetic measurements. The solid state structure of the complex consists of coordination dimers [Cu2(?2-OH2)2(HSIP)2(H2O)6] which are hydrogen bonded into 3D network. The neighbouring metal ions form a rare example of centrosymetric dinuclear core [Cu2(?2-OH2)2] with equatorial - axial positions of the bridging ligands. The coordination dimers are organized into inorganic monolayers via water-sulfonate hydrogen bond intractions, and further linked in 3D structure via carboxylic-carboxylic hydrogen bond intractions. The magnetic properties and EPR spectra are discussed in terms of crystal structure features. The X- and Q-band EPR spectra exhibit fine structure signals due to S = 1 and the simulated parameters indicate small zero field splitting parameter Dexp (-0.035 cm-1) dominated by Ddip (-0.031 cm-1). A usually forbidden ?Ms = 2 line of lower intensity is observed in the half field region at about 150 mT. The susceptibility data have been analyzed using a spin-ladder model with both ferromagnetic (rungs) and antiferromagnetic (legs) coupling.

  12. Modeling the magnetic properties of lanthanide complexes: relationship of the REC parameters with Pauling electronegativity and coordination number.

    PubMed

    Baldoví, José J; Gaita-Ariño, Alejandro; Coronado, Eugenio

    2015-07-28

    In a previous study, we introduced the Radial Effective Charge (REC) model to study the magnetic properties of lanthanide single ion magnets. Now, we perform an empirical determination of the effective charges (Zi) and radial displacements (Dr) of this model using spectroscopic data. This systematic study allows us to relate Dr and Zi with chemical factors such as the coordination number and the electronegativities of the metal and the donor atoms. This strategy is being used to drastically reduce the number of free parameters in the modeling of the magnetic and spectroscopic properties of f-element complexes. PMID:26105010

  13. Coordination Complexes of a Neutral 1,2,4-Benzotriazinyl Radical Ligand: Synthesis, Molecular and Electronic Structures, and Magnetic Properties.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Ian S; Mansikkamäki, Akseli; Zissimou, Georgia A; Koutentis, Panayiotis A; Rouzières, Mathieu; Clérac, Rodolphe; Tuononen, Heikki M

    2015-10-26

    A series of d-block metal complexes of the recently reported coordinating neutral radical ligand 1-phenyl-3-(pyrid-2-yl)-1,4-dihydro-1,2,4-benzotriazin-4-yl (1) was synthesized. The investigated systems contain the benzotriazinyl radical 1 coordinated to a divalent metal cation, Mn(II) , Fe(II) , Co(II) , or Ni(II) , with 1,1,1,5,5,5-hexafluoroacetylacetonato (hfac) as the auxiliary ligand of choice. The synthesized complexes were fully characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, magnetic susceptibility measurements, and electronic structure calculations. The complexes [Mn(1)(hfac)2 ] and [Fe(1)(hfac)2 ] displayed antiferromagnetic coupling between the unpaired electrons of the ligand and the metal cation, whereas the interaction was found to be ferromagnetic in the analogous Ni(II) complex [Ni(1)(hfac)2 ]. The magnetic properties of the complex [Co(1)(hfac)2 ] were difficult to interpret owing to significant spin-orbit coupling inherent to octahedral high-spin Co(II) metal ion. As a whole, the reported data clearly demonstrated the favorable coordinating properties of the radical 1, which, together with its stability and structural tunability, make it an excellent new building block for establishing more complex metal-radical architectures with interesting magnetic properties. PMID:26493885

  14. Syntheses, structures, and magnetic properties of homodinuclear lanthanide complexes based on dinucleating Schiff base ligands.

    PubMed

    Gao, Feng; Yang, Feng-Lei; Zhu, Guang-Zhou; Zhao, Yue

    2015-11-18

    The first two families of homodinuclear lanthanide(iii) complexes, formulated as [(LOEt)2Ln2(L1)] and [(LOEt)2Ln2(L2)] (Ln(3+) = Dy(3+), Tb(3+), Ho(3+), Gd(3+), and Y(3+); L1(4-) = 2,2',2'',2'''-[1,2,4,5-benzenetetrayltetrakis(nitrilomethylidyne)]tetrakisphenolate; L2(4-) = 2,2',2'',2'''-[[1,1'-biphenyl]-3,3',4,4'-tetrayltetrakis(nitrilomethylidyne)]tetrakis(4-chlorophenolate); LOEt(-) = (?(5)-cyclopentadienyl)tris(diethylphosphito-p)cobaltate(iii)), were successfully synthesized based on Kläui's tripodal building block NaLOEt and two dinucleating Schiff base ligands, and , respectively. Single-crystal X-ray analyses show that these lanthanide complexes have two seven-coordinated metal binding sites, linked to each other with a phenyl or biphenyl bridge. Variable temperature dc magnetic measurements reveal the weakly antiferromagnetic coupling between paramagnetic lanthanide ions, while ac magnetic data exhibit the field-induced relaxation of magnetization for the corresponding Dy2 complexes and . A further magnetic dilution study for suggests that the slow magnetic relaxation originates from the single-ion magnetic behaviour of Dy(3+) ions. PMID:26537229

  15. Magnetic properties of the tetranitrosyl-iron complex Fe2(SC3H5N2)2(NO)4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgunov, R. B.; Kurganova, E. V.; Aldoshin, S. M.; Sanina, N. A.; Rudneva, T. N.

    2007-09-01

    The magnetic properties of the binuclear nitrosyl-iron complexes Fe2(SC3H5N2)2(NO)4 are investigated. It is demonstrated that several types of particles, such as dimers with a pair of spins 1/2, dimers with a pair of spins 5/2, and paramagnetic particles with spin 3/2, make a contribution to the magnetic properties of the complexes. A decrease in the temperature below 25 K leads to a change in the shape of the EPR spectra corresponding to these dimers, so that Lorentzian lines (homogeneous broadening) transform into Gaussian lines (inhomogeneous broadening). This is accompanied by a stepwise change in the EPR line width and g factors. The change in the line shape indicates that complexes become asymmetric at low temperatures, possibly, due to the decrease in the spin exchange frequency below the frequency of the microwave field of the spectrometer.

  16. Solvent dependent reactivities of di-, tetra- and hexanuclear manganese complexes: syntheses, structures and magnetic properties.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hua; Cao, Fan; Li, Dacheng; Zeng, Suyuan; Song, You; Dou, Jianmin

    2015-04-14

    An unusual solvent effect on the synthesis of five manganese complexes [Mn2(L1)2(Py)4](), [Mn2(L1)2(DMSO)4](), [Mn4(L2)4(OH)4](), [Mn4(L3)2(DMSO)7(H2O)](), and [Mn6O2(L4)4(OAc)2(OMe)2(DMSO)4]·MeOH] (), (H3L1 = 5-(2-oxyphenyl)-pyrazole-3-carboxylic acid; H2L2 = 5-(2-oxyphenyl)-pyrazole-3-carboxylic acid amide; H4L3 = di-[5-(2-oxyphenyl)-pyrazole]-3-hydroxamic ether; and H2L4 = 5-(2-oxyphenyl)-pyrazole-3-carboxylic acid methyl ester) has been reported. Five complexes have been characterized by X-ray single crystal diffraction, IR, element analysis, thermogravimetric analysis and UV-vis spectra. The analysis reveals that complexes and are isostructural with a bimetallic six-membered ring and L1 from the decomposition of the original H4ppha (H4ppha = 5-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-pyrazole-3-hydroxamic acid) ligand. Complexes and are two tetranuclear clusters, and possesses an aza12-metallacrown-4 core with L2 from the amide functionalization of the decomposition L1; while represents a novel linear [Mn4N8O2] core with L3 from the condensation of L1 and H4ppha. Complex is the first Mn6 cluster linked by two stacked, off-set 8-azametallacrown-3 subunits with [M-N-N-M-N-N-M-O] connectivity, and L4 derived from the esterification of L1. The magnetic behaviour of complexes show the dominant antiferromagnetic interactions between metal centers, whereas complex further reveals the coexistence of antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic interactions, and slow magnetic relaxation at T < 6 K with S = 4 ground state, as well as field induced magnetization saturation. PMID:25758136

  17. Magnetic and structural properties of dinuclear singly bridged-phenoxido metal(II) complexes.

    PubMed

    Massoud, Salah S; Spell, Mark; Ledet, Catherine C; Junk, Thomas; Herchel, Radovan; Fischer, Roland C; Trávní?ek, Zden?k; Mautner, Franz A

    2015-02-01

    The reaction of a methanolic solution containing the bi-compartmental phenolic ligand 2,6-bis[bis(2-pyridylmethyl)aminomethyl]-4-chlorophenol (L(Cl)-OH) with MCl2·nH2O in the presence of NH4PF6 or NaClO4 afforded the dinuclear bridged-phenoxido dichlorido-metal(ii) complexes [Co2(?-L(Cl)O)(H2O)2Cl2][Co2(?-L(Cl)O)(MeOH)2Cl2](PF6)2 (), [Ni2(?-L(Cl)O)(MeOH)2Cl2]PF6 (), [Ni2(?-L(Cl)O)(MeOH)(H2O)Cl2]ClO4·1.25H2O (), [Cu2(?-L(Cl)O)Cl2]PF6·1/2MeOH () and [Zn2(?-L(Cl)O)Cl2]PF6·MeOH (). The complexes were characterized by elemental microanalyses, conductivity measurements, IR and UV-Vis spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and single crystal X-ray crystallography. Each M(ii) center within the dinuclear complex cations is octahedrally coordinated in complexes , and five-coordinated distorted square pyramidal in and . Magnetic susceptibility measurements at variable temperature of the complexes revealed weak to moderate antiferromagnetic coupling with |J| values = 8.38, 39.0, 30.2 and 0.79 cm(-1), respectively. The results of DFT calculations correlate well with the experimentally determined antiferromagnetic coupling and show that the magnetic exchange coupling occurs mainly through the phenoxido bridge M-O-M. Implications of geometry around the central metal ion, MM distance, M-O-M bond angle and overlapping of magnetic orbitals on the magnetic exchange coupling are discussed. PMID:25502556

  18. Multiple magnetic relaxation processes, magnetocaloric effect and fluorescence properties of rhombus-shaped tetranuclear rare earth complexes.

    PubMed

    Gao, Hong-Ling; Jiang, Li; Liu, Shuang; Shen, Hai-Yun; Wang, Wen-Min; Cui, Jian-Zhong

    2015-12-14

    Seven new tetranuclear rare earth (RE) complexes [RE4(acac)4L6(?3-OH)2] (HL = 5-(4-fluorobenzylidene)-8-hydroxylquinoline; acac = acetylacetonate; RE = Y (), Eu (), Gd (), Tb (), Dy (), Tm () and Lu ()) have been synthesized and completely characterized. Complex exhibits multiple zero-field slow magnetic relaxation processes typical of Single Molecule Magnets (SMMs). Two distinct slow magnetic relaxation processes, with effective energy barriers of Ueff = 48 K for the slow relaxation (SR) process and Ueff = 121 K for the fast relaxation (FR) process, are mainly attributed to the presence of two crystallographically independent Dy(iii) sites. The magnetocaloric effect (MCE) was detected as -?Sm(T) = 20.8 J kg(-1) K(-1) for complex . The fluorescence properties of complexes , , , and were also investigated. Complexes , and show the characteristic peaks for their corresponding RE(iii) center, while complexes and show similar emission peaks to the Schiff base ligand when they are excited at the appropriate wavelength. PMID:26600114

  19. Synthesis, structure and magnetic properties of four unexpected di- and tetranuclear Robson-type macrocyclic complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Q. R.; Zhou, H.; Pan, Z. Q.; Liao, G. Y.; Xu, Z. G.

    2014-09-01

    Four symmetrical macrocyclic complexes, [Ni2L1(C6H4NO2)] (H2O)4 (1), [Cu4L1N3(ClO4)2(H2O)2]·[Cu2L1(ClO4)2(H2O)2 ]N3 (2), [Zn4L2 (H2O)2]·(ClO4)4 (3) and [Zn2L2(N3)2]CH3CN (4) (where H2L1 and H2L2 are the [2 + 2] condensation products of 2,6-diformyl-4-flurophenol with 1,3-diaminopropane and 1,4-diaminobutane, respectively), have been synthesized and characterized. The variable-temperature magnetisms of complexes 1 and 2 show that there are antiferromagnetic couplings between the two metal centers in both complexes, and the strongly electron-withdrawing fluorine groups in H2L weaken the antiferromagnetic exchange.

  20. 1D to 3D heterobimetallic complexes tuned by cyanide precursors: synthesis, crystal structures, and magnetic properties.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Daopeng; Si, Weijiang; Wang, Ping; Chen, Xia; Jiang, Jianzhuang

    2014-04-01

    Five new heterobimetallic complexes, namely, {[Ni(L)][Fe(bpb)(CN)2]}ClO4 (L = 2,12-dimethyl-3,7,11,17-tetraazabicyclo[11.3.1]heptadeca-1(17),13,15-triene, bpb(2-) = 1,2-bis(pyridine-2-carboxamido)benzenate) (1), {[Ni(L)]3[M(CN)6]2}·7H2O (M = Fe (2), Cr (3)), {[Ni(L)]2[Mo(CN)8]}·CH3CN·13H2O (4), and {[Ni(L)]2[W(CN)8]}·16H2O (5), were assembled from the polyaza macrocycle nickel(II) compound and five cyanidometalate precursors containing different numbers of cyanide groups. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis reveals their different structure ranging from a cyanide-bridged cationic polymeric single chain for 1, a two-dimensional network for 2 and 3, and a three-dimensional network for 4 and 5. In addition, a systematic investigation over the magnetic properties of 1-3 indicates the ferromagnetic magnetic coupling between neighboring Fe(III)/Cr(III) and Ni(II) ions through the bridging cyanide group. For complex 1, the magnetic susceptibility has been simulated by the Seiden model using the Hamiltonian H = -J?i=0(N)SiSi+1, leading to the magnetic coupling constant of J = 3.67 cm(-1). The two-dimensional magnetic complexes exhibit three-dimensional magnetic ordering behavior with a magnetic phase transition temperature of TC = 4.0 K for 2 and TN = 6.0 K for 3, respectively. PMID:24655013

  1. Synthesis and characterization of monomeric Mn (IV) and pseudo-tetrameric Mn (III) complexes: Magnetic properties of Mn (III) complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yahsi, Yasemin; Kara, Hulya

    2014-06-01

    Two novel monomer Mn (IV) [Mn(3,5-ClL1)2]?(CH3OH), (1), [3,5-ClL1H2 = N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-3,5-dichlorosalicylaldimine] (1) and hydrogen-bonded pseudo-tetramer Mn (III) [Mn(5-BrL2)(H2O)2]2?[Mn(5-BrL2)(H2O)]2?2?(ClO4), (2), [5-BrL2H2 = N,N?-bis(5-bromosalicylidenato)-1,2-diamino-2-methylpropane)] (2) Schiff base complexes have been synthesized and their crystal structures have been determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. A variable temperature magnetic susceptibility measurement study has been performed for complex (2) and the result indicates there is a very weak antiferromagnetic interaction (J = -0.40 ± 0.016 cm-1) between the two manganese (III) centers.

  2. Correction: Two types of nitrito support for ?4-oxido-bridged [Cu4] complexes: synthesis, crystal structures, magnetic properties and DFT analysis.

    PubMed

    Pait, Moumita; Shatruk, Michael; Lengyel, Jeff; Gómez-Coca, Silvia; Bauzá, Antonio; Frontera, Antonio; Bertolasi, Valerio; Ray, Debashis

    2015-05-28

    Correction for 'Two types of nitrito support for ?4-oxido-bridged [Cu4] complexes: synthesis, crystal structures, magnetic properties and DFT analysis' by Moumita Pait, et al., Dalton Trans., 2015, 44, 6107-6117. PMID:25928791

  3. Targeted crystal growth of rare Earth intermetallics with synergistic magnetic and electrical properties: structural complexity to simplicity.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Devin C; Drake, Brenton L; McCandless, Gregory T; Chan, Julia Y

    2015-03-17

    The single-crystal growth of extended solids is an active area of solid-state chemistry driven by the discovery of new physical phenomena. Although many solid-state compounds have been discovered over the last several decades, single-crystal growth of these materials in particular enables the determination of physical properties with respect to crystallographic orientation and the determination of properties without possible secondary inclusions. The synthesis and discovery of new classes of materials is necessary to drive the science forward, in particular materials properties such as superconductivity, magnetism, thermoelectrics, and magnetocalorics. Our research is focused on structural characterization and determination of physical properties of intermetallics, culminating in an understanding of the structure-property relationships of single-crystalline phases. We have prepared and studied compounds with layered motifs, three-dimensional magnetic compounds exhibiting anisotropic magnetic and transport behavior, and complex crystal structures leading to intrinsically low lattice thermal conductivity. In this Account, we present the structural characteristics and properties that are important for understanding the magnetic properties of rare earth transition metal intermetallics grown with group 13 and 14 metals. We present phases adopting the HoCoGa5 structure type and the homologous series. We also discuss the insertion of transition metals into the cuboctahedra of the AuCu3 structure type, leading to the synthetic strategy of selecting binaries to relate to ternary intermetallics adopting the Y4PdGa12 structure type. We provide examples of compounds adopting the ThMn12, NaZn13, SmZn11, CeCr2Al20, Ho6Mo4Al43, CeRu2Al10, and CeRu4Al16-x structure types grown with main-group-rich self-flux methods. We also discuss the phase stability of three related crystal structures containing atoms in similar chemical environments: ThMn12, CaCr2Al10, and YbFe2Al10. In addition to dimensionality and chemical environment, complexity is also important in materials design. From relatively common and well-studied intermetallic structure types, we present our motivation to work with complex stannides adopting the Dy117Co57Sn112 structure type for thermoelectric applications and describe a strategy for the design of new magnetic intermetallics with low lattice thermal conductivity. Our quest to grow single crystals of rare-earth-rich complex stannides possessing low lattice thermal conductivity led us to discover the new structure type Ln30Ru4+xSn31-y (Ln = Gd, Dy), thus allowing the correlation of primitive volumes with lattice thermal conductivities. We highlight the observation that Ln30Ru4+xSn31-y gives rise to highly anisotropic magnetic and transport behavior, which is unexpected, illustrating the need to measure properties on single crystals. PMID:25730512

  4. Slight synthetic changes eliciting different topologies: synthesis, structure and magnetic properties of novel dinuclear and nonanuclear dysprosium complexes.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Che-Jung; Holmberg, Rebecca J; Lin, Po-Heng

    2015-11-18

    Using the Schiff-base ligand 1,5-bis(2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylidene)carbonohydrazide (H2hmc), dinuclear and nonanuclear compounds, [Dy2(Hhmc)2(NO3)4]·THF·MeCN () and [Dy9(?3-O)4(?-OH)6(hmc)4(NO3)4(DMF)4](OH)·H2O·THF·DMF () are generated through the addition of different bases, respectively. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis revealed a unique Dy9 core structure of complex , and the magnetic properties of both compounds are fully studied. PMID:26510972

  5. Ligand field influence on the electronic and magnetic properties of quasi-linear two-coordinate iron(II) complexes.

    PubMed

    Chilton, Nicholas F; Lei, Hao; Bryan, Aimee M; Grandjean, Fernande; Long, Gary J; Power, Philip P

    2015-06-28

    The 2 to 300 K magnetic susceptibilities of Fe{N(SiMe2Ph)2}2, 1, Fe{N(SiMePh2)2}2, 2, and the diaryl complex Fe(Ar(Pr(i)4))2, 3, where Ar(Pr(i)4) is C6H3-2,6(C6H3-2,6-Pr(i)2)2 have been measured. Initial fits of these properties in the absence of an independent knowledge of their ligand field splitting have proven problematic. Ab initio calculations of the CASSCF/RASSI/SINGLE-ANISO type have indicated that the orbital energies of the complexes, as well as those of Fe(Ar(Me6))2, 4, where Ar(Me6) is C6H3-2,6(C6H2-2,4,6-Me3)2), are in the order d(xy)? d(x(2)-y(2)) < d(xz) ? d(yz) < d(z(2)), and the iron(II) complexes in this ligand field have the (d(xy), d(x(2)-y(2)))(3)(d(xz), d(yz))(2)(d(z(2)))(1) ground electronic configuration with a substantial orbital contribution to their effective magnetic moments. An ab initio-derived ligand field and spin-orbit model is found to yield an excellent simulation of the observed magnetic properties of 1-3. The calculated ligand field strengths of these ligands are placed in the broader context of common coordination ligands in hypothetical two-coordinate linear iron(ii) complexes. This yields the ordering I(-) < H(-) < Br(-)? PMe3 < CH3(-) < Cl(-)? C(SiMe3)3(-) < CN(-)? SAr(Pr(i)6-) < Ar(Pr(i)4-) < Ar(Me6-)? N3(-) < NCS(-)? NCSe(-)? NCBH3(-)? MeCN ? H2O ? NH3 < NO3(-)? THF ? CO ? N(SiMe2Ph)2(-)? N(SiMePh2)2(-) < F(-)? N(H)Ar(Pr(i)6-)? N(SiMe3)Dipp(-) < OAr(Pr(i)4-). The magnetic susceptibility of the bridged dimer, [Fe{N(SiMe3)2}2]2, 5, has also been measured between 2 and 300 K and a fit of ?MT with the isotropic Heisenberg Hamiltonian, ? = -2J?1·?2 yields an antiferromagnetic exchange coupling constant, J, of -131(2) cm(-1). PMID:26006177

  6. Dinuclear palladium complexes with two ligand-centered radicals and a single bridging ligand: subtle tuning of magnetic properties.

    PubMed

    Broere, Daniël L J; Demeshko, Serhiy; de Bruin, Bas; Pidko, Evgeny A; Reek, Joost N H; Siegler, Maxime A; Lutz, Martin; van der Vlugt, Jarl Ivar

    2015-04-01

    The facile and tunable preparation of unique dinuclear [(L(?))Pd-X-Pd(L(?))] complexes (X = Cl or N3), bearing a ligand radical on each Pd, is disclosed, as well as their magnetochemistry in solution and solid state is reported. Chloride abstraction from [PdCl(NNO(ISQ))] (NNO(ISQ) = iminosemiquinonato) with TlPF6 results in an unusual monochlorido-bridged dinuclear open-shell diradical species, [{Pd(NNO(ISQ))}2(?-Cl)](+), with an unusually small Pd-Cl-Pd angle (ca.?93°, determined by X-ray). This suggests an intramolecular d(8)-d(8) interaction, which is supported by DFT calculations. SQUID measurements indicate moderate antiferromagnetic spin exchange between the two ligand radicals and an overall singlet ground state in the solid state. VT EPR spectroscopy shows a transient signal corresponding to a triplet state between 20 and 60?K. Complex 2 reacts with PPh3 to generate [Pd(NNO(ISQ))(PPh3)](+) and one equivalent of [PdCl(NNO(ISQ))]. Reacting an 1:1 mixture of [PdCl(NNO(ISQ))] and [Pd(N3)(NNO(ISQ))] furnishes the 1,1-azido-bridged dinuclear diradical [{Pd(NNO(ISQ))}2(?(1)-N;?-N3](+), with a Pd-N-Pd angle close to 127° (X-ray). Magnetic and EPR measurements indicate two independent S = 1/2 spin carriers and no magnetic interaction in the solid state. The two diradical species both show no spin exchange in solution, likely because of unhindered rotation around the Pd-X-Pd core. This work demonstrates that a single bridging atom can induce subtle and tunable changes in structural and magnetic properties of novel dinuclear Pd complexes featuring two ligand-based radicals. PMID:25735905

  7. Magnetic and optical properties of copper-substituted alcohol dehydrogenase: a bisthiolate copper (II) complex.

    PubMed Central

    Farrar, J A; Formicka, G; Zeppezauer, M; Thomson, A J

    1996-01-01

    Replacement of the catalytic Zn(II) in horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase (HLADH) with copper produces a mononuclear Cu(II) chromophore with a ligand set consisting of two cysteine sulphurs, one histidine nitrogen plus one further atom. The fourth ligand to the metal ion and the conformation of the protein may be altered by addition of exogenous ligands and/or the cofactor NADH. Absorbance, CD, low-temperature magnetic CD (MCD) and EPR spectra are presented of copper-substituted HLADH samples in both 'open' and 'closed' conformations and in the presence and absence of the exogenous ligands pyrazole and DMSO. The EPR spectra indicate a strong, predominantly axial field about the copper(II) ion with high copper-thiol (cysteine) covalence. The optical and MCD spectra are interpreted in terms of four d-d transitions to low energy, also reflecting the axial ligand field, and four charge-transfer transitions to copper(II) between 30000 and 16000 cm-1 arising from the two cysteine sulphur atoms which give two pairs of oppositely signed MCD C-terms. These transitions are polarized mainly in the axial plane defined by Cys-46, Cys-174 and His-67. The binary complex formed with pyrazole displays quite different EPR and optical spectra which can be understood in terms of a rotation of the copper hole-orbital away from the axial plane thus decreasing sharply the copper-thiol covalence. The magneto-optical spectra in the presence and absence of DMSO are indistinguishable. PMID:8713071

  8. Magnetic properties of variably serpentinized peridotites and their implication for remanence acquisition during the evolution of oceanic core complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    maffione, M.; Morris, A.; Plümper, O.; Van Hinsbergen, D. J.

    2013-12-01

    Serpentinization of olivine-rich, mafic and ultramafic rocks during hydrothermal alteration is a process that profoundly changes the physical, rheological, magnetic and chemical properties of the oceanic lithosphere. There has recently been renewed interest in this process following the discovery that seafloor exposures of serpentinized upper mantle peridotites are widespread along modern slow- and ultra-slow-spreading ridges. One important mechanism for unroofing of mantle rocks in these settings is displacement along oceanic detachment fault systems, leading to the development of uplifted and rotated footwall sections known as oceanic core complexes (OCCs). However, difficulties inherent in direct sampling and observation of abyssal peridotites have limited our knowledge of the mechanisms of serpentinization, particularly during early stages of alteration. Hence, the progress of reactions with time, the amount, size and main features of reaction by-products (i.e. magnetite), and the progressive evolution of serpentinization at OCCs, remain only partially understood. Here we present the results of an integrated, rock magnetic, paleomagnetic and petrological study of 144 variably serpentinized peridotites from a recently documented fossil OCC preserved in the Mirdita ophiolite of Albania. Integration with existing data from peridotites recovered from several Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) and Ocean Drilling Project (ODP) sites provides the first complete magnetic database for variably (0-100%) serpentinized peridotites. We show that major reactions and changes in magnetic properties occur at ~60% serpentinization, likely triggered by a dramatic permeability increase, and that the grain-size of newly formed magnetite increases progressively with serpentinization, leading to variation in the stability of components of magnetization acquired at different times. In the context of OCCs, we propose that serpentinization (and associated remanence acquisition) initiates at the detachment surface and migrates into the footwall during unroofing and tilting, potentially continuing once the OCC has become inactive. This conceptual model for the progression of serpentinization reconciles evidence that suggests that the timing of acquisition of serpentinization-related remanences relative to footwall rotation varies between different OCCs. In this model, rocks adjacent to the main detachment surface will acquire early-stage remanences that record substantial footwall rotation, whereas rocks deeper in the footwall may become magnetized after near or complete rotation.

  9. Effects of f-f interactions on the single-molecule magnet properties of terbium(III)-phthalocyaninato quintuple-decker complexes.

    PubMed

    Horii, Yoji; Katoh, Keiichi; Yasuda, Nobuhiro; Breedlove, Brian K; Yamashita, Masahiro

    2015-04-01

    Single-molecule magnet (SMM) properties of terbium(III)-phthalocyaninato quintuple-decker complex TbCdCdTb were studied and were compared with those of other multiple-decker complexes (triple-decker: TbTb, quadruple-decker: TbCdTb) to elucidate the relationship between magnetic dipole interactions and SMM properties. From X-ray crystallography performed with synchrotron radiation, the Tb(III)-Tb(III) distance in TbCdCdTb was determined to be 9.883 Å. From alternating current magnetic studies on TbCdCdTb, the activation energy for spin reversal (?) increased with an increase in the direct current magnetic field (Hdc). This behavior is similar to that of TbCdTb, although the increase in ? for TbCdTb is smaller. On the other hand, for TbTb, which has shortest Tb(III)-Tb(III) distance, ? did not depend on Hdc, indicating that there is a correlation between SMM properties and the strength of the Tb(III)-Tb(III) interactions. By comparing the Zeeman diagrams for multiple-decker complexes, we found that the Tb(III)-Tb(III) interactions affected the magnetic field regions where quantum tunnelling of the magnetization was active. The results obtained from Zeeman diagrams are consistent with the results obtained from the magnetic studies. PMID:25799034

  10. Structural diversity of five new bitriazole-based complexes: luminescence, sorption, and magnetic properties.

    PubMed

    Du, Li-Yun; Wang, Hui; Liu, Ge; Xie, Dong; Guo, Fu-Sheng; Hou, Lei; Wang, Yao-Yu

    2015-01-21

    Employing an uninvestigated eight N-donor bitriazole ligand, 5'-(pyrazin-2-yl)-2H,4'H-3,3'-bi(1,2,4-triazole) (H2pzbtz), five complexes, {[Zn2(pzbtz)(SO4)(H2O)2]·2H2O}n (), {[Cd(pzbtz)]·3H2O}n (), [Zn3(Hpzbtz)2(SO4)2(H2O)6] (), [Co(Hpzbtz)2(H2O)2] () and {[Co2(pzbtz)2(H2O)2]·4H2O}n (), have been solvothermally synthesised by altering the reaction solvents and temperatures. Complex shows a three-dimensional (3D) framework with a very rare (3,5)-connected fsc-3,5-Cmce-2 topology. Complex exhibits a (4,4)-connected 3D pts framework with 1D channels. Complexes and are discrete trinuclear and mononuclear molecules, respectively. Complex presents a chiral 3D framework based on a novel trinuclear Co3(tr)4 cluster and features an unusual six-connected lcy topology. In the five complexes, H2pzbtz show a very variety of geometrical configurations and coordination modes. Due to the planarity of H2pzbtz, complexes display strong photoluminescence; in particular, features highly selective luminescent sensing for the Cu(2+) ion and nitrobenzene molecule. In addition, shows highly selective adsorption for CO2 over CH4, and exhibits antiferromagnetic exchange interactions among the Co(2+) ions. PMID:25410384

  11. Configuration-averaged open shell ab initio method for crystal field levels and magnetic properties of lanthanide(III) complexes

    E-print Network

    Heuvel, Willem Van den; Soncini, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    We present an ab initio methodology dedicated to the determination of the electronic structure and magnetic properties of ground and low-lying excited states, i.e., the crystal field levels, in lanthanide(III) complexes. Currently, the most popular and successful ab initio approach is the CASSCF/RASSI-SO method, consisting of the optimization of multiple complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) spin eigenfunctions, followed by full diagonalization of the spin--orbit coupling (SOC) Hamiltonian in the basis of the CASSCF spin states featuring spin-dependent orbitals. Based on two simple observations valid for Ln(III) complexes, namely: (i) CASSCF 4f atomic orbitals are expected to change very little when optimized for different multiconfigurational states belonging to the 4f-electronic configuration, (ii) due to strong SOC the total spin is not a good quantum number, we propose here an efficient ab initio strategy which completely avoids any multiconfigurational calculation, by optimizing a unique s...

  12. Structure, photochemistry and magnetic properties of tetrahydrogenated Schiff base chromium(III) complexes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bin; Chai, Jie; Feng, SiSi; Yang, BinSheng

    2015-04-01

    Four mononuclear chromium(III) complexes [Cr(L(1))(en)]Br0.3Cl0.7 (1), [Cr(L(1))(pr)]Cl (2), [Cr(L(2))(en)]ClO4 (3), [Cr(L(2))(pr)]Cl (4) along with one dinuclear ?-methoxo [Cr(?-OMe)(L1)]2 (5) were synthesized (en=1,2-ethanediamine, pr=1,3-diaminopropane H2L(1)=Tetrahydrosalen=H2[H4]salen=N,N'-bis(2-hydroxybenzyl)-1,2-ethanediamine, H2L(2)=Tetrahydrosalpr=H2[H4]salpr=N,N'-bis(2-hydroxybenzyl)-1,3-diaminopropane). The competitive reactions in the presence of EDTA were carried out and the first-order rate constants k(1)=(5.2±0.2)×10(-3) h(-1)complex 5 exhibits a strong antiferromagnetic coupling with the J=-10.8 cm(-1). PMID:25637815

  13. Structure, photochemistry and magnetic properties of tetrahydrogenated Schiff base chromium(III) complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bin; Chai, Jie; Feng, SiSi; Yang, BinSheng

    2015-04-01

    Four mononuclear chromium(III) complexes [Cr(L(1))(en)]Br0.3Cl0.7 (1), [Cr(L(1))(pr)]Cl (2), [Cr(L(2))(en)]ClO4 (3), [Cr(L(2))(pr)]Cl (4) along with one dinuclear ?-methoxo [Cr(?-OMe)(L1)]2 (5) were synthesized (en = 1,2-ethanediamine, pr = 1,3-diaminopropane H2L(1) = Tetrahydrosalen = H2[H4]salen = N,N?-bis(2-hydroxybenzyl)-1,2-ethanediamine, H2L(2) = Tetrahydrosalpr = H2[H4]salpr = N,N?-bis(2-hydroxybenzyl)-1,3-diaminopropane). The competitive reactions in the presence of EDTA were carried out and the first-order rate constants k(1) = (5.2 ± 0.2) × 10-3 h-1 < k(2) = (6.7 ± 0.3) × 10-3 h-1 < k(3) = (8.0 ± 0.1) × 10-3 h-1 < k(4) = (9.5 ± 0.2) × 10-3 h-1 were obtained by spectroscopic measurements. In addition, photo-induced decomposition was monitored under irradiation of xenon lamp. The sequence of first-order rate constants is k?(1) = (4 ± 0.1) × 10-4 s-1 < k?(2) = (6 ± 0.3) × 10-4 s-1 < k?(3) = (1.1 ± 0.2) × 10-3 s-1 < k?(4) = (1.4 ± 0.2) × 10-3 s-1, which is in accordance with that of kinetics studies with EDTA. Dinuclear complex 5 exhibits a strong antiferromagnetic coupling with the J = -10.8 cm-1.

  14. Novel tetranuclear Ni(II) Schiff base complex containing Ni4O4 cubane core: Synthesis, X-ray structure, spectra and magnetic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jana, Mahendra Sekhar; Priego, José L.; Jiménez-Aparicio, Reyes; Mondal, Tapan Kumar

    2014-12-01

    Novel tetranuclear nickel(II) Schiff base complex having symmetric Ni4O4 cubane-core, [Ni4O2(OAc)2(L)2] (1) has been synthesized. Single crystal of the complex exhibits four nickel atoms in the alternate corner of the cubane and other four sites are occupied by phenolate-O and ?3-O2-. Variable temperature magnetic moment data suggests the Ni centres are weakly antiferromagnetically coupled with J1 = -4.82 cm-1 and J2 = -4.83 cm-1. The electronic spectra, emission properties and life time measurement of ligand, HL and complex 1 have been studied.

  15. Uranyl and uranyl-3d block cation complexes with 1,3-adamantanedicarboxylate: crystal structures, luminescence, and magnetic properties.

    PubMed

    Thuéry, Pierre; Rivière, Eric; Harrowfield, Jack

    2015-03-16

    The reaction of 1,3-adamantanedicarboxylic acid (LH2) with uranyl nitrate under solvo-hydrothermal conditions, either alone or in the presence of additional metal cations (Co(2+), Ni(2+), or Cu(2+)) gives a series of nine complexes displaying a wide range of architectures. While [UO2(L)(H2O)]·1.25CH3CN (1) and [UO2(L)(DMF)] (2) are one-dimensional (1D) species analogous to that previously known, [H2NMe2]2[(UO2)2(L)3]·1.5H2O (3), which includes dimethylammonium counterions generated in situ, is a three-dimensional (3D) framework, and [UO2(L)(NMP)] (4) (NMP = N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone) is a braid-shaped 1D polymer. When 3d block metal ions are present and bound to 2,2'-bipyridine (bipy) coligands, their role is reduced to that of decorating species attached to uranyl-containing 1D polymers, as in [UO2M(L)2(bipy)2]·0.5H2O with M = Co (5) or Ni (6), and [(UO2)2Cu2(L)3(NO3)2(bipy)2]·0.5H2O (9), or of counterions, as in [Ni(bipy)3][(UO2)4(O)2(L)3]·3H2O (7), in which a two-dimensional (2D) assembly is built from tetranuclear uranyl-containing building units. In contrast, the heterometallic 3D framework [UO2Cu(L)2] (8) can be isolated in the absence of bipy. The emission spectra measured in the solid state display the usual uranyl vibronic fine structure, with various degrees of resolution and quenching, except for that of complex 7, which shows emission from the nickel(II) centers. The magnetic properties of complexes 5, 6, 8, and 9 were investigated, showing, in particular, the presence of zero-field splitting effects in 6 and weak antiferromagnetic interactions in 9. PMID:25710676

  16. Synthesis, crystal structure, magnetic property and oxidative DNA cleavage activity of an octanuclear copper(II) complex

    E-print Network

    Gao, Song

    Synthesis, crystal structure, magnetic property and oxidative DNA cleavage activity. The application of artificial DNA cleaving agents is mani- fold: biotechnology, structural studies of nucleic oxi- dative cleavage, the majority of the studies on artificial 0162-0134/$ - see front matter Ó 2006

  17. Constant Electric and Magnetic Fields Effect on the Structuring and Thermomechanical and Thermophysical Properties of Nanocomposites Formed from Pectin-Cu(2+)-Polyethyleneimine Interpolyelectrolyte-Metal Complexes.

    PubMed

    Demchenko, V; Shtompel', V; Riabov, S; Lysenkov, E

    2015-12-01

    Applying wide-angle X-ray scattering method, thermomechanical analysis, and differential scanning calorimetry, the structural organization and properties of nanocomposites formed by chemical reduction of ?u(2+) cations in the interpolyelectrolyte-metal complex (pectin-Cu(2+)-polyethyleneimine) under the influence of a constant magnetic and electric fields have been studied. It has been found that the chemical reduction of Cu(2+) cations in the interpolyelectrolyte-metal complex bulk under constant electric and magnetic fields leads to formation of nanocomposite consisting of interpolyelectrolyte complex, including pectin-polyethyleneimine and nanoparticles of the metal Cu phase, whereas nanocomposite with Cu/Cu2O nanoparticles is formed in original state (without any field). It was observed that, under constant field, nanocomposites obtained have higher structural glass-transition temperatures and thermal stability. PMID:26659610

  18. Magnetic properties of the Fe{sup II} spin crossover complex in emulsion polymerization of trifluoroethylmethacrylate using poly(vinyl alcohol)

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Atsushi; Iguchi, Motoi; Oku, Takeo; Fujiwara, Motoyasu

    2010-04-15

    Influence of chemical substitution in the Fe{sup II} spin crossover complex on magnetic properties in emulsion polymerization of trifluoroethylmethacrylate using poly(vinyl alcohol) as a protective colloid was investigated near its high spin/low spin (HS/LS) phase transition. The obvious bi-stability of the HS/LS phase transition was considered by the identification of multiple spin states between the quintet (S=2) states to single state (S=0) across the excited triplet state (S=1). Magnetic parameters of gradual shifts of anisotropy g-tensor supported by the molecular distortion of the spin crossover complex would arise from a Jahn-Teller effect regarding ligand field theory on the basis of a B3LYP density functional theory using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrum and X-ray powder diffraction. - Graphical abstract: AFM surface image of the emulsion particles with the spin crossover complex.

  19. Chondrule magnetic properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wasilewski, P. J.; Obryan, M. V.

    1994-01-01

    The topics discussed include the following: chondrule magnetic properties; chondrules from the same meteorite; and REM values (the ratio for remanence initially measured to saturation remanence in 1 Tesla field). The preliminary field estimates for chondrules magnetizing environments range from minimal to a least several mT. These estimates are based on REM values and the characteristics of the remanence initially measured (natural remanence) thermal demagnetization compared to the saturation remanence in 1 Tesla field demagnetization.

  20. Two types of nitrito support for ??-oxido-bridged [Cu?] complexes: synthesis, crystal structures, magnetic properties and DFT analysis.

    PubMed

    Pait, Moumita; Shatruk, Michael; Lengyel, Jeff; Gómez-Coca, Silvia; Bauzá, Antonio; Frontera, Antonio; Bertolasi, Valerio; Ray, Debashis

    2015-04-01

    Novel nitrito supported and ?4-oxido bridged Cu(II) aggregates have been found in two tetranuclear complexes, [Cu4(?4-O)L2(?(1,3)-ONO)4] (1) and [Cu4(?4-O)L2(?(1,3)-OAc)2(?1,2-NO2)2] (2), of the chiral Schiff base HL (HL = 4-methyl-2,6-bis-(1-phenyl-ethylimino)-methylphenol). The structures contain either in situ generated or externally added peripheral ?-nitrito groups, in ?(2)O/O and ?(2)N/O bridging modes. Four NO2(-) bridges in 1 and two AcO(-) co-ligands along with two NO2(-) bridges in 2 are essential for the stabilization of these tetranuclear aggregates. The complexes have been characterized by X-ray crystal structure determination, spectroscopic and magnetic measurements, and density functional theory (DFT) analysis. They are formed from the assembly of two [Cu2L](3+) fragments around a water-derived oxido ligand under the control of nitrite or mixed nitrite/acetate bridges. Variable temperature magnetic susceptibility measurements reveal strong intramolecular antiferromagnetic exchange interactions within the tetranuclear clusters to yield S(T) = 0 ground state. The capacity of the two different nitrite bridging modes to mediate magnetic coupling has been examined through measurements and numerical fitting procedures, and rationalized by means of DFT calculations. PMID:25729876

  1. A new coordination mode of (E)-3-(3-hydroxyl-phenyl)-acrylic acid in copper complex: Crystal structure and magnetic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Xin; Zhou, Pei; Zheng, Chunying; Li, Hui

    2015-05-01

    A copper complex {[Cu(py)2(L)2]·2CH3OH}n (HL=(E)-3-(3-hydroxyl-phenyl)-acrylic acid) (1) with acrylic acid ligand was synthesized and structurally analyzed by IR, elemental analysis, TGA and the single-crystal X-ray diffraction methods. It is the first time to find that phenolic hydroxyl of L coordinates to Cu(II). Complex 1 exhibits 1D chain by a double-bridge of ligands, and the 3D supramolecular framework in complex 1 is constructed by ?-? stacking interactions and van der Waals Contacts among the 1D chains. The magnetic properties of complex 1 have been studied.

  2. Single-molecule magnets: preparation and properties of low symmetry [Mn4O3(O2CPh-R)4(dbm)3] complexes with S = 9/2.

    PubMed

    Aliaga-Alcalde, Núria; Edwards, Rachel S; Hill, Stephen O; Wernsdorfer, Wolfgang; Folting, Kirsten; Christou, George

    2004-10-01

    The preparation and properties of [Mn(4)O(3)(O(2)CPh-R)(4)(dbm)(3)] (R = H, p-Me, p-OMe, and o-Cl; dbm(-) is the anion of dibenzoylmethane) single-molecule magnets (SMMs) with virtual C(S) symmetry are reported. They were prepared by controlled potential electrolysis in 26-80% yields. The structures comprise a distorted-cubane core of virtual C(S) symmetry, in contrast to the other, more common complexes of this type with virtual C(3)(V) symmetry. Solid-state magnetic susceptibility data establish the complexes have S = 9/2 ground-state spins, and ac susceptibility studies indicate they are single-molecule magnets (SMMs). Magnetization vs dc field sweeps below 1.00 K reveal hysteresis loops confirming a SMM, with a very large step at zero applied field diagnostic of fast quantum tunneling of magnetization (QTM) through the anisotropy barrier. The fast QTM rate suggested a significant rhombic ZFS parameter E, as expected from the low (virtual C(S)) symmetry. This was confirmed by high-frequency electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy on polycrystalline and single-crystal studies. The results confirm the importance of symmetry on the QTM rates. PMID:15453784

  3. Syntheses, structures, and magnetic properties of three new cyano-bridged complexes based on the [Mn(CN)?](³?) building block.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shao-Liang; Zhao, Xin-Hua; Wang, Xin-Yi

    2015-09-14

    With three pentadentate macrocyclic ligands, three new [Mn(CN)6](3-) based complexes, [Mn(L(N3O2))(H2O)]2[Mn(CN)6](ClO4)·3H2O (1), {[Mn(L(N5))]3[Mn(CN)6]2}n (2) and {[Mn(L(N5Me))]3[Mn(CN)6]2}n·10nH2O (3) (L(N3O2) = 2,13-dimethyl-6,9-dioxa-3,12,18-triazabicyclo[12.3.1]octadeca-1(18),2,12,14,16-pentaene, L(N5) = 2,13-dimethyl-3,6,9,12,18-pentaazabicyclo-[12.3.1]octadeca-1(18),2,12,14,16-pentaene, L(N5Me) = 2,6-bis[1-(2-(N-methylamino)ethylimino)ethyl]-pyridine), have been synthesized and characterized structurally and magnetically. The structure of 1 was found to be a linear Mn2(II)Mn(III) trinuclear cluster with two Mn(II) capping groups and one Mn(III) ion connected via two trans-cyano groups. In contrast, compounds 2 and a3 re cyano-bridged 2D networks. Magnetic investigation revealed antiferromagnetic coupling between the Mn(III) and Mn(II) ions via the bridging cyanide groups. Complex 1 showed paramagnetic behavior down to 2.0 K with no sign of SMM behavior. The magnetic coupling constant of J = -1.63 cm(-1) with the Hamiltonian H = -2J(S(Mn(III))·SMn(II)1 + SMn(III)·S(Mn(II)2)) was obtained from the fitting of the magnetic susceptibility. For 2 and 3, ferrimagnetic ordering was observed with magnetic phase transition temperatures (Tc) being 7.5 K and 7.0 K, respectively. These compounds are rare examples of a small number of [Mn(CN)6](3-) based magnetic materials. PMID:25846128

  4. Stereochemistry for engineering spin crossover: structures and magnetic properties of a homochiral vs. racemic [Fe(N3O2)(CN)2] complex.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiang; Venneri, Shari; Zarrabi, Niloofar; Wang, Hongfeng; Desplanches, Cédric; Létard, Jean-François; Seda, Takele; Pilkington, Melanie

    2015-04-21

    The Schiff-base condensation of the R,R-(+)-diamine () with 2,6-diacetyl pyridine in the presence of Fe(II) affords the macrocyclic complex [Fe(dpN3O2)(CN)2] () (dp = diphenyl) with ligand centred chirality comprising of a 1?:?1 mixture of LS 6- and HS 7-coordinate Fe(II) centres. Variable temperature magnetic susceptibility and Mössbauer studies reveal that () undergoes an incomplete thermal SCO transition with a T1/2 = 250 K as well as a LIESST effect. In contrast its racemic counterpart () comprises of mostly LS Fe(II) and exhibits no LIESST properties. PMID:25789944

  5. Mixed bridged dinuclear Ni(II) complex incorporating 2-pyridinealdoxime ligand: Synthesis, crystal structure and magnetic property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Lina; Zhang, Suyun; Li, Kai; Chen, Wenqian; Chen, Yanmei; Xu, Bin; Hu, Bin; Li, Yahong; Li, Wu

    2010-12-01

    A complex of the composition [Ni 2(Hpyco) 2(epa)(EtOH)Cl 3] ( 1) (Hpyco = pyridine-2-carbaldehyde oxime; Hepa = 3-(ethoxycarbonyl)picolinic acid) has been synthesized via solvothermal synthetic reaction, and fully characterized by X-ray single crystal diffraction, IR and elemental analysis. Crystal structure revealed that 1 contains carboxylic oxygen atom bridged and chloro bridged dinuclear core with each Ni(II) exhibiting pseudo-octahedral geometry. An ester was formed in situ by the reaction of solvent ethanol with one carboxylic group of pyridine-2,3-dicarboxylic acid. Low-temperature magnetic susceptibility measurement for the solid sample of 1 revealed the ferromagnetic Ni II⋯Ni II interactions.

  6. Conductivity and Magnetic Properties of the Charge-Transfer Complex from N,N'-Dicyanonaphthoquinonedimimine (DCNNI)and Tetrathiafulvalene (TTF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, H.-P.; Grauf, W.; Schütz, J. U. von; Wolf, H. C.; Helberg, H. W.; Kremer, W.; Aumüller, A.; Hünig, S.

    1989-09-01

    Conductivity (dc and ac), ESR-properties and proton relaxation rates of the charge transfer complex Tetrathiafulvalene N,N'-dicyanonaphthoquinonediimine in the temperature range be­ tween 300 K and 3.8 K are reported. This salt belongs to the unusual group of organic conductors, in which segregated donor and acceptor stacks are associated in a pairwise manner. The physical properties, which are compared with TTF-TCNQ, give evidence of non-stoichiometric charge transfer (? ? 1). A metal like state can be identified for T> 70 K, as is seen from the weak temper­ ature dependence of the conductivity (?rt ? 30 Scm-1) and the susceptibility (Xrt ? 7.5 ? 10-4 emu/ mole) and from the Korringa like temperature dependence of the proton relaxation rates. The drop of the susceptibility at Tc ? 70 K and the activated temperature dependence of the conductivity for T < 70 K are explained by a metal-to-semiconductor transition.

  7. Magnetic properties of a new N-TEMPO-tert-butyl substituted salicylaldimines and their biradical palladium(II) complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasumov, Veli T.; Yerli, Yusuf; Topkaya, Ramazan

    2013-01-01

    A new TEMPO bearing tert-butylated salicylaldimines 1 and 2, as well as early reported 3, and their bis(N-TEMPO-tert-butylated salicylaldiminato)palladium(II) biradical complexes 4-6 have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analyses, IR, UV/vis, ESR and an SQUID magnetometer. The solid state g-factors (2.0116-2.0168) for 4-6 suggest the existence of the significant metal-orbital contribution to the SOMO of nitroxyl radicals. The ?mT vs. T plots for 1 and 2 indicate that the ?mT decreases as T is lowered from 300 to 20 K, suggesting the existence of weak antiferromagnetic interactions in these radicals. Variable-temperature dependence (10-300 K) magnetic susceptibility data for biradical complexes 4-6 revealed the existence of ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic behavior around at 10-220 K range for 4. The 1/?m data for 1-6 follow the Curie-Weiss law with negative ? throughout the above temperature range.

  8. Solution NMR characterization of magnetic/electronic properties of azide and cyanide-inhibited substrate complexes of human heme oxygenase: implications for steric ligand tilt.

    PubMed

    Peng, Dungeng; Ogura, Hiroshi; Ma, Li-Hua; Evans, John P; de Montellano, Paul R Ortiz; La Mar, Gerd N

    2013-04-01

    Solution 2D (1)H NMR was carried out on the azide-ligated substrate complex of human heme oxygenase, hHO, to provide information on the active site molecular structure, chromophore electronic/magnetic properties, and the distal H-bond network linked to the exogenous ligand by catalytically relevant oriented water molecules. While 2D NMR exhibited very similar patterns of two-dimensional nuclear Overhauser spectroscopy cross peaks of residues with substrate and among residues as the previously characterized cyanide complex, significant, broadly distributed chemical shift differences were observed for both labile and non-labile protons. The anisotropy and orientation of the paramagnetic susceptibility tensor, ?, were determined for both the azide and cyanide complexes. The most significant difference observed is the tilt of the major magnetic axes from the heme normal, which is only half as large for the azide than cyanide ligand, with each ligand tilted toward the catalytically cleaved ?-meso position. The difference in chemical shifts is quantitatively correlated with differences in dipolar shifts in the respective complexes for all but the distal helix. The necessity of considering dipolar shifts, and hence determination of the orientation/anisotropy of ?, in comparing chemical shifts involving paramagnetic complexes, is emphasized. The analysis shows that the H-bond network cannot detect significant differences in H-bond acceptor properties of cyanide versus azide ligands. Lastly, significant retardation of distal helix labile proton exchange upon replacing cyanide with azide indicates that the dynamic stability of the distal helix is increased upon decreasing the steric interaction of the ligand with the distal helix. PMID:23391487

  9. Synthesis, structural and magnetic properties of oxo-, chloroacetato-bridged tetra-nuclear iron(III) complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Amit Kumar; Maji, Swarup Kumar; Dutta, Supriya; Robert Lucas, C.; Adhikary, Bibhutosh

    2012-12-01

    Oxo- and chloroacetato-bridged tetra-nuclear iron(III) complex [Fe4O2(ClCH2COO)8(bpy)2]·H2O, where bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine, has been synthesized and characterized on the basis of X-ray crystallography, elemental analysis, cyclic voltammetric, UV-vis and IR spectroscopic techniques. X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that the complex crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P2/n with a = 9.629(5) Å, b = 13.742(5), c = 20.437(5) Å, ? = ? = 90.000(5)°, ? = 99.792(5)°, V = 2664.9(18) Å3 and Z = 2. The tetra-nuclear entity consists of a [Fe4(?3-O)2]8+ unit comprising four FeIII atoms with a "butterfly" arrangement. Each pair of iron(III) atoms occupy the "hinge" or "body" sites, and "wing-tip" sites, respectively. It undergoes two stepwise one electron reductions, one is quasi-reversible at E1/2 = +0.061 V vs Ag/AgCl (?Ep = 0.082 V) and the other is irreversible at EP.C = -0.38 V at a scan rates 0.1 V s-1. Variable-temperature magnetic susceptibility data reveals strong antiferromagnetic exchange interactions among the four high-spin FeIII ions. The exchange coupling constant Jbb (body-body interaction) is indeterminate due to prevailing spin frustration, but the 'wing-body' antiferromagnetic interaction (Jwb) was evaluated as -115 cm-1, using the spin Hamiltonion model H = -Jwb (S1?S2 + S2?S1 + S1'?S2' + S2'?S1) -Jbb(S2?S2').

  10. Structural, photophysical and magnetic properties of transition metal complexes based on the dipicolylamino-chloro-1,2,4,5-tetrazine ligand.

    PubMed

    Nazarenko, Iuliia; Pop, Flavia; Sun, Qinchao; Hauser, Andreas; Lloret, Francesc; Julve, Miguel; El-Ghayoury, Abdelkrim; Avarvari, Narcis

    2015-05-21

    The ligand 3-chloro-6-dipicolylamino-1,2,4,5-tetrazine (Cl-TTZ-dipica) , prepared by the direct reaction between 3,6-dichloro-1,2,4,5-tetrazine and di(2-picolyl)-amine, afforded a series of four neutral transition metal complexes formulated as [Cl-TTZ-dipica-MCl2]2, with M = Zn(II), Cd(II), Mn(II) and Co(II), when reacted with the corresponding metal chlorides. The dinuclear structure of the isostructural complexes was disclosed by single crystal X-ray analysis, clearly indicating the formation of [M(II)-(?-Cl)2M(II)] motifs and the involvement of the amino nitrogen atom in semi-coordination with the metal centers, thus leading to distorted octahedral coordination geometries. Moreover, the chlorine atoms, either coordinated to the metal or as a substituent on the tetrazine ring, engage respectively in specific anion-? intramolecular and intermolecular interactions with the electron-poor tetrazine units in the solid state, thus controlling the supramolecular architecture. Modulation of the emission properties is observed in the case of the Zn(II) and Cd(II) complexes when compared to the free ligand. A striking difference is observed in the magnetic properties of the Mn(II) and Co(II) complexes. An antiferromagnetic coupling takes place in the dimanganese(II) compound (J = -1.25 cm(-1)) while the Co(II) centers are ferromagnetically coupled in the corresponding complex (J = +0.55 cm(-1)), the spin Hamiltonian being defined as H = -JSA·SB. PMID:25868861

  11. Three tetranuclear copper(II) cluster-based complexes constructed from 4-amino-1,2,4-triazole and different aromatic carboxylates: Assembly, structures, electrochemical and magnetic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xiu-Li; Zhao, Wei; Zhang, Ju-Wen; Lu, Qi-Lin

    2013-02-15

    Three new tetranuclear copper(II) cluster-based complexes constructed from 4-amino-1,2,4-triazole (atrz) and three types of aromatic carboxylates, [Cu{sub 4}({mu}{sub 3}-OH){sub 2}(atrz){sub 2}(DNBA){sub 6}] (1), [Cu{sub 4}({mu}{sub 3}-OH){sub 2}(atrz){sub 2}(1,3-BDC){sub 3}]{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O (2) and [Cu{sub 4}({mu}{sub 3}-OH){sub 2}(atrz){sub 2}(SIP){sub 2}]{center_dot}4H{sub 2}O (3) (HDNBA=3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid, 1,3-H{sub 2}BDC=1,3-benzenedicarboxylic acid and NaH{sub 2}SIP=sodium 5-sulfoisophthalate), have been hydrothermally synthesized and structurally characterized. Complex 1 displays a single-molecular Cu{sup II}{sub 4} cluster structure, which is further connected by the intermolecular hydrogen-bonding interactions to form a 2D supramolecular layer. In 2, there also exist tetranuclear Cu{sup II}{sub 4} clusters, which are linked by the 1,3-BDC anions to give a 3D NaCl-type framework. In 3, the Cu{sup II}{sub 4} clusters are connected by the carboxyl and sulfo groups of SIP anions to generate 3D (4,8)-connected framework with a (4{sup 10}{center_dot}6{sup 14}{center_dot}8{sup 4})(4{sup 5}{center_dot}6){sub 2} topology. The atrz ligand conduces to the construction of tetranuclear copper(II) clusters and the carboxylates with different non-carboxyl substituent show important effects on the final structures of the title complexes. The electrochemical and magnetic properties of 1-3 have been investigated. - Graphical abstract: Three tetranuclear copper(II) cluster-based complexes based on different carboxylates have been synthesized under hydrothermal conditions. The carboxylate anions play a key role in the formation of three different structures. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Three new tetranuclear copper(II) cluster-based complexes have been obtained. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The atrz conduces to the construction of tetranuclear copper(II) clusters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carboxylates show important effect on the structures of title complexes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Magnetic properties and electrochemical behaviors have been reported.

  12. Probing the structural, bonding, and magnetic properties of cobalt coordination complexes: co-benzene, co-pyridine, and co-pyrimidine.

    PubMed

    Shao, Peng; Kuang, Xiao-Yu; Ding, Li-Ping

    2013-12-01

    Neutral and anionic Co1,2(benzene)1,2, Co1,2(pyridine)1,2, and Co1,2(pyrimidine)1,2 complexes have been investigated within the framework of an all-electron gradient-corrected density functional theory. The ground-state structures for each size clusters were identified based on the geometry optimization. Meanwhile, their electron affinities and vertical detachment energies were predicted and compared with the experimental values. By analyzing the pattern of highest occupied molecular orbitals (HOMOs), we found that the bond formation of these Co-organic complexes mainly arises from the 3d/4s electrons of the cobalt atoms and the ?-cloud of the organic molecules. More importantly, we presented an approach to map and analyze the Co-organic interactions from another perspective. The scatter plots of the reduced density gradient (RDG) versus ? allow us to identify the different types of interactions, and the maps of the gradient isosurfaces show a rich visualization of chemical bond and steric effects. Their magnetic properties were studied by determining the spin magnetic moments and visualizing the spin density distributions. Finally, the natural population analysis (NPA) charge was calculated to achieve a deep insight into the distribution of electron density and the reliable charge-transfer information. PMID:24219660

  13. Structural, electronic and magnetic properties of Mo (4d)-based complex perovskites Ba2MMoO6 (M=Cr and Fe)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musa Saad H.-E., M.; El-Hagary, M.

    2014-06-01

    We report a study of crystallographic parameters of the Mo-based complex perovskites Ba2MMoO6 (M=Cr and Fe) obtained from analysis of X-ray diffraction (XRD) data and the electronic and magnetic properties prediction using the magnetic measurements and the full-potential linearized muffin-tin orbitals within the plane-wave approximation (LMTO-PLW). The Ba2MMoO6 materials were prepared by the solid state reaction method. XRD analysis reveals that Ba2MMoO6 crystalline in a cubic structure (space group Fm-3m) with lattice parameters (a=8.013 Å) for M=Cr and (a=8.061 Å) for M=Fe. XRD results present a matching of 98% with the theoretical results. The densities of states were calculated using the local spin density approximation (LSDA) and LSDA+U methods. LDOS results show a half-metallic-ferrimagnetic ground state for Ba2MMoO6, which is in majority due to the 4d-t2g and 3d-t2g characters. The structural, electronic and magnetic calculation results are in excellent agreement with the experimental and previous theoretical results.

  14. Synthesis, structures and magnetic properties in 3d-electron-rich isostructural complexes based on chains with sole syn-anti carboxylate bridges.

    PubMed

    Su, Feng; Lu, Liping; Feng, Sisi; Zhu, Miaoli; Gao, Zengqiang; Dong, Yuhui

    2015-04-28

    To evaluate magnetic properties of isostructural compounds, a series of 3D carboxylate coordination polymers [M(H2bpta)]n, (H4bpta = 2,2',4,4'-biphenyltetracarboxylic acid, M = Fe(II) (1), Ni(II) (2), Cu(II) (3) and Zn(II) (4)), was synthesized in H2O-CH3CN or H2O solvents, respectively. Structurally, complexes 1-4 have isostructural features with (5,5)-connected 3D framework, wherein the M(II) centre takes an octahedral coordination environment consisting of six oxygen atoms from carboxylates of ligands. The M(II) sites are linked by syn-anti carboxylates to form chains with an M···M separation of 4.880(2) (M = Fe), 4.784(2) (M = Ni), 4.541(2) (M = Cu), and 4.607(2) Å (M = Zn), respectively. The shortest M···M distances between interchains locate 9.122(4), 9.077(3), 9.361(3), and 8.767(2) Å, respectively. Magnetically, the isostructural polymers show different magnetic behaviors due to different spins of central ions. Theoretical analysis indicates that couplings between magnetic ions obey uniform chain models. The magnetic susceptibility of 1 and 2 are perfectly fitted by the modified Fisher model to yield an effective intra-chain exchange coupling constant of -0.81(1) and 3.67(2) cm(-1), respectively. For 3, a Heisenberg ferromagnetic S = 1/2 chain included the intra-chain magnetic exchange interaction (J = 9.28(1) cm(-1), and zj' = -0.068(3) cm(-1)), weak ferromagnetic interactions in intra-chains, and weak antiferromagnetic interactions between interchains. The phenomena of 1-3 accord with the common view that the exchange interaction between two magnetic M(II) ions bridged by the syn-anti carboxylate bridge is dominantly weak ferro- or anti-ferromagnetic interactions. In addition, the M-O-C-O-M spin exchange interactions |J| of M2(CO2)2 (M = Mn(3d(5))(20), Fe(3d(6)), Co(3d(7))(20), Ni(3d(8)), Cu(3d(9))) decrease in strength with Cu2(CO2)2 > Ni2(CO2)2 > Co2(CO2)2 > Fe2(CO2)2 > Mn2(CO2)2, consistent with orbit order. PMID:25790149

  15. Two new Cu(II) complexes with 3-(2-pyridyl)pyrazol-based ligands: Synthesis, crystal structures, and magnetic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jun-Jie; Zhou, Jiang-Ning; Liu, Chun-Sen; Shi, Xue-Song; Chang, Ze; Yan, Li-Fen; Bu, Xian-He; Ribas, Joan

    2008-03-01

    In our efforts to investigate the relationships between the structures of ligands and their complexes, two structurally related 3-(2-pyridyl)pyrazole-based ligands, 1-[3-(2-pyridyl)pyrazol-1-ylmethyl]benzene ( L1) and 3-[3-(2-pyridyl)pyrazol-1-ylmethyl]pyridine ( L2), and their two Cu(II) complexes, [Cu( L1) 2(NO 3)](NO 3)(CH 3CH 2OH) ( 1) and [Cu 2( L2) 2(Cl) 4] ( 2), were synthesized and structurally characterized by elemental analyses, IR spectra and single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Complex 1 has a mononuclear structure, while 2 takes the dinuclear structure, which were further linked into higher-dimensional supramolecular networks by intra- or inter-molecular weak interactions, such as C-H⋯O hydrogen-bonding, C-H⋯?, and ?⋯? stacking interactions. The structural differences of 1 and 2 can be attributed to the difference of counter anions and the different pendant aromatic groups of L1 and L2, in which the benzene and pyridine rings act as the directing group for ?⋯? stacking and C-H⋯? interactions. Moreover, magnetic properties of 2 have been further investigated in detail.

  16. Gd-Complexes of New Arylpiperazinyl Conjugates of DTPA-Bis(amides): Synthesis, Characterization and Magnetic Relaxation Properties.

    PubMed

    Ba-Salem, Abdullah O; Ullah, Nisar; Shaikh, M Nasiruzzaman; Faiz, Mohamed; Ul-Haq, Zaheer

    2015-01-01

    Two new DTPA-bis(amide) based ligands conjugated with the arylpiperazinyl moiety were synthesized and subsequently transformed into their corresponding Gd(III) complexes 1 and 2 of the type [Gd(L)H2O]·nH2O. The relaxivity (R1) of these complexes was measured, which turned out to be comparable with that of Omniscan®, a commercially available MRI contrast agent. The cytotoxicity studies of these complexes indicated that they are non-toxic, which reveals their potential and physiological suitability as MRI contrast agents. All the synthesized ligands and complexes were characterized with the aid of analytical and spectroscopic methods, including elemental analysis, 1H-NMR, FT-IR, XPS and fast atom bombardment (FAB) mass spectrometry. PMID:25939069

  17. Coligand-regulated assembly, fluorescence, and magnetic properties of Co(II) and Cd(II) complexes with a non-coplanar dicarboxylate

    SciTech Connect

    Xin, Ling-Yun; Liu, Guang-Zhen; Ma, Lu-Fang; Wang, Li-Ya

    2013-10-15

    A non-coplanar dicarboxylate ndca (H{sub 2}ndca=5-norbornene-2,3-dicarboxylic acid), combining with various dipyridyl-typed tectons, constructs six Cd(II)/Co(II) coordination polymers under hydrothermal conditions, namely [Co(ndca)(H{sub 2}O)]{sub n} (1), ([Co(ndca)(bpe)(H{sub 2}O)]·H{sub 2}O){sub n} (2), [Co(ndca)(bpa){sub 0.5}(H{sub 2}O)]{sub n} (3), [Cd(ndca)(bpe)(H{sub 2}O)]{sub n} (4), ([Cd(ndca)(bpa)(H{sub 2}O)]·0.5H{sub 2}O){sub n} (5), and ([Cd(ndca)(bpp) (H{sub 2}O)]·H{sub 2}O){sub n} (6) (bpe=1,2-di(4-pyridyl)ethylene, bpa=1,2-bi(4-pyridyl)ethane, and bpp=1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)propane). All these compounds contain various metal(II)–carboxylate motifs, including carboxylate binuclear (2, 4, 5), carboxylate chain (1, 6) and carboxylate layer (3), which are further extended by dipyridyl-typed coligands to afford a vast diversity of the structures with 2D pyknotic layers (1, 6), 2D open layer (5), 2D?3D interpenetrated networks (2,4), and 3D pillared-layer framework (3), respectively. In addition, fluorescent spectra of Cd(II) complexes and magnetic properties of Co(II) complexes are also given. - Graphical abstract: Six various cadmium(II)/cobalt(II)–organic frameworks were constructed by 5-norbornene-2,3-dicarboxylic acid and different bis(pyridine) rod-like tectons, and Cd (II) complexes exhibit blue–violet emissions, whereas Co (II) complexes show antiferromagnetic behaviours. Display Omitted.

  18. Family of dumbbell Ni4Ln2 (Ln = Pr, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Ho, Er) complexes: syntheses, structures, luminescent and magnetic properties.

    PubMed

    Liu, Baolin; Liu, Qingxia; Xiao, Hongping; Zhang, Wu; Tao, Ruojie

    2013-04-14

    The synthesis and characterization of a family of heterometallic Ni4Ln2 complexes (Ln = Pr(1), Sm(2), Eu(3), Gd(4), Tb(5), Ho(6) and Er(7)) of the formula [Ni2LnL1L2(OH)(H2O)]2 are reported, where H4L1 is 3,3?-(1E,1?E)-(2,2?-(2-aminoethylazanediyl)bis(ethane-2,1-diyl)bis(azan-1-yl-1-ylidene))bis(methan-1-yl-1-ylidene)bis(2-hydroxybenzoic acid) and H2L2 is 3-formyl-2-hydroxybenzoic acid. The molecular structures of 1–7 were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction and reveal that they are isostructural. In all of these compounds, the six metal ions are held together to form a novel Ni4Ln2O10 core and exhibit a relatively rare dumbbell-type structure. In these compounds, the Ni ions are in slightly distorted square-pyramidal or octahedral environments. An all-oxygen coordination environment (8O) is present around the central lanthanide ion, which is present in a distorted square antiprismatic geometry. The Ln–Ln and Ln–Oavg bond distances in 1–7 show a gradual reduction proceeding from 1 to 7, in accordance with the lanthanide contraction. The luminescent properties of all the compounds have been studied. The magnetic susceptibility analysis demonstrate antiferromagnetic interactions within complex 4. PMID:23396382

  19. Two-dimensional layer architecture assembled by Keggin polyoxotungstate, Cu(II)-EDTA complex and sodium linker: Synthesis, crystal structures, and magnetic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Hong; Xu Lin Gao Guanggang; Li Fengyan; Yang Yanyan; Li Zhikui; Sun Yu

    2007-05-15

    Reaction of Keggin polyoxotungstate with copper(II)-EDTA (EDTA=ethylenediamine tetraacetate) complex under mild conditions led to the formation of hybrid inorganic-organic compounds Na{sub 4}(OH)[(Cu{sub 2}EDTA)PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}].17H{sub 2}O (1) and Na{sub 4}[(Cu{sub 2}EDTA)SiW{sub 12}O{sub 40}].19H{sub 2}O (2). The single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses reveal their two structural features: (1) one-dimensional chain structure consisting of Keggin polyoxotungstate and copper(II)-EDTA complex; (2) Two-dimensional layer architecture assembled by the one-dimensional chain structure and sodium linker. The results of magnetic measurements in the temperature range 300-2 K indicated the existence of ferromagnetic exchange interactions between the Cu{sup II} ions for both compounds. In addition, TGA analysis, IR spectra, and electrochemical properties were also investigated to well characterize these two compounds. - Graphical abstract: Two new polyoxometalate-based hybrids, Na{sub 4}(OH)[Cu{sub 2}(EDTA)PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}].17H{sub 2}O (1) and Na{sub 4}[Cu{sub 2}(EDTA)SiW{sub 12}O{sub 40}].19H{sub 2}O (2), have been synthesized and structurally characterized, which consist of one-dimensional chain structure assembled by Keggin polyoxotungstate and copper(II)-EDTA complex. The chains are further connected to form two-dimensional layer architecture assembled by the one-dimensional chain structure and sodium linker.

  20. A Family of {Cr(III)2Ln(III)2} Butterfly Complexes: Effect of the Lanthanide Ion on the Single-Molecule Magnet Properties.

    PubMed

    Langley, Stuart K; Wielechowski, Daniel P; Chilton, Nicholas F; Moubaraki, Boujemaa; Murray, Keith S

    2015-11-01

    We report the synthesis of several heterometallic 3d-4f complexes which result from the replacement of the Dy(III) ions in the [Cr(III)2Dy(III)2(OMe)2(mdea)2(O2CPh)4(NO3)2] single-molecule magnet (SMM) by the trivalent Pr, Nd, Gd, Tb, Ho, and Er lanthanide ions. The parent {Cr2Dy(III)2} compound displayed an anisotropy barrier to magnetization reversal of 53 cm(-1), with magnetic hysteresis observed up to 3.5 K and with large coercive fields at low temperatures (2.7 T at 1.8 K). Magnetic studies for the new complexes revealed significantly different static and dynamic magnetic behavior in comparison to the parent {Cr(III)2Dy(III)2} complex. When Ln(III) = Pr, a complete loss of SMM behavior is found, but when Ln(III) = Nd or Er, frequency-dependent tails in the out-of-phase susceptibility at low temperatures are observed, indicative of slow magnetic relaxation, but with very small anisotropy barriers and fast relaxation times. When Ln(III) = Tb and Ho, SMM behavior is clearly revealed with anisotropy barriers of 44 and 36 cm(-1), respectively. Magnetic hysteresis is also observed up to 2.5 and 1.8 K (0.003 T/s) for the Tb and Ho complexes, respectively. A large loss of the magnetization is, however, observed at zero-field, and as a result, the large coercivity which is present in the {Cr2Dy2} example is lost. The {Cr2Tb2} and {Cr2Ho2} complexes are rare examples of Tb- and Ho-based SMMs which reveal both slow relaxation in the absence of a static dc field (ac susceptibility) and open hysteresis loops above 1.8 K. PMID:26488451

  1. Tuning the magnetic properties of nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kolhatkar, Arati G; Jamison, Andrew C; Litvinov, Dmitri; Willson, Richard C; Lee, T Randall

    2013-01-01

    The tremendous interest in magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) is reflected in published research that ranges from novel methods of synthesis of unique nanoparticle shapes and composite structures to a large number of MNP characterization techniques, and finally to their use in many biomedical and nanotechnology-based applications. The knowledge gained from this vast body of research can be made more useful if we organize the associated results to correlate key magnetic properties with the parameters that influence them. Tuning these properties of MNPs will allow us to tailor nanoparticles for specific applications, thus increasing their effectiveness. The complex magnetic behavior exhibited by MNPs is governed by many factors; these factors can either improve or adversely affect the desired magnetic properties. In this report, we have outlined a matrix of parameters that can be varied to tune the magnetic properties of nanoparticles. For practical utility, this review focuses on the effect of size, shape, composition, and shell-core structure on saturation magnetization, coercivity, blocking temperature, and relaxation time. PMID:23912237

  2. Tuning the Magnetic Properties of Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Kolhatkar, Arati G.; Jamison, Andrew C.; Litvinov, Dmitri; Willson, Richard C.; Lee, T. Randall

    2013-01-01

    The tremendous interest in magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) is reflected in published research that ranges from novel methods of synthesis of unique nanoparticle shapes and composite structures to a large number of MNP characterization techniques, and finally to their use in many biomedical and nanotechnology-based applications. The knowledge gained from this vast body of research can be made more useful if we organize the associated results to correlate key magnetic properties with the parameters that influence them. Tuning these properties of MNPs will allow us to tailor nanoparticles for specific applications, thus increasing their effectiveness. The complex magnetic behavior exhibited by MNPs is governed by many factors; these factors can either improve or adversely affect the desired magnetic properties. In this report, we have outlined a matrix of parameters that can be varied to tune the magnetic properties of nanoparticles. For practical utility, this review focuses on the effect of size, shape, composition, and shell-core structure on saturation magnetization, coercivity, blocking temperature, and relaxation time. PMID:23912237

  3. Magnetic properties of large Apollo lunar samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gattacceca, Jerome; Eduardo, Lima; Yoann, Quesnel; Benjamin, Weiss; Pierre, Rochette; Minoru, Uehara; Laurent, Baratchart; Juliette, Leblond; Sylvain, Chevillard

    2015-04-01

    Paleomagnetic studies of lunar samples shed light on the existence and timing of the ancient lunar dynamo, with insights to the inner structure and thermal evolution of the Moon, as well as constraints for dynamo modeling [e.g., Weiss and Tikoo 2014 Science]. The intrinsic magnetic properties of lunar rocks also offer clues to their petrogenesis [e.g., Rochette et al. 2010 EPSL]. However, because of curation constraints, these studies are usually performed on small cm-scale samples, typically below 100 mg for paleomagnetism. Such a small size, combined with anisotropy and other spurious effects, have been shown to be the source of additional complexity for paleomagnetic analyses [Tikoo et al. 2012 EPSL] and raises question about how representative their magnetic properties are for the bulk rock. We measure here the natural remanent magnetization and magnetic susceptibility of 105 large Apollo samples (ranging from 40 g to 3 kg) using a portable new instrument. The aim is to gain information about the evolution of the lunar field with time, and identify samples with anomalous magnetic record or magnetic properties. We will discuss how these measurements compare with the existing laboratory measurements, what they tell us about lunar rocks, and how they can be used to select samples for in-depth paleomagnetic study.

  4. Tetraanionic biphenyl lanthanide complexes as single-molecule magnets.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wenliang; Le Roy, Jennifer J; Khan, Saeed I; Ungur, Liviu; Murugesu, Muralee; Diaconescu, Paula L

    2015-03-01

    Inverse sandwich biphenyl complexes [(NN(TBS))Ln]2(?-biphenyl)[K(solvent)]2 [NN(TBS) = 1,1'-fc(NSi(t)BuMe2)2; Ln = Gd, Dy, Er; solvent = Et2O, toluene; 18-crown-6], containing a quadruply reduced biphenyl ligand, were synthesized and their magnetic properties measured. One of the dysprosium biphenyl complexes was found to exhibit antiferromagnetic coupling and single-molecule-magnet behavior with Ueff of 34 K under zero applied field. The solvent coordinated to potassium affected drastically the nature of the magnetic interaction, with the other dysprosium complex showing ferromagnetic coupling. Ab initio calculations were performed to understand the nature of magnetic coupling between the two lanthanide ions bridged by the anionic arene ligand and the origin of single-molecule-magnet behavior. PMID:25695369

  5. The crystal structure and magnetic properties of 3-pyridinecarboxylate-bridged Re(II)M(II) complexes (M = Cu, Ni, Co and Mn).

    PubMed

    Pacheco, Mario; Cuevas, Alicia; González-Platas, Javier; Lloret, Francesc; Julve, Miguel; Kremer, Carlos

    2015-07-01

    The novel Re(II) complex NBu4[Re(NO)Br4(Hnic)] (1) and the heterodinuclear compounds [Re(NO)Br4(?-nic)Ni(dmphen)2]·½CH3CN (2), [Re(NO)Br4(?-nic)Co(dmphen)2]·½MeOH (3), [Re(NO)Br4(?-nic)Mn(dmphen)(H2O)2]·dmphen (4), [Re(NO)Br4(?-nic)Cu(bipy)2] (5) [Re(NO)Br4(?-nic)Cu(dmphen)2] (5') (NBu4(+) = tetra-n-butylammonium cation, Hnic = 3-pyridinecarboxylic acid, dmphen = 2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline, bipy = 2,2'-bipyridine) have been prepared and the structures of 1-5 determined using single crystal X-ray diffraction. The structure of 1 consists of [Re(NO)Br4(Hnic)](-) anions and NBu4(+) cations. Each Re(II) is six-coordinate with four bromide ligands, a linear nitrosyl group and a nitrogen atom from the Hnic molecule, in a distorted octahedral surrounding. The structures of 2-5 are made up of discrete heterodinuclear Re(II)M(II) units where the fully deprotonated [Re(NO)Br4(nic)](2-) entity acts as a didentate ligand through the carboxylate group towards the [Ni(dmphen)2](2+) (2), [Co(dmphen)2](2+) (3), [Mn(dmphen)(H2O)2](2+) (4) and [Cu(bipy)2](2+) (5) fragments, the Re-M separation across the nic bridge being 7.8736(8) (2), 7.9632(10) (3), 7.7600(6) (4) and 8.2148(7) Å (5). The environment of the Re(II) ion in 2-5 is the same as 1 that in and all M(II) are six-coordinate in highly distorted octahedral surroundings, the main source of the distortion being due to the reduced bite of the chelating carboxylate. The magnetic properties of 1-5' were investigated in the temperature range 1.9-300 K. 1 behaves as a quasi-magnetically isolated spin doublet with very weak antiferromagnetic interactions through space Br···Br contacts. Its magnetic susceptibility data were successfully modeled through a deep analysis of the influence of the ligand field, spin-orbit coupling, tetragonal distortion and covalence effects as variable parameters. Compounds 2-5' exhibit weak antiferromagnetic interactions. The intramolecular exchange pathway in this family being discarded because of the symmetry of magnetic orbitals of the Re(II) ion (d(xy)) precludes any spin delocalization on the bridging nic orbitals, the observed magnetic interactions are most likely mediated by ?-? type interactions between the peripheral ligands which occur in them. Only in the case of 4, short through space Br···Br contacts of ca. 4.03 Å (values larger than 5.5 Å in 2, 3 and 5) could be involved in the exchange coupling. PMID:26042855

  6. Two binuclear cyanide-bridged Cr(III)-Mn(III) complexes based-on [Cr(2,2'-bipy)(CN)4]- building block: synthesis, crystal structures and magnetic properties.

    PubMed

    Zhanga, Daopeng; Kong, Lingqian; Zhang, Hongyan

    2015-01-01

    Tetracyanide building block [Cr(2,2'-bipy)(CN)(4)]- and two bicompartimental Schiff-base based manganese(III) compounds have been employed to assemble cyanide-bridged heterometallic complexes, resulting in two cyanide-bridged CrIII-MnIII complexes: [Mn(L(1))(H(2)O)][Cr(2,2'-bipy)(CN)(4)]·CH(3)OH·2.5H(2)O (1) and [Mn(L(2))(H(2)O)][Cr(2,2'-bipy)(CN)(4)]·CH(3)OH·(3)H(2)O (2) (L1 = N,N'-(1,3-propylene)-bis(3-methoxysalicylideneiminate), L2 = N,N'-ethylene-bis(3-ethoxysalicylideneiminate)). Single X-ray diffraction analysis shows their similar cyanide-bridged binuclear structures, in which the cyanide precursor acting as monodentate ligand connects the manganese(III) ion. The binuclear complexes are self-complementary through coordinated aqua ligand and the free O4 compartment from the neighboring complex, giving H-bond linking dimer structure. Investigation over magnetic properties reveals the antiferromagnetic magnetic coupling between the cyanide-bridged Cr(III) and Mn(III) ions. A best-fit to the magnetic susceptibilities of these two complexes leads to the magnetic coupling constants J = -5.95 cm(-1), j = -0.61 cm(-1) (1) and J = -4.15 cm(-1), j = -0.57 cm(-1) (2), respectively. PMID:25830979

  7. MAGNETIC PROPERTIES OF SOLIDS Lecture 10-III

    E-print Network

    Smith, Nathanael J.

    MAGNETIC PROPERTIES OF SOLIDS Lecture 10-III #12;Review I ¹ = IA A Magnetic dipole moment I associated with magnetism ~B = ¹0 ~M + ¹0 ~H H = magnetic field strength (associated with macroscopic currents) M = magnetization (total magnetic dipole moment per unit volume) 0 = permeability of free space

  8. Low Dimensionality Effects in Complex Magnetic Oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, Paula J. Lampen

    Complex magnetic oxides represent a unique intersection of immense technological importance and fascinating physical phenomena originating from interwoven structural, electronic and magnetic degrees of freedom. The resulting energetically close competing orders can be controllably selected through external fields. Competing interactions and disorder represent an additional opportunity to systematically manipulate the properties of pure magnetic systems, leading to frustration, glassiness, and other novel phenomena while finite sample dimension plays a similar role in systems with long-range cooperative effects or large correlation lengths. A rigorous understanding of these effects in strongly correlated oxides is key to manipulating their functionality and device performance, but remains a challenging task. In this dissertation, we examine a number of problems related to intrinsic and extrinsic low dimensionality, disorder, and competing interactions in magnetic oxides by applying a unique combination of standard magnetometry techniques and unconventional magnetocaloric effect and transverse susceptibility measurements. The influence of dimensionality and disorder on the nature and critical properties of phase transitions in manganites is illustrated in La0.7 Ca0.3MnO3, in which both size reduction to the nanoscale and chemically-controlled quenched disorder are observed to induce a progressive weakening of the first-order nature of the transition, despite acting through the distinct mechanisms of surface effects and site dilution. In the second-order material La0.8Ca0.2MnO3, a strong magnetic field is found to drive the system toward its tricritical point as competition between exchange interactions in the inhomogeneous ground state is suppressed. In the presence of large phase separation stabilized by chemical disorder and long-range strain, dimensionality has a profound effect. With the systematic reduction of particle size in microscale-phase-separated (La, Pr, Ca)MnO3 we observe a disruption of the long-range glassy strains associated with the charge-ordered phase in the bulk, lowering the field and pressure threshold for charge-order melting and increasing the ferromagnetic volume fraction as particle size is decreased. The long-range charge-ordered phase becomes completely suppressed when the particle size falls below 100 nm. In contrast, low dimensionality in the geometrically frustrated pseudo-1D spin chain compound Ca3Co2O6 is intrinsic, arising from the crystal lattice. We establish a comprehensive phase diagram for this exotic system consistent with recent reports of an incommensurate ground state and identify new sub-features of the ferrimagnetic phase. When defects in the form of grain boundaries are incorporated into the system the low-temperature slow-dynamic state is weakened, and new crossover phenomena emerge in the spin relaxation behavior along with an increased distribution of relaxation times. The presence of both disorder and randomness leads to a spin-glass-like state, as observed in gammaFe2O3 hollow nanoparticles, where freezing of surface spins at low temperature generates an irreversible magnetization component and an associated exchange-biasing effect. Our results point to distinct dynamic behaviors on the inner and outer surfaces of the hollow structures. Overall, these studies yield new physical insights into the role of dimensionality and disorder in these complex oxide systems and highlight the sensitivity of their manifested magnetic ground states to extrinsic factors, leading in many cases to crossover behaviors where the balance between competing phases is altered, or to the emergence of entirely new magnetic phenomena.

  9. Burnt clay magnetic properties and palaeointensity determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avramova, Mariya; Lesigyarski, Deyan

    2014-05-01

    Burnt clay structures found in situ are the most valuable materials for archaeomagnetic studies. From these materials the full geomagnetic field vector described by inclination, declination and intensity can be retrieved. The reliability of the obtained directional results is related to the precision of samples orientation and the accuracy of characteristic remanence determination. Palaeointensity evaluations depend on much more complex factors - stability of carried remanent magnetization, grain-size distribution of magnetic particles and mineralogical transformations during heating. In the last decades many efforts have been made to shed light over the reasons for the bad success rate of palaeointensity experiments. Nevertheless, sometimes the explanation of the bad archaeointensity results with the magnetic properties of the studied materials is quite unsatisfactory. In order to show how difficult is to apply a priory strict criteria for the suitability of a given collection of archaeomagnetic materials, artificial samples formed from four different baked clays are examined. Two of the examined clay types were taken from clay deposits from different parts of Bulgaria and two clays were taken from ancient archaeological baked clay structures from the Central part of Bulgaria and the Black sea coast, respectively. The samples formed from these clays were repeatedly heated in known magnetic field to 700oC. Different analyses were performed to obtain information about the mineralogical content and magnetic properties of the samples. The obtained results point that all clays reached stable magnetic mineralogy after the repeated heating to 700oC, the main magnetic mineral is of titano/magnetite type and the magnetic particles are predominantly with pseudo single domain grain sizes. In spite that, the magnetic properies of the studied clays seem to be very similar, reliable palaeointensity results were obtained only from the clays coming from clay deposits. The palaeointensity experiments for the samples formed from the ancient baked clays completely failed to give relibable results.

  10. Syntheses, crystal structures, MMCT and magnetic properties of four one-dimensional cyanide-bridged complexes comprised of M(II)-CN-Fe(III) (M = Fe, Ru, Os).

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong; Ma, Xiao; Hu, Shengmin; Wen, Yuehong; Xue, Zhenzhen; Zhu, Xiaoquan; Zhang, Xudong; Sheng, Tianlu; Wu, Xintao

    2014-12-14

    Four new one-dimensional (1D) zigzag chain cyanide-bridged complexes [cis-MII(L)2(CN)2FeIII(salen)](PF6) (M = Fe, L = bpy, 3; M = Fe, L = phen, 4; M = Ru, L = bpy, 5; M = Os, L = bpy, 6) (bpy = 2,2?-bipyridine, phen = 1,10-phenanthroline, salen = N,N?-ethylenebis(salicylideneaminato) dianion) have been synthesized and structurally as well as magnetically characterized, especially 3 and 4 are mixed-valence complexes. Fortunately, the crystals of complexes 3, 4 and 6 suitable for single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis were obtained. In addition, the electronic absorption spectra indicate the existence of the MMCT (metal-to-metal charge transfer) bands in complexes 3–6. The temperature dependent magnetic susceptibilities reveal that the Fe(III)–Fe(III) exchange coupling separated by a diamagnetic cyanidometal –NC–M(II)–CN– bridge is weakly ferromagnetic for 3–5, but weakly anti-ferromagnetic for 6. Moreover, the specific heat measurements suggest complexes 3–5 exhibit a phase transition at 2.8 K, 2.7 K and 2.6 K, respectively. PMID:25337674

  11. Magnetism of the oceanic crust: Evidence from ophiolite complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, S.K.

    1980-07-10

    The magnetic properties of six ophiolite complexes from around the world, ranging in age from Jurassic to Miocene, are presented. An emphasis is placed in our study on the petrologic and isotopic data from these ophiolite complexes in order to determine first whether the rock samples presently available represent the pristine ocean crust or whether they have been altered subaerially since their formation. Five of the ophiolites are found to be acceptable, and the conclusion is overwhelmingly in favor of a marine magnetic source layer that includes not only the pillow lavas but also the underlying dikes and gabbro. At the moment, however, our observations do not suggest that the magnetic contributions of the basaltic dikes should be overlooked in favor of gabbro. A second important conclusion is that nearly pure magnetite could indeed be a magnetic carrier which contributes to marine magnetic anomanies. It only awaits discovery by deeper ocean crustal penetration by future Deep Sea Drilling Project legs.

  12. Magnetic properties of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans.

    PubMed

    Yan, Lei; Zhang, Shuang; Chen, Peng; Wang, Weidong; Wang, Yanjie; Li, Hongyu

    2013-10-01

    Understanding the magnetic properties of magnetotactic bacteria (MTBs) is of great interest in fields of life sciences, geosciences, biomineralization, biomagnetism, and planetary sciences. Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans (At. ferrooxidans), obtaining energy through the oxidation of ferrous iron and various reduced inorganic sulfur compounds, can synthesize intracellular magnetite magnetosomes. However, the magnetic properties of such microorganism remain unknown. Here we used transmission electronmicroscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) assay, vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), magneto-thermogravimetric analysis (MTGA), and low temperature magnetometry to comprehensively investigate the magnetic characteristics of At. ferrooxidans. Results revealed that each cell contained only 1 to 3 magnetite magnetosomes, which were arranged irregularly. The magnetosomes were generally in a stable single-domain (SD) state, but superparamagnetic (SP) magnetite particles were also found. The calcined bacteria exhibited a ferromagnetic behavior with a Curie Temperature of 454 °C and a coercivity of 16.36 mT. Additionally, the low delta ratio (?FC/?ZFC=1.27) indicated that there were no intact magnetosome chains in At. ferrooxidans. Our results provided the new insights on the biomineralization of bacterial magnetosomes and magnetic properties of At. ferrooxidans. PMID:23910310

  13. Magnetic properties and electronic structures of Ar3U(IV)–L Complexes with Ar = C5(CH3)4H(–) or C5H5(–) and L = CH3, NO, and Cl.

    PubMed

    Gendron, Frédéric; Le Guennic, Boris; Autschbach, Jochen

    2014-12-15

    Electronic structures and magnetic properties of the U(4+) complexes (C5Me4H)3UNO, (C5Me4H)3UCl, (C5H5)3UCH3, and (C5H5)3UCl are investigated by quantum chemical calculations. On the basis of wave function calculations including spin-orbit (SO) interactions, all complexes have nondegenerate nonmagnetic ground states. However, for L = CH3 and Cl magnetic doublet excited states are very low in energy, rendering the magnetic susceptibility strongly temperature dependent above ca. 50-100 K. In contrast, (C5Me4H)3UNO exhibits temperature-independent paramagnetism even at room temperature. The calculated susceptibilities agree well with available experimental data. An analysis of the ground states and the magnetic behavior is performed using crystal-field (CF) models with parameters extracted from the ab initio calculations, and with the help of natural orbitals contributing to the electron density, generated from scalar relativistic and SO wave functions for the ground states and selected excited states. Electronic g-factors calculated from the CF models agree well with ab initio data. The U-NO bond order in (C5Me4H)3UNO decreases somewhat due to SO coupling, because U-NO bonding ? orbitals with strong U 5f? character mix with nonbonding 5f? orbitals under the SO interaction. This complex also exhibits pronounced multireference character. All complexes afford U-ligand 5f covalent character. PMID:25426844

  14. Rheological properties of magnetic suspensions.

    PubMed

    Zubarev, A; Iskakova, L

    2008-05-21

    We present results of a theoretical study of the magnetorheological viscosity ? of a suspension versus the applied magnetic field H and shear rate [Formula: see text]. It is supposed that the macroscopic rheological effects are provided by linear chain-like aggregates. Unlike in traditional models, the natural statistical distribution of the chains over the number of particles in them is taken into account. The results obtained explain important features of the rheological ? versus [Formula: see text] law, which has been detected in experiments but qualitatively contradicts known theories of rheological properties of magnetic suspensions. PMID:21694267

  15. Magnetic modeling of the Bushveld Igneous Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, S. J.; Cole, J.; Letts, S. A.; Finn, C.; Torsvik, T. H.; Lee, M. D.

    2009-12-01

    Magnetic modeling of the 2.06 Ga Bushveld Complex presents special challenges due a variety of magnetic effects. These include strong remanence in the Main Zone and extremely high magnetic susceptibilities in the Upper Zone, which exhibit self-demagnetization. Recent palaeomagnetic results have resolved a long standing discrepancy between age data, which constrain the emplacement to within 1 million years, and older palaeomagnetic data which suggested ~50 million years for emplacement. The new palaeomagnetic results agree with the age data and present a single consistent pole, as opposed to a long polar wander path, for the Bushveld for all of the Zones and all of the limbs. These results also pass a fold test indicating the Bushveld Complex was emplaced horizontally lending support to arguments for connectivity. The magnetic signature of the Bushveld Complex provides an ideal mapping tool as the UZ has high susceptibility values and is well layered showing up as distinct anomalies on new high resolution magnetic data. However, this signature is similar to the highly magnetic BIFs found in the Transvaal and in the Witwatersrand Supergroups. Through careful mapping using new high resolution aeromagnetic data, we have been able to map the Bushveld UZ in complicated geological regions and identify a characteristic signature with well defined layers. The Main Zone, which has a more subdued magnetic signature, does have a strong remanent component and exhibits several magnetic reversals. The magnetic layers of the UZ contain layers of magnetitite with as much as 80-90% pure magnetite with large crystals (1-2 cm). While these layers are not strongly remanent, they have extremely high magnetic susceptibilities, and the self demagnetization effect must be taken into account when modeling these layers. Because the Bushveld Complex is so large, the geometry of the Earth’s magnetic field relative to the layers of the UZ Bushveld Complex changes orientation, creating complications in the modeling. Anisotropic magnetic susceptibility may be related to demagnetization in the Bushveld Complex due to well defined, relatively thin layers. Aeromagnetic data are useful for imaging layered intrusions because they often contain highly magnetic layers. However, care must be taken to incorporate the effects of strong susceptibilites (AMS,demagnetisation) and remanence.

  16. Hydrothermal syntheses, structures, and magnetic properties of two new Mn(II) complexes with biphenyl-2,3,3?,5?-tetracarboxylic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Rong-Fang; Liu, Xin-Fang; Zhang, Tian; Zhang, Xiao-Yu; Feng, Xun

    2014-10-01

    Two metal-organic frameworks [Mn4(bptc)2(bpy)2]n (1) (H4bptc = biphenyl-2,3,3?,5?-tetra-carboxylic acid, bpy = 2, 2?-dipyridine) with Mn4 clusters and {[Mn2(bptc)2(H2O)8]?4H2O}(2) were obtained through hydrothermal reaction. X-ray diffraction analysis shows that both complexes 1 and 2 crystallize in the Triclinic system, space group of P-1. The Mn(II) ions have two kinds of coordination mode in complex 1, one is five- coordinated and the other is six-coordinated. Mn(2) ion is bridged to neighboring Mn(2)A(A:1 - x, 1 - y, 2 - z) by two ?2-Ocarboxyl atoms to afford a {Mn}4 cluster together with another two symmetrical Mn(1) and Mn(1)a. The {Mn}4 clusters are further connected through the bptc4- ligands each other, giving rise to a 2D network. There is a Mn2O2 parallelogram-core in every {Mn}4 cluster, and to the best of our knowledge this is the first time observed. Complex 2 consists of the dinuclear manganese (II) unit, which is further linked by hydrogen bonds to form a 3D framework structure. Magnetic measurements show there is a weak anti-ferromagnetic interaction in complex 1. Moreover, the IR, element analysis, and thermal stability of the two complexes have been investigated systemically.

  17. Complexes of selected transition metal ions with 4-oxo-4-{[3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]amino}but-2-enoic acid: Synthesis, structure and magnetic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferenc, Wies?awa; Sadowski, Pawe?; Tarasiuk, Bogdan; Cristóvão, Beata; Drzewiecka-Antonik, Aleksandra; Osypiuk, Dariusz; Sarzy?ski, Jan

    2015-07-01

    The new complexes of 4-oxo-4-{[3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]amino}but-2-enoic acid, HL anion with Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Pr(III), Nd(III), Sm(III), Gd(III), Dy(III), Ho(III), Er(III), Y(III) were synthesized and some of their physico-chemical properties investigated. The complexes form hydrates with two or three molecules of water. The carboxylate groups act as a bidentate bridging or chelating ligand. The compounds of Pr(III), Nd(III), Sm(III), Gd(III), Dy(III), Ho(III), Er(III) and Y(III) are amorphous solids while those of Cu(II), Co(II), Ni(II) and Mn(II) crystalline ones that crystallize in monoclinic system. Complex of Cu(II) is the centrosymmetric dinuclear compound. Around both Cu(II) cations the tetragonal pyramide is formed. Being heated in air at 293-1173 K the complexes are decomposed in three steps. The oxides of appropriate metals are the final products of complex decomposition. All analysed compounds obey Curie-Weiss law. They show the paramagnetic properties with the ferromagnetic interactions between molecular centres.

  18. Synthesis, structure, magnetic properties and biological activity of supramolecular copper(II) and nickel(II) complexes with a Schiff base ligand derived from vitamin B6.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Tirtha; Costa Pessoa, João; Kumar, Amit; Sarkar, Asit R

    2013-02-21

    Three new complexes of Cu(II) and Ni(II), [Cu(II)(H(2)pydmedpt)](2+)·2Cl(-) (1), [Ni(II)(H(2)pydmedpt)](2+)·2Cl(-) (2) and [Ni(II)(pydmedpt)(OH)](-)·K(+) (3) of the Schiff base ligand [H(2)pydmedpt](2+)·2Cl(-) were synthesized by the in situ reaction of pyridoxal (pyd), a vitamer of vitamin B(6), N,N-bis[3-aminopropyl]methylamine (medpt) and copper(II) acetate or nickel(II) acetate, respectively. The molecular structures of 1 and 2 were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. The structure of 3 in the solid state was inferred by elemental analysis, diffuse reflectance spectrum, variable temperature magnetic moment studies and DFT calculations. The binding of the Schiff base ligand to the metal centers involves two phenolato oxygens, two imine nitrogens and one amine nitrogen. The coordination geometry around Cu in 1 is distorted square pyramidal and that around the Ni atom in 2 is intermediate between square-pyramidal and trigonal-bipyramidal. In the crystals the compounds form supramolecular one dimensional chain structures stabilized by hydrogen bonding and ?-? stacking interactions. Variable temperature magnetic moment data of 2 indicate the presence of a momomeric high spin Ni(II) centre in the complex. The solid state diffuse reflectance spectrum, conductance and elemental analysis suggest that 3 is a Ni(II) complex with a tetragonally distorted octahedral field, the sixth position being occupied by the oxygen atom of a hydroxyl group. The variable temperature magnetic moment of 3 indicates the presence of a ferromagnetic dinuclear species (29.2%) along with the major monomeric species, the intra-dimer exchange term J value being 14.3 cm(-1). The competitive binding of 1 and 2 with DNA was studied in the concentration range 40 to 400 ?M, the apparent binding constants being K = 2.9 × 10(3) and 6.7 × 10(3) M(-1), respectively. Human Serum Albumin (HSA) binding studies were carried out at concentrations of 800-1000 ?M and 400-500 ?M for the complexes and HSA, respectively, in PBS buffer at pH 7.4. Complex 1 binds to HSA, while no binding is observed in case of 2, instead, the complex hydrolyses under the experimental conditions used and the resulting Ni(2+) ions bind with HSA. PMID:23223610

  19. Sandwich complex-containing macromolecules: property tunability through versatile synthesis.

    PubMed

    Abd-El-Aziz, Alaa S; Agatemor, Christian; Etkin, Nola

    2014-03-01

    Sandwich complexes feature unique properties as the physical and electronic properties of a hydrocarbon ligand or its derivative are integrated into the physical, electronic, magnetic, and optical properties of a metal. Incorporation of these complexes into macromolecules results in intriguing physical, electrical, and optical properties that were hitherto unknown in organic-based macromolecules. These properties are tunable through well-designed synthetic strategies. This review surveys many of the synthetic approaches that have resulted in tuning the properties of sandwich complex-containing macromolecules. While the past two decades have seen an ever-growing number of research publications in this field, gaps remain to be filled. Thus, we expect this review to stimulate research interest towards bridging these gaps, which include the insolubility of some of these macromolecules as well as expanding the scope of the sandwich complexes. PMID:24474608

  20. Copper(ii) tetrafluoroborate complexes with the N(3),N(4)-bridging coordination of 1-(tert-butyl)-1H-tetrazole: synthesis, crystal structure and magnetic properties.

    PubMed

    Degtyarik, Mikhail M; Lyakhov, Alexander S; Ivashkevich, Ludmila S; Matulis, Vitaly E; Matulis, Vadim E; Gruschinski, Sina; Voitekhovich, Sergei V; Kersting, Berthold; Ivashkevich, Oleg A

    2015-11-14

    1-(tert-Butyl)-1H-tetrazole (L) reacts with copper(ii) tetrafluoroborate hexahydrate to give the complexes [Cu2L8(H2O)2](BF4)4 (1) or [Cu3L6(H2O)6](BF4)6 (2) depending on the reaction conditions. These complexes, as well as compound L, were characterized using single crystal X-ray analysis. Complex 1 was found to comprise a dinuclear complex cation [Cu2L8(H2O)2](4+) (the Ci symmetry point group), with six tetrazole ligands L showing monodentate N(4)-coordination, and two ligands L providing two tetrazole ring N(3),N(4) bridges between the copper(ii) cations; water molecules complete the distorted octahedral coordination of the metal ions. Complex 2 includes a linear trinuclear complex cation [Cu3L6(H2O)6](6+) (the S6 symmetry point group), in which neighbouring copper(ii) cations are linked by three ligands L via tetrazole ring N(3),N(4) bridges; central and terminal metal ions show octahedral CuN6 and CuN3O3 coordination cores, respectively. The temperature-dependent magnetic susceptibility measurements of complex 2 revealed that the copper(ii) ions were weakly ferromagnetically coupled showing a coupling constant J of 2.2 cm(-1) {H = -2J(S1S2 + S2S3)}. The quantum-chemical investigation of the electronic structure and basicity of ligand L was carried out. PMID:26442910

  1. The topology and instability of complex magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longbottom, Aaron William

    The magnetic structures of active-region and quiescent filaments and their overlying magnetic arcades which erupt to give a CME are extremely complex. New models are presented for such structures and for the complex field produced by many solar magnetic sources. Their properties are described, including the nature of their skeletons, which consist of the 3D null points and a web of spine curves and separatrix surfaces. In particular, the nature of the magnetic field near a switch-back in the global polarity inversion line is described where CME eruptions have been found with Yohkoh to be common. The nature of the instabilities that may lead to prominence eruption is examined, indicating the conditions for the onset of such a process. Finally, the evolution of such fields through a series of equilibria is analysed.

  2. Coherent transport through spin-crossover magnet Fe2 complexes.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jing; Xie, Rong; Wang, Weiyi; Li, Qunxiang; Yang, Jinlong

    2015-12-17

    As one of the most promising building blocks in molecular spintronics, spin crossover (SCO) complexes have attracted increasing attention due to their magnetic bistability between the high-spin (HS) and low-spin (LS) states. Here, we explore the electronic structures and transport properties of SCO magnet Fe2 complexes with three different spin-pair configurations, namely [LS-LS], [LS-HS], and [HS-HS], by performing extensive density functional theory calculations combined with the non-equilibrium Green's function technique. Our calculations clearly reveal that the SCO magnet Fe2 complexes should display two-step spin transitions triggered by external stimuli, i.e. temperature or light, which confirm the previous phenomenological model and agree well with previous experimental measurements. Based on the calculated transport results, we observe a nearly perfect spin-filtering effect and negative differential resistance (NDR) behavior integrated in the SCO magnet Fe2 junction with the [HS-HS] configuration. The current through the [HS-HS] SCO magnet Fe2 complex under a small bias voltage is mainly contributed by the spin-down electrons, which is significantly larger than those of the [LS-LS] and [LS-HS] cases. The bias-dependent transmissions are responsible for the observed NDR effect. These theoretical findings suggest that SCO Fe2 complexes hold potential applications in molecular spintronic devices. PMID:26647165

  3. Magnetic Properties of selected Prussian Blue Analogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, Manjita

    Prussian Blue Analogs (PBAs) of composition M[M(C,N)6 ] 2.xH2O are bimetallic cyanide complexes, where M and M are bivalent or trivalent transition metals and x is number of water molecule per unit cell. The PBAs form cubic framework structures, which consist mostly of alternating MIIIN6 and MIIC 6 octahedrals. However, occupancies of the octrahedrals are not perfect: they may be empty and the charges are balanced by the guest water molecules at the lattice site (C or N site) or the interstitial site (between the octahedrals) of the unit cell. Most (but not all) PBAs exhibit negative thermal expansion behavior, i.e. volume decrease with increasing temperature. Another area of interest in PBA research is the occurrence of unusual magnetic properties. Similar to other molecular magnets, large crystal-field splitting due to the octrahedral environment may result in a combination of low- or high-spin configurations of the localized magnetic moments, i.e. spin crossover effects may be found. My dissertation focuses on the magnetic properties of the selected 3d transition-metal PBAs, namely metal hexacyanochromates M3[Cr(C,N)6 ]2.xH2O, metal hexcyanoferrates M3[Fe(C,N)6]2.xH2O and metal hexcyanocobaltates M3[Co(C,N)6]2 .xH2O where M = Mn, Co, Ni and Cu. In particular, I analyzed the temperature and field dependencies of the bulk magnetic response of those PBAs. My results show that the magnetic susceptibility of all studied PBAs follows the Curie-Weiss behavior in the paramagnetic region up to room temperature; however, some of the compounds exhibit long-range magnetic order at lower temperatures (ferromagnetic or antiferromagnetic). In particular, the data provide evidence for magnetic ground states for most of the metal hexacyanochromates and all of the metal hexacyanoferrates but none of the hexacyanocobaltates that were studied. For each of the compounds, my analysis provides a measure of the effective magnetic moment, which is then compared with the predicted moments assuming high- and/or low-spin configurations. Finally, I provide a discussion as to whether magnetism may play any role into the occurrence of negative thermal expansion for most PBAs.

  4. Modeling Magnetic Properties in EZTB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Seungwon; vonAllmen, Paul

    2007-01-01

    A software module that calculates magnetic properties of a semiconducting material has been written for incorporation into, and execution within, the Easy (Modular) Tight-Binding (EZTB) software infrastructure. [EZTB is designed to model the electronic structures of semiconductor devices ranging from bulk semiconductors, to quantum wells, quantum wires, and quantum dots. EZTB implements an empirical tight-binding mathematical model of the underlying physics.] This module can model the effect of a magnetic field applied along any direction and does not require any adjustment of model parameters. The module has thus far been applied to study the performances of silicon-based quantum computers in the presence of magnetic fields and of miscut angles in quantum wells. The module is expected to assist experimentalists in fabricating a spin qubit in a Si/SiGe quantum dot. This software can be executed in almost any Unix operating system, utilizes parallel computing, can be run as a Web-portal application program. The module has been validated by comparison of its predictions with experimental data available in the literature.

  5. Magnetic properties in graphene-graphane superlattices

    E-print Network

    Lee, Joo-Hyoung

    The magnetic properties of graphene-graphane superlattices with zigzag interfaces and separately varying widths are investigated by first-principles density functional calculations. It is demonstrated that magnetic states ...

  6. S-shaped decanuclear heterometallic [Ni8Ln2] complexes [Ln(III) = Gd, Tb, Dy and Ho]: theoretical modeling of the magnetic properties of the gadolinium analogue.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Sakiat; Das, Sourav; Chakraborty, Amit; Lloret, Francesc; Cano, Joan; Pardo, Emilio; Chandrasekhar, Vadapalli

    2014-07-14

    The reaction of 8-quinolinol-2-carboaldoxime (LH2) with Ni(II) and Ln(III) salts afforded the heterometallic decanuclear compounds [Ni8Dy2(?3-OH)2(L)8(LH)2(H2O)6](ClO4)2·16H2O (1), [Ni8Gd2(?3-OH)2(L)8(LH)2(H2O)4(MeOH)2](NO3)2·12H2O (2), [Ni8Ho2(?3-OH)2(L)8(LH)2(H2O)4(MeOH)2](ClO4)2·2MeOH·12H2O (3) and [Ni8Tb2 (?3-OH)2(L)8(LH)2(MeOH)4(OMe)2]·2CH2Cl2·8H2O (4). While compounds 1-3 are dicationic, compound 4 is neutral. These compounds possess an S-shaped architecture and comprise a long chain of metal ions bound to each other. In all the complexes, the eight Ni(II) and two Ln(III) ions of the multimetallic ensemble are hold together by two ?3-OH, eight dianionic (L(2-)) and two monoanionic oxime ligands (LH(-)) whereas compound 4 has two ?3-OH, eight dianionic (L(2-)), two monoanionic oxime ligands (LH(-)) and two terminal methoxy (MeO(-)) ligands. The central portion of the S-shaped molecular wire is made up of an octanuclear Ni(II) ensemble which has at its two ends the Ln(III) caps. Magnetic studies on 1-4 reveal that the magnetic interactions between neighboring metal ions are negligible at room temperature. On the other hand, at lower temperatures in all the compounds anti-ferromagnetic interactions seem to be dominated. Analysis of the magnetic data for the Gd(III) derivative indicates Ni(II)-Ni(II) anti-ferromagnetic interactions and Gd(III)-Ni(II) ferromagnetic interactions at low temperatures. A theoretical density functional study on the magnetic behavior of the Gd(III) derivative suggests that while the weak ferromagnetic interaction between Gd(III) and Ni(II) is in line with the expectation of the magnetic interactions between orthogonal d and f orbitals, antiferromagnetic Ni(II)-Ni(II) interactions are related to the wide Ni-O-Ni angles (?102°) and quasi-planar conformation of the Ni2O2 core. PMID:24876072

  7. Preparation of molecule-based magnets from metal thiocyanate complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shurdha, Endrit

    2011-07-01

    The study of magnetism has enabled many technological applications that are ubiquitous in our daily life. Presently, most of the magnetic applications use metal/metal oxide magnets, which are readily available. In the last few decades, research has focused on a new class of magnetic materials, molecule-based magnets. This class of materials has diverse physical and chemical properties, which can be controlled by synthetic methods. Utilizing a variety of metals and ligands, researchers can control and fine tune various aspects of these magnetic materials, such as structural connections and possibly magnetic properties. Tetracyanoethylene (TCNE) is widely used in the preparation of molecule-based magnets due to its unique electronic and connectivity properties. TCNE has multiple binding sites, which gives it a diverse range of structural connectivity. Also, TCNE can be reduced easily to form a radical anion, which facilitates spin communication between metal centers allowing isolation of magnetically ordered systems such as V(TCNE)2 (a room temperature molecule-based magnet). M-TCNE magnets are prepared from solvated MII complexes or a metal carbonyl and TCNE in dichloromethane. The reaction involves the oxidation of the MII to MIII and the reduction of TCNE. More coordinating solvents used to prepare TCNE molecule-based magnets facilitate the dimerization of the radical TCNE, which does not allow for long-range ordering. The work presented herein will show the synthesis of MII thiocyanate complexes and their reaction with TCNE radical anion to yield M(TCNE)[C4(CN)8]1/2, which is obtained through ligand substitution between TCNE and thiocyanate. The development of new MII thiocyanate complexes through MII(NCMe)x(BF4)2 (x = 4, 6) in acetone, acetonitrile, and tetrahydrofuran will be the focus of Chapter 2. Also, in Chapter 2, structural and magnetic characterization will be discussed. Few of the metal thiocyanate complexes exhibit antiferromagnetic ordering at temperatures ranging from 8 to 50 K. Next the use of iron, manganese, and cobalt thiocyanate complexes for the preparation of M(TCNE)[C4(CN) 8]1/2 will be presented in Chapter 3. In Chapter 4, the effects of acetone and acetonitrile in the preparation of M-TCNE systems will be presented and structural and magnetic properties will be discussed. Mixed metal molecule-based magnets of the composition of M'xM''1-x (TCNE)[C4(CN)8]1/2 (M', M'' = Fe, Mn, Co) will be explored in Chapter 5. The metal composition ratios, coercive field, and critical temperature (T c) will be considered. Chapter 6 will cover some concluding remarks and some future directions towards the design and synthesis of new molecule-based magnets.

  8. Magnetic study in high-Tc superconducting oxides by AC-complex magnetic susceptibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okuda, K.; Noguchi, S.; Yoshikawa, M.; Imanaka, N.; Imai, H.; Adachi, G.

    1990-08-01

    Magnetic properties of high-Tc superconducting oxides were investigated by ac-complex magnetic susceptibility ? = ?? - j?. The magnetic penetration depth ?(T) obtained f om ?? was analyzed by the term of BCS gap parameter. A strong correlation between Tc and ?(O) -2 was found. The loss peak of ??(T) in the bulk sample of Bi(Pb)SrCaCuO-Au composites system was measured as a function of field amplitude and frequency. The activation energy of flux was obtained as a function of field amplitude by applying the flux-creep model.

  9. Complex Plasmas in Strong Magnetic Field Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Konopka, U.; Schwabe, M.; Knapek, C.; Kretschmer, M.; Morfill, G.E.

    2005-10-31

    To complete our picture of general complex plasmas, experiments under the influence of high magnetic fields have been carried out in a radio frequency (rf) discharge with and without embedded micro-particles. The influence of the strong magnetic field on the plasma with respect to its homogeneity as well as on the isotropy of the particle interaction was studied. We observed a filamentation of the plasma at low pressures and low powers even in the absence of particles. The plasma filaments moved around -- traced by embedded particles -- and suddenly changed to a crystalline like arrangement.

  10. Influence of carboxylic acid type on microstructure and magnetic properties of polymeric complex sol-gel driven NiFe2O4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hessien, M. M.; Mostafa, Nasser Y.; Abd-Elkader, Omar H.

    2016-01-01

    Citric, oxalic and tartaric acids were used for synthesis of NiFe2O4 using polymeric complex precursor route. The dry precursor gels were calcined at various temperatures (400-1100 °C) for 2 h. All carboxylic acids produce iron-deficient NiFe2O4 with considerable amount of ?-Fe2O3 at 400 °C. Increase in the annealing temperature caused reaction of ?-Fe2O3 with iron-deficient ferrite phase. The amount of initially formed ?-Fe2O3 is directly correlated with stability constant and inversely correlated with the decomposition temperature of Fe(III) carboxylate precursors. In case of tartaric acid precursor, single phase of the ferrite was obtained at 450 °C. However, in case of oxalic acid and citric acid precursors, single phase ferrite was obtained at 550 °C and 700 °C, respectively. The lattice parameters were increased with increasing annealing temperature and with decreasing the amount of ?-Fe2O3. Maximum saturation magnetization (55 emu/g) was achieved using tartaric acid precursor annealed at 1100 °C.

  11. The synthesis and transport properties of the complex salt /TMPD/ /TCNQ/2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somoano, R.; Hadek, V.; Yen, S. P. S.; Rembaum, A.; Deck, R.

    1975-01-01

    The syntheses and transport properties of the complex salt /TMPD/ /TCNQ/2 are described. At high temperatures, the complex is a magnetic semiconductor with transport properties intermediate between those found in the highly conducting and poorly conducting TCNQ salts. The complex undergoes a transition below 50-60 K to a state exhibiting singlet-triplet behavior with weakly alternating exchange coupling.

  12. Design of magnetic coordination complexes for quantum computing.

    PubMed

    Aromí, Guillem; Aguilà, David; Gamez, Patrick; Luis, Fernando; Roubeau, Olivier

    2012-01-21

    A very exciting prospect in coordination chemistry is to manipulate spins within magnetic complexes for the realization of quantum logic operations. An introduction to the requirements for a paramagnetic molecule to act as a 2-qubit quantum gate is provided in this tutorial review. We propose synthetic methods aimed at accessing such type of functional molecules, based on ligand design and inorganic synthesis. Two strategies are presented: (i) the first consists in targeting molecules containing a pair of well-defined and weakly coupled paramagnetic metal aggregates, each acting as a carrier of one potential qubit, (ii) the second is the design of dinuclear complexes of anisotropic metal ions, exhibiting dissimilar environments and feeble magnetic coupling. The first systems obtained from this synthetic program are presented here and their properties are discussed. PMID:21818467

  13. Two molecular wheels 12-MC-6 complexes: Synthesis, structure and magnetic property of [Co(?{sub 2}-SEt){sub 2}]{sub 6} and [Fe(?{sub 2}-SEt){sub 2}]{sub 6}

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jing; Jian, Fangfang; Huang, Baoxin; Bai, Zhengshuai

    2013-08-15

    The syntheses and structures of two ethyl mercaptan molecular wheels complexes, [M(?{sub 2}-SCH{sub 2}CH{sub 3}){sub 2}]{sub 6} (M=Fe, Co), have been reported. Each metal atom is surrounded by four S atoms of the ?{sub 2}-SCH{sub 2}CH{sub 3} ligands in a distorted square plane fashion. The edge-sharing S{sub 4} square planes connect with each other to form a ring. Six metal atoms are located at the vertices of an almost hexagon, with M···M separations in the range of 2.903(1)?2.936(2) Å for Fe and 2.889(2)?2.962(2) Å for Co. The diameter of the ring, defined as the average distance between two opposing metal atoms, is 5.850(1) Å for Fe and 5.780(1) Å for Co, respectively. The magnetic property behaves of cobalt(II) cluster complex is studied. Highlights: • Two new ethyl mercaptan cyclic hexanuclear complexes were reported. • The crystal structures shown center formation of M{sub 6}S{sub 12} molecular wheels. • The Co{sub 6} ring cluster complex represents as weak ferromagnet.

  14. Magnetic properties of the Estherville mesosiderite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collinson, D. W.

    1991-03-01

    Taking advantage of the natural remanent magnetization (NRM) left in meteorites by the conjunction of their evolutionary processes and the effects of early solar system magnetic fields, the Estherville mesosiderite has been studied with a view to the extent to which uncertainties associated with mesosiderite history and evolution can be resolved by magnetic properties. The noncoherent directions of NRM within the matrix imply the acquisition of an initial NRM by kamacite in the fragments prior to their final accumulation into the mesosiderite material, and the presence of an ambient magnetic field when the fragment material cooled after its formation. Susceptibility anisotropy observations imply anisotropic property acquisition before final meteorite accumulation.

  15. High frequency magnetic properties of ferromagnetic thin films and magnetization dynamics of coherent precession

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Chang-Jun; Fan, Xiao-Long; Xue, De-Sheng

    2015-05-01

    We focus on the ferromagnetic thin films and review progress in understanding the magnetization dynamic of coherent precession, its application in seeking better high frequency magnetic properties for magnetic materials at GHz frequency, as well as new approaches to these materials’ characterization. High frequency magnetic properties of magnetic materials determined by the magnetization dynamics of coherent precession are described by the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation. However, the complexity of the equation results in a lack of analytically universal information between the high frequency magnetic properties and the magnetization dynamics of coherent precession. Consequently, searching for magnetic materials with higher permeability at higher working frequency is still done case by case. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2012CB933101), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11034004 and 51371093), the Program for Changjiang Scholars and Innovative Research Team in University, China (Grant No. IRT1251), and the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education, China (Grant No. 20130211130003).

  16. Microwave magnetic properties of soft magnetic thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, GuoZhi; Guo, DangWei; Fan, XiaoLong; Xue, DeSheng

    2011-07-01

    We review our works that focus on the microwave magnetic properties of metallic, ferrite and granular thin films. Soft magnetic material with large permeability and low energy loss in the GHz range is a challenge for the inforcom technologies. GHz magnetic properties of the soft magnetic thin films with in-plane anisotropy were investigated. It is found that several hundreds of permeability at the GHz frequency was achieved for Co100- x Zr x and Co90Nb10 metallic thin films because of their high saturation magnetization, and an adjustable resonance frequency from 1.3 to 4.9 GHz was obtained. Compared with the metallic thin films, the weaker saturation magnetization of Ni-Zn ferrite thin films results in several tens of permeability at the GHz frequency, but the larger resistivity of the ferrite prepared in situ without any heating treatments has lower energy loss. In order to obtain materials with large permeability and low energy loss in the GHz range, the [CoFe-NiZn ferrite] composite granular thin films were investigated, where the advantage of higher saturation magnetization for the metallic alloy and the high resistivity as well as high saturation magnetization for the ferrite results in a good GHz magnetic performance.

  17. Syntheses, crystal structures, and magnetic properties of novel manganese(II) complexes with flexible tripodal ligand 1,3,5-tris(imidazol-1-ylmethyl)-2,4,6-trimethylbenzene.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wei; Song, You; Okamura, Taka-aki; Fan, Jian; Sun, Wei-Yin; Ueyama, Norikazu

    2005-05-01

    Two novel metal-organic frameworks (MOFs)--[Mn(titmb)(N3)2] x 1.5H2O (1) and [Mn3(titmb)2(C2O4)3(H2O)] x 10H2O (2)--were obtained by reactions of the flexible tripodal ligand 1,3,5-tris(imidazol-1-ylmethyl)-2,4,6-trimethylbenzene (titmb) with Mn(OAc)2 x 4H2O, together with NaN3 and K2C2O4, respectively. The structures of these MOFs were established by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The crystal data for 1 were as follows: monoclinic, C2/c, a = 20.956(13) A, b = 9.884(6) A, c = 24.318(14) A, beta = 95.87(5) degrees, Z = 8. The crystal data for 2 were as follows: triclinic, P1, a = 12.400(9) A, b = 16.827(12) A, c = 17.196(11) A, alpha = 66.35(5), beta = 95.87(5) degrees, gamma = 71.03(6), Z = 2. Complex 1 is a novel noninterpenetrating three-dimensional (3D) framework, in which the azide ligand connects Mn(II) atoms in an end-to-end (EE) mode to give [Mn-N-N-N-]n infinite one-dimensional (1D) chains, and complex 2 has a two-dimensional (2D) network structure in which the Mn(II) ions are linked by the oxalate anions to form 1D [Mn(C2O4)]n chains. Each titmb in these two complexes connects three metal atoms and serves as a three-connecting ligand. The magnetic properties of 1 and 2 were investigated. The results showed that the antiferromagnetic interactions occurred between the Mn(II) ions linked by the azide ligands in complex 1, and those linked by the oxalate anions and the carboxylate in syn-anti coordination mode in complex 2. The entirely different structures of complexes 1 and 2, on one hand, indicate that the azide and the oxalate ligands affected the structures of MOFs greatly, and on the other hand, reveals the potential applications of MOFs with the azide and oxalate ligands, which are efficient magnetic couplers. PMID:15847443

  18. Pentanuclear 3d-4f Heterometal Complexes of M(II)3Ln(III)2 (M = Ni, Cu, Zn and Ln = Nd, Gd, Tb) Combinations: Syntheses, Structures, Magnetism, and Photoluminescence Properties.

    PubMed

    Maity, Manoranjan; Majee, Mithun Chandra; Kundu, Sanchita; Samanta, Swarna Kamal; Sañudo, E Carolina; Ghosh, Sanjib; Chaudhury, Muktimoy

    2015-10-19

    A new family of pentanuclear 3d-4f heterometal complexes of general composition [Ln(III)2(M(II)L)3(?3-O)3H](ClO4)·xH2O (1-5) [Ln = Nd, M = Zn, 1; Nd, Ni, 2; Nd, Cu, 3; Gd, Cu, 4; Tb, Cu, 5] have been synthesized in moderate yields (50-60%) following a self-assembly reaction involving the hexadentate phenol-based ligand, viz., N,N-bis(2-hydroxy-3-methoxy-5-methylbenzyl)-N('),N(')-diethylethylenediamine (H2L). Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses have been used to characterize these complexes. The compounds are all isostructural, having a 3-fold axis of symmetry that passes through the 4f metal centers. The [M(II)L] units in these complexes are acting as bis-bidentate metalloligands and, together with ?3-oxido bridging ligands, complete the slightly distorted monocapped square antiprismatic nine-coordination environment around the 4f metal centers. The cationic complexes also contain a H(+) ion that occupies the central position at the 3-fold axis. Magnetic properties of the copper(II) complexes (3-5) show a changeover from antiferromagnetic in 3 to ferromagnetic 3d-4f interactions in 4 and 5. For the isotropic Cu(II)-Gd(III) compound 4, the simulation of magnetic data provides very weak Cu-Gd (J1 = 0.57 cm(-1)) and Gd-Gd exchange constants (J2 = 0.14 cm(-1)). Compound 4 is the only member of this triad, showing a tail of an out-of-phase signal in the ac susceptibility measurement. A large-spin ground state (S = 17/2) and a negative value of D (-0.12 cm(-1)) result in a very small barrier (8 cm(-1)) for this compound. Among the three Nd(III)2M(II)3 (M = Zn(II), Ni(II), and Cu(II)) complexes, only the Zn(II) analogue (1) displays an NIR luminescence due to the (4)F3/2 ? (4)I11/2 transition in Nd(III) when excited at 290 nm. The rest of the compounds do not show such Nd(III)/Tb(III)-based emission. The paramagnetic Cu(II) and Ni(II) ions quench the fluorescence in 2-5 and thereby lower the population of the triplet state. PMID:26407121

  19. Electronic properties of complex nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zhen

    Nanostructured materials have brought an unprecedented opportunity for advancement in many fields of human endeavor and in applications. Nanostructures are a new research field which may revolutionize people's everyday life. In the Thesis, I have used theoretical methods including density functional theory (DFT), molecular dynamic simulations (MD) and tight-binding methods to explore the structural, mechanical and electronic properties of various nanomaterials. In all this, I also paid attention to potential applications of these findings. First, I will briefly introduce the scientific background of this Thesis, including the motivation for the study of a boron enriched aluminum surface, novel carbon foam structures and my research interest in 2D electronics. Then I will review the computational techniques I used in the study, mostly DFT methods. In Chapter 3, I introduce an effective way to enhance surface hardness of aluminum by boron nanoparticle implantation. Using boron dimers to represent the nanoparticles, the process of boron implantation is modeled in a molecular dynamics simulation of bombarding the aluminum surface by energetic B 2 molecules. Possible metastable structures of boron-coated aluminum surface are identified. Within these structures, I find that boron atoms prefer to stay in the subsurface region of aluminum. By modeling the Rockwell indentation process, boron enriched aluminum surface is found to be harder than the pristine aluminum surface by at least 15%. In Chapter 4, I discuss novel carbon structures, including 3D carbon foam and related 2D slab structures. Carbon foam contains both sp 2 and sp3 hybridized carbon atoms. It forms a 3D honeycomb lattice with a comparable stability to fullerenes, suggesting possible existence of such carbon foam structures. Although the bulk 3D foam structure is semiconducting, an sp2 terminated carbon surface could maintain a conducting channel even when passivated by hydrogen. To promote the experimental realization of this novel foam structure, I also propose a growth model. I postulate that preferred growth should occur near the grain boundary of a carbon saturated polycrystal of transition metal. These findings are supported by a calculation of carbon diffusion in the solid. 2D semiconductors of group V elements are discussed in Chapters 5, 6, 7, and 8, including different phosphorus and arsenic structural phases. Structural and electronic properties of bulk and few-layer black phosphorus, so-called phosphorene, are studied in Chapter 5. In Chapter 6, I propose a new 2D structural phase of phosphorus, with the name blue phosphorus related to its wide predicted fundamental band gap. Then I move down in the periodic table and investigate the properties of grey arsenic in Chapter 7. Finally, I propose a tiling model to identify and categorize these structural phases in Chapter 8.

  20. Synthesis and magnetic properties of manganese carbonyl complexes with different coordination modes of 3,4,5-triaryl-1,2-diphospholide ligands.

    PubMed

    Miluykov, Vasili A; Bezkishko, Ilya A; Kochetkova, Liliya R; Kataeva, Olga N; Gerasimova, Tatiana P; Katsyuba, Sergey A; Sinyashin, Oleg G; Lönnecke, Peter; Hey-Hawkins, Evamarie; Parameswaran, Anupama; Krupskaya, Yulia; Kataev, Vladislav; Büchner, Bernd

    2015-06-14

    The set of complexes bis-(?:?(1),?(1)-3,4,5-triaryl-1,2-diphosphacyclopentadienyl)-bis-(tetracarbonyl manganese(i)) (aryl = C6H5 (), p-FC6H4 (), p-ClC6H4 ()) undergo an irreversible rearrangement to mononuclear 3,4,5-triaryl-1,2-diphosphacymantrenes (). According to quantum-chemical calculations binuclear complexes can be considered to be products of kinetic control and mononuclear species are thermodynamically favorable compounds. The antiferromagnetic intramolecular interaction observed for complexes can be effectively tuned by using substituents in the para-position of the arene ring, whereas mononuclear 1,2-diphosphacymantrenes are diamagnetic. PMID:25962493

  1. Magnetotransport Properties of Magnetic Oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branford, Will; Liu, Ying Lin; Parames, Maria Luisa; Morrison, Kelly

    2005-03-01

    Hybrid spintronic devices require high Curie temperature ferromagnets with a large transport spin polarization. It has been predicted that efficient spin injection is facilitated by matching the conductance of the ferromagnet to that of the semiconductor and in this respect dilute magnetic semiconductors look to be more attractive for application. Oxide dilute magnetic semiconductors are the only class to date that may offer Curie Temperatures above 300K. Here we review the effect of chemical substitution and/or growth parameters on the magnetic, magnetotransport and spin polarisation of charge carriers of a range of functional ferromagnetic oxides, such as Fe3O4, Nd2Mo2O7, CoxTi1-xO2 and CoxZn1-xO.

  2. Magnetic property and thermal analysis of a Mn(II) complex with [Mn(CO2)]n chains based on 4,4?-bis(1H-imidazol-1-yl-methyl)biphenyl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ming-Dao; Zheng, Bao-Hui; Wang, Zhe; Jiao, Yan; Chen, Min-Dong

    2014-11-01

    Magnetic coordination polymers have attracted considerable interest due to their novel structures and potential applications. In this paper, one new 2D magnetic manganese coordination polymer {[Mn(bimb)(OBA)]}n (1) was synthesized under solvothermal conditions based on 4,4?-bis(1H-imidazol-1-yl-methyl)biphenyl (bimb) and 4,4?-oxybis(benzoate) (H2OBA). Complex 1 contains [Mn(CO2)]n 1D chains and magnetic susceptibility measurements indicate that compound 1 exhibits an antiferromagnetic coupling interaction. In addition, complex 1 exhibits solid-state photoluminescence and high thermal stability.

  3. Crystal field and magnetic properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flood, D. J.

    1977-01-01

    Magnetization and magnetic susceptibility measurements have been made in the temperature range 1.3 to 4.2 K on powdered samples of ErH3. The susceptibility exhibits Curie-Weiss behavior from 4.2 to 2 K, and intercepts the negative temperature axis at theta = 1.05 + or - 0.05 K, indicating that the material is antiferromagnetic. The low field effective moment is 6.77 + or - 0.27 Bohr magnetons per ion. The magnetization exhibits a temperature independent contribution, the slope of which is (5 + or - 1.2) x 10 to the -6th Weber m/kg Tesla. The saturation moment is 3.84 + or - 1 - 0.15 Bohr magnetons per ion. The results can be qualitatively explained by the effects of crystal fields on the magnetic ions. No definitive assignment of a crystal field ground state can be given, nor can a clear choice between cubically or hexagonally symmetric crystal fields be made. For hexagonal symmetry, the first excited state is estimated to be 86 to 100 K above the ground state. For cubic symmetry, the splitting is on the order of 160 to 180 K.

  4. Tailoring Magnetic Properties in Bulk Nanostructured Solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, Jason Rolando

    Important magnetic properties and behaviors such as coercivity, remanence, susceptibility, energy product, and exchange coupling can be tailored by controlling the grain size, composition, and density of bulk magnetic materials. At nanometric length scales the grain size plays an increasingly important role since magnetic domain behavior and grain boundary concentration determine bulk magnetic behavior. This has spurred a significant amount of work devoted to developing magnetic materials with nanometric features (thickness, grain/crystallite size, inclusions or shells) in 0D (powder), 1D (wires), and 2D (thin films) materials. Large 3D nanocrystalline materials are more suitable for many applications such as permanent magnets, magneto-optical Faraday isolators etc. Yet there are relatively few successful demonstrations of 3D magnetic materials with nanoscale influenced properties available in the literature. Making dense 3D bulk materials with magnetic nanocrystalline microstructures is a challenge because many traditional densification techniques (HIP, pressureless sintering, etc.) move the microstructure out of the "nano" regime during densification. This dissertation shows that the Current Activated Pressure Assisted Densification (CAPAD) method, also known as spark plasma sintering, can be used to create dense, bulk, magnetic, nanocrystalline solids with varied compositions suited to fit many applications. The results of my research will first show important implications for the use of CAPAD for the production of exchange-coupled nanocomposite magnets. Decreases in grain size were shown to have a significant role in increasing the magnitude of exchange bias. Second, preferentially ordered bulk magnetic materials were produced with highly anisotropic material properties. The ordered microstructure resulted in changing magnetic property magnitudes (ex. change in coercivity by almost 10x) depending on the relative orientation (0° vs. 90°) of an externally applied magnetic field to the sample. Third, a dense magneto-optical material (rare earth oxide) was produced that rotates transmitted polarized light under an externally applied magnetic field, called the Faraday Effect. The magnitude of the rare earth oxide Faraday Effect surpasses that of the current market leader (terbium gallium garnet) in Faraday isolators by ˜2.24x.

  5. Molecular and all solid DFT studies of the magnetic and chemical bonding properties within KM[Cr(CN)$_6$] (M = V, Ni) complexes

    E-print Network

    L. Kabalan; S. F. Matar; C. Desplanches; J. F. Létard; M. Zakhour

    2008-02-25

    A study at both the molecular and extended solid level in the framework DFT is carried out for KM[Cr(CN)$_6$] (M = V, Ni). From molecular calculations, the exchange parameters J are obtained, pointing to the expected magnetic ground states, i.e., antiferromagnetic for M = V with J = -296.5 cm$^{-1}$ and ferromagnetic for M = Ni with J = +40.5 cm$^{-1}$. From solid state computations the same ground states and J magnitudes are confirmed from energy differences. Furthermore an analysis of the site projected density of states and of the chemical bonding is developed in which the cyanide ion linkage is analyzed addressing some isomerism aspects.

  6. Computer Simulations and Theoretical Studies of Complex Systems: from complex fluids to frustrated magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Eunsong

    Computer simulations are an integral part of research in modern condensed matter physics; they serve as a direct bridge between theory and experiment by systemactically applying a microscopic model to a collection of particles that effectively imitate a macroscopic system. In this thesis, we study two very differnt condensed systems, namely complex fluids and frustrated magnets, primarily by simulating classical dynamics of each system. In the first part of the thesis, we focus on ionic liquids (ILs) and polymers--the two complementary classes of materials that can be combined to provide various unique properties. The properties of polymers/ILs systems, such as conductivity, viscosity, and miscibility, can be fine tuned by choosing an appropriate combination of cations, anions, and polymers. However, designing a system that meets a specific need requires a concrete understanding of physics and chemistry that dictates a complex interplay between polymers and ionic liquids. In this regard, molecular dynamics (MD) simulation is an efficient tool that provides a molecular level picture of such complex systems. We study the behavior of Poly (ethylene oxide) (PEO) and the imidazolium based ionic liquids, using MD simulations and statistical mechanics. We also discuss our efforts to develop reliable and efficient classical force-fields for PEO and the ionic liquids. The second part is devoted to studies on geometrically frustrated magnets. In particular, a microscopic model, which gives rise to an incommensurate spiral magnetic ordering observed in a pyrochlore antiferromagnet is investigated. The validation of the model is made via a comparison of the spin-wave spectra with the neutron scattering data. Since the standard Holstein-Primakoff method is difficult to employ in such a complex ground state structure with a large unit cell, we carry out classical spin dynamics simulations to compute spin-wave spectra directly from the Fourier transform of spin trajectories. We conclude the study by showing an excellent agreement between the simulation and the experiment.

  7. Four-coordinate Co(II) and Fe(II) complexes with bis(N-heterocyclic carbene)borate and their magnetic properties.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuan-Zhong; Wang, Jing; Zhao, Yue; Chen, Lei; Chen, Xue-Tai; Xue, Zi-Ling

    2015-01-21

    Both square planar and tetrahedral isomers of the four-coordinate complex [Co(Bc(tBu))2] with a bis(3-tert-butylimidazol-2-ylidene)borate ligand (Bc(tBu)) have been isolated while only a tetrahedral configuration was found for the Fe(ii) analogue [Fe(Bc(tBu))2]. Novel co-crystals containing both isomers of [Co(Bc(tBu))2] have been obtained from recrystallization. PMID:25470141

  8. Electrostatic complexation of polyelectrolyte and magnetic nanoparticles: from wild clustering to controllable magnetic wires

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We present the electrostatic complexation between polyelectrolytes and charged nanoparticles. The nanoparticles in solution are ?-Fe2O3 (maghemite) spheres with 8.3 nm diameter and anionic surface charges. The complexation was monitored using three different formulation pathways such as direct mixing, dilution, and dialysis. In the first process, the hybrids were obtained by mixing stock solutions of polymers and nanoparticles. A ‘destabilization state’ with sharp and intense maximum aggregation was found at charges stoichiometry (isoelectric point). While on the two sides of the isoelectric point, ‘long-lived stable clusters state’ (arrested states) were observed. Dilution and dialysis processes were based on controlled desalting kinetics according to methods developed in molecular biology. Under an external magnetic field (B?=?0.3 T), from dialysis at isoelectric point and at arrested states, cationic polyelectrolytes can ‘paste’ these magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) together to yield irregular aggregates (size of 100 ?m) and regular rod-like aggregates, respectively. These straight magnetic wires were fabricated with diameters around 200 nm and lengths comprised between 1 ?m and 0.5 mm. The wires can have either positive or negative charges on their surface. After analyzing their orientational behavior under an external rotating field, we also showed that the wires made from different polyelectrolytes have the same magnetic property. The recipe used a wide range of polyelectrolytes thereby enhancing the versatility and applied potentialities of the method. This simple and general approach presents significant perspective for the fabrication of hybrid functional materials. PMID:24910569

  9. Electrostatic complexation of polyelectrolyte and magnetic nanoparticles: from wild clustering to controllable magnetic wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Minhao; Qu, Li; Fan, Jiangxia; Ren, Yong

    2014-05-01

    We present the electrostatic complexation between polyelectrolytes and charged nanoparticles. The nanoparticles in solution are ?-Fe2O3 (maghemite) spheres with 8.3 nm diameter and anionic surface charges. The complexation was monitored using three different formulation pathways such as direct mixing, dilution, and dialysis. In the first process, the hybrids were obtained by mixing stock solutions of polymers and nanoparticles. A `destabilization state' with sharp and intense maximum aggregation was found at charges stoichiometry (isoelectric point). While on the two sides of the isoelectric point, `long-lived stable clusters state' (arrested states) were observed. Dilution and dialysis processes were based on controlled desalting kinetics according to methods developed in molecular biology. Under an external magnetic field ( B = 0.3 T), from dialysis at isoelectric point and at arrested states, cationic polyelectrolytes can `paste' these magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) together to yield irregular aggregates (size of 100 ?m) and regular rod-like aggregates, respectively. These straight magnetic wires were fabricated with diameters around 200 nm and lengths comprised between 1 ?m and 0.5 mm. The wires can have either positive or negative charges on their surface. After analyzing their orientational behavior under an external rotating field, we also showed that the wires made from different polyelectrolytes have the same magnetic property. The recipe used a wide range of polyelectrolytes thereby enhancing the versatility and applied potentialities of the method. This simple and general approach presents significant perspective for the fabrication of hybrid functional materials.

  10. Magnetic Interactions in a Series of Homodinuclear Lanthanide Complexes.

    PubMed

    Comba, Peter; Großhauser, Michael; Klingeler, Rüdiger; Koo, Changhyun; Lan, Yanhua; Müller, Dennis; Park, Jaena; Powell, Annie; Riley, Mark J; Wadepohl, Hubert

    2015-12-01

    A series of seven isostructural homodinuclear lanthanide complexes are reported. The magnetic properties (ac and dc SQUID measurements) are discussed on the basis of the X-ray structural properties which show that the two lanthanide sites are structurally different. MCD spectroscopy of the dysprosium(III) and neodymium(III) complexes ([Dy(III)2(L)(OAc)4](+) and [Nd(III)2(L)(OAc)4](+)) allowed us to thoroughly analyze the ligand field, and high-frequency EPR spectroscopy of the gadolinium(III) species ([Gd(III)2(L)(OAc)4](+)) showed the importance of dipolar coupling in these systems. An extensive quantum-chemical analysis of the dysprosium(III) complex ([Dy(III)2(L)(OAc)4](+)), involving an ab initio (CASSCF) wave function, explicit spin-orbit coupling (RASSI-SO), and a ligand field analysis (Lines model and Stevens operators), is in full agreement with all experimental data (SQUID, HF-EPR, MCD) and specifically allowed us to accurately simulate the experimental ?T versus T data, which therefore allowed us to establish a qualitative model for all relaxation pathways. PMID:26588004

  11. Measurement of dielectric and magnetic properties of soil

    SciTech Connect

    Patitz, W.E.; Brock, B.C.; Powell, E.G.

    1995-11-01

    The possibility of subsurface imaging using SAR technology has generated a considerable amount of interest in recent years. One requirement for the successful development of a subsurface imagin system is an understanding of how the soil affects the signal. In response to a need for an electromagnetic characterization of the soil properties, the Radar/Antenna department has developed a measurement system which determines the soils complex electric permittivity and magnetic permeability at UHF frequencies. The one way loss in dB is also calculated using the measured values. There are many reports of measurements of the electric properties of soil in the literature. However, most of these are primarily concerned with measuring only a real dielectric constant. Because some soils have ferromagnetic constituents it is desirable to measure both the electric and magnetic properties of the soil.

  12. Linear and nonlinear magnetic properties of ferrofluids.

    PubMed

    Szalai, I; Nagy, S; Dietrich, S

    2015-10-01

    Within a high-magnetic-field approximation, employing Ruelle's algebraic perturbation theory, a field-dependent free-energy expression is proposed which allows one to determine the magnetic properties of ferrofluids modeled as dipolar hard-sphere systems. We compare the ensuing magnetization curves, following from this free energy, with those obtained by Ivanov and Kuznetsova [Phys. Rev. E 64, 041405 (2001)10.1103/PhysRevE.64.041405] as well as with new corresponding Monte Carlo simulation data. Based on the power-series expansion of the magnetization, a closed expression for the magnetization is also proposed, which is a high-density extension of the corresponding equation of Ivanov and Kuznetsova. From both magnetization equations the zero-field susceptibility expression due to Tani et al. [Mol. Phys. 48, 863 (1983)MOPHAM0026-897610.1080/00268978300100621] can be obtained, which is in good agreement with our MC simulation results. From the closed expression for the magnetization the second-order nonlinear magnetic susceptibility is also derived, which shows fair agreement with the corresponding MC simulation data. PMID:26565247

  13. Linear and nonlinear magnetic properties of ferrofluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szalai, I.; Nagy, S.; Dietrich, S.

    2015-10-01

    Within a high-magnetic-field approximation, employing Ruelle's algebraic perturbation theory, a field-dependent free-energy expression is proposed which allows one to determine the magnetic properties of ferrofluids modeled as dipolar hard-sphere systems. We compare the ensuing magnetization curves, following from this free energy, with those obtained by Ivanov and Kuznetsova [Phys. Rev. E 64, 041405 (2001), 10.1103/PhysRevE.64.041405] as well as with new corresponding Monte Carlo simulation data. Based on the power-series expansion of the magnetization, a closed expression for the magnetization is also proposed, which is a high-density extension of the corresponding equation of Ivanov and Kuznetsova. From both magnetization equations the zero-field susceptibility expression due to Tani et al. [Mol. Phys. 48, 863 (1983), 10.1080/00268978300100621] can be obtained, which is in good agreement with our MC simulation results. From the closed expression for the magnetization the second-order nonlinear magnetic susceptibility is also derived, which shows fair agreement with the corresponding MC simulation data.

  14. Domain structures in complex 3D magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Close, R. M.; Parnell, C. E.; Priest, E. R.

    The numerous magnetic fragments that populate the mixed-polarity, quiet-Sun photosphere give rise to many interesting topological features in the corona. In light of this, much recent work has gone into classifying the configurations that arise from simple, point-source potential-field models in efforts to determine the nature of the quiet-Sun magnetic field. These studies have ranged from systematic and detailed examinations of magnetic fields arising from only a handful of sources, involving classifying the configurations that arise (and how some states may bifurcate into other states), to statistical studies of the overall properties of fields arising from hundreds of magnetic sources. Such studies have greatly increased our understanding of what we might expect the magnetic field over the quiet Sun to behave like; the purpose of the study presented here is to extend this understanding further by examining the structure of the individual domains (the regions in space through which pairs of opposite-polarity sources are connected). In particular, the features of lesser-known domain structures that are absent from fields arising from only a few sources and overlooked by sweeping statistical studies are documented. In spite of the incredible complexity of the coronal field, previous studies have shown that there are only two types of building block in a potential field arising from coplanar point sources: namely, an isolated dome, bounded by a single unbroken separatrix surface, and a separator-ring domain, engirdled by a ring of separators. However, it is demonstrated here how both isolated domains and separator-ring domains may be categorised further depending upon their particular geometrical and topological traits. As many models predict coronal heating at topologically distinct features in magnetic fields such as null points, separators and separatrices, for any such models to be applied to general fields would require a scheme for identifying which topological features are related to a given domain. The study here explores some of the issues that would need to be taken into account by such a scheme, and in particular the problems associated with trying to deduce the properties of a general magnetic field from knowledge of domain footprints alone. Animated 3D-rotational views of some of the figures in this manuscript may be viewed in AVI, MPEG and animated-GIF formats by visiting http://www-solar.mcs.st-and.ac.uk/robertc/animations/blocks.html and following the desired link.

  15. Refocusing properties of periodic magnetic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stankiewicz, N.

    1976-01-01

    The use of depressed collectors for the efficient collection of spent beams from linear-beam microwave tubes depends on a refocusing procedure in which the space charge forces and transverse velocity components are reduced. The refocusing properties are evaluated of permanent magnet configurations whose axial fields are approximated by constant plateaus or linearly varying fields. The results provide design criteria and show that the refocusing properties can be determined from the plateau fields alone.

  16. Magnetic properties of Lake Qinghai Sediment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ai, L.; Song, Y.; Sun, Y.; Qiang, X.; Deng, C.

    2008-12-01

    Lake Qinghai, the largest lake in China, locates at an elevation of 3196 m, covers an area of 4400 km2, with an average depth of 21 m and a drainage area of about 29,660 km2. It sits near the northeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau and is positioned on the conjunction region where East Asian winter and summer monsoon, Indian Monsoon, and Westerlies interact. Lake Qinghai Drilling Project (LQDP) initiated by Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences had extracted a series of shallow cores from Lake Qinghai basin in the summer of 2005. Upper 6m of Core 1F (36°48'40.7"N, 110°08'13.5"E) contains a relatively uniformed greenish gray silty clay sediment with several darker layers and with a grayish brown section at 4.2-5m, preliminary chronology work (Zhou et al.,2008) indicate the upper 6m sediment spans to about 14ka. Some typical samples are selected for magnetic properties tests (K-T, J-T and Hysteresis loops), environmental magnetism parameters (magnetic susceptibility, ARM, SIRM, S-rations) are measured at 1cm intervals of core 1F. Rock magnetism tests identified that hematite and magnetite are dominant magnetic minerals below 5m, which may imply a detrital origin of magnetic properties related to terrestrial, especially eolian sources. In contrast paramagnetic iron sulfides e.g pyrites, normally formed in reduced condition are common in upper 5m. Magnetic susceptibility value varies between 4-8 10-8m3/kg below 5m, while that of the upper 5m are even lower (about 1-4 10-8m3/kg). Such magnetic susceptibility value change is attributed to changes of magnetic minerals and sedimentary conditions, such as oxidation-reduction alternation and carbonate dilution in the lake. Comparison with grain size and other climate proxies show that Lake Qinghai was generally in a drier environment before Holocene and became a deeper lake since Holocene. Key words: Lake Qinghai, magnetic minerals and magnetic susceptibility

  17. Utilizing 3d-4f magnetic interaction to slow the magnetic relaxation of heterometallic complexes.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Lei; Min, Fan-Yong; Wang, Chao; Lin, Shuang-Yan; Liu, Zhiliang; Tang, Jinkui

    2015-05-01

    The synthesis, structural characterization, and magnetic properties of four related heterometallic complexes with formulas [Dy(III)2Co(II)(C7H5O2)8]·6H2O (1), [Dy(III)2Ni(II)(C7H5O2)8]·(C7H6O2)2 (2), Tb(III)2Co(II)(C7H5O2)8 (3), and Dy(III)2Cd(II)(C7H5O2)8 (4) were reported. Each of complexes has a perfectly linear arrangement of the metal ions with two terminal Ln(III) (Ln(III) = Dy(III), Tb(III)) ions and one central M(II) (M(II) = Co(II), Ni(II), Cd(II)) ion. It was found that 1-3 displayed obvious magnetic interactions between the spin carriers according to the direct current (dc) susceptibility measurements. Alternating current (ac) magnetic susceptibility measurements indicate that complexes 1-4 all exhibit single-molecule magnet (SMM) behavior, while the replacement of the diamagnetic Cd(II) by paramagnetic ions leads to a significant slowing of the relaxation thanks to the magnetic interactions between 3d and 4f ions, resulting in higher relaxation barrier for complexes 1 and 2. Moreover, both Dy2Co and Dy2Ni compounds exhibit dual relaxation pathways that may originate from the single ion behavior of individual Dy(III) ions and the coupling between Dy(III) and Co(II)/Ni(II) ions, respectively, which can be taken as the feature of 3d-4f SMMs. The Ueff for 1 of 127 K is a relatively high value among the reported 3d-4f SMMs. The results demonstrate that the magnetic coupling between 3d and 4f ions is crucial to optimize SMM parameters. The synthetic approach illustrated in this work represents an efficient route to design nd-4f based SMMs via incorporating suitable paramagnetic 3d and even 4d and 5d ions into the d-f system. PMID:25906391

  18. Magnetic Properties of Mesoporous and Nano-particulate Metal Oxides 

    E-print Network

    Hill, Adrian H

    2009-01-01

    The magnetic properties of the first row transition metal oxides are wide and varied and have been studied extensively since the 1930’s. Observations that the magnetic properties of these material types change with the ...

  19. Complexity and diffusion of magnetic flux surfaces in anisotropic turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Servidio, S.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Wan, M.; Rappazzo, A. F.; Ruffolo, D.; Oughton, S.

    2014-04-10

    The complexity of magnetic flux surfaces is investigated analytically and numerically in static homogeneous magnetic turbulence. Magnetic surfaces are computed to large distances in magnetic fields derived from a reduced magnetohydrodynamic model. The question addressed is whether one can define magnetic surfaces over large distances when turbulence is present. Using a flux surface spectral analysis, we show that magnetic surfaces become complex at small scales, experiencing an exponential thinning that is quantified here. The computation of a flux surface is of either exponential or nondeterministic polynomial complexity, which has the conceptual implication that global identification of magnetic flux surfaces and flux exchange, e.g., in magnetic reconnection, can be intractable in three dimensions. The coarse-grained large-scale magnetic flux experiences diffusive behavior. The link between the diffusion of the coarse-grained flux and field-line random walk is established explicitly through multiple scale analysis. The Kubo number controls both large and small scale limits. These results have consequences for interpreting processes such as magnetic reconnection and field-line diffusion in astrophysical plasmas.

  20. Magnetic properties of cyclically deformed austenite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Arpan

    2014-06-01

    In meta-stable austenitic stainless steels, low cycle fatigue deformation is accompanied by a partial stress/strain-induced solid state phase transformation of paramagnetic ?(fcc) austenite phase to ferromagnetic ?/(bcc) martensite. The measured characteristic of magnetic properties, which are the saturation magnetization, susceptibility, coercivity, retentivity, and the area under the magnetic hysteresis loop are sensitive to the total strain amplitude imposed and the corresponding material behaviour. The morphologies and nucleation characteristics of deformation induced martensites (i.e., ?(hcp), ?/(bcc)) have been investigated through analytical transmission electron microscope. It has been observed that deformation induced martensites can nucleate at a number of sites (i.e., shear band intersections, isolated shear bands, shear band-grain boundary intersection, grain boundary triple points, etc.) through multiple transformation sequences: ?(fcc)??(hcp), ?(fcc)??(hcp)??/(bcc), ?(fcc)? deformation twin ??/(bcc) and ?(fcc)??/(bcc).

  1. Correcting Aberrations in Complex Magnet Systems for Muon Cooling Channels

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Maloney, B. Erdelyi, A. Afanaciev, R.P. Johnson, Y.S. Derbenev, V.S. Morozov

    2011-03-01

    Designing and simulating complex magnet systems needed for cooling channels in both neutrino factories and muon colliders requires innovative techniques to correct for both chromatic and spherical aberrations. Optimizing complex systems, such as helical magnets for example, is also difficult but essential. By using COSY INFINITY, a differential algebra based code, the transfer and aberration maps can be examined to discover what critical terms have the greatest influence on these aberrations.

  2. Research into europium complexes as magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents (Review)

    PubMed Central

    HAN, GUOCAN; DENG, YANGWEI; SUN, JIHONG; LING, JUN; SHEN, ZHIQUAN

    2015-01-01

    Europium (Eu) is a paramagnetic lanthanide element that possesses an outstanding luminescent property. Eu complexes are ideal fluorescence imaging (FI) agents. Eu2+ has satisfactory relaxivity and optical properties, and can realize magnetic resonance (MRI)-FI dual imaging applications when used with appropriate cryptands that render it oxidatively stable. By contrast, based on the chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) mechanism, Eu3+ complexes can provide enhanced MRI sensitivity when used with optimal cryptands, incorporated into polymeric CEST agents or blended with Gd3+. Eu complexes are promising in MRI-FI dual imaging applications and have a bright future. PMID:26136858

  3. Switching nuclearity and Co(II) content through stoichiometry adjustment: {Co(II)6Co(III)3} and {Co(II)Co4(III)} mixed valent complexes and a study of their magnetic properties.

    PubMed

    Funes, Alejandro V; Carrella, Luca; Sorace, Lorenzo; Rentschler, Eva; Alborés, Pablo

    2015-02-01

    We are reporting two new mixed valent Co(ii)/Co(iii) polynuclear complexes, {Co(II)6Co(III)3} and {Co(II)Co(III)4}, bearing different amount of Co(ii) ions in their cores, through the employment of the multidentate triethanolamine (teaH3) ligand in different stoichiometric ratios. We present a complete picture of the magnetic behaviour of both complexes through a combined usage of the susceptibility, magnetization and X-band EPR data as well as broken-symmetry DFT calculations. Compound shows an atypical spin-only behaviour, probably due to the presence of four and five coordinated Co(ii) sites as well as highly distorted six coordinated Co(ii) ions, promoting a high degree of orbital contribution quenching. Through the usage of a simplified exchange coupling scheme and relying on DFT based magneto-structural correlation we have been able to explain the observed diamagnetic ground state. Concerning compound , DC magnetic data supported by X-band EPR measurements suggest the existence of anisotropy with a zero-field splitting parameter D, at least in the range of 2-10 cm(-1). In agreement with this description, a slow relaxation of magnetization is observed after applying a small external magnetic field, under AC measurements. Field and temperature dependence of the characteristic relaxation time establishes a thermal barrier for magnetization reversal of about 25 cm(-1), which is in good agreement with the energy splitting of the |±1/2? and |±3/2? doublets established from static magnetic measurements. PMID:25537966

  4. Measuring Viscosity with a Levitating Magnet: Application to Complex Fluids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Even, C.; Bouquet, F.; Remond, J.; Deloche, B.

    2009-01-01

    As an experimental project proposed to students in fourth year of university, a viscometer was developed, consisting of a small magnet levitating in a viscous fluid. The viscous force acting on the magnet is directly measured: viscosities in the range 10-10[superscript 6] mPa s are obtained. This experiment is used as an introduction to complex

  5. Examination of Measurement Apparatus for 2-D Magnetic Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, Yoshitaka; Urata, Shinya; Kano, Yuko; Arakawa, Toshinobu; Yanase, Shunji; Okazaki, Yasuo; Watanabe, Shota

    Development of high efficient electrical rotating machines is an important issue in energy conservation. To realize this purpose, we have to consider details of magnetic phenomena in rotating machines. Therefore an accurate evaluation of the 2-D magnetic properties is indispensable. However, it is very difficult to measure these properties especially under high magnetic induction due to difficulty to measure rotating magnetic properties in the electrical steel sheets. In this paper, a new apparatus with 8-teeth-core, distributed windings, and inter-poles is proposed to measure the 2-D magnetic properties. We evaluate the uniformity of magnetic conditions in the specimen by using the finite element analysis.

  6. Molecular magnets based on homometallic hexanuclear lanthanide(III) complexes.

    PubMed

    Das, Sourav; Hossain, Sakiat; Dey, Atanu; Biswas, Sourav; Sutter, Jean-Pascal; Chandrasekhar, Vadapalli

    2014-05-19

    The reaction of lanthanide(III) chloride salts (Gd(III), Dy(III), Tb(III), and Ho(III)) with the hetero donor chelating ligand N'-(2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylidene)-6-(hydroxymethyl)picolinohydrazide (LH3) in the presence of triethylamine afforded the hexanuclear Ln(III) complexes [{Ln6(L)2(LH)2}(?3-OH)4][MeOH]p[H2O]q[Cl]4·xH2O·yCH3OH (1, Ln = Gd(III), p = 4, q = 4, x = 8, y = 2; 2, Ln = Dy(III), p = 2, q = 6, x = 8, y = 4; 3, Ln = Tb(III), p = 2, q = 6, x = 10, y = 4; 4, Ln = Ho(III), p = 2, q = 6, x = 10, y = 2). X-ray diffraction studies revealed that these compounds possess a hexanuclear [Ln6(OH)4](14+) core consisting of four fused [Ln3(OH)](8+) subunits. Both static (dc) and dynamic (ac) magnetic properties of 1-4 have been studied. Single-molecule magnetic behavior has been observed in compound 2 with an effective energy barrier and relaxation time pre-exponential parameters of ?/kB = 46.2 K and ?0 = 2.85 × 10(-7) s, respectively. PMID:24766539

  7. The complex initial reluctivity, permeability and susceptibility spectra of magnetic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, N. C.

    2015-03-01

    The HF complex permeability spectrum of a magnetic material is deduced from the measured impedance spectrum, which is then normalized to a series permeability spectrum. However, this series permeability spectrum has previously been shown to correspond to a parallel magnetic circuit, which is not appropriate. Some of the implications of this truth are examined. This electric/magnetic duality has frustrated efforts to interpret the shape of the complex magnetic permeability spectra of materials, and has hindered the application of impedance spectroscopy to magnetic materials. In the presence of magnetic loss, the relationship between the relative magnetic permeability and the magnetic susceptibility is called into question. The use of reluctivity spectra for expressing magnetic material properties is advocated. The relative loss factor, tan?m/?i is shown to be an approximation for the imaginary part of the reluctivity. A single relaxation model for the initial reluctivity spectra of magnetic materials is presented, and its principles are applied to measurements of a high permeability ferrite. The results are presented as contour plots of the spectra as a function of temperature.

  8. Interaction of Phase Transformation and Magnetic Properties of Heusler Alloys: A Density Functional Theory Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Entel, Peter; Gruner, Markus E.; Comtesse, Denis; Wuttig, Manfred

    2013-11-01

    The structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of functional Ni-Mn- Z ( Z = Ga, In, Sn, and Sb) Heusler alloys are studied by first-principles and Monte Carlo tools. The ab initio calculations give a basic understanding of the underlying physics that are associated with the complex magnetic behavior arising from the competition of ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic interactions with increasing chemical disorder in the super cell. This complex magnetic ordering is the driving mechanism of structural transformations. It also essentially determines the multifunctional properties of the Heusler alloys such as magnetic shape-memory and magnetocaloric effects. The thermodynamic properties can be calculated by using the ab initio magnetic exchange parameters in finite-temperature Monte Carlo simulations. The experimental entropy and specific heat changes across the magnetostructural transition are accurately reproduced by the Monte Carlo simulations. The predictive power of the first-principles calculations allows one to optimize the functional features by choosing optimal compositions.

  9. Bioinspired pH and magnetic responsive catechol-functionalized chitosan hydrogels with tunable elastic properties.

    PubMed

    Ghadban, Ali; Ahmed, Anansa S; Ping, Yuan; Ramos, Ricardo; Arfin, Najmul; Cantaert, Bram; Ramanujan, Raju V; Miserez, Ali

    2015-12-24

    We have developed pH- and magnetic-responsive hydrogels that are stabilized by both covalent bonding and catechol/Fe(3+) ligands. The viscoelastic properties of the gels are regulated by the complexation valence and can be used to tune drug release profiles. The stable incorporation of magnetic nanoparticles further expands control over the mechanical response and drug release, in addition to providing magnetic stimuli-responsivity to the gels. PMID:26558317

  10. Properties of atoms in molecules: Magnetic susceptibilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bader, Richard F. W.; Keith, Todd A.

    1993-09-01

    The molecular magnetic susceptibility tensor ? is expressible as a sum of atomic or group contributions. An atomic contribution consists of a basin and a surface component; the former is given by the integral of a magnetization density over the basin of the atom, and the latter, by the integral of the flux in the position weighted current density through the interatomic surfaces that the atom shares with its bonded neighbors. The surface component is obtained as a consequence of the atomic hypervirial theorem defining the average of the velocity operator. Magnetic properties are determined by the observable electron current density, and the atomic behavior of this field has been correlated with corresponding behavior of the electron density. Thus the importance of the magnetization within an atomic basin relative to the flux in current through its interatomic surfaces parallels the extent to which the electron density is localized within the individual atomic basins. For example, 77% of the pronounced anisotropy in benzene arises from the flux in current through the interatomic surfaces of the ring atoms induced by a field applied perpendicular to the ring surface. The methyl and methylene group contributions to ?¯ are found to be transferable in the homologous series of hydrocarbons and to equal Pascal's group increments within experimental error.

  11. Coexistence of spin crossover and magnetic ordering in a dendrimeric Fe(III) complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorobeva, V. E.; Domracheva, N. E.; Pyataev, A. V.; Gruzdev, M. S.; Chervonova, U. V.

    2015-01-01

    The magnetic properties of a new dendrimeric spin crossover Fe(III) complex, [Fe(L)2]+PF6-, where L = 3,5-di[3,4,5-tris(tetradecyloxy) benzoyloxy]benzoyl-4-salicylidene-N-ethyl-N-ethylene-diamine, are reported for the first time. EPR studies show that this compound undergoes a gradual spin transition in the temperature range 70-300 K and has antiferromagnetic ordering below 10 K. Mössbauer spectroscopy at 5 K confirms the presence of magnetic ordering in the dendrimeric iron complex.

  12. Synthesis and magnetic properties of nanostructured maghemite

    SciTech Connect

    Vollath, D.; Szabo, D.V.; Taylor, R.D.; Willis, J.O.

    1997-08-01

    Nanocrystalline maghemite, {gamma}{endash}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, can be synthesized in a microwave plasma using FeCl{sub 3} or Fe{sub 3}(CO){sub 12} as the precursor. Electron microscopy revealed particle sizes in the range of 5 to 10 nm. In general, this material is superparamagnetic. The magnetic properties are strongly dependent on the precursor. In both cases the production process leads to a highly disordered material with the consequence of a low magnetization. The assumption of a disordered structured is also supported by electron energy loss (EEL) and Moessbauer spectroscopy. The structure of this material shows a nearly identical number of cations on tetrahedral and octahedral lattice sites. {copyright} {ital 1997 Materials Research Society.}

  13. Electro-magnetically controlled acoustic metamaterials with adaptive properties

    E-print Network

    Yang, Eui-Hyeok

    Electro-magnetically controlled acoustic metamaterials with adaptive properties Vladimir S spring-mass resonance and electro-magnetic cyclotron resonance. It is shown that if the cyclotron its composition, designed to exhibit unusual properties not available in nature. Electro- magnetic

  14. Intrinsic magnetic properties of bimetallic nanoparticles elaborated by cluster beam deposition.

    PubMed

    Dupuis, V; Khadra, G; Hillion, A; Tamion, A; Tuaillon-Combes, J; Bardotti, L; Tournus, F

    2015-11-14

    In this paper, we present some specific chemical and magnetic order obtained very recently on characteristic bimetallic nanoalloys prepared by mass-selected Low Energy Cluster Beam Deposition (LECBD). We study how the competition between d-atom hybridization, complex structure, morphology and chemical affinity affects their intrinsic magnetic properties at the nanoscale. The structural and magnetic properties of these nanoalloys were investigated using various experimental techniques that include High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM), Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) magnetometry, as well as synchrotron techniques such as Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) and X-ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism (XMCD). Depending on the chemical nature of the nanoalloys we observe different magnetic responses compared to their bulk counterparts. In particular, we show how specific relaxation in nanoalloys impacts their magnetic anisotropy; and how finite size effects (size reduction) inversely enhance their magnetic moment. PMID:26206215

  15. The complex magnetic field of Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acuna, M. H.; Ness, N. F.

    1975-01-01

    An analysis of the characteristics of the magnetic field of the planet Jupiter is presented. The data were obtained during the flight of Pioneer 11 space probe, using a high field triaxial fluxgate magnetometer. The data are analyzed in terms of traditional Schmitt normalized spherical harmonic expansion fitted to the observations in a least squares sense. Tables of data and graphs are provided to summarize the findings.

  16. Flares and Their Underlying Magnetic Complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engell, Alexander J.; Siarkowski, Marek; Gryciuk, Magda; Sylwester, Janusz; Sylwester, Barbara; Golub, Leon; Korreck, Kelly; Cirtain, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    SphinX (Solar PHotometer IN X-rays), a full-disk-integrated spectrometer, observed 137 flare-like/transient events with active region (AR) 11024 being the only AR on disk. The Hinode X-Ray Telescope (XRT) and Solar Optical Telescope observe 67 of these events and identified their location from 12:00 UT on July 3 through 24:00 UT 2009 July 7. We find that the predominant mechanisms for flares observed by XRT are (1) flux cancellation and (2) the shearing of underlying magnetic elements. Point- and cusp-like flare morphologies seen by XRT all occur in a magnetic environment where one polarity is impeded by the opposite polarity and vice versa, forcing the flux cancellation process. The shearing is either caused by flux emergence at the center of the AR and separation of polarities along a neutral line or by individual magnetic elements having a rotational motion. Both mechanisms are observed to contribute to single- and multiple-loop flares. We observe that most loop flares occur along a large portion of a polarity inversion line. Point- and cusp-like flares become more infrequent as the AR becomes organized with separation of the positive and negative polarities. SphinX, which allows us to identify when these flares occur, provides us with a statistically significant temperature and emission scaling law for A and B class flares: EM = 6.1 × 1033 T 1.9±0.1.

  17. The symmetry properties of planetary magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Raedler, K.H. ); Ness, N.F. )

    1990-03-01

    This paper provides a comparative study of the geometrical structures of the magnetic fields of Earth, Jupiter, Saturn, and Uranus, starting from the traditional multipolar representations of these fields. For Earth, Jupiter, and Saturn the centered dipole, quadrupole, and octupole contributions are included, while at Uranus, only the dipole and quadrupole contributoins are considered. The magnetic fields are analyzed by decomposing them into those parts which have simple symmetry properties with respect to the rotation axis and the equatorial plane. It is found that there are a number of common features of the magnetic fields of Earth and Jupiter. Compared to Earth and Jupiter, the Saturnian field exhibits not only a high degree of symmetry about the rotation axis, by now rather well known, but also a high degree of antisymmetry about the equatorial plane. The Uranian field shows strong deviations from both such symmetries. Nevertheless, there remain features common to all four planets. The implications of these results for dynamo models are discussed. With a vgiew to Cowling's theorem the symmetry of the fields is investigated with respect to not only the rotation axis but also to other axes intersecting the plaentary center. Surprisingly, the high degree of asymmetry of the Uranian field that is observed with respect to the rotation axis reduces considerably to being compare to that for Earth or Jupiter when the appropriate axis is employed.

  18. Complex magnetic fields breathe life into fluids.

    PubMed

    Solis, Kyle J; Martin, James E

    2014-12-01

    The vast majority of materials research exploits equilibrium or quasi-equilibrium processes to produce inert materials. In contrast, living systems depend on far-from-equilibrium kinetic processes that require a continuous flux of energy to persist and perform useful tasks. The Greek god Hephaestus forged metal automatons that he miraculously animated to perform the tasks of living creatures. Is something like this actually possible? Here we show that subjecting magnetic fluids suspended in an immiscible liquid to uniform, multidimensional, time-dependent magnetic fields, generates a variety of life-like collective dynamics, including various forms of locomotion, swarming and feeding, that are sustained by the continuous injection of energy via the applied field. These leaderless emergent behaviors occur autonomously, without human guidance, and are quite surprising. Such self-healing, remotely-powered fluid automatons could be used as an extraction/separation technology to efficiently purify water by scavenging toxic chemicals and microorganisms, or alternatively enable the controlled release of chemicals. Other possible applications include vigorous fluid mixing and even microdroplet manipulation for microfluidic bioassays. PMID:25318082

  19. Exchange bias in ferrite hollow nanoparticles originated by complex internal magnetic structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Biasi, Emilio; Lima, Enio, Jr.; Vargas, Jose M.; Zysler, Roberto D.; Arbiol, Jordi; Ibarra, Alfonso; Goya, Gerardo F.; Ibarra, M. Ricardo

    2015-10-01

    Iron-oxide hollow nanospheres (HNS) may present unusual magnetic behavior as a consequence of their unique morphology. Here, we report the unusual magnetic behavior of HNS that are 9 nm in diameter. The magnetic properties of HNS originate in their complex magnetic structure, as evidenced by Mössbauer spectroscopy and magnetization measurements. We observe a bias in the hysteresis when measured at very low temperature in the field cooling protocol (10 kOe). In addition, dc (static) and ac (dynamic) magnetization measurements against temperature and applied field reveal a frustrated order of the system below 10 K. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) studies reveal that the HNS are composed of small crystalline clusters of about 2 nm in diameter, which behave as individual magnetic entities. Micromagnetic simulations (using conjugate gradient in order to minimize the total energy of the system) reproduce the experimentally observed magnetic behavior. The model considers the hollow particles as constituted by small ordered clusters embedded in an antiferromagnetic environment (spins localized outside the clusters). In addition, the surface spins (in both inner and outer surfaces of the HNS) are affected by a local surface anisotropy. The strong effective magnetic anisotropy field of the clusters induces the bias observed when the system is cooled in the presence of a magnetic external field. This effect propagates through the exchange interaction into the entire particle.

  20. Enhancing the magnetic anisotropy of maghemite nanoparticles via the surface coordination of molecular complexes.

    PubMed

    Prado, Yoann; Daffé, Niéli; Michel, Aude; Georgelin, Thomas; Yaacoub, Nader; Grenèche, Jean-Marc; Choueikani, Fadi; Otero, Edwige; Ohresser, Philippe; Arrio, Marie-Anne; Cartier-Dit-Moulin, Christophe; Sainctavit, Philippe; Fleury, Benoit; Dupuis, Vincent; Lisnard, Laurent; Fresnais, Jérôme

    2015-01-01

    Superparamagnetic nanoparticles are promising objects for data storage or medical applications. In the smallest-and more attractive-systems, the properties are governed by the magnetic anisotropy. Here we report a molecule-based synthetic strategy to enhance this anisotropy in sub-10-nm nanoparticles. It consists of the fabrication of composite materials where anisotropic molecular complexes are coordinated to the surface of the nanoparticles. Reacting 5?nm ?-Fe2O3 nanoparticles with the [Co(II)(TPMA)Cl2] complex (TPMA: tris(2-pyridylmethyl)amine) leads to the desired composite materials and the characterization of the functionalized nanoparticles evidences the successful coordination-without nanoparticle aggregation and without complex dissociation-of the molecular complexes to the nanoparticles surface. Magnetic measurements indicate the significant enhancement of the anisotropy in the final objects. Indeed, the functionalized nanoparticles show a threefold increase of the blocking temperature and a coercive field increased by one order of magnitude. PMID:26634987

  1. Enhancing the magnetic anisotropy of maghemite nanoparticles via the surface coordination of molecular complexes

    PubMed Central

    Prado, Yoann; Daffé, Niéli; Michel, Aude; Georgelin, Thomas; Yaacoub, Nader; Grenèche, Jean-Marc; Choueikani, Fadi; Otero, Edwige; Ohresser, Philippe; Arrio, Marie-Anne; Cartier-dit-Moulin, Christophe; Sainctavit, Philippe; Fleury, Benoit; Dupuis, Vincent; Lisnard, Laurent; Fresnais, Jérôme

    2015-01-01

    Superparamagnetic nanoparticles are promising objects for data storage or medical applications. In the smallest—and more attractive—systems, the properties are governed by the magnetic anisotropy. Here we report a molecule-based synthetic strategy to enhance this anisotropy in sub-10-nm nanoparticles. It consists of the fabrication of composite materials where anisotropic molecular complexes are coordinated to the surface of the nanoparticles. Reacting 5?nm ?-Fe2O3 nanoparticles with the [CoII(TPMA)Cl2] complex (TPMA: tris(2-pyridylmethyl)amine) leads to the desired composite materials and the characterization of the functionalized nanoparticles evidences the successful coordination—without nanoparticle aggregation and without complex dissociation—of the molecular complexes to the nanoparticles surface. Magnetic measurements indicate the significant enhancement of the anisotropy in the final objects. Indeed, the functionalized nanoparticles show a threefold increase of the blocking temperature and a coercive field increased by one order of magnitude. PMID:26634987

  2. Complex magnetic phases in LuFe2O4

    SciTech Connect

    Phan, M.; Frey, N. A.; Angst, M; De Groot, J; Sales, Brian C; Mandrus, David; Srikanth, H.

    2010-01-01

    DC magnetization and AC susceptibility measurements on LuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} single crystals reveal a ferrimagnetic transition at 240 K followed by additional magnetic transitions at 225 K and 170 K, separating cluster glass phases, and a kinetically arrested state below 55 K. The origin of giant magnetic coercivity is attributed to the collective freezing of ferrimagnetic clusters and enhanced domain wall pinning associated with a structural transition at 170 K. Magnetocaloric effect measurements provide additional vital information about the multiple magnetic transitions and the glassy states. Our results lead to the emergence of a complex magnetic phase diagram in LuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}.

  3. Magnetic colloid by PLA: Optical, magnetic and thermal transport properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, B. K.; Shahi, A. K.; Gopal, Ram

    2015-08-01

    Ferrofluids of cobalt and cobalt oxide nanoparticles (NPs) have been successfully synthesized using liquid phase-pulse laser ablation (LP-PLA) in ethanol and double distilled water, respectively. The mechanism of laser ablation in liquid media and formation process for Co target in double distilled water (DDW) and ethanol are speculated based on the reactions between laser generated highly nascent cobalt species and vaporized solvent media in a confined high temperature and pressure at the plume-surrounding liquid interface region. Optical absorption, emission, vibrational and rotational properties have been investigated using UV-vis absorption, photoluminescence (PL) and Fourier transform-infra red (FT-IR) spectroscopy, respectively. In this study optical band gap of cobalt oxide ferrofluids has been engineered using different pulse energy of Nd:YAG laser in the range of (2.80-3.60 eV). Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) is employed to determine the magnetic properties of ferrofluids of cobalt and cobalt oxide NPs while their thermal conductivities are examined using rotating disc method. Ferrofluids have gained enormous curiosity due to many technological applications, i.e. drug delivery, coolant and heating purposes.

  4. Effect of surfactant for magnetic properties of iron oxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haracz, S.; Hilgendorff, M.; Rybka, J. D.; Giersig, M.

    2015-12-01

    For different medical applications nanoparticles (NPs) with well-defined magnetic properties have to be used. Coating ligand can change the magnetic moment on the surface of nanostructures and therefore the magnetic behavior of the system. Here we investigated magnetic NPs in a size of 13 nm conjugated with four different kinds of surfactants. The surface anisotropy and the magnetic moment of the system were changed due to the presence of the surfactant on the surface of iron oxide NPs.

  5. Effect of an Oscillating Magnetic Field on the Release Properties of Magnetic Collagen Gels

    E-print Network

    Spinu, Leonard

    properties of collagen gels containing magnetic nanoparticles and microparticles and fluorescent drug millimetric magnetic steel beads16 or nickel coated samarium cobalt (SmCo5) magnetic particles.11 on their release properties. The current study makes use of super-paramagnetic nanoparticles or microparticles

  6. Magnetic Properties of the Chelyabinsk meteorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezaeva, N. S.; Badyukov, D. D.; Nazarov, M. A.; Rochette, P.; Feinberg, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    The Chelyabinsk meteorite (the fall of February 15, 2013; Russia) is a LL5 ordinary chondrite. Numerous (thousands) stones fell as a shower to the south and the south-west of the city of Chelyabinsk. The stones consist of two intermixed lithologies, with the majority (2/3) being a light lithology with a typical chondritic texture and shock stage S4 (~30 GPa). The second lithology (1/3) is an impact melt breccia (IMB) consisting of blackened chondrite fragments embedded in a fine-grained matrix. We investigated the magnetic properties of the meteorite stones collected immediately after the fall by the expedition of the Vernadsky Institute, Moscow. The low-field magnetic susceptibility (?0) of 174 fragments (135 chondritic and 39 IMB) weighing >3 g was measured. Each sample was measured three times in mutually perpendicular directions to average anisotropy. Also hysteresis loops (saturation magnetization Ms, coercivity Bc) and back-field remanence demagnetization curves (coercivity of remanence Bcr) in the temperature range from 10K to 700°C and other characteristics of some pieces (NRM, SIRM with their thermal and alternating field demagnetization spectra) were acquired. The mean log?0 is 4.57×0.09 (s.d.) for the light lithology and 4.65×0.09 (s.d.) (×10-9 m3/kg) for the IMB, indicating that IMB is slightly richer in metal than the light chondritic lithology. According to [1], Chelyabinsk is three times more magnetic than the average LL5 fall, but similar to other metal-rich LL5 (e.g., Paragould, Aldsworth, Bawku, Richmond), as well as L/LL chondrites (e.g., Glanerbrug, Knyahinya, Qidong). The estimation of metal content from the Ms value gives 3.7 wt.% for the light fragments and 4.1 wt.% for IMB whereas the estimation from ?0 yields overestimated contents, e.g., 6.9 wt.% for the light lithology. Thermomagnetic curves Ms(T) up to 800°C identify the main magnetic carriers at room temperature (T0) and above as taenite and kamacite (no tetrataenite found), in accordance with mineralogical data. Additional magnetic analyses [2] confirm the absence of tetrataenite and show that metal grains are primarily multidomain and magnetically soft (Bc<2 mT and Bcr<23 mT) at T0. However, at temperatures <75 K, the magnetic remanence of the Chelyabinsk chondrite is dominated by high coercivity chromite with much higher Bcr (606 mT for the light lithology and 157 mT for IMB). These results are consistent with previously published data on ordinary chondrites [3]. Acknowledgments: This research was funded by a U.S. National Science Foundation IRM Visiting Fellowship. References: [1] Rochette P. et al. 2003. MAPS 38: 251-268. [2] Bezaeva N.S. et al. 2013. Geochem. Int. 51(7): 568-574. [3] Gattacceca J. et al. 2011. Geoph. Res. Lett. 38: L10203.

  7. Magnetic properties of double perovskite La2BMnO6 (B = Ni or Co) nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Mao, Yuanbing; Parsons, Jason; McCloy, John S.

    2013-03-31

    Double perovskite La2BMnO6 (B = Ni and Co) nanoparticles with average particle size of ~50 nm were synthesized using a facile, environmentally friendly, scalable molten-salt reaction at 700 °C in air. Their structural and morphological properties were characterized by x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Magnetic properties were evaluated using dc magnetic M-T and M-H, and ac magnetic susceptibility versus frequency, temperature, and field. The magnetization curve shows a paramagnetic-ferromagnetic transition at TC ~275 and 220 K for La2NiMnO6 (LNMO) and La2CoMnO6 (LCMO) nanoparticles, respectively. ac susceptibility revealed that the LCMO had a single magnetic transition indicative of Co2+-O2--Mn4+ ordering, whereas the LNMO showed more complex magnetic behavior suggesting a re-entrant spin glass.

  8. Annealing effects on magnetic properties of silicone-coated iron-based soft magnetic composites

    E-print Network

    Volinsky, Alex A.

    magnetic materials in motor applications, they need to have higher density and electrical resistance increasing the electrical resistivity and the operating frequency of the synthesized magnets. The annealingAnnealing effects on magnetic properties of silicone-coated iron-based soft magnetic composites

  9. Electric and magnetic functionality in complex oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Locquet, Jean-Pierre

    2002-03-01

    In recent years, there has been considerable progress in the field of perovskite related oxide films. The availability of single crystal films has allowed an improved understanding of their physical properties as well as the use of their functionality in novel applications. Since the pioneering work of McKee et al., PRL 81, 3014 (1998) -- who demonstrated the epitaxial integration of these oxides with Si -- one can now envision to couple the functionality of these materials with that of standard semiconductors. For three specific examples, we will illustrate how the specific material property of the oxide appears and can be tuned by various parameters such as thickness, strain, and interface control. The examples are the strained superconducting La_1.9Sr_0.1CuO4 compound (J.-P. Locquet et al., Nature, 394), 453 (1998), the uniaxial ferroelectric LaTiO_3.5 compound (J. W. Seo et al., PRB 63), 205401, 2001 and the antiferromagnet LaFeO3 (A. Scholl e t al., Science, 287), 1014 (2000).

  10. Radiative properties of strongly magnetized plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Weisheit, J.C.

    1992-12-01

    The subject of atomic properties in the presence of very strong magnetic fields is experiencing a new wave of interest, especially insofar as non-hydrogenic systems are concerned, and we believe the research summarized here is on the crest of that wave. Only recently there have appeared a major review of Thomas-Fermi theory [Spruch, L. 1991, Rev. Mod. Phys. 63 151]; a new set of fundamental theorems pertaining to the Hamiltonian of a (Thomas-Fermi) atom in a strong field [Lieb E.H., Solovej J.P., Yngvason J., Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 749 (1992)]; and the first numerical, Hartree-Fock (HF) results for multi-electron atoms in strong B fields, but obtained under the restrictive assumption that the [rho]- and z-dependence of individual orbitals is completely separable [Miller M.C., Neuhauser D. Mon. Not. R. astr. Soc., 253, 107 (1991)].

  11. Syntheses, structures, and magnetic properties of a family of heterometallic heptanuclear [Cu5Ln2] (Ln = Y(III), Lu(III), Dy(III), Ho(III), Er(III), and Yb(III)) complexes: observation of SMM behavior for the Dy(III) and Ho(III) analogues.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekhar, Vadapalli; Dey, Atanu; Das, Sourav; Rouzières, Mathieu; Clérac, Rodolphe

    2013-03-01

    Sequential reaction of the multisite coordination ligand (LH3) with Cu(OAc)2·H2O, followed by the addition of a rare-earth(III) nitrate salt in the presence of triethylamine, afforded a series of heterometallic heptanuclear complexes containing a [Cu5Ln2] core {Ln = Y(1), Lu(2), Dy(3), Ho(4), Er(5), and Yb(6)}. Single-crystal X-ray crystallography reveals that all the complexes are dicationic species that crystallize with two nitrate anions to compensate the charge. The heptanuclear aggregates in 1-6 are centrosymmetrical complexes, with a hexagonal-like arrangement of six peripheral metal ions (two rare-earth and four copper) around a central Cu(II) situated on a crystallographic inversion center. An all-oxygen environment is found to be present around the rare-earth metal ions, which adopt a distorted square-antiprismatic geometry. Three different Cu(II) sites are present in the heptanuclear complexes: two possess a distorted octahedral coordination sphere while the remaining one displays a distorted square-pyramidal geometry. Detailed static and dynamic magnetic properties of all the complexes have been studied and revealed the single-molecule magnet behavior of the Dy(III) and Ho(III) derivatives. PMID:23428002

  12. Magnetic anisotropy in "scorpionate" first-row transition-metal complexes: a theoretical investigation.

    PubMed

    Peri?, Marko; García-Fuente, Amador; Zlatar, Matija; Daul, Claude; Stepanovi?, Stepan; García-Fernández, Pablo; Gruden-Pavlovi?, Maja

    2015-02-23

    In this work we have analyzed in detail the magnetic anisotropy in a series of hydrotris(pyrazolyl)borate (Tp(-)) metal complexes, namely [VTpCl](+), [CrTpCl](+), [MnTpCl](+), [FeTpCl], [CoTpCl], and [NiTpCl], and their substituted methyl and tert-butyl analogues with the goal of observing the effect of the ligand field on the magnetic properties. In the [VTpCl](+), [CrTpCl](+), [CoTpCl], and [NiTpCl] complexes, the magnetic anisotropy arises as a consequence of out-of-state spin-orbit coupling, and covalent changes induced by the substitution of hydrogen atoms on the pyrazolyl rings does not lead to drastic changes in the magnetic anisotropy. On the other hand, much larger magnetic anisotropies were predicted in complexes displaying a degenerate ground state, namely [MnTpCl](+) and [FeTpCl], due to in-state spin-orbit coupling. The anisotropy in these systems was shown to be very sensitive to perturbations, for example, chemical substitution and distortions due to the Jahn-Teller effect. We found that by substituting the hydrogen atoms in [MnTpCl](+) and [FeTpCl] by methyl and tert-butyl groups, certain covalent contributions to the magnetic anisotropy energy (MAE) could be controlled, thereby achieving higher values. Moreover, we showed that the selection of ion has important consequences for the symmetry of the ground spin-orbit term, opening the possibility of achieving zero magnetic tunneling even in non-Kramers ions. We have also shown that substitution may also contribute to a quenching of the Jahn-Teller effect, which could significantly reduce the magnetic anisotropy of the complexes studied. PMID:25591004

  13. Magnetic memory in an isotopically enriched and magnetically isolated mononuclear dysprosium complex.

    PubMed

    Pointillart, Fabrice; Bernot, Kevin; Golhen, Stéphane; Le Guennic, Boris; Guizouarn, Thierry; Ouahab, Lahcène; Cador, Olivier

    2015-01-26

    The influence of nuclear spin on the magnetic hysteresis of a single-molecule is evidenced. Isotopically enriched Dy(III) complexes are synthesized and an isotopic dependence of their magnetic relaxation is observed. This approach is coupled with tuning of the molecular environment through dilution in an amorphous or an isomorphous diamagnetic matrix. The combination of these approaches leads to a dramatic enhancement of the magnetic memory of the molecule. This general recipe can be efficient for rational optimization of single-molecule magnets (SMMs), and provides an important step for their integration into molecule-based devices. PMID:25486900

  14. Physical and optical properties of rare earth cobalt magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Halbach, K.

    1980-08-01

    Rare Earth Cobalt (REC) permanent magnets have unique properties that permit solutions to some optical tasks that cannot be accomplished with conventional magnets. A review of design and of performance characteristics of these magnets includes an analytical description of the three dimensional fringe fields of REC quadrupoles.

  15. Numerical calculations of magnetic properties of nanostructures

    E-print Network

    Kapitan, Vitalii; Nefedev, Konstantin

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic force microscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy data could be used to test computer numerical models of magnetism. The elaborated numerical model of a face-centered lattice Ising spins is based on pixel distribution in the image of magnetic nanostructures obtained by using scanning microscope. Monte Carlo simulation of the magnetic structure model allowed defining the temperature dependence of magnetization; calculating magnetic hysteresis curves and distribution of magnetization on the surface of submonolayer and monolayer nanofilms of cobalt, depending on the experimental conditions. Our developed package of supercomputer parallel software destined for a numerical simulation of the magnetic-force experiments and allows obtaining the distribution of magnetization in one-dimensional arrays of nanodots and on their basis. There has been determined interpretation of magneto-force microscopy images of magnetic nanodots states. The results of supercomputer simulations and numerical calculations are in...

  16. Magnetic properties of frictional volcanic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendrick, Jackie E.; Lavallée, Yan; Biggin, Andrew; Ferk, Annika; Leonhardt, Roman

    2015-04-01

    During dome-building volcanic eruptions, highly viscous magma extends through the upper conduit in a solid-like state. The outer margins of the magma column accommodate the majority of the strain, while the bulk of the magma is able to extrude, largely undeformed, to produce magma spines. Spine extrusion is often characterised by the emission of repetitive seismicity, produced in the upper <1 km by magma failure and slip at the conduit margins. The rheology of the magma controls the depth at which fracture can occur, while the frictional properties of the magma are important in controlling subsequent marginal slip processes. Upon extrusion, spines are coated by a carapace of volcanic fault rocks which provide insights into the deeper conduit processes. Frictional samples from magma spines at Mount St. Helens (USA), Soufriere Hills (Montserrat) and Mount Unzen (Japan) have been examined using structural, thermal and magnetic analyses to reveal a history of comminution, frictional heating, melting and cooling to form volcanic pseudotachylyte. Pseudotachylyte has rarely been noted in volcanic materials, and the recent observation of its syn-eruptive formation in dome-building volcanoes was unprecedented. The uniquely high thermal conditions of volcanic environments means that frictional melt remains at elevated temperatures for longer than usual, causing slow crystallisation, preventing the development of some signature "quench" characteristics. As such, rock-magnetic tests have proven to be some of the most useful tools in distinguishing pseudotachylytes from their andesite/ dacite hosts. In volcanic pseudotachylyte the mass normalised natural remanent magnetisation (NRM) when further normalised with the concentration dependent saturation remanence (Mrs) was found to be higher than the host rock. Remanence carriers are defined as low coercive materials across all samples, and while the remanence of the host rock displays similarities to an anhysteretic remanent magnetisation (ARM), as expected for a thermal origin, the remanence of volcanic pseudotachylyte has been found to be comparable to an isothermal remanent magnetisation (IRM). Thus, the pseudotachylyte has experienced a strong magnetic field that overwrote the previous thermoremanent magnetisation of the magma, such as the strong local electric current that occurs in faults (e.g. Ferré et al., 2005). Additionally, the pseudotachylyte seems more often to comprise of uniaxial non-interacting single-domain particles compared to pseudo-single in the host, and to have a single Curie temperature whereas the host more commonly exhibits multiple phases. Differences in rock-magnetic parameters between the pseudotachylyte and host are significant, but not as high as those observed in granites by Nakamura et al. (2002) or Ferré et al. (2005), probably because granitic host rocks do not already carry a strong and stable remanence as do these extrusive volcanic rocks. The application of rock-magnetic tests in volcanology will undoubtedly continue to be a "go-to" tool for identification of pseudotachylytes, which are increasingly being recognised to play an important role in dome-building eruptions. Refs: Ferré, E.C., Zechmeister, M.S., Geissman, J.W., MathanaSekaran, N. and Kocak, K., 2005. The origin of high magnetic remanence in fault pseudotachylites: Theoretical considerations and implication for coseismic electrical currents. Tectonophysics, 402(1-4): 125-139. Nakamura, N., Hirose, T. and Borradaile, G.J., 2002. Laboratory verification of submicron magnetite production in pseudotachylytes: relevance for paleointensity studies. . Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 201(1): 13-18.

  17. Mimicking the magnetic properties of rare earth elements using superatoms

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Shi-Bo; Berkdemir, Cuneyt; Castleman, A. W.

    2015-01-01

    Rare earth elements (REs) consist of a very important group in the periodic table that is vital to many modern technologies. The mining process, however, is extremely damaging to the environment, making them low yield and very expensive. Therefore, mimicking the properties of REs in a superatom framework is especially valuable but at the same time, technically challenging and requiring advanced concepts about manipulating properties of atom/molecular complexes. Herein, by using photoelectron imaging spectroscopy, we provide original idea and direct experimental evidence that chosen boron-doped clusters could mimic the magnetic characteristics of REs. Specifically, the neutral LaB and NdB clusters are found to have similar unpaired electrons and magnetic moments as their isovalent REs (namely Nd and Eu, respectively), opening up the great possibility in accomplishing rare earth mimicry. Extension of the superatom concept into the rare earth group not only further shows the power and advance of this concept but also, will stimulate more efforts to explore new superatomic clusters to mimic the chemistry of these heavy atoms, which will be of great importance in designing novel building blocks in the application of cluster-assembled nanomaterials. Additionally, based on these experimental findings, a novel “magic boron” counting rule is proposed to estimate the numbers of unpaired electrons in diatomic LnB clusters. PMID:25848014

  18. Mimicking the magnetic properties of rare earth elements using superatoms.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shi-Bo; Berkdemir, Cuneyt; Castleman, A W

    2015-04-21

    Rare earth elements (REs) consist of a very important group in the periodic table that is vital to many modern technologies. The mining process, however, is extremely damaging to the environment, making them low yield and very expensive. Therefore, mimicking the properties of REs in a superatom framework is especially valuable but at the same time, technically challenging and requiring advanced concepts about manipulating properties of atom/molecular complexes. Herein, by using photoelectron imaging spectroscopy, we provide original idea and direct experimental evidence that chosen boron-doped clusters could mimic the magnetic characteristics of REs. Specifically, the neutral LaB and NdB clusters are found to have similar unpaired electrons and magnetic moments as their isovalent REs (namely Nd and Eu, respectively), opening up the great possibility in accomplishing rare earth mimicry. Extension of the superatom concept into the rare earth group not only further shows the power and advance of this concept but also, will stimulate more efforts to explore new superatomic clusters to mimic the chemistry of these heavy atoms, which will be of great importance in designing novel building blocks in the application of cluster-assembled nanomaterials. Additionally, based on these experimental findings, a novel "magic boron" counting rule is proposed to estimate the numbers of unpaired electrons in diatomic LnB clusters. PMID:25848014

  19. Spatially resolved ultrafast magnetic dynamics initiated at a complex oxide heterointerface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Först, M.; Caviglia, A. D.; Scherwitzl, R.; Mankowsky, R.; Zubko, P.; Khanna, V.; Bromberger, H.; Wilkins, S. B.; Chuang, Y.-D.; Lee, W. S.; Schlotter, W. F.; Turner, J. J.; Dakovski, G. L.; Minitti, M. P.; Robinson, J.; Clark, S. R.; Jaksch, D.; Triscone, J.-M.; Hill, J. P.; Dhesi, S. S.; Cavalleri, A.

    2015-09-01

    Static strain in complex oxide heterostructures has been extensively used to engineer electronic and magnetic properties at equilibrium. In the same spirit, deformations of the crystal lattice with light may be used to achieve functional control across heterointerfaces dynamically. Here, by exciting large-amplitude infrared-active vibrations in a LaAlO3 substrate we induce magnetic order melting in a NdNiO3 film across a heterointerface. Femtosecond resonant soft X-ray diffraction is used to determine the spatiotemporal evolution of the magnetic disordering. We observe a magnetic melt front that propagates from the substrate interface into the film, at a speed that suggests electronically driven motion. Light control and ultrafast phase front propagation at heterointerfaces may lead to new opportunities in optomagnetism, for example by driving domain wall motion to transport information across suitably designed devices.

  20. Spatially resolved ultrafast magnetic dynamics initiated at a complex oxide heterointerface.

    PubMed

    Först, M; Caviglia, A D; Scherwitzl, R; Mankowsky, R; Zubko, P; Khanna, V; Bromberger, H; Wilkins, S B; Chuang, Y-D; Lee, W S; Schlotter, W F; Turner, J J; Dakovski, G L; Minitti, M P; Robinson, J; Clark, S R; Jaksch, D; Triscone, J-M; Hill, J P; Dhesi, S S; Cavalleri, A

    2015-09-01

    Static strain in complex oxide heterostructures has been extensively used to engineer electronic and magnetic properties at equilibrium. In the same spirit, deformations of the crystal lattice with light may be used to achieve functional control across heterointerfaces dynamically. Here, by exciting large-amplitude infrared-active vibrations in a LaAlO3 substrate we induce magnetic order melting in a NdNiO3 film across a heterointerface. Femtosecond resonant soft X-ray diffraction is used to determine the spatiotemporal evolution of the magnetic disordering. We observe a magnetic melt front that propagates from the substrate interface into the film, at a speed that suggests electronically driven motion. Light control and ultrafast phase front propagation at heterointerfaces may lead to new opportunities in optomagnetism, for example by driving domain wall motion to transport information across suitably designed devices. PMID:26147844

  1. Synthesis, Characterization and properties studies of new magnetic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messai, Amel; Luneau, Dominique

    2015-10-01

    We are interested in molecular polymetallic species having high spin and nuclearities in relation to the field of so call single-molecule magnets (SMMs). The goal is to find a way to synthesis metal clusters which may have application in magnetism and nanosciences. With this purpose, we decided to investigate the coordination chemistry of the Schiff base.Along this way we were able to create cubane-like complexes and elaborate new Single Molecule-Magnets. The idea was to use Schiff base ligands and different metals to generate high nuclear complexes. Complexation of Shiff base with copper has been investigated. Tetranuclear complex with a cubane like core have been synthesised with (Sciff base), with the same base and cobalt we obtains an other single magnetic complex completely different.

  2. Magnetic properties of 1 : 4 complexes of CoCl2 and pyridines carrying carbenes (S(0) = 4/2, 6/2, and 8/2) in diluted frozen solution; influence of carbene multiplicity on heterospin single-molecule magnets.

    PubMed

    Karasawa, Satoru; Nakano, Kimihiro; Tanokashira, Jun-ichi; Yamamoto, Noriko; Yoshizaki, Takahito; Koga, Noboru

    2012-11-28

    The microcrystalline sample of a parent complex, [CoCl(2)(py)(4)], showed a single-molecule magnet (SMM) behavior with an effective activation barrier, U(eff)/k(B), of 16 K for reversal of the magnetism in the presence of a dc field of 3 kOe. Pyridine ligands having 2-4 diazo moieties, DYpy; Y = 2, 3l, 3b, and 4, were prepared and confirmed to be quintet, septet, septet, and nonet in the ground state, respectively, after irradiation. The 1 : 4 complexes, CoCl(2)(DYpy)(4); Y = 2, 3l, 3b, and 4 in frozen solutions after irradiation showed the magnetic behaviors of SMMs with total spin multiplicity, S(total) = 17/2, 25/2, 25/2, and 33/2, respectively. Hysteresis loops depending on the temperature were observed and the values of coercive force, H(c), at 1.9 K were 12, 8.4, 11, and 8.1 kOe for CoCl(2)(CYpy)(4); Y = 2, 3l, 3b, and 4, respectively. In dynamic magnetic susceptibility experiments, ac magnetic susceptibility data obeyed the Arrhenius law to give U(eff)/k(B) values of 94, 92, 93, and 87 K for CoCl(2)(CYpy)(4); Y = 2, 3l, 3b, and 4, respectively, while the relaxation times for CoCl(2)(CYpy)(4); Y = 2 and 3l, obtained by dc magnetization decay in the range of 3.5-1.9 K slightly deviated downward from Arrhenius plots on cooling. The dynamic magnetic behaviors for CoCl(2)(CYpy)(4) including [CoCl(2)(py)(4)] and CoCl(2)(C1py)(4) suggested that the generated carbenes interacted with the cobalt ion to increase the relaxation time, ?(q), due to the spin quantum tunneling magnetization, which became larger with increasing S(total) of the complex. PMID:22898723

  3. Understanding and controlling complex states arising from magnetic frustration

    SciTech Connect

    Zapf, Vivien

    2012-06-01

    Much of our national security relies on capabilities made possible by magnetism, in particular the ability to compute and store huge bodies of information as well as to move things and sense the world. Most of these technologies exploit ferromagnetism, i.e. the global parallel alignment of magnetic spins as seen in a bar magnet. Recent advances in computing technologies, such as spintronics and MRAM, take advantage of antiferromagnetism where the magnetic spins alternate from one to the next. In certain crystal structures, however, the spins take on even more complex arrangements. These are often created by frustration, where the interactions between spins cannot be satisfied locally or globally within the material resulting in complex and often non-coplanar spin textures. Frustration also leads to the close proximity of many different magnetic states, which can be selected by small perturbations in parameters like magnetic fields, temperature and pressure. It is this tunability that makes frustrated systems fundamentally interesting and highly desirable for applications. We move beyond frustration in insulators to itinerant systems where the interaction between mobile electrons and the non-coplanar magnetic states lead to quantum magneto-electric amplification. Here a small external field is amplified by many orders of magnitude by non-coplanar frustrated states. This greatly enhances their sensitivity and opens broader fields for applications. Our objective is to pioneer a new direction for condensed matter science at the Laboratory as well as for international community by discovering, understanding and controlling states that emerge from the coupling of itinerant charges to frustrated spin textures.

  4. Injection-Molded Soft Magnets Prepared from Fe-Based Metallic Glass: Mechanical and Magnetic Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Tian; Huang, Ran; Huang, Jia; Ouyang, Wei

    2015-09-01

    The injection-molded metallic glass soft magnet is prepared from the powder of melt-spun ribbon of Fe36Co36B20Si4Nb4 glassy alloy and Nylon 6,6 of wt.% from 5 to 20 via the polymer injection molding technology. The product is characterized by the SEM, mechanical, and magnetic test. The results indicate that this type of materials has comparable mechanical properties and morphological feature with the conventional injection-molded NdFeB magnet and exhibits excellent soft magnetic behaviors. The magnetic properties of the injected magnets are compared with the raw metallic glass, solvent-casted resin bonding magnets, and thermal-treated magnets to confirm that the processing temperature of Nylon injection does not affect the magnetism. The injection technology is a practical processing method to be applied on the metallic glass for potential usage.

  5. Injection-Molded Soft Magnets Prepared from Fe-Based Metallic Glass: Mechanical and Magnetic Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Tian; Huang, Ran; Huang, Jia; Ouyang, Wei

    2015-10-01

    The injection-molded metallic glass soft magnet is prepared from the powder of melt-spun ribbon of Fe36Co36B20Si4Nb4 glassy alloy and Nylon 6,6 of wt.% from 5 to 20 via the polymer injection molding technology. The product is characterized by the SEM, mechanical, and magnetic test. The results indicate that this type of materials has comparable mechanical properties and morphological feature with the conventional injection-molded NdFeB magnet and exhibits excellent soft magnetic behaviors. The magnetic properties of the injected magnets are compared with the raw metallic glass, solvent-casted resin bonding magnets, and thermal-treated magnets to confirm that the processing temperature of Nylon injection does not affect the magnetism. The injection technology is a practical processing method to be applied on the metallic glass for potential usage.

  6. Redox-active porous coordination polymers prepared by trinuclear heterometallic pivalate linking with the redox-active nickel(II) complex: synthesis, structure, magnetic and redox properties, and electrocatalytic activity in organic compound dehalogenation in heterogeneous medium.

    PubMed

    Lytvynenko, A S; Kolotilov, S V; Kiskin, M A; Cador, O; Golhen, S; Aleksandrov, G G; Mishura, A M; Titov, V E; Ouahab, L; Eremenko, I L; Novotortsev, V M

    2014-05-19

    Linking of the trinuclear pivalate fragment Fe2CoO(Piv)6 by the redox-active bridge Ni(L)2 (compound 1; LH is Schiff base from hydrazide of 4-pyridinecarboxylic acid and 2-pyridinecarbaldehyde, Piv(-) = pivalate) led to formation of a new porous coordination polymer (PCP) {Fe2CoO(Piv)6}{Ni(L)2}1.5 (2). X-ray structures of 1 and 2 were determined. A crystal lattice of compound 2 is built from stacked 2D layers; the Ni(L)2 units can be considered as bridges, which bind two Fe2CoO(Piv)6 units. In desolvated form, 2 possesses a porous crystal lattice (SBET = 50 m(2) g(-1), VDR = 0.017 cm(3) g(-1) estimated from N2 sorption at 78 K). At 298 K, 2 absorbed a significant quantity of methanol (up to 0.3 cm(3) g(-1)) and chloroform. Temperature dependence of molar magnetic susceptibility of 2 could be fitted as superposition of ?MT of Fe2CoO(Piv)6 and Ni(L)2 units, possible interactions between them were taken into account using molecular field model. In turn, magnetic properties of the Fe2CoO(Piv)6 unit were fitted using two models, one of which directly took into account a spin-orbit coupling of Co(II), and in the second model the spin-orbit coupling of Co(II) was approximated as zero-field splitting. Electrochemical and electrocatalytic properties of 2 were studied by cyclic voltammetry in suspension and compared with electrochemical and electrocatalytic properties of a soluble analogue 1. A catalytic effect was determined by analysis of the catalytic current dependency on concentrations of the substrate. Compound 1 possessed electrocatalytic activity in organic halide dehalogenation, and such activity was preserved for the Ni(L)2 units, incorporated into the framework of 2. In addition, a new property occurred in the case of 2: the catalytic activity of PCP depended on its sorption capacity with respect to the substrate. In contrast to homogeneous catalysts, usage of solid PCPs may allow selectivity due to porous structure and simplify separation of product. PMID:24779588

  7. 2.20 Properties of Rocks and Minerals -Magnetic Properties of Rocks and Minerals

    E-print Network

    Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    2.20 Properties of Rocks and Minerals - Magnetic Properties of Rocks and Minerals R. J. Harrison, R 621 622 623 623 579 #12;580 Magnetic Properties of Rocks and Minerals 2.20.5.3 2.20.5.4 2, and are present in all types of rocks, sediments, and soils. These minerals retain a memory of the geomagnetic

  8. Magnetic properties of the Bay of Islands ophiolite suite and implications for the magnetization of oceanic crust

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swift, B. Ann; Johnson, H. Paul

    1984-01-01

    Rock magnetic properties, opaque mineralogy, and degree of metamorphism were determined for 101 unoriented samples from the North Arm and Blow-Me-Down massifs of the Bay of Islands ophiolite complex, Newfoundland. The weathered and metamorphosed extrusive basalt samples have a weak, secondary magnetization arising from oxidation and exsolution of ilmenite of unknown origin. The initial magnetization of the underlying sheeted dike complex appears to have been destroyed by hydrothermal alteration soon after formation. The magnetic intensity of the gabbroic samples increases as the degree of alteration increases, with the highly altered upper metagabbros having an average intensity of 3×10?3 emu/c3. Because magnetization of the metagabbro samples is related to nonpervasive, variable alteration, these crustal units are unlikely to make a significant contribution to lineated magnetic anomalies. A compilation of our results and other studies suggests a model in which oceanic crust magnetization results from an upper extrusive basalt source layer, roughly 600 m thick, with no contribution from a deeper source layer recognizable from these Bay of Islands data.

  9. Magnetic properties of intermediate-mass stars

    E-print Network

    G. A. Wade

    2006-01-30

    Magnetic fields play an important role in producing and modifying the photospheric chemical peculiarities of intermediate-mass main sequence stars. This article discusses the basic theory and methods of measurement used to detect and characterise stellar magnetic fields, and reviews our current knowledge of selected characteristics of magnetic fields in intermediate-mass stars.

  10. Deep structure of the Mount Amram igneous complex, interpretation of magnetic and gravity data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirman, Boris; Rybakov, Michael; Beyth, Michael; Mushkin, Amit; Ginat, Hanan

    2015-03-01

    The Mt Amram igneous complex (AIC) represents northern tip of the Neoproterozoic Arabian Nubian Shield (ANS). For the first time the AIC deep structure was studied using the gravity, aero and ground magnetic, magnetic susceptibility and density measurements and geological data. Analysing all available data at the Amram area we concluded what only monzonite body can be reason for gravity high and coinciding reduced to pole (RTP) maximum. Geological knowledge allowed suggesting its intrusive character and compact body form. Cluster of inverse solutions (Werner deconvolution) localized this body as initial model for forward modelling. Further iterations (23/4-D forward modelling) clarified the monzonite geometry and properties; the modelling allowed also to investigate the non-uniqueness and estimate also the confident intervals for final solution. The research consists three interconnected stages. At the detailed scale, ground magnetic data suggested three magmatic blocks of few hundred meters shifted dextral about 100 m along the Zefunut fault. Estimated accuracy for geometry of the magnetic bodies is a few tens metres. At the middle scale, quantitative gravity and magnetic interpretations provide model of the monzonite body, which is an order of magnitude more than the volume of the felsic rhyolites and granite rocks. Boundary of the whole monzonite body was estimated with accuracy as a hundred meters. As a result we suggest that the parent magma for the AIC is the monzonite, similar to the model suggested for the Timna Igneous Complex 12 km north of the AIC. The model developed can be applied to evaluate the subsurface volumes of the mafic magmatic rocks in adjacent locations. At the regional scale for exposed the Sinai and Arab Saudi Precambrian crystalline shield our approach allows to understand the apparent contradiction between geological predominantly granite composition (low magnetic rocks) and magnetic data. The aeromagnetic data show number strong magnetic anomalies suggesting the presence large volume of high magnetic (mainly basic) rocks at the depth. This problem is proposed for future research.

  11. Magnetism in nanoparticles: tuning properties with coatings.

    PubMed

    Crespo, Patricia; de la Presa, Patricia; Marín, Pilar; Multigner, Marta; Alonso, José María; Rivero, Guillermo; Yndurain, Félix; González-Calbet, José María; Hernando, Antonio

    2013-12-01

    This paper reviews the effect of organic and inorganic coatings on magnetic nanoparticles. The ferromagnetic-like behaviour observed in nanoparticles constituted by materials which are non-magnetic in bulk is analysed for two cases: (a) Pd and Pt nanoparticles, formed by substances close to the onset of ferromagnetism, and (b) Au and ZnO nanoparticles, which were found to be surprisingly magnetic at the nanoscale when coated by organic surfactants. An overview of theories accounting for this unexpected magnetism, induced by the nanosize influence, is presented. In addition, the effect of coating magnetic nanoparticles with biocompatible metals, oxides or organic molecules is also reviewed, focusing on their applications. PMID:24201075

  12. Magnetism in nanoparticles: tuning properties with coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crespo, Patricia; de la Presa, Patricia; Marín, Pilar; Multigner, Marta; María Alonso, José; Rivero, Guillermo; Yndurain, Félix; María González-Calbet, José; Hernando, Antonio

    2013-12-01

    This paper reviews the effect of organic and inorganic coatings on magnetic nanoparticles. The ferromagnetic-like behaviour observed in nanoparticles constituted by materials which are non-magnetic in bulk is analysed for two cases: (a) Pd and Pt nanoparticles, formed by substances close to the onset of ferromagnetism, and (b) Au and ZnO nanoparticles, which were found to be surprisingly magnetic at the nanoscale when coated by organic surfactants. An overview of theories accounting for this unexpected magnetism, induced by the nanosize influence, is presented. In addition, the effect of coating magnetic nanoparticles with biocompatible metals, oxides or organic molecules is also reviewed, focusing on their applications.

  13. Complex polarization propagator calculations of magnetic circular dichroism spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solheim, Harald; Ruud, Kenneth; Coriani, Sonia; Norman, Patrick

    2008-03-01

    It is demonstrated that the employment of the nonlinear complex polarization propagator enables the calculation of the complete magnetic circular dichroism spectra of closed-shell molecules, including at the same time both the so-called Faraday A and B terms. In this approach, the differential absorption of right and left circularly polarized light in the presence of a static magnetic field is determined from the real part of the magnetic field-perturbed electric dipole polarizability. The introduction of the finite lifetimes of the electronically excited states into the theory results in response functions that are well behaved in the entire spectral region, i.e., the divergencies that are found in conventional response theory approaches at the transition energies of the system are not present. The applicability of the approach is demonstrated by calculations of the ultraviolet magnetic circular dichroism spectra of para-benzoquinone, tetrachloro-para-benzoquinone, and cyclopropane. The present results are obtained with the complex polarization propagator approach in conjunction with Kohn-Sham density functional theory and the standard adiabatic density functionals B3LYP, CAM-B3LYP, and BHLYP.

  14. Influence of rheological properties of magnetic fluid on damping ability of magnetic fluid shock-absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krakov, M. S.

    1999-07-01

    The radial flow of magnetic fluid under the piston of a magnetofluid shock absorber is studied. The great influence of magnetic fluid viscous properties on the intensity of energy dissipation under the piston is discovered. The influence of non-Newtonian properties is investigated in detail.

  15. Tuning Magnetic Relaxation in a Tb-Nitronyl Nitroxide Complex by Using Cocrystalline Paramagnetic Complex.

    PubMed

    Wang, Juan-Juan; Sun, Juan; Yang, Meng; Li, Li-Cun

    2015-12-01

    New 2p-4f and 2p-3d-4f compounds [Tb(hfac)3(NIT-PhNO2)2]·0.5C7H16 (1) and [Ln(hfac)3(NIT-PhNO2)2]2[Cu(hfac)2(NIT-PhNO2)2] (Ln(III) = Gd 2, Tb 3; hfac = hexafluoroacetylacetonate; NIT-PhNO2 = 2-(p-nitrophenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide) have been obtained. Complex 1 consists of mononuclear trispin [Tb(hfac)3(NIT-PhNO2)2] units in which two radical ligands are ligated to the Tb(III) ion as monodentate ligands through the NO groups, while complexes 2 and 3 contain two kinds of trispin moieties, namely, [Ln(hfac)3(NIT-PhNO2)2] and [Cu(hfac)2(NIT-PhNO2)2]. In the [Cu(hfac)2(NIT-PhNO2)2] moiety, the radicals are bonded to the copper(II) ion in the axial positions via the nitroxides. For three compounds, 1D supramolecular chains are formed via the ?-? stacking interactions involving the radical ligands. Magnetic investigations show that both Tb complexes exhibit slow relaxation of magnetization at low temperature; strikingly, complex 3 displays a higher energy barrier than that of 1. It represents the first example to use the paramagnetic complex to tune magnetic relaxation of 4f-based compounds. PMID:26558481

  16. Synthesis, crystal structure and magnetic properties of a novel heterobimetallic rhenium(IV)-dysprosium(III) chain.

    PubMed

    Pejo, Carolina; Guedes, Guilherme P; Novak, Miguel A; Speziali, Nivaldo L; Chiozzone, Raúl; Julve, Miguel; Lloret, Francesc; Vaz, Maria G F; González, Ricardo

    2015-06-01

    The use of the mononuclear rhenium(IV) precursor [ReBr5 (H2 pydc)](-) (H2 pydc=3,5-pyridinedicarboxylic acid) as a metalloligand towards dysprosium(III) afforded the first heterobimetallic Re(IV) -Dy(III) complex. Crystal structures and static and dynamic magnetic properties of both rhenium-containing species are reported herein. The 5d-4f compound shows an extended 1D structure and the AC magnetic measurements reveal frequency dependence at low temperature suggesting slow relaxation of the magnetization. PMID:25916407

  17. Magnetic and transport properties of phase-separated manganite BiLaCaMnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, R. R.; Kuang, G. L.; Zhao, B. C.; Sun, Y. P.

    2010-01-01

    We have investigated the magnetic and transport properties of Bi 0.1La 0.5Ca 0.4MnO 3 manganite, systematically. Four distinct feature temperature points in the temperature dependence of the magnetization curve M(T) occurring at ˜218 K, ˜181 K,˜112 K and ˜38 K are observed; these are suggested to be related to charge ordered (CO), weak ferromagnetic (FM), strong FM, and blocked metastable state. These temperature points can be changed by applying magnetic fields. The field-cooled (FC) M(T) curves show an obvious thermal hysteresis between the FC cooling (FCC) and FC warming (FCW) measuring process. The large variation between the FC and zero-field-cooled (ZFC) magnetization curves at low temperatures reflects the existence of blocked metastable states separated by high energy barriers. The blocked state can be weakened or eventually destroyed by applying magnetic fields. The field dependence of the magnetization and resistivity at both 5 K and 130 K shows that the magnetic and electrical transport properties are tightly correlated with the same critical field. The results indicate that CO and FM phases coexist in the sample at low temperatures. The local lattice distortion induced by the Bi 3+ doping may play an important role in the complex magnetic and transport properties of the sample.

  18. Correlation Between Domain Behavior and Magnetic Properties of Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey Scott Leib

    2003-05-31

    Correlation between length scales in the field of magnetism has long been a topic of intensive study. The long-term desire is simple: to determine one theory that completely describes the magnetic behavior of matter from an individual atomic particle all the way up to large masses of material. One key piece to this puzzle is connecting the behavior of a material's domains on the nanometer scale with the magnetic properties of an entire large sample or device on the centimeter scale. In the first case study involving the FeSiAl thin films, contrast and spacing of domain patterns are clearly related to microstructure and stress. Case study 2 most clearly demonstrates localized, incoherent domain wall motion switching with field applied along an easy axis for a square hysteresis loop. In case study 3, axis-specific images of the complex Gd-Si-Ge material clearly show the influence of uniaxial anisotropy. Case study 4, the only study with the sole intent of creating domain structures for imaging, also demonstrated in fairly simple terms the effects of increasing stress on domain patterns. In case study 5, it was proven that the width of magnetoresistance loops could be quantitatively predicted using only MFM. When all of the case studies are considered together, a dominating factor seems to be that of anisotropy, both magneticrostaylline and stress induced. Any quantitative bulk measurements heavily reliant on K coefficients, such as the saturation fields for the FeSiAl films, H{sub c} in cases 1, 3, and 5, and the uniaxial character of the Gd{sub 5}(Si{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}), transferred to and from the domain scale quite well. In-situ measurements of domain rotation and switching, could also be strongly correlated with bulk magnetic properties, including coercivity, M{sub s}, and hysteresis loop shape. In most cases, the qualitative nature of the domain structures, when properly considered, matched quite well to what might have been expected from theory and calculation, and provided such information in a matter of minutes. In fact, typical characterization in each of these studies was far more complete and reliable with domain imagery to back it up--especially the single crystal and applied field pictures. In these simple cases, it appears that domain imagery may be close to standing alone in magnetic characterization. The surprises in the 10 nm CoFeHfO film, the complexity seen in the polycrystalline Gd-Si-Ge sample and the broad range predictions of the K{sub 1} of the same reinforce the unreliability of making concrete statements based purely on domain imagery of any type, but it may be possible to create standards similar to the types used in optical microscopy for metallography in these complex cases.

  19. Magnetic and magnetothermal properties and the magnetic phase diagram of high purity single crystalline terbium along the easy magnetization direction

    SciTech Connect

    Zverev, V. I.; Tishin, A. M.; Chernyshov, A. S.; Mudryk, Ya; Gschneidner Jr., Karl A.; Pecharsky, Vitalij K.

    2014-01-21

    The magnetic and magnetothermal properties of a high purity terbium single crystal have been re-investigated from 1.5 to 350 K in magnetic fields ranging from 0 to 75 kOe using magnetization, ac magnetic susceptibility and heat capacity measurements. The magnetic phase diagram has been refined by establishing a region of the fan-like phase broader than reported in the past, by locating a tricritical point at 226 K, and by a more accurate definition of the critical fields and temperatures associated with the magnetic phases observed in Tb.

  20. Combining magnetic field induced locomotion and supramolecular interaction to micromanipulate glass fibers: toward assembly of complex structures at mesoscale.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Mengjiao; Gao, Haitao; Zhang, Yajun; Tremel, Wolfgang; Chen, Jian-Feng; Shi, Feng; Knoll, Wolfgang

    2011-06-01

    The formation of ordered complex structures is one of the most challenging fields in the research of biomimic materials because those structures are promising with respect to improving the physical and mechanical properties of man-made materials. In this letter, we have developed a novel approach to fabricating complex structures on the mesoscale by combining magnetic-field-induced locomotion and supramolecular-interaction-assisted immobilization. We have employed a magnetic field to locomote the glass fiber, which was modified by the layer-by-layer self-assembly of magnetic nanoparticles, to desired positions and have exploited the supramolecular interaction to immobilize glass fiber onto the appointed position. By magnetically induced micromanipulation, we can drive another fiber across the former one and finally obtain a crossing structure, which can lead to more complex structures on the mesocale. Moreover, we have constructed a mesoscale structure, termed "CHEM", to demonstrate further the application of this method. PMID:21542598

  1. EM Properties of Magnetic Minerals at RADAR Frequencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stillman, D. E.; Olhoeft, G. R.

    2005-01-01

    Previous missions to Mars have revealed that Mars surface is magnetic at DC frequency. Does this highly magnetic surface layer attenuate RADAR energy as it does in certain locations on Earth? It has been suggested that the active magnetic mineral on Mars is titanomaghemite and/or titanomagnetite. When titanium is incorporated into a maghemite or magnetite crystal, the Curie temperature can be significantly reduced. Mars has a wide range of daily temperature fluctuations (303K - 143K), which could allow for daily passes through the Curie temperature. Hence, the global dust layer on Mars could experience widely varying magnetic properties as a function of temperature, more specifically being ferromagnetic at night and paramagnetic during the day. Measurements of EM properties of magnetic minerals were made versus frequency and temperature (300K- 180K). Magnetic minerals and Martian analog samples were gathered from a number of different locations on Earth.

  2. Six-coordinate lanthanide complexes: slow relaxation of magnetization in the dysprosium(III) complex.

    PubMed

    Na, Bo; Zhang, Xue-Jing; Shi, Wei; Zhang, Yi-Quan; Wang, Bing-Wu; Gao, Chen; Gao, Song; Cheng, Peng

    2014-11-24

    A series of six-coordinate lanthanide complexes {(H3O)[Ln(NA)2]?H2O}n (H2NA=5-hydroxynicotinic acid; Ln=Gd(III) (1?Gd); Tb(III) (2?Tb); Dy(III) (3?Dy); Ho(III) (4?Ho)) have been synthesized from aqueous solution and fully characterized. Slow relaxation of the magnetization was observed in 3?Dy. To suppress the quantum tunneling of the magnetization, 3?Dy diluted by diamagnetic Y(III) ions was also synthesized and magnetically studied. Interesting butterfly-like hysteresis loops and an enhanced energy barrier for the slow relaxation of magnetization were observed in diluted 3?Dy. The energy barrier (?(?)) and pre-exponential factor (?0) of the diluted 3?Dy are 75?K and 4.21×10(-5) s, respectively. This work illustrates a successful way to obtain low-coordination-number lanthanide complexes by a framework approach to show single-ion-magnet-like behavior. PMID:25297951

  3. Magnetization reversal behavior in complex shaped Co nanowires: A nanomagnet morphology optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zighem, Fatih; Mercone, Silvana

    2014-11-01

    A systematic micromagnetic study of the morphological characteristic effects over the magnetic static properties of Co-based complex shaped nanowires is presented. The relevance of each characteristic size (i.e., length L, diameter d, and size of the nanowires head T) and their critical values are discussed in the coercive field optimization goal. Our results strongly confirms that once the aspect ratio ( L/d ) of the nanowire is bigger than around 10, the length is no more the pertinent parameter and instead the internal diameter and the shape of the nanowires play a key role. We attribute this behavior to the non uniform distribution of the demagnetizing field which is localized in the nanowires head and acts as a nucleation point for the incoherent magnetization reversal. Finally, angular dependence of the magnetization is simulated and compared to the case of a prolate spheroid for all considered morphologies.

  4. Tuning the photophysical properties of amidophosphine complexes of copper

    E-print Network

    Mickenberg, Seth F. (Seth Fox)

    2009-01-01

    A series of monomeric copper complexes that allow for the tuning of the emission properties is reported. Luminescence lifetimes up to 150 [mu]s are observed in benzene solution at ambient temperature, which are comparable ...

  5. Magnetic properties of dense holographic QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Bergman, Oren; Lifschytz, Gilad; Lippert, Matthew

    2009-05-15

    We investigate the Sakai-Sugimoto model at nonzero baryon chemical potential in a background magnetic field both in the confined phase and in the deconfined phase with restored chiral symmetry. In this case the 8-brane Chern-Simons term becomes important. In the confined phase it generates a gradient of the pseudoscalar 'pion', which carries a nonvanishing baryon charge. Above a critical value of the chemical potential there is a second-order phase transition to a mixed phase which includes also ordinary baryonic matter. However, at fixed baryon charge density the matter is purely pion-gradient above a critical magnetic field. In the deconfined chiral-symmetric phase at nonzero chemical potential the magnetic field induces an axial current. We also compute the magnetization of the baryonic matter and find that it is paramagnetic in all three phases but with nonlinear behavior at a large magnetic field.

  6. Magnetic properties of dense holographic QCD

    E-print Network

    Oren Bergman; Gilad Lifschytz; Matthew Lippert

    2009-04-30

    We investigate the Sakai-Sugimoto model at nonzero baryon chemical potential in a background magnetic field both in the confined phase and in the deconfined phase with restored chiral symmetry. In this case the 8-brane Chern-Simons term becomes important. In the confined phase it generates a gradient of the pseudo-scalar "pion", which carries a non-vanishing baryon charge. Above a critical value of the chemical potential there is a second order phase transition to a mixed phase which includes also ordinary baryonic matter. However, at fixed baryon charge density the matter is purely "pion"-gradient above a critical magnetic field. In the deconfined chiral-symmetric phase at nonzero chemical potential the magnetic field induces an axial current. We also compute the magnetization of the baryonic matter and find that it is paramagnetic in all three phases but with nonlinear behavior at large magnetic field.

  7. Magnetic properties of Ni substituted Y-type barium ferrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Won, Mi Hee; Kim, Chul Sung

    2014-05-01

    Y-type barium hexaferrite is attractive material for various applications, such as high frequency antennas and RF devices, because of its interesting magnetic properties. Especially, Ni substituted Y- type hexaferrites have higher magnetic ordering temperature than other Y-type. We have investigated macroscopic and microscopic properties of Y-type barium hexaferrite. Ba2Co2-xNixFe12O22 (x = 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0) samples are prepared by solid-state reaction method and studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), vibrating sample magnetometer, and Mössbauer spectroscopy, as well as a network analyzer for high frequency characteristics. The XRD pattern is analyzed by Rietveld refinement method and confirms the hexagonal structure with R-3m. The hysteresis curve shows ferrimagnetic behavior. Saturation magnetization (Ms) decreases with Ni contents. Ni2+, which preferentially occupies the octahedral site with up-spin sub-lattice, has smaller spin value S of 1 than Co2+ having S = 3/2. The zero-field-cooled (ZFC) measurement of Ba2Co1.5Ni0.5Fe12O22 shows that Curie and spin transition temperatures are found to be 718 K and 209 K, respectively. The Curie temperature TC is increased with Ni contents, while TS is decreased with Ni. The Mössbauer spectra were measured at various temperatures and fitted by using a least-squares method with six sextet of six Lorentzian lines for Fe sites, corresponding to the 3bVI, 6cIV*, 6cVI, 18hVI, 6cIV, and 3aIV sites at below TC. From Mössbauer measurements, we confirmed the spin state of Fe ion to be Fe3+ and obtained the isomer shift (?), magnetic hyperfine field (Hhf), and the occupancy ratio of Fe ions at six sub-lattices. The complex permeability and permittivity are measured between 100 MHz and 4 GHz, suggesting that Y-type barium hexaferrite is promising for antenna applications in UHF band.

  8. Magnetic properties of Ni substituted Y-type barium ferrite

    SciTech Connect

    Won, Mi Hee; Kim, Chul Sung

    2014-05-07

    Y-type barium hexaferrite is attractive material for various applications, such as high frequency antennas and RF devices, because of its interesting magnetic properties. Especially, Ni substituted Y- type hexaferrites have higher magnetic ordering temperature than other Y-type. We have investigated macroscopic and microscopic properties of Y-type barium hexaferrite. Ba{sub 2}Co{sub 2?x}Ni{sub x}Fe{sub 12}O{sub 22} (x?=?0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0) samples are prepared by solid-state reaction method and studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), vibrating sample magnetometer, and Mössbauer spectroscopy, as well as a network analyzer for high frequency characteristics. The XRD pattern is analyzed by Rietveld refinement method and confirms the hexagonal structure with R-3m. The hysteresis curve shows ferrimagnetic behavior. Saturation magnetization (M{sub s}) decreases with Ni contents. Ni{sup 2+}, which preferentially occupies the octahedral site with up-spin sub-lattice, has smaller spin value S of 1 than Co{sup 2+} having S?=?3/2. The zero-field-cooled (ZFC) measurement of Ba{sub 2}Co{sub 1.5}Ni{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 12}O{sub 22} shows that Curie and spin transition temperatures are found to be 718?K and 209?K, respectively. The Curie temperature T{sub C} is increased with Ni contents, while T{sub S} is decreased with Ni. The Mössbauer spectra were measured at various temperatures and fitted by using a least-squares method with six sextet of six Lorentzian lines for Fe sites, corresponding to the 3b{sub VI}, 6c{sub IV}*, 6c{sub VI}, 18h{sub VI}, 6c{sub IV}, and 3a{sub IV} sites at below T{sub C}. From Mössbauer measurements, we confirmed the spin state of Fe ion to be Fe{sup 3+} and obtained the isomer shift (?), magnetic hyperfine field (H{sub hf}), and the occupancy ratio of Fe ions at six sub-lattices. The complex permeability and permittivity are measured between 100?MHz and 4?GHz, suggesting that Y-type barium hexaferrite is promising for antenna applications in UHF band.

  9. Quantifying the motion of magnetic particles in excised tissue: Effect of particle properties and applied magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, Sandip; Ramaswamy, Bharath; Horton, Emily; Gangapuram, Sruthi; Nacev, Alek; Depireux, Didier; Shimoji, Mika; Shapiro, Benjamin

    2015-11-01

    This article presents a method to investigate how magnetic particle characteristics affect their motion inside tissues under the influence of an applied magnetic field. Particles are placed on top of freshly excised tissue samples, a calibrated magnetic field is applied by a magnet underneath each tissue sample, and we image and quantify particle penetration depth by quantitative metrics to assess how particle sizes, their surface coatings, and tissue resistance affect particle motion. Using this method, we tested available fluorescent particles from Chemicell of four sizes (100 nm, 300 nm, 500 nm, and 1 ?m diameter) with four different coatings (starch, chitosan, lipid, and PEG/P) and quantified their motion through freshly excised rat liver, kidney, and brain tissues. In broad terms, we found that the applied magnetic field moved chitosan particles most effectively through all three tissue types (as compared to starch, lipid, and PEG/P coated particles). However, the relationship between particle properties and their resulting motion was found to be complex. Hence, it will likely require substantial further study to elucidate the nuances of transport mechanisms and to select and engineer optimal particle properties to enable the most effective transport through various tissue types under applied magnetic fields.

  10. Magnetic properties and thermal stability of MnBi/NdFeB hybrid bonded magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, S.; Yue, M.; Yang, Y. X.; Zhang, D. T.; Liu, W. Q.; Zhang, J. X.; Guo, Z. H.; Li, W.

    2011-04-01

    Magnetic properties and thermal stability were investigated for the MnBi/NdFeB (MnBi = 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 wt.%) bonded hybrid magnets prepared by spark plasma sintering (SPS) technique. Effect of MnBi content on the magnetic properties of the hybrid magnets was studied. With increasing MnBi content, the coercivity of the MnBi/NdFeB hybrid magnets increases rapidly, while the remanence and maximum energy product drops simultaneously. Thermal stability measurement on MnBi magnet, NdFeB magnet, and the hybrid magnet with 20 wt.% MnBi indicates that both the NdFeB magnet and the MnBi/NdFeB hybrid magnet have a negative temperature coefficient of coercivity, while the MnBi magnet has a positive one. The (BH){sub max} of the MnBi/NdFeB magnet (MnBi = 20 wt.%) is 5.71 MGOe at 423 K, which is much higher than 3.67 MGOe of the NdFeB magnet, indicating a remarkable improvement of thermal stability.

  11. Dynamics of dust-ion acoustic shock waves in a magnetized charge variable superthermal complex plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahmansouri, Mehran

    2014-07-01

    A theoretical investigation is carried out to study the characteristic properties of dust-ion acoustic (DIA) shock waves in a magnetized, charge varying, complex (dusty) plasma which consists of immobile dust grains, fluid ions and superthermal electrons. The effects of collisions are not included here, but the dissipation leading to the formation of stable shock structures is provided by the dust charge fluctuations. The Korteweg-de Vries-Burgers (KdV-Burgers) equation is derived using the reductive perturbation technique. The combined effects of obliqueness, magnitude of the magnetic field, and electron superthermality on the DIA shock waves are then investigated. It is shown that the effects of obliqueness, electron non-thermality and dust charge fluctuation significantly modify the basic properties of DIA shock waves.

  12. Colossal anisotropy of the magnetic properties of doped lithium nitrodometalates

    SciTech Connect

    Antropov, Vladimir P; Antonov, Victor N

    2014-09-01

    We present a first-principles investigation of the electronic structure and physical properties of doped lithium nitridometalates Li2(Li1?xMx)N (LiMN) with M = Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni. The diverse properties include the equilibrium magnetic moments, magneto-crystalline anisotropy, magneto-optical Kerr spectra, and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism. We explain the colossal magnetic anisotropy in LiFeN by its unique electronic structure which ultimately leads to a series of unusual physical properties. The most unique property is a complete suppression of relativistic effects and freezing of orbital moments for in-plane orientation of the magnetization. This leads to the colossal spatial anisotropy of many magnetic properties including energy, Kerr, and dichroism effects. LiFeN is identified as an ultimate single-ion anisotropy system where a nearly insulating state can be produced by a spin orbital coupling alone. A very nontrivial strongly fluctuating and sign changing character of the magnetic anisotropy with electronic 3d-atomic doping is predicted theoretically. A large and highly anisotropic Kerr effect due to the interband transitions between atomic-like Fe 3d bands is found for LiFeN. A giant anisotropy of the x-ray magnetic circular dichroism for the Fe K spectrum and a very weak one for the Fe L2,3 spectra in LiFeN are also predicted.

  13. Electronic and structural properties of complex oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christie, Diane Marie

    This thesis focuses on oxides whose crystalline forms are isomorphic with silica (SiO2) in order to understand their electronic and structural properties. Silica is one of the most widely investigated oxides due to its important electronic, geophysical arid chemical properties. As many as 40 crystalline polymorphs along with amorphous and liquid forms have been described and studied in the literature. The alpha-quartz structure of silica exhibits interesting mechanical and pressure induced behavior. For example, when it is subjected to pressure, it will undergo a slow amorphization. There are many materials that are isostructural with SiO2. Isostructural materials should have similar properties and exhibit similar characteristics. Here we examine three materials: AlPO4, GaAsO4 and GeO 2. AlPO4 has attracted considerable attention owing to the potential technological importance of its high pressure behavior as a memory glass. GaAsO4 is another III-V analog compound, but shows no evidence of pressure induced amorphization as quartz does. GeO2, like silica, undergoes pressure induced amorphization in the alpha-quartz structure, but unlike silica, occurs only in two stable polymorphs. The objective of this thesis is to present a comprehensive picture of oxides that are isostructural with silica. We have computed a variety of properties of each material: (1) Equation of state in the form of volume versus pressure, (2) Structural properties as a function of pressure such as lattice constants and the internal coordinates describing the positions of constituent atoms within the cell, (3) Elastic properties such as the bulk modulus, (4) Electronic properties such as density of states, band structure, and charge density. Computations were performed using a quantum mechanical method based on "soft" ab initio pseudopotentials constructed within a local density approximation. The pseudopotentials required can be extracted from atomic structure calculations. A key element of the pseudopotential includes the elimination of chemically inert states, i.e., the core states. The resulting pseudopotential is weak and the wavefunctions can be described by simple basis sets such as plane waves. This approach is attractive for its reliability and its high predictive power.

  14. Emergence of Topography and Complex Cell Properties from Natural Images

    E-print Network

    Hyvärinen, Aapo

    Emergence of Topography and Complex Cell Properties from Natural Images using Extensions of ICA complex cells. Second, we deøne a topography between the linear components obtained by ICA components are close to each other in the topography if they are strongly dependent on each other. This leads

  15. Complex windmill transformation producing new purely magnetic fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozanovski, C.; Wylleman, L.

    2011-04-01

    Minimal complex windmill transformations of G2IB(ii) spacetimes (admitting a two-dimensional Abelian group of motions of the so-called Wainwright B(ii) class) are defined and the compatibility with a purely magnetic Weyl tensor is investigated. It is shown that the transformed spacetimes cannot be perfect fluids or purely magnetic Einstein spaces. We then determine which purely magnetic perfect fluids (PMpfs) can be windmill-transformed into purely magnetic anisotropic fluids (PMafs). Assuming separation of variables, complete integration produces two, algebraically general, G2I-B(ii) PMpfs: a solution with zero 4-acceleration vector and spatial energy-density gradient, previously found by the authors, and a new solution in terms of Kummer's functions, where these vectors are aligned and non-zero. The associated windmill PMafs are rotating but non-expanding. Finally, an attempt to relate the spacetimes to each other by a simple procedure leads to a G2I-B(ii) one-parameter PMaf generalization of the previously found metric.

  16. Magnetic porous composite material: Synthesis and properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peretyat'ko, P. I.; Kulikov, L. A.; Melikhov, I. V.; Perfil'ev, Yu. D.; Pal', A. F.; Timofeev, M. A.; Gudoshnikov, S. A.; Usov, N. A.

    2015-10-01

    A new method of obtaining magnetic porous composite materials is described, which is based on the self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) in the form of solid-phase combustion. The SHS process involves transformation of the nonmagnetic ?-Fe2O3 particles (contained in the initial mixture) into magnetic Fe3O4 particles. The synthesized material comprises a porous carbonaceous matrix with immobilized Fe3O4 particles. The obtained composite has been characterized by electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Mössbauer spectroscopy, and magnetic measurements. The sorption capacity of the porous material has been studied.

  17. Structural and dynamical properties of complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghoshal, Gourab

    Recent years have witnessed a substantial amount of interest within the physics community in the properties of networks. Techniques from statistical physics coupled with the widespread availability of computing resources have facilitated studies ranging from large scale empirical analysis of the worldwide web, social networks, biological systems, to the development of theoretical models and tools to explore the various properties of these systems. Following these developments, in this dissertation, we present and solve for a diverse set of new problems, investigating the structural and dynamical properties of both model and real world networks. We start by defining a new metric to measure the stability of network structure to disruptions, and then using a combination of theory and simulation study its properties in detail on artificially generated networks; we then compare our results to a selection of networks from the real world and find good agreement in most cases. In the following chapter, we propose a mathematical model that mimics the structure of popular file-sharing websites such as Flickr and CiteULike and demonstrate that many of its properties can solved exactly in the limit of large network size. The remaining part of the dissertation primarily focuses on the dynamical properties of networks. We first formulate a model of a network that evolves under the addition and deletion of vertices and edges, and solve for the equilibrium degree distribution for a variety of cases of interest. We then consider networks whose structure can be manipulated by adjusting the rules by which vertices enter and leave the network. We focus in particular on degree distributions and show that, with some mild constraints, it is possible by a suitable choice of rules to arrange for the network to have any degree distribution we desire. In addition we define a simple local algorithm by which appropriate rules can be implemented in practice. Finally, we conclude our dissertation with a game theory model on social networks that tracks the dynamical evolution of a group of interacting agents such as diplomats or political lobbyists seeking to rise to a position of influence, by balancing competing interests.

  18. Magnetic response of baryon properties in a skyrmion model

    E-print Network

    Bing-Ran He

    2015-10-29

    An axially symmetric ansatz is proposed to investigate the properties of baryon in a uniform magnetic field. The baryon number is shown to be conserved, while the baryon shape is stretched along the magnetic field. It is found that with increasing magnetic field strength, the static mass of the baryon first decreases and then increases, while the size of the baryon first increases and then decreases. Finally, in the core part of the magnetar, the equation of state strongly depends on the magnetic field, which modifies the mass limit of the magnetar.

  19. Thermal to electricity conversion using thermal magnetic properties

    DOEpatents

    West, Phillip B [Idaho Falls, ID; Svoboda, John [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-04-27

    A system for the generation of Electricity from Thermal Energy using the thermal magnetic properties of a Ferromagnetic, Electrically Conductive Material (FECM) in one or more Magnetic Fields. A FECM is exposed to one or more Magnetic Fields. Thermal Energy is applied to a portion of the FECM heating the FECM above its Curie Point. The FECM, now partially paramagnetic, moves under the force of the one or more Magnetic Fields. The movement of the FECM induces an electrical current through the FECM, generating Electricity.

  20. Functional hyperbranched polymers with advanced optical, electrical and magnetic properties.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wenbo; Tang, Runli; Li, Qianqian; Li, Zhen

    2015-06-21

    As one kind of important functional material, those with advanced optical, electrical and magnetic characteristics have attracted increasing attention due to their essential and irreplaceable role in the daily life of humans. In particular, optical, electrical and magnetic hyperbranched polymers (HBPs) exhibit some unique properties, partially derived from their highly branched topological structures. This review summarizes the recent progress in the field of functional HBPs and their application in optics, electronics and magnetics, including light-emitting polymers, nonlinear optical materials, chemosensors, solar cells, magnetic materials, etc., and also gives some outlooks for further exploration in this field at the end of this paper. PMID:25170592

  1. Transport Properties of Equilibrium Argon Plasma in a Magnetic Field

    SciTech Connect

    Bruno, D.; Laricchiuta, A.; Chikhaoui, A.; Kustova, E. V.; Giordano, D.

    2005-05-16

    Electron electrical conductivity coefficients of equilibrium Argon plasma in a magnetic field are calculated up to the 12th Chapman-Enskog approximation at pressure of 1 atm and 0.1 atm for temperatures 500K-20000K; the magnetic Hall parameter spans from 0.01 to 100. The collision integrals used in the calculations are discussed. The convergence properties of the different approximations are assessed. The degree of anisotropy introduced by the presence of the magnetic field is evaluated. Differences with the isotropic case can be very substantial. The biggest effects are visible at high ionization degrees, i.e. high temperatures, and at strong magnetic fields.

  2. Characterizing the Properties of Coronal Magnetic Null Points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Graham; DeRosa, Marc; Wagner, Eric

    2015-08-01

    The topology of the coronal magnetic field plays a role in a wide range of phenomena, from Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) through heating of the corona. One fundamental topological feature is the null point, where the magnetic field vanishes. These points are natural sites of magnetic reconnection, and hence the release of energy stored in the magnetic field. We present preliminary results of a study using data from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager aboard NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory to characterize the properties and evolution of null points in a Potential Field Source Surface model of the coronal field. The main properties considered are the lifetime of the null points, their distribution with height, and how they form and subsequently vanish.This work is supported by NASA/LWS Grant NNX14AD45G, and by NSF/SHINE grant 1357018.

  3. The effects of magnetic nanoparticle properties on magnetic fluid hyperthermia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kappiyoor, Ravi; Liangruksa, Monrudee; Ganguly, Ranjan; Puri, Ishwar K.

    2010-11-01

    Magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) is a noninvasive treatment that destroys cancer cells by heating a ferrofluid-impregnated malignant tissue with an ac magnetic field while causing minimal damage to the surrounding healthy tissue. The strength of the magnetic field must be sufficient to induce hyperthermia but it is also limited by the human ability to safely withstand it. The ferrofluid material used for hyperthermia should be one that is readily produced and is nontoxic while providing sufficient heating. We examine six materials that have been considered as candidates for MFH use. Examining the heating produced by nanoparticles of these materials, barium-ferrite and cobalt-ferrite are unable to produce sufficient MFH heating, that from iron-cobalt occurs at a far too rapid rate to be safe, while fcc iron-platinum, magnetite, and maghemite are all capable of producing stable controlled heating. We simulate the heating of ferrofluid-loaded tumors containing nanoparticles of the latter three materials to determine their effects on tumor tissue. These materials are viable MFH candidates since they can produce significant heating at the tumor center yet maintain the surrounding healthy tissue interface at a relatively safe temperature.

  4. Electrical and magnetic properties of chitosan-magnetite nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatt, Aarti S.; Krishna Bhat, D.; Santosh, M. S.

    2010-04-01

    Magnetite powders in nanometer size have been synthesized by the hydrothermal process. Various magnetic films of chitosan and the synthesized magnetite nanopowders containing different concentrations of the latter were prepared by ultrasonication route. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies and the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images showed that the synthesized magnetite particles had 80 nm dimensions. The band gap of the composites was evaluated using the UV-visible Spectroscopy. The influence of magnetite content on the magnetic properties of the composite showed a decrease in the saturation magnetization with the decrease in the magnetic content. The effect of magnetite content on the dielectric properties of the polymer film at different frequencies from 0.01 to 105 Hz was studied using an electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The possible mechanism for the observed electrical properties of the composite films was discussed.

  5. Properties of magnetic double perovskites, silicide intermetallics and molybdenum-doped vanadium dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holman, Katherine Leigh

    Chemists and condensed matter physicists alike have long searched for compounds that can shed light on electronic behavior in solids. Electronic behavior is usually assessed by two straightforward ways: conductivity and magnetism. The interactions that determine magnetic states give clues as to the lattice contribution and the atomic orbital interactions. This thesis investigates three systems for their electronic, magnetic, and structural properties: firstly, three double perovskites with very similar structures but different magnetic properties; secondly, a family of compounds with a cubic structure that theoretically should superconduct but doesn't; and lastly, the effects of molybdenum on the structure, magnetic, and electronic properties of VO2. Two new compounds, La2NiVO6 and La2CoVO 6 were synthesized along with the previously studied La2CoTiO 6. While all three compounds have the double perovskite structure, they exhibit very different magnetic properties. Only La2CoTiO 6 was found to have an ordered magnetic structure, the result of the transition metals ordering. The other two compounds had antiferromagnetic interactions, but with Ni and V mixed on a site and Co and V mixed on a site, neither exhibited long-range magnetic ordering. From theory, M6Ni16Si7 (M=Mg, Sc, Ti, Nb, or Ta), should be superconducting. These five compounds were synthesized, and their magnetic and electronic properties were measured with surprisingly consistent magnetic behavior over the wide range of electron counts. Measurements revealed no superconductivity, contrary to expectations. VO2 has a rather unique metal-insulator transition that occurs just above room temperature, which has been studied for decades. The insulator phase of VO2 contains V-V dimers and little magnetic activity is expected. By adding Mo, local magnetic states are created by disrupting these V-V dimers. For every Mo4+ added, an equal number of V 4+ ions displayed a magnetic moment, indicating the breaking up of V-V pairs. Doping also results in an increase in the density of states coinciding with a decrease in the number of magnetic moments on the lattice. These results suggest that chemical manipulation of simple systems, like VO2, provide an excellent framework for the development and testing of modern ideas about complex electronic matter and state-of-the-art theoretical treatments of correlated electron systems.

  6. The synthesis, structure, magnetic and luminescent properties of a new tetranuclear dysprosium (III) cluster

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yen-Han; Tsai, Yun-Fan; Lee, Gene-Hsian; Yang, En-Che

    2012-01-15

    The synthesis and characterization of [Dy{sub 4}(dhampH{sub 3}){sub 4}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}](NO{sub 3}){sub 2} (1), a new tetranuclear dysprosium (III) complex, is described. The compound was characterized by its X-ray structure, magnetic properties as well as the luminescent spectra. The compound crystallizes in a P1-bar space group with a zig-zag linear form of geometry. The ac magnetic susceptibilities of the molecule indicate that it is a magnetic molecule with a slow magnetization relaxation. The molecule also exhibits an emission spectrum that was confirmed to be ligand based. These results indicate that this molecule has both a slow magnetization relaxation (that could be potentially a SMM) and luminescent properties. - Graphical Abstract: A new tetranuclear dysprosium (III) complex [Dy{sub 4}(dhampH{sub 3}){sub 4}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}](NO{sub 3}){sub 2} is synthesized and reported in this paper. This molecule has luminescence and can potentially act as a SMM. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new designed ligand (dhampH{sub 5}) was syntheisized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new tetra-dysprosium cluster [Dy{sub 4}(dhampH{sub 3}){sub 4}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}](NO{sub 3}){sub 2} was made. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Slow magnetization relaxation phenomenon was observed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ligand-based luminescence was observed.

  7. Synthesis and Properties of Ortho-Nitro-Fe Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Mishra, A.; Mishra, Niyati; Sharma, R.; Jain, G.; Ninama, S.; Awate, R.

    2011-07-15

    Ortho-Nitro-Fe complex (Transition metal complex) has synthesized by chemical route method and properties of made complex has characterized by X-Ray diffraction (XRD), Moessbauer spectroscopy, Fourier transformation infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). XRD analysis shows that sample is crystalline in nature and having particle size in the range of few nano meters. Moessbauer spectroscopy at room temperature shows the oxidation state of Iron (central metal ion) after complaxasion. FTIR spectra of the complex confirms the coordination of metal ion with ligand.

  8. Nuclear magnetic resonance properties of lunar samples.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kline, D.; Weeks, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of Na-23, Al-27, and P-31 in fines samples 10084,60 and 14163,168 and in crystalline rock samples 12021,55 and 14321,166, have been recorded over a range of frequencies up to 20 MHz. A shift in the field at which maximum absorption occurs for all of the spectra relative to the field at which maximum absorption occurs for terrestrial analogues is attributed to a sample-dependent magnetic field at the Na, Al, and P sites opposing the laboratory field. The magnitude of these fields internal to the samples is sample dependent and varies from 5 to 10 G. These fields do not correlate with the iron content of the samples. However, the presence of single-domain particles of iron distributed throughout the plagioclase fraction that contains the principal fraction of Na and Al is inferred from electron magnetic resonance spectra shapes.

  9. Transport properties of hadronic matter in magnetic field

    E-print Network

    Guru Kadam

    2015-03-06

    We study the effect of magnetic field on the transport properties like shear and bulk viscosities of hot and dense hadronic matter within hadron resonance gas model. We estimate the bulk viscosity using low energy theorems for bilocal correlators of the energy momentum tensor generalized to finite temperature, density and magnetic field. We use Gaussian ansatz for the spectral function at low frequency. We estimate shear viscosity coefficient using molecular kinetic theory. We find that vacuum contribution due to finite magnetic field dominates the bulk viscosity ({\\zeta}) for the temperatures up to 0.1GeV and increases with magnetic field while ratio {\\zeta}/s decreases with magnetic field. We also find that shear viscosity coefficient of hadronic matter decreases with magnetic field.

  10. 2934 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MAGNETICS, VOL. 40, NO. 4, JULY 2004 Magnetic Properties of

    E-print Network

    Laughlin, David E.

    04B0 02)10 ribbon showed the highest ( )max of 10.8 MGOe at 300 K. A Henkel plot analysis suggested2934 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MAGNETICS, VOL. 40, NO. 4, JULY 2004 Magnetic Properties of Sm(CobalFe0-structured in nature and magnetically hard, even in the as-spun state. By lowering the value of z(3d/R) and raising

  11. QSPR prediction of the stability constants of gadolinium(III) complexes for magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Dioury, Fabienne; Duprat, Arthur; Dreyfus, Gérard; Ferroud, Clotilde; Cossy, Janine

    2014-10-27

    Gadolinium(III) complexes constitute the largest class of compounds used as contrast agents for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). A quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) machine-learning based method is applied to predict the thermodynamic stability constants of these complexes (log KGdL), a property commonly associated with the toxicity of such organometallic pharmaceuticals. In this approach, the log KGdL value of each complex is predicted by a graph machine, a combination of parametrized functions that encodes the 2D structure of the ligand. The efficiency of the predictive model is estimated on an independent test set; in addition, the method is shown to be effective (i) for estimating the stability constants of uncharacterized, newly synthesized polyamino-polycarboxylic compounds and (ii) for providing independent log KGdL estimations for complexants for which conflicting or questionable experimental data were reported. The exhaustive database of log KGdL values for 158 complexants, reported for potential application as contrast agents for MRI and used in the present study, is available in the Supporting Information (122 primary literature sources). PMID:25181704

  12. High temperature structural and magnetic properties of cobalt nanorods

    SciTech Connect

    Ait Atmane, Kahina; Zighem, Fatih; Soumare, Yaghoub; Ibrahim, Mona; Boubekri, Rym; Maurer, Thomas; Margueritat, Jeremie; Piquemal, Jean-Yves; Ott, Frederic; Chaboussant, Gregory; Schoenstein, Frederic; Jouini, Noureddine; Viau, Guillaume

    2013-01-15

    We present in this paper the structural and magnetic properties of high aspect ratio Co nanoparticles ({approx}10) at high temperatures (up to 623 K) using in-situ X ray diffraction (XRD) and SQUID characterizations. We show that the anisotropic shapes, the structural and texture properties are preserved up to 500 K. The coercivity can be modelled by {mu}{sub 0}H{sub C}=2(K{sub MC}+K{sub shape})/M{sub S} with K{sub MC} the magnetocrystalline anisotropy constant, K{sub shape} the shape anisotropy constant and M{sub S} the saturation magnetization. H{sub C} decreases linearly when the temperature is increased due to the loss of the Co magnetocrystalline anisotropy contribution. At 500 K, 50% of the room temperature coercivity is preserved corresponding to the shape anisotropy contribution only. We show that the coercivity drop is reversible in the range 300-500 K in good agreement with the absence of particle alteration. Above 525 K, the magnetic properties are irreversibly altered either by sintering or by oxidation. - Graphical abstract: We present in this paper the structural and magnetic properties of high aspect ratio Co nanorods ({approx}10) at high temperatures (up to 623 K) using in-situ X-ray diffraction and SQUID characterizations. We show that the anisotropic shapes, the structural and texture properties are preserved up to 500 K. Above 525 K, the magnetic properties are irreversibly altered either by sintering or by oxidation. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ferromagnetic Co nanorods are prepared using the polyol process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The structural and texture properties of the Co nanorods are preserved up to 500 K. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The magnetic properties of the Co nanorods are irreversibly altered above 525 K.

  13. Influencing the properties of dysprosium single-molecule magnets with phosphorus donor ligands.

    PubMed

    Pugh, Thomas; Tuna, Floriana; Ungur, Liviu; Collison, David; McInnes, Eric J L; Chibotaru, Liviu F; Layfield, Richard A

    2015-01-01

    Single-molecule magnets are a type of coordination compound that can retain magnetic information at low temperatures. Single-molecule magnets based on lanthanides have accounted for many important advances, including systems with very large energy barriers to reversal of the magnetization, and a di-terbium complex that displays magnetic hysteresis up to 14?K and shows strong coercivity. Ligand design is crucial for the development of new single-molecule magnets: organometallic chemistry presents possibilities for using unconventional ligands, particularly those with soft donor groups. Here we report dysprosium single-molecule magnets with neutral and anionic phosphorus donor ligands, and show that their properties change dramatically when varying the ligand from phosphine to phosphide to phosphinidene. A phosphide-ligated, trimetallic dysprosium single-molecule magnet relaxes via the second-excited Kramers' doublet, and, when doped into a diamagnetic matrix at the single-ion level, produces a large energy barrier of 256?cm(-1) and magnetic hysteresis up to 4.4?K. PMID:26130418

  14. Influencing the properties of dysprosium single-molecule magnets with phosphorus donor ligands

    PubMed Central

    Pugh, Thomas; Tuna, Floriana; Ungur, Liviu; Collison, David; McInnes, Eric J.L.; Chibotaru, Liviu F.; Layfield, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    Single-molecule magnets are a type of coordination compound that can retain magnetic information at low temperatures. Single-molecule magnets based on lanthanides have accounted for many important advances, including systems with very large energy barriers to reversal of the magnetization, and a di-terbium complex that displays magnetic hysteresis up to 14?K and shows strong coercivity. Ligand design is crucial for the development of new single-molecule magnets: organometallic chemistry presents possibilities for using unconventional ligands, particularly those with soft donor groups. Here we report dysprosium single-molecule magnets with neutral and anionic phosphorus donor ligands, and show that their properties change dramatically when varying the ligand from phosphine to phosphide to phosphinidene. A phosphide-ligated, trimetallic dysprosium single-molecule magnet relaxes via the second-excited Kramers' doublet, and, when doped into a diamagnetic matrix at the single-ion level, produces a large energy barrier of 256?cm?1 and magnetic hysteresis up to 4.4?K. PMID:26130418

  15. Thermal properties of a large-bore cryocooled 10 T superconducting magnet for a hybrid magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishizuka, M.; Hamajima, T.; Itou, T.; Sakuraba, J.; Nishijima, G.; Awaji, S.; Watanabe, K.

    2010-11-01

    A cryocooled 10 T superconducting magnet with a 360 mm room temperature bore has been developed for a hybrid magnet. The superconducting magnet cooled by four Gifford-McMahon cryocoolers has been designed to generate a magnetic field of 10 T. Since superconducting wires composed of coils were subjected to large hoop stress over 150 MPa and Nb 3Sn superconducting wires particularly showed a low mechanical strength due to those brittle property, Nb 3Sn wires strengthened by NbTi-filaments were developed for the cryocooled superconducting magnet. We have already reported that the hybrid magnet could generate the resultant magnetic field of 27.5 T by adding 8.5 T from the superconducting magnet and 19 T from a water-cooled Bitter resistive magnet, after the water-cooled resistive magnet was inserted into the 360 mm room temperature bore of the cryocooled superconducting magnet. When the hybrid magnet generated the field of 27.5 T, it achieved the high magnetic-force field ( B × ?Bz/ ?z) of 4500 T 2/m, which was useful for magneto-science in high fields such as materials levitation research. In this paper, we particularly focus on the cause that the cryocooled superconducting magnet was limited to generate the designed magnetic field of 10 T in the hybrid magnet operation. As a result, it was found that there existed mainly two causes as the limitation of the magnetic field generation. One was a decrease of thermal conductive passes due to exfoliation from the coil bobbin of the cooling flange. The other was large AC loss due to both a thick Nb 3Sn layer and its large diameter formed on Nb-barrier component in Nb 3Sn wires.

  16. PREDICTION OF THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF COMPLEX FLUIDS

    SciTech Connect

    Marc Donohue

    2006-01-05

    ABSTRACT The goal of this research has been to generalize Density Functional Theory (DFT) for complex molecules, i.e. molecules whose size, shape, and interaction energies cause them to show significant deviations from mean-field behavior. We considered free energy functionals and minimized them for systems with different geometries and dimensionalities including confined fluids (such as molecular layers on surfaces and molecules in nano-scale pores), systems with directional interactions and order-disorder transitions, amphiphilic dimers, block copolymers, and self-assembled nano-structures. The results of this procedure include equations of equilibrium for these systems and the development of computational tools for predicting phase transitions and self-assembly in complex fluids. DFT was developed for confined fluids. A new phenomenon, surface compression of confined fluids, was predicted theoretically and confirmed by existing experimental data and by simulations. The strong attraction to a surface causes adsorbate molecules to attain much higher densities than that of a normal liquid. Under these conditions, adsorbate molecules are so compressed that they repel each other. This phenomenon is discussed in terms of experimental data, results of Monte Carlo simulations, and theoretical models. Lattice version of DFT was developed for modeling phase transitions in adsorbed phase including wetting, capillary condensation, and ordering. Phase behavior of amphiphilic dimers on surfaces and in solutions was modeled using lattice DFT and Monte Carlo simulations. This study resulted in predictive models for adsorption isotherms and for local density distributions in solutions. We have observed a wide variety of phase behavior for amphiphilic dimers, including formation of lamellae and micelles. Block copolymers were modeled in terms of configurational probabilities and in the approximation of random mixing entropy. Probabilities of different orientations for the segments were considered as order parameters and the free energy was written as a functional of these parameters. Imposing boundary conditions allowed us to apply this approach to confined fluids. Equilibrium self-assembly in fluids was studied in the framework of the lattice density functional theory (DFT). In particular, DFT was used to model the phase behavior of anisotropic monomers. Though anisotropic monomers are a highly idealized model system, the analysis presented here demonstrates a formalism that can be used to describe a wide variety of phase transitions, including processes referred to as self-assembly. In DFT, the free energy is represented as a functional of order parameters. Minimization of this functional allows modeling spontaneous nano-scale phase transitions and self-assembly of supramolecular structures. In particular, this theory predicts micellization, lamellization, fluid – glass phase transitions, crystallization, and more. A classification of phase transitions based on general differences in self-assembled structures is proposed. The roles of dimensionality and intermolecular interactions in different types of phase transitions are analyzed. The concept of “genetic” codes is discussed in terms of structural variety of self-assembled systems.

  17. Magnetic properties of coupled bilayers and trilayers thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoto, Ilir

    2006-04-01

    The magnetic recording technology badly needs higher magnetization materials in order to write high anisotropy media which is required for thermal stability at small bit sizes. It is conceivable that transition metal-rare earth bilayers and trilayers might allow magnetizations higher than that available from transition metal alloys if the strong exchange interactions of the transition metal layer could raise the Curie temperature of an adjacent, high moment rare earth layer. This dissertation reports the magnetic and structural properties of bilayers and trilayers thin films prepared by magnetron sputtering. The magnetic and structural properties are studied by low temperature Vibrating Sample Magnetometry, Polarized Neutron Reflectivity, X-Ray Diffraction, and X-Ray Reflectivity. A Stoner-Wohlfarth model is also applied to simulate the hysteresis loops. We find that Ni and Gd have a negative interfacial exchange interaction, so the magnetizations align antiferromagnetically at zero applied fields. Their magnetizations also couple antiferromagnetically through a Pd spacer layer between them. The coupling is found to depend on the thickness of the Pd spacer layer and it disappears for Pd thickness greater than approximately 2.5 nm. Simulation results are in good agreement with the experimental data and confirm the antiferromagnetic coupling. Polarized neutron reflectivity confirms the antiferromagnetic coupling in the remanent state and indicates that the magnetic moments of Gd and Ni align parallel to the field as the applied field is increased to 0.79 T.

  18. Petrophysical Properties (Density and Magnetization) of Rocks from the Suhbaatar-Ulaanbaatar-Dalandzadgad Geophysical Profile in Mongolia and Their Implications

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jintian; Gu, Zuowen; Dagva, Baatarkhuu; Tserenpil, Batsaikhan

    2013-01-01

    Petrophysical properties of 585 rock samples from the Suhbaatar-Ulaanbaatar-Dalandzadgad geophysical profile in Mongolia are presented. Based on the rock classifications and tectonic units, petrophysical parameters (bulk density, magnetic susceptibility, intensity of natural remanent magnetization, and Köenigsberger ratio) of these rocks are summarized. Results indicate that (1) significant density contrast of different rocks would result in variable gravity anomalies along the profile; (2) magnetic susceptibility and natural remanent magnetization of all rocks are variable, covering 5-6 orders of magnitude, which would make a variable induced magnetization and further links to complex magnetic anomalies in ground surface; (3) the distribution of rocks with different lithologies controls the pattern of lithospheric magnetic anomaly along the profile. The petrophysical database thus provides not only one of the keys to understand the geological history and structure of the profile, but also essential information for analysis and interpretation of the geophysical (e.g., magnetic and gravity) survey data. PMID:24324382

  19. Magnetic Properties of the Mn5Si3 Compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leciejewicz, J.; Penc, B.; Szytu?a, A.; Jezierski, A.; Zygmunt, A.

    2008-04-01

    The magnetic and powder neutron diffraction data indicate a complex magnetic structure of Mn5Si3. This compound has the hexagonal D88 crystal structure at room temperature. The Mn atoms occupy two nonequivalent sublattices. Two phase transitions, at 60 and 106 K, are observed. The first one is between a non-collinear AF1 and a collinear AF2 magnetic structure, the second one is between the collinear AF2 structure and a paramagnetic state. At 106 K the crystal structure changes from the hexagonal to the orthorhombic one. The values of the Mn magnetic moment in both structures were calculated by different ab initio methods. The results of the calculations are compared with the values of the Mn magnetic moment determined experimentally in this work and presented in the previous ones.

  20. Basic magnetic properties of bituminous coal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alexander, C.C.; Thorpe, A.N.; Senftle, F.E.

    1979-01-01

    Magnetic susceptibility and other static magnetic parameters have been measured on a number of bituminous coals from various locations in the United States. The paramagnetic Curie constant correlates negatively with carbon concentration on a moisture-free basis. The major contribution to the total paramagnetism comes from the mineral matter rather than from free radicals or broken bonds. Analysis of the data indicates that the specific paramagnetism is generally lower in the mineral matter found in high-ash compared to low-ash coal. A substantial number of the coal specimens tested also had a ferromagnetic susceptibility which appeared to be associated with magnetite. Magnetite and ??-iron spherules, possibly of meteoritic or volcanic origin, were found in several specimens. ?? 1979.

  1. The symmetry properties of planetary magnetic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raedler, Karl-Heinz; Ness, Norman F.

    1990-01-01

    This paper provides a comparative study of the geometrical structures of the magnetic fields of earth, Jupiter, Saturn, and Uranus, starting from the traditional multipolar representations of these fields. For earth, Jupiter, and Saturn, the centered dipole, quadrupole, and octupole contributions are included, while at Uranus only the dipole and quadrupole contributions are considered. It is found that there are a number of common features of the magnetic fields of earth and Jupiter. Compared to earth and Jupiter, the Saturnian field exhibits not only a high degree of symmetry about the rotation axis but also a high degree of antisymmetry about the equatorial plane. The Uranian field shows strong deviations from both such symmetries. Nevertheless, there remain features common to all four planets.

  2. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation to SMA worsens complex movements in Parkinson's disease

    E-print Network

    Pullman, Seth L.

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation to SMA worsens complex movements in Parkinson the therapeutic potential of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) for Parkinson's disease (PD analysis, timed motor performance tests, United Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), patient self

  3. Polymer nanocomposites exhibiting magnetically tunable microwave properties.

    PubMed

    Stojak, K; Pal, S; Srikanth, H; Morales, C; Dewdney, J; Weller, T; Wang, J

    2011-04-01

    Polymer nanocomposites (PNCs) have been synthesized using Rogers polymer and CoFe?O? nanoparticles (CFO NPs). X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirms the inverse spinel crystal structure of CFO NPs and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images show the uniform dispersion of nanoparticles (10 nm ± 1) into the polymer matrix. Magnetic measurements indicate superparamagnetic response near room temperature for all PNCs. A blocking temperature T(B)~298 K was observed and does not vary for different loading fractions of CFO NPs for the PNCs. The saturation magnetization (M(s)) was found to be 11 emu g?¹ for 30 wt% CFO, increasing to 32 emu g?¹ for the 80 wt% CFO loaded PNC. A large value of coercivity (H(c) = 19 kOe) is also observed at 10 K and is not affected by varying CFO loading. Microwave measurements show significant absorption in the 80 wt% CFO loading PNC and the quality factor shows a strong enhancement with applied magnetic field. PMID:21343635

  4. Cohesive property of magnetized neutron star surfaces: Computations and implications

    E-print Network

    Zach Medin; Dong Lai

    2007-01-11

    The cohesive energy of condensed matter in strong magnetic fields is a fundamental quantity characterizing magnetized neutron star surfaces. The cohesive energy refers to the energy required to pull an atom out of the bulk condensed matter at zero pressure. Theoretical models of pulsar and magnetar magnetospheres depend on the cohesive properties of the surface matter in strong magnetic fields. For example, depending on the cohesive energy of the surface matter, an acceleration zone ("polar gap") above the polar cap of a pulsar may or may not form. Also, condensation of the neutron star surface, if it occurs, can significantly affect thermal emission from isolated neutron stars. We describe our calculations of the cohesive property of matter in strong magnetic fields, and discuss the implications of our results to the recent observations of neutron star surface emission as well as to the detection/non-detection of radio emission from magnetars.

  5. Adsorption-induced magnetic properties and metallic behavior of graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Yungang; Zu, Xiaotao T.; Gao, Fei; Lv, H. F.; Xiao, Haiyan J.

    2009-09-21

    Magnetic properties and electronic structures of graphene with Cl, S, and P adsorption have been investigated using ab initio calculations. The adsorption of Cl leads to Fermi level shifting to valence band, which results in metallic graphene. A band gap of 0.6 eV emerges in a S-absorbed graphene, leading to the semiconducting graphene. The unpaired electrons in the absorbed P atom is polarized and thus, exhibits a magnetic moment of 0.86 ?B, while no magnetic moment has been observed after Cl and S adsorption. This demonstrates that the magnetic properties and conductive behavior of graphene can be modified via atom adsorption. Specially, P-absorbed graphene may be useful for spintronic applications, such as tunneling magnetoresistance.

  6. Synthesis and magnetic properties of a novel ferrite organogel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Sichu; John, Vijay T.; Irvin, Glen C.; Rachakonda, Suguna H.; McPherson, Gary L.; O'Connor, Charles J.

    1999-04-01

    A novel magnetic organogel that can be considered a precursor example of a magnetoresponsive gel is reported. The gel is formed by the bridging of ferrite containing anionic bis(2-ethlhexyl) sodium sulfosuccinate reverse micelles with 2,6-dihydroxynaphthalene (2,6-DHN). The addition of 2,6-DHN leads to a room temperature quotes "freezing in" of the liquid solution to a clear organogel. Ferrite particles in the size range 10-15 nm are doped into the gel network and are thus suspended in the optically clear gel media. The magnetic properties of the gel were measured using a superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer. The results reveal that the gel exhibits superparamagnetic behavior with a blocking temperature of 6 K (at an applied field of 1000 G), and a coercivity of 850 G at 2 K. The ferrites introduced into the gel serve the function of magnetic "seeds" via which magnetic properties are acquired by the gel.

  7. Luminescent Cyclometalated Platinum and Palladium Complexes with Novel Photophysical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Eric

    Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) is a rapidly emerging technology based on organic thin film semiconductors. Recently, there has been substantial investment in their use in displays. In less than a decade, OLEDs have grown from a promising academic curiosity into a multi-billion dollar global industry. At the heart of an OLED are emissive molecules that generate light in response to electrical stimulation. Ideal emitters are efficient, compatible with existing materials, long lived, and produce light predominantly at useful wavelengths. Developing an understanding of the photophysical processes that dictate the luminescent properties of emissive materials is vital to their continued development. Chapter 1 and Chapter 2 provide an introduction to the topics presented and the laboratory methods used to explore them. Chapter 3 discusses a series of tridentate platinum complexes. A synthetic method utilizing microwave irradiation was explored, as well as a study of the effects ligand structure had on the excited state properties. Results and techniques developed in this endeavor were used as a foundation for the work undertaken in later chapters. Chapter 4 introduces a series of tetradentate platinum complexes that share a phenoxy-pyridyl (popy) motif. The new molecular design improved efficiency through increased rigidity and modification of the excited state properties. This class of platinum complexes were markedly more efficient than those presented in Chapter 3, and devices employing a green emitting complex of the series achieved nearly 100% electron-to-photon conversion efficiency in an OLED device. Chapter 5 adapts the ligand structure developed in Chapter 4 to palladium. The resulting complexes exceed reported efficiencies of palladium complexes by an order of magnitude. This chapter also provides the first report of a palladium complex as an emitter in an OLED device. Chapter 6 discusses the continuation of development efforts to include carbazolyl components in the ligand. These complexes possess interesting luminescent properties including ultra-narrow emission and metal assisted delayed fluorescence (MADF) emission.

  8. Tailoring the magnetic and pharmacokinetic properties of iron oxide magnetic particle imaging tracers

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Richard Mathew; Khandhar, Amit P; Arami, Hamed; Hua, Loc; Hovorka, Ondrej; Krishnan, Kannan M.

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) is an attractive new modality for imaging distributions of iron oxide nanoparticle tracers in vivo. With exceptional contrast, high sensitivity, and good spatial resolution, MPI shows promise for clinical imaging in angiography and oncology. Critically, MPI requires high-quality iron oxide nanoparticle tracers with tailored magnetic and surface properties to achieve its full potential. In this review, we discuss optimizing iron oxide nanoparticles’ physical, magnetic, and pharmacokinetic properties for MPI, highlighting results from our recent work in which we demonstrated tailored, biocompatible iron oxide nanoparticle tracers that provided two times better linear spatial resolution and five times better signal-to-noise ratio than Resovist. PMID:23787461

  9. Measured iron-gallium alloy tensile properties under magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Jin-Hyeong; Flatau, Alison B.

    2004-07-01

    Tension testing is used to identify Galfenol material properties under low level DC magnetic bias fields. Dog bone shaped specimens of single crystal Fe100-xGax, where 17<=x<=33, underwent tensile testing along two crystalographic axis orientations, [110] and [100]. The material properties being investigated and calculated from measured quantities are: Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio. Data are presented that demonstrate the dependence of these material properties on applied magnetic field levels and provide a preliminary assessment of the trends in material properties for performance under varied operating conditions. The elastic properties of Fe-Ga alloys were observed to be increasingly anisotropic with rising Ga content for the stoichiometries examined. The largest elastic anisotropies were manifested in [110] Poisson's ratios of as low as -0.63 in one specimen. This negative Poisson's ratio creates a significant in-plane auxetic behavior that could be exploited in applications that capitalize on unique area effects produced under uniaxial loading.

  10. Copper ion salts of arylthiotetrathiafulvalenes: synthesis, structure diversity and magnetic properties

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Longfei; Sun, Jibin; Lu, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Shangxi; Qi, Hui; Liu, Lei; Shao, Yongliang

    2015-01-01

    Summary The combination of CuBr2 and arylthio-substituted tetrathiafulvalene derivatives (1–7) results in a series of charge-transfer (CT) complexes. Crystallographic studies indicate that the anions in the complexes, which are derived from CuBr2, show diverse configurations including linear [Cu(I)Br2]–, tetrahedral [Cu(II)Br4]2–, planar [Cu(II)2Br6]2–, and coexistence of planar [Cu(II)Br4]2– and tetrahedral [Cu(II)Br3]– ions. On the other hand, the TTFs show either radical cation or dication states that depend on their redox potentials. The central TTF framework on most of TTFs is nearly planar despite the charge on them, whereas the two dithiole rings on molecule 4 in complex 4·CuBr4 are significantly twisted with a dihedral angle of 38.3°. The magnetic properties of the complexes were elucidated. The temperature-dependent magnetic susceptibility of complex 5·Cu2Br6 shows the singlet–triplet transition with coupling constant J = ?248 K, and that of 3·(CuBr4)0.5·CuBr3·THF shows the abrupt change at 270 K caused by the modulation of intermolecular interactions. The thermo variation of magnetic susceptibility for the other complexes follows the Curie–Weiss law, indicating the weak antiferromagnetic interaction at low temperature. PMID:26124886

  11. Copper ion salts of arylthiotetrathiafulvalenes: synthesis, structure diversity and magnetic properties.

    PubMed

    Ma, Longfei; Sun, Jibin; Lu, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Shangxi; Qi, Hui; Liu, Lei; Shao, Yongliang; Shao, Xiangfeng

    2015-01-01

    The combination of CuBr2 and arylthio-substituted tetrathiafulvalene derivatives (1-7) results in a series of charge-transfer (CT) complexes. Crystallographic studies indicate that the anions in the complexes, which are derived from CuBr2, show diverse configurations including linear [Cu(I)Br2](-), tetrahedral [Cu(II)Br4](2-), planar [Cu(II)2Br6](2-), and coexistence of planar [Cu(II)Br4](2-) and tetrahedral [Cu(II)Br3](-) ions. On the other hand, the TTFs show either radical cation or dication states that depend on their redox potentials. The central TTF framework on most of TTFs is nearly planar despite the charge on them, whereas the two dithiole rings on molecule 4 in complex 4·CuBr4 are significantly twisted with a dihedral angle of 38.3°. The magnetic properties of the complexes were elucidated. The temperature-dependent magnetic susceptibility of complex 5·Cu2Br6 shows the singlet-triplet transition with coupling constant J = -248 K, and that of 3·(CuBr4)0.5·CuBr3·THF shows the abrupt change at 270 K caused by the modulation of intermolecular interactions. The thermo variation of magnetic susceptibility for the other complexes follows the Curie-Weiss law, indicating the weak antiferromagnetic interaction at low temperature. PMID:26124886

  12. Magnetic properties of NdFeB-coated rubberwood composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noodam, Jureeporn; Sirisathitkul, Chitnarong; Matan, Nirundorn; Rattanasakulthong, Watcharee; Jantaratana, Pongsakorn

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic properties of composites prepared by coating lacquer containing neodymium iron boron (Nd-Fe-B) powders on rubberwood were characterized by vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM), magnetic moment measurements, and attraction tests with an iron-core solenoid. The Nd-Fe-B powders were recycled from electronic wastes by the ball-milling technique. Varying the milling time from 20 to 300 min, the magnetic squareness and the coercive field of the Nd-Fe-B powders were at the minimum when the powders were milled for 130 min. It followed that the coercive field of the magnetic wood composites was increased with the milling time increasing from 130 to 300 min. For the magnetic wood composites using Nd-Fe-B obtained from the same milling time, the magnetic squareness and the coercive field were rather insensitive to the variation of Nd-Fe-B concentration in coating lacquer from 0.43 to 1.00 g/cm3. By contrast, the magnetization and magnetic moment were increased with the Nd-Fe-B concentration increasing. Furthermore, the electrical current in the solenoid required for the attraction of the magnetic wood composites was exponentially reduced with the increase in the amount of Nd-Fe-B used in the coating.

  13. Extracting, Tracking, and Visualizing Magnetic Flux Vortices in 3D Complex-Valued Superconductor Simulation Data.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hanqi; Phillips, Carolyn L; Peterka, Tom; Karpeyev, Dmitry; Glatz, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    We propose a method for the vortex extraction and tracking of superconducting magnetic flux vortices for both structured and unstructured mesh data. In the Ginzburg-Landau theory, magnetic flux vortices are well-defined features in a complex-valued order parameter field, and their dynamics determine electromagnetic properties in type-II superconductors. Our method represents each vortex line (a 1D curve embedded in 3D space) as a connected graph extracted from the discretized field in both space and time. For a time-varying discrete dataset, our vortex extraction and tracking method is as accurate as the data discretization. We then apply 3D visualization and 2D event diagrams to the extraction and tracking results to help scientists understand vortex dynamics and macroscale superconductor behavior in greater detail than previously possible. PMID:26529730

  14. Probing magnetic properties of ferrofluids using temperature dependent magnetic hyperthermia studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemala, Humeshkar; Thakur, Jagdish; Naik, Vaman; Naik, Ratna

    2014-03-01

    Tuning the properties of magnetic nanoparticles is essential for biomedical and technological applications. An important phenomenon displayed by these nanoparticles is the generation of heat in the presence of an external oscillating magnetic field and is known as magnetic hyperthermia (MHT). The heat dissipation by the magnetic nanoparticles occurs via Neel relaxation (the flip of the internal magnetic moment of the nanoparticles) and Brownian relaxation (the physical rotation of the nanoparticles in the suspended media). Dextran coated iron oxide (Fe3O4) nanoparticles were synthesized using the co-precipitation method and characterized using XRD, TEM and DC magnetometry measurements. Roughly spherical in shape the particles have an average size of 13nm and a saturation magnetization of 65 emu/g. The MHT properties of these nanoparticles suspended in a weakly basic solution (ferrofluid) have been investigated as a function of the frequency and amplitude of magnetic field by incorporating a complete thermodynamical analysis of the experimental set-up. The heat generation is quantified using the specific power loss (SPL) and compared with the predictions of linear response theory. This analysis sheds light on important physical and magnetic properties of the nanoparticles.

  15. Investigation of structural, thermal and magnetic properties of cadmium substituted cobalt ferrite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkata Reddy, Ch.; Byon, Chan; Narendra, B.; Baskar, D.; Srinivas, G.; Shim, Jaesool; Prabhakar Vattikuti, S. V.

    2015-06-01

    Cd substituted Cobalt ferrite nano particles are synthesis using co-precipitation method. The as prepared samples are calcinated at 300 and 600 °C respectively. The existence of single phase spinal cubic structure of the prepared ferrite material is confirmed by the powder XRD measurement. The surface morphology images, compositional features are studied by SEM with EDX, and TEM. From the FT-IR spectra the absorption bands observed at 595 and 402 cm-1 are attributed to vibrations of tetrahedral and octahedral complexes respectively. From the VSM data, parameters like magnetization, coercivity, remanent magnetization and remanent squareness are measured. The saturation magnetization value is increases with increasing calcination temperature. The DSC and TG-DTA curves reveal that the thermal stability of the prepared ferrite nanoparticles. The calcination temperature affects the crystallite size, morphology and magnetic properties of the samples.

  16. Magnetic properties of agricultural soil in the Pearl River Delta, South China - Spatial distribution and influencing factor analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, Yong; Ouyang, Tingping; Zhu, Zhaoyu; Huang, Ningsheng; Wan, Hongfu; Li, Mingkun

    2014-08-01

    Environmental magnetism has been widely applied to soil science due to its speediness, non-destructiveness and cost-effectiveness. However, the magnetic investigation of agricultural soil, so closely related to human activity, is limited, most probably because of its complexity. Here we present a magnetic investigation of 301 agricultural soil samples collected from the Pearl River Delta (PRD, 112°E-115°E and 22°N-24°N), China. The results showed that both low and high coercivity magnetic minerals coexist in agricultural soil. The values of concentration-dependent parameters, low-field susceptibility (?lf), anhysteretic remanence magnetization susceptibility (?ARM), and saturation isothermal remanence magnetization (SIRM) were much higher in the PRD plain than in the surrounding areas. The S-ratio (S- 300) showed a similar spatial pattern to the aforementioned parameters. By contrast, frequency-dependent susceptibility (?fd%) and ?ARM/SIRM were higher in the surrounding hilly and mountainous areas than in the PRD plain. Natural and anthropogenic factors such as parent material, soil type and cultivation methods play important roles in determining agricultural soil magnetic properties. Magnetic minerals were coarser grained and overall indicated higher concentrations in soils from river alluvium and deposited materials. Soils which had suffered long-term water submergence have the lowest magnetic mineral concentration, a result consistent with previous studies. The magnetic properties of agricultural soils are strongly influenced by cultivation methods. Other human activities, such as industrial development and concomitant emitted pollutants, might have had an additional impact on the magnetic properties of agricultural soil.

  17. Properties of hyperonic matter in strong magnetic fields

    E-print Network

    P. Yue; F. Yang; H. Shen

    2009-02-21

    We study the effects of strong magnetic fields on the properties of hyperonic matter. We employ the relativistic mean field theory, which is known to provide excellent descriptions of nuclear matter and finite nuclei. The two additional hidden-strangeness mesons, $\\sigma^{\\ast}$ and $\\phi$, are taken into account, and some reasonable hyperon potentials are used to constrain the meson-hyperon couplings, which reflect the recent developments in hypernuclear physics. It is found that the effects of strong magnetic fields become significant only for magnetic field strength $B>5 \\times 10^{18}$ G. The threshold densities of hyperons can be significantly altered by strong magnetic fields. The presence of hyperons makes the equation of state (EOS) softer than that in the case without hyperons, and the softening of the EOS becomes less pronounced with increasing magnetic field strength.

  18. Bio-inspired artificial cilia with magnetic dynamic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Leilei; Zheng, Yongmei

    2015-04-01

    Inspired by the structure and properties of natural cilia, we focused on a facile template-free approach to prepare magnetic artificial cilia grown on the substrate (glass, PDMS, or others). In an applied magnetic field, the cilia formed spontaneously and immediately from magnetic nanoparticles and elastomeric polymer in a liquid solvent by bottom-up self-assembly. The length of prepared cilia could be in the scale of millimeter and reach a high aspect ratio of even over 100. We studied the effect of the magnetic strength applied and the size of nanoparticles to get tunable scale of cilia. The cilia show reversibly bending in an external magnetic field and this bending actuation gave some important functions: to transport macroscopic nonmagnetic materials on the cilia and to mix liquids.

  19. Low Temperature Crystal Structure and Magnetic Properties of RAl2

    SciTech Connect

    Pathak, Arjun K.; Paudyal, Durga; Gschneidner, Karl A.; Pecharsky, Vitalij K.

    2014-01-08

    Low temperature crystal structure and magnetic properties of RAl2 (R?=?Pr and Nd) have been studied using temperature dependent powder x-ray diffraction, magnetization, and heat capacity measurements. Unlike PrAl2, NdAl2 retains cubic MgCu2-type structure from room temperature down to 5?K, which is also confirmed from first principles electronic structure calculations. The magnetization measurements show both PrAl2 and NdAl2 order ferromagnetically at TC?=?32?K and 77?K, respectively. However, the magnetization measurements show the former is a hard ferromagnet compared to the latter which is a soft ferromagnetic material. The magnetic entropy change obtained from heat capacity measurements at ?H?=?30 kOe for PrAl2 and NdAl2 are 3.15?J?mol?1 K?1 and 1.18?J?mol?1 K?1, respectively.

  20. Microstructure and Magnetic Properties of Bulk Nanocrystalline MnAl

    SciTech Connect

    Chaturvedi, A; Yaqub, R; Baker, I

    2014-01-22

    MnAl is a promising rare-earth free permanent magnet for technological use. We have examined the effects of consolidation by back-pressure, assisted equal channel angular extrusion processing on mechanically-milled, gas-atomized Mn-46% at. Al powder. X-ray diffraction showed both that the extruded rod consisted mostly of metastable tau phase, with some of the equilibrium gamma(2) and beta phases, and that it largely retained the as-milled nanostructure. Magnetic measurements show a coercivity of <= 4.4 kOe and a magnetization at 10 kOe of <= 40 emu/g. In addition, extrusions exhibit greater than 95% of the theoretical density. This study opens a new window in the area of bulk MnAl magnets with improved magnetic properties for technological use.

  1. Magnetic nanoparticles: surface effects and properties related to biomedicine applications.

    PubMed

    Issa, Bashar; Obaidat, Ihab M; Albiss, Borhan A; Haik, Yousef

    2013-01-01

    Due to finite size effects, such as the high surface-to-volume ratio and different crystal structures, magnetic nanoparticles are found to exhibit interesting and considerably different magnetic properties than those found in their corresponding bulk materials. These nanoparticles can be synthesized in several ways (e.g., chemical and physical) with controllable sizes enabling their comparison to biological organisms from cells (10-100 ?m), viruses, genes, down to proteins (3-50 nm). The optimization of the nanoparticles' size, size distribution, agglomeration, coating, and shapes along with their unique magnetic properties prompted the application of nanoparticles of this type in diverse fields. Biomedicine is one of these fields where intensive research is currently being conducted. In this review, we will discuss the magnetic properties of nanoparticles which are directly related to their applications in biomedicine. We will focus mainly on surface effects and ferrite nanoparticles, and on one diagnostic application of magnetic nanoparticles as magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents. PMID:24232575

  2. Single crystal Processing and magnetic properties of gadolinium nickel

    SciTech Connect

    Shreve, Andrew John

    2012-11-02

    GdNi is a rare earth intermetallic material that exhibits very interesting magnetic properties. Spontaneous magnetostriction occurs in GdNi at T{sub C}, on the order of 8000ppm strain along the c-axis and only until very recently the mechanism causing this giant magnetostriction was not understood. In order to learn more about the electronic and magnetic structure of GdNi, single crystals are required for anisotropic magnetic property measurements. Single crystal processing is quite challenging for GdNi though since the rare-earth transition-metal composition yields a very reactive intermetallic compound. Many crystal growth methods are pursued in this study including crucible free methods, precipitation growths, and specially developed Bridgman crucibles. A plasma-sprayed Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} W-backed Bridgman crucible was found to be the best means of GdNi single crystal processing. With a source of high-quality single crystals, many magnetization measurements were collected to reveal the magnetic structure of GdNi. Heat capacity and the magnetocaloric effect are also measured on a single crystal sample. The result is a thorough report on high quality single crystal processing and the magnetic properties of GdNi.

  3. Magnetic Nanoparticles: Surface Effects and Properties Related to Biomedicine Applications

    PubMed Central

    Issa, Bashar; Obaidat, Ihab M.; Albiss, Borhan A.; Haik, Yousef

    2013-01-01

    Due to finite size effects, such as the high surface-to-volume ratio and different crystal structures, magnetic nanoparticles are found to exhibit interesting and considerably different magnetic properties than those found in their corresponding bulk materials. These nanoparticles can be synthesized in several ways (e.g., chemical and physical) with controllable sizes enabling their comparison to biological organisms from cells (10–100 ?m), viruses, genes, down to proteins (3–50 nm). The optimization of the nanoparticles’ size, size distribution, agglomeration, coating, and shapes along with their unique magnetic properties prompted the application of nanoparticles of this type in diverse fields. Biomedicine is one of these fields where intensive research is currently being conducted. In this review, we will discuss the magnetic properties of nanoparticles which are directly related to their applications in biomedicine. We will focus mainly on surface effects and ferrite nanoparticles, and on one diagnostic application of magnetic nanoparticles as magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents. PMID:24232575

  4. Magnetic properties of iron oxalatophosphates with layer and framework structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S. F.; Tsai, T. C.; Chang, G. S.; Sheu, C. Y.; Lii, K. H.

    2007-05-01

    The magnetic properties of two iron(III) oxalatophosphates, Cs2Fe(C2O4)0.5(HPO4)2 and CsFe(C2O4)0.5(H2PO4)(HPO4), were studied. The zero-field-cooled and field-cooled magnetizations versus temperature curves showed Curie-Weiss behavior from room temperature down to about 70K. Antiferromagnetic ordering and frustration behavior were observed in distinct temperature ranges at lower temperature. The frustration behavior can be attributed to the Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interaction of the dimerlike magnetic structure, which causes spin canting states.

  5. Complex magnetic order in Pr?Pd?Ge?: a single crystal study.

    PubMed

    Anand, V K; Thamizhavel, A; Ramakrishnan, S; Hossain, Z

    2012-11-14

    We have investigated the magnetic and electronic transport properties of single crystal Pr(2)Pd(3)Ge(5) grown by the Czochralski method. Complex magnetic behaviour (multiple magnetic transitions) is clearly seen in this compound from the magnetic susceptibility ?(T), isothermal magnetization M(H) and electrical resistivity ?(T) data. For the magnetic field applied along the crystallographic c-axis (H ? [001]) the ?(T) data exhibit two sharp transitions at 6.9 and 6.3 K and a broad hump near 8 K. Four anomalies at 8.0, 7.3, 6.2 and 4.9 K are observed for the magnetic field along both a- and b-directions (H ? [100] and H ? [010]). Further, the ordered state ?(T) presents a large anisotropy with an easy axis along the c-axis. The presence of magnetocrystalline anisotropy is also inferred from the isothermal M(H) data. The M(H) data measured at 1.9 K for H ? [001] exhibit a step-like increase due to field-induced metamagnetic transitions at [Formula: see text] T and [Formula: see text] T. For H ? [100] and H ? [010] sharp step-like field-induced metamagnetic transitions occur at [Formula: see text] T and [Formula: see text] T which are accompanied by a weak S-shaped spin-flop metamagnetic transition at [Formula: see text] T. We have extracted the H-T phase diagram from the M(H) data collected at different temperatures in the magnetically ordered state which shows the existence of three magnetic phases below T(N) for H ? [100] and H ? [010], and two magnetic phases for H ? [001]. A sharp transition due to the onset of long range antiferromagnetic order is also seen in the ?(T) data which also exhibit anisotropic behaviour. The observation of an upturn near T(N) in the ?(T) data suggests the formation of a super-zone gap and hence the existence of incommensurate magnetic structure. Further, in the ordered state, the ?(T) data present a gap in the excitation spectrum of magnons with a characteristic energy gap ? ? 0.23 meV. PMID:23086193

  6. Diameter Dependence of Magnetic Properties in Nanoparticle-Filled CNTs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stojak, Kristen; Chandra, Sayan; Khurshid, Hafsa; Phan, Manh-Huong; Srikanth, Hariharan; Palmero, Ester; Vázquez, Manuel

    2014-03-01

    In past studies we showed magnetic polymer nanocomposites (MPNCs) with ferrite nanoparticle (NP) fillers to be magnetically tunable when passing microwave signals through films under the influence of an external magnetic field. We extend this study to include NP-filled multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) of various diameter (~300nm, ~100nm, ~40nm) synthesized by a catalyst-free CVD method, where the outer diameter of the CNTs is determined by a porous alumina template. These high-aspect ratio magnetic nanostructures, with tunable anisotropy and tunable saturation magnetization, are of particular interest in enhancing magnetic and microwave response in existing MPNCs. CNTs with ~ 300nm diameter have been uniformly filled with cobalt ferrite and nickel ferrite NPs (~7nm). NP-filled CNTs show an increase in blocking temperature of ~40K, as well as an increase in relaxation time, ?0. The enhancement of these properties indicates that enclosing NPs in CNTs increases interparticle interactions. The magnetic properties are also tunable by varying the diameter of CNTs. Characterization was completed with XRD, TEM and Quantum Design PPMS, with VSM and ACMS options.

  7. High-frequency electromagnetic properties of soft magnetic Y2Fe17Nx particles with easy-plane anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Guoguo; Zhang, Yongbo; Qiao, Liang; Wang, Tao; Wang, Jianbo; Li, Fashen

    2015-11-01

    The microwave magnetic properties of the soft magnetic Y2Fe17Nx (x?3) particles with easy-plane anisotropy were reported. The high MS and out-of-plane anisotropy result in the high permeability in GHz frequency band. The complex permeability of the Y2Fe17Nx particles/paraffin composite was further enhanced by inducing the easy magnetization planes of the particles to be parallel to each other through a rotational orientation. The calculated reflection loss (RL) properties of the orientated Y2Fe17Nx composite revealed that this composite can be used as high-performance absorber in S band.

  8. Reliable evaluation of magnetic properties of nanoparticle systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zucolotto, B.; Plá Cid, C. C.; Isoppo, E. A.; Pasa, A. A.; Duque, J. G. S.; Folly, W. S. D.

    2015-09-01

    We obtain magnetic properties of magnesioferrite nanoparticles grew in a magnesiowstite crystalline matrix by analyzing the temperature dependence of the coercive field and the magnetization behavior. We introduce a modelling scheme to evaluate those properties in which the input variables are estimated from experimental data. The core of the method relies in sampling for nearby values in order to reach the optimal one that yields the smallest difference between calculated and experimental data. This procedure is efficient and our results match with the ones found in the literature. Thus, our method paves the way for a robust characterization of superparamagnetic nanoparticle materials.

  9. Stimuli responsive hybrid magnets: tuning the photoinduced spin-crossover in Fe(III) complexes inserted into layered magnets.

    PubMed

    Clemente-León, Miguel; Coronado, Eugenio; López-Jordà, Maurici; Waerenborgh, João C; Desplanches, Cédric; Wang, Hongfeng; Létard, Jean-François; Hauser, Andreas; Tissot, Antoine

    2013-06-12

    The insertion of a [Fe(sal2-trien)](+) complex cation into a 2D oxalate network in the presence of different solvents results in a family of hybrid magnets with coexistence of magnetic ordering and photoinduced spin-crossover (LIESST effect) in compounds [Fe(III)(sal2-trien)][Mn(II)Cr(III)(ox)3]·CHCl3 (1·CHCl3), [Fe(III)(sal2-trien)][Mn(II)Cr(III)(ox)3]·CHBr3 (1·CHBr3), and [Fe(III)(sal2-trien)][Mn(II)Cr(III)(ox)3]·CH2Br2 (1·CH2Br2). The three compounds crystallize in a 2D honeycomb anionic layer formed by Mn(II) and Cr(III) ions linked through oxalate ligands and a layer of [Fe(sal2-trien)](+) complexes and solvent molecules (CHCl3, CHBr3, or CH2Br2) intercalated between the 2D oxalate network. The magnetic properties and Mössbauer spectroscopy indicate that they undergo long-range ferromagnetic ordering at 5.6 K and a spin crossover of the intercalated [Fe(sal2-trien)](+) complexes at different temperatures T1/2. The three compounds present a LIESST effect with a relaxation temperature TLIESST inversely proportional to T1/2. The isostructural paramagnetic compound, [Fe(III)(sal2-trien)][Zn(II)Cr(III)(ox)3]·CH2Cl2 (2·CH2Cl2) was also prepared. This compound presents a partial spin crossover of the inserted Fe(III) complex as well as a LIESST effect. Finally, spectroscopic characterization of the Fe(III) doped compound [Ga0.99Fe0.01(sal2trien)][Mn(II)Cr(III)(ox)3]·CH2Cl2 (3·CH2Cl2) shows a gradual and complete thermal spin crossover and a LIESST effect on the isolated Fe(III) complexes. This result confirms that cooperativity is not a necessary condition to observe the LIESST effect in an Fe(III) compound. PMID:23676008

  10. Characterization of Magnetic Viral Complexes for Targeted Delivery in Oncology

    PubMed Central

    Almstätter, Isabella; Mykhaylyk, Olga; Settles, Marcus; Altomonte, Jennifer; Aichler, Michaela; Walch, Axel; Rummeny, Ernst J.; Ebert, Oliver; Plank, Christian; Braren, Rickmer

    2015-01-01

    Oncolytic viruses are promising new agents in cancer therapy. Success of tumor lysis is often hampered by low intra-tumoral titers due to a strong anti-viral host immune response and insufficient tumor targeting. Previous work on the co-assembly of oncolytic virus particles (VPs) with magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) was shown to provide shielding from inactivating immune response and improve targeting by external field gradients. In addition, MNPs are detected by magnet resonance imaging (MRI) enabling non-invasive therapy monitoring. In this study two selected core-shell type iron oxide MNPs were assembled with adenovirus (Ad) or vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). The selected MNPs were characterized by high r2 and r2* relaxivities and thus could be quantified non-invasively by 1.5 and 3.0 tesla MRI with a detection limit below 0.001 mM iron in tissue-mimicking phantoms. Assembly and cell internalization of MNP-VP complexes resulted in 81 - 97 % reduction of r2 and 35 - 82 % increase of r2* compared to free MNPs. The relaxivity changes could be attributed to the clusterization of particles and complexes shown by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In a proof-of-principle study the non-invasive detection of MNP-VPs by MRI was shown in vivo in an orthotopic rat hepatocellular carcinoma model. In conclusion, MNP assembly and compartmentalization have a major impact on relaxivities, therefore calibration measurements are required for the correct quantification in biodistribution studies. Furthermore, our study provides first evidence of the in vivo applicability of selected MNP-VPs in cancer therapy. PMID:25897333

  11. Microstructure and magnetic properties of sintered Nd-Fe-B magnets with high hydrogen content

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, S.; Zhou, Q. Y.; Chen, R. J.; Lee, D.; Yan, A. R.

    2011-04-01

    The effects of hydrogen contents after the process of hydrogen decrepitation on the magnetic properties and corrosion resistance of sintered Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets have been studied. The intrinsic coercivity of the magnets increases and the remanence decreases with increasing hydrogen content. High residue hydrogen content in the starting ingot leads to the reaction of hydrogenation, disproportionation, desorption and recombination in the sinter process resulting in magnets with low remanence. The results of highly accelerated temperature/humidity stress test indicate that excessive hydrogen contents are harmful to the corrosion resistance of the magnets. The influences of residue hydrogen contents on the corrosion resistance of magnets dominate only when the residue hydrogen content exceeds 1300 parts per million.

  12. Tunable electronic and magnetic properties of WS2 nanoribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hui; Li, Xi-Bo; Liu, Li-Min

    2013-09-01

    Two dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have attracted great attention because of the versatile electronic structures. The electronic and magnetic properties of the nanoribbons are still not fully understood, which are crucial for their applications in nanodevices. In this work, the detailed atomic structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of the one dimensional WS2 nanoribbons have been carefully explored by first-principles calculations. The results suggest that the single layer WS2 will first transform into direct band gap semiconductor from indirect band gap of bulk one. Interestingly, the properties of WS2 nanoribbons are greatly affected by the type of the edges: Armchair nanoribbons (ANRs) remain nonmagnetic and semiconducting as that of bulk, whereas zigzag nanoribbons (ZNRs) exhibit ferromagnetic and metallic. Further, the electronic properties can be tuned by applying the external strains to WS2 nanoribbons: Band gap of ANRs experiences a direct-indirect-direct transition and the magnetic moment of ZNRs can be easily tuned by the different strains. All these findings suggest that the TMDs nanoribbons may exhibit extraordinary electronic and magnetic properties, and more importantly, such fascinating characters can be precisely modulated by controlling the edge types and applied strains.

  13. Control of Magnetic Properties Across Metal to Insulator Transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de La Venta, Jose

    2013-03-01

    Controlling the magnetic properties of ferromagnetic (FM) thin films without magnetic fields is an on-going challenge in condensed matter physics with multiple technological implications. External stimuli and proximity effects are the most used methods to control the magnetic properties. An interesting possibility arises when ferromagnets are in proximity to materials that undergo a metal-insulator (MIT) and structural phase transition (SPT). The stress associated with the structural changes produces a magnetoelastic anisotropy in proximity coupled ferromagnetic films that allows controlling the magnetic properties without magnetic fields. Canonical examples of materials that undergo MIT and SPT are the vanadium oxides (VO2 and V2O3) . VO2 undergoes a metal/rutile to an insulator/monoclinic phase transition at 340 K. In V2O3 the transition at 160 K is from a metallic/rhombohedral to an insulating/ monoclinic phase. We have investigated the magnetic properties of different combinations of ferromagnetic (Ni, Co and Fe) and vanadium oxide thin films. The (0.32%) volume expansion in VO2 or the (1.4%) volume decrease in V2O3 across the MIT produces an interfacial stress in the FM overlayer. We show that the coercivities and magnetizations of the ferromagnetic films grown on vanadium oxides are strongly affected by the phase transition. The changes in coercivity can be as large as 168% and occur in a very narrow temperature interval. These effects can be controlled by the thickness and deposition conditions of the different ferromagnetic films. For VO2/Ni bilayers the large change in the coercivity occurring above room temperature opens the possibilities for technological applications. Work done in collaboration with Siming Wang, J. G. Ramirez, and Ivan K. Schuller. Funded by the US DoE, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, under Award FG03-87ER-45332 and the Air Force Office of Scientific Research No. FA9550-12-1-0381.

  14. Electronic properties of intercalation complexes of the transition metal dichalcogenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friend, R. H.; Yoffe, A. D.

    1987-11-01

    Intercalation of the layer type transition metal dichalcogenides by a variety of organic molecules, alkali metals, or ‘3d’ transition metals, provides a powerful way to finely tune the electron occupation of the relatively narrow ‘d’ bands met in these solids. These transition metal dichalcogenides are highly anisotropic solids, sometimes referred to as ‘two-dimensional’ solids, and the intercalant molecules which are electron donors enter between the layers. This can result in profound changes in the electronic properties of the host lattice, and these changes can be understood in terms of charge transfer and increased interlayer separation. The phenomena discussed include optical properties, transport properties, super-conductivity, order-disorder phenomena and phase changes, staging, magnetic properties, metal-insulator transitions, Anderson localization, and fast-ion conduction. Some possible practical applications are also considered.

  15. Investigation on microstructure, texture, and magnetic properties of hot deformed Nd-Fe-B ring magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, A. H.; Li, W.; Lai, B.; Wang, H. J.; Zhu, M. G.; Pan, W.

    2010-05-01

    Radially oriented Nd-Fe-B ring magnets have been prepared by backward extrusion of melt-spun powder. The position dependent of the microstructure, the magnetic properties, and the crystal alignment of the extruded rings have been investigated. The magnetic properties in radial direction increase slightly along the axis from the bottom to the middle then steeply decrease at the upper end of the ring. The magnetic properties and x-ray diffraction patterns of the upper end are very close to that of the isotropic pressed precursor. It suggests that the extruded ring approximately retains the initial structure at its upper end which is because the formation of texture is difficult at the initial stage of hot extrusion. Characteristic microstructure morphologies were found at different spatial positions: flake-shaped grains for the inner, elongated grains for the middle, and particle-shaped grains for the outer region in the cross section. Only particle-shaped grains were observed at the upper end of the ring. But the circumferential homogeneity of the surface magnetic flux densities is better in an extruded ring magnet than in a radially oriented ring prepared by sintering method. The deformation and texture formation processes were discussed. The deformation and texture formation in backward extruded magnets from melt-spun Nd-Fe-B precursors may possibly involve grain boundary sliding and grain rotation, solution-precipitation process, and preferred growth of Nd2Fe14B nanograins along the easy growth a-axis.

  16. Magnetic properties and scale-up of nanostructured cobalt carbide permanent magnetic powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamanpour, Mehdi; Bennett, Steven; Taheri, Parisa; Chen, Yajie; Harris, Vincent G.

    2014-05-01

    CoxC magnetic nanoparticles were successfully synthesized via a modified polyol process without using a rare-earth catalyst during the synthesis process. The present results show admixtures of Co2C and Co3C phases possessing magnetization values exceeding 45 emu/g and coercivity values exceeding 2.3 kOe at room temperature. Moreover, these experiments have illuminated the important role of surfactants, reaction temperature, and reaction duration on the crystallographic structure and magnetic properties of CoxC, while tetraethylene glycol was employed as a reducing agent. The role of the ratios of Co2C and Co3C phases in the admixture magnetic properties is discussed. The crystallographic structure and particle size of the CoxC nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy. Vibrating sample magnetometry was used to determine magnetic properties. Scale-up of synthesis to more than 5 g per batch was demonstrated with no significant degradation of magnetic properties.

  17. Magnetic properties and scale-up of nanostructured cobalt carbide permanent magnetic powders

    SciTech Connect

    Zamanpour, Mehdi Bennett, Steven; Taheri, Parisa; Chen, Yajie; Harris, Vincent G.

    2014-05-07

    Co{sub x}C magnetic nanoparticles were successfully synthesized via a modified polyol process without using a rare-earth catalyst during the synthesis process. The present results show admixtures of Co{sub 2}C and Co{sub 3}C phases possessing magnetization values exceeding 45?emu/g and coercivity values exceeding 2.3 kOe at room temperature. Moreover, these experiments have illuminated the important role of surfactants, reaction temperature, and reaction duration on the crystallographic structure and magnetic properties of Co{sub x}C, while tetraethylene glycol was employed as a reducing agent. The role of the ratios of Co{sub 2}C and Co{sub 3}C phases in the admixture magnetic properties is discussed. The crystallographic structure and particle size of the Co{sub x}C nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy. Vibrating sample magnetometry was used to determine magnetic properties. Scale-up of synthesis to more than 5 g per batch was demonstrated with no significant degradation of magnetic properties.

  18. Physical properties of elongated magnetic particles: magnetization and friction coefficient anisotropies.

    PubMed

    Vereda, Fernando; de Vicente, Juan; Hidalgo-Alvarez, Roque

    2009-06-01

    Anisotropy counts: A brief review of the main physical properties of elongated magnetic particles (EMPs) is presented. The most important characteristic of an EMP is the additional contribution of shape anisotropy to the total anisotropy energy of the particle, when compared to spherical magnetic particles. The electron micrograph shows Ni-ferrite microrods fabricated by the authors.We present an overview of the main physical properties of elongated magnetic particles (EMPs), including some of their more relevant properties in suspension. When compared to a spherical magnetic particle, the most important characteristic of an EMP is an additional contribution of shape anisotropy to the total anisotropy energy of the particle. Increasing aspect ratios also lead to an increase in both the critical single-domain size of a magnetic particle and its resistance to thermally activated spontaneous reversal of the magnetization. For single-domain EMPs, magnetization reversal occurs primarily by one of two modes, coherent rotation or curling, the latter being facilitated by larger aspect ratios. When EMPs are used to prepare colloidal suspensions, other physical properties come into play, such as their anisotropic friction coefficient and the consequent enhanced torque they experience in a shear flow, their tendency to align in the direction of an external field, to form less dense sediments and to entangle into more intricate aggregates. From a more practical point of view, EMPs are discussed in connection with two interesting types of magnetic colloids: magnetorheological fluids and suspensions for magnetic hyperthermia. Advances reported in the literature regarding the use of EMPs in these two systems are included. In the final section, we present a summary of the most relevant methods documented in the literature for the fabrication of EMPs, together with a list of the most common ferromagnetic materials that have been synthesized in the form of EMPs. PMID:19434654

  19. Properties of Tb(III) and the copolymer microgel complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Haifeng; Huang, Xiaohua; Chen, Mingqing

    2007-12-01

    Based on the synthesis of the copolymer of N-isopropylacrylamide and acrylic acid copolymeric microgel P(NIPAM-co-AAc), a new kind of complex of Tb(III) and P(NIPAM-co-AAc) with novel fluorescent properties was successfully prepared and characterized with different techniques. The UV and FT-IR spectrum showed that terbium coordinated with the carbonyl group of the microgel. The fluorescence spectrum indicated that the complex had good fluorescence properties and obtained the strongest fluorescence emission at 1.0 wt% ratio. This novel thermosensitive and fluorescence characterization of the P(NIPAM-co-AAc)-Tb(III) complex may be useful in fluorescence systems and the biomedical field.

  20. Magnetic properties of xenoliths from Yakut kimberlite pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tselebrovskiy, Alexey; Maksimochkin, Valeriy

    2014-05-01

    Lower continental crust is poorly known due to its limited availability. One source of information about the formation of the lower crust is the study of xenoliths found in kimberlites, mainly peridotites, eclogites and other rocks made by the kimberlite magma to the surface from great depths. Magnetic methods can solve problems related on the one hand, the definition of the phase composition of natural ferrimagnetics responsible for the magnetic properties of rocks, and on the other - with the establishment of the thermodynamic conditions in which they were formed - their genesis. For example, in [1, 2], there were differences in the magnetic properties of kimberlites taken from tubes with different diamond productivity. In this work, studies have been conducted of the magnetic properties and mineralogy of xenoliths from 10 Yakut kimberlit pipes, courtesy of Doctor of Geological and Mineralogical Sciences V. K. Garanin. Found that the natural remanent magnetization (NRM) and magnetic susceptibility (k0) of the investigated samples varies widely: NRM = (0.002-12.59) A/m, k0 = (0.23-59.9)*10-3 SI. Magnetic properties vary by species: average NRM peridotites (0.002-0.32) A/m order of magnitude smaller eclogitic rocks (0.58-12.59) A/m. Thermomagnetic analysis (TMA) of the test samples showed the presence of xenoliths of the ferromagnetic phase with a Curie point close to Tc magnetite. Because of the high correlation between the values of NRM, k0 and ferrimagnetic saturation magnetization (SM) can be inferred that the magnetic properties of the rocks studied at temperatures above ambient is basically determined by the concentration of magnetite in them. Besides magnetite TMA were also identified ferrimagnetic phase with Curie temperatures from -50°C to -125°C. Mineralogical analysis performed on three samples of peridotite tubes Udachnaya, Yubileynaya and Mir and two samples of eclogite tubes Udachnaya and Komsomolskaya, showed that at temperatures below room temperature magnetic properties of peridotites due ferrishpineles with high content of chromium, titanium and aluminum; eclogitic rocks - due hemoilmenites. Among the studied xenoliths, peridotites from the tubes with high diamond productivity (Udachnaya, Mir, Yubileynaya) are characterized by low values of NRM, k0, SM and high paramagnetic contribution. We conclude that the concentration of magnetite in them is very small, and the magnetic properties peridotite above room temperature are determined mainly paramagnetic minerals. This work was supported by RFBR grant No. 11-05-00740. Literature: 1. V.I. Truhin, V.A. Zhilyaeva, N.N. Zinchuk, N.N. Romanov. Kimberlites and traps magnetism. M.MGU. 1989. p. 165 (Russian) 2. V.I. Maksimochkin, V.I. Truhin, Y.A. Minina. Magnetic properties and mineralogy of Botswana kimberlites. Physics of the Earth, 2013, No. 2, p. 143-160 (Russian)

  1. Vibrational spectra, powder X-ray diffractions and physical properties of cyanide complexes with 1-ethylimidazole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kürkçüo?lu, Güne? Süheyla; Kiraz, Fulya Çetinkaya; Say?n, Elvan

    2015-10-01

    The heteronuclear tetracyanonickelate(II) complexes of the type [M(etim)Ni(CN)4]n (hereafter, abbreviated as M-Ni-etim, M = Mn(II), Fe(II) or Co(II); etim = 1-ethylimidazole, C5H8N2) were prepared in powder form and characterized by FT-IR and Raman spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), thermal (TG; DTG and DTA), and elemental analysis techniques. The structures of these complexes were elucidated using vibrational spectra and powder X-ray diffraction patterns with the peak assignment to provide a better understanding of the structures. It is shown that the spectra are consistent with a proposed crystal structure for these compounds derived from powder X-ray diffraction measurements. Vibrational spectra of the complexes were presented and discussed with respect to the internal modes of both the etim and the cyanide ligands. The C, H and N analyses were carried out for all the complexes. Thermal behaviors of these complexes were followed using TG, DTG and DTA curves in the temperature range 30-700 °C in the static air atmosphere. The FT-IR, Raman spectra, thermal and powder X-ray analyses revealed no significant differences between the single crystal and powder forms. Additionally, electrical and magnetic properties of the complexes were investigated. The FT-IR and Raman spectroscopy, PXRD, thermal and elemental analyses results propose that these complexes are similar in structure to the Hofmann-type complexes.

  2. Vibrational spectra, powder X-ray diffractions and physical properties of cyanide complexes with 1-ethylimidazole.

    PubMed

    Kürkçüo?lu, Güne? Süheyla; Kiraz, Fulya Çetinkaya; Say?n, Elvan

    2015-10-01

    The heteronuclear tetracyanonickelate(II) complexes of the type [M(etim)Ni(CN)4]n (hereafter, abbreviated as M-Ni-etim, M=Mn(II), Fe(II) or Co(II); etim=1-ethylimidazole, C5H8N2) were prepared in powder form and characterized by FT-IR and Raman spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), thermal (TG; DTG and DTA), and elemental analysis techniques. The structures of these complexes were elucidated using vibrational spectra and powder X-ray diffraction patterns with the peak assignment to provide a better understanding of the structures. It is shown that the spectra are consistent with a proposed crystal structure for these compounds derived from powder X-ray diffraction measurements. Vibrational spectra of the complexes were presented and discussed with respect to the internal modes of both the etim and the cyanide ligands. The C, H and N analyses were carried out for all the complexes. Thermal behaviors of these complexes were followed using TG, DTG and DTA curves in the temperature range 30-700 °C in the static air atmosphere. The FT-IR, Raman spectra, thermal and powder X-ray analyses revealed no significant differences between the single crystal and powder forms. Additionally, electrical and magnetic properties of the complexes were investigated. The FT-IR and Raman spectroscopy, PXRD, thermal and elemental analyses results propose that these complexes are similar in structure to the Hofmann-type complexes. PMID:25919408

  3. Magnetic neutron spectroscopy of a spin-transition Mn3+ molecular complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridier, Karl; Petit, Sylvain; Gillon, Béatrice; Chaboussant, Grégory; Safin, Damir A.; Garcia, Yann

    2014-09-01

    We have investigated by inelastic neutron scattering (INS), neutron diffraction, and magnetometry the magnetic properties of the mononuclear complex [Mn3+(pyrol)3(tren)] in both high-spin (5E, HS, S =2) and low-spin (3T1, LS, S =1) states. The system presents a spin transition (ST) around 47 K with a small hysteresis width (TST,?=47.5 K and TST,?=46 K) characteristic of an efficient collective transition process. In the HS state, the INS spectrum at 56 K and zero magnetic field is accounted for by a zero-field splitting with D =-5.73(3) cm-1 and |E|=+0.47(2) cm-1 which may be the result of a dynamic Jahn-Teller effect reported in the literature. In the LS state, a single magnetic peak at 4.87 meV is observed, still at zero field. Despite the existence of an unquenched orbital moment (L =1) in the ground 3T1 state, we argue that it may be described by a genuine S =1 spin Hamiltonian owing to the existence of a strong trigonal distortion of the Mn3+ coordination octahedron. The observed peak corresponds to a transition ?M =+1 within the S =1 ground state split by a large single-ion anisotropy term D =+39.3 cm-1. A full spin-Hamiltonian model is proposed based on these first INS results obtained in a thermal ST molecular magnetic system.

  4. Microstructure and magnetic properties of soft magnetic powder cores of amorphous and nanocrystalline alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yapi; Yi, Yide; Shao, Wei; Shao, Yanfang

    2013-03-01

    With the development of modern ferromagnetic technology, soft magnetic powder cores (MPCs) of amorphous and nanocrystalline alloys have been intensively studied for their excellent soft magnetic properties such as high flux density, low coercivity and reduced core loss due to amorphous state and nanocrystalline grains of 10-20 nm dispersed in a residual amorphous matrix. In this paper, the microstructures and soft magnetic properties, i.e., maximum magnetic induction Bm, effective permeability ?e, DC-bias properties and volume power losses PCV of MPCs made from amorphous powder of gas atomization and nanocrystalline powder of pulverized melt-spun ribbon were investigated and also compared on the basis of the same level of ?e. It is found that ?e of both kinds of MPC keeps unchanged up to 1 MHz. The amorphous MPC has lower PCV at lower frequency range, while the nanocrystalline MPC has lower PCV at high frequency range instead. Also, the nanocrystalline MPC has better DC-bias property. Moreover, the DC magnetic properties and the changes of PCV of both MPCs with frequency and flux density are also studied. Furthermore, the electromagnetic characteristics, the microstructures and the mechanisms accounting for these phenomena of both MPCs are also discussed.

  5. Theoretical studies on the electronic structure and properties of complex ceramic crystals and glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Ching, Wai-Yim.

    1991-01-24

    This progress report summarizes the accomplishment of the DOE-support research program at the University of Missouri-Kansas City for the period July 1, 1991--June 30, 1992. This is the second year of a three-year renewal. The major accomplishments for the year are: (a) Initiation of fundamental studies on the electronic properties of C{sub 60} and related crystals; (b) study of electronic structures and optical properties of several important ceramic crystals, especially on AlN, SiO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}; (c) first-principles calculation of total energies and structural phase transitions in oxides, nitrides, and borides; (d) theory of magnetism in Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B permanent magnetic alloy. The major focus for the next year's effort will be on the following areas: (1) Continuation of the fundamental studies on the buckminsterfullerene system with particular emphasis on the alkali-doped superconducting fullerides. (2) Fundamental studies on the structure and properties of Boron and B-related compounds. (3) Basic studies on the structural and electronic properties of metallic glasses with particular emphasis on the magnetic glasses. (4) Further development of the first-principles OLCAO method for applications to super-complex systems.

  6. GEMAS: Mineral magnetic properties of European agricultural soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzina, Dilyara; Kosareva, Lina; Fattakhova, Leysan; Fabian, Karl; Nourgaliev, Danis; Reimann, Clemens

    2015-04-01

    The GEMAS survey of European agricultural soil provides a unique opportunity to create the first comprehensive overview of mineral magnetic properties in agricultural soil on a continental scale. Samples from the upper 20 cm were taken in large agricultural fields (Ap-sample) at a density of 1 site/2500 km2. After air drying and sieving to < 2 mm, low (460 Hz), and high frequency (4600 Hz) magnetic susceptibility k was measured on 2500 samples using a Bartington MS2B sensor to obtain frequency dependence of magnetic susceptibility kfd. Hysteresis properties are determined using a J coercivity spectrometer, built in the paleomagnetic laboratory of Kazan University, providing for each sample a modified hysteresis loop, backfield curve, acquisition curve of isothermal remanent magnetization, and a viscous IRM decay spectrum. Each measurement set is obtained in a single run from zero field up to 1.5 T and back to -1.5 T, taking approximately 15 minutes. This allows to measure a wide range of magnetic parameters for large sample collections. Because the GEMAS geochemical atlas provides a comprehensive set of geochemical measurements characterizing the individual soil samples, the new data allow to study magnetic parameters in relation to chemical and geological parameters. The results show a clear large scale spatial distribution with e.g. broad distinct lows of k over sandy sediments of the last glaciation in central northern Europe and other sedimentary basins. More localized positive k anomalies occur near young volcanism, or old basalts exposed on the surface. On the other hand, frequency dependence of k displays a much more scattered behavior, indicating either high noise level, or large local variability. Clearly distinguishable, small-scale patterns in the randomized data set indicate that the latter is more likely. This indicates that local influences on soil magnetic properties, including anthropogenic effects, may be easier detected by frequency dependence than by k itself, which is largely controlled by geological and climatic background variability. Mapping the isothermal mineral magnetic properties shows again a clear relation to large scale European geology. Thereby, the GEMAS data set of magnetic parameters provides a continent wide reference of the natural background in Ap soil. For the first time the geological background variability of magnetic minerals for national and local soil studies is defined at the European scale.

  7. Mechanical and hyperthermic properties of magnetic nanocomposites for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Kan-Dapaah, Kwabena; Rahbar, Nima; Tahlil, Abdullahi; Crosson, David; Yao, Nan; Soboyejo, Wole

    2015-09-01

    An understanding of the properties of multifunctional materials is important for the design of devices for biomedical applications. In this paper, a combination of experiments and models was used to study the mechanical and hyperthermic properties of magnetic nanoparticles (MNP)-filled PDMS composites for biomedical applications. These are studied as a function of the weight of MNP, ?-Fe2O3. The results showed the effects on mechanical behavior, and specific losses in a magnetic field. The measured Young's moduli are in good agreement with the moduli predicted from the Bergström-Boybce model. Specific losses calculated from magnetic measurements are used to predict the thermal dose under in-vivo conditions. The implications of the results were discussed for potential applications in biomedical devices. PMID:26005843

  8. Nanoscale magnetic properties of iron minerals in bacteria Mihly Psfaia*

    E-print Network

    Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    Nanoscale magnetic properties of iron minerals in bacteria Mihály Pósfaia* , Takeshi Kasamab the [111] magnetocrystalline easy axes of the crystals parallel to each chain axis, greigite crystals had distinct and well-controlled morphologies. In contrast, greigite crystals appeared to have more irregular

  9. Hard X-ray properties of magnetic cataclysmic S. Scaringi

    E-print Network

    Norton, Andrew J.

    Hard X-ray properties of magnetic cataclysmic variables S. Scaringi , A.J. Bird , A.J. Norton , C arising from this hard X-ray selected sample and find that most hard X-ray detected mCVs have Pspin in the context of mCV evolution scenarios. We also present evidence for corre- lations between hard X

  10. Four-color theorem linked to crystal's magnetic properties

    E-print Network

    Gustafsson, Torgny

    Four-color theorem linked to crystal's magnetic properties Domain patterns can be understood in terms of color theorems. (a) Image of the domains in a crystal material and (b) the domains colored in accordance with the four-color theorem. (c) Image of the domains in a second crystal material and (d

  11. Magnetic properties of tephras from Lake Van (Eastern Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makaroglu, Ozlem; Ca?atay, Nam?k; Pesonen, Lauri J.; Orbay, Naci

    2013-04-01

    Here we present magnetic properties of tephra layers in the cores taken from Lake Van, Eastern Anatolia, Turkey. Lake Van is the fourth largest terminal Lake in the world by volume (607 km3). It is 460 m deep and has a salinity of 21.4 per mil and a pH of 9.81. It is located on the East Anatolian Plateau with present day water level of 1648 m.a.s.l., and surrounded by large stratovolcanoes Nemrut, Suphan, Tendurek, and Ararat to the west and north. It has accumulated varved-sediments with tephra units, which all provide important paleoenvironmental records. After a seismic survey, four different locations were selected for coring in Lake Van, with water depths varying between 60 m and 90 m. Four cores having between 3 and 4.8 m length were analyzed for for element geochemistry using XRF Core Scanner analysis. The sub-samples were taken into plastic boxes with a volume of 6.4 cm3 for mineral magnetic analysis. The mineral magnetic measurements included magnetic susceptibility (?), anhysteretic remanent magnetisation (ARM), isothermal remanent magnetisation (IRM), hysteresis properties and thermomagnetic analyses. According to the mineral magnetic measurements and geochemical analysis, we identified the five tephra layers (T1-T5). These tephra units were correlated with the previously varve-dated units of Landmann et al. (2011). The varve ages of the tephra layers were used to obtain the age-depth model for the cores. According to the age models the cores extend back to 9500 ka BP (varve years). Down-core profiles of all the magnetic properties are highly correlatable between different cores, suggesting that the magnetic records are of regional character. ARM values are found to be more convenient than ? values for correlating the tephra layers. The hysteresis parameters of samples taken from these layers indicate that they are within Pseudo Single Domain range. IRM curves show that low coersivity magnetic minerals are dominated in all tephra layers. Measurements of the temperature dependence of magnetic susceptibility suggest that the magnetic mineralogy at all tephra layers is dominated by magnetite. All tephra layers have distinct magnetic signature which are characterized by strong ferromagnetic mineral and high Zr and K values, suggesting their alkaline composition. Landmann G, Steinhauser G, Sterba JH, Kempe S, Bichler M., 2011. Geochemical fingerprints by activation analysis of tephra layers in Lake Van sediments, Turkey. Applied Radiation and Isotopes 69, 929-935

  12. Magnetism in Complex Oxides Probed by Magnetocaloric Effect and Transverse Susceptibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bingham, Nicholas S.

    Magnetic oxides exhibit rich complexity in their fundamental physical properties determined by the intricate interplay between structural, electronic and magnetic degrees of freedom. The common themes that are often present in these systems are the phase coexistence, strong magnetostructural coupling, and possible spin frustration induced by lattice geometry. While a complete understanding of the ground state magnetic properties and cooperative phenomena in this class of compounds is key to manipulating their functionality for applications, it remains among the most challenging problems facing condensed-matter physics today. To address these outstanding issues, it is essential to employ experimental methods that allow for detailed investigations of the temperature and magnetic field response of the different phases. In this PhD dissertation, I will demonstrate the relatively unconventional experimental methods of magnetocaloric effect (MCE) and radio-frequency transverse susceptibility (TS) as powerful probes of multiple magnetic transitions, glassy phenomena, and ground state magnetic properties in a large class of complex magnetic oxides, including La0.7Ca0.3- xSrxMnO3 (x = 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.25), Pr0.5Sr0.5MnO3, Pr1-xSrxCoO 3 (x = 0.3, 0.35, 0.4 and 0.5), La5/8- xPrxCa3/8MnO3 (x = 0.275 and 0.375), and Ca3Co2O 6. First, the influences of strain and grain boundaries, via chemical substitution and reduced dimensionality, were studied via MCE in La0.7Ca 0.3-xSrxMnO 3. Polycrystalline, single crystalline, and thin-film La0.7Ca 0.3-xSrxMnO 3 samples show a paramagnetic to ferromagnetic transition at a wide variety of temperatures as well as an observed change in the fundamental nature of the transition (i.e. first-order magnetic transition to second order magnetic transition) that is dependent on the chemical concentration and dimensionality. Systematic TS and MCE experiments on Pr0.5Sr0.5MnO 3 and Pr0.5Sr0.5CoO3 have uncovered the different nature of low-temperature magnetic phases and demonstrate the importance of coupled structural/magnetocrystalline anisotropy in these half-doped perovskite systems. These findings point to the existence of a distinct class of phenomena in transition-metal oxide materials due to the unique interplay between structure and magnetic anisotropy, and provide evidence for the interplay of spin and orbital order as the origin of intrinsic phase separation in manganites. While Pr0.5Sr0.5MnO3 provides important insights into the influence of first- and second-order transitions on the MCE and refrigerant capacity (RC) in a single material, giving a good guidance on the development of magnetocaloric materials for active magnetic refrigeration, Pr1-xSrxCoO 3 provides an excellent system for determining the structural entropy change and its contribution to the MCE in magnetocaloric materials. We have demonstrated that the structural entropy contributes significantly to the total entropy change and the structurally coupled magnetocrystalline anisotropy plays a crucial role in tailoring the magnetocaloric properties for active magnetic refrigeration technology. In the case of La5/8-xPr xCa3/8MnO3, whose bulk form is comprised of micron-sized regions of ferromagnetic (FM), paramagnetic (PM), and charge-ordered (CO) phases, TS and MCE experiments have evidenced the dominance of low-temperature FM and high-temperature CO phases. The "dynamic" strain liquid state is strongly dependent on magnetic field, while the "frozen" strain-glass state is almost magnetic field independent. The sharp changes in the magnetization, electrical resistivity, and magnetic entropy just below the Curie temperature occur via the growth of FM domains already present in the material, even in zero magnetic field. The subtle balance of coexisting phases and kinetic arrest are also probed by MCE and TS experiments, leading to a new and more comprehensive magnetic phase diagram. A geometrically frustrated spin chain compound Ca3Co 2O6 provides an interesting case study for understanding the cooperative pheno

  13. Magnetically tunable multi-way splitters based on unidirectional properties of magnetic metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Wenyao; Zhang, Yuxia; Chen, Wuhe; Yu, Huangzhong

    2015-10-01

    We theoretically study the properties of unidirectional edge modes in a magnetic metamaterial waveguide and their applications in tunable multi-way splitters. These edge modes can only be excited at the surface to propagate along a single direction with nearly perfect transmittance of 100%. The physical origin is attributed to the combined action of magnetic resonance and time-reversal symmetry breaking under external magnetic fields. Moreover, the propagation direction can be controlled by reversing the direction of the external magnetic field. Further study reveals that a perfect electric conductor defect scarcely affects the transmittance but has sensitive influence on the phase delay and pattern distribution of the unidirectional edge modes. These properties hold promise for designing various unidirectional photonic devices. As an example, we design a tunable multi-way splitter with the advantages of high transmission contrast and convenient pathway control simultaneously.

  14. Low-Temperature Magnetic Properties of Pyrochlore Stannates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuhira, Kazuyuki; Hinatsu, Yukio; Tenya, Kenichi; Amitsuka, Hiroshi; Sakakibara, Toshiro

    2002-06-01

    We report the magnetic properties of pyrochlore rare earth oxides R2Sn2O7 (R=Pr, Nd, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm and Yb). The magnetic susceptibility has been measured at temperatures down to 0.1 K. Among them, some compounds show the magnetic anomaly below 1 K. Nd2Sn2O7 and Gd2Sn2O7 show an antiferromagnetic ordering at 0.9 K and 1.0 K, respectively. Tb2Sn2O7 shows a ferromagnetic ordering at 0.87 K. Although both Er3+ and Yb3+ are a Kramers ion, no magnetic anomaly is observed at least down to 0.15 K. We found that Dy2Sn2O7 and Ho2Sn2O7 show ‘spin ice’ behavior. In addition, it is suggested that Pr2Sn2O7 is a new spin ice compound.

  15. Transport properties of interacting magnetic islands in tokamak plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Gianakon, T.A.; Callen, J.D.; Hegna, C.C.

    1993-10-01

    This paper explores the equilibrium and transient transport properties of a mixed magnetic topology model for tokamak equilibria. The magnetic topology is composed of a discrete set of mostly non-overlapping magnetic islands centered on the low-order rational surfaces. Transport across the island regions is fast due to parallel transport along the stochastic magnetic field lines about the separatrix of each island. Transport between island regions is assumed to be slow due to a low residual cross-field transport. In equilibrium, such a model leads to: a nonlinear dependence of the heat flux on the pressure gradient; a power balance diffusion coefficient which increases from core to edge; and profile resiliency. Transiently, such a model also exhibits a heat pulse diffusion coefficient larger than the power balance diffusion coefficient.

  16. Magnetic properties of biaxially oriented Ni-V substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Bettinelli, D.; Petrisor, T.; Gambardella, U.; Boffa, V.; Ceresara, S.; Nistor, L.; Pop, V.; Scardi, P.

    1999-04-20

    The paper presents the structural and magnetic properties of a new non-magnetic biaxially textured substrate based on Ni{sub 100{minus}x}V{sub x} solid-solution for YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}y} tape fabrication. The effective atomic magnetic moment monotonously decreases with the vanadium concentration, causing a corresponding decrease of Curie temperature. The Curie temperature reaches the zero value at about 11.5% of vanadium. The texturing studies revealed that (100)[-001] cube texture can be easily developed up to x = 11 at.%, by a cold rolling process followed by a recrystallization thermal treatment. The X-ray {omega} and {phi} scans have demonstrated that the samples have a good out-of-plane and in-plane texture for the whole solubility range, with FWHM of 7{degree} and 11{degree}, respectively. The correlation between the magnetic and structural anisotropy was also studied.

  17. Versatile magnetometer assembly for characterizing magnetic properties of nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Araujo, J F D F; Bruno, A C; Louro, S R W

    2015-10-01

    We constructed a versatile magnetometer assembly for characterizing iron oxide nanoparticles. The magnetometer can be operated at room temperature or inside a cryocooler at temperatures as low as 6 K. The magnetometer's sensor can be easily exchanged and different detection electronics can be used. We tested the assembly with a non-cryogenic commercial Hall sensor and a benchtop multimeter in a four-wire resistance measurement scheme. A magnetic moment sensitivity of 8.5 × 10(-8) Am(2) was obtained with this configuration. To illustrate the capability of the assembly, we synthesized iron oxide nanoparticles coated with different amounts of a triblock copolymer, Pluronic F-127, and characterized their magnetic properties. We determined that the polymer coating does not affect the magnetization of the particles at room temperature and demonstrates that it is possible to estimate the average size of coating layers from measurements of the magnetic field of the sample. PMID:26520980

  18. Versatile magnetometer assembly for characterizing magnetic properties of nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araujo, J. F. D. F.; Bruno, A. C.; Louro, S. R. W.

    2015-10-01

    We constructed a versatile magnetometer assembly for characterizing iron oxide nanoparticles. The magnetometer can be operated at room temperature or inside a cryocooler at temperatures as low as 6 K. The magnetometer's sensor can be easily exchanged and different detection electronics can be used. We tested the assembly with a non-cryogenic commercial Hall sensor and a benchtop multimeter in a four-wire resistance measurement scheme. A magnetic moment sensitivity of 8.5 × 10-8 Am2 was obtained with this configuration. To illustrate the capability of the assembly, we synthesized iron oxide nanoparticles coated with different amounts of a triblock copolymer, Pluronic F-127, and characterized their magnetic properties. We determined that the polymer coating does not affect the magnetization of the particles at room temperature and demonstrates that it is possible to estimate the average size of coating layers from measurements of the magnetic field of the sample.

  19. Influences of Magnetic Field on Macroscopic Properties of Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Xiao-Feng; Deng, Bo; Tang, Bo

    The influences of magnetic field on thermodynamic, mechanical and electromagnetic properties of water including the specific heat, surface tension force, soaking effect or angle of contact, refraction index and electric conductivity are studied. From these investigations we know that the magnetic fields reduce the specific heat of water, increase the soaking degree and hydrophobicity of water to materials, depress its surface tension force and increase refractive index and electric conductivity of water relative to those of pure water. We can predict that these changes are caused by the changes of microscopic structures and distribution of water molecules under the action of a magnetic field. Therefore, our studies have important significations in science and has practical value of application of magnetized water.

  20. Magnetorheological properties of a magnetic nanofluid with dispersed carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Felicia, Leona J; Philip, John

    2014-02-01

    We investigate the effect of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) on the magnetorheological properties of an oil based magnetic nanofluid (ferrofluid). The shear resistant plateau observed in a pure ferrofluid disappears when 0.5 wt% of MWCNT is incorporated. The yield stress values of the composite system are slightly smaller than that of the pure system. This shows that the presence of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) weakens the magnetic field induced microstructure of the ferrofluid due to their interaction that affects the hydrodynamic and magnetic interactions between the dispersed nanoparticles. Interestingly, the Mason number plots for both the pure and composite system show scaling of the viscosity curves onto a single master curve for magnetic fields of 80 mT and above while deviations are observed for lower magnetic fields. The weakening of the ferrofluid microstructure in the presence of CNTs is further evident in the amplitude sweep measurements where the linear viscoelastic region develops only at a higher magnetic field strength compared to lower magnetic fields in pure ferrofluids. These results are useful for tailoring ferrofluids with a faster response for various applications. PMID:25353475

  1. Structural, magnetic, and transport properties of Permalloy for spintronic experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Nahrwold, Gesche; Scholtyssek, Jan M.; Motl-Ziegler, Sandra; Albrecht, Ole; Merkt, Ulrich; Meier, Guido

    2010-07-15

    Permalloy (Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20}) is broadly used to prepare magnetic nanostructures for high-frequency experiments where the magnetization is either excited by electrical currents or magnetic fields. Detailed knowledge of the material properties is mandatory for thorough understanding its magnetization dynamics. In this work, thin Permalloy films are grown by dc-magnetron sputtering on heated substrates and by thermal evaporation with subsequent annealing. The specific resistance is determined by van der Pauw methods. Point-contact Andreev reflection is employed to determine the spin polarization of the films. The topography is imaged by atomic-force microscopy, and the magnetic microstructure by magnetic-force microscopy. Transmission-electron microscopy and transmission-electron diffraction are performed to determine atomic composition, crystal structure, and morphology. From ferromagnetic resonance absorption spectra the saturation magnetization, the anisotropy, and the Gilbert damping parameter are determined. Coercive fields and anisotropy are measured by magneto-optical Kerr magnetometry. The sum of the findings enables optimization of Permalloy for spintronic experiments.

  2. Interrelation between Structure Magnetic Properties in La0.5Sr0.5CoO3

    SciTech Connect

    Biegalski, Michael D; Takamura, Y; Mehta, A; Gai, Zheng; Kalinin, Sergei; Ambaye, Hailemariam; Lauter, Valeria; He, Jun; Kim, Young Min; Borisevich, Albina Y; Siemons, Wolter; Christen, Hans M

    2014-01-01

    Differing anisotropic strain induced from the underlying substrates not only control the long-range structural symmetries in La0.5Sr0.5CoO3 but also impact the magnetic properties of these epitaxial thin films. The two dominant structural distortions: oxygen octahedral tilts and epitaxial strain, however, have complex and non-intuitive effects on the splitting of the t2g states and consequently on magnetization.

  3. Determination of Rheological and Magnetic Properties for Magnetorheological Composites Via Shear Magnetization Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horvath, A. T.; Klingenberg, D. J.; Shkel, Y. M.

    Anisotropic solid-state magnetorheological (MR) composites are prepared by applying magnetic fields to isotropic suspensions in polymer melts and preserved by cross-linking the melts. The composities are studied through a continuum-level perspective at various magnetic field strengths under oscillatory shear. The minimum number of constraints are applied in the derivation of the magnetic and rheological invariants, which relate the measured macroscopic magnetostriction coefficients to the discrete parameters of any microscopic model. The field-induced stress is defined by magnetostriction coefficients, which are material parameters that describe the strain dependence of the magnetization tensor. A comparison of the independently measured rheological and magnetic properties allow for the determination of the magnetostriction coefficients.

  4. The magnetic-nanofluid heat pipe with superior thermal properties through magnetic enhancement.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Yuan-Ching; Chieh, Jen-Jie; Ho, Chia-Che

    2012-01-01

    This study developed a magnetic-nanofluid (MNF) heat pipe (MNFHP) with magnetically enhanced thermal properties. Its main characteristic was additional porous iron nozzle in the evaporator and the condenser to form a unique flowing pattern of MNF slug and vapor, and to magnetically shield the magnet attraction on MNF flowing. The results showed that an optimal thermal conductivity exists in the applied field of 200?Oe. Furthermore, the minor thermal performance of MNF at the condenser limited the thermal conductivity of the entire MNFHP, which was 1.6 times greater than that filled with water for the input power of 60?W. The feasibilities of an MNFHP with the magnetically enhanced heat transfer and the ability of vertical operation were proved for both a promising heat-dissipation device and the energy architecture integrated with an additional energy system. PMID:22716909

  5. The magnetic-nanofluid heat pipe with superior thermal properties through magnetic enhancement

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    This study developed a magnetic-nanofluid (MNF) heat pipe (MNFHP) with magnetically enhanced thermal properties. Its main characteristic was additional porous iron nozzle in the evaporator and the condenser to form a unique flowing pattern of MNF slug and vapor, and to magnetically shield the magnet attraction on MNF flowing. The results showed that an optimal thermal conductivity exists in the applied field of 200?Oe. Furthermore, the minor thermal performance of MNF at the condenser limited the thermal conductivity of the entire MNFHP, which was 1.6 times greater than that filled with water for the input power of 60?W. The feasibilities of an MNFHP with the magnetically enhanced heat transfer and the ability of vertical operation were proved for both a promising heat-dissipation device and the energy architecture integrated with an additional energy system. PMID:22716909

  6. Thermal transport properties of complex oxides from first principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatti, Aqyan; Jain, Ankit; McGaughey, Alan; Benedek, Nicole

    2015-03-01

    Thermal transport properties of materials are key parameters in the design of many engineering devices. For this reason, it is highly desirable to be able to control or tailor the thermal properties of materials for specific applications. Complex oxides are attractive in this regard, due to their low and potentially highly tunable thermal conductivity. However, the theoretical description of the thermal transport properties of oxides presents a number of challenges compared to conventional semiconductors. For example, oxides tend to have complex crystal structures and the atoms interact through long-range electrostatic forces. In this talk, we use the example of PbTiO3 to discuss some of the challenges and opportunities associated with thermal transport predictions in complex oxides. For example, many oxides contain very low-lying optical branches, which may provide important acoustic-optical scattering channels. In addition, it is often possible to tune the frequencies of such optical modes with epitaxial strain. We also link the observed negative thermal expansion behavior of PbTiO3 to two zone-boundary modes with large, negative Grüneisen parameters and comment on the consequences of this finding for the thermal transport properties of this material.

  7. Magnetic properties of Co/Rh ,,001... multilayers studied by x-ray magnetic-circular dichroism M. A. Tomaz

    E-print Network

    Lederman, David

    Magnetic properties of Co/Rh ,,001... multilayers studied by x-ray magnetic-circular dichroism M. A December 1997 The layer-averaged magnetic moments of Co and Rh have been measured in sputter deposited Co/Rh 001 multilayer thin films using the x-ray magnetic circular dichroism. The Rh moments were measured

  8. Magnetic properties of FeAlMnC steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jen, S. U.; Yao, Y. D.; Huang, P. L.; Lee, C. C.; Chang, S. C.

    1990-05-01

    A series of high yielding strength (90-180 ksi) and high-elongation (30%-45%) FeAlMnC steels have been made. The magnetic, microstructural, and thermal expansion properties of these steels have been studied. Basically, their magnetic transitions on cooling can be classified into three groups according to their microstructures: (i) For fully austenitic (?) steels, the transition is from paramagnetic to antiferromagnetic. TN is lowered with the addition of Al; (ii) for ?+? phase steel (volume fraction of ??0.3%), the transition is from superparamagnetic to antiferromagnetic, and (iii) for the mixed phase steel, whose ? phase has percolated, it is ferromagnetic with TC?200 C. The susceptibility of austenitic steels is low. Their nonmagnetic properties are comparable to commercial 304 or 25/12 stainless steel. An Invar-like property in the thermal expansion was observed around TN. Their volume magnetostriction values are in the range of 10-6-10-5.

  9. Stable and color tunable emission properties based on non-cyclometalated gold(III) complexes.

    PubMed

    Bachmann, Michael; Blacque, Olivier; Venkatesan, Koushik

    2015-06-01

    Stable and emission tunable non-cyclometalated gold(III) triaryl complexes of the type [(L)Au(C6F5)3] [L = 2-(2,4-difluorophenylpyridine) (1), 4-phenylpyridine (2), 2-phenylpyridine (3), 2-phenylisoquinoline (4), 2-thienylpyridine (5)] were synthesized starting from a common precursor complex [(THT)Au(C6F5)3] [THT = tetrahydrothiophene] in good to modest yields. Extensive characterization of the complexes by various nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy techniques and elemental analysis further corroborated the single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies. The complexes displayed room temperature phosphorescence in the neat solid and in 2-MeTHF at 77 K. Detailed photophysical investigations of the complexes in the neat solid and at 77 K revealed the successful tuning of the emission maxima with modest quantum yields across the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum depending on the electronic properties of the heterocyclic ligands. DFT (Density Functional Theory) and TDDFT (Time Dependent Density Functional Theory) calculations were performed to discern the composition of the excited state as well as confirm the obtained relative emission energies upon substitution with electronically different ligands. The obtained diverse emissive behavior of the complexes combined with the ease of synthesis illustrate the generality and applicability of the design approach to obtain emissive gold(iii) complexes devoid of cyclometalation. PMID:25947068

  10. Tetrathiafulvalene-Supported Triple-Decker Phthalocyaninato Dysprosium(III) Complex: Synthesis, Properties and Surface Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Feng; Zhang, Xue-Mei; Cui, Long; Deng, Ke; Zeng, Qing-Dao; Zuo, Jing-Lin

    2014-08-01

    Self-assembly of functional compounds into a prerequisite nanostructure with desirable dimension and morphology by controlling and optimizing intermolecular interaction attracts an extensive research interest for chemists and material scientist. In this work, a new triple-decker sandwich-type lanthanide complex with phthalocyanine and redox-active Schiff base ligand including tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) units has been synthesized, and characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis, absorption spectra, electrochemical and magnetic measurements. Interestingly, the non-centrosymmetric target complex displays a bias dependent selective adsorption on a solid surface, as observed by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) at the single molecule level. Density function theory (DFT) calculations are utilized to reveal the formation mechanism of the molecular assemblies, and show that such electrical field dependent selective adsorption is regulated by the interaction between the external electric field and intrinsic molecular properties. Our results suggest that this type of multi-decker complex involving TTF units shows intriguing multifunctional properties from the viewpoint of structure, electric and magnetic behaviors, and fabrication through self-assembly.

  11. Tetrathiafulvalene-Supported Triple-Decker Phthalocyaninato Dysprosium(III) Complex: Synthesis, Properties and Surface Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Feng; Zhang, Xue-Mei; Cui, Long; Deng, Ke; Zeng, Qing-Dao; Zuo, Jing-Lin

    2014-01-01

    Self-assembly of functional compounds into a prerequisite nanostructure with desirable dimension and morphology by controlling and optimizing intermolecular interaction attracts an extensive research interest for chemists and material scientist. In this work, a new triple-decker sandwich-type lanthanide complex with phthalocyanine and redox-active Schiff base ligand including tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) units has been synthesized, and characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis, absorption spectra, electrochemical and magnetic measurements. Interestingly, the non-centrosymmetric target complex displays a bias dependent selective adsorption on a solid surface, as observed by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) at the single molecule level. Density function theory (DFT) calculations are utilized to reveal the formation mechanism of the molecular assemblies, and show that such electrical field dependent selective adsorption is regulated by the interaction between the external electric field and intrinsic molecular properties. Our results suggest that this type of multi-decker complex involving TTF units shows intriguing multifunctional properties from the viewpoint of structure, electric and magnetic behaviors, and fabrication through self-assembly. PMID:25088605

  12. Measurement of bidirectional optical properties of complex shading devices

    SciTech Connect

    Klems, J.H.; Warner, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    A new method of predicting the solar heat gain through complex fenestration systems involving nonspecular layers such as shades or blinds has been examined in a project jointly sponsored by ASHRAE and DOE. In this method, a scanning radiometer is used to measure the bidirectional radiative transmittance and reflectance of each layer of a fenestration system. The properties of systems containing these layers are then built up computationally from the measured layer properties using a transmission/multiple-reflection calculation. The calculation produces the total directional-hemispherical transmittance of the fenestration system and the layer-by-layer absorptances. These properties are in turn combined with layer-specific measurements of the inward-flowing fractions of absorbed solar energy to produce the overall solar heat gain coefficient. This paper describes the method of measuring the spatially averaged bidirectional optical properties using an automated, large-sample gonioradiometer/photometer, termed a ``Scanning Radiometer.`` Property measurements are presented for one of the most optically complex systems in common use, a venetian blind. These measurements will form the basis for optical system calculations used to test the method of determining performance.

  13. Axisymmetric Flow Properties for Magnetic Elements of Differing Strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rightmire-Upton, Lisa; Hathaway, David H.

    2012-01-01

    Aspects of the structure and dynamics of the flows in the Sun's surface shear layer remain uncertain and yet are critically important for understanding the observed magnetic behavior. In our previous studies of the axisymmetric transport of magnetic elements we found systematic changes in both the differential rotation and the meridional flow over the course of Solar Cycle 23. Here we examine how those flows depend upon the strength (and presumably anchoring depth) of the magnetic elements. Line of sight magnetograms obtained by the HMI instrument aboard SDO over the course of Carrington Rotation 2097 were mapped to heliographic coordinates and averaged over 12 minutes to remove the 5-min oscillations. Data masks were constructed based on the field strength of each mapped pixel to isolate magnetic elements of differing field strength. We used Local Correlation Tracking of the unmasked data (separated in time by 1- to 8-hours) to determine the longitudinal and latitudinal motions of the magnetic elements. We then calculated average flow velocities as functions of latitude and longitude from the central meridian for approx 600 image pairs over the 27-day rotation. Variations with longitude indicate and characterize systematic errors in the flow measurements associated with changes in the signal from disk center to limb. Removing these systematic errors reveals changes in the axisymmetric flow properties that reflect changes in flow properties with depth in the surface shear layer.

  14. Magnetic antenna excitation of whistler modes. I. Basic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Urrutia, J. M.; Stenzel, R. L.

    2014-12-15

    Properties of magnetic loop antennas for exciting electron whistler modes have been investigated in a large laboratory plasma. The parameter regime is that of large plasma frequency compared to the cyclotron frequency and signal frequency below half the cyclotron frequency. The antenna diameter is smaller than the wavelength. Different directions of the loop antenna relative to the background magnetic field have been measured for small amplitude waves. The differences in the topology of the wave magnetic field are shown from measurements of the three field components in three spatial directions. The helicity of the wave magnetic field and of the hodogram of the magnetic vector in space and time are clarified. The superposition of wave fields is used to investigate the properties of two antennas for small amplitude waves. Standing whistler waves are produced by propagating two wave packets in opposite directions. Directional radiation is obtained with two phased loops separated by a quarter wavelength. Rotating antenna fields, produced with phased orthogonal loops at the same location, do not produce directionality. The concept of superposition is extended in a Paper II to generate antenna arrays for whistlers. These produce nearly plane waves, whose propagation angle can be varied by the phase shifting the currents in the array elements. Focusing of whistlers is possible. These results are important for designing antennas on spacecraft or diagnosing and heating of laboratory plasmas.

  15. Magnetic antenna excitation of whistler modes. I. Basic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urrutia, J. M.; Stenzel, R. L.

    2014-12-01

    Properties of magnetic loop antennas for exciting electron whistler modes have been investigated in a large laboratory plasma. The parameter regime is that of large plasma frequency compared to the cyclotron frequency and signal frequency below half the cyclotron frequency. The antenna diameter is smaller than the wavelength. Different directions of the loop antenna relative to the background magnetic field have been measured for small amplitude waves. The differences in the topology of the wave magnetic field are shown from measurements of the three field components in three spatial directions. The helicity of the wave magnetic field and of the hodogram of the magnetic vector in space and time are clarified. The superposition of wave fields is used to investigate the properties of two antennas for small amplitude waves. Standing whistler waves are produced by propagating two wave packets in opposite directions. Directional radiation is obtained with two phased loops separated by a quarter wavelength. Rotating antenna fields, produced with phased orthogonal loops at the same location, do not produce directionality. The concept of superposition is extended in a Paper II to generate antenna arrays for whistlers. These produce nearly plane waves, whose propagation angle can be varied by the phase shifting the currents in the array elements. Focusing of whistlers is possible. These results are important for designing antennas on spacecraft or diagnosing and heating of laboratory plasmas.

  16. Thermodynamic properties of magnetic strings on a square lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mol, Lucas; Oliveira, Denis Da Mata; Bachmann, Michael

    2015-03-01

    In the last years, spin ice systems have increasingly attracted attention by the scientific community, mainly due to the appearance of collective excitations that behave as magnetic monopole like particles. In these systems, geometrical frustration induces the appearance of degenerated ground states characterized by a local energy minimization rule, the ice rule. Violations of this rule were shown to behave like magnetic monopoles connected by a string of dipoles that carries the magnetic flux from one monopole to the other. In order to obtain a deeper knowledge about the behavior of these excitations we study the thermodynamics of a kind of magnetic polymer formed by a chain of magnetic dipoles in a square lattice. This system is expected to capture the main properties of monopole-string excitations in the artificial square spin ice. It has been found recently that in this geometry the monopoles are confined, but the effective string tension is reduced by entropic effects. To obtain the thermodynamic properties of the strings we have exactly enumerated all possible string configurations of a given length and used standard statistical mechanics analysis to calculate thermodynamic quantities. We show that the low-temperature behavior is governed by strings that satisfy ice rules. Financial support from FAPEMIG and CNPq (Brazilian agencies) are gratefully acknowledged.

  17. Magnetic properties of tektites and other related impact glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rochette, P.; Gattacceca, J.; Devouard, B.; Moustard, F.; Bezaeva, N. S.; Cournède, C.; Scaillet, B.

    2015-12-01

    We present a comprehensive overview of the magnetic properties of the four known tektite fields and related fully melted impact glasses (Aouelloul, Belize, Darwin, Libyan desert and Wabar glasses, irghizites, and atacamaites), namely magnetic susceptibility and hysteresis properties as well as properties dependent on magnetic grain-size. Tektites appear to be characterized by pure Fe2+ paramagnetism, with ferromagnetic traces below 1 ppm. The different tektite fields yield mostly non-overlapping narrow susceptibility ranges. Belize and Darwin glasses share similar characteristics. On the other hand the other studied glasses have wider susceptibility ranges, with median close to paramagnetism (Fe2+ and Fe3+) but with a high-susceptibility population bearing variable amounts of magnetite. This signs a fundamental difference between tektites (plus Belize and Darwin glasses) and other studied glasses in terms of oxygen fugacity and heterogeneity during formation, thus bringing new light to the formation processes of these materials. It also appears that selecting the most magnetic glass samples allows to find impactor-rich material, opening new perspectives to identify the type of impactor responsible for the glass generation.

  18. Magnetic properties of bio-synthesized zinc ferrite nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Yeary, Lucas W; Moon, Ji Won; Rawn, Claudia J; Love, Lonnie J; Rondinone, Adam Justin; Thompson, James R; Chakoumakos, Bryan C; Phelps, Tommy Joe

    2011-01-01

    The magnetic properties of zinc ferrite (Zn-substituted magnetite, Zn{sub y}Fe{sub 1-y}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) formed by a microbial process compared favorably with chemically synthesized materials. A metal reducing bacterium, Thermoanaerobacter, strain TOR-39 was incubated with Zn{sub x}Fe{sub 1-x}OOH (x=0.01, 0.1, and 0.15) precursors and produced nanoparticulate zinc ferrites. Composition and crystalline structure of the resulting zinc ferrites were verified using X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and neutron diffraction. The average composition from triplicates gave a value for y of 0.02, 0.23, and 0.30 with the greatest standard deviation of 0.02. Average crystallite sizes were determined to be 67, 49, and 25 nm, respectively. While crystallite size decreased with more Zn substitution, the lattice parameter and the unit cell volume showed a gradual increase in agreement with previous literature values. The magnetic properties were characterized using a superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer and were compared with values for the saturation magnetization (M{sub s}) reported in the literature. The averaged M{sub s} values for the triplicates with the largest amount of zinc (y=0.30) gave values of 100.1, 96.5, and 69.7 emu/g at temperatures of 5, 80, and 300 K, respectively indicating increased magnetic properties of the bacterially synthesized zinc ferrites.

  19. Magnetic and luminescent properties of lanthanide coordination polymers with asymmetric biphenyl-3,2',5'-tricarboxylate.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jie; Zhu, Guan-Hong; Xie, Li-Qiong; Wu, Ye-Si; Wu, Hai-Lun; Zhou, Ai-Ju; Wu, Zun-Yuan; Wang, Jing; Chen, Yan-Cong; Tong, Ming-Liang

    2015-08-28

    Eight isostructural lanthanide coordination polymers [Ln(bptc)(phen)(H2O)]n (Ln = Dy for , Eu for , Tb for , Gd for , Sm for , Nd for , Yb for , Pr for ) were successfully prepared based on bridging asymmetric polycarboxylate ligand biphenyl-3,2',5'-tricarboxylic acid (H3bptc) and chelating 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) coligand. Single crystal X-ray analysis reveals that complexes have a (3,6)-connected CdI2-type coordination network consisting of paddle-wheel dimers [Ln2(CO2)4]. The magnetic and fluorescent properties of have been investigated. Significantly, the Dy(iii) complex behaves with slow relaxation of the magnetization, where the frequency-dependent out-of-phase signals are noticed. PMID:26202782

  20. Properties of the manganese(II) binding site in ternary complexes of Mnter dot ADP and Mnter dot ATP with chloroplast coupling factor 1: Magnetic field dependence of solvent sup 1 H and sup 2 H NMR relaxation rates

    SciTech Connect

    Haddy, A.E.; Frasch, W.D.; Sharp, R.R. )

    1989-05-02

    The influence of the binding of ADP and ATP on the high-affinity Mn(II) binding site of chloroplast coupling factor 1 (CF{sub 1}) was studied by analysis of field-dependent solvent proton and deuteron spin-lattice relaxation data. In order to characterize metal-nucleotide complexes of CF{sub 1} under conditions similar to those of the NMR experiments, the enzyme was analyzed for bound nucleotides and Mn(II) after incubation with AdN and MnCl{sub 2} and removal of labile ligands by extensive gel filtration chromatography. In the field-dependent NMR experiments, the Mn(II) binding site of CF{sub 1} was studied for three mole ratios of added Mn(II) to CF{sub 1}, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5, in the presence of an excess of either ADP or ATP. The results were extrapolated to zero Mn(II) concentration to characterize the environment of the first Mn(II) binding site of Cf{sub 1}. In the presence of both adenine nucleotides, pronounced changes in the Mn(II) environment relative to that in Mn(II)-CF{sub 1} were evident; the local relaxation rate maxima were more pronounced and shifted to higher field strengths, and the relaxation rate per bound Mn(II) increased at all field strengths. Analysis of the data revealed that the number of exchangeable water molecules liganded to bound Mn(II) increased from one in the binary Mn(II)-CF{sub 1} complex to three and two in the ternary Mn(II)-ADP-CF{sub 1} and Mn(II)-ATP-CF{sub 1} complexes, respectively; these results suggest that a water ligand to bound Mn(II) in the Mn(II)-ADP-CF{sub 1} complex is replaced by the {gamma}-phosphate of ATP in the Mn(II)-ATP-CF{sub 1} complex. A binding model is presented to account for these observations.

  1. Experimental econophysics: Complexity, self-organization, and emergent properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, J. P.

    2015-03-01

    Experimental econophysics is concerned with statistical physics of humans in the laboratory, and it is based on controlled human experiments developed by physicists to study some problems related to economics or finance. It relies on controlled human experiments in the laboratory together with agent-based modeling (for computer simulations and/or analytical theory), with an attempt to reveal the general cause-effect relationship between specific conditions and emergent properties of real economic/financial markets (a kind of complex adaptive systems). Here I review the latest progress in the field, namely, stylized facts, herd behavior, contrarian behavior, spontaneous cooperation, partial information, and risk management. Also, I highlight the connections between such progress and other topics of traditional statistical physics. The main theme of the review is to show diverse emergent properties of the laboratory markets, originating from self-organization due to the nonlinear interactions among heterogeneous humans or agents (complexity).

  2. Aging of magnetic properties in MgO films

    SciTech Connect

    Balcells, Ll.; Konstantinovic, Z.; Martinez, B.; Beltran, J. I.; Martinez-Boubeta, C.; Arbiol, J.

    2010-12-20

    In this work we report on the magnetic behavior of MgO thin films prepared by sputtering. A severe aging process of the ferromagnetic properties is detected in magnetic samples exposed to ambient atmosphere. However, ferromagnetism can be successively switched on again by annealing samples in vacuum. We suggest this behavior reflects the key role played by defects in stabilizing ferromagnetism in MgO films and is likely to be closely related to the hydrogen-driven instability of V-type centers in this material.

  3. Structural and magnetic properties of CoPt clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, W. F.; Yuan, H. K.; Chen, H.; Wang, G. Z.; Zhang, G. L.

    2014-01-01

    The geometrical structures, electronic and magnetic properties of Con - xPtx (n=2-13,38,55) alloy clusters have been systematically investigated by using the density functional theory within the generalized gradient approximation (DFT-GGA). It is found that CoPt alloy clusters adopt the structures of corresponding monatomic Co clusters, where Pt atoms localize at the surface sites and tend to bond together forming a Pt exterior shell. The ferromagnetic coupling between atoms is determined in CoPt clusters, and the Co local magnetic moments can be enhanced by the increase of Pt concentration.

  4. Dynamical Magnetic and Nuclear Polarization in Complex Spin Systems: Semi-magnetic II-VI Quantum Dots

    E-print Network

    Abolfath, Ramin M; Roostaei, Bahman; Brabec, Thomas; Hawrylak, Pawel

    2013-01-01

    Dynamical magnetic and nuclear polarization in complex spin systems is discussed on the example of transfer of spin from exciton to the central spin of magnetic impurity in a quantum dot in the presence of a finite number of nuclear spins. The exciton is described in terms of the electron and heavy hole spins interacting via exchange interaction with magnetic impurity, via hypeprfine interaction with a finite number of nuclear spins and via dipole interaction with photons. The time-evolution of the exciton, magnetic impurity and nuclear spins is calculated exactly between quantum jumps corresponding to exciton radiative recombination. The collapse of the wavefunction and the refilling of the quantum dot with new spin polarized exciton is shown to lead to build up of magnetization of the magnetic impurity as well as nuclear spin polarization. The competition between electron spin transfer to magnetic impurity and to nuclear spins simultaneous with the creation of dark excitons is elucidated. The technique pres...

  5. Single molecule magnet behaviour in a rare trinuclear {Cr(III)Dy} methoxo-bridged complex.

    PubMed

    Car, Pierre-Emmanuel; Favre, Annaïck; Caneschi, Andrea; Sessoli, Roberta

    2015-09-28

    The reaction of the chromium(iii) chloride tetrahydrofuran complex with the dipivaloylmethane ligand, the lanthanide alcoholic salt DyCl3·CH3OH and the 1,1,1-tris(hydroxymethyl)-ethane ligand resulted in the formation of a new trinuclear chromium-dysprosium complex. Magnetic investigations revealed that the new 3d-4f complex exhibits single molecule magnet behaviour. PMID:26282265

  6. Using Solution Phase Self-Assembly to Control the Properties of Magnetic and Magnetoelectric Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schelhas, Laura Theresa

    Nanostrutured magnetic materials have gained much recent interest because of their application in various electronic systems. These materials, however, often require complex lithography and epitaxy to control the magnetic properties. In this work, solution-phase self-assembly is used to create magnetic and magnetoelectric materials with a variety of nanoscale structures. By engineering the architecture of the system, control over a range of magnetic properties can be realized. The first part of this work focuses on nano-magnetic materials. Here, the organization of nanoscale magnets into different geometries is controlled, and the properties of the systems are studied. In the first chapter, Ni-Cu nanowire stacks are examined to explore the effect of shape anisotropy on the coupling between different elements. This work provides insight into how to design new elements for spin-torque devices. In the next chapter, directed self-assembly of block copolymers is used to create coupled 1D chains of ferromagnetic and superparamagnetic FePt nanoparticles. These nano-patterned are globally aligned on the wafer length-scale using micron-sized lithographic grooves. This system is ideal for studying dipolar coupling between magnetic nanocrystals. Additionally, the processing methods developed here provide a platform for organizing other types of nanomaterials. The second sections explore magnetoelectric materials. These are materials that combine ferromagnetism and ferroelectricity in a coupled manner. One material that does this intrinsically is bismuth ferrite. The first chapter of this section explores ordered nanoporous bismuth ferrite produced by block copolymer templating. It is shown that the ordered porosity of the system creates a unique strain state in the bismuth ferrite, which in turn produces a large change in magnetization upon application of an electric field. Finally, in the last chapter, a nanostructured composite magnetoelectric system is studied. Here, magnetostrictive Ni nanocrystals are coupled to a single-crystalline piezoelectric substrate. The nanocrystals are superparamagnetic and show no net magnetization. Upon application of an electric field, however, strain induced in the piezoelectric substrate strains the lattice of the nanocrystals, creating a preferred magnetic axis along the high strained direction. This locks the magnetization along the strain axis and switches the nanocrystals from a superparamagnetic to a ferromagnetic state.

  7. Low-temperature magnetic properties of pelagic carbonates: Oxidation of biogenic magnetite and identification

    E-print Network

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    and magnetically interacting particles can complicate this test. Magnetic measurements through the Eocene section have a range of distinct properties, such as single domain (SD) magnetic behavior, narrow particle sizeLow-temperature magnetic properties of pelagic carbonates: Oxidation of biogenic magnetite

  8. Magnetic Separation and Magnetic Properties of Low-Grade Manganese Carbonate Ore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Y.; Shi, B.; Ge, W.; Yan, C. J.; Yang, X.

    2015-02-01

    The relation between the magnetic separation behavior and magnetic properties of a low-grade manganese ore was analyzed before and after treatment by direct reduction with coal. It was found that raw ore with an initial average grade of 10.39% Mn and consisting of diamagnetic and paramagnetic minerals can be concentrated by high-intensity magnetic separation to produce a salable product with a grade of 22.75% Mn and a recovery of 89.88%. In contrast, direct reduction of the ore results in a new Mn-Fe oxide phase formed with a combination of ferromagnetic and paramagnetic properties, thereby increasing the magnetic susceptibilities of the ore by almost two orders of magnitude. The grade of Mn for the roasted ore could only be concentrated to 15.49% with a recovery of 66.67%. Therefore, it is concluded that the low-grade manganese ores with antiferromagnetic and paramagnetic (or diamagnetic, but not strongly ferromagnetic) properties could be efficiently beneficiated via high-intensity magnetic separation.

  9. Heat capacity, magnetic and lattice dynamic properties of TbMn1-xFexO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihalik, M., Jr.; Mihalik, M.; Fitta, M.; Vavra, M.; Zentková, M.; Vilarinho, R.; Mota, D. A.; Tavares, P.; Agostinho Moreira, J.; Almeida, A.

    2015-03-01

    The effect of substitution of Fe3+ ions by Mn3+ ions on crystal structure, lattice dynamic, heat capacity and magnetic properties in TbMn1-xFexO3 ceramics has been studied. X-ray powder diffraction and Raman spectroscopy revealed that lattice distortion can be mainly attributed to Jahn-Teller distortion and tilting of octahedrons for samples with x < 0.4; for higher Fe concentration, the distortions are dominated by the octahedra tilting with less contribution of the Jahn-Teller effect. The anomalies in heat capacity of parent compounds (TbMnO3 and TbFeO3), which are associated with magnetic transitions, are smeared out by ion substitution. Magnetization measurements indicate that magnetic ordering persists in whole concentration range. The butterfly-type magnetic hysteresis loops suggest that the magnetic ground state of the whole system is complex and thence interesting for next experimental and theoretical studies.

  10. Observation of magnetic behavior with two broad maxima of magnetic susceptibility in [Ni(mnt) 2] - complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xuan, Fang; Tian, Zheng-Fang; Ren, Xiao-Ming; Duan, Hai-Bao; Meng, Qing-Jin

    2010-04-01

    Three complexes of [Ni(mnt) 2] - (mnt 2- = maleonitriledithiolate) with benzylpyridinium derivatives, 1-(2',6'-dichlorobenzyl)-4-aminopyridinium (abbr. Cl 2BzNH 2Py +) and 1-(2',6'-dichlorobenzyl)quinolinium (abbr. Cl 2BzQl +), have been characterized structurally and magnetically. The [Cl 2BzNH 2Py][Ni(mnt) 2] solution in MeCN was slowly evaporated to give the crystals of 2, whilst its solution in i-PrOH/MeCN yields 2·0.5 i-PrOH. The [Ni(mnt) 2] - anions are arranged in the mixed stacks of anions and cations in 2, and the segregated stacks of anions and cations in 2·0.5 i-PrOH and 4. Even though three complexes exhibit different stacking pattern of magnetic anions, their temperature dependences of magnetic susceptibilities in 2-300 K range show a common feature, namely, two broad maxima of magnetic susceptibility. Powder X-ray examination for three complexes excluded that the impurity causes such complicated magnetic behaviors. Combined with the single crystal structure analyses, the double broad maxima of magnetic susceptibility is probably attributed to anisotropic magnetic exchange interactions between magnetic anions.

  11. Magnetic properties derived from a loess section at the northern piedmont of Tianshan Mountains, Xinjiang, China, and their paleoenvironmental significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guanhua; Xia, Dunsheng; Jia, Jia; Zhao, Shuang; Gao, Fuyuan; Wang, Youjun; Lu, Hao; Chen, Fahu

    2015-11-01

    Loess deposits in the arid Central Asia contain valuable information on the evolution of local aridification and dust sources in the Northern Hemisphere. Xinjiang is located in the eastern part of Central Asia and previous researches have revealed the complex enhancement of magnetic susceptibility in loess-paleosol sequences. However, systematic magnetic archives of loess deposit in this arid Asian interior are still far from adequate. In this study, magnetic parameters combined with nonmagnetic properties (granulometry and chromaticity) were analysed on a loess section in Shawan (SW), northwestern China. The section shares a similar magnetic composition with those in the Chinese Loess Plateau (CLP) as well as other sites in Xinjiang. Ferrimagnetic components (magnetite and maghemite) dominate the magnetic signal while the contribution of antiferromagnetic phases (like hematite and goethite) and paramagnetic portions are relatively low. There is no specific correlation between magnetic concentration and pedogenic intensity in the SW section. In general, magnetic enhancement was largely influenced by the paleowind intensity. However, a positive correlation between magnetic susceptibility and pedogenesis is observed in the upper part (0-3.5 m depths), which is characterized by a moderate wind intensity. Moreover, pedogenesis might be responsible for the enhancement of fine magnetic particles in paleosols. Magnetic properties are controlled by coarse magnetic particles in the pseudo-single domain state, but a coarse stable single domain phase was found in certain paleosol samples. The input of detrital fractions from a nearby dust source probably controlled the magnetic properties while a superparamagnetic fraction, which has been deemed as a product of pedogenesis in the CLP, is limited in the SW section. Caution is needed to employ magnetic susceptibility directly for paleoclimatic assessment because of its uncertainty in the Xinjiang loess. However, the ?ARM/SIRM ratio enhanced in paleosols and has more potential as an alternative index for the weakly pedogenic degree in this area.

  12. Magnetic properties of a spin-1 triangular Ising system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erta?, Mehmet; Kocakaplan, Yusuf; Kantar, Ersin

    2015-07-01

    We studied some magnetic behaviors of the Blume-Capel (BC) model in a site diluted triangular lattice by means of the effective-field theory (EFT) with correlations. The effects of the exchange interaction (J), crystal field (D), concentration (p) and temperature (T) on the magnetic properties of the spin-1 BC model in a triangular lattice, such as magnetization, susceptibility, phase diagram and hysteresis behaviors, are investigated in detail. The phase diagrams of the system are presented in two different planes. The tricritical point as well as the tetracritical and critical end special points are found to depend on the physical parameters of the system. Moreover, when the hysteresis behaviors of the system are examined, single and double hysteresis loops are observed for various values of the physical parameters. We show that the hysteresis loops have different coercive field points in which the susceptibility makes a peak at these points.

  13. Enhancement of the magnetic properties of Al/La multiferroic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, M. A.; Okasha, N.; Hussein, B.

    2012-08-01

    Nanosized multiferroic La1-xAlxFeO3 (0.00?x?0.20) samples were successfully synthesized by the citrate technique without subsequent heat treatment. All the prepared samples revealed single phase orthorhombic structure of space group Pbnm. XRD data revealed that the lattice parameters (a) decrease with increasing Al content. The magnetic susceptibility (?M) was enhanced significantly from 0.36 to 0.68 emu/g mole from LaFeO3 to La0.8Al0.2FeO3 respectively. The values of magnetization (M) and effective magnetic moment (?eff) were found to increase with increasing Al content. The enhancement of the physical and structural properties of the investigated multiferroic is possibly due to the changes in the lattice parameters, tolerance factor as well as crystallite size caused by aluminum substitution.

  14. Magnetic properties and energy absorption of CoFe2O4 nanoparticles for magnetic hyperthermia

    E-print Network

    Torres, T E; Morales, M P; Ibarra, A; Marquina, C; Ibarra, M R; Goya, G F; 10.1088/1742-6596/200/7/072101

    2011-01-01

    We have studied the magnetic and power absorption properties of three samples of CoFe2O4 nanoparticles with sizes from 5 to 12 nm prepared by thermal decomposition of Fe (acac)3 and Co(acac)2 at high temperatures. The blocking temperatures TB estimated from magnetization M(T) curves spanned the range 180 < TB < 320 K, reflecting the large magnetocrystalline anisotropy of these nanoparticles. Accordingly, high coercive fields HC \\approx 1.4 - 1.7 T were observed at low temperatures. Specific Power Absorption (SPA) experiments carried out in ac magnetic fields indicated that, besides particle volume, the effective magnetic anisotropy is a key parameter determining the absorption efficiency. SPA values as high as 98 W/g were obtained for nanoparticles with average size of \\approx12 nm.

  15. Influence of magnetic electrodes thicknesses on the transport properties of magnetic tunnel junctions with perpendicular anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuchet, Léa; Rodmacq, Bernard; Auffret, Stéphane; Sousa, Ricardo C.; Dieny, Bernard

    2014-08-01

    The influence of the bottom and top magnetic electrodes thicknesses on both perpendicular anisotropy and transport properties is studied in (Co/Pt)/Ta/CoFeB/MgO/FeCoB/Ta magnetic tunnel junctions. By carefully investigating the relative magnetic moment of the two electrodes as a function of their thicknesses, we identify and quantify the presence of magnetically dead layers, likely localized at the interfaces with Ta, that is, 0.33 nm for the bottom electrode and 0.60 nm for the top one. Critical thicknesses (spin-reorientation transitions) are determined as 1.60 and 1.65 nm for bottom and top electrodes, respectively. The tunnel magnetoresistance ratio reaches its maximum value, as soon as both effective (corrected from dead layer) electrode thicknesses exceed 0.6 nm.

  16. Influence of magnetic electrodes thicknesses on the transport properties of magnetic tunnel junctions with perpendicular anisotropy

    SciTech Connect

    Cuchet, Léa; Rodmacq, Bernard; Auffret, Stéphane; Sousa, Ricardo C.; Dieny, Bernard

    2014-08-04

    The influence of the bottom and top magnetic electrodes thicknesses on both perpendicular anisotropy and transport properties is studied in (Co/Pt)/Ta/CoFeB/MgO/FeCoB/Ta magnetic tunnel junctions. By carefully investigating the relative magnetic moment of the two electrodes as a function of their thicknesses, we identify and quantify the presence of magnetically dead layers, likely localized at the interfaces with Ta, that is, 0.33?nm for the bottom electrode and 0.60?nm for the top one. Critical thicknesses (spin-reorientation transitions) are determined as 1.60 and 1.65?nm for bottom and top electrodes, respectively. The tunnel magnetoresistance ratio reaches its maximum value, as soon as both effective (corrected from dead layer) electrode thicknesses exceed 0.6?nm.

  17. Author's personal copy Magnetic properties of stainless steels at room and cryogenic temperatures

    E-print Network

    Oxley, Paul

    Author's personal copy Magnetic properties of stainless steels at room and cryogenic temperatures: Magnetic measurement Ferromagnetic property Stainless steel Martensitic Ferritic a b s t r a c t The magnetic properties of ten types of ferritic and martensitic stainless steels have been measured at room

  18. Magnetic properties of nanomagnetic and biomagnetic systems analyzed using cantilever magnetometry

    E-print Network

    Aste, Andreas

    Magnetic properties of nanomagnetic and biomagnetic systems analyzed using cantilever magnetometry.1088/0957-4484/22/28/285715 Magnetic properties of nanomagnetic and biomagnetic systems analyzed using cantilever magnetometry Urs at stacks.iop.org/Nano/22/285715 Abstract Magnetic properties of nanomagnetic and biomagnetic systems

  19. Structural and magnetic properties of chromium doped zinc ferrite

    SciTech Connect

    Sebastian, Rintu Mary; Thankachan, Smitha; Xavier, Sheena; Mohammed, E. M.; Joseph, Shaji

    2014-01-28

    Zinc chromium ferrites with chemical formula ZnCr{sub x}Fe{sub 2?x}O{sub 4} (x = 0.0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0) were prepared by Sol - Gel technique. The structural as well as magnetic properties of the synthesized samples have been studied and reported here. The structural characterizations of the samples were analyzed by using X – Ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM). The single phase spinel cubic structure of all the prepared samples was tested by XRD and FTIR. The particle size was observed to decrease from 18.636 nm to 6.125 nm by chromium doping and induced a tensile strain in all the zinc chromium mixed ferrites. The magnetic properties of few samples (x = 0.0, 0.4, 1.0) were investigated using Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM)

  20. Thermodynamic and magnetic properties of the hexagonal type Ising nanowire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocakaplan, Yusuf; Kantar, Ersin

    2014-06-01

    The thermodynamic and magnetic properties of the mixed-spin (1/2-1) hexagonal Ising nanowire (HIN) system with core-shell structure have been presented by means of the effective-field theory (EFT) with correlations. The effects of the physical parameters of the system on thermodynamic and magnetic properties (magnetisations, susceptibilities, internal energies, free energies and hysteresis curves) are investigated for the both ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic case, in detail. One can find that when the temperature increases the hysteresis loop areas decrease and the hysteresis loops disappear above the critical temperature. Moreover, different hysteresis loop behaviours have been observed such as single, double and triple hysteresis loops in the system. In order to confirm the accuracy of the phase transition points, we also investigate the free energy of the system.

  1. Switchable molecular magnets

    PubMed Central

    SATO, Osamu

    2012-01-01

    Various molecular magnetic compounds whose magnetic properties can be controlled by external stimuli have been developed, including electrochemically, photochemically, and chemically tunable bulk magnets as well as a phototunable antiferromagnetic phase of single chain magnet. In addition, we present tunable paramagnetic mononuclear complexes ranging from spin crossover complexes and valence tautomeric complexes to Co complexes in which orbital angular momentum can be switched. Furthermore, we recently developed several switchable clusters and one-dimensional coordination polymers. The switching of magnetic properties can be achieved by modulating metals, ligands, and molecules/ions in the second sphere of the complexes. PMID:22728438

  2. The X-ray properties of magnetic massive stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazé, Yaël; Petit, Véronique; Rinbrand, Melanie; Cohen, David; Owocki, Stan; ud-Doula, Asif; Wade, Gregg

    2015-01-01

    Early-type stars are well-known to be sources of soft X-rays. However, this high-energy emission can be supplemented by bright and hard X-rays when magnetically confined winds are present. In an attempt to clarify the systematics of the observed X-ray properties of this phenomenon, a large series of Chandra and XMM observations was analyzed, over 100 exposures of 60% of the known magnetic massive stars listed recently by Petit et al. (2013). It is found that the X-ray luminosity is strongly correlated with mass-loss rate, in agreement with predictions of magnetically confined wind models, though the predictions of higher temperature are not always verified. We also investigated the behaviour of other X-ray properties (absorption, variability), yielding additional constraints on models. This work not only advances our knowledge of the X-ray emission of massive stars, but also suggests new observational and theoretical avenues to further explore magnetically confined winds.

  3. Nanoscale Mapping of the Magnetic Properties of (111)-Oriented La(0.67)Sr(0.33)MnO3.

    PubMed

    O'Shea, Kerry J; MacLaren, Donald A; McGrouther, Damien; Schwarzbach, Danny; Jungbauer, Markus; Hühn, Sebastian; Moshnyaga, Vasily; Stamps, Robert L

    2015-09-01

    Spatially resolved analysis of magnetic properties on the nanoscale remains challenging, yet strain and defects on this length-scale can profoundly affect a material's bulk performance. We present a detailed investigation of the magnetic properties of La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 thin films in both free-standing and nanowire form and assess the role of strain and local defects in modifying the films' magnetic properties. Lorentz transmission electron microscopy is used to measure the magnetocrystalline anisotropy and to map the Curie temperature and saturation magnetization with nanometric spatial resolution. Atomic-scale defects are identified as pinning sites for magnetic domain wall propagation. Measurement of domain wall widths and crystalline strain are used to identify a strong magnetoelastic contribution to the magnetic anisotropy. Together, these results provide unique insight into the relationship between the nanostructure and magnetic functionality of a ferromagnetic complex oxide film. PMID:26252745

  4. Magnetic Interactions Influence the Properties of Helium Defects in Iron.

    SciTech Connect

    Seletskaia, Tatiana; Osetskiy, Yury N; Stoller, Roger E; Stocks, George Malcolm

    2005-01-01

    Density functional theory calculations of He defect properties in iron have shown an unexpected influence of magnetism arising from the defect's electronic structure. In contrast with previous work that neglected such effects, the results indicate that the tetrahedral position is energetically more favorable for the He interstitial than the octahedral site. This may have significant implications for He clustering and bubble nucleation, which will impact material performance in future fusion reactors. These results provide the basis for development of improved atomistic models.

  5. On the role of Fe ions on magnetic properties of doped TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Tolea, F.; Grecu, M. N. Kuncser, V.; Constantinescu, S. Gr.; Ghica, D.

    2015-04-06

    The role of iron doping on magnetic properties of hydrothermal anatase TiO{sub 2}:{sup 57}Fe (0–1 at.?%) nanoparticles is investigated by combining superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry with Mössbauer and electron paramagnetic resonance techniques. The results on both as-prepared and thermally treated samples in reduced air atmosphere reveal complexity of magnetic interactions, in connection to certain iron ion electron configurations and defects (oxygen vacancies, F-center, and Ti{sup 3+} ions). The distribution of iron ions is predominantly at nanoparticle surface layers. Formation of weak ferromagnetic domains up to 380?K is mainly related to defects, supporting the bound magnetic polaron model.

  6. Complexation of buffer constituents with neutral complexation agents: part I. Impact on common buffer properties.

    PubMed

    Riesová, Martina; Svobodová, Jana; Tošner, Zden?k; Beneš, Martin; Tesa?ová, Eva; Gaš, Bohuslav

    2013-09-17

    The complexation of buffer constituents with the complexation agent present in the solution can very significantly influence the buffer properties, such as pH, ionic strength, or conductivity. These parameters are often crucial for selection of the separation conditions in capillary electrophoresis or high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and can significantly affect results of separation, particularly for capillary electrophoresis as shown in Part II of this paper series (Beneš, M.; Riesová, M.; Svobodová, J.; Tesa?ová, E.; Dubský, P.; Gaš, B. Anal. Chem. 2013, DOI: 10.1021/ac401381d). In this paper, the impact of complexation of buffer constituents with a neutral complexation agent is demonstrated theoretically as well as experimentally for the model buffer system composed of benzoic acid/LiOH or common buffers (e.g., CHES/LiOH, TAPS/LiOH, Tricine/LiOH, MOPS/LiOH, MES/LiOH, and acetic acid/LiOH). Cyclodextrins as common chiral selectors were used as model complexation agents. We were not only able to demonstrate substantial changes of pH but also to predict the general complexation characteristics of selected compounds. Because of the zwitterion character of the common buffer constituents, their charged forms complex stronger with cyclodextrins than the neutral ones do. This was fully proven by NMR measurements. Additionally complexation constants of both forms of selected compounds were determined by NMR and affinity capillary electrophoresis with a very good agreement of obtained values. These data were advantageously used for the theoretical descriptions of variations in pH, depending on the composition and concentration of the buffer. Theoretical predictions were shown to be a useful tool for deriving some general rules and laws for complexing systems. PMID:23889602

  7. Magnetic properties and transformation of crystal structure in the ErFe2-ErAl2 system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ?wik, J.; Koshkid'ko, Y.; Mikhailova, A.; Kolchugina, N.; Nenkov, K.; Hackamer, A.; Miller, M.

    2015-03-01

    The modification of structural properties and magnetic behaviour of the ErFe2-xAlx Laves phase intermetallic compounds have been studied while changing the Al content in the range 0.36 ? x ? 1.5. Powder X-ray diffraction study at room temperature showed the formation of the cubic C15 structure, in the samples with Al content of 0.36 ? x < 0.75 and 1.4 ? x ? 2.0. For the intermediate compositions with 0.75 ? x ? 1.4, the hexagonal C14 structure is observed. Magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of polycrystalline ErFe2-xAlx intermetallic compounds were investigated experimentally using magnetic and heat capacity measurements. The Curie temperature TC decreases from 275 to 28 K as the Al content increases from x = 0.36 to x = 1.5, respectively. Magnetization measurements in strong magnetic fields showed the complex mechanism of magnetic saturation in the studied compounds. Under an external field change from 0 to 2 T, the maximum entropy change is 6 J/kg K at T = 28 K for the composition with x = 1.5. The minimum in the concentration dependence of the magnetic entropy change is observed in the vicinity of x equal to 1.25. Regularities of variations of magnetocaloric properties of ErFe2-xAlx intermetallic compounds with increasing Al content are discussed from the point of view of their both structural and magnetic states.

  8. Hematite nanoplates: Controllable synthesis, gas sensing, photocatalytic and magnetic properties.

    PubMed

    Hao, Hongying; Sun, Dandan; Xu, Yanyan; Liu, Ping; Zhang, Guoying; Sun, Yaqiu; Gao, Dongzhao

    2016-01-15

    Uniform hematite (?-Fe2O3) nanoplates exposing {001} plane as basal planes have been prepared by a facile solvothermal method under the assistance of sodium acetate. The morphological evolution of the nanoplates was studied by adjusting the reaction parameters including the solvent and the amount of sodium acetate. The results indicated that both the adequate nucleation/growth rate and selective adsorption of alcohol molecules and acetate anions contribute to the formation of the plate-like morphology. In addition, the size of the nanoplates can be adjusted from ca. 180nm to 740nm by changing the reaction parameters. Three nanoplate samples with different size were selected to investigate the gas sensing performance, photocatalytic and magnetic properties. As gas sensing materials, all the ?-Fe2O3 nanoplates exhibited high gas sensitivity and stability toward n-butanol. When applied as photocatalyst, the ?-Fe2O3 nanoplates show high photodegradation efficiency towards RhB. Both the gas sensing performance and the photocatalytic property of the products exhibit obvious size-dependent effect. Magnetic measurements reveal that the plate-like ?-Fe2O3 particles possess good room temperature magnetic properties. PMID:26476200

  9. Microscopic and magnetic properties of template assisted electrodeposited iron nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irshad, M. I.; Ahmad, F.; Mohamed, N. M.; Abdullah, M. Z.; Yar, A.

    2015-07-01

    Nanowires of magnetic materials such as Iron, nickel, cobalt, and alloys of them are one of the most widely investigated structures because of their possible applications in high density magnetic recording media, sensor elements, and building blocks in biological transport systems. In this work, Iron nanowires have been prepared by electrodeposition technique using Anodized Aluminium Oxide (AAO) templates. The electrolyte used consisted of FeSO4.6H2O buffered with H3BO3 and acidized by dilute H2SO4. FESEM analysis shows that the asdeposited nanowires are parallel to one another and have high aspect ratio with a reasonably high pore-filing factor. To fabricate the working electrode, a thin film of copper (˜ 220 nm thick) was coated on back side of AAO template by e-beam evaporation system to create electrical contact with the external circuit. The TEM results show that electrodeposited nanowires have diameter around 100 nm and are polycrystalline in structure. Magnetic properties show the existence of anisotropy for in and out of plane configuration. These nanowires have potential applications in magnetic data storage, catalysis and magnetic sensor applications.

  10. Theoretical determination of magnetic properties of planar benzene isomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ligabue, Andrea; Lazzeretti, Paolo

    2002-01-01

    Four theoretical methods, using continuous transformation of the origin of the current density (CTOCD) to annihilate either the diamagnetic or the paramagnetic contribution, have been employed at the coupled Hartree-Fock level of accuracy to evaluate magnetic susceptibility and nuclear magnetic shielding of five planar molecules with the chemical formula C6H6. The results have been compared with corresponding estimates from basis sets of London orbitals, showing the near Hartree-Fock quality of calculated values and the practicality of CTOCD approaches. Maps of streamlines and intensity of the current density induced in the ?-electrons by a stationary magnetic- field perpendicular to the molecular plane are shown to interpret the different magnetic response properties of benzene isomers by means of the Ring-Current model. The plots show delocalized flow in benzene, determining its enhanced diamagnetism. Diamagnetic loops, localized in the region of carbon-carbon bonds, and a paramagnetic vortex in the vicinity of electronic centroid, are found in 3,4-dimethylenecyclobutene and trimethylenecyclopropane. This pattern is typical of conjugated nonaromatic molecules. Delocalized diamagnetic circulation observed in fulvene explains its exalted magnetic susceptibility.

  11. Synthesis and magnetic properties of single phase titanomagnetites

    SciTech Connect

    Schoenthal, W. Liu, X.; Cox, T.; Laughlin, D. E.; McHenry, M. E.; Mesa, J. L.; Diaz-Michelena, M.; Maicas, M.

    2014-05-07

    The focus of this paper is the study of cation distributions and resulting magnetizations in titanomagnetites (TMs), (1?x)Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4?x}Fe{sub 2}TiO{sub 4} solid solutions. TM remnant states are hypothesized to contribute to planetary magnetic field anomalies. This work correlates experimental data with proposed models for the TM pseudobinary. Improved synthesis procedures are reported for single phase Ulvöspinel (Fe{sub 2}TiO{sub 4}), and TM solid solutions were made using solid state synthesis techniques. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy show samples to be single phase solid solutions. M-H curves of TM75, 80, 85, 90, and 95 (TMX where X?=?at.?% of ulvöspinel) were measured using a Physical Property Measurement System at 10?K, in fields of 0 to 8?T. The saturation magnetization was found to be close to that predicted by the Neel model for cation distribution in TMs. M-T curves of the remnant magnetization were measured from 10?K to 350?K. The remnant magnetization was acquired at 10?K by applying an 8?T field and then releasing the field. Experimental Neel temperatures are reported for samples in the Neel model ground state.

  12. Cryogenic properties of dispersion strengthened copper for high magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Toplosky, V. J.; Han, K.; Walsh, R. P.; Swenson, C. A.

    2014-01-27

    Cold deformed copper matrix composite conductors, developed for use in the 100 tesla multi-shot pulsed magnet at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (NHMFL), have been characterized. The conductors are alumina strengthened copper which is fabricated by cold drawing that introduces high dislocation densities and high internal stresses. Both alumina particles and high density of dislocations provide us with high tensile strength and fatigue endurance. The conductors also have high electrical conductivities because alumina has limited solubility in Cu and dislocations have little scattering effect on conduction electrons. Such a combination of high strength and high conductivity makes it an excellent candidate over other resistive magnet materials. Thus, characterization is carried out by tensile testing and fully reversible fatigue testing. In tensile tests, the material exceeds the design criteria parameters. In the fatigue tests, both the load and displacement were measured and used to control the amplitude of the tests to simulate the various loading conditions in the pulsed magnet which is operated at 77 K in a non-destructive mode. In order to properly simulate the pulsed magnet operation, strain-controlled tests were more suitable than load controlled tests. For the dispersion strengthened coppers, the strengthening mechanism of the aluminum oxide provided better tensile and fatigue properties over convention copper.

  13. Coherent structures and transport properties in magnetized plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serianni, G.; Agostini, M.; Antoni, V.; Cavazzana, R.; Martines, E.; Sattin, F.; Scarin, P.; Spada, E.; Spolaore, M.; Vianello, N.; Zuin, M.

    2007-12-01

    A common feature of magnetized plasmas is the presence of fluctuations, which can lead to fully developed turbulence. Often large events—called bursts—emerge from the remaining low-level turbulence, giving an intermittent character to fluctuations; namely the statistical properties of fluctuations are found to depend on the temporal scale over which the investigation is conducted. In magnetized plasmas, the bursts are generally believed to be due to the presence of magnetic-field-aligned structures. Moreover, it has been experimentally shown that the intermittent events detected in the signals are associated with a relevant contribution to the loss of particles from the plasma. All these observations are common to plasmas spanning a wide range of temperature and density and magnetically confined both in linear and toroidal devices. In particular, in high-temperature plasmas for thermonuclear fusion, research aims at devising suitable ways to control transport by acting on the plasma structures, for instance by biasing the plasma edge using electrodes. This paper gives a characterization of the structures found in magnetized plasmas and of their contribution to the particle transport; moreover, the effect of the velocity shear on structures is addressed. Emphasis will be laid on to the most advanced diagnostics allowing the reconstruction of turbulent structures by optical and electrostatic techniques.

  14. Magnetic properties in an ash flow tuff with continuous grain size variation: a natural reference for magnetic particle granulometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Till, J.L.; Jackson, M.J.; Rosenbaum, J.G.; Solheid, P.

    2011-01-01

    The Tiva Canyon Tuff contains dispersed nanoscale Fe-Ti-oxide grains with a narrow magnetic grain size distribution, making it an ideal material in which to identify and study grain-size-sensitive magnetic behavior in rocks. A detailed magnetic characterization was performed on samples from the basal 5 m of the tuff. The magnetic materials in this basal section consist primarily of (low-impurity) magnetite in the form of elongated submicron grains exsolved from volcanic glass. Magnetic properties studied include bulk magnetic susceptibility, frequency-dependent and temperature-dependent magnetic susceptibility, anhysteretic remanence acquisition, and hysteresis properties. The combined data constitute a distinct magnetic signature at each stratigraphic level in the section corresponding to different grain size distributions. The inferred magnetic domain state changes progressively upward from superparamagnetic grains near the base to particles with pseudo-single-domain or metastable single-domain characteristics near the top of the sampled section. Direct observations of magnetic grain size confirm that distinct transitions in room temperature magnetic susceptibility and remanence probably denote the limits of stable single-domain behavior in the section. These results provide a unique example of grain-size-dependent magnetic properties in noninteracting particle assemblages over three decades of grain size, including close approximations of ideal Stoner-Wohlfarth assemblages, and may be considered a useful reference for future rock magnetic studies involving grain-size-sensitive properties.

  15. Synthesis, photoluminescence and magnetic properties of barium vanadate nanoflowers

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Jing; Chongqing University of Science and Technology, Chongqing 401331 ; Hu, Chenguo; Xi, Yi; Peng, Chen; Wan, Buyong; He, Xiaoshan

    2011-06-15

    Graphical abstract: The flower-shaped barium vanadate was obtained for the first time. The photoluminescence and magnetic properties of the barium vanadate nanoflowers were investigated at room temperature. Research highlights: {yields} In the paper, the flower-shaped barium vanadate were obtained for the first time. The CHM method used here is new and simple for preparation of barium vanadate. {yields} The photoluminescence and magnetic properties of the barium vanadate nanoflowers were investigated at room temperature. The strong bluish-green emission was observed. {yields} The ferromagnetic behavior of the barium vanadate nanoflowers was found with saturation magnetization of about 83.50 x 10{sup -3} emu/g, coercivity of 18.89 Oe and remnant magnetization of 4.63 x 10{sup -3} emu/g. {yields} The mechanisms of PL and magnetic property of barium vanadate nanoflowers have been discussed. -- Abstract: The flower-shaped barium vanadate has been obtained by the composite hydroxide mediated (CHM) method from V{sub 2}O{sub 5} and BaCl{sub 2} at 200 {sup o}C for 13 h. XRD and XPS spectrum of the as-synthesized sample indicate it is hexagonal Ba{sub 3}V{sub 2}O{sub 8} with small amount of Ba{sub 3}VO{sub 4.8} coexistence. Scan electron microscope and transmission electron microscope display that the flower-shaped crystals are composed of nanosheets with thickness of {approx}20 nm. The UV-visible spectrum shows that the barium vanadate sample has two optical gaps (3.85 eV and 3.12 eV). Photoluminescence spectrum of the barium vanadate flowers exhibits a visible light emission centered at 492 and 525 nm which might be attributed to VO{sub 4} tetrahedron with T{sub d} symmetry in Ba{sub 3}V{sub 2}O{sub 8}. The ferromagnetic behavior of the barium vanadate nanoflowers has been found with saturation magnetization of about 83.50 x 10{sup -3} emu/g, coercivity of 18.89 Oe and remnant magnetization of 4.63 x 10{sup -3} emu/g, which is mainly due to the presence of a non-orthovanadate phase with spin S = 1/2.

  16. Magnetic properties changes due to hydrocarbon contaminated groundwater table fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ameen, Nawrass

    2013-04-01

    This study aims to understand the mechanisms and conditions which control the formation and transformation of ferro(i)magnetic minerals caused by hydrocarbon contaminated groundwater, in particular in the zone of fluctuating water levels. The work extends previous studies conducted at the same site. The study area is a former military air base at Hrad?any, Czech Republic (50°37'22.71"N, 14°45'2.24"E). The site was heavily contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons, due to leaks in petroleum storage tanks and jet fuelling stations over years of active use by the Soviet Union, which closed the base in 1991. The site is one of the most important sources of high quality groundwater in the Czech Republic. In a previous study, Rijal et al. (2010) concluded that the contaminants could be flushed into the sediments as the water level rose due to remediation processes leading to new formation of magnetite. In this previous study three different locations were investigated; however, from each location only one core was obtained. In order to recognize significant magnetic signatures versus depth three cores from each of these three locations were drilled in early 2012, penetrating the unsaturated zone, the groundwater fluctuation (GWF) zone and extending to about one meter below the groundwater level (~2.3 m depth at the time of sampling). Magnetic susceptibility (MS) profiles combined with other magnetic properties were analyzed to obtain a significant depth distribution of the ferro(i)magnetic concentration. Sediment properties, hydrocarbon content and bacterial activity were additionally studied. The results show that the highest ferrimagnetic mineral concentrations exist between 1.4-1.9 m depth from the baseline which is interpreted as the top of the GWF zone. Spikes of MS detected in the previous studies turned out to represent small-scale isolated features, but the trend of increasing MS values from the lowermost position of the groundwater table upward was verified. Mineral magnetic parameters indicate that magnetite is responsible for the MS signal which confirms the previous results (Rijal et al., 2010). The so far existing uncertainty of the groundwater level position could be solved. Bacterial activity is studied at particular depth horizons as it is assumed to be responsible for iron mineralogy changes. References: Rijal M.L., Appel E., Petrovský E. and Blaha U., 2010. Change of magnetic properties due to fluctuations of hydrocarbon contaminated groundwater in unconsolidated sediments. Environ.Pollut., 158, 1756-1762.

  17. Pattern Formation in a Complex Plasma in High Magnetic Fields

    SciTech Connect

    Schwabe, M.; Konopka, U.; Bandyopadhyay, P.; Morfill, G. E.

    2011-05-27

    Low-pressure room-temperature neon, argon, krypton, and air plasmas were studied in magnetic fields up to flux densities of 2.3 T. Filaments appeared parallel to the magnetic field lines, and patterns such as spirals and concentric circles formed in the perpendicular direction. We link these effects to the magnetization of the ions. We also used a layer of embedded microparticles as probes in the plasma. Their motion changed dramatically from a collective rotation of the whole ensemble in moderate magnetic fields to a rotation in several small vortices centered at the filaments.

  18. Magnetic and magnetodielectric properties of erbium iron garnet ceramic

    SciTech Connect

    Maignan, A.; Singh, K.; Simon, Ch.; Lebedev, O. I.; Martin, C.

    2013-01-21

    An Er{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} ceramic has been sintered in oxygen atmosphere at 1400 Degree-Sign C for dielectric measurements. Its structural quality at room temperature has been checked by combining transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. It crystallizes in the cubic space group Ia3d with a = 12.3488(1). The dielectric permittivity ({epsilon} Prime ) and losses (tan {delta}) measurements as a function of temperature reveal the existence of two anomalies, a broad one between 110 K and 80 K, attributed to the Er{sup 3+} spin reorientation, and a second sharper feature at about 45 K associated to the appearance of irreversibility on the magnetic susceptibility curves. In contrast to the lack of magnetic field impact on {epsilon} Prime for the former anomaly, a complex magnetic field effect has been evidenced below 45 K. The isothermal {epsilon} Prime (H) curves show the existence of positive magnetodielectric effect, reaching a maximum of 0.14% at 3 T and 10 K. Its magnitude decreases as H is further increased. Interestingly, for the lowest H values, a linear regime in the {epsilon} Prime (H) curve is observed. From this experimental study, it is concluded that the {epsilon} Prime anomaly, starting above the compensation temperature T{sub c} (75 K) and driven by the internal magnetic field, is not sensitive to an applied external magnetic field. Thus, below 45 K, it is the magnetic structure which is responsible for the coupling between spin and charge in this iron garnet.

  19. Magnetic susceptibility and magnetization properties of asymmetric nuclear matter under a strong magnetic field

    E-print Network

    A. Rabhi; M. A. Pérez-García; C. Providência; I. Vidaña

    2015-04-02

    We study the effect of a strong magnetic field on the proton and neutron spin polarization and magnetic susceptibility of asymmetric nuclear matter within a relativistic mean-field approach. It is shown that magnetic fields $B \\sim 10^{16} - 10^{17}$ G have already noticeable effects on the range of densities of interest for the study of the crust of a neutron star. Although the proton susceptibility is larger for weaker fields, the neutron susceptibility becomes of the same order or even larger for small proton fractions and subsaturation densities for $B > 10^{16}$ G. We expect that neutron superfluidity in the crust will be affected by the presence of magnetic fields.

  20. Magnetic properties of manganese based one-dimensional spin chains.

    PubMed

    Asha, K S; Ranjith, K M; Yogi, Arvind; Nath, R; Mandal, Sukhendu

    2015-11-18

    We have correlated the structure-property relationship of three manganese-based inorganic-organic hybrid structures. Compound , [Mn2(OH-BDC)2(DMF)3] (where BDC = 1,4-benzene dicarboxylic acid and DMF = N,N'-dimethylformamide), contains Mn2O11 dimers as secondary building units (SBUs), which are connected by carboxylate anions forming Mn-O-C-O-Mn chains. Compound , [Mn2(BDC)2(DMF)2], contains Mn4O20 clusters as SBUs, which also form Mn-O-C-O-Mn chains. In compound , [Mn3(BDC)3(DEF)2] (where DEF = N,N'-diethylformamide), the distorted MnO6 octahedra are linked to form a one-dimensional chain with Mn-O-Mn connectivity. The magnetic properties were investigated by means of magnetization and heat capacity measurements. The temperature dependent magnetic susceptibility of all the three compounds could be nicely fitted using a one-dimensional S = 5/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnetic chain model and the value of intra-chain exchange coupling (J/kB) between Mn(2+) ions was estimated to be ?1.1 K, ?0.7 K, and ?0.46 K for compounds , , and , respectively. Compound does not undergo any magnetic long-range-order down to 2 K while compounds and undergo long-range magnetic order at TN ? 4.2 K and ?4.3 K, respectively, which are of spin-glass type. From the values of J/kB and TN the inter-chain coupling (J?/kB) was calculated to be about 0.1J/kB for both compounds and , respectively. PMID:26455515

  1. Dielectric and magnetic properties of some gadolinium silica nanoceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Coroiu, I. Pascuta, P. Bosca, M. Culea, E.

    2013-11-13

    Some nanostructure gadolinium silica glass-ceramics were obtained undergoing a sol gel method and a heat-treatment at 1000°C about two hours. The magnetic and dielectric properties of these samples were studied. The magnetic properties were evidenced performing susceptibility measurements in the 80-300K temperature range. A Curie-Weiss behavior has acquired. The values estimated for paramagnetic Curie temperature being small and positive suggest the presence of weak ferromagnetic interactions between Gd{sup 3+} ions. The dielectric properties were evaluated from dielectric permittivity (?{sub r}) and dielectric loss (tan?) measurements at the frequency 1 kHz, 10 kHz and 100 kHz, in the 25-225°C temperature range and dielectric dispersion at room temperature for 79.5 kHz - 1GHz frequency area. The dielectric properties suggest that the main polarization mechanism corresponds to interfacial polarization, characteristic for polycrystalline-structured dielectrics. The polycrystalline structure of the samples is due to the polymorphous transformations of the nanostructure silica crystallites in the presence of gadolinium oxide. They were highlighted by SEM micrographs.

  2. Formal verification of complex properties on PLC programs

    E-print Network

    Darvas, D; Voros, A; Bartha, T; Blanco Vinuela, E; Gonzalez Suarez, V M

    2014-01-01

    Formal verification has become a recommended practice in the safety-critical application areas. However, due to the complexity of practical control and safety systems, the state space explosion often prevents the use of formal analysis. In this paper we extend our former verification methodology with effective property preserving reduction techniques. For this purpose we developed general rule-based reductions and a customized version of the Cone of Influence (COI) reduction. Using these methods, the verification of complex requirements formalised with temporal logics (e.g. CTL, LTL) can be orders of magnitude faster. We use the NuSMV model checker on a real-life PLC program from CERN to demonstrate the performance of our reduction techniques.

  3. Dynamical Magnetic and Nuclear Polarization in Complex Spin Systems: Semi-magnetic II-VI Quantum Dots

    E-print Network

    Ramin M. Abolfath; Anna Trojnar; Bahman Roostaei; Thomas Brabec; Pawel Hawrylak

    2012-05-17

    Dynamical magnetic and nuclear polarization in complex spin systems is discussed on the example of transfer of spin from exciton to the central spin of magnetic impurity in a quantum dot in the presence of a finite number of nuclear spins. The exciton is described in terms of the electron and heavy hole spins interacting via exchange interaction with magnetic impurity, via hypeprfine interaction with a finite number of nuclear spins and via dipole interaction with photons. The time-evolution of the exciton, magnetic impurity and nuclear spins is calculated exactly between quantum jumps corresponding to exciton radiative recombination. The collapse of the wavefunction and the refilling of the quantum dot with new spin polarized exciton is shown to lead to build up of magnetization of the magnetic impurity as well as nuclear spin polarization. The competition between electron spin transfer to magnetic impurity and to nuclear spins simultaneous with the creation of dark excitons is elucidated. The technique presented here opens up the possibility of studying optically induced Dynamical Magnetic and Nuclear Polarization in Complex Spin Systems.

  4. Theoretical study of the electronic and magnetic properties of ?-TeVO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saul, Andres; Radtke, Guillaume

    2014-03-01

    The ? phase of this compound can be described by zigzag chains formed by VO5 distorted square pyramids sharing corners. This oxide, with V4+ ions as magnetic centers, can be thus seen as a realization of a quasi-one-dimensional Heisenberg S=1/2 Hamiltonian. The corner-sharing of the VO5 pyramids could lead to the prediction of AFM nearest neighbor interactions mediated by a weak super-exchange mechanism opening the possibility of complex magnetic properties due to competing next nearest-neighbors or inter-chain interactions. In this work we have studied its electronic and magnetic properties using density functional calculations. In particular, we evaluated the magnetic couplings on the basis of broken-symmetry formalism. We have performed extensive calculations comparing the results of the standard GGA (PBE) functional to the hybrid PBE0 functional and two different GGA+U implementations (SIC and AMF). The overall picture that arises from our calculations is of a frustrated AFM system with small FM nearest neigbors interactions but larger AFM nearest neighbors couplings. We discuss our results in the framework of the Kugel-Khomskii model using a projection of the electronic structure in localized Wannier functions.

  5. Temperature dependent magnetic and microwave absorption properties of doubly substituted nanosized material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadiq, Imran; Naseem, Shahzad; Rana, M. U.; Ashiq, Muhammad Naeem; Ali, Irshad

    2015-07-01

    The sol gel method has been adopted to synthesize a series of X-type hexagonal ferrites with concentration Sr2-x Gdx Ni2 Fe28-yCdyO46 (x=0.00, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08, 0.10 and y=0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5). The XRD analysis reveals the single phase of the prepared material and the lattice constants a (Å) and c (Å) varies with additives. The crystallite size of the present investigated ferrite is found in the range of 20-30 nm measured from TEM image. The enhancement in the magnetic properties (saturation magnetization, remanance magnetization and coercivity) can be observed with the increase of dopping concentration and the coercivity lies in the range of (484.22-887.47) G. The saturation and remanance magnetization decreases monotonically with the temperature which is the characteristic of the hexagonal ferrites. The Gd-Cd substituted sample possesses low values of complex relative permittivity and permeability than the pure samples. The material exhibits maximum microwave absorption -23 dB at 11.87 GHz and attenuation peak is in good agreement with the reflection loss value. The microwave absorption properties reflect the applications of this material in super high frequency devices (SHF).

  6. Preparations, structures and properties of heterobimetallic complexes based on tetrahydrofuran-2,3,4,5-tetracarboxylate

    SciTech Connect

    Jia, Tian-Jing; Li, Shu-Mu; Cao, Wei; Li, Li-Cun; Zheng, Xiang-Jun; Yuan, Da-Qiang

    2013-05-01

    Transition heterobimetallic metal-organic frameworks based on tetrahydrofuran-2,3,4,5-tetracarboxylicate (FTA), namely [M(H?O)?][Cu?M(FTA)?(H?O)?]·4H?O [M=Mn (1), Co (2)], and [CuZn(FTA)(H?O)?]·H?O (3) have been synthesized and characterized. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction indicates that complexes 1 and 2 are isomorphic. In 1 and 2, FTA ligand links the metal ions to a 2-D wave-like negative-charged layer with a topology of (4;6²)?(4;6³;8²)?(6). They possess 1-D channels with [M(H?O)?]²? and lattice water molecules enclathrated. While in the complex 3, Cu²? and Zn²? ions are bridged by FTA to a 2-D neutral layer structure with a (8)?(8?;12²) topology. Magnetic properties of 1–3 were analyzed in connection with their structures, which show that there exist weak antiferromagnetic interactions between metal ions. - Graphical abstract: Three heterobimetallic MOFs were constructed through the size-selectivity of TFA coordination sites for different transition metal ions based on the concept of “Hard and Soft Acids and Bases”. Highlights: • Complexes 1 and 3 contain 2-D wave-like negative-charged layers. • Complex 2 is a 2-D neutral layer structure with a (8)?(8?;12²) topology. • Complexes 1–3 are the first example of heterobimetallic MOFs based on FTA. • The coordination sites of FTA show size-selectivity to metal ions.

  7. Magnetic properties of nanocrystalline Fe0.5Ni0.5 permalloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De, D.; Majumdar, S.; Giri, S.

    2012-06-01

    We investigate magnetic properties of nanocrystalline Fe0.5Ni0.5 alloy embedded in the amorphous SiO2 host with volume fractions ? ? 10%. The static and dynamic aspects of the magnetic properties are investigated by investigating thermal and time dependence of low-field dc magnetization. Signature of strong interparticle interaction is noted in the magnetization results. The relaxation process at low temperature is fitted with stretched exponential function, displaying coexistence of ferromagnetic and glassy magnetic components.

  8. Nanofabrication and ion milling introduced effects on magnetic properties in magnetic recording

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhenzhong

    Perpendicular magnetic nanostructures have played an important role in magnetic recording technologies. In this dissertation, a systematic study on the CoPt magnetic nanostructures from fabrication, characterization to computer simulation has been performed. During the fabrication process, ion irradiation/bombardment in ion mill can cause physical damage to the magnetic nanostructures and degrade their magnetic properties. To study the effect of ion damage on CoPt nanostructures, different degrees of ion damage are introduced into CoPt nanopillars by varying the accelerating voltage in ion mill. The results demonstrate that the ion damage can reduce the coercivity by softening circumferential edge, and therefore changes the switching mechanism from coherent rotation to nucleation followed by rapid domain wall propagation. The SFD of CoPt nanostructures is independent of ion damage and is mainly determined by the intrinsic anisotropy distribution of the film rather than the nanostructure size distribution. Anisotropy-graded bit-patterned media are fabricated and studied based on high anisotropy L10-FePt material system. L10-FePt thin films with linearly and quadratically distributed anisotropy are achieved by varying substrate temperature during film growth. After patterning, the anisotropy-graded L10-FePt nanopillars display a reduced switching field and maintain a good thermal stability compared to the non-graded one. Experimental investigation and comparison further prove the concept of "anisotropy-graded" bit-patterned media and their potential application in the future magnetic recording. During magnetic write head fabrication, ion-beam damage may degrade the performance of the magnetic write pole. A surface sensitive MOKE is used to characterize the magnetic properties of these etched FeCo films. MOKE measurement shows a hard axis hysteresis loop with a high Mr in the high power etched film due to the ion beam introduced defects. The high power etched film also shows the highest RMS by AFM measurement. The geometric peaks at the top surface may have shape anisotropy and serve as the pinning sites. These magnetic pinning sites can prevent the nucleation center forming at the top surface during the switching process and lead to a high Mr in the top surface region.

  9. Electron carrier concentration dependent magnetization and transport properties in ZnO:Co diluted magnetic semiconductor thin films

    E-print Network

    Yang, Zheng

    Electron carrier concentration dependent magnetization and transport properties in ZnO:Co diluted for ferromagnetic exchange in ZnO:Co diluted magnetic semiconductor materials. © 2008 American Institute of Physics hinders their applications in commercial prod- ucts. In recent years, magnetically doped ZnO has emerged

  10. Structure and transport properties of a porous magnetic gel via x-ray microtomography

    SciTech Connect

    Rintoul, M.D.; Torquato, S.; Yeong, C.; Keane, D.T.; Erramilli, S.; Jun, Y.N.; Dabbs, D.M.; Aksay, I.A.

    1996-09-01

    A three-dimensional digitized image of a porous magnetic gel is determined by x-ray microtomographic techniques. The complex connected pore-space topology is quantitatively characterized by measuring a variety of statistical correlation functions, including the chord-length distribution function, the pore-size distribution function, and the lineal-path function. This structural information is then employed to estimate transport properties, such as the fluid permeability and trapping rate, of the gel. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  11. Magnetism mediated by a majority of [Fe³??+?VO²?] complexes in Fe-doped CeO? nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Paidi, V K; Ferreira, N S; Goltz, D; van Lierop, J

    2015-08-26

    We examine the role of Fe(3+) and vacancies (V(O)) on the magnetism of Fe-doped CeO2 nanoparticles. Magnetic nanoparticles of Ce(100-x)Fe(x)O2 (x??=??0, 0.26, 1.82, 2.64, 5.26, 6.91, and 7.22) were prepared by a co-precipitation method, and their structural, compositional and magnetic properties were investigated. The CeO2 nanoparticles had a mixed valance of Ce(4+) and Ce(3+) ions, and doping introduced Fe(3+) ions. The decrease in Ce(3+) and increase in Fe(3+) concentrations indicated the presence of more [Fe(3+)?+ V(O)(2-)] complexes with Fe loading in the particles. Charge neutralization, Fe(3+) + V(O)(2-) + 2Ce(4+) ? 2Ce(3+) + Fe(3+), identified the impact of V(O) on the magnetism, where our results suggest that the Fe-doped CeO2 nanoparticle magnetism is mediated by a majority of [Fe(3+)?+ V(O)(2-)]-Ce(3+)?-[Fe(3+)?+ V(O)(2-)] complexes. PMID:26235592

  12. Analysis of the Magnetic Field Influence on the Rheological Properties of Healthy Persons Blood

    PubMed Central

    Nawrocka-Bogusz, Honorata

    2013-01-01

    The influence of magnetic field on whole blood rheological properties remains a weakly known phenomenon. An in vitro analysis of the magnetic field influence on the rheological properties of healthy persons blood is presented in this work. The study was performed on blood samples taken from 25 healthy nonsmoking persons and included comparative analysis of the results of both the standard rotary method (flow curve measurement) and the oscillatory method known also as the mechanical dynamic analysis, performed before and after exposition of blood samples to magnetic field. The principle of the oscillatory technique lies in determining the amplitude and phase of the oscillations of the studied sample subjected to action of a harmonic force of controlled amplitude and frequency. The flow curve measurement involved determining the shear rate dependence of blood viscosity. The viscoelastic properties of the blood samples were analyzed in terms of complex blood viscosity. All the measurements have been performed by means of the Contraves LS40 rheometer. The data obtained from the flow curve measurements complemented by hematocrit and plasma viscosity measurements have been analyzed using the rheological model of Quemada. No significant changes of the studied rheological parameters have been found. PMID:24078918

  13. Growth process and magnetic properties of ?-FeSe nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Li, S. J.; Li, D. Jiang, J. J.; Liu, G. B.; Ma, S.; Liu, W.; Zhang, Z. D.

    2014-05-07

    Growth process and magnetic properties of PbO-type ?-Fe{sub x}Se nanostructures with shape changing from nanocacti to nanopetals and then to nanosheets are investigated. With iron acetylacetonate [Fe(acac){sub 3}] and Se powder as raw materials, the diffusion process of Fe atoms dominates the synthesis of ?-Fe{sub x}Se nanocacti following phase transitions from FeSe{sub 2} to Fe{sub 3}Se{sub 4} and finally to ?-Fe{sub x}Se. When a mixed solution containing Se precursor and Fe(acac){sub 3} was used as the raw material, the formation of FeSe{sub 2} and Fe{sub 3}Se{sub 4} can be avoided and, bended ?-Fe{sub x}Se nanopetals can be prepared at 345?°C, which became flat nanosheets with a [001] preferred orientation as extending the reaction time from 1 to 4 h. No superconducting transition occurs in the ?-Fe{sub x}Se (0.84???x???1.05) nanostructures due to composition heterogeneity or size effect. Magnetic measurements indicate that an antiferromagnetic component with a Néel point at about 45 K dominates the magnetic properties of the ?-Fe{sub 0.87}Se nanosheets.

  14. Size-dependent magnetic properties of iron oxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patsula, Vitalii; Moskvin, Maksym; Dutz, Silvio; Horák, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Uniform iron oxide nanoparticles in the size range from 10 to 24 nm and polydisperse 14 nm iron oxide particles were prepared by thermal decomposition of Fe(III) carboxylates in the presence of oleic acid and co-precipitation of Fe(II) and Fe(III) chlorides by ammonium hydroxide followed by oxidation, respectively. While the first method produced hydrophobic oleic acid coated particles, the second one formed hydrophilic, but uncoated, nanoparticles. To make the iron oxide particles water dispersible and colloidally stable, their surface was modified with poly(ethylene glycol) and sucrose, respectively. Size and size distribution of the nanoparticles was determined by transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering and X-ray diffraction. Surface of the PEG-functionalized and sucrose-modified iron oxide particles was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and Raman spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Magnetic properties were measured by means of vibration sample magnetometry and specific absorption rate in alternating magnetic fields was determined calorimetrically. It was found, that larger ferrimagnetic particles showed higher heating performance than smaller superparamagnetic ones. In the transition range between superparamagnetism and ferrimagnetism, samples with a broader size distribution provided higher heating power than narrow size distributed particles of comparable mean size. Here presented particles showed promising properties for a possible application in magnetic hyperthermia.

  15. Two-dimensional magnetic property measurement for magneto-rheological elastomer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Jianbin; Guo, Youguang; Li, Yancheng; Zhu, Jianguo; Li, Jianchun

    2013-05-01

    Magneto-rheological elastomer (MRE) is a new kind of smart material. Its rheological properties can be altered and controlled in a real time manner when it is applied an external magnetic field. For calculating magnetic properties of MRE material, usually Maxwell-Garnet equation is used to acquire an approximately effective permeability. This equation treats the magnetic property of particles as linear. However, when the applied magnetic field is alternating or rotating, the nonlinearity of magnetic property and magnetic hysteresis cannot be neglected. Hence, the measurement and modelling of the magnetic properties under alternating and rotating magnetic fields are essential to explore new applications of the material. This paper presents the investigation on the magnetic hysteresis properties of MRE material under one-dimensional (1-D) alternating and two-dimensional (2-D) rotating magnetic field excitations. A kind of MRE material, consisting of 70% carbonyl iron particles, 10% silicone oil, and 20% silicone rubber, was used to investigate the magnetic properties. The diameter of carbonyl iron particles is 3-5 ?m. The measurement results, such as the relations between magnetic field intensity (H) and magnetic flux density (B) under different magnetic field excitations on the MRE sample, have been obtained and analyzed. These data would be useful for design and analysis of MRE smart structures like MR dampers.

  16. Magnetic properties of HITPERM ,,Fe,Co...88Zr7B4Cu1 magnets M. A. Willard,a)

    E-print Network

    Laughlin, David E.

    power applications requires new bulk soft magnetic materials that 1 are capable of operating at higher. Laughlin, and M. E. McHenry Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University inductions and excellent soft magnetic properties at elevated temperatures. Thermomagnetic properties

  17. Properties of magnetic field fluctuations in boundary regions of the Earth's magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozak, Liudmyla; Savin, Sergey; Lui, Anthony Tat Yin; Igor, Gala

    Statistical properties of magnetic field fluctuations in boundary regions of the Earth’s magnetosphere at different timescales were considered. Data with high resolution (22,5 Hz) obtained by Cluster mission from 2004 to 2010 were used. As a characteristic of the fluctuations on various time scales, changes in the shape and parameters of the probability density function and wave analysis were studied. In order for investigations of features of the probability density functions of magnetic field fluctuations we analyzed the statistical properties of the absolute value of magnetic field variations in the different regions of near earth space. Amplitude of fluctuations in the magnetosheath just after crossing bow shock exceeds in a few time amplitude of fluctuations for non-perturbed solar wind or the foreshock. The analysis of the height of maximum of the probability density functions and of the kurtosis values have shown the presence of different asymptotic modes which are characterized by different power laws. The use of the technique of probability density function for magnetic fluctuations has shown that at high frequencies the structure of turbulence differs from that in the low-frequency region. The critical scale corresponds to the scales of the Larmor radius of ions. The research of the statistical properties of boundary layers allows to determine the role of turbulent processes in the interaction of plasma flows with the magnetic obstacles, whether these are fields of planets, stars, or laboratory traps, and to reveal the actual mechanisms of the energy transformation in collisionless plasma. The work is done in the frame of complex program of NAS of Ukraine on space researches for 2012-1016, within the framework of the educational program No.2201250 “Education, Training of students, PhD students, scientific and pedagogical staff abroad” launched by the Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine and under a partial support of the grant No. F 53.2/039.

  18. Magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of bulk dysprosium chromite

    SciTech Connect

    McDannald, A.; Institute of Material Science, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269 ; Kuna, L.; Jain, M.; Department of Physics, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269

    2013-09-21

    In this work, a polycrystalline bulk DyCrO{sub 3} sample was prepared by a solution route and the structural and magnetic properties were investigated. The phase purity and ionic valence state of the DyCrO{sub 3} sample were determined by x-ray diffraction/Raman spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. The AC and DC magnetization measurements revealed the onset of antiferromagnetic order at 146 K with an effective moment of 8.88 ?{sub B}. Isothermal magnetization measurements of this material are presented for the first time, showing a peak in the coercive field at 80 K that is explained by the competition between the paramagnetic Dy{sup 3+} and Cr{sup 3+} sublattices. DyCrO{sub 3} was found to display a large magnetocaloric effect (8.4 J/kg K) and relative cooling power (217 J/kg) at 4 T applied field, which renders DyCrO{sub 3} useful for magnetic refrigeration between 5 K and 30 K.

  19. Structural And Magnetic Properties Of Ni-Zn Ferrite Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahane, G. S.; Kumar, Ashok; Pant, R. P.; Lal, Krishan

    2010-10-01

    Nickel zinc ferrite nanoparticles of the composition NixZn1-xFe2O4 (x = 0.1, 0.3, 0.5) have been synthesized by the chemical co-precipitation method. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, TEM, EPR, DC magnetization and AC susceptibility measurements. The X-ray diffraction patterns confirm the synthesis of single crystalline phase of NixZn1-xFe2O4 (x = 0.1, 0.3, 0.5) nanoparticles. Lattice parameter decreases with the increase in nickel content. The magnetic measurements shows superparamagnetic nature of the samples for x = 0.1 and 0.3 whereas for x = 0.5 the material shows ferromagnetic nature. The saturation magnetization is low and increases with increase in nickel content. The superparamagnetic nature of the samples is supported by the EPR and ac susceptibility measurement studies. The blocking temperature increases with the nickel concentration. The changes in the magnetic properties have been explained by the redistribution of the cations on A and B sites.

  20. Nano-structured magnetic metamaterial with enhanced nonlinear properties

    PubMed Central

    Kobljanskyj, Yuri; Melkov, Gennady; Guslienko, Konstantin; Novosad, Valentyn; Bader, Samuel D.; Kostylev, Michael; Slavin, Andrei

    2012-01-01

    Nano-structuring can significantly modify the properties of materials. We demonstrate that size-dependent modification of the spin-wave spectra in magnetic nano-particles can affect not only linear, but also nonlinear magnetic response. The discretization of the spectrum removes the frequency degeneracy between the main excitation mode of a nano-particle and the higher spin-wave modes, having the lowest magnetic damping, and reduces the strength of multi-magnon relaxation processes. This reduction of magnon-magnon relaxation for the main excitation mode leads to a dramatic increase of its lifetime and amplitude, resulting in the intensification of all the nonlinear processes involving this mode. We demonstrate this experimentally on a two-dimensional array of permalloy nano-dots for the example of parametric generation of a sub-harmonic of an external microwave signal. The characteristic lifetime of this sub-harmonic is increased by two orders of magnitude compared to the case of a continuous magnetic film, where magnon-magnon relaxation limits the lifetime. PMID:22745899

  1. Magnetic properties of graphite irradiated with MeV ions

    SciTech Connect

    Ramos, M. A.; Munoz-Martin, A.; Climent-Font, A.; Barzola-Quiquia, J.; Esquinazi, P.; Garcia-Hernandez, M.

    2010-06-01

    We have studied the change in the magnetic properties produced on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite samples by irradiation of H, C, and N ions in the mega-electron-volt energy range. The use of specially made sample holders for the magnetic measurements provided high reproducibility allowing us to obtain directly the irradiation effects without any corrections or subtractions. Our results show that three magnetic phenomena are triggered by the defects produced by the irradiation, namely, Curie-type paramagnetism, ferromagnetism and an anomalous paramagnetic state that appears as precursor of the magnetic ordered state. Using SRIM simulations to estimate the amount of vacancies produced by the irradiation, the Curie-type paramagnetic response indicates an effective Bohr magneton number per nominally produced vacancy p=0.27+-0.02mu{sub B}. Direct measurements of the surface sample temperature during irradiation and the decrease in the (as-received) paramagnetic as well as ferromagnetic contributions after irradiation indicate that self-heating is one of the causes for small yield of ferromagnetism. Taking into account the hydrogen distribution in the virgin samples, the obtained results indicate that the induced ferromagnetism appears when the average vacancy distance is {approx}2 nm in the near surface region.

  2. Relationship Between Solar Wind Speed and Coronal Magnetic Field Properties

    E-print Network

    Fujiki, Ken'ichi; Iju, Tomoya; Hakamada, Kazuyuki; Kojima, Masayoshi

    2015-01-01

    We have studied the relationship between the solar-wind speed $[V]$ and the coronal magnetic-field properties (a flux expansion factor [$f$] and photospheric magnetic-field strength [$B_{\\mathrm{S}}$]) at all latitudes using data of interplanetary scintillation and solar magnetic field obtained for 24 years from 1986 to 2009. Using a cross-correlation analyses, we verified that $V$ is inversely proportional to $f$ and found that $V$ tends to increase with $B_{\\mathrm{S}}$ if $f$ is the same. As a consequence, we find that $V$ has extremely good linear correlation with $B_{\\mathrm{S}}/f$. However, this linear relation of $V$ and $B_{\\mathrm{S}}/f$ cannot be used for predicting the solar-wind velocity without information on the solar-wind mass flux. We discuss why the inverse relation between $V$ and $f$ has been successfully used for solar-wind velocity prediction, even though it does not explicitly include the mass flux and magnetic-field strength, which are important physical parameters for solar-wind accele...

  3. Molecular spintronics based on single-molecule magnets composed of multiple-decker phthalocyaninato terbium(III) complex.

    PubMed

    Katoh, Keiichi; Isshiki, Hironari; Komeda, Tadahiro; Yamashita, Masahiro

    2012-06-01

    Unlike electronics, which is based on the freedom of the charge of an electron whose memory is volatile, spintronics is based on the freedom of the charge, spin, and orbital of an electron whose memory is non-volatile. Although in most GMR, TMR, and CMR systems, bulk or classical magnets that are composed of transition metals are used, this Focus Review considers the growing use of single-molecule magnets (SMMs) that are composed of multinuclear metal complexes and nanosized magnets, which exhibit slow magnetic-relaxation processes and quantum tunneling. Molecular spintronics, which combines spintronics and molecular electronics, is an emerging field of research. Using molecules is advantageous because their electronic and magnetic properties can be manipulated under specific conditions. Herein, recent developments in [LnPc]-based multiple-decker SMMs on surfaces for molecular spintronic devices are presented. First, we discuss the strategies for preparing single-molecular-memory devices by using SMMs. Next, we focus on the switching of the Kondo signal of [LnPc]-based multiple-decker SMMs that are adsorbed onto surfaces, their characterization by using STM and STS, and the relationship between the molecular structure, the electronic structure, and the Kondo resonance of [TbPc(2)]. Finally, the field-effect-transistor (FET) properties of surface-adsorbed [LnPc(2)] and [Ln(2)Pc(3)] cast films are reported, which is the first step towards controlling SMMs through their spins for applications in single-molecular memory and spintronics devices. PMID:22514153

  4. Jovian magnetic fields is complex, Pioneer 11 shows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panagakos, N.; Waller, P.

    1975-01-01

    An analysis of the magnetic field of the planet Jupiter is presented. The data are based on the information returned by Pioneer 11 space probe. It was determined that the magnetic field stretches across 9 million miles of space at some times and shrinks in volume by three-fourths or more at other times. It was also determined that electrons trapped in the magnetic field of Jupiter are 10,000 times more intense than those in the Van Allen radiation belts which circle the earth. Additional data were obtained on the polar regions, atmospheric circulation, and the nature of the moons.

  5. Investigating the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility and other rock magnetic properties of the Beaver River Diabase in northeastern Minnesota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hariri, Samer H.

    The Beaver River Diabase (BRD) is a series of mafic dikes and sills within the Beaver Bay Complex (BBC) of northern Minnesota, which formed during the development of the ~1.1 Ga Midcontinent Rift (MCR). The BRD is one of the youngest and most extensive intrusive phases of the BBC. The BRD dikes and sills were emplaced into the medial levels of the 6-10 kilometer-thick North Shore Volcanic Group and occur over an arcuate area extending 120 by 20 kilometers. The BRD is composed of fine- to medium-grained ophitic olivine gabbro and does not display obvious foliation or lineation features and rarely displays modal layering. Without obvious magmatic internal structures, it is difficult to determine emplacement properties such as flow direction using standard geologic mapping or petrographic techniques. For this reason, we measured the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS), in conjunction with other rock magnetic properties, to better understand the BRD's emplacement and deformation history in the context of the MCR. AMS measures the directional dependence of low-field magnetic susceptibility, and is used to infer a shape-preferred orientation of magnetic minerals within a rock, which can be related to specific emplacement mechanisms (e.g. directional flow or settling). Preliminary analysis of AMS at 20 sites within the southern half of the BRD (with 4-7 samples per site) shows maximum susceptibility values between 4.48 x 10-6 and 2.22 x 10-4 m 3/kg (1165 and 65400 ?SI). Most specimens display nearly isotropic AMS ellipsoids (Pj < 1.15) with minor degrees of prolateness and oblateness. However, about 20% of specimens have higher anisotropies (Pj between 1.15 and 1.67) and higher degrees of oblateness and prolateness. Variations in AMS properties may reflect differences in concentration and composition of magnetic minerals, as well as emplacement mechanisms. Measurements of susceptibility as a function of temperature yield Curie points between 470 and 570 °C, indicating the presence of low-titanium titanomagnetite. Major hysteresis loops show coercivities between 1 and 25 mT, consistent with titanomagnetite as the dominant remanence carrier.

  6. Magnetic Investigations in the J-M Reef Section of the Stillwater Complex, Montana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wnukowski, J. D.; Ferre, E. C.; Butak, K. C.

    2014-12-01

    The Stillwater J-M reef, the only economic platinum deposit in the USA, consists of a 0.5 to 4 m-thick stratiform zone of platinum group element (PGE)-rich sulfides in a layered mafic intrusion. The origin of this reef, purely magmatic or related to late-stage magmatic fluids, remains ambiguous. I propose to test these two genetic hypotheses using rock magnetism. Fractional crystallization trends deduced from petrological models would produce a sharp increase in magnetite and pyrrhotite content near the solidus. In contrast, percolation of sulfur-rich fluids through a crystal mush would produce a gradual increase in magnetite and pyrrhotite up to a fluid permeability barrier. Continuous logging of the magnetic properties of drillcores, combined with petrographic observations, will allow to test these two models. Petrologic similarities between PGE reefs suggest that they share common physico-chemical origins, therefore, understanding the J-M reef genesis would have implications for other deposits such as the Bushveld Complex and the Great Dyke of Zimbabwe. The J-M reef formation has been explained by two alternative models: 1) magmatic model - magma replenishment causes thermal convection at the interface between two magmas, inducing PGE leaching by a sulfur-saturated magma, followed by precipitation of sulfide droplets; 2) fluid fluxing model - a sulfur-rich residual, late magmatic fluid migrates upward through the crystal mush leading to PGE concentration along a magmatic permeability barrier against the hanging wall. Both models account for the majority of geochemical and petrological observations and may not be fundamentally mutually exclusive. However, understanding the origin of PGE reefs would certainly benefit from new approaches. Preliminary data shows systematic inch-scale cycling variations of magnetic susceptibility (Km) in the hanging-wall that supports the magmatic model. The discovery of this magnetic cyclicity matters because this core does not display any macroscopically visible layering. Magnetic measurements (thermomagnetic experiments, magnetic hysteresis and first order reversal curves), in conjunction with detailed petrographic observations on selected specimens, will be performed to evaluate the significance of this cyclic feature.

  7. Role of magnetic anisotropy on the magnetic properties of Ni nanoclusters embedded in a ZnO matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunes, W. C.; Borges, R. P.; Cruz, M. M.; da Silva, R. C.; Wahl, U.; Cuchillo, A.; Vargas, P.; Magen, C.; Godinho, M.

    2014-07-01

    We have investigated the magnetic properties of Ni nanoaggregates produced by ion implantation in ZnO single crystals. Several deviations from classical models usually adopted to describe the magnetic properties of nanoparticle systems were found. The strain between host and Ni nanoaggregates induces a magnetic anisotropy with a preferred direction. We show that these anisotropy effects can be misinterpreted as a ferromagnetic or antiferromagnetic coupling among the nanoaggregates similar to that of an oriented, interacting nanocrystal ensemble.

  8. Crystal Structures, Magnetic Properties, and Electrochemical Properties of Coordination Polymers Based on the Tetra(4-pyridyl)-tetrathiafulvalene Ligand.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hai-Ying; Wu, Yue; Leong, Chanel F; D'Alessandro, Deanna M; Zuo, Jing-Lin

    2015-11-16

    Seven new coordination polymers based on the redox-active tetra(4-pyridyl)-tetrathiafulvalene ligand (TTF(py)4) and different transition-metal ions, namely, {[Cu(hfac)2][TTF(py)4]·2(CH2Cl2)}n (1), {[Co(acac)2][TTF(py)4]0.5·(CHCl3)}n (2), {[Mn(hfac)2][TTF(py)4]0.5}n (3), {[Cu2(OAc)4][TTF(py)4]0.5·1.5(CHCl3)·0.5(H2O)·(CH3CN)}n (4), {[Mn(SCN)2][TTF(py)4]·6(CH2Cl2)}n (5), {[Mn(SeCN)Cl][TTF(py)4]}n (6), and {Cu2[TTF(py)4]2·(ClO4)2·2.5(CH2Cl2)·1.5(CH3CN)}n (7), were synthesized and characterized. The tetrapyridyl ligand coordinates to metal ions in a bidentate or tetradentate fashion, forming complexes 1-7 with different structures. Complex 1 exhibits a one-dimensional chain structure. Complexes 2, 3, and 4 possess similar (4,2)-connected binodal two-dimensional networks, while complexes 5 and 6 have similar (4,4)-connected binodal two-dimensional networks with two different rings. Complex 7 shows a 2-fold interpenetrated (4,4)-connected binodal PtS-type three-dimensional framework. Meanwhile, these complexes feature diverse nonclassical hydrogen bonding interactions. In addition, magnetic and solid-state electrochemical properties for typical complexes have been studied. PMID:26512844

  9. Fractal variability: An emergent property of complex dissipative systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seely, Andrew J. E.; Macklem, Peter

    2012-03-01

    The patterns of variation of physiologic parameters, such as heart and respiratory rate, and their alteration with age and illness have long been under investigation; however, the origin and significance of scale-invariant fractal temporal structures that characterize healthy biologic variability remain unknown. Quite independently, atmospheric and planetary scientists have led breakthroughs in the science of non-equilibrium thermodynamics. In this paper, we aim to provide two novel hypotheses regarding the origin and etiology of both the degree of variability and its fractal properties. In a complex dissipative system, we hypothesize that the degree of variability reflects the adaptability of the system and is proportional to maximum work output possible divided by resting work output. Reductions in maximal work output (and oxygen consumption) or elevation in resting work output (or oxygen consumption) will thus reduce overall degree of variability. Second, we hypothesize that the fractal nature of variability is a self-organizing emergent property of complex dissipative systems, precisely because it enables the system's ability to optimally dissipate energy gradients and maximize entropy production. In physiologic terms, fractal patterns in space (e.g., fractal vasculature) or time (e.g., cardiopulmonary variability) optimize the ability to deliver oxygen and clear carbon dioxide and waste. Examples of falsifiability are discussed, along with the need to further define necessary boundary conditions. Last, as our focus is bedside utility, potential clinical applications of this understanding are briefly discussed. The hypotheses are clinically relevant and have potential widespread scientific relevance.

  10. Unequivocal synthetic pathway to heterodinuclear (4f,4f') complexes: magnetic study of relevant (Ln(III), Gd(III)) and (Gd(III), Ln(III)) complexes.

    PubMed

    Costes, Jean-Pierre; Nicodème, Franck

    2002-08-01

    The tripodal ligand tris[4-(2-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-3-aza-3-buten]amine (LH(3)) is capable of coordinating to two different lanthanide ions to give complexes formulated as [LLnLn'(NO(3))(3)].x H(2)O. The stepwise synthetic procedure consists of introducing first a Ln(III) ion in the inner N(4)O(3) coordination site. The isolated neutral complex LLn is then allowed to react with a second and different Ln' ion that occupies the outer O(6) site, thus yielding a [LLnLn'(NO(3))(3)].x H(2)O complex. A FAB(+) study has confirmed the existence of (Ln, Ln') entities as genuine, when the Ln' ion in the outer site has a larger ionic radius than the Ln ion in the inner site. The qualitative magnetic study of the (Gd, Ln) and (Ln, Gd) complexes, based on the comparison of the magnetic properties of (Gd, Ln) (or (Ln, Gd)) pairs and (Y, Ln) (or (Ln, La)) pairs, is very informative. Indeed, these former complexes are governed by the thermal population of the Ln(III) Stark levels and the Ln-Gd interaction, while the latter are influenced by the thermal population of the Ln(III) Stark levels. We have been able to show that a ferromagnetic interaction exists at low temperature in the (Gd, Nd), (Gd, Ce), and (Yb, Gd) complexes. In contrast, an antiferromagnetic interaction occurs in the (Dy, Gd) and (Er, Gd) complexes. Although we cannot give a quantitative value to these interactions, we can affirm that their magnitudes are weak since they are only perceptible at very low temperature. PMID:12203324

  11. Electrical and magnetic properties of ion-exchangeable layered ruthenates

    SciTech Connect

    Sugimoto, Wataru . E-mail: wsugi@shinshu-u.ac.jp; Omoto, Masashi; Yokoshima, Katsunori; Murakami, Yasushi; Takasu, Yoshio

    2004-12-01

    An ion-exchangeable ruthenate with a layered structure, K{sub 0.2}RuO{sub 2.1}, was prepared by solid-state reactions. The interlayer cation was exchanged with H{sup +}, C{sub 2}H{sub 5}NH{sub 3}{sup +}, and ((C{sub 4}H{sub 9}){sub 4}N{sup +}) through proton-exchange, ion-exchange, and guest-exchange reactions. The electrical and magnetic properties of the products were characterized by DC resistivity and susceptibility measurements. Layered K{sub 0.2}RuO{sub 2.1} exhibited metallic conduction between 300 and 13K. The products exhibited similar magnetic behavior despite the differences in the type of interlayer cation, suggesting that the ruthenate sheet in the protonated form and the intercalation compounds possesses metallic nature.

  12. A new dimension to sediment magnetism: Charting the spatial variability of magnetic properties across lake basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lascu, Ioan; Plank, Colin

    2013-11-01

    We have investigated the variability of the magnetic properties of surface sediments across eight Minnesota lake basins. The measured magnetic properties are controlled by the competing fluxes of allochthonous and autochthonous magnetic particles, and differ according to location in the basin. Shoreline sediments are dominated by detrital magnetic particles, whereas littoral and profundal sediments are characterized by a combination of bacterial magnetosomes and detrital particles. The position of the oxic-anoxic interface, which may occur in the water or within the sediment column, controls the depth at which living magnetotactic bacteria occur, and determines the degree of preservation of their magnetosome chains in the surface sediment. The preservation potential of undisturbed chains is higher for bacterial magnetite formed at the top of the sediment column in the littoral area than for magnetosomes originating in the water column in the profundal area. Bacterial magnetite in the profundal facies will contain a higher proportion of chains collapsed during settlement through the water column to the lake bottom. This process increases the fraction of interacting magnetosomes, which in turn artificially lowers the ARM ratio (?ARM/IRM), which ceases to be a reliable grain size indicator in the profundal environment. Our results indicate that a holistic approach to interpreting limnologically-derived paleoecological data should be employed. Specifically, a thorough understanding of evolving and interrelated factors such as basin morphology and limnologic conditions is crucial for a more confident interpretation of the sedimentary record in terms of environmental conditions at the time of sediment deposition.

  13. Metal-organic coordination architectures of tetrazole heterocycle ligands bearing acetate groups: Synthesis, characterization and magnetic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Bo-Wen; Zheng, Xiang-Yu; Ding, Cheng

    2015-12-01

    Two new coordination complexes with tetrazole heterocycle ligands bearing acetate groups, [Co(L)2]n (1) and [Co3(L)4(N3)2·2MeOH]n (2) (L=tetrazole-1-acetate) have been synthesized and structurally characterized. Single crystal structure analysis shows that the cobalt-complex 1 has the 3D 3,6-connected (42.6)2(44.62.88.10)-ant topology. By introducing azide in this system, complex 2 forms the 2D network containing the [Co3] units. And the magnetic properties of 1 and 2 have been studied.

  14. Self-consistent magnetic properties of magnetite tracers optimized for magnetic particle imaging measured by ac susceptometry, magnetorelaxometry and magnetic particle spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Ludwig, Frank; Remmer, Hilke; Kuhlmann, Christian; Wawrzik, Thilo; Arami, Hamed; Ferguson, R. Mathew; Krishnan, Kannan M.

    2015-01-01

    Sensitivity and spatial resolution in Magnetic Particle Imaging are affected by magnetic properties of the nanoparticle tracers used during imaging. Here, we have carried out a comprehensive magnetic characterization of single-core iron oxide nanoparticles that were designed for MPI. We used ac susceptometry, fluxgate magnetorelaxometry, and magnetic particle spectroscopy to evaluate the tracer’s magnetic core size, hydrodynamic size, and magnetic anisotropy. Our results present a self-consistent set of magnetic and structural parameters for the tracers that is consistent with direct measurements of size using transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering and that can be used to better understand their MPI performance. PMID:25729125

  15. Towards polymetallic lanthanide complexes as dual contrast agents for magnetic resonance and optical imaging.

    PubMed

    Debroye, Elke; Parac-Vogt, Tatjana N

    2014-12-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a popular imaging technique in medical diagnostics. With the development of contrast agents, interest in its applications has grown tremendously. Significant effort has been made in order to identify the most important parameters that enhance the relaxation efficiency of MRI probes. Taking into account the requirements for an optimal magnetic performance, different contrast agents have been synthesized and studied. Moreover, novel bimodal probes have been developed in order to exploit the high sensitivity and resolution of optical microscopy with the ability of MRI to image opaque samples. Employing this strategy enables the simultaneous visualization of the same biological structures at different resolutions and depths. Throughout this review, different approaches used to improve relaxivity, especially by increasing the molecular volume and hence the rotational tumbling time of the agent, are highlighted. Several ways to obtain bimodal contrast agents are discussed in detail. Finally, lanthanide complexes incorporating an aromatic unit permitting efficient sensitization of lanthanide luminescence in combination with the relaxometric properties of gadolinium analogues are listed. PMID:25211043

  16. Structures and magnetic properties of Co-Zr-B magnets studied by first-principles calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xin; Ke, Liqin; Nguyen, Manh Cuong; Wang, Cai-Zhuang; Ho, Kai-Ming

    2015-06-01

    The structures and magnetic properties of Co-Zr-B alloys near the composition of Co5Zr with B at. % ?6% were studied using adaptive genetic algorithm and first-principles calculations. The energy and magnetic moment contour maps as a function of chemical composition were constructed for the Co-Zr-B magnet alloys through extensive structure searches and calculations. We found that Co-Zr-B system exhibits the same structure motif as the "Co11Zr2" polymorphs, and such motif plays a key role in achieving strong magnetic anisotropy. Boron atoms were found to be able to substitute cobalt atoms or occupy the "interruption" sites. First-principles calculations showed that the magnetocrystalline anisotropy energies of the boron-doped alloys are close to that of the high-temperature rhombohedral Co5Zr phase and larger than that of the low-temperature Co5.25Zr phase. Our calculations provide useful guidelines for further experimental optimization of the magnetic performances of these alloys.

  17. Structures and magnetic properties of Co-Zr-B magnets studied by first-principles calculations

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zhao, Xin; Ke, Liqin; Nguyen, Manh Cuong; Wang, Cai -Zhuang; Ho, Kai -Ming

    2015-06-23

    The structures and magnetic properties of Co-Zr-B alloys near the composition of Co5Zr with B at. % ?6% were studied using adaptive genetic algorithm and first-principles calculations. The energy and magnetic moment contour maps as a function of chemical composition were constructed for the Co-Zr-B magnet alloys through extensive structure searches and calculations. We found that Co-Zr-B system exhibits the same structure motif as the “Co11Zr2”polymorphs, and such motif plays a key role in achieving strong magnetic anisotropy. Boronatoms were found to be able to substitute cobalt atoms or occupy the “interruption” sites. First-principles calculations showed that the magnetocrystalline anisotropymore »energies of the boron-doped alloys are close to that of the high-temperature rhombohedral Co5Zr phase and larger than that of the low-temperature Co5.25Zr phase. As a result, our calculations provide useful guidelines for further experimental optimization of the magnetic performances of these alloys.« less

  18. Magnetic properties of nested carbon nanostructures studied by electron spin resonance and magnetic susceptibility measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandow, Shunji

    1996-07-01

    Nested carbon nanostructures, e.g., nanotubes and nanoballs, are separated from the coexisting materials of carbon flakes and needle-like fragments by sonication, centrifugalization and low-temperature combustion. Content of nanotubes at the final stage separation is in excess of 85% by weight. The nested carbon nanostructures (?85 wt % tubules) are studied by electron spin resonance (ESR) and magnetic susceptibility measurements. The temperature dependence of the conduction-ESR intensity for the nested carbons is similar to that for graphite. On the other hand, the g value is almost constant (g=2.0096±0.0004 at room temperature) between 40 and 300 K, in contrast to that of graphite. These ESR features are discussed in terms of the electronic structure of carbon nanotubes predicted by theoretical calculation. The magnetic field dependence of differential magnetic susceptibility (?diff) indicates a logarithmic divergence in the magnetic field H?2 kG and the ?diff is a positive value at H?0.8 kG, which is qualitatively consistent with the magnetic properties of metallic carbon nanotube enunciated by Ajiki and Ando.

  19. Structures and magnetic properties of Co-Zr-B magnets studied by first-principles calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Xin; Ke, Liqin; Nguyen, Manh Cuong; Wang, Cai -Zhuang; Ho, Kai -Ming

    2015-06-23

    The structures and magnetic properties of Co-Zr-B alloys near the composition of Co5Zr with B at. % ?6% were studied using adaptive genetic algorithm and first-principles calculations. The energy and magnetic moment contour maps as a function of chemical composition were constructed for the Co-Zr-B magnet alloys through extensive structure searches and calculations. We found that Co-Zr-B system exhibits the same structure motif as the “Co11Zr2”polymorphs, and such motif plays a key role in achieving strong magnetic anisotropy. Boronatoms were found to be able to substitute cobalt atoms or occupy the “interruption” sites. First-principles calculations showed that the magnetocrystalline anisotropy energies of the boron-doped alloys are close to that of the high-temperature rhombohedral Co5Zr phase and larger than that of the low-temperature Co5.25Zr phase. As a result, our calculations provide useful guidelines for further experimental optimization of the magnetic performances of these alloys.

  20. Radiation-induced changes in magnetic properties of Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, R. D.; Cost, J. R.

    1988-04-01

    The high remanence and intrinsic coercivity of Nd-Fe-B magnets make them desirable for use in accelerators. Use in a radiation environment requires that the sensitivity of these magnets to radiation be determined and the mechanisms responsible be understood. We present results comparing the relative radiation sensitivity of a number of commercially available Nd-Fe-B magnets. Small samples of these magnets were irradiated to examine the decay of remanence. Our results show that the sensitivity to radiation varies widely among magnets from different vendors, indicating that microstructure and possibly composition play key roles in determining the loss of remanence. We examined optically the microstructure of several of the magnet materials and report on the correlation between microstructure and radiation-induced changes in magnetic properties. Samples were neutron irradiated at the Omega West Reactor in a neutron flux of 4×1012 n/cm2 s at a temperature of 350 K (77 °C). At various time intervals during the irradiation, samples were removed from the reactor and the open-circuit remanence measured. We also measured the quadrant II demagnetization curve of large samples before and after neutron irradiation to monitor changes in remanence and intrinsic coercivity. In general, these samples showed a decrease in the remanence and an increase in the intrinsic coercivity. We also present results comparing the relative decay of remanence for the large cylindrical samples having three different length-to-diameter ratios. This illustrates the effect of the demagnetizing field in determining the rate of remanence decay.

  1. Enhancement of thermal and electrical properties of carbon nanotube polymer composites by magnetic field processing

    E-print Network

    Garmestani, Hamid

    Walters et al.8 demonstrated alignment of SWNTs by filter- ing the SWNT suspension in the high magneticEnhancement of thermal and electrical properties of carbon nanotube polymer composites by magnetic by magnetic alignment during processing. The electrical transport properties of the composites are mainly

  2. Lanthanide Complexes with Multidentate Oxime Ligands as Single-Molecule Magnets and Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Fixation Systems.

    PubMed

    Ho?y?ska, Ma?gorzata; Clérac, Rodolphe; Rouzières, Mathieu

    2015-09-14

    The synthesis, structure, and magnetic properties of five lanthanide complexes with multidentate oxime ligands are described. Complexes 1 and 2 (1: [La2 (pop)2 (acac)4 (CH3 OH)], 2: [Dy2 (pop)(acac)5 ]) are synthesized from the 2-hydroxyimino-N-[1-(2-pyridyl)ethylidene]propanohydrazone (Hpop) ligand, while 3, 4, and 5 (3: [Dy2 (naphthsaoH)2 (acac)4 H(OH)]?0.85?CH3 CN?1.58?H2 O; 4: [Tb2 (naphthsaoH)2 (acac)4 H(OH)]?0.52?CH3 CN?1.71?H2 O; 5: [La6 (CO3 )2 (naphthsao)5 (naphthsaoH)0.5 (acac)8 (CO3 )0.5 (CH3 OH)2.76 H5.5 (H2 O)1.24 ]?2.39?CH3 CN?0.12?H2 O) contain 1-(1-hydroxynaphthalen-2-yl)-ethanone oxime (naphthsaoH2 ). In 1-4, dinuclear [Ln2 ] complexes crystallize, whereas hexanuclear La(III) complex 5 is formed after fixation of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Dy(III) -based complexes 2 and 3 display single-molecule-magnet properties with energy barriers of 27 and 98?K, respectively. The presence of a broad and unsymmetrical relaxation mode observed in the ac susceptibility data for 3 suggest two different dynamics of the magnetization which might be a consequence of independent relaxation processes of the two different Dy(3+) ions. PMID:26230414

  3. Magnetic and transport properties of CeVO{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, H.C.; Goodenough, J.B.

    1995-10-01

    Magnetic data are presented that indicate the VO{sub 3} array of the perovskite CeVO{sub 3} exhibits the same anomalous properties as in LaVO{sub 3}, including (1) a first-order magnetostrictive distortion below a T{sub t}magnetization reduces the field for nucleation of irreversible magnetization processes; both La{sub 0.5}Ce{sub 0.5}VO{sub 3} and CeVO{sub 3} exhibit M-H hysteresis loops characteristic of hard ferromagnets, whereas the magnetization of LaVO{sub 3} remains reversible in fields H = {+-}50 kOe. For x {ge} 0.25, substitution of Sr for Ce in Ce{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}VO{sub 3} does not create small-polaron V{sup 4+} ions, but delocalized V-3d states and an intermediate Ce{sup 4+}/Ce{sup 3+} valence at the Ce atoms. Strong correlations among the itinerant V-{pi}{sup *} electrons of stoichiometric, metallic SrVO{sub 3} reintroduce long-range magnetic order at low temperatures.

  4. Magnetic properties of road dust from Visakhapatnam (India) relationship to industrial pollution and road traffic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goddu, Srinivasa Rao; Appel, Erwin; Jordanova, Diana; Wehland, Florian

    Magnetic methods provide a fast tool for delineation of industrial pollution. Mineral magnetic studies of anthropogenic magnetic phases in road dust from the industrial zone of Visakhapatnam city (India) reveal the presence of large anthropogenic spherules with diameters up to ?300 ?m. Different internal structures of the spherules and a wide variation in size of the spherules, as well as the presence of melt-like particles and irregular shaped grains containing heavy metals, point to multiple sources of pollution, including different industries and heavy vehicle traffic. Magnetic mineralogy of the samples is dominated by a magnetite-like phase. Hysteresis parameters measured for magnetic extracts and single grains, are typical for pseudo-single domain magnetite. This is in disagreement with the large grain size of the single particles. Scanning electron microscopy images reveals a complex internal structure, showing an agglomeration of smaller grains and in-part, an extreme porosity of the spherules, probably related to fast cooling. The chemical composition determined by energy dispersive X-ray analysis is strongly variable and can also be very heterogeneous within a particle. First order reversal curve analysis indicates a spectrum of single domain, pseudo-single domain and multidomain properties. Values of saturation magnetisation suggest that the particles either consist of mainly similar ferrimagnetic sub-grains, whereas others are a mixture of ferrimagnetic and non-magnetic phases. Several irregular grains, showing a ferrimagnetic behaviour, contain a large amount of chromium (>50 wt%). The variations of the magnetic susceptibility along the three major roads in the industrial zone of Visakhapatnam are interpreted in terms of the relative degree of pollution.

  5. Chemistry and Properties of Complex Intermetallics from Metallic Fluxes

    SciTech Connect

    Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.

    2015-03-28

    This project investigated the reaction chemistry and synthesis of new intermetallic materials with complex compositions and structures using metallic fluxes as solvents. It was found that the metallic fluxes offer several key advantages in facilitating the formation and crystal growth of new materials. The fluxes mostly explored were liquid aluminum, gallium and indium. The main purpose of this project was to exploit the potential of metallic fluxes as high temperature solvent for materials discovery in the broad class of intermetallics. This work opened new paths to compound formation. We discovered many new Si (or Ge)-based compounds with novel structures, bonding and physicochemical properties. We created new insights about the reaction chemistry that is responsible for stabilizing the new materials. We also studied the structural and compositional relationships to understand their properties. We investigated the use of Group-13 metals Al, Ga and In as solvents and have generated a wide variety of new results including several new ternary and quaternary materials with fascinating structures and properties as well as new insights as to how these systems are stabilized in the fluxes. The project focused on reactions of metals from the rare earth element family in combination with transition metals with Si and Ge. For example molten gallium has serves both as a reactive and non-reactive solvent in the preparation and crystallization of intermetallics in the system RE/M/Ga/Ge(Si). Molten indium behaves similarly in that it too is an excellent reaction medium, but it gives compounds that are different from those obtained from gallium. Some of the new phase identified in the aluminide class are complex phases and may be present in many advanced Al-matrix alloys. Such phases play a key role in determining (either beneficially or detrimentally) the mechanical properties of advanced Al-matrix alloys. This project enhanced our basic knowledge of the solid state chemistry and physics of intermetallics, produced new materials with unusual or enhanced properties and ultimately helped improve our understanding of component/matrix interactions that could lead to better Al-matrix alloys.

  6. Transport and magnetic properties of rtx and related 

    E-print Network

    Goruganti, Venkat

    2009-05-15

    67 s83 s99 s104 s47 s82 s32s84 s47 s103 s48 s47s103 s49 Fig. 5. The Schottky heat capacity of a two level system. Difierent curves represent difierent degeneracies of these levels. 19 tion may be viewed as an interaction between the magnetic moment... Properties of RTX and Related Compounds. (December 2008) Venkateshwarlu Goruganti, B.Sc., B.Ed., Osmania University, India; M.Sc., University of Hyderabad, India; M.S., Texas A&M University Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Joseph H. Ross, Jr. Physical...

  7. Magnetization reversal and magnetotransport properties of cobalt/platinum multilayers with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Xuemei M.

    Due to the unique attribute of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA), [Co/Pt]n multilayers have both scientific and technological importance. [Co/Pt]n multilayers and their associated properties are presented, including (1) magnetization reversal in [Co/Pt]n multilayers with different repeat number n; and (2) antisymmetric magnetoresistance in [Co/Pt]n multilayers. Magnetization reversal in [Co/Pt]n multilayers with PMA has been found to depend sensitively on the repeat number n. In [CO/Pt]n multilayers with a large n (e.g. n=16) or a small n (e.g. n=2), magnetization reversal is dominated by nucleation or domain wall motion, respectively. Magnetization reversal in [Co/Pt]n multilayers with an intermediate n=4 provides a glimpse of the intermediate regime. During the first order reversal process, the magnetization of the [Co/Pt]4 multilayer first decreases, then reaches a plateau, and finally rises back to saturation, corresponding to expanding bubble domains, stationary domains, and domains with unchanged boundaries but fading contrast, respectively. MFM imaging reveals the existence of many submicron-sized unreversed channels within the boundary of the bubble domains, which cause the fading contrast. These unusual reversal behaviors in the [CO/Pt]4 multilayer are due to thermally activated domain wall motion, confirmed by the studies of the time dependence of magnetization. Numerical simulations show that the dependence of magnetization reversal on n is mainly due to the demagnetizing effect. Intrinsic magnetoresistance (MR), regardless of mechanisms, is symmetric with respect to the magnetic field H. A new form of MR, which is antisymmetric in H, has been demonstrated in [Co/Pt]n multilayers with PMA. By performing simultaneous MOKE imaging and transport measurements on a Pt/Co wedge/Pt trilayer with a controlled two-domain structure, it has been conclusively shown that the antisymmetric MR originates from the Hall fields due to extraordinary Hall effect on either side of the domain wall. The observed MR and Hall results can be quantitatively accounted for by a circulating-current model. This rare occurrence of antisymmetric MR is due to the special geometry afforded in multilayers with PMA, where the magnetization, current, and domain wall directions are mutually perpendicular.

  8. Effects of gadolinium and silicon substitution on magnetic properties and microstructure of Nd-Fe-B-Nb bulk nanocomposite magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Zubair; Yan, Mi; Tao, Shan; Husain, S. Wilayat; Liu, Zhongwu

    2015-03-01

    The magnetic properties, phase evolution and microstructure of Fe70-xMxB19Nd7Nb4 (M=Si, Gd, Si+Gd; x=0-2.5 at%) bulk nanocomposite permanent magnets in the form of rods produced by annealing the amorphous precursor have been investigated systematically. Microstructural examination, three-dimensional atom probe microanalysis, ?M-plots, X-ray diffraction analysis and magnetometer studies deduced that good magnetic properties in the magnets originate from the homogenous microstructure consisting of exchange coupled, soft magnetic (?-Fe, Fe3B) and hard magnetic (Nd,Gd)2Fe14B nanophases. Optimally annealed Fe70B19Nd7Nb4 rod magnets exhibit magnetic properties of Br=0.61 T, iHc=876 kA/m and (BH)max=50.2 kJ/m3. Gadolinium and silicon addition to quaternary Fe70B19Nd7Nb4 alloy increased the mass fraction of hard magnetic phase, strengthened the exchange coupling interactions and enhanced the magnetic properties. Gadolinium and silicon segregated into hard magnetic phase which led to enhance coercivity up to 1115 kA/m. Enhancement in the coercivity is mainly resulted by hard phase increment as well as domain wall pinning, while strengthening of exchange coupling is caused by grain size refinement and increase in Curie temperature of the magnetic phases. The Fe67B19Nd7Gd2Nb4Si1 magnetic rods of 1.2 mm in diameter demonstrated the best magnetic properties such as intrinsic coercivity, iHc of 1115 kA/m, remanence, Br of 0.57 T and maximum energy product, (BH)max of 65.7 kJ/m3.

  9. Complex magnetic ordering in CeFe1.76 studied by neutron diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Jayasekara, Wageesha T; Tian, W; Hodovanets, Halyna; Canfield, Paul C; Bud'ko, Serguei L; Kreyssig, Andreas; Goldman, Alan I

    2014-10-01

    Neutron diffraction measurements on a single crystal of CeGe1.76 reveal a complex series of magnetic transitions at low temperature. At TN?7 K, there is a transition from a paramagnetic state at higher temperature to an incommensurate magnetic structure characterized by a magnetic propagation vector (0 0 ?) with ??14 and the magnetic moment along the a axis of the orthorhombic unit cell. Below TLI?5 K, the magnetic structure locks in to a commensurate structure with ?=14 and the magnetic moment remains along the a axis. Below T??4 K, we find additional half-integer and integer indexed magnetic Bragg peaks consistent with a second commensurately ordered antiferromagnetic state.

  10. Magnetic properties of HfU/sub 2/Se/sub 5/

    SciTech Connect

    Barakadze, D.G.; Chechernikov, V.I.; Kuznetsov, N.T.; Slovyanskikh, V.K.; Gracheva, N.V.

    1987-04-01

    The authors measured the magnetic properties of the title compound. The temperature dependence of the magnetization of the title compound in various magnetic fields is shown. Also presented is the hysteresis loop for the title compound at 77/sup 0/K, and the temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility of the title compound.

  11. Novel dense organic-lanthanide hybrid architectures: syntheses, structures and magnetic properties.

    PubMed

    Bai, Zheng-Shuai; Xu, Jing; Okamura, Taka-aki; Chen, Man-Sheng; Sun, Wei-Yin; Ueyama, Norikazu

    2009-04-14

    Six novel three-dimensional (3D) dense organic-lanthanide(III) frameworks with formula {[Ln(HBPTCA)(H2O)].3H2O}n [Ln = La (1), Ce (2), Sm (3)] and [Ln4(BPTCA)3(H2O)4]n [Ln = Tb (4), Dy (5), Ho (6)] were obtained by reactions of the corresponding lanthanide nitrate salt with 4,4'-bipyridine-2,2',6,6'-tetracarboxylic acid (H4BPTCA) under different conditions. Complexes 1-3 have the same structure with (4, 6(2))(2)(4(2), 6(10), 8(3)) topology, which is rare binodal (3, 6)-connecting rutile structure, while the complexes 4-6 also with the same structure have different topology of (4(2), 6)(4)(6, 8(2))(4)(4(3), 6(3))(4)(4(2), 6(4))(6)(4(4), 6(5), 8(5), 10). The results indicate that the reaction conditions have great influence on the structure of the resulted complexes in this system. In addition, the H4BPTCA was found to be an effective bridging ligand for construction of novel lanthanide-based dense hybrids, and two new coordination modes of the BPTCA4- were found in the complexes. The photoluminescent property of 4 and magnetic properties of 2, 5 and 6 were also investigated. PMID:19319398

  12. Cu{sup II} coordination polymers based on 5-methoxyisophthalate and flexible N-donor ligands: Structures and magnetic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Xin-Hong; Qin, Jian-Hua; Ma, Lu-Fang; Wang, Li-Ya

    2014-04-01

    Three Cu{sup II} coordination polymers, ([Cu{sub 2}(CH{sub 3}O-ip){sub 2}(bmib)]){sub n} (1), ([Cu{sub 2}(CH{sub 3}O-ip){sub 2}(bmib){sub 2}]){sub n} (2) and ([Cu(CH{sub 3}O-ip)(bbip)]?2H{sub 2}O){sub n} (3) (CH{sub 3}O-H{sub 2}ip is 5-methoxyisophthalic acid, bmib is 1,4-bis(2-methylimidazol-1-yl)butane and bbip is 1,3-bis(1H-benzimidazolyl)propane), have been synthesized by hydrothermal methods. Complexes 1–3 were structurally characterized by elemental analysis, infrared (IR) spectra and X-ray single-crystal diffraction. Complex 1 shows a 3D six-connected self-penetrating network based on paddlewheel secondary building units. Complex 2 has a 3-fold interpenetrating 3D diamond framework. Complex 3 possesses a 1D tube-like chain. Thermo-gravimetric and magnetic properties of 1–3 were also investigated. - Graphical abstract: Structures and magnetic properties of copper(II) coordination polymers constructed from 5-methoxyisophthalate linker and two flexible N-donor ancillary ligands. Three copper(II) coordination polymers with 5-methoxyisophthalate and two related flexible N-donor ancillary ligands have been synthesized and structurally characterized. Moreover, thermal behaviors and magnetic properties of these complexes have also been investigated. - Highlights: • Three Cu(II) coordination polymers were synthesized. • The conformations of N-donor ligands and pH value have an effect on the final structures. • The magnetic properties of 1–3 have been investigated.

  13. Nanoscale {Ln(III)24Zn(II)6} Triangular Metalloring with Magnetic Refrigerant, Slow Magnetic Relaxation, and Fluorescent Properties.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Zhao, Lang; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Chao; Yuan, Sen-Wen; Tang, Jinkui

    2015-12-01

    The self-assembly of Ln(ClO4)3·6H2O and Zn(OAc)2·2H2O with pyrazine-2-carboxylic acid (HL) results in the formation of three novel nanosized {Ln(III)24Zn(II)6} triangular metallorings, [Gd24Zn6L24(OAc)22(?3-OH)30(H2O)14](ClO4)7(OAc)·2CH3OH·26H2O (1), [Tb24Zn6L24(OAc)22(?3-OH)30(CH3O)2(CH3OH)2(H2O)10](ClO4)5(OH)·6CH3OH·12H2O (2), and (H3O)[Dy24Zn6L24(OAc)22(?3-OH)30(H2O)14](ClO4)7(OAc)2·4CH3OH·22H2O (3), having the largest nuclearity among any known Ln/Zn clusters. Magnetic and luminescent studies reveal the special prowess for each lanthanide complex. Magnetic studies reveal that 1 exhibits a significant cryogenic magnetocaloric effect with a maximum -?Sm (isothermal magnetic entropy change) value of 30.0 J kg(-1) K(-1) at 2.5 K and 7 T and that a slow magnetization relaxation is observed for the dysprosium analogue. In addition, the solid-state photophysical properties of 2 display strong characteristic Tb(III) photoluminescent emission in the visible region, suggesting that Tb(III)-based luminescence is sensitized by the effective energy transfer from the ligand HL to the metal centers. PMID:26600284

  14. Multifunctional mononuclear bisthienylethene-cobalt(II) complexes: structures, slow magnetic relaxation and photochromic behavior.

    PubMed

    Cao, Deng-Ke; Wei, Ruo-Hong; Li, Xiao-Xiong; Gu, Yan-Wei

    2015-03-28

    Based on two new bisthienylethenes containing N,O-donor binding sites, 2-(2-hydroxy-5-bromo-phenyl)-4,5-bis(2,5-dimethyl(3-thienyl))-1H-imidazole (BrLH) and 2-(2-hydroxy-5-diethylphosphono-phenyl)-4,5-bis(2,5-dimethyl(3-thienyl))-1H-imidazole (PLH), multifunctional mononuclear complexes Co(BrL)2·3CH3OH (1) and Co(PL)2·2CH3OH (2) have been synthesized and characterized by crystallographic analysis. In the molecular structures of 1 and 2, the Co(II) ion adopts a distorted tetrahedral coordination geometry, and is coordinated by two nonequivalent bisthienylethene molecules (BrL? in 1, PL? in 2), showing non-photoactive parallel and photoactive antiparallel conformations, respectively. Compounds 1 and 2 show a distinct distortion of Co(II) coordination geometry, with bond angles of N–Co–N = 112.71(12)° and O–Co–O = 99.87(11)° for 1 and N–Co–N = 119.93(12)° and O–Co–O = 107.31(13)° for 2. Thus, 1 and 2 revealed different magnetic behaviors, which are demonstrated by the ?MT vs. T plots, and the frequency dependence of the ??M and ???M signals at low temperature. Besides the field-induced slow magnetic relaxation, both 1 and 2 also showed photochromic behavior. Upon irradiation with 360 nm light for 1 and 343 nm light for 2, their CH2Cl2–CH3CN solutions could change color from being nearly colorless to blue purple. It was demonstrated that the substituent groups of Br atom and –PO(OEt)2 in 1 and 2, respectively, could significantly influence their crystal structures, magnetic relaxations and photochromic properties. PMID:25714230

  15. Structure, morphology, and magnetic properties of Fe nanoparticles deposited onto single-crystalline surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Kleibert, Armin; Rosellen, Wolfgang; Getzlaff, Mathias

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background: Magnetic nanostructures and nanoparticles often show novel magnetic phenomena not known from the respective bulk materials. In the past, several methods to prepare such structures have been developed – ranging from wet chemistry-based to physical-based methods such as self-organization or cluster growth. The preparation method has a significant influence on the resulting properties of the generated nanostructures. Taking chemical approaches, this influence may arise from the chemical environment, reaction kinetics and the preparation route. Taking physical approaches, the thermodynamics and the kinetics of the growth mode or – when depositing preformed clusters/nanoparticles on a surface – the landing kinetics and subsequent relaxation processes have a strong impact and thus need to be considered when attempting to control magnetic and structural properties of supported clusters or nanoparticles. Results: In this contribution we focus on mass-filtered Fe nanoparticles in a size range from 4 nm to 10 nm that are generated in a cluster source and subsequently deposited onto two single crystalline substrates: fcc Ni(111)/W(110) and bcc W(110). We use a combined approach of X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD), reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) to shed light on the complex and size-dependent relation between magnetic properties, crystallographic structure, orientation and morphology. In particular XMCD reveals that Fe particles on Ni(111)/W(110) have a significantly lower (higher) magnetic spin (orbital) moment compared to bulk iron. The reduced spin moments are attributed to the random particle orientation being confirmed by RHEED together with a competition of magnetic exchange energy at the interface and magnetic anisotropy energy in the particles. The RHEED data also show that the Fe particles on W(110) – despite of the large lattice mismatch between iron and tungsten – are not strained. Thus, strain is most likely not the origin of the enhanced orbital moments as supposed before. Moreover, RHEED uncovers the existence of a spontaneous process for epitaxial alignment of particles below a critical size of about 4 nm. STM basically confirms the shape conservation of the larger particles but shows first indications for an unexpected reshaping occurring at the onset of self-alignment. Conclusion: The magnetic and structural properties of nanoparticles are strongly affected by the deposition kinetics even when soft landing conditions are provided. The orientation of the deposited particles and thus their interface with the substrate strongly depend on the particle size with consequences regarding particularly the magnetic behavior. Spontaneous and epitaxial self-alignment can occur below a certain critical size. This may enable the obtainment of samples with controlled, uniform interfaces and crystallographic orientations even in a random deposition process. However, such a reorientation process might be accompanied by a complex reshaping of the particles. PMID:21977415

  16. Inhomogeneity on texture, microstructure and magnetic properties of hot deformed R2Fe14B-typed magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Y. I.; Shih, C. W.; Chang, W. C.; Chang, H. W.; Chen, Y. J.

    2015-03-01

    The inhomogeneity on texture, microstructure and magnetic properties of hot deformed (HD) disc shape R2Fe14B-typed magnets along radial and axial directions has been investigated. HD disc shape NdFeB magnet exhibits inhomogeneous texture, grain morphologies and magnetic properties not only along the radial direction but also along the axial direction. Higher magnetic properties can be found in the middle part of the HD magnet, due to the existence of larger volume fraction of plate-like Nd2Fe14B grains and the well c-axis alignment parallel to the pressing direction. In addition, particle-like and coarser grains are easily found not only in the bottom but also in the edge of the HD magnet, which may degrade the magnetic performance of the samples cut from those parts. Owing to the inhomogeneity of (00L) texture and grain morphologies along axial and radial directions, the optimal magnetic properties of Br = 12.7 kG, Hci = 5.1 kOe and (BH)max = 39 MGOe can be obtained only in the middle sample of HD magnet with slight polishing the top and bottom surfaces.

  17. Transport properties of high-temperature air in a magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Bruno, D.; Capitelli, M.; Catalfamo, C.; Giordano, D.

    2011-01-15

    Transport properties of equilibrium air plasmas in a magnetic field are calculated with the Chapman-Enskog method. The range considered for the temperature is [50-50 000] K and for the magnetic induction is [0-300] T.

  18. Investigating the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility and other rock magnetic properties of the Beaver River Diabase in northeastern Minnesota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hariri, S. H.; Brownlee, S. J.; Feinberg, J. M.; Jackson, M. J.; Miller, J. D.

    2013-12-01

    The Beaver River Diabase (BRD) is a series of mafic dikes and sills within the Beaver Bay Complex (BBC) of northern Minnesota, which formed during the development of the ~1.1 Ga Midcontinent Rift (MCR). The BRD is one of the youngest and most extensive intrusive phases of the BBC. The BRD dikes and sills were emplaced into the medial levels of the 6-10 kilometer-thick North Shore Volcanic Group and occur over an arcuate area extending 120 by 20 kilometers. The BRD is composed of fine- to medium-grained ophitic olivine gabbro and does not display obvious foliation or lineation features and rarely displays modal layering. Without obvious magmatic internal structures, it is difficult to determine emplacement properties such as flow direction using standard geologic mapping or petrographic techniques. For this reason, we measured the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS), in conjunction with other rock magnetic properties, to better understand the BRD's emplacement and deformation history in the context of the MCR. AMS measures the directional dependence of low-field magnetic susceptibility, and is used to infer a shape-preferred orientation of magnetic minerals within a rock, which can be related to specific emplacement mechanisms (e.g. directional flow or settling). Preliminary analysis of AMS at 20 sites within the southern half of the BRD (with 4-7 samples per site) shows maximum susceptibility values between 4.48 x 10-6 and 2.22 x 10-4 m3/kg (1165 and 65400 ?SI). Most specimens display nearly isotropic AMS ellipsoids (Pj < 1.15) with minor degrees of prolateness and oblateness. However, about 20% of specimens have higher anisotropies (Pj between 1.15 and 1.67) and higher degrees of oblateness and prolateness. Variations in AMS properties may reflect differences in concentration and composition, as well as emplacement mechanisms. Measurements of susceptibility as a function of temperature yield Curie points between 470 and 570 °C, indicating a presence of low-titanium titanomagnetite. Major hysteresis loops and first order reversal curve (FORC) experiments show coercivities between 1 and 125 mT, with a bulk average microcoercivity of 25 mT, consistent with titanomagnetite as the dominant remanence carrier. Further analysis will also investigate the relationship of AMS to rock fabric by measuring mineral crystal preferred orientations using electron backscatter diffraction. These measurements will supplement the AMS data, and provide links to the role of microstructure, texture and mineralogy in AMS.

  19. Structure and Properties of Magnetic (Co, Fe, Fe{sub 3}C and Ni) Carbon Beads

    SciTech Connect

    Leonowicz, Marcin; Izydorzak, Marta; Pomogailo, Anatolii D.; Dzhardimalieva, Gulzhian I.

    2010-12-02

    Nanoparticles exhibit unique physical properties due to the surface or quantum-size effects. Particular attention has been focused on magnetic nanoparticles and substantial progress has been done in this field. In this work magnetic composites, consisting of elementary metals or carbides nanocrystallites, stabilized in carbon matrix, were prepared by the procedure comprising formation of appropriate metal acrylamide complexes, followed by frontal polymerization and pyrolysis of the polymer at various temperatures. Application of frontal polymerization and further pyrolysis enables formation of composite beads consisting of Co, Fe, Fe{sub 3}C or Ni nanocrystallites stabilized in carbon matrix. It was found that the lowest pyrolysis temperature, which enables the production of metallic nanocrystallites, was 673 K for Co and Ni, and 773 K for Fe. The magnetic properties of the beads, percentage of the metallic component, their composition and shape depended on the pyrolysis temperature. Extracts on the basis of composites containing Fe{sub 3}C showed no cytotoxicity, whereas those containing Co and Ni exhibited negligible cytotoxicity up to concentrations of 6.25 mg/ml.

  20. Structure and Properties of Magnetic (Co, Fe, Fe3C and Ni) Carbon Beads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonowicz, Marcin; Izydorzak, Marta; Pomogailo, Anatolii D.; Dzhardimalieva, Gulzhian I.

    2010-12-01

    Nanoparticles exhibit unique physical properties due to the surface or quantum-size effects. Particular attention has been focused on magnetic nanoparticles and substantial progress has been done in this field. In this work magnetic composites, consisting of elementary metals or carbides nanocrystallites, stabilized in carbon matrix, were prepared by the procedure comprising formation of appropriate metal acrylamide complexes, followed by frontal polymerization and pyrolysis of the polymer at various temperatures. Application of frontal polymerization and further pyrolysis enables formation of composite beads consisting of Co, Fe, Fe3C or Ni nanocrystallites stabilized in carbon matrix. It was found that the lowest pyrolysis temperature, which enables the production of metallic nanocrystallites, was 673 K for Co and Ni, and 773 K for Fe. The magnetic properties of the beads, percentage of the metallic component, their composition and shape depended on the pyrolysis temperature. Extracts on the basis of composites containing Fe3C showed no cytotoxicity, whereas those containing Co and Ni exhibited negligible cytotoxicity up to concentrations of 6.25 mg/ml.

  1. Magnetic and Structural Properties of Chemically Synthesized Ni and

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonder, Michael; Leslie-Pelecky, Diandra L.; Zhang, X. Q.; Rieke, R. D.

    1996-03-01

    The reduction of nickel salts using a technique developed by Rieke and co-workers produces highly chemically reactive particles with enhanced magnetic properties due to their nanoscale size. As-synthesized particles are 2-5 nm in diameter and range from superparamagnetic to ferromagnetic, depending on synthesis details. Grain sizes from 5 nm to 1000 nm have been produced by subsequent vacuum annealing. The maximum coercivities and remanence ratios are obtained during the first half-hour to hour of annealing. Coercivities in these systems may be up to ten times the value of bulk nickel, with remanence ratios approaching 0.5. Transmission electron microscopy shows that the nickel grains are square and sometimes embedded in a lithium halide matrix. Under appropriate synthesis and annealing conditions, the as-synthesized particles can be transformed into the metastable Ni_3C phase, which has important implications in catalysis. Comparison with Stoner-Wohlfarth and Holz-Scherrer predictions of the magnetic properties will be made.

  2. Switching Properties of sub-100 nm Perpendicular Magnetic Tunnel Junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tryputen, Larysa; Piotrowski, Stephan; Bapna, Mukund; Chien, Chia-Ling; Wang, Weigang; Majetich, Sara; Ross, Caroline

    2015-03-01

    Perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions (p-MTJs) have great potential for realizing high-density non-volatile memory and logic devices. It is critical to solve scalability problem to implement such devices, to achieve low resistance area and to reduce switching current density while maintaining thermal stability. We present our recent results on fabrication of high resolution Ta/CoFeB/MgO/CoFeB/Ta p-MTJ devices and characterization of their switching properties as well as topography and current mapping by using nanoscale Conductive Atomic Force Microscopy. Our patterning method is based on using hydrogen silsesquioxane resist mask combined with ion beam etching. It allows to fabricate p-MTJ devices down to 40 nm in diameter while maintaining the magnetic quality of the multilayers. Repeatable, consistent switching behaviour has been observed in the obtained p-MTJ devices of 500 nm down to 40 nm with 10 - 800 mV voltage applied. Switching field increased as device diameter decreased, from 580 Oe at 500 nm (MR = 10%) to 410 Oe at 80 nm (MR = 9%). We discuss the effect of device sizes on the switching properties. This work was supported in part by C-SPIN, one of the six centers of STARnet, a Semiconductor Research Corporation Program sponsored by MARCO and DARPA and in part through the National Science Foundation through NCN-Needs Program, Contract 12207020-EEC.

  3. Towards the blackbox computation of magnetic exchange coupling parameters in polynuclear transition-metal complexes: theory, implementation, and application.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Jordan J; Peralta, Juan E

    2013-05-01

    We present a method for calculating magnetic coupling parameters from a single spin-configuration via analytic derivatives of the electronic energy with respect to the local spin direction. This method does not introduce new approximations beyond those found in the Heisenberg-Dirac Hamiltonian and a standard Kohn-Sham Density Functional Theory calculation, and in the limit of an ideal Heisenberg system it reproduces the coupling as determined from spin-projected energy-differences. Our method employs a generalized perturbative approach to constrained density functional theory, where exact expressions for the energy to second order in the constraints are obtained by analytic derivatives from coupled-perturbed theory. When the relative angle between magnetization vectors of metal atoms enters as a constraint, this allows us to calculate all the magnetic exchange couplings of a system from derivatives with respect to local spin directions from the high-spin configuration. Because of the favorable computational scaling of our method with respect to the number of spin-centers, as compared to the broken-symmetry energy-differences approach, this opens the possibility for the blackbox exploration of magnetic properties in large polynuclear transition-metal complexes. In this work we outline the motivation, theory, and implementation of this method, and present results for several model systems and transition-metal complexes with a variety of density functional approximations and Hartree-Fock. PMID:23656122

  4. Structural, electrical and magnetic properties of (Fe, Co) co-doped SnO2 diluted magnetic semiconductor nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehraj, Sumaira; Ansari, M. Shahnawaze; Alimuddin

    2015-01-01

    Nanostructures (NSs) of basic composition Sn1-xFex/2Cox/2O2 with x=0.00, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08 and 0.1 were synthesized by citrate-gel route and characterized to understand their structural, electrical and magnetic properties. X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy were used to confirm the formation of single phase rutile type tetragonal structure. The crystallite sizes calculated by using Williamson Hall were found to decrease with increasing doping level. In addition to the fundamental Raman peaks of rutile SnO2, the other three weak Raman peaks at about 505, 537 and 688 cm-1 were also observed. Field emission scanning electron microscopy studies showed the emergence of structural transformation. Electric properties such as dc electrical resistivity as a function of temperature and ac conductivity as a function of frequency were also studied. The variation of dielectric properties with frequency reveals that the dispersion is due to Maxwell-Wagner type of interfacial polarization in general. Hysteresis loops were clearly observed in M-H curves of Fe and Co co-doped SnO2 NSs. However, pure SnO2 nanoparticles (NPs) showed paramagnetic behaviour which vanished at higher values of magnetic field. The grain and grain boundary contribution in the conduction process is estimated through complex impedance plot fitted with non-linear least square (NLLS) approach which shows that the role of grain boundaries increases rapidly as compared to the grain volume with the increase of Fe and Co ions in to system.

  5. Superconducting and magnetic properties of Fe-Se-Te compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomy, C. V.; Balakrishnan, G.; Lees, M. R.

    2009-03-01

    The discovery of a new Fe based superconductor ?-FeSex with a Tc of 8 K, hot on the heels of the discovery of superconductivity in LaOFeP/As compounds, has triggered a fresh interest in the study of Fe based superconductors. Se can be replaced with Te in FeSe1-xTex and this results in an increase in Tc from 8 K for x = 0 to 15 K for x = 0.5 while compounds for x > 0.8 are no longer superconducting. We report the synthesis and characterization of the compounds FeSe1-xTex covering the entire solid solution range. The superconducting transition in resistivity measurements does not show any broadening in magnetic fields up to 9 T, but shifts to lower temperatures linearly with a value ˜ -0.22 K/T. This results in extremely high upper critical fields (Hc2) of the order of 70-80 T in these compounds. The superconducting properties are also sensitive to applied pressure and exhibit a positive dTc/dP of around 0.41 K/kbar for the x = 0.5 composition. We observe a jump in specific heat at Tc corresponding to a superconducting gap of 1.8 meV, indicating the bulk nature of superconductivity. Detailed investigations through magnetization, transport and specific heat measurements are presented. A study of the magnetic properties of the non superconducting end compound, FeTe is also presented to gain insight into the onset of superconductivity in the doped systems.

  6. Particle acceleration in complex current-sheet-populated magnetic configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galsgaard, Klaus; Nordlund, Aake

    In the MHD picture it has long been postulated that continued braiding of an initially smooth and continuous magnetic fields will eventually lead to the formation of localised current sheets. With a small amount of magnetic resistivity the free magnetic energy will be released through magnetic reconnection. Observations indicate that in such processes up to 50% of the released energy is transported away from the diffusion region by accelerated non-thermal particles. This physics is not covered by the MHD approach, and therefore to investigate the process of particle acceleration and its implications on the dynamical evolution of current sheets, one needs to adopt an approach that can handle this. Particle-in-cell simulations provide one such tool. Typically one associates this type of simulations with physics on a length scales that are very much smaller than the characteristic length scale of the dynamical systems in the solar atmosphere. But a different PIC approach can be adopted, where one takes the result from a large scale MHD simulation and focuses on a sub volume, of the experiment and exports it into a PIC simulation. We have developed a technique to perform such mixed MHD/PIC simulations, which allows us to investigate the dynamical evolution of the particles in and around current sheets, showing clear differences from the MHD picture. Information can be obtained on both the acceleration mechanism and changes to the general particle distribution function.

  7. Magnetic properties and antitumor effect of nanocomplexes of iron oxide and doxorubicin.

    PubMed

    Orel, Valerii; Shevchenko, Anatoliy; Romanov, Andriy; Tselepi, Marina; Mitrelias, Thanos; Barnes, Crispin H W; Burlaka, Anatoliy; Lukin, Sergey; Shchepotin, Igor

    2015-01-01

    We present a technology and magneto-mechanical milling chamber for the magneto-mechano-chemical synthesis (MMCS) of magneto-sensitive complex nanoparticles (MNC) comprising nanoparticles Fe3O4 and anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOXO). Magnetic properties of MNC were studied with vibrating magnetometer and electron paramagnetic resonance. Under the influence of mechano-chemical and MMCS, the complex show a hysteresis curve, which is typical for soft ferromagnetic materials. We also demonstrate that Lewis lung carcinoma had a hysteresis loop typical for a weak soft ferromagnet in contrast to surrounding tissues, which were diamagnetic. Combined action of constant magnetic field and radio frequency moderate inductive hyperthermia (RFH) below 40°C and MNC was found to induce greater antitumor and antimetastatic effects as compared to conventional DOXO. Radiospectroscopy shows minimal activity of FeS-protein electron transport chain of mitochondria, and an increase in the content of non-heme iron complexes with nitric oxide in the tumor tissues under the influence of RFH and MNC. PMID:25101880

  8. Magnetic properties and loss separation in iron-silicone-MnZn ferrite soft magnetic composites

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Shen; Sun, Aizhi; Xu, Wenhuan; Zou, Chao; Yang, Jun; Dong, Juan

    2013-12-16

    This paper investigates the magnetic and structural properties of iron-based soft magnetic composites coated with silicone-MnZn ferrite hybrid. The organic silicone resin was added to improve the flexibility of the insulated iron powder and causes better adhesion between particles to increase the mechanical properties. Scanning electron microscopy and distribution maps show that the iron particle surface is covered with a thin layer of silicone-MnZn ferrite. Silicone-MnZn ferrite coated samples have higher permeability when compared with the non-magnetic silicone resin coated compacts. The real part of permeability increases by 34.18% when compared with the silicone resin coated samples at 20 kHz. In this work, a formula for calculating the total loss component by loss separation method is presented and finally the different parts of total losses are calculated. The results show that the eddy current loss coefficient is close to each other for the silicone-MnZn ferrite, silicone resin and MnZn ferrite coated samples (0.0078

  9. Lanthanide(III) compounds with the N2O4-donor Schiff base - Synthesis, spectral, thermal, magnetic and luminescence properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristóvão, Beata; Hnatejko, Zbigniew

    2015-05-01

    New Schiff base complexes [Ln(NO3)3H2L] (where: Ln = Gd (1), Tb (2), Dy (3), Ho (4) and Er (5), H2L = N,N?-bis(5-bromo-3-methoxysalicylidene)propylene-1,3-diamine have been synthesized and characterized using elemental analysis, FTIR spectroscopy, thermogravimetric methods (TG-DSC), magnetic measurements, UV-Vis and luminescence studies. The compounds 1-5 follow the Curie-Weiss law all through the investigated temperature range 1.8-300 K. The 1 shows behavior characteristic for the well-isolated mononuclear system whereas the magnetic properties of 2-5 are dominated by the crystal field effect on the Ln(III) site, masking the magnetic interaction between the paramagnetic centers. The Tb(III) complex 2 emits the characteristic metal centered luminescence.

  10. Magnetic and transport properties of diluted granular multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, H. G.; Gomes, H. L.; Pogorelov, Y. G.; Pereira, L. M. C.; Kakazei, G. N.; Sousa, J. B.; Araújo, J. P.; Mariano, J. F. L.; Cardoso, S.; Freitas, P. P.

    2009-12-01

    The magnetic and transport properties of Co80Fe20(t)/Al2O3(4 nm) multilayers with low nominal thicknesses t =0.7 and 0.9 nm of Co80Fe20 granular layers are studied. Magnetic studies find a superparamagnetic state above the blocking temperature Tb (of field-cooled/zero-field-cooled splitting) that grows with t and decreases with H. The low-voltage Ohmic tunnel transport passes to non-Ohmic I ?V3/2 law for applied fields above ˜500 V/cm. At fixed V, the temperature dependence of conductance reveals an anomalous dip around ˜220 K, which can be attributed to the effect of surface contamination by supercooled water. Current-in-plane tunnel magnetoresistance (MR) ratio tends, at lower t, to higher maximum values (˜8% at room temperature) but to lower field sensitivity. This may indicate growing discorrelation effect (e.g., between shrinking areas of correlated moments) in this regime and corroborates the deficit of granule magnetization estimated from the Inoue-Maekawa MR fit, compared to that from direct magnetization measurements. MR displays a mean-field-like critical behavior when t approaches the point of superparamagnetic/superferromagnetic transition (tc˜1.3 nm at room temperature) from below, different from the formerly reported percolationlike behavior at approaching it from above. With growing temperature, MR reveals, beyond the common decrease, an anomalous plateau from Tb˜30-50 K up to some higher value T?˜150-200 K, not seen at higher t.

  11. Field theoretic simulations of the interfacial properties of complex coacervates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riggleman, Robert; Fredrickson, Glenn

    2011-03-01

    Many biological processes and emerging technologies, such as wet adhesives and biosensors, rely on the association between oppositely charged polyelectrolytes. Such association is driven not only by the electrostatic interactions between the polyelectrolytes, but there is also a substantial entropy gain associated with counterion release upon complexation. In some cases, the association between oppositely charged polymers can lead to a solid precipitate while others can result in a fluid phase rich in polyelectrolytes (coacervate phase) coexisting with a polyelectrolyte-dilute solvent phase. For many of the applications seeking to exploit coacervation, characterization of the interface between the solvent phase and the coacervate is of paramount importance. In this talk, we will present the results of field-theoretic simulations for a coarse-grained polyelectrolyte model that exhibits complex coacervation. Our simulations sample the fully-fluctuating fields in three-dimensions and provide a detailed characterization of the interface between the solvent and the coacervate phase for symmetric polyelectrolytes (where both the polycations and the polyanions carry identical charge densities) as a function of salt concentration and strength of the electrostatic fields. Finally, we characterize the interfacial properties for a select set of asymmetric conditions.

  12. Atomic structure, binding energy, and magnetic properties of iron atoms supported on a polyaromatic hydrocarbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senapati, L.; Nayak, S. K.; Rao, B. K.; Jena, P.

    2003-05-01

    The atomic structure, energetics, and properties of gas-phase cluster complexes containing coronene (C24H12) molecule and up to two iron atoms are studied for the first time using density functional theory and generalized gradient approximation for exchange and correlation. The geometries of the neutral and cationic iron-coronene complexes are optimized without symmetry constraint and by examining the possibility that iron atoms could occupy various sites via individual ? or bridging interactions. In both neutral and cationic complexes a single Fe atom is found to preferentially occupy the on-top site above the outer ring, while two Fe atoms dimerize and reside on the top of center of the outer rings. The binding energy of neutral Fe2-coronene defined with respect to dissociation into coronene and Fe2 is larger than that of Fe-coronene while reverse is true for the corresponding cations. Although the ionization potentials of these complexes are not very sensitive to the number of adsorbed Fe atoms, they are significantly reduced from those of the Fe atom or the coronene molecule. The photodecomposition of cationic (Fen-coronene)+ complexes proceeds through the ejection of either coronene+ or (Fe-coronene)+ cations while in the case of neutral Fe2-coronene, the ejection of Fe2 is energetically preferred. The coupling between the Fe atoms remains ferromagnetic although the magnetic moment/atom is reduced from the free-atom value. The results compare well with recent mass ion intensity and photofragmentation experiments.

  13. Preliminary AMS Study in Cretaceous Igneous Rocks of Valle Chico Complex, Uruguay: Statistical Determination of Magnetic Susceptibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barcelona, H.; Mena, M.; Sanchez-Bettucci, L.

    2009-05-01

    The Valle Chico Complex, at southeast Uruguay, is related Paraná-Etendeka Province. The study involved basaltic lavas, quarz-syenites, and rhyolitic and trachytic dikes. Samples were taken from 18 sites and the AMS of 250 specimens was analyzed. The AMS is modeled by a second order tensor K and it graphical representation is a symmetric ellipsoid. The axes relations determine parameters which describe different properties like shape, lineation, and foliation, degree of anisotropy and bulk magnetic susceptibility. Under this perspective, one lava, dike, or igneous body can be considered a mosaic of magnetic susceptibility domains (MSD). The DSM is an area with specific degree of homogeneity in the distribution of parameters values and cinematic conditions. An average tensor would weigh only one MSD, but if the site is a mosaic, subsets of specimens with similar parameters can be created. Hypothesis tests can be used to establish parameter similarities. It would be suitable considered as a MSD the subsets with statistically significant differences in at least one of its means parameters, and therefore, be treated independently. Once defined the MSDs the tensor analysis continues. The basalt-andesitic lavas present MSD with an NNW magnetic foliation, dipping 10. The K1 are sub-horizontal, oriented E-W and reprsent the magmatic flow direction. The quartz-syenites show a variable magnetic fabric or prolate ellipsoids mayor axes dispose parallel to the flow direction (10 to the SSE). Deformed syenites show N300/11 magnetic foliation, consistent with the trend of fractures. The K1 is subvertical. The MSD defined in rhyolitic dikes have magnetic foliations consistent with the structural trend. The trachytic dikes show an important indetermination in the magnetic response. However, a 62/N90 magnetic lineation was defined. The MSDs obtained are consistent with the geological structures and contribute to the knowledge of the tectonic, magmatic and kinematic events.

  14. Effect of magnesium complexation by fluoroquinolones on their antibacterial properties.

    PubMed Central

    Lecomte, S; Baron, M H; Chenon, M T; Coupry, C; Moreau, N J

    1994-01-01

    By using infrared and 19F nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopies, we localized the binding site and measured the affinity of magnesium for six fluoroquinolones. It was proven that magnesium is situated between the ketone and the carboxylate groups. We determined the binding constants for the 1:1 Mg(2+)-drug complex in solution. Sparfloxacin and pefloxacin, with affinity constants (Ka) of (10.1 +/- 0.6) x 10(2) M-1 and (21 +/- 1) x 10(2) M-1, respectively, were the least and the most bound, respectively. The trend of the affinities of the assayed fluoroquinolones for magnesium was correlated with their antimicrobial activities against four bacteria and with their accumulation by these bacteria. The reference strain, Escherichia coli KL16, and two resistant mutants, NalA (gyrase mutation) and NalB (uptake defect), plus Staphylococcus aureus 209P were used. It appeared that, in every case, an impairment of accumulation is responsible for the increase in the MICs observed upon the addition of magnesium. Images PMID:7695267

  15. Effect of magnesium complexation by fluoroquinolones on their antibacterial properties.

    PubMed

    Lecomte, S; Baron, M H; Chenon, M T; Coupry, C; Moreau, N J

    1994-12-01

    By using infrared and 19F nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopies, we localized the binding site and measured the affinity of magnesium for six fluoroquinolones. It was proven that magnesium is situated between the ketone and the carboxylate groups. We determined the binding constants for the 1:1 Mg(2+)-drug complex in solution. Sparfloxacin and pefloxacin, with affinity constants (Ka) of (10.1 +/- 0.6) x 10(2) M-1 and (21 +/- 1) x 10(2) M-1, respectively, were the least and the most bound, respectively. The trend of the affinities of the assayed fluoroquinolones for magnesium was correlated with their antimicrobial activities against four bacteria and with their accumulation by these bacteria. The reference strain, Escherichia coli KL16, and two resistant mutants, NalA (gyrase mutation) and NalB (uptake defect), plus Staphylococcus aureus 209P were used. It appeared that, in every case, an impairment of accumulation is responsible for the increase in the MICs observed upon the addition of magnesium. PMID:7695267

  16. Thermal properties of composite materials with a complex fractal structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cervantes-Álvarez, F.; Reyes-Salgado, J. J.; Dossetti, V.; Carrillo, J. L.

    2014-06-01

    In this work, we report the thermal characterization of platelike composite samples made of polyester resin and magnetite inclusions. By means of photoacoustic spectroscopy and thermal relaxation, the thermal diffusivity, conductivity and volumetric heat capacity of the samples were experimentally measured. The volume fraction of the inclusions was systematically varied in order to study the changes in the effective thermal conductivity of the composites. For some samples, a static magnetic field was applied during the polymerization process, resulting in anisotropic inclusion distributions. Our results show a decrease in the thermal conductivity of some of the anisotropic samples, compared to the isotropic randomly distributed ones. Our analysis indicates that the development of elongated inclusion structures leads to the formation of magnetite and resin domains, causing this effect. We correlate the complexity of the inclusion structure with the observed thermal response through a multifractal and lacunarity analysis. All the experimental data are contrasted with the well known Maxwell-Garnett effective media approximation for composite materials.

  17. Homometallic and Heterometallic Antiferromagnetic Rings: Magnetic Properties Studied by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Casadei, Cecilia

    2012-05-09

    The aim of the present thesis is to investigate the local magnetic properties of homometallic Cr{sub 8} antiferromagnetic (AFM) ring and the changes occurring by replacing one Cr{sup 3+} ion with diamagnetic Cd{sup 2+} (Cr{sub 7}Cd) and with Ni{sup 2+} (Cr{sub 7}Ni). In the heterometallic ring a redistribution of the local magnetic moment is expected in the low temperature ground state. We have investigated those changes by both {sup 53}Cr-NMR and {sup 19}F-NMR. We have determined the order of magnitude of the transferred hyperfine coupling constant {sup 19}F - M{sup +} where M{sup +} = Cr{sup 3+}, Ni{sup 2+} in the different rings. This latter result gives useful information about the overlapping of the electronic wavefunctions involved in the coordinative bond.

  18. Color-tunable magnetic and luminescent hybrid nanoparticles: Synthesis, optical and magnetic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lou, Lei; Yu, Ke; Wang, Yiting; Zhu, Ziqiang

    2012-02-01

    A facile method for synthesizing color-tunable magnetic and luminescent hybrid bifunctional nanoparticles is presented. A series of CdSe/ZnS core-shell quantum dots (QDs) with different sizes were successfully fabricated and self-assembled to Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNP), which were subsequently coated with a polyethyleneimine (PEI) layer to prevent large aggregates. The hydrophobic QDs capped with trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO) formed a coating surrounding MNP, and were transferred into hydrophilic phase by PEI with high efficiency. The samples were characterized by TEM, FT-IR, XRD, EDS, UV-vis spectrophotometer, fluorescent spectrophotometer and PPMS. Results show that the original properties of the nanoparticles were well-preserved in the hybrid structure. All MNP-QDs hybrid nanoparticles showed paramagnetic behavior and the nanocomposites were still highly luminescent with no shift in the PL peak position.

  19. Influence of surface segregation on magnetic properties of FePt nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Lv, Hongyan; Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-Structures of Ministry of Education and School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 ; Lei, Yinkai; Datta, Aditi; Wang, Guofeng

    2013-09-23

    Surface segregation leads to chemical disordering in magnetic alloy nanostructures and thus could have profound impact upon the magnetic properties of these nanostructures. In this study, we used the first-principles density functional theory calculation method to determine how Pt surface segregation (exchanging interior Pt with surface Fe atoms) would affect the magnetic properties of L1{sub 0} ordered FePt nanoparticles. For both cuboid and cuboctahedral FePt nanoparticles, we predicted that the Pt surface segregation process could cause a decrease in total magnetic moments, a change in (easy and/or hard) magnetization axes, and a reduction in magnetic anisotropy.

  20. A strong angular dependence of magnetic properties of magnetosome chains: Implications for rock magnetism and paleomagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jinhua; Ge, Kunpeng; Pan, Yongxin; Williams, Wyn; Liu, Qingsong; Qin, Huafeng

    2013-10-01

    Single-domain magnetite particles produced by magnetotactic bacteria (magnetosomes) and aligned in chains are of great interest in the biosciences and geosciences. Here, we investigated angular variation of magnetic properties of aligned Magnetospirillum magneticum AMB-1 cells, each of which contains one single fragmental chain of magnetosomes. With measurements at increasing angles from the chain direction, we observed that (i) the hysteresis loop gradually changes from nearly rectangular to a ramp-like shape (e.g., Bc and remanence decrease), (ii) the acquisition and demagnetization curves of IRM shift toward higher fields (e.g., Bcr increases), and (iii) the FORC diagram shifts toward higher coercivity fields (e.g., Bc,FORC increases). For low-temperature results, compared to unoriented samples, the samples containing aligned chains have a much lower remanence loss of field-cooled (?FC) and zero-field-cooled (?ZFC) remanence upon warming through the Verwey transition, higher ?-ratio (? = ?FC/?ZFC) for the measurement parallel to the chain direction, and lower ?-ratio, larger ?FC and ?ZFC values for the perpendicular measurement. Micromagnetic simulations confirm the experimental observations and reveal that the magnetization reversal of magnetosome chain appears to be noncoherent at low angles and coherent at high angles. The simulations also demonstrate that the angular dependence of magnetic properties is related to the dispersion degree of individual chains, indicating that effects of anisotropy need to be accounted for when using rock magnetism to identify magnetosomes or magnetofossils once they have been preserved in aligned chains. Additionally, this study experimentally demonstrates an empirical correspondence of the parameter Bc,FORC to Bcr rather than Bc, at least for magnetite chains with strong shape anisotropy. This suggests FORC analysis is a good discriminant of magnetofossils in sediments and rocks.

  1. Effect of carbon tailoring on magnetic properties of Mn3GaC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, E.; Priolkar, K. R.; Nigam, A. K.

    2012-06-01

    We have investigated the magnetic properties of antiperovskite Mn3GaCx. Tailoring of carbon content affects the magnetic transition temperature of these materials. Magnetization decreases with decrease in carbon deficiency however carbon excess shows a reverse pattern. The virgin magnetization curves lie outside the hysteresis loop for x ? 0.8 showing competing ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic interactions. The pinching of magnetization loops seen especially in the case of x = 0.95 and 1.00 indicate field induced metamagnetic transitions.

  2. Preparation, thermal and magnetic properties of Mn5(HPO4)2(PO4)2 4H2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bevara, Samatha; Achary, S. N.; Babu, P. D.; Tyagi, A. K.

    2015-06-01

    Herein we report preparation, thermal stability and magnetic properties of a complex phosphate of manganese (Mn5(HPO4)2(PO4)2 4H2O) from powder XRD, thermogravimetric and magnetization studies. The structure of the composition has cluster of five Mn2+ions each having octahedral coordination. The composition is stable up to 300°C and then it decomposes to Mn2P2O7 and Mn3(PO4)2. The FC and ZFC magnetic measurements indicate a ferromagnetic like sharp transition around 6 K. Below transition temperature, the field dependent magnetization indicates ferromagnetic like hysteresis loop and at higher field signature of antferromagnetic interactions is observed.

  3. Mechanical switching of magnetic interaction by tweezers-type complex.

    PubMed

    Doistau, Benjamin; Cantin, Jean-Louis; Chamoreau, Lise-Marie; Marvaud, Valérie; Hasenknopf, Bernold; Vives, Guillaume

    2015-08-21

    A control of the interaction between two spin centers was achieved by using a mechanical motion in a terpy(Cu-salphen)2 complex. Upon coordination a conformation change and switching from a paramagnetic to an antiferromagnetically coupled system was observed by EPR and SQUID measurements. PMID:26178460

  4. Synthesis, structures and properties of a series of manganese coordination complexes constructed from dicarboxylic fluorene derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    Li Xing; Zhao Xiuhua; Bing Yue; Zha Meiqin; Xie Hongzhen; Guo Zhiyong

    2013-01-15

    Assembly reactions of 9,9-diethylfluorene-2,7-dicarboxylic acid (H{sub 2}DFDC) and Mn(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 2}{center_dot}4H{sub 2}O or MnCl{sub 2}{center_dot}4H{sub 2}O by tuning of various secondary ligands such as 2,2 Prime -bipyridine (2,2 Prime -bpy), 4,4 Prime -bipyridine (4,4 Prime -bpy) or 1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)propane) (bpp), gave rise to four complexes {l_brace} [Mn{sub 2}(DFDC){sub 2}(DMF){sub 2}]{center_dot}H{sub 2}O{r_brace} {sub n} (1), [Mn(DFDC)(2,2 Prime -bpy)]{sub n} (2), {l_brace} [Mn{sub 2}(DFDC){sub 2}(4,4 Prime -bpy){sub 2}]{center_dot}2CH{sub 3}OH{r_brace} {sub n} (3), and {l_brace} [Mn{sub 4}(DFDC){sub 4}(bpp){sub 2}(CH{sub 3}OH){sub 3} (H{sub 2}O){sub 3}]{center_dot}3(CH{sub 3}OH){center_dot}3(H{sub 2}O){r_brace} {sub n} (4). Single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis reveal that complex 1 is three dimensional structure with rhombic channels filled by guest water molecules; 2 presents a close-packed structure with high thermal stability; 3 exhibits a three dimensional framework with micro-porous channels filled by guest methanol molecules and 4 is a two-dimensional structure. The photoluminescent properties of 1-4 have been studied, respectively, showing that the Mn(II) ions, accessorial organic ligands or crystal structures exert important influences on the photoluminescence emissions of H{sub 2}DFDC ligands. Thermogravimetric analysis show that the complexes have remarkably high thermal stability. Magnetic susceptibility measurements have been finished and discussed for the complexes. - Graphical abstract: Assembly of 9,9-diethylfluorene-2,7-dicarboxylic acid and Mn(II) salts by tuning of various accessorial ligands resulted in four manganese complexes with different topological frameworks. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Four manganese complexes based on 9,9-diethylfluorene-2,7-dicarboxylic acid were obtained. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The complexes were structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The complexes 1-4 display different topological structures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermogravimetric analysis show the complexes have remarkably high thermal stability.

  5. Electronic and Magnetic Properties of Double Perovskites and Oxide Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erten, Onur

    Transition metal oxides exhibit a wide range of fascinating phenomena ranging from high Tc superconductivity to colossal magnetoresistance. In this thesis, we examine the novel electronic and magnetic properties of double perovskites and oxide interfaces. First we focus on Sr2FeMoO6 which has a half-metallic ground state and a ferrimagnetic Tc=420 K, well above the room temperature. There are very few half-metals in nature and along with its high Tc, Sr2FeMoO6 has enormous potential in spintronics applications. We develop a minimal model that couples the conduction electrons on Mo (4d1) to the core spins of Fe (3d5). Delocalization of conduction electrons and maximizing the kinetic energy drives the long-range magnetic order. "Integrating out" the conduction electrons, we derive a new effective Hamiltonian, H eff, only for the localized spins. Heff is unique to double perovskites, and with its peculiar double square root form, it is different from standard Heisenberg or Anderson-Hasegawa Hamiltonians. Using Heff, we perform the first 3D, finite temperature calculations of double perovskites, going well beyond previous mean field or small cluster calculations. Next we consider Sr2CrOsO6 which has the highest Tc among all perovskites with a net moment. Its insulating behavior is puzzling given that Cr and Os are in the 3d3 and 5d3 configurations, half filled in t2g orbitals. The net moment at low temperature is M(0)=0.75 muB and non-monotonic magnetization as a function of temperature are quite unusual. To address these questions, we organize the problem through the hierarchy of its energy scales. To deal with the highest energy scale, the charge sector, we develop a multi-band Hubbard model that has different on-site Coulomb correlations on the Cr and Os sites. We solve this model using slave-rotor mean field theory which captures the essentials of the metal-Mott insulator transition and goes well beyond Hartree-Fock. We find a new criterion for the Mott transition where the effective Coulomb correlation is determined by the geometric mean of the Coulomb correlations on Cr and Os. We show that the peculiar magnetic properties of SCOO can be explained through a weakly frustrated magnetic model. In the last chapter we focus on oxide interfaces, particularly LaAlO 3/SrTiO3 interface. Due to polar nature of LaAlO3, two dimensional electron gas is formed at the interface of these two band insulators. An exciting new development is the observation of robust magnetism which persists up to high temperatures ˜100 K. We present a microscopic theory where local moments are stabilized by crystal field splitting at the interface and strong Coulomb correlations. We find that conduction electrons with a gate-tunable Rashba spin-orbit coupling mediate ferromagnetic exchange with a twist. We predict that the zero- field ground state is a long-wavelength spiral. Its evolution in an external field accounts semi-quantitatively for torque magnetometry data and describes qualitative aspects of the scanning SQUID measurements.

  6. Magnetic Field Modeling of Complex, Flare Productive Active Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millholland, S. C.; Savcheva, A. S.; DeLuca, E. E.

    2014-12-01

    We present models and analysis of the magnetic field structure of three sigmoidal active regions (ARs). Sigmoids, forward or backward S-shaped EUV and X-ray emissions in the corona, are relevant as predictors of eruptive events such as flares and Coronal Mass Ejections. The regions were modeled using the Flux Rope Insertion Method, in which flux ropes, held in equilibrium by an overlying potential arcade, represent the sigmoids. The flux rope paths were inserted into a potential field following the filaments observed in 304Å. The models were then relaxed into a nonlinear force free (NLFFF) state using a magnetofrictional relaxation process. The first region studied is NOAA AR 12017, which produced an X1.0 flare at 2014/03/29 17:35. The second is NOAA AR 11283, which erupted with an X2.1 flare at 2011/09/06 22:12. For these regions, we show detailed comparisons of Quasi-Separatrix Layer (QSL) maps and observed flare ribbons. The slow evolution of an unstable solution at the time of the eruption produces a set of QSL solutions. Comparison of the photospheric mapping of the QSL with the flare ribbons will be a good measure of how well we have captured the magnetic structure of the particle acceleration region with our simple NLFFF models. The third is NOAA AR 11093. This region was a double decker filament composed of two branches over the same polarity inversion line. At 2010/08/07 17:55, the upper filament erupted with an M1.0 flare. This is the first time a double decker flux rope region has been modeled using these techniques. We show the interaction of the two inserted flux ropes and the evolution of the region through a series of NLFFF solutions to the evolving photospheric magnetic field. This work has been funded by the NSF-REU solar physics program at Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, grant number AGS-1263241.

  7. sp2-Bonded carbons: Optical, magnetic, and electronic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vora, Patrick M.

    Within this dissertation, we address the optical, magnetic, and electrical properties of sp2-bonded carbon materials. Our observations of photoluminescence from drop cast graphene oxide samples demonstrate that oxidation of graphene sheets opens a direct band gap. Removal of oxygen functionalities by chemical treatments is correlated with a shift of photoluminescence spectral weight from the near-infrared to the infrared, demonstrating the possibility of band gap engineering in a graphene based system. We propose the observed gap is generated by a static Kekule-distortion of the graphene lattice, induced by the bonding of oxygen functionalities to the graphene plane. Following these investigations of graphene oxide, we focused on our attention on a series of highly-purified single walled carbon nanotube suspensions, each containing only one (n, m) species (chirality). Using phonon sideband optical spectroscopy, we study the chirality dependence of the K-momentum dark singlet exciton in these remarkable samples. The bright-dark splitting between the dark K-momentum exciton and the bright exciton is a direct measure of many-body interactions and shows chiral angle and diameter dependence. Our extended tight-binding calculations indicate these effects arise from trigonal warping in the intervalley exchange interaction. Next, we calculate the chirality dependent magnetic anisotropy for semiconducting carbon nanotubes with diameters between 0.6 and 1.7 nm at different carrier concentrations. The magnetic anisotropy appears to plateau for small diameter carbon nanotubes at high carrier concentrations. We fit the calculated anisotropies using a seven parameter curvature-expansion model, enabling a quantitative analysis of the effect of carrier concentration. Finally, we perform magnetoresistance and thermal transport studies on titanium carbide-derived carbons. The experimental data strongly points to a metal-insulator transition as a function of the sample chlorination temperature. Anomalous magnetoresistance data are also observed in samples on the insulating side of the metal-insulator transition.

  8. Coupled Dust-Lattice Modes in Magnetized Complex Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Farokhi, B.; Shahmansouri, M.

    2008-09-07

    Dust lattice wave modes in a one dimensional plasma crystal (formed by paramagnetic dust particles) suspended in the plasma sheath are studied. The ion flow in the sheath introduces 'ion wakes' below the crystal particles. The wave dispersion relations are found under the influence of inhomogeneous magnetic field, wake charge effect and equilibrium charge gradient. The expression for the wave dispersion relations clearly show that three branches exist as a result of the coupling of longitudinal and transverse modes due to the Lorenz forces, charge gradient and wake charge effect. We observe a new coupling between the dust lattice modes, which have not reported so far.

  9. Small magnetic structures in the photosphere, radiative properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palacios, Judith; Domingo, Vicente; Cabello, Iballa; Bonet, José Antonio; Sánchez Almeida, Jorge

    The three dimensional structure of small magnetic field features in the photosphere, their dynamic behavior and their radiative properties are studied. We analyze data obtained in simultaneous observations made on Sept 29 and 30, 2007 with the HINODE spacecraft and the Swedish Solar Telescope (SST) in La Palma in different wavelengths, such as CaII (396.85 nm) and CN (388.35 nm) and other with Hinode data; and Gband (430.56 nm) with SST. Tha analysis is completed with high resolution Gband and Gcontinuum (436.39 nm) images from SST obtained on 2005 and 2006. Magnetograms have been obtained from both observatories. SST images have been processed with MOMFB code. Ribbon-like structures and "flowers" are studied in detail. Comparisons with solar atmospheric models are presented.

  10. Exchange-Coupling in Magnetic Nanoparticles to Enhance Magnetostrictive Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Radousky, H; McElfresh, M; Berkowitz, A; Carman, G P

    2002-01-31

    Spark erosion is a versatile and economical method for producing particles of virtually any type of material that has a nominal conductivity: particles can be prepared in sizes ranging from a few nm to tens of {micro}m. The purpose of this feasibility study was to demonstrate the capability of making spherical particles of specific magnetic materials. We chose (Tb Dy)Fe{sub 2} (Terfenol-D) due to its potential use as the magnetostrictive component in magneto-elastomer composites. We also chose to work with pure Ni as a model system. Improvements in the properties of magneto-elastomer composites have broad applications in the areas of sensor development, enhanced actuators and damping systems.

  11. 2216 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MAGNETICS, VOL. 37, NO. 4, JULY 2001 Magnetic Properties of Cobalt and CobaltPlatinum

    E-print Network

    Spinu, Leonard

    2216 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MAGNETICS, VOL. 37, NO. 4, JULY 2001 Magnetic Properties of Cobalt and Cobalt­Platinum Alloy Nanoparticles Synthesized Via Microemulsion Technique Amar Kumbhar, Leonard Spinu, Fabrice Agnoli, Kai-Ying Wang, Weilie Zhou, and Charles J. O'Connor Abstract--Metallic cobalt and cobalt

  12. Thermodynamic stability, kinetic inertness and relaxometric properties of monoamide derivatives of lanthanide(III) DOTA complexes.

    PubMed

    Tei, Lorenzo; Baranyai, Zsolt; Gaino, Luca; Forgács, Attila; Vágner, Adrienn; Botta, Mauro

    2015-03-28

    A complete thermodynamic and kinetic solution study on lanthanide(III) complexes with monoacetamide (DOTAMA, L1) and monopropionamide (DOTAMAP, L2) derivatives of DOTA (DOTA = 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid) was undertaken with the aim to elucidate their stability and inertness in aqueous media. The stability constants of GdL1 and GdL2 are comparable, whereas a more marked difference is found in the kinetic inertness of the two complexes. The formation of the Eu(III) and Ce(III) complexes takes place via the formation of the protonated intermediates which can deprotonate and transform into the final complex through a OH(-) assisted pathway. GdL2 shows faster rates of acid catalysed decomplexation with respect to GdL1, which has a kinetic inertness comparable to GdDOTA. Nevertheless, GdL2 is one order of magnitude more inert than GdDO3A. A novel DOTAMAP-based bifunctional chelating ligand and its deoxycholic acid derivative (L5) were also synthesized. Since the coordinated water molecule in GdL2 is characterized by an exchange rate ca. two orders of magnitude greater than in GdL1, the relaxivity of the macromolecular derivatives of L5 should not be limited by the slow water exchange process. The relaxometric properties of the supramolecular adduct of GdL5 with human serum albumin (HSA) were investigated in aqueous solution by measuring the magnetic field dependence of the (1)H relaxivity which, at 20 MHz and 298 K, shows a 430% increase over that of the unbound GdL5 chelate. Thus, Gd(III) complexes with DOTAMAP macrocyclic ligands can represent good candidates for the development of stable and highly effective bioconjugate systems for molecular imaging applications. PMID:25695351

  13. Magnetic Protostars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glagolevskij, Yu. V.

    2015-09-01

    A possible variant of the evolution of magnetic protostars "before the Hayashi phase" is discussed. Arguments are given in support of the following major properties of magnetic stars: (1) global magnetic dipole fields with predominant orientation of the magnetic lines of force in the plane of the equator of revolution; (2) slow rotation; (3) complex, two and three dipole structures of the magnetic field in a large part of the stars; (4) partition of stars into magnetic and normal in a proportion of 1:10 occurs during the period when the protostellar clouds undergo gravitational collapse "before the Hayashi phase."

  14. Microstructure and Magnetic Properties of Electrodeposited Cobalt Film

    SciTech Connect

    Bhuiyan, Md S; Taylor, B. J.; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Thompson, James R; Sinclair, J.

    2008-01-01

    Cobalt films were electrodeposited onto both iron and copper substrates from an aqueous solution containing a mixture of cobalt sulfate, boric acid, sodium citrate, and vanadyl sulfate. The structural, intermetallic diffusion and magnetic properties of the electrodeposited films were studied. Cobalt electrodeposition was carried out in a passively divided cell aided by addition of vanadyl sulfate to keep the counter electrode clean. The divided electrolytic cell with very negative current densities cause the electrodeposited Co to adopt a face-centered cubic (fcc) structure, which is more magnetically reversible than the hexagonally close-packed (hcp) structured Co. The coercive field is also significantly less in the fcc-electrodeposited cobalt than in the hcp. SEM images show dense, uniform Co films without any cracks or porosity. Beside the deposition current, thickness of the film was also found to affect the crystal orientation particularly on iron substrates. Diffusion of cobalt film into the iron substrate was studied under reduced environment and a fast process was observed.

  15. Texture and magnetic properties of exchange bias systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aley, N. P.; Bowes, M.; Kröger, R.; O'Grady, K.

    2010-05-01

    We report on the magnetic and structural properties of IrMn/CoFe exchange bias systems deposited onto a dual seed layer of NiCr(X)/Ru(5 nm), with X=2, 6, and 20 nm. Samples with the structure NiCr (Xnm)/IrMn (7 nm)/CoFe (3 nm)/Ta (10 nm) with X=2, 6, and 20 nm were prepared by dc sputtering for magnetic characterization. A second set of samples with structure NiCr (Xnm)/IrMn (10 nm) with X=2, 6, and 20 nm were deposited onto TEM grids for structural characterization by TEM. A method of manipulating of the TEM grid to allow a qualitative analysis of the in-plane texture of the samples is described and used to analyze the microstructure of these samples. The microstructure and particularly the texture are correlated with the anisotropy constant (KAF) of the antiferromagnet (AF) layer, with an optimum NiCr seed layer of 6 nm to give a maximum value of KAF of 1.2×107 ergs/cc.

  16. Molecular based magnets comprising vanadium tetracyanoethylene complexes for shielding electromagnetic fields

    DOEpatents

    Epstein, A.J.; Morin, B.G.

    1998-10-13

    The invention presents a vanadium tetracyanoethylene solvent complex for electromagnetic field shielding, and a method for blocking low frequency and magnetic fields using these vanadium tetracyanoethylene compositions. The compositions of the invention can be produced at ambient temperature and are light weight, low density and flexible. The materials of the present invention are useful as magnetic shields to block low frequency fields and static fields, and for use in cores in transformers and motors. 21 figs.

  17. Molecular based magnets comprising vanadium tetracyanoethylene complexes for shielding electromagnetic fields

    DOEpatents

    Epstein, Arthur J. (Columbus, OH); Morin, Brian G. (Columbus, OH)

    1998-01-01

    The invention presents a vanadium tetracyanoethylene solvent complex for electromagnetic field shielding, and a method for blocking low frequency and magnetic fields using these vanadium tetracyanoethylene compositions. The compositions of the invention can be produced at ambient temperature and are light weight, low density and flexible. The materials of the present invention are useful as magnetic shields to block low frequency fields and static fields, and for use in cores in transformers and motors.

  18. Temporal Effects in Dielectric Properties of Some Antiferroelectric Complex Perovskites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Wai-Hung; Xu, Zheng Kui; Zhai, Jiwei; Chen, Haydn; Colla, Eugene V.

    2003-08-01

    Two complex perovskite antiferroelectric (AFE) systems were studied; they are Pb0.97La0.02(Zr0.6Sn0.3Ti0.1)O3 (PLZST) in ceramic form and Pb0.99Nb0.02(Zr0.82Sn0.12Ti0.04)0.98O3 (PNZST) in thin film form. Dielectric and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies of the PLZST ceramics confirmed the AFE nature of the specimen, but at low temperature the electrical field application could induce a temporary ferroelectric (FE) phase with characteristic life-time dependent on temperature This life-time reaches a value of ˜ 0.1s at 248K. Further decrease of temperature leads to a much faster than Arrhenius growth of the recovery time, which eventually exceeds the reasonable laboratory time scale below 210K. We believe that the strongly temperature-dependent kinetics arises from a cooperative freezing of the incommensurate AFE order in the presence of quenched composition disorder. The PNZST films' polarization properties are highly dependent on the film thickness and at the lowest studied limit (˜170 nm) the field application in the surface normal direction can induce the FE phase with the time of recovery back to the AFE state being a magnitude of several hours. In this case the filed-induced FE ordering is very asymmetric with respect to the field direction, is thickness dependent and the FE phase can be induced if the time of field application is on scale of a second. The application of the field for a much shorter time (e.g. 1ms) does not significantly affect the AFE properties of the film. We suggest that the substrate/film interface could be responsible for this phenomenon.

  19. Magnetic properties of Fe-Mn-Pt for heat assisted magnetic recording applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jihoon; Hong, Yang-Ki; Kim, Seong-Gon; Gao, Li; Thiele, Jan-Ulrich

    2015-02-01

    We calculate the electronic structures of FePt and Fe0.5Mn0.5Pt using first-principles calculations based on density functional theory within the local-spin-density approximation. The Curie temperature (Tc) was calculated by mean field approximation. Composition dependence of the Cure temperature (Tc(x)) of Fe1-xMnxPt was used to identify a composition to meet the desired Tc in the range of 600-650 K. The identified composition (0.0294 ? x ? 0.0713) gives saturation magnetization (Ms) in the range of 1041-919 emu/cm3 and magnetocrystalline anisotropy constant (K) in the range of 9.96-8.36 × 106 J/m3 at 0 K. Temperature dependent M(T) and K(T) of Fe1-xMnxPt (0.0294 ? x ? 0.0713) were calculated using the Brillouin function and Callen-Callen experimental relation, respectively. Fe1-xMnxPt (0.0294 ? x ? 0.0713) shows 930-800 emu/cm3 of Ms and 7.18-5.61 × 106 J/m3 of K at 300 K, thereby satisfying desired magnetic properties for heat-assisted magnetic recording media to achieve 4 Tb/in.2 areal density.

  20. Magnetic properties of the Olivenza meteorite - Possible implications for its evolution and an early Solar System magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collinson, D. W.

    1987-08-01

    The magnetic properties of samples of the Olivenza chondrite (LL5) obtained from four collections have been investigated. The natural remanent magnetization (NRM) consists of a very stable primary component, which is randomly scattered in direction on a scale of about 1 cu mm or less within the samples, and a secondary magnetization widely varying in intensity, and probably also in direction. The origin of the secondary NRM is not clear, and may be of terrestrial origin. It is concluded that the NRM is carried by the ordered nickel-iron mineral, tetrataenite. The origin of the primary NRM could be a magnetic field associated with the solar nebula, out of which the metal grains condensed and acquired a thermoremanent magnetization (TRM), or Olivenza could be a fine-grained breccia, the constituent fragments possessing randomly directed magnetization. The implications for the origin and evolution of Olivenza and its parent body if the former magnetizing process has occurred are discussed.

  1. Atomic Structure, Binding Energy, and Magnetic Properties of Iron Atoms Supported on Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senapati, L.; Nayak, S. K.; Rao, B. K.; Jena, P.

    2002-03-01

    The atomic structure, energetics, and properties of gas-phase cluster complexes containing coronene (C_12H_12) molecule and up to two iron atoms are studied for the first time using density functional theory and generalized gradient approximation for exchange and correlation. The geometries of the neutral and cationic iron-coronene complexes are optimized without symmetry constraint and by examining the possibility that iron atoms could occupy various sites via individual ? or bridging interactions. In both neutral and cationic complexes a single Fe atom is found to preferentially occupy the on-top site above the outer ring, while two Fe atoms dimerize and bind to outer bridge sites. The binding energy of neutral Fe_2-Coronene defined with respect to dissociation into coronene and Fe2 is larger than that of Fe-coronene while reverse is true for the corresponding cations. The ionization potentials of these complexes are not very sensitive to the number of adsorbed Fe atoms, but are significantly reduced from those of the Fe atom or the coronene molecule. The coupling between the Fe atoms remains ferromagnetic although the magnetic moment/atom is reduced from the free-atom value.

  2. Complex permittivity, complex permeability and microwave absorption properties of ferrite polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbas, S. M.; Dixit, A. K.; Chatterjee, R.; Goel, T. C.

    2007-02-01

    The complex permittivity ( ?'- j??), complex permeability (?'- j??) and microwave absorption properties of ferrite-polymer composites prepared with different ferrite ratios of 50%, 60%, 70% and 80% in polyurethane (PU) matrix have been investigated in X-band (8.2-12.4 GHz) frequency range. The M-type hexaferrite composition BaCo +20.9Fe +20.05Si +40.95Fe +310.1O 19 was prepared by solid-state reaction technique, whereas commercial PU was used to prepare the composites. At higher GHz frequencies, ferrite's permeabilities are drastically reduced, however, the forced conversion of Fe +3 to Fe +2 ions that involves electron hopping, could have increased the dielectric losses in the chosen composition. We have measured complex permittivity and permeability using a vector network analyzer (HP/Agilent model PNA E8364B) and software module 85071. All the parameters ?', ??, ?' and ?? are found to increase with increased ferrite contents. Measured values of these parameters were used to determine the reflection loss at various sample thicknesses, based on a model of a single-layered plane wave absorber backed by a perfect conductor. The composite with 80% ferrite content has shown a minimum reflection loss of -24.5 dB (>99% power absorption) at 12 GHz with the -20 dB bandwidth over the extended frequency range of 11-13 GHz for an absorber thickness of 1.6 mm. The prepared composites can fruitfully be utilized for suppression of electromagnetic interference (EMI) and reduction of radar signatures (stealth technology).

  3. Physical properties of macromolecule-metal oxide nanoparticle complexes: Magnetophoretic mobility, sizes, and interparticle potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mefford, Olin Thompson, IV

    Magnetic nanoparticles coated with polymers hold great promise as materials for applications in biotechnology. In this body of work, magnetic fluids for the treatment of retinal detachment are examined closely in three regimes; motion of ferrofluid droplets in aqueous media, size analysis of the polymer-iron oxide nanoparticles, and calculation of interparticle potentials as a means for predicting fluid stability. The macromolecular ferrofluids investigated herein are comprised of magnetite nanoparticles coated with tricarboxylate-functional polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) oligomers. The nanoparticles were formed by reacting stoichiometric concentrations of iron chloride salts with base. After the magnetite particles were prepared, the functional PDMS oligomers were adsorbed onto the nanoparticle surfaces. The motion of ferrofluid droplets in aqueous media was studied using both theoretical modeling and experimental verification. Droplets (˜1-2 mm in diameter) of ferrofluid were moved through a viscous aqueous medium by an external magnet of measured field and field gradient. Theoretical calculations were made to approximate the forces on the droplet. Using the force calculations, the times required for the droplet to travel across particular distances were estimated. These estimated times were within close approximation of experimental values. Characterization of the sizes of the nanoparticles was particularly important, since the size of the magnetite core affects the magnetic properties of the system, as well as the long-term stability of the nanoparticles against flocculation. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to measure the sizes and size distributions of the magnetite cores. Image analyses were conducted on the TEM micrographs to measure the sizes of approximately 6000 particles per sample. Distributions of the diameters of the magnetite cores were determined from this data. A method for calculating the total particle size, including the magnetite core and the adsorbed polymer, in organic dispersions was established. These estimated values were compared to measurements of the entire complex utilizing dynamic light scattering (DLS). Better agreement was found for narrow particle size distributions as opposed to broader distribution. The stability against flocculation of the complexes over time in organic media were examined via modified Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) calculations. DLVO theory allows for predicting the total particle-particle interaction potentials, which include steric and electrostatic repulsions as well as van der Waals and magnetic attractions. The interparticle potentials can be determined as a function of separation of the particle surfaces. At a constant molecular weight of the polymer dispersion stabilizer, these calculations indicated that dispersions of smaller PDMS-magnetite particles should be more stable than those containing larger particles. The rheological characteristics of neat magnetite-PDMS complexes (i.e., no solvent or carrier fluid were present) were measured over time in the absence of an applied magnetic field to probe the expected properties upon storage. The viscosity of a neat ferrofluid increased over the course of a month, indicating that some aggregation occurred. However, this effect could be removed by shearing the fluids at a high rate. This suggests that the particles do not irreversibly flocculate under these conditions.

  4. Magnetic nanoparticles for power absorption: Optimizing size, shape and magnetic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez-Fernandez, M.A.; Torres, T.E.; Andres-Verges, M.; Costo, R.; Presa, P. de la; Serna, C.J.; Morales, M.P.; Marquina, C.; Ibarra, M.R.; Goya, G.F.

    2009-10-15

    We present a study on the magnetic properties of naked and silica-coated Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles with sizes between 5 and 110 nm. Their efficiency as heating agents was assessed through specific power absorption (SPA) measurements as a function of particle size and shape. The results show a strong dependence of the SPA with the particle size, with a maximum around 30 nm, as expected for a Neel relaxation mechanism in single-domain particles. The SiO{sub 2} shell thickness was found to play an important role in the SPA mechanism by hindering the heat outflow, thus decreasing the heating efficiency. It is concluded that a compromise between good heating efficiency and surface functionality for biomedical purposes can be attained by making the SiO{sub 2} functional coating as thin as possible. - Graphical Abstract: The magnetic properties of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles from 5 to 110 nm are presented, and their efficiency as heating agents discussed as a function of particle size, shape and surface functionalization.

  5. Nickel(II)-lanthanide(III) magnetic exchange coupling influencing single-molecule magnetic features in {Ni2 Ln2 } complexes.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Naushad; Das, Chinmoy; Vaidya, Shefali; Langley, Stuart K; Murray, Keith S; Shanmugam, Maheswaran

    2014-10-27

    Four isostructural [Ni2 Ln2 (CH3 CO2 )3 (HL)4 (H2 O)2 ](3+) (Ln(3+) =Dy (1), Tb (2), Ho (3) or Lu (4)) complexes and a dinuclear [NiGd(HL)2 (NO3 )3 ] (5) complex are reported (where HL=2-methoxy-6-[(E)-2'-hydroxymethyl-phenyliminomethyl]-phenolate). For compounds 1-3 and 5, the Ni(2+) ions are ferromagnetically coupled to the respective lanthanide ions. The ferromagnetic coupling in 1 suppresses the quantum tunnelling of magnetisation (QTM), resulting in a rare zero dc field Ni-Dy single-molecule magnet, with an anisotropy barrier Ueff of 19?K. PMID:25214152

  6. Magnetic properties and transformation of crystal structure in the ErFe{sub 2}-ErAl{sub 2} system

    SciTech Connect

    ?wik, J. Miller, M.; Koshkid'ko, Y.; Mikhailova, A.; Kolchugina, N.; Nenkov, K.; Hackamer, A.

    2015-03-28

    The modification of structural properties and magnetic behaviour of the ErFe{sub 2?x}Al{sub x} Laves phase intermetallic compounds have been studied while changing the Al content in the range 0.36???x???1.5. Powder X-ray diffraction study at room temperature showed the formation of the cubic C15 structure, in the samples with Al content of 0.36???x?Magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of polycrystalline ErFe{sub 2?x}Al{sub x} intermetallic compounds were investigated experimentally using magnetic and heat capacity measurements. The Curie temperature T{sub C} decreases from 275 to 28?K as the Al content increases from x?=?0.36 to x?=?1.5, respectively. Magnetization measurements in strong magnetic fields showed the complex mechanism of magnetic saturation in the studied compounds. Under an external field change from 0 to 2?T, the maximum entropy change is 6?J/kg K at T?=?28?K for the composition with x?=?1.5. The minimum in the concentration dependence of the magnetic entropy change is observed in the vicinity of x equal to 1.25. Regularities of variations of magnetocaloric properties of ErFe{sub 2?x}Al{sub x} intermetallic compounds with increasing Al content are discussed from the point of view of their both structural and magnetic states.

  7. Phenoxide bridged tetranuclear Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes: Electrochemical, magnetic and antimicrobial studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamath, Anupama; Kulkarni, Naveen V.; Netalkar, Priya P.; Revankar, Vidyanand K.

    2011-09-01

    Phenoxide bridged later first row transition metal(II) complexes have been prepared by the interaction of later 3d transition metal(II) chlorides with tetranucleating compartmental Schiff base ligand system derived from 2,6-diformyl-4-methylphenol, p-phenylenediamine and 2-hydrazinobenzothiazole. Ligand and complexes were characterized by analytical, spectral (IR, UV-visible, ESR, FAB-mass and fluorescence), magnetic and thermal studies. All complexes are found to have octahedral geometry. The mutual influence of metal centres in terms of cooperative effect on the electronic, magnetic, electrochemical and structural properties was investigated. The Schiff base and its complexes have been screened for their antibacterial (against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and antifungal activities (against Aspergillus niger, and Candida albicans).

  8. Structure and properties of complex hydride perovskite materials.

    PubMed

    Schouwink, Pascal; Ley, Morten B; Tissot, Antoine; Hagemann, Hans; Jensen, Torben R; Smr?ok, Lubomír; ?erný, Radovan

    2014-01-01

    Perovskite materials host an incredible variety of functionalities. Although the lightest element, hydrogen, is rarely encountered in oxide perovskite lattices, it was recently observed as the hydride anion H(-), substituting for the oxide anion in BaTiO3. Here we present a series of 30 new complex hydride perovskite-type materials, based on the non-spherical tetrahydroborate anion BH4(-) and new synthesis protocols involving rare-earth elements. Photophysical, electronic and hydrogen storage properties are discussed, along with counterintuitive trends in structural behaviour. The electronic structure is investigated theoretically with density functional theory solid-state calculations. BH4-specific anion dynamics are introduced to perovskites, mediating mechanisms that freeze lattice instabilities and generate supercells of up to 16 × the unit cell volume in AB(BH4)3. In this view, homopolar hydridic di-hydrogen contacts arise as a potential tool with which to tailor crystal symmetries, thus merging concepts of molecular chemistry with ceramic-like host lattices. Furthermore, anion mixing BH4(-)?X(-) (X(-)=Cl(-), Br(-), I(-)) provides a link to the known ABX3 halides. PMID:25490884

  9. Interfacial magnetism in complex oxide heterostructures probed by neutrons and x-rays.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yaohua; Ke, Xianglin

    2015-09-23

    Magnetic complex-oxide heterostructures are of keen interest because a wealth of phenomena at the interface of dissimilar materials can give rise to fundamentally new physics and potentially valuable functionalities. Altered magnetization, novel magnetic coupling and emergent interfacial magnetism at the epitaxial layered-oxide interfaces are under intensive investigation, which shapes our understanding on how to utilize those materials, particularly for spintronics. Neutron and x-ray based techniques have played a decisive role in characterizing interfacial magnetic structures and clarifying the underlying physics in this rapidly developing field. Here we review some recent experimental results, with an emphasis on those studied via polarized neutron reflectometery and polarized x-ray absorption spectroscopy. We conclude with some perspectives. PMID:26328474

  10. Interfacial Magnetism in Complex Oxide Heterostructures Probed by Neutrons and X-rays

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yaohua; Ke, Xianglin

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic complex-oxide heterostructures are of keen interest because a wealth of phenomena at the interface of dissimilar materials can give rise to fundamentally new physics and potentially valuable functionalities. Altered magnetization, novel magnetic coupling and emergent interfacial magnetism at the epitaxial layered-oxide interfaces have all been intensively investigated, which shapes our understanding on how to utilize those materials, particularly for spintronics. Neutron and x-ray based techniques have played a decisive role in characterizing interfacial magnetic structures and clarifying the underlying physics in this rapidly developing field. Here we review some recent experimental results, with an emphasis on those studied via polarized neutron reflectometery and polarized x-ray absorption spectroscopy. We conclude with some perspectives.

  11. Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and complex magnetotransport behavior of cobalt nanoparticles in silver matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Dinesh; Chaudhary, Sujeet; Pandya, Dinesh K.

    2015-05-01

    A cobalt concentration dependent transition from usual magnetoresistance (MR) to complex MR behavior is reported in the co-sputtered Co-Ag thin films containing cobalt nanoparticles. At 20 K, the MR behavior of 32.6% film consists of three contributions superparamagnetic (SPM), ferromagnetic (FM), and perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA), which are, respectively, operative at high, intermediate, and low fields. Magnetic force microscopy (MFM) provides the supporting evidence for the existence of a magnetic microstructure with magnetization perpendicular to the film plane for a threshold of 32.6% cobalt concentration. MFM images show the presence of regions with perpendicular magnetization having sizes much larger than the particle size. In addition, the magnetization measurements also substantiate the presence of PMA in films above 25.2% cobalt. The observed complex magnetotransport behavior and associated PMA are interpreted in terms of inter-particle (FM-SPM-FM) interactions in which local magnetic fields of the nearby FM particles align the SPM particles out of film plane.

  12. Ferric Phosphate Hydroxide Microstructures Affect Their Magnetic Properties

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Junhong; Zhang, Youjuan; Run, Zhen; Li, Pengwei; Guo, Qifei; Pang, Huan

    2015-01-01

    Uniformly sized and shape-controlled nanoparticles are important due to their applications in catalysis, electrochemistry, ion exchange, molecular adsorption, and electronics. Several ferric phosphate hydroxide (Fe4(OH)3(PO4)3) microstructures were successfully prepared under hydrothermal conditions. Using controlled variations in the reaction conditions, such as reaction time, temperature, and amount of hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), the crystals can be grown as almost perfect hyperbranched microcrystals at 180?°C (without CTAB) or relatively monodisperse particles at 220?°C (with CTAB). The large hyperbranched structure of Fe4(OH)3(PO4)3 with a size of ?19??m forms with the “fractal growth rule” and shows many branches. More importantly, the magnetic properties of these materials are directly correlated to their size and micro/nanostructure morphology. Interestingly, the blocking temperature (TB) shows a dependence on size and shape, and a smaller size resulted in a lower TB. These crystals are good examples that prove that physical and chemical properties of nano/microstructured materials are related to their structures, and the precise control of the morphology of such functional materials could allow for the control of their performance. PMID:26246988

  13. Structural and magnetic properties of Ca-substituted barium W-type hexagonal hexaferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Kai; Liu, Xiansong; Feng, Shuangjiu; Zhang, Zhanjun; Yu, Jiangying; Niu, Xiaofei; Lv, Farui; Huang, Xing

    2015-04-01

    A series of W-type hexagonal ferrites with the composition Ba1-xCaxCo2Fe16O27 (x=0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5) were synthesized using a sol-gel method. The effects of doping on structural and magnetic properties are studied by X-ray diffraction, thermal analyzer, scanning electron microscopy, vibrating sample magnetometer and vector network analyzer, respectively. The X-ray diffraction analysis shows that the samples belong to the W-type hexagonal ferrite. The lattice constants a and c decreases as Ca contents increases. The grains exhibit well defined hexagonal shape. The saturation magnetization and the intrinsic coercive force increases with the increase of the Ca substitution amount. The real part of complex permittivity (??) and imaginary part (??) increase with more addition of Ca2+ amount. The imaginary part of complex permittivity (??) increases and the real part (???) goes down after Ca2+ is doped. Furthermore, the Ca2+ ions doped in the ferrite improved microwave absorbency.

  14. Influence of microstructure on physico-mechanical properties of liquid metal-based magnetic colloids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseev, V. A.; Veprik, I. Yu.; Minukov, S. G.; Fedonenko, A. I.

    1990-04-01

    The microstructure and physico-mechanical properties of magnetic colloids based on liquid metals are studied experimentally. The type of inner structure has been proved to determine the magnetic and rheological characteristics of the colloids. Taking into account the collective interaction of the particles, the shear stress limit has been calculated and its anisotropy in an external magnetic field has been proved theoretically.

  15. Laser-driven synthesis and magnetic properties of iron nanoparticles Yuanqing He1,4

    E-print Network

    Swihart, Mark T.

    125 K. Introduction Currently, magnetic nanoparticles such as iron, nickel and cobalt, are usedLaser-driven synthesis and magnetic properties of iron nanoparticles Yuanqing He1,4 , Yudhisthira form 6 July 2005 Key words: CO2 laser, aerosol synthesis, magnetic, iron, nanoparticle Abstract

  16. Torsional properties of helix-reinforced composites fabricated by magnetic freeze casting

    E-print Network

    Meyers, Marc A.

    Torsional properties of helix-reinforced composites fabricated by magnetic freeze casting Michael M September 2014 Keywords: Torsion Helix Bioinspired Freeze casting Magnetic alignment Ceramic composites a b inspiration from these natural structures, a novel materials processing method, known as magnetic freeze

  17. Variability of magnetic soil properties in Hawaii Remke L. van Dam*a

    E-print Network

    Borchers, Brian

    Variability of magnetic soil properties in Hawaii Remke L. van Dam*a , J. Bruce J. Harrisona , Jan Hawaiian Islands: O'ahu, Kaho'olawe, and Hawaii. The data show a strong negative correlation between mean oxides, magnetic soils, soil development, Hawaii 1. INTRODUCTION Electromagnetic (EM) and magnetic

  18. Magnetic property of layered compound NbFeTe2 Jian H. Zhang

    E-print Network

    Li, Jing

    Magnetic property of layered compound NbFeTe2 Jian H. Zhang Department of Chemistry, XavierFeTe2 is a layered cluster compound in which intra Fe­Fe bond distance is 2.488 Å. The magnetic magnetic moment of 3.67 B per Fe at 300 K corresponding to three unpaired electrons may suggest

  19. Double-decker phthalocyanine complex: Scanning tunneling microscopy study of film formation and spin properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komeda, Tadahiro; Katoh, Keiichi; Yamashita, Masahiro

    2014-05-01

    We review recent studies of double-decker and triple-decker phthalocyanine (Pc) molecules adsorbed on surfaces in terms of the bonding configuration, electronic structure and spin state. The Pc molecule has been studied extensively in surface science. A Pc molecule can contain various metal atoms at the center, and the class of the molecule is called as metal phthalocyanine (MPc). If the center metal has a large radius, like as lanthanoid metals, it becomes difficult to incorporate the metal atom inside of the Pc ring. Pc ligands are placed so as to sandwich the metal atom, where the metal atom is placed out of the Pc plane. The molecule in this configuration is called as a multilayer-decker Pc molecule. After the finding that the double-decker Pc lanthanoid complex shows single-molecule magnet (SMM) behavior, it has attracted a large attention. This is partly due to a rising interest for the ‘molecular spintronics’, in which the freedoms of spin and charge of an electron are applied to the quantum process of information. SMMs represent a class of compounds in which a single molecule behaves as a magnet. The reported blocking temperature, below which a single SMM molecule works as an quantum magnet, has been increasing with the development in the molecular design and synthesis techniques of multiple-decker Pc complex. However, even the bulk properties of these molecules are promising for the use of electronic materials, the films of multi-decker Pc molecules is less studied than those for the MPc molecules. An intriguing structural property is expected for the multi-decker Pc molecules since the Pc planes are linked by metal atoms. This gives an additional degree of freedom to the rotational angle between the two Pc ligands, and they can make a wheel-like symmetric rotation. Due to a simple and well-defined structure of a multi-decker Pc complex, the molecule can be a model molecule for molecular machine studies. The multi-decker Pc molecules can provide interesting spin configuration. The center metal atom, including a lanthanoid metal of Tb, tends to be 3+ cation, while the Pc ligand to be 2- anion. This realizes two-spin system, in which spins from 4f electrons and ? radical coexist. Though the spins of 4f orbitals of those molecules have been studied, the importance of the ? radicals has been highlighted recently from the measurement of electronic conductance properties of these molecules. In this article, recent researches on multi-decker Pc molecules are reviewed. The manuscript is organized with groups of chapters as follows: (1) Film formation, (2) Spin of TbPc2 film and Kondo resonance observation, (3) Rotation of double-decker Pc complex and chemical modification for spin control, (4) Device formation using double-decker Pc complex.

  20. Metal-organic coordination architectures of azole heterocycle ligands bearing acetic acid groups: Synthesis, structure and magnetic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Hu Bowen; Zhao Jiongpeng; Yang Qian; Hu Tongliang; Du Wenping; Bu Xianhe

    2009-10-15

    Four new coordination complexes with azole heterocycle ligands bearing acetic acid groups, [Co(L{sup 1}){sub 2}]{sub n} (1), [CuL{sup 1}N{sub 3}]{sub n} (2), [Cu(L{sup 2}){sub 2}.0.5C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OH.H{sub 2}O]{sub n} (3) and [Co(L{sup 2}){sub 2}]{sub n} (4) (here, HL{sup 1}=1H-imidazole-1-yl-acetic acid, HL{sup 2}=1H-benzimidazole-1-yl-acetic acid) have been synthesized and structurally characterized. Single-crystal structure analysis shows that 3 and 4 are 2D complexes with 4{sup 4}-sql topologies, while another 2D complex 1 has a (4{sup 3}){sub 2}(4{sup 6})-kgd topology. And 2 is a 3D complex composed dinuclear mu{sub 1,1}-bridging azido Cu{sup II} entities with distorted rutile topology. The magnetic properties of 1 and 2 have been studied. - Graphical Abstract: The synthesis, crystal structure, and magnetic properties of the new coordination complexes with azole heterocycle ligands bearing acetic acid groups are reported.

  1. Energetics, diffusion, and magnetic properties of cobalt atom in a monolayer graphene: An ab initio study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raji, Abdulrafiu T.; Lombardi, Enrico B.

    2015-09-01

    We use ab initio methods to study the binding, diffusion, and magnetic properties of cobalt atom embedded in graphene vacancies. We investigate the diffusion of Co-monovacancy (Co-MV) and Co-divacancy (Co-DV) defect complexes, and determine the minimum energy path (MEP), as well as the activation energy barrier of migration. We obtained similar activation energy barriers, of ˜5.8 eV, for Co-MV and Co-DV diffusion, respectively. Our calculations also suggest that, at electron-irradiation energy of 200 keV as used in a related experiment, the maximum energy transfer to the Co atom, of approximately 9.0 eV is sufficiently high to break metal-carbon bonding. The incident electron energy is also high enough to displace graphene's carbon atoms from their lattice positions. The breaking of metal-carbon bonding and the displacement of graphene atoms may act to facilitate the migration of Co. We conclude therefore that the detrapping and diffusion of cobalt as observed experimentally is likely to be radiation-induced, similar to what has been observed for Au and Fe in electron-irradiated graphene. Furthermore, we show that Co migration in graphene is such that its magnetic moment varies along the diffusion path. The magnetic moment of Co is consistently higher in Co-DV diffusion when compared to that of Co-MV diffusion.

  2. Iron doped hexagonal ErMnO3: structural, magnetic, and dielectric properties.

    PubMed

    Liu, P; Cheng, Z X; Wang, X L; Du, Y; Yu, Z W; Dou, S X; Zhao, H Y; Ozawa, K; Kimura, H

    2012-02-01

    The single phase ErFe(x)Mn1-xO3 (0 < or = x < or = 0.15) compounds were synthesized by the solid-state reaction method. The doping effects on the crystal structural, magnetic, thermal, and dielectric properties were systematically investigated. The XRD patterns show all samples crystallize in the hexagonal structure with P6(3)cm space group. The lattice parameters a and c first decrease with doping, which is followed by a subsequent increase at higher doping levels. Although both the Fe3+ and Mn3+ ions remain stable in high spin trivalent states in all samples, the magnetization is weakened with increasing Fe contents. The heat capacity data shows the antiferromagnetic transition slightly shifts from 77 K for ErMnO3 to 80 K for ErFe015Mn0.85O3, which can not be observed in the magnetic susceptibility data. The real part of complex impedance of these samples rises as the doping level increases, indicating the enhancement of insulativity of doped samples. PMID:22629929

  3. Magnetic Property Measurements on Single Wall Carbon Nanotube-Polyimide Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Keun J.; Wincheski, Russell A.; Park, Cheol

    2008-01-01

    Temperature and magnetic field dependent magnetization measurements were performed on polyimide nanocomposite samples, synthesized with various weight percentages of single wall carbon nanotubes. It was found that the magnetization of the composite, normalized to the mass of nanotube material in the sample, decreased with increasing weight percentage of nanotubes. It is possible that the interfacial coupling between the carbon nanotube (CNT) fillers and the polyimide matrix promotes the diamagnetic response from CNTs and reduces the total magnetization of the composite. The coercivity of the samples, believed to originate from the residual magnetic catalyst particles, was enhanced and had a stronger temperature dependence as a result of the composite synthesis. These changes in magnetic properties can form the basis of a new approach to investigate the interfacial properties in the CNT nanocomposites through magnetic property measurements.

  4. The effect of low-temperature heat treatment on the magnetic properties of biogenic ferrihydrite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balaev, D. A.; Krasikov, A. A.; Dubrovskii, A. A.; Bayukov, O. A.; Stolyar, S. V.; Iskhakov, R. S.; Ladygina, V. P.; Yaroslavtsev, R. N.

    2015-07-01

    We have studied the influence of low-temperature heat treatment (annealing) on the magnetic properties of superparamagnetic nanoparticles of biogenic ferrihydrite. It is established that the proposed treatment leads to an increase in the blocking temperature and magnetic susceptibility of samples. After subsequent exposure in aqueous medium, the magnetic properties of annealed sol remain constant. The character of changes in the magnetic properties of samples studied shows that low-temperature heat treatment allows nanoparticle dimensions to be increased in a controlled way.

  5. MAGNETIC PROPERTIES OF ULTRAVIOLET TRANSIENT PHENOMENA ARE BLINKERS AND EXPLOSIVE EVENTS THE SAME PHENOMENON?

    E-print Network

    1 MAGNETIC PROPERTIES OF ULTRAVIOLET TRANSIENT PHENOMENA ARE BLINKERS AND EXPLOSIVE EVENTS THE SAME the magnetic properties and distinct nature of the transition region phenomena such as explosive events stronger than the other one. Higher resolution observations are needed in order to associate explosive

  6. Magnetic soil properties in Ghana Jan M.H. Hendrickx*a

    E-print Network

    Borchers, Brian

    Magnetic soil properties in Ghana Jan M.H. Hendrickx*a , J. Bruce J. Harrisona , Remke L. van Dama 87801, USA c Soil Research Institute, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Kwadaso, Germany ABSTRACT In this paper we present the results of a study of some soil magnetic properties in Ghana

  7. Transmittal properties of a superconductor-ferromagnetic metamaterial subjected to magnetic fields generated by the permanent magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, H.; Li, X. T.; Zhou, P. B.; Zhang, H.; Yang, C.; Ma, G. T.; Wang, R.; Chen, H.; Wang, Z.; Li, N.; Zhang, L.

    2015-09-01

    Superconductor-ferromagnetic (FN) metamaterial with effective magnetic shielding and transmittal properties that allow the cloaking and transferring of static magnetic fields has been introduced. Most metamaterials consist of different arrangements of superconducting and ferromagnetic materials whose performance and feasibility mainly depend on the involved materials, their geometrical distribution and the permeability of each. In this paper, combining the method of transformation optics with the design of metamaterials, we experimentally demonstrated a superconductor-FM metamaterial system, composed of two coaxial cylinders of different lengths, to investigate the influence of the length and the properties of superconducting material on the magnetic transferring properties of the magnetic field produced by the permanent magnets. By comparing the transmittal magnetic field of different cases, the optimal structure has been ultimately achieved in terms of calculating the transmitted magnetic field ratios. The insights attained by the present study are aimed to provide useful implications for the design of wireless energy transmission and increasing the efficiency of magnetic transmittal devices.

  8. Electronic and magnetic properties of the cation vacancy defect in m -HfO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenna, Keith P.; Ramo, David Muñoz

    2015-11-01

    The electronic and magnetic properties of cation vacancies in m -HfO2 are predicted using density functional theory. The hafnium vacancy is found to introduce a series of charge transition levels in the range 0.76-1.67 eV above the valence band maximum associated with holes localized on neighboring oxygen sites. The neutral defect adopts a S =2 spin state, and we compute corresponding g tensors to aid electron experimental identification of the defect by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. We find that separated vacancies exhibit weak ferromagnetic coupling and the interaction is highly anisotropic—being much stronger when mediated by planes of three-coordinated oxygen ions. Further, we characterize the process of thermal detachment of a hole from a neutral vacancy providing an atomistic model for the p -type conductivity observed experimentally at high temperature. These results provide invaluable information on the electronic and magnetic properties of cation vacancies in HfO2 and can aid future experimental identification of these complex defects.

  9. Synthesis, crystal structure, and magnetic properties of bis(aqua)[?-(terepthalato-?o,?o´)]copper(II)monohydrate [Cu(C?O?)(OH?)?]·H?O

    SciTech Connect

    Nfor, Emmanuel N.; Majoumo-Mbe, Felicite; Ndifon, Peter T.; Duke, Emmanuel O.; Mainsah, Evans N.; Offiong, Offiong E.; Eno, Ededet A.

    2013-05-01

    A novel one dimensional Cu(II) coordination polymer [Cu(C?O?)(OH?)?] ·H?O 1 has been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy, X-ray crystal diffraction and magnetic measurements. Single-crystal structural analysis shows that complex 1 consist of 1D Cu(II) chain containing threefold bridging ligands, one (syn–syn) carboxylate and two water molecules. The magnetic study of 1 has been investigated, indicating an overall antiferromagnetic interaction in the complex. - Graphical abstract: The complex [Cu(C?O?)(OH?)?] ·H?O was prepared by the reaction of solid copper(II)basic carbonate with an aqueous solution of sodium terephthalate under heating at 50–60 {sup o}C after which it was allowed to crystallize at room temperature. The structure of the complex is distorted octahedral. Magnetic study of the complex reveals antiferromagnetic behaviour. Highlights: • A novel copper(II) coordination polymer with terepthalate dianion was grown in an aqueous solution. • The single crystal growth temperature was 25 °C for period of two weeks. • The magnetic property of the complex was studied using SQUID. • The complex showed antiferromagnetic properties.

  10. Investigation of magnetic properties of MnBi/Co and MnBi/Fe65Co35 nanocomposite permanent magnets by micro-magnetic simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y. Q.; Yue, M.; Wang, T.; Wu, Q.; Zhang, D. T.; Gao, Y.

    2015-11-01

    Demagnetization curves of anisotropic nanocomposite MnBi/Co and MnBi/Fe65Co35 permanent magnets were investigated by micro-magnetic finite element method. Effects of volume ratio, deviation degree of orientation and intrinsic magnetic properties of the soft magnetic phase on the magnetic properties of the magnets were investigated. From the viewpoint of practical applications, to meet the requirement of hardness parameters, ?=K/(?0MS2)1/2>1, the calculation maximum (BH)max of MnBi/Co and MnBi/Fe65Co35 magnets are about 199 kJ/m3 (V(Co)=22 vol%) and 196 kJ/m3 (V(FeCo)=14 vol%), respectively, indicating their good potential in application. Compared with single phase MnBi magnet, the (BH)max of nanocomposite MnBi/Co and MnBi/Fe65Co35 magnets increases by 66% and 63%, respectively. The remanence and coercivity of MnBi/Co nanocomposite magnets reduce as appearing a deviation degree of orientation, result of greatly decrease of the magnetic energy product.

  11. Magnetic properties of Dy2Ti2O7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flood, D. J.

    1973-01-01

    Measurements were made of the magnetization, differential magnetic susceptibility, and magnetic entropy of powered samples of Dy2Ti2O7. The saturation magnetic moment is 4.7 + or - 0.2 Bohr magnetons per Dy ion, instead of 10 as predicted by Hund's rules. A temperature-independent magnetization is observed in the saturation region. Absolute values of magnetic entropy have been obtained for temperatures from 1.25 to 20 K, in applied fields up to 10.4 tesla. The magnetic entropy approaches a maximum value consistent with a ground-state multiplicity of 2. Low field magnetization and differential susceptibility data show a transition to antiferromagnetism near 1.35 K. A construction of the magnetic specific heat from the zero field entropy shows an anomaly near the same temperature.

  12. Magnetic transitions and thermomagnetic properties of GdCu 6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chattopadhyay, M. K.; Arora, P.; Mondal, P.; Roy, S. B.

    2010-10-01

    We report results of dc magnetization and specific heat studies focusing on the paramagnetic to antiferromagnetic transition in GdCu 6. These results clearly reveal the evidences of multiple magnetic transitions in GdCu 6. In addition, a marked thermomagnetic irreversibility is observed in the temperature dependence of magnetization in low (<10 kOe) applied magnetic fields. Nature of the magnetic response changes with the increase in applied magnetic field in the temperature regime around the paramagnetic-antiferromagnetic transition temperature and also well inside the antiferromagnetic state. Experimentally measured specific heat in GdCu 6 is quite large in the temperature regime below 20 K, which indicates to the potential of GdCu 6 as a magnetic regenerator material for cryocooler related applications. Isothermal magnetic entropy change estimated from the results of magnetization and specific heat measurements shows a change in sign at the antiferromagnetic ordering temperature.

  13. Metal-organic coordination architectures of azole heterocycle ligands bearing acetic acid groups: Synthesis, structure and magnetic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Bo-Wen; Zhao, Jiong-Peng; Yang, Qian; Hu, Tong-Liang; Du, Wen-Ping; Bu, Xian-He

    2009-10-01

    Four new coordination complexes with azole heterocycle ligands bearing acetic acid groups, [Co( L1) 2] n ( 1) , [Cu L1N 3] n ( 2), [Cu( L2) 2·0.5C 2H 5OH·H 2O] n ( 3) and [Co( L2) 2] n ( 4) (here, H L1=1H-imidazole-1-yl-acetic acid, H L2=1H-benzimidazole-1-yl-acetic acid) have been synthesized and structurally characterized. Single-crystal structure analysis shows that 3 and 4 are 2D complexes with 4 4-sql topologies, while another 2D complex 1 has a (4 3) 2(4 6)-kgd topology. And 2 is a 3D complex composed dinuclear ?1,1-bridging azido Cu II entities with distorted rutile topology. The magnetic properties of 1 and 2 have been studied.

  14. Complex magnetic structure of clusters and chains of Ni and Fe on Pt(111)

    PubMed Central

    Bezerra-Neto, Manoel M.; Ribeiro, Marcelo S.; Sanyal, Biplab; Bergman, Anders; Muniz, Roberto B.; Eriksson, Olle; Klautau, Angela B.

    2013-01-01

    We present an approach to control the magnetic structure of adatoms adsorbed on a substrate having a high magnetic susceptibility. Using finite Ni-Pt and Fe-Pt nanowires and nanostructures on Pt(111) surfaces, our ab initio results show that it is possible to tune the exchange interaction and magnetic configuration of magnetic adatoms (Fe or Ni) by introducing different numbers of Pt atoms to link them, or by including edge effects. The exchange interaction between Ni (or Fe) adatoms on Pt(111) can be considerably increased by introducing Pt chains to link them. The magnetic ordering can be regulated allowing for ferromagnetic or antiferromagnetic configurations. Noncollinear magnetic alignments can also be stabilized by changing the number of Pt-mediated atoms. An Fe-Pt triangularly-shaped nanostructure adsorbed on Pt(111) shows the most complex magnetic structure of the systems considered here: a spin-spiral type of magnetic order that changes its propagation direction at the triangle vertices. PMID:24165828

  15. Complex magnetic structure of clusters and chains of Ni and Fe on Pt(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezerra-Neto, Manoel M.; Ribeiro, Marcelo S.; Sanyal, Biplab; Bergman, Anders; Muniz, Roberto B.; Eriksson, Olle; Klautau, Angela B.

    2013-10-01

    We present an approach to control the magnetic structure of adatoms adsorbed on a substrate having a high magnetic susceptibility. Using finite Ni-Pt and Fe-Pt nanowires and nanostructures on Pt(111) surfaces, our ab initio results show that it is possible to tune the exchange interaction and magnetic configuration of magnetic adatoms (Fe or Ni) by introducing different numbers of Pt atoms to link them, or by including edge effects. The exchange interaction between Ni (or Fe) adatoms on Pt(111) can be considerably increased by introducing Pt chains to link them. The magnetic ordering can be regulated allowing for ferromagnetic or antiferromagnetic configurations. Noncollinear magnetic alignments can also be stabilized by changing the number of Pt-mediated atoms. An Fe-Pt triangularly-shaped nanostructure adsorbed on Pt(111) shows the most complex magnetic structure of the systems considered here: a spin-spiral type of magnetic order that changes its propagation direction at the triangle vertices.

  16. Technique to quantitatively measure magnetic properties of thin structures at <10 NM spatial resolution

    DOEpatents

    Bajt, Sasa

    2003-07-08

    A highly sensitive and high resolution magnetic microscope images magnetic properties quantitatively. Imaging is done with a modified transmission electron microscope that allows imaging of the sample in a zero magnetic field. Two images from closely spaced planes, one in focus and one slightly out of focus, are sufficient to calculate the absolute values of the phase change imparted to the electrons, and hence obtain the magnetization vector field distribution.

  17. Structural and magnetic properties of nano-crystalline Ag + doped NiFe 2O 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, M. A.; El-Dek, S. I.; El-Kashef, I. M.; Helmy, N.

    2011-05-01

    Ni ferrite nanoparticles were prepared using citrate method. XRD pattern revealed the formation of the samples as synthesized in the spinel cubic structure. Silver doping effect on the magnetic properties of Ni ferrite was investigated. The lattice parameter was slightly increased while the values of the Curie temperature decreased with increasing Ag content. The magnetic susceptibility was measured using Faraday's method and the calculated magnetic constants were reported. The data showed that ?M and effective magnetic moment decrease with increasing Ag content.

  18. Assembly and magnetic properties of nickel nanoparticles on silicon nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Picraux, Samuel T; Manandhar, Pradeep; Nazaretski, E; Thompson, J

    2009-01-01

    The directed assembly of magnetic Ni nanoparticles at the tips of silicon nanowires is reported. Using electrodeposition Ni shells of thickness from 10 to 100 nm were selectively deposited on Au catalytic seeds at the ends of nanowires. Magnetic characterization confirms a low coercivity ({approx}115 Oe) ferromagnetic behavior at 300 K. This approach to multifunctional magnetic-semiconducting nanostructure assembly could be extended to electrodeposition of other materials on the nanowire ends, opening up novel ways of device integration. Such magnetically functionalized nanowires offer a new approach to developing novel highly localized magnetic probes for high resolution magnetic resonance force microscopy.

  19. Theory of magnetic fluid heating with an alternating magnetic field with temperature dependent materials properties for self-regulated heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ondeck, C. L.; Habib, A. H.; Ohodnicki, P.; Miller, K.; Sawyer, C. A.; Chaudhary, P.; McHenry, M. E.

    2009-04-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) offer promise for local hyperthermia, thermoablative cancer therapy and microwave curing of polymers. Rosensweig's theory predicts that particle size dependence on RF magnetic heating of ferrofluids is chiefly determined by magnetic moment, magnetic anisotropy, and the viscosity of the fluid. Since relaxation times are thermally activated and material parameters can have strong T dependences, heating rates peak at a certain temperature. We extend the model to include the T dependence of the magnetization and anisotropy using mean field theory and literature reported T dependences of selected fluids considered for biomedical applications. We model materials with Curie temperatures near room temperature for which the magnetic properties are strongly T dependent to address the problem of self-regulated heating of ferrofluids.

  20. Temperature dependence of post-sintered annealing on magnetic properties of intergranular phase in Nd-Fe-B permanent magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasui, Akira; Nakamura, Tetsuya; Kotani, Yoshinori; Fukagawa, Tomoki; Nishiuchi, Takeshi; Hirosawa, Satoshi

    2015-05-01

    Post-sinter-annealing temperature (Ta) dependences of the chemical and magnetic properties of intergranular (grain boundary; GB) phase in a Nd14.0Fe79.7B6.2Cu0.1 sintered magnet have been investigated by x-ray absorption spectroscopy and its magnetic circular dichroism. A relative change of the Cu concentration in the GB phase is found to depend on Ta and shows the maximum at Ta = 500 °C. The Ta-dependence of the Cu concentration was very similar to that of the coercivity. On the other hand, there is no significant Ta-dependence for the magnetization at the fracture surface: the Fe magnetic moment is 1.7 ± 0.036 ?B at all Ta. The Cu-rich layer segregated in the GB phase would have a key role in the coercivity enhancement of the Nd-Fe-B sintered magnet.

  1. Multifunctional wood materials with magnetic, superhydrophobic and anti-ultraviolet properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Wentao; Gao, Likun; Sun, Qingfeng; Jin, Chunde; Lu, Yun; Li, Jian

    2015-03-01

    Multifunctional wood materials with magnetic, superhydrophobic and anti-ultraviolet properties were obtained successfully by precipitated CoFe2O4 nanoparticles on the wood surface and then treated with a layer of octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS). The as-fabricated wood composites exhibited excellent magnetic property and the water contact angle of the OTS-modified magnetic wood surface reached as high as 150°, revealed the superhydrophobic property. Moreover, accelerated aging tests suggested that the treated wood composites also have an excellent anti-ultraviolet property.

  2. 1530 CHEMICALCOMMUNICATIONS,1970 Carbon Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Study of Rhodium-Olefin Complexes

    E-print Network

    Bodner, George M.

    1530 CHEMICALCOMMUNICATIONS,1970 Carbon Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Study of Rhodium-character in olefin-rhodium bonds. To investigate the mode of bonding of olefins to transition metals we have examined the l3C n.m.r. spectra of a series of rhodium-olefin complexes. N.m.r. spectra at natural abundance were

  3. Complex-Valued Analysis of Arterial Spin LabelingBased Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    E-print Network

    Rowe, Daniel B.

    Complex-Valued Analysis of Arterial Spin Labeling­Based Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging-dependent phase differences between tagged and control arterial spin labeling images are reported. A biophysical model is presented to explain the vascular origin of this difference. Arterial spin labeling data

  4. Color theorems, chiral domain topology, and magnetic properties of Fe(x)TaS2.

    PubMed

    Horibe, Yoichi; Yang, Junjie; Cho, Yong-Heum; Luo, Xuan; Kim, Sung Baek; Oh, Yoon Seok; Huang, Fei-Ting; Asada, Toshihiro; Tanimura, Makoto; Jeong, Dalyoung; Cheong, Sang-Wook

    2014-06-11

    Common mathematical theories can have profound applications in understanding real materials. The intrinsic connection between aperiodic orders observed in the Fibonacci sequence, Penrose tiling, and quasicrystals is a well-known example. Another example is the self-similarity in fractals and dendrites. From transmission electron microscopy experiments, we found that FexTaS2 crystals with x = 1/4 and 1/3 exhibit complicated antiphase and chiral domain structures related to ordering of intercalated Fe ions with 2a × 2a and ?3a × ?3a superstructures, respectively. These complex domain patterns are found to be deeply related with the four color theorem, stating that four colors are sufficient to identify the countries on a planar map with proper coloring and its variations for two-step proper coloring. Furthermore, the domain topology is closely relevant to their magnetic properties. Our discovery unveils the importance of understanding the global topology of domain configurations in functional materials. PMID:24841114

  5. Magnetorheological and deformation properties of magnetically controlled elastomers with hard magnetic filler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanov, G. V.; Chertovich, A. V.; Kramarenko, E. Yu.

    2012-10-01

    Viscoelastic and deformational behavior of soft magnetic elastomers with hard magnetic fillers under the influence of a magnetic field is studied by different experimental techniques. The magnetic elastomers used in this work were synthesized on the basis of silicone rubber filled with FeNdB particles and were magnetized in a field of 3 and 15 kOe. We have shown that due to high residual magnetization the materials demonstrate well pronounced non-elastic behavior already in the absence of any external magnetic field. In particular, in contrast to magnetic elastomers based on soft magnetic fillers their elastic modulus is strain-dependent. Under the influence of external magnetic field the storage and loss moduli of magnetic elastomers with hard magnetic filler can both increase and decrease tremendously.

  6. Thermodynamic and transport properties of non-magnetic particles in magnetic fluids

    E-print Network

    Tejwani, Saurabh

    2009-01-01

    Magnetic composites, obtained on associating magnetic fluid with non-magnetic particles, offer interesting opportunities in separations, assemblies and other applications, where the microstructure of the composite can be ...

  7. Electronic and magnetic properties of 2D BCN nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hyoungki

    2013-03-01

    Recent developments of two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials hold great promises for future electronics, optics and spintronics. Since the isolation and electronic characterization of graphene, other layered 2D crystals also have been synthesized. In particular, carbon can be combined with its neighboring atoms in the periodic table, boron and nitrogen as hexagonal BN (h-BN), to obtain hybrid BCN configurations. These BCN 2D nanostructures show a rich variety of physical properties, distinct from parent materials. Their electronic properties can in principle be tuned by varying the concentration of each of the three elements. We study electronic structures of a variety of 2D BCN nanostructures using hybrid functional HSE in density functional theory (DFT). We show that their electronic properties can be gradually tuned by composition and the atomic configuration of three elements. We demonstrate that the substitution-induced impurity states, associated with carbon atoms, and their interactions dictate the electronic structure and properties of C-doped h-BN. Stacking of localized impurity states in small C clusters embedded in h-BN forms a set of discrete energy levels in the wide gap of h-BN, leading to electronic structures of quantum dots made of carbon nano-domains for applications in optics and opto-electronics. We also show that half-metallic electron transport can be achieved by low concentration substitutional doping of only one sublattice of graphene by nitrogen or boron atoms. The delocalized spin-densities induced by the unpaired electrons at substitutional sites permeate only through the sublattice where the nitrogen (boron) atoms belong. For interacting nitrogen (boron) atoms located along the ``zigzag'' direction and in the same sublattice the ferro-magnetic spin-ordering is energetically favored, and substitution-induced impurity states selectively disturb the spin-polarized ?-orbital of that same sublattice. Supported by DOE-Basic Energy Science DOE-BES-DMS (DEFG02-99ER45795). Computing resources are provided by NERSC and OSC.

  8. Magnetic superexchange interactions: trinuclear bis(oxamidato) versus bis(oxamato) type complexes.

    PubMed

    Abdulmalic, Mohammad A; Aliabadi, Azar; Petr, Andreas; Krupskaya, Yulia; Kataev, Vladislav; Büchner, Bernd; Zaripov, Ruslan; Vavilova, Evgeniya; Voronkova, Violeta; Salikov, Kev; Hahn, Torsten; Kortus, Jens; Eya'ane Meva, Francois; Schaarschmidt, Dieter; Rüffer, Tobias

    2015-05-01

    The diethyl ester of o-phenylenebis(oxamic acid) (opbaH2Et2) was treated with an excess of RNH2 in MeOH to cause the exclusive formation of the respective o-phenylenebis(N(R)-oxamides) (opboH4R2, R = Me , Et , (n)Pr ) in good yields. Treatment of with half an equivalent of [Cu2(AcO)4(H2O)2] or one equivalent of [Ni(AcO)2(H2O)4] followed by the addition of four equivalents of [(n)Bu4N]OH resulted in the formation of mononuclear bis(oxamidato) type complexes [(n)Bu4N]2[M(opboR2)] (M = Ni, R = Me , Et , (n)Pr ; M = Cu, R = Me , Et , (n)Pr ). By addition of two equivalents of [Cu(pmdta)(NO3)2] to MeCN solutions of , novel trinuclear complexes [Cu3(opboR2)(L)2](NO3)2 (L = pmdta, R = Me , Et , (n)Pr ) could be obtained. Compounds have been characterized by elemental analysis and NMR/IR spectroscopy. Furthermore, the solid state structures of and have been determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies. By controlled cocrystallization, diamagnetically diluted and (1%) in the host lattice of and (99%) (@ and @), respectively, in the form of single crystals have been made available, allowing single crystal ESR studies to extract all components of the g-factor and the tensors of onsite (Cu)A and transferred (N)A hyperfine (HF) interaction. From these studies, the spin density distribution of the [Cu(opboEt2)](2-) and [Cu(opbo(n)Pr2)](2-) complex fragments of and , respectively, could be determined. Additionally, as a single crystal ENDOR measurement of @ revealed the individual HF tensors of the N donor atoms to be unequal, individual estimates of the spin densities on each N donor atom were made. The magnetic properties of were studied by susceptibility measurements versus temperature to give J values varying from -96 cm(-1) () over -104 cm(-1) () to -132 cm(-1) (). These three trinuclear Cu(II)-containing bis(oxamidato) type complexes exhibit J values which are comparable to and slightly larger in magnitude than those of related bis(oxamato) type complexes. In a summarizing discussion involving experimentally obtained ESR results (spin density distribution) of and , the geometries of the terminal [Cu(pmdta)](2+) fragments of determined by crystallographic studies, together with accompanying quantum chemical calculations, an approach is derived to explain these phenomena and to conclude if the spin density distribution of mononuclear bis(oxamato)/bis(oxamidato) type complexes could be a measure of the J couplings of corresponding trinuclear complexes. PMID:25832847

  9. Exciton-polaron complexes in pulsed electrically-detected magnetic resonance

    E-print Network

    T. L. Keevers; W. J. Baker; D. R. McCamey

    2015-02-19

    Several microscopic pathways have been proposed to explain the large magnetic effects observed in organic semiconductors, but identifying and characterising which microscopic process actually influences the overall magnetic field response is challenging. Pulsed electrically-detected magnetic resonance provides an ideal platform for this task as it intrinsically monitors the charge carriers of interest and provides dynamical information which is inaccessible through conventional magnetoconductance measurements. Here we develop a general time domain theory to describe the spin-dependent reaction of exciton-charge complexes following the coherent manipulation of paramagnetic centers through electron spin resonance. A general Hamiltonian is treated, and it is shown that the transition frequencies and resonance positions of the exciton-polaron complex can be used to estimate inter-species coupling. This work also provides a general formalism for analysing multi-pulse experiments which can be used to extract relaxation and transport rates.

  10. Synthesis, magnetic and microwave electromagnetic properties of dendritic iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Gongqin; He, Fei; Zhao, Guanlin; Wei, Pengwan; Jiang, Anbang

    2015-09-01

    Iron dendritic micropines are synthesized by a hydrogen reduction, where the hematite dendritic micropines prepared by a hydrothermal method are used as starting materials. The as-obtained dendritic iron exhibits enhanced coercivity and remanent magnetization at room temperature and high complex permittivity at 2-18 GHz due to the peculiar shape anisotropy and good crystallinity. The negative imaginary permeability is observed at 14.5-18.0 GHz, suggesting it has a potential as a left-handed material. The paraffin-based composites containing 30 wt% dendritic irons show large permittivity resulting from the charge polarization and the conductivity and have a minimal reflection loss (RL) of -37.4 dB at 7.4 GHz when the thickness ( d) is 2.0 mm. The RL values less than -20 dB are obtained in the frequency range of 5.5-12.9 GHz when d increases from 0.9 to 3.0 mm.

  11. Thesis proposal CSF Brazil 2014 Nonlinear Optical (NLO) Properties of Ruthenium Nitrosyl Complexes

    E-print Network

    Bordenave, Charles

    Thesis proposal CSF Brazil 2014 Title: Nonlinear Optical (NLO) Properties of Ruthenium Nitrosyl wishes to study the NLO (non linear optics) properties of Ruthenium(II)-Nitrosyl complexes in two inactive) photonic brick in solid state, and (ii) two-photon absorption (TPA) by ruthenium complexes

  12. Greigite-related complex magnetic polarity records unraveled through an integrated rock magnetic analysis: A case study on Neogene sections in East Timor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aben, F. M.; Bakker, R. R.; Dekkers, M. J.; Van Hinsbergen, D. J.; Harris, R. A.; Zachariasse, J.; Duffy, B. G.

    2013-12-01

    Inconsistent polarity patterns in greigite-bearing (marine) sediments are a common problem in magnetostratigraphic and paleomagnetic research. Prolonged diagenesis can result in multiple generations of greigite being present in a sedimentary record. The associated remanence ';haystack' can be filtered to some extent by paleomagnetic field tests but not all rock records are suitable for such an approach. Here, we test whether end-member modeling of IRM-acquisition curves as a basis for an integrated rock magnetic and (electron) microscopic research approach can be used to identify all magnetic mineral suites, to evaluate the nature of the magnetic remanences, and to use the acquired knowledge to isolate the ChRM from such complex magnetic records. To this end, a case study was performed on uppermost Miocene to Pliocene deep-marine clastic and chalk bearing Viqueque Type section in East Timor. This section was originally sampled to establish a bio- and magnetostratigraphic age model dating the uplift history of the young Timor-orogen. An in principle straightforward polarity record was obtained, which, however, was impossible to reconcile with the biostratigraphy of the section. Among the dominant magnetic carriers was greigite. Two magnetic end-members were distinguished in the Viqueque Type section, which were analyzed further for rock magnetic properties. With microscopy, three magnetic mineral suites are shown to result in the two end-members. The first suite occurs in all lithologies and consists of detrital magnetite with a viscous NRM, caused by partial reductive dissolution of detrital magnetite grains after deposition. This mineral suite therefore is unreliable for magnetostratigraphic use. The second and third suite both consist of interacting single domain greigite grains with a chemical remanent magnetization. The second suite is present in almost all clay levels of the Viqueque Type section and is characterized by early diagenetic framboidal greigite, therefore deemed to carry a reliable nearly syn-depositional signal. The third suite, residing in a few clay levels, consists of late diagenetic greigite intergrown between sheet silicates, resulting in anomalously high magnetizations. A revised magnetostratigraphy of the Viqueque Type section is obtained by using reliable sample levels containing early diagenetic greigite only. This magnetostratigraphy shows a polarity pattern consistent with biostratigraphy and is correlated unequivocally to the GPTS. This case study shows that a well-designed rock magnetic research combined with microscopy can unravel complex and seemingly inconsistent polarity patterns related to greigite. End-member modelling of IRM-acquisition curves by itself cannot distinguish the subtle differences between the various greigite populations but is nonetheless crucial to the integrated approach because it enables to categorize samples for dedicated microscopy study. We recommend this approach to assess the veracity of the polarity of greigite-bearing strata.

  13. Synthesis, characterization and properties of some divalent metal(II) complexes: Their electrochemical, catalytic, thermal and antimicrobial activity studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tümer, Mehmet; Ekinci, Duygu; Tümer, Ferhan; Bulut, Akif

    2007-07-01

    In this study, we synthesized the amine compound 2-(2-aminoethyliminomethyl)phenol (H 3A) as the starting material, and then we prepared the polydentate Schiff base ligands from the reactions of the amine compound (H 3A) with phtaldialdehyde (H 2L), 4-methyl-2,6-di-formlyphenol (H 3L 1) and 4- t-butyl-2,6-di-formylphenol (H 3L 2) in the ethanol solution. Moreover, the complexes Cd(II), Cu(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Zn(II) and Sn(II) of the ligands H 2L, H 3L 1 and H 3L 2 have been prepared. All compounds have been characterized by the analytical and spectroscopic methods. In addition, the magnetic susceptibility and molar conductance measurements have been made. The catalytic properties of the mono- and binuclear Co(II) and Cu(II) complexes have been studied on the 3,5-di- tert-butylcatechol (3,5-DTBC) and ascorbic acid (aa) as a substrate. The oxidative C-C coupling properties of the Co(II) and Cu(II) complexes have been investigated on the sterically hindered 2,6-di- tert-butylphenol (dtbp). The antimicrobial activity properties of the ligands and their mono- and binuclear complexes have been studied against the bacteria and fungi. The results have been compared to the antibacterial and fungi drugs. The TGA curves show that the decomposition takes place in three steps for all complexes. Electrochemical properties of the complexes Cu(II) and Ni(II) have been investigated for the first time in acetonitrile by cyclic voltammetry.

  14. Magnetic properties of Fe-Mn-Pt for heat assisted magnetic recording applications

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Jihoon; Hong, Yang-Ki; Kim, Seong-Gon; Gao, Li; Thiele, Jan-Ulrich

    2015-02-07

    We calculate the electronic structures of FePt and Fe{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 0.5}Pt using first-principles calculations based on density functional theory within the local-spin-density approximation. The Curie temperature (T{sub c}) was calculated by mean field approximation. Composition dependence of the Cure temperature (T{sub c}(x)) of Fe{sub 1?x}Mn{sub x}Pt was used to identify a composition to meet the desired T{sub c} in the range of 600–650?K. The identified composition (0.0294???x???0.0713) gives saturation magnetization (M{sub s}) in the range of 1041–919?emu/cm{sup 3} and magnetocrystalline anisotropy constant (K) in the range of 9.96–8.36?×?10{sup 6?}J/m{sup 3} at 0?K. Temperature dependent M(T) and K(T) of Fe{sub 1?x}Mn{sub x}Pt (0.0294???x ??0.0713) were calculated using the Brillouin function and Callen-Callen experimental relation, respectively. Fe{sub 1?x}Mn{sub x}Pt (0.0294???x???0.0713) shows 930–800?emu/cm{sup 3} of M{sub s} and 7.18–5.61 ×?10{sup 6?}J/m{sup 3} of K at 300?K, thereby satisfying desired magnetic properties for heat-assisted magnetic recording media to achieve 4 Tb/in.{sup 2} areal density.

  15. Regulated magnetic domains and high-frequency property in magnetic materials with columnar structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Cai; Wei, Wenwen; Jiang, Changjun

    2015-10-01

    The regulation of magnetic domains and high-frequency property in Fe20Ni80 thin films sputtered on anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) substrates with different apertures and a Si substrate were investigated. The obvious stripe domain structure was observed in FeNi thin film sputtered on AAO (pore in diameter d ~ 20 nm) substrate. The distinct cross-sectional columnar structures prepared on three different substrates and measured by scanning electron microscope were shown, which arose from different growth mechanisms on various kinds of substrates. The structure of AAO substrate could modulate the growth mechanism of thin films and the appearance of stripe domains structure. In addition, the resonant frequency was enhanced in FeNi thin film prepared on AAO ( d ~ 20 nm) substrate.

  16. Influence of calcination temperature on Cd0.3Co0.7Fe2O4 nanoparticles: Structural, thermal and magnetic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, Ch. Venkata; PrabhakarVattikuti, S. V.; Ravikumar, R. V. S. S. N.; Moon, Sang Jun; Shim, Jaesool

    2015-11-01

    Cadmium substituted cobalt ferrite nanoparticles are synthesis using the chemical method. The as-prepared ferrite nanoparticles are calcinated at 300 °C and 600 °C respectively. The samples are studied using; Powder XRD, SEM with EDX, TEM, FT-IR, TG-DTA and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) in order to study the calcination temperature effect on structural, morphological and magnetic properties. The magnetic properties, like saturation magnetization and coercivity increases with increasing the calcination temperature. This enhancement is attributed to the transition from amulti-domain to a single-domain nature. The absorption bands observed at 588 cm-1 (?1) and 440 cm-1 (?2) are attributed to the vibrations of tetrahedral and octahedral complexes. The TG-DTA curves reveal the thermal stability of the prepared ferrite nanoparticles. The calcination temperature influences the magnetic properties, surface morphology and crystalline size.

  17. Synthesis, Physicochemical Properties, and Antimicrobial Studies of Iron (III) Complexes of Ciprofloxacin, Cloxacillin, and Amoxicillin

    PubMed Central

    Ajali, Uzoechi; Ukoha, Pius O.

    2014-01-01

    Iron (III) complexes of ciprofloxacin, amoxicillin, and cloxacillin were synthesized and their aqueous solubility profiles, relative stabilities, and antimicrobial properties were evaluated. The complexes showed improved aqueous solubility when compared to the corresponding ligands. Relative thermal and acid stabilities were determined spectrophotometrically and the results showed that the complexes have enhanced thermal and acid stabilities when compared to the pure ligands. Antimicrobial studies showed that the complexes have decreased activities against most of the tested microorganisms. Ciprofloxacin complex, however, showed almost the same activity as the corresponding ligand. Job's method of continuous variation suggested 1?:?2 metals to ligand stoichiometry for ciprofloxacin complex but 1?:?1 for cloxacillin complex. PMID:25505991

  18. Influence of hydrogen patterning gas on electric and magnetic properties of perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, J. H.; Endoh, T.; Kim, Y.; Kim, W. K.; Park, S. O.

    2014-05-07

    To identify the degradation mechanism in magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) using hydrogen, the properties of the MTJs were measured by applying an additional hydrogen etch process and a hydrogen plasma process to the patterned MTJs. In these studies, an additional 50?s hydrogen etch process caused the magnetoresistance (MR) to decrease from 103% to 14.7% and the resistance (R) to increase from 6.5?k? to 39?k?. Moreover, an additional 500?s hydrogen plasma process decreased the MR from 103% to 74% and increased R from 6.5?k? to 13.9?k?. These results show that MTJs can be damaged by the hydrogen plasma process as well as by the hydrogen etch process, as the atomic bonds in MgO may break and react with the exposed hydrogen gas. Compounds such as MgO hydrate very easily. We also calculated the damaged layer width (DLW) of the patterned MTJs after the hydrogen etching and plasma processes, to evaluate the downscaling limitations of spin-transfer-torque magnetic random-access memory (STT-MRAM) devices. With these calculations, the maximum DLWs at each side of the MTJ, generated by the etching and plasma processes, were 23.8?nm and 12.8?nm, respectively. This result validates that the hydrogen-based MTJ patterning processes cannot be used exclusively in STT-MRAMs beyond 20?nm.

  19. Local Magnetic Properties in Non-oriented Electrical Steel and Their Dependence on Magnetic Easy Axis and Misorientation Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallaugher, Matthew; Samimi, Arash; Krause, Thomas W.; Clapham, Lynann C.; Chromik, Richard R.

    2015-03-01

    An understanding of how material parameters, especially orientation and misorientation, influence the magnetic properties of non-oriented electrical steel (NOES) is important for improving the efficiency of the material in service. In this study, the local magnetic properties were measured using magnetic Barkhausen noise (MBN) on different test locations on different strips of NOES material. Local variations in magnetic properties, texture, and misorientation were revealed. A new interpretation for misorientation, called the easy axis misorientation (EAM), was created to describe the alignment of the magnetic easy axes between neighboring grains. This new EAM, visualized as a single value parameter or graphed as a distribution, was shown to be more effective at predicting the isotropic magnetic properties than previously used texture parameters based on standard orientation/misorientation definitions. It was found that a larger EAM value, especially when associated with a lower small angle EAM intensity distribution, was associated with a larger MBN energy. A larger MBN energy has been previously associated with lower losses, and therefore a greater material efficiency.

  20. The Effect of Different Neutral Ligands on Photoluminescence and Electroluminescence Properties of Ternary Terbium Complexes

    E-print Network

    Huang, Yanyi

    of Ternary Terbium Complexes Hao Xin, Mei Shi, Xi Cun Gao, Yan Yi Huang, Ze Liang Gong, Dao Bo Nie, Hong Cao; In Final Form: April 14, 2004 Three terbium complexes Tb(tba-PMP)3(TPPO) (A), Tb(tba-PMP)3(H2O) (B), and Tb photoluminescence (PL) and electroluminescence (EL) properties of terbium complexes was studied. Experiments