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Sample records for magnetic resonance fmri

  1. Magnetic Resonance, Functional (fMRI) -- Brain

    MedlinePlus

    ... powerful magnetic field, radio frequency pulses and a computer to produce detailed pictures of organs, soft tissues, ... The images can then be examined on a computer monitor, transmitted electronically, printed or copied to a ...

  2. Delineating potential epileptogenic areas utilizing resting functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in epilepsy patients.

    PubMed

    Pizarro, Ricardo; Nair, Veena; Meier, Timothy; Holdsworth, Ryan; Tunnell, Evelyn; Rutecki, Paul; Sillay, Karl; Meyerand, Mary E; Prabhakaran, Vivek

    2016-08-01

    Seizure localization includes neuroimaging like electroencephalogram, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with limited ability to characterize the epileptogenic network. Temporal clustering analysis (TCA) characterizes epileptogenic network congruent with interictal epileptiform discharges by clustering together voxels with transient signals. We generated epileptogenic areas for 12 of 13 epilepsy patients with TCA, congruent with different areas of seizure onset. Resting functional MRI (fMRI) scans are noninvasive, and can be acquired quickly, in patients with different levels of severity and function. Analyzing resting fMRI data using TCA is quick and can complement clinical methods to characterize the epileptogenic network. PMID:27362339

  3. Incidental Memory Encoding Assessed with Signal Detection Theory and Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI)

    PubMed Central

    Clemens, Benjamin; Regenbogen, Christina; Koch, Kathrin; Backes, Volker; Romanczuk-Seiferth, Nina; Pauly, Katharina; Shah, N. Jon; Schneider, Frank; Habel, Ute; Kellermann, Thilo

    2015-01-01

    In functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies that apply a “subsequent memory” approach, successful encoding is indicated by increased fMRI activity during the encoding phase for hits vs. misses, in areas underlying memory encoding such as the hippocampal formation. Signal-detection theory (SDT) can be used to analyze memory-related fMRI activity as a function of the participant’s memory trace strength (d′). The goal of the present study was to use SDT to examine the relationship between fMRI activity during incidental encoding and participants’ recognition performance. To implement a new approach, post-experimental group assignment into High- or Low Performers (HP or LP) was based on 29 healthy participants’ recognition performance, assessed with SDT. The analyses focused on the interaction between the factors group (HP vs. LP) and recognition performance (hits vs. misses). A whole-brain analysis revealed increased activation for HP vs. LP during incidental encoding for remembered vs. forgotten items (hits > misses) in the insula/temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) and the fusiform gyrus (FFG). Parameter estimates in these regions exhibited a significant positive correlation with d′. As these brain regions are highly relevant for salience detection (insula), stimulus-driven attention (TPJ), and content-specific processing of mnemonic stimuli (FFG), we suggest that HPs’ elevated memory performance was associated with enhanced attentional and content-specific sensory processing during the encoding phase. We provide first correlative evidence that encoding-related activity in content-specific sensory areas and content-independent attention and salience detection areas influences memory performance in a task with incidental encoding of facial stimuli. Based on our findings, we discuss whether the aforementioned group differences in brain activity during incidental encoding might constitute the basis of general differences in memory performance

  4. Interhemispheric neuroplasticity following limb deafferentation detected by resting-state functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (fcMRI) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)

    PubMed Central

    Pawela, Christopher P.; Biswal, Bharat B.; Hudetz, Anthony G.; Li, Rupeng; Jones, Seth R.; Cho, Younghoon R.; Matloub, Hani S.; Hyde, James S.

    2009-01-01

    Functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (fcMRI) studies in rat brain show brain reorganization following peripheral nerve injury. Subacute neuroplasticity was observed two weeks following transection of the four major nerves of the brachial plexus. Direct functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) stimulation of the intact radial nerve reveals an activation pattern in the forelimb regions of the sensory and motor cortices that is significantly different from that observed in normal rats. Results of this fMRI experiment were used to determine seed voxel regions for fcMRI analysis. Intrahemispheric connectivities in the sensorimotor forelimb representations in both hemispheres are largely unaffected by deafferentation, whereas substantial disruption of interhemispheric sensorimotor cortical connectivity occurs. In addition, significant intra- and interhemispheric changes in connectivities of thalamic nuclei were found. These are the central findings of the study. They could not have been obtained from fMRI studies alone—both fMRI and fcMRI are needed. The combination provides a general marker for brain plasticity. The rat visual system was studied in the same animals as a control. No neuroplastic changes in connectivities were found in the primary visual cortex upon forelimb deafferentation. Differences were noted in regions responsible for processing multisensory visual-motor information. This incidental discovery is considered to be significant. It may provide insight into phantom limb epiphenomena. PMID:19796693

  5. A similarity retrieval method for functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) statistical maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tungaraza, R. F.; Guan, J.; Rolfe, S.; Atmosukarto, I.; Poliakov, A.; Kleinhans, N. M.; Aylward, E.; Ojemann, J.; Brinkley, J. F.; Shapiro, L. G.

    2009-02-01

    We propose a method for retrieving similar fMRI statistical images given a query fMRI statistical image. Our method thresholds the voxels within those images and extracts spatially distinct regions from the voxels that remain. Each region is defined by a feature vector that contains the region centroid, the region area, the average activation value for all the voxels within that region, the variance of those activation values, the average distance of each voxel within that region to the region's centroid, and the variance of the voxel's distance to the region's centroid. The similarity between two images is obtained by the summed minimum distance of their constituent feature vectors. Results on a dataset of fMRI statistical images from experiments involving distinct cognitive tasks are shown.

  6. Development of an apparatus and methodology for conducting functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with pharmacological stimuli in conscious rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Murnane, Kevin Sean; Howell, Leonard Lee

    2010-08-15

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a technique with significant potential to advance our understanding of multiple brain systems. However, when human subjects undergo fMRI studies they are typically conscious whereas pre-clinical fMRI studies typically utilize anesthesia, which complicates comparisons across studies. Therefore, we have developed an apparatus suitable for imaging conscious rhesus monkeys. In order to minimize subject stress and spatial motion, each subject was acclimated to the necessary procedures over several months. The effectiveness of this process was then evaluated, in fully trained subjects, by quantifying objective physiological measures. These physiological metrics were stable both within and across sessions and did not differ from when these same subjects were immobilized using standard primate handling procedures. Subject motion and blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) fMRI measurements were then evaluated by scanning subjects under three different conditions: the absence of stimulation, presentation of a visual stimulus, or administration of intravenous (i.v.) cocaine (0.3mg/kg). Spatial motion differed neither by condition nor along the three principal axes. In addition, maximum translational and rotational motion never exceeded one half of the voxel size (0.75 mm) or 1.5 degrees, respectively. Furthermore, the localization of changes in blood oxygenation closely matched those reported in previous studies using similar stimuli. These findings document the feasibility of fMRI data collection in conscious rhesus monkeys using these procedures and allow for the further study of the neural effects of psychoactive drugs. PMID:20566353

  7. Functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Buchbinder, Bradley R

    2016-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) maps the spatiotemporal distribution of neural activity in the brain under varying cognitive conditions. Since its inception in 1991, blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) fMRI has rapidly become a vital methodology in basic and applied neuroscience research. In the clinical realm, it has become an established tool for presurgical functional brain mapping. This chapter has three principal aims. First, we review key physiologic, biophysical, and methodologic principles that underlie BOLD fMRI, regardless of its particular area of application. These principles inform a nuanced interpretation of the BOLD fMRI signal, along with its neurophysiologic significance and pitfalls. Second, we illustrate the clinical application of task-based fMRI to presurgical motor, language, and memory mapping in patients with lesions near eloquent brain areas. Integration of BOLD fMRI and diffusion tensor white-matter tractography provides a road map for presurgical planning and intraoperative navigation that helps to maximize the extent of lesion resection while minimizing the risk of postoperative neurologic deficits. Finally, we highlight several basic principles of resting-state fMRI and its emerging translational clinical applications. Resting-state fMRI represents an important paradigm shift, focusing attention on functional connectivity within intrinsic cognitive networks. PMID:27432660

  8. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voos, Avery; Pelphrey, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), with its excellent spatial resolution and ability to visualize networks of neuroanatomical structures involved in complex information processing, has become the dominant technique for the study of brain function and its development. The accessibility of in-vivo pediatric brain-imaging techniques…

  9. Immediate Changes Following Manual Therapy in Resting State Functional Connectivity As Measured By Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) In Subjects With Induced Low Back Pain

    PubMed Central

    Gay, Charles W.; Robinson, Michael E.; George, Steven Z.; Perlstein, William M.; Bishop, Mark D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the immediate changes in functional connectivity (FC) between brain regions that process and modulate the pain experience following 3 different types of manual therapies (MT) and to identify reductions in experimentally induced myalgia and changes in local and remote pressure pain sensitivity. Methods Twenty-four participants (17 females, mean age ± SD = 21.6 ± 4.2 years), who completed an exercise-injury protocol to induce low back pain, were randomized into 3 groups: chiropractic spinal manipulation (n=6), spinal mobilization (n=8) or therapeutic touch (n=10). The primary outcome was the immediate change in FC as measured on fMRI between the following brain regions: somatosensory cortex, secondary somatosensory cortex, thalamus, anterior and posterior cingulate cortices, anterior and poster insula, and periaqueductal grey. Secondary outcomes were immediate changes in pain intensity measured with a 101-point numeric rating scale, and pain sensitivity, measured with a hand-held dynamometer. Repeated measures ANOVA models and correlation analyses were conducted to examine treatment effects and the relationship between within-person changes across outcome measures. Results Changes in FC were found between several brain regions that were common to all 3 manual therapy interventions. Treatment-dependent changes in FC were also observed between several brain regions. Improvement was seen in pain intensity following all interventions (p<0.05) with no difference between groups (p>0.05). There were no observed changes in pain sensitivity, or an association between primary and secondary outcome measures. Conclusion These results suggest that manual therapies (chiropractic spinal manipulation, spinal mobilization, and therapeutic touch) have an immediate effect on the FC between brain regions involved in processing and modulating the pain experience. This suggests

  10. Network Modeling for Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) Signals during Ultra-Fast Speech Comprehension in Late-Blind Listeners

    PubMed Central

    Dietrich, Susanne; Hertrich, Ingo; Ackermann, Hermann

    2015-01-01

    In many functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies blind humans were found to show cross-modal reorganization engaging the visual system in non-visual tasks. For example, blind people can manage to understand (synthetic) spoken language at very high speaking rates up to ca. 20 syllables/s (syl/s). FMRI data showed that hemodynamic activation within right-hemispheric primary visual cortex (V1), bilateral pulvinar (Pv), and left-hemispheric supplementary motor area (pre-SMA) covaried with their capability of ultra-fast speech (16 syllables/s) comprehension. It has been suggested that right V1 plays an important role with respect to the perception of ultra-fast speech features, particularly the detection of syllable onsets. Furthermore, left pre-SMA seems to be an interface between these syllabic representations and the frontal speech processing and working memory network. So far, little is known about the networks linking V1 to Pv, auditory cortex (A1), and (mesio-) frontal areas. Dynamic causal modeling (DCM) was applied to investigate (i) the input structure from A1 and Pv toward right V1 and (ii) output from right V1 and A1 to left pre-SMA. As concerns the input Pv was significantly connected to V1, in addition to A1, in blind participants, but not in sighted controls. Regarding the output V1 was significantly connected to pre-SMA in blind individuals, and the strength of V1-SMA connectivity correlated with the performance of ultra-fast speech comprehension. By contrast, in sighted controls, not understanding ultra-fast speech, pre-SMA did neither receive input from A1 nor V1. Taken together, right V1 might facilitate the “parsing” of the ultra-fast speech stream in blind subjects by receiving subcortical auditory input via the Pv (= secondary visual pathway) and transmitting this information toward contralateral pre-SMA. PMID:26148062

  11. Ultra-fast speech comprehension in blind subjects engages primary visual cortex, fusiform gyrus, and pulvinar – a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Individuals suffering from vision loss of a peripheral origin may learn to understand spoken language at a rate of up to about 22 syllables (syl) per second - exceeding by far the maximum performance level of normal-sighted listeners (ca. 8 syl/s). To further elucidate the brain mechanisms underlying this extraordinary skill, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was performed in blind subjects of varying ultra-fast speech comprehension capabilities and sighted individuals while listening to sentence utterances of a moderately fast (8 syl/s) or ultra-fast (16 syl/s) syllabic rate. Results Besides left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), bilateral posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) and left supplementary motor area (SMA), blind people highly proficient in ultra-fast speech perception showed significant hemodynamic activation of right-hemispheric primary visual cortex (V1), contralateral fusiform gyrus (FG), and bilateral pulvinar (Pv). Conclusions Presumably, FG supports the left-hemispheric perisylvian “language network”, i.e., IFG and superior temporal lobe, during the (segmental) sequencing of verbal utterances whereas the collaboration of bilateral pulvinar, right auditory cortex, and ipsilateral V1 implements a signal-driven timing mechanism related to syllabic (suprasegmental) modulation of the speech signal. These data structures, conveyed via left SMA to the perisylvian “language zones”, might facilitate – under time-critical conditions – the consolidation of linguistic information at the level of verbal working memory. PMID:23879896

  12. Improving the spatial accuracy in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) based on the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) effect: benefits from parallel imaging and a 32-channel head array coil at 1.5 Tesla.

    PubMed

    Fellner, C; Doenitz, C; Finkenzeller, T; Jung, E M; Rennert, J; Schlaier, J

    2009-01-01

    Geometric distortions and low spatial resolution are current limitations in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The aim of this study was to evaluate if application of parallel imaging or significant reduction of voxel size in combination with a new 32-channel head array coil can reduce those drawbacks at 1.5 T for a simple hand motor task. Therefore, maximum t-values (tmax) in different regions of activation, time-dependent signal-to-noise ratios (SNR(t)) as well as distortions within the precentral gyrus were evaluated. Comparing fMRI with and without parallel imaging in 17 healthy subjects revealed significantly reduced geometric distortions in anterior-posterior direction. Using parallel imaging, tmax only showed a mild reduction (7-11%) although SNR(t) was significantly diminished (25%). In 7 healthy subjects high-resolution (2 x 2 x 2 mm3) fMRI was compared with standard fMRI (3 x 3 x 3 mm3) in a 32-channel coil and with high-resolution fMRI in a 12-channel coil. The new coil yielded a clear improvement for tmax (21-32%) and SNR(t) (51%) in comparison with the 12-channel coil. Geometric distortions were smaller due to the smaller voxel size. Therefore, the reduction in tmax (8-16%) and SNR(t) (52%) in the high-resolution experiment seems to be tolerable with this coil. In conclusion, parallel imaging is an alternative to reduce geometric distortions in fMRI at 1.5 T. Using a 32-channel coil, reduction of the voxel size might be the preferable way to improve spatial accuracy. PMID:19713602

  13. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Methods

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jingyuan E.; Glover, Gary H.

    2015-01-01

    Since its inception in 1992, Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) has become an indispensible tool for studying cognition in both the healthy and dysfunctional brain. FMRI monitors changes in the oxygenation of brain tissue resulting from altered metabolism consequent to a task-based evoked neural response or from spontaneous fluctuations in neural activity in the absence of conscious mentation (the “resting state”). Task-based studies have revealed neural correlates of a large number of important cognitive processes, while fMRI studies performed in the resting state have demonstrated brain-wide networks that result from brain regions with synchronized, apparently spontaneous activity. In this article, we review the methods used to acquire and analyze fMRI signals. PMID:26248581

  14. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Spectroscopic Imaging of the Brain: Application of fMRI and fMRS to Reading Disabilities and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Todd L.

    2001-01-01

    This tutorial/review covers functional brain-imaging methods and results used to study language and reading disabilities. Although the emphasis is on magnetic resonance imaging and functional magnetic resonance spectroscopy, other imaging techniques are also discussed including positron emission tomography, electroencephalography,…

  15. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and effects of L-dopa on visual function in normal and amblyopic subjects.

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Gary L

    2003-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of a single dose of levodopa on visual cortex, based on functional MRI (fMRI), and on visual function, based on psychophysical tests, in amblyopic and normal subjects. METHOD: A prospective, randomized trial of a single dose of levodopa (2 mg/kg body weight) was undertaken in an institutional setting in nine normal and six amblyopic subjects, who were assessed at baseline and 90 minutes after levodopa ingestion. fMRI of occipital visual cortex was undertaken with a 1.5T GE MRI scanner utilizing the BOLD contrast technique. fMRI stimuli were two gratings (0.5, 2.0 cycles/degree of visual angle) that counterphased at 4 Hz. fMRI parameters for analysis included AREA and LEVEL of activation and a SUMMED score (AREA x LEVEL). Psychophysical tests included visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, stereoacuity, and binocular fusion. RESULTS: At baseline, AREA of activation (P = .05) and SUMMED score (P = .05) were significantly less in the amblyopic compared to the dominant eyes. Psychophysically, visual acuity and contrast sensitivity were significantly worse in the amblyopic eye. Following levodopa ingestion, there was significant decrease in LEVEL of activation in the amblyopic eye, even though visual acuity showed significant improvement (P = .03). Also, amblyopes showed a significant increase and normals showed some decrease in interocular difference in LEVEL of activation (P = .04). CONCLUSION: Unique information was obtained when fMRI was utilized to assess visual cortical function. While levodopa improved visual acuity in the amblyopic eye, it decreased the LEVEL of activation based on fMRI, a counterintuitive finding. The results highlight the value of utilizing fMRI to assess amblyopia and provide new directions for research. PMID:14971587

  16. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) KidsHealth > For Teens > Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Print A A A Text Size What's ... Exam Safety Getting Your Results What Is MRI? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a type of safe, painless testing ...

  17. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrew, E. R.

    2009-06-01

    Author's preface; 1. Introduction; 2. Basic theory; 3. Experimental methods; 4. Measurement of nuclear properties and general physical applications; 5. Nuclear magnetic resonance in liquids and gases; 6. Nuclear magnetic resonance in non-metallic solids; 7. Nuclear magnetic resonance in metals; 8. Quadrupole effects; Appendices 1-6; Glossary of symbols; Bibliography and author index; Subject index.

  18. Modeling functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) experimental variables in the Ontology of Experimental Variables and Values (OoEVV)

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Gully A.P.C.; Turner, Jessica A.

    2015-01-01

    Neuroimaging data is raw material for cognitive neuroscience experiments, leading to scientific knowledge about human neurological and psychological disease, language, perception, attention and ultimately, cognition. The structure of the variables used in the experimental design defines the structure of the data gathered in the experiments; this in turn structures the interpretative assertions that may be presented as experimental conclusions. Representing these assertions and the experimental data which support them in a computable way means that they could be used in logical reasoning environments, i.e. for automated meta-analyses, or linking hypotheses and results across different levels of neuroscientific experiments. Therefore, a crucial first step in being able to represent neuroimaging results in a clear, computable way is to develop representations for the scientific variables involved in neuroimaging experiments. These representations should be expressive, computable, valid, extensible, and easy-to-use. They should also leverage existing semantic standards to interoperate easily with other systems. We present an ontology design pattern called the Ontology of Experimental Variables and Values (OoEVV). This is designed to provide a lightweight framework to capture mathematical properties of data, with appropriate ‘hooks’ to permit linkage to other ontology-driven projects (such as the Ontology of Biomedical Investigations, OBI). We instantiate the OoEVV system with a small number of functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging datasets, to demonstrate the system’s ability to describe the variables of a neuroimaging experiment. OoEVV is designed to be compatible with the XCEDE neuroimaging data standard for data collection terminology, and with the Cognitive Paradigm Ontology (CogPO) for specific reasoning elements of neuroimaging experimental designs. PMID:23684873

  19. Imaginative resonance training (IRT) achieves elimination of amputees' phantom pain (PLP) coupled with a spontaneous in-depth proprioception of a restored limb as a marker for permanence and supported by pre-post functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI).

    PubMed

    Meyer, Paul; Matthes, Christoph; Kusche, Karl Erwin; Maurer, Konrad

    2012-05-31

    Non-pharmacological approaches such as mirror therapy and graded motor imagery often provide amelioration of amputees' phantom limb pain (PLP), but elimination has proved difficult to achieve. Proprioception of the amputated limb has been noted in studies to be defective and/or distorted in the presence of PLP, but has not, apparently, been researched for various stages of amelioration up to the absence of PLP. Previous studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) suggested that pathological cortical reorganisation after amputation may be the underlying neurobiological correlate of PLP. We report two cases of permanent elimination of PLP after application of imaginative resonance training. The patients, 69 years and 84 years old, reported freedom from PLP together with in-depth achievement of proprioception of a restored limb at the end of the treatment, which may thus be taken as an indication of permanence. Pre/post fMRI for the first case showed, against a group of healthy controls, analogous changes of activation in the sensorimotor cortex. PMID:22748628

  20. Human brain somatic representation: a functional magnetic resonance mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero-Romo, Juan; Rojas, Rafael; Salgado, Perla; Sánchez-Cortázar, Julián; Vazquez-Vela, Arturo; Barrios, Fernando A.

    2001-10-01

    Central nervous system studies of injury and plasticity for the reorganization in the phantom limb sensation area presented. In particular functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) mapping of the somatic and motor cortex of amputee patients, in the case of referred sensations. Using fMRI we can show the correlation between structure and functional field and study the reorganization due to plasticity in the brain.

  1. Acoustic noise during functional magnetic resonance imaginga)

    PubMed Central

    Ravicz, Michael E.; Melcher, Jennifer R.; Kiang, Nelson Y.-S.

    2007-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) enables sites of brain activation to be localized in human subjects. For studies of the auditory system, acoustic noise generated during fMRI can interfere with assessments of this activation by introducing uncontrolled extraneous sounds. As a first step toward reducing the noise during fMRI, this paper describes the temporal and spectral characteristics of the noise present under typical fMRI study conditions for two imagers with different static magnetic field strengths. Peak noise levels were 123 and 138 dB re 20 μPa in a 1.5-tesla (T) and a 3-T imager, respectively. The noise spectrum (calculated over a 10-ms window coinciding with the highest-amplitude noise) showed a prominent maximum at 1 kHz for the 1.5-T imager (115 dB SPL) and at 1.4 kHz for the 3-T imager (131 dB SPL). The frequency content and timing of the most intense noise components indicated that the noise was primarily attributable to the readout gradients in the imaging pulse sequence. The noise persisted above background levels for 300-500 ms after gradient activity ceased, indicating that resonating structures in the imager or noise reverberating in the imager room were also factors. The gradient noise waveform was highly repeatable. In addition, the coolant pump for the imager’s permanent magnet and the room air handling system were sources of ongoing noise lower in both level and frequency than gradient coil noise. Knowledge of the sources and characteristics of the noise enabled the examination of general approaches to noise control that could be applied to reduce the unwanted noise during fMRI sessions. PMID:11051496

  2. Brain functional magnetic resonance imaging response to glucose and fructose infusions in humans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: In animals, intracerebroventricular glucose and fructose have opposing effects on appetite and weight regulation. In humans, functional brain magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies during carbohydrate ingestion suggest that glucose may regulate HT signaling but are potentially confoun...

  3. fMRI contrast at high and ultrahigh magnetic fields: insight from complementary methods.

    PubMed

    Ciobanu, Luisa; Solomon, Eddy; Pyatigorskaya, Nadya; Roussel, Tangi; Le Bihan, Denis; Frydman, Lucio

    2015-06-01

    This manuscript examines the origins and nature of the function-derived activation detected by magnetic resonance imaging at ultrahigh fields using different encoding methods. A series of preclinical high field (7 T) and ultra-high field (17.2 T) fMRI experiments were performed using gradient echo EPI, spin echo EPI and spatio-temporally encoded (SPEN) strategies. The dependencies of the fMRI signal change on the strength of the magnetic field and on different acquisition and sequence parameters were investigated. Artifact-free rat brain images with good resolution in all areas, as well as significant localized activation maps upon forepaw stimulation, were obtained in a single scan using fully refocused SPEN sequences devoid of T2* effects. Our results showed that, besides the normal T2-weighted BOLD contribution that arises in spin-echo sequences, fMRI SPEN signals contain a strong component caused by apparent T1-related effects, demonstrating the potential of such technique for exploring functional activation in rodents and on humans at ultrahigh fields. PMID:25795340

  4. Magnetic resonance annual, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Kressel, H.Y.

    1987-01-01

    This book features reviews of high-resolution MRI of the knee, MRI of the normal and ischmeic hip, MRI of the heart, and temporomandibular joint imaging, as well as thorough discussion on artifacts in magnetic resonance imaging. Contributors consider the clinical applications of gadolinium-DTPA in magnetic resonance imaging and the clinical use of partial saturation and saturation recovery sequences. Timely reports assess the current status of rapid MRI and describe a new rapid gated cine MRI technique. Also included is an analysis of cerebrospinal fluid flow effects during MRI of the central nervous system.

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Stark, D.D.; Bradley, W.G. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The authors present a review of magnetic resonance imaging. Many topics are explored from instrumentation, spectroscopy, blood flow and sodium imaging to detailed clinical applications such as the differential diagnosis of multiple sclerosis or adrenal adenoma. The emphasis throughout is on descriptions of normal multiplanar anatomy and pathology as displayed by MRI.

  6. Magnetic Resonance Annual, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Kressel, H.Y.

    1985-01-01

    The inaugural volume of Magnetic Resonance Annual includes reviews of MRI of the posterior fossa, cerebral neoplasms, and the cardiovascular and genitourinary systems. A chapter on contrast materials outlines the mechanisms of paramagnetic contrast enhancement and highlights several promising contrast agents.

  7. Single spin magnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wrachtrup, Jörg; Finkler, Amit

    2016-08-01

    Different approaches have improved the sensitivity of either electron or nuclear magnetic resonance to the single spin level. For optical detection it has essentially become routine to observe a single electron spin or nuclear spin. Typically, the systems in use are carefully designed to allow for single spin detection and manipulation, and of those systems, diamond spin defects rank very high, being so robust that they can be addressed, read out and coherently controlled even under ambient conditions and in a versatile set of nanostructures. This renders them as a new type of sensor, which has been shown to detect single electron and nuclear spins among other quantities like force, pressure and temperature. Adapting pulse sequences from classic NMR and EPR, and combined with high resolution optical microscopy, proximity to the target sample and nanoscale size, the diamond sensors have the potential to constitute a new class of magnetic resonance detectors with single spin sensitivity. As diamond sensors can be operated under ambient conditions, they offer potential application across a multitude of disciplines. Here we review the different existing techniques for magnetic resonance, with a focus on diamond defect spin sensors, showing their potential as versatile sensors for ultra-sensitive magnetic resonance with nanoscale spatial resolution.

  8. Single spin magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Wrachtrup, Jörg; Finkler, Amit

    2016-08-01

    Different approaches have improved the sensitivity of either electron or nuclear magnetic resonance to the single spin level. For optical detection it has essentially become routine to observe a single electron spin or nuclear spin. Typically, the systems in use are carefully designed to allow for single spin detection and manipulation, and of those systems, diamond spin defects rank very high, being so robust that they can be addressed, read out and coherently controlled even under ambient conditions and in a versatile set of nanostructures. This renders them as a new type of sensor, which has been shown to detect single electron and nuclear spins among other quantities like force, pressure and temperature. Adapting pulse sequences from classic NMR and EPR, and combined with high resolution optical microscopy, proximity to the target sample and nanoscale size, the diamond sensors have the potential to constitute a new class of magnetic resonance detectors with single spin sensitivity. As diamond sensors can be operated under ambient conditions, they offer potential application across a multitude of disciplines. Here we review the different existing techniques for magnetic resonance, with a focus on diamond defect spin sensors, showing their potential as versatile sensors for ultra-sensitive magnetic resonance with nanoscale spatial resolution. PMID:27378060

  9. [Magnetic resonance, an introduction].

    PubMed

    Cabrera Rueda, D J; Fernández Herrerías, G

    2000-09-01

    What would you explain to a patient if he/she had to undergo a magnetic resonance imagery session? Do you know if a person wearing a pacemaker can undergo an MRI? These and many other questions are answered in the following article since magnetic resonance imagery is a very useful diagnostic medium; however, it is one which not everyone has been able to get to know and use. The authors shed light on this diagnostic technique for nurses starting with its physical foundations; since knowing these aids professionals to correctly plan our treatments and improves the attention provided to patients who undergo this test. The authors also list the specific components in this device, the possible biological effects, the detractions and some basic recommendations. PMID:11111673

  10. Cavity- and waveguide-resonators in electron paramagnetic resonance, nuclear magnetic resonance, and magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Webb, Andrew

    2014-11-01

    Cavity resonators are widely used in electron paramagnetic resonance, very high field magnetic resonance microimaging and also in high field human imaging. The basic principles and designs of different forms of cavity resonators including rectangular, cylindrical, re-entrant, cavity magnetrons, toroidal cavities and dielectric resonators are reviewed. Applications in EPR and MRI are summarized, and finally the topic of traveling wave MRI using the magnet bore as a waveguide is discussed. PMID:25456314

  11. Magnetic Resonance Facility (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-03-01

    This fact sheet provides information about Magnetic Resonance Facility capabilities and applications at NREL's National Bioenergy Center. Liquid and solid-state analysis capability for a variety of biomass, photovoltaic, and materials characterization applications across NREL. NREL scientists analyze solid and liquid samples on three nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometers as well as an electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometer.

  12. Development of a Clinical Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Service

    PubMed Central

    Rigolo, Laura; Stern, Emily; Deaver, Pamela; Golby, Alexandra J.; Mukundan, Srinivasan

    2013-01-01

    One of the limitations of anatomical based imaging approaches is its relative inability to identify whether specific brain functions may be compromised by the location of brain lesions or contemplated brain surgeries. For this reason, methods for identifying the regions of eloquent brain that should not be disturbed are absolutely critical to the surgeon. By accurately identifying these regions preoperatively, virtually every pre-surgical decision from the surgical approach, operative goals (biopsy, sub-total vs. gross-total resection), and the potential need for awake craniotomy with intraoperative cortical-mapping is affected. Of the many techniques available to the surgeon, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has become the primary modality of choice due to the ability of MRI to serve as a “one-stop shop” for assessing both anatomy and functionality of the brain. Given their prevalence, brain tumors serve as the model pathology for the included discussion; however, a similar case can be made for the use of fMRI in other neurological conditions, most notably epilepsy. The value of fMRI was validated in 2007 when the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) established three new current procedural terminology (CPT) codes for clinical fMRI based upon its use for pre-therapeutic planning. In this article we will discuss the specific requirements for establishing an fMRI program, including specific software and hardware requirements. In addition, the nature of the fMRI CPT codes will be discussed. PMID:21435578

  13. Functional magnetic resonance imaging in chronic ischaemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Lake, Evelyn M R; Bazzigaluppi, Paolo; Stefanovic, Bojana

    2016-10-01

    Ischaemic stroke is the leading cause of adult disability worldwide. Effective rehabilitation is hindered by uncertainty surrounding the underlying mechanisms that govern long-term ischaemic injury progression. Despite its potential as a sensitive non-invasive in vivo marker of brain function that may aid in the development of new treatments, blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has found limited application in the clinical research on chronic stage stroke progression. Stroke affects each of the physiological parameters underlying the BOLD contrast, markedly complicating the interpretation of BOLD fMRI data. This review summarizes current progress on application of BOLD fMRI in the chronic stage of ischaemic injury progression and discusses means by which more information may be gained from such BOLD fMRI measurements. Concomitant measurements of vascular reactivity, neuronal activity and metabolism in preclinical models of stroke are reviewed along with illustrative examples of post-ischaemic evolution in neuronal, glial and vascular function. The realization of the BOLD fMRI potential to propel stroke research is predicated on the carefully designed preclinical research establishing an ischaemia-specific quantitative model of BOLD signal contrast to provide the framework for interpretation of fMRI findings in clinical populations.This article is part of the themed issue 'Interpreting BOLD: a dialogue between cognitive and cellular neuroscience'. PMID:27574307

  14. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Michael; Griffith, Robert; Bulatowicz, Michael

    2014-03-01

    The navigation grade micro Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope (micro-NMRG) being developed by the Northrop Grumman Corporation (NGC) has concluded the fourth and final phase of the DARPA Navigation Grade Integrated Micro Gyro (NGIMG) program. Traditional MEMS gyros utilize springs as an inherent part of the sensing mechanism, leading to bias and scale factor sensitivity to acceleration and vibration. As a result, they have not met performance expectations in real world environments and to date have been limited to tactical grade applications. The Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope (NMRG) utilizes the fixed precession rate of a nuclear spin in a constant magnetic field as an inertial reference for determining rotation. The nuclear spin precession rate sensitivity to acceleration and vibration is negligible for most applications. Therefore, the application of new micro and batch fabrication methods to NMRG technology holds great promise for navigation grade performance in a low cost and compact gyro. This presentation will describe the operational principles, design basics, and demonstrated performance of the NMRG including an overview of the NGC designs developed and demonstrated in the DARPA gyro development program.

  15. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulatowicz, Michael; Clark, Philip; Griffith, Robert; Larsen, Michael; Mirijanian, James

    2012-06-01

    The navigation grade micro Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope (micro-NMRG) being developed by the Northrop Grumman Corporation is concluding the fourth and final phase of the DARPA Navigation Grade Integrated Micro Gyro (NGIMG) program. Traditional MEMS gyros utilize springs as an inherent part of the sensing mechanism, leading to bias and scale factor sensitivity to acceleration and vibration. As a result, they have not met performance expectations in real world environments and to date have been limited to tactical grade applications. The Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope (NMRG) utilizes the fixed precession rate of a nuclear spin in a constant magnetic field as an inertial reference for determining rotation. The nuclear spin precession rate sensitivity to acceleration and vibration is negligible for most applications. Therefore, the application of new micro and batch fabrication methods to NMRG technology holds great promise for navigation grade performance in a low cost and compact gyro. This poster will describe the history, operational principles, and design basics of the NMRG including an overview of the NSD designs developed and demonstrated in the DARPA gyro development program. General performance results from phases 3 and 4 will also be presented.

  16. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulatowicz, Michael; Griffith, Robert; Larsen, Michael

    2014-03-01

    The navigation grade micro Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope (micro-NMRG) being developed by the Northrop Grumman Corporation (NGC) has concluded the fourth and final phase of the DARPA Navigation Grade Integrated Micro Gyro (NGIMG) program. Traditional MEMS gyros utilize springs as an inherent part of the sensing mechanism, leading to bias and scale factor sensitivity to acceleration and vibration. As a result, they have not met performance expectations in real world environments and to date have been limited to tactical grade applications. The Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope (NMRG) utilizes the fixed precession rate of a nuclear spin in a constant magnetic field as an inertial reference for determining rotation. The nuclear spin precession rate sensitivity to acceleration and vibration is negligible for most applications. Therefore, the application of new micro and batch fabrication methods to NMRG technology holds great promise for navigation grade performance in a low cost and compact gyro. This poster will describe the history, operational principles, design, and demonstrated performance of the NMRG including an overview of the NGC designs developed and demonstrated in the DARPA gyro development program.

  17. Magnetic resonance of slotted circular cylinder resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Junjie; Liu, Shiyang; Lin, Zhifang; Chui, S. T.

    2008-07-01

    By a rigorous full-wave approach, a systemic study is made on the magnetic resonance of slotted circular cylinder resonators (SCCRs) made of a perfect conductor for the lossless case. This is a two-dimensional analog of the split-ring resonator and may serve as an alternative type of essential constituent of electromagnetic metamaterials. It is found that the resonance frequency can be modulated by changing the geometrical parameters and the dielectrics filling in the cavity and the slot. An approximate empirical expression is presented for magnetic resonance frequency of SCCRs from the viewpoint of an L-C circuit system. Finally, it is demonstrated that the SCCR structure can be miniaturized to less than 1/150 resonant wavelength in size with the dielectrics available currently.

  18. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Michael

    2011-05-01

    The navigation grade micro Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope (micro-NMRG) being developed by the Northrop Grumman Corporation is currently in phase 4 of the DARPA Navigation Grade Integrated Micro Gyro (NGIMG) program. The micro-NMRG technology is pushing the boundaries of size, weight, power, and performance allowing new small platform applications of navigation grade Inertial Navigation System (INS) technology. Information on the historical development of the technology, basics of operation, task performance goals, application opportunities, and a phase 2 sample of earth rate measurement data will be presented. Funding Provided by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA)

  19. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Elster, A.D.

    1988-01-01

    Cranial Magnetic Resonance Imaging is comprehensive, well structured, and well written. The material is current and well referenced. The illustrations are good and complement the text well. The overall quality of publication is above average. The greatest attribute of the book is its readability. The author demonstrates ample skill in making complex subjects, such as MR physics and imaging of cerebral hemorrhage, easy to understand. The book closes with a detailed atlas on the anatomic appearance of the brain on MR images in the axial, coronal, and sagittal planes.

  20. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Duodenoscope.

    PubMed

    Syms, Richard R A; Young, Ian R; Wadsworth, Christopher A; Taylor-Robinson, Simon D; Rea, Marc

    2013-12-01

    A side-viewing duodenoscope capable of both optical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is described. The instrument is constructed from MR-compatible materials and combines a coherent fiber bundle for optical imaging, an irrigation channel and a side-opening biopsy channel for the passage of catheter tools with a tip saddle coil for radio-frequency signal reception. The receiver coil is magnetically coupled to an internal pickup coil to provide intrinsic safety. Impedance matching is achieved using a mechanically variable mutual inductance, and active decoupling by PIN-diode switching. (1)H MRI of phantoms and ex vivo porcine liver specimens was carried out at 1.5 T. An MRI field-of-view appropriate for use during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) was obtained, with limited artefacts, and a signal-to-noise ratio advantage over a surface array coil was demonstrated. PMID:23807423

  1. Magnetic Resonance Elastography

    PubMed Central

    Litwiller, Daniel V.; Mariappan, Yogesh K.; Ehman, Richard L.

    2015-01-01

    Often compared to the practice of manual palpation, magnetic resonance elastography is an emerging technology for quantitatively assessing the mechanical properties of tissue as a basis for characterizing disease. The potential of MRE as a diagnostic tool is rooted in the fact that normal and diseased tissues often differ significantly in terms of their intrinsic mechanical properties. MRE uses magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in conjunction with the application of mechanical shear waves to probe tissue mechanics. This process can be broken down into three essential steps: inducing shear waves in the tissue,imaging the propagating shear waves with MRI, andanalyzing the wave data to generate quantitative images of tissue stiffness MRE has emerged as a safe, reliable and noninvasive method for staging hepatic liver fibrosis, and is now used in some locations as an alternative to biopsy. MRE is also being used in the ongoing investigations of numerous other organs and tissues, including, for example, the spleen, kidney, pancreas, brain, heart, breast, skeletal muscle, prostate, vasculature, lung, spinal cord, eye, bone, and cartilage. In the article that follows, some fundamental techniques and applications of MRE are summarized. PMID:26361467

  2. Accessible magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, L; Arakawa, M; Hale, J; Rothschild, P; Carlson, J; Hake, K; Kramer, D; Lu, W; Van Heteren, J

    1989-10-01

    The cost of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is driven by magnetic field strength. Misperceptions as to the impact of field strength on performance have led to systems that are more expensive than they need to be. Careful analysis of all the factors that affect diagnostic quality lead to the conclusion that field strength per se is not a strong determinant of system performance. Freed from the constraints imposed by high-field operation, it is possible to exploit a varied set of opportunities afforded by low-field operation. In addition to lower costs and easier siting, we can take advantage of shortened T1 times, higher contrast, reduced sensitivity to motion, and reduced radiofrequency power deposition. These conceptual advantages can be made to coalesce onto practical imaging systems. We describe a low-cost MRI system that utilizes a permanent magnet of open design. Careful optimization of receiving antennas and acquisition sequences permit performance levels consistent with those needed for an effective diagnostic unit. Ancillary advantages include easy access to the patient, reduced claustrophobia, quiet and comfortable operation, and absence of a missile effect. The system can be sited in 350 sq ft and consumes a modest amount of electricity. MRI equipment of this kind can widen the population base than can access this powerful and beneficial diagnostic modality. PMID:2640910

  3. Virtual magnetic resonance colonography

    PubMed Central

    Debatin, J; Lauenstein, T

    2003-01-01

    Colorectal cancer screening has vast potential. Beyond considerations for cost and diagnostic accuracy, the effectiveness of any colorectal screening strategy will be dependent on the degree of patient acceptance. Magnetic resonance (MR) colonography has been shown to be accurate regarding the detection of clinically relevant colonic polyps exceeding 10 mm in size, with reported sensitivity and specificity values exceeding 95%. To further increase patient acceptance, strategies for fecal tagging have recently been developed. By modulating the signal of fecal material to be identical to the signal characteristics of the enema applied to distend the colon, fecal tagging in conjunction with MR colonography obviates the need for bowel cleansing. The review will describe the techniques underlying MR colonography and describe early clinical experience with fecal tagging techniques. PMID:12746264

  4. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Michael; Bulatowicz, Michael; Clark, Philip; Griffith, Robert; Mirijanian, James; Pavell, James

    2015-05-01

    The Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope (NMRG) is being developed by the Northrop Grumman Corporation (NGC). Cold and hot atom interferometer based gyroscopes have suffered from Size, Weight, and Power (SWaP) challenges and limits in bandwidth, scale factor stability, dead time, high rotation rate, vibration, and acceleration. NMRG utilizes the fixed precession rate of a nuclear spin in a constant magnetic field as a reference for determining rotation, providing continuous measurement, high bandwidth, stable scale factor, high rotation rate measurement, and low sensitivity to vibration and acceleration in a low SWaP package. The sensitivity to vibration has been partially tested and demonstrates no measured sensitivity within error bars. Real time closed loop implementation of the sensor significantly decreases environmental and systematic sensitivities and supports a compact and low power digital signal processing and control system. Therefore, the NMRG technology holds great promise for navigation grade performance in a low cost SWaP package. The poster will describe the history, operation, and design of the NMRG. General performance results will also be presented along with recent vibration test results.

  5. Superconducting Magnets for Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feenan, Peter

    2000-03-01

    MRI is now a well established diagnostic technique in medicine. The richness of information provided by magnetic resonance gives rise to a variety of techniques which in turn leads to a variety of magnet designs. Magnet designers must consider suitable superconduting materials for the magnet, but need also to consider the overall fomat of the magnet to maximise patient comfort, access for clinicians and convenience of use - in some examples magnets are destined for use within the operating theatre and special considerations are required for this. Magnet types include; (1) low-field general purpose imagers, (2) extremity imaging, (3) open magnets with exellent all-round access often employing iron or permanent magnetic materials, (4) high-field magnets, and (5) very high-field (7 Tesla and more) magnets for spectroscopy and functional imaging research. Examples of these magnet varieties will be shown and some of the design challenges discussed.

  6. Low field magnetic resonance imaging

    DOEpatents

    Pines, Alexander; Sakellariou, Dimitrios; Meriles, Carlos A.; Trabesinger, Andreas H.

    2010-07-13

    A method and system of magnetic resonance imaging does not need a large homogenous field to truncate a gradient field. Spatial information is encoded into the spin magnetization by allowing the magnetization to evolve in a non-truncated gradient field and inducing a set of 180 degree rotations prior to signal acquisition.

  7. Principles of functional magnetic resonance imaging: application to auditory neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Cacace, A T; Tasciyan, T; Cousins, J P

    2000-05-01

    Functional imaging based on magnetic resonance methods is a new research frontier for exploring a wide range of central nervous system (CNS) functions, including information processing in sensory, motor, cognitive, and linguistic systems. Being able to localize and study human brain function in vivo, in relatively high resolution and in a noninvasive manner, makes this a technique of unparalleled importance. In order to appreciate and fully understand this area of investigation, a tutorial covering basic aspects of this methodology is presented. We introduce functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) by providing an overview of the studies of different sensory systems in response to modality-specific stimuli, followed by an outline of other areas that have potential clinical relevance to the medical, cognitive, and communicative sciences. The discussion then focuses on the basic principles of magnetic resonance methods including magnetic resonance imaging, MR spectroscopy, fMRI, and the potential role that MR technology may play in understanding a wide range of auditory functions within the CNS, including tinnitus-related activity. Because the content of the material found herein might be unfamiliar to some, we provide a broad range of background and review articles to serve as a technical resource. PMID:10821504

  8. Nuclear magnetic resonance contrast agents

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Paul H.; Brainard, James R.; Jarvinen, Gordon D.; Ryan, Robert R.

    1997-01-01

    A family of contrast agents for use in magnetic resonance imaging and a method of enhancing the contrast of magnetic resonance images of an object by incorporating a contrast agent of this invention into the object prior to forming the images or during formation of the images. A contrast agent of this invention is a paramagnetic lanthanide hexaazamacrocyclic molecule, where a basic example has the formula LnC.sub.16 H.sub.14 N.sub.6. Important applications of the invention are in medical diagnosis, treatment, and research, where images of portions of a human body are formed by means of magnetic resonance techniques.

  9. Nuclear magnetic resonance contrast agents

    DOEpatents

    Smith, P.H.; Brainard, J.R.; Jarvinen, G.D.; Ryan, R.R.

    1997-12-30

    A family of contrast agents for use in magnetic resonance imaging and a method of enhancing the contrast of magnetic resonance images of an object by incorporating a contrast agent of this invention into the object prior to forming the images or during formation of the images. A contrast agent of this invention is a paramagnetic lanthanide hexaazamacrocyclic molecule, where a basic example has the formula LnC{sub 16}H{sub 14}N{sub 6}. Important applications of the invention are in medical diagnosis, treatment, and research, where images of portions of a human body are formed by means of magnetic resonance techniques. 10 figs.

  10. Magnetic resonance energy and topological resonance energy.

    PubMed

    Aihara, Jun-Ichi

    2016-04-28

    Ring-current diamagnetism of a polycyclic π-system is closely associated with thermodynamic stability due to the individual circuits. Magnetic resonance energy (MRE), derived from the ring-current diamagnetic susceptibility, was explored in conjunction with graph-theoretically defined topological resonance energy (TRE). For many aromatic molecules, MRE is highly correlative with TRE with a correlation coefficient of 0.996. For all π-systems studied, MRE has the same sign as TRE. The only trouble with MRE may be that some antiaromatic and non-alternant species exhibit unusually large MRE-to-TRE ratios. This kind of difficulty can in principle be overcome by prior geometry-optimisation or by changing spin multiplicity. Apart from the semi-empirical resonance-theory resonance energy, MRE is considered as the first aromatic stabilisation energy (ASE) defined without referring to any hypothetical polyene reference. PMID:26878709

  11. Rejection of pulse related artefact (PRA) from continuous electroencephalographic (EEG) time series recorded during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) using constraint independent component analysis (cICA).

    PubMed

    Leclercq, Yves; Balteau, Evelyne; Dang-Vu, Thanh; Schabus, Manuel; Luxen, André; Maquet, Pierre; Phillips, Christophe

    2009-02-01

    Rejection of the pulse related artefact (PRA) from electroencephalographic (EEG) time series recorded simultaneously with fMRI data is difficult, particularly during NREM sleep because of the similarities between sleep slow waves and PRA, in both temporal and frequency domains and the need to work with non-averaged data. Here we introduce an algorithm based on constrained independent component analysis (cICA) for PRA removal. This method has several advantages: (1) automatic detection of the components corresponding to the PRA; (2) stability of the solution and (3) computational treatability. Using multichannel EEG recordings obtained in a 3 T MR scanner, with and without concomitant fMRI acquisition, we provide evidence for the sensitivity and specificity of the method in rejecting PRA in various sleep and waking conditions. PMID:19015033

  12. Simple and Inexpensive Classroom Demonstrations of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Joel A.; Nordell, Karen J.; Chesnik, Marla A.; Landis, Clark R.; Ellis, Arthur B.; Rzchowski, M. S.; Condren, S. Michael; Lisensky, George C.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a set of simple, inexpensive, classical demonstrations of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) principles that illustrate the resonance condition associated with magnetic dipoles and the dependence of the resonance frequency on environment. (WRM)

  13. An engineered glove for investigating the neural correlates of finger movements using functional magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Bonzano, Laura; Tacchino, Andrea; Roccatagliata, Luca; Inglese, Matilde; Mancardi, Giovanni Luigi; Novellino, Antonio; Bove, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Objective measurement of concomitant finger motor performance is recommended for functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies investigating brain activity during finger tapping tasks, because performance modality and ability can influence the selection of different neural networks. In this study, we present a novel glove system for quantitative evaluation of finger opposition movements during fMRI (called Glove Analyzer for fMRI, GAF). Several tests for magnetic resonance (MR) compatibility were performed concerning magnet forces, image artifacts and right functioning of the system. Then, pilot fMRI of finger opposition tasks were conducted at 1.5T and 3T to investigate the neural correlates of sequences of finger opposition movements with the right hand, with simultaneous behavioral recording by means of GAF. All the MR compatibility tests succeeded, and the fMRI analysis revealed mainly the activation of the left sensorimotor areas and right cerebellum, regions that are known to be involved in finger movements. No artifactual clusters were detected in the activation maps. At the same time, through the parameters calculated by GAF it was possible to describe the sensorimotor strategy adopted by the subjects during the required task. Thus, the proposed device resulted to be MR compatible and can be useful for future fMRI studies investigating the neural correlates of finger opposition movements, allowing follow-up studies and comparisons among different groups of patients. PMID:26441600

  14. An engineered glove for investigating the neural correlates of finger movements using functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Bonzano, Laura; Tacchino, Andrea; Roccatagliata, Luca; Inglese, Matilde; Mancardi, Giovanni Luigi; Novellino, Antonio; Bove, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Objective measurement of concomitant finger motor performance is recommended for functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies investigating brain activity during finger tapping tasks, because performance modality and ability can influence the selection of different neural networks. In this study, we present a novel glove system for quantitative evaluation of finger opposition movements during fMRI (called Glove Analyzer for fMRI, GAF). Several tests for magnetic resonance (MR) compatibility were performed concerning magnet forces, image artifacts and right functioning of the system. Then, pilot fMRI of finger opposition tasks were conducted at 1.5T and 3T to investigate the neural correlates of sequences of finger opposition movements with the right hand, with simultaneous behavioral recording by means of GAF. All the MR compatibility tests succeeded, and the fMRI analysis revealed mainly the activation of the left sensorimotor areas and right cerebellum, regions that are known to be involved in finger movements. No artifactual clusters were detected in the activation maps. At the same time, through the parameters calculated by GAF it was possible to describe the sensorimotor strategy adopted by the subjects during the required task. Thus, the proposed device resulted to be MR compatible and can be useful for future fMRI studies investigating the neural correlates of finger opposition movements, allowing follow-up studies and comparisons among different groups of patients. PMID:26441600

  15. Magnetic Resonance Cholangiopancreatography (MRCP)

    MedlinePlus

    ... a powerful magnetic field, radio waves and a computer to evaluate the liver, gallbladder, bile ducts, pancreas ... powerful magnetic field, radio frequency pulses and a computer to produce detailed pictures of organs, soft tissues, ...

  16. Noble gas magnetic resonator

    DOEpatents

    Walker, Thad Gilbert; Lancor, Brian Robert; Wyllie, Robert

    2014-04-15

    Precise measurements of a precessional rate of noble gas in a magnetic field is obtained by constraining the time averaged direction of the spins of a stimulating alkali gas to lie in a plane transverse to the magnetic field. In this way, the magnetic field of the alkali gas does not provide a net contribution to the precessional rate of the noble gas.

  17. Basics of magnetic resonance imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Oldendorf, W.; Oldendorf, W. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Beginning with the behavior of a compass needle in a magnetic field, this text uses analogies from everyday experience to explain the phenomenon of nuclear magnetic resonance and how it is used for imaging. Using a minimum of scientific abbreviations and symbols, the basics of tissue visualization and characterization are presented. A description of the various types of magnets and scanners is followed by the practical advantages and limitations of MRI relative to x-ray CT scanning.

  18. Optically detected magnetic resonance imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Blank, Aharon; Shapiro, Guy; Fischer, Ran; London, Paz; Gershoni, David

    2015-01-19

    Optically detected magnetic resonance provides ultrasensitive means to detect and image a small number of electron and nuclear spins, down to the single spin level with nanoscale resolution. Despite the significant recent progress in this field, it has never been combined with the power of pulsed magnetic resonance imaging techniques. Here, we demonstrate how these two methodologies can be integrated using short pulsed magnetic field gradients to spatially encode the sample. This result in what we denote as an 'optically detected magnetic resonance imaging' technique. It offers the advantage that the image is acquired in parallel from all parts of the sample, with well-defined three-dimensional point-spread function, and without any loss of spectroscopic information. In addition, this approach may be used in the future for parallel but yet spatially selective efficient addressing and manipulation of the spins in the sample. Such capabilities are of fundamental importance in the field of quantum spin-based devices and sensors.

  19. GHz nuclear magnetic resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Cross, T.A.; Drobny, G.; Trewhella, J.

    1994-12-01

    For the past dozen years, 500- and 600-MHz spectrometers have become available in many laboratories. The first 600-MHz NMR spectrometer (at Carnegie Mellon University) was commissioned more than 15 years ago and, until 1994, represented the highest field available for high-resolution NMR. This year, we have witnessed unprecedented progress in the development of very high field magnets for NMR spectroscopy, including the delivery of the first commercial 750-MHz NMR spectrometers. In addition, NMR signals have been obtained from 20-Tesla magnets (850 MHz for {sup 1}H`s) at both Los Alamos National Laboratory and Florida State University in the NHMFL (National High Magnetic Field Laboratory). These preliminary experiments have been performed in magnets with 100-ppm homogeneity, but a 20-Tesla magnet developed for the NHMFL will be brought to field this year with a projected homogeneity of 0.1 ppm over a 1-cm-diam spherical volume.

  20. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Cognitive Processing in Young Adults with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacola, Lisa M.; Byars, Anna W.; Chalfonte-Evans, Melinda; Schmithorst, Vincent J.; Hickey, Fran; Patterson, Bonnie; Hotze, Stephanie; Vannest, Jennifer; Chiu, Chung-Yiu; Holland, Scott K.; Schapiro, Mark B.

    2011-01-01

    The authors used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate neural activation during a semantic-classification/object-recognition task in 13 persons with Down syndrome and 12 typically developing control participants (age range = 12-26 years). A comparison between groups suggested atypical patterns of brain activation for the…

  1. A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Investigation of Verbal Working Memory in Adolescents with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weismer, Susan Ellis; Plante, Elena; Jones, Maura; Tomblin, Bruce J.

    2005-01-01

    This study used neuroimaging and behavioral techniques to examine the claim that processing capacity limitations underlie specific language impairment (SLI). Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to investigate verbal working memory in adolescents with SLI and normal language (NL) controls. The experimental task involved a modified…

  2. Physiological basis and image processing in functional magnetic resonance imaging: Neuronal and motor activity in brain

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Rakesh; Sharma, Avdhesh

    2004-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is recently developing as imaging modality used for mapping hemodynamics of neuronal and motor event related tissue blood oxygen level dependence (BOLD) in terms of brain activation. Image processing is performed by segmentation and registration methods. Segmentation algorithms provide brain surface-based analysis, automated anatomical labeling of cortical fields in magnetic resonance data sets based on oxygen metabolic state. Registration algorithms provide geometric features using two or more imaging modalities to assure clinically useful neuronal and motor information of brain activation. This review article summarizes the physiological basis of fMRI signal, its origin, contrast enhancement, physical factors, anatomical labeling by segmentation, registration approaches with examples of visual and motor activity in brain. Latest developments are reviewed for clinical applications of fMRI along with other different neurophysiological and imaging modalities. PMID:15125779

  3. Recent developments in optimal experimental designs for functional magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Ming-Hung; Temkit, M'hamed; Wong, Weng Kee

    2014-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is one of the leading brain mapping technologies for studying brain activity in response to mental stimuli. For neuroimaging studies utilizing this pioneering technology, there is a great demand of high-quality experimental designs that help to collect informative data to make precise and valid inference about brain functions. This paper provides a survey on recent developments in experimental designs for fMRI studies. We briefly introduce some analytical and computational tools for obtaining good designs based on a specified design selection criterion. Research results about some commonly considered designs such as blocked designs, and m-sequences are also discussed. Moreover, we present a recently proposed new type of fMRI designs that can be constructed using a certain type of Hadamard matrices. Under certain assumptions, these designs can be shown to be statistically optimal. Some future research directions in design of fMRI experiments are also discussed. PMID:25071884

  4. "More is different" in functional magnetic resonance imaging: a review of recent data analysis techniques.

    PubMed

    Lohmann, Gabriele; Stelzer, Johannes; Neumann, Jane; Ay, Nihat; Turner, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Two aspects play a key role in recently developed strategies for functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data analysis: first, it is now recognized that the human brain is a complex adaptive system and exhibits the hallmarks of complexity such as emergence of patterns arising out of a multitude of interactions between its many constituents. Second, the field of fMRI has evolved into a data-intensive, big data endeavor with large databases and masses of data being shared around the world. At the same time, ultra-high field MRI scanners are now available producing data at previously unobtainable quality and quantity. Both aspects have led to shifts in the way in which we view fMRI data. Here, we review recent developments in fMRI data analysis methodology that resulted from these shifts in paradigm. PMID:23402339

  5. Magnetic resonance apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Jackson, Jasper A.; Cooper, Richard K.

    1982-01-01

    Means for producing a region of homogeneous magnetic field remote from the source of the field, wherein two equal field sources are arranged axially so their fields oppose, producing a region near the plane perpendicular to the axis midway between the sources where the radial component of the field goes through a maximum. Near the maximum, the field is homogeneous over prescribed regions.

  6. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, R.K.

    1986-01-01

    NMR is remarkable in the number of innovations that have appeared and become established within the past five years. This thoroughly up-to-date account of the field explains fundamentals and applications of the NMR phenomenon from the viewpoint of a physical chemist. Beginning with descriptions of basic concepts involved in continuous wave operation, the book goes on to cover spectral analysis, relaxation phenomena, the effects of pulses, the Fourier transform model, double resonance and the effects of chemical exchange and quadrupolar interactions. The book also includes the new techniques for work on solids and for complicated pulse sequences, plus abundant figures and illustrative spectra.

  7. Magnetic resonance apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Jackson, J.A.; Cooper, R.K.

    1980-10-10

    The patent consists of means for producing a region of homogeneous magnetic field remote from the source of the field, wherein two equal field sources are arranged axially so their fields oppose, producing a region near the plane perpendicular to the axis midway between the sources where the radial correspondent of the field goes through a maximum. Near the maximum, the field is homogeneous over prescribed regions.

  8. Methodological challenges and solutions in auditory functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Peelle, Jonathan E

    2014-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies involve substantial acoustic noise. This review covers the difficulties posed by such noise for auditory neuroscience, as well as a number of possible solutions that have emerged. Acoustic noise can affect the processing of auditory stimuli by making them inaudible or unintelligible, and can result in reduced sensitivity to auditory activation in auditory cortex. Equally importantly, acoustic noise may also lead to increased listening effort, meaning that even when auditory stimuli are perceived, neural processing may differ from when the same stimuli are presented in quiet. These and other challenges have motivated a number of approaches for collecting auditory fMRI data. Although using a continuous echoplanar imaging (EPI) sequence provides high quality imaging data, these data may also be contaminated by background acoustic noise. Traditional sparse imaging has the advantage of avoiding acoustic noise during stimulus presentation, but at a cost of reduced temporal resolution. Recently, three classes of techniques have been developed to circumvent these limitations. The first is Interleaved Silent Steady State (ISSS) imaging, a variation of sparse imaging that involves collecting multiple volumes following a silent period while maintaining steady-state longitudinal magnetization. The second involves active noise control to limit the impact of acoustic scanner noise. Finally, novel MRI sequences that reduce the amount of acoustic noise produced during fMRI make the use of continuous scanning a more practical option. Together these advances provide unprecedented opportunities for researchers to collect high-quality data of hemodynamic responses to auditory stimuli using fMRI. PMID:25191218

  9. Study Design in fMRI: Basic Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amaro, Edson, Jr.; Barker, Gareth J.

    2006-01-01

    There is a wide range of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study designs available for the neuroscientist who wants to investigate cognition. In this manuscript we review some aspects of fMRI study design, including cognitive comparison strategies (factorial, parametric designs), and stimulus presentation possibilities (block,…

  10. Lying about Facial Recognition: An fMRI Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhatt, S.; Mbwana, J.; Adeyemo, A.; Sawyer, A.; Hailu, A.; VanMeter, J.

    2009-01-01

    Novel deception detection techniques have been in creation for centuries. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a neuroscience technology that non-invasively measures brain activity associated with behavior and cognition. A number of investigators have explored the utilization and efficiency of fMRI in deception detection. In this study,…

  11. Pediatric Body Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Kandasamy, Devasenathipathy; Goyal, Ankur; Sharma, Raju; Gupta, Arun Kumar

    2016-09-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a radiation-free imaging modality with excellent contrast resolution and multiplanar capabilities. Since ionizing radiation is an important concern in the pediatric population, MRI serves as a useful alternative to computed tomography (CT) and also provides additional clues to diagnosis, not discernible on other investigations. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP), urography, angiography, enterography, dynamic multiphasic imaging and diffusion-weighted imaging provide wealth of information. The main limitations include, long scan time, need for sedation/anesthesia, cost and lack of widespread availability. With the emergence of newer sequences and variety of contrast agents, MRI has become a robust modality and may serve as a one-stop shop for both anatomical and functional information. PMID:26916887

  12. Exploiting temporal information in functional magnetic resonance imaging brain data.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Samaras, Dimitris; Tomasi, Dardo; Alia-Klein, Nelly; Cottone, Lisa; Leskovjan, Andreana; Volkow, Nora; Goldstein, Rita

    2005-01-01

    Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging(fMRI) has enabled scientists to look into the active human brain, leading to a flood of new data, thus encouraging the development of new data analysis methods. In this paper, we contribute a comprehensive framework for spatial and temporal exploration of fMRI data, and apply it to a challenging case study: separating drug addicted subjects from healthy non-drug-using controls. To our knowledge, this is the first time that learning on fMRI data is performed explicitly on temporal information for classification in such applications. Experimental results demonstrate that, by selecting discriminative features, group classification can be successfully performed on our case study although training data are exceptionally high dimensional, sparse and noisy fMRI sequences. The classification performance can be significantly improved by incorporating temporal information into machine learning. Both statistical and neuroscientific validation of the method's generalization ability are provided. We demonstrate that incorporation of computer science principles into functional neuroimaging clinical studies, facilitates deduction about the behavioral probes from the brain activation data, thus providing a valid tool that incorporates objective brain imaging data into clinical classification of psychopathologies and identification of genetic vulnerabilities. PMID:16685905

  13. Investigating the emotional response to room acoustics: A functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Lawless, M S; Vigeant, M C

    2015-10-01

    While previous research has demonstrated the powerful influence of pleasant and unpleasant music on emotions, the present study utilizes functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to assess the positive and negative emotional responses as demonstrated in the brain when listening to music convolved with varying room acoustic conditions. During fMRI scans, subjects rated auralizations created in a simulated concert hall with varying reverberation times. The analysis detected activations in the dorsal striatum, a region associated with anticipation of reward, for two individuals for the highest rated stimulus, though no activations were found for regions associated with negative emotions in any subject. PMID:26520354

  14. The neural basis of the blood-oxygen-level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging signal.

    PubMed Central

    Logothetis, Nikos K

    2002-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has rapidly become an important tool in clinical medicine and biological research. Its functional variant (functional magnetic resonance imaging; fMRI) is currently the most widely used method for brain mapping and studying the neural basis of human cognition. While the method is widespread, there is insufficient knowledge of the physiological basis of the fMRI signal to interpret the data confidently with respect to neural activity. This paper reviews the basic principles of MRI and fMRI, and subsequently discusses in some detail the relationship between the blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) fMRI signal and the neural activity elicited during sensory stimulation. To examine this relationship, we conducted the first simultaneous intracortical recordings of neural signals and BOLD responses. Depending on the temporal characteristics of the stimulus, a moderate to strong correlation was found between the neural activity measured with microelectrodes and the BOLD signal averaged over a small area around the microelectrode tips. However, the BOLD signal had significantly higher variability than the neural activity, indicating that human fMRI combined with traditional statistical methods underestimates the reliability of the neuronal activity. To understand the relative contribution of several types of neuronal signals to the haemodynamic response, we compared local field potentials (LFPs), single- and multi-unit activity (MUA) with high spatio-temporal fMRI responses recorded simultaneously in monkey visual cortex. At recording sites characterized by transient responses, only the LFP signal was significantly correlated with the haemodynamic response. Furthermore, the LFPs had the largest magnitude signal and linear systems analysis showed that the LFPs were better than the MUAs at predicting the fMRI responses. These findings, together with an analysis of the neural signals, indicate that the BOLD signal primarily measures the input

  15. FMRI Signal Analysis Using Empirical Mean Curve Decomposition

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Fan; Zhu, Dajiang; Lv, Jinglei; Guo, Lei; Liu, Tianming

    2013-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) time series is non-linear and composed of components at multiple temporal scales, which presents significant challenges to its analysis. In the literature, significant effort has been devoted into model-based fMRI signal analysis, while much less attention has been directed to data-driven fMRI signal analysis. In this paper, we present a novel data-driven multi-scale signal decomposition framework named Empirical Mean Curve Decomposition (EMCD). Targeted on functional brain mapping, the EMCD optimizes mean envelopes from fMRI signals and iteratively extracts coarser-to-finer scale signal components. The EMCD framework was applied to infer meaningful low-frequency information from Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent (BOLD) signals from resting state fMRI, task-based fMRI, and natural stimulus fMRI, and promising results are obtained. PMID:23047856

  16. Time course and spatial distribution of fMRI signal changes during single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation to the primary motor cortex.

    PubMed

    Shitara, H; Shinozaki, T; Takagishi, K; Honda, M; Hanakawa, T

    2011-06-01

    Simultaneous transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) may advance the understanding of neurophysiological mechanisms of TMS. However, it remains unclear if TMS induces fMRI signal changes consistent with the standard hemodynamic response function (HRF) in both local and remote regions. To address this issue, we delivered single-pulse TMS to the left M1 during simultaneous recoding of electromyography and time-resolved fMRI in 36 healthy participants. First, we examined the time-course of fMRI signals during supra- and subthreshold single-pulse TMS in comparison with those during voluntary right hand movement and electrical stimulation to the right median nerve (MNS). All conditions yielded comparable time-courses of fMRI signals, showing that HRF would generally provide reasonable estimates for TMS-evoked activity in the motor areas. However, a clear undershoot following the signal peak was observed only during subthreshold TMS in the left M1, suggesting a small but meaningful difference between the locally and remotely TMS-evoked activities. Second, we compared the spatial distribution of activity across the conditions. Suprathreshold TMS-evoked activity overlapped not only with voluntary movement-related activity but also partially with MNS-induced activity, yielding overlapped areas of activity around the stimulated M1. The present study has provided the first experimental evidence that motor area activity during suprathreshold TMS likely includes activity for processing of muscle afferents. A method should be developed to control the effects of muscle afferents for fair interpretation of TMS-induced motor area activity during suprathreshold TMS to M1. PMID:21396457

  17. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of internet addiction in young adults

    PubMed Central

    Sepede, Gianna; Tavino, Margherita; Santacroce, Rita; Fiori, Federica; Salerno, Rosa Maria; Di Giannantonio, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To report the results of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies pertaining internet addiction disorder (IAD) in young adults. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review on PubMed, focusing our attention on fMRI studies involving adult IAD patients, free from any comorbid psychiatric condition. The following search words were used, both alone and in combination: fMRI, internet addiction, internet dependence, functional neuroimaging. The search was conducted on April 20th, 2015 and yielded 58 records. Inclusion criteria were the following: Articles written in English, patients’ age ≥ 18 years, patients affected by IAD, studies providing fMRI results during resting state or cognitive/emotional paradigms. Structural MRI studies, functional imaging techniques other than fMRI, studies involving adolescents, patients with comorbid psychiatric, neurological or medical conditions were excluded. By reading titles and abstracts, we excluded 30 records. By reading the full texts of the 28 remaining articles, we identified 18 papers meeting our inclusion criteria and therefore included in the qualitative synthesis. RESULTS: We found 18 studies fulfilling our inclusion criteria, 17 of them conducted in Asia, and including a total number of 666 tested subjects. The included studies reported data acquired during resting state or different paradigms, such as cue-reactivity, guessing or cognitive control tasks. The enrolled patients were usually males (95.4%) and very young (21-25 years). The most represented IAD subtype, reported in more than 85% of patients, was the internet gaming disorder, or videogame addiction. In the resting state studies, the more relevant abnormalities were localized in the superior temporal gyrus, limbic, medial frontal and parietal regions. When analyzing the task related fmri studies, we found that less than half of the papers reported behavioral differences between patients and normal controls, but all of them found significant

  18. A computerized tablet with visual feedback of hand position for functional magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Karimpoor, Mahta; Tam, Fred; Strother, Stephen C.; Fischer, Corinne E.; Schweizer, Tom A.; Graham, Simon J.

    2015-01-01

    Neuropsychological tests behavioral tasks that very commonly involve handwriting and drawing are widely used in the clinic to detect abnormal brain function. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) may be useful in increasing the specificity of such tests. However, performing complex pen-and-paper tests during fMRI involves engineering challenges. Previously, we developed an fMRI-compatible, computerized tablet system to address this issue. However, the tablet did not include visual feedback of hand position (VFHP), a human factors component that may be important for fMRI of certain patient populations. A real-time system was thus developed to provide VFHP and integrated with the tablet in an augmented reality display. The effectiveness of the system was initially tested in young healthy adults who performed various handwriting tasks in front of a computer display with and without VFHP. Pilot fMRI of writing tasks were performed by two representative individuals with and without VFHP. Quantitative analysis of the behavioral results indicated improved writing performance with VFHP. The pilot fMRI results suggest that writing with VFHP requires less neural resources compared to the without VFHP condition, to maintain similar behavior. Thus, the tablet system with VFHP is recommended for future fMRI studies involving patients with impaired brain function and where ecologically valid behavior is important. PMID:25859201

  19. In vivo static field perturbations in magnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Kevin Matthew

    2007-12-01

    Fundamental magnetic resonance (MR) theory assumes the spatial homogeneity of a dominating static magnetic field B = B 0ẑ. When this assumption is violated, a myriad of artifacts and compromising factors are introduced to MR spectra and images. Though in vivo nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is one of the most widely used scientific and diagnostic tools in medicine and biology, it remains haunted by the continual and persistant ghost of B0 inhomogeneity. An inclusive list of in vivo NMR applications severely impacted by B0 inhomogeneity could go on ad infinitum. Examples of such applications include neurosurgical utility in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), cerebral metabolic flux mapping, cerebral diffusion tractography, and abdominal diagnostic imaging. Given this wide impact on in vivo NMR, significant effort has been exerted in developing methods of compensating B0 inhomogeneity. Complicating this task is the sample-specific nature of in vivo B 0 inhomogeneity and its exacerbation with ever increasing B 0 field strengths. State of the art B 0 inhomogeneity compensation is currently at a critical juncture where homogenization demands are overwhelming the outer capabilities of existing technology and methods. This thesis addresses the B 0 inhomogeneity problem in the mammalian brain and presents novel solutions to the homogenization technology stalemate.

  20. Wide-range nuclear magnetic resonance detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturman, J. C.; Jirberg, R. J.

    1972-01-01

    Compact and easy to use solid state nuclear magnetic resonance detector is designed for measuring field strength to 20 teslas in cryogenically cooled magnets. Extremely low noise and high sensitivity make detector applicable to nearly all types of analytical nuclear magnetic resonance measurements and can be used in high temperature and radiation environments.

  1. Evanescent Waves Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    PubMed Central

    Halidi, El Mohamed; Nativel, Eric; Akel, Mohamad; Kenouche, Samir; Coillot, Christophe; Alibert, Eric; Jabakhanji, Bilal; Schimpf, Remy; Zanca, Michel; Stein, Paul; Goze-Bac, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy and imaging can be classified as inductive techniques working in the near- to far-field regimes. We investigate an alternative capacitive detection with the use of micrometer sized probes positioned at sub wavelength distances of the sample in order to characterize and model evanescent electromagnetic fields originating from NMR phenomenon. We report that in this experimental configuration the available NMR signal is one order of magnitude larger and follows an exponential decay inversely proportional to the size of the emitters. Those investigations open a new road to a better understanding of the evanescent waves component in NMR with the opportunity to perform localized spectroscopy and imaging. PMID:26751800

  2. Introduction to Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manatt, Stanley L.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to try to give a short overview of what the status is on nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). It's a subject where one really has to spend some time to look at the physics in detail to develop a proper working understanding. I feel it's not appropriate to present to you density matrices, Hamiltonians of all sorts, and differential equations representing the motion of spins. I'm really going to present some history and status, and show a few very simple concepts involved in NMR. It is a form of radio frequency spectroscopy and there are a great number of nuclei that can be studied very usefully with the technique. NMR requires a magnet, a r.f. transmitter/receiver system, and a data acquisition system.

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging of acquired cardiac disease.

    PubMed Central

    Carrol, C L; Higgins, C B; Caputo, G R

    1996-01-01

    Over the last 15 years, advances in magnetic resonance imaging techniques have increased the accuracy and applicability of cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging. These advances have improved the utility of magnetic resonance imaging in evaluating cardiac morphology, blood flow, and myocardial contractility, all significant diagnostic features in the evaluation of the patient with acquired heart disease. Utilization of cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging has been limited, primarily due to clinical reliance upon nuclear scintigraphy and echocardiography. Recent developments in fast and ultrafast imaging should continue to enhance the significance of magnetic resonance imaging in this field. Widespread use of magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of the cardiovascular system will ultimately depend upon its maturation into a comprehensive, noninvasive imaging technique for the varying manifestations of acquired heart disease, including cardiomyopathy, ischemic heart disease, and acquired valvular disease. Images PMID:8792545

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging of the spine

    SciTech Connect

    Modic, M.

    1988-01-01

    MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING OF THE SPINE thoroughly demonstrates the advantages of this new radiologic modality in diagnosing spinal disorders. The book begins with an introductory chapter on the basic physics and technical considerations of magnetic resonance in general and magnetic resonance imaging of the spine in particular. The second chapter covers normal spinal anatomy, and features color photos of multi-planar sections of spinal anatomy.

  5. Practical applications of cardiovascular magnetic resonance

    PubMed Central

    Alpendurada, F; Wong, J; Pennell, D J

    2009-01-01

    Recent developments in magnetic resonance imaging have focused attention on evaluation of patients with cardiac disease. These improvements have been substantiated by a large and expanding body of clinical evidence, making cardiovascular magnetic resonance the imaging modality of choice in a wide variety of cardiovascular disorders. A brief review on the current applications of cardiovascular magnetic resonance is provided, with reference to some of the most relevant studies, statements and reviews published in this field.

  6. Tunable Magnetic Resonance in Microwave Spintronics Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Yunpeng; Fan, Xin; Xie, Yungsong; Zhou, Yang; Wang, Tao; Wilson, Jeffrey D.; Simons, Rainee N.; Chui, Sui-Tat; Xiao, John Q.

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic resonance is one of the key properties of magnetic materials for the application of microwave spintronics devices. The conventional method for tuning magnetic resonance is to use an electromagnet, which provides very limited tuning range. Hence, the quest for enhancing the magnetic resonance tuning range without using an electromagnet has attracted tremendous attention. In this paper, we exploit the huge exchange coupling field between magnetic interlayers, which is on the order of 4000 Oe and also the high frequency modes of coupled oscillators to enhance the tuning range. Furthermore, we demonstrate a new scheme to control the magnetic resonance frequency. Moreover, we report a shift in the magnetic resonance frequency as high as 20 GHz in CoFe-based tunable microwave spintronics devices, which is 10X higher than conventional methods.

  7. Tunable Magnetic Resonance in Microwave Spintronics Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Yunpeng; Fan, Xin; Xie, Yunsong; Zhou, Yang; Wang, Tao; Wilson, Jeffrey D.; Simons, Rainee N.; Chui, Sui-Tat; Xiao, John Q.

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic resonance is one of the key properties of magnetic materials for the application of microwave spintronics devices. The conventional method for tuning magnetic resonance is to use an electromagnet, which provides very limited tuning range. Hence, the quest for enhancing the magnetic resonance tuning range without using an electromagnet has attracted tremendous attention. In this paper, we exploit the huge exchange coupling field between magnetic interlayers, which is on the order of 4000 Oe and also the high frequency modes of coupled oscillators to enhance the tuning range. Furthermore, we demonstrate a new scheme to control the magnetic resonance frequency. Moreover, we report a shift in the magnetic resonance frequency as high as 20 GHz in CoFe based tunable microwave spintronics devices, which is 10X higher than conventional methods.

  8. Apparatus for investigating resonance with application to magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Sytil; Jones, Dyan L.; Gross, Josh; Zollman, Dean

    2015-11-01

    Resonance is typically studied in the context of either a pendulum or a mass on a spring. We have developed an apparatus that enables beginning students to investigate resonant behavior of changing magnetic fields, in addition to the properties of the magnetic field due to a wire and the superposition of magnetic fields. In this resonant system, a compass oscillates at a frequency determined by the compass's physical properties and an external magnetic field. While the analysis is mathematically similar to that of the pendulum, this apparatus has an advantage that the magnetic field is easily controlled, while it is difficult to control the strength of gravity. This apparatus has been incorporated into a teaching module on magnetic resonance imaging.

  9. MAGNETIC RESONANCE ELASTOGRAPHY: A REVIEW

    PubMed Central

    Mariappan, Yogesh K; Glaser, Kevin J; Ehman, Richard L

    2011-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Elastography (MRE) is a rapidly developing technology for quantitatively assessing the mechanical properties of tissue. The technology can be considered to be an imaging-based counterpart to palpation, commonly used by physicians to diagnose and characterize diseases. The success of palpation as a diagnostic method is based on the fact that the mechanical properties of tissues are often dramatically affected by the presence of disease processes such as cancer, inflammation, and fibrosis. MRE obtains information about the stiffness of tissue by assessing the propagation of mechanical waves through the tissue with a special magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique. The technique essentially involves three steps: generating shear waves in the tissue,acquiring MR images depicting the propagation of the induced shear waves andprocessing the images of the shear waves to generate quantitative maps of tissue stiffness, called elastograms. MRE is already being used clinically for the assessment of patients with chronic liver diseases and is emerging as a safe, reliable and noninvasive alternative to liver biopsy for staging hepatic fibrosis. MRE is also being investigated for application to pathologies of other organs including the brain, breast, blood vessels, heart, kidneys, lungs and skeletal muscle. The purpose of this review article is to introduce this technology to clinical anatomists and to summarize some of the current clinical applications that are being pursued. PMID:20544947

  10. Paradoxical correlation between signal in functional magnetic resonance imaging and deoxygenated haemoglobin content in capillaries: a new theoretical explanation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Toru; Kato, Toshinori

    2002-04-01

    Signal increases in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) are believed to be a result of decreased paramagnetic deoxygenated haemoglobin (deoxyHb) content in the neural activation area. However, discrepancies in this canonical blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) theory have been pointed out in studies using optical techniques, which directly measure haemoglobin changes. To explain the discrepancies, we developed a new theory bridging magnetic resonance (MR) signal and haemoglobin changes. We focused on capillary influences, which have been neglected in most previous fMRI studies and performed a combined fMRI and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) study using a language task. Paradoxically, both the MR signal and deoxyHb content increased in Broca's area. On the other hand, fMRI activation in the auditory area near large veins correlated with a mirror-image decrease in deoxyHb and increase in oxygenated haemoglobin (oxyHb), in agreement with canonical BOLD theory. All fMRI signal changes correlated consistently with changes in oxyHb, the diamagnetism of which is insensitive to MR. We concluded that the discrepancy with the canonical BOLD theory is caused by the fact that the BOLD theory ignores the effect of the capillaries. Our theory explains the paradoxical phenomena of the oxyHb and deoxyHb contributions to the MR signal and gives a new insight into the precise haemodynamics of activation by analysing fMRI and NIRS data.

  11. Laterality in Metaphor Processing: Lack of Evidence from Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging for the Right Hemisphere Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapp, Alexander M.; Leube, Dirk T.; Erb, Michael; Grodd, Wolfgang; Kircher, Tilo T. J.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated processing of metaphoric sentences using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Seventeen healthy subjects (6 female, 11 male) read 60 novel short German sentence pairs with either metaphoric or literal meaning and performed two different tasks: judging the metaphoric content and judging whether the sentence…

  12. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Story Listening in Adolescents and Young Adults with Down Syndrome: Evidence for Atypical Neurodevelopment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacola, L. M.; Byars, A. W.; Hickey, F.; Vannest, J.; Holland, S. K.; Schapiro, M. B.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have documented differences in neural activation during language processing in individuals with Down syndrome (DS) in comparison with typically developing individuals matched for chronological age. This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to compare activation during language processing in young…

  13. Advanced magnetic resonance neuroimaging of language function recovery after aphasic stroke: a technical review.

    PubMed

    Smits, Marion; Visch-Brink, Evy G; van de Sandt-Koenderman, Mieke E; van der Lugt, Aad

    2012-01-01

    Two advanced magnetic resonance neuroimaging techniques, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), have recently made their way into clinically oriented research and hold great promise to study the brain's adaptive changes of function and structure after aphasic stroke, respectively. Such functional and structural neuroplasticity is thought to underlie the recovery of language function, occurring spontaneously and/or in the context of therapeutic intervention. With fMRI, brain activity can be visualized. Spontaneous brain activity, present in multiple brain networks, is measured with resting-state fMRI and language-related brain activity by having the subject perform a language task during scanning (task-based fMRI). With DTI the major white matter tracts, such as the dorsal and ventral language pathways and the commissural fibers, can be visualized and quantified. Both techniques are entirely noninvasive and thus offer the unique opportunity to perform multiple assessments within the same subject. To gain more insight in functional and structural neuroplasticity after aphasic stroke, advanced magnetic resonance neuroimaging studies in specific patient populations, at several stages after stroke and in the course of language recovery, are needed. Such studies will help to clarify the influence of the many factors that play a role in the recovery of language function and are thus vital to further the development of aphasia therapy. Application of these techniques in aphasic stroke patients, however, is not without challenge. The purpose of this article is to discuss the methodologic challenges of fMRI and DTI in the assessment of language recovery after aphasic stroke. PMID:22202190

  14. Advances in mechanical detection of magnetic resonance

    PubMed Central

    Kuehn, Seppe; Hickman, Steven A.; Marohn, John A.

    2008-01-01

    The invention and initial demonstration of magnetic resonance force microscopy (MRFM) in the early 1990s launched a renaissance of mechanical approaches to detecting magnetic resonance. This article reviews progress made in MRFM in the last decade, including the demonstration of scanned probe detection of magnetic resonance (electron spin resonance, ferromagnetic resonance, and nuclear magnetic resonance) and the mechanical detection of electron spin resonance from a single spin. Force and force-gradient approaches to mechanical detection are reviewed and recent related work using attonewton sensitivity cantilevers to probe minute fluctuating electric fields near surfaces is discussed. Given recent progress, pushing MRFM to single proton sensitivity remains an exciting possibility. We will survey some practical and fundamental issues that must be resolved to meet this challenge. PMID:18266413

  15. Torque-mixing magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Losby, J E; Fani Sani, F; Grandmont, D T; Diao, Z; Belov, M; Burgess, J A J; Compton, S R; Hiebert, W K; Vick, D; Mohammad, K; Salimi, E; Bridges, G E; Thomson, D J; Freeman, M R

    2015-11-13

    A universal, torque-mixing method for magnetic resonance spectroscopy is presented. In analogy to resonance detection by magnetic induction, the transverse component of a precessing dipole moment can be measured in sensitive broadband spectroscopy, here using a resonant mechanical torque sensor. Unlike induction, the torque amplitude allows equilibrium magnetic properties to be monitored simultaneously with the spin dynamics. Comprehensive electron spin resonance spectra of a single-crystal, mesoscopic yttrium iron garnet disk at room temperature reveal assisted switching between magnetization states and mode-dependent spin resonance interactions with nanoscale surface imperfections. The rich detail allows analysis of even complex three-dimensional spin textures. The flexibility of microelectromechanical and optomechanical devices combined with broad generality and capabilities of torque-mixing magnetic resonance spectroscopy offers great opportunities for development of integrated devices. PMID:26564851

  16. Three-dimensional functional magnetic resonance imaging of human brain on a clinical 1.5-T scanner.

    PubMed

    van Gelderen, P; Ramsey, N F; Liu, G; Duyn, J H; Frank, J A; Weinberger, D R; Moonen, C T

    1995-07-18

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a tool for mapping brain function that utilizes neuronal activity-induced changes in blood oxygenation. An efficient three-dimensional fMRI method is presented for imaging brain activity on conventional, widely available, 1.5-T scanners, without additional hardware. This approach uses large magnetic susceptibility weighting based on the echo-shifting principle combined with multiple gradient echoes per excitation. Motor stimulation, induced by self-paced finger tapping, reliably produced significant signal increase in the hand region of the contralateral primary motor cortex in every subject tested. PMID:7624341

  17. Three-dimensional functional magnetic resonance imaging of human brain on a clinical 1.5-T scanner.

    PubMed Central

    van Gelderen, P; Ramsey, N F; Liu, G; Duyn, J H; Frank, J A; Weinberger, D R; Moonen, C T

    1995-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a tool for mapping brain function that utilizes neuronal activity-induced changes in blood oxygenation. An efficient three-dimensional fMRI method is presented for imaging brain activity on conventional, widely available, 1.5-T scanners, without additional hardware. This approach uses large magnetic susceptibility weighting based on the echo-shifting principle combined with multiple gradient echoes per excitation. Motor stimulation, induced by self-paced finger tapping, reliably produced significant signal increase in the hand region of the contralateral primary motor cortex in every subject tested. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:7624341

  18. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance -- Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Three Axis Vector Magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulatowicz, Michael; Clark, Philip; Griffith, Robert; Larsen, Michael; Mirijanian, James

    2012-06-01

    The Northrop Grumman Corporation is leveraging the technology developed for the Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope (NMRG) to build a combined Electron Paramagnetic Resonance -- Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (EPR-NMR) magnetometer. The EPR-NMR approach provides a high bandwidth and high sensitivity simultaneous measurement of all three vector components of the magnetic field averaged over the small volume of the sensor's one vapor cell. This poster will describe the history, operational principles, and design basics of the EPR-NMR magnetometer including an overview of the NSD designs developed and demonstrated to date. General performance results will also be presented.

  19. Functional imaging of the human placenta with magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Siauve, Nathalie; Chalouhi, Gihad E; Deloison, Benjamin; Alison, Marianne; Clement, Olivier; Ville, Yves; Salomon, Laurent J

    2015-10-01

    Abnormal placentation is responsible for most failures in pregnancy; however, an understanding of placental functions remains largely concealed from noninvasive, in vivo investigations. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is safe in pregnancy for magnetic fields of up to 3 Tesla and is being used increasingly to improve the accuracy of prenatal imaging. Functional MRI (fMRI) of the placenta has not yet been validated in a clinical setting, and most data are derived from animal studies. FMRI could be used to further explore placental functions that are related to vascularization, oxygenation, and metabolism in human pregnancies by the use of various enhancement processes. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI is best able to quantify placental perfusion, permeability, and blood volume fractions. However, the transplacental passage of Gadolinium-based contrast agents represents a significant safety concern for this procedure in humans. There are alternative contrast agents that may be safer in pregnancy or that do not cross the placenta. Arterial spin labeling MRI relies on magnetically labeled water to quantify the blood flows within the placenta. A disadvantage of this technique is a poorer signal-to-noise ratio. Based on arterial spin labeling, placental perfusion in normal pregnancy is 176 ± 91 mL × min(-1) × 100 g(-1) and decreases in cases with intrauterine growth restriction. Blood oxygen level-dependent and oxygen-enhanced MRIs do not assess perfusion but measure the response of the placenta to changes in oxygen levels with the use of hemoglobin as an endogenous contrast agent. Diffusion-weighted imaging and intravoxel incoherent motion MRI do not require exogenous contrast agents, instead they use the movement of water molecules within tissues. The apparent diffusion coefficient and perfusion fraction are significantly lower in placentas of growth-restricted fetuses when compared with normal pregnancies. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy has the ability to extract

  20. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Electrolysis.

    PubMed Central

    Meir, Arie; Hjouj, Mohammad; Rubinsky, Liel; Rubinsky, Boris

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the hypothesis that Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) can image the process of electrolysis by detecting pH fronts. The study has relevance to real time control of cell ablation with electrolysis. To investigate the hypothesis we compare the following MR imaging sequences: T1 weighted, T2 weighted and Proton Density (PD), with optical images acquired using pH-sensitive dyes embedded in a physiological saline agar solution phantom treated with electrolysis and discrete measurements with a pH microprobe. We further demonstrate the biological relevance of our work using a bacterial E. Coli model, grown on the phantom. The results demonstrate the ability of MRI to image electrolysis produced pH changes in a physiological saline phantom and show that these changes correlate with cell death in the E. Coli model grown on the phantom. The results are promising and invite further experimental research. PMID:25659942

  1. Magnetic resonance elastography of abdomen.

    PubMed

    Venkatesh, Sudhakar Kundapur; Ehman, Richard L

    2015-04-01

    Many diseases cause substantial changes in the mechanical properties of tissue, and this provides motivation for developing methods to noninvasively assess the stiffness of tissue using imaging technology. Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) has emerged as a versatile MRI-based technique, based on direct visualization of propagating shear waves in the tissues. The most established clinical application of MRE in the abdomen is in chronic liver disease. MRE is currently regarded as the most accurate noninvasive technique for detection and staging of liver fibrosis. Increasing experience and ongoing research is leading to exploration of applications in other abdominal organs. In this review article, the current use of MRE in liver disease and the potential future applications of this technology in other parts of the abdomen are surveyed. PMID:25488346

  2. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Electrolysis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meir, Arie; Hjouj, Mohammad; Rubinsky, Liel; Rubinsky, Boris

    2015-02-01

    This study explores the hypothesis that Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) can image the process of electrolysis by detecting pH fronts. The study has relevance to real time control of cell ablation with electrolysis. To investigate the hypothesis we compare the following MR imaging sequences: T1 weighted, T2 weighted and Proton Density (PD), with optical images acquired using pH-sensitive dyes embedded in a physiological saline agar solution phantom treated with electrolysis and discrete measurements with a pH microprobe. We further demonstrate the biological relevance of our work using a bacterial E. Coli model, grown on the phantom. The results demonstrate the ability of MRI to image electrolysis produced pH changes in a physiological saline phantom and show that these changes correlate with cell death in the E. Coli model grown on the phantom. The results are promising and invite further experimental research.

  3. Magnetic Resonance Elastography of Abdomen

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesh, Sudhakar K.; Ehman, Richard L.

    2015-01-01

    Many diseases cause substantial changes in the mechanical properties of tissue and this provides motivation for developing methods to non-invasively assess the stiffness of tissue using imaging technology. Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) has emerged as a versatile MRI-based technique, based on direct visualization of propagating shear waves in the tissues. The most established clinical application of MRE in the abdomen is in chronic liver disease. MRE is currently regarded as the most accurate non-invasive technique for detection and staging of liver fibrosis. Increasing experience and ongoing research is leading to exploration of applications in other abdominal organs. In this review article, the current use of MRE in liver disease and the potential future applications of this technology in other parts of the abdomen are surveyed. PMID:25488346

  4. Magnetic resonance sees lesions of multiple sclerosis

    SciTech Connect

    Ziporyn, T.

    1985-02-15

    The value of nuclear magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis and quantitation of the progression of multiple sclerosis is discussed. Magnetic resonance imaging generates images that reflect differential density and velocity of hydrogen nuclei between cerebral gray and white matter, as well as between white matter and pathological lesions of the disease.

  5. Enhancement of Magnetic Resonance Imaging with Metasurfaces.

    PubMed

    Slobozhanyuk, Alexey P; Poddubny, Alexander N; Raaijmakers, Alexander J E; van den Berg, Cornelis A T; Kozachenko, Alexander V; Dubrovina, Irina A; Melchakova, Irina V; Kivshar, Yuri S; Belov, Pavel A

    2016-03-01

    It is revealed that the unique properties of ultrathin metasurface resonators can improve magnetic resonance imaging dramatically. A metasurface formed when an array of metallic wires is placed inside a scanner under the studied object and a substantial enhancement of the radio-frequency magnetic field is achieved by means of subwavelength manipulation with the metasurface, also allowing improved image resolution. PMID:26754827

  6. Chemical Principles Revisited. Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McQuarrie, Donald A.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses how to interpret nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra and how to use them to determine molecular structures. This discussion is limited to spectra that are a result of observation of only the protons in a molecule. This type is called proton magnetic resonance (PMR) spectra. (CW)

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging of radiation optic neuropathy

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, C.F.; Schatz, N.J.; Glaser, J.S. )

    1990-10-15

    Three patients with delayed radiation optic neuropathy after radiation therapy for parasellar neoplasms underwent magnetic resonance imaging. The affected optic nerves and chiasms showed enlargement and focal gadopentetate dimeglumine enhancement. The magnetic resonance imaging technique effectively detected and defined anterior visual pathway changes of radionecrosis and excluded the clinical possibility of visual loss because of tumor recurrence.

  8. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Pediatric Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pine, Daniel S.; Guyer, Amanda E.; Leibenluft, Ellen; Peterson, Bradley S.; Gerber, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    The use of functional magnetic resonance imaging in investigating pediatric anxiety disorders is studied. Functional magnetic resonance imaging can be utilized in demonstrating parallels between the neural architecture of difference in anxiety of humans and the neural architecture of attention-orienting behavior in nonhuman primates or rodents.…

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging of glioblastoma using aptamer conjugated magnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Bongjune; Yang, Jaemoon; Hwang, Myeonghwan; Suh, Jin-Suck; Huh, Yong-Min; Haam, Seungjoo

    2012-10-01

    Here we introduce a new class of smart imaging probes hybridizing polysorbate 80 coated-magnetic nanoparticles with vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2)-targetable aptamer for specific magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of angiogenesis from glioblastoma.

  10. [Functional magnetic resonance imaging in psychiatry and psychotherapy].

    PubMed

    Derntl, B; Habel, U; Schneider, F

    2010-01-01

    technical improvements, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has become the most popular and versatile imaging method in psychiatric research. The scope of this manuscript is to briefly introduce the basics of MR physics, the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) contrast as well as the principles of MR study design and functional data analysis. The presentation of exemplary studies on emotion recognition and empathy in schizophrenia patients will highlight the importance of MR methods in psychiatry. Finally, we will demonstrate insights into new developments that will further boost MR techniques in clinical research and will help to gain more insight into dysfunctional neural networks underlying cognitive and emotional deficits in psychiatric patients. Moreover, some techniques such as neurofeedback seem promising for evaluation of therapy effects on a behavioral and neural level. PMID:20057981

  11. Physiological recordings: Basic concepts and implementation during functional magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Marcus A.; Minati, Ludovico; Harrison, Neil A.; Gianaros, Peter J.; Napadow, Vitaly; Critchley, Hugo D.

    2009-01-01

    Combining human functional neuroimaging with other forms of psychophysiological measurement, including autonomic monitoring, provides an empirical basis for understanding brain–body interactions. This approach can be applied to characterize unwanted physiological noise, examine the neural control and representation of bodily processes relevant to health and morbidity, and index covert expression of affective and cognitive processes to enhance the interpretation of task-evoked regional brain activity. In recent years, human neuroimaging has been dominated by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies. The spatiotemporal information of fMRI regarding central neural activity is valuably complemented by parallel physiological monitoring, yet such studies still remain in the minority. This review article highlights fMRI studies that employed cardiac, vascular, respiratory, electrodermal, gastrointestinal and pupillary psychophysiological indices to address specific questions regarding interaction between brain and bodily state in the context of experience, cognition, emotion and behaviour. Physiological monitoring within the fMRI environment presents specific technical issues, most importantly related to safety. Mechanical and electrical hazards may present dangers to scanned subjects, operator and/or equipment. Furthermore, physiological monitoring may interfere with the quality of neuroimaging data, or itself be compromised by artefacts induced by the operation of the scanner. We review the sources of these potential problems and the current approaches and advice to enable the combination of fMRI and physiological monitoring in a safe and effective manner. PMID:19460445

  12. Tunable Magnetic Resonance via Interlayer Exchange Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yunpeng; Fan, Xin; Xie, Yunsong; Wilson, Jeffrey; Simons, Rainee; Chui, Sui-Tat; Xiao, John

    Magnetic resonance is a critical property of magnetic materials for the applications in microwave devices and novel spintronics devices. The resonance frequency is commonly controlled with an external magnetic field generated by an energy-inefficient and bulky electromagnet. The search for tuning the resonance frequency without electromagnets has attracted tremendous attention. The voltage control of resonance frequency has been demonstrated in multiferroic heterostructures through magnetoelastic effect. However, the frequency tunable range is limited. We propose a paradigm to tune the magnetic resonance frequency by recognizing the huge interlayer exchange field and the existence of the high-frequency modes in coupled oscillators. We demonstrate the optical mode in exchange coupled magnetic layers which occurred at much higher frequencies than coherent ferromagnetic resonance. We further demonstrated a large resonance frequency tunable range from 11GHz to 21 GHz in a spin valve device by in-situ manipulating of the exchange interaction. The technique developed here is far more efficient than the conventional methods of using electromagnets and multiferroics. This new scheme will have an immediate impact on applications based on magnetic resonance.

  13. Artifacts in Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Krupa, Katarzyna; Bekiesińska-Figatowska, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Summary Artifacts in magnetic resonance imaging and foreign bodies within the patient’s body may be confused with a pathology or may reduce the quality of examinations. Radiologists are frequently not informed about the medical history of patients and face postoperative/other images they are not familiar with. A gallery of such images was presented in this manuscript. A truncation artifact in the spinal cord could be misinterpreted as a syrinx. Motion artifacts caused by breathing, cardiac movement, CSF pulsation/blood flow create a ghost artifact which can be reduced by patient immobilization, or cardiac/respiratory gating. Aliasing artifacts can be eliminated by increasing the field of view. An artificially hyperintense signal on FLAIR images can result from magnetic susceptibility artifacts, CSF/vascular pulsation, motion, but can also be found in patients undergoing MRI examinations while receiving supplemental oxygen. Metallic and other foreign bodies which may be found on and in patients’ bodies are the main group of artifacts and these are the focus of this study: e.g. make-up, tattoos, hairbands, clothes, endovascular embolization, prostheses, surgical clips, intraorbital and other medical implants, etc. Knowledge of different types of artifacts and their origin, and of possible foreign bodies is necessary to eliminate them or to reduce their negative influence on MR images by adjusting acquisition parameters. It is also necessary to take them into consideration when interpreting the images. Some proposals of reducing artifacts have been mentioned. Describing in detail the procedures to avoid or limit the artifacts would go beyond the scope of this paper but technical ways to reduce them can be found in the cited literature. PMID:25745524

  14. Stepped Impedance Resonators for High Field Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Akgun, Can E.; DelaBarre, Lance; Yoo, Hyoungsuk; Sohn, Sung-Min; Snyder, Carl J.; Adriany, Gregor; Ugurbil, Kamil; Gopinath, Anand; Vaughan, J. Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Multi-element volume radio-frequency (RF) coils are an integral aspect of the growing field of high field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In these systems, a popular volume coil of choice has become the transverse electromagnetic (TEM) multi-element transceiver coil consisting of microstrip resonators. In this paper, to further advance this design approach, a new microstrip resonator strategy in which the transmission line is segmented into alternating impedance sections referred to as stepped impedance resonators (SIRs) is investigated. Single element simulation results in free space and in a phantom at 7 tesla (298 MHz) demonstrate the rationale and feasibility of the SIR design strategy. Simulation and image results at 7 tesla in a phantom and human head illustrate the improvements in transmit magnetic field, as well as, RF efficiency (transmit magnetic field versus SAR) when two different SIR designs are incorporated in 8-element volume coil configurations and compared to a volume coil consisting of microstrip elements. PMID:23508243

  15. Enhancement of artificial magnetism via resonant bianisotropy.

    PubMed

    Markovich, Dmitry; Baryshnikova, Kseniia; Shalin, Alexander; Samusev, Anton; Krasnok, Alexander; Belov, Pavel; Ginzburg, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    All-dielectric "magnetic light" nanophotonics based on high refractive index nanoparticles allows controlling magnetic component of light at nanoscale without having high dissipative losses. The artificial magnetic optical response of such nanoparticles originates from circular displacement currents excited inside those structures and strongly depends on geometry and dispersion of optical materials. Here an approach for enhancing of magnetic response via resonant bianisotropy effect is proposed and analyzed. The key mechanism of enhancement is based on electric-magnetic interaction between two electrically and magnetically resonant nanoparticles of all-dielectric dimer. It was shown that proper geometrical arrangement of the dimer in respect to the incident illumination direction allows flexible control over all vectorial components of the magnetic moment, tailoring the latter in the dynamical range of 100% and delivering enhancement up to 36% relative to performances of standalone spherical particles. The proposed approach provides pathways for designs of all-dielectric metamaterials and metasurfaces with strong magnetic responses. PMID:26941126

  16. Enhancement of artificial magnetism via resonant bianisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markovich, Dmitry; Baryshnikova, Kseniia; Shalin, Alexander; Samusev, Anton; Krasnok, Alexander; Belov, Pavel; Ginzburg, Pavel

    2016-03-01

    All-dielectric “magnetic light” nanophotonics based on high refractive index nanoparticles allows controlling magnetic component of light at nanoscale without having high dissipative losses. The artificial magnetic optical response of such nanoparticles originates from circular displacement currents excited inside those structures and strongly depends on geometry and dispersion of optical materials. Here an approach for enhancing of magnetic response via resonant bianisotropy effect is proposed and analyzed. The key mechanism of enhancement is based on electric-magnetic interaction between two electrically and magnetically resonant nanoparticles of all-dielectric dimer. It was shown that proper geometrical arrangement of the dimer in respect to the incident illumination direction allows flexible control over all vectorial components of the magnetic moment, tailoring the latter in the dynamical range of 100% and delivering enhancement up to 36% relative to performances of standalone spherical particles. The proposed approach provides pathways for designs of all-dielectric metamaterials and metasurfaces with strong magnetic responses.

  17. A Critical Review of ERP and fMRI Evidence on L2 Syntactic Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotz, Sonja A.

    2009-01-01

    The current review focuses on recent event-related brain potential (ERPs) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in L2 syntactic processing data. To this end, critical factors influencing both the dynamics of neural mechanisms (ERPs) and critical functional brain correlates (fMRI) are discussed. These entail the critical period…

  18. The role of location of subconcussive head impacts in FMRI brain activation change.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Meghan E; Shenk, Trey E; Breedlove, Evan L; Leverenz, Larry J; Nauman, Eric A; Talavage, Thomas M

    2015-01-01

    Monte-Carlo permutation analysis was used to identify sets of head impacts most predictive of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) changes in football players. The relative distribution of impact location was found to be more predictive of brain activation changes than the number of impacts, suggesting that fMRI changes are related to systematic playing style. PMID:25961589

  19. Visual Mapping Using BOLD fMRI

    PubMed Central

    DeYoe, Edgar A.; Raut, Ryan V.

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is used clinically to map visual cortex prior to brain surgery or other invasive treatments in order to achieve an optimal balance between therapeutic effect and the avoidance of post-operative vision deficits. Clinically optimized stimuli, behavioral task, analysis and displays permit identification of cortical subregions supporting high acuity central vision that is critical for reading and other essential visual functions. A novel data display permits instant appreciation of the functional relationship between the pattern of fMRI brain activation and the pattern of vision loss and preservation within the patient’s field of view. Neurovascular uncoupling and its detection in visual cortex are key issues for the interpretation of fMRI results in patients with existing brain pathology. Emerging techniques such as resting state fMRI may facilitate the use of fMRI-based vision mapping with a broader range of patients. PMID:25441501

  20. Reducing Field Distortion in Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eom, Byeong Ho; Penanen, Konstantin; Hahn, Inseob

    2010-01-01

    A concept for a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system that would utilize a relatively weak magnetic field provides for several design features that differ significantly from the corresponding features of conventional MRI systems. Notable among these features are a magnetic-field configuration that reduces (relative to the conventional configuration) distortion and blurring of the image, the use of a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer as the detector, and an imaging procedure suited for the unconventional field configuration and sensor. In a typical application of MRI, a radio-frequency pulse is used to excite precession of the magnetic moments of protons in an applied magnetic field, and the decaying precession is detected for a short time following the pulse. The precession occurs at a resonance frequency proportional to the strengths of the magnetic field and the proton magnetic moment. The magnetic field is configured to vary with position in a known way; hence, by virtue of the aforesaid proportionality, the resonance frequency varies with position in a known way. In other words, position is encoded as resonance frequency. MRI using magnetic fields weaker than those of conventional MRI offers several advantages, including cheaper and smaller equipment, greater compatibility with metallic objects, and higher image quality because of low susceptibility distortion and enhanced spin-lattice-relaxation- time contrast. SQUID MRI is being developed into a practical MRI method for applied magnetic flux densities of the order of only 100 T

  1. Linear constraint minimum variance beamformer functional magnetic resonance inverse imaging

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Fa-Hsuan; Witzel, Thomas; Zeffiro, Thomas A.; Belliveau, John W.

    2011-01-01

    Accurate estimation of the timing of neural activity is required to fully model the information flow among functionally specialized regions whose joint activity underlies perception, cognition and action. Attempts to detect the fine temporal structure of task-related activity would benefit from functional imaging methods allowing higher sampling rates. Spatial filtering techniques have been used in magnetoencephalography source imaging applications. In this work, we use the linear constraint minimal variance (LCMV) beamformer localization method to reconstruct single-shot volumetric functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data using signals acquired simultaneously from all channels of a high density radio-frequency (RF) coil array. The LCMV beamformer method generalizes the existing volumetric magnetic resonance inverse imaging (InI) technique, achieving higher detection sensitivity while maintaining whole-brain spatial coverage and 100 ms temporal resolution. In this paper, we begin by introducing the LCMV reconstruction formulation and then quantitatively assess its performance using both simulated and empirical data. To demonstrate the sensitivity and inter-subject reliability of volumetric LCMV InI, we employ an event-related design to probe the spatial and temporal properties of task-related hemodynamic signal modulations in primary visual cortex. Compared to minimum-norm estimate (MNE) reconstructions, LCMV offers better localization accuracy and superior detection sensitivity. Robust results from both single subject and group analyses demonstrate the excellent sensitivity and specificity of volumetric InI in detecting the spatial and temporal structure of task-related brain activity. PMID:18672071

  2. Pocket atlas of cranial magnetic resonance imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Haughton, V.M.; Daniels, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    This atlas illustrates normal cerebral anatomy in magnetic resonance images. From their studies in cerebral anatomy utilizing cryomicrotome and other techniques, the authors selected more than 100 high-resolution images that represent the most clinically useful scans.

  3. Chronic liver disease: evaluation by magnetic resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Stark, D.D.; Goldberg, H.I.; Moss, A.A.; Bass, N.M.

    1984-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging distinguished hepatitis from fatty liver and cirrhosis in a woman with a history of alcohol abuse. Anatomic and physiologic manifestations of portal hypertension were also demonstrated by MR.

  4. Your Radiologist Explains Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA)

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... talk with you about magnetic resonance angiography, or as it’s commonly known, MRA. MRA is a noninvasive ... possibility that you’re pregnant tell your doctor as well. On the day of your exam, it’s ...

  5. International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Upcoming Workshops & Deadlines Past Workshops Endorsed Meetings & Education International Outreach Event Planning Guides Education MR Safety Resources ... Center E-Library Virtual Meetings Connect With Us International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine 2300 Clayton ...

  6. Coronary Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Kantor, Birgit; Nagel, Eike; Schoenhagen, Paul; Barkhausen, Jörg; Gerber, Thomas C.

    2009-01-01

    Cardiac computed tomography and magnetic resonance are relatively new imaging modalities that can exceed the ability of established imaging modalities to detect present pathology or predict patient outcomes. Coronary calcium scoring may be useful in asymptomatic patients at intermediate risk. Computed tomographic coronary angiography is a first-line indication to evaluate congenitally abnormal coronary arteries and, along with stress magnetic resonance myocardial perfusion imaging, is useful in symptomatic patients with nondiagnostic conventional stress tests. Cardiac magnetic resonance is indicated for visualizing cardiac structure and function, and delayed enhancement magnetic resonance is a first-line indication for assessing myocardial viability. Imaging plaque and molecular mechanisms related to plaque rupture holds great promise for the presymptomatic detection of patients at risk for coronary events but is not yet suitable for routine clinical use. PMID:19269527

  7. Torque-mixing Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Losby, Joseph; Fani Sani, Fatemeh; Grandmont, Dylan; Diao, Zhu; Belov, Miro; Burgess, Jacob; Compton, Shawn; Hiebert, Wayne; Vick, Doug; Mohammad, Kaveh; Salimi, Elham; Bridges, Gregory; Thomson, Douglas; Freeman, Mark

    A universal, mechanical torque method for magnetic resonance spectroscopy is presented. In analogy to resonance detection by induction, a signal proportional to the transverse component of a precessing dipole moment can be measured as a pure mechanical torque in broadband, frequency-swept spectroscopy. Comprehensive electron spin resonance of a single-crystal, mesoscopic yttrium iron garnet disk at room temperature are presented to demonstrate the method. The rich detail allows analysis of even complex 3D spin textures.

  8. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    MedlinePlus

    ... a powerful magnetic field, radio waves and a computer to produce detailed pictures of the inside of ... powerful magnetic field, radio frequency pulses and a computer to produce detailed pictures of organs, soft tissues, ...

  9. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Spine

    MedlinePlus

    ... uses radio waves, a magnetic field and a computer to produce detailed pictures of the spine and ... powerful magnetic field, radio frequency pulses and a computer to produce detailed pictures of organs, soft tissues, ...

  10. Trapped Ion Magnetic Resonance: Concepts and Designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizarro, Pedro Jose

    A novel spectroscopy of trapped ions is proposed which will bring single-ion detection sensitivity to the observation of magnetic resonance spectra and resolve the apparent incompatibility in existing techniques between high information content and high sensitivity. Methods for studying both electron spin resonance (ESR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) are designed. They assume established techniques for trapping ions in high magnetic field and observing electrically the trapping frequencies with high resolution (<1 Hz) and sensitivity (single -ion). A magnetic bottle field gradient couples the spin and spatial motions together and leads to the small spin -dependent force on the ion exploited by Dehmelt to observe directly the perturbation of the ground-state electron's axial frequency by its spin magnetic moment. A series of fundamental innovations is described to extend magnetic resonance to molecular ions ( cong 100 amu) and nuclear magnetic moments. It is demonstrated how time-domain trapping frequency observations before and after magnetic resonance can be used to make cooling of the particle to its ground state unnecessary. Adiabatic cycling of the magnetic bottle off between detection periods is shown to be practical and to allow high-resolution magnetic resonance to be encoded pointwise as the presence or absence of trapping frequency shifts. Methods of inducing spin -dependent work on the ion orbits with magnetic field gradients and Larmor frequency irradiation are proposed which greatly amplify the attainable shifts in trapping frequency. The first proposal presented builds on Dehmelt's experiment to reveal ESR spectra. A more powerful technique for ESR is then designed where axially synchronized spin transitions perform spin-dependent work in the presence of a magnetic bottle, which also converts axial amplitude changes into cyclotron frequency shifts. The most general approach presented is a continuous Stern-Gerlach effect in which a magnetic field

  11. Designing dielectric resonators on substrates: combining magnetic and electric resonances.

    PubMed

    van de Groep, J; Polman, A

    2013-11-01

    High-performance integrated optics, solar cells, and sensors require nanoscale optical components at the surface of the device, in order to manipulate, redirect and concentrate light. High-index dielectric resonators provide the possibility to do this efficiently with low absorption losses. The resonances supported by dielectric resonators are both magnetic and electric in nature. Combined scattering from these two can be used for directional scattering. Most applications require strong coupling between the particles and the substrate in order to enhance the absorption in the substrate. However, the coupling with the substrate strongly influences the resonant behavior of the particles. Here, we systematically study the influence of particle geometry and dielectric environment on the resonant behavior of dielectric resonators in the visible to near-IR spectral range. We show the key role of retardation in the excitation of the magnetic dipole (MD) mode, as well as the limit where no MD mode is supported. Furthermore, we study the influence of particle diameter, shape and substrate index on the spectral position, width and overlap of the electric dipole (ED) and MD modes. Also, we show that the ED and MD mode can selectively be enhanced or suppressed using multi-layer substrates. And, by comparing dipole excitation and plane wave excitation, we study the influence of driving field on the scattering properties. Finally, we show that the directional radiation profiles of the ED and MD modes in resonators on a substrate are similar to those of point-dipoles close to a substrate. Altogether, this work is a guideline how to tune magnetic and electric resonances for specific applications. PMID:24216852

  12. Investigation of laser polarized xenon magnetic resonance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsworth, Ronald L.

    1998-01-01

    Ground-based investigations of a new biomedical diagnostic technology: nuclear magnetic resonance of laser polarized noble gas are addressed. The specific research tasks discussed are: (1) Development of a large-scale noble gas polarization system; (2) biomedical investigations using laser polarized noble gas in conventional (high magnetic field) NMR systems; and (3) the development and application of a low magnetic field system for laser polarized noble gas NMR.

  13. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Technology for Medical Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budinger, Thomas F.; Lauterbur, Paul C.

    1984-10-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance proton imaging provides anatomical definition of normal and abnormal tissues with a contrast and detection sensitivity superior to those of x-ray computed tomography in the human head and pelvis and parts of the cardiovascular and musculoskeletal systems. Recent improvements in technology should lead to advances in diagnostic imaging of the breast and regions of the abdomen. Selected-region nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of protons, carbon-13, and phosphorus-31 has developed into a basic science tool for in vivo studies on man and a unique tool for clinical diagnoses of metabolic disorders. At present, nuclear magnetic resonance is considered safe if access to the magnet environment is controlled. Technological advances employing field strengths over 2 teslas will require biophysical studies of heating and static field effects.

  14. Low-temperature magnetic resonance force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wago, Koichi

    Magnetic resonance force microscopy (MRFM) is a technique whose goal is to combine the three-dimensional, chemically specific imaging capability of magnetic resonance imaging with the atomic-scale spatial resolution of scanning force microscopy. MRFM relies on the detection of small oscillatory magnetic forces between spins in the sample and a magnetic tip, using a micromechanical cantilever. The force resolution is a key issue for successfully operating MRFM experiments. Operating at low temperature improves the force resolution because of the reduced thermal energy and increased mechanical Q of the cantilever. The spin polarization is also enhanced at low temperature, leading to the improved magnetic resonance sensitivity for ensemble spin samples. A low-temperature magnetic resonance force detection apparatus was built and used to demonstrate a force resolution of 8×10sp{-17}\\ N/sqrt{Hz} at 6 K with a commercial single-crystal silicon cantilever. Both nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) were detected in micron-size samples. Force-detection technique was also applied to a wide range of magnetic resonance measurements, including inversion recovery, nutation, and spin echoes. Force-detected EPR spectra of phosphorus-doped silicon revealed hyperfine splitting, illustrating the possibility of using the MRFM technique for spectroscopic purposes. An improved low-temperature magnetic resonance force microscope was also built, incorporating a magnetic tip mounted directly on the cantilever. This allows a much wider variety of samples to be investigated and greatly improves the convenience of the technique. Using the improved microscope, three-dimensional EPR imaging of diphenylpicrylhydrazil (DPPH) particles was accomplished by scanning the sample in two dimensions while stepping an external field. The EPR force map showed a broad response reflecting the size and shape of the sample, allowing a three-dimensional real

  15. Surface-based analysis methods for high-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Rez; Zhang, Qin; Darayan, Shayan; Dhandapani, Sankari; Katyal, Sucharit; Greene, Clint; Bajaj, Chandra; Ress, David

    2011-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has become a popular technique for studies of human brain activity. Typically, fMRI is performed with >3-mm sampling, so that the imaging data can be regarded as two-dimensional samples that average through the 1.5—4-mm thickness of cerebral cortex. The increasing use of higher spatial resolutions, <1.5-mm sampling, complicates the analysis of fMRI, as one must now consider activity variations within the depth of the brain tissue. We present a set of surface-based methods to exploit the use of high-resolution fMRI for depth analysis. These methods utilize white-matter segmentations coupled with deformable-surface algorithms to create a smooth surface representation at the gray-white interface and pial membrane. These surfaces provide vertex positions and normals for depth calculations, enabling averaging schemes that can increase contrast-to-noise ratio, as well as permitting the direct analysis of depth profiles of functional activity in the human brain. PMID:22125419

  16. Statistical Improvements in Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Analyses Produced by Censoring High-Motion Data Points

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Joshua S.; Power, Jonathan D.; Dubis, Joseph W.; Vogel, Alecia C.; Church, Jessica A.; Schlaggar, Bradley L.; Petersen, Steven E.

    2013-01-01

    Subject motion degrades the quality of task functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. Here, we test two classes of methods to counteract the effects of motion in task fMRI data: (1) a variety of motion regressions and (2) motion censoring (“motion scrubbing”). In motion regression, various regressors based on realignment estimates were included as nuisance regressors in general linear model (GLM) estimation. In motion censoring, volumes in which head motion exceeded a threshold were withheld from GLM estimation. The effects of each method were explored in several task fMRI data sets and compared using indicators of data quality and signal-to-noise ratio. Motion censoring decreased variance in parameter estimates within- and across-subjects, reduced residual error in GLM estimation, and increased the magnitude of statistical effects. Motion censoring performed better than all forms of motion regression and also performed well across a variety of parameter spaces, in GLMs with assumed or unassumed response shapes. We conclude that motion censoring improves the quality of task fMRI data and can be a valuable processing step in studies involving populations with even mild amounts of head movement. PMID:23861343

  17. Neural substrates of Hanja (Logogram) and Hangul (Phonogram) character readings by functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Cho, Zang-Hee; Kim, Nambeom; Bae, Sungbong; Chi, Je-Geun; Park, Chan-Woong; Ogawa, Seiji; Kim, Young-Bo

    2014-10-01

    The two basic scripts of the Korean writing system, Hanja (the logography of the traditional Korean character) and Hangul (the more newer Korean alphabet), have been used together since the 14th century. While Hanja character has its own morphemic base, Hangul being purely phonemic without morphemic base. These two, therefore, have substantially different outcomes as a language as well as different neural responses. Based on these linguistic differences between Hanja and Hangul, we have launched two studies; first was to find differences in cortical activation when it is stimulated by Hanja and Hangul reading to support the much discussed dual-route hypothesis of logographic and phonological routes in the brain by fMRI (Experiment 1). The second objective was to evaluate how Hanja and Hangul affect comprehension, therefore, recognition memory, specifically the effects of semantic transparency and morphemic clarity on memory consolidation and then related cortical activations, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) (Experiment 2). The first fMRI experiment indicated relatively large areas of the brain are activated by Hanja reading compared to Hangul reading. The second experiment, the recognition memory study, revealed two findings, that is there is only a small difference in recognition memory for semantic transparency, while for the morphemic clarity was much larger between Hanja and Hangul. That is the morphemic clarity has significantly more effect than semantic transparency on recognition memory when studies by fMRI in correlation with behavioral study. PMID:25368497

  18. What is feasible with imaging human brain function and connectivity using functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Ugurbil, Kamil

    2016-10-01

    When we consider all of the methods we employ to detect brain function, from electrophysiology to optical techniques to functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we do not really have a 'golden technique' that meets all of the needs for studying the brain. We have methods, each of which has significant limitations but provide often complimentary information. Clearly, there are many questions that need to be answered about fMRI, which unlike other methods, allows us to study the human brain. However, there are also extraordinary accomplishments or demonstration of the feasibility of reaching new and previously unexpected scales of function in the human brain. This article reviews some of the work we have pursued, often with extensive collaborations with other co-workers, towards understanding the underlying mechanisms of the methodology, defining its limitations, and developing solutions to advance it. No doubt, our knowledge of human brain function has vastly expanded since the introduction of fMRI. However, methods and instrumentation in this dynamic field have evolved to a state that discoveries about the human brain based on fMRI principles, together with information garnered at a much finer spatial and temporal scale through other methods, are poised to significantly accelerate in the next decade.This article is part of the themed issue 'Interpreting BOLD: a dialogue between cognitive and cellular neuroscience'. PMID:27574313

  19. Cyclotron resonance in an inhomogeneous magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Albert, J.M. )

    1993-08-01

    Relativistic test particles interacting with a small monochromatic electromagnetic wave are studied in the presence of an inhomogeneous background magnetic field. A resonance-averaged Hamiltonian is derived which retains the effects of passage through resonance. Two distinct regimes are found. In the strongly inhomogeneous case, the resonant phase angle at successive resonances is random, and multiple resonant interactions lead to a random walk in phase space. In the other, adiabatic limit, the phase angle is determined by the phase portrait of the Hamiltonian and leads to a systematic change in the appropriate canonical action (and therefore in the energy and pitch angle), so that the cumulative effect increases directly with the number of resonances.

  20. A bisphosphonate for 19F-magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Kenny, Gavin D.; Shaw, Karen P.; Sivachelvam, Saranja; White, Andrew J.P.; Botnar, Rene M.; T.M. de Rosales, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    19F-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a promising technique that may allow us to measure the concentration of exogenous fluorinated imaging probes quantitatively in vivo. Here, we describe the synthesis and characterisation of a novel geminal bisphosphonate (19F-BP) that contains chemically-equivalent fluorine atoms that show a single and narrow 19F resonance and a bisphosphonate group that may be used for labelling inorganic materials based in calcium phosphates and metal oxides. The potential of 19F-BP to provide contrast was analysed in vitro and in vivo using 19F-MRI. In vitro studies demonstrated the potential of 19F-BP as an MRI contrast agent in the millimolar concentration range with signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) comparable to previously reported fluorinated probes. The preliminary in vivo MRI study reported here allowed us to visualise the biodistribution of 19F-BP, showing uptake in the liver and in the bladder/urinary system areas. However, bone uptake was not observed. In addition, 19F-BP showed undesirable toxicity effects in mice that prevent further studies with this compound at the required concentrations for MRI contrast. This study highlights the importance of developing 19F MRI probes with the highest signal intensity achievable. PMID:27110036

  1. Mapping quantal touch using 7 Tesla functional magnetic resonance imaging and single-unit intraneural microstimulation.

    PubMed

    Sanchez Panchuelo, Rosa Maria; Ackerley, Rochelle; Glover, Paul M; Bowtell, Richard W; Wessberg, Johan; Francis, Susan T; McGlone, Francis

    2016-01-01

    Using ultra-high field 7 Tesla (7T) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we map the cortical and perceptual responses elicited by intraneural microstimulation (INMS) of single mechanoreceptive afferent units in the median nerve, in humans. Activations are compared to those produced by applying vibrotactile stimulation to the unit's receptive field, and unit-type perceptual reports are analyzed. We show that INMS and vibrotactile stimulation engage overlapping areas within the topographically appropriate digit representation in the primary somatosensory cortex. Additional brain regions in bilateral secondary somatosensory cortex, premotor cortex, primary motor cortex, insula and posterior parietal cortex, as well as in contralateral prefrontal cortex are also shown to be activated in response to INMS. The combination of INMS and 7T fMRI opens up an unprecedented opportunity to bridge the gap between first-order mechanoreceptive afferent input codes and their spatial, dynamic and perceptual representations in human cortex. PMID:27154626

  2. Reducing the Effects of Background Noise during Auditory Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Speech Processing: Qualitative and Quantitative Comparisons between Two Image Acquisition Schemes and Noise Cancellation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackman, Graham A.; Hall, Deborah A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The intense sound generated during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) complicates studies of speech and hearing. This experiment evaluated the benefits of using active noise cancellation (ANC), which attenuates the level of the scanner sound at the participant's ear by up to 35 dB around the peak at 600 Hz. Method: Speech and…

  3. Magnetic material arrangement in oriented termites: a magnetic resonance study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, O. C.; Wajnberg, E.; de Oliveira, J. F.; Esquivel, D. M. S.

    2004-06-01

    Temperature dependence of the magnetic resonance is used to study the magnetic material in oriented Neocapritermes opacus (N.o.) termite, the only prey of the migratory ant Pachycondyla marginata (P.m.). A broad line in the g=2 region, associated to isolated nanoparticles shows that at least 97% of the magnetic material is in the termite's body (abdomen + thorax). From the temperature dependence of the resonant field and from the spectral linewidths, we estimate the existence of magnetic nanoparticles 18.5 ± 0.3 nm in diameter and an effective magnetic anisotropy constant, Keff between 2.1 and 3.2 × 10 4 erg/cm 3. A sudden change in the double integrated spectra at about 100 K for N.o. with the long body axis oriented perpendicular to the magnetic field can be attributed to the Verwey transition, and suggests an organized film-like particle system.

  4. PTFOS: Flexible and Absorbable Intracranial Electrodes for Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Bonmassar, Giorgio; Fujimoto, Kyoko; Golby, Alexandra J.

    2012-01-01

    Intracranial electrocortical recording and stimulation can provide unique knowledge about functional brain anatomy in patients undergoing brain surgery. This approach is commonly used in the treatment of medically refractory epilepsy. However, it can be very difficult to integrate the results of cortical recordings with other brain mapping modalities, particularly functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The ability to integrate imaging and electrophysiological information with simultaneous subdural electrocortical recording/stimulation and fMRI could offer significant insight for cognitive and systems neuroscience as well as for clinical neurology, particularly for patients with epilepsy or functional disorders. However, standard subdural electrodes cause significant artifact in MRI images, and concerns about risks such as cortical heating have generally precluded obtaining MRI in patients with implanted electrodes. We propose an electrode set based on polymer thick film organic substrate (PTFOS), an organic absorbable, flexible and stretchable electrode grid for intracranial use. These new types of MRI transparent intracranial electrodes are based on nano-particle ink technology that builds on our earlier development of an EEG/fMRI electrode set for scalp recording. The development of MRI-compatible recording/stimulation electrodes with a very thin profile could allow functional mapping at the individual subject level of the underlying feedback and feed forward networks. The thin flexible substrate would allow the electrodes to optimally contact the convoluted brain surface. Performance properties of the PTFOS were assessed by MRI measurements, finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulations, micro-volt recording, and injecting currents using standard electrocortical stimulation in phantoms. In contrast to the large artifacts exhibited with standard electrode sets, the PTFOS exhibited no artifact due to the reduced amount of metal and conductivity of the

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging by using nano-magnetic particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shokrollahi, H.; Khorramdin, A.; Isapour, Gh.

    2014-11-01

    Magnetism and magnetic materials play a major role in various biological applications, such as magnetic bioseparation, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), hyperthermia treatment of cancer and drug delivery. Among these techniques, MRI is a powerful method not only for diagnostic radiology but also for therapeutic medicine that utilizes a magnetic field and radio waves. Recently, this technique has contributed greatly to the promotion of the human quality life. Thus, this paper presents a short review of the physical principles and recent advances of MRI, as well as providing a summary of the synthesis methods and properties of contrast agents, like different core materials and surfactants.

  6. Magnetic plasmonic Fano resonance at optical frequency.

    PubMed

    Bao, Yanjun; Hu, Zhijian; Li, Ziwei; Zhu, Xing; Fang, Zheyu

    2015-05-13

    Plasmonic Fano resonances are typically understood and investigated assuming electrical mode hybridization. Here we demonstrate that a purely magnetic plasmon Fano resonance can be realized at optical frequency with Au split ring hexamer nanostructure excited by an azimuthally polarized incident light. Collective magnetic plasmon modes induced by the circular electric field within the hexamer and each of the split ring can be controlled and effectively hybridized by designing the size and orientation of each ring unit. With simulated results reproducing the experiment, our suggested configuration with narrow line-shape magnetic Fano resonance has significant potential applications in low-loss sensing and may serves as suitable elementary building blocks for optical metamaterials. PMID:25594885

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging of the body

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, C.B.; Hricak, H.

    1987-01-01

    This text provides reference to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the body. Beginning with explanatory chapters on the physics, instrumentation, and interpretation of MRI, it proceeds to the normal anatomy of the neck, thorax, abdomen, and pelvis. Other chapters cover magnetic resonance imaging of blood flow, the larynx, the lymph nodes, and the spine, as well as MRI in obstetrics. The text features detailed coverage of magnetic resonance imaging of numerous disorders and disease states, including neck disease, thoracic disease; breast disease; congenital and acquired heart disease; vascular disease; diseases of the liver, pancreas, and spleen; diseases of the kidney, adrenals, and retroperitoneum; diseases of the male and female pelvis; and musculoskeletal diseases. Chapters on the biological and environmental hazards of MRI, the current clinical status of MRI in comparison to other imaging modalities, and economic considerations are also included.

  8. The Diversity of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Corey W.; Alekseyev, Viktor Y.; Allwardt, Jeffrey R.; Bankovich, Alexander J.; Cade-Menun, Barbara J.; Davis, Ronald W.; Du, Lin-Shu; Garcia, K. Christopher; Herschlag, Daniel; Khosla, Chaitan; Kraut, Daniel A.; Li, Qing; Null, Brian; Puglisi, Joseph D.; Sigala, Paul A.; Stebbins, Jonathan F.; Varani, Luca

    The discovery of the physical phenomenon of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) in 1946 gave rise to the spectroscopic technique that has become a remarkably versatile research tool. One could oversimplify NMR spectros-copy by categorizing it into the two broad applications of structure elucidation of molecules (associated with chemistry and biology) and imaging (associated with medicine). But, this certainly does not do NMR spectroscopy justice in demonstrating its general acceptance and utilization across the sciences. This manuscript is not an effort to present an exhaustive, or even partial review of NMR spectroscopy applications, but rather to provide a glimpse at the wide-ranging uses of NMR spectroscopy found within the confines of a single magnetic resonance research facility, the Stanford Magnetic Resonance Laboratory. Included here are summaries of projects involving protein structure determination, mapping of intermolecular interactions, exploring fundamental biological mechanisms, following compound cycling in the environmental, analysis of synthetic solid compounds, and microimaging of a model organism.

  9. Tutte polynomial in functional magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Castillón, Marlly V.

    2015-09-01

    Methods of graph theory are applied to the processing of functional magnetic resonance images. Specifically the Tutte polynomial is used to analyze such kind of images. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging provide us connectivity networks in the brain which are represented by graphs and the Tutte polynomial will be applied. The problem of computing the Tutte polynomial for a given graph is #P-hard even for planar graphs. For a practical application the maple packages "GraphTheory" and "SpecialGraphs" will be used. We will consider certain diagram which is depicting functional connectivity, specifically between frontal and posterior areas, in autism during an inferential text comprehension task. The Tutte polynomial for the resulting neural networks will be computed and some numerical invariants for such network will be obtained. Our results show that the Tutte polynomial is a powerful tool to analyze and characterize the networks obtained from functional magnetic resonance imaging.

  10. Magnetic resonance of magnetic fluid and magnetoliposome preparations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morais, Paulo C.; Santos, Judes G.; Skeff Neto, K.; Pelegrini, Fernando; De Cuyper, Marcel

    2005-05-01

    In this study, magnetic resonance was used to investigate lauric acid-coated magnetite-based magnetic fluid particles and particles which are surrounded by a double layer of phospholipid molecules (magnetoliposomes). The data reveal the presence of monomers and dimers in both samples. Whereas evidence for a thermally induced disruption of dimers is found in the magnetic fluid, apparently, the bilayer phospholipid envelop prevents the dissociation in the magnetoliposome samples.

  11. Magnetic resonance signal moment determination using the Earth's magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Fridjonsson, E O; Creber, S A; Vrouwenvelder, J S; Johns, M L

    2015-03-01

    We demonstrate a method to manipulate magnetic resonance data such that the moments of the signal spatial distribution are readily accessible. Usually, magnetic resonance imaging relies on data acquired in so-called k-space which is subsequently Fourier transformed to render an image. Here, via analysis of the complex signal in the vicinity of the centre of k-space we are able to access the first three moments of the signal spatial distribution, ultimately in multiple directions. This is demonstrated for biofouling of a reverse osmosis (RO) membrane module, rendering unique information and an early warning of the onset of fouling. The analysis is particularly applicable for the use of mobile magnetic resonance spectrometers; here we demonstrate it using an Earth's magnetic field system. PMID:25700116

  12. Magnetic resonance signal moment determination using the Earth's magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fridjonsson, E. O.; Creber, S. A.; Vrouwenvelder, J. S.; Johns, M. L.

    2015-03-01

    We demonstrate a method to manipulate magnetic resonance data such that the moments of the signal spatial distribution are readily accessible. Usually, magnetic resonance imaging relies on data acquired in so-called k-space which is subsequently Fourier transformed to render an image. Here, via analysis of the complex signal in the vicinity of the centre of k-space we are able to access the first three moments of the signal spatial distribution, ultimately in multiple directions. This is demonstrated for biofouling of a reverse osmosis (RO) membrane module, rendering unique information and an early warning of the onset of fouling. The analysis is particularly applicable for the use of mobile magnetic resonance spectrometers; here we demonstrate it using an Earth's magnetic field system.

  13. Nanomagnetic planar magnetic resonance microscopy "lens".

    PubMed

    Barbic, Mladen; Scherer, Axel

    2005-04-01

    The achievement of three-dimensional atomic resolution magnetic resonance microscopy remains one of the main challenges in the visualization of biological molecules. The prospects for single spin microscopy have come tantalizingly close due to the recent developments in sensitive instrumentation. Despite the single spin detection capability in systems of spatially well-isolated spins, the challenge that remains is the creation of conditions in space where only a single spin is resonant and detected in the presence of other spins in its natural dense spin environment. We present a nanomagnetic planar design where a localized Angstrom-scale point in three-dimensional space is created above the nanostructure with a nonzero minimum of the magnetic field magnitude. The design thereby represents a magnetic resonance microscopy "lens" where potentially only a single spin located in the "focus" spot of the structure is resonant. Despite the presence of other spins in the Angstrom-scale vicinity of the resonant spin, the high gradient magnetic field of the "lens" renders those spins inactive in the detection process. PMID:15826129

  14. Magnetic resonance neurography of the brachial plexus

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyaya, Vaishali; Upadhyaya, Divya Narain; Kumar, Adarsh; Pandey, Ashok Kumar; Gujral, Ratni; Singh, Arun Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is being increasingly recognised all over the world as the imaging modality of choice for brachial plexus and peripheral nerve lesions. Recent refinements in MRI protocols have helped in imaging nerve tissue with greater clarity thereby helping in the identification, localisation and classification of nerve lesions with greater confidence than was possible till now. This article on Magnetic Resonance Neurography (MRN) is based on the authors’ experience of imaging the brachial plexus and peripheral nerves using these protocols over the last several years. PMID:26424974

  15. Granular convection observed by magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrichs, E. E.; Jaeger, H. M.; Karczmar, Greg S.; Knight, James B.; Kuperman, Vadim Yu.; Nagel, Sidney R.

    1995-03-01

    Vibrations in a granular material can spontaneously produce convection rolls reminiscent of those seen in fluids. Magnetic resonance imaging provides a sensitive and noninvasive probe for the detection of these convection currents, which have otherwise been difficult to observe. A magnetic resonance imaging study of convection in a column of poppy seeds yielded data about the detailed shape of the convection rolls and the depth dependence of the convection velocity. The velocity was found to decrease exponentially with depth; a simple model for this behavior is presented here.

  16. Granular convection observed by magnetic resonance imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Ehrichs, E.E.; Jaeger, H.M.; Knight, J.B.; Nagel, S.R.; Karczmar, G.S.; Kuperman, V.Yu.

    1995-03-17

    Vibrations in a granular material can spontaneously produce convection rolls reminiscent of those seen in fluids. Magnetic resonance imaging provides a sensitive and noninvasive probe for the detection of these convection currents, which have otherwise been difficult to observe. A magnetic resonance imaging study of convection in a column of poppy seeds yielded data about the detailed shape of the convection rolls and the depth dependence of the convection velocity. The velocity was found to decrease exponentially with depth; a simple model for this behavior is presented here. 31 refs., 4 figs.

  17. Artifacts in Breast Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Anthony, Marina-Portia; Nguyen, Dustin; Friedlander, Lauren; Mango, Victoria; Wynn, Ralph; Ha, Richard

    2016-01-01

    As breast magnetic resonance imaging has evolved to become a routine part of clinical practice, so too has the need for radiologists to be aware of its potential pitfalls and limitations. Unique challenges arise in the identification and remedy of artifacts in breast magnetic resonance imaging, and it is important that radiologists and technicians work together to optimize protocols and monitor examinations such that these may be minimized or avoided entirely. This article presents patient-related and technical artifacts that may give rise to reduced image quality and ways to recognize and reduce them. PMID:26343534

  18. Magnetic force microscopy using tip magnetization modulated by ferromagnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arima, Eiji; Naitoh, Yoshitaka; Li, Yan Jun; Yoshimura, Satoru; Saito, Hitoshi; Nomura, Hikaru; Nakatani, Ryoichi; Sugawara, Yasuhiro

    2015-03-01

    In magnetic force microscopy (MFM), the tip-sample distance should be reduced to analyze the microscopic magnetic domain structure with high spatial resolution. However, achieving a small tip-sample distance has been difficult because of superimposition of interaction forces such as van der Waals and electrostatic forces induced by the sample surface. In this study, we propose a new method of MFM using ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) to extract only the magnetic field near the sample surface. In this method, the magnetization of a magnetic cantilever is modulated by FMR to separate the magnetic field and topographic structure. We demonstrate the modulation of the magnetization of the cantilever and the identification of the polarities of a perpendicular magnetic medium.

  19. Magnetic force microscopy using tip magnetization modulated by ferromagnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Arima, Eiji; Naitoh, Yoshitaka; Li, Yan Jun; Yoshimura, Satoru; Saito, Hitoshi; Nomura, Hikaru; Nakatani, Ryoichi; Sugawara, Yasuhiro

    2015-03-27

    In magnetic force microscopy (MFM), the tip-sample distance should be reduced to analyze the microscopic magnetic domain structure with high spatial resolution. However, achieving a small tip-sample distance has been difficult because of superimposition of interaction forces such as van der Waals and electrostatic forces induced by the sample surface. In this study, we propose a new method of MFM using ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) to extract only the magnetic field near the sample surface. In this method, the magnetization of a magnetic cantilever is modulated by FMR to separate the magnetic field and topographic structure. We demonstrate the modulation of the magnetization of the cantilever and the identification of the polarities of a perpendicular magnetic medium. PMID:25736463

  20. Magnetic elliptical polarization of Schumann resonances

    SciTech Connect

    Sentman, D.D.

    1987-08-01

    Measurements of orthogonal, horizontal components of the magnetic field in the ELF range obtained during September 1985 show that the Schumann resonance eigenfrequencies determined separately for the north-south and east-west magnetic components differ by as much as 0.5 Hz, suggesting that the underlying magnetic signal is not linearly polarized at such times. The high degree of magnetic ellipticity found suggests that the side multiplets of the Schumann resonances corresponding to azimuthally inhomogeneous normal modes are strongly excited in the highly asymmetric earth-ionosphere cavity. The dominant sense of polarization over the measurement passband is found to be right-handed during local daylight hours, and to be left-handed during local nighttime hours. 16 references.

  1. Magnetic elliptical polarization of Schumann resonances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sentman, D. D.

    1987-01-01

    Measurements of orthogonal, horizontal components of the magnetic field in the ELF range obtained during September 1985 show that the Schumann resonance eigenfrequencies determined separately for the north-south and east-west magnetic components differ by as much as 0.5 Hz, suggesting that the underlying magnetic signal is not linearly polarized at such times. The high degree of magnetic ellipticity found suggests that the side multiplets of the Schumann resonances corresponding to azimuthally inhomogeneous normal modes are strongly excited in the highly asymmetric earth-ionosphere cavity. The dominant sense of polarization over the measurement passband is found to be right-handed during local daylight hours, and to be left-handed during local nighttime hours.

  2. Quantitative comparison of functional magnetic resonance imaging with positron emission tomography using a force-related paradigm.

    PubMed

    Dettmers, C; Connelly, A; Stephan, K M; Turner, R; Friston, K J; Frackowiak, R S; Gadian, D G

    1996-12-01

    The intention of our study was to compare functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with positron emission tomography (PET). We used the same force-related motor paradigm for both techniques, which allows for quantification of stimulus intensity. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was determined with PET in six male subjects (age 30 +/- 3) using the slow bolus injection technique and oxygen-15-labeled water. Scans were collected during six different conditions: at rest and during repetitive Morse key press at 1 Hz, with the right index finger at a range of different forces. In a second series of experiments fMRI data were acquired under similar conditions in six volunteers in a single slice parallel to and 51 +/- 3 mm dorsal to the anterior and posterior commissure (AC-PC). A conventional 1.5-T clinical magnetic resonance (MR) system and the FLASH technique were used. The data obtained in both series of experiments were subjected to the same statistical analyses. Statistical parametric maps (SPM) were generated by two different approaches: a correlation between peak force and rCBF or fMRI signal and using a categorical comparison of force exerted with rest. SPMs were coregistered with anatomical MR images. PET and fMRI measurements demonstrated activation in the primary motor cortex (M1) and posterior supplementary motor cortex in all subjects. Correlation analysis demonstrated foci in the M1 in four subjects with PET and in only one subject with fMRI. Locations of activation peaks differed by 2 to 8 mm between imaging methods. The relationship between fMRI signal or rCBF and peak force was logarithmic. The maximum increase in fMRI signal was 5.0% +/- 0.9 at 60% of the maximum voluntary contraction while the corresponding increase in rCBF was 13.7% +/- 1.2. The ratio of percentage rCBF change to percentage fMRI signal change was very similar across all force levels. The high degree of correspondence between PET and fMRI data provides good cross-validation for

  3. Spin connection resonance in magnetic motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Myron W.; Eckardt, H.

    2007-11-01

    A mechanism is proposed for rotation of magnetic assemblies by a torque consisting of the magnetic dipole moment of the assembly and a magnetic field generated from space-time in Einstein-Cartan-Evans (ECE) field theory. It is shown that when the magnetic assembly is stationary, the space-time is described by a Helmholtz wave equation in the tetrad as eigenfunction. This is a balance condition in which the Cartan torsion of the space-time is zero, but in which the tetrad and spin connection are non-zero. This balance may be broken by a driving current density produced by the magnetic assembly. The Helmholtz equation becomes an undamped oscillator equation. At resonance the torque on the magnetic assembly may be amplified sufficiently to cause the whole assembly to rotate, as observed experimentally in a repeatable and reproducible manner.

  4. Enhancement of artificial magnetism via resonant bianisotropy

    PubMed Central

    Markovich, Dmitry; Baryshnikova, Kseniia; Shalin, Alexander; Samusev, Anton; Krasnok, Alexander; Belov, Pavel; Ginzburg, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    All-dielectric “magnetic light” nanophotonics based on high refractive index nanoparticles allows controlling magnetic component of light at nanoscale without having high dissipative losses. The artificial magnetic optical response of such nanoparticles originates from circular displacement currents excited inside those structures and strongly depends on geometry and dispersion of optical materials. Here an approach for enhancing of magnetic response via resonant bianisotropy effect is proposed and analyzed. The key mechanism of enhancement is based on electric-magnetic interaction between two electrically and magnetically resonant nanoparticles of all-dielectric dimer. It was shown that proper geometrical arrangement of the dimer in respect to the incident illumination direction allows flexible control over all vectorial components of the magnetic moment, tailoring the latter in the dynamical range of 100% and delivering enhancement up to 36% relative to performances of standalone spherical particles. The proposed approach provides pathways for designs of all-dielectric metamaterials and metasurfaces with strong magnetic responses. PMID:26941126

  5. Brain Morphometry Using Anatomical Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bansal, Ravi; Gerber, Andrew J.; Peterson, Bradley S.

    2008-01-01

    The efficacy of anatomical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in studying the morphological features of various regions of the brain is described, also providing the steps used in the processing and studying of the images. The ability to correlate these features with several clinical and psychological measures can help in using anatomical MRI to…

  6. Sports Health Magnetic Resonance Imaging Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Howell, Gary A.; Stadnick, Michael E.; Awh, Mark H.

    2010-01-01

    Injuries to the Lisfranc ligament complex are often suspected, particularly in the setting of midfoot pain without radiographic abnormality. Knowledge of the anatomy and magnetic resonance imaging findings of injuries to this region is helpful for the diagnosing and treating physicians. PMID:23015984

  7. An improved nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elleman, D. D.; Manatt, S. L.

    1967-01-01

    Cylindrical sample container provides a high degree of nuclear stabilization to a nuclear magnetic resonance /nmr/ spectrometer. It is placed coaxially about the nmr insert and contains reference sample that gives a signal suitable for locking the field and frequency of an nmr spectrometer with a simple audio modulation system.

  8. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Technology for Medical Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budinger, Thomas F.; Lauterbur, Paul C.

    1984-01-01

    Reports on the status of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) from theoretical and clinical perspectives, reviewing NMR theory and relaxation parameters relevant to NMR imaging. Also reviews literature related to modern imaging strategies, signal-to-noise ratio, contrast agents, in vivo spectroscopy, spectroscopic imaging, clinical applications, and…

  9. Imaging Intelligence with Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Rex E.; Gasparovic, Charles; Chavez, Robert S.; Caprihan, Arvind; Barrow, Ranee; Yeo, Ronald A.

    2009-01-01

    Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ([to the first power]H-MRS) is a technique for the assay of brain neurochemistry "in vivo." N-acetylaspartate (NAA), the most prominent metabolite visible within the [to the first power]H-MRS spectrum, is found primarily within neurons. The current study was designed to further elucidate NAA-cognition…

  10. Use of Magnetic Resonance in Pancreaticobiliary Emergencies.

    PubMed

    Bates, David D B; LeBedis, Christina A; Soto, Jorge A; Gupta, Avneesh

    2016-05-01

    This article presents the magnetic resonance protocols, imaging features, diagnostic criteria, and complications of commonly encountered emergencies in pancreaticobiliary imaging. Pancreatic trauma, bile leak, acute cholecystitis, biliary obstruction, and pancreatitis are discussed. Various classifications and complications that can arise with these conditions, as well as artifacts that may mimic pathology, are also included. PMID:27150328

  11. Magnetic resonance investigation of magnetic-labeled baker's yeast cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godoy Morais, J. P. M.; Azevedo, R. B.; Silva, L. P.; Lacava, Z. G. M.; Báo, S. N.; Silva, O.; Pelegrini, F.; Gansau, C.; Buske, N.; Safarik, I.; Safarikova, M.; Morais, P. C.

    2004-05-01

    In this study, the interaction of DMSA-coated magnetite nanoparticles (5 and 10 nm core-size) with Saccharomyces cerevisae was investigated using magnetic resonance (MR) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The TEM micrographs revealed magnetite nanoparticles attached externally to the cell wall. The MR data support the strong interaction among the nanoparticles supported by the cells. A remarkable shift in the resonance field was used as signature of particle attachment to the cell wall.

  12. Nuclear magnetic resonance properties of lunar samples.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kline, D.; Weeks, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of Na-23, Al-27, and P-31 in fines samples 10084,60 and 14163,168 and in crystalline rock samples 12021,55 and 14321,166, have been recorded over a range of frequencies up to 20 MHz. A shift in the field at which maximum absorption occurs for all of the spectra relative to the field at which maximum absorption occurs for terrestrial analogues is attributed to a sample-dependent magnetic field at the Na, Al, and P sites opposing the laboratory field. The magnitude of these fields internal to the samples is sample dependent and varies from 5 to 10 G. These fields do not correlate with the iron content of the samples. However, the presence of single-domain particles of iron distributed throughout the plagioclase fraction that contains the principal fraction of Na and Al is inferred from electron magnetic resonance spectra shapes.

  13. Magnetic Earth Ionosphere Resonant Frequencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spaniol, Craig

    1994-01-01

    The Community College Division is pleased to report progress of NASA funded research at West Virginia State College. During this reporting period, the project research group has continued with activities to develop instrumentation capability designed to monitor resonant cavity frequencies in the atmospheric region between the Earth's surface and the ionosphere. In addition, the project's principal investigator, Dr. Craig Spaniol, and NASA technical officer, Dr. John Sutton, have written and published technical papers intended to expand the scientific and technical framework needed for project research. This research continues to provide an excellent example of government and education working together to provide significant research in the college environment. This cooperative effort has provided many students with technical project work which compliments their education.

  14. Volume coil based on hybridized resonators for magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jouvaud, C.; Abdeddaim, R.; Larrat, B.; de Rosny, J.

    2016-01-01

    We present an electromagnetic device based on hybridization of four half-wavelength dipoles which increases the uniformity and the strength of the radio-frequency (RF) field of a Magnetic Resonant Imaging (MRI) apparatus. Numerical results show that this Hybridized Coil (HC) excited with a classical loop coil takes advantage of the magnetic hybrid modes. The distribution of the RF magnetic field is experimentally confirmed on a 7-T MRI with a gelatin phantom. Finally, the HC is validated in vivo by imaging the head of an anesthetized rat. We measure an overall increase of the signal to noise ratio with up to 2.4 fold increase in regions of interest far from the active loop coil.

  15. Prediction of individual clinical scores in patients with Parkinson's disease using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Hou, YanBing; Luo, ChunYan; Yang, Jing; Ou, RuWei; Song, Wei; Wei, QianQian; Cao, Bei; Zhao, Bi; Wu, Ying; Shang, Hui-Fang; Gong, QiYong

    2016-07-15

    Neuroimaging holds the promise that it may one day aid the clinical assessment. However, the vast majority of studies using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have reported average differences between Parkinson's disease (PD) patients and healthy controls, which do not permit inferences at the level of individuals. This study was to develop a model for the prediction of PD illness severity ratings from individual fMRI brain scan. The resting-state fMRI scans were obtained from 84 patients with PD and the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale-III (UPDRS-III) scores were obtained before scanning. The RVR method was used to predict clinical scores (UPDRS-III) from fMRI scans. The application of RVR to whole-brain resting-state fMRI data allowed prediction of UPDRS-III scores with statistically significant accuracy (correlation=0.35, P-value=0.001; mean sum of squares=222.17, P-value=0.002). This prediction was informed strongly by negative weight areas including prefrontal lobe and medial occipital lobe, and positive weight areas including medial parietal lobe. It was suggested that fMRI scans contained sufficient information about neurobiological change in patients with PD to permit accurate prediction about illness severity, on an individual subject basis. Our results provided preliminary evidence, as proof-of-concept, to support that fMRI might be possible to be a clinically useful quantitative assessment aid in PD at individual level. This may enable clinicians to target those uncooperative patients and machines to replace human for a more efficient use of health care resources. PMID:27288771

  16. [Functional magnetic resonance imaging and dynamic neuroanatomy of addictive disorders].

    PubMed

    Mel'nikov, M E; Shtark, M B

    2014-01-01

    Research into the cerebral patterns that govern the formation and development of addictive behavior is one of the most interesting goals of neurophysiology. Authors of contemporary papers on the matter define a number of symptoms that are all part of substance or non-substance dependence, each one of them leading to abnormalities in the corresponding system of the brain. During the last twenty years the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMR1) technology has been instrumental in locating such abnormalities, identifying specific parts of the brain that, when dysfunctional, may enhance addiction and cause its positive or negative symptoms. This article reviews fMRI studies aimed toward locating areas in the brain that are responsible for cognitive, emotional, and motivational dysfunction. Cerebral correlatives of impulsiveness, behavior control, and drug cravings are reviewed separately. The article also contains an overview of possibilities to further investigate the Selves of those dependent on substances, identify previously unknown diagnostic markers of substance dependence, and evaluate the effectiveness of therapy. The research under review in this article provides data that points to a special role of the nucleus caudatus as well as the nucleus accumbens, the thalamus, the insular cortex (IC), the anterior cingulate, prefrontal and orbitofrontal areas in psychological disorders that are part of substance dependence. General findings of the article are in accordance with contemporary models of addictive pattern. PMID:25729844

  17. Physiological Noise Reduction Using Volumetric Functional Magnetic Resonance Inverse Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Fa-Hsuan; Nummenmaa, Aapo; Witzel, Thomas; Polimeni, Jonathan R.; Zeffiro, Thomas A.; Wang, Fu-Nien; Belliveau, John W.

    2013-01-01

    Physiological noise arising from a variety of sources can significantly degrade the detection of task-related activity in BOLD-contrast fMRI experiments. If whole head spatial coverage is desired, effective suppression of oscillatory physiological noise from cardiac and respiratory fluctuations is quite difficult without external monitoring, since traditional EPI acquisition methods cannot sample the signal rapidly enough to satisfy the Nyquist sampling theorem, leading to temporal aliasing of noise. Using a combination of high speed magnetic resonance inverse imaging (InI) and digital filtering, we demonstrate that it is possible to suppress cardiac and respiratory noise without auxiliary monitoring, while achieving whole head spatial coverage and reasonable spatial resolution. Our systematic study of the effects of different moving average (MA) digital filters demonstrates that a MA filter with a 2 s window can effectively reduce the variance in the hemodynamic baseline signal, thereby achieving 57-58% improvements in peak z-statistic values compared to unfiltered InI or spatially smoothed EPI data (FWHM =8.6 mm). In conclusion, the high temporal sampling rates achievable with InI permit significant reductions in physiological noise using standard temporal filtering techniques that result in significant improvements in hemodynamic response estimation. PMID:21954026

  18. Multivariate Strategies in Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Lars Kai

    2007-01-01

    We discuss aspects of multivariate fMRI modeling, including the statistical evaluation of multivariate models and means for dimensional reduction. In a case study we analyze linear and non-linear dimensional reduction tools in the context of a "mind reading" predictive multivariate fMRI model.

  19. Magnetic resonance of calcified tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wehrli, Felix W.

    2013-04-01

    MRI of the human body is largely made possible by the favorable relaxation properties of protons of water and triacyl glycerides prevalent in soft tissues. Hard tissues - key among them bone - are generally less amenable to measurement with in vivo MR imaging techniques, not so much as a result of the lower proton density but rather due to the extremely short life-times of the proton signal in water bound to solid-like entities, typically collagen, or being trapped in micro-pores. Either mechanism can enhance T2 relaxation by up to three orders of magnitude relative to their soft-tissue counterparts. Detection of these protons requires solid-state techniques that have emerged in recent years and that promise to add a new dimension to the study of hard tissues. Alternative approaches to probe calcified tissues exploit their characteristic magnetic properties. Bone, teeth and extra-osseous calcium-containing biomaterials are unique in that they are more diamagnetic than all other tissues and thus yield information indirectly by virtue of the induced magnetic fields present in their vicinity. Progress has also been made in methods allowing very high-resolution structural imaging of trabecular and cortical bone relying on detection of the surrounding soft-tissues. This brief review, much of it drawn from work conducted in the author's laboratory, seeks to highlight opportunities with focus on early-stage developments for image-based assessment of structure, function, physiology and mechanics of calcified tissues in humans via liquid and solid-state approaches, including proton, deuteron and phosphorus NMR and MRI.

  20. Improving robustness and reliability of phase-sensitive fMRI analysis using temporal off-resonance alignment of single-echo timeseries (TOAST).

    PubMed

    Hahn, Andrew D; Nencka, Andrew S; Rowe, Daniel B

    2009-02-01

    Echo Planar Imaging (EPI), often utilized in functional MRI (fMRI) experiments, is well known for its vulnerability to inconsistencies in the static magnetic field (B(0)). Correction for these field inhomogeneities usually involves measuring the magnetic field at a single time point, and using this static information to correct a series of images collected over the course of one or multiple experiments. However, common phenomena, such as respiration and motion, change the characteristics of the B(0) field homogeneity in a time-dependent and often unpredictable manner, rendering previous field measurements invalid. The effects of these changes are particularly large in the image phase, due to its direct and sensitive relationship to the magnetic field, and methods utilizing complex information can suffer enormously. This dependence can be exploited to estimate the temporal dynamics of the B(0) field. Use of this information to correct fMRI data can provide more effective motion correction, reduce temporal "noise," and can substantially restore statistically significant power to complex fMRI data analysis. All of the necessary information is embedded in complex EPI images, and results indicate this is a robust way to improve the quality of fMRI data, especially when used with complex analysis. PMID:18992826

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging with an optical atomicmagnetometer

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Shoujun; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Donaldson, Marcus H.; Rochester, Simon M.; Budker, Dmitry; Pines, Alexander

    2006-05-09

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive andversatile methodology that has been applied in many disciplines1,2. Thedetection sensitivity of conventional Faraday detection of MRI depends onthe strength of the static magnetic field and the sample "fillingfactor." Under circumstances where only low magnetic fields can be used,and for samples with low spin density or filling factor, the conventionaldetection sensitivity is compromised. Alternative detection methods withhigh sensitivity in low magnetic fields are thus required. Here we showthe first use of a laser-based atomic magnetometer for MRI detection inlow fields. Our technique also employs remote detection which physicallyseparates the encoding and detection steps3-5, to improve the fillingfactor of the sample. Potentially inexpensive and using a compactapparatus, our technique provides a novel alternative for MRI detectionwith substantially enhanced sensitivity and time resolution whileavoiding the need for cryogenics.

  2. A hyperpolarized equilibrium for magnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hövener, Jan-Bernd; Schwaderlapp, Niels; Lickert, Thomas; Duckett, Simon B.; Mewis, Ryan E.; Highton, Louise A. R.; Kenny, Stephen M.; Green, Gary G. R.; Leibfritz, Dieter; Korvink, Jan G.; Hennig, Jürgen; von Elverfeldt, Dominik

    2013-12-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging (MRI) play an indispensable role in science and healthcare but use only a tiny fraction of their potential. No more than ≈10 p.p.m. of all 1H nuclei are effectively detected in a 3-Tesla clinical MRI system. Thus, a vast array of new applications lays dormant, awaiting improved sensitivity. Here we demonstrate the continuous polarization of small molecules in solution to a level that cannot be achieved in a viable magnet. The magnetization does not decay and is effectively reinitialized within seconds after being measured. This effect depends on the long-lived, entangled spin-order of parahydrogen and an exchange reaction in a low magnetic field of 10-3 Tesla. We demonstrate the potential of this method by fast MRI and envision the catalysis of new applications such as cancer screening or indeed low-field MRI for routine use and remote application.

  3. A hyperpolarized equilibrium for magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Hövener, Jan-Bernd; Schwaderlapp, Niels; Lickert, Thomas; Duckett, Simon B; Mewis, Ryan E; Highton, Louise A R; Kenny, Stephen M; Green, Gary G R; Leibfritz, Dieter; Korvink, Jan G; Hennig, Jürgen; von Elverfeldt, Dominik

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging (MRI) play an indispensable role in science and healthcare but use only a tiny fraction of their potential. No more than ≈10 p.p.m. of all ¹H nuclei are effectively detected in a 3-Tesla clinical MRI system. Thus, a vast array of new applications lays dormant, awaiting improved sensitivity. Here we demonstrate the continuous polarization of small molecules in solution to a level that cannot be achieved in a viable magnet. The magnetization does not decay and is effectively reinitialized within seconds after being measured. This effect depends on the long-lived, entangled spin-order of parahydrogen and an exchange reaction in a low magnetic field of 10⁻³ Tesla. We demonstrate the potential of this method by fast MRI and envision the catalysis of new applications such as cancer screening or indeed low-field MRI for routine use and remote application. PMID:24336292

  4. A hyperpolarized equilibrium for magnetic resonance

    PubMed Central

    Hövener, Jan-Bernd; Schwaderlapp, Niels; Lickert, Thomas; Duckett, Simon B.; Mewis, Ryan E.; Highton, Louise A. R.; Kenny, Stephen M.; Green, Gary G. R.; Leibfritz, Dieter; Korvink, Jan G.; Hennig, Jürgen; von Elverfeldt, Dominik

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging (MRI) play an indispensable role in science and healthcare but use only a tiny fraction of their potential. No more than ≈10 p.p.m. of all 1H nuclei are effectively detected in a 3-Tesla clinical MRI system. Thus, a vast array of new applications lays dormant, awaiting improved sensitivity. Here we demonstrate the continuous polarization of small molecules in solution to a level that cannot be achieved in a viable magnet. The magnetization does not decay and is effectively reinitialized within seconds after being measured. This effect depends on the long-lived, entangled spin-order of parahydrogen and an exchange reaction in a low magnetic field of 10−3 Tesla. We demonstrate the potential of this method by fast MRI and envision the catalysis of new applications such as cancer screening or indeed low-field MRI for routine use and remote application. PMID:24336292

  5. Optimization of Blocked Designs in fMRI Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maus, Barbel; van Breukelen, Gerard J. P.; Goebel, Rainer; Berger, Martijn P. F.

    2010-01-01

    Blocked designs in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) are useful to localize functional brain areas. A blocked design consists of different blocks of trials of the same stimulus type and is characterized by three factors: the length of blocks, i.e., number of trials per blocks, the ordering of task and rest blocks, and the time between…

  6. Foundations of Advanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Bammer, Roland; Skare, Stefan; Newbould, Rexford; Liu, Chunlei; Thijs, Vincent; Ropele, Stefan; Clayton, David B.; Krueger, Gunnar; Moseley, Michael E.; Glover, Gary H.

    2005-01-01

    Summary: During the past decade, major breakthroughs in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) quality were made by means of quantum leaps in scanner hardware and pulse sequences. Some advanced MRI techniques have truly revolutionized the detection of disease states and MRI can now—within a few minutes—acquire important quantitative information noninvasively from an individual in any plane or volume at comparatively high resolution. This article provides an overview of the most common advanced MRI methods including diffusion MRI, perfusion MRI, functional MRI, and the strengths and weaknesses of MRI at high magnetic field strengths. PMID:15897944

  7. Magnetic resonances in nano-scale metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Zhao; Liddle, Alex; Martin, Michael

    2006-03-01

    We have designed, fabricated, and optically measured several different kinds of nano-scale metamaterials. We make use e-beam nano-lithography technology at LBNL's Center for X-Ray Optics for fabricating these structures on extremely thin SiN substrates so that they are close to free-standing. Optical properties were measured as a function of incidence angle and polarization. We directly observe a strong magnetic resonance consistent with a negative magnetic permeability in our samples at mid- and near-IR optical frequencies. We will discuss the results in comparison with detailed simulations, and will discuss the electric dipole or quadrupole resonances observed in the samples. Finally, we will report on our progress towards constructing a fully negative index of refraction meta-material.

  8. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in multiple sclerosis

    SciTech Connect

    Wolinsky, J.S.; Narayana, P.A.; Fenstermacher, M.J. )

    1990-11-01

    Regional in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy provides quantitative data on selected chemical constituents of brain. We imaged 16 volunteers with clinically definite multiple sclerosis on a 1.5 tesla magnetic resonance scanner to define plaque-containing volumes of interest, and obtained localized water-suppressed proton spectra using a stimulated echo sequence. Twenty-five of 40 plaque-containing regions provided spectra of adequate quality. Of these, 8 spectra from 6 subjects were consistent with the presence of cholesterol or fatty acids; the remainder were similar to those obtained from white matter of normal volunteers. This early experience with regional proton spectroscopy suggests that individual plaques are distinct. These differences likely reflect dynamic stages of the evolution of the demyelinative process not previously accessible to in vivo investigation.

  9. Magnetic Resonance Characterization of Ischemic Tissue Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Jerry S; Wang, Xiaoying; Zhe Sun, Phillip

    2011-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spectroscopy (MRS) are versatile diagnostic techniques capable of characterizing the complex stroke pathophysiology, and hold great promise for guiding stroke treatment. Particularly, tissue viability and salvageability are closely associated with its metabolic status. Upon ischemia, ischemic tissue metabolism is disrupted including altered metabolism of glucose and oxygen, elevated lactate production/accumulation, tissue acidification and eventually, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) depletion and energy failure. Whereas metabolism impairment during ischemic stroke is complex, it may be monitored non-invasively with magnetic resonance (MR)-based techniques. Our current article provides a concise overview of stroke pathology, conventional and emerging imaging and spectroscopy techniques, and data analysis tools for characterizing ischemic tissue damage. PMID:22216079

  10. Magnetic resonance angiography: physical principles and applications.

    PubMed

    Kiruluta, Andrew J M; González, R Gilberto

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) is the visualization of hemodynamic flow using imaging techniques that discriminate flowing spins in blood from those in stationary tissue. There are two classes of MRA methods based on whether the magnetic resonance imaging signal in flowing blood is derived from the amplitude of the moving spins, the time-of-flight methods, or is based on the phase accumulated by these flowing spins, as in phase contrast methods. Each method has particular advantages and limitations as an angiographic imaging technique, as evidenced in their application space. Here we discuss the physics of MRA for both classes of imaging techniques, including contrast-enhanced approaches and the recent rapid expansion of the techniques to fast acquisition and processing techniques using parallel imaging coils as well as their application in high-field MR systems such as 3T and 7T. PMID:27432663

  11. Combined Confocal and Magnetic Resonance Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Wind, Robert A.; Majors, Paul D.; Minard, Kevin R.; Ackerman, Eric J.; Daly, Don S.; Holtom, Gary R.; Thrall, Brian D.; Weber, Thomas J.

    2002-05-12

    Confocal and magnetic resonance microscopy are both used to study live cells in a minimally invasive way. Both techniques provide complementary information. Therefore, by examining cells simultaneously with both methodologies, more detailed information is obtained than is possible with each of the microscopes individually. In this paper two configurations of a combined confocal and magnetic resonance microscope described. In both cases the sample compartment is part of a temperature regulated perfusion system. The first configuration is capable of studying large single cells or three-dimensional cell agglomerates, whereas with the second configuration monolayers of mammalian cells can be investigated . Combined images are shown of Xenopus laevis frog oocytes, model JB6 tumor spheroids, and a single layer of Chinese hamster ovary cells. Finally, potential applications of the combined microscope are discussed.

  12. [Indications for magnetic resonance imaging in pneumology].

    PubMed

    Arrivé, L

    1997-04-19

    Tissue mobilization caused by respiration and heart beat and lower spacial resolution than with computed tomography has limited use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in pneumology. Nevertheless, because of the high-quality of spontaneous contrast and the non irradiation nature of the examination, there are selected indications. For bronchogenic cancer, MRI is reserved for selected cases to evaluate tumor extension. For tumors of the mediastinum, MRI is particularly useful for evaluating extension of neurogenic tumors. MRI also gives a better visualization of processes involving the diaphragm than computed tomography. The development of magnetic resonance angiography is a major progress for exploration of pulmonary embolism as repeated acquisitions can be obtained without injection of a contrast medium. Several studies have shown that MRI visualizes well solitary lung nodules, clearly distinguishing fat content from vascularized nodules. For the pulmonary parenchyma, further advances are necessary before MRI can become a routine exploration technique. PMID:9180867

  13. Antiferromagnetic resonance excitation by terahertz magnetic field resonantly enhanced with split ring resonator

    SciTech Connect

    Mukai, Y.; Hirori, H.; Yamamoto, T.; Kageyama, H.; Tanaka, K.

    2014-07-14

    Excitation of antiferromagnetic resonance (AFMR) in a HoFeO{sub 3} crystal combined with a split ring resonator (SRR) is studied using terahertz (THz) electromagnetic pulses. The magnetic field in the vicinity of the SRR is induced by the incident THz electric field component and excites spin oscillations that correspond to the AFMR, which are directly probed by the Faraday rotation of the polarization of a near-infrared probe pulse. The good agreement of the temperature-dependent magnetization dynamics with the calculation using the two-lattice Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation confirms that the AFMR is excited by the THz magnetic field, which is enhanced at the SRR resonance frequency by a factor of 20 compared to the incident magnetic field.

  14. SEVEN TOPICS IN FUNCTIONAL MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING

    PubMed Central

    BANDETTINI, PETER A.

    2010-01-01

    Functional MRI (fMRI) is a non-invasive brain imaging methodology that started in 1991 and allows human brain activation to be imaged at high resolution within only a few minutes. Because it has extremely high sensitivity, is relatively easy to implement, and can be performed on most standard clinical MRI scanners. It continues to grow at an explosive rate throughout the world. Over the years, at any given time, fMRI has been defined by only a handful of major topics that have been the focus of researchers using and developing the methodology. In this review, I attempt to take a snapshot of the field of fMRI as it is in mid-2009 by discussing the seven topics that I feel are most on the minds of fMRI researchers. The topics are, in no particular order or grouping: (1) Clinical impact, (2) Utilization of individual functional maps, (3) fMRI signal interpretation, (4) Pattern effect mapping and decoding, (5) Endogenous oscillations, (6) MRI technology, and (7) Alternative functional contrast mechanisms. Most of these topics are highly interdependent, each advancing as the others advance. While most fMRI involves applications towards clinical or neuroscience questions, all applications are fundamentally dependent on advances in basic methodology as well as advances in our understanding of the relationship between neuronal activity and fMRI signal changes. This review neglects almost completely an in-depth discussion of applications. Rather the discussions are on the methods and interpretation. PMID:19938211

  15. Fundamental physics of magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Villafana, T

    1988-07-01

    Although similar to computerized tomography, in that cross-sectional images are produced, the physical principles underlying magnetic resonance are entirely different. The MRI process, as commonly implemented, involves the excitation of hydrogen nuclei and the analysis of how these nuclei recover to the original equilibrium steady states that they had prior to excitation. This article discusses that process, that is, preparatory alignment, RF excitation, relaxation and signal measurement, and spatial localization. PMID:3380941

  16. Nuclear magnetic resonance in Kondo lattice systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curro, Nicholas J.

    2016-06-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance has emerged as a vital tool to explore the fundamental physics of Kondo lattice systems. Because nuclear spins experience two different hyperfine couplings to the itinerant conduction electrons and to the local f moments, the Knight shift can probe multiple types of spin correlations that are not accessible via other techniques. The Knight shift provides direct information about the onset of heavy electron coherence and the emergence of the heavy electron fluid.

  17. Neurosurgical uses for intraprocedural magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Mutchnick, Ian S; Moriarty, Thomas M

    2005-10-01

    Neurosurgical procedures demand precision, and efforts to create accurate neurosurgical navigation have been central to the profession through its history. Magnetic resonance image (MRI)-guided navigation offers the possibility of real-time, image-based stereotactic information for the neurosurgeon, which makes possible a number of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. This article will review both current options for intraoperative MRI operative suite arrangements and the current therapeutic/diagnostic uses of intraoperative MRI. PMID:16924171

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging: Principles and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kean, D.; Smith, M.

    1986-01-01

    This text covers the physics underlying magnetic resonance (MR) imaging; pulse sequences; image production; equipment; aspects of clinical imaging; and the imaging of the head and neck, thorax, abdomen and pelvis, and musculoskeletal system; and MR imaging. The book provides about 150 examples of MR images that give an overview of the pathologic conditions imaged. There is a discussion of the physics of MR imaging and also on the spin echo.

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging of diabetic foot complications

    PubMed Central

    Low, Keynes TA; Peh, Wilfred CG

    2015-01-01

    This pictorial review aims to illustrate the various manifestations of the diabetic foot on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. The utility of MR imaging and its imaging features in the diagnosis of pedal osteomyelitis are illustrated. There is often difficulty encountered in distinguishing osteomyelitis from neuroarthropathy, both clinically and on imaging. By providing an accurate diagnosis based on imaging, the radiologist plays a significant role in the management of patients with complications of diabetic foot. PMID:25640096

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging of diabetic foot complications.

    PubMed

    Low, Keynes T A; Peh, Wilfred C G

    2015-01-01

    This pictorial review aims to illustrate the various manifestations of the diabetic foot on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. The utility of MR imaging and its imaging features in the diagnosis of pedal osteomyelitis are illustrated. There is often difficulty encountered in distinguishing osteomyelitis from neuroarthropathy, both clinically and on imaging. By providing an accurate diagnosis based on imaging, the radiologist plays a significant role in the management of patients with complications of diabetic foot. PMID:25640096

  1. Spontaneous physiological variability modulates dynamic functional connectivity in resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Nikolaou, F; Orphanidou, C; Papakyriakou, P; Murphy, K; Wise, R G; Mitsis, G D

    2016-05-13

    It is well known that the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is influenced-in addition to neuronal activity-by fluctuations in physiological signals, including arterial CO2, respiration and heart rate/heart rate variability (HR/HRV). Even spontaneous fluctuations of the aforementioned physiological signals have been shown to influence the BOLD fMRI signal in a regionally specific manner. Related to this, estimates of functional connectivity between different brain regions, performed when the subject is at rest, may be confounded by the effects of physiological signal fluctuations. Moreover, resting functional connectivity has been shown to vary with respect to time (dynamic functional connectivity), with the sources of this variation not fully elucidated. In this context, we examine the relation between dynamic functional connectivity patterns and the time-varying properties of simultaneously recorded physiological signals (end-tidal CO2 and HR/HRV) using resting-state fMRI measurements from 12 healthy subjects. The results reveal a modulatory effect of the aforementioned physiological signals on the dynamic resting functional connectivity patterns for a number of resting-state networks (default mode network, somatosensory, visual). By using discrete wavelet decomposition, we also show that these modulation effects are more pronounced in specific frequency bands. PMID:27044987

  2. Real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging neurofeedback in motor neurorehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Linden, David E.J.; Turner, Duncan L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review Recent developments in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have catalyzed a new field of translational neuroscience. Using fMRI to monitor the aspects of task-related changes in neural activation or brain connectivity, investigators can offer feedback of simple or complex neural signals/patterns back to the participant on a quasireal-time basis [real-time-fMRI-based neurofeedback (rt-fMRI-NF)]. Here, we introduce some background methodology of the new developments in this field and give a perspective on how they may be used in neurorehabilitation in the future. Recent findings The development of rt-fMRI-NF has been used to promote self-regulation of activity in several brain regions and networks. In addition, and unlike other noninvasive techniques, rt-fMRI-NF can access specific subcortical regions and in principle any region that can be monitored using fMRI including the cerebellum, brainstem and spinal cord. In Parkinson's disease and stroke, rt-fMRI-NF has been demonstrated to alter neural activity after the self-regulation training was completed and to modify specific behaviours. Summary Future exploitation of rt-fMRI-NF could be used to induce neuroplasticity in brain networks that are involved in certain neurological conditions. However, currently, the use of rt-fMRI-NF in randomized, controlled clinical trials is in its infancy. PMID:27213774

  3. How pain empathy depends on ingroup/outgroup decisions: A functional magnet resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Ruckmann, Judith; Bodden, Maren; Jansen, Andreas; Kircher, Tilo; Dodel, Richard; Rief, Winfried

    2015-10-30

    Showing empathy is crucial for social functioning and empathy is related to group membership. The aim of the current study was to investigate the influence of experimentally generated groups on empathy for pain in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) paradigm. Thirty healthy participants underwent a minimal group paradigm to create two groups. While BOLD contrast was measured using fMRI, subjects were instructed to empathize with ingroup and outgroup members, who were depicted in a picture paradigm of painful and neutral situations. Behavioral measure of state empathy was measured using a visual analog scale. Furthermore, self-reported trait empathy measures were obtained. Repeated-measures ANOVAs were conducted for fMRI and behavioral data. In addition to a main effect of pain in pain-related areas, a main effect of group in areas belonging to the visual cortex was found. Although there was no ingroup bias for empathy ratings, subjects showed altered neural activation in regions of the right fusiform gyrus, the cerebellum, the hippocampal and amygdala region during the pain×group interaction. Activation in the preceding structures, revealed by the interaction of pain by group, suggests that activation in the pallidum might reflect specific empathy for pain-related regulation processes. PMID:26323252

  4. Brain activity during simulated deception: an event-related functional magnetic resonance study.

    PubMed

    Langleben, D D; Schroeder, L; Maldjian, J A; Gur, R C; McDonald, S; Ragland, J D; O'Brien, C P; Childress, A R

    2002-03-01

    TheGuilty Knowledge Test (GKT) has been used extensively to model deception. An association between the brain evoked response potentials and lying on the GKT suggests that deception may be associated with changes in other measures of brain activity such as regional blood flow that could be anatomically localized with event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Blood oxygenation level-dependent fMRI contrasts between deceptive and truthful responses were measured with a 4 Tesla scanner in 18 participants performing the GKT and analyzed using statistical parametric mapping. Increased activity in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), the superior frontal gyrus (SFG), and the left premotor, motor, and anterior parietal cortex was specifically associated with deceptive responses. The results indicate that: (a) cognitive differences between deception and truth have neural correlates detectable by fMRI, (b) inhibition of the truthful response may be a basic component of intentional deception, and (c) ACC and SFG are components of the basic neural circuitry for deception. PMID:11848716

  5. Uses, misuses, new uses and fundamental limitations of magnetic resonance imaging in cognitive science.

    PubMed

    Turner, Robert

    2016-10-01

    When blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) contrast functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was discovered in the early 1990s, it provoked an explosion of interest in exploring human cognition, using brain mapping techniques based on MRI. Standards for data acquisition and analysis were rapidly put in place, in order to assist comparison of results across laboratories. Recently, MRI data acquisition capabilities have improved dramatically, inviting a rethink of strategies for relating functional brain activity at the systems level with its neuronal substrates and functional connections. This paper reviews the established capabilities of BOLD contrast fMRI, the perceived weaknesses of major methods of analysis, and current results that may provide insights into improved brain modelling. These results have inspired the use of in vivo myeloarchitecture for localizing brain activity, individual subject analysis without spatial smoothing and mapping of changes in cerebral blood volume instead of BOLD activation changes. The apparent fundamental limitations of all methods based on nuclear magnetic resonance are also discussed.This article is part of the themed issue 'Interpreting BOLD: a dialogue between cognitive and cellular neuroscience'. PMID:27574303

  6. Development of a simple pressure and heat stimulator for intra- and interdigit functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyung-Sik; Choi, Mi-Hyun; Kim, Hyun-Joo; Hong, Sang-Pyo; Park, Jang-Yeon; Jun, Jae-Hoon; Yi, Jeong-Han; Chung, Yoon-Gi; Kim, Sung-Phil; Park, Jong-Rak; Lim, Dae-Woon; Chung, Soon-Cheol

    2014-06-01

    For this study, we developed a simple pressure and heat stimulator that can quantitatively control pressure and provide heat stimulation to intra- and interdigit areas. The developed stimulator consists of a control unit, drive units, and tactors. The control unit controls the stimulation parameters, such as stimulation types, intensity, time, and channel, and transmits a created signal of stimulation to the drive units. The drive units operate pressure and heat tactors in response to commands from the control unit. The pressure and heat tactors can display various stimulation intensities quantitatively, apply stimulation continuously, and adjust the stimulation areas. Additionally, they can easily be attached to and detached from the digits. The developed pressure and heat stimulator is small in total size, easy to install, and inexpensive to manufacture. The new stimulator operated stably in a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) environment without affecting the obtained images. A preliminary functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment confirmed that differences in activation of somatosensory areas were induced from the pressure and heat stimulation. The developed pressure and heat stimulator is expected to be utilized for future intra- and interdigit fMRI studies on pressure and heat stimulation. PMID:23861087

  7. Fluctuating magnetic field induced resonant activation

    SciTech Connect

    Mondal, Shrabani; Das, Sudip; Baura, Alendu; Bag, Bidhan Chandra

    2014-12-14

    In this paper, we have studied the properties of a Brownian particle at stationary state in the presence of a fluctuating magnetic field. Time dependence of the field makes the system thermodynamically open. As a signature of that the steady state distribution function becomes function of damping strength, intensity of fluctuations and constant parts of the applied magnetic field. It also depends on the correlation time of the fluctuating magnetic field. Our another observation is that the random magnetic field can induce the resonant activation phenomenon. Here correlation time is increased under the fixed variance of the fluctuating field. But if the correlation time (τ) increases under the fixed field strength then the mean first passage time rapidly grows at low τ and it almost converges at other limit. This is sharp contrast to the usual colored noise driven open system case where the mean first passage time diverges exponentially. We have also observed that a giant enhancement of barrier crossing rate occurs particularly at large strength of constant parts of the applied magnetic field even for very weak fluctuating magnetic field. Finally, break down of the Arrhenius result and disappearance of the Kramers’ turn over phenomenon may occur in the presence of a fluctuating magnetic field.

  8. Magnetic Resonance Microscopy of Collagen Mineralization

    PubMed Central

    Chesnick, Ingrid E.; Mason, Jeffrey T.; Giuseppetti, Anthony A.; Eidelman, Naomi; Potter, Kimberlee

    2008-01-01

    A model mineralizing system was subjected to magnetic resonance microscopy to investigate how water proton transverse (T2) relaxation times and magnetization transfer ratios can be applied to monitor collagen mineralization. In our model system, a collagen sponge was mineralized with polymer-stabilized amorphous calcium carbonate. The lower hydration and water proton T2 values of collagen sponges during the initial mineralization phase were attributed to the replacement of the water within the collagen fibrils by amorphous calcium carbonate. The significant reduction in T2 values by day 6 (p < 0.001) was attributed to the appearance of mineral crystallites, which were also detected by x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. In the second phase, between days 6 and 13, magnetic resonance microscopy properties appear to plateau as amorphous calcium carbonate droplets began to coalesce within the intrafibrillar space of collagen. In the third phase, after day 15, the amorphous mineral phase crystallized, resulting in a reduction in the absolute intensity of the collagen diffraction pattern. We speculate that magnetization transfer ratio values for collagen sponges, with similar collagen contents, increased from 0.25 ± 0.02 for control strips to a maximum value of 0.31 ± 0.04 at day 15 (p = 0.03) because mineral crystals greatly reduce the mobility of the collagen fibrils. PMID:18487295

  9. Neural Correlates of Feigned Memory Impairment are Distinguishable from Answering Randomly and Answering Incorrectly: An fMRI and Behavioral Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liang, Chun-Yu; Xu, Zhi-Yuan; Mei, Wei; Wang, Li-Li; Xue, Li; Lu, De Jian; Zhao, Hu

    2012-01-01

    Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have identified activation in the prefrontal-parietal-sub-cortical circuit during feigned memory impairment when comparing with truthful telling. Here, we used fMRI to determine whether neural activity can differentiate between answering correctly, answering randomly, answering…

  10. The fMRI signal, slow cortical potential and consciousness

    PubMed Central

    He, Biyu J.; Raichle, Marcus E.

    2010-01-01

    As functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has become a driving force in cognitive neuroscience, it is crucial to understand the neural basis of the fMRI signal. Here, we discuss a novel neurophysiological correlate of the fMRI signal, the slow cortical potential (SCP), which also seems to modulate the power of higher-frequency activity, the more established neurophysiological correlate of the fMRI signal. We further propose a hypothesis for the involvement of the SCP in the emergence of consciousness, and review existing data that lend support to our proposal. This hypothesis, unlike several previous theories of consciousness, is firmly rooted in physiology and as such is entirely amenable to empirical testing. PMID:19535283

  11. Hyperpolarized xenon magnetic resonance of the lung and the brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatesh, Arvind Krishnamachari

    2001-04-01

    Hyperpolarized noble gas Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a new diagnostic modality that has been used successfully for lung imaging. Xenon is soluble in blood and inhaled xenon is transported to the brain via circulating blood. Xenon also accumulates in the lipid rich white matter of the brain. Hyperpolarized xenon can hence be used as a tissue- sensitive probe of brain function. The goals of this study were to identify the NMR resonances of xenon in the rat brain and evaluate the role of hyperpolarized xenon for brain MRI. We have developed systems to produce sufficient volumes of hyperpolarized xenon for in vivo brain experiments. The specialized instrumentation developed include an apparatus for optical pump-cell manufacture and high purity gas manifolds for filling cells. A hyperpolarized gas delivery system was designed to ventilate small animals with hyperpolarized xenon for transport to the brain. The T1 of xenon dissolved in blood indicates that the lifetime of xenon in the blood is sufficient for significant magnetization to be transferred to distal tissues. A variety of carrier agents for intravenous delivery of hyperpolarized xenon were tested for transport to distal tissues. Using our new gas delivery system, high SNR 129Xe images of rat lungs were obtained. Spectroscopy with hyperpolarized xenon indicated that xenon was transported from the lungs to the blood and tissues with intact magnetization. After preliminary studies that indicated the feasibility for in vivo rat brain studies, experiments were performed with adult rats and young rats with different stages of white matter development. Both in vivo and in vitro experiments showed the prominence of one peak from xenon in the rat brain, which was assigned to brain lipids. Cerebral brain perfusion was calculated from the wash-out of the hyperpolarized xenon signal in the brain. An increase in brain perfusion during maturation was observed. These experiments showed that hyperpolarized xenon MRI

  12. Resting-state FMRI confounds and cleanup

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Kevin; Birn, Rasmus M.; Bandettini, Peter A.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI) is to investigate the brain’s functional connections by using the temporal similarity between blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signals in different regions of the brain “at rest” as an indicator of synchronous neural activity. Since this measure relies on the temporal correlation of FMRI signal changes between different parts of the brain, any non-neural activity-related process that affects the signals will influence the measure of functional connectivity, yielding spurious results. To understand the sources of these resting-state FMRI confounds, this article describes the origins of the BOLD signal in terms of MR physics and cerebral physiology. Potential confounds arising from motion, cardiac and respiratory cycles, arterial CO2 concentration, blood pressure/cerebral autoregulation, and vasomotion are discussed. Two classes of techniques to remove confounds from resting-state BOLD time series are reviewed: 1) those utilising external recordings of physiology and 2) data-based cleanup methods that only use the resting-state FMRI data itself. Further methods that remove noise from functional connectivity measures at a group level are also discussed. For successful interpretation of resting-state FMRI comparisons and results, noise cleanup is an often over-looked but essential step in the analysis pipeline. PMID:23571418

  13. Navigational memory functional magnetic resonance imaging: a test for concussion in children.

    PubMed

    Saluja, Rajeet Singh; Chen, Jen-Kai; Gagnon, Isabelle J; Keightley, Michelle; Ptito, Alain

    2015-05-15

    Concussions are high incidence injuries with potentially devastating consequences. Youths are at risk because of a higher threat of repeated injury, and cumulative effects of concussions exist, making accurate diagnosis and follow-up essential. This study examines a navigational memory functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) task to determine whether activation differences exist between children with concussion and uninjured controls. Fifty adolescents were recruited-35 controls and 15 with concussion. All subjects underwent structural and fMRI testing using our navigational memory task, and a battery of neuropsychological testing. The activation patterns of the 15 subjects with concussion were compared with those of 15 age and sex-matched controls. Subtraction and regression analyses were performed using the matched controls along with scatter-plots using means and 95% quantiles of the 35 controls. While no differences were seen with neuropsychological testing or task performance, subjects with concussion had significantly diminished activation in the retrosplenial, thalamic, and parahippocampal areas bilaterally, along with the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and left precuneus. Interestingly, they had increased activation in the left hippocampus and right middle temporal gyrus. Regression analysis demonstrated negative correlations between activation and post-concussive symptoms in the left premotor cortex, superior and inferior parietal lobules, and parahippocampal gyrus. Subjects with concussion show both diminished and increased activation in specific cerebral regions, differentiating them from controls. This is one of the first studies to look at such a task using fMRI and its applicability in testing for concussion in children. These findings support navigational memory fMRI as a potential objective test for concussions. PMID:25270364

  14. The Reporting of Observational Clinical Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Studies: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Qing; Parlar, Melissa; Truong, Wanda; Hall, Geoffrey; Thabane, Lehana; McKinnon, Margaret; Goeree, Ron; Pullenayegum, Eleanor

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Complete reporting assists readers in confirming the methodological rigor and validity of findings and allows replication. The reporting quality of observational functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies involving clinical participants is unclear. Objectives We sought to determine the quality of reporting in observational fMRI studies involving clinical participants. Methods We searched OVID MEDLINE for fMRI studies in six leading journals between January 2010 and December 2011.Three independent reviewers abstracted data from articles using an 83-item checklist adapted from the guidelines proposed by Poldrack et al. (Neuroimage 2008; 40: 409–14). We calculated the percentage of articles reporting each item of the checklist and the percentage of reported items per article. Results A random sample of 100 eligible articles was included in the study. Thirty-one items were reported by fewer than 50% of the articles and 13 items were reported by fewer than 20% of the articles. The median percentage of reported items per article was 51% (ranging from 30% to 78%). Although most articles reported statistical methods for within-subject modeling (92%) and for between-subject group modeling (97%), none of the articles reported observed effect sizes for any negative finding (0%). Few articles reported justifications for fixed-effect inferences used for group modeling (3%) and temporal autocorrelations used to account for within-subject variances and correlations (18%). Other under-reported areas included whether and how the task design was optimized for efficiency (22%) and distributions of inter-trial intervals (23%). Conclusions This study indicates that substantial improvement in the reporting of observational clinical fMRI studies is required. Poldrack et al.'s guidelines provide a means of improving overall reporting quality. Nonetheless, these guidelines are lengthy and may be at odds with strict word limits for publication; creation of a

  15. Target image search using fMRI signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Shi; Song, Sutao; Zhan, Yu; Zhang, Jiacai

    2014-03-01

    Recent neural signal decoding studies based on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have identified the specific image presenting to the subject from a set of potential images, and some studies extend neural decoding into image reconstruction, i.e. image contents that the subject perceived were decoded from the fMRI signals recorded during the subject looking at images. In this paper, we decoded the target images using fMRI signals and described a target image searching method based on the relationship between target image stimuli and fMRI activity. We recorded fMRI data during a serial visual stimuli image presentation task, some of the stimuli images were target images and the rest images were non-target ones. Our fMRI data analysis results showed that in the serial visual presentation task, target images elicited a stereotypical response in the fMRI, which can be detected by multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA). Classifiers designed with support vector machine (SVM) used this response to decipher target images from non-target images. The leave-one-run-out cross-validation showed that we can pick out the target images with a possibility far above the chance level, which indicate that there's a neural signatures correlated with the target image recognition process in the human systems.

  16. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the human brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strózik-Kotlorz, D.

    2014-01-01

    I give a brief description of the magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in the human brain examinations. MRS allows a noninvasive chemical analysis of the brain using a standard high field MR system. Nowadays, the dominant form of MR brain spectroscopy is proton spectroscopy. Two main techniques of MRS, which utilize the chemical shift of metabolites in the external magnetic field, are SVS (single voxel) and CSI (single slice). The major peaks in the spectrum of a normal brain include NAA, Cr, Cho and m-Ins, which are neuronal, energetic, membrane turnover and glial markers, respectively. In disease, two pathological metabolites can be found in the brain spectra: Lac, which is end product of anaerobic glycolysis and Lip, which is a marker of membrane breakdown, occurring in necrosis. The common way to analyze clinical spectra is to determine metabolite ratios, e.g. NAA/Cr, Cho/Cr, Cho/NAA. This analysis permits a safe and noninvasive examination of the brain tissue as each disease state has its own characteristic spectroscopic image. MRS is a valuable diagnostic tool in such clinical applications as detecting brain tumors and differentiating tumors from inflammatory and infectious processes. Proton MRS is also very helpful in diagnostic of ischemic lesions, Alzheimer's disease and hepatic encephalopathy. The MRS brain spectra should always be correlated with the Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) results and alone cannot make neurological diagnosis.

  17. Magnetic resonance at the quantum limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertet, Patrice

    The detection and characterization of paramagnetic species by electron-spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy has numerous applications in chemistry, biology, and materials science. Most ESR spectrometers rely on the inductive detection of the small microwave signals emitted by the spins during their Larmor precession into a microwave resonator in which they are embedded. Using the tools offered by circuit Quantum Electrodynamics (QED), namely high quality factor superconducting micro-resonators and Josephson parametric amplifiers that operate at the quantum limit when cooled at 20mK, we report an increase of the sensitivity of inductively detected ESR by 4 orders of magnitude over the state-of-the-art, enabling the detection of 1700 Bismuth donor spins in silicon with a signal-to-noise ratio of 1 in a single echo. We also demonstrate that the energy relaxation time of the spins is limited by spontaneous emission of microwave photons into the measurement line via the resonator, which opens the way to on-demand spin initialization via the Purcell effect. These results constitute a first step towards circuit QED experiments with magnetically coupled individual spins.

  18. Magnetic resonance force detection using a membrane resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scozzaro, Nicolas; Ruchotzke, William; Belding, Amanda; Cardellino, Jeremy; Blomberg, Erick; McCullian, Brendan; Bhallamudi, Vidya; Pelekhov, Denis; Hammel, P. Chris

    Silicon nitride (Si3N4) membranes are commercially-available, versatile structures that have a variety of applications. Although most commonly used as the support structure for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies, membranes are also ultrasensitive high-frequency mechanical oscillators. The sensitivity stems from the high quality factor Q 106 , which has led to applications in sensitive quantum optomechanical experiments. The high sensitivity also opens the door to ultrasensitive force detection applications. We report force detection of electron spin magnetic resonance at 300 K using a Si3N4 membrane with a force sensitivity of 4 fN/√{ Hz}, and a potential low temperature sensitivity of 25 aN/√{ Hz}. Given membranes' sensitivity, robust construction, large surface area and low cost, SiN membranes can potentially serve as the central component of a compact room-temperature ESR and NMR instrument that has superior spatial resolution to conventional NMR.

  19. Magnetic resonance acoustic radiation force imaging

    PubMed Central

    McDannold, Nathan; Maier, Stephan E.

    2008-01-01

    Acoustic radiation force impulse imaging is an elastography method developed for ultrasound imaging that maps displacements produced by focused ultrasound pulses systematically applied to different locations. The resulting images are “stiffness weighted” and yield information about local mechanical tissue properties. Here, the feasibility of magnetic resonance acoustic radiation force imaging (MR-ARFI) was tested. Quasistatic MR elastography was used to measure focal displacements using a one-dimensional MRI pulse sequence. A 1.63 or 1.5 MHz transducer supplied ultrasound pulses which were triggered by the magnetic resonance imaging hardware to occur before a displacement-encoding gradient. Displacements in and around the focus were mapped in a tissue-mimicking phantom and in an ex vivo bovine kidney. They were readily observed and increased linearly with acoustic power in the phantom (R2=0.99). At higher acoustic power levels, the displacement substantially increased and was associated with irreversible changes in the phantom. At these levels, transverse displacement components could also be detected. Displacements in the kidney were also observed and increased after thermal ablation. While the measurements need validation, the authors have demonstrated the feasibility of detecting small displacements induced by low-power ultrasound pulses using an efficient magnetic resonance imaging pulse sequence that is compatible with tracking of a dynamically steered ultrasound focal spot, and that the displacement increases with acoustic power. MR-ARFI has potential for elastography or to guide ultrasound therapies that use low-power pulsed ultrasound exposures, such as drug delivery. PMID:18777934

  20. Molecular structure and motion in zero field magnetic resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Jarvie, T.P.

    1989-10-01

    Zero field magnetic resonance is well suited for the determination of molecular structure and the study of motion in disordered materials. Experiments performed in zero applied magnetic field avoid the anisotropic broadening in high field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments. As a result, molecular structure and subtle effects of motion are more readily observed.

  1. Musical training-induced functional reorganization of the adult brain: functional magnetic resonance imaging and transcranial magnetic stimulation study on amateur string players.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Eog; Shin, Min-Jung; Lee, Kyoung-Min; Chu, Kon; Woo, Sung Ho; Kim, Young Ro; Song, Eun-Cheol; Lee, Jun-Won; Park, Seong-Ho; Roh, Jae-Kyu

    2004-12-01

    We used the combined technique of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to observe changes that occur in adult brains after the practice of stringed musical instruments. We carried out fMRI on eight volunteers (aged 20-22 years): five novices and three individuals who had discontinued practice for more than 5 years. The motor paradigm contained a repetitive lift-abduction/fall-adduction movement of the left/right little finger, carried out with maximum efforts without pacing. The sensory paradigm was to stimulate the same little finger using a string. In parallel to the fMRI acquisition, TMS motor maps for the little finger were obtained using a frameless stereotactic neuronavigation system. After the baseline study, each participant began to learn a stringed instrument. Newly developed fMRI activations for the left little finger were observed 6 months after practice at multiple brain regions including inferior parietal lobule, premotor area (PMA), left precuneus, right anterior superior temporal gyrus, and posterior middle temporal gyrus. In contrast, new activations were rarely observed for the right little finger. The TMS study revealed new motor representation sites for the left little finger in the PMA or supplementary motor area (SMA). Unexpectedly, TMS motor maps for the right little finger were reduced significantly. Among new fMRI activations for sensory stimuli of the left little finger, the cluster of highest activation was located in the SMA. Collectively, these data provide insight into orchestrated reorganization of the sensorimotor and temporal association cortices contributing to the skillful fingering and musical processing after the practice of playing stringed instruments. PMID:15449354

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging in central pontine myelinolysis.

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, P D; Miller, D; Gledhill, R F; Rossor, M N

    1989-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed in two patients in whom a clinical diagnosis of central pontine myelinolysis (CPM) had been made. MRI showed lesions in the pons in both cases about 2 years after the illness, at a time when the spastic quadriparesis and pseudobulbar palsy had recovered. The persisting abnormal signals in CPM are likely to be due to fibrillary gliosis. Persistence of lesions on MRI means that the diagnosis of CPM may be electively, after the acute illness has resolved. Images PMID:2732743

  3. Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Hedgire, Sandeep S; Oei, Tamara N; McDermott, Shaunagh; Cao, Kai; Patel M, Zena; Harisinghani, Mukesh G

    2012-07-01

    In India, prostate cancer has an incidence rate of 3.9 per 100,000 men and is responsible for 9% of cancer-related mortality. It is the only malignancy that is diagnosed with an apparently blind technique, i.e., transrectal sextant biopsy. With increasing numbers of high-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) equipment being installed in India, the radiologist needs to be cognizant about endorectal MRI and multiparametric imaging for prostate cancer. In this review article, we aim to highlight the utility of multiparamteric MRI in prostate cancer. It plays a crucial role, mainly in initial staging, restaging, and post-treatment follow-up. PMID:23599562

  4. Insight into protein nuclear magnetic resonance research.

    PubMed

    Stoven, V; Lallemand, J Y; Abergel, D; Bouaziz, S; Delsuc, M A; Ekondzi, A; Guittet, E; Laplante, S; Le Goas, R; Malliavin, T

    1990-08-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is one of the most powerful techniques to investigate the geometry of molecules in solution. It has been widely applied, in recent years, to the study of protein conformation. However, full reconstruction of the 3-D structure of such macro-molecules, still constitutes a real challenge for the spectroscopist. Skills as diverse as biology, spectroscopy, signal processing, or computer sciences, are required. This paper presents various aspects of the research in that domain, and our contribution to it. PMID:2126458

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging findings of intramammary metastases.

    PubMed

    Wienbeck, Susanne; Herzog, Aimee; Kinner, Sonja; Surov, Alexey

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of intramammary metastases (IM). We identified 8 cases with IM, which were investigated by breast MRI (1.5T). In every case, the diagnosis of IM was proven histopathologically on breast biopsy specimens. Overall, 187 IM were identified. IM had inconsistent MRI features, which cannot be clearly classify as benign or malignant. IM should be taken into consideration in the differential diagnosis of breast lesions to avoid possible misinterpretations. PMID:27133668

  6. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Acute Stroke.

    PubMed

    Nael, Kambiz; Kubal, Wayne

    2016-05-01

    Neuroimaging plays a critical role in the management of patients with acute stroke syndrome, with diagnostic, therapeutic, and prognostic implications. A multiparametric magnetic resonance (MR) imaging protocol in the emergency setting can address both primary goals of neuroimaging (ie, detection of infarction and exclusion of hemorrhage) and secondary goals of neuroimaging (ie, identifying the site of arterial occlusion, tissue characterization for defining infarct core and penumbra, and determining stroke cause/mechanism). MR imaging provides accurate diagnosis of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) and can differentiate AIS from other potential differential diagnoses. PMID:27150320

  7. Magnetic Resonance of Pelvic and Gastrointestinal Emergencies.

    PubMed

    Wongwaisayawan, Sirote; Kaewlai, Rathachai; Dattwyler, Matthew; Abujudeh, Hani H; Singh, Ajay K

    2016-05-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is gaining increased acceptance in the emergency setting despite the continued dominance of computed tomography. MR has the advantages of more precise tissue characterization, superior soft tissue contrast, and a lack of ionizing radiation. Traditional barriers to emergent MR are being overcome by streamlined imaging protocols and newer rapid-acquisition sequences. As the utilization of MR imaging in the emergency department increases, a strong working knowledge of the MR appearance of the most commonly encountered abdominopelvic pathologies is essential. In this article, MR imaging protocols and findings of acute pelvic, scrotal, and gastrointestinal pathologies are discussed. PMID:27150327

  8. New magnetic resonance imaging methods in nephrology

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jeff L.; Morrell, Glen; Rusinek, Henry; Sigmund, Eric; Chandarana, Hersh; Lerman, Lilach O.; Prasad, Pottumarthi Vara; Niles, David; Artz, Nathan; Fain, Sean; Vivier, Pierre H.; Cheung, Alfred K.; Lee, Vivian S.

    2013-01-01

    Established as a method to study anatomic changes, such as renal tumors or atherosclerotic vascular disease, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to interrogate renal function has only recently begun to come of age. In this review, we briefly introduce some of the most important MRI techniques for renal functional imaging, and then review current findings on their use for diagnosis and monitoring of major kidney diseases. Specific applications include renovascular disease, diabetic nephropathy, renal transplants, renal masses, acute kidney injury and pediatric anomalies. With this review, we hope to encourage more collaboration between nephrologists and radiologists to accelerate the development and application of modern MRI tools in nephrology clinics. PMID:24067433

  9. Developments in boron magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

    SciTech Connect

    Schweizer, M.

    1995-11-01

    This report summarizes progress during the past year on maturing Boron-11 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methodology for noninvasive determination of BNCT agents (BSH) spatially in time. Three major areas are excerpted: (1) Boron-11 MRI of BSH distributions in a canine intracranial tumor model and the first human glioblastoma patient, (2) whole body Boron-11 MRI of BSH pharmacokinetics in a rat flank tumor model, and (3) penetration of gadolinium salts through the BBB as a function of tumor growth in the canine brain.

  10. Review: Magnetic resonance imaging techniques in ophthalmology

    PubMed Central

    Fagan, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    Imaging the eye with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has proved difficult due to the eye’s propensity to move involuntarily over typical imaging timescales, obscuring the fine structure in the eye due to the resulting motion artifacts. However, advances in MRI technology help to mitigate such drawbacks, enabling the acquisition of high spatiotemporal resolution images with a variety of contrast mechanisms. This review aims to classify the MRI techniques used to date in clinical and preclinical ophthalmologic studies, describing the qualitative and quantitative information that may be extracted and how this may inform on ocular pathophysiology. PMID:23112569

  11. Pelvic applications of diffusion magnetic resonance images.

    PubMed

    Coutinho, Antonio C; Krishnaraj, Arun; Pires, Cintia E; Bittencourt, Leonardo K; Guimarães, Alexander R

    2011-02-01

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is a powerful imaging technique in neuroimaging; its value in abdominal and pelvic imaging has only recently been appreciated as a result of improvements in magnetic resonance imaging technology. There is growing interest in the use of DWI for evaluating pathology in the pelvis. Its ability to noninvasively characterize tissues and to depict changes at a cellular level allows DWI to be an effective complement to conventional sequences of pelvic imaging, especially in oncologic patients. The addition of DWI may obviate contrast material in those with renal insufficiency or contrast material allergy. PMID:21129639

  12. Emergency Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Musculoskeletal Trauma.

    PubMed

    Kumaravel, Manickam; Weathers, William M

    2016-05-01

    Musculoskeletal (MSK) trauma is commonly encountered in the emergency department. Computed tomography and radiography are the main forms of imaging assessment, but the use of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has become more common in the emergency room (ER) setting for evaluation of low-velocity/sports-related injury and high-velocity injury. The superior soft tissue contrast and detail provided by MR imaging gives clinicians a powerful tool in the management of acute MSK injury in the ER. This article provides an overview of techniques and considerations when using MR imaging in the evaluation of some of the common injuries seen in the ER setting. PMID:27150325

  13. Approach to breast magnetic resonance imaging interpretation.

    PubMed

    Palestrant, Sarah; Comstock, Christopher E; Moy, Linda

    2014-05-01

    With the increasing use of breast magnetic resonance (MR) imaging comes the expectation that the breast radiologist is as fluent in its interpretation as in that of mammography and breast ultrasonography. Knowledge of who should be included for imaging and how to perform the imaging are as essential as interpreting the images. When reading the examination, the radiologist should approach the images from both a global and focused perspective, synthesizing findings into a report that includes a management plan. This article reviews a systematic and organized approach to breast MR imaging interpretation. PMID:24792657

  14. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance in systemic hypertension

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Systemic hypertension is a highly prevalent potentially modifiable cardiovascular risk factor. Imaging plays an important role in the diagnosis of underlying causes for hypertension, in assessing cardiovascular complications of hypertension, and in understanding the pathophysiology of the disease process. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) provides accurate and reproducible measures of ventricular volumes, mass, function and haemodynamics as well as uniquely allowing tissue characterization of diffuse and focal fibrosis. In addition, CMR is well suited for exclusion of common secondary causes for hypertension. We review the current and emerging clinical and research applications of CMR in hypertension. PMID:22559053

  15. Magnetic Field Gradient Calibration as an Experiment to Illustrate Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seedhouse, Steven J.; Hoffmann, Markus M.

    2008-01-01

    A nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy experiment for the undergraduate physical chemistry laboratory is described that encompasses both qualitative and quantitative pedagogical goals. Qualitatively, the experiment illustrates how images are obtained in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Quantitatively, students experience the…

  16. Metabolite specific proton magnetic resonance imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Hurd, R.E.; Freeman, D.M.

    1989-06-01

    An imaging method is described that makes use of proton double quantum nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to construct images based on selected metabolites such as lactic acid. The optimization of the method is illustrated in vitro, followed by in vivo determination of lactic acid distribution in a solid tumor model. Water suppression and editing of lipid signals are such that two-dimensional spectra of lactic acid may be obtained from a radiation-induced fibrosarcoma (RIF-1) tumor in under 1 min and lactic acid images from the same tumor in under 1 hr at 2.0 T. This technique provides a fast and reproducible method at moderate magnetic field strength for mapping biologically relevant metabolites.

  17. In vivo nuclear magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leblanc, A.

    1986-05-01

    During the past year the Woodlands Baylor Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) facility became fully operational. A detailed description of this facility is given. One significant instrument addition this year was the 100 MHz, 40cm bore superconducting imaging spectrometer. This instrument gives researchers the capability to acquire high energy phosphate spectra. This will be used to investigate ATP, phosphocreatinine and inorganic phosphate changes in normal and atrophied muscle before, during and after exercise. An exercise device for use within the bore of the imaging magnet is under design/construction. The results of a study of T sub 1 and T sub 2 changes in atrophied muscle in animals and human subjects are given. The imaging and analysis of the lower leg of 15 research subjects before and after 5 weeks of complete bedrest was completed. A compilation of these results are attached.

  18. In vivo nuclear magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leblanc, A.

    1986-01-01

    During the past year the Woodlands Baylor Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) facility became fully operational. A detailed description of this facility is given. One significant instrument addition this year was the 100 MHz, 40cm bore superconducting imaging spectrometer. This instrument gives researchers the capability to acquire high energy phosphate spectra. This will be used to investigate ATP, phosphocreatinine and inorganic phosphate changes in normal and atrophied muscle before, during and after exercise. An exercise device for use within the bore of the imaging magnet is under design/construction. The results of a study of T sub 1 and T sub 2 changes in atrophied muscle in animals and human subjects are given. The imaging and analysis of the lower leg of 15 research subjects before and after 5 weeks of complete bedrest was completed. A compilation of these results are attached.

  19. Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging: Current role in prostate cancer management.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Yoshiko; Tamada, Tsutomu; Bist, Vipul; Reinhold, Caroline; Miyake, Hideaki; Tanaka, Utaru; Kitajima, Kazuhiro; Sugimura, Kazuro; Takahashi, Satoru

    2016-07-01

    Digital rectal examination, serum prostate-specific antigen screening and transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy are conventionally used as screening, diagnostic and surveillance tools for prostate cancer. However, they have limited sensitivity and specificity. In recent years, the role of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging has steadily grown, and is now part of the standard clinical management in many institutions. In multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging, the morphological assessment of T2-weighted imaging is correlated with diffusion-weighted imaging, dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging perfusion and/or magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging. Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging is currently regarded as the most sensitive and specific imaging technique for the evaluation of prostate cancer, including detection, staging, localization and aggressiveness evaluation. This article presents an overview of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging, and discusses the current role of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging in the different fields of prostate cancer management. PMID:27184019

  20. Plasmon coupling of magnetic resonances in an asymmetric gold semishell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Jian; Kong, Yan; Liu, Cheng

    2016-05-01

    The generation of magnetic dipole resonances in metallic nanostructures is of great importance for constructing near-zero or even negative refractive index metamaterials. Commonly, planar two-dimensional (2D) split-ring resonators or relevant structures are basic elements of metamaterials. In this work, we introduce a three-dimensional (3D) asymmetric Au semishell composed of two nanocups with a face-to-face geometry and demonstrate two distinct magnetic resonances spontaneously in the visible–near infrared optical wavelength regime. These two magnetic resonances are from constructive and destructive hybridization of magnetic dipoles of individual nanocups in the asymmetric semishell. In contrast, complete cancellation of magnetic dipoles in the symmetric semishell leads to only a pronounced electric mode with near-zero magnetic dipole moment. These 3D asymmetric resonators provide new ways for engineering hybrid resonant modes and ultra-high near-field enhancement for the design of 3D metamaterials.

  1. Fano resonance generated by magnetic scatterer in micro metal slit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yun-Song; Wang, Pei-Jie; Wang, Hai; Feng, Sheng-Fei

    2014-09-01

    A micro metal slit/magnetic scatterer structure is proposed to generate electromagnetic Fano resonance. The magnetic scatterer is formed by infinite long split cylinder resonator array. The analytical transmissivity formulas are deduced from Maxwell electromagnetic theory and the Fano resonance transmission is achieved by the theoretical calculations. The enhancement of environment refractive index leads to an ultrasensitive and linear red shift of resonance peak in the THz range.

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging of the central nervous system

    SciTech Connect

    Brant-Zawadzki, M.; Norman, D.

    1987-01-01

    This book presents the papers on technological advancement and diagnostic uses g magnetic resonance imaging. A comparative evaluation with computerized tomography is presented. Topics covered are imaging principles g magnetic resonance;instrumentation of magnetic resonance (MR);pathophysiology;quality and limitations g images;NMR imaging of brain and spinal cord;MR spectroscopy and its applications;neuroanatomy;Congenital malformations of brain and MR imaging;planning g MR imaging of spine and head and neck imaging.

  3. Science Drivers and Technical Challenges for Advanced Magnetic Resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Karl T.; Pruski, Marek; Washton, Nancy M.; Lipton, Andrew S.

    2013-03-07

    This report recaps the "Science Drivers and Technical Challenges for Advanced Magnetic Resonance" workshop, held in late 2011. This exploratory workshop's goal was to discuss and address challenges for the next generation of magnetic resonance experimentation. During the workshop, participants from throughout the world outlined the science drivers and instrumentation demands for high-field dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) and associated magnetic resonance techniques, discussed barriers to their advancement, and deliberated the path forward for significant and impactful advances in the field.

  4. Massive subchorionic thrombosis followed by magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Himoto, Yuki; Okumura, Ryosuke; Tsuji, Natsuki; Nagano, Tadayoshi; Fujimoto, Masakazu; Yamaoka, Toshihide; Kohno, Shigene

    2012-01-01

    Massive subchorionic thrombosis is a rare condition, defined as a large thrombus confined to the subchorionic space. It is associated with poor perinatal prognosis. However, prenatal diagnosis by ultrasonography is often difficult. We report a case of massive subchorionic thrombosis developing dermatomyositis after the delivery, followed by magnetic resonance imaging. Moreover, we review other 4 cases assessed with magnetic resonance imaging. Magnetic resonance imaging is very useful for confirmation of diagnosis and follow-up in combination with ultrasonography. PMID:22592619

  5. General review of magnetic resonance elastography

    PubMed Central

    Low, Gavin; Kruse, Scott A; Lomas, David J

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) is an innovative imaging technique for the non-invasive quantification of the biomechanical properties of soft tissues via the direct visualization of propagating shear waves in vivo using a modified phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequence. Fundamentally, MRE employs the same physical property that physicians utilize when performing manual palpation - that healthy and diseased tissues can be differentiated on the basis of widely differing mechanical stiffness. By performing “virtual palpation”, MRE is able to provide information that is beyond the capabilities of conventional morphologic imaging modalities. In an era of increasing adoption of multi-parametric imaging approaches for solving complex problems, MRE can be seamlessly incorporated into a standard MRI examination to provide a rapid, reliable and comprehensive imaging evaluation at a single patient appointment. Originally described by the Mayo Clinic in 1995, the technique represents the most accurate non-invasive method for the detection and staging of liver fibrosis and is currently performed in more than 100 centers worldwide. In this general review, the mechanical properties of soft tissues, principles of MRE, clinical applications of MRE in the liver and beyond, and limitations and future directions of this discipline -are discussed. Selected diagrams and images are provided for illustration. PMID:26834944

  6. Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Pediatric Pulmonary Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Olgunturk, Rana; Cevik, Ayhan; Terlemez, Semiha; Kacar, Emre; Oner, Yusuf Ali

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims to determine the efficacy and reliability of cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging in establishing the diagnosis and prognosis of pulmonary hypertension in children. This is a retrospective comparison of 25 children with pulmonary hypertension and a control group comprising 19 healthy children. The diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension was made when the mean pulmonary artery pressure was ≥25 mmHg by catheter angiography. The children with pulmonary hypertension had significantly lower body mass indices than did the healthy children (P=0.048). In addition, the children with pulmonary hypertension had significantly larger main pulmonary artery diameters and ascending aortic diameters (both P=0.001) but statistically similar ratios of main pulmonary artery diameter-to-ascending aortic diameter. If the main pulmonary artery diameter was ≥25 mm, pediatric pulmonary hypertension was diagnosed with 72% sensitivity and 84% specificity. In the event that the ratio of main pulmonary artery diameter-to-ascending aorta diameter was ≥1, pediatric pulmonary hypertension was diagnosed with 60% sensitivity and 53% specificity. When compared with children who had New York Heart Association functional class II pulmonary hypertension, the children with functional class III pulmonary hypertension had significantly larger main (P=0.046), right (P=0.036), and left (P=0.003) pulmonary arteries. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging is useful in the diagnosis of children with pulmonary hypertension. Pediatric pulmonary hypertension can be diagnosed with high sensitivity and specificity when the main pulmonary artery diameter measures ≥25 mm. PMID:26175631

  7. General review of magnetic resonance elastography.

    PubMed

    Low, Gavin; Kruse, Scott A; Lomas, David J

    2016-01-28

    Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) is an innovative imaging technique for the non-invasive quantification of the biomechanical properties of soft tissues via the direct visualization of propagating shear waves in vivo using a modified phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequence. Fundamentally, MRE employs the same physical property that physicians utilize when performing manual palpation - that healthy and diseased tissues can be differentiated on the basis of widely differing mechanical stiffness. By performing "virtual palpation", MRE is able to provide information that is beyond the capabilities of conventional morphologic imaging modalities. In an era of increasing adoption of multi-parametric imaging approaches for solving complex problems, MRE can be seamlessly incorporated into a standard MRI examination to provide a rapid, reliable and comprehensive imaging evaluation at a single patient appointment. Originally described by the Mayo Clinic in 1995, the technique represents the most accurate non-invasive method for the detection and staging of liver fibrosis and is currently performed in more than 100 centers worldwide. In this general review, the mechanical properties of soft tissues, principles of MRE, clinical applications of MRE in the liver and beyond, and limitations and future directions of this discipline -are discussed. Selected diagrams and images are provided for illustration. PMID:26834944

  8. PLANTAR THROMBOPHLEBITIS: MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING FINDINGS

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Frederico Celestino; Carneiro, Renato Duarte; Longo, Carlos Henrique; Fernandes, Túlio Diniz; Rosemberg, Laércio Alberto; de Gusmão Funari, Marcelo Buarque

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Demonstrate the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in plantar thrombophlebitis. Methods: Retrospective review of twenty patients with pain in the plantar region of the foot, in which the MRI findings indicated plantar thrombophlebitis. Results: A total of fourteen men and six women, mean age 46.7 years were evaluated. Eight of these patients also underwent Doppler ultrasonography, which confirmed the thrombophlebitis. The magnetic resonance images were evaluated in consensus by two radiologists with experience in musculoskeletal radiology (more than 10 years each), showing perivascular edema in all twenty patients (100%) and muscle edema in nineteen of the twenty patients (95%). All twenty patients had intraluminal intermediate signal intensity on T2-weighted (100%) and venous ectasia was present in seventeen of the twenty cases (85%). Collateral veins were visualized in one of the twenty patients (5%). All fourteen cases (100%), in which intravenous contrast was administered, showed perivenular tissues enhancement and intraluminal filling defect. Venous ectasia, loss of compressibility and no flow on Doppler ultrasound were also observed in all eight cases examined by the method. Conclusion: MRI is a sensitive in the evaluation of plant thrombophlebitis in patients with plantar foot pain. PMID:27047898

  9. Magnetic resonance elastography hardware design: a survey.

    PubMed

    Tse, Z T H; Janssen, H; Hamed, A; Ristic, M; Young, I; Lamperth, M

    2009-05-01

    Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) is an emerging technique capable of measuring the shear modulus of tissue. A suspected tumour can be identified by comparing its properties with those of tissues surrounding it; this can be achieved even in deep-lying areas as long as mechanical excitation is possible. This would allow non-invasive methods for cancer-related diagnosis in areas not accessible with conventional palpation. An actuating mechanism is required to generate the necessary tissue displacements directly on the patient in the scanner and three different approaches, in terms of actuator action and position, exist to derive stiffness measurements. However, the magnetic resonance (MR) environment places considerable constraints on the design of such devices, such as the possibility of mutual interference between electrical components, the scanner field, and radio frequency pulses, and the physical space restrictions of the scanner bore. This paper presents a review of the current solutions that have been developed for MRE devices giving particular consideration to the design criteria including the required vibration frequency and amplitude in different applications, the issue of MR compatibility, actuation principles, design complexity, and scanner synchronization issues. The future challenges in this field are also described. PMID:19499839

  10. Magnetic resonance imaging. Application to family practice.

    PubMed Central

    Goh, R. H.; Somers, S.; Jurriaans, E.; Yu, J.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review indications, contraindications, and risks of using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in order to help primary care physicians refer patients appropriately for MRI, screen for contraindications to using MRI, and educate patients about MRI. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Recommendations are based on classic textbooks, the policies of our MRI group, and a literature search using MEDLINE with the MeSH headings magnetic resonance imaging, brain, musculoskeletal, and spine. The search was limited to human, English-language, and review articles. Evidence in favour of using MRI for imaging the head, spine, and joints is well established. For cardiac, abdominal, and pelvic conditions, MRI has been shown useful for certain indications, usually to complement other modalities. MAIN MESSAGE: For demonstrating soft tissue conditions, MRI is better than computed tomography (CT), but CT shows bone and acute bleeding better. Therefore, patients with trauma or suspected intracranial bleeding should have CT. Tumours, congenital abnormalities, vascular structures, and the cervical or thoracic spine show better on MRI. Either modality can be used for lower back pain. Cardiac, abdominal, and pelvic abnormalities should be imaged with ultrasound or CT before MRI. Contraindications for MRI are mainly metallic implants or shrapnel, severe claustrophobia, or obesity. CONCLUSIONS: With the increasing availability of MRI scanners in Canada, better understanding of the indications, contraindications, and risks will be helpful for family physicians and their patients. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:10509224

  11. Magnetic resonance-guided thermal surgery.

    PubMed

    Cline, H E; Schenck, J F; Watkins, R D; Hynynen, K; Jolesz, F A

    1993-07-01

    A demonstration of MR guided thermal surgery involved experiments with imaging of focused ultrasound in an MRI system, measurements of the thermal transients and a thermal analysis of the resulting images. Both the heat distribution and the creation of focused ultrasound lesions in gel phantoms, in vitro bovine muscle and in vivo rabbit muscle were monitored with magnetic resonance imaging. Thermal surgical procedures were modeled by an elongated gaussian heat source where heat flow is controlled by tissue thermal properties and tissue perfusion. Temperature profiles were measured with thermocouples or calculated from magnetic resonance imaging in agreement with the model. A 2-s T1-weighted gradient-refocused acquisition provided thermal profiles needed to localize the heat distribution produced by a 4-s focused ultrasound pulse. Thermal analysis of the images give an effective thermal diffusion coefficient of 0.0015 cm2/s in gel and 0.0033 cm2/s in muscle. The lesions were detected using a T2-weighted spin-echo or fast spin-echo pulse sequence in agreement with muscle tissue sections. Potential thermal surgery applications are in the prostate, liver, kidney, bladder, breast, eye and brain. PMID:8371680

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging in pediatric pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Pektas, Ayhan; Olgunturk, Rana; Cevik, Ayhan; Terlemez, Semiha; Kacar, Emre; Oner, Yusuf Ali

    2015-06-01

    The present study aims to determine the efficacy and reliability of cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging in establishing the diagnosis and prognosis of pulmonary hypertension in children. This is a retrospective comparison of 25 children with pulmonary hypertension and a control group comprising 19 healthy children. The diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension was made when the mean pulmonary artery pressure was ≥25 mmHg by catheter angiography. The children with pulmonary hypertension had significantly lower body mass indices than did the healthy children (P=0.048). In addition, the children with pulmonary hypertension had significantly larger main pulmonary artery diameters and ascending aortic diameters (both P=0.001) but statistically similar ratios of main pulmonary artery diameter-to-ascending aortic diameter. If the main pulmonary artery diameter was ≥25 mm, pediatric pulmonary hypertension was diagnosed with 72% sensitivity and 84% specificity. In the event that the ratio of main pulmonary artery diameter-to-ascending aorta diameter was ≥1, pediatric pulmonary hypertension was diagnosed with 60% sensitivity and 53% specificity. When compared with children who had New York Heart Association functional class II pulmonary hypertension, the children with functional class III pulmonary hypertension had significantly larger main (P=0.046), right (P=0.036), and left (P=0.003) pulmonary arteries. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging is useful in the diagnosis of children with pulmonary hypertension. Pediatric pulmonary hypertension can be diagnosed with high sensitivity and specificity when the main pulmonary artery diameter measures ≥25 mm. PMID:26175631

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging of spinal injury.

    PubMed

    Tracy, P T; Wright, R M; Hanigan, W C

    1989-03-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed on 30 patients following spinal injury (SI). Spin-echo sequences and surface coils were used for all patients. Plain radiographs, high-resolution computed tomography (CT), and MRI were compared for the delineation of bone, disc, and ligament injury, measurement of sagittal spinal canal diameter and subluxation, epidural hematoma, and spinal cord structure. Myelography or intrathecal contrast-enhanced CT were not performed on any of these patients. Magnetic resonance imaging accurately delineated intraspinal pathology in two of four patients with acute penetrating SI, and was normal in the other two patients. In 16 patients with acute nonpenetrating SI, MRI was superior to CT for visualizing injuries to discs, ligaments, and the spinal cord, while CT was superior to MRI in characterizing bony injury. Computed tomography and MRI provided similar measurements of subluxation in six of six patients and of sagittal spinal canal diameter in three of four patients. In ten patients with chronic SI, MRI demonstrated post-traumatic cysts, myelomalacia, spinal cord edema, and the presence or absence of spinal cord compression. In patients with acute penetrating SI and chronic SI, MRI provided comprehensive clinical information. In patients with acute nonpenetrating SI, the information obtained by MRI complemented the data given by plain radiographs and CT, allowing clinical decisions to be made without the need of invasive imaging modalities. PMID:2711244

  14. Phosphorus 31 nuclear magnetic resonance examination of female reproductive tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Noyszewski, E.A.; Raman, J.; Trupin, S.R.; McFarlin, B.L.; Dawson, M.J. )

    1989-08-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy is a powerful method of investigating the relationship between metabolism and function in living tissues. We present evidence that the phosphorus 31 spectra of myometrium and placenta are functions of physiologic state and gestational age. Specific spectroscopic abnormalities are observed in association with disorders of pregnancy and gynecologic diseases. Our results suggest that noninvasive nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy examinations may sometimes be a useful addition to magnetic resonance imaging examinations, and that nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of biopsy specimens could become a cost-effective method of evaluating certain biochemical abnormalities.

  15. Alterations in brain metabolism and function following administration of low-dose codeine phosphate: 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging studies

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Zhen; Lin, Pei-Yin; Shen, Zhi-Wei; Wu, Ren-Hua; Xiao, Ye-Yu

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify alterations in brain function following administration of a single, low-dose of codeine phosphate in healthy volunteers using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). In addition, the metabolic changes in the two sides of the frontal lobe were identified using 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS). A total of 20 right-handed healthy participants (10 males, 10 females) were evaluated, and a Signa HDx 1.5T MRI scanner was used for data acquisition. An echo planar imaging sequence was used for resting-state fMRI, whereas a point resolved spectroscopy sequence was used for 1H-MRS. Regional Saturation Technique, Data Processing Assistant for Resting-State fMRI, and Statistical Parameter Mapping 8 were used to analyze the fMRI data. The 1H-MRS data were analyzed using LCModel software. At 1 h after oral administration of codeine phosphate (1.0 mg/kg), the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) and regional homogeneity were altered in different brain areas. The choline content was significantly increased in the right and left frontal lobes following codeine phosphate administration (P=0.02 and P=0.03, respectively), whereas the inositol content was significantly decreased in the left frontal lobe (P=0.02). There was no change in the glutamic acid content in the frontal lobes. In conclusion, the functions of different brain regions can be affected by a single, low-dose administration of codeine phosphate. The alterations in metabolite content in the two frontal lobes may be associated with changes in brain function, whereas the ALFF in the globus pallidus may have an effect on codeine phosphate addiction. Finally, glutamic acid may be useful in the estimation of codeine dependence. PMID:27446252

  16. Reciprocity and gyrotropism in magnetic resonance transduction

    SciTech Connect

    Tropp, James

    2006-12-15

    We give formulas for transduction in magnetic resonance - i.e., the appearance of an emf due to Larmor precession of spins - based upon the modified Lorentz reciprocity principle for gyrotropic (also called 'nonreciprocal') media, i.e., in which a susceptibility tensor is carried to its transpose by reversal of an external static field [cf., R. F. Harrington and A. T. Villeneuve IRE Trans. Microwave Theory and Technique MTT6, 308 (1958)]. Prior applications of reciprocity to magnetic resonance, despite much success, have ignored the gyrotropism which necessarily arises due to nuclear and/or unpaired electronic spins. For detection with linearly polarized fields, oscillating at the Larmor frequency, the emf is written in terms of a volume integral containing a product of two factors which we define as the antenna patterns, i.e. (H{sub 1x}{+-}iH{sub 1y}), where, e.g., for a single transceive antenna, the H's are just the spatially dependent oscillatory magnetic field strengths, per the application of some reference current at the antenna terminals, with the negative sign obtaining for transmission, and the positive for reception. Similar expressions hold for separate transmit and receive antennas; expressions are also given for circular polarization of the fields. We then exhibit a receive-only array antenna of two elements for magnetic resonance imaging of protons, which, due an intensity artifact arising from stray reactive coupling of the elements, produces, despite its own bilateral symmetry, asymmetric proton NMR images of a symmetric cylindrical phantom containing aqueous saline solution [J. Tropp and T. Schirmer, J. Magn. Reson. 151, 146 (2001)]. Modification of this two-port antenna, to function in transmit-receive mode, allows us to demonstrate highly nonreciprocal behavior: that is, to record images (of cylindrical test phantoms containing aqueous saline solution) whose appearance dramatically changes, when the roles of transmission and reception are

  17. Nuclear magnetic resonance in magnets with a helicoidal magnetic structure in an external magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tankeyev, A. P.; Borich, M. A.; Smagin, V. V.

    2014-11-01

    In this review, the static and dynamic properties of a magnet with a helicoidal magnetic structure placed in an external magnetic field are discussed. The results of the investigation of its ground state and spectra, as well as the amplitudes of the spin excitations are presented. The temperature and field dependences of the basic thermodynamic characteristics (heat capacity, magnetization, and magnetic susceptibility) have been calculated in the spin-wave approximation. The results of calculating the local and integral dynamic magnetic susceptibility are given. This set of data represents a methodical basis for constructing a consistent (in the framework of unified approximations) picture of the NMR absorption in the magnet under consideration. Both local NMR characteristics (resonance frequency, line broadening, enhancement coefficient) and integral characteristics (resultant shape of the absorption line with its specific features) have been calculated. The effective Hamiltonian of the Suhl-Nakamura interaction of nuclear spins through spin waves has been constructed. The second moment and the local broadening of the line of the NMR absorption caused by this interaction have been calculated. The role of the basic local inhomogeneities in the formation of the integral line of the NMR absorption has been analyzed. The opportunities for the experimental NMR investigations in magnets with a chiral spin structure are discussed.

  18. The study of pain with blood oxygen level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibinson, James W.

    Using blood oxygen level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD FMRI), the brain areas activated by pain were studied. These initial studies led to interesting new findings about the body's response to pain and to the refinement of one method used in FMRI analysis for correction of physiologic noise (signal fluctuations caused by the cyclic and non-cyclic changes in the cardiovascular and respiratory status of the body). In the first study, evidence was provided suggesting that the multiple painful stimulations used in typical pain FMRI block designs may cause attenuation over time of the BOLD signal within activated areas. The effect this may have on pain investigations using multiple tasks has not been previously investigated. The demonstrated BOLD attenuation seems unique to pain studies. Several possible explanations exist, but two of the most likely are neural activity modulation by descending pain inhibitory mechanisms and changing hemodynamics caused by a physiologic response to pain. The second study began the investigation of hemodynamics by monitoring the physiologic response to pain for eight subjects in two phases. Phase one used a combination of standard operating suite monitors and research equipment to characterizing the physiologic response to pain. Phase two collected magnetic resonance quantitative flow images during painful nerve stimulation to test for changes in global cerebral blood flow. It is well established that changes in respiration and global blood flow can affect the BOLD response, leading to the final investigation of this dissertation. The brain activation induced by pain for the same eight subjects used in the physiologic response experiments described above was then studied by BOLD FMRI. By including the respiration signal and end-tidal carbon dioxide levels in the analysis of the images, the quantification and removal of image intensity variations correlated to breathing and end-tidal carbon dioxide changes could be

  19. Secondary resonance magnetic force microscopy using an external magnetic field for characterization of magnetic thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dongzi; Mo, Kangxin; Ding, Xidong; Zhao, Liangbing; Lin, Guocong; Zhang, Yueli; Chen, Dihu

    2015-09-01

    A bimodal magnetic force microscopy (MFM) that uses an external magnetic field for the detection and imaging of magnetic thin films is developed. By applying the external modulation magnetic field, the vibration of a cantilever probe is excited by its magnetic tip at its higher eigenmode. Using magnetic nanoparticle samples, the capacity of the technique which allows single-pass imaging of topography and magnetic forces is demonstrated. For the detection of magnetic properties of thin film materials, its signal-to-noise ratio and sensitivity are demonstrated to be superior to conventional MFM in lift mode. The secondary resonance MFM technique provides a promising tool for the characterization of nanoscale magnetic properties of various materials, especially of magnetic thin films with weak magnetism.

  20. BROADBAND EXCITATION IN NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Tycko, R.

    1984-10-01

    Theoretical methods for designing sequences of radio frequency (rf) radiation pulses for broadband excitation of spin systems in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) are described. The sequences excite spins uniformly over large ranges of resonant frequencies arising from static magnetic field inhomogeneity, chemical shift differences, or spin couplings, or over large ranges of rf field amplitudes. Specific sequences for creating a population inversion or transverse magnetization are derived and demonstrated experimentally in liquid and solid state NMR. One approach to broadband excitation is based on principles of coherent averaging theory. A general formalism for deriving pulse sequences is given, along with computational methods for specific cases. This approach leads to sequences that produce strictly constant transformations of a spin system. The importance of this feature in NMR applications is discussed. A second approach to broadband excitation makes use of iterative schemes, i.e. sets of operations that are applied repetitively to a given initial pulse sequences, generating a series of increasingly complex sequences with increasingly desirable properties. A general mathematical framework for analyzing iterative schemes is developed. An iterative scheme is treated as a function that acts on a space of operators corresponding to the transformations produced by all possible pulse sequences. The fixed points of the function and the stability of the fixed points are shown to determine the essential behavior of the scheme. Iterative schemes for broadband population inversion are treated in detail. Algebraic and numerical methods for performing the mathematical analysis are presented. Two additional topics are treated. The first is the construction of sequences for uniform excitation of double-quantum coherence and for uniform polarization transfer over a range of spin couplings. Double-quantum excitation sequences are demonstrated in a liquid crystal system. The

  1. Analytic Programming with fMRI Data: A Quick-Start Guide for Statisticians Using R

    PubMed Central

    Eloyan, Ani; Li, Shanshan; Muschelli, John; Pekar, Jim J.; Mostofsky, Stewart H.; Caffo, Brian S.

    2014-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a thriving field that plays an important role in medical imaging analysis, biological and neuroscience research and practice. This manuscript gives a didactic introduction to the statistical analysis of fMRI data using the R project, along with the relevant R code. The goal is to give statisticians who would like to pursue research in this area a quick tutorial for programming with fMRI data. References of relevant packages and papers are provided for those interested in more advanced analysis. PMID:24586801

  2. Analytic programming with FMRI data: a quick-start guide for statisticians using R.

    PubMed

    Eloyan, Ani; Li, Shanshan; Muschelli, John; Pekar, Jim J; Mostofsky, Stewart H; Caffo, Brian S

    2014-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a thriving field that plays an important role in medical imaging analysis, biological and neuroscience research and practice. This manuscript gives a didactic introduction to the statistical analysis of fMRI data using the R project, along with the relevant R code. The goal is to give statisticians who would like to pursue research in this area a quick tutorial for programming with fMRI data. References of relevant packages and papers are provided for those interested in more advanced analysis. PMID:24586801

  3. Reciprocity and gyrotropism in magnetic resonance transduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tropp, James

    2006-12-01

    We give formulas for transduction in magnetic resonance—i.e., the appearance of an emf due to Larmor precession of spins—based upon the modified Lorentz reciprocity principle for gyrotropic (also called “nonreciprocal”) media, i.e., in which a susceptibility tensor is carried to its transpose by reversal of an external static field [cf., R. F. Harrington and A. T. Villeneuve IRE Trans. Microwave Theory and Technique MTT6, 308 (1958)]. Prior applications of reciprocity to magnetic resonance, despite much success, have ignored the gyrotropism which necessarily arises due to nuclear and/or unpaired electronic spins. For detection with linearly polarized fields, oscillating at the Larmor frequency, the emf is written in terms of a volume integral containing a product of two factors which we define as the antenna patterns, i.e., (H1x±iH1y) , where, e.g., for a single transceive antenna, the H ’s are just the spatially dependent oscillatory magnetic field strengths, per the application of some reference current at the antenna terminals, with the negative sign obtaining for transmission, and the positive for reception. Similar expressions hold for separate transmit and receive antennas; expressions are also given for circular polarization of the fields. We then exhibit a receive-only array antenna of two elements for magnetic resonance imaging of protons, which, due an intensity artifact arising from stray reactive coupling of the elements, produces, despite its own bilateral symmetry, asymmetric proton NMR images of a symmetric cylindrical phantom containing aqueous saline solution [J. Tropp and T. Schirmer, J. Magn. Reson. 151, 146 (2001)]. Modification of this two-port antenna, to function in transmit-receive mode, allows us to demonstrate highly nonreciprocal behavior: that is, to record images (of cylindrical test phantoms containing aqueous saline solution) whose appearance dramatically changes, when the roles of transmission and reception are swapped

  4. Longitudinal fMRI analysis: A review of methods

    PubMed Central

    Skup, Martha

    2011-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) investigations of a longitudinal nature, where participants are scanned repeatedly over time and imaging data are obtained at more than one time-point, are essential to understanding functional changes and development in healthy and pathological brains. The main objective of this paper is to provide a brief summary of common longitudinal analysis approaches, develop an overview of fMRI by introducing how such data manifest, and explore the statistical challenges that arise at the intersection of these two techniques. PMID:22655113

  5. Longitudinal fMRI analysis: A review of methods

    PubMed Central

    Skup, Martha

    2010-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) investigations of a longitudinal nature, where participants are scanned repeatedly over time and imaging data are obtained at more than one time-point, are essential to understanding functional changes and development in healthy and pathological brains. The main objective of this paper is to provide a brief summary of common longitudinal analysis approaches, develop an overview of fMRI by introducing how such data manifest, and explore the statistical challenges that arise at the intersection of these two techniques. PMID:21691445

  6. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of lens transparency

    SciTech Connect

    Beaulieu, C.F.

    1989-01-01

    Transparency of normal lens cytoplasm and loss of transparency in cataract were studied by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods. Phosphorus ({sup 31}P) NMR spectroscopy was used to measure the {sup 31}P constituents and pH of calf lens cortical and nuclear homogenates and intact lenses as a function of time after lens enucleation and in opacification produced by calcium. Transparency was measured with laser spectroscopy. Despite complete loss of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) within 18 hrs of enucleation, the homogenates and lenses remained 100% transparent. Additions of calcium to ATP-depleted cortical homogenates produced opacification as well as concentration-dependent changes in inorganic phosphate, sugar phosphates, glycerol phosphorylcholine and pH. {sup 1}H relaxation measurements of lens water at 200 MHz proton Larmor frequency studied temperature-dependent phase separation of lens nuclear homogenates. Preliminary measurements of T{sub 1} and T{sub 2} with non-equilibrium temperature changes showed a change in the slope of the temperature dependence of T{sub 1} and T{sub 2} at the phase separation temperature. Subsequent studies with equilibrium temperature changes showed no effect of phase separation on T{sub 1} or T{sub 2}, consistent with the phase separation being a low-energy process. {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic relaxation dispersion (NMRD) studies (measurements of the magnetic field dependence of the water proton 1/T{sub 1} relaxation rates) were performed on (1) calf lens nuclear and cortical homogenates (2) chicken lens homogenates, (3) native and heat-denatured egg white and (4) pure proteins including bovine {gamma}-II crystallin bovine serum albumin (BSA) and myoglobin. The NMRD profiles of all samples exhibited decreases in 1/T{sub 1} with increasing magnetic field.

  7. [Clinical applications of magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography].

    PubMed

    Soto, J A; Castrillón, G A

    2007-01-01

    Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) is the most important diagnostic alternative that has been developed in recent years for the evaluation of the biliary and pancreatic ducts. The advantages of this technique are: it does not use contrast media or ionizing radiation; it is noninvasive and complication free; and, the examination is relatively short (approximately 20 to 30 minutes). MRCP has high sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing biliary dilatation and for determining the site and cause of stenosis. Its diagnostic precision for biliary and pancreatic stones is similar to that of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). MRCP has replaced ERCP in biliary and pancreatic anatomic variants. In unsuccessful ERCP, MRCP is nearly the only diagnostic modality for the evaluation of the biliary tract. Other applications include primary sclerosing cholangitis, stenosis after liver transplantation, and the evaluation of bilioenteric anastomoses. This article reviews the clinical applications of MRCP in the evaluation of biliopancreatic diseases. PMID:18021667

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging in Leber's optic neuropathy.

    PubMed Central

    Kermode, A G; Moseley, I F; Kendall, B E; Miller, D H; MacManus, D G; McDonald, W I

    1989-01-01

    Thirteen males with Leber's optic neuropathy had magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain, and in eight the optic nerves were imaged using STIR (Short Time Inversion Recovery) sequences. All optic nerve scans were abnormal. In seven with bilateral visual loss four showed bilateral increased optic nerve signal and three unilateral increase. The involvement was of the mid and posterior intra-orbital sections over three 5 mm slices or more with sparing of the anterior portion. One patient with unilateral visual loss had increased signal only on the affected side. Brain MRI was normal, in marked contrast to the findings in clinically isolated optic neuritis in which multiple white matter lesions are seen in the majority. Images PMID:2732742

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging of optic nerve

    PubMed Central

    Gala, Foram

    2015-01-01

    Optic nerves are the second pair of cranial nerves and are unique as they represent an extension of the central nervous system. Apart from clinical and ophthalmoscopic evaluation, imaging, especially magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), plays an important role in the complete evaluation of optic nerve and the entire visual pathway. In this pictorial essay, the authors describe segmental anatomy of the optic nerve and review the imaging findings of various conditions affecting the optic nerves. MRI allows excellent depiction of the intricate anatomy of optic nerves due to its excellent soft tissue contrast without exposure to ionizing radiation, better delineation of the entire visual pathway, and accurate evaluation of associated intracranial pathologies. PMID:26752822

  10. Chest magnetic resonance imaging: a protocol suggestion*

    PubMed Central

    Hochhegger, Bruno; de Souza, Vinícius Valério Silveira; Marchiori, Edson; Irion, Klaus Loureiro; Souza Jr., Arthur Soares; Elias Junior, Jorge; Rodrigues, Rosana Souza; Barreto, Miriam Menna; Escuissato, Dante Luiz; Mançano, Alexandre Dias; Araujo Neto, César Augusto; Guimarães, Marcos Duarte; Nin, Carlos Schuler; Santos, Marcel Koenigkam; Silva, Jorge Luiz Pereira e

    2015-01-01

    In the recent years, with the development of ultrafast sequences, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been established as a valuable diagnostic modality in body imaging. Because of improvements in speed and image quality, MRI is now ready for routine clinical use also in the study of pulmonary diseases. The main advantage of MRI of the lungs is its unique combination of morphological and functional assessment in a single imaging session. In this article, the authors review most technical aspects and suggest a protocol for performing chest MRI. The authors also describe the three major clinical indications for MRI of the lungs: staging of lung tumors; evaluation of pulmonary vascular diseases; and investigation of pulmonary abnormalities in patients who should not be exposed to radiation. PMID:26811555

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Guneyli, Serkan; Erdem, Cemile Zuhal; Erdem, Lutfi Oktay

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the causes of cancer-related deaths. Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides the best soft tissue resolution and plays an important role in the management of prostate cancer patients. It is the recommended imaging modality for patients with prostate cancer, and it is clinically indicated for diagnosis, staging, tumor localization, detection of tumor aggressiveness, follow-up, and MRI-guided interventions. Multiparametric MRI includes T1- and high-resolution T2-weighted imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging, and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI. We evaluated MR images of patients with prostate cancer who underwent multiparametric endorectal MRI on a 3.0-T scanner and presented demonstrative images. PMID:27317204

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging of experimental cerebral oedema.

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, D; McDonald, W I; Tofts, P S; Johnson, G; Landon, D N

    1986-01-01

    Triethyl tin(TET)-induced cerebral oedema has been studied in cats by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and the findings correlated with the histology and fine structure of the cerebrum following perfusion-fixation. MRI is a sensitive technique for detecting cerebral oedema, and the distribution and severity of the changes correlate closely with the morphological abnormalities. The relaxation times, T1 and T2 increase progressively as the oedema develops, and the proportional increase in T2 is approximately twice that in T1. Analysis of the magnetisation decay curves reveals slowly-relaxing and rapidly-relaxing components which probably correspond to oedema fluid and intracellular water respectively. The image appearances taken in conjunction with relaxation data provide a basis for determining the nature of the oedema in vivo. Images PMID:3806109

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging of heterotaxis syndrome.

    PubMed

    Stoeckelhuber, Beate M; Eckey, Thomas; Buchholz, Michael; Kapsimalakou, Smaragda; Stoeckelhuber, Mechthild

    2008-12-20

    Failure to establish normal left-right body axis (LRA) formation during embryogenesis results in heterotaxis, a multi-malformation syndrome. We report on a 20-year-old young woman who presented to the emergency room with upper abdominal pain. On chest X-ray, dextrocardia was noted. Ultrasound was inconclusive. Barium studies demonstrated non-rotation of the intestine. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the abdomen confirmed heterotaxis with abnormal arrangement of abdominal organs and vasculature. This is the first radiographic description of LRA in MRI. It provides a unique contribution to the wide morphological variety of lateralization defects in a single examination within 15 min and without the risks of ionizing radiation. In addition, a literature overview over the genetic aspects, broad morphological spectrum, and possible therapeutic consequences is given. PMID:18835766

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging of pancreatitis: An update

    PubMed Central

    Manikkavasakar, Sriluxayini; AlObaidy, Mamdoh; Busireddy, Kiran K; Ramalho, Miguel; Nilmini, Viragi; Alagiyawanna, Madhavi; Semelka, Richard C

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging plays an important role in the diagnosis and staging of acute and chronic pancreatitis and may represent the best imaging technique in the setting of pancreatitis due to its unmatched soft tissue contrast resolution as well as non-ionizing nature and higher safety profile of intravascular contrast media, making it particularly valuable in radiosensitive populations such as pregnant patients, and patients with recurrent pancreatitis requiring multiple follow-up examinations. Additional advantages include the ability to detect early forms of chronic pancreatitis and to better differentiate adenocarcinoma from focal chronic pancreatitis. This review addresses new trends in clinical pancreatic MR imaging emphasizing its role in imaging all types of acute and chronic pancreatitis, pancreatitis complications and other important differential diagnoses that mimic pancreatitis. PMID:25356038

  15. Safety of magnetic resonance contrast media.

    PubMed

    Runge, V M

    2001-08-01

    Intravenous contrast media, specifically the gadolinium chelates, are well accepted for use in the clinical practice of magnetic resonance imaging. The gadolinium chelates are considered to be very safe and lack (in intravenous use) the nephrotoxicity found with iodinated contrast media. Minor adverse reactions, including nausea and hives, occur in a low percentage of cases. The four agents currently available in the United States cannot be differentiated on the basis of these adverse reactions. Severe anaphylactoid reactions are also known to occur with all agents, although these are uncommon. This review discusses the safety issues involved with intravenous administration of the gadolinium chelates and off-label use. The latter is common in clinical practice and permits broader application of these agents. PMID:11687717

  16. Molecular magnetic resonance imaging in cancer.

    PubMed

    Haris, Mohammad; Yadav, Santosh K; Rizwan, Arshi; Singh, Anup; Wang, Ena; Hariharan, Hari; Reddy, Ravinder; Marincola, Francesco M

    2015-01-01

    The ability to identify key biomolecules and molecular changes associated with cancer malignancy and the capacity to monitor the therapeutic outcome against these targets is critically important for cancer treatment. Recent developments in molecular imaging based on magnetic resonance (MR) techniques have provided researchers and clinicians with new tools to improve most facets of cancer care. Molecular imaging is broadly described as imaging techniques used to detect molecular signature at the cellular and gene expression levels. This article reviews both established and emerging molecular MR techniques in oncology and discusses the potential of these techniques in improving the clinical cancer care. It also discusses how molecular MR, in conjunction with other structural and functional MR imaging techniques, paves the way for developing tailored treatment strategies to enhance cancer care. PMID:26394751

  17. Fetal Cerebral Magnetic Resonance Imaging Beyond Morphology.

    PubMed

    Jakab, András; Pogledic, Ivana; Schwartz, Ernst; Gruber, Gerlinde; Mitter, Christian; Brugger, Peter C; Langs, Georg; Schöpf, Veronika; Kasprian, Gregor; Prayer, Daniela

    2015-12-01

    The recent technological advancement of fast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences allowed the inclusion of diffusion tensor imaging, functional MRI, and proton MR spectroscopy in prenatal imaging protocols. These methods provide information beyond morphology and hold the key to improving several fields of human neuroscience and clinical diagnostics. Our review introduces the fundamental works that enabled these imaging techniques, and also highlights the most recent contributions to this emerging field of prenatal diagnostics, such as the structural and functional connectomic approach. We introduce the advanced image processing approaches that are extensively used to tackle fetal or maternal movement-related image artifacts, and which are necessary for the optimal interpretation of such imaging data. PMID:26614130

  18. [Prostate biopsy under magnetic resonance imaging guidance].

    PubMed

    Kuplevatskiy, V I; CherkashiN, M A; Roshchin, D A; Berezina, N A; Vorob'ev, N A

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PC) is one of the most important problems in modern oncology. According to statistical data, PC ranks second in the cancer morbidity structure in the Russian Federation and developed countries and its prevalence has been progressively increasing over the past decade. A need for early diagnosis and maximally accurate morphological verification of the diagnosis in difficult clinical cases (inconvenient tumor location for standard transrectal biopsy; gland scarring changes concurrent with prostatitis and hemorrhage; threshold values of prostate-specific antigen with unclear changes in its doubling per unit time; suspicion of biochemical recurrence or clinical tumor progression after special treatment) leads to revised diagnostic algorithms and clinically introduced new high-tech invasive diagnostic methods. This paper gives the first analysis of literature data on Russian practice using one of the new methods to verify prostate cancer (transrectal prostate cancer under magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guidance). The have sought the 1995-2015 data in the MEDLINE and Pubmed. PMID:27192773

  19. Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Perianal Fistula.

    PubMed

    Tolan, Damian J M

    2016-08-01

    Perianal fistulas and other inflammatory diseases of the anus and perianal soft tissues are a cause of substantial morbidity, and are a major part of the practice of any colorectal surgeon. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has a key role in the assessment of patients for the extent of fistulizing Crohn disease, complications related to fistulas, and to assist in confirming the diagnosis or proposing an alternative. Technique is critical and in particular, the selection of sequences for diagnosis and characterization of abnormalities with the main choices being between standard anatomical sequences (T1 or T2), assessing for edema (FS T2 or STIR), assessing abnormal contrast enhancement (FS T1), and assessing for abnormal diffusion or a combination of these. Guidance on MRI sequence selection, classification of fistulas, the current guidance on the role of MRI in assessing patients, and advice on how to provide useful structured reports, as well as how to detect complications of perianal sepsis are included. PMID:27342895

  20. Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance petrophysics.

    PubMed

    Sun, Boqin; Dunn, Keh-Jim

    2005-02-01

    Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D NMR) opens a wide area for exploration in petrophysics and has significant impact to petroleum logging technology. When there are multiple fluids with different diffusion coefficients saturated in a porous medium, this information can be extracted and clearly delineated from CPMG measurements of such a system either using regular pulsing sequences or modified two window sequences. The 2D NMR plot with independent variables of T2 relaxation time and diffusion coefficient allows clear separation of oil and water signals in the rocks. This 2D concept can be extended to general studies of fluid-saturated porous media involving other combinations of two or more independent variables, such as chemical shift and T1/T2 relaxation time (reflecting pore size), proton population and diffusion contrast, etc. PMID:15833623

  1. Magnetic Earth Ionosphere Resonant Frequencies (MEIRF) project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spaniol, Craig

    1993-01-01

    The West Virginia State College Community College Division NASA Magnetic Earth Ionosphere Resonant Frequencies (MEIRF) study is described. During this contract period, the two most significant and professionally rewarding events were the presentation of the research activity at the Sir Isaac Newton Conference in St. Petersburg, Russia, and the second Day of Discovery Conference, focusing on economic recovery in West Virginia. An active antenna concept utilizing a signal feedback principle similar to regenerative receivers used in early radio was studied. The device has potential for ELF research and other commercial applications for improved signal reception. Finally, work continues to progress on the development of a prototype monitoring station. Signal monitoring, data display, and data storage are major areas of activity. In addition, we plan to continue our dissemination of research activity through presentations at seminars and other universities.

  2. The magnetic resonance imaging-linac system.

    PubMed

    Lagendijk, Jan J W; Raaymakers, Bas W; van Vulpen, Marco

    2014-07-01

    The current image-guided radiotherapy systems are suboptimal in the esophagus, pancreas, kidney, rectum, lymph node, etc. These locations in the body are not easily accessible for fiducials and cannot be visualized sufficiently on cone-beam computed tomographies, making daily patient set-up prone to geometrical uncertainties and hinder dose optimization. Additional interfraction and intrafraction uncertainties for those locations arise from motion with breathing and organ filling. To allow real-time imaging of all patient tumor locations at the actual treatment position a fully integrated 1.5-T, diagnostic quality, magnetic resonance imaging with a 6-MV linear accelerator is presented. This system must enable detailed dose painting at all body locations. PMID:24931095

  3. In vivo nuclear magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leblanc, A.; Evans, H.; Bryan, R. N.; Johnson, P.; Schonfeld, E.; Jhingran, S. G.

    1984-01-01

    A number of physiological changes have been demonstrated in bone, muscle and blood after exposure of humans and animals to microgravity. Determining mechanisms and the development of effective countermeasures for long duration space missions is an important NASA goal. The advent of tomographic nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMR or MRI) gives NASA a way to greatly extend early studies of this phenomena in ways not previously possible; NMR is also noninvasive and safe. NMR provides both superb anatomical images for volume assessments of individual organs and quantification of chemical/physical changes induced in the examined tissues. The feasibility of NMR as a tool for human physiological research as it is affected by microgravity is demonstrated. The animal studies employed the rear limb suspended rat as a model of mucle atrophy that results from microgravity. And bedrest of normal male subjects was used to simulate the effects of microgravity on bone and muscle.

  4. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging in medicine

    PubMed Central

    McKinstry, C S

    1986-01-01

    Using the technique of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR, MR, MRI), the first images displaying pathology in humans were published in 1980.1 Since then, there has been a rapid extension in the use of the technique, with an estimated 225 machines in use in the USA at the end of 1985.2 Considerable enthusiasm has been expressed for this new imaging technique,3 although awareness of its high cost in the present economic climate has led to reservations being expressed in other quarters.2 The aim of this article is to give an outline of the present state of NMR, and indicate some possible future developments. ImagesFig 1Fig 2Fig 3(a)Fig 3 (b)Fig 4Fig 5Fig 6Fig 7 (a)Fig 7 (b)Fig 8Fig 9Fig 10 PMID:3811023

  5. [Nuclear magnetic resonance in ischemic cardiopathy].

    PubMed

    Meave, Aloha

    2007-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance is the "gold standard" technique to quantify the ventricular volume, the ejection fraction, and the myocardial mass. In patients suffering from ischemic cardiopathy, the ejection fraction is the most important prognostic parameter, even above from lessoned arteries index. An adequate diagnose between a non-viable and a viable myocardium is of great importance in the therapeutic approach for ischemic cardiopathy. By administrating a paramagnetic contrast media named gadolinium, fist pass and late-reinforcement techniques, are applied. With these, it is possible to evaluate the perfusion as well as necrotic areas. In order to identify sub-endocardium ischemia, drugs such as adenosine and dipiridamol, are employed as vasodilators. This technique allows the definition of reinforcement extension, being sub-endocardiac, which is an ailment which affects 50% of the myocardium depth, or even, transmural compromise. PMID:18938717

  6. Stem cell labeling for magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Himmelreich, Uwe; Hoehn, Mathias

    2008-01-01

    In vivo applications of cells for the monitoring of their cell dynamics increasingly use non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging. This imaging modality allows in particular to follow the migrational activity of stem cells intended for cell therapy strategies. All these approaches require the prior labeling of the cells under investigation for excellent contrast against the host tissue background in the imaging modality. The present review discusses the various routes of cell labeling and describes the potential to observe both cell localization and their cell-specific function in vivo. Possibilities for labeling strategies, pros and cons of various contrast agents are pointed out while potential ambiguities or problems of labeling strategies are emphasized. PMID:18465447

  7. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging of the spine

    SciTech Connect

    Modic, M.T.; Weinstein, M.A.; Pavlicek, W.; Starnes, D.L.; Duchesneau, P.M.; Boumphrey, F.; Hardy, R.J. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Forty subjects were examined to determine the accuracy and clinical usefulness of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) examination of the spine. The NMR images were compared with plain radiographs, high-resolution computed tomograms, and myelograms. The study included 15 patients with normal spinal cord anatomy and 25 patients whose pathological conditions included canal stenosis, herniated discs, metastatic tumors, primary cord tumor, trauma, Chiari malformations, syringomyelia, and developmental disorders. Saturation recovery images were best in differentiating between soft tissue and cerebrospinal fluid. NMR was excellent for the evaluation of the foramen magnum region and is presently the modality of choice for the diagnosis of syringomyelia and Chiari malformation. NMR was accurate in diagnosing spinal cord trauma and spinal canal block.

  8. Chronic subdural hematoma: demonstration by magnetic resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Sipponen, J.T.; Sepponen, R.E.; Sivula, A.

    1984-01-01

    The ability of magnetic resonance (MR) to identify intracranial hematomas was tested in five patients with clinical and computed tomographic signs of chronic subdural hematoma. The extracerebral collections were displayed as a zone of bright intensity using the T1-weighted inversion recovery (IR 1500/400) sequence, reflecting the lesions' short T1 relaxation times. The collections also showed high intensity using the spin echo (SE) sequence, with a longer delay of 100ms and 160ms, reflecting the long T2 relaxation time. The spin echo sequence with a repetition time of 500ms and an echo delay of 160ms (SE 500/160) almost effaced other structures in the image, thus increasing the specificity of this pulse scheme for detection of chronic blood collections. Although in two of the five patients the subdural hematomas were in the isodense CT phase, all were easily visualized with MR.

  9. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Knee

    PubMed Central

    Hash, Thomas W.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) affords high-resolution visualization of the soft tissue structures (menisci, ligaments, cartilage, etc) and bone marrow of the knee. Evidence Acquisition: Pertinent clinical and research articles in the orthopaedic and radiology literature over the past 30 years using PubMed. Results: Ligament tears can be accurately assessed with MRI, but distinguishing partial tears from ruptures of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) can be challenging. Determining the extent of a partial tear is often extremely difficult to accurately assess. The status of the posterolateral corner structures, menisci, and cartilage can be accurately evaluated, although limitations in the evaluation of certain structures exist. Patellofemoral joint, marrow, tibiofibular joint, and synovial pathology can supplement physical examination findings and provide definitive diagnosis. Conclusions: MRI provides an accurate noninvasive assessment of knee pathology. PMID:24381701

  10. Simplifying cardiovascular magnetic resonance pulse sequence terminology.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Matthias G; Bucciarelli-Ducci, Chiara; White, James A; Plein, Sven; Moon, James C; Almeida, Ana G; Kramer, Christopher M; Neubauer, Stefan; Pennell, Dudley J; Petersen, Steffen E; Kwong, Raymond Y; Ferrari, Victor A; Schulz-Menger, Jeanette; Sakuma, Hajime; Schelbert, Erik B; Larose, Éric; Eitel, Ingo; Carbone, Iacopo; Taylor, Andrew J; Young, Alistair; de Roos, Albert; Nagel, Eike

    2014-01-01

    We propose a set of simplified terms to describe applied Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (CMR) pulse sequence techniques in clinical reports, scientific articles and societal guidelines or recommendations. Rather than using various technical details in clinical reports, the description of the technical approach should be based on the purpose of the pulse sequence. In scientific papers or other technical work, this should be followed by a more detailed description of the pulse sequence and settings. The use of a unified set of widely understood terms would facilitate the communication between referring physicians and CMR readers by increasing the clarity of CMR reports and thus improve overall patient care. Applied in research articles, its use would facilitate non-expert readers' understanding of the methodology used and its clinical meaning. PMID:25551695

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging of pancreatitis: an update.

    PubMed

    Manikkavasakar, Sriluxayini; AlObaidy, Mamdoh; Busireddy, Kiran K; Ramalho, Miguel; Nilmini, Viragi; Alagiyawanna, Madhavi; Semelka, Richard C

    2014-10-28

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging plays an important role in the diagnosis and staging of acute and chronic pancreatitis and may represent the best imaging technique in the setting of pancreatitis due to its unmatched soft tissue contrast resolution as well as non-ionizing nature and higher safety profile of intravascular contrast media, making it particularly valuable in radiosensitive populations such as pregnant patients, and patients with recurrent pancreatitis requiring multiple follow-up examinations. Additional advantages include the ability to detect early forms of chronic pancreatitis and to better differentiate adenocarcinoma from focal chronic pancreatitis. This review addresses new trends in clinical pancreatic MR imaging emphasizing its role in imaging all types of acute and chronic pancreatitis, pancreatitis complications and other important differential diagnoses that mimic pancreatitis. PMID:25356038

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging after exposure to microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leblanc, Adrian

    1993-01-01

    A number of physiological changes were demonstrated in bone, muscle, and blood from exposure of humans and animals to microgravity. Determining mechanisms and the development of effective countermeasures for long-duration space missions is an important NASA goal. Historically, NASA has had to rely on tape measures, x-ray, and metabolic balance studies with collection of excreta and blood specimens to obtain this information. The development of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers the possibility of greatly extending these early studies in ways not previously possible; MRI is also non-invasive and safe; i.e., no radiation exposure. MRI provides both superb anatomical images for volume measurements of individual structures and quantification of chemical/physical changes induced in the examined tissues. This investigation will apply MRI technology to measure muscle, intervertebral disc, and bone marrow changes resulting from exposure to microgravity.

  13. Geochemical Controls on Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, Rosemary; Prasad, Manika; Keating, Kristina

    2003-11-11

    OAK-B135 Our research objectives are to determine, through an extensive set of laboratory experiments, the effect of the specific mineralogic form of iron and the effect of the distribution of iron on proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation mechanisms. In the first nine months of this project, we have refined the experimental procedures to be used in the acquisition of the laboratory NMR data; have ordered, and conducted preliminary measurements on, the sand samples to be used in the experimental work; and have revised and completed the theoretical model to use in this project. Over the next year, our focus will be on completing the first phase of the experimental work where the form and distribution of the iron in the sands in varied.

  14. Quantitative fMRI and oxidative neuroenergetics

    PubMed Central

    Hyder, Fahmeed; Rothman, Douglas L.

    2012-01-01

    The discovery of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has greatly impacted neuroscience. The blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal, using deoxyhemoglobin as an endogenous paramagnetic contrast agent, exposes regions of interest in task-based and resting-state paradigms. However the BOLD contrast is at best a partial measure of neuronal activity, because the functional maps obtained by differencing or correlations ignore the total neuronal activity in the baseline state. Here we describe how studies of brain energy metabolism at Yale, especially with 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy and related techniques, contributed to development of quantitative functional brain imaging with fMRI by providing a reliable measurement of baseline energy. This narrative takes us on a journey, from molecules to mind, with illuminating insights about neuronal-glial activities in relation to energy demand of synaptic activity. These results, along with key contributions from laboratories worldwide, comprise the energetic basis for quantitative interpretation of fMRI data. PMID:22542993

  15. Magnetic Resonance Studies of Energy Storage Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vazquez Reina, Rafael

    In today's society there is high demand to have access to energy for portable devices in different forms. Capacitors with high performance in small package to achieve high charge/discharge rates, and batteries with their ability to store electricity and make energy mobile are part of this demand. The types of internal dielectric material strongly affect the characteristics of a capacitor, and its applications. In a battery, the choice of the electrolyte plays an important role in the Solid Electrolyte Interphase (SEI) formation, and the cathode material for high output voltage. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy are research techniques that exploit the magnetic properties of the electron and certain atomic nuclei to determine physical and chemical properties of the atoms or molecules in which they are contained. Both EPR and NMR spectroscopy technique can yield meaningful structural and dynamic information. Three different projects are discussed in this dissertation. First, High energy density capacitors where EPR measurements described herein provide an insight into structural and chemical differences in the dielectric material of a capacitor. Next, as the second project, Electrolyte solutions where an oxygen-17 NMR study has been employed to assess the degree of preferential solvation of Li+ ions in binary mixtures of EC (ethylene carbonate) and DMC (dimethyl carbonate) containing LiPF6 (lithium hexafluo-rophosphate) which may be ultimately related to the SEI formation mechanism. The third project was to study Bismuth fluoride as cathode material for rechargeable batteries. The objective was to study 19F and 7Li MAS NMR of some nanocomposite cathode materials as a conversion reaction occurring during lithiation and delithation of the BiF3/C nanocomposite.

  16. Could magnetic resonance provide in vivo histology?

    PubMed Central

    Dominietto, Marco; Rudin, Markus

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of a suspected tumor lesion faces two basic problems: detection and identification of the specific type of tumor. Radiological techniques are commonly used for the detection and localization of solid tumors. Prerequisite is a high intrinsic or enhanced contrast between normal and neoplastic tissue. Identification of the tumor type is still based on histological analysis. The result depends critically on the sampling sites, which given the inherent heterogeneity of tumors, constitutes a major limitation. Non-invasive in vivo imaging might overcome this limitation providing comprehensive three-dimensional morphological, physiological, and metabolic information as well as the possibility for longitudinal studies. In this context, magnetic resonance based techniques are quite attractive since offer at the same time high spatial resolution, unique soft tissue contrast, good temporal resolution to study dynamic processes and high chemical specificity. The goal of this paper is to review the role of magnetic resonance techniques in characterizing tumor tissue in vivo both at morphological and physiological levels. The first part of this review covers methods, which provide information on specific aspects of tumor phenotypes, considered as indicators of malignancy. These comprise measurements of the inflammatory status, neo-vascular physiology, acidosis, tumor oxygenation, and metabolism together with tissue morphology. Even if the spatial resolution is not sufficient to characterize the tumor phenotype at a cellular level, this multiparametric information might potentially be used for classification of tumors. The second part discusses mathematical tools, which allow characterizing tissue based on the acquired three-dimensional data set. In particular, methods addressing tumor heterogeneity will be highlighted. Finally, we address the potential and limitation of using MRI as a tool to provide in vivo tissue characterization. PMID:24454320

  17. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance findings in lipoid pneumonia.

    PubMed Central

    Bréchot, J M; Buy, J N; Laaban, J P; Rochemaure, J

    1991-01-01

    A case of exogenous lipoid pneumonia was documented by computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Although strongly suggesting the presence of fat on T1 weighted images, magnetic resonance does not produce images specific for this condition. Computed tomography is the best imaging modality for its diagnosis. Images PMID:1750024

  18. 21 CFR 892.1000 - Magnetic resonance diagnostic device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Magnetic resonance diagnostic device. 892.1000 Section 892.1000 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1000 Magnetic resonance...

  19. 21 CFR 892.1000 - Magnetic resonance diagnostic device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnetic resonance diagnostic device. 892.1000 Section 892.1000 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1000 Magnetic resonance...

  20. Compact electrically detected magnetic resonance setup

    SciTech Connect

    Eckardt, Michael Harneit, Wolfgang; Behrends, Jan; Münter, Detlef

    2015-04-15

    Electrically detected magnetic resonance (EDMR) is a commonly used technique for the study of spin-dependent transport processes in semiconductor materials and electro-optical devices. Here, we present the design and implementation of a compact setup to measure EDMR, which is based on a commercially available benchtop electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometer. The electrical detection part uses mostly off-the-shelf electrical components and is thus highly customizable. We present a characterization and calibration procedure for the instrument that allowed us to quantitatively reproduce results obtained on a silicon-based reference sample with a “large-scale” state-of-the-art instrument. This shows that EDMR can be used in novel contexts relevant for semiconductor device fabrication like clean room environments and even glove boxes. As an application example, we present data on a class of environment-sensitive objects new to EDMR, semiconducting organic microcrystals, and discuss similarities and differences to data obtained for thin-film devices of the same molecule.

  1. Selectivity in multiple quantum nuclear magnetic resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, W.S.

    1980-11-01

    The observation of multiple-quantum nuclear magnetic resonance transitions in isotropic or anisotropic liquids is shown to give readily interpretable information on molecular configurations, rates of motional processes, and intramolecular interactions. However, the observed intensity of high multiple-quantum transitions falls off dramatically as the number of coupled spins increases. The theory of multiple-quantum NMR is developed through the density matrix formalism, and exact intensities are derived for several cases (isotropic first-order systems and anisotropic systems with high symmetry) to shown that this intensity decrease is expected if standard multiple-quantum pulse sequences are used. New pulse sequences are developed which excite coherences and produce population inversions only between selected states, even though other transitions are simultaneously resonant. One type of selective excitation presented only allows molecules to absorb and emit photons in groups of n. Coherent averaging theory is extended to describe these selective sequences, and to design sequences which are selective to arbitrarily high order in the Magnus expansion. This theory and computer calculations both show that extremely good selectivity and large signal enhancements are possible.

  2. Magnetic resonance characterization of silicon nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanciulli, Marco; Belli, Matteo; Vellei, Antonio; Canevali, Carmen; Rotta, Davide; Paleari, Stefano; Basini, Martina

    2012-02-01

    Silicon nanowires (SiNWs) have been extensively investigated in the last decades. The interest in these nanostructures stems from both fundamental and applied research motivations. The functional properties of one- and zero-dimensional silicon structures are significantly different, at least below a certain critical dimension, from those well known in the bulk. The key and peculiar functional properties of SiNWs find applications in nanoelectronics, classical and quantum information processing and storage, optoelectronics, photovoltaics, thermoelectric, battery technology, nano-biotechnology, and neuroelectronics. We report our work on the characterization by continuous wave (CW) and pulse electron spin resonance (CW, FT-EPR) and electrically detected magnetic resonance (EDMR) measurements of silicon nanowires (SiNWs) produced by different top-down processes. SiNWs were fabricated starting from SOI wafers using standard e-beam lithography and anisotropic wet etching or by metal-assisted chemical etching. Further oxidation was used to reduce the wire cross section. Different EDMR implementations were used to address the electronic wave function of donors (P, As) and to characterize point defects at the SiNWs/SiO2 interface.

  3. Compact electrically detected magnetic resonance setup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckardt, Michael; Behrends, Jan; Münter, Detlef; Harneit, Wolfgang

    2015-04-01

    Electrically detected magnetic resonance (EDMR) is a commonly used technique for the study of spin-dependent transport processes in semiconductor materials and electro-optical devices. Here, we present the design and implementation of a compact setup to measure EDMR, which is based on a commercially available benchtop electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometer. The electrical detection part uses mostly off-the-shelf electrical components and is thus highly customizable. We present a characterization and calibration procedure for the instrument that allowed us to quantitatively reproduce results obtained on a silicon-based reference sample with a "large-scale" state-of-the-art instrument. This shows that EDMR can be used in novel contexts relevant for semiconductor device fabrication like clean room environments and even glove boxes. As an application example, we present data on a class of environment-sensitive objects new to EDMR, semiconducting organic microcrystals, and discuss similarities and differences to data obtained for thin-film devices of the same molecule.

  4. Rotating-frame gradient fields for magnetic resonance imaging and nuclear magnetic resonance in low fields

    DOEpatents

    Bouchard, Louis-Serge; Pines, Alexander; Demas, Vasiliki

    2014-01-21

    A system and method for Fourier encoding a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) signal is disclosed. A static magnetic field B.sub.0 is provided along a first direction. An NMR signal from the sample is Fourier encoded by applying a rotating-frame gradient field B.sub.G superimposed on the B.sub.0, where the B.sub.G comprises a vector component rotating in a plane perpendicular to the first direction at an angular frequency .omega.in a laboratory frame. The Fourier-encoded NMR signal is detected.

  5. The future of magnetic resonance-based techniques in neurology.

    PubMed

    2001-01-01

    Magnetic resonance techniques have become increasingly important in neurology for defining: 1. brain, spinal cord and peripheral nerve or muscle structure; 2. pathological changes in tissue structures and properties; and 3. dynamic patterns of functional activation of the brain. New applications have been driven in part by advances in hardware, particularly improvements in magnet and gradient coil design. New imaging strategies allow novel approaches to contrast with, for example, diffusion imaging, magnetization transfer imaging, perfusion imaging and functional magnetic resonance imaging. In parallel with developments in hardware and image acquisition have been new approaches to image analysis. These have allowed quantitative descriptions of the image changes to be used for a precise, non-invasive definition of pathology. With the increasing capabilities and specificity of magnetic resonance techniques it is becoming more important that the neurologist is intimately involved in both the selection of magnetic resonance studies for patients and their interpretation. There is a need for considerably improved access to magnetic resonance technology, particularly in the acute or intensive care ward and in the neurosurgical theatre. This report illustrates several key developments. The task force concludes that magnetic resonance imaging is a major clinical tool of growing significance and offers recommendations for maximizing the potential future for magnetic resonance techniques in neurology. PMID:11509077

  6. Plasma-induced magnetic responses during nonlinear dynamics of magnetic islands due to resonant magnetic perturbations

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimura, Seiya

    2014-12-15

    Resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) produce magnetic islands in toroidal plasmas. Self-healing (annihilation) of RMP-induced magnetic islands has been observed in helical systems, where a possible mechanism of the self-healing is shielding of RMP penetration by plasma flows, which is well known in tokamaks. Thus, fundamental physics of RMP shielding is commonly investigated in both tokamaks and helical systems. In order to check this mechanism, detailed informations of magnetic island phases are necessary. In experiments, measurement of radial magnetic responses is relatively easy. In this study, based on a theoretical model of rotating magnetic islands, behavior of radial magnetic fields during the self-healing is investigated. It is confirmed that flips of radial magnetic fields are typically observed during the self-healing. Such behavior of radial magnetic responses is also observed in LHD experiments.

  7. Cardiac imaging using gated magnetic resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Lanzer, P.; Botvinick, E.H.; Schiller, N.B.

    1984-01-01

    To overcome the limitations of magnetic resonance (MR) cardiac imaging using nongated data acquisition, three methods for acquiring a gating signal, which could be applied in the presence of a magnetic field, were tested; an air-filled plethysmograph, a laser-Doppler capillary perfusion flowmeter, and an electrocardiographic gating device. The gating signal was used for timing of MR imaging sequences (IS). Application of each gating method yielded significant improvements in structural MR image resolution of the beating heart, although with both plethysmography and laser-Doppler velocimetry it was difficult to obtain cardiac images from the early portion of the cardiac cycle due to an intrinsic delay between the ECG R wave and peripheral detection of the gating signal. Variations in the temporal relationship between the R wave and plethysmographic and laser-Doppler signals produced inconsistencies in the timing of IS. Since the ECG signal is virtually free of these problems, the preferable gating technique is IS synchronization with an electrocardiogram. The gated images acquired with this method provide sharp definition of internal cardiac morphology and can be temporarily referenced to end diastole and end systole or intermediate points.

  8. Multi-dimensionally encoded magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Fa-Hsuan

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging typically achieves spatial encoding by measuring the projection of a q-dimensional object over q-dimensional spatial bases created by linear spatial encoding magnetic fields (SEMs). Recently, imaging strategies using nonlinear SEMs have demonstrated potential advantages for reconstructing images with higher spatiotemporal resolution and reducing peripheral nerve stimulation. In practice, nonlinear SEMs and linear SEMs can be used jointly to further improve the image reconstruction performance. Here we propose the multi-dimensionally encoded (MDE) MRI to map a q-dimensional object onto a p-dimensional encoding space where p > q. MDE MRI is a theoretical framework linking imaging strategies using linear and nonlinear SEMs. Using a system of eight surface SEM coils with an eight-channel RF coil array, we demonstrate the five-dimensional MDE MRI for a two-dimensional object as a further generalization of PatLoc imaging and O-space imaging. We also present a method of optimizing spatial bases in MDE MRI. Results show that MDE MRI with a higher dimensional encoding space can reconstruct images more efficiently and with a smaller reconstruction error when the k-space sampling distribution and the number of samples are controlled. PMID:22926830

  9. Contrast media in cardiovascular magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Lombardi, Massimo; Aquaro, Giovanni; Favilli, Brunella

    2005-01-01

    Among the available imaging techniques, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is gaining an increasing role in the cardiologic setting because its specific properties such as the use of non ionising energies, the natural strong contrast between different tissues, the absence of spatial limitations, the good spatial and temporal resolution, the reduced operator dependency. To further improve the images quality and the histopathologic characterisation of tissues the use of contrast media (molecules containing gadolinium, manganese, iron, dysprosium ions) has been proposed both in the experimental and in the clinical settings. Among these ions gadolinium, which having 7 odd electrons in the external orbit has a strong magnetic momentum, is the most used. Gadolinium by itself is extremely toxic but once it is linked with a chelanting agent such as DTPA (Dietilen-Triamin-Penta-Acetic acid) the resulting complex shows a very low toxicity. The number of Gadolinium based compound is growing together with the use of contrast agents in MRI. These contrast agents are routinely used to perform Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA) and to a better definition of several cardiac diseases such as the presence of a intra- or paracardiac mass, the evaluation of myocardial perfusion and the evaluation of viability. Both the latter applications have relevant clinical implications. In fact the assessment of myocardial perfusion is one of the most used approach for detecting inducible myocardial ischemia due to major coronary artery disease or to assess the presence of a microvascular disease. The presence and the extent of viable myocardium is deeply modifying the clinical decision making as this viable tissue can recruit a normal function spontaneously or after revascularisation. Furthermore, the extent of viable myocardium has a strong correlation with negative prognosis. Clinical events are also time related to the detection of viable tissue. These evidences imply that the diagnostic

  10. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of category-specific cortical activation: evidence for semantic maps.

    PubMed

    Spitzer, M; Kischka, U; Gückel, F; Bellemann, M E; Kammer, T; Seyyedi, S; Weisbrod, M; Schwartz, A; Brix, G

    1998-04-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to examine the pattern of cortical activity during a picture naming task. Subjects (n=12) had to covertly name either animals or furniture items. Functional scanning was performed using a conventional 1.5-Tesla whole-body MRI system. Images obtained during naming the two categories were compared using a non-parametric test. The study revealed evidence for domain-specific lexical regions in left middle, right middle and inferior frontal areas, as well as in superior and middle temporal areas. The results corroborate neuropsychological data and demonstrate directly and non-invasively in human volunteers that semantic representations in frontal and temporal areas are, to some degree, localized and possibly implemented as multiple maps. A completely distributed storage of semantic information is rendered unlikely. PMID:9593960

  11. Spatial Bayesian Variable Selection Models on Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Time-Series Data

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kuo-Jung; Jones, Galin L.; Caffo, Brian S.; Bassett, Susan Spear

    2014-01-01

    A common objective of fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imaging) studies is to determine subject-specific areas of increased blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal contrast in response to a stimulus or task, and hence to infer regional neuronal activity. We posit and investigate a Bayesian approach that incorporates spatial and temporal dependence and allows for the task-related change in the BOLD signal to change dynamically over the scanning session. In this way, our model accounts for potential learning effects in addition to other mechanisms of temporal drift in task-related signals. We study the properties of the model through its performance on simulated and real data sets. PMID:25530824

  12. Microrobotic navigable entities for Magnetic Resonance Targeting.

    PubMed

    Martel, Sylvain

    2010-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Targeting (MRT) uses MRI for gathering tracking data to determine the position of microscale entities with the goal of guiding them towards a specific target in the body accessible through the vascular network. At full capabilities, a MRT platform designed to treat a human would consist of a clinical MRI scanner running special algorithms and upgraded to provide propulsion gradient up to approximately 400mT/m to enable entities as small as a few tens of micrometers in diameter and containing magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) to be steered at vessel bifurcations based on tracking information. Indeed, using a clinical MRI system, we showed that such single entity with a diameter as small as 15microm is detectable in gradient-echo scans. Among many potential interventions, targeted cancer therapy is a good initial application for such new microrobotic approach since secondary toxicity for the patient could be reduced while increasing therapeutic efficacy using lower dosages. Although many types of such entities are needed to provide a larger set of tools, here, only three initial types designed with different functionalities and for different types of cancer are briefly described. Initially designed for targeted chemo-embolization of liver tumors, the first type known as Therapeutic Magnetic Micro-Carriers (TMMC) consists in its present form of approximately 50 microm PLGA microparticles containing therapeutics and approximately 180 nm FeCo MNP. For the second type, MNP are not only used for propulsion and tracking, but also actuation based on a local elevation of the temperature. In its simplest form, it consists of approxiamtely 20 nm MNP embedded in a thermo-sensitive hydrogel known as PNIPA, allowing additional functionalities such as computer triggered drug release and targeted hyperthermia. The third type initially considered to target colorectal tumors, consists of 1-2 microm MR-trackable and controllable MC-1 Magnetotactic Bacteria (MTB) with

  13. Overhauser-enhanced magnetic resonance elastography.

    PubMed

    Salameh, Najat; Sarracanie, Mathieu; Armstrong, Brandon D; Rosen, Matthew S; Comment, Arnaud

    2016-05-01

    Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) is a powerful technique to assess the mechanical properties of living tissue. However, it suffers from reduced sensitivity in regions with short T2 and T2 * such as in tissue with high concentrations of paramagnetic iron, or in regions surrounding implanted devices. In this work, we exploit the longer T2 * attainable at ultra-low magnetic fields in combination with Overhauser dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) to enable rapid MRE at 0.0065 T. A 3D balanced steady-state free precession based MRE sequence with undersampling and fractional encoding was implemented on a 0.0065 T MRI scanner. A custom-built RF coil for DNP and a programmable vibration system for elastography were developed. Displacement fields and stiffness maps were reconstructed from data recorded in a polyvinyl alcohol gel phantom loaded with stable nitroxide radicals. A DNP enhancement of 25 was achieved during the MRE sequence, allowing the acquisition of 3D Overhauser-enhanced MRE (OMRE) images with (1.5 × 2.7 × 9) mm(3) resolution over eight temporal steps and 11 slices in 6 minutes. In conclusion, OMRE at ultra-low magnetic field can be used to detect mechanical waves over short acquisition times. This new modality shows promise to broaden the scope of conventional MRE applications, and may extend the utility of low-cost, portable MRI systems to detect elasticity changes in patients with implanted devices or iron overload. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26915977

  14. Resting-State Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Language Preoperative Planning

    PubMed Central

    Branco, Paulo; Seixas, Daniela; Deprez, Sabine; Kovacs, Silvia; Peeters, Ronald; Castro, São L.; Sunaert, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a well-known non-invasive technique for the study of brain function. One of its most common clinical applications is preoperative language mapping, essential for the preservation of function in neurosurgical patients. Typically, fMRI is used to track task-related activity, but poor task performance and movement artifacts can be critical limitations in clinical settings. Recent advances in resting-state protocols open new possibilities for pre-surgical mapping of language potentially overcoming these limitations. To test the feasibility of using resting-state fMRI instead of conventional active task-based protocols, we compared results from fifteen patients with brain lesions while performing a verb-to-noun generation task and while at rest. Task-activity was measured using a general linear model analysis and independent component analysis (ICA). Resting-state networks were extracted using ICA and further classified in two ways: manually by an expert and by using an automated template matching procedure. The results revealed that the automated classification procedure correctly identified language networks as compared to the expert manual classification. We found a good overlay between task-related activity and resting-state language maps, particularly within the language regions of interest. Furthermore, resting-state language maps were as sensitive as task-related maps, and had higher specificity. Our findings suggest that resting-state protocols may be suitable to map language networks in a quick and clinically efficient way. PMID:26869899

  15. Implementation and evaluation of simultaneous video-electroencephalography and functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Umair J; Kokkinos, Vasileios; Carmichael, David W; Rodionov, Roman; Gasston, David; Duncan, John S; Lemieux, Louis

    2010-10-01

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate that the addition of simultaneous and synchronised video to electroencephalography (EEG)-correlated functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) could increase recorded information without data quality reduction. We investigated the effect of placing EEG, video equipment and their required power supplies inside the scanner room, on EEG, video and MRI data quality, and evaluated video-EEG-fMRI by modelling a hand motor task. Gradient-echo, echo-planner images (EPI) were acquired on a 3-T MRI scanner at variable camera positions in a test object [with and without radiofrequency (RF) excitation], and human subjects. EEG was recorded using a commercial MR-compatible 64-channel cap and amplifiers. Video recording was performed using a two-camera custom-made system with EEG synchronization. An in-house script was used to calculate signal to fluctuation noise ratio (SFNR) from EPI in test object with variable camera positions and in human subjects with and without concurrent video recording. Five subjects were investigated with video-EEG-fMRI while performing hand motor task. The fMRI time series data was analysed using statistical parametric mapping, by building block design general linear models which were paradigm prescribed and video based. Introduction of the cameras did not alter the SFNR significantly, nor did it show any signs of spike noise during RF off conditions. Video and EEG quality also did not show any significant artefact. The Statistical Parametric Mapping{T} maps from video based design revealed additional blood oxygen level-dependent responses in the expected locations for non-compliant subjects compared to the paradigm prescribed design. We conclude that video-EEG-fMRI set up can be implemented without affecting the data quality significantly and may provide valuable information on behaviour to enhance the analysis of fMRI data. PMID:20233646

  16. Principal and independent component analysis of concomitant functional near infrared spectroscopy and magnetic resonance imaging data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schelkanova, Irina; Toronov, Vladislav

    2011-07-01

    Although near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is now widely used both in emerging clinical techniques and in cognitive neuroscience, the development of the apparatuses and signal processing methods for these applications is still a hot research topic. The main unresolved problem in functional NIRS is the separation of functional signals from the contaminations by systemic and local physiological fluctuations. This problem was approached by using various signal processing methods, including blind signal separation techniques. In particular, principal component analysis (PCA) and independent component analysis (ICA) were applied to the data acquired at the same wavelength and at multiple sites on the human or animal heads during functional activation. These signal processing procedures resulted in a number of principal or independent components that could be attributed to functional activity but their physiological meaning remained unknown. On the other hand, the best physiological specificity is provided by broadband NIRS. Also, a comparison with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) allows determining the spatial origin of fNIRS signals. In this study we applied PCA and ICA to broadband NIRS data to distill the components correlating with the breath hold activation paradigm and compared them with the simultaneously acquired fMRI signals. Breath holding was used because it generates blood carbon dioxide (CO2) which increases the blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signal as CO2 acts as a cerebral vasodilator. Vasodilation causes increased cerebral blood flow which washes deoxyhaemoglobin out of the cerebral capillary bed thus increasing both the cerebral blood volume and oxygenation. Although the original signals were quite diverse, we found very few different components which corresponded to fMRI signals at different locations in the brain and to different physiological chromophores.

  17. Robust image registration for functional magnetic resonance imaging of the brain.

    PubMed

    Hsu, C C; Wu, M T; Lee, C

    2001-09-01

    Motion-related artifacts are still a major problem in data analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI) studies of brain activation. However, the traditional image registration algorithm is prone to inaccuracy when there are residual variations owing to counting statistics, partial volume effects or biological variation. In particular, susceptibility artifacts usually result in remarkable signal intensity variance, and they can mislead the estimation of motion parameters. In this study, Two robust estimation algorithms for the registration of FMRI images are described. The first estimation algorithm was based on the Newton method and used Tukey's biweight objective function. The second estimation algorithm was based on the Levenberg-Marquardt technique and used a skipped mean objective function. The robust M-estimators can suppress the effects of the outliers by scaling down their error magnitudes or completely rejecting outliers using a weighting function. The proposed registration methods consisted of the following steps: fast segmentation of the brain region from noisy background as a preprocessing step; pre-registration of the volume centroids to provide a good initial estimation; and two robust estimation algorithms and a voxel sampling technique to find the affine transformation parameters. The accuracy of the algorithms was within 0.5 mm in translation and within 0.5 degrees in rotation. For the FMRI data sets, the performance of the algorithms was visually compared with the AIR 2.0 software, which is a software for image registration, using colour-coded statistical mapping by the Kolmogorov-Smirov method. Experimental results showed, that the algorithms provided significant improvement in correcting motion-related artifacts and can enhance the detection of real brain activation. PMID:11712647

  18. Resting-State Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Language Preoperative Planning.

    PubMed

    Branco, Paulo; Seixas, Daniela; Deprez, Sabine; Kovacs, Silvia; Peeters, Ronald; Castro, São L; Sunaert, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a well-known non-invasive technique for the study of brain function. One of its most common clinical applications is preoperative language mapping, essential for the preservation of function in neurosurgical patients. Typically, fMRI is used to track task-related activity, but poor task performance and movement artifacts can be critical limitations in clinical settings. Recent advances in resting-state protocols open new possibilities for pre-surgical mapping of language potentially overcoming these limitations. To test the feasibility of using resting-state fMRI instead of conventional active task-based protocols, we compared results from fifteen patients with brain lesions while performing a verb-to-noun generation task and while at rest. Task-activity was measured using a general linear model analysis and independent component analysis (ICA). Resting-state networks were extracted using ICA and further classified in two ways: manually by an expert and by using an automated template matching procedure. The results revealed that the automated classification procedure correctly identified language networks as compared to the expert manual classification. We found a good overlay between task-related activity and resting-state language maps, particularly within the language regions of interest. Furthermore, resting-state language maps were as sensitive as task-related maps, and had higher specificity. Our findings suggest that resting-state protocols may be suitable to map language networks in a quick and clinically efficient way. PMID:26869899

  19. Control of Transport-Barrier Relaxations by Resonant Magnetic Perturbations

    SciTech Connect

    Leconte, M.; Beyer, P.; Benkadda, S.

    2009-01-30

    Transport-barrier relaxation oscillations in the presence of resonant magnetic perturbations are investigated using three-dimensional global fluid turbulence simulations from first principles at the edge of a tokamak. It is shown that resonant magnetic perturbations have a stabilizing effect on these relaxation oscillations and that this effect is due mainly to a modification of the pressure profile linked to the presence of both residual magnetic island chains and a stochastic layer.

  20. Limbic Activity Modulation Guided by Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Inspired Electroencephalography Improves Implicit Emotion Regulation.

    PubMed

    Keynan, Jackob N; Meir-Hasson, Yehudit; Gilam, Gadi; Cohen, Avihay; Jackont, Gilan; Kinreich, Sivan; Ikar, Limor; Or-Borichev, Ayelet; Etkin, Amit; Gyurak, Anett; Klovatch, Ilana; Intrator, Nathan; Hendler, Talma

    2016-09-15

    The amygdala has a pivotal role in processing traumatic stress; hence, gaining control over its activity could facilitate adaptive mechanism and recovery. To date, amygdala volitional regulation could be obtained only via real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), a highly inaccessible procedure. The current article presents high-impact neurobehavioral implications of a novel imaging approach that enables bedside monitoring of amygdala activity using fMRI-inspired electroencephalography (EEG), hereafter termed amygdala-electrical fingerprint (amyg-EFP). Simultaneous EEG/fMRI indicated that the amyg-EFP reliably predicts amygdala-blood oxygen level-dependent activity. Implementing the amyg-EFP in neurofeedback demonstrated that learned downregulation of the amyg-EFP facilitated volitional downregulation of amygdala-blood oxygen level-dependent activity via real-time fMRI and manifested as reduced amygdala reactivity to visual stimuli. Behavioral evidence further emphasized the therapeutic potential of this approach by showing improved implicit emotion regulation following amyg-EFP neurofeedback. Additional EFP models denoting different brain regions could provide a library of localized activity for low-cost and highly accessible brain-based diagnosis and treatment. PMID:26996601

  1. Spontaneous brain activity observed with functional magnetic resonance imaging as a potential biomarker in neuropsychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yuan; Wang, Kun; Liu, Yong; Song, Ming; Song, Sonya W.

    2010-01-01

    As functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have yielded increasing amounts of information about the brain’s spontaneous activity, they have revealed fMRI’s potential to locate changes in brain hemodynamics that are associated with neuropsychiatric disorders. In this paper, we review studies that support the notion that changes in brain spontaneous activity observed by fMRI can be used as potential biomarkers for diagnosis and treatment evaluation in neuropsychiatric disorders. We first review the methods used to study spontaneous activity from the perspectives of (1) the properties of local spontaneous activity, (2) the spatial pattern of spontaneous activity, and (3) the topological properties of brain networks. We also summarize the major findings associated with major neuropsychiatric disorders obtained using these methods. Then we review the pilot studies that have used spontaneous activity to discriminate patients from normal controls. Finally, we discuss current challenges and potential research directions to further elucidate the clinical use of spontaneous brain activity in neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:22132039

  2. Optimized multimodal functional magnetic resonance imaging/near-infrared spectroscopy probe for ultrahigh-resolution mapping.

    PubMed

    Hocke, Lia Maria; Cayetano, Kenroy; Tong, Yunjie; Frederick, Blaise

    2015-10-01

    Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is an increasingly important noninvasive method in neuroscience due to its high temporal resolution and ability to independently measure oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin. However, the relatively low spatial resolution of fNIRS makes it difficult to relate this signal to underlying anatomy. Simultaneous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) can complement fNIRS with superior spatial resolution and the ability to image the entire brain, providing additional information to improve fNIRS localization. However, current simultaneous fMRI/fNIRS acquisition methods are not optimal, due to the poor physical compatibility of existing MR coils and fNIRS optodes. Here, we present a technique to manufacture a true multimodal fMRI/fNIRS probe in which both modalities can be used with maximal sensitivity. To achieve this, we designed custom MR coils with integral fNIRS optodes using three-dimensional printing. This multimodal probe can be used to optimize spatial ([Formula: see text]) and temporal resolution (2.5 Hz) of fMRI, and it provides maximal MRI sensitivity, while allowing for high flexibility in the location and density of fNIRS optodes within the area of interest. Phantom and human data are shown to confirm the improvement in sensitivity in both modalities. This probe shows promise for addressing fundamental questions of the relation of fNIRS to physiology. PMID:26668816

  3. Antinociceptive activity of crotoxin in the central nervous system: a functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging study.

    PubMed

    Wolz-Richter, S; Esser, K-H; Hess, A

    2013-11-01

    Crotoxin, the main neurotoxic component of the venom of South American rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus terrificus), is reported to have potent antinociceptive activity. Several authors have shown mainly in behavioral pain models that crotoxin induces antinociceptive effects, supposed to be mediated by actions on the central nervous system. The antinociceptive effects of crotoxin (45 μg/kg ip) in rats were verified in this study by increased response latencies in a Hargreaves test and tail flick test. In addition, it was demonstrated that crotoxin does not lead to motor impairments during a rotarod test and open field test. The main objective, carried out by blood oxygen level dependent functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (BOLD fMRI) in anesthetized rats, was to determine which specific brain structures are involved in these antinociceptive effects. Moreover, potential antihyperalgesic effects were investigated by inducing a local hyperalgesia on the left hind paw. Therefore, antinociceptive effects (right paw) and antihyperalgesic effects (left paw) of crotoxin were able to be differentiated. As a result, crotoxin exhibited dominant antihyperalgesic but also antinociceptive effects during pain stimulation. Reductions of BOLD signal already occurred in brain input structures but were most prominent in primary and secondary somatosensory cortices. In conclusion, BOLD fMRI in anesthetized rats proved to be a helpful tool in toxinology, particularly in unraveled mechanisms of modulating nociception in the central nervous system by (potential) analgesics like crotoxin. PMID:23916599

  4. Attentional Modulation of Source Attribution in First-Episode Psychosis: A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

    PubMed Central

    Kambeitz-Ilankovic, Lana

    2013-01-01

    Background: In patients with schizophrenia, the misattribution of self-generated events to an external source is associated with the presence of psychotic symptoms. The aim of this study was to investigate how this misattribution is influenced by dysfunction of attentional processing, which is also impaired in schizophrenia. Methods: Participants underwent functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) while listening to prerecorded speech. Their expectancies were manipulated using visual cues that were either congruent (valid) or incongruent (invalid) with the speech. The source (self/other) and the acoustic quality (undistorted/distorted) of the speech were also manipulated. Twenty patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP) and 20 matched healthy controls (HC) were tested. Results: When listening to self-generated speech preceded by an invalid (other speech) cue, relative to HC, FEP patients showed a trend to misidentify their own speech as that of another person. Analysis of fMRI data showed that FEP patients had reduced activation in the right middle temporal gyrus (MTG) and left precuneus (Pc) relative to HC. Within the FEP group, the level of activation in the right MTG was negatively correlated with the severity of their positive psychotic symptoms. Conclusions: Impaired attentional modulation in schizophrenia may contribute to the tendency for FEP patients to misattribute the source of self-generated material, and this may be mediated by the right MTG and Pc, regions that are involved in both self-referential processing and the integration of sensory information. PMID:22987297

  5. Mapping quantal touch using 7 Tesla functional magnetic resonance imaging and single-unit intraneural microstimulation

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez Panchuelo, Rosa Maria; Ackerley, Rochelle; Glover, Paul M; Bowtell, Richard W; Wessberg, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Using ultra-high field 7 Tesla (7T) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we map the cortical and perceptual responses elicited by intraneural microstimulation (INMS) of single mechanoreceptive afferent units in the median nerve, in humans. Activations are compared to those produced by applying vibrotactile stimulation to the unit’s receptive field, and unit-type perceptual reports are analyzed. We show that INMS and vibrotactile stimulation engage overlapping areas within the topographically appropriate digit representation in the primary somatosensory cortex. Additional brain regions in bilateral secondary somatosensory cortex, premotor cortex, primary motor cortex, insula and posterior parietal cortex, as well as in contralateral prefrontal cortex are also shown to be activated in response to INMS. The combination of INMS and 7T fMRI opens up an unprecedented opportunity to bridge the gap between first-order mechanoreceptive afferent input codes and their spatial, dynamic and perceptual representations in human cortex. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12812.001 PMID:27154626

  6. Quantifying mixing using magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Tozzi, Emilio J; McCarthy, Kathryn L; Bacca, Lori A; Hartt, William H; McCarthy, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    Mixing is a unit operation that combines two or more components into a homogeneous mixture. This work involves mixing two viscous liquid streams using an in-line static mixer. The mixer is a split-and-recombine design that employs shear and extensional flow to increase the interfacial contact between the components. A prototype split-and-recombine (SAR) mixer was constructed by aligning a series of thin laser-cut Poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) plates held in place in a PVC pipe. Mixing in this device is illustrated in the photograph in Fig. 1. Red dye was added to a portion of the test fluid and used as the minor component being mixed into the major (undyed) component. At the inlet of the mixer, the injected layer of tracer fluid is split into two layers as it flows through the mixing section. On each subsequent mixing section, the number of horizontal layers is duplicated. Ultimately, the single stream of dye is uniformly dispersed throughout the cross section of the device. Using a non-Newtonian test fluid of 0.2% Carbopol and a doped tracer fluid of similar composition, mixing in the unit is visualized using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MRI is a very powerful experimental probe of molecular chemical and physical environment as well as sample structure on the length scales from microns to centimeters. This sensitivity has resulted in broad application of these techniques to characterize physical, chemical and/or biological properties of materials ranging from humans to foods to porous media (1, 2). The equipment and conditions used here are suitable for imaging liquids containing substantial amounts of NMR mobile (1)H such as ordinary water and organic liquids including oils. Traditionally MRI has utilized super conducting magnets which are not suitable for industrial environments and not portable within a laboratory (Fig. 2). Recent advances in magnet technology have permitted the construction of large volume industrially compatible magnets suitable for

  7. Quantifying Mixing using Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Tozzi, Emilio J.; McCarthy, Kathryn L.; Bacca, Lori A.; Hartt, William H.; McCarthy, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Mixing is a unit operation that combines two or more components into a homogeneous mixture. This work involves mixing two viscous liquid streams using an in-line static mixer. The mixer is a split-and-recombine design that employs shear and extensional flow to increase the interfacial contact between the components. A prototype split-and-recombine (SAR) mixer was constructed by aligning a series of thin laser-cut Poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) plates held in place in a PVC pipe. Mixing in this device is illustrated in the photograph in Fig. 1. Red dye was added to a portion of the test fluid and used as the minor component being mixed into the major (undyed) component. At the inlet of the mixer, the injected layer of tracer fluid is split into two layers as it flows through the mixing section. On each subsequent mixing section, the number of horizontal layers is duplicated. Ultimately, the single stream of dye is uniformly dispersed throughout the cross section of the device. Using a non-Newtonian test fluid of 0.2% Carbopol and a doped tracer fluid of similar composition, mixing in the unit is visualized using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MRI is a very powerful experimental probe of molecular chemical and physical environment as well as sample structure on the length scales from microns to centimeters. This sensitivity has resulted in broad application of these techniques to characterize physical, chemical and/or biological properties of materials ranging from humans to foods to porous media 1, 2. The equipment and conditions used here are suitable for imaging liquids containing substantial amounts of NMR mobile 1H such as ordinary water and organic liquids including oils. Traditionally MRI has utilized super conducting magnets which are not suitable for industrial environments and not portable within a laboratory (Fig. 2). Recent advances in magnet technology have permitted the construction of large volume industrially compatible magnets suitable for

  8. Magnetic Field Gradient Waveform Monitoring for Magnetic Resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Hui

    Linear magnetic field gradients have played a central role in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) since Fourier Transform MRI was proposed three decades ago. Their primary function is to encode spatial information into MR signals. Magnetic field gradients are also used to sensitize the image contrast to coherent and/or incoherent motion, to selectively enhance an MR signal, and to minimize image artifacts. Modern MR imaging techniques increasingly rely on the implementation of complex gradient waveforms for the manipulation of spin dynamics. However, gradient system infidelities caused by eddy currents, gradient amplifier imperfections and group delays, often result in image artifacts and other errors (e.g., phase and intensity errors). This remains a critical problem for a wide range of MRI techniques on modern commercial systems, but is of particular concern for advanced MRI pulse sequences. Measuring the real magnetic field gradients, i.e., characterizing eddy currents, is critical to addressing and remedying this problem. Gradient measurement and eddy current calibration are therefore a general topic of importance to the science of MRI. The Magnetic Field Gradient Monitor (MFGM) idea was proposed and developed specifically to meet these challenges. The MFGM method is the heart of this thesis. MFGM methods permit a variety of magnetic field gradient problems to be investigated and systematically remedied. Eddy current effects associated with MR compatible metallic pressure vessels were analyzed, simulated, measured and corrected. The appropriate correction of eddy currents may enable most MR/MRI applications with metallic pressure vessels. Quantitative imaging (1D/2D) with model pressure vessels was successfully achieved by combining image reconstruction with MFGM determined gradient waveform behaviour. Other categories of MR applications with metallic vessels, including diffusion measurement and spin echo SPI T2 mapping, cannot be realized solely by MFGM guided

  9. [fMRI study of deliberate deception].

    PubMed

    Kireev, M V; Korotkov, A D; Medvedev, C V

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present research was to study the deliberate deception. Event related functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) imaging technique was used to assess the changes in functional brain activity by virtue of recording blood oxygen level dependant signal (BOLD-signal). 12 right-handed healthy volunteers aged 19-44 participated in the study. BOLD images were acquired in three different experimental trials. There were deliberate deception, manipulative honest and control truthful trials (catch trials). The main finding of the present study is that the deliberate deception and manipulative honest actions in comparison with instructed truthful responding was characterized by BOLD signal increase within the anterior cingulated cortex (ACC), frontal and parietal areas as well. Comparison of present fMRI data with results demonstrated in our previous research implemented with event related potentials technique points to the involvement of the brain mechanism of error detection to brain processing of deliberate deception. PMID:22567835

  10. Influence of diazepam on clinically designed FMRI.

    PubMed

    Ragnehed, Mattias; Håkansson, Irene; Nilsson, Maritha; Lundberg, Peter; Söderfeldt, Birgitta; Engström, Maria

    2007-01-01

    The authors investigated the effect of diazepam on clinically relevant measures from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) examinations. Twenty volunteers were scanned twice. Using a double-blind randomized study design, the volunteers received placebo on one occasion, and on the other, 5 mg of diazepam. Three functional tests were used: motor, word generation, and working memory. Images were analyzed individually for each subject and the number of activated voxels and the laterality index were calculated. No significant effects related to the drug were detected. In contrast, the motor and working memory tasks showed a significant decrease in the number of activated voxels between Sessions 1 and 2, independently of diazepam administration. These results indicate that diazepam may be administered for premedication prior to fMRI investigations. PMID:17431063

  11. fMRI at High Spatial Resolution: Implications for BOLD-Models

    PubMed Central

    Goense, Jozien; Bohraus, Yvette; Logothetis, Nikos K.

    2016-01-01

    As high-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and fMRI of cortical layers become more widely used, the question how well high-resolution fMRI signals reflect the underlying neural processing, and how to interpret laminar fMRI data becomes more and more relevant. High-resolution fMRI has shown laminar differences in cerebral blood flow (CBF), volume (CBV), and neurovascular coupling. Features and processes that were previously lumped into a single voxel become spatially distinct at high resolution. These features can be vascular compartments such as veins, arteries, and capillaries, or cortical layers and columns, which can have differences in metabolism. Mesoscopic models of the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) response therefore need to be expanded, for instance, to incorporate laminar differences in the coupling between neural activity, metabolism and the hemodynamic response. Here we discuss biological and methodological factors that affect the modeling and interpretation of high-resolution fMRI data. We also illustrate with examples from neuropharmacology and the negative BOLD response how combining BOLD with CBF- and CBV-based fMRI methods can provide additional information about neurovascular coupling, and can aid modeling and interpretation of high-resolution fMRI. PMID:27445782

  12. fMRI at High Spatial Resolution: Implications for BOLD-Models.

    PubMed

    Goense, Jozien; Bohraus, Yvette; Logothetis, Nikos K

    2016-01-01

    As high-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and fMRI of cortical layers become more widely used, the question how well high-resolution fMRI signals reflect the underlying neural processing, and how to interpret laminar fMRI data becomes more and more relevant. High-resolution fMRI has shown laminar differences in cerebral blood flow (CBF), volume (CBV), and neurovascular coupling. Features and processes that were previously lumped into a single voxel become spatially distinct at high resolution. These features can be vascular compartments such as veins, arteries, and capillaries, or cortical layers and columns, which can have differences in metabolism. Mesoscopic models of the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) response therefore need to be expanded, for instance, to incorporate laminar differences in the coupling between neural activity, metabolism and the hemodynamic response. Here we discuss biological and methodological factors that affect the modeling and interpretation of high-resolution fMRI data. We also illustrate with examples from neuropharmacology and the negative BOLD response how combining BOLD with CBF- and CBV-based fMRI methods can provide additional information about neurovascular coupling, and can aid modeling and interpretation of high-resolution fMRI. PMID:27445782

  13. Tuning Coler Magnetic Current Apparatus with Magneto-Acoustic Resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludwig, Thorsten

    An attempt was made to tune the Coler magnetic current apparatus with the magneto acoustic resonance of the magnetic rods. Measurements with a replica of the famous Coler "Magnetstromapparat" were conducted. In order to tune the acoustic, magnetic and electric resonance circuits of the Coler device the magneto-acoustic resonance was measured with a frequency scan through a function generator and a lock-in amplifier. The frequency generator was powering a driving coil, while the lock-in was connected to a pickup coil. Both coils were placed on a magnetic rod. Resonances were observed up to the 17th harmonic. The quality Q of the observed resonances was 270. To study the magneto-acoustic resonance in the time domain a pair of Permendur rods were employed. The magneto-acoustic resonances of the Permendur rods were observed with an oscilloscope. Spectra of the magneto acoustic resonance were measured for the Permendur rods and for a Coler replica magnet in the frequency range from 25 kHz to 380 kHz. The next step was to bring the resonances of the Permendur rods close together so that they overlap. The 10thharmonic was chosen because it was close to the 180 kHz that Hans Coler related to ferromagnetism. Further more magneto-acoustic coupling between the Permendur rods was studied. Finally the question was explored if Hans Coler converted vacuum fluctuations via magnetic and acoustic resonance into electricity. There is a strong connection between magnetism and quantum field zero point energy (ZPE). An outlook is given on next steps in the experiments to unveil the working mechanism of the Coler magnetic current apparatus.

  14. Ferromagnetic Resonance Studies of Magnetic Recording Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yuwu

    1995-01-01

    Angular dependence of maximum remanence (ADMR) and/or x-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques have been used to determine particle orientation distributions for various recording media, including gamma -rm Fe_2O_3, Co- gamma-rm Fe_2O_3, CrO_2, Ba-ferrite, and MP tapes. A distribution of column directions for metal evaporated (ME) tape has been determined from transmission electron microscopy (TEM) pictures. However, the ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) results suggest a much more narrow distribution of magnetic anisotropy directions. For Ba-ferrite tapes, the distribution functions measured by ADMR are consistent with those by XRD if interparticle interactions are accounted for. The predetermined distribution function has been used to fit FMR spectra for the above tapes. Landau-Lifshitz damping constants have been measured with high accuracy for particulate recording media. An excellent correlation has been found between the damping constants and the switching constants for these media. The results suggest that the FMR technique may be useful in predicting the switching speed of particulate recording media. The FMR technique is also useful in looking for methods of increasing the damping constant of recording media. Possible methods of increasing the switching speed of Ba-ferrite media have been studied. The reduction of Ba-ferrite particles in a hydrogen atmosphere increases the damping constant significantly. It is predicted that reduced Ba-ferrite probably switches faster than ordinary Ba-ferrite. Qualitative discussions on the origin of damping for various recording media have been presented within the framework of magnon relaxation theory. The dependence of the damping constant on magnetic properties, such as particle orientation, media coercivity, and particle interactions are also discussed.

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging in cardiac amyloidosis

    SciTech Connect

    O'Donnell, J.K.; Go, R.T.; Bott-Silverman, C.; Feiglin, D.H.; Salcedo, E.; MacIntyre, W.J.

    1984-01-01

    Primary amyloidosis (AL) involves the myocardium in 90% of cases and may present as apparent ischemia, vascular disease, or congestive heart failure. Two-dimensional echocardiography (echo) has proven useful in the diagnosis, particularly in differentiating AL from constrictive pericarditis. The findings of thickened RV and LV myocardium, normal LV cavity dimension, and a diffuse hyperrefractile ''granular sparkling'' appearance are virtually diagnostic. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging may improve the resolution of anatomic changes seen in cardiac AL and has the potential to provide more specific information based on biochemical tissue alterations. In this preliminary study, the authors obtained both MR and echo images in six patients with AL and biopsy-proven myocardial involvement. 5/6 patients also had Tc-99 PYP myocardial studies including emission tomography (SPECT). MR studies utilized a 0.6 Tesla superconductive magnet. End diastolic gated images were obtained with TE=30msec and TR=R-R interval on the ECG. 6/6 pts. showed LV wall thickening which was concentric and included the septum. Papillary muscles were identified in all and were enlarged in 3/6. 4/6 pts. showed RV wall thickening but to a lesser degree than LV. Pericardial effusions were present in 4 cases. These findings correlated well with the results of echo although MR gave better RV free wall resolution. PYP scans were positive in 3 pts. but there was no correlation with degree of LV thickening. The authors conclude that there are no identifiable MR findings in patients with cardiac AL which encourage further attempts to characterize myocardial involvement by measurement of MR relaxation times in vivo.

  16. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy in congenital heart disease.

    PubMed Central

    Miall-Allen, V. M.; Kemp, G. J.; Rajagopalan, B.; Taylor, D. J.; Radda, G. K.; Haworth, S. G.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the feasibility of studying myocardial and skeletal muscle bioenergetics using 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in babies and young children with congenital heart disease. SUBJECTS: 16 control subjects aged 5 months to 24 years and 18 patients with CHD, aged 7 months to 23 years, of whom 11 had cyanotic CHD, five had cardiac failure, and two had had a Senning procedure. DESIGN: 31P MRS was carried out using a 1.9 Tesla horizontal 65 cm bore whole body magnet to study the myocardium in 10 patients and skeletal muscle (gastrocnemius) in 14 patients, eight of whom were exercised, together with appropriate controls. RESULTS: In hypoxaemic patients, in skeletal muscle at rest intracellular pH (pHi) was abnormally high [7.06 (SEM 0.04) v 7.04 (0.05), P < 0.01] and showed a positive correlation with haemoglobin (P < 0.03). On exercise, hypoxaemic patients fatigued more quickly but end-exercise pHi and phosphocreatine recovery were normal, implying that an equivalent but smaller amount of work had been performed. End-exercise ADP concentration was lower. On recovery, the initial rate of phosphocreatine resynthesis was low. Skeletal muscle bioenergetics were within normal limits in those in heart failure. In the myocardium, the phosphocreatine/ATP ratio was similar in controls and hypoxaemic subjects, but low in those in heart failure. CONCLUSIONS: In heart failure, the myocardial phosphocreatine/ATP ratio was reduced, as in adults, while resting skeletal muscle studies were normal. By contrast, hypoxaemic children had normal myocardial bioenergetics, but showed skeletal muscle alkalinity, and energy reserves were more readily depleted on exercise. On recovery, the initially slow phosphocreatine resynthesis rate reflects a low rate of mitochondrial ATP synthesis, probably due to an inadequate oxygen supply. 31P MRS offers a safe, non-invasive method of studying myocardial and skeletal muscle bioenergetics in children as young as 5 months

  17. Real-time magnetic resonance imaging investigation of resonance tuning in soprano singing.

    PubMed

    Bresch, Erik; Narayanan, Shrikanth

    2010-11-01

    This article investigates using real-time magnetic resonance imaging the vocal tract shaping of 5 soprano singers during the production of two-octave scales of sung vowels. A systematic shift of the first vocal tract resonance frequency with respect to the fundamental is shown to exist for high vowels across all subjects. No consistent systematic effect on the vocal tract resonance could be shown across all of the subjects for other vowels or for the second vocal tract resonance. PMID:21110548

  18. Size Dependence of Ferromagnetic Resonance Frequency in Submicron Patterned Magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manago, Takashi; Yamanoi, Kazuto; Yakata, Satoshi; Kimura, Takashi

    2013-05-01

    We investigated the size effect on ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) in a submicron-wide single permalloy bar. The resonant frequency markedly increased with decreasing bar width to less than 1 µm, since the demagnetizing field is effectively modified by changing the bar width even in thin films. The resonant frequency difference between 100- and 1000-nm-wide bars was over 4 GHz in the absence of a magnetic field. This characteristic is promising for practical microwave devices because the desired resonant frequency can be obtained simply by varying the width of narrow ferromagnetic bars so that it is not necessary to change the material or magnetic field.

  19. Using fMRI to study reward processing in humans: past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kainan S; Smith, David V; Delgado, Mauricio R

    2016-03-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a noninvasive tool used to probe cognitive and affective processes. Although fMRI provides indirect measures of neural activity, the advent of fMRI has allowed for1) the corroboration of significant animal findings in the human brain, and2) the expansion of models to include more common human attributes that inform behavior. In this review, we briefly consider the neural basis of the blood oxygenation level dependent signal to set up a discussion of how fMRI studies have applied it in examining cognitive models in humans and the promise of using fMRI to advance such models. Specifically, we illustrate the contribution that fMRI has made to the study of reward processing, focusing on the role of the striatum in encoding reward-related learning signals that drive anticipatory and consummatory behaviors. For instance, we discuss how fMRI can be used to link neural signals (e.g., striatal responses to rewards) to individual differences in behavior and traits. While this functional segregation approach has been constructive to our understanding of reward-related functions, many fMRI studies have also benefitted from a functional integration approach that takes into account how interconnected regions (e.g., corticostriatal circuits) contribute to reward processing. We contend that future work using fMRI will profit from using a multimodal approach, such as combining fMRI with noninvasive brain stimulation tools (e.g., transcranial electrical stimulation), that can identify causal mechanisms underlying reward processing. Consequently, advancements in implementing fMRI will promise new translational opportunities to inform our understanding of psychopathologies. PMID:26740530

  20. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometric assay of beta-lactamase.

    PubMed Central

    Kono, M; O'Hara, K; Shiomi, Y

    1980-01-01

    Beta-Lactam antibiotics and the crude enzyme were mixed in deuterium oxide and placed in a nuclear magnetic resonance tube. The change of the nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum during the enzymatic reaction was then analyzed to determine beta-lactamase activity. By using beta-lactam antibiotics such as penicillins, cephalosporins, and cephamycins as substrates, a comparison of the beta-lactamase activities was made between the nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometric assay and the iodometric assay. There was a close correlation between these two methods. PMID:6986114

  1. Advances in cardiac magnetic resonance imaging of congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Driessen, Mieke M P; Breur, Johannes M P J; Budde, Ricardo P J; van Oorschot, Joep W M; van Kimmenade, Roland R J; Sieswerda, Gertjan Tj; Meijboom, Folkert J; Leiner, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Due to advances in cardiac surgery, survival of patients with congenital heart disease has increased considerably during the past decades. Many of these patients require repeated cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging to assess cardiac anatomy and function. In the past decade, technological advances have enabled faster and more robust cardiovascular magnetic resonance with improved image quality and spatial as well as temporal resolution. This review aims to provide an overview of advances in cardiovascular magnetic resonance hardware and acquisition techniques relevant to both pediatric and adult patients with congenital heart disease and discusses the techniques used to assess function, anatomy, flow and tissue characterization. PMID:25552386

  2. Fetal magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Wataganara, Tuangsit; Ebrashy, Alaa; Aliyu, Labaran Dayyabu; Moreira de Sa, Renato Augusto; Pooh, Ritsuko; Kurjak, Asim; Sen, Cihat; Adra, Abdallah; Stanojevic, Milan

    2016-07-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been increasingly adopted in obstetrics practice in the past three decades. MRI aids prenatal ultrasound and improves diagnostic accuracy for selected maternal and fetal conditions. However, it should be considered only when high-quality ultrasound cannot provide certain information that affects the counseling, prenatal intervention, pregnancy course, and delivery plan. Major indications of fetal MRI include, but are not restricted to, morbidly adherent placenta, selected cases of fetal brain anomalies, thoracic lesions (especially in severe congenital diaphragmatic hernia), and soft tissue tumors at head and neck regions of the fetus. For fetal anatomy assessment, a 1.5-Tesla machine with a fast T2-weighted single-shot technique is recommended for image requisition of common fetal abnormalities. Individual judgment needs to be applied when considering usage of a 3-Tesla machine. Gadolinium MRI contrast is not recommended during pregnancy. MRI should be avoided in the first half of pregnancy due to small fetal structures and motion artifacts. Assessment of fetal cerebral cortex can be achieved with MRI in the third trimester. MRI is a viable research tool for noninvasive interrogation of the fetus and the placenta. PMID:27092644

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging structured reporting in infertility.

    PubMed

    Montoliu-Fornas, Guillermina; Martí-Bonmatí, Luis

    2016-06-01

    Our objective was to define and propose a standardized magnetic resonance (MR) imaging structured report in patients with infertility to have clinical completeness on possible diagnosis and severity. Patients should be studied preferable on 3T equipment with a surface coil. Standard MR protocol should include high-resolution fast spin-echo T2-weighted, diffusion-weighted images and gradient-echo T1-weighted fat suppression images. The report should include ovaries (polycystic, endometrioma, tumor), oviduct (hydrosalpinx, hematosalpinx, pyosalpinx, peritubal anomalies), uterus (agenesia, hypoplasia, unicornuate, uterus didelphys, bicornuate, septate uterus), myometrium (leiomyomas, adenomyosis), endometrium (polyps, synechia, atrophy, neoplasia), cervix and vagina (isthmoceles, mucosal-parietal irregularity, stenosis, neoplasia), peritoneum (deep endometriosis), and urinary system-associated abnormalities. To be clinically useful, radiology reports must be structured, use standardized terminology, and convey actionable information. The structured report must comprise complete, comprehensive, and accurate information, allowing radiologists to continuously interact with patients and referring physicians to confirm that the information is used properly to affect the decision making process. PMID:27105717

  4. Vibration safety limits for magnetic resonance elastography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehman, E. C.; Rossman, P. J.; Kruse, S. A.; Sahakian, A. V.; Glaser, K. J.

    2008-02-01

    Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) has been demonstrated to have potential as a clinical tool for assessing the stiffness of tissue in vivo. An essential step in MRE is the generation of acoustic mechanical waves within a tissue via a coupled mechanical driver. Motivated by an increasing volume of human imaging trials using MRE, the objectives of this study were to audit the vibration amplitude of exposure for our IRB-approved human MRE studies, to compare these values to a conservative regulatory standard for vibrational exposure and to evaluate the applicability and implications of this standard for MRE. MRE displacement data were examined from 29 MRE exams, including the liver, brain, kidney, breast and skeletal muscle. Vibrational acceleration limits from a European Union directive limiting occupational exposure to whole-body and extremity vibrations (EU 2002/44/EC) were adjusted for time and frequency of exposure, converted to maximum displacement values and compared to the measured in vivo displacements. The results indicate that the vibrational amplitudes used in MRE studies are below the EU whole-body vibration limit, and the EU guidelines represent a useful standard that could be readily accepted by Institutional Review Boards to define standards for vibrational exposures for MRE studies in humans.

  5. Segmentation of neuroanatomy in magnetic resonance images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, Andrew; Arridge, Simon R.; Barker, G. J.; Tofts, Paul S.

    1992-06-01

    Segmentation in neurological magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is necessary for feature extraction, volume measurement and for the three-dimensional display of neuroanatomy. Automated and semi-automated methods offer considerable advantages over manual methods because of their lack of subjectivity, their data reduction capabilities, and the time savings they give. We have used dual echo multi-slice spin-echo data sets which take advantage of the intrinsically multispectral nature of MRI. As a pre-processing step, a rf non-uniformity correction is applied and if the data is noisy the images are smoothed using a non-isotropic blurring method. Edge-based processing is used to identify the skin (the major outer contour) and the eyes. Edge-focusing has been used to significantly simplify edge images and thus allow simple postprocessing to pick out the brain contour in each slice of the data set. Edge- focusing is a technique which locates significant edges using a high degree of smoothing at a coarse level and tracks these edges to a fine level where the edges can be determined with high positional accuracy. Both 2-D and 3-D edge-detection methods have been compared. Once isolated, the brain is further processed to identify CSF, and, depending upon the MR pulse sequence used, the brain itself may be sub-divided into gray matter and white matter using semi-automatic contrast enhancement and clustering methods.

  6. Progesterone-Targeted Magnetic Resonance Imaging Probes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Determination of progesterone receptor (PR) status in hormone-dependent diseases is essential in ascertaining disease prognosis and monitoring treatment response. The development of a noninvasive means of monitoring these processes would have significant impact on early detection, cost, repeated measurements, and personalized treatment options. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is widely recognized as a technique that can produce longitudinal studies, and PR-targeted MR probes may address a clinical problem by providing contrast enhancement that reports on PR status without biopsy. Commercially available MR contrast agents are typically delivered via intravenous injection, whereas steroids are administered subcutaneously. Whether the route of delivery is important for tissue accumulation of steroid-modified MRI contrast agents to PR-rich tissues is not known. To address this question, modification of the chemistry linking progesterone with the gadolinium chelate led to MR probes with increased water solubility and lower cellular toxicity and enabled administration through the blood. This attribute came at a cost through lower affinity for PR and decreased ability to cross the cell membrane, and ultimately it did not improve delivery of the PR-targeted MR probe to PR-rich tissues or tumors in vivo. Overall, these studies are important, as they demonstrate that targeted contrast agents require optimization of delivery and receptor binding of the steroid and the gadolinium chelate for optimal translation in vivo. PMID:25019183

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging of the kidneys

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, A.W.L.; Bydder, G.M.; Steinter, R.E.; Bryant, D.J.; Young, I.R.

    1984-12-01

    A study of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearance of the kidneys in six normal volunteers and 52 patients is reported. Corticomedullary differentiation was seen with the inversion-recovery (IR 1400/400) sequence in the normal volunteers and in patients with functioning transplanted kidneys and acute tubular necrosis. Partial or total loss of corticomedullary differentiation was seen in glomerulonephritis, acute and chronic renal failure, renal artery stenosis, and transplant rejection. The T1 of the kidneys was increased in glomerulonephritis with neuphrotic syndrome, but the T1 was within the normal range for renal medulla in glomerulonephritis without nephrotic syndrome, renal artery stenosis, and chronic renal failure. A large staghorn calculus was demonstrated with MRI, but small calculi were not seen. Fluid within the hydonephrosis, simple renal cysts, and polycystic kidneys displayed very low signal intensity and long T1 values. Tumors displayed varied appearances. Hypernephromas were shown to be hypo- or hyperintense with the renal medulla on the IR 1400/400 sequence. After intravenous injection of gadolinium-DTPA, there was marked decrease in the tumor T1.

  8. TOPICAL REVIEW: Endovascular interventional magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartels, L. W.; Bakker, C. J. G.

    2003-07-01

    Minimally invasive interventional radiological procedures, such as balloon angioplasty, stent placement or coiling of aneurysms, play an increasingly important role in the treatment of patients suffering from vascular disease. The non-destructive nature of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), its ability to combine the acquisition of high quality anatomical images and functional information, such as blood flow velocities, perfusion and diffusion, together with its inherent three dimensionality and tomographic imaging capacities, have been advocated as advantages of using the MRI technique for guidance of endovascular radiological interventions. Within this light, endovascular interventional MRI has emerged as an interesting and promising new branch of interventional radiology. In this review article, the authors will give an overview of the most important issues related to this field. In this context, we will focus on the prerequisites for endovascular interventional MRI to come to maturity. In particular, the various approaches for device tracking that were proposed will be discussed and categorized. Furthermore, dedicated MRI systems, safety and compatibility issues and promising applications that could become clinical practice in the future will be discussed.

  9. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging of the kidney

    SciTech Connect

    Hricak, H.; Crooks, L.; Sheldon, P.; Kaufman, L.

    1983-02-01

    The role of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging of the kidney was analyzed in 18 persons (6 normal volunteers, 3 patients with pelvocaliectasis, 2 with peripelvic cysts, 1 with renal sinus lipomatosis, 3 with renal failure, 1 with glycogen storage disease, and 2 with polycystic kidney disease). Ultrasound and/or computed tomography (CT) studies were available for comparison in every case. In the normal kidney distinct anatomical structures were clearly differentiated by NMR. The best anatomical detail ws obtained with spin echo (SE) imaging, using a pulse sequence interval of 1,000 msec and an echo delay time of 28 msec. However, in the evaluation of normal and pathological conditions, all four intensity images (SE 500/28, SE 500/56, SE 1,000/28, and SE 1,000/56) have to be analyzed. No definite advantage was found in using SE imaging with a pulse sequence interval of 1,500 msec. Inversion recovery imaging enhanced the differences between the cortex and medulla, but it had a low signal-to-noise level and, therefore, a suboptimal overall resolution. The advantages of NMR compared with CT and ultrasound are discussed, and it is concluded that NMR imaging will prove to be a useful modality in the evaluation of renal disease.

  10. Stereotactic localization using magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Walton, L; Hampshire, A; Forster, D M; Kemeny, A A

    1995-01-01

    A phantom study has been carried out to assess the accuracy of stereotactic localisation, using magnetic resonance imaging. The stereotactic coordinates of an array of Perspex rods within the phantom were determined and compared with measured values, in a series of transverse, coronal and sagittal images. In the transverse plane, the maximum errors experienced were X = 2.3 mm and Y = 10.7 mm. If the third fiducial plate, at the front of the frame, were not used in the scaling of the images, there was considerable improvement in the Y direction (maximum error Y = 2.1 mm). However, some deterioration in the accuracy in the X direction resulted, particularly at the extremes of Z (maximum error X = 3.5 mm). In the coronal plane, the maximum errors were X = 1.8 mm and Z = 8.0 mm. With the third plate off, the errors decreased to X = 1.9 mm and Z = 3.3 mm. In the sagittal plane, the maximum errors recorded were Y = 1.1 mm and Z = 7.5 mm. It is not possible to calibrate in this plane without the third plate. PMID:8584823

  11. Compression-sensitive magnetic resonance elastography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirsch, Sebastian; Beyer, Frauke; Guo, Jing; Papazoglou, Sebastian; Tzschaetzsch, Heiko; Braun, Juergen; Sack, Ingolf

    2013-08-01

    Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) quantifies the shear modulus of biological tissue to detect disease. Complementary to the shear elastic properties of tissue, the compression modulus may be a clinically useful biomarker because it is sensitive to tissue pressure and poromechanical interactions. In this work, we analyze the capability of MRE to measure volumetric strain and the dynamic bulk modulus (P-wave modulus) at a harmonic drive frequency commonly used in shear-wave-based MRE. Gel phantoms with various densities were created by introducing CO2-filled cavities to establish a compressible effective medium. The dependence of the effective medium's bulk modulus on phantom density was investigated via static compression tests, which confirmed theoretical predictions. The P-wave modulus of three compressible phantoms was calculated from volumetric strain measured by 3D wave-field MRE at 50 Hz drive frequency. The results demonstrate the MRE-derived volumetric strain and P-wave modulus to be sensitive to the compression properties of effective media. Since the reconstruction of the P-wave modulus requires third-order derivatives, noise remains critical, and P-wave moduli are systematically underestimated. Focusing on relative changes in the effective bulk modulus of tissue, compression-sensitive MRE may be useful for the noninvasive detection of diseases involving pathological pressure alterations such as hepatic hypertension or hydrocephalus.

  12. Magnetic resonance--guided musculoskeletal interventional radiology.

    PubMed

    Carrino, John A; Blanco, Roberto

    2006-06-01

    As an imaging modality, magnetic resonance (MR) guidance has great potential to direct diagnostic and therapeutic procedures performed in the musculoskeletal region and influence patient management. MR-guided interventional procedures involving bone, soft tissue, intervertebral discs, and joints are safe and sufficiently effective for use in clinical practice. This article discusses and illustrates the procedural characteristics and techniques when performing MR-guided musculoskeletal interventions. Biopsy procedures are similar to other modalities for bone and soft tissue lesions. MR guidance is advantageous if the lesion is not visible by other modalities and for regions adjacent to hardware and implants, subselective targeting, intra-articular locations, and periarticular cyst aspiration. MR guidance has also been used for a host of spine injections and pain management procedures such as sacroiliac joint injections, discography, transforaminal epidural injection, selective nerve block, sympathetic block, celiac plexus block, and facet joint cryotherapy neurotomies. Future directions of clinical applications include tumor ablation and multimodality procedure suites. MR-guided musculoskeletal procedures will continue to be a growth area particularly for the diagnosis and treatment of bone and soft tissue neoplasia. PMID:16586322

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging: present and future applications

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Donald L.; Liu, Peter; Wismer, Gary L.; Rosen, Bruce R.; Stark, David D.; New, Paul F.J.; Okada, Robert D.; Brady, Thomas J.

    1985-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has created considerable excitement in the medical community, largely because of its great potential to diagnose and characterize many different disease processes. However, it is becoming increasingly evident that, because MR imaging is similar to computed tomography (CT) scanning in identifying structural disorders and because it is more costly and difficult to use, this highly useful technique must be judged against CT before it can become an accepted investigative tool. At present MR imaging has demonstrated diagnostic superiority over CT in a limited number of important, mostly neurologic, disorders and is complementary to CT in the diagnosis of certain other disorders. For most of the remaining organ systems its usefulness is not clear, but the lack of ionizing radiation and MR's ability to produce images in any tomographic plane may eventually prove to be advantageous. The potential of MR imaging to display in-vivo spectra, multinuclear images and blood-flow data makes it an exciting investigative technique. At present, however, MR imaging units should be installed only in medical centres equipped with the clinical and basic research facilities that are essential to evaluate the ultimate role of this technique in the care of patients. ImagesFig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14 PMID:3884120

  14. [Magnetic resonance angiography of the renal arteries].

    PubMed

    Matos, C; Metens, T; Nicaise, N; Golzarian, J; Dussaussois, L; Struyven, J

    1999-09-01

    Initially, the clinical use of magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) in the abdomen has been restricted because of motion and flow related artifacts. The advent of high performance gradient systems made possible the development of 3D gadolinium-enhanced MRA techniques and expanded the clinical applications of MRA into the abdominal area, particularly for the investigation of renal arteries. This technique is safe, because the administered contrast agent (gadolinium) is free of clinically detectable nephrotoxicity and has a low incidence of allergic reactions. Moreover, contrast MRA also eliminates the risks of ionizing radiation which allows repeating the examination without the accumulation of radiation exposure. The main disadvantages of the technique are its low availability and the fact that the use of contrast agents for this procedure is still not reimbursed by the social security. Many studies demonstrated that contrast MRA allows for the reliable assessment of renal artery morphology and pathologic states. Furthermore, within a single MR examination a comprehensive approach including renal artery morphology, hemodynamic significance of any stenosis and kidney perfusion is available. In this paper, we provide a review of the literature concerning the clinical performance of contrast MRA for the renal arteries and suggest its rationale for the investigation of patients suspected of renovascular disease in our specific environment. PMID:10523920

  15. Compression-sensitive magnetic resonance elastography.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, Sebastian; Beyer, Frauke; Guo, Jing; Papazoglou, Sebastian; Tzschaetzsch, Heiko; Braun, Juergen; Sack, Ingolf

    2013-08-01

    Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) quantifies the shear modulus of biological tissue to detect disease. Complementary to the shear elastic properties of tissue, the compression modulus may be a clinically useful biomarker because it is sensitive to tissue pressure and poromechanical interactions. In this work, we analyze the capability of MRE to measure volumetric strain and the dynamic bulk modulus (P-wave modulus) at a harmonic drive frequency commonly used in shear-wave-based MRE. Gel phantoms with various densities were created by introducing CO2-filled cavities to establish a compressible effective medium. The dependence of the effective medium's bulk modulus on phantom density was investigated via static compression tests, which confirmed theoretical predictions. The P-wave modulus of three compressible phantoms was calculated from volumetric strain measured by 3D wave-field MRE at 50 Hz drive frequency. The results demonstrate the MRE-derived volumetric strain and P-wave modulus to be sensitive to the compression properties of effective media. Since the reconstruction of the P-wave modulus requires third-order derivatives, noise remains critical, and P-wave moduli are systematically underestimated. Focusing on relative changes in the effective bulk modulus of tissue, compression-sensitive MRE may be useful for the noninvasive detection of diseases involving pathological pressure alterations such as hepatic hypertension or hydrocephalus. PMID:23852144

  16. Scatter-based magnetic resonance elastography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papazoglou, Sebastian; Xu, Chao; Hamhaber, Uwe; Siebert, Eberhard; Bohner, Georg; Klingebiel, Randolf; Braun, Jürgen; Sack, Ingolf

    2009-04-01

    Elasticity is a sensitive measure of the microstructural constitution of soft biological tissues and increasingly used in diagnostic imaging. Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) uniquely allows in vivo measurement of the shear elasticity of brain tissue. However, the spatial resolution of MRE is inherently limited as the transformation of shear wave patterns into elasticity maps requires the solution of inverse problems. Therefore, an MRE method is introduced that avoids inversion and instead exploits shear wave scattering at elastic interfaces between anatomical regions of different shear compliance. This compliance-weighted imaging (CWI) method can be used to evaluate the mechanical consistency of cerebral lesions or to measure relative stiffness differences between anatomical subregions of the brain. It is demonstrated that CWI-MRE is sensitive enough to reveal significant elasticity variations within inner brain parenchyma: the caudate nucleus (head) was stiffer than the lentiform nucleus and the thalamus by factors of 1.3 ± 0.1 and 1.7 ± 0.2, respectively (P < 0.001). CWI-MRE provides a unique method for characterizing brain tissue by identifying local stiffness variations.

  17. Magnetic Resonance Angiography of the Aorta

    PubMed Central

    Takehara, Yasuo; Yamashita, Shuhei; Sakahara, Harumi; Masui, Takayuki; Isoda, Haruo

    2011-01-01

    Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) is capable of imaging arteries in the half to whole body by a single acquisition without a nephrotoxic contrast medium, and acquired images can be reconstructed into a specific cross-sectional view in an arbitrary directions. MRA is applicable for vessels non-reachable by a catheter approach, and collateral vessels can be fully visualized. Since MRA is minimally-invasive with no exposure to ionized radiation, it can be repeatedly applied for follow-up. However, there are also disadvantages: the temporal and spatial resolutions are inferior to those of X-ray angiography, and, at present, it cannot be used as a guide for intervention. Moreover, gadolinium administrations may cause NSF in patients who have lost renal function, as a new risk. Accordingly, strict consideration is required for an indication of its application. Development of non-contrast MRA and evaluation of the wall itself may draw more attention in the future. Plaque imaging is being routinely performed nowadays, and the measurement of vascular wall shear stress, which has a close association with arteriosclerosis, may become possible by utilizing the time-resolved phase-contrast method capable of measuring the time-resolved velocity vectors of blood flow throughout the body. (*English Translation of J Jpn Coll Angiol, 2009, 49: 503-516.) PMID:23555465

  18. Magnetic Resonance Elastography: Inversions in Bounded Media

    PubMed Central

    Kolipaka, Arunark; McGee, Kiaran P.; Manduca, Armando; Romano, Anthony J.; Glaser, Kevin J.; Araoz, Philip A.; Ehman, Richard L.

    2009-01-01

    Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) is a noninvasive imaging technique capable of quantifying and spatially resolving the shear stiffness of soft tissues by visualization of synchronized mechanical wave displacement fields. However, MRE inversions generally assume that the measured tissue motion consists primarily of shear waves propagating in a uniform, infinite medium. This assumption is not valid in organs such as the heart, eye, bladder, skin, fascia, bone and spinal cord in which the shear wavelength approaches the geometric dimensions of the object. The aim of this study was to develop and test mathematical inversion algorithms capable of resolving shear stiffness from displacement maps of flexural waves propagating in bounded media such as beams, plates and spherical shells using geometry-specific equations of motion. MRE and finite element modeling (FEM) of beam, plate, and spherical shell phantoms of various geometries were performed. Mechanical testing of the phantoms agreed with the stiffness values obtained from FEM and MRE data and a linear correlation of r2 ≥ 0.99 was observed between the stiffness values obtained using MRE and FEM data. In conclusion, we have demonstrated new inversion methods for calculating shear stiffness that may be more appropriate for waves propagating in bounded media. PMID:19780146

  19. Magnetic Resonance Imaging at Ultrahigh Fields

    PubMed Central

    Uğurbil, Kamil

    2014-01-01

    Since the introduction of 4 T human systems in three academic laboratories circa 1990, rapid progress in imaging and spectroscopy studies in humans at 4 T and animal model systems at 9.4 T have led to the introduction of 7 T and higher magnetic fields for human investigation at about the turn of the century. Work conducted on these platforms has demonstrated the existence of significant advantages in SNR and biological information content at these ultrahigh fields, as well as the presence of numerous challenges. Primary difference from lower fields is the deviation from the near field regime; at the frequencies corresponding to hydrogen resonance conditions at ultrahigh fields, the RF is characterized by attenuated traveling waves in the human body, which leads to image nonuniformities for a given sample-coil configuration because of interferences. These nonuniformities were considered detrimental to the progress of imaging at high field strengths. However, they are advantageous for parallel imaging for signal reception and parallel transmission, two critical technologies that account, to a large extend, for the success of ultrahigh fields. With these technologies, and improvements in instrumentation and imaging methods, ultra-high fields have provided unprecedented gains in imaging of brain function and anatomy, and started to make inroads into investigation of the human torso and extremities. As extensive as they are, these gains still constitute a prelude to what is to come given the increasingly larger effort committed to ultrahigh field research and development of ever better instrumentation and techniques. PMID:24686229

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging in brachial plexus injury.

    PubMed

    Caranci, F; Briganti, F; La Porta, M; Antinolfi, G; Cesarano, E; Fonio, P; Brunese, L; Coppolino, F

    2013-08-01

    Brachial plexus injury represents the most severe nerve injury of the extremities. While obstetric brachial plexus injury has showed a reduction in the number of cases due to the improvements in obstetric care, brachial plexus injury in the adult is an increasingly common clinical problem. The therapeutic measures depend on the pathologic condition and the location of the injury: Preganglionic avulsions are usually not amenable to surgical repair; function of some denervated muscles can be restored with nerve transfers from intercostals or accessory nerves and contralateral C7 transfer. Postganglionic avulsions are repaired with excision of the damaged segment and nerve autograft between nerve ends or followed up conservatively. Magnetic resonance imaging is the modality of choice for depicting the anatomy and pathology of the brachial plexus: It demonstrates the location of the nerve damage (crucial for optimal treatment planning), depicts the nerve continuity (with or without neuroma formation), or may show a completely disrupted/avulsed nerve, thereby aiding in nerve-injury grading for preoperative planning. Computed tomography myelography has the advantage of a higher spatial resolution in demonstration of nerve roots compared with MR myelography; however, it is invasive and shows some difficulties in the depiction of some pseudomeningoceles with little or no communication with the dural sac. PMID:23949940

  1. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Pituitary Tumors.

    PubMed

    Bonneville, Jean-François

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is currently considered a major keystone of the diagnosis of diseases of the hypothalamic-hypophyseal region. However, the relatively small size of the pituitary gland, its location deep at the skull base and the numerous physiological variants present in this area impede the precise assessment of the anatomical structures and, particularly, of the pituitary gland itself. The diagnosis of the often tiny lesions of this region--such as pituitary microadenomas--is then difficult if the MRI technology is not optimized and if potential artifacts and traps are not recognized. Advanced MRI technology can not only depict small lesions with greater reliability, but also help in the differential diagnosis of large tumors. In these, defining the presence or absence of invasion is a particularly important task. This review describes and illustrates the radiological diagnosis of the different tumors of the sellar region, from the common prolactinomas, nonfunctioning adenomas and Rathke's cleft cysts, to the less frequent and more difficult to detect corticotroph pituitary adenomas in Cushing's disease, and other neoplastic and nonneoplastic entities. Finally, some hints are given to facilitate the differential diagnosis of sellar lesions. PMID:27003878

  2. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Cartilage Repair

    PubMed Central

    Trattnig, Siegfried; Winalski, Carl S.; Marlovits, Stephan; Jurvelin, Jukka S.; Welsch, Goetz H.; Potter, Hollis G.

    2011-01-01

    Articular cartilage lesions are a common pathology of the knee joint, and many patients may benefit from cartilage repair surgeries that offer the chance to avoid the development of osteoarthritis or delay its progression. Cartilage repair surgery, no matter the technique, requires a noninvasive, standardized, and high-quality longitudinal method to assess the structure of the repair tissue. This goal is best fulfilled by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The present article provides an overview of the current state of the art of MRI of cartilage repair. In the first 2 sections, preclinical and clinical MRI of cartilage repair tissue are described with a focus on morphological depiction of cartilage and the use of functional (biochemical) MR methodologies for the visualization of the ultrastructure of cartilage repair. In the third section, a short overview is provided on the regulatory issues of the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Medicines Agency (EMEA) regarding MR follow-up studies of patients after cartilage repair surgeries. PMID:26069565

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging of benign prostatic hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Guneyli, Serkan; Ward, Emily; Thomas, Stephen; Yousuf, Ambereen Nehal; Trilisky, Igor; Peng, Yahui; Antic, Tatjana; Oto, Aytekin

    2016-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common condition in middle-aged and older men and negatively affects the quality of life. An ultrasound classification for BPH based on a previous pathologic classification was reported, and the types of BPH were classified according to different enlargement locations in the prostate. Afterwards, this classification was demonstrated using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The classification of BPH is important, as patients with different types of BPH can have different symptoms and treatment options. BPH types on MRI are as follows: type 0, an equal to or less than 25 cm3 prostate showing little or no zonal enlargements; type 1, bilateral transition zone (TZ) enlargement; type 2, retrourethral enlargement; type 3, bilateral TZ and retrourethral enlargement; type 4, pedunculated enlargement; type 5, pedunculated with bilateral TZ and/or retrourethral enlargement; type 6, subtrigonal or ectopic enlargement; type 7, other combinations of enlargements. We retrospectively evaluated MRI images of BPH patients who were histologically diagnosed and presented the different types of BPH on MRI. MRI, with its advantage of multiplanar imaging and superior soft tissue contrast resolution, can be used in BPH patients for differentiation of BPH from prostate cancer, estimation of zonal and entire prostatic volumes, determination of the stromal/glandular ratio, detection of the enlargement locations, and classification of BPH types which may be potentially helpful in choosing the optimal treatment. PMID:27015442

  4. Compressed Sensing for fMRI: Feasibility Study on the Acceleration of Non-EPI fMRI at 9.4T

    PubMed Central

    Han, Paul Kyu; Park, Sung-Hong; Kim, Seong-Gi; Ye, Jong Chul

    2015-01-01

    Conventional functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) technique known as gradient-recalled echo (GRE) echo-planar imaging (EPI) is sensitive to image distortion and degradation caused by local magnetic field inhomogeneity at high magnetic fields. Non-EPI sequences such as spoiled gradient echo and balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) have been proposed as an alternative high-resolution fMRI technique; however, the temporal resolution of these sequences is lower than the typically used GRE-EPI fMRI. One potential approach to improve the temporal resolution is to use compressed sensing (CS). In this study, we tested the feasibility of k-t FOCUSS—one of the high performance CS algorithms for dynamic MRI—for non-EPI fMRI at 9.4T using the model of rat somatosensory stimulation. To optimize the performance of CS reconstruction, different sampling patterns and k-t FOCUSS variations were investigated. Experimental results show that an optimized k-t FOCUSS algorithm with acceleration by a factor of 4 works well for non-EPI fMRI at high field under various statistical criteria, which confirms that a combination of CS and a non-EPI sequence may be a good solution for high-resolution fMRI at high fields. PMID:26413503

  5. Nuclear magnetic resonance technology in acupoint catgut embedding therapy for the treatment of menopausal panic disorder: its applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Gui-zhen; Zhang, Sha-sha; Xu, Yun-xiang; Wang, Xiao-yun

    2012-03-01

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) is a diagnostic method which is non-invasive and non-ionizing irradiative to the human body. It not only suits structural, but also functional imaging. The NMR technique develops rapidly in its application in life science, which has become the hotspot in recent years. Menopausal panic disorder (MPD) is a typical psychosomatic disease during climacteric period, which may affect physical and mental health. Looking for a convenient, effective, and safe method, which is free of toxic-side effects to control the disease, is a modern medical issue. Based on reviewing the etiology and pathogenesis of MPD according to dual traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and western medicine, further analyzed the advantages and principles for selecting acupoint prescription by tonifying kidney and benefiting marrow therapy for acupoint catgut-embedding to this disease. The application of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (NMRS) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) technologies in mechanism research on acupoint catgut embedding for the treatment of MPD was discussed. It's pointed out that this intervention method is safe and effective to treat MPD. Breakthrough will be achieved from the research of the selection of acupoint prescription and therapeutic mechanism of acupoint catgut embedding for the treatment of menopausal panic disorder by utilizing the Functional Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) and Metabonomics technologies.

  6. Nuclear magnetic resonance technology in acupoint catgut embedding therapy for the treatment of menopausal panic disorder: its applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Gui-zhen; Zhang, Sha-sha; Xu, Yun-xiang; Wang, Xiao-yun

    2011-11-01

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) is a diagnostic method which is non-invasive and non-ionizing irradiative to the human body. It not only suits structural, but also functional imaging. The NMR technique develops rapidly in its application in life science, which has become the hotspot in recent years. Menopausal panic disorder (MPD) is a typical psychosomatic disease during climacteric period, which may affect physical and mental health. Looking for a convenient, effective, and safe method, which is free of toxic-side effects to control the disease, is a modern medical issue. Based on reviewing the etiology and pathogenesis of MPD according to dual traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and western medicine, further analyzed the advantages and principles for selecting acupoint prescription by tonifying kidney and benefiting marrow therapy for acupoint catgut-embedding to this disease. The application of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (NMRS) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) technologies in mechanism research on acupoint catgut embedding for the treatment of MPD was discussed. It's pointed out that this intervention method is safe and effective to treat MPD. Breakthrough will be achieved from the research of the selection of acupoint prescription and therapeutic mechanism of acupoint catgut embedding for the treatment of menopausal panic disorder by utilizing the Functional Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) and Metabonomics technologies.

  7. Resonant microwave cavity for 8.5-12 GHz optically detected electron spin resonance with simultaneous nuclear magnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colton, J. S.; Wienkes, L. R.

    2009-03-01

    We present a newly developed microwave resonant cavity for use in optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) experiments. The cylindrical quasi-TE011 mode cavity is designed to fit in a 1 in. magnet bore to allow the sample to be optically accessed and to have an adjustable resonant frequency between 8.5 and 12 GHz. The cavity uses cylinders of high dielectric material, so-called "dielectric resonators," in a double-stacked configuration to determine the resonant frequency. Wires in a pseudo-Helmholtz configuration are incorporated into the cavity to provide frequencies for simultaneous nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The system was tested by measuring cavity absorption as microwave frequencies were swept, by performing ODMR on a zinc-doped InP sample, and by performing optically detected NMR on a GaAs sample. The results confirm the suitability of the cavity for ODMR with simultaneous NMR.

  8. Sensory and optogenetically driven single-vessel fMRI.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xin; He, Yi; Wang, Maosen; Merkle, Hellmut; Dodd, Stephen J; Silva, Afonso C; Koretsky, Alan P

    2016-04-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sensitivity approaches vessel specificity. We developed a single-vessel functional MRI (fMRI) method to image the contribution of vascular components to blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) and cerebral blood volume (CBV) fMRI signal. We mapped individual vessels penetrating the rat somatosensory cortex with 100-ms temporal resolution by MRI with sensory or optogenetic stimulation. The BOLD signal originated primarily from venules, and the CBV signal from arterioles. The single-vessel fMRI method and its combination with optogenetics provide a platform for mapping the hemodynamic signal through the neurovascular network with specificity at the level of individual arterioles and venules. PMID:26855362

  9. Magnetic resonance force microscopy with a permanent magnet on the cantilever

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Z.; Hammel, P.C.

    1997-02-01

    The magnetic resonance force microscope (MRFM) is a microscopic 3-D imaging instrument based on a recent proposal to detect magnetic resonance signals mechanically using a micro-mechanical resonator. MRFM has been successfully demonstrated in various magnetic resonance experiments including electron spin resonance, ferromagnetic resonances and nuclear magnetic resonance. In order to apply this ultra-high, 3-D spatial resolution technique to samples of arbitrary size and shape, the magnetic particle which generates the field gradient {del}{bold B}, (and, therefore, the force {bold F = (m {center_dot} {del}B)} between itself and the spin magnetization {bold m} of the sample) will need to be mounted on the mechanical resonator. Up to the present, all experiments have been performed with the sample mounted on the resonator. This is done, in part, to avoid the spurious response of the mechanical resonator which is generated by the variation of the magnetization of the magnetic particle as the external field is varied.

  10. Sensitive magnetic force detection with a carbon nanotube resonator

    SciTech Connect

    Willick, Kyle; Haapamaki, Chris; Baugh, Jonathan

    2014-03-21

    We propose a technique for sensitive magnetic point force detection using a suspended carbon nanotube (CNT) mechanical resonator combined with a magnetic field gradient generated by a ferromagnetic gate electrode. Numerical calculations of the mechanical resonance frequency show that single Bohr magneton changes in the magnetic state of an individual magnetic molecule grafted to the CNT can translate to detectable frequency shifts, on the order of a few kHz. The dependences of the resonator response to device parameters such as length, tension, CNT diameter, and gate voltage are explored and optimal operating conditions are identified. A signal-to-noise analysis shows that, in principle, magnetic switching at the level of a single Bohr magneton can be read out in a single shot on timescales as short as 10 μs. This force sensor should enable new studies of spin dynamics in isolated single molecule magnets, free from the crystalline or ensemble settings typically studied.

  11. Functional magnetic resonance imaging can be used to explore tactile and nociceptive processing in the infant brain

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Gemma; Fabrizi, Lorenzo; Meek, Judith; Jackson, Deborah; Tracey, Irene; Robertson, Nicola; Slater, Rebeccah; Fitzgerald, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Aim Despite the importance of neonatal skin stimulation, little is known about activation of the newborn human infant brain by sensory stimulation of the skin. We carried out functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to assess the feasibility of measuring brain activation to a range of mechanical stimuli applied to the skin of neonatal infants. Methods We studied 19 term infants with a mean age of 13 days. Brain activation was measured in response to brushing, von Frey hair (vFh) punctate stimulation and, in one case, nontissue damaging pinprick stimulation of the plantar surface of the foot. Initial whole brain analysis was followed by region of interest analysis of specific brain areas. Results Distinct patterns of functional brain activation were evoked by brush and vFh punctate stimulation, which were reduced, but still present, under chloral hydrate sedation. Brain activation increased with increasing stimulus intensity. The feasibility of using pinprick stimulation in fMRI studies was established in one unsedated healthy full-term infant. Conclusion Distinct brain activity patterns can be measured in response to different modalities and intensities of skin sensory stimulation in term infants. This indicates the potential for fMRI studies in exploring tactile and nociceptive processing in the infant brain. PMID:25358870

  12. Functional magnetic resonance imaging during emotion recognition in social anxiety disorder: an activation likelihood meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hattingh, Coenraad J.; Ipser, J.; Tromp, S. A.; Syal, S.; Lochner, C.; Brooks, S. J.; Stein, D. J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is characterized by abnormal fear and anxiety in social situations. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a brain imaging technique that can be used to demonstrate neural activation to emotionally salient stimuli. However, no attempt has yet been made to statistically collate fMRI studies of brain activation, using the activation likelihood-estimate (ALE) technique, in response to emotion recognition tasks in individuals with SAD. Methods: A systematic search of fMRI studies of neural responses to socially emotive cues in SAD was undertaken. ALE meta-analysis, a voxel-based meta-analytic technique, was used to estimate the most significant activations during emotional recognition. Results: Seven studies were eligible for inclusion in the meta-analysis, constituting a total of 91 subjects with SAD, and 93 healthy controls. The most significant areas of activation during emotional vs. neutral stimuli in individuals with SAD compared to controls were: bilateral amygdala, left medial temporal lobe encompassing the entorhinal cortex, left medial aspect of the inferior temporal lobe encompassing perirhinal cortex and parahippocampus, right anterior cingulate, right globus pallidus, and distal tip of right postcentral gyrus. Conclusion: The results are consistent with neuroanatomic models of the role of the amygdala in fear conditioning, and the importance of the limbic circuitry in mediating anxiety symptoms. PMID:23335892

  13. Abnormal spontaneous regional brain activity in primary insomnia: a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chao; Ma, Xiaofen; Dong, Mengshi; Yin, Yi; Hua, Kelei; Li, Meng; Li, Changhong; Zhan, Wenfeng; Li, Cheng; Jiang, Guihua

    2016-01-01

    Objective Investigating functional specialization is crucial for a complete understanding of the neural mechanisms of primary insomnia (PI). Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a useful tool to explore the functional specialization of PI. However, only a few studies have focused on the functional specialization of PI using resting-state fMRI and results of these studies were far from consistent. Thus, the current study aimed to investigate functional specialization of PI using resting-state fMRI with amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (ALFFs) algorithm. Methods In this study, 55 PI patients and 44 healthy controls were included. ALFF values were compared between the two groups using two-sample t-test. The relationship of abnormal ALFF values with clinical characteristics and duration of insomnia was investigated using Pearson’s correlation analysis. Results PI patients showed lower ALFF values in the left orbitofrontal cortex/inferior frontal gyrus, right middle frontal gyrus, left inferior parietal lobule, and bilateral cerebellum posterior lobes, while higher ALFF values in the right middle/inferior temporal that extended to the right occipital lobe. In addition, we found that the duration of PI negatively correlated with ALFF values in the left orbitofrontal cortex/inferior frontal gyrus, and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index score negatively correlated with ALFF values in the left inferior parietal lobule. Conclusion The present study added information to limited studies on functional specialization and provided evidence for hyperarousal hypothesis in PI. PMID:27366068

  14. Increasing the reliability of data analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging by applying a new blockwise permutation method

    PubMed Central

    Adolf, Daniela; Weston, Snezhana; Baecke, Sebastian; Luchtmann, Michael; Bernarding, Johannes; Kropf, Siegfried

    2014-01-01

    A recent paper by Eklund et al. (2012) showed that up to 70% false positive results may occur when analyzing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data using the statistical parametric mapping (SPM) software, which may mainly be caused by insufficient compensation for the temporal correlation between successive scans. Here, we show that a blockwise permutation method can be an effective alternative to the standard correction method for the correlated residuals in the general linear model, assuming an AR(1)-model as used in SPM for analyzing fMRI data. The blockwise permutation approach including a random shift developed by our group (Adolf et al., 2011) accounts for the temporal correlation structure of the data without having to provide a specific definition of the underlying autocorrelation model. 1465 publicly accessible resting-state data sets were re-analyzed, and the results were compared with those of Eklund et al. (2012). It was found that with the new permutation method the nominal familywise error rate for the detection of activated voxels could be maintained approximately under even the most critical conditions in which Eklund et al. found the largest deviations from the nominal error level. Thus, the method presented here can serve as a tool to ameliorate the quality and reliability of fMRI data analyses. PMID:25165444

  15. Investigation of high-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging by means of surface and array radiofrequency coils at 7 T.

    PubMed

    van der Zwaag, Wietske; Marques, José P; Hergt, Martin; Gruetter, Rolf

    2009-10-01

    In this investigation, high-resolution, 1x1x1-mm(3) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) at 7 T is performed using a multichannel array head coil and a surface coil approach. Scan geometry was optimized for each coil separately to exploit the strengths of both coils. Acquisitions with the surface coil focused on partial brain coverage, while whole-brain coverage fMRI experiments were performed with the array head coil. BOLD sensitivity in the occipital lobe was found to be higher with the surface coil than with the head array, suggesting that restriction of signal detection to the area of interest may be beneficial for localized activation studies. Performing independent component analysis (ICA) decomposition of the fMRI data, we consistently detected BOLD signal changes and resting state networks. In the surface coil data, a small negative BOLD response could be detected in these resting state network areas. Also in the data acquired with the surface coil, two distinct components of the positive BOLD signal were consistently observed. These two components were tentatively assigned to tissue and venous signal changes. PMID:19261421

  16. Where in the brain is nonliteral language? A coordinate-based meta-analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging studies.

    PubMed

    Rapp, Alexander M; Mutschler, Dorothee E; Erb, Michael

    2012-10-15

    An increasing number of studies have investigated non-literal language, including metaphors, idioms, metonymy, or irony, with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). However, key questions regarding its neuroanatomy remain controversial. In this work, we used coordinate-based activation-likelihood estimations to merge available fMRI data on non-literal language. A literature search identified 38 fMRI studies on non-literal language (24 metaphor studies, 14 non-salient stimuli studies, 7 idiom studies, 8 irony studies, and 1 metonymy study). Twenty-eight studies with direct comparisons of non-literal and literal studies were included in the main meta-analysis. Sub-analyses for metaphors, idioms, irony, salient metaphors, and non-salient metaphors as well as studies on sentence level were conducted. Studies reported 409 activation foci, of which 129 (32%) were in the right hemisphere. These meta-analyses indicate that a predominantly left lateralised network, including the left and right inferior frontal gyrus; the left, middle, and superior temporal gyrus; and medial prefrontal, superior frontal, cerebellar, parahippocampal, precentral, and inferior parietal regions, is important for non-literal expressions. PMID:22759997

  17. Targeted brain activation using an MR-compatible wrist torque measurement device and isometric motor tasks during functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Vlaar, Martijn P; Mugge, Winfred; Groot, Paul F C; Sharifi, Sarvi; Bour, Lo J; van der Helm, Frans C T; van Rootselaar, Anne-Fleur; Schouten, Alfred C

    2016-07-01

    Dedicated pairs of isometric wrist flexion tasks, with and without visual feedback of the exerted torque, were designed to target activation of the CBL and BG in healthy subjects during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Selective activation of the cerebellum (CBL) and basal ganglia (BG), often implicated in movement disorders such as tremor and dystonia, may help identify pathological changes and expedite diagnosis. A prototyped MR-compatible wrist torque measurement device, free of magnetic and conductive materials, allowed safe execution of tasks during fMRI without causing artifacts. A significant increase of activity in CBL and BG was found in healthy volunteers during a constant torque task with visual feedback compared to a constant torque task without visual feedback. This study shows that specific pairs of motor tasks using MR-compatible equipment at the wrist allow for targeted activation of CBL and BG, paving a new way for research into the pathophysiology of movement disorders. PMID:26968144

  18. Dynamic nuclear polarization in a magnetic resonance force microscope experiment.

    PubMed

    Issac, Corinne E; Gleave, Christine M; Nasr, Paméla T; Nguyen, Hoang L; Curley, Elizabeth A; Yoder, Jonilyn L; Moore, Eric W; Chen, Lei; Marohn, John A

    2016-04-01

    We report achieving enhanced nuclear magnetization in a magnetic resonance force microscope experiment at 0.6 tesla and 4.2 kelvin using the dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) effect. In our experiments a microwire coplanar waveguide delivered radiowaves to excite nuclear spins and microwaves to excite electron spins in a 250 nm thick nitroxide-doped polystyrene sample. Both electron and proton spin resonance were observed as a change in the mechanical resonance frequency of a nearby cantilever having a micron-scale nickel tip. NMR signal, not observable from Curie-law magnetization at 0.6 T, became observable when microwave irradiation was applied to saturate the electron spins. The resulting NMR signal's size, buildup time, dependence on microwave power, and dependence on irradiation frequency was consistent with a transfer of magnetization from electron spins to nuclear spins. Due to the presence of an inhomogeneous magnetic field introduced by the cantilever's magnetic tip, the electron spins in the sample were saturated in a microwave-resonant slice 10's of nm thick. The spatial distribution of the nuclear polarization enhancement factor ε was mapped by varying the frequency of the applied radiowaves. The observed enhancement factor was zero for spins in the center of the resonant slice, was ε = +10 to +20 for spins proximal to the magnet, and was ε = -10 to -20 for spins distal to the magnet. We show that this bipolar nuclear magnetization profile is consistent with cross-effect DNP in a ∼10(5) T m(-1) magnetic field gradient. Potential challenges associated with generating and using DNP-enhanced nuclear magnetization in a nanometer-resolution magnetic resonance imaging experiment are elucidated and discussed. PMID:26964007

  19. Beam induced electron cloud resonances in dipole magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvey, J. R.; Hartung, W.; Makita, J.; Venturini, M.

    2016-07-01

    The buildup of low energy electrons in an accelerator, known as electron cloud, can be severely detrimental to machine performance. Under certain beam conditions, the beam can become resonant with the cloud dynamics, accelerating the buildup of electrons. This paper will examine two such effects: multipacting resonances, in which the cloud development time is resonant with the bunch spacing, and cyclotron resonances, in which the cyclotron period of electrons in a magnetic field is a multiple of bunch spacing. Both resonances have been studied directly in dipole fields using retarding field analyzers installed in the Cornell Electron Storage Ring. These measurements are supported by both analytical models and computer simulations.

  20. Broadband electrically detected magnetic resonance using adiabatic pulses.

    PubMed

    Hrubesch, F M; Braunbeck, G; Voss, A; Stutzmann, M; Brandt, M S

    2015-05-01

    We present a broadband microwave setup for electrically detected magnetic resonance (EDMR) based on microwave antennae with the ability to apply arbitrarily shaped pulses for the excitation of electron spin resonance (ESR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) of spin ensembles. This setup uses non-resonant stripline structures for on-chip microwave delivery and is demonstrated to work in the frequency range from 4 MHz to 18 GHz. π pulse times of 50 ns and 70 μs for ESR and NMR transitions, respectively, are achieved with as little as 100 mW of microwave or radiofrequency power. The use of adiabatic pulses fully compensates for the microwave magnetic field inhomogeneity of the stripline antennae, as demonstrated with the help of BIR4 unitary rotation pulses driving the ESR transition of neutral phosphorus donors in silicon and the NMR transitions of ionized phosphorus donors as detected by electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR). PMID:25828243

  1. Resonant Raman scattering from silicon nanoparticles enhanced by magnetic response.

    PubMed

    Dmitriev, Pavel A; Baranov, Denis G; Milichko, Valentin A; Makarov, Sergey V; Mukhin, Ivan S; Samusev, Anton K; Krasnok, Alexander E; Belov, Pavel A; Kivshar, Yuri S

    2016-05-01

    Enhancement of optical response with high-index dielectric nanoparticles is attributed to the excitation of their Mie-type magnetic and electric resonances. Here we study Raman scattering from crystalline silicon nanoparticles and reveal that magnetic dipole modes have a much stronger effect on the scattering than electric modes of the same order. We demonstrate experimentally a 140-fold enhancement of the Raman signal from individual silicon spherical nanoparticles at the magnetic dipole resonance. Our results confirm the importance of the optically-induced magnetic response of subwavelength dielectric nanoparticles for enhancing light-matter interactions. PMID:27113352

  2. Element Selective X-ray Detected Magnetic Resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Goulon, J.; Rogalev, A.; Wilhelm, F.; Jaouen, N.; Goulon-Ginet, C.; Goujon, G.; Youssef, J. Ben; Indenbom, M. V.

    2007-01-19

    Element selective X-ray Detected Magnetic Resonance (XDMR) was measured on exciting the Fe K-edge in a high quality YIG thin film. Resonant pumping at high microwave power was achieved in the nonlinear foldover regime and X-ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism (XMCD) was used to probe the time-invariant change of the magnetization {delta}Mz due to the precession of orbital magnetization densities of states (DOS) at the Fe sites. This challenging experiment required us to design a specific instrumentation which is briefly described.

  3. Neurochemistry of Drug Action: Insights from Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Imaging And Their Relevance to Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Licata, Stephanie C.; Renshaw, Perry F.

    2011-01-01

    Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) is a non-invasive imaging technique that permits measurement of particular compounds or metabolites within the tissue of interest. In the brain, 1H MRS provides a snapshot of the neurochemical environment within a defined volume of interest. A search of the literature demonstrates the widespread utility of this technique for characterizing tumors, tracking the progress of neurodegenerative disease, and for understanding the neurobiological basis of psychiatric disorders. As of relatively recently, 1H MRS has found its way into substance abuse research, and it is beginning to become recognized as a valuable complement in the brain imaging toolbox that also contains positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Drug abuse studies employing 1H MRS have identified a number biochemical changes in the brain. The most consistent alterations across drug class were reductions in N-acetylaspartate and elevations in myo-inositol, while changes in choline, creatine, and amino acid transmitters also were abundant. Together, the studies discussed herein provide evidence that drugs of abuse may have a profound impact on neuronal health, energy metabolism and maintenance, inflammatory processes, cell membrane turnover, and neurotransmission, and these biochemical changes may underlie the neuropathology within brain tissue that subsequently gives rise to the cognitive and behavioral impairments associated with drug addiction. PMID:20201852

  4. Magnetic Resonance in an Atomic Vapor Excited by a Mechanical Resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ying-Ju; Eardley, Matthew; Knappe, Svenja; Moreland, John; Hollberg, Leo; Kitching, John

    2006-12-01

    We demonstrate a direct resonant interaction between the mechanical motion of a mesoscopic resonator and the spin degrees of freedom of a sample of neutral atoms in the gas phase. This coupling, mediated by a magnetic particle attached to the tip of the miniature mechanical resonator, excites a coherent precession of the atomic spins about a static magnetic field. The novel coupled atom-resonator system may enable development of low-power, high-performance sensors, and enhance research efforts connected with the manipulation of cold atoms, quantum control, and high-resolution microscopy.

  5. Magnetic Resonance Fiber Tracking in a Neonate with Hemimegalencephaly

    PubMed Central

    Re, Thomas J; Scarciolla, Laura; Takahashi, Emi; Specchio, Nicola; Bernardi, Bruno; Longo, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    A magnetic resonance diffusion fiber tracking study in neonate diagnosed with left hemisphere hemimegalencephaly is presented. Despite diffuse morphologic deformities identified in conventional imaging, all major pathways were identifiable bilaterally with minor aberrations in vicinity of morphologic lesions. PMID:25655045

  6. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging in patients with cardiac pacing devices.

    PubMed

    Buendía, Francisco; Sánchez-Gómez, Juan M; Sancho-Tello, María J; Olagüe, José; Osca, Joaquín; Cano, Oscar; Arnau, Miguel A; Igual, Begoña

    2010-06-01

    Currently, nuclear magnetic resonance imaging is contraindicated in patients with a pacemaker or implantable cardioverter-defibrillator. This study was carried out because the potential risks in this situation need to be clearly defined. This prospective study evaluated clinical and electrical parameters before and after magnetic resonance imaging was performed in 33 patients (five with implantable cardioverter-defibrillators and 28 with pacemakers). In these patients, magnetic resonance imaging was considered clinically essential. There were no clinical complications. There was a temporary communication failure in two cases, sensing errors during imaging in two cases, and a safety signal was generated in one pacemaker at the maximum magnetic resonance frequency and output level. There were no technical restrictions on imaging nor were there any permanent changes in the performance of the cardiac pacing device. PMID:20515632

  7. Imaging agents for in vivo magnetic resonance and scintigraphic imaging

    DOEpatents

    Engelstad, B.L.; Raymond, K.N.; Huberty, J.P.; White, D.L.

    1991-04-23

    Methods are provided for in vivo magnetic resonance imaging and/or scintigraphic imaging of a subject using chelated transition metal and lanthanide metal complexes. Novel ligands for these complexes are provided. No Drawings

  8. Nuclear Magnetic Double Resonance Using Weak Perturbing RF Fields

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, G. Fredric

    1977-01-01

    Describes a nuclear magnetic resonance experimental example of spin tickling; also discusses a direct approach for verifying the relative signs of coupling constants in three-spin cyclopropyl systems. (SL)

  9. Imaging agents for in vivo magnetic resonance and scintigraphic imaging

    DOEpatents

    Engelstad, Barry L.; Raymond, Kenneth N.; Huberty, John P.; White, David L.

    1991-01-01

    Methods are provided for in vivo magnetic resonance imaging and/or scintigraphic imaging of a subject using chelated transition metal and lanthanide metal complexes. Novel ligands for these complexes are provided.

  10. 76 FR 58281 - Magnetic Resonance Imaging Safety; Public Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-20

    ... the safe use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and approaches to mitigate risks. The overall goal is... overview of the Connect Pro program, visit: http://www.adobe.com/go/connectpro_overview . (FDA has...

  11. Diagnosis of hematogenous pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis by magnetic resonance imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, S.P.; Wiener, S.N. )

    1991-04-01

    The clinical information and imaging data from 27 patients with hematogenous pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis were reviewed. All patients had roentgenographic and magnetic resonance imaging examinations. Seventeen patients had computed tomograms; 17 had technetium Tc 99m medronate bone scans; and seven had gallium citrate Ga 67 scans. Magnetic resonance imaging, when used as a part of the initial radiologic evaluation, detected abnormalities consistent with osteomyelitis in all 27 patients. Magnetic resonance imaging also demonstrated paravertebral and/or epidural extension of infection in 14 patients, including seven patients who had neurologic signs of lower-extremity weakness. Roentgenograms, computed tomograms, technetium bone scans, and gallium scans had findings suggestive of the diagnosis in 48%, 65%, 71%, and 86% of the patients, respectively. We recommend magnetic resonance imaging as an important and perhaps critical imaging modality for detection of pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis.

  12. [Magnetic resonance tomography in injuries of the cervical spine].

    PubMed

    Meydam, K; Sehlen, S; Schlenkhoff, D; Kiricuta, J C; Beyer, H K

    1986-12-01

    Twenty patients who had suffered spinal trauma were examined by magnetic resonance tomography. Fifteen patients with first degree trauma in Erdmann's classification showed no abnormality. Magnetic resonance tomography of the cervical spine appears to be a suitable method for investigating patients with whiplash injuries. It is indicated following severe flexion injuries with subluxations and neurological symptoms, since it is the only method that can demonstrate the spinal cord directly and completely and show the extent of cord compression. For patients with thoracic trauma and rapidly developing neurological symptoms, magnetic resonance tomography is ideal for showing post-traumatic syringomyelia. Magnetic resonance tomography following whiplash injuries is recommended if plain films of the cervical spine show any abnormalities, as well as for the investigation of acute or sub-acute neurological abnormalities. The various findings are discussed. PMID:3025951

  13. Inhalant-Abuse Myocarditis Diagnosed by Cardiac Magnetic Resonance

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Krishnasree; Matulevicius, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Multiple reports of toxic myocarditis from inhalant abuse have been reported. We now report the case of a 23-year-old man found to have toxic myocarditis from inhalation of a hydrocarbon. The diagnosis was made by means of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging with delayed enhancement. The use of cardiac magnetic resonance to diagnose myocarditis has become increasingly common in clinical medicine, although there is not a universally accepted criterion for diagnosis. We appear to be the first to document a case of toxic myocarditis diagnosed by cardiac magnetic resonance. In patients with a history of drug abuse who present with clinical findings that suggest myocarditis or pericarditis, cardiac magnetic resonance can be considered to support the diagnosis. PMID:27303242

  14. Are Errors Differentiable from Deceptive Responses when Feigning Memory Impairment? An fMRI Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Tatia M. C.; Au, Ricky K. C.; Liu, Ho-Ling; Ting, K. H.; Huang, Chih-Mao; Chan, Chetwyn C. H.

    2009-01-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies have suggested that the neural activity associated with truthful recall, with false memory, and with feigned memory impairment are different from one another. Here, we report a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study that addressed an important but yet unanswered question: Is the neural activity associated…

  15. Brain Correlates of Aesthetic Expertise: A Parametric fMRI Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirk, Ulrich; Skov, Martin; Christensen, Mark Schram; Nygaard, Niels

    2009-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that acquired expertise influences aesthetic judgments. In this paradigm we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study aesthetic judgments of visually presented architectural stimuli and control-stimuli (faces) for a group of architects and a group of non-architects. This design allowed us to test…

  16. fMRI of Two Measures of Phonological Processing in Visual Word Recognition: Ecological Validity Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, William J.; Borowsky, Ron; Sarty, Gordon E.

    2004-01-01

    Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have investigated the role of phonological processing by utilizing nonword rhyming decision tasks (e.g., Pugh et al., 1996). Although such tasks clearly engage phonological components of visual word recognition, it is clear that decision tasks are more cognitively involved than the…

  17. Neural Changes after Phonological Treatment for Anomia: An fMRI Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochon, Elizabeth; Leonard, Carol; Burianova, Hana; Laird, Laura; Soros, Peter; Graham, Simon; Grady, Cheryl

    2010-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to investigate the neural processing characteristics associated with word retrieval abilities after a phonologically-based treatment for anomia in two stroke patients with aphasia. Neural activity associated with a phonological and a semantic task was compared before and after treatment with…

  18. Using fMRI to Study Conceptual Change: Why and How?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masson, Steve; Potvin, Patrice; Riopel, Martin; Foisy, Lorie-Marlene Brault; Lafortune, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    Although the use of brain imaging techniques, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is increasingly common in educational research, only a few studies regarding science learning have so far taken advantage of this technology. This paper aims to facilitate the design and implementation of brain imaging studies relating to science…

  19. What Has fMRI Told Us about the Development of Cognitive Control through Adolescence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luna, Beatriz; Padmanabhan, Aarthi; O'Hearn, Kirsten

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive control, the ability to voluntarily guide our behavior, continues to improve throughout adolescence. Below we review the literature on age-related changes in brain function related to response inhibition and working memory, which support cognitive control. Findings from studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) indicate…

  20. Gender Differences in the Cognitive Control of Emotion: An fMRI Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, Kathrin; Pauly, Katharina; Kellermann, Thilo; Seiferth, Nina Y.; Reske, Martina; Backes, Volker; Stocker, Tony; Shah, N. Jon; Amunts, Katrin; Kircher, Tilo; Schneider, Frank; Habel, Ute

    2007-01-01

    The interaction of emotion and cognition has become a topic of major interest. However, the influence of gender on the interplay between the two processes, along with its neural correlates have not been fully analysed so far. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study we induced negative emotion using negative olfactory stimulation…

  1. Differences in Processing of Taxonomic and Sequential Relations in Semantic Memory: An fMRI Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuchinke, Lars; van der Meer, Elke; Krueger, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Conceptual knowledge of our world is represented in semantic memory in terms of concepts and semantic relations between concepts. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the cortical regions underlying the processing of sequential and taxonomic relations. Participants were presented verbal cues and performed three tasks:…

  2. Seeing Chinese Characters in Action: An fMRI Study of the Perception of Writing Sequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Hongbo; Gong, Lanyun; Qiu, Yinchen; Zhou, Xiaolin

    2011-01-01

    The Chinese character is composed of a finite set of strokes whose order in writing follows consensual principles and is learnt through school education. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), this study investigates the neural activity associated with the perception of writing sequences by asking participants to observe…

  3. Puzzlingly High Correlations in fMRI Studies of Emotion, Personality, and Social Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vul, Edward; Harris, Christine; Winkielman, Piotr; Pashler, Harold

    2009-01-01

    Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) studies of emotion, personality, and social cognition have drawn much attention in recent years, with high-profile studies frequently reporting extremely high (e.g., > 8) correlations between behavioral and self-report measures of personality or emotion and measures of brain activation. We show that…

  4. Auditory Verb Perception Recruits Motor Systems in the Developing Brain: An fMRI Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Karin Harman; Maouene, Josita

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated neural activation patterns during verb processing in children, using fMRI (functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging). Preschool children (aged 4-6) passively listened to lists of verbs and adjectives while neural activation was measured. Findings indicated that verbs were processed differently than adjectives, as the verbs…

  5. Event-Related fMRI of Category Learning: Differences in Classification and Feedback Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Deborah M.; Shin, Silvia S.; Sisco, Shannon M.; Thulborn, Keith R.

    2006-01-01

    Eighteen healthy young adults underwent event-related (ER) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of the brain while performing a visual category learning task. The specific category learning task required subjects to extract the rules that guide classification of quasi-random patterns of dots into categories. Following each classification…

  6. Dual-Tasking Alleviated Sleep Deprivation Disruption in Visuomotor Tracking: An fMRI Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gazes, Yunglin; Rakitin, Brian C.; Steffener, Jason; Habeck, Christian; Butterfield, Brady; Basner, Robert C.; Ghez, Claude; Stern, Yaakov

    2012-01-01

    Effects of dual-responding on tracking performance after 49-h of sleep deprivation (SD) were evaluated behaviorally and with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Continuous visuomotor tracking was performed simultaneously with an intermittent color-matching visual detection task in which a pair of color-matched stimuli constituted a…

  7. How Verbal and Spatial Manipulation Networks Contribute to Calculation: An fMRI Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zago, Laure; Petit, Laurent; Turbelin, Marie-Renee; Andersson, Frederic; Vigneau, Mathieu; Tzourio-Mazoyer, Nathalie

    2008-01-01

    The manipulation of numbers required during calculation is known to rely on working memory (WM) resources. Here, we investigated the respective contributions of verbal and/or spatial WM manipulation brain networks during the addition of four numbers performed by adults, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Both manipulation and…

  8. Perceiving Age and Gender in Unfamiliar Faces: An fMRI Study on Face Categorization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiese, Holger; Kloth, Nadine; Gullmar, Daniel; Reichenbach, Jurgen R.; Schweinberger, Stefan R.

    2012-01-01

    Efficient processing of unfamiliar faces typically involves their categorization (e.g., into old vs. young or male vs. female). However, age and gender categorization may pose different perceptual demands. In the present study, we employed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to compare the activity evoked during age vs. gender…

  9. Neuroanatomical Distribution of Five Semantic Components of Verbs: Evidence from fMRI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemmerer, David; Castillo, Javier Gonzalez; Talavage, Thomas; Patterson, Stephanie; Wiley, Cynthia

    2008-01-01

    The Simulation Framework, also known as the Embodied Cognition Framework, maintains that conceptual knowledge is grounded in sensorimotor systems. To test several predictions that this theory makes about the neural substrates of verb meanings, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to scan subjects' brains while they made semantic…

  10. Coupling of fMRI and NIRS measurements in the study of negative BOLD response to intermittent photic stimulation.

    PubMed

    Maggioni, E; Molteni, E; Arrigoni, F; Zucca, C; Reni, G; Triulzi, F M; Bianchi, A M

    2013-01-01

    Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) in combination with Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) is finding widespread use in the analysis of brain function. While most of the studies deal with the detection of positive responses, here we focus on negative responses to visual stimulation. In a group fMRI study on Intermittent Photic Stimulation (IPS) we detected a sustained Negative BOLD Response (NBR) in the extrastriate visual cortex. To confirm and better characterize NBR, we repeated the same protocol during NIRS recordings. In this paper we show fMRI results and demonstrate the NBR on the basis of NIRS findings. PMID:24109953

  11. Nonlinear magnetization dynamics of antiferromagnetic spin resonance induced by intense terahertz magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukai, Y.; Hirori, H.; Yamamoto, T.; Kageyama, H.; Tanaka, K.

    2016-01-01

    We report on the nonlinear magnetization dynamics of a HoFeO3 crystal induced by a strong terahertz magnetic field resonantly enhanced with a split ring resonator and measured with magneto-optical Kerr effect microscopy. The terahertz magnetic field induces a large change (˜40%) in the spontaneous magnetization. The frequency of the antiferromagnetic resonance decreases in proportion to the square of the magnetization change. A modified Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation with a phenomenological nonlinear damping term quantitatively reproduced the nonlinear dynamics.

  12. fMRI Validation of fNIRS Measurements During a Naturalistic Task

    PubMed Central

    Noah, J. Adam; Ono, Yumie; Nomoto, Yasunori; Shimada, Sotaro; Tachibana, Atsumichi; Zhang, Xian; Bronner, Shaw; Hirsch, Joy

    2015-01-01

    We present a method to compare brain activity recorded with near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) in a dance video game task to that recorded in a reduced version of the task using fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imaging). Recently, it has been shown that fNIRS can accurately record functional brain activities equivalent to those concurrently recorded with functional magnetic resonance imaging for classic psychophysical tasks and simple finger tapping paradigms. However, an often quoted benefit of fNIRS is that the technique allows for studying neural mechanisms of complex, naturalistic behaviors that are not possible using the constrained environment of fMRI. Our goal was to extend the findings of previous studies that have shown high correlation between concurrently recorded fNIRS and fMRI signals to compare neural recordings obtained in fMRI procedures to those separately obtained in naturalistic fNIRS experiments. Specifically, we developed a modified version of the dance video game Dance Dance Revolution (DDR) to be compatible with both fMRI and fNIRS imaging procedures. In this methodology we explain the modifications to the software and hardware for compatibility with each technique as well as the scanning and calibration procedures used to obtain representative results. The results of the study show a task-related increase in oxyhemoglobin in both modalities and demonstrate that it is possible to replicate the findings of fMRI using fNIRS in a naturalistic task. This technique represents a methodology to compare fMRI imaging paradigms which utilize a reduced-world environment to fNIRS in closer approximation to naturalistic, full-body activities and behaviors. Further development of this technique may apply to neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson’s disease, late states of dementia, or those with magnetic susceptibility which are contraindicated for fMRI scanning. PMID:26132365

  13. fMRI Validation of fNIRS Measurements During a Naturalistic Task.

    PubMed

    Noah, J Adam; Ono, Yumie; Nomoto, Yasunori; Shimada, Sotaro; Tachibana, Atsumichi; Zhang, Xian; Bronner, Shaw; Hirsch, Joy

    2015-01-01

    We present a method to compare brain activity recorded with near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) in a dance video game task to that recorded in a reduced version of the task using fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imaging). Recently, it has been shown that fNIRS can accurately record functional brain activities equivalent to those concurrently recorded with functional magnetic resonance imaging for classic psychophysical tasks and simple finger tapping paradigms. However, an often quoted benefit of fNIRS is that the technique allows for studying neural mechanisms of complex, naturalistic behaviors that are not possible using the constrained environment of fMRI. Our goal was to extend the findings of previous studies that have shown high correlation between concurrently recorded fNIRS and fMRI signals to compare neural recordings obtained in fMRI procedures to those separately obtained in naturalistic fNIRS experiments. Specifically, we developed a modified version of the dance video game Dance Dance Revolution (DDR) to be compatible with both fMRI and fNIRS imaging procedures. In this methodology we explain the modifications to the software and hardware for compatibility with each technique as well as the scanning and calibration procedures used to obtain representative results. The results of the study show a task-related increase in oxyhemoglobin in both modalities and demonstrate that it is possible to replicate the findings of fMRI using fNIRS in a naturalistic task. This technique represents a methodology to compare fMRI imaging paradigms which utilize a reduced-world environment to fNIRS in closer approximation to naturalistic, full-body activities and behaviors. Further development of this technique may apply to neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease, late states of dementia, or those with magnetic susceptibility which are contraindicated for fMRI scanning. PMID:26132365

  14. Use of Magnetic Resonance in the Evaluation of Cranial Trauma.

    PubMed

    Altmeyer, Wilson; Steven, Andrew; Gutierrez, Juan

    2016-05-01

    MR imaging is an extremely useful tool in the evaluation of traumatic brain injury in the emergency department. Although CT still plays the dominant role in urgent patient triage, MR imaging's impact on traumatic brain injury imaging continues to expand. MR imaging has shown superiority to CT for certain traumatic processes, such as diffuse axonal injury, cerebral contusion, and infarction. Magnetic resonance angiography and magnetic resonance venography allow emergent vascular imaging for patients that should avoid ionizing radiation or intravenous contrast. PMID:27150321

  15. Recent advances in cardiac magnetic resonance

    PubMed Central

    Greulich, Simon; Arai, Andrew E.; Sechtem, Udo; Mahrholdt, Heiko

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) is a non-invasive imaging modality that has rapidly emerged during the last few years and has become a valuable, well-established clinical tool. Beside the evaluation of anatomy and function, CMR has its strengths in providing detailed non-invasive myocardial tissue characterization, for which it is considered the current diagnostic gold standard. Late gadolinium enhancement (LGE), with its capability to detect necrosis and to separate ischemic from non-ischemic cardiomyopathies by distinct LGE patterns, offers unique clinical possibilities. The presence of LGE has also proven to be a good predictor of an adverse outcome in various studies. T2-weighted (T2w) images, which are supposed to identify areas of edema and inflammation, are another CMR approach to tissue characterization. However, T2w images have not held their promise owing to several technical limitations and potential physiological concerns. Newer mapping techniques may overcome some of these limitations: they assess quantitatively myocardial tissue properties in absolute terms and show promising results in studies for characterization of diffuse fibrosis (T1 mapping) and/or inflammatory processes (T2 mapping). However, these techniques are still research tools and are not part of the clinical routine yet. T2* CMR has had significant impact in the management of thalassemia because it is possible to image the amount of iron in the heart and the liver, improving both diagnostic imaging and the management of patients with thalassemia. CMR findings frequently have clinical impact on further patient management, and CMR seems to be cost effective in the clinical routine.

  16. Wide-range dynamic magnetic resonance elastography.

    PubMed

    Riek, Kerstin; Klatt, Dieter; Nuzha, Hassan; Mueller, Susanne; Neumann, Ulf; Sack, Ingolf; Braun, Jürgen

    2011-04-29

    Tissue mechanical parameters have been shown to be highly sensitive to disease by elastography. Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) in the human body relies on the low-dynamic range of tissue mechanics <100 Hz. In contrast, MRE suited for investigations of mice or small tissue samples requires vibration frequencies 10-20 times higher than those used in human MRE. The dispersion of the complex shear modulus (G(⁎)) prevents direct comparison of elastography data at different frequency bands and, consequently, frequency-independent viscoelastic models that fit to G(*) over a wide dynamic range have to be employed. This study presents data of G(*) of samples of agarose gel, liver, brain, and muscle measured by high-resolution MRE in a 7T-animal scanner at 200-800 Hz vibration frequency. Material constants μ and α according to the springpot model and related to shear elasticity and slope of the G(*)-dispersion were determined. Both μ and α of calf brain and bovine liver were found to be similar, while a sample of fibrotic human liver (METAVIR score of 3) displayed about fifteen times higher shear elasticity, similar to μ of bovine muscle measured in muscle fiber direction. α was the highest in fibrotic liver, followed by normal brain and liver, while muscle had the lowest α-values of all biological samples investigated in this study. As expected, the least G(*)-dispersion was seen in soft gel. The proposed technique of wide-range dynamic MRE can provide baseline data for both human MRE and high-dynamic MRE for better understanding tissue mechanics of different tissue structures. PMID:21295305

  17. Fetal magnetic resonance imaging in obstetric practice

    PubMed Central

    Köşüş, Aydın; Köşüş, Nermin; Usluoğulları, Betül; Duran, Müzeyyen; Turhan, Nilgün Öztürk; Tekşam, Mehmet

    2011-01-01

    Ultrasonography (USG) is the primary imaging method for prenatal diagnosis of fetal abnormalities since its discovery. Although it is the primary method of fetal imaging, it cannot provide sufficient information about the fetus in some conditions such as maternal obesity, oligohydramnios and engagement of the fetal head. At this stage, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) facilitates examination by providing more specific information. The need and importance of fetal MRI applications further increased by the intrauterine surgery which is currently gaining popularity. Some advantages of fetal MRI over USG are the good texture of contrast, a greater study area and visualization of the lesion and neighbourhood relations, independence of the operators. Also it is not affected by maternal obesity and severe oligohydramnios. However, MRI is inadequate in detecting fetal limb and cardiac abnormalities when compared to USG. MRI is not used routinely in pregnancy. It is used in situations where nonionizing imaging methods are inadequate or ionizing radiation is required in pregnant women. It is not recommended during the first trimester. Contrast agent (Godalinium) is not used during pregnancy. It is believed that MRI is not harmful to the fetus, although the biological risk of MRI application is not known. MRI technique is superior to USG in the detection of corpus callosum dysgenesis, third-trimester evaluation of posterior fossa malformations, bilateral renal agenesis, diaphragmatic hernia and assessment of lung maturation. Especially, it is the method of choice for evaluation of central nervous system (CNS) abnormalities. Fetal MRI has a complementary role with USG. It provides important information for prenatal diagnosis, increases diagnostic accuracy, and in turn affects the prenatal treatment, prenatal interventions and birth plan. PMID:24591956

  18. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of the lung.

    PubMed

    Biederer, J; Heussel, C P; Puderbach, M; Wielpuetz, M O

    2014-02-01

    Beyond being a substitute for X-ray, computed tomography, and scintigraphy, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) inherently combines morphologic and functional information more than any other technology. Lung perfusion: The most established method is first-pass contrast-enhanced imaging with bolus injection of gadolinium chelates and time-resolved gradient-echo (GRE) sequences covering the whole lung (1 volume/s). Images are evaluated visually or semiquantitatively, while absolute quantification remains challenging due to the nonlinear relation of T1-shortening and contrast material concentration. Noncontrast-enhanced perfusion imaging is still experimental, either based on arterial spin labeling or Fourier decomposition. The latter is used to separate high- and low-frequency oscillations of lung signal related to the effects of pulsatile blood flow. Lung ventilation: Using contrast-enhanced first-pass perfusion, lung ventilation deficits are indirectly identified by hypoxic vasoconstriction. More direct but still experimental approaches use either inhalation of pure oxygen, an aerosolized contrast agent, or hyperpolarized noble gases. Fourier decomposition MRI based on the low-frequency lung signal oscillation allows for visualization of ventilation without any contrast agent. Respiratory mechanics: Time-resolved series with high background signal such as GRE or steady-state free precession visualize the movement of chest wall, diaphragm, mediastinum, lung tissue, tracheal wall, and tumor. The assessment of volume changes allows drawing conclusions on regional ventilation. With this arsenal of functional imaging capabilities at high spatial and temporal resolution but without radiation burden, MRI will find its role in regional functional lung analysis and will therefore overcome the sensitivity of global lung function analysis for repeated short-term treatment monitoring. PMID:24481761

  19. Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Postprostatectomy Radiotherapy Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Sefrova, Jana; Odrazka, Karel; Paluska, Petr; Belobradek, Zdenek; Brodak, Milos; Dolezel, Martin; Prosvic, Petr; Macingova, Zuzana; Vosmik, Milan; Hoffmann, Petr; Louda, Miroslav; Nejedla, Anna

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in prostate bed treatment planning could influence definition of the clinical target volume (CTV) and organs at risk. Methods and Materials: A total of 21 consecutive patients referred for prostate bed radiotherapy were included in the present retrospective study. The CTV was delineated according to the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer recommendations on computed tomography (CT) and T{sub 1}-weighted (T{sub 1}w) and T{sub 2}-weighted (T{sub 2}w) MRI. The CTV magnitude, agreement, and spatial differences were evaluated on the planning CT scan after registration with the MRI scans. Results: The CTV was significantly reduced on the T{sub 1}w and T{sub 2}w MRI scans (13% and 9%, respectively) compared with the CT scans. The urinary bladder was drawn smaller on the CT scans and the rectum was smaller on the MRI scans. On T{sub 1}w MRI, the rectum and urinary bladder were delineated larger than on T{sub 2}w MRI. Minimal agreement was observed between the CT and T{sub 2}w images. The main spatial differences were measured in the superior and superolateral directions in which the CTV on the MRI scans was 1.8-2.9 mm smaller. In the posterior and inferior border, no difference was seen between the CT and T{sub 1}w MRI scans. On the T{sub 2}w MRI scans, the CTV was larger in these directions (by 1.3 and 1.7 mm, respectively). Conclusions: The use of MRI in postprostatectomy radiotherapy planning resulted in a reduction of the CTV. The main differences were found in the superior part of the prostate bed. We believe T{sub 2}w MRI enables more precise definition of prostate bed CTV than conventional planning CT.

  20. Tools for cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Krishnamurthy, Ramkumar; Cheong, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    In less than fifteen years, as a non-invasive imaging option, cardiovascular MR has grown from a being a mere curiosity to becoming a widely used clinical tool for evaluating cardiovascular disease. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) is now routinely used to study myocardial structure, cardiac function, macro vascular blood flow, myocardial perfusion, and myocardial viability. For someone entering the field of cardiac MR, this rapid pace of development in the field of CMRI might make it difficult to identify a cohesive starting point. In this brief review, we have attempted to summarize the key cardiovascular imaging techniques that have found widespread clinical acceptance. In particular, we describe the essential cardiac and respiratory gating techniques that form the backbone of all cardiovascular imaging methods. It is followed by four sections that discuss: (I) the gradient echo techniques that are used to assess ventricular function; (II) black-blood turbo spin echo (SE) methods used for morphologic assessment of the heart; (III) phase-contrast based techniques for the assessment of blood flow; and (IV) CMR methods for the assessment of myocardial ischemia and viability. In each section, we briefly summarize technical considerations relevant to the clinical use of these techniques, followed by practical information for its clinical implementation. In each of those four areas, CMRI is considered either as the benchmark imaging modality against which the diagnostic performance of other imaging modalities are compared against, or provides a complementary capability to existing imaging techniques. We have deliberately avoided including cutting-edge CMR imaging techniques practiced at few academic centers, and restricted our discussion to methods that are widely used and are likely to be available in a clinical setting. Our hope is that this review would propel an interested reader toward more comprehensive reviews in the literature. PMID:24834409

  1. Fetal magnetic resonance imaging in obstetric practice.

    PubMed

    Köşüş, Aydın; Köşüş, Nermin; Usluoğulları, Betül; Duran, Müzeyyen; Turhan, Nilgün Öztürk; Tekşam, Mehmet

    2011-01-01

    Ultrasonography (USG) is the primary imaging method for prenatal diagnosis of fetal abnormalities since its discovery. Although it is the primary method of fetal imaging, it cannot provide sufficient information about the fetus in some conditions such as maternal obesity, oligohydramnios and engagement of the fetal head. At this stage, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) facilitates examination by providing more specific information. The need and importance of fetal MRI applications further increased by the intrauterine surgery which is currently gaining popularity. Some advantages of fetal MRI over USG are the good texture of contrast, a greater study area and visualization of the lesion and neighbourhood relations, independence of the operators. Also it is not affected by maternal obesity and severe oligohydramnios. However, MRI is inadequate in detecting fetal limb and cardiac abnormalities when compared to USG. MRI is not used routinely in pregnancy. It is used in situations where nonionizing imaging methods are inadequate or ionizing radiation is required in pregnant women. It is not recommended during the first trimester. Contrast agent (Godalinium) is not used during pregnancy. It is believed that MRI is not harmful to the fetus, although the biological risk of MRI application is not known. MRI technique is superior to USG in the detection of corpus callosum dysgenesis, third-trimester evaluation of posterior fossa malformations, bilateral renal agenesis, diaphragmatic hernia and assessment of lung maturation. Especially, it is the method of choice for evaluation of central nervous system (CNS) abnormalities. Fetal MRI has a complementary role with USG. It provides important information for prenatal diagnosis, increases diagnostic accuracy, and in turn affects the prenatal treatment, prenatal interventions and birth plan. PMID:24591956

  2. Magnetic Resonance Imaging–guided Vascular Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Ozturk, Cengizhan; Guttman, Michael; McVeigh, Elliot R.; Lederman, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which provides superior soft-tissue imaging and no known harmful effects, has the potential as an alternative modality to guide various medical interventions. This review will focus on MR-guided endovascular interventions and present its current state and future outlook. In the first technical part, enabling technologies such as developments in fast imaging, catheter devices, and visualization techniques are examined. This is followed by a clinical survey that includes proof-of-concept procedures in animals and initial experience in human subjects. In preclinical experiments, MRI has already proven to be valuable. For example, MRI has been used to guide and track targeted cell delivery into or around myocardial infarctions, to guide atrial septal puncture, and to guide the connection of portal and systemic venous circulations. Several investigational MR-guided procedures have already been reported in patients, such as MR-guided cardiac catheterization, invasive imaging of peripheral artery atheromata, selective intraarterial MR angiography, and preliminary angioplasty and stent placement. In addition, MR-assisted transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt procedures in patients have been shown in a novel hybrid double-doughnut x-ray/MRI system. Numerous additional investigational human MR-guided endovascular procedures are now underway in several medical centers around the world. There are also significant hurdles: availability of clinical-grade devices, device-related safety issues, challenges to patient monitoring, and acoustic noise during imaging. The potential of endovascular interventional MRI is great because as a single modality, it combines 3-dimensional anatomic imaging, device localization, hemodynamics, tissue composition, and function. PMID:16924170

  3. Small Animal Imaging with Magnetic Resonance Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Driehuys, Bastiaan; Nouls, John; Badea, Alexandra; Bucholz, Elizabeth; Ghaghada, Ketan; Petiet, Alexandra; Hedlund, Laurence W.

    2009-01-01

    Small animal magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM) has evolved significantly from testing the boundaries of imaging physics to its expanding use today as a tool in non-invasive biomedical investigations. This review is intended to capture the state-of-the-art in MRM for scientists who may be unfamiliar with this modality, but who want to apply its capabilities to their research. We therefore include a brief review of MR concepts and methods of animal handling and support before covering a range of MRM applications including the heart, lung, brain, and the emerging field of MR histology. High-resolution anatomical imaging reveals increasingly exquisite detail in healthy animals and subtle architectural aberrations that occur in genetically altered models. Resolution of 100 µm in all dimensions is now routinely attained in living animals, and 10 µm3 is feasible in fixed specimens. Such images almost rival conventional histology while allowing the object to be viewed interactively in any plane. MRM is now increasingly used to provide functional information in living animals. Images of the beating heart, breathing lung, and functioning brain can be recorded. While clinical MRI focuses on diagnosis, MRM is used to reveal fundamental biology or to non-invasively measure subtle changes in the structure or function of organs during disease progression or in response to experimental therapies. The ability of MRM to provide a detailed functional and anatomical picture in rats and mice, and to track this picture over time, makes it a promising platform with broad applications in biomedical research. PMID:18172332

  4. Pressure-driven amplification and penetration of resonant magnetic perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loizu, J.; Hudson, S. R.; Helander, P.; Lazerson, S. A.; Bhattacharjee, A.

    2016-05-01

    We show that a resonant magnetic perturbation applied to the boundary of an ideal plasma screw-pinch equilibrium with nested surfaces can penetrate inside the resonant surface and into the core. The response is significantly amplified with increasing plasma pressure. We present a rigorous verification of nonlinear equilibrium codes against linear theory, showing excellent agreement.

  5. Patellar tendinitis: the significance of magnetic resonance imaging findings.

    PubMed

    Shalaby, M; Almekinders, L C

    1999-01-01

    We evaluated the significance of magnetic resonance imaging findings in patients with patellar tendinitis. Midline sagittal magnetic resonance images were taken of 12 knees from 10 patients and of 17 knees from 15 age- and activity-matched subjects who underwent imaging for reasons other than patellar tendinitis. Of the 12 magnetic resonance imaging scans of knees with clinical patellar tendinitis, 3 (25%) exhibited no defect and only 7 (58%) had unequivocal intratendinous lesions. Among the 17 scans of subjects without clinical patellar tendinitis, 5 (34%) showed no defect and 4 (24%) had unequivocal intratendinous lesions. Proximal tendon width was significantly larger for the tendinitis patient group (5.0 +/- 1.7 mm versus 3.9 +/- 1.0 mm), although considerable overlap was present. All subjects with unequivocal intratendinous signal changes had a significantly longer nonarticular inferior patellar pole and were significantly older (38.1 years versus 26.8 years). Only Blazina stage III lesions were associated with abnormal findings on magnetic resonance imaging. As a whole, the sensitivity and specificity of magnetic resonance imaging was 75% and 29%, respectively. In younger patients with relatively mild symptoms, magnetic resonance imaging did not show significant changes; in older, active patients changes may be present in asymptomatic knees. PMID:10352771

  6. Probe-Sample Coupling in the Magnetic Resonance Force Microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suter, A.; Pelekhov, D. V.; Roukes, M. L.; Hammel, P. C.

    2002-02-01

    The magnetic resonance force microscope (MRFM) provides a route to achieving scanned probe magnetic resonance imaging with extremely high spatial resolution. Achieving this capability will require understanding the force exerted on a microscopic magnetic probe by a spatially extended sample over which the probe is scanned. Here we present a detailed analysis of this interaction between probe and sample. We focus on understanding the situation where the micromagnet mounted on the mechanical resonator generates a very inhomogeneous magnetic field and is scanned over a sample with at least one spatial dimension much larger than that of the micromagnet. This situation differs quite significantly from the conditions under which most MRFM experiments have been carried out where the sample is mounted on the mechanical resonator and placed in a rather weak magnetic field gradient. In addition to the concept of a sensitive slice (the spatial region where the magnetic resonance condition is met) it is valuable to map the forces exerted on the probe by spins at various locations; this leads to the concept of the force slice (the region in which spins exert force on the resonator). Results of this analysis, obtained both analytically and numerically, will be qualitatively compared with an initial experimental finding from an EPR-MRFM experiment carried out on DPPH at 4 K.

  7. Probe--sample coupling in the magnetic resonance force microscope.

    PubMed

    Suter, A; Pelekhov, D V; Roukes, M L; Hammel, P C

    2002-02-01

    The magnetic resonance force microscope (MRFM) provides a route to achieving scanned probe magnetic resonance imaging with extremely high spatial resolution. Achieving this capability will require understanding the force exerted on a microscopic magnetic probe by a spatially extended sample over which the probe is scanned. Here we present a detailed analysis of this interaction between probe and sample. We focus on understanding the situation where the micromagnet mounted on the mechanical resonator generates a very inhomogeneous magnetic field and is scanned over a sample with at least one spatial dimension much larger than that of the micromagnet. This situation differs quite significantly from the conditions under which most MRFM experiments have been carried out where the sample is mounted on the mechanical resonator and placed in a rather weak magnetic field gradient. In addition to the concept of a sensitive slice (the spatial region where the magnetic resonance condition is met) it is valuable to map the forces exerted on the probe by spins at various locations; this leads to the concept of the force slice (the region in which spins exert force on the resonator). Results of this analysis, obtained both analytically and numerically, will be qualitatively compared with an initial experimental finding from an EPR-MRFM experiment carried out on DPPH at 4 K. PMID:11846579

  8. Single Molecule Magnetic Force Detection with a Carbon Nanotube Resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willick, Kyle; Walker, Sean; Baugh, Jonathan

    2015-03-01

    Single molecule magnets (SMMs) sit at the boundary between macroscopic magnetic behaviour and quantum phenomena. Detecting the magnetic moment of an individual SMM would allow exploration of this boundary, and could enable technological applications based on SMMs such as quantum information processing. Detection of these magnetic moments remains an experimental challenge, particularly at the time scales of relaxation and decoherence. We present a technique for sensitive magnetic force detection that should permit such measurements. A suspended carbon nanotube (CNT) mechanical resonator is combined with a magnetic field gradient generated by a ferromagnetic gate electrode, which couples the magnetic moment of a nanomagnet to the resonant motion of the CNT. Numerical calculations of the mechanical resonance show that resonant frequency shifts on the order of a few kHz arise due to single Bohr magneton changes in magnetic moment. A signal-to-noise analysis based on thermomechanical noise shows that magnetic switching at the level of a Bohr magneton can be measured in a single shot on timescales as short as 10 μs. This sensitivity should enable studies of the spin dynamics of an isolated SMM, within the spin relaxation timescales for many available SMMs. Supported by NSERC.

  9. Ferromagnetic resonance in ϵ-Co magnetic composites.

    PubMed

    Chalapat, Khattiya; Timonen, Jaakko V I; Huuppola, Maija; Koponen, Lari; Johans, Christoffer; Ras, Robin H A; Ikkala, Olli; Oksanen, Markku A; Seppälä, Eira; Paraoanu, G S

    2014-12-01

    We investigate the electromagnetic properties of assemblies of nanoscale ϵ-cobalt crystals with size range between 5 to 35 nm, embedded in a polystyrene matrix, at microwave (1-12 GHz) frequencies. We investigate the samples by transmission electron microscopy imaging, demonstrating that the particles aggregate and form chains and clusters. By using a broadband coaxial-line method, we extract the magnetic permeability in the frequency range from 1 to 12 GHz, and we study the shift of the ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) with respect to an externally applied magnetic field. We find that the zero-magnetic field ferromagnetic resonant peak shifts towards higher frequencies at finite magnetic fields, and the magnitude of complex permeability is reduced. At fields larger than 2.5 kOe the resonant frequency changes linearly with the applied magnetic field, demonstrating the transition to a state in which the nanoparticles become dynamically decoupled. In this regime, the particles inside clusters can be treated as non-interacting, and the peak position can be predicted from Kittel's FMR theory for non-interacting uniaxial spherical particles combined with the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation. In contrast, at low magnetic fields this magnetic order breaks down and the resonant frequency in zero magnetic field reaches a saturation value reflecting the interparticle interactions as resulting from aggregation. Our results show that the electromagnetic properties of these composite materials can be tuned by external magnetic fields and by changes in the aggregation structure. PMID:25397945

  10. Magnetic resonance velocimetry: applications of magnetic resonance imaging in the measurement of fluid motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elkins, Christopher J.; Alley, Marcus T.

    2007-12-01

    Magnetic resonance velocimetry (MRV) is a non-invasive technique capable of measuring the three-component mean velocity field in complex three-dimensional geometries with either steady or periodic boundary conditions. The technique is based on the phenomenon of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and works in conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) magnets used for clinical imaging. Velocities can be measured along single lines, in planes, or in full 3D volumes with sub-millimeter resolution. No optical access or flow markers are required so measurements can be obtained in clear or opaque MR compatible flow models and fluids. Because of its versatility and the widespread availability of MRI scanners, MRV is seeing increasing application in both biological and engineering flows. MRV measurements typically image the hydrogen protons in liquid flows due to the relatively high intrinsic signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Nonetheless, lower SNR applications such as fluorine gas flows are beginning to appear in the literature. MRV can be used in laminar and turbulent flows, single and multiphase flows, and even non-isothermal flows. In addition to measuring mean velocity, MRI techniques can measure turbulent velocities, diffusion coefficients and tensors, and temperature. This review surveys recent developments in MRI measurement techniques primarily in turbulent liquid and gas flows. A general description of MRV provides background for a discussion of its accuracy and limitations. Techniques for decreasing scan time such as parallel imaging and partial k-space sampling are discussed. MRV applications are reviewed in the areas of physiology, biology, and engineering. Included are measurements of arterial blood flow and gas flow in human lungs. Featured engineering applications include the scanning of turbulent flows in complex geometries for CFD validation, the rapid iterative design of complex internal flow passages, velocity and phase composition measurements in

  11. Adaptation of a haptic robot in a 3T fMRI.

    PubMed

    Snider, Joseph; Plank, Markus; May, Larry; Liu, Thomas T; Poizner, Howard

    2011-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) provides excellent functional brain imaging via the BOLD signal with advantages including non-ionizing radiation, millimeter spatial accuracy of anatomical and functional data, and nearly real-time analyses. Haptic robots provide precise measurement and control of position and force of a cursor in a reasonably confined space. Here we combine these two technologies to allow precision experiments involving motor control with haptic/tactile environment interaction such as reaching or grasping. The basic idea is to attach an 8 foot end effecter supported in the center to the robot allowing the subject to use the robot, but shielding it and keeping it out of the most extreme part of the magnetic field from the fMRI machine (Figure 1). The Phantom Premium 3.0, 6DoF, high-force robot (SensAble Technologies, Inc.) is an excellent choice for providing force-feedback in virtual reality experiments, but it is inherently non-MR safe, introduces significant noise to the sensitive fMRI equipment, and its electric motors may be affected by the fMRI's strongly varying magnetic field. We have constructed a table and shielding system that allows the robot to be safely introduced into the fMRI environment and limits both the degradation of the fMRI signal by the electrically noisy motors and the degradation of the electric motor performance by the strongly varying magnetic field of the fMRI. With the shield, the signal to noise ratio (SNR: mean signal/noise standard deviation) of the fMRI goes from a baseline of ~380 to ~330, and ~250 without the shielding. The remaining noise appears to be uncorrelated and does not add artifacts to the fMRI of a test sphere (Figure 2). The long, stiff handle allows placement of the robot out of range of the most strongly varying parts of the magnetic field so there is no significant effect of the fMRI on the robot. The effect of the handle on the robot's kinematics is minimal since it is lightweight (~2

  12. Magnetically-controlled Fano resonance in wavefunction-coupled QPCs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Myoung-Gu

    In this thesis, we describe the observation of a resonant interaction between coupled quantum point contacts (QPCs) that we attribute to a Fano resonance, caused by the self-consistent formation of a bound-state (BS) in one of the QPCs. The presence of this BS (in the "swept QPC") is detected by making measurements of the conductance of the other QPC, which therefore serves as a detector. A key feature of our work is the demonstration of a strong modulation of the detector resonance by applying a perpendicular magnetic field (B⊥). This induces a distinct asymmetry (with respect to magnetic-field reversal) in the magneto-conductance of the detector, which is shown to be due to the influence magnetic electron focusing. In this effect, the electron trajectories correspond to classical skipping orbits, which undergo complete motion due to the high mobility of the two-dimensional electron gas. At even higher B⊥, the detector resonance, which at zero magnetic field is only weakly asymmetric, evolves into the classic, highly asymmetric, Fano form. Such asymmetry indicates that the nonresonant contribution to detector resonance becomes comparable to the resonant one at high fields. We explain these results in terms of two key properties of quantum-dot eigenstates in a magnetic field, namely: the tendency for their wavefunctions to be compressed towards the center of the quantum-dot potential, and; that for their eigenenergies to increase due to the associated enhancement in the effective degree of confinement. In this thesis, we confirm these ideas by performing a Fock-Darwin analysis to account for the evolution of the detector Fano resonance in the magnetic field. The strong modulations of the Fano resonance that we observe as a function of B⊥ are shown to represent a new manifestation of this ubiquitous resonance.

  13. Least Squares Magnetic-Field Optimization for Portable Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Magnet Design

    SciTech Connect

    Paulsen, Jeffrey L; Franck, John; Demas, Vasiliki; Bouchard, Louis-S.

    2008-03-27

    Single-sided and mobile nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) sensors have the advantages of portability, low cost, and low power consumption compared to conventional high-field NMR and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems. We present fast, flexible, and easy-to-implement target field algorithms for mobile NMR and MRI magnet design. The optimization finds a global optimum ina cost function that minimizes the error in the target magnetic field in the sense of least squares. When the technique is tested on a ring array of permanent-magnet elements, the solution matches the classical dipole Halbach solution. For a single-sided handheld NMR sensor, the algorithm yields a 640 G field homogeneous to 16 100 ppm across a 1.9 cc volume located 1.5 cm above the top of the magnets and homogeneous to 32 200 ppm over a 7.6 cc volume. This regime is adequate for MRI applications. We demonstrate that the homogeneous region can be continuously moved away from the sensor by rotating magnet rod elements, opening the way for NMR sensors with adjustable"sensitive volumes."

  14. Neuroimaging measures of error-processing: Extracting reliable signals from event-related potentials and functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Steele, Vaughn R; Anderson, Nathaniel E; Claus, Eric D; Bernat, Edward M; Rao, Vikram; Assaf, Michal; Pearlson, Godfrey D; Calhoun, Vince D; Kiehl, Kent A

    2016-05-15

    Error-related brain activity has become an increasingly important focus of cognitive neuroscience research utilizing both event-related potentials (ERPs) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Given the significant time and resources required to collect these data, it is important for researchers to plan their experiments such that stable estimates of error-related processes can be achieved efficiently. Reliability of error-related brain measures will vary as a function of the number of error trials and the number of participants included in the averages. Unfortunately, systematic investigations of the number of events and participants required to achieve stability in error-related processing are sparse, and none have addressed variability in sample size. Our goal here is to provide data compiled from a large sample of healthy participants (n=180) performing a Go/NoGo task, resampled iteratively to demonstrate the relative stability of measures of error-related brain activity given a range of sample sizes and event numbers included in the averages. We examine ERP measures of error-related negativity (ERN/Ne) and error positivity (Pe), as well as event-related fMRI measures locked to False Alarms. We find that achieving stable estimates of ERP measures required four to six error trials and approximately 30 participants; fMRI measures required six to eight trials and approximately 40 participants. Fewer trials and participants were required for measures where additional data reduction techniques (i.e., principal component analysis and independent component analysis) were implemented. Ranges of reliability statistics for various sample sizes and numbers of trials are provided. We intend this to be a useful resource for those planning or evaluating ERP or fMRI investigations with tasks designed to measure error-processing. PMID:26908319

  15. Electron paramagnetic resonance of nitroxide-doped magnetic fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morais, P. C.; Alonso, A.; Silva, O.; Buske, N.

    2002-11-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance was used to investigate surface-coated magnetite-based magnetic fluids doped with TEMPOL. Two magnetic fluid samples, having magnetite nanoparticles with average diameter of 94 Å and coated with different coating layers (lauric acid plus ethoxylated polyalcohol in one case and oleoylsarcosine in the other case), were doped with TEMPOL (6 mM and pH 7.4) and investigated as a function of the nanoparticle concentration. The resonance field and the resonance linewidth both scale linearly with the nanoparticle concentration.

  16. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): Dynamic Pelvic Floor

    MedlinePlus

    ... a powerful magnetic field, radio waves and a computer to produce detailed pictures of the pelvic floor, ... powerful magnetic field, radio frequency pulses and a computer to produce detailed pictures of organs, soft tissues, ...

  17. Resonant Raman scattering from silicon nanoparticles enhanced by magnetic response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmitriev, Pavel A.; Baranov, Denis G.; Milichko, Valentin A.; Makarov, Sergey V.; Mukhin, Ivan S.; Samusev, Anton K.; Krasnok, Alexander E.; Belov, Pavel A.; Kivshar, Yuri S.

    2016-05-01

    Enhancement of optical response with high-index dielectric nanoparticles is attributed to the excitation of their Mie-type magnetic and electric resonances. Here we study Raman scattering from crystalline silicon nanoparticles and reveal that magnetic dipole modes have a much stronger effect on the scattering than electric modes of the same order. We demonstrate experimentally a 140-fold enhancement of the Raman signal from individual silicon spherical nanoparticles at the magnetic dipole resonance. Our results confirm the importance of the optically-induced magnetic response of subwavelength dielectric nanoparticles for enhancing light-matter interactions.Enhancement of optical response with high-index dielectric nanoparticles is attributed to the excitation of their Mie-type magnetic and electric resonances. Here we study Raman scattering from crystalline silicon nanoparticles and reveal that magnetic dipole modes have a much stronger effect on the scattering than electric modes of the same order. We demonstrate experimentally a 140-fold enhancement of the Raman signal from individual silicon spherical nanoparticles at the magnetic dipole resonance. Our results confirm the importance of the optically-induced magnetic response of subwavelength dielectric nanoparticles for enhancing light-matter interactions. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr07965a

  18. High-Resolution Nuclear Magnetic Resonance of Solids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maciel, Gary E.

    1984-01-01

    Examines recent developments in techniques for obtaining high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra on solid samples, discussing the kinds of applications for which these techniques are well suited. Also discusses the characteristics of NMR of solids and generating magnetization for NMR in solids. (JN)

  19. The Nobel Prize in Medicine for Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fry, Charles G.

    2004-01-01

    Nobel Prize in Medicine awarded in December 2003 to chemist Paul C. Lauterbur and physicist Peter Mansfield for the development of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), a long overdue recognition of the huge impact MRI has had in medical diagnostics and research is mentioned. MRI was derived, and remains an extension of nuclear magnetic resonance…

  20. Parametric resonance induced chaos in magnetic damped driven pendulum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khomeriki, Giorgi

    2016-07-01

    A damped driven pendulum with a magnetic driving force, appearing from a solenoid, where ac current flows is considered. The solenoid acts on the magnet, which is located at a free end of the pendulum. In this system the existence and interrelation of chaos and parametric resonance is theoretically examined. Derived analytical results are supported by numerical simulations and conducted experiments.

  1. Terahertz Magnetic Mirror Realized with Dielectric Resonator Antennas.

    PubMed

    Headland, Daniel; Nirantar, Shruti; Withayachumnankul, Withawat; Gutruf, Philipp; Abbott, Derek; Bhaskaran, Madhu; Fumeaux, Christophe; Sriram, Sharath

    2015-11-25

    Single-crystal silicon is bonded to a metal-coated substrate and etched in order to form an array of microcylinder passive terahertz dielectric resonator antennas (DRAs). The DRAs exhibit a magnetic response, and hence the array behaves as an efficient artificial magnetic conductor (AMC), with potential for terahertz antenna and sensing applications. PMID:26450363

  2. Structure of magnetic resonance in 87Rb atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlov, A. N.; Zibrov, S. A.; Zibrov, A. A.; Yudin, V. I.; Taichenachev, A. V.; Yakovlev, V. P.; Tsygankov, E. A.; Zibrov, A. S.; Vassiliev, V. V.; Velichansky, V. L.

    2016-05-01

    Magnetic resonance at the F g = 1 rightleftarrows F e = 1 transition of the D 1 line in 87Rb has been studied with pumping and detection by linearly polarized radiation and detection at the double frequency of the radiofrequency field. The intervals of allowed values of the static and alternating magnetic fields in which magnetic resonance has a single maximum have been found. The structure appearing beyond these intervals has been explained. It has been shown that the quadratic Zeeman shift is responsible for the three-peak structure of resonance; the radiofrequency shift results in the appearance of additional extrema in resonance, which can be used to determine the relaxation constant Γ2. The possibility of application in magnetometry has been discussed.

  3. Nonparametric hemodynamic deconvolution of FMRI using homomorphic filtering.

    PubMed

    Sreenivasan, Karthik Ramakrishnan; Havlicek, Martin; Deshpande, Gopikrishna

    2015-05-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is an indirect measure of neural activity which is modeled as a convolution of the latent neuronal response and the hemodynamic response function (HRF). Since the sources of HRF variability can be nonneural in nature, the measured fMRI signal does not faithfully represent underlying neural activity. Therefore, it is advantageous to deconvolve the HRF from the fMRI signal. However, since both latent neural activity and the voxel-specific HRF is unknown, the deconvolution must be blind. Existing blind deconvolution approaches employ highly parameterized models, and it is unclear whether these models have an over fitting problem. In order to address these issues, we 1) present a nonparametric deconvolution method based on homomorphic filtering to obtain the latent neuronal response from the fMRI signal and, 2) compare our approach to the best performing existing parametric model based on the estimation of the biophysical hemodynamic model using the Cubature Kalman Filter/Smoother. We hypothesized that if the results from nonparametric deconvolution closely resembled that obtained from parametric deconvolution, then the problem of over fitting during estimation in highly parameterized deconvolution models of fMRI could possibly be over stated. Both simulations and experimental results demonstrate support for our hypothesis since the estimated latent neural response from both parametric and nonparametric methods were highly correlated in the visual cortex. Further, simulations showed that both methods were effective in recovering the simulated ground truth of the latent neural response. PMID:25531878

  4. Tunable resonant transmission of electromagnetic waves through a magnetized plasma.

    PubMed

    Kee, Chul-Sik; Li, Shou-Zhe; Kim, Kihong; Lim, H

    2003-03-01

    We theoretically investigate the resonant transmission of circularly polarized electromagnetic waves in the electromagnetic stop band of a magnetized plasma slab using the invariant embedding method. The frequency and quality factor of the resonant mode for the right-handed (left-handed) circularly polarized wave created by inserting a dielectric layer into the plasma increase (decrease) as the magnitude of the external magnetic field increases. These phenomena are compared with the characteristics of resonant modes in metallic and dielectric Fabry-Perot resonators to show that they are due to the change of plasma reflectivity. We also discuss the damping effect due to the collisions of the constituent particles of the plasma on the resonant transmission of circularly polarized waves. PMID:12689184

  5. Accelerated nanoscale magnetic resonance imaging through phase multiplexing

    SciTech Connect

    Moores, B. A.; Eichler, A. Takahashi, H.; Navaretti, P.; Degen, C. L.; Tao, Y.

    2015-05-25

    We report a method for accelerated nanoscale nuclear magnetic resonance imaging by detecting several signals in parallel. Our technique relies on phase multiplexing, where the signals from different nuclear spin ensembles are encoded in the phase of an ultrasensitive magnetic detector. We demonstrate this technique by simultaneously acquiring statistically polarized spin signals from two different nuclear species ({sup 1}H, {sup 19}F) and from up to six spatial locations in a nanowire test sample using a magnetic resonance force microscope. We obtain one-dimensional imaging resolution better than 5 nm, and subnanometer positional accuracy.

  6. Accelerated nanoscale magnetic resonance imaging through phase multiplexing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moores, B. A.; Eichler, A.; Tao, Y.; Takahashi, H.; Navaretti, P.; Degen, C. L.

    2015-05-01

    We report a method for accelerated nanoscale nuclear magnetic resonance imaging by detecting several signals in parallel. Our technique relies on phase multiplexing, where the signals from different nuclear spin ensembles are encoded in the phase of an ultrasensitive magnetic detector. We demonstrate this technique by simultaneously acquiring statistically polarized spin signals from two different nuclear species (1H, 19F) and from up to six spatial locations in a nanowire test sample using a magnetic resonance force microscope. We obtain one-dimensional imaging resolution better than 5 nm, and subnanometer positional accuracy.

  7. Spin wave resonance detection using magnetic tunnel junction structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Chong; Fan, Xin; Pan, Liqing; Kou, Xiaoming; Wu, Jun; Yang, Qinghui; Zhang, Huaiwu; Xiao, John Q.

    2011-11-01

    We have demonstrated that spin wave resonance in a permalloy microstrip can be detected by an electrical method based on magnetic tunnel junction structures. The detection method promises high spatial resolution and sensitivity. Both even and odd spin wave resonance modes can be clearly observed in a permalloy microstrip. The spin wave induced voltage is proportional to the input microwave power at each resonance mode. Data analysis using the model of quantized dipole-exchange spin wave resonance suggests the edge pinning of spin wave sensitively depends on the order of the spin wave mode, as well as on the excitation frequency for modes of the higher order.

  8. Spin microscope based on optically detected magnetic resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, Gennady P.; Chernobrod, Boris M.

    2009-11-10

    The invention relates to scanning magnetic microscope which has a photoluminescent nanoprobe implanted in the tip apex of an atomic force microscope (AFM), a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) or a near-field scanning optical microscope (NSOM) and exhibits optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) in the vicinity of impaired electron spins or nuclear magnetic moments in the sample material. The described spin microscope has demonstrated nanoscale lateral resolution and single spin sensitivity for the AFM and STM embodiments.

  9. Spin microscope based on optically detected magnetic resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, Gennady P.; Chernobrod, Boris M.

    2010-06-29

    The invention relates to scanning magnetic microscope which has a photoluminescent nanoprobe implanted in the tip apex of an atomic force microscope (AFM), a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) or a near-field scanning optical microscope (NSOM) and exhibits optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) in the vicinity of unpaired electron spins or nuclear magnetic moments in the sample material. The described spin microscope has demonstrated nanoscale lateral resolution and single spin sensitivity for the AFM and STM embodiments.

  10. Spin microscope based on optically detected magnetic resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, Gennady P.; Chernobrod, Boris M.

    2010-07-13

    The invention relates to scanning magnetic microscope which has a photoluminescent nanoprobe implanted in the tip apex of an atomic force microscope (AFM), a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) or a near-field scanning optical microscope (NSOM) and exhibits optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) in the vicinity of unpaired electron spins or nuclear magnetic moments in the sample material. The described spin microscope has demonstrated nanoscale lateral resolution and single spin sensitivity for the AFM and STM embodiments.

  11. Spin microscope based on optically detected magnetic resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, Gennady P.; Chernobrod, Boris M.

    2009-10-27

    The invention relates to scanning magnetic microscope which has a photoluminescent nanoprobe implanted in the tip apex of an atomic force microscope (AFM), a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) or a near-field scanning optical microscope (NSOM) and exhibits optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) in the vicinity of unpaired electron spins or nuclear magnetic moments in the sample material. The described spin microscope has demonstrated nanoscale lateral resolution and single spin sensitivity for the AFM and STM embodiments.

  12. Spin microscope based on optically detected magnetic resonance

    DOEpatents

    Berman, Gennady P.; Chernobrod, Boris M.

    2007-12-11

    The invention relates to scanning magnetic microscope which has a photoluminescent nanoprobe implanted in the tip apex of an atomic force microscope (AFM), a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) or a near-field scanning optical microscope (NSOM) and exhibits optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) in the vicinity of unpaired electron spins or nuclear magnetic moments in the sample material. The described spin microscope has demonstrated nanoscale lateral resolution and single spin sensitivity for the AFM and STM embodiments.

  13. Catheter steering using a Magnetic Resonance Imaging system.

    PubMed

    Lalande, Viviane; Gosselin, Frederick P; Martel, Sylvain

    2010-01-01

    A catheter is successfully bent and steered by applying magnetic gradients inside a Magnetic Resonance Imaging system (MRI). One to three soft ferromagnetic spheres are attached at the distal tip of the catheter with different spacing between the spheres. Depending on the interactions between the spheres, progressive or discontinuous/jumping displacement was observed for increasing magnetic load. This phenomenon is accurately predicted by a simple theoretical dipole interaction model. PMID:21096567

  14. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of awake monkeys: some approaches for improving imaging quality

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Gang; Wang, Feng; Dillenburger, Barbara C.; Friedman, Robert M.; Chen, Li M.; Gore, John C.; Avison, Malcolm J.; Roe, Anna W.

    2011-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), at high magnetic field strength can suffer from serious degradation of image quality because of motion and physiological noise, as well as spatial distortions and signal losses due to susceptibility effects. Overcoming such limitations is essential for sensitive detection and reliable interpretation of fMRI data. These issues are particularly problematic in studies of awake animals. As part of our initial efforts to study functional brain activations in awake, behaving monkeys using fMRI at 4.7T, we have developed acquisition and analysis procedures to improve image quality with encouraging results. We evaluated the influence of two main variables on image quality. First, we show how important the level of behavioral training is for obtaining good data stability and high temporal signal-to-noise ratios. In initial sessions, our typical scan session lasted 1.5 hours, partitioned into short (<10 minutes) runs. During reward periods and breaks between runs, the monkey exhibited movements resulting in considerable image misregistrations. After a few months of extensive behavioral training, we were able to increase the length of individual runs and the total length of each session. The monkey learned to wait until the end of a block for fluid reward, resulting in longer periods of continuous acquisition. Each additional 60 training sessions extended the duration of each session by 60 minutes, culminating, after about 140 training sessions, in sessions that last about four hours. As a result, the average translational movement decreased from over 500 μm to less than 80 μm, a displacement close to that observed in anesthetized monkeys scanned in a 7 T horizontal scanner. Another major source of distortion at high fields arises from susceptibility variations. To reduce such artifacts, we used segmented gradient-echo echo-planar imaging (EPI) sequences. Increasing the number of segments significantly decreased susceptibility

  15. Optimized design and analysis of sparse-sampling FMRI experiments.

    PubMed

    Perrachione, Tyler K; Ghosh, Satrajit S

    2013-01-01

    Sparse-sampling is an important methodological advance in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), in which silent delays are introduced between MR volume acquisitions, allowing for the presentation of auditory stimuli without contamination by acoustic scanner noise and for overt vocal responses without motion-induced artifacts in the functional time series. As such, the sparse-sampling technique has become a mainstay of principled fMRI research into the cognitive and systems neuroscience of speech, language, hearing, and music. Despite being in use for over a decade, there has been little systematic investigation of the acquisition parameters, experimental design considerations, and statistical analysis approaches that bear on the results and interpretation of sparse-sampling fMRI experiments. In this report, we examined how design and analysis choices related to the duration of repetition time (TR) delay (an acquisition parameter), stimulation rate (an experimental design parameter), and model basis function (an analysis parameter) act independently and interactively to affect the neural activation profiles observed in fMRI. First, we conducted a series of computational simulations to explore the parameter space of sparse design and analysis with respect to these variables; second, we validated the results of these simulations in a series of sparse-sampling fMRI experiments. Overall, these experiments suggest the employment of three methodological approaches that can, in many situations, substantially improve the detection of neurophysiological response in sparse fMRI: (1) Sparse analyses should utilize a physiologically informed model that incorporates hemodynamic response convolution to reduce model error. (2) The design of sparse fMRI experiments should maintain a high rate of stimulus presentation to maximize effect size. (3) TR delays of short to intermediate length can be used between acquisitions of sparse-sampled functional image volumes to increase

  16. Quantum transport in coupled resonators enclosed synthetic magnetic flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, L.

    2016-07-01

    Quantum transport properties are instrumental to understanding quantum coherent transport processes. Potential applications of quantum transport are widespread, in areas ranging from quantum information science to quantum engineering, and not restricted to quantum state transfer, control and manipulation. Here, we study light transport in a ring array of coupled resonators enclosed synthetic magnetic flux. The ring configuration, with an arbitrary number of resonators embedded, forms a two-arm Aharonov-Bohm interferometer. The influence of magnetic flux on light transport is investigated. Tuning the magnetic flux can lead to resonant transmission, while half-integer magnetic flux quantum leads to completely destructive interference and transmission zeros in an interferometer with two equal arms.

  17. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy with single spin sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Müller, C.; Kong, X.; Cai, J.-M.; Melentijević, K.; Stacey, A.; Markham, M.; Twitchen, D.; Isoya, J.; Pezzagna, S.; Meijer, J.; Du, J. F.; Plenio, M. B.; Naydenov, B.; McGuinness, L. P.; Jelezko, F.

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and magnetic resonance imaging at the ultimate sensitivity limit of single molecules or single nuclear spins requires fundamentally new detection strategies. The strong coupling regime, when interaction between sensor and sample spins dominates all other interactions, is one such strategy. In this regime, classically forbidden detection of completely unpolarized nuclei is allowed, going beyond statistical fluctuations in magnetization. Here we realize strong coupling between an atomic (nitrogen–vacancy) sensor and sample nuclei to perform nuclear magnetic resonance on four 29Si spins. We exploit the field gradient created by the diamond atomic sensor, in concert with compressed sensing, to realize imaging protocols, enabling individual nuclei to be located with Angstrom precision. The achieved signal-to-noise ratio under ambient conditions allows single nuclear spin sensitivity to be achieved within seconds. PMID:25146503

  18. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy with single spin sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Müller, C; Kong, X; Cai, J-M; Melentijević, K; Stacey, A; Markham, M; Twitchen, D; Isoya, J; Pezzagna, S; Meijer, J; Du, J F; Plenio, M B; Naydenov, B; McGuinness, L P; Jelezko, F

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and magnetic resonance imaging at the ultimate sensitivity limit of single molecules or single nuclear spins requires fundamentally new detection strategies. The strong coupling regime, when interaction between sensor and sample spins dominates all other interactions, is one such strategy. In this regime, classically forbidden detection of completely unpolarized nuclei is allowed, going beyond statistical fluctuations in magnetization. Here we realize strong coupling between an atomic (nitrogen-vacancy) sensor and sample nuclei to perform nuclear magnetic resonance on four (29)Si spins. We exploit the field gradient created by the diamond atomic sensor, in concert with compressed sensing, to realize imaging protocols, enabling individual nuclei to be located with Angstrom precision. The achieved signal-to-noise ratio under ambient conditions allows single nuclear spin sensitivity to be achieved within seconds. PMID:25146503

  19. Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Characterize a Rodent Model of Covert Stroke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrera, Sheryl Lyn

    Covert stroke (CS) comprises lesions in the brain often associated by risk factors such as a diet high in fat, salt, cholesterol and sugar (HFSCS). Developing a rodent model for CS incorporating these characteristics is useful for developing and testing interventions. The purpose of this thesis was to determine if magnetic resonance (MR) can detect brain abnormalities to confirm this model will have the desired anatomical effects. Ex vivo MR showed brain abnormalities for rats with the induced lesions and fed the HFSCS diet. Spectra acquired on the fixed livers had an average percent area under the fat peak relative to the water peak of (20+/-4)% for HFSCS and (2+/-2)% for control. In vivo MR images had significant differences between surgeries to induce the lesions (p=0.04). These results show that applying MR identified abnormalities in the rat model and therefore is important in the development of this CS rodent model.

  20. Towards Single Biomolecule Imaging via Optical Nanoscale Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Boretti, Alberto; Rosa, Lorenzo; Castelletto, Stefania

    2015-09-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is a physical marvel in which electromagnetic radiation is charged and discharged by nuclei in a magnetic field. In conventional NMR, the specific nuclei resonance frequency depends on the strength of the magnetic field and the magnetic properties of the isotope of the atoms. NMR is routinely utilized in clinical tests by converting nuclear spectroscopy in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and providing 3D, noninvasive biological imaging. While this technique has revolutionized biomedical science, measuring the magnetic resonance spectrum of single biomolecules is still an intangible aspiration, due to MRI resolution being limited to tens of micrometers. MRI and NMR have, however, recently greatly advanced, with many breakthroughs in nano-NMR and nano-MRI spurred by using spin sensors based on an atomic impurities in diamond. These techniques rely on magnetic dipole-dipole interactions rather than inductive detection. Here, novel nano-MRI methods based on nitrogen vacancy centers in diamond are highlighted, that provide a solution to the imaging of single biomolecules with nanoscale resolution in-vivo and in ambient conditions. PMID:26113221

  1. Comparison of nuclear electric resonance and nuclear magnetic resonance in integer and fractional quantum Hall states

    SciTech Connect

    Tomimatsu, Toru Shirai, Shota; Hashimoto, Katsushi Sato, Ken; Hirayama, Yoshiro

    2015-08-15

    Electric-field-induced nuclear resonance (NER: nuclear electric resonance) involving quantum Hall states (QHSs) was studied at various filling factors by exploiting changes in nuclear spins polarized at quantum Hall breakdown. Distinct from the magnetic dipole interaction in nuclear magnetic resonance, the interaction of the electric-field gradient with the electric quadrupole moment plays the dominant role in the NER mechanism. The magnitude of the NER signal strongly depends on whether electronic states are localized or extended. This indicates that NER is sensitive to the screening capability of the electric field associated with QHSs.

  2. Longitudinal fMRI studies: Exploring brain plasticity and repair in MS.

    PubMed

    Enzinger, Christian; Pinter, Daniela; Rocca, Maria A; De Luca, John; Sastre-Garriga, Jaume; Audoin, Bertrand; Filippi, Massimo

    2016-03-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has greatly advanced our understanding of cerebral functional changes occurring in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). However, most of our knowledge regarding brain plasticity and repair in MS as evidenced by fMRI has been extrapolated from cross-sectional studies across different phenotypes of the disease. This topical review provides an overview of this research, but also highlights limitations of existing fMRI studies with cross-sectional design. We then review the few existing longitudinal fMRI studies and discuss the feasibility and constraints of serial fMRI in individuals with MS. We further emphasize the potential to track fMRI changes in evolving disease and the insights this may give in terms of mechanisms of adaptation and repair, focusing on serial fMRI to monitor response to disease-modifying therapies or rehabilitation interventions. Finally, we offer recommendations for designing future research studies to overcome previous methodological shortcomings. PMID:26683590

  3. Comparing MEG and fMRI views to naming actions and objects.

    PubMed

    Liljeström, Mia; Hultén, Annika; Parkkonen, Lauri; Salmelin, Riitta

    2009-06-01

    Most neuroimaging studies are performed using one imaging method only, either functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), electroencephalography (EEG), or magnetoencephalography (MEG). Information on both location and timing has been sought by recording fMRI and EEG, simultaneously, or MEG and fMRI in separate sessions. Such approaches assume similar active areas whether detected via hemodynamic or electrophysiological signatures. Direct comparisons, after independent analysis of data from each imaging modality, have been conducted primarily on low-level sensory processing. Here, we report MEG (timing and location) and fMRI (location) results in 11 subjects when they named pictures that depicted an action or an object. The experimental design was exactly the same for the two imaging modalities. The MEG data were analyzed with two standard approaches: a set of equivalent current dipoles and a distributed minimum norm estimate. The fMRI blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) data were subjected to the usual random-effect contrast analysis. At the group level, MEG and fMRI data showed fairly good convergence, with both overall activation patterns and task effects localizing to comparable cortical regions. There were some systematic discrepancies, however, and the correspondence was less compelling in the individual subjects. The present analysis should be helpful in reconciling results of fMRI and MEG studies on high-level cognitive functions. PMID:19378277

  4. Correlation between the Effects of Acupuncture at Taichong (LR3) and Functional Brain Areas: A Resting-State Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study Using True versus Sham Acupuncture.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chunxiao; Qu, Shanshan; Zhang, Jiping; Chen, Junqi; Zhang, Shaoqun; Li, Zhipeng; Chen, Jiarong; Ouyang, Huailiang; Huang, Yong; Tang, Chunzhi

    2014-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been shown to detect the specificity of acupuncture points, as proved by numerous studies. In this study, resting-state fMRI was used to observe brain areas activated by acupuncture at the Taichong (LR3) acupoint. A total of 15 healthy subjects received brain resting-state fMRI before acupuncture and after sham and true acupuncture, respectively, at LR3. Image data processing was performed using Data Processing Assistant for Resting-State fMRI and REST software. The combination of amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) and regional homogeneity (ReHo) was used to analyze the changes in brain function during sham and true acupuncture. Acupuncture at LR3 can specifically activate or deactivate brain areas related to vision, movement, sensation, emotion, and analgesia. The specific alterations in the anterior cingulate gyrus, thalamus, and cerebellar posterior lobe have a crucial effect and provide a valuable reference. Sham acupuncture has a certain effect on psychological processes and does not affect brain areas related to function. PMID:24963329

  5. Low-frequency oscillations measured in the periphery with near-infrared spectroscopy are strongly correlated with blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Yunjie; Hocke, Lia Maria; Licata, Stephanie C.; deB. Frederick, Blaise

    2012-10-01

    Low-frequency oscillations (LFOs) in the range of 0.01-0.15 Hz are commonly observed in functional imaging studies, such as blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD fMRI) and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Some of these LFOs are nonneuronal and are closely related to autonomic physiological processes. In the current study, we conducted a concurrent resting-state fMRI and NIRS experiment with healthy volunteers. LFO data was collected simultaneously at peripheral sites (middle fingertip and big toes) by NIRS, and centrally in the brain by BOLD fMRI. The cross-correlations of the LFOs collected from the finger, toes, and brain were calculated. Our data show that the LFOs measured in the periphery (NIRS signals) and in the brain (BOLD fMRI) were strongly correlated with varying time delays. This demonstrates that some portion of the LFOs actually reflect systemic physiological circulatory effects. Furthermore, we demonstrated that NIRS is effective for measuring the peripheral LFOs, and that these LFOs and the temporal shifts between them are consistent in healthy participants and may serve as useful biomarkers for detecting and monitoring circulatory dysfunction.

  6. Three-dimensional magnetic recording using ferromagnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suto, Hirofumi; Kudo, Kiwamu; Nagasawa, Tazumi; Kanao, Taro; Mizushima, Koichi; Sato, Rie

    2016-07-01

    To meet the ever-increasing demand for data storage, future magnetic recording devices will need to be made three-dimensional by implementing multilayer recording. In this article, we present methods of detecting and manipulating the magnetization direction of a specific layer selectively in a vertically stacked multilayer magnetic system, which enable layer-selective read and write operations in three-dimensional magnetic recording devices. The principle behind the methods is ferromagnetic resonance excitation in a microwave magnetic field. By designing each magnetic recording layer to have a different ferromagnetic resonance frequency, magnetization excitation can be induced individually in each layer by tuning the frequency of an applied microwave magnetic field, and this selective magnetization excitation can be utilized for the layer-selective operations. Regarding media for three-dimensional recording, when layers of a perpendicular magnetic material are vertically stacked, dipolar interaction between multiple recording layers arises and is expected to cause problems, such as degradation of thermal stability and switching field distribution. To solve these problems, we propose the use of an antiferromagnetically coupled structure consisting of hard and soft magnetic layers. Because the stray fields from these two layers cancel each other, antiferromagnetically coupled media can reduce the dipolar interaction.

  7. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Studies of Postpartum Depression: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Fiorelli, Marco; Aceti, Franca; Marini, Isabella; Giacchetti, Nicoletta; Macci, Enrica; Tinelli, Emanuele; Calistri, Valentina; Meuti, Valentina; Caramia, Francesca; Biondi, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Postpartum depression is a frequent and disabling condition whose pathophysiology is still unclear. In recent years, the study of the neural correlates of mental disorders has been increasingly approached using magnetic resonance techniques. In this review we synthesize the results from studies on postpartum depression in the context of structural, functional, and spectroscopic magnetic resonance studies of major depression as a whole. Compared to the relative wealth of data available for major depression, magnetic resonance studies of postpartum depression are limited in number and design. A systematic literature search yielded only eleven studies conducted on about one hundred mothers with postpartum depression overall. Brain magnetic resonance findings in postpartum depression appear to replicate those obtained in major depression, with minor deviations that are not sufficient to delineate a distinct neurobiological profile for this condition, due to the small samples used and the lack of direct comparisons with subjects with major depression. However, it seems reasonable to expect that studies conducted in larger populations, and using a larger variety of brain magnetic resonance techniques than has been done so far, might allow for the identification of neuroimaging signatures for postpartum depression. PMID:26347585

  8. Effects of a 60 Hz Magnetic Field Exposure Up to 3000 μT on Human Brain Activation as Measured by Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Legros, Alexandre; Modolo, Julien; Brown, Samantha; Roberston, John; Thomas, Alex W.

    2015-01-01

    Several aspects of the human nervous system and associated motor and cognitive processes have been reported to be modulated by extremely low-frequency (ELF, < 300 Hz) time-varying Magnetic Fields (MF). Due do their worldwide prevalence; power-line frequencies (60 Hz in North America) are of particular interest. Despite intense research efforts over the last few decades, the potential effects of 60 Hz MF still need to be elucidated, and the underlying mechanisms to be understood. In this study, we have used functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) to characterize potential changes in functional brain activation following human exposure to a 60 Hz MF through motor and cognitive tasks. First, pilot results acquired in a first set of subjects (N=9) were used to demonstrate the technical feasibility of using fMRI to detect subtle changes in functional brain activation with 60 Hz MF exposure at 1800 μT. Second, a full study involving a larger cohort of subjects tested brain activation during 1) a finger tapping task (N=20), and 2) a mental rotation task (N=21); before and after a one-hour, 60 Hz, 3000 μT MF exposure. The results indicate significant changes in task-induced functional brain activation as a consequence of MF exposure. However, no impact on task performance was found. These results illustrate the potential of using fMRI to identify MF-induced changes in functional brain activation, suggesting that a one-hour 60 Hz, 3000 μT MF exposure can modulate activity in specific brain regions after the end of the exposure period (i.e., residual effects). We discuss the possibility that MF exposure at 60 Hz, 3000 μT may be capable of modulating cortical excitability via a modulation of synaptic plasticity processes. PMID:26214312

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging--first human images in Australia.

    PubMed

    Baddeley, H; Doddrell, D M; Brooks, W M; Field, J; Irving, M; Williams, J E

    1986-10-20

    The use of magnetic resonance imaging, in the demonstration of internal human anatomy and in the diagnosis of disease, has the major advantages that the technique is noninvasive, does not require the use of ionizing radiation and that it can demonstrate neurological and cardiovascular lesions that cannot be diagnosed easily by other imaging methods. Magnetic resonance imaging is derived from the principle that certain atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field will absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy; when the pulse is finished the nuclei will emit radiowaves at the same frequency. These radiowaves are received by specially designed aerials or coils and the information is collected by a computer which reconstructs an image of internal anatomy in a similar way to that of x-ray computed tomography (CT). By changing the strength of the magnetic fields and the frequency of the radiowave pulses, it is possible to examine different sections within the body. The first magnetic resonance images of humans were obtained in Australia in October 1985 on the research instrument of the Queensland Medical Magnetic Resonance Research Centre, which is based at the Mater Hospital in Brisbane, and is part of the University of Queensland's Department of Radiology. PMID:3020385

  10. Functional magnetic resonance imaging study of Piaget's conservation-of-number task in preschool and school-age children: a neo-Piagetian approach.

    PubMed

    Houdé, Olivier; Pineau, Arlette; Leroux, Gaëlle; Poirel, Nicolas; Perchey, Guy; Lanoë, Céline; Lubin, Amélie; Turbelin, Marie-Renée; Rossi, Sandrine; Simon, Grégory; Delcroix, Nicolas; Lamberton, Franck; Vigneau, Mathieu; Wisniewski, Gabriel; Vicet, Jean-René; Mazoyer, Bernard

    2011-11-01

    Jean Piaget's theory is a central reference point in the study of logico-mathematical development in children. One of the most famous Piagetian tasks is number conservation. Failures and successes in this task reveal two fundamental stages in children's thinking and judgment, shifting at approximately 7 years of age from visuospatial intuition to number conservation. In the current study, preschool children (nonconservers, 5-6 years of age) and school-age children (conservers, 9-10 years of age) were presented with Piaget's conservation-of-number task and monitored by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The cognitive change allowing children to access conservation was shown to be related to the neural contribution of a bilateral parietofrontal network involved in numerical and executive functions. These fMRI results highlight how the behavioral and cognitive stages Piaget formulated during the 20th century manifest in the brain with age. PMID:21636095

  11. High-throughput optogenetic functional magnetic resonance imaging with parallel computations

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Zhongnan; Lee, Jin Hyung

    2013-01-01

    Optogenetic functional magnetic resonance imaging (ofMRI) technology enables cell-type specific, temporally precise neuronal control and accurate, in vivo readout of resulting activity across the whole brain. With the ability to precisely control excitation and inhibition parameters, and to accurately record the resulting activity, there is an increased need for a high-throughput method to bring the ofMRI studies to their full potential. In this paper, an advanced system that can allow real-time fMRI with interactive control and analysis in a fraction of the MRI acquisition repetition time (TR) is proposed. With such high processing speed, sufficient time will be available for integration of future developments that can further enhance ofMRI data quality or better streamline the study. We designed and implemented a highly optimized, massively parallel system using graphics processing unit (GPU)s which achieves reconstruction, motion correction, and analysis of 3D volume data in approximately 12.80 ms. As a result, with a 750 ms TR and 4 interleaf fMRI acquisition, we can now conduct sliding window reconstruction, motion correction, analysis and display in approximately 1.7% of the TR. Therefore, a significant amount of time can now be allocated to integrating advanced but computationally intensive methods that can enable higher image quality and better analysis results all within a TR. Utilizing the proposed high-throughput imaging platform with sliding window reconstruction, we were also able to observe the much-debated initial dips in our ofMRI data. Combined with methods to further improve SNR, the proposed system will enable efficient real-time, interactive, high-throughput ofMRI studies. PMID:23747482

  12. Active control of the volume acquisition noise in functional magnetic resonance imaging: Method and psychoacoustical evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambers, John; Akeroyd, Michael A.; Summerfield, A. Quentin; Palmer, Alan R.

    2001-12-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) provides a noninvasive tool for observing correlates of neural activity in the brain while a subject listens to sound. However, intense acoustic noise is generated in the process of capturing MR images. This noise stimulates the auditory nervous system, limiting the dynamic range available for displaying stimulus-driven activity. The noise is potentially damaging to hearing and is distracting for the subject. In an active noise control (ANC) system, a reference sample of a noise is processed to form a sound which adds destructively with the noise at the listener's ear. We describe an implementation of ANC in the electromagnetically hostile and physically compact MRI scanning environment. First, a prototype system was evaluated psychoacoustically in the laboratory, using the electrical drive to a noise-generating loudspeaker as the reference. This system produced 10-20 dB of subjective noise-reduction between 250 Hz and 1 kHz, and smaller amounts at higher frequencies. The system was modified to operate in a real MR scanner where the reference was obtained by recording the acoustic scanner noise. Objective reduction by 30-40 dB of the most intense component in scanner noises was realized between 500 Hz and 3500 Hz, and subjective reduction of 12 dB and 5 dB in tests at frequencies of 600 Hz and at 1.9 kHz, respectively. Although the benefit of ANC is limited by transmission paths to the cochlea other than air-conduction routes from the auditory meatus, ANC achieves worthwhile attenuation even in the frequency range of maximum bone conduction (1.5-2 kHz). ANC should, therefore, be generally useful during auditory fMRI.

  13. Functional magnetic resonance imaging adaptation reveals a noncategorical representation of hue in early visual cortex

    PubMed Central

    Persichetti, Andrew S.; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L.; Butt, Omar H.; Brainard, David H.; Aguirre, Geoffrey K.

    2015-01-01

    Color names divide the fine-grained gamut of color percepts into discrete categories. A categorical transition must occur somewhere between the initial encoding of the continuous spectrum of light by the cones and the verbal report of the name of a color stimulus. Here, we used a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) adaptation experiment to examine the representation of hue in the early visual cortex. Our stimuli varied in hue between blue and green. We found in the early visual areas (V1, V2/3, and hV4) a smoothly increasing recovery from adaptation with increasing hue distance between adjacent stimuli during both passive viewing (Experiment 1) and active categorization (Experiment 2). We examined the form of the adaptation effect and found no evidence that a categorical representation mediates the release from adaptation for stimuli that cross the blue–green color boundary. Examination of the direct effect of stimulus hue on the fMRI response did, however, reveal an enhanced response to stimuli near the blue–green category border. This was largest in hV4 and when subjects were engaged in active categorization of the stimulus hue. In contrast with a recent report from another laboratory (Bird, Berens, Horner, & Franklin, 2014), we found no evidence for a categorical representation of color in the middle frontal gyrus. A post hoc whole-brain analysis, however, revealed several regions in the frontal cortex with a categorical effect in the adaptation response. Overall, our results support the idea that the representation of color in the early visual cortex is primarily fine grained and does not reflect color categories. PMID:26024465

  14. On-wafer magnetic resonance of magnetite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, Charles A. E.; Russek, Stephen E.; Booth, James C.; Kabos, Pavel; Usselman, Robert J.

    2015-11-01

    Magnetic resonance measurements of ferumoxytol and TEMPO were made using an on-wafer transmission line technique with a vector network analyzer, allowing for broadband measurements of small sample volumes (4 nL) and small numbers of spins (1 nmol). On-wafer resonance measurements were compared with standard single-frequency cavity-based electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements using a new power conservation approach and the results show similar line shape. On-wafer magnetic resonance measurements using integrated microfluidics and microwave technology can significantly reduce the cost and sample volumes required for EPR spectral analysis and allow for integration of EPR with existing lab-on-a-chip processing and characterization techniques for point-of-care medical diagnostic applications.

  15. Current-induced spin torque resonance of a magnetic insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreier, Michael; Chiba, Takahiro; Niedermayr, Arthur; Lotze, Johannes; Huebl, Hans; Geprägs, Stephan; Takahashi, Saburo; Bauer, Gerrit E. W.; Gross, Rudolf; Goennenwein, Sebastian T. B.

    2015-10-01

    We report the observation of current-induced spin torque resonance in yttrium iron garnet/platinum bilayers. An alternating charge current at GHz frequencies in the platinum gives rise to dc spin pumping and spin Hall magnetoresistance rectification voltages, induced by the Oersted fields of the ac current and the spin Hall effect-mediated spin transfer torque. In ultrathin yttrium iron garnet films, we observe spin transfer torque actuated magnetization dynamics which are significantly larger than those generated by the ac Oersted field. Spin transfer torques thus efficiently couple charge currents and magnetization dynamics also in magnetic insulators, enabling charge current-based interfacing of magnetic insulators with microwave devices.

  16. Resonant Landau-Zener transitions in a helical magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wójcik, P.; Adamowski, J.; Wołoszyn, M.; Spisak, B. J.

    2015-06-01

    Spin-dependent electron transport has been studied in magnetic semiconductor waveguides (nanowires) in the helical magnetic field. We have shown that—apart from the well-known conductance dip located at the magnetic field equal to the helical-field amplitude Bh—the additional conductance dips (with zero conductance) appear at a magnetic field different from Bh. This effect occurring in the non-adiabatic regime is explained as resulting from the resonant Landau-Zener transitions between the spin-split subbands.

  17. Corresponding ECoG and fMRI category-selective signals in human ventral temporal cortex.

    PubMed

    Jacques, Corentin; Witthoft, Nathan; Weiner, Kevin S; Foster, Brett L; Rangarajan, Vinitha; Hermes, Dora; Miller, Kai J; Parvizi, Josef; Grill-Spector, Kalanit

    2016-03-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and electrocorticography (ECoG) research have been influential in revealing the functional characteristics of category-selective responses in human ventral temporal cortex (VTC). One important, but unanswered, question is how these two types of measurements might be related with respect to the VTC. Here we examined which components of the ECoG signal correspond to the fMRI response by using a rare opportunity to measure both fMRI and ECoG responses from the same individuals to images of exemplars of various categories including faces, limbs, cars and houses. Our data reveal three key findings. First, we discovered that the coupling between fMRI and ECoG responses is frequency and time dependent. The strongest and most sustained correlation is observed between fMRI and high frequency broadband (HFB) ECoG responses (30-160hz). In contrast, the correlation between fMRI and ECoG signals in lower frequency bands is temporally transient, where the correlation is initially positive, but then tapers off or becomes negative. Second, we find that the strong and positive correlation between fMRI and ECoG signals in all frequency bands emerges rapidly around 100ms after stimulus onset, together with the onset of the first stimulus-driven neural signals in VTC. Third, we find that the spatial topology and representational structure of category-selectivity in VTC reflected in ECoG HFB responses mirrors the topology and structure observed with fMRI. These findings of a strong and rapid coupling between fMRI and HFB responses validate fMRI measurements of functional selectivity with recordings of direct neural activity and suggest that fMRI category-selective signals in VTC are associated with feed-forward neural processing. PMID:26212070

  18. Desktop fast-field cycling nuclear magnetic resonance relaxometer.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Duarte Mesquita; Marques, Gil Domingos; Cascais, José Manuel; Sebastião, Pedro José

    2010-07-01

    In this paper a new type of Fast Field Cycling (FFC) Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) relaxometer with low power consumption (200W) and cycle to cycle field stability better than 10(-4) is described. The new high-permeability magnet was designed to allow for good magnetic field homogeneity and allows for the sample rotation around an axis perpendicular to magnetic field, operating with magnetic fields between 0 and 0.21T. The power supply of the new relaxometer was specially developed in order to have steady state accurate currents and allow for magnetic field switching times less than 3ms. Additional control circuits were developed and included to compensate the Earth magnetic field component parallel to the field axis and to compensate for parasitic currents. The main aspects of the developed circuits together with some calibrating experimental results using the liquid crystal compounds 5CB and 8CB are presented and discussed. PMID:20688489

  19. Anicteric early bile duct carcinoma detection with magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography.

    PubMed

    Oshikiri, Taro; Morita, Takayuki; Fujita, Miyoshi; Miyasaka, Yuji; Senmaru, Naoto; Yamada, Hidehisa; Kondo, Satoshi; Katoh, Hiroyuki

    2005-01-01

    The poor prognosis of extrahepatic bile duct carcinoma makes early detection and diagnosis essential for positive patient outcomes. We describe 2 cases of jaundice-free early extrahepatic bile duct carcinoma detected by magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography. Extrahepatic bile duct carcinoma was discovered incidentally in patient 1 by magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography during evaluation of a gallbladder stone. In patient 2, extrahepatic bile duct carcinoma was found during a routine health maintenance exam. Both patients underwent radical surgical intervention. Both patient 1 and 2 have remained in good health for over one year, 3.5 and one year, respectively, and have not exhibited any signs or symptoms of relapse or cancer recurrence. Based on these cases, it appears that magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography can play a significant role in the early detection of extrahepatic bile duct carcinoma and improve disease prognosis. PMID:15816438

  20. Renal relevant radiology: renal functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimi, Behzad; Textor, Stephen C; Lerman, Lilach O

    2014-02-01

    Because of its noninvasive nature and provision of quantitative measures of a wide variety of physiologic parameters, functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) shows great potential for research and clinical applications. Over the past decade, application of functional MRI extended beyond detection of cerebral activity, and techniques for abdominal functional MRI evolved. Assessment of renal perfusion, glomerular filtration, interstitial diffusion, and parenchymal oxygenation turned this modality into an essential research and potentially diagnostic tool. Variations in many renal physiologic markers can be detected using functional MRI before morphologic changes become evident in anatomic magnetic resonance images. Moreover, the framework of functional MRI opened a window of opportunity to develop novel pathophysiologic markers. This article reviews applications of some well validated functional MRI techniques, including perfusion, diffusion-weighted imaging, and blood oxygen level-dependent MRI, as well as some emerging new techniques such as magnetic resonance elastography, which might evolve into clinically useful tools. PMID:24370767

  1. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging for the study of fossils.

    PubMed

    Giovannetti, Giulio; Guerrini, Andrea; Salvadori, Piero A

    2016-07-01

    Computed tomography (CT) has long been used for investigating palaeontological specimens, as it is a nondestructive technique which avoids the need to dissolve or ionize the fossil sample. However, magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have recently gained ground as analytical tools for examination of palaeontological samples, by nondestructively providing information about the structure and composition of fossils. While MRI techniques are able to reveal the three-dimensional geometry of the trace fossil, MRS can provide information on the chemical composition of the samples. The multidimensional nature of MR (magnetic resonance) signals has potential to provide rich three-dimensional data on the palaeontological specimens and also to help in elucidating paleopathological and paleoecological questions. In this work the verified applications and the emerging uses of MRI and MRS in paleontology are reviewed, with particular attention to fossil spores, fossil plants, ambers, fossil invertebrates, and fossil vertebrate studies. PMID:26979538

  2. Magnetic-resonance pore imaging of nonsymmetric microscopic pore shapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertel, Stefan Andreas; Wang, Xindi; Hosking, Peter; Simpson, M. Cather; Hunter, Mark; Galvosas, Petrik

    2015-07-01

    Imaging of the microstructure of porous media such as biological tissue or porous solids is of high interest in health science and technology, engineering and material science. Magnetic resonance pore imaging (MRPI) is a recent technique based on nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) which allows us to acquire images of the average pore shape in a given sample. Here we provide details on the experimental design, challenges, and requirements of MRPI, including its calibration procedures. Utilizing a laser-machined phantom sample, we present images of microscopic pores with a hemiequilateral triangular shape even in the presence of NMR relaxation effects at the pore walls. We therefore show that MRPI is applicable to porous samples without a priori knowledge about their pore shape and symmetry. Furthermore, we introduce "MRPI mapping," which combines MRPI with conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This enables one to resolve microscopic pore sizes and shapes spatially, thus expanding the application of MRPI to samples with heterogeneous distributions of pores.

  3. Anatomical, functional and molecular biomarker applications of magnetic resonance neuroimaging

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Christina H

    2015-01-01

    MRI and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) along with computed tomography and PET are the most common imaging modalities used in the clinics to detect structural abnormalities and pathological conditions in the brain. MRI generates superb image resolution/contrast without radiation exposure that is associated with computed tomography and PET; MRS and spectroscopic imaging technologies allow us to measure changes in brain biochemistry. Increasingly, neurobiologists and MRI scientists are collaborating to solve neuroscience problems across sub-cellular through anatomical levels. To achieve successful cross-disciplinary collaborations, neurobiologists must have sufficient knowledge of magnetic resonance principles and applications in order to effectively communicate with their MRI colleagues. This review provides an overview of magnetic resonance techniques and how they can be used to gain insight into the active brain at the anatomical, functional and molecular levels with the goal of encouraging neurobiologists to include MRI/MRS as a research tool in their endeavors. PMID:25774094

  4. Magnetic anisotropy of polycrystalline magnetoferritin investigated by SQUID and electron magnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moro, F.; de Miguel, R.; Jenkins, M.; Gómez-Moreno, C.; Sells, D.; Tuna, F.; McInnes, E. J. L.; Lostao, A.; Luis, F.; van Slageren, J.

    2014-06-01

    Magnetoferritin molecules with an average inorganic core diameter of 5.7±1.6 nm and polycrystalline internal structure were investigated by a combination of transmission electron microscopy, magnetic susceptibility, magnetization, and electron magnetic resonance (EMR) experiments. The temperature and frequency dependence of the magnetic susceptibility allowed for the determination of the magnetic anisotropy on an experimental time scale which spans from seconds to nanoseconds. In addition, angle-dependent EMR experiments were carried out for the determination of the nanoparticle symmetry and internal magnetic field. Due to the large surface to volume ratio, the nanoparticles show larger and uniaxial rather than cubic magnetic anisotropies compared to bulk maghemite and magnetite.

  5. Travelling wave magnetic resonance imaging at 3 T

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vazquez, F.; Martin, R.; Marrufo, O.; Rodriguez, A. O.

    2013-08-01

    Waveguides have been successfully used to generate magnetic resonance images at 7 T with whole-body systems. The bore diameter limits the magnetic resonance signal transmitted because its specific cut-off frequency is greater than the majority of resonant frequencies in magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy. This restriction can be overcome by using a parallel-plate waveguide whose cut-off frequency is zero for the transverse electromagnetic modes and it can propagate any frequency. To study the potential benefits of travelling-wave excitation for whole-body imaging at 3 T, we compare numerical simulations of the principal mode propagation for a parallel-plate waveguide filled with a cylindrical phantom and two surface coils for all simulations at 1.5 T, 3 T, 4.7, 7 T, and 9.4 T. The principal mode shows very little variation of the field magnitude along the propagation direction at 3 T when compared to other higher resonant frequencies. Unlike the standard method for travelling-wave magnetic resonance imaging, a parallel-plate waveguide prototype was built and used together with a whole-body birdcage coil for signal transmission and a pair of circular coils for reception. Experimental B1 mapping was computed to investigate the feasibility of this approach and, the point spread function method was used to measure the imager performance. Human leg images were acquired to experimentally validate this approach. The numerical magnetic field and specific absorption rate of a simulated leg were computed and results are within the safety limits. The B1 mapping and point spread function results showed that it is possible to conduct travelling-wave imaging experiments with good imager performance. Human leg images were also obtained with the whole-body birdcage coil for comparison purposes. The simulated and in vivo travelling-wave results of the human leg correspond very well for the signal received. A similar image signal-to-noise ratio was observed for the

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging in entomology: a critical review

    PubMed Central

    Hart, A.G.; Bowtell, R.W.; Köckenberger, W.; Wenseleers, T.; Ratnieks, F.L.W.

    2003-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) enables in vivo imaging of organisms. The recent development of the magnetic resonance microscope (MRM) has enabled organisms within the size range of many insects to be imaged. Here, we introduce the principles of MRI and MRM and review their use in entomology. We show that MRM has been successfully applied in studies of parasitology, development, metabolism, biomagnetism and morphology, and the advantages and disadvantages relative to other imaging techniques are discussed. In addition, we illustrate the images that can be obtained using MRM. We conclude that although MRM has significant potential, further improvements to the technique are still desirable if it is to become a mainstream imaging technology in entomology. Abbreviation: CSI chemical shift imaging. The dependence of the resonance frequency of a nucleus on the chemical binding of the atom or molecule in which it is contained. (N)MRI (nuclear) magnetic resonance imaging MRM magnetic resonance microscopy Voxel A contraction for volume element, which is the basic unit of MR reconstruction; represented as a pixel in the display of the MR image. PMID:15841222

  7. Computation of flow pressure fields from magnetic resonance velocity mapping.

    PubMed

    Yang, G Z; Kilner, P J; Wood, N B; Underwood, S R; Firmin, D N

    1996-10-01

    Magnetic resonance phase velocity mapping has unrivalled capacities for acquiring in vivo multi-directional blood flow information. In this study, the authors set out to derive both spatial and temporal components of acceleration, and hence differences of pressure in a flow field using cine magnetic resonance velocity data. An efficient numerical algorithm based on the Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible Newtonian fluid was used. The computational approach was validated with in vitro flow phantoms. This work aims to contribute to a better understanding of cardiovascular dynamics and to serve as a basis for investigating pulsatile pressure/flow relationships associated with normal and impaired cardiovascular function. PMID:8892202

  8. Artifacts and pitfalls in shoulder magnetic resonance imaging*

    PubMed Central

    Marcon, Gustavo Felix; Macedo, Tulio Augusto Alves

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging has revolutionized the diagnosis of shoulder lesions, in many cases becoming the method of choice. However, anatomical variations, artifacts and the particularity of the method may be a source of pitfalls, especially for less experienced radiologists. In order to avoid false-positive and false-negative results, the authors carried out a compilation of imaging findings that may simulate injury. It is the authors’ intention to provide a useful, consistent and comprehensive reference for both beginner residents and skilled radiologists who work with musculoskeletal magnetic resonance imaging, allowing for them to develop more precise reports and helping them to avoid making mistakes. PMID:26379323

  9. Cranial and spinal magnetic resonance imaging: A guide and atlas

    SciTech Connect

    Daniels, D.L.; Haughton, V.M.

    1987-01-01

    This atlas provides a clinical guide to interpreting cranial and spinal magnetic resonance images. The book includes coverage of the cerebrum, temporal bone, and cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine, with more than 400 scan images depicting both normal anatomy and pathologic findings. Introductory chapters review the practical physics of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, offer guidelines for interpreting cranial MR scans, and provide coverage of each anatomic region of the cranium and spine. For each region, scans accompanied by captions, show normal anatomic sections matched with MR images. These are followed by MR scans depicting various disease states.

  10. Functional magnetic resonance imaging in medicine and physiology

    SciTech Connect

    Moonen, C.T.W.; van Zijl, P.C.M.; Frank, J.A.; Bihan, D.L.; Becker, E.D. )

    1990-10-05

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a well-established diagnostic tool that provides detailed information about macroscopic structure and anatomy. Recent advances in MRI allow the noninvasive spatial evaluation of various biophysical and biochemical processes in living systems. Specifically, the motion of water can be measured in processes such as vascular flow, capillary flow, diffusion, and exchange. In addition, the concentrations of various metabolites can be determined for the assessment of regional regulation of metabolism. Examples are given that demonstrate the use of functional MRI for clinical and research purposes. This development adds a new dimension to the application of magnetic resonance to medicine and physiology.

  11. Malformations of cortical development: 3T magnetic resonance imaging features

    PubMed Central

    Battal, Bilal; Ince, Selami; Akgun, Veysel; Kocaoglu, Murat; Ozcan, Emrah; Tasar, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Malformation of cortical development (MCD) is a term representing an inhomogeneous group of central nervous system abnormalities, referring particularly to embriyological aspect as a consequence of any of the three developmental stages, i.e., cell proliferation, cell migration and cortical organization. These include cotical dysgenesis, microcephaly, polymicrogyria, schizencephaly, lissencephaly, hemimegalencephaly, heterotopia and focal cortical dysplasia. Since magnetic resonance imaging is the modality of choice that best identifies the structural anomalies of the brain cortex, we aimed to provide a mini review of MCD by using 3T magnetic resonance scanner images. PMID:26516429

  12. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance of Single Magnetic Moment on a Surface.

    PubMed

    Berggren, P; Fransson, J

    2016-01-01

    We address electron spin resonance of single magnetic moments in a tunnel junction using time-dependent electric fields and spin-polarized current. We show that the tunneling current directly depends on the local magnetic moment and that the frequency of the external electric field mixes with the characteristic Larmor frequency of the local spin. The importance of the spin-polarized current induced anisotropy fields acting on the local spin moment is, moreover, demonstrated. Our proposed model thus explains the absence of an electron spin resonance for a half integer spin, in contrast with the strong signal observed for an integer spin. PMID:27156935

  13. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of siRNA-Based Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Penet, Marie-France; Chen, Zhihang; Mori, Noriko; Krishnamachary, Balaji; Bhujwalla, Zaver M.

    2016-01-01

    Small interfering RNA (siRNA) is routinely used as a biological tool to silence specific genes, and is under active investigation in cancer treatment strategies. Noninvasive magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) provides the ability to assess the functional effects of siRNA-mediated gene silencing in cultured cancer cells, and following nanoparticle-based delivery in tumors in vivo. Here we describe the use of siRNA to downregulate choline kinase, a critical enzyme in choline phospholipid metabolism of cancer cells and tumors, and the use of 1H MRS of cells and 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) of tumors to assess the efficacy of the downregulation. PMID:26530913

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging as a tool for extravehicular activity analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickenson, R.; Lorenz, C.; Peterson, S.; Strauss, A.; Main, J.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a means of conducting kinematic studies of the hand for the purpose of EVA capability enhancement. After imaging the subject hand using a magnetic resonance scanner, the resulting 2D slices were reconstructed into a 3D model of the proximal phalanx of the left hand. Using the coordinates of several landmark positions, one is then able to decompose the motion of the rigid body. MRI offers highly accurate measurements due to its tomographic nature without the problems associated with other imaging modalities for in vivo studies.

  15. Implementation of NMR pulse sequences for Magnetic Resonance Force Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moores, Bradley; Eichler, Alexander; Degen, Christian

    2014-03-01

    Magnetic resonance force microscopy (MRFM) is a scanning microscopy technique that allows measuring nuclear spin densities with a resolution of a few nanometers. Ongoing efforts are aiming at improving this resolution, which might ultimately facilitate non-destructive 3D scans of complex molecules or solid state systems with atomic resolution. Here, we review our current efforts to utilize in an MRFM experiment pulsing techniques borrowed from the nuclear magnetic resonance community. The use of advanced pulsing schemes may improve signal-to-noise ratio, imaging resolution, and allow the investigation of novel phenomena.

  16. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance of Single Magnetic Moment on a Surface

    PubMed Central

    Berggren, P.; Fransson, J.

    2016-01-01

    We address electron spin resonance of single magnetic moments in a tunnel junction using time-dependent electric fields and spin-polarized current. We show that the tunneling current directly depends on the local magnetic moment and that the frequency of the external electric field mixes with the characteristic Larmor frequency of the local spin. The importance of the spin-polarized current induced anisotropy fields acting on the local spin moment is, moreover, demonstrated. Our proposed model thus explains the absence of an electron spin resonance for a half integer spin, in contrast with the strong signal observed for an integer spin. PMID:27156935

  17. Magnetic Resonance Imaging: From Spin Physics to Medical Diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nacher, Pierre-Jean

    Two rather similar historical evolutions are evoked, each one originating in fundamental spin studies by physicists, and ending as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), a set of invaluable tools for clinical diagnosis in the hands of medical doctors. The first one starts with the early work on nuclear magnetic resonance, the founding stone of the usual proton-based MRI, of which the basic principles are described. The second one starts with the optical pumping developments made to study the effects of spin polarization in various fundamental problems. Its unexpected outcome is a unique imaging modality, also based on MRI, for the study of lung physiology and pathologies.

  18. Algorithmic cooling in liquid-state nuclear magnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atia, Yosi; Elias, Yuval; Mor, Tal; Weinstein, Yossi

    2016-01-01

    Algorithmic cooling is a method that employs thermalization to increase qubit purification level; namely, it reduces the qubit system's entropy. We utilized gradient ascent pulse engineering, an optimal control algorithm, to implement algorithmic cooling in liquid-state nuclear magnetic resonance. Various cooling algorithms were applied onto the three qubits of C132-trichloroethylene, cooling the system beyond Shannon's entropy bound in several different ways. In particular, in one experiment a carbon qubit was cooled by a factor of 4.61. This work is a step towards potentially integrating tools of NMR quantum computing into in vivo magnetic-resonance spectroscopy.

  19. Nuclear magnetic resonance in environmental engineering: principles and applications.

    PubMed

    Lens, P N; Hemminga, M A

    1998-01-01

    This paper gives an introduction to nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in relation to applications in the field of environmental science and engineering. The underlying principles of high resolution solution and solid state NMR, relaxation time measurements and imaging are presented. Then, the use of NMR is illustrated and reviewed in studies of biodegradation and biotransformation of soluble and solid organic matter, removal of nutrients and xenobiotics, fate of heavy metal ions, and transport processes in bioreactor systems. PMID:10335581

  20. Development of magnetic resonance technology for noninvasive boron quantification

    SciTech Connect

    Bradshaw, K.M.

    1990-11-01

    Boron magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spectroscopy (MRS) were developed in support of the noninvasive boron quantification task of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Power Burst Facility/Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (PBF/BNCT) program. The hardware and software described in this report are modifications specific to a GE Signa{trademark} MRI system, release 3.X and are necessary for boron magnetic resonance operation. The technology developed in this task has been applied to obtaining animal pharmacokinetic data of boron compounds (drug time response) and the in-vivo localization of boron in animal tissue noninvasively. 9 refs., 21 figs.