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1

HTS High Gradient Magnetic Separation system  

SciTech Connect

We report on the assembly, characterization and operation of a high temperature superconducting (HTS) magnetic separator. The magnet is made of 624 m of Silver/BSCCO superconducting wire and has overall dimensions of 18 cm OD, 15.5 cm height and 5 cm ID. The HTS current leads are designed to operate with the warm end at 75 K and the cold end cooled by a two stage Gifford-McMahon cryocooler. The upper stage of the cryocooler cools the thermal shield and two heat pipe thermal intercepts. The lower stage of the cryocooler cools the HTS magnet and the bottom end of the HTS current leads. The HTS magnet was initially characterized in liquid cryogens. We report on the current- voltage (I-V) characteristics of the HTS magnet at temperatures ranging from 15 to 40 K. At 40 K the magnet can generate a central field of 2.0 T at a current of 120 A.

Daugherty, M.A.; Coulter, J.Y.; Hults, W.L. [and others

1996-09-01

2

Development of magnetic separation system of magnetoliposomes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnetic separation technology using sub-microsized ferromagnetic particle is indispensable in many areas of medical biosciences. For example, ferromagnetic particles (200-500 nm) are widely used for cell sorting in stem cell research with the use of cell surface-specific antigens. Nanosized ferromagnetic particles (10-20 nm) have been suggested as more suitable in drug delivery studies given their efficiency of tissue penetration, however, the magnetic separation method for them has not been established. One of the major reasons is that magnetic force acting on the object particles decreases drastically as a particle diameter becomes small. In this study, magnetic force acting on the targets was enhanced by the combination of superconducting magnet and the filter consisting of ferromagnetic particle. By doing so, we confirmed that Fe3O4 of 20 nm in diameter was trapped in the magnetic filter under an external magnetic field of 0.5 T. Fe3O4 encapsulated with phospholipid liposomes of 200 nm in diameter was also shown to be trapped as external magnetic field of 1.5 T, but not of 0.5 T. We also showed the result of particle trajectory calculation which emulated well the experimental data.

Nakao, R.; Matuo, Y.; Mishima, F.; Taguchi, T.; Maenosono, S.; Nishijima, S.

2009-10-01

3

Tank waste remediation system milestone report magnetic separation of tank waste: Surrogate system separations report  

SciTech Connect

High-level radioactive waste (HLW) has been stored in large underground storage tanks (UST) at the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site since 1944. More than 253,000 m{sup 3} of waste have been accumulated in 177 tanks. The waste consists of many different chemicals and are in the form of liquids, slurries, salt cakes and sludges. A magnetic separation effort at Los Alamos National Laboratory is funded through the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) to explore the use of high-gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) for tank waste segregation. The concept is to concentrate into a low volume waste stream, all or most of the magnetic components, which include actinide compounds, most of the fission products and precious metals. As a first step in this process investigations were made on surrogate systems. This milestone report discusses the HGMS results on these systems.

Avens, L.R.; Worl, L.A.; Schake, A.R.; Padilla, D.D.; de Aguero, K.J.; Prenger, F.C.; Stewart, W.F.; Hill, D.D.

1994-01-14

4

Capture of metallic copper by high gradient magnetic separation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Valence copper was recovered from wastewater by chemical reduction and use of a high gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) system. Ammonia (NH3) and sodium dithionate (Na2S2O4) at a molar ratio of [Cu]:[NH3]:[Na2S2O4] = 1:4:3 at pH = 9.5 were used first to chemically reduce copper ion to metallic copper; the resultant metal solids were captured in an upflowing reactor space equipped

P. K. Andy Hong

2011-01-01

5

Magnetic design considerations for devices and particles used for biological high-gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overview of the magnetic systems used in biological high-gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) is presented. The magnetic design parameters of a range of separation devices are discussed. Such designs have distinct magnetic field characteristics and are usually tailored to meet the needs of particular protocols. The various types of magnets and particles are also discussed, with a comparison of materials

Gareth P. Hatch; Richard E. Stelter

2001-01-01

6

Tank waste remediation system milestone report magnetic separation of tank waste: Surrogate system separations report  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-level radioactive waste (HLW) has been stored in large underground storage tanks (UST) at the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site since 1944. More than 253,000 m³ of waste have been accumulated in 177 tanks. The waste consists of many different chemicals and are in the form of liquids, slurries, salt cakes and sludges. A magnetic separation effort at Los

L. R. Avens; L. A. Worl; A. R. Schake; D. D. Padilla; K. J. de Aguero; F. C. Prenger; W. F. Stewart; D. D. Hill

1994-01-01

7

Superconducting magnetic separation  

SciTech Connect

The initially high hopes of a speedy replacement of conventional magnetic separators by superconducting ones have not been realised. The reasons for this are complex, ranging from the conservative nature of the mineral processing industry to insufficient cryogenic reliability and poor magnet design. The major systems delivered to industry will be described and some possible future developments will be outlined.

Kopp, J.

1988-03-01

8

Development of superconducting high gradient magnetic separation system for highly viscous fluid for practical use  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the industrial plants processing highly viscous fluid such as foods or industrial products, it is necessary to remove the metallic wear debris originating from pipe in manufacturing line which triggers quality loss. In this study, we developed a high gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) system which consists of superconducting magnet to remove the metallic wear debris. The magnetic separation experiment and the particle trajectory simulation were conducted with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as a model material (viscosity coefficient was 10 Pa s, which is 10,000 times higher than that in water). In order to develop a magnetic separation system for practical use, the particle trajectory simulation by using solenoidal superconducting magnet was conducted, and the possibility of the magnetic separation for removing ferromagnetic stainless steel (SUS) particles in highly viscous fluid of 10 Pa s was indicated. Based on the results, the number of filters to obtain required separation efficiency was examined to design the practical separation system.

Hayashi, S.; Mishima, F.; Akiyama, Y.; Nishijima, S.

2011-11-01

9

Magnetic Separation Device.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This invention pertains to magnetic separation devices and more particularly to; magnetic separation devices used to selectively remove magnetic bead-coated cells from tissues such as bone marrow or blood. Depletion of cell populations from boner marrow h...

G. M. Starken J. Cavin R. A. Quinnell C. A. Twigg D. P. Crawford

1985-01-01

10

Coupled particle-fluid transport and magnetic separation in microfluidic systems with passive magnetic functionality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study is presented of coupled particle-fluid transport and field-directed particle capture in microfluidic systems with passive magnetic functionality. These systems consist of a microfluidic flow cell on a substrate that contains embedded magnetic elements. Two systems are considered that utilize soft- and hard-magnetic elements, respectively. In the former, an external field is applied to magnetize the elements, and in the latter, they are permanently magnetized. The field produced by the magnetized elements permeates into the flow cell giving rise to an attractive force on magnetic particles that flow through it. The systems are studied using a novel numerical/closed-form modelling approach that combines numerical transport analysis with closed-form field analysis. Particle-fluid transport is computed using computational fluid dynamics (CFD), while the magnetic force that governs particle capture is obtained in closed form. The CFD analysis takes into account dominant particle forces and two-way momentum transfer between the particles and the fluid. The two-way particle-fluid coupling capability is an important feature of the model that distinguishes it from more commonly used and simplified one-way coupling analysis. The model is used to quantify the impact of two-way particle-fluid coupling on both the capture efficiency and the flow pattern in the systems considered. Many effects such as particle-induced flow-enhanced capture efficiency and flow circulation are studied that cannot be predicted using one-way coupling analysis. In addition, dilute particle dispersions are shown to exhibit significant localized particle-fluid coupling near the capture regions, which contradicts the commonly held view that two-way coupling can be ignored when analysing high-gradient magnetic separation involving such particle systems. Overall, the model demonstrates that two-way coupling needs to be taken into account for rigorous predictions of capture efficiency, especially for applications involving high particle loading and/or low flow rates. It is computationally more efficient and accurate than purely numerical models and should prove useful for the rational design and optimization of novel magnetophoretic microsystems.

Khashan, Saud A.; Furlani, Edward P.

2013-03-01

11

Development of the superconducting magnet system for industrial high gradient magnetic separator  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that to promote the effective development of superconducting magnetic separation technology and its practical industrial application for Kaolin clay beneficiation, the Institute of Electrical Engineering and the Cryogenic Laboratory, Academia Sinica are jointly working on the development of an industrial prototype superconducting magnetic separator.

Yan, L.; Yi, C.; Yu, Y. (Inst. of Electrical Engineering, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 2703, Beijing 100080 (CN)); Cai, G.; Tu, G. (Cryogenic Lab., Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 2711, Beijing 100080 (CN))

1991-03-01

12

Low magnetic-field separation system for metal-loaded magnetotactic bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) offer a unique approach to metal accumulation and separation from water systems. This paper proposes an integrated separator design, for the production of MTB, the metal uptake phase and their subsequent separation. Applied magnetic fields are used to orientate the bacteria, so that they swim in a direction resulting in their removal.

Bahaj, A. S.; James, P. A. B.; Moeschler, F. D.

1998-01-01

13

Magnetic separation anxiety  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that only a few years ago superconducting magnetic separation was viewed as the next major market for superconducting magnets. The first commercial units had been installed, worked flawlessly, and demonstrated real economic viability. The potential market was seen as quite large, and many people believed that superconducting magnetic separation would soon show the same rapid growth that MRI had demonstrated after its initial success. These hopes even prompted IGC, one of the top MRI magnet builders, to form a separate division devoted to magnetic separation. Despite the existence of Magstream, IGC has not been overly active in the market. As a technology that has applications from the clay on the Earth to the soil on the moon, superconducting magnetic separation has yet to become widely used.

Canning, C.

1992-01-01

14

Magnetic separation for soil decontamination  

SciTech Connect

High gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) is a physical separation process that is used to extract magnetic particles from mixtures. The technology is used on a large scale in the kaolin clay industry to whiten or brighten kaolin clay and increase its value. Because all uranium and plutonium compounds are slightly magnetic, HGMS can be used to separate these contaminants from non-magnetic soils. A Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) was signed in 1992 between Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Lockheed Environmental Systems and Technologies Company (LESAT) to develop HGMS for soil decontamination. This paper reports progress and describes the HGMS technology.

Avens, L.R.; Worl, L.A.; deAguero, K.J.; Padilla, D.D.; Prenger, F.C.; Stewart, W.F.; Hill, D.D. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Tolt, T.L. (Lockheed Environmental Systems and Technologies (United States))

1993-01-01

15

Magnetic separation for soil decontamination  

SciTech Connect

High gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) is a physical separation process that is used to extract magnetic particles from mixtures. The technology is used on a large scale in the kaolin clay industry to whiten or brighten kaolin clay and increase its value. Because all uranium and plutonium compounds are slightly magnetic, HGMS can be used to separate these contaminants from non-magnetic soils. A Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) was signed in 1992 between Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Lockheed Environmental Systems and Technologies Company (LESAT) to develop HGMS for soil decontamination. This paper reports progress and describes the HGMS technology.

Avens, L.R.; Worl, L.A.; deAguero, K.J.; Padilla, D.D.; Prenger, F.C.; Stewart, W.F.; Hill, D.D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Tolt, T.L. [Lockheed Environmental Systems and Technologies (United States)

1993-02-01

16

The use of multifunctional magnetic mesoporous core/shell heteronanostructures in a biomolecule separation system.  

PubMed

A multifunctional magnetic mesoporous core/shell heteronanostructure (designated as Fe(3)O(4)@NiSiO(3)) has been designed and constructed that combined the capacity of effective protein purification from protein mixture and selective low molecule weight (MW) biomolecule enrichment. The nanoparticle is composed by magnetite nanoparticle with immobilized metal ion surface and solid porous shell which presents a number of important features, such as controllable shell thickness, uniform pore size and excellent magnetism. By taking advantages of the high affinity of Ni(2+) on the shell surface toward His-tagged proteins and the fast response toward an assistant magnet, the heteronanoparticles can be applied to selectively bind to and magnetically separate of His-tagged proteins from a cell lysate of E. coli. Additionally, owing to the homogeneous 3D mesopores on the nickel silicate shell, the heteronanoparticles can selectively capture low MW biomolecules from complex mixture. Significantly, it is expected that this approach can be extended to other biomolecule separation and enrichment systems by changing the immobilized surface and the pore size. PMID:21481453

Liu, Zhen; Li, Meng; Yang, Xinjian; Yin, Meili; Ren, Jinsong; Qu, Xiaogang

2011-04-09

17

Magnetic separation techniques: their application to medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whilst separation techniques relying on gravitational forces have become relatively sophisticated in their application to biology the same is not true for magnetic separation procedures. The use of the latter has been limited to the few cells which contain paramagnetic iron. However with the development of several different types of magnetic particles and selective delivery system (e.g. monoclonal antibodies) the

J. T. Kemsheadl; J. Ugelstad

1985-01-01

18

High gradient magnetic separation using superconducting bulk magnets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We aim to apply the superconducting bulk magnets to high gradient magnetic separation technique. Two bulk magnets are face-to-face arranged and a pipe stuffed magnetic filters composed of ferromagnetic wires is placed between the magnetic poles. We setup the magnetic separation system and test it using slurry mixed with hematite particles (Fe2O3). Y123 bulk superconductors are magnetized by the ``IMRA'' method (pulsed-field magnetization), and consequently a magnetic field of 1.59 T is generated at the center of 20 mm gap between the magnetic poles. As a result of experiment on the magnetic separation, hematite particles of over 90% were removed from slurry at the flow rate of 2 l/min.

Yokoyama, K.; Oka, T.; Okada, H.; Noto, K.

2003-10-01

19

Development of high gradient magnetic separation system for removing the metallic wear debris to be present in highly viscous fluid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the industrial plants processing highly viscous fluid such as foods or industrial materials, there is an issue of contamination by metallic wear debris originating from pipe of manufacturing line. It is necessary to remove the metallic wear debris in highly viscous fluid, since these debris causes quality loss. In this study, we developed a high gradient magnetic separation system by using superconducting magnet to remove the metallic wear debris. The particle trajectory simulation and the magnetic separation experiment were conducted with polyvinyl alcohol as a model material. As a result, ca. 100% and 92.2% of the separation efficiency was achieved respectively for the highly viscous fluid of 1 Pa s and 6 Pa s in viscosity, with 14 and 30 mesh magnetic filters.

Hayashi, S.; Mishima, F.; Akiyama, Y.; Nishijima, S.

2010-11-01

20

Continuous magnetic separator and process  

DOEpatents

A continuous magnetic separator and process for separating a slurry comprising magnetic particles into a clarified stream and a thickened stream. The separator has a container with a slurry inlet, an overflow outlet for the discharge of the clarified slurry stream, and an underflow outlet for the discharge of a thickened slurry stream. Magnetic particles in the slurry are attracted to, and slide down, magnetic rods within the container. The slurry is thus separated into magnetic concentrate and clarified slurry. Flow control means can be used to control the ratio of the rate of magnetic concentrate to the rate of clarified slurry. Feed control means can be used to control the rate of slurry feed to the slurry inlet.

Oder, Robin R. (Export, PA); Jamison, Russell E. (Lower Burrell, PA)

2008-04-22

21

High gradient magnetic separation using a high temperature superconducting magnet  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on the operation and testing of a high temperature superconducting (HTS) high gradient magnetic separator (HGMS). The separator magnet is made of 624m of Silver\\/BSCCO HTS wire and has overall dimensions of 18cm OD, 15.5cm height and 5cm ID. HTS current leads are used to reduce the heat leak to the magnet. The system operates in a vacuum

J. A Selvaggi; D. L Cottrell; T. H Falconer; M. A Daugherty; D. E Daney; D. D Hill; F. C Prenger

1998-01-01

22

Magnetic separation in water pollution control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic separation as applied to waterborne contaminants is successful in reducing the solids content of a water sample and in removing the dissolved orthophosphate from the aqueous slurry. The contaminants are chemically associated with a magnetic seeding material, and subsequent removal of this seed sweeps the pollutants from the system. The advantage of this form of treatment over conventional techniques

CHRISTOPHER DE LATOUR

1973-01-01

23

Magnetic separation for environmental remediation  

SciTech Connect

High Gradient Magnetic Separation (HGMS) is a form of magnetic separation used to separate solids from other solids, liquids or gases. HGMS uses large magnetic field gradients to separate ferromagnetic and paramagnetic particles from diamagnetic host materials. The technology relies only on physical properties, and therefore separations can be achieved while producing a minimum of secondary waste. Actinide and fission product wastes within the DOE weapons complex pose challenging problems for environmental remediation. Because the majority of actinide complexes and many fission products are paramagnetic, while most host materials are diamagnetic, HGMS can be used to concentrate the contaminants into a low volume waste stream. The authors are currently developing HGMS for applications to soil decontamination, liquid waste treatment, underground storage tank waste treatment, and actinide chemical processing residue concentration. Application of HGMS usually involves passing a slurry of the contaminated mixture through a magnetized volume. Field gradients are produced in the magnetized volume by a ferromagnetic matrix material, such as steel wool, expanded metal, iron shot, or nickel foam. The matrix fibers become trapping sites for ferromagnetic and paramagnetic particles in the host material. The particles with a positive susceptibility are attracted toward an increasing magnetic field gradient and can be extracted from diamagnetic particles, which react in the opposite direction, moving away from the areas of high field gradients. The extracted paramagnetic contaminants are flushed from the matrix fibers when the magnetic field is reduced to zero or when the matrix canister is removed from the magnetic field. Results are discussed for the removal of uranium trioxide from water, PuO{sub 2}, U, and Pu from various soils (Fernald, Nevada Test Site), and the waste water treatment of Pu and Am isotopes using HGMS.

Schake, A.R.; Avens, L.R.; Hill, D.D.; Padilla, D.D.; Prenger, F.C.; Romero, D.A.; Worl, L.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Tolt, T.L. [Lockheed Environmental Systems and Technologies Co., Las Vegas, NV (United States)

1994-11-01

24

Separation of magnetic field lines  

SciTech Connect

The field lines of magnetic fields that depend on three spatial coordinates are shown to have a fundamentally different behavior from those that depend on two coordinates. Unlike two-coordinate cases, a flux tube in a magnetic field that depends on all three spatial coordinates that has a circular cross section at one location along the tube characteristically has a highly distorted cross section at other locations. In an ideal evolution of a magnetic field, the current densities typically increase. Crudely stated, if the current densities increase by a factor {sigma}, the ratio of the long to the short distance across a cross section of a flux tube characteristically increases by e{sup 2{sigma}}, and the ratio of the longer distance to the initial radius increases as e{sup {sigma}}. Electron inertia prevents a plasma from isolating two magnetic field structures on a distance scale shorter than c/{omega}{sub pe}, which is about 10 cm in the solar corona, and reconnection must be triggered if {sigma} becomes sufficiently large. The radius of the sun, R{sub Circled-Dot-Operator }=7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10}cm is about e{sup 23} times larger, so when {sigma} Greater-Than-Or-Equivalent-To 23, two lines separated by c/{omega}{sub pe} at one location can be separated by the full scale of any magnetic structures in the corona at another. The conditions for achieving a large exponentiation, {sigma}, are derived, and the importance of exponentiation is discussed.

Boozer, Allen H. [Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States)

2012-11-15

25

Magnetic separation of antibiotics by electrochemical magnetic seeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic separation of several classes of antibiotics was investigated using electrochemical magnetic seeding. Electrocoagulation with a sacrificial anode followed by addition of magnetite particles was applied for the magnetic seeding of antibiotics. With electrochemical magnetic seeding using an iron anode, tetracycline antibiotics (oxytetracycline, chlortetracycline, doxycycline and tetracycline) and cephalosporin antibiotic (cefdinir) were rapidly removed from synthetic wastewater by magnetic separation

I. Ihara; K. Toyoda; N. Beneragama; K. Umetsu

2009-01-01

26

A Magnetically Separable, Highly Stable Enzyme System Based on Nanocomposites of Enzymes and Magnetic Nanoparticles Shipped in Hierarchically Ordered, Mesocellular, Mesoporous Silica  

SciTech Connect

Enzymes are versatile nanoscale biocatalysts, and find increasing applications in many areas, including organic synthesis[1-3] and bioremediation.[4-5] However, the application of enzymes is often hampered by the short catalytic lifetime of enzymes and by the difficulty in recovery and recycling. To solve these problems, there have been a lot of efforts to develop effective enzyme immobilization techniques. Recent advances in nanotechnology provide more diverse materials and approaches for enzyme immobilization. For example, mesoporous materials offer potential advantages as a host of enzymes due to their well-controlled porosity and large surface area for the immobilization of enzymes.[6,7] On the other hand, it has been demonstrated that enzymes attached on magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles can be easily recovered using a magnet and recycled for iterative uses.[8] In this paper, we report the development of magnetically-separable and highly-stable enzyme system by the combined use of two different kinds of nanostructured materials: magnetic nanoparticles and mesoporous silica.

Kim, Jungbae; Lee, Jinwoo; Na, Hyon Bin; Kim, Byoung Chan; Youn, Jongkyu; Kwak, Ja Hun; Moon, Karam; Lee, Eunwoong; Kim, Jaeyun; Park, Jongnam; Dohnalkova, Alice; Park, Hyun-Gyu; Gu, Man Bock; Chang, Ho Nam; Grate, Jay W.; Hyeon, Taeghwan

2005-12-01

27

The GSI projectile fragment separator (FRS): a versatile magnetic system for relativistic heavy ions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The projectile fragment separator FRS designed for research and applied studies with relativistic heavy ions was installed at GSI as a part of the new high-energy SIS\\/ESR accelerator facility. This high-resolution forward spectrometer has been successfully used in first atomic and nuclear physics experiments using neon, argon, krypton, xenon, and gold beams in the energy range from 500 to 2000

H. Geissel; P. Armbruster; K. H. Behr; A. Brünle; K. Burkard; M. Chen; H. Folger; B. Franczak; H. Keller; O. Klepper; B. Langenbeck; F. Nickel; E. Pfeng; M. Pfützner; E. Roeckl; K. Rykaczewski; I. Schall; D. Schardt; C. Scheidenberger; K.-H. Schmidt; A. Schröter; T. Schwab; K. Sümmerer; M. Weber; G. Münzenberg; T. Brohm; H.-G. Clerc; M. Fauerbach; J.-J. Gaimard; A. Grewe; E. Hanelt; B. Knödler; M. Steiner; B. Voss; J. Weckenmann; C. Ziegler; A. Magel; H. Wollnik; J. P. Dufour; Y. Fujita; D. J. Vieira; B. Sherrill

1992-01-01

28

Membrane separation systems  

SciTech Connect

This book discusses developments and future directions in the field of membrane separation systems. It describes research needed to bring energy-saving membrane separation processes to technical and commercial readiness for commercial acceptance within the next 5 to 20 years. The assessment was conducted by a group of six internationally known membrane separations experts who examined the worldwide status of research in seven major membrane areas. These encompassed four mature technology areas: reverse osmosis, microfiltration, ultrafiltration, and electrodialysis; two developing areas: gas separation and pervaporation; and one emerging technology; facilitated transport.

Baker, R.W.; Cussler, E.L.; Eykamp, W.; Koros, W.J.; Riley, R.L.; Strathman, R.H.

1991-01-01

29

Integrated acoustic and magnetic separation in microfluidic channels  

PubMed Central

With a growing number of cell-based biotechnological applications, there is a need for particle separation systems capable of multiparameter separations at high purity and throughput, beyond what is presently offered by traditional methods including fluorescence activated cell sorting and column-based magnetic separation. Toward this aim, we report on the integration of microfluidic acoustic and magnetic separation in a monolithic device for multiparameter particle separation. Using our device, we demonstrate high-purity separation of a multicomponent particle mixture at a throughput of up to 108 particles?hr.

Adams, Jonathan D.; Thevoz, Patrick; Bruus, Henrik; Soh, H. Tom

2009-01-01

30

COAL CLEANING BY HIGH GRADIENT MAGNETIC SEPARATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of experimental work on HGMS coal c leaning will be presented with emphasis on the r elation between cleaning results and coal characteristics. I INTRODUCTION High Gradient Magnetic Separation (HGMS) is a particle separation technique which is based on the differences in the magnetic properties of the particles. A survey of the principles, theory, experimental work and applications has

C. P. van Driel; J. Sikkenga; C. B. W. Kerkdijk

1984-01-01

31

The magnets of the GSI fragment separator  

SciTech Connect

The Fragment Separator is a device for producing and separating exotic nuclear beams. The exotic nuclei can be investigated directly, or the secondary beams can be injected into the storage-cooler ring, or delivered to targets in the experimental caves. The magnets of the spectrometer and the equipment used to measure the magnetic fields are described. Results of the measurements and operational experience with the laminated magnets are reported.

Langenbeck, B.; Gaiser, H.; Geissel, H.; Klos, F.; Moritz, G.; Muenzenberg, G.; Zweig, K. (GSI, Darmstadt (Germany))

1994-07-01

32

Magnetic separation of ferrihydrite from wastewater by magnetic seeding and high-gradient magnetic separation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ferrihydrite, a member of iron oxides family, has been used as an adsorbent for the removal of heavy metal ions from industrial wastewater. The success of the operation depends mainly on the efficient removal of ferrihydrite from the aqueous phase. Hence, the emphasis of this study was given on the separation of ferrihydrite by high-gradient magnetic separator (HGMS) to overcome

Nuray Karapinar

2003-01-01

33

Design of a core-shell type immuno-magnetic separation system and multiplex PCR for rapid detection of pathogens from food samples.  

PubMed

We report an immuno-magnetic separation system developed by the immobilization of pathogen-specific antibodies on the core-shell magnetic beads. The magnetic beads were grafted with glycidylmethacrylate (GMA) using surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP). For immuno-magnetic separation (IMS) of target bacterial cells from others, antibodies for Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium cells were immobilized on the magnetic beads via glutaraldehyde coupling reaction. Our IMS system successfully separated Salmonella cells when the concentrations of target (i.e., Salmonella) and interfering (i.e., E. coli) cells were at the same level. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays amplifying the rfb/rfbE region of the E. coli genome and a 647-bp fragment of the invA region of Salmonella were performed as the specific selection to accurately confirm the presence of E. coli and Salmonella, respectively. IMS and multiplex PCR methods can be used for specific and quantitative detection of pathogens from food samples. Thus, this study developed a reliable and direct system for rapid detection of Salmonella and E. coli in food samples. In addition, IMS method could be easily adapted to detect other pathogens by selecting the pertinent antibody. PMID:24048640

Ozalp, V Cengiz; Bayramoglu, Gulay; Arica, M Yakup; Oktem, H Avni

2013-09-19

34

Magnetic separation of uranium from magnesium fluoride  

SciTech Connect

The attraction or repulsion of particles by a magnetic gradient, based on the respective susceptibilities, provides the basis for physical separation of particles that are comprised predominantly of uranium from those that are predominantly magnesium fluoride (MgF/sub 2/). To determine the effectiveness of this approach, a bench-scale magnetic separator from the S.G. Frantz Co., Inc. was used. In the Frantz Model L-1, particles are fed through a funnel onto a vibration tray and through a magnetic field. The specific design of the Frantz magnet causes the magnetic field strength to vary along the width of the magnet, setting up a gradient. The tray in the magnetic field is split at a point about half way down its length so that the separated material does not recombine. A schematic is presented of Frantz Model L-1 CN - the same magnet configured for high gradient magnetic separation of liquid-suspended particles. Here different pole pieces create a uniform magnetic field, and stainless steel wood in the canister between the pole pieces creates the high gradient. 1 ref., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

Hoegler, J.M.

1987-01-01

35

Reciprocating Magnetic Separator. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 2001, under DOE's Superconductivity Partnership Initiative (SPI), E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co. (Dupont) was awarded a cost-share contract to build a fully functional full-scale model high temperature superconducting reciprocating magnet unit specific...

2008-01-01

36

Magellan Autologous Platelet Separation System  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... Magellan Autologous Platelet Separation System. Applicant: Medtronic Sofamor Danek. ... Product: Magellan Autologous Platelet Separation System. ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/bloodbloodproducts/approvedproducts

37

Negative ion beam production by a microwave ion source equipped with a magnetically separated double plasma cell system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Filamentless negative ion beam production was investigated with a compact microwave ion source (2.45 GHz). One of the key points for negative ion production is the magnetic configuration. A magnetic filter field to lower electron temperature was generated in a negative ion production cell, which was shielded magnetically from a discharge cell with a magnetic field to couple microwave to plasma. Production of H- beam was studied with this source. H- was extracted through a grid slit (2×16 mm2) from plasma and accelerated to 20-40 keV. H- beam current was measured with a Faraday cup after magnetic mass separation. Continuous H- beam current of 73 ?A (0.23 mA/cm2) was obtained with a magnetron power of 700 W. H- beam current was increased around 1.4 times by adding Xe gas to the H2 gas. Other negative ion species, which have a potential for applications to industrial ion beam processing with little charge-up problem, were also investigated. Carbon and hydrocarbon negative ion beams were produced using boron alkoxide (B(OCH3)3) and methane. C2H2- beams (22 ?A) were obtained with the alkoxide. C2-(1.6 ?A), C2H-(2.3 ?A), C2H2-(0.6 ?A), and H-(6.9 ?A) beams were produced with methane. SiF4 and BF3 were used to generate F-, Si-, SiF3- and B- beams. Beam currents of these ion species were 17, 0.25, 1.5, and 0.03 ?A, respectively.

Tanaka, M.; Amemiya, K.

2000-02-01

38

Separation of actinide-made transurania by a gas-filled magnetic separator  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of the gas-filled magnetic separator HECK at the UNILAC at GSI Darmstadt is described. The system consists of a 30°-dipole magnet and a quadrupole doublet of wide aperture. The separator is operated with helium at pressures between 0.1–1 hPa. It is used to investigate heavy ion induced fusion products in-flight. The recoils emerging from a thin target are

V. Ninov; P. Armbruster; F. P. Heßberger; S. Hofmann; G. Münzenberg; Y. Fujita; M. Leino; A. Lüttgen

1995-01-01

39

The study on optimization issues for magnetic separation by magnetic chromatography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnetic chromatography is a very useful system for an ion and/or fine magnetic particle separation because it has strong magnetic field gradients even in a very narrow flow channel. We have not only developed the magnetic chromatography system to separate the fine particles and ions, but also the numerical analysis code based on the fluid dynamics and electromagnetism to investigate the separating characteristics and to optimize design of magnetic column. In this study, the simple experiments using a superconducting magnet with a large room-temperature-bore and a micro-scale magnetic column consisting of ferromagnetic wires were carried out to understand the ions separation. The cobalt chloride (CoCl2) and the nickel sulfate (NiSO4) were used as ions, and the magnetic field and length of magnetic column were used as a parameter in an experiment and an analysis. It can be expected that the ion mobility of a single and complex are quite different, and the ability of the separation will be improved by increasing the column length without external magnetic field.

Kim, S. B.; Iwamoto, R.; Kataoka, K.; Noguchi, S.; Okada, H.

2010-11-01

40

Separability of Multipartite Quantum Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A necessary condition for separability of multipartite quantum systems is given. It is shown that for 2 × 2 × \\ctdot × 2 × quantum systems the condition of separability is equivalent to the criterion of positive partial transposition. We also define an entanglement measurement based on this separability condition which can be considered as a kind of generalization of negativity.

Li, Ming; Jing, Wang

2012-02-01

41

Use of high gradient magnetic separation for actinide application  

SciTech Connect

Decontamination of materials such as soils or waste water that contain radioactive isotopes, heavy metals, or hazardous components is a subject of great interest. Magnetic separation is a physical separation process that segregates materials on the basis of magnetic susceptibility. Because the process relies on physical properties, separations can be achieved while producing a minimum of secondary waste. Most traditional physical separation processes effectively treat particles larger than 70 microns. In many situations, the radioactive contaminants are found concentrated in the fine particle size fraction of less than 20 microns. For effective decontamination of the fine particle size fraction most current operations resort to chemical dissolution methods for treatment. High gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) is able to effectively treat particles from 90 to {approximately}0.1 micron in diameter. The technology is currently used on the 60 ton per hour scale in the kaolin clay industry. When the field gradient is of sufficiently high intensity, paramagnetic particles can be physically captured and separated from extraneous nonmagnetic material. Because all actinide compounds are paramagnetic, magnetic separation of actinide containing mixtures is feasible. The advent of reliable superconducting magnets also makes magnetic separation of weakly paramagnetic species attractive. HGMS work at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is being developed for soil remediation, waste water treatment and treatment of actinide chemical processing residues. LANL and Lockheed Environmental Systems and Technologies Company (LESAT) have worked on a co-operative research and development agreement (CRADA) to develop HGMS for radioactive soil decontamination. The program is designed to transfer HGMS from the laboratory and other industries for the commercial treatment of radioactive contaminated materials. 9 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Avens, L.R.; Worl, L.A.; Padilla, D.D.

1996-08-01

42

Magnetic precipitate separation for Ni plating waste liquid using HTS bulk magnets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnetic separation experiment for recycling the nickel-bearing precipitates in the waste liquid from the electroless plating processes has been practically conducted under the high gradient magnetic separation technique with use of the face-to-face HTS bulk magnet system. A couple of facing magnetic poles containing Sm123 bulk superconductors were activated through the pulsed field magnetization process to 1.86 T at 38 K and 2.00 T at 37 K, respectively. The weakly magnetized metallic precipitates of Ni crystals and Ni-P compounds deposited from the waste solution after heating it and pH controlling. The high gradient magnetic separation technique was employed with the separation channels filled with the stainless steel balls with dimension of 1 and 3 mm in diameter, which periodically moved between and out of the facing magnetic poles. The Ni-bearing precipitates were effectively attracted to the magnetized ferromagnetic balls. We have succeeded in obtaining the separation ratios over 90% under the flow rates less than 1.35 L/min.

Oka, T.; Kimura, T.; Mimura, D.; Fukazawa, H.; Fukui, S.; Ogawa, J.; Sato, T.; Ooizumi, M.; Yokoyama, K.; Tsujimura, M.; Terasawa, T.

2013-01-01

43

Evaluating Speech Separation Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Common evaluation standards are critical to making progress in any field, but they can also distort research by shifting all the attention to a limited subset of the problem. Here, we consider the problem of evaluat- ing algorithms for speech separation and acoustic scene analysis, noting some weaknesses of existing measures, and making some suggestions for future evaluations. We take

Daniel P. W. Ellis

44

Magellan Autologous Platelet Separator System  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... Magellan Autologous Platelet Separator System. Applicant: Medtronic Sofamor Danek. 510(k) number: BK040068. Product ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/bloodbloodproducts/approvedproducts

45

Magnetically-Separable and Highly-Stable Enzyme System Based on Crosslinked Enzyme Aggregates Shipped in Magnetite-Coated Mesoporous Silica  

SciTech Connect

Magnetically-separable and highly-stable enzyme system was developed by adsorption of enzymes in superparamagnetic hierarchically ordered mesocellular mesoporous silica (M-HMMS) and subsequent enzyme crosslinking. Superparamagnetic nanoparticles were homogeneously incorporated into hierarchically-ordered mesocellular mesoporous silica (HMMS) by the decomposition of preformed iron propionate complex. The size of incorporated superparamagnetic 15 nanoparticles was around 5 nm, generating a magnetically separable host with high pore volumes and large pores (M-HMMS). ?-chymotrypsin (CT) was adsorbed into M-HMMS with high loading (~30 wt%) in less than 30 minutes. Glutaraldehyde (GA) treatment of adsorbed CT resulted in nanometer scale crosslinked enzyme aggregates in M-HMMS (CLEA-M). The activity of these CT aggregates in M-HMMS (CLEA-M-CT) was 34 times than that of simply adsorbed CT in M20 HMMS, due to an effective prevention of enzyme leaching during washing via a ship-in-a-bottle approach. CLEA-M-CT maintained the intial activity not only under shaking (250 rpm) for 30 days, but also under recycled uses of 35 times. The same approach was employed for the synthesis of CLEA-M of lipase (CLEA-M-LP), and proven to be effective in improving the loading, activity, and stability of enzyme when compared to those of adsorbed LP in M-HMMS.

Lee, Jinwoo; Na, Hyon Bin; Kim, Byoung Chan; Lee, Jin Hyung; Lee, Byoungsoo; Kwak, Ja Hun; Hwang, Yosun; Park, Je-Geun; Gu, Man Bock; Kim, Jaeyun; Joo, Jin; Shin, Chae-Ho; Grate, Jay W.; Hyeon, Taeghwan; Kim, Jungbae

2009-10-15

46

Inclusionwise Minimal Completely Separating Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A set system ? ? 2 is said to be completely separating if for any x,y ? [n] there exist sets A,B ? ?, such that , y ? B??. Let us denote the maximum size of an inclusionwise minimal completely separating system on the underlying set [n] by g(n). Balogh and Bollobás showed that for 2 ? n ?

Patkós Balázs; Tichler Krisztián; Wiener Gábor

2009-01-01

47

High-gradient magnetic separation of coated magnetic nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility is examined of using high-gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) to recover about 8-nm magnetite nanoparticles that are tailored specifically to extract target solutes (polymer-coated nanoparticles for the extraction of soluble organic contaminants from water and phospholipid-coated particles for the selective extraction of proteins). A general model for nanoparticle capture based on calculating the limit of static nanopar- ticle buildup

Geoffrey D. Moeser; Kaitlin A. Roach; William H. Green; T. Alan Hatton; Paul E. Laibinis

2004-01-01

48

Photocatalytic magnetic separable beads for chromium (VI) reduction.  

PubMed

Magnetically separable photocatalyst beads containing nano-sized iron oxide in alginate polymer were prepared. This magnetic photocatalyst beads are used in slurry-type reactors. The magnetism of the catalyst arises from the nanostructured particles gamma-Fe(2)O(3), by which the catalyst can be easily recovered by the application of an external magnetic field. These synthesized beads are sunlight-driven photocatalyst. In the system without magnetic photocatalyst beads, no chromium reduction was observed under sunlight irradiation due to the stability of the chromium (VI). Upon the addition of magnetic photocatalyst beads, the photo-reduction of Cr(VI) was completed in just after only 50min under sunlight irradiation due to the photocatalytic activity of the beads. However when placed away from sunlight, the reduction rate of the chromium is just about 10%. These observations were explained in terms of absorption occurrence of chromium (VI) onto the catalyst surface which took place in this reaction. In addition, photo-reduction rate of chromium (VI) was more significant at lower pH. The results suggest that the use of magnetic separable photocatalyst beads is a feasible strategy for eliminating Cr(VI). PMID:19963234

Idris, Ani; Hassan, Nursia; Mohd Ismail, Nur Suriani; Misran, Effaliza; Yusof, Noordin Mohd; Ngomsik, Audrey-Flore; Bee, Agnes

2009-11-26

49

Beneficiation with Magnetic Fluids—Magnetic Separation of the Second Kind  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colloidal solutions of magnetite placed in a magnetic field have been used to segregate nonmagnetic materials such as nonferrous scrap metals and to concentrate precious minerals. Conventional magnetic separation relies on the inherent magnetic susceptibility of the material to be separated and may be designated as magnetic separation of the first kind. When the medium of separation rather than the

S. E. KHALAFALLA

1985-01-01

50

Ramp rate testing of an HTS high gradient magnetic separation magnet  

SciTech Connect

The authors report on the ramp rate testing of a prototype high temperature superconducting (HTS) high gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) magnet. HGMS magnets are ramped from full field to zero field to clean the separation matrix. The time spent ramping the magnet is unavailable for processing and must therefore be kept to a minimum. Existing commercial low temperature superconducting HGMS magnets are immersed in a liquid helium bath and are designed to ramp from zero to full current in one minute. The HTS magnet in the system is conductively cooled and operates in a vacuum at a temperature of approximately 30 K. Heat generated during ramping is not as readily removed from the conductively cooled magnet as a bath cooled magnet. To verify that the conductive cooling can adequately remove heat generated during ramping they recorded magnet temperatures and voltages while ramping at rates of up to 4.8 A/second. The magnet can accommodate ramps from zero to 100 A (1.6 Tesla) in 21 seconds with no degradation in performance. The average magnet temperature rises a maximum of 1 K during ramping. Using temperatures recorded during ramps they have made rough estimates of the ac losses generated in the magnet.

Daugherty, M.A.; Roth, E.W.; Daney, D.E.; Hill, D.D.; Prenger, F.C.

1997-11-01

51

Fundamental study on magnetic separation of aquatic organisms for preservation of marine ecosystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, destruction and disturbance of marine ecosystem have been caused by changes in global environment and transplants of farmed fishes and shellfishes. To solve the problems, water treatment techniques to kill or to remove aquatic organisms are necessary. In this study, application of magnetic separation for removal of the aquatic organisms was examined in order to establish the process with high-speed, compact device and low environmental load. Techniques of magnetic seeding and magnetic separation using superconducting magnet are important for high-speed processing of aquatic organisms. Magnetic seeding is to adhere separating object to the surface of ferromagnetic particles, and magnetic separation is to remove aquatic organisms with magnetic force. First, we confirmed the possibility of magnetic seeding of aquatic organisms, and then interaction between aquatic organisms and ferromagnetic particles was examined. Next, for practical application of magnetic separation system using superconducting magnet for removal of aquatic organisms, particle trajectories were simulated and magnetic separation experiment using superconducting magnet was performed in order to design magnetic separation system to achieve high separation efficiency.

Sakaguchi, F.; Akiyama, Y.; Izumi, Y.; Nishijima, S.

2009-10-01

52

Separating the dyon system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relation between the ``dyon'' system studied by D'Hoker and Vinet and its spin-0 counterpart described earlier by McIntosh and Cisneros and by Zwanziger can be made manifest by using suitable variables, introduced before by Biedenharn and by McIntosh and Berrondo in the relativistic Kepler problem. This leads to a simple determination of the spectra.

Fehér, L.; Horváthy, P. A.; O'raifeartaigh, L.

1989-07-01

53

New process for placer gold recovery by means of magnetic separation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors present calculations and results of a study of magnetic systems intended to recover gold. A mathematical model of the separation in magnetic fluid is described. The complex of separators KC3-1 was developed. Industrial-scale testing results are shown. Gold recovery at all stages of magnetic separation is 91.1-99.5%. The feed rate of this complex is 100 kg\\/h

R. D. Smolkin; Y. M. Garin; V. S. Krokhmal; O. P. Sayko

1992-01-01

54

Modeling High Gradient Magnetic Separation in Biological Fluids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A portable magnetic filter capable of separating magnetic nanospheres from arterial blood flow for detoxification of human blood is under design. In the separator design, an array of biocompatible capillary tubing and magnetizable wires is immersed into an externally applied homogeneous magnetic field. While subject to the magnetic field, the wires create high magnetic field gradients, which aid in the collection of blood- borne magnetic nanospheres from blood flow. In this study, a numerical model was created to determine the configuration of the wire-tubing array from two possible configurations. To determine which configuration was better suited for the separator design, the numerical capture efficiencies of the separator for the different configurations were compared over a range of mean blood flow velocities using subsets of the full configurations and compared with experimental results. For the configuration that showed higher capture efficiencies, the effects of blood velocity, magnetic field strength, wire and particle materials, and the length of the separator is also studied.

Bockenfeld, D.; Chen, H.; Rempfer, D.; Kaminski, M.; Rosengart, A.

2006-11-01

55

MSWI boiler fly ashes: magnetic separation for material recovery.  

PubMed

Nowadays, ferrous materials are usually recovered from Municipal Solid Waste Incineration (MSWI) bottom ash by magnetic separation. To our knowledge, such a physical technique has not been applied so far to other MSWI residues. This study focuses thus on the applicability of magnetic separation on boiler fly ashes (BFA). Different types of magnet are used to extract the magnetic particles. We investigate the magnetic particle composition, as well as their leaching behaviour (EN 12457-1 leaching test). The magnetic particles present higher Cr, Fe, Mn and Ni concentration than the non-magnetic (NM) fraction. Magnetic separation does not improve the leachability of the NM fraction. To approximate industrial conditions, magnetic separation is also applied to BFA mixed with water by using a pilot. BFA magnetic separation is economically evaluated. This study globally shows that it is possible to extract some magnetic particles from MSWI boiler fly ashes. However, the magnetic particles only represent from 23 to 120 g/kg of the BFA and, though they are enriched in Fe, are composed of similar elements to the raw ashes. The industrial application of magnetic separation would only be profitable if large amounts of ashes were treated (more than 15 kt/y), and the process should be ideally completed by other recovery methods or advanced treatments. PMID:21306886

De Boom, Aurore; Degrez, Marc; Hubaux, Paul; Lucion, Christian

2011-02-08

56

PROCESSING EQUIPMENT FOR RESOURCE RECOVERY SYSTEMS. VOLUME II. MAGNETIC SEPARATORS, AIR CLASSIFIER AND AMBIENT AIR EMISSIONS TESTS  

EPA Science Inventory

This report presents the results of a study of equipment and systems for processing municipal solid wastes into energy related products. The study was divided into three phases. The first phase was devoted to a study of the state of the art and formulation of the research needs. ...

57

Fundamental study of phosphor separation by controlling magnetic force  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The phosphor wastes consist of phosphors with different emission colors, green (LAP), red (YOX), blue (BAM) and white (HP). It is required to recover and reuse the rare earth phosphors with high market value. In this study, we tried to separate the phosphor using the magnetic separation by HTS bulk magnet utilizing the differences of magnetic susceptibility by the type of phosphors. We succeeded in the successive separation of HP with low market value from YOX and BAM including the rare earth using the magnetic Archimedes method. In this method, vertical and radial components of the magnetic force were used.

Wada, Kohei; Mishima, Fumihito; Akiyama, Yoko; Nishijima, Shigehiro

2013-11-01

58

Feasibility study of iron mineral separation from red mud by high gradient superconducting magnetic separation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The disposal of bayer red mud tailings now seriously threats the environment safety. Reduction and recycling of red mud is now an urgent work in aluminum industry. High gradient superconducting magnetic separation (HGSMS) system was applied to separate the extreme fine RM particles (<100 ?m) into high iron content part and low iron content part. Two sorts of RM were fed in the HGSMS. The iron oxide contents in concentrates were about 65% and 45% when RM 1# and RM 2# were fed respectively. Meanwhile, the residues contained 52.0% or 14.1% iron oxide in residues after eight separation stages when RM 1# and RM 2# were fed respectively. The mass recovery of iron concentrates was about 10% after once separation process regardless of RM 1# or RM 2# was fed. Extreme fine particles (<10 ?m) could be captured in the HGSMS. Intergrowth of Fe and other elements is disadvantages for iron mineral separation from RM by HGSMS. Some improvement should be studied to enhance the efficiency of iron separation. It is possible for HGSMS to separate RM into high iron content part and low iron content part, the former part could be used in iron-making furnace and the later part could be recycling to sintering process for alumina production or used as construction material.

Li, Yiran; Wang, Jun; Wang, Xiaojun; Wang, Baoqiang; Luan, Zhaokun

2011-02-01

59

Oil separation system using superheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a combination superheater and oil separator for a refrigeration system having a source of heated medium and a source of non-superheated refrigerant gas-oil mixture comprising: a sealed casing; a heat transfer unit within the casing having a heat transfer surface; means on the casing for connecting the interior of the casing to receive the mixture from the

1986-01-01

60

Charge separation of plasma flow in curvilinear magnetic field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The energy spectra of ions occurring in various charged states in a flow of titanium plasma in a steady-state vacuum arc discharge have been studied. It is established that, during the motion of this flow through a plasma transport system based on a curvilinear magnetic field, ions with different charges are spatially separated. As a result, at the system output, ions with greater charges are concentrated in the inner part of the plasma flow, so that the average charge of ions in this region is higher than that in the outer part of the flow.

Korobkin, Yu. V.; Lebedev, N. V.; Paperny, V. L.

2012-03-01

61

Application of high gradient magnetic separation principles to magnetic drug targeting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A hypothetical magnetic drug targeting system, utilizing high gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) principles, was studied theoretically using FEMLAB simulations. This new approach uses a ferromagnetic wire placed at a bifurcation point inside a blood vessel and an externally applied magnetic field, to magnetically guide magnetic drug carrier particles (MDCP) through the circulatory system and then to magnetically retain them at a target site. Wire collection (CE) and diversion (DE) efficiencies were defined and used to evaluate the system performance. CE and DE both increase as the strength of the applied magnetic field (0.3-2.0T), the amount of ferromagnetic material (iron) in the MDCP (20-100%) and the size of the MDCP (1-10?m radius) increase, and as the average inlet velocity (0.1-0.8ms-1), the size of the wire (50-250?m radius) and the ratio (4-10) of the parent vessel radius (0.25-1.25mm radius) to wire radius decrease. The effect of the applied magnetic field direction (0° and 90°) on CE and DE was minimal. Under these plausible conditions, CEs as high as 70% were obtained, with DEs reaching only 30%; however, when the MDCPs were allowed to agglomerate (4-10?m radius), CEs and DEs of 100% were indeed achieved. These results reveal that this new magnetic drug targeting approach for magnetically collecting MDCPs at a target site, even in arteries with very high velocities, is feasible and very promising; this new approach for magnetically guiding MDCPs through the circulatory system is also feasible but more limited. Overall, this study shows that magnetic drug targeting, based on HGMS principles, has considerable promise as an effective drug targeting tool with many potential applications.

Ritter, James A.; Ebner, Armin D.; Daniel, Karen D.; Stewart, Krystle L.

2004-09-01

62

Waste Remediation Using in Situ Magnetically Assisted Chemical Separation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The magnetically assisted chemical separation process (MACS) combines the selective and efficient separation afforded by chemical sorption with the magnetic recovery of ferromagnetic particles. This process is being developed for treating the underground storage tanks at Hanford. These waste streams contain cesium, strontium, and transuranics (TRU) that must be removed before this waste can be disposed of as grout. The

L. Nuñez; B. A. Buchholz; G. F. Vandegrift

1995-01-01

63

Waste remediation using in situ magnetically assisted chemical separation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The magnetically assisted chemical separation process (MACS) combines the selective and efficient separation afforded by chemical sorption with the magnetic recovery of ferromagnetic particles. This process is being developed for treating the underground storage tanks at Hanford. These waste streams contain cesium, strontium, and transuranics (TRU) that must be removed before this waste can be disposed of as grout. The

L. Nunez; B. A. Buchholz; G. F. Vandegrift

1993-01-01

64

High gradient magnetic separation applied to environmental remediation  

SciTech Connect

High Gradient Magnetic Separation (HGMS) is an application of superconducting magnet technology to the separation of magnetic solids from other solids, liquids, or gases. The production of both high magnetic fields (>4 T) and large field gradients using superconducting magnet technology has made it possible to separate a previously unreachable but large family of paramagnetic materials. This is a powerful technique that can be used to separate widely dispersed contaminants from a host material and may be the only technique available for separating material in the colloidal state. Because it is a physical separation process, no additional waste is generated. We are applying this technology to the treatment of radioactive wastes for environmental remediation. We have conducted tests examining slurries containing nonradioactive, magnetic surrogates. Results from these studies were used to verify our analytical model of the separation process. The model describes the rate process for magnetic separation and is based on a force balance on the paramagnetic species. This model was used to support bench scale experiments and prototype separator design.

Prenger, F.C.; Stewart, W.F.; Hill, D.D.; Avens, L.R.; Worl, L.A.; Schake, A.; de Aguero, K.J.; Padilla, D.D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Tolt, T.L. [Lockheed Environmental Systems and Technology Co., Inc., Las Vegas, NV (United States)

1993-08-01

65

Magnetic Resonance Imaging System Based on Earth's Magnetic Field  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes both the setup and the use of a system for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the Earth's magnetic field. Phase instability caused by temporal fluctuations of Earth's field can be successfully improved by using a reference signal from a separate Earth's field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometer\\/magnetometer. In imaging, it is important to correctly determine the phase

Ales Mohoric; Gorazd Planinsic; Miha Kos; Andrej Duh; Janez Stepisnik

2004-01-01

66

Magnetic separation of materials. (Latest citations from the EI Compendex*plus database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, development, and testing of equipment which uses magnetism as a means of separating and purifying ores and minerals. This technology is used extensively in cleaning fossil fuels, separating fly ash constituents, mineral separations, beneficiation of ores, and other ore processing systems. The articles presented describe various operating systems, separating techniques and variables, and high-gradient magnetic separation which can be used with certain metal oxides and other paramagnetic materials. (Contains a minimum of 214 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-04-01

67

Magnetic separation of materials. (Latest citations from the Compendex database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, development, and testing of equipment which uses magnetism as a means of separating and purifying ores and minerals. This technology is used extensively in cleaning fossil fuels, separating fly ash constituents, mineral separations, beneficiation of ores, and other ore processing systems. The articles presented describe various operating systems, separating techniques and variables, and high-gradient magnetic separation which can be used with certain metal oxides and other paramagnetic materials. (Contains a minimum of 209 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-06-01

68

Magnetically separable composite photocatalyst with enhanced photocatalytic activity.  

PubMed

A novel magnetically separable composite photocatalyst, anatase titania-coated magnetic activated carbon (TMAC), was prepared in this article. In the synthesis, magnetic activated carbon (MAC) was firstly obtained by adsorbing magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles onto the activated carbon (AC), and then the obtained MAC was directly coated by anatase titania nanoparticles prepared at low temperature (i.e. 75 degrees C). The prepared samples were characterized by XRD, SEM and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The composite photocatalyst can be easily separated from solution by a magnet, its photocatalytic activity in degradation of phenol in aqueous solution also has dramatic enhancement compared to that of the neat titania. PMID:18406055

Ao, Yanhui; Xu, Jingjing; Shen, Xunwei; Fu, Degang; Yuan, Chunwei

2008-03-08

69

Desulfurization and Deashing of Solvent Refined Coal (SRC-I) by High Gradient Magnetic Separation Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pilot-scale high gradient magnetic separations (HGMS) system was assembled to investigate the magnetic separation of ash-forming solids and inorganic sulfur from liquefied coal. The liquefied coal studied was a diluted intermediate product obtained from the DOE-sponsored Tacoma SRC-I pilot plant (50 t\\/d coal capacity). The magnetic characteristics and particle size distribution of the Tacoma SRC-I liquefied coal were optimized

L. Petrakis; P. F. Ahner; F. E. Kiviat

1981-01-01

70

Speed improvement of a pathogenic micro-organism population detection with LAPS system by a magnetic bead separation and a pH detection.  

PubMed

In this paper, a magnetic bead based immobilization method and pH detection method is applied to the LAPS (light addressable potentiometric sensor) system to detect a pathogenic micro-organism population. Magnetic beads are very small, superparamagnetic particles (0.8 approximately 5.0 microm in diameter) that are able to sustain a magnetic domain under excitation and do not exhibit residual magnetization when the external field is removed. By using magnetic beads as an immobilization method, other bulky and complex method can be alternated. To verify the method, an urease labeled anti-salmonella typhimurium antibody is used to detect a pathogenic micro-organism( S. typhimurium ) population by a bias voltage maximum slope detection. PMID:17272104

Moon, H S; Ryu, S; Yum, D; Kim, H

2004-01-01

71

Plasma separation process: Magnet move to Oak Ridge National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report on the series of operations which culminated with the delivery of the Plasma Separation Process prototype magnet system (PMS) to Building K1432 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This procedure included real time monitoring of the cold mass support strut strain gauges and an in-cab rider to monitor the instrumentation and direct the driver. The primary technical consideration for these precautions was the possibility of low frequency resonant vibration of the cold mass when excited by symmetrical rough road conditions at specific speeds causing excess stress levels in the support struts and consequent strut failure. A secondary consideration was the possibility of high acceleration loads due to sudden stops, severe road conditions, of impacts. The procedure for moving and transportation to ORNL included requirements for real time continuous monitoring of the eight strut stain gauges and three external accelerometers. Because the strain gauges had not been used since the original magnet cooldown, it was planned to verify their integrity during magnet warmup. The measurements made from the strut strain gauges resulted in stress values that were physically impossible. It was concluded that further evaluation was necessary to verify the usefulness of these gauges and whether they might be faulty. This was accomplished during the removal of the magnet from the building. 6 figs., 1 tab.

Not Available

1989-07-01

72

Phase separation in aqueous magnetic colloidal solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ionic magnetic fluids are aqueous colloidal solutions of magnetic nanoparticles which wear surface charges. Stability of the\\u000a solution is ensured by screened electrostatic repulsions, and phase transitions “gas-liquid” like are observed when an electrolyte\\u000a is added to the colloidal solution. The nature and the onset of the transitions are determined as functions of the nature\\u000a of the particles (maghemite or

V. Cabuil; E. Dubois; S. Neveu; J. Bacri; E. Hasmonay; R. Perzynski

73

Analytical methods for separating and isolating magnetic nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Despite the large body of literature describing the synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles, few analytical tools are commonly used for their purification and analysis. Due to their unique physical and chemical properties, magnetic nanoparticles are appealing candidates for biomedical applications and analytical separations. Yet in the absence of methods for assessing and assuring their purity, the ultimate use of magnetic particles and heterostructures is likely to be limited. In this review, we summarize the separation techniques that have been initially used for this purpose. For magnetic nanoparticles, it is the use of an applied magnetic flux or field gradient that enables separations. Flow based techniques are combined with applied magnetic fields to give methods such as magnetic field flow fractionation and high gradient magnetic separation. Additional techniques have been explored for manipulating particles in microfluidic channels and in mesoporous membranes. Further development of these and new analytical tools for separation and analysis of colloidal particles is critically important to enable the practical use of these, particularly for medicinal purposes. PMID:22306911

Stephens, Jason R; Beveridge, Jacob S; Williams, Mary Elizabeth

2012-02-03

74

A TIME-DEPENDENT MODEL FOR MAGNETIC RECONNECTION IN THE PRESENCE OF A SEPARATOR  

SciTech Connect

We present a model for separator reconnection due to an isolated reconnection process. Separator reconnection is a process which occurs in the neighborhood of a distinguished field line (the separator) connecting two null points of a magnetic field. It is, for example, important for the dynamics of magnetic flux at the dayside magnetopause and in the solar corona. We find that, above a certain threshold, such a reconnection process generates new separators, which leads to a complex system of magnetic flux tubes connecting regions of previously separated flux. Our findings are consistent with the findings of large numbers of separators in numerical simulations. We discuss how to measure and interpret the reconnection rate in a configuration with multiple separators.

Wilmot-Smith, A. L.; Hornig, G., E-mail: antonia@maths.dundee.ac.uk [Division of Mathematics, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 4HN (United Kingdom)

2011-10-20

75

Magnetic Separation of Soluble Organic Pollutants from Water.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The potential use of High Gradient Magnetic Separation (HGMS) for removing soluble organics in water and for treating composite wastewater from a food processing unit was studied. The initial investigation was of soluble organic removal by a combined use ...

J. A. Petruska J. V. Perumpral

1977-01-01

76

Cell Separation Using Protein-A-Coated Magnetic Nanoclusters  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new immunomagnetic separation process that uses protein A-coated magnetic nanoclusters (PACMAN) as the separation vehicles has been developed. The nanoclusters are produced by sonicating egg yolk phosphatidylcholine and the transmembrane Fc receptor protein-A in a buffered aqueous ferrofluid suspension. The phospholipids appear to form a coating around clusters of 5-50 magnetic nanoparticles, while some of the protein-A associate with

Srinivas V. Sonti; Arijit Bose

1995-01-01

77

Self-Assembled Magnetic Filter for Highly Efficient Immunomagnetic Separation  

PubMed Central

We have developed a compact and inexpensive microfluidic chip, the Self Assembled Magnetic filter, to efficiently remove magnetically tagged cells from suspension. The self-assembled magnetic filter consists of a microfluidic channel built directly above a self-assembled NdFeB magnet. Micrometer-sized grains of NdFeB assemble to form alternating magnetic dipoles, creating a magnetic field with a very strong magnitude B (from the material) and field gradient ?B (from the configuration) in the microfluidic channel. The magnetic force imparted on magnetic beads is measured to be comparable to state-of-the-art microfabricated magnets, allowing for efficient separations to be performed in a compact, simple device. The efficiency of the magnetic filter is characterized by sorting non-magnetic (polystyrene) beads from magnetic beads (iron oxide). The filter enriches the population of non-magnetic beads to magnetic beads by a factor of >105 with a recovery rate of 90% at 1 mL/hr. The utility of the magnetic filter is demonstrated with a microfluidic device that sorts tumor cells from leukocytes using negative immunomagnetic selection, and concentrates the tumor cells on an integrated membrane filter for optical detection.

Issadore, David; Shao, Huilin; Chung, Jaehoon; Newton, Andita; Pittet, Mikael; Weissleder, Ralph; Lee, Hakho

2010-01-01

78

LHC magnet quench protection system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The quench protection system for the superconducting magnets of the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is described. The system is based on the so called 'cold diode' concept. In a group of series connected magnets if one magnet quenches then the magnetic energy of all the magnets will be dissipated in the quenched magnet so destroying it. This is avoided by by-passing the quenched magnet and then rapidly de-exciting the unquenched magnets. For the LHC machine it is foreseen to use silicon diodes situated inside the cryostat as by-pass elements - so called 'cold diodes'. The diodes are exposed to some 50 kGray of radiation during a 10 year operation life-time. The high energy density of the LHC magnets (500 kJ/m) coupled with the relatively slow propagation speed of a 'natural' quench (10 to 20 m/s) can lead to excessive heating of the zone where the quench started and to high internal voltages. It is therefore necessary to detect quickly the incipient quench and fire strip heaters which spread the quench out more quickly over a large volume of the magnet. After a quench the magnet chain must be de-excited rapidly to avoid spreading the quench to other magnets and over-heating the by-pass diode. This is done by switching high-power energy-dump resistors in series with the magnets. The LHC main ring magnet will be divided into 16 electrically separated units which has important advantages.

Coull, L.; Hagedorn, D.; Remondino, V.; Rodriguez-Mateos, F.

1994-07-01

79

Magnetically separable nanocatalysts: bridges between homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis.  

PubMed

Recovery and reuse of expensive catalysts after catalytic reactions are important factors for sustainable process management. The aim of this Review is to highlight the progress in the formation and catalytic applications of magnetic nanoparticles and magnetic nanocomposites. Directed functionalization of the surfaces of nanosized magnetic materials is an elegant way to bridge the gap between heterogeneous and homogeneous catalysis. The introduction of magnetic nanoparticles in a variety of solid matrices allows the combination of well-known procedures for catalyst heterogenization with techniques for magnetic separation. PMID:20419718

Shylesh, Sankaranarayanapillai; Schünemann, Volker; Thiel, Werner R

2010-05-01

80

Performances of a waste recycling separator with permanent magnets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The polarization fixed point method coupled with Green function method is used for computation the magnetic field. Magnetic force is obtained by using Maxwell tensor. The procedure avoids the spurious forces introduced by artificial boundary or by meshing the air zone. As a performance of the separator, the difference between the detachment angle of ferromagnetic and nonferromagnetic bodies is evaluated.

Florea Hantila; Mihai Maricaru; Claudia Popescu; Costin Ifrim; Stergios Ganatsios

2007-01-01

81

Apparatus and method for continuous separation of magnetic particles from non-magnetic fluids  

DOEpatents

A magnetic separator vessel (1) for separating magnetic particles from non-magnetic fluid includes a separation chamber having an interior and exterior wall, a top and bottom portion; a magnet (3) having first and second poles (2) positioned adjacent to the exterior wall, wherein the first pole is substantially diametrically opposed to the second pole; a inlet port (5) is directed into the top portion of the separation chamber, wherein the inlet port (5) is positioned adjacent to one of the first and second poles (2), wherein the inlet port (5) is adapted to transfer a mixture into the separation chamber; an underflow port (6) in communication with the bottom portion, wherein the underflow port (6) is adapted to receive the magnetic particles; and an overflow port (9) in communication with the separation chamber, wherein the overflow port (9) is adapted to receive the non-magnetic fluid.

Oder, Robin R. (Export, PA); Jamison, Russell E. (Lower Burrell, PA)

2010-02-09

82

Separation and acceleration of magnetic monopole analogs in semiconductor microcavities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Half-integer topological defects in polariton condensates can be regarded as magnetic charges, with respect to built-in effective magnetic fields present in microcavities. We show how an integer topological defect can be separated into a pair of half-integer ones, paving the way for flows of magnetic charges: spin currents or magnetricity. We discuss the corresponding experimental implementation within microwires (with half-solitons) and planar microcavities (with half-vortices).

Flayac, H.; Solnyshkov, D. D.; Malpuech, G.

2012-08-01

83

Hydrophobic partitioning approach to efficient protein separation with magnetic nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel approach to the hydrophobic partitioning effect on efficient separation of protein such as BSA was demonstrated by the modification of hydrophobic pockets on the surface of silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles with various alkyl groups at various pH levels. The separation efficiency is strongly reflected and can be attained by controlling the size of the hydrophobic pocket and other factors

Jeong Ho Chang; Jiho Lee; Yeonhwan Jeong; Jin Hyung Lee; Ik Jin Kim; Sang Eon Park

2010-01-01

84

Using magnetic levitation to separate mixtures of crystal polymorphs.  

PubMed

Magnetic levitation (MagLev) provides a simple method for the separation of crystal polymorphs that differ in density (??) by greater than 0.001?g?cm(-3) . Density-based separations of multiple crystalline forms were shown for four organic compounds: 5-methyl-2-[(2-nitro- phenyl)amino]-3-thiophenecarbonitrile, sulfathiazole, carbamazepine, and trans- cinnamic acid. PMID:23939940

Atkinson, Manza B J; Bwambok, David K; Chen, Jie; Chopade, Prashant D; Thuo, Martin M; Mace, Charles R; Mirica, Katherine A; Kumar, Ashok A; Myerson, Allan S; Whitesides, George M

2013-08-12

85

Signal separation for nonlinear dynamical systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of signal separation for nonlinear dynamical systems, particularly chaotic systems, is considered. These systems are characterized by a stretching and folding within state space and by the presence of an attractor. Signal separation involves the separation of a received signal into two components, one of which is modeled as the output of a nonlinear dynamical system. The authors

Cory Myers; S. Kay; M. Richard

1992-01-01

86

Separation of Fullerence Molecules in an Eletric-Magnetic Isotope Separator  

Microsoft Academic Search

An electric-magnetic isotope separator was used to separate fullerence molecules C60 and C70 produced by dc contact arc vaporization then extracting method. The potential for the analysis of huge fullerence molecules and the producing of macroscopic quantity of any fullerence molecules was revealed. It also showed that the secondly ionized molecules might be produced in the sample preparing process. Bibtex

Fucheng Lin; Zhengliang Wu; Yanyan Xie; Guilin Zhang; Miao Chen; Yingji Zhang

1993-01-01

87

Plasma separation process: Magnet move to Oak Ridge National Laboratory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is the final report on the series of operations which culminated with the delivery of the Plasma Separation Process prototype magnet system (PMS) to Building K1432 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This procedure included real time monitoring of the cold mass support strut strain gauges and an in-cab rider to monitor the instrumentation and direct the driver. The primary technical consideration for these precautions was the possibility of low frequency resonant vibration of the cold mass when excited by symmetrical rough road conditions at specific speeds causing excess stress levels in the support struts and consequent strut failure. A secondary consideration was the possibility of high acceleration loads due to sudden stops, severe road conditions, of impacts. The procedure for moving and transportation to ORNL included requirements for real time continuous monitoring of the eight strut stain gauges and three external accelerometers. Because the strain gauges had not been used since the original magnet cooldown, it was planned to verify their integrity during magnet warmup. The measurements made from the strut strain gauges resulted in stress values that were physically impossible. It was concluded that further evaluation was necessary to verify the usefulness of these gauges and whether they might be faulty.

1989-07-01

88

Microfabricated magnetic sifter for high-throughput and high-gradient magnetic separation  

PubMed Central

A microfabricated magnetic sifter has been designed and fabricated for applications in biological sample preparation. The device enables high-throughput, high-gradient magnetic separation of magnetic nanoparticles by utilizing columnar fluid flow through a dense array (~5000/mm2) of micropatterned slots in a magnetically soft membrane. The potential of the sifter for separation of magnetic nanoparticles conjugated with capture antibodies is demonstrated through quantitative separation experiments with CD138-labelled MACS nanoparticles. Capture efficiencies ranging from 28–37% and elution efficiencies greater than 73% were measured for a single pass through the sifter.

Earhart, Christopher M.; Wilson, Robert J.; White, Robert L.; Pourmand, Nader; Wang, Shan X.

2009-01-01

89

Magnetic microspheres prepared by redox polymerization used in a cell separation based on gangliosides.  

PubMed

A facile method is described for making magnetic microspheres that bind specifically to cell surfaces, in order to separate cells magnetophoretically. Control over the sizes of the spheres is effected by using their magnetic cores as part of a redox polymerization system. The use of the microspheres is demonstrated with a separation involving C-1300 neuroblastoma cells, 10% of which express the ganglioside GM1 in their membranes. The GM1-containing cells were separated with better than 99% purity, while the deficient cells were obtained at least 98% pure. The separation, which was carried out under sterile conditions, required only 6 minutes. PMID:653356

Kronick, P L; Campbell, G L; Joseph, K

1978-06-01

90

Permanent magnet propulsion system  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A permanent magnet propulsion system wherein a steel ball is propelled up an inclined plane between two rows of permanent bar magnets, said magnets being in spaced relationship with all north seeking poles of one of the said rows facing in substantially the same direction and with all south seeking poles in the other row facing in substantially the same but opposite direction to the first of said rows. The magnetic axes of each of the magnets of the first said row are in staggered relationship to the axes of opposing magnets of the second said row. The magnetic field acting on the ball is configured whereby the ball after reaching the top of the inclined plane is able to drop from the said plane out of the field. A pair of parallel tracks positioned between the spaced rows of magnets guide the ball and a clamping means orient and retain the magnets.

1980-07-29

91

Application of high temperature superconductors to high-gradient magnetic separation  

Microsoft Academic Search

High Gradient Magnetic Separation (HGMS) is a powerful technique which can be used to separate widely dispersed contaminants from a host material, This technology can separate magnetic solids from other solids, liquids, or gases. As the name implies, HGMS uses large magnetic field gradients to separate ferromagnetic and paramagnetic particles. HGMS separators usually consist of a high-field solenoid magnet, the

M. A. Daugherty; F. C. Prenger; D. D. Hill; D. E. Daney; L. W. Worl; A. R. Schake; D. D. Padilla

1994-01-01

92

Magnetic separation technique for groundwater by five HTS melt-processed bulk magnets arranged in a line  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A magnetic separation study for groundwater purification has been practically conducted by using the multi-pole magnet system. The magnetic pole was composed of 10 open magnetic spaces by arranging five HTS melt-processed bulk magnets in a line in a vacuum sheath. The individual bulk magnets were activated by feeding intense pulsed magnetic fields up to 6 T. The magnetic field distribution was estimated with respect to various pole arrangements. The actual groundwater samples of Sanjo City were processed so as to form large precipitates by adding the coagulant and pH controlling. The maximum separation ratio of the iron-bearing precipitates has exceeded over 70% when slurry water was exposed to 10 magnetic poles of up to 2.5 T at a flowing rate of less than 4.8 l/min. An obvious attraction of flocks to the magnetic poles was observed even when the water contains no magnetite powder at the flow rate of 1.01 l/min. This implies the validity of the multi-pole magnet system with respect to the actual application to water purification.

Oka, T.; Seki, H.; Kimura, T.; Mimura, D.; Fukui, S.; Ogawa, J.; Sato, T.; Ooizumi, M.; Fujishiro, H.; Hayashi, H.; Yokoyama, K.; Stiehler, C.

2011-11-01

93

Magnetic microstructures of phase-separated Sm–Co 2:17-type sintered magnets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic microstructures of high-temperature Sm–Co 2:17-type sintered magnets during phase separation process have been investigated by using magnetic force microscopy. Results show that the magnetic microstructures of final Sm–Co 2:17-type magnets is an aggregation of many single domains. The evolution of domain structures was explained on the basis of variation of phase constitutions of the specimens together with crystalline microstructures

Y. K. Fang; H. W. Chang; Z. H. Guo; T. Liu; X. M. Li; W. Li; W. C. Chang; B. S. Han

2008-01-01

94

Waste remediation using in situ magnetically assisted chemical separation  

SciTech Connect

The magnetically assisted chemical separation process (MACS) combines the selective and efficient separation afforded by chemical sorption with the magnetic recovery of ferromagnetic particles. This process is being developed for treating the underground storage tanks at Hanford. These waste streams contain cesium, strontium, and transuranics (TRU) that must be removed before this waste can be disposed of as grout. The separation process uses magnetic particles coated with either (1) a selective ion exchange material or an organic extractant containing solvent (for cesium and strontium removal) or (2) solvents for selective separation of TRU elements (e.g., TRUEX process). These coatings, by their chemical nature, selectively separate the contaminants onto the particles, which can then be recovered from the tank using a magnet. Once the particles are removed, the contaminants can either be left on the loaded particles and added to the glass feed slurry or stripped into a small volume of solution so that the extracting particles can be reused. The status of chemistry and separation process is discussed in this paper.

Nunez, L.; Buchholz, B.A.; Vandegrift, G.F.

1993-11-01

95

Magnetism in Graphene Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Graphene has attracted a great interest in material science due to its novel electronic structrues. Recently, magnetism discovered in graphene based systems opens the possibility of their spintronics application. This paper provides a comprehensive review on the magnetic behaviors and electronic structures of graphene systems, including 2-dimensional graphene, 1-dimensional graphene nanoribbons, and 0-dimensional graphene nanoclusters. Theoretical research suggests that such

Erjun Kan; Zhenyu Li; Jinlong Yang

2008-01-01

96

Centrifugal separator devices, systems and related methods  

SciTech Connect

Centrifugal separator devices, systems and related methods are described. More particularly, fluid transfer connections for a centrifugal separator system having support assemblies with a movable member coupled to a connection tube and coupled to a fixed member, such that the movable member is constrained to movement along a fixed path relative to the fixed member are described. Also, centrifugal separator systems including such fluid transfer connections are described. Additionally, methods of installing, removing and/or replacing centrifugal separators from centrifugal separator systems are described.

Meikrantz, David H. (Idaho Falls, ID); Law, Jack D. (Pocatello, ID); Garn, Troy G. (Idaho Falls, ID); Todd, Terry A. (Aberdeen, ID); Macaluso, Lawrence L. (Carson City, NV)

2012-03-20

97

Study on industrial wastewater treatment using superconducting magnetic separation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanism of industrial wastewater treatment using superconducting magnetic separation is investigated. Fe3O4 nanoparticles were prepared by liquid precipitation and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Polyacrylic acid (PAA) film was coated on the magnetic particles using plasma coating technique. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) observation and infrared spectrum measurement indicate that the particle surface is well coated with PAA, and the

Hao Zhang; Zhengquan Zhao; Xiangdong Xu; Laifeng Li

2011-01-01

98

Silica coated magnetic nanoparticles for separation of nuclear acidic waste  

SciTech Connect

Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have been coated with silica, followed by covalent attachment of the actinide specific chelators to separate nuclear waste in acidic conditions. A general model is developed to relate the surface coating to the particle's magnetization change, providing an alternative way to characterize the size-distribution/aggregation of MNPs. The optimized silica coating protects the Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} MNPs from iron leaching under highly acidic conditions, facilitates the dispersion of MNPs, and dramatically increases the loading capacity of chelator onto the MNPs. Compared with the uncoated counterparts, the silica coated MNPs show enhanced actinide separation efficiency.

Han, H.; Kaur, M.; Qiang, Y. [Department of Physics and Environmental Science, University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho 83844 (United States); Johnson, A.; Paszczynski, A. [Environmental Biotechnology Institute, Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho 83844 (United States); Department of Microbiology, Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho 83844 (United States); Kaczor, J. [Environmental Biotechnology Institute, Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho 83844 (United States)

2010-05-15

99

Quality testing of an innovative cascade separation system for multiple cell separation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Isolation of different cell types from mixed samples in one separation step by FACS is feasible but expensive and slow. It is cheaper and faster but still challenging by magnetic separation. An innovative bead-based cascade-system (pluriSelect GmbH, Leipzig, Germany) relies on simultaneous physical separation of different cell types. It is based on antibody-mediated binding of cells to beads of different size and isolation with sieves of different mesh-size. We validated pluriSelect system for single parameter (CD3) and simultaneous separation of CD3 and CD15 cells from EDTA blood-samples. Results were compared with those obtained by MACS (Miltenyi-Biotech) magnetic separation (CD3 separation). pluriSelect separation was done in whole blood, MACS on Ficoll gradient isolated leukocytes, according to the manufacturer's protocols. Isolated and residual cells were immunophenotyped (7-color 8-antibody panel (CD3; CD16/56; CD4; CD8; CD14; CD19; CD45; HLADR) on a CyFlowML flow cytometer (Partec GmbH). Cell count (Coulter), purity, yield and viability (7-AAD exclusion) were determined. There were no significant differences between both systems regarding purity (92-98%), yield (50-60%) and viability (92-98%) of isolated cells. PluriSelect separation was slightly faster than MACS (1.15 h versus 1.5h). Moreover, no preenrichment steps were necessary. In conclusion, pluriSelect is a fast, simple and gentle system for efficient simultaneous separation of two cell subpopulation directly from whole blood and can provide a simple alternative to FACS. The isolated cells can be used for further research applications.

Pierzchalski, Arkadiusz; Moszczynska, Aleksandra; Albrecht, Bernd; Heinrich, Jan-Michael; Tarnok, Attila

2012-02-01

100

Weak Separability in Coffee Demand Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Linear versions of the Almost Ideal Demand System are estimated for US and German coffee imports with the intent of testing for homothetic and non-homothetic weak separability and calculating elasticities. Three different separable groupings are tested and separability restrictions are rejected. Elasticities indicate both elastic and inelastic demand for coffee by country of origin, and also that roasters consider such

Daniel Sellen; Ellen Goddard

1997-01-01

101

TREATMENT OF COMBINED SEWER OVERFLOWS BY HIGH GRADIENT MAGNETIC SEPARATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Seeded water treatment by high gradient magnetic separation techniques was carried out on combined storm overflows and raw sewage influents. Both bench-type and continuous pilot plant tests were performed to evaluate the effectiveness of the process in purifying waste waters. Cri...

102

Magnetic separation as a plutonium residue enrichment process  

SciTech Connect

We have subjected several plutonium contaminated residues to Open Gradient Magnetic Separation (OGMS) on an experimental scale. Separation of graphite, bomb reduction sand, and bomb reduction sand, and bomb reduction sand, slag, and crucible, resulted in a plutonium rich fraction and a plutonium lean fraction. The lean fraction varied between about 20% to 85% of the feed bulk. The plutonium content of the lean fraction can be reduced from about 2% in the feed to the 0.1% to 0.5% range dependent on the portion of the feed rejected to this lean fraction. These values are low enough in plutonium to meet economic discard limits and be considered for direct discard. Magnetic separation of direct oxide reduction and electrorefining pyrochemical salts gave less favorable results. While a fraction very rich in plutonium could be obtained, the plutonium content of the lean fraction was to high for direct discard. This may still have chemical processing applications. OGMS experiments at low magnetic field strength on incinerator ash did give two fractions but the plutonium content of each fraction was essentially identical. Thus, no chemical processing advantage was identified for magnetic separation of this residue. The detailed results of these experiments and the implications for OGMS use in recycle plutonium processing are discussed. 4 refs., 3 figs., 9 tabs.

Avens, L.R.; McFarlan, J.T.; Gallegos, U.F.

1989-01-01

103

Magnetic Separations with Magnetite: Theory, Operation, and Limitations  

SciTech Connect

This dissertation documents the theory development and experimental plan followed to describe how a magnetite-based column under the influence of an external magnetic field functions as a magnetic separator. Theoretical simulations predict that weekly paramagnetic particles in the sub-micron range can be magnetically separated while diamagnetic particles as large as 2 microns in diameter may pass. Magnetite-based columns were evaluated as magnetically-controllable enhanced filtration devices. There was no evidence of enhanced filtration for diamagnetic particles by the magnetite-based bed. Magnetite-based magnetic separators have proven to be effective in specific laboratory experiments, indicating a potential feasibility for scale-up operations. Column media-filter type filtration effects indicate a magnetite-based column would not be suitable for treatment of a waste stream with a high diamagnetic solids content or high volume throughput requirements. Specific applications requiring removal of sub-micron para- or ferromagnetic particles under batch or Stokes flow conditions would be most applicable.

G. B. Cotten

2000-08-01

104

Measurement of the adhesion force between particles for high gradient magnetic separation of pneumatic conveyed powder products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the industrial plants such as foods, medicines or industrial materials, there are big amount of issues on contamination by metallic wear debris originated from pipes of manufacturing lines. In this study, we developed a high gradient magnetic separation system (HGMS) under the dry process by using superconducting magnet to remove the ferromagnetic particles. One of the major problems of dry HGMS systems is, however, the blockage of magnetic filter caused by particle coagulation or deposition. In order to actualize the magnetic separation without blockage, we introduced pneumatic conveyance system as a new method to feed the powder. It is important to increase the drag force acting on the sufficiently dispersed particles, which require strong magnetic fields. To generate the strong magnetic fields, HGMS technique was examined which consists of a magnetic filter and a superconducting solenoid magnet.As a result of the magnetic separation experiment, it was shown that the separation efficiency changes due to the difference of the cohesive property of the particles. On the basis of the result, the adhesion force which acts between the ferromagnetic particles and the medium particles used for the magnetic separation was measured by Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), and cohesion of particles was studied from the aspect of interparticle interaction. We assessed a suitable flow velocity for magnetic separation according to the cohesive property of each particle based on the result.

Senkawa, K.; Nakai, Y.; Mishima, F.; Akiyama, Y.; Nishijima, S.

2011-11-01

105

Modular tokamak magnetic system  

DOEpatents

A modular tokamak system comprised of a plurality of interlocking modules. Each module is comprised of a vacuum vessel section, a toroidal field coil, modular saddle coils which generate a poloidal magnetic field and ohmic heating coils.

Yang, Tien-Fang

1986-11-20

106

Space Shuttle solid rocket booster separation system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Separation of the Shuttle's solid rocket boosters (SRB) is accomplished by a method somewhat similar to that used for the Titan III. However, due primarily to the presence of the orbiter, the design of the SRB separation system has had to satisfy unique requirements. The supersonic staging of parallel boosters to clear a thrusting, winged, and manned vehicle is a new development complicated by asymmetrical SRB thrust and complex aerodynamics. The SRB separation system, the separation sequence, and flight control method are described. The approach taken to verify the separation system for flight is presented, and its performance on STS-1 and STS-2, the first times that the integrated separation system was tested under true flight conditions, is summarized.

Elchert, K. C.

107

Superconducting open-gradient magnetic separation for the pretreatment of radioactive or mixed waste vitrification feeds. 1998 annual progress report  

SciTech Connect

'The objective is to reduce the volume and cost of high-level waste glass produced during US DOE remediation activities by demonstrating that magnetic separation can separate crystalline, amorphous, and colloidal constituents in vitrification feed streams known to be deleterious to the production of borosilicate glass. Magnetic separation will add neither chemicals nor generate secondary waste streams. The project includes the systematic study of magnetic interactions of waste constituents under controlled physical and chemical conditions (e.g., hydration, oxidation, temperature) to identify mechanisms that control the magnetic properties. Partitioning of radionuclides to determine their sorption mechanisms is also being studied. The identification of fundamental magnetic properties within the microscopic chemical environment in combination with hydrodynamic and electrodynamic models provides insights into the design of a system for optimal separation. Following this, experimental studies using superconducting open-gradient magnetic separation (OGMS) will be conducted to validate its effectiveness as a pretreatment technique.'

Doctor, R.D.; Nunez, L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (US); Crawford, C. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (US); Ritter, J. [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (US); Landsberger, S. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (US)

1998-06-01

108

Endotoxin removal by magnetic separation-based blood purification.  

PubMed

This work describes a magnetic separation-based approach using polymyxin B-functionalized metal alloy nanomagnets for the rapid elimination of endotoxins from human blood in vitro and functional assays to evaluate the biological relevance of the blood purification process. Playing a central role in gram-negative sepsis, bacteria-derived endotoxins are attractive therapeutic targets. However, both direct endotoxin detection in and removal from protein-rich fluids remains challenging. We present the synthesis and functionalization of ultra-magnetic cobalt/iron alloy nanoparticles and a magnetic separation-based approach using polymyxin B-functionalized nanomagnets to remove endotoxin from human blood in vitro. Conventional chromogenic Limulus Amebocyte Lysate assays confirm decreased endotoxin activity in purified compared to untreated samples. Functional assays assessing key steps in host defense against bacteria show an attenuated inflammatory mediator expression from human primary endothelial cells in response to purified blood samples compared to untreated blood and less chemotactic activity. Exposing Escherichia coli-positive blood samples to polymyxin B-functionalized nanomagnets even impairs the ability of gram-negative bacteria to form colony forming units, thus making magnetic separation based blood purification a promising new approach for future sepsis treatment. PMID:23225582

Herrmann, Inge K; Urner, Martin; Graf, Samuel; Schumacher, Christoph M; Roth-Z'graggen, Birgit; Hasler, Melanie; Stark, Wendelin J; Beck-Schimmer, Beatrice

2012-12-06

109

Separation of impurity in molten metals by using superconducting magnet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The separation method by using electromagnetic force is receiving particular attention as elimination method of impurities in molten metal. In this study, low-melting metal is used as model metal and the relation between electromagnetic force and motion of the particle in molten metal was discussed by calculation and experiment. As the result of calculation, the relation between electromagnetic force and separation efficiency can be obtained. The electromagnetic separation was experimented in the condition that was estimated from the results of calculation (average flow velocity: 0.4 m/s, magnetic flux density: 10 T, electric current density: 3.3E+4 A/m2). It succeeded that insulating lead balls in low-melting metal were separated by electromagnetic force.

Terada, T.; Akiyama, Y.; Izumi, Y.; Nishijima, S.

2009-10-01

110

Oil-field wastewater purification by magnetic separation technique using a novel magnetic nanoparticle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present work, oil-field wastewater purification through superconducting magnetic separation technique using a novel magnetic nanoparticle was investigated. The magnetic nanoparticle, which has a multi-shell structure with ferroferric oxide as core, dense nonporous silica as inter layer and mesoporous silica as outer layer, was synthesized by co-precipitation method. To functionalize the magnetic nanoparticle, plasma polymerization technique was adopted and poly methyl acrylate (PMA) was formed on the surface of the nanoparticle. The multi-shell structure of the nanoparticle was confirmed by transmission electron microscope (TEM) and the characteristic is measurable by FTIR. It is found that most of the pollutants (85% by turbidity or 84% by COD value) in the oil-field wastewater are removed through the superconducting magnetic separation technique using this novel magnetic nanoparticle.

Liu, Zhuonan; Yang, Huihui; Zhang, Hao; Huang, Chuanjun; Li, Laifeng

2012-12-01

111

Magnetic Separation for Nuclear Material Detection and Surveillance  

SciTech Connect

A high performance superconducting magnet is being developed for particle retrieval from field collected samples. Results show that maximum separation effectiveness is obtained when the matrix fiber diameter approaches the diameter of the particles to be captured. Experimentally, the authors obtained a single particle capture limit with 0.8{micro}m PuO{sub 2} particles with dodecane as a carrier fluid. The development of new matrix materials is being pursued through the controlled corrosion of stainless steel wool, or the deposition of nickel dendrites on the existing stainless steel matrix material. They have also derived a model from a continuity equation that uses empirically determined capture cross section values. This enables the prediction of high gradient magnetic separator performance for a variety of materials and applications. The model can be used to optimize the capture cross section and thus increase the capture efficiency.

Worl, L.A.; Devlin, D.; Hill, D.; Padilla, D.; Prenger, F.C.

1998-08-01

112

Are There Separate Neural Systems for Spelling? New Insights into the Role of Rules and Memory in Spelling from Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging  

PubMed Central

How do people spell the thousands of words at the tips of their tongues? Are words with regular sound-to-letter correspondences (e.g., “blink”) spelled using the same neural systems as those with irregular correspondences (e.g., “yacht”)? By offering novel neuroimaging evidence, we aim to advance contemporary debate about whether people use a single lexical memory process or whether dual mechanisms of lexical memory and sublexical phonological rules work in concert. We further aim to advance understanding of how people read by taking a fresh look at the related yet distinct capacity to spell. During functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning, 12 participants heard low-frequency regular words, irregular words, and nonwords (e.g., “shelm”) and responded whether a visual presentation of the word was spelled correctly or incorrectly. While behavioral measures suggested some differences in accuracy and reaction time for the different word types, the neuroimaging results alone demonstrated robust differential processing and support a dual-route model of spelling, with implications for how spelling is taught and remediated in clinical and educational contexts.

Norton, Elizabeth S.; Kovelman, Ioulia; Petitto, Laura-Ann

2009-01-01

113

Radiolysis and hydrolysis of magnetically assisted chemical separation particles  

SciTech Connect

The magnetically assisted chemical separation (MACS) process is designed to separate transuranic (TRU) elements out of high-level waste (HLW) or TRU waste. Magnetic microparticles (1--25 {mu}m) were coated with octyl (phenyl)N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) dissolved in tributyl phosphate (TBP) and tested for removing TRU elements from acidic nitrate solutions. The particles were contacted with nitric acid solutions and Hanford plutonium finishing plant (PFP) simulant, irradiated with a high intensity {sup 60}Co {gamma}-ray source, and evaluated for effectiveness in removing TRU elements from 2m HNO{sub 3} solutions. The resistance of the coatings and magnetic cores to radiolytic damage and hydrolytic degradation was investigated by irradiating samples of particles suspended in a variety of solutions with doses of up to 5 Mrad. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), magnetic susceptibility measurements, and physical observations of the particles and suspension solutions were used to assess physical changes to the particles. Processes that affect the surface of the particles dramatically alter the binding sites for TRU in solution. Hydrolysis played a larger role than radiolysis in the degradation of the extraction capacity of the particles.

Buchholz, B.A.; Nunez, L.; Vandegrift, G.F.

1995-05-01

114

Separability criteria for continuous-variable systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A general separability condition on the second moment (covariance matrix) for continuous-variable two-party systems is derived by an analysis analogous to the derivation of Kennard’s uncertainty relation without referring to the non-negativity of the partially transposed density matrix. This separability criterion is generally more stringent than that used by Simon which is based on the non-negativity of partially transposed density matrix, and thus this criterion may be useful in the analysis of general continuous two-party systems. Another separability criterion used by Duan is shown to be generally weaker than that of Simon. We thus have a hierarchy of separability criterions, but all these criterions when combined with suitable squeezing become equivalent at the boundary of the P -representation condition and thus turned out to be sufficient to analyze the separability of two-party Gaussian systems.

Fujikawa, Kazuo

2009-07-01

115

Desulfurization and deashing of solvent refined coal (SRC-I) by high gradient magnetic separation techniques  

SciTech Connect

A pilot-scale high gradient magnetic separations (HGMS) system was assembled to investigate the magnetic separation of ash-forming solids and inorganic sulfur from liquefied coal. The liquefied coal studied was a diluted intermediate product obtained from the DOE-sponsored Tacoma SRC-I pilot plant (50 ton/d coal capacity). The magnetic characteristics and particle size distribution of the Tacoma SRC-I liquefied coal were optimized for removal by HGMS. The effect of the following magnetic separator parameters upon deashing the desulfurization of the diluted liquefied coal was considered: matrix packing density, temperature, applied magnetic field, dilution of and residence time of liquefied coal feed, backflushing of saturated separator parameters upon the deashing and desulfurization of the diluted liquefied model which satisfactorily accounts for HGMS performance was developed. The HGMS system was observed to remove over 90% of the ash-forming materials and inorganic sulfur over a wide range of operating conditions. These removals were increased to 97 and 95%, respectively, with residence times greater than 6 min.

Petrakis, L.; Ahner, P.F.; Kiviat, F.E.

1981-01-01

116

Magnetic Field Measurement System  

SciTech Connect

A magnetic field measurement system was designed, built and installed at MAX Lab, Sweden for the purpose of characterizing the magnetic field produced by Insertion Devices (see Figure 1). The measurement system consists of a large granite beam roughly 2 feet square and 14 feet long that has been polished beyond laboratory grade for flatness and straightness. The granite precision coupled with the design of the carriage yielded minimum position deviations as measured at the probe tip. The Hall probe data collection and compensation technique allows exceptional resolution and range while taking data on the fly to programmable sample spacing. Additional flip coil provides field integral data.

Kulesza, Joe; Johnson, Eric; Lyndaker, Aaron; Deyhim, Alex; Waterman, Dave; Blomqvist, K. Ingvar [Advanced Design Consulting USA, 126 Ridge Road, P.O. Box 187, Lansing, NY 14882 (United States); Dunn, Jonathan Hunter [MAX-lab, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden)

2007-01-19

117

Tara 24 Mva Magnet System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Power transmission, conversion, control, and regulation aspects of the Tara tandem mirror 24 mva magnet system are discussed in detail. The magnet coil set, magnetic field configuration and support vacuum chamber are described. It is shown that a complete...

M. P. J. Gaudreau M. S. Shuster V. J. Berkman P. Thomas

1986-01-01

118

Design and synthesis of reactive separation systems  

SciTech Connect

Separation with chemical reaction is an area of growing importance. Combined reactor-separator systems offer certain advantages which cannot be matched by conventional processing, e.g., the suppression of unwanted by-products, and freedom from some of the restrictions imposed by equilibrium reactions. Chemical reactions can have a startling effect on the behavior of multicomponent separation systems. Under certain conditions, chemical reactions can induce the formation of azeotropes in ideal mixtures (thus hindering the separation), while in nonideal mixtures, chemical reactions can make azeotropes disappear (thus enhancing the separation). A general framework has been developed for anticipating these various possibilities, which makes it possible to determine, in advance, whether a chemical reaction if beneficial or not. Design and synthesis techniques for multicomponent reactive distillations are currently being developed. 2 refs., 8 figs.

Doherty, M.F.

1990-03-01

119

A NOVEL CO2 SEPARATION SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

Because of concern over global climate change, new systems are needed that produce electricity from fossil fuels and emit less CO{sub 2}. The fundamental problem with current CO{sub 2} separation systems is the need to separate dilute CO{sub 2} and pressurize it for storage or sequestration. This is an energy intensive process that can reduce plant efficiency by 9-37% and double the cost of electricity.

Robert J. Copeland; Gokhan Alptekin; Mike Cesario; Steven Gebhard; Yevgenia Gershanovich

1999-01-01

120

Apparatus for magnetic separation of paramagnetic and diamagnetic material  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to methods and apparatus for segregating paramagnetic from diamagnetic particles in particulate material and, in particular, to the open gradient magnetic separation of ash producing components and pyritic sulfur from coal. The apparatus includes a vertical cylinder and a rotatable vertical screw positioned within the cylinder, the screw having a helical blade angled downwardly and outwardly from the axis. Rotation of the vertical screw causes denser particles, which in the case of coal include pyritic sulfur and ash, which are paramagnetic, to migrate to the outside of the screw, and less dense particles, such as the low sulfur organic portion of the coal, which are diamagnetic, to migrate towards the center of the screw. A vibration mechanism attached to the screw causes the screw to vibrate during rotation, agitating and thereby accommodating further segregation of the particles. An open gradient magnetic field is applied circumferentially along the entire length of the screw by a superconducting quadrupole magnet. The open gradient magnetic field further segregates the paramagnetic particles from the diamagnetic particles. The paramagnetic particles may then be directed from the cylinder into a first storage bin, and the diamagnetic particles, which are suitable for relatively clean combustion, may be directed into a second storage bin. 5 figs.

Doctor, R.D.

1988-10-18

121

Magnetic materials as sorbents for metal/metalloid preconcentration and/or separation. A review.  

PubMed

The use of magnetic materials in solid phase extraction has received considerable attention in recent years taking into account many advantages arising from the inherent characteristics of magnetic particles. Magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) methodology overcomes problems such as column packing and phase separation, which can be easily performed by applying an external magnetic field. The use of magnetic particles in automatic systems is growing over the last few years making the on-line operation of MSPE a promising technique in the frame of green chemistry. This article aims to provide all recent progress in the research of novel magnetic materials as sorbents for metal preconcentration and determination coupled with different detection systems as well as their implementation in sequential injection and microfluidic systems. In addition, a description of preparation, characterization as well as applications of various types of magnetic materials, either with organic or inorganic coating of the magnetic core, is presented. Concluding remarks and future trends are also commented. PMID:23856225

Giakisikli, Georgia; Anthemidis, Aristidis N

2013-04-29

122

Detection of carcinoembryonic antigen using functional magnetic and fluorescent nanoparticles in magnetic separators  

Microsoft Academic Search

We combined a sandwich immunoassay, anti-CEA\\/CEA\\/anti-CEA, with functional magnetic (~80 nm) and fluorescent (~180 nm) nanoparticles\\u000a in magnetic separators to demonstrate a detection method for carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). Determination of CEA in serum\\u000a can be used in clinical diagnosis and monitoring of tumor-related diseases. The CEA concentrations in samples were deduced\\u000a and determined based on the reference plot using the measured fluorescent

H. Y. Tsai; C. Y. Chang; Y. C. Li; W. C. Chu; K. Viswanathan; C. Bor Fuh

2011-01-01

123

Isotope separation system experiments at the TSTA  

SciTech Connect

The recent results of the Isotope Separation System (ISS) operations at the Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) with 100 g of tritium indicate that the system generally satisfies design goals, while system stability problems remain to be solved. In this paper, the authors configure the ISS system for the three column mode. which is one of the promising cascade configurations in a fusion fuel cycle, to eliminate such instability and operated it for six days. Fluctuations in flows and liquid levels were improved. Column separation characteristics obtained were satisfactory and agreed with the numerical analysis. The amount of discharged tritium was an acceptable effluent level. This means that the existing ISS system can be used as a three column system and possibly be applied to numerous fuel concepts. Presently, a new laser Raman spectroscopic gas analyzer has been installed at the ISS. This on-line system enables studies of the ISS dynamic behavior for further stability and performance data.

Inoue, M.; Konishi, S.; Yamanishi, T.; Ohira, S.; Watanabe, T.; Okuno, K.; Naruse, Y. (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tritium Engineering Lab.); Sherman, R.H.; Barnes, J.W.; Bartlit, J.R.; Anderson, J.L. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Materials Science and Technology Div.)

1992-03-01

124

Isotope separation system experiments at the TSTA  

SciTech Connect

The recent results of the Isotope Separation System (ISS) operations at the Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) with 100 g of tritium indicate that the system generally satisfies design goals, while system stability problems remain to be solved. We configured the ISS system for the three column mode to eliminate such instability and operated it for six days. Fluctuations in flows and liquid levels were improved. Column separation characteristics obtained were satisfactory and agreed with the numerical analysis. The amount of discharged tritium was an acceptable effluent level. This means that the existing ISS system can be used as a three column system and possibly be applied to numerous fuel concepts. Presently, a new laser Raman spectroscopic gas analyzer has been installed at the ISS. This on-line system enables studies of the ISS dynamic behavior for further stability and performance data. 12 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

Inoue, M.; Konishi, S.; Yamanishi, T.; Ohira, S.; Watanabe, T.; Okuno, K.; Naruse, Y. (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan)); Sherman, R.H.; Barnes, J.W.; Bartlit, J.R.; Anderson, J.L. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States))

1991-01-01

125

On-chip Magnetic Separation and Cell Encapsulation in Droplets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The demand for high-throughput single cell assays is gaining importance because of the heterogeneity of many cell suspensions, even after significant initial sorting. These suspensions may display cell-to-cell variability at the gene expression level that could impact single cell functional genomics, cancer, stem-cell research and drug screening. The on-chip monitoring of individual cells in an isolated environment could prevent cross-contamination, provide high recovery yield and ability to study biological traits at a single cell level These advantages of on-chip biological experiments contrast to conventional methods, which require bulk samples that provide only averaged information on cell metabolism. We report on a device that integrates microfluidic technology with a magnetic tweezers array to combine the functionality of separation and encapsulation of objects such as immunomagnetically labeled cells or magnetic beads into pico-liter droplets on the same chip. The ability to control the separation throughput that is independent of the hydrodynamic droplet generation rate allows the encapsulation efficiency to be optimized. The device can potentially be integrated with on-chip labeling and/or bio-detection to become a powerful single-cell analysis device.

Chen, A.; Byvank, T.; Bharde, A.; Miller, B. L.; Chalmers, J. J.; Sooryakumar, R.; Chang, W.-J.; Bashir, R.

2012-02-01

126

Magnetic and fluorescence-encoded polystyrene microparticles for cell separation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Materials assisting with the efforts of cell isolation are attractive for numerous biomedical applications including tissue engineering and cell therapy. Here, we have developed surface modification methods on microparticles for the purposes of advanced cell separation. Iron oxide nanoparticles were incorporated into 200 ?m polystyrene microparticles for separation of particle-bound cells from non-bound cells in suspension by means of a permanent magnet. The polystyrene microparticles were further encoded with fluorescent quantum dots (QD) as identification tags to distinguish between specific microparticles in a mixture. Cluster of differentiation (CD) antibodies were displayed on the surface of the microparticles through direct adsorption and various methods of covalent attachment. In addition, a protein A coating was used to orientate the antibodies on the microparticle surface and to maximise accessibility of the antigen-binding sites. Microparticles which carried CD antibodies via covalent attachment showed greater cell attachment over those modifications that were only adsorbed to the surface through weak electrostatic interactions. Greatest extent of cell attachment was observed on microparticles modified with protein A - CD antibody conjugates. B and T lymphocytes were successfully isolated from a mixed population using two types of microparticles displaying B and T cell specific CD antibodies, respectively. Our approach will find application in preparative cell separation from tissue isolates and for microcarrier-based cell expansion.

Bradbury, Diana; Anglin, Emily J.; Bailey, Sheree; Macardle, Peter J.; Fenech, Michael; Thissen, Helmut; Voelcker, Nicolas H.

2008-12-01

127

Synthesis of azeotropic batch distillation separation systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sequencing of batch distillation systems, in particular batch distillation columns, can be complicated by the existence of azeotropes in the mixture. These azeotropes can form batch distillation regions where, depending on the initial feed to the batch column, the types of feasible products and separations are limited. It is very important that these distillation regions are known while attempting

Boyd T. Safrit; Arthur W. Westerberg

1997-01-01

128

Incinerator and fume separator system and apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present invention provides an incinerator and fume separator device and a method for burning such materials as refuse, tire chips and sewage sludge or combinations thereof as well as other combustible materials to generate steam to supply steam heat and\\/or electricity to towns, villages or individual establishments. One of the key features of the system is the use of

L. Sosnowski; T. Mathewson

1984-01-01

129

Microchip electrophoresis coupled with on-line magnetic separation and chemiluminescence detection for multiplexed immunoassay.  

PubMed

A facile and universal strategy for multiplexed immunoassay is proposed. The strategy is based on microchip electrophoresis (MCE) coupled with on-line magnetic separation and chemiluminescence (CL) detection. The system consisted of a microchip, an electromagnet, and a photomultiplier. The realization of multiplexed immunoassay protocol involves sampling magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) labeled antibodies, N-(4-aminobutyl)-N-ethyl-isoluminol (ABEI) labeled antigens and free antigens in the precolumn reactor, on-line immunoreaction, capturing the MNPs-immunocomplexes, and the separation of unconjugated ABEI-labeled antigens. After on-line magnetic separation, the free ABEI-labeled antigens were transported into the separation channel, and mixed with hydrogen peroxide (H(2) O(2) ) in the presence of horseradish peroxidase in the postcolumn reactor, and producing CL emission. Using this arrangement, multiple analytes could be measured simultaneously by performing the technical operations for a single assay. As a proof-of-concept, the multiplexed immunoassay was evaluated for the simultaneous determination of five model analytes (i.e. hydrocortisone, corticosterone, digoxin, testosterone, and estriol). The results exhibited excellent precision and sensitivity, the relative standard deviations for nine times detection were lower than 4.7% for all the five components, and the detection limits of five analytes were in the range of 3.6-4.9 nM. The MCE system was validated using two human serum-based control samples containing five analytes. PMID:22539323

Huang, Yong; Zhao, Shulin; Shi, Ming; Liu, Jinwen; Liang, Hong

2012-04-01

130

Development of a high gradient magnetic separator using high temperature superconductors  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). High-gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) is an application of superconducting magnet technology to the process of magnetic separation of solids from other solids, liquids, or gases. The production of both high magnetic fields and large field gradients using superconducting magnet technology has made it possible to separate a previously unreachable but large family of paramagnetic materials. It is possible to separate more than half of the elements in the periodic table using this method. Because HGMS is a physical separation process, no additional or mixed waste is generated. This project sought to develop a high-gradient magnetic separator using a high-temperature superconducting magnet.

Prenger, F.C.; Daney, D.; Daugherty, M.; Hill, D.

1996-09-01

131

Separation of true fat and water images by correcting magnetic field inhomogeneity in situ.  

PubMed

Dixon's method of chemical shift imaging of a two-component system is modified and extended without requiring additional imaging time. The modified method allows one to obtain truly segregated fat and water images of animal tissues. This is accomplished by acquiring additional image data from which information about in situ magnetic field inhomogeneity and bulk magnetic susceptibility can be derived. Applications to various anatomic sections of the normal human body are illustrated. The method is compared with the standard Dixon technique of chemical shift image separation. PMID:3704157

Yeung, H N; Kormos, D W

1986-06-01

132

Are There Separate Neural Systems for Spelling? New Insights into the Role of Rules and Memory in Spelling from Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|How do people spell the thousands of words at the tips of their tongues? Are words with "regular" sound-to-letter correspondences (e.g., "blink") spelled using the same neural systems as those with "irregular" correspondences (e.g., "yacht")? By offering novel neuroimaging evidence, we aim to advance contemporary debate about whether people use a…

Norton, Elizabeth S.; Kovelman, Ioulia; Petitto, Laura-Ann

2007-01-01

133

Unconventional magnetism in imbalanced Fermi systems with magnetic dipolar interactions  

SciTech Connect

We study the magnetic structure of the ground state of an itinerant Fermi system of spin-1/2 particles with magnetic dipole-dipole interactions. We show that, quite generally, the spin state of particles depend on its momentum, i.e., spin and orbital degrees of freedom are entangled and taken separately are not 'good' quantum numbers. Specifically, we consider a uniform system with nonzero magnetization at zero temperature. Assuming the magnetization is along z axis, the quantum spin states are k-dependent linear combinations of eigenstates of the sigma{sub z} Pauli matrix. This leads to spin structures in momentum space and to the fact that the Fermi surfaces for 'up' and 'down' spins are not well defined. The system still has a cylindrical axis of symmetry along the magnetization axis. We also show that the self-energy has a universal structure which we determine based on the symmetries of the dipolar interaction and we explicitly calculated it in the Hartree-Fock approximation. We show that the bare magnetic moment of particles is renormalized due to particle-particle interactions and we give order of magnitude estimates of this renormalization effect. We estimate that the above mentioned dipolar effects are small but we discuss possible scenarios where this physics may be realized in future experiments.

Fregoso, Benjamin M.; Fradkin, Eduardo [Department of Physics, University of Illinois, 1110 West Green Street, Urbana, Illinois 61801-3080 (United States)

2010-06-01

134

ALS superbend magnet system  

SciTech Connect

The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is preparing to upgrade the Advanced Light Source (ALS) with three superconducting dipoles (Superbends). In this paper we present the final magnet system design which incorporates R&D test results and addresses the ALS operational concerns of alignment, availability, and economy. The design incorporates conduction-cooled Nb-Ti windings and HTS current leads, epoxy-glass suspension straps, and a Gifford-McMahon cryocooler to supply steady state refrigeration. We also present the current status of fabrication and testing.

Zbasnik, J.; Wang, S.T.; Chen, J.Y.; DeVries, G.J.; DeMarco, R.; Fahmie, M.; Geyer, A.; Green, M.A.; Harkins, J.; Henderson, T.; Hinkson, J.; Hoyer, E.H.; Krupnick, J.; Marks, S.; Ottens, F.; Paterson, J.A.; Pipersky, P.; Portmann, G.; Robin, D.A.; Schlueter, R.D.; Steier, C.; Taylor, C.E.; Wahrer, R.

2000-09-15

135

Simulation and experimental study on magnetic separation of Au loaded biomass from wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetotactic bacterium has the characteristics of both magnetotaxis and adsorbing the precious metal ions, which makes it possible to recycle the precious metal from wastewater in the combination of high gradient magnetic separation. Nickel wires were used as media which producing gradient magnetic field to separate the magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) which had adsorbed Au(III) with high gradient magnetic field from

Song Huiping; Cheng Huaigang; Li Xingang; Cheng Fangqin

2012-01-01

136

Nanostructured magnetism in living systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biological systems provide a number of examples of magnetic small particles in the nanometre size range. These can be used as model systems for investigations of magnetic behaviour or they can provide a source of novel magnetic materials. Both of these aspects will be considered in this paper, with particular reference to the use of Mössbauer spectroscopy as a technique for both characterisation and magnetic investigation.

Dickson, Dominic P. E.

1999-08-01

137

Superconducting bulk magnets for magnetic levitation systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The major applications of high-temperature superconductors have mostly been confined to products in the form of wires and thin films. However, recent developments show that rare-earth REBa2Cu3O7-x and light rare-earth LREBa2Cu3O7-x superconductors prepared by melt processes have a high critical-current density at 77 K and high magnetic fields. These superconductors will promote the application of bulk high-temperature superconductors in high magnetic fields; the superconducting bulk magnet for the Maglev train is one possible application. We investigated the possibility of using bulk magnets in the Maglev system, and examined flux-trapping characteristics of multi-superconducting bulks arranged in array.

Fujimoto, H.; Kamijo, H.

2000-06-01

138

High-gradient magnetic separation in blood and bone marrow processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) has been succesful in capturing red blood cells from whole blood. This is due to the paramagnetic property of the haemoglobin contained in red blood cells when it is in the deoxygenated state. The captured red blood cells and the processed white blood cells and platelets appear to be functionally undamaged by separation. The capture depends on field gradient, flow rate, dilution of the blood, size of filter and a number of other factors. Malarial parasite-containing red cells have been captured using this technique and elsewhere lymphocyte/red cell rosettes have been retained in the filter of a system using a field gradient produced by a superconducting magnet. The ex vivo processing of human bone marrow is currently under study. Removal of targetted cells from bone marrow, such as tumour cells or T-lymphocytes prior to reinfusion is currently practiced. Positive cell rescue, however, is not practicable as the present techniques mostly damage the targetted cells. We are applying high-gradient magnetic separation, using an antibody complex linked to the surface of red blood cells, which should recognise target cells within bone marrow. The whole complex is then liable to retention in a sufficiently high-gradient magnetic field and the target cell made available by red-blood-cell lysis.

Roath, S.; Smith, A. Richards; Watson, J. H. P.

1990-04-01

139

Three-dimensional modeling of a portable medical device for magnetic separation of particles from biological fluids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A portable separator has been developed to quantitatively separate blood-borne magnetic spheres in potentially high-flow regimes for the human detoxification purpose. In the separator design, an array of biocompatible capillary tubing and magnetizable wires is immersed in an external magnetic field that is generated by two permanent magnets. The wires are magnetized and the high magnetic field gradient from the magnetized wires helps to collect blood-borne magnetic nano/micro-spheres from the blood flow. In this study, a 3D numerical model was created and the effect of tubing-wire configurations on the capture efficiency of the system was analyzed using COMSOL Multiphysics 3.3®. The results showed that the configuration characterized by bi-directionally alternating wires and tubes was the best design with respect to the four starting configurations. Preliminary in vitro experiments verified the numerical predictions. The results helped us to optimize a prototype portable magnetic separator that is suitable for rapid sequestration of magnetic nano/micro-spheres from the human blood stream while accommodating necessary clinical boundary conditions.

Chen, Haitao; Bockenfeld, Danny; Rempfer, Dietmar; Kaminski, Michael D.; Rosengart, Axel J.

2007-09-01

140

Novel, Ceramic Membrane System For Hydrogen Separation  

SciTech Connect

Separation of hydrogen from coal gas represents one of the most promising ways to produce alternative sources of fuel. Ceramatec, teamed with CoorsTek and Sandia National Laboratories has developed materials technology for a pressure driven, high temperature proton-electron mixed conducting membrane system to remove hydrogen from the syngas. This system separates high purity hydrogen and isolates high pressure CO{sub 2} as the retentate, which is amenable to low cost capture and transport to storage sites. The team demonstrated a highly efficient, pressure-driven hydrogen separation membrane to generate high purity hydrogen from syngas using a novel ceramic-ceramic composite membrane. Recognizing the benefits and limitations of present membrane systems, the all-ceramic system has been developed to address the key technical challenges related to materials performance under actual operating conditions, while retaining the advantages of thermal and process compatibility offered by the ceramic membranes. The feasibility of the concept has already been demonstrated at Ceramatec. This project developed advanced materials composition for potential integration with water gas shift rectors to maximize the hydrogenproduction.

Elangovan, S.

2012-12-31

141

Haloing in bimodal magnetic colloids: the role of field-induced phase separation.  

PubMed

If a suspension of magnetic micrometer-sized and nanosized particles is subjected to a homogeneous magnetic field, the nanoparticles are attracted to the microparticles and form thick anisotropic halos (clouds) around them. Such clouds can hinder the approach of microparticles and result in effective repulsion between them [M. T. López-López, A. Yu. Zubarev, and G. Bossis, Soft Matter 6, 4346 (2010)]. In this paper, we present detailed experimental and theoretical studies of nanoparticle concentration profiles and of the equilibrium shapes of nanoparticle clouds around a single magnetized microsphere, taking into account interactions between nanoparticles. We show that at a strong enough magnetic field, the ensemble of nanoparticles experiences a gas-liquid phase transition such that a dense liquid phase is condensed around the magnetic poles of a microsphere while a dilute gas phase occupies the rest of the suspension volume. Nanoparticle accumulation around a microsphere is governed by two dimensionless parameters--the initial nanoparticle concentration (?(0)) and the magnetic-to-thermal energy ratio (?)--and the three accumulation regimes are mapped onto a ?-?(0) phase diagram. Our local thermodynamic equilibrium approach gives a semiquantitative agreement with the experiments on the equilibrium shapes of nanoparticle clouds. The results of this work could be useful for the development of the bimodal magnetorheological fluids and of the magnetic separation technologies used in bioanalysis and water purification systems. PMID:23005414

Magnet, C; Kuzhir, P; Bossis, G; Meunier, A; Suloeva, L; Zubarev, A

2012-07-13

142

Haloing in bimodal magnetic colloids: The role of field-induced phase separation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

If a suspension of magnetic micrometer-sized and nanosized particles is subjected to a homogeneous magnetic field, the nanoparticles are attracted to the microparticles and form thick anisotropic halos (clouds) around them. Such clouds can hinder the approach of microparticles and result in effective repulsion between them [M. T. López-López, A. Yu. Zubarev, and G. Bossis, Soft Matter10.1039/c0sm00261e 6, 4346 (2010)]. In this paper, we present detailed experimental and theoretical studies of nanoparticle concentration profiles and of the equilibrium shapes of nanoparticle clouds around a single magnetized microsphere, taking into account interactions between nanoparticles. We show that at a strong enough magnetic field, the ensemble of nanoparticles experiences a gas-liquid phase transition such that a dense liquid phase is condensed around the magnetic poles of a microsphere while a dilute gas phase occupies the rest of the suspension volume. Nanoparticle accumulation around a microsphere is governed by two dimensionless parameters—the initial nanoparticle concentration (?0) and the magnetic-to-thermal energy ratio (?)—and the three accumulation regimes are mapped onto a ?-?0 phase diagram. Our local thermodynamic equilibrium approach gives a semiquantitative agreement with the experiments on the equilibrium shapes of nanoparticle clouds. The results of this work could be useful for the development of the bimodal magnetorheological fluids and of the magnetic separation technologies used in bioanalysis and water purification systems.

Magnet, C.; Kuzhir, P.; Bossis, G.; Meunier, A.; Suloeva, L.; Zubarev, A.

2012-07-01

143

Selective separation of proteins with pH-dependent magnetic nanoadsorbents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two kinds of unique pH-dependent magnetic nanoadsorbents based on silica coated magnetic nanoparticles (SMNPs) and amino-silica coated magnetic nanoparticles (ASMNPs) have been exploited for selective separation of proteins. With different isoelectric points, silica coated magnetic nanoadsorbents (SMNAs) and amino-silica coated magnetic nanoadsorbents (ASMNAs) can respectively adsorb proteins with different charges. The interactions between proteins and magnetic nanoadsorbents changed with the

Xiaoxiao He; Yingjie Chen; Kemin Wang; Ping Wu; Ping Gong; Hailing Huo

2007-01-01

144

Magnetic separator having high rate of field change capability  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a combination of a large magnet for classifying magnetic particles from a passing fluid stream of magnetic and nonmagnetic particles. The large magnet including a central canister having a diameter exceeding 60-inches. It comprises: first and second manifolds for communicating; magnetic coils; a magnetic field; a power supply; first solid state rectifier circuit; second solid state rectifier circuit; first power supply drive means; and, second power supply drive means.

Tillotson, J.A.; Crowe, K.M.

1990-12-18

145

Method and apparatus for separating materials magnetically. [Patent application; iron pyrite from coal  

DOEpatents

Magnetic and nonmagnetic materials are separated by passing stream thereof past coaxial current-carrying coils which produce a magnetic field wherein intensity varies sharply with distance radially of the axis of the coils.

Hise, E.C. Jr.; Holman, A.S.; Friedlaender, F.J.

1980-11-06

146

High efficiency protein separation with organosilane assembled silica coated magnetic nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work describes the development of high efficiency protein separation with functionalized organosilanes on the surface of silica coated magnetic nanoparticles. The magnetic nanoparticles were synthesized with average particle size of 9 nm and silica coated magnetic nanoparticles were obtained by controlling the coating thicknesses on magnetic nanoparticles. The silica coating thickness could be uniformly sized with a diameter of

Jeong Ho Chang; Ki Ho Kang; Jinsub Choi; Young Keun Jeong

2008-01-01

147

Magnetic refrigeration for spacecraft systems  

SciTech Connect

Magnetic refrigerators, i.e., those that use the magnetocaloric effect of a magnetic working material in a thermodynamic cycle, offer potentially reliable, and efficient refrigeration over a variety of temperature ranges and cooling powers. A descriptive analysis of magnetic refrigeration systems is performed with particular emphasis on more efficient infrared detector cooling. Three types of magnetic refrigerator designs are introduced to illustrate some of the possibilities.

Barclay, J.A.

1981-01-01

148

SUPERCONDUCTING OPEN-GRADIENT MAGNETIC SEPARATION FOR THE PRETREATMENT OF RADIOACTIVE OR MIXED WASTE VITRIFICATION FEEDS  

EPA Science Inventory

Scientists need to gain a better understanding of the magnetic separation processes that can be used to separate deleterious constituents (crystalline, amorphous, and colloidal) in vitrification feed streams for borosilicate glass production without adding chemicals or generating...

149

Superconducting Open-Gradient Magnetic Separation for the Pretreatment of Radioactive or Mixed Waste Vitrification Feeds.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An open-gradient magnetic separation (OGMS) process is being considered to separate deleterious elements from radioactive and mixed waste streams prior to vitrification or stabilization. By physically segregating solid wastes and slurries based on the mag...

L. Nunez M. D. Kaminsky R. D. Doctor C. Crawfor J. A. Ritter

1999-01-01

150

Magnetic fluid separation of gold-containing products in the vibration field  

Microsoft Academic Search

New data on the process of the magnetic fluid (MF) separation, which is based on the ponderomotive effect of the magnetized\\u000a separation medium—or ferromagnetic fluid (FMF) on the nonmagnetic bodies arranged in it—are obtained. The magnetization of\\u000a the FMF in a nonuniform magnetic field increases the strength of the field of mass forces affecting the FMF and, as a consequence,

A. M. Pan’shin; S. I. Evdokimov; S. V. Artemov

2009-01-01

151

Enhanced separation of magnetic and diamagnetic particles in a dilute ferrofluid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditional magnetic field-induced particle separations take place in water-based diamagnetic solutions, where magnetic particles are captured while diamagnetic particles flow through without being affected by the magnetic field. We demonstrate that replacing the diamagnetic aqueous medium with a dilute ferrofluid can significantly increase the throughput of magnetic and diamagnetic particle separation. This enhancement is attributed to the simultaneous positive and negative magnetophoresis of magnetic and diamagnetic particles, respectively, in a ferrofluid. The particle transport behaviors in both ferrofluid- and water-based separations are predicted using an analytical model.

Liang, Litao; Zhang, Cheng; Xuan, Xiangchun

2013-06-01

152

Application of high temperature superconductors to high-gradient magnetic separation  

SciTech Connect

High Gradient Magnetic Separation (HGMS) is a powerful technique which can be used to separate widely dispersed contaminants from a host material, This technology can separate magnetic solids from other solids, liquids or gases. As the name implies HGMS uses large magnetic field gradients to separate ferromagnetic and paramagnetic particles. HGMS separators usually consist of a high-field solenoid magnet, the bore of which contains a fine-structured, ferromagnetic matrix material. The matrix material locally distorts the magnetic field and creates large field gradients in the vicinity of the matrix elements. These elements then become trapping sites for magnetic particles and are the basis for the magnetic separation. In this paper we discuss the design and construction of a prototype HGMS unit using a magnet made with high temperature superconductors (HTS). The prototype consists of an outer vacuum vessel which contains the HTS solenoid magnet The magnet is surrounded by a thermal radiation shield and multilayer insulation (MLI) blankets. The magnet, thermal shield and current leads all operate in a vacuum and are cooled by a cryocooler. High temperature superconducting current leads are used to reduce the heat leak from the ambient environment to the HTS magnet.

Daugherty, M.A.; Prenger, F.C.; Hill, D.D.; Daney, D.E.; Worl, L.W.; Schake, A.R.; Padilla, D.D.

1994-06-01

153

Application of high temperature superconductors to high-gradient magnetic separation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High Gradient Magnetic Separation (HGMS) is a powerful technique which can be used to separate widely dispersed contaminants from a host material, This technology can separate magnetic solids from other solids, liquids, or gases. As the name implies, HGMS uses large magnetic field gradients to separate ferromagnetic and paramagnetic particles. HGMS separators usually consist of a high-field solenoid magnet, the bore which contains a fine-structured, ferromagnetic matrix material. The matrix material locally distorts the magnetic field and creates large field gradients in the vicinity of the matrix elements. These elements then become trapping sites for magnetic particles and are the basis for the magnetic separation. In this paper, we discuss the design and construction of a prototype HGMS unit using a magnet made with high temperature superconductors (HTS). The prototype consists of an outer vacuum vessel which contains the HTS solenoid magnet. The magnet is surrounded by a thermal radiation shield and multilayer insulation (MLI) blankets. The magnet, thermal shield, and current leads all operate in a vacuum and are cooled by a cryocooler. High temperature superconducting current leads are used to reduce the heat leak from the ambient environment to the HTS magnet.

Daugherty, M. A.; Prenger, F. C.; Hill, D. D.; Daney, D. E.; Worl, L. W.; Schake, A. R.; Padilla, D. D.

154

Recover vigorous cells of Magnetospirillum magneticum AMB-1 by capillary magnetic separation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cultivable magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) in laboratory can provide sufficient samples for molecular microbiological and magnetic studies. However, a cold-stored MTB strain, such as Magnetospirillum magneticum AMB-1, often loses its ability to synthesize magnetosomes and consequently fails to sense the external magnetic field. It is therefore important to quickly recover vigorous bacteria cells that highly capable of magnetosome producing. In this study, a modified capillary magnetic separation system was designed to recover a deteriorating strain of Magnetospirillum magneticum AMB-1 that long-term cold-stored in a refrigerator. The results show that all cells obtained after a 3-cycle treatment were vigorous and had the ability to produce magnetosomes. Moreover, the 3rd-cycle recovered cells were able to form more magnetosome crystals. Compared with the colony formation method, this new method is time-saving, easily operated, and more efficient for recovering vigorous MTB cells.

Li, Jinhua; Ge, Xin; Zhang, Xiaokui; Chen, Guanjun; Pan, Yongxin

2010-07-01

155

Cesium separation from contaminated milk using magnetic particles containing crystalline silicotitantes.  

SciTech Connect

The Chernobyl nuclear reactor disaster in 1986 contaminated vast regions of prime grazing land. Subsequently, milk produced in the region has been contaminated with small amounts of the long-lived fission product cesium-137, and the Ukraine is seeking to deploy a simple separation process that will remove the Cs and preserve the nutritional value of the milk. Tiny magnetic particles containing crystalline silicotitanates (CST) have been manufactured and tested to this end. The results show that partitioning efficiency is optimized with low ratios of particle mass to volume. To achieve 90% Cs decontamination in a single-stage process, <3 g of magnetic CST per l milk is sufficient with a 30-min mixing time. A two-stage process would utilize <0.4 g/l per stage. The modeling of the magnetic CST system described herein can be achieved rather simply which is important for deployment in the affected Ukraine region.

Nunez, L.; Kaminski, M.; Chemical Engineering

2000-11-01

156

A continuous, hybrid field-gradient device for magnetic colloid-based separations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fully continuous, hybrid field-gradient device is developed for colloidal magnetic affinity separation. The device consists of a 1.0cm internal diameter 1.2m long, axially rotating horizontal glass chamber, with four repeating magnetic units distributed axially along the tube. Each magnetic unit consists of a stationary alternating-current solenoid that surrounds the chamber, followed by a direct current flowing, computer-controlled electromagnet, placed at a distance of 4.0cm from the end of the solenoid. The alternating-current-carrying solenoids impart translational and rotary oscillations to the magnetic particles, enhancing mixing. The computer-controlled electromagnets draw the magnetic particles to the chamber walls, and increase their residence time in the chamber. By manipulating the on-off cycle for these electromagnets, the exiting solution can be switched between one that contains a negligible concentration of target-bound magnetic particles and one that has a high concentration of the target, without interrupting the feed. The operation of this device is demonstrated for the removal of cadmium ions from a cadmium sulfate solution. 1-10?m diameter anion-exchange-resin-coated magnetic particles at a concentration of 0.5mg particles/ml were used as the mobile solid support. The feed consisted of a 10.0mg/l cadmium sulfate solution, at a flow rate of 25ml/min. The device was operated as a three-stage cross-current cascade. For this system, 45%, 58% and 63% of the entering cadmium ions are removed at each stage, respectively, with stage efficiencies that vary between 57% and 65%. Thus, more than 90% of the entering cadmium ions are removed. While this device has been demonstrated for metal ion removal from an aqueous feed, it can potentially be applied to several other affinity-based separations.

Ghebremeskel, Alazar N.; Bose, Arijit

2003-04-01

157

Synthesis of azeotropic batch distillation separation systems  

SciTech Connect

The sequencing of batch distillation systems, in particular batch distillation columns, can be complicated by the existence of azeotropes in the mixture. These azeotropes can form batch distillation regions where, depending on the initial feed to the batch column, the types of feasible products and separations are limited. It is very important that these distillation regions are known while attempting to synthesize sequences of batch columns so infeasible designs can be eliminated early on in the design phase. The distillation regions also give information regarding the feasible products that can be obtained when the mixture is separated by using a variety of batch column configurations. The authors will show how a tool for finding the batch distillation regions of a particular mixture can be used in the synthesis of batch distillation column sequences. These sequences are determined by the initial feed composition to the separation network. The network of all possible sequences will be generated by using state-task networks when batch rectifying, stripping, middle vessel, and extractive middle vessel columns are allowed. The authors do not determine which sequence is the best, as the best sequence will depend on the particular application to which one is applying the algorithms. They show an example problem for illustration of this technique.

Safrit, B.T. [Eastman Chemical Co., Kingsport, TN (United States); Westerberg, A.W. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

1997-05-01

158

Incinerator and fume separator system and apparatus  

SciTech Connect

The present invention provides an incinerator and fume separator device and a method for burning such materials as refuse, tire chips and sewage sludge or combinations thereof as well as other combustible materials to generate steam to supply steam heat and/or electricity to towns, villages or individual establishments. One of the key features of the system is the use of a horizontal conduit, wherein gases are initially cooled by a water-cooled conduit, part of the particulate material being removed within this tubing by use of baffles and fly ash settling chambers. The gases proceed through this conduit at a relatively high velocity and then through various fume separators located along the conduit by which the gases are intimately mixed with a liquid alkaline solution, such as lime water, by the propelling action of a ribbed slinger or propellor type device, located within the separator which because of its high speed and shearing action produces a cyclonic effect, thereby insuring intimate contact between the acidic contaminants in the gas and the fine droplets of alkaline material. Located underneath the ribbed slinger is a backwardly curved fan to pull the gas-alkaline liquid mixture downward and insure an even more intimate mixing of the contaminated gases and alkaline liquid. The purified gases are then exhausted into the atmosphere. According to the present invention, a variety of trash materials can be incinerated to generate steam and the exhaust gases can be effectively purified.

Sosnowski, L.; Mathewson, T.

1984-06-12

159

Surface molecular imprinting onto fluorescein-coated magnetic nanoparticles via reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer polymerization: A facile three-in-one system for recognition and separation of endocrine disrupting chemicals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we present a general protocol for the making of surface-imprinted magnetic fluorescence beads via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization. The resulting composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The as-synthesized beads exhibited homogeneous polymer films (thickness of about 5.7 nm), spherical shape, high fluorescence intensity and magnetic property (Magnetization (Ms) = 3.67 emu g-1). The hybrids bind the original template 17?-estradiol with an appreciable selectivity over structurally related compounds. In addition, the resulting hybrids performed without obvious deterioration after five repeated cycles. This study therefore demonstrates the potential of molecularly imprinted polymers for the recognition and separation of endocrine disrupting chemicals.In this study, we present a general protocol for the making of surface-imprinted magnetic fluorescence beads via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization. The resulting composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The as-synthesized beads exhibited homogeneous polymer films (thickness of about 5.7 nm), spherical shape, high fluorescence intensity and magnetic property (Magnetization (Ms) = 3.67 emu g-1). The hybrids bind the original template 17?-estradiol with an appreciable selectivity over structurally related compounds. In addition, the resulting hybrids performed without obvious deterioration after five repeated cycles. This study therefore demonstrates the potential of molecularly imprinted polymers for the recognition and separation of endocrine disrupting chemicals. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Supplementary figure S1. The hysteresis loop of Fe3O4 (a), Fe3O4@SiO2 (b), and Fe3O4@SiO2-Dye-SiO2 (c). See DOI: 10.1039/c0nr00614a

Li, Ying; Dong, Cunku; Chu, Jia; Qi, Jingyao; Li, Xin

2011-01-01

160

Investigation of the process of diamagnetic particle separation in a high-gradient ordered-structure magnetic field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On the basis of the model of a flow-type magnetic filter with a transversely magnetized ordered system of long ferromagnetic rods of rectangular cross section, the process of high-gradient magnetic separation of microscopic diamagnetic particles (potato starch granules of sizes 8-30 ?m) from a liquid suspension has been investigated. The registered laws of change in the concentration and size distribution of particles at the suspension outlet from the filter agree with the theoretical conclusions obtained from the analysis of the magnetic field structure and thecharacter of the particle motion in the filter volume.

Kashevskii, B. É.; Kashevskii, S. É.; Prokhorov, I. V.; Zholud', A. M.

2011-05-01

161

Hydrogen Isotope Separation Factor Measurement for Single Stage Hydrogen Separators and Parameters for a Large-Scale Separation System  

SciTech Connect

A Concept design for large-scale hydrogen ISS based on a single Pd alloy membrane separator cascade has been presented. Separators to investigate the feasibility of the Pd membrane separator cascade concept have been designed and the separation performance of the separators is given. Results show that the separation factors, which are between 1.4 and 1.8 at the operation temperature, are large enough for a practical separation system design. Estimation results indicate that a 2.0m{sup 2} Pd membrane is needed for a 20mol/h and 12 stages batch ISS, and an approximately 50m{sup 2} Pd membrane is needed for a 200mol/h and 26 stages ISS. It is clear that the separator cascade concept is both reasonable and practicable for large-scale hydrogen isotope separation.

Luo, D.L.; Xiong, Y.F.; Song, J.F.; Huang, G.Q. [China Academy of Engineering Physics (China)

2005-07-15

162

Nanoparticle Mediated Protein Separation in Aqueous Micellar Two-Phase Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic nanoparticles with cation exchange functionality (MNCX) are combined with an Aqueous Micellar Two-Phase System (AMTPS) based on the nonionic surfactant Eumulgin ES for the purpose of protein separation. As proof of principle the positively charged protein lysozyme is separated from the negatively charged protein ovalbumin with a purity of approximately 100%. In comparison with the application of the MNCX

Ingo Fischer; Matthias Franzreb

2012-01-01

163

Separations Systems Data Base: A Users' Manual. Revision I.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A separations systems data base (SEPSYS), designed specifically for the retrieval of information needed in chemical separations problems (i.e., how to perform a given separation under given conditions), is described. Included are descriptions of the basic...

J. W. Roddy W. J. McDowell

1981-01-01

164

Magnetic Separation Immunoassay for Digoxin in Plasma with Flow Injection Fluorescence Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immunoassay (IA) is a sensitive and selective approach for low level quantitation of drugs. Magnetic separation immunoassays use magnetic beads to facilitate the separation of bound labeled antigens from free antigens in solution. Digoxin was chosen for this study because low level analysis (ng?mL -1) in biological samples isrequired, antibodies to digoxin were commercially available and derivatization procedures for fluorescence

Zhe Tang; Kerstin Graefe; Clark March; H. Thomas Karnes

2004-01-01

165

Magnetic separation of particles and cells in ferrofluid flow through a straight microchannel using two offset magnets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The separation of particles and cells is critical in many chemical and biological applications. This work presents a simple idea for utilizing a pair of permanent magnets to continuously separate diamagnetic particles and cells in ferrofluid flow through a straight microchannel. The first magnet is placed close to the microchannel for focusing the particle mixture to a single stream without the use of a sheath flow. The second magnet, which is offset from the first magnet and placed farther from the channel, is to displace the aligned particles to dissimilar flow paths for a continuous sorting. This idea is first demonstrated through the separation of 3 ?m- and 10 ?m-diameter polystyrene particles, where the effects of flow speed and magnet distance are both examined. The experimental data are found to fit well with the predictions of an analytical model. Furthermore, a continuous separation of live yeast cells from 10 ?m polystyrene particles is implemented in the same device.

Zeng, Jian; Deng, Yanxiang; Vedantam, Pallavi; Tzeng, Tzuen-Rong; Xuan, Xiangchun

2013-11-01

166

Research on high gradient magnetic separation of pneumatic conveyed powder products: Investigation from the viewpoint of interparticle interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The separation and removal of the metallic debris originating from pipe of manufacturing line are required in the manufacturing process of the fine particle products. In this study, we develop a high gradient magnetic separation system (HGMS) under a dry process by using a superconducting magnet to remove ferromagnetic particles such as the material stainless steel (SUS). To avoid the obstruction of the separation part by aggregation of the processed material, we develop a magnetic separation system using a pneumatic conveying as a new transportation method of the particles.The magnetic separations were experimented under the same conditions on different days, but the results were different. The reason is considered to be the difference in adhesion force between the particles due to a change of humidity, we have measured the adhesion forces between the ferromagnetic particles and the paramagnetic medium particles using AFM (Atomic Force Microscope) while changing the humidity. As a result, the adhesion force between the particles increased with the increasing of humidity. Furthermore, we saw that the effect of relative humidity was larger in the adhesion force of alumina with larger cohesive property. Based on these results, an appropriate condition of the separation experiment was clarified. And a dehumidification mechanism was introduced.

Senkawa, Kohei; Nakai, Yuki; Mishima, Fumihito; Akiyama, Yoko; Nishijima, Shigehiro

2013-01-01

167

Fabrication of magnetic microfiltration systems using soft lithography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Arrays of nickel posts were used as magnetic elements in a microfiltration device that is compatible with microfluidic systems. The combination of microtransfer molding-a soft lithography technique-and electrodeposition generated nickel posts ~7 ?m in height and ~15 ?m in diameter inside a microfluidic channel. Once magnetized by a magnetic field from an external, permanent, neodymium-iron-boron magnet, these nickel posts generated strong magnetic field gradients and efficiently trapped superparamagnetic beads moving past them in a flowing stream of water. These nickel post arrays were also used to separate magnetic beads from nonmagnetic beads.

Deng, Tao; Prentiss, Mara; Whitesides, George M.

2002-01-01

168

Magnetic particles for the separation and purification of nucleic acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nucleic acid separation is an increasingly important tool for molecular biology. Before modern technologies could be used, nucleic acid separation had been a time- and work-consuming process based on several extraction and centrifugation steps, often limited by small yields and low purities of the separation products, and not suited for automation and up-scaling. During the last few years, specifically functionalised

Sonja Berensmeier

2006-01-01

169

Experimental investigation into the application of a magnetic cyclone for dense medium separation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The density differential between the overflow and underflow streams is one of the critical measurable parameters in the operation of dense medium cyclones. Our investigation of the application of a magnetic cyclone to dense medium separation showed that by a judicious positioning of a solenoid magnet along the axis of the cyclone, and by adjusting the strength of the magnetic

J Svoboda; C Coetzee; Q. P Campbell

1998-01-01

170

The EHR magnet system conceptual design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of the EHR (Experimental Hybrid Reactor) magnet conceptual design are presented. The EHR magnet systems include the toroidal field (TF) magnet system, the poloidal field (PF) magnet system, and the in-vessel plasma active control coils. The TF and PF magnet systems are superconductive to satisfy the steady state operation of the EHR. The plasma active control coils are

Zengsi Guo; Weigue Wu; Wunian Xu; Yue Chen

1991-01-01

171

Simple Magnetic Swallowing Detection System  

Microsoft Academic Search

A magnetic swallowing-detection system that can detect swallowing sounds and measure the distance between two magnetic coils was developed to detect the swallowing function non-invasively. The coils were set on both sides of the thyroid cartilage, and the distance between them changes in accordance with the movement of the thyroid cartilage. Swallowing sounds were detected by a piezoelectric microphone attached

Akihiko Kandori; Toshiyuki Yamamoto; Yuko Sano; Mitsuru Oonuma; Tsuyoshi Miyashita; Miho Murata; Saburo Sakoda

2012-01-01

172

Metal separations using aqueous biphasic partitioning systems  

SciTech Connect

Aqueous biphasic extraction (ABE) processes offer the potential for low-cost, highly selective separations. This countercurrent extraction technique involves selective partitioning of either dissolved solutes or ultrafine particulates between two immiscible aqueous phases. The extraction systems that the authors have studied are generated by combining an aqueous salt solution with an aqueous polymer solution. They have examined a wide range of applications for ABE, including the treatment of solid and liquid nuclear wastes, decontamination of soils, and processing of mineral ores. They have also conducted fundamental studies of solution microstructure using small angle neutron scattering (SANS). In this report they review the physicochemical fundamentals of aqueous biphase formation and discuss the development and scaleup of ABE processes for environmental remediation.

Chaiko, D.J.; Zaslavsky, B.; Rollins, A.N.; Vojta, Y.; Gartelmann, J.; Mego, W. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemical Technology Div.

1996-05-01

173

Compact magnetic levitation transportation system  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a magnetic levitation transportation system, it comprises: vehicle loading and unloading stations, at least one primary pair of laterally spaced rails comprises of magnetically interactive material extending between the vehicle loading and unloading stations, a vehicle of a size, a magnetic levitation means, energy conversion means for energizing the magnetic levitation means on the vehicle and for maintaining the speed and acceleration of the vehicle during travel, braking control means for creating a net braking force on the vehicle in a braking condition, and speed control means on the vehicle for accelerating and decelerating the vehicle.

Suppes, G.J.

1992-09-15

174

Research and Development of Magnetic Purification System for Used Wash Water of Drum  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high gradient magnetic separation system for purifying used wash water of drum was developed. The waste water is a mixture of various types of contaminant. The wastewater is made into floe containing ferromagnetic particles in the magnetic seeding tank. The magnetic seeded waste water is pumped into the high speed magnetic sedimentation device equipped with multiple permanent magnets. The

F. Mishima; Y. Akiyama; S. Nishijima

2010-01-01

175

Highly sensitive and rapid detection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa based on magnetic enrichment and magnetic separation.  

PubMed

A method for highly sensitive and rapid detection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, based on magnetic enrichment and magnetic separation, is described in this paper. The magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were applied to adsorb genome DNA after the sample was lysed. The DNA binding MNPs were directly subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to amplify gyrB specific sequence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The biotin labeled PCR products were detected by chemiluminescence when they were successively incubated with the probes-modified MNPs and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) labeled streptavidin (SA). Agarose gel electrophoresis analyses approved the method of in situ PCR to be highly reliable. The factors which could affect the chemiluminiscence were studied in detail. The results showed that the MNPs of 400 nm in diameter are beneficial to the detection. The sequence length and the binding site of the probe with a target sequence have obvious effects on the detection. The optimal concentration of the probes, hybridization temperature and hybridization time were 10 ?M, 60 ºC and 60 mins, respectively. The method of in situ PCR based on MNPs can greatly improve the utilization rate of the DNA template ultimately enhancing the detection sensitivity. Experiment results proved that the primer and probe had high specificity, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was successfully detected with detection limits as low as 10 cfu/mL by this method, while the detection of a single Pseudomonas aeruginosa can also be achieved. PMID:23424183

Tang, Yongjun; Zou, Jun; Ma, Chao; Ali, Zeeshan; Li, Zhiyang; Li, Xiaolong; Ma, Ninging; Mou, Xianbo; Deng, Yan; Zhang, Liming; Li, Kai; Lu, Guangming; Yang, Haowen; He, Nongyue

2013-01-16

176

Highly Sensitive and Rapid Detection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Based on Magnetic Enrichment and Magnetic Separation  

PubMed Central

A method for highly sensitive and rapid detection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, based on magnetic enrichment and magnetic separation, is described in this paper. The magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were applied to adsorb genome DNA after the sample was lysed. The DNA binding MNPs were directly subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to amplify gyrB specific sequence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The biotin labeled PCR products were detected by chemiluminescence when they were successively incubated with the probes-modified MNPs and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) labeled streptavidin (SA). Agarose gel electrophoresis analyses approved the method of in situ PCR to be highly reliable. The factors which could affect the chemiluminiscence were studied in detail. The results showed that the MNPs of 400 nm in diameter are beneficial to the detection. The sequence length and the binding site of the probe with a target sequence have obvious effects on the detection. The optimal concentration of the probes, hybridization temperature and hybridization time were 10 ?M, 60 ºC and 60 mins, respectively. The method of in situ PCR based on MNPs can greatly improve the utilization rate of the DNA template ultimately enhancing the detection sensitivity. Experiment results proved that the primer and probe had high specificity, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was successfully detected with detection limits as low as 10 cfu/mL by this method, while the detection of a single Pseudomonas aeruginosa can also be achieved.

Tang, Yongjun; Zou, Jun; Ma, Chao; Ali, Zeeshan; Li, Zhiyang; Li, Xiaolong; Ma, Ninging; Mou, Xianbo; Deng, Yan; Zhang, Liming; Li, Kai; Lu, Guangming; Yang, Haowen; He, Nongyue

2013-01-01

177

High efficiency protein separation with organosilane assembled silica coated magnetic nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work describes the development of high efficiency protein separation with functionalized organosilanes on the surface of silica coated magnetic nanoparticles. The magnetic nanoparticles were synthesized with average particle size of 9 nm and silica coated magnetic nanoparticles were obtained by controlling the coating thicknesses on magnetic nanoparticles. The silica coating thickness could be uniformly sized with a diameter of 10–40 nm

Jeong Ho Chang; Ki Ho Kang; Jinsub Choi; Young Keun Jeong

2008-01-01

178

Fabrication of anisotropic porous silica monoliths by means of magnetically controlled phase separation in sol-gel processes.  

PubMed

Sol-gel accompanied by phase separation is an established method for the preparation of porous silica monoliths with well-defined macroporosity, which find numerous applications. In this work, we demonstrate how the addition of (superpara)magnetic nanocolloids as templates to a system undergoing a sol-gel transition with phase separation leads to the creation of monoliths with a strongly anisotropic structure. It is known that magnetic nanocolloids respond to the application of an external magnetic field by self-assembling into columnar structures. The application of a magnetic field during the chemically driven spinodal decomposition induced by the sol-gel transition allows one to break the symmetry of the system and promote the growth of elongated needle-like silica domains incorporating the magnetic nanocolloids, aligned in the direction of the field. It is found that this microstructure imparts a strong mechanical anisotropy to the materials, with a ratio between the Young's modulus values measured in a direction parallel and perpendicular to the one of the field as high as 150, and an overall smaller average macropores size as compared to isotropic monoliths. The microstructure and properties of the porous monoliths can be controlled by changing both the system composition and the strength of the applied magnetic field. Our monoliths represent the first example of materials prepared by magnetically controlling a phase transition occurring via spinodal decomposition. PMID:22849804

Furlan, Marco; Lattuada, Marco

2012-08-14

179

Magnetic and fluorescence-encoded polystyrene microparticles for cell separation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Materials assisting with the efforts of cell isolation are attractive for numerous biomedical applications including tissue engineering and cell therapy. Here, we have developed surface modification methods on microparticles for the purposes of advanced cell separation. Iron oxide nanoparticles were incorporated into 200 mum polystyrene microparticles for separation of particle-bound cells from non-bound cells in suspension by means of a

Diana Bradbury; Emily J. Anglin; Sheree Bailey; Peter J. Macardle; Michael Fenech; Helmut Thissen; Nicolas H. Voelcker

2008-01-01

180

Magnetic bubble computer systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to extend the work presented earlier on the methods for performing logic on magnetic bubble chips, and to illustrate these techniques by presenting the outline of a design for a general-purpose digital computer.

R. C. Minnick; P. T. Bailey; R. M. Sandfort; W. L. Semon

1972-01-01

181

Superconducting magnet systems for MHD generator facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper reviews superconducting magnet system design requirements and existing and planned superconducting magnet systems for MHD generators. It is concluded that the successful development and implementation of MHD systems for commercial power generation facilities is strongly dependent on the existence of reliable and economical large high-field superconducting magnet systems. The development of such magnet systems will require the utilization

R. C. Niemann

1978-01-01

182

Development of the 19 T high field magnet system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high field magnet system, up to 19 tesla at 1.8K, with magnet bore of 75mm was developed. The magnet consists of Nb3Sn solenoids (3 sections) and NbTi solenoids (2 sections). A liquid helium vessel is divided into two parts (4.2K upper part and 1.8K lower part) by a fiberglass reinforced plastics separator. The central field is 17 tesla at

T. Kamikado; M. Taneda; O. Ozaki; M. Sugimoto; Y. Murakami; M. Yoshikawa; K. Matsumoto; R. Ogawa; Y. Kawate

1994-01-01

183

Magnetic QCA systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract The field-coupled QCA architecture has emerged as a candidate for providing local interconnectivity for nanodevices, and offers the possibility to perform very dense, high speed, and low power computing in an altogether new paradigm. Magnetic interactions between nanomagnets,are sufficiently strong to allow room-temperature,operation. We are investigating the fabrication and testing of arrays of nanomagnets for this purpose, and have

Gary H. Bernstein; Alexandra Imre; V. Metlushko; Alexei O. Orlov; L. Zhou; L. Ji; György Csaba; Wolfgang Porod

2005-01-01

184

Separable systems with quadratic in momenta first integrals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The separability theory of Hamiltonian systems on Riemannian manifolds is reviewed and developed. Particular attention is paid to the systems generated by the so-called special conformal Killing tensors, i.e. Benenti systems. Then, infinitely many new classes of separable systems are constructed by appropriate deformations of Benenti class systems.

Blaszak, Maciej

2005-02-01

185

Combined Centrifugal Separation-Flotation-Magnetic Concentration Flowsheet for Treatment of Wolframite Slimes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Based on testwork and plant practice a flowsheet has been developed combining centrifugal separation with flotation and magnetic concentration for the treatment of wolframite slimes to yield a high-grade tungsten concentrate. In May, 1977, laboratory and ...

P. Liu D. Wang

1987-01-01

186

Magnetically separable nanoferrite-anchored glutathione: Aqueous homocoupling of arylboronic acids under microwave irradiation  

EPA Science Inventory

A highly active, stable and magnetically separable glutathione based organocatalyst provided good to excellent yields to symmetric biaryls in the homocoupling of arylboronic acids under microwave irradiation. Symmetrical biaryl motifs are present in a wide range of natural p...

187

Separation of binary granular mixtures under vibration and differential magnetic levitation force.  

PubMed

The application of both a strong magnetic field and a magnetic field gradient to a diamagnetic or paramagnetic material can produce a vertical force that acts in concert with the force of gravity. We consider a binary granular mixture in which the two components have different magnetic susceptibilities and therefore experience different effective forces of gravity when subjected to an inhomogeneous magnetic field. Under vertical vibration, such a mixture may rapidly separate into regions almost pure in the two components. We investigate the conditions for this behavior, studying the speed and completeness of separation as a function of differential effective gravity and the frequency and amplitude of vibration. The influence of the cohesive magnetic dipole-dipole interactions on the separation process is also investigated. In our studies insight is gained through the use of a molecular dynamics simulation model. PMID:15783320

Catherall, A T; López-Alcaraz, P; Sánchez, P; Swift, Michael R; King, P J

2005-02-23

188

Quantifying of magnetically separated particles using Hall-effect sensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present a modeling of a captured ferromagnetic particles quantifying method based on the detection and evaluation of the magnetic field variation caused by the particle static buildup. The detecting element is a Hall-effect sensor (probe) associated to the particle capture element which is an electromagnet with iron core. From a known value of the magnetic field measured at the particle static buildup locality, we predict the particle global concentration in the treated material sample (powder or liquid). This prediction is achieved by solving the inverse problem for the captured particles magnetic field variation. Such a resolution is based on an iterative resolution of the forward problem until obtaining the global particle concentration related to the measured value of the field variation. Because an exact value can not be obtained we retain the value that minimizes an error function. To minimize such a function we have used the Tabu searching method.

Mehasni, R.; Latreche, M. E.; Feliachi, M.

2007-08-01

189

Electric charge separation in strong transient magnetic fields  

SciTech Connect

We discuss various mechanisms for the creation of an asymmetric charge fluctuation with respect to the reaction plane among hadrons emitted in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. We show that such mechanisms exist in both the hadronic gas and the partonic phases of quantum chromodynamics. The mechanisms considered here all require the presence of a strong magnetic field (the 'chiral magnetic effect'), but they do not involve parity or charge-parity violations. We analyze how a transient local electric current fluctuation generated by the chiral magnetic effect can dynamically evolve into an asymmetric charge distribution among final-state hadrons in momentum space. We estimate the magnitude of the event-by-event fluctuations of the final-state charge asymmetry owing to partonic and hadronic mechanisms.

Asakawa, Masayuki [Department of Physics, Osaka University, Toyonaka 560-0043 (Japan); Majumder, Abhijit [Department of Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Mueller, Berndt [Department of Physics and Center for Theoretical and Mathematical Sciences, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States)

2010-06-15

190

Roasting reduction-magnetic separation of oolitic-hematite and preparation of cementitious materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aimed at utilizing oolitic hematite comprehensively and reducing discharge of solid wastes, a series of experiments to extract iron by coal-based roasting reduction-magnetic separation technology and prepare cementitious materials by using magnetic separation tailings were carried out. The experiment results show that when the amount of reductant is 30wt%, the roasting temperature is 1200?` , the reduction time is 60min

Keqing Li; Ming Zhu; Wen Ni; Baoshun Liu

2011-01-01

191

The 13th International Conference on Magnetically Levitated Systems and Linear Drives MAGLEV 1993  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report contains short papers on research being conducted throughout the world on magnetically levitated systems, mainly consisting of trains, and magnetic linear drives. These papers have been index separately elsewhere on the data base.

192

Affinity separation in magnetically stabilized fluidized beds: synthesis and performance of packing materials  

SciTech Connect

A magnetically stabilized fluidized-bed separator designed to test the use of pellicular, ferromagnetic affinity chromatography packing materials has been developed. A wire wound solenoid was used to produce the magnetic field. The ferromagnetic packing material is comprised of a magnetite-containing, polyurethane gel coated onto polystyrene beads. The gel contains free carboxyl groups. These were carbodiimide-coupled to soy trypsin inhibitor and the material used for trypsin purification. Narrow-band affinity chromatography was carried out in packed-bed, fluidized-bed, and magnetically stabilized, fluidized-bed separators. Pressure drop, capacity, dilution, and peak asymmetry were evaluated for each type of separator. The three types provide comparable efficiency but the fluidized separators exhibit a much lower pressure drop. As might be expected, fluidized-bed separators perform well for affinity chromatography (large k') but poorly for size exclusion chromatography.

Lochmueller, C.H.; Wigman, L.S.

1987-11-01

193

Removal of algal blooms from freshwater by the coagulation-magnetic separation method.  

PubMed

This research investigated the feasibility of changing waste into useful materials for water treatment and proposed a coagulation-magnetic separation technique. This technique was rapid and highly effective for clearing up harmful algal blooms in freshwater and mitigating lake eutrophication. A magnetic coagulant was synthesized by compounding acid-modified fly ash with magnetite (Fe(3)O(4)). Its removal effects on algal cells and dissolved organics in water were studied. After mixing, coagulation, and magnetic separation, the flocs obtained from the magnet surface were examined by SEM. Treated samples were withdrawn for the content determination of chlorophyll-a, turbidity, chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen, and total phosphorus. More than 99 % of algal cells were removed within 5 min after the addition of magnetic coagulant at optimal loadings (200 mg L(-1)). The removal efficiencies of COD, total nitrogen, and phosphorus were 93, 91, and 94 %, respectively. The mechanism of algal removal explored preliminarily showed that the magnetic coagulant played multiple roles in mesoporous adsorption, netting and bridging, as well as high magnetic responsiveness to a magnetic field. The magnetic-coagulation separation method can rapidly and effectively remove algae from water bodies and greatly mitigate eutrophication of freshwater using a new magnetic coagulant. The method has good performance, is low cost, can turn waste into something valuable, and provides reference and directions for future pilot and production scale-ups. PMID:22767355

Liu, Dan; Wang, Peng; Wei, Guanran; Dong, Wenbo; Hui, Franck

2012-07-06

194

256-channel magnetic imaging system  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the design and fabrication of a magnetoresistive imaging system capable of scanning 256 channels simultaneously along linear ranges of either 4 or 13 mm. High speed electronics read the channels and transfer the data to a computer that builds and displays the images. The system was successfully used to image magnetic tapes for real-time forensic validation purposes and

F. C. S. da Silva; S. T. Halloran; A. B. Kos; D. P. Pappas

2008-01-01

195

Superconducting open-gradient magnetic separation for the pretreatment of radioactive or mixed waste vitrification feeds. 1997 annual progress report  

SciTech Connect

'Vitrification has been selected as a final waste form technology in the US for long-term storage of high-level radioactive wastes (HLW). However, a foreseeable problem during vitrification in some waste feed streams lies in the presence of elements (e.g., transition metals) in the HLW that may cause instabilities in the final glass product. The formation of spinel compounds, such as Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and FeCrO{sub 4}, results in glass phase separation and reduces vitrifier lifetime, and durability of the final waste form. A superconducting open gradient magnetic separation (OGMS) system maybe suitable for the removal of the deleterious transition elements (e.g. Fe, Co, and Ni) and other elements (lanthanides) from vitrification feed streams due to their ferromagnetic or paramagnetic nature. The OGMS systems are designed to deflect and collect paramagnetic minerals as they interact with a magnetic field gradient. This system has the potential to reduce the volume of HLW for vitrification and ensure a stable product. In order to design efficient OGMS and High gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) processes, a fundamental understanding of the physical and chemical properties of the waste feed streams is required. Using HLW simulant and radioactive fly ash and sludge samples from the Savannah River Technology Center, Rocky Flats site, and the Hanford reservation, several techniques were used to characterize and predict the separation capability for a superconducting OGMS system.'

Doctor, R.; Nunez, L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (US); Cicero-Herman, C.A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (US). Savannah River Technology Center; Ritter, J.A. [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (US). Chemical Engineering Dept.; Landsberger, S. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (US). Nuclear Engineering Dept.

1997-01-01

196

Affinity adsorption and separation behaviors of avidin on biofunctional magnetic nanoparticles binding to iminobiotin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowing the adsorption behavior of target proteins on biofunctional magnetic nanoparticles is of great importance for the separation and purification of proteins. Adsorption behaviors of avidin on biofunctional magnetic nanoparticles binding to iminobiotin were investigated under different conditions of temperature, pH, ionic strength, and feed avidin concentration. Biofunctionalization of the non-functional nanoparticles was performed, coupled with iminobiotin. Characterization of the

Shuguo Sun; Meihu Ma; Ning Qiu; Xi Huang; Zhaoxia Cai; Qun Huang; Xin Hu

2011-01-01

197

Hyperfine Structure Separation, Nuclear Magnetic Moment, and Hyperfine Structure Anomaly of CESIUM131  

Microsoft Academic Search

The atomic-beam magnetic-resonance method was used to obtain the ; hyperfine structure separation DELTA \\/sub nu \\/, the nuclear magnetic dipole ; momert mu \\/sub I\\/, and the hyperfine structure anomaly DELTA , of Cs¹³¹. ; Independent values of mu \\/sub I\\/ and DELTA nu \\/ were obtained by observing one ; of the DELTA F = plus or minus

Richard Dixon Worley

1963-01-01

198

Extraction of heavy metals using microorganisms and high gradient magnetic separation  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is pointed out that a large number of microorganisms have affinity to ingest or precipitate ion species onto their surfaces. In the case of magnetic ionic species, magnetic separation methods could be applied to remove the ion-loaded organisms from the surroundings. A wide range of metal ions were studied in the experiments described. The results show that the microorganisms

A. S. Bahaj; D. C. Ellwood; J. H. P. Watson

1991-01-01

199

A novel high-gradient magnetic separator (HGMS) design for biotech applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel high-gradient magnetic separator (HGMS) has been designed to meet the strong requirements of biotech processes to grant high product yield, efficient cleanability and low operating costs. The novel design using a rotary permanent magnet leads to an \\

C. Hoffmann; M. Franzreb; W. H. Holl

2002-01-01

200

Optimized high gradient magnetic separation for isolation of Plasmodium-infected red blood cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Highly purified infected red blood cells (irbc), or highly synchronized parasite cultures, are regularly required in malaria research. Conventional isolation and synchronization rely on density and osmotic fragility of irbc, respectively. High gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) offers an alternative based on intrinsic magnetic properties of irbc, avoiding exposure to chemicals and osmotic stress. Successful HGMS concentration in malaria research

Sebastian C Bhakdi; Annette Ottinger; Sangdao Somsri; Panudda Sratongno; Peeranad Pannadaporn; Pattamawan Chimma; Prida Malasit; Kovit Pattanapanyasat; Hartmut PH Neumann

2010-01-01

201

Removal and recovery of phosphorus in wastewater by superconducting high gradient magnetic separation with ferromagnetic adsorbent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prevention of eutrophication for semi-enclosed bays and ponds is serious and important challenge. In spite of the advanced wastewater treatment, typically 1 mg/L phosphorus is discharged into public water bodies from wastewater treatment plants. The total amount of the discharged water is so large that the further improvement of the removal efficiency of phosphorus in the discharged water is demanded. On the other hand, recently phosphorus has become increasingly recognized as the important strategic material due to the global food problem. Therefore, the recovery and recycling of phosphorus is also important issue.In this work, removal and recovery of phosphorus from treated wastewater by High Gradient Magnetic Separation (HGMS) with ferromagnetic zirconium ferrite adsorbent were studied. Phosphorus in the treated wastewater could be removed from 1.12 mg/L to 0.03 mg/L by the HGMS system with 500 mg/L zirconium ferrite adsorbent for 5 min in adsorption time. The magnetic separation speed achieved 1 m/s at 1 T which was necessary for practical use. We also confirmed that phosphorus could be desorbed from zirconium ferrite adsorbent by alkali treatment in a short time.

Ishiwata, T.; Miura, O.; Hosomi, K.; Shimizu, K.; Ito, D.; Yoda, Y.

2010-11-01

202

Removal of arsenic from geothermal water by high gradient magnetic separation  

Microsoft Academic Search

On-site experimentation of high gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) for arsenic removal from geothermal water has been conducted using a high-Tc superconducting magnet. This development of an effective method for decontamination of geothermal water is currently being done at the Kakkonda geothermal power plant in Shizukuishi, Iwate, Japan. In order to enhance the magnetic properties of the arsenic-containing particles in geothermal

A. Chiba; H. Okada; T. Tada; H. Kudo; H. Nakazawa; K. Mitsuhashi; T. Ohara; H. Wada

2002-01-01

203

Investigation for Magnetic Separation of Oxygen from Supercritical Air Near the Maxcondentherm Point  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an effort to develop a highly effective separation technology for oxygen operating in the liquefied natural gas (LNG) temperature range, the magnetic separation of oxygen from supercritical air was investigated using a laser holography interferometer. The experiment was carried out near the maxcondentherm (MC) point. For purposes of comparison, the same operation was carried out using supercritical nitrogen. Here,

A. Nakano; M. Shiraishi

2004-01-01

204

ELECTRON TRANSPORT IN CORONAL LOOPS: THE INFLUENCE OF THE EXPONENTIAL SEPARATION OF MAGNETIC FIELD LINES  

SciTech Connect

Observations by the TRACE spacecraft have shown that coronal emission in the extreme ultraviolet is characterized by filamentary structures within coronal loops, with transverse sizes close to the instrumental resolution. Starting from the observed filament widths and using the concepts of braided magnetic fields, an estimate of the turbulence level in the coronal loops can be obtained. Magnetic turbulence in the presence of a background magnetic field can be strongly anisotropic, and such anisotropy influences the separation of magnetic field lines, as well as the magnetic field line diffusion coefficient. Careful computations of the magnetic field line diffusion coefficient D{sub m} and of the rate of exponential separation of magnetic field lines h, also allowing for the possibility of anisotropic magnetic turbulence, enable computation of the effective perpendicular diffusion coefficient for electrons. When compared with observations this yields magnetic turbulence levels on the order of {delta}B/B {sub 0} = 0.05-0.7, which are larger than previous estimates. These values of the magnetic fluctuation level support the idea that magnetic turbulence can contribute to coronal heating by means of MHD turbulence dissipation. It is also found that field line transport is not governed by the quasilinear regime, but by a nonlinear regime which includes an intermediate and the percolation regimes.

Bitane, R. [Universite de Nice-Sophia Antipolis, CNRS, Observatoire de la Cote d'Azur, Laboratoire Cassiopee, Blvd. De l'Observatoire, 06300 Nice (France); Zimbardo, G.; Veltri, P., E-mail: zimbardo@fis.unical.i [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita della Calabria, Ponte P. Bucci, Cubo 31C, I-87036 Arcavacata di Rende (Italy)

2010-08-20

205

Selective separation of proteins with pH-dependent magnetic nanoadsorbents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two kinds of unique pH-dependent magnetic nanoadsorbents based on silica coated magnetic nanoparticles (SMNPs) and amino-silica coated magnetic nanoparticles (ASMNPs) have been exploited for selective separation of proteins. With different isoelectric points, silica coated magnetic nanoadsorbents (SMNAs) and amino-silica coated magnetic nanoadsorbents (ASMNAs) can respectively adsorb proteins with different charges. The interactions between proteins and magnetic nanoadsorbents changed with the solution pH. Thus, the adsorption or desorption between proteins and magnetic nanoadsorbents can be controlled by changing the solution pH according to the charge of the proteins. And the magnetic nanoadsorbents can be separated and recycled simply with a magnet. As model adsorbates, Cyt-c and BSA are selectively separated from simple protein mixtures with SMNAs and ASMNAs respectively. Cyt-c was adsorbed on SMNAs at pH 8.0 at 0.160 mg mg-1. And BSA was adsorbed on ASMNAs at pH 5.0 at 0.142 mg mg-1.

He, Xiaoxiao; Chen, Yingjie; Wang, Kemin; Wu, Ping; Gong, Ping; Huo, Hailing

2007-09-01

206

On-chip magnetic separation of superparamagnetic beads for integrated molecular analysis  

PubMed Central

We have demonstrated a postprocessed complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) integrated circuit (IC) capable of on-chip magnetic separation, i.e., removing via magnetic forces the nonspecifically bound magnetic beads from the detection area on the surface of the chip. Initially, 4.5 ?m wide superparamagnetic beads sedimenting out of solution due to gravity were attracted to the detection area by a magnetic concentration force generated by flowing current through a conductor embedded in the IC. After sedimentation, the magnetic beads that did not bind strongly to the functionalized surface of the IC through a specific biochemical complex were removed by a magnetic separation force generated by flowing current through another conductor placed laterally to the detection area. As the spherical bead pivoted on the surface of the chip, the lateral magnetic force was further amplified by mechanical leveraging, and 50 mA of current flowing through the separation conductor placed 18 ?m away from the bead resulted in 7.5 pN of tensile force on the biomolecular tether immobilizing the bead. This force proved high enough to break nonspecific interactions while leaving specific antibody-antigen bonds intact. A sandwich capture immunoassay on purified human immunoglobulin G showed strong correlation with a control enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and a detection limit of 10 ng?ml or 70 pM. The beads bound to the detection area after on-chip magnetic separation were detected optically. To implement a fully integrated molecular diagnostics platform, the on-chip magnetic separation functionality presented in this work can be readily combine with state-of-the art CMOS-based magnetic bead detection technology.

Florescu, Octavian; Wang, Kevan; Au, Patrick; Tang, Jimmy; Harris, Eva; Beatty, P. Robert; Boser, Bernhard E.

2010-01-01

207

On-chip magnetic separation of superparamagnetic beads for integrated molecular analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have demonstrated a postprocessed complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) integrated circuit (IC) capable of on-chip magnetic separation, i.e., removing via magnetic forces the nonspecifically bound magnetic beads from the detection area on the surface of the chip. Initially, 4.5 ?m wide superparamagnetic beads sedimenting out of solution due to gravity were attracted to the detection area by a magnetic concentration force generated by flowing current through a conductor embedded in the IC. After sedimentation, the magnetic beads that did not bind strongly to the functionalized surface of the IC through a specific biochemical complex were removed by a magnetic separation force generated by flowing current through another conductor placed laterally to the detection area. As the spherical bead pivoted on the surface of the chip, the lateral magnetic force was further amplified by mechanical leveraging, and 50 mA of current flowing through the separation conductor placed 18 ?m away from the bead resulted in 7.5 pN of tensile force on the biomolecular tether immobilizing the bead. This force proved high enough to break nonspecific interactions while leaving specific antibody-antigen bonds intact. A sandwich capture immunoassay on purified human immunoglobulin G showed strong correlation with a control enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and a detection limit of 10 ng/ml or 70 pM. The beads bound to the detection area after on-chip magnetic separation were detected optically. To implement a fully integrated molecular diagnostics platform, the on-chip magnetic separation functionality presented in this work can be readily combine with state-of-the art CMOS-based magnetic bead detection technology.

Florescu, Octavian; Wang, Kevan; Au, Patrick; Tang, Jimmy; Harris, Eva; Beatty, P. Robert; Boser, Bernhard E.

2010-03-01

208

Separation of topographic features from magnetic force images using capacitive coupling effect.  

PubMed

Separation of topographic features from magnetic images has been an issue for the past two decades in magnetic force microscopy (MFM). The frequent pickups of the topographic features are interpreted as transitions of the tip between bistable states of the tip-sample assembly in the noncontact and tapping regions. MFM using electrostatic force modulation demonstrates the separation of the topographic features from the magnetic images by removing the tapping state from the bistable states through the introduction of a capacitive coupling. PMID:19256648

Kim, Byung I

2009-02-01

209

Separations systems data base: a users' manual. Revision I  

Microsoft Academic Search

A separations systems data base (SEPSYS), designed specifically for the retrieval of information needed in chemical separations problems (i.e., how to perform a given separation under given conditions), is described. Included are descriptions of the basic methods of searching and retrieving information from the data base, the procedure for entering records into the data base, a listing of additional references

J. W. Roddy; W. J. McDowell

1981-01-01

210

Separator-spacer for electrochemical systems  

DOEpatents

An electrochemical cell construction features a novel co-extruded plastic electrode in an interleaved construction with a novel integral separator-spacer. Also featured is a leak and impact resistant construction for preventing the spill of corrosive materials in the event of rupture.

Grimes, Patrick G. (Westfield, NJ); Einstein, Harry (Springfield, NJ); Newby, Kenneth R. (Berkeley Heights, NJ); Bellows, Richard J. (Westfield, NJ)

1983-08-02

211

Cr-polluted soil studied by high gradient magnetic separation and electron probe  

SciTech Connect

An Fe-rich soil from the site of a former leather tannery, heavily polluted with Cr, was studied using a combination of wet chemical analysis, high gradient magnetic separation (HGMS), and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). It is demonstrated that such a combination is a powerful tool for the characterization of polluted soils, especially in cases where the pollution is present as discrete particles. Both EPMA and magnetic separation data indicated that the Cr pollution was present as a hydrous Cr-oxide phase. The Cr does not correlate with the Fe minerals, most likely as a result of the initial high Cr concentrations in the soil, which lead to precipitation of separate hydrous Cr-oxide minerals and Fe minerals. The Cr-containing material is present as (layered) aggregates, which are formed around larger quartz grains or around very small other particles that served as precipitation nuclei. Magnetic separation tests show that the Cr pollution can largely be removed by HGMS.

Rikers, R.A.; Voncken, J.H.L.; Dalmijn, W.L. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands)

1998-12-01

212

Magnetically suspended flywheel system study  

SciTech Connect

A program to study the application of a graphite/epoxy, magnetically suspended, pierced disk flywheel for the combined function of spacecraft attitude control and energy storage (ACES) is described. Past achievements of the program include design and analysis computer codes for the flywheel rotor, a magnetically suspended flywheel model, and graphite/epoxy rotor rings that were successfully prestressed via interference assembly. All hardware successfully demonstrated operation of the necessary subsystems which form a complete ACES design. Areas of future work include additional rotor design research, system definition and control strategies, prototype development, and design/construction of a UM/GSFC spin test facility. The results of applying design and analysis computer codes to a magnetically suspended interference assembled rotor show specific energy densities of 42 Wh/lb (92.4 Wh/kg) are obtained for a 1.6 kWh system.

Kirk, J.A.; Anand, D.K.; Evans, H.E.; Rodriguez, G.E.

1984-11-01

213

Research on knowledge-based dirt separator automatic design system  

Microsoft Academic Search

To design dirt separator rapidly and accurately, a knowledge-based product automatic design system was introduced in this paper. A way of adopting knowledge reuse to customize dirt separators was employed as the key technique of the system. According to the requirements of the automatic design system, a knowledge classification method was put forward, and the basic knowledge, design process knowledge

Bin Wang; Defang Liu; Linzhen Zhou

2009-01-01

214

Non-locality of energy separating transformations for Dirac electrons in a magnetic field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate a non-locality of Moss-Okninski transformation (MOT) used to separate positive and negative energy states in the 3+1 Dirac equation for relativistic electrons in the presence of a magnetic field. Properties of functional kernels generated by the MOT are analyzed and kernel non-localities are characterized by calculating their second moments parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic field. Transformed functions are described and investigated by computing their variances. It is shown that the non-locality of the energy-separating transformation in the direction parallel to the magnetic field is characterized by the Compton wavelength ?c = ?/mc. In the plane transverse to the magnetic field, the non-locality depends both on magnetic radius L = (?/eB)1/2 and ?c. The non-locality of MOT for the 2+1 Dirac equation is also considered.

Rusin, Tomasz M.; Zawadzki, Wlodek

2012-08-01

215

Study on Treatment of Printing and Dyeing Wastewater by Magnetic Seed Coagulation--High Gradient Magnetic Separation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment of printing and dyeing wastewater by the device of high gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) developed by author was tested. The results showed that printing and dyeing wastewater contained varied chemical composition and whose initial concentration of chromaticity and COD were 800 and 565mg\\/L respectively can be well cleaned by Fenton oxidation—magnetic seed coagulation— HGMS. The removal rate of chromaticity

Chen Wen-song; Lin Hua-shi; Zhang Shuo-feng

2011-01-01

216

Tevatron electron lens magnetic system  

SciTech Connect

In the framework of collaboration between IHEP and FNAL, a magnetic system of the Tevatron Electron Lens (TEL) has been designed and built. The TEL is currently installed in the superconducting ring of the Tevatron proton-antiproton collider and used for experimental studies of beam-beam compensation [1].

Vladimir Shiltsev et al.

2001-07-12

217

Relaxation Processes in Magnetic Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The British Radio-Spectroscopy Group met at the University of Bristol 3-4 September, 1975, to discuss relaxation in magnetic systems. A historical review of early experiments pertaining to 'spin' of electrons and nuclei by Dr. E. E. Schneider of Newcastle...

T. A. Kitchens

1975-01-01

218

256-channel magnetic imaging system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the design and fabrication of a magnetoresistive imaging system capable of scanning 256 channels simultaneously along linear ranges of either 4 or 13 mm. High speed electronics read the channels and transfer the data to a computer that builds and displays the images. The system was successfully used to image magnetic tapes for real-time forensic validation purposes and can also be applied in other noninvasive imaging applications.

da Silva, F. C. S.; Halloran, S. T.; Kos, A. B.; Pappas, D. P.

2008-01-01

219

Experimental Signatures of Intrinsic Phase Separation in Magnetically Doped Two-Dimensional Electron Gas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We theoretically study the properties of a recently observed inhomogeneous phase [1] preceding the metal-insulator transition in Mn-doped two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG). We show that the competition between the carrier-induced (ferromagnetic) double-exchange interaction, and the anti-ferromagnetic ``super-exchange'' interaction of local Mn moments leads to an intrinsic phase separation (PS) at sufficiently low carrier density. Our results establish a dramatic effect of such a PS on the transport properties of the system, resulting in very strong (activated) temperature and magnetic field dependence, but anomalously weak density dependence of the resistivity under the PS dome-in striking agreement with experiments [1]. Based on our results, we argue that such exotic transport behavior should be considered as a signature of intrinsic PS, in dramatic contrast to what is found in situations where PS is driven by disorder.

Terletska, Hanna; Dobrosavljevic, Vladimir

2010-11-01

220

Magnetism in multivacancy graphene systems.  

PubMed

Ab initio calculations using density functional theory (DFT) have been performed in order to study defects in graphene. The structural distortions that can be observed when multi-atom vacancies are created in graphene and the net magnetic moment that can eventually appear are characterized for a variety of vacancy sizes and shapes. We conclude that the configuration arising in the construction of multivacancies in graphene can unambiguously indicate whether a magnetic response of the defected system is to be expected. Making use of the shape of the complementary figure-i.e. the geometric figure of the atomic arrangement that is extracted from graphene when the multivacancy is created-it is possible to construct a set of rules by means of which the optimized structural and magnetic behavior can be predicted. The validity of the rules is determined through DFT calculations. PMID:22913987

Faccio, Ricardo; Mombrú, Alvaro W

2012-08-23

221

Magnetically assisted chemical separation (MACS) process: Preparation and optimization of particles for removal of transuranic elements  

SciTech Connect

The Magnetically Assisted Chemical Separation (MACS) process combines the selectivity afforded by solvent extractants with magnetic separation by using specially coated magnetic particles to provide a more efficient chemical separation of transuranic (TRU) elements, other radionuclides, and heavy metals from waste streams. Development of the MACS process uses chemical and physical techniques to elucidate the properties of particle coatings and the extent of radiolytic and chemical damage to the particles, and to optimize the stages of loading, extraction, and particle regeneration. This report describes the development of a separation process for TRU elements from various high-level waste streams. Polymer-coated ferromagnetic particles with an adsorbed layer of octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) diluted with tributyl phosphate (TBP) were evaluated for use in the separation and recovery of americium and plutonium from nuclear waste solutions. Due to their chemical nature, these extractants selectively complex americium and plutonium contaminants onto the particles, which can then be recovered from the solution by using a magnet. The partition coefficients were larger than those expected based on liquid[liquid extractions, and the extraction proceeded with rapid kinetics. Extractants were stripped from the particles with alcohols and 400-fold volume reductions were achieved. Particles were more sensitive to acid hydrolysis than to radiolysis. Overall, the optimization of a suitable NMCS particle for TRU separation was achieved under simulant conditions, and a MACS unit is currently being designed for an in-lab demonstration.

Nunez, L.; Kaminski, M.; Bradley, C.; Buchholz, B.A.; Aase, S.B.; Tuazon, H.E.; Vandegrift, G.F. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Landsberger, S. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)

1995-05-01

222

CONTROL SYSTEM FOR ISOTOPE SEPARATING APPARATUS  

DOEpatents

A method is described for controlling the position of the ion beams in a calutron used for isotope separation. The U/sup 238/ beams is centered over the U/sup 235/ receiving pocket, the operator monitoring the beam until a maximum reading is achieved on the meter connected to that pocket. Then both beams are simultaneously shifted by a preselected amount to move the U/sup 235/ beam over the U/sup 235/ pocket. A slotted door is placed over the entrance to that pocket during the U/sup 238/ beam centering to reduce the contamination to the pocket, while allowing enough beam to pass for monitoring purposes.

Barnes, S.W.

1960-01-26

223

Evaluation of Cyanex 923-coated magnetic particles for the extraction and separation of lanthanides and actinides from nuclear waste streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the magnetically assisted chemical separation (MACS) process, tiny ferromagnetic particles coated with solvent extractant are used to selectively separate radionuclides and hazardous metals from aqueous waste streams. The contaminant-loaded particles are then recovered from the waste solutions using a magnetic field. The contaminants attached to the magnetic particles are subsequently removed using a small volume of stripping agent. In

B. S. Shaibu; M. L. P. Reddy; A. Bhattacharyya; V. K. Manchanda

2006-01-01

224

Magnetic separation of CD14+ cells using antibody binding with protein A expressed on bacterial magnetic particles for generating dendritic cells.  

PubMed

Herein the potential of a highly efficient cell separation system using bacterial magnetic particles expressing protein A (protein A-BacMPs) was demonstrated. Protein A was expressed on BacMPs using the transmembrane proteins Mms13 and MagA as anchor molecules. The evaluations of the numbers of bound antibody molecules and binding capabilities of the protein A-BacMPs using Mms13 indicated that the antibodies were efficiently introduced into protein A-BacMPs using Mms13 in comparison to MagA. In addition, the recovery ratio of the target cells on the magnetic cell separation system was enhanced by using protein A-BacMPs with Mms13. Using positive selection against peripheral blood mononuclear cells, the CD14(+) cells were separated at a purity of more than 99% by protein A-BacMPs using Mms13. Furthermore, in the evaluation of the influence of protein A-BacMPs on the separated cells, the CD14(+) cells separated using protein A-BacMPs and were successfully differentiated into dendritic cells. PMID:17045961

Matsunaga, Tadashi; Takahashi, Masayuki; Yoshino, Tomoko; Kuhara, Motoki; Takeyama, Haruko

2006-10-05

225

Development of magnetically targeted drug delivery system using superconducting magnet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Development of a novel drug delivery system was made to accumulate/navigate magnetic drugs with the help of a superconducting magnet in order to control the drugs in blood vessels located deep inside the body. In the present paper, we tested the feasibility of a novel navigation system, made by applying a strong external (magnetic) field through SmBaCuO and YBaCuO bulk superconductors in order to realize the practice of using externally applied magnetic fields for targeting the magnetic particles to a circumscribed body region.

Takeda, Shin-Ichi; Mishima, Fumihito; Fujimoto, Suketaka; Izumi, Yoshinobu; Nishijima, Shigehiro

2007-04-01

226

Dynamic magnetization reversal in dipole systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The possibility of magnetization reversal in two different systems of magnetic dipoles by preliminary excitation of certain oscillatory regimes is demonstrated using numerical analysis of bistable states of these systems. Cyclic magnetization reversal of the systems is executed by sequential alternation of the frequency of the applied ac field. The interaction of two ring-shaped dipole systems is analyzed and peculiarities of the change in the total magnetic moments induced by this interaction are revealed.

Shutyi, A. M.

2013-06-01

227

Fast separation of bromelain by polyacrylic acid-bound iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adsorption of bromelain from an aqueous solution by polyacrylic acid (PAA)-bound iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles was studied. The magnetic composite nanoparticles were shown to be efficient for the separation of bromelain. Except at pH 0.6M. The adsorption behaviour followed the Langmuir isotherm with a maximum adsorption amount of 0.476mg\\/mg and a Langmuir adsorption equilibrium constant of 58.4ml\\/mg at pH

Dong-Hwang Chen; Shih-Hung Huang

2004-01-01

228

Photocatalytic degradation of dyes on a magnetically separated photocatalyst under visible and UV irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel kind of magnetically separable photocatalyst of TiO2\\/SiO2\\/?-Fe2O3 (TSF) is prepared. Scanning tunnel microscope (STM) and X-ray diffractometer (XRD) were used to characterize the structure of the photocatalyst. In the TSF photocatalyst, a TiO2 shell is for photocatalysis, a ?-Fe2O3 core as a carrier is for separation by the magnetic field and a SiO2 membrane between the TiO2 shell

Feng Chen; Yinde Xie; Jincai Zhao; Gongxuan Lu

2001-01-01

229

Flow enhanced non-linear magnetophoretic separation of beads based on magnetic susceptibility.  

PubMed

Magnetic separation provides a rapid and efficient means of isolating biomaterials from complex mixtures based on their adsorption on superparamagnetic (SPM) beads. Flow enhanced non-linear magnetophoresis (FNLM) is a high-resolution mode of separation in which hydrodynamic and magnetic fields are controlled with micron resolution to isolate SPM beads with specific physical properties. In this article we demonstrate that a change in the critical frequency of FNLM can be used to identify beads with magnetic susceptibilities between 0.01 and 1.0 with a sensitivity of 0.01 Hz(-1). We derived an analytical expression for the critical frequency that explicitly incorporates the magnetic and non-magnetic composition of a complex to be separated. This expression was then applied to two cases involving the detection and separation of biological targets. This study defines the operating principles of FNLM and highlights the potential for using this technique for multiplexing diagnostic assays and isolating rare cell types. PMID:24061548

Li, Peng; Kilinc, Devrim; Ran, Ying-Fen; Lee, Gil U

2013-10-15

230

High gradient magnetic particle separation in viscous flows by 3D BEM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The boundary element method was applied to study the motion of magnetic particles in fluid flow under the action of external nonuniform magnetic field. The derived formulation combines the velocity-vorticity resolved Navier-Stokes equations with the Lagrange based particle tracking model, where the one-way coupling with fluid phase was considered. The derived algorithm was used to test a possible design of high gradient magnetic separation in a narrow channel by computing particles trajectories in channel flow under the influence of hydrodynamic and magnetic forces. Magnetic field gradient was obtained by magnetization wires placed outside of the channel. Simulations with varying external magnetic field and flow rate were preformed in order to asses the collection efficiency of the proposed device. We found that the collection efficiency decreases linearly with increasing flow rate. Also, the collection efficiency was found to increase with magnetic field strength only up a saturation point. Furthermore, we found that high collection efficiently is not feasible at high flow velocity and/or at weak magnetic field. Recommendation for optimal choice of external magnetic field and flow rate is discussed.

Ravnik, J.; Hriberšek, M.

2013-04-01

231

Advanced separation processes for sustainable nuclear systems  

SciTech Connect

In the frame of the French national waste management 1991 act, the CEA had launched research and development studies on the separation of the minor actinides - i.e. neptunium, americium and curium - from high active waste issuing from nuclear spent fuel reprocessing. In compliance with the 2006 deadline specified by this act, tests of the main processes developed were realized in 2005 in ATALANTE. As shown by the results summarized in this paper, the feasibility of the processes selected for partitioning was demonstrated. In June 2006, a new act on sustainable management of radioactive waste has been voted by the French parliament with a national plan (PNG-MDR). This plan specifies a step by step programme of HLLL waste management, with, for partitioning-transmutation, a program in tight connection with the 4. generation reactors development in which transmutation of minor actinides could be operated. In this frame, the next important 2012 milestone is the evaluation of the two possible transmutation roads: homogeneous recycling of all the actinides together or minor actinides heterogeneous recycling in UO{sub 2} assemblies in core blankets. The last step could be the building of a small partitioning workshop (micro-pilot) dedicated to the production of fuel assemblies containing minor actinides. (authors)

Baron, P.; Masson, M.; Rostaing, C. [Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique DEN/VRH/DRCP, BP 17 171 30207 Bagnols/Ceze Cedex (France); Boullis, B. [Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique DEN/SAC/DDIN, 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France)

2007-07-01

232

Development of magnetic drug delivery system using HTS bulk magnet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic drug delivery system (MDDS) is the method which the magnetic seeded drug is injected into a blood vessel and then controlled and accumulated by a magnet located outside of the human body. A high accumulation efficiency of the drug to a local diseased part and reduction in side-effects to normal organs are expected by using MDDS. The most important element in MDDS is a magnetic field generator. The high temperature superconducting (HTS) bulk magnet which can generate high magnetic field and magnetic field gradient extending to a point distant from the magnet in several ten millimeters is necessary to achieve the MDDS. In this study, the computer simulation and model experiment were conducted in order to confirm the applicability of MDDS to ovary of the cow body.

Terada, T.; Fukui, S.; Mishima, F.; Akiyama, Y.; Izumi, Y.; Nishijima, S.

2008-09-01

233

Magnetic Bearing Sets for a Flywheel System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a magnetic bearing set developed to work in a flywheel energy storage system. The bearing set is composed of a permanent magnetic bearing (PMB) and a superconducting magnetic bearing (SMB). A new configuration of a PMB having Nd-Fe-B magnet rings and a back yoke is proposed and compared with an existing one. Finite element method (FEM) simulations

Guilherme Goncalves Sotelo; R. de Andrade; A. C. Ferreira

2007-01-01

234

Membrane separation systems---A research and development needs assessment  

SciTech Connect

Membrane based separation technology, a relative newcomer on the separations scene, has demonstrated the potential of saving enormous amounts of energy in the processing industries if substituted for conventional separation systems. Over 1 quad annually, out of 2.6, can possibly be saved in liquid-to-gas separations, alone, if membrane separation systems gain wider acceptance, according to a recent DOE/OIP (DOE/NBM-80027730 (1986)) study. In recent years great strides have been made in the field and offer even greater energy savings in the future when substituted for other conventional separation techniques such as distillation, evaporation, filtration, sedimentation, and absorption. An assessment was conducted by a group of six internationally known membrane separations experts who examined the worldwide status of research in the seven major membrane areas. This encompassed four mature technology areas: reverse osmosis, micorfiltration, ultrafiltration, and electrodialysis; two developing areas: gas separation and and pervaporation; and one emerging technology: facilitated transport. Particular attention was paid to identifying the innovative processes currently emerging, and even further improvements which could gain wider acceptance for the more mature membrane technology. The topics that were pointed out as having the greatest research emphasis are pervaporation for organic-organic separations; gas separation; micorfiltration; an oxidant-resistant reverse osmosis membrane; and a fouling-resistant ultrafiltration membrane. 35 refs., 6 figs., 22 tabs.

Baker, R.W. (Membrane Technology and Research, Inc., Menlo Park, CA (USA)); Cussler, E.L. (Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis, MN (USA). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science); Eykamp, W. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (USA)); Koros, W.J. (Texas Univ., Austin, TX (USA)); Riley, R.L. (Separation Systems Technology, San Diego, CA (USA)); Strathmann, H. (Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Grenzflaech

1990-03-01

235

Complex dynamics of self-generated magnetic clusters in phase-separated perovskites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The linear and non-linear AC magnetic susceptibilities of the perovskite La1-xSrxCoO3, with 0.15?x?0.30, are presented. It is observed that, for x<0.20, a freezing temperature is defined by AC magnetic susceptibility, pointing to a glassy behaviour whose origin is the phase separation of ferromagnetic metallic-like clusters embedded in an insulating matrix. At this temperature, the non-linear magnetic susceptibility shows critical divergence, similar to spin-glasses, although the width of the diverging peak does not compare well with canonical spin-glasses.

Rivas, J.; Mira, J.; Rinaldi, D.; Caciuffo, R.; Señarís Rodríguez, M. A.

2005-07-01

236

Design and synthesis of reactive separation systems  

SciTech Connect

During the last decade there has been a rapid upturn in interest in reactive distillation. The chemical process industry recognizes the favorable economics of carrying out reaction simultaneously with distillation for certain classes of reacting systems, and many new processes have been built based on this technology. Interest is also increasing by academics and software vendors. Systematic design methods for reactive distillation systems have only recently begun to emerge. In this report we survey the available design techniques and point out the contributions made by our group at the University of Massachusetts.

Doherty, M.F.

1992-01-01

237

Multifunctional magnetic-optical nanoparticle probes for simultaneous detection, separation, and thermal ablation of multiple pathogens.  

PubMed

Multifunctional nanoparticles possessing magnetization and near-infrared (NIR) absorption have warranted interest due to their significant applications in magnetic resonance imaging, diagnosis, bioseparation, target delivery, and NIR photothermal ablation. Herein, the site-selective assembly of magnetic nanoparticles onto the ends or ends and sides of gold nanorods with different aspect ratios (ARs) to create multifunctional nanorods decorated with varying numbers of magnetic particles is described for the first time. The resulting hybrid nanoparticles are designated as Fe(3)O(4)-Au(rod)-Fe(3)O(4) nanodumbbells and Fe(3)O(4)-Au(rod) necklacelike constructs with tunable optical and magnetic properties, respectively. These hybrid nanomaterials can be used for multiplex detection and separation because of their tunable magnetic and plasmonic functionality. More specifically, Fe(3)O(4)-Au(rod) necklacelike probes of different ARs are utilized for simultaneous optical detection based on their plasmon properties, magnetic separation, and photokilling of multiple pathogens from a single sample at one time. The combined functionalities of the synthesized probes will open up many exciting opportunities in dual imaging for targeted delivery and photothermal therapy. PMID:19943255

Wang, Chungang; Irudayaraj, Joseph

2010-01-01

238

New High Performance Magnet Structures for Bead Based MolecularSeparation  

SciTech Connect

New High Performance Magnet Structures for Bead Based Molecular Separation David Humphries Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, D.O.E. Joint Genome Institute Abstract High performance Hybrid magnetic separation technology is under continuing development at the D.O.E. Joint Genome Institute and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory for general laboratory and high throughput automated applications. This technology has broad applicability for molecular separation in genomics, proteomics and other areas. It s applicability ranges from large and small scale microtiter plate and flow separation processes to single molecule DNA manipulation. It is currently an enabling purification technology for very high throughput production sequencing at the D.O.E. Joint Genome Institute. This technology incorporates hybrid magnetic structures that combine linear permanent magnet material and ferromagnetic material to produce significantly higher fields and gradients than those of currently available commercial devices. These structures incorporate ferromagnetic poles that can be easily shaped to produce complex field distributions for specialized applications. The higher maximum fields and strong gradients of the hybrid structures result in greater holding forces on magnetized targets that are being processed as well as faster extraction. Current development versions of these magnet plates have exhibited fields in excess of 1.0 tesla and gradients approaching 1000.0 tesla/meter. Second generation Hybrid magnet plates have now been developed for both 384 and 96-well applications. This technology is currently being made available to industry through the Tech Transfer Department at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. This work was performed under the auspices of the US Department of Energy's Office of Science, Biological and Environmental Research Program and the by the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. W-7405-Eng-48, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory under contract No. DE-AC03-6SF00098 and Los Alamos National Laboratory under contract No. W-7405-ENG-36.

Humphries, David

2005-06-01

239

Capsule train separation system for fluid capsule pipeline transporation  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Apparatus for spacing consecutive capsules of solid material traveling as a capsule train in a pipeline in which the capsules are carried by a fluid flowing through the pipeline includes a separation system interposed between upstream and downstream portions of the pipeline for receiving the train of capsules. The separation system passes consecutively separated capsules within the capsule train to the downstream portion. The separation system is constructed for increasing the spacing between consecutive capsules within the capsule train in the downstream portion of the pipeline after passing through the separation system. The volume of fluid flowing from an outlet location of the separation system is substantially the same as the volume of fluid flowing into an inlet location of the separation system. A method for boosting fluid pressure in the capsule carrying pipeline consecutively spaces capsules within a capsule train as the train approaches a dual lock booster station to permit the booster station to alternately divert the trains into the first and second locks of the booster station.

Nair; Satish S. (Columbia, MO); Du; Hongliu (Columbia, MO)

2000-05-30

240

Data on Separation and Position Angle of Binary Star Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data on separation and position angle of binary star systems Abstract: We report on data gathered for the measurement of separation and position angle of binary stars. The coupling of a CCD camera to a telescope allows us to use a precise simple and straightforward method for such measurements. We use the 31 inch National Undergraduate Research Observatory (NURO) Telescope

Rafael J. Muller; D. C. Centeno; L. Rivera-Rivera; J. C. Cersosimo; K. Morales; K. Ramos; E. Franco; V. Miranda; V. Maldonado

2009-01-01

241

Physical separations soil washing system cold test results  

Microsoft Academic Search

This test summary describes the objectives, methodology, and results of a physical separations soil-washing system setup and shakedown test using uncontaminated soil. The test is being conducted in preparation for a treatability test to be conducted in the North Pond of the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit. It will be used to assess the feasibility of using a physical separations process to

McGuire

1993-01-01

242

Magnetic field in the Lobachevsky space and related integrable systems  

SciTech Connect

Various possibilities to define analogs of the uniform magnetic field in the Lobachevsky space are considered using different coordinate systems in this space. Quantum mechanical problem of motion in the defined fields is also treated. Variables in the Schroedinger equation are separated and diagonal operators are found. For some cases, exact solutions are obtained.

Kurochkin, Yu. A., E-mail: yukuroch@dragon.bas-net.by; Otchik, V. S.; Ovsiyuk, E. M. [National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Institute of Physics (Belarus)

2012-10-15

243

Heavy Medium Recovery in Coal Washing by Continuous High Gradient Magnetic Separation. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We have adapted high grade magnetic separation (HGMS) for magnetite recovery because of its insensitivity to coal/magnetite ratio and slurry density and its ability to capture fine magnetite at high velocity. An open vertical matrix able to capture 10 mu ...

D. R. Kelland

1983-01-01

244

Magnetic field intensified bi-enzyme system with in situ cofactor regeneration supported by magnetic nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Efficient dynamic interactions among cofactor, enzymes and substrate molecules are of primary importance for multi-step enzymatic reactions with in situ cofactor regeneration. Here we showed for the first time that the above dynamic interactions could be significantly intensified by exerting an external alternating magnetic field on magnetic nanoparticles-supported multi-enzymatic system so that the inter-particle collisions due to Brownian motion of nanoparticles could be improved. To that end, a multienzyme system including glutamate dehydrogenase (GluDH), glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) and cofactor NAD(H) were separately immobilized on silica coated Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles with an average diameter of 105nm, and the effect of magnetic field strength and frequency on the kinetics of the coupled bi-enzyme reaction was investigated. It was found that at low magnetic field frequency (25Hz and 100Hz), increasing magnetic field strength from 9.8 to 161.1Gs led to only very slight increase in reaction rate of the coupled bi-enzyme reaction expressed by glucose consumption rate. At higher magnetic field of 200Hz and 500Hz, reaction rate increased significantly with increase of magnetic field strength. When the magnetic field frequency was kept at 500Hz, the reaction rate increased from 3.89?M/min to 8.11?M/min by increasing magnetic field strength from 1.3 to 14.2Gs. The immobilized bi-enzyme system also showed good reusability and stability in the magnetic field (500Hz, 14.2Gs), that about 46% of original activity could be retained after 33 repeated uses, accounting for totally 34 days continuous operation. These results demonstrated the feasibility in intensifying molecular interactions among magnetic nanoparticle-supported multienzymes by using nano-magnetic stirrer for efficient multi-step transformations. PMID:23756150

Zheng, Muqing; Su, Zhiguo; Ji, Xiaoyuan; Ma, Guanghui; Wang, Ping; Zhang, Songping

2013-06-10

245

High efficiency protein separation with organosilane assembled silica coated magnetic nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work describes the development of high efficiency protein separation with functionalized organosilanes on the surface of silica coated magnetic nanoparticles. The magnetic nanoparticles were synthesized with average particle size of 9 nm and silica coated magnetic nanoparticles were obtained by controlling the coating thicknesses on magnetic nanoparticles. The silica coating thickness could be uniformly sized with a diameter of 10 40 nm by a sol gel approach. The surface modification was performed with four kinds of functionalized organosilanes such as carboxyl, aldehyde, amine, and thiol groups. The protein separation work with organosilane assembled silica coated magnetic nanoparticles was achieved for model proteins such as bovine serum albumin (BSA) and lysozyme (LSZ) at different pH conditions. Among the various functionalities, the thiol group showed good separation efficiency due to the change of electrostatic interactions and protein conformational structure. The adsorption efficiency of BSA and LSZ was up to 74% and 90% corresponding pH 4.65 and pH 11.

Chang, Jeong Ho; Kang, Ki Ho; Choi, Jinsub; Jeong, Young Keun

2008-10-01

246

Magnetic properties and microstructures of iron oxide@mesoporous silica core-shell composite for applications in magnetic dye separation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this report, hollow mesoporous silica (HMS) and iron oxide-hollow mesoporous silica (FexOy@HMS) core-shell composite were prepared by a one-step facile fabrication method. Transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms, and vibrating sample magnetometer were used to characterize the morphology, microstructure, and magnetic properties of the HMS and core-shell composite. The magnetic separability of FexOy@HMS core-shell composite was tested in Rhodamine B (Rh.B) dye solution. The results indicate that the core-shell composite can absorb Rh.B dyes molecules effectively up to 90.1%.

Hao, Weichang; Xi, Yang; Hu, Jingwei; Wang, Tianmin; Du, Y.; Wang, X. L.

2012-04-01

247

In situ magnetic separation of antibody fragments from Escherichia coli in complex media  

PubMed Central

Background In situ magnetic separation (ISMS) has emerged as a powerful tool to overcome process constraints such as product degradation or inhibition of target production. In the present work, an integrated ISMS process was established for the production of his-tagged single chain fragment variable (scFv) D1.3 antibodies (“D1.3”) produced by E. coli in complex media. This study investigates the impact of ISMS on the overall product yield as well as its biocompatibility with the bioprocess when metal-chelate and triazine-functionalized magnetic beads were used. Results Both particle systems are well suited for separation of D1.3 during cultivation. While the triazine beads did not negatively impact the bioprocess, the application of metal-chelate particles caused leakage of divalent copper ions in the medium. After the ISMS step, elevated copper concentrations above 120 mg/L in the medium negatively influenced D1.3 production. Due to the stable nature of the model protein scFv D1.3 in the biosuspension, the application of ISMS could not increase the overall D1.3 yield as was shown by simulation and experiments. Conclusions We could demonstrate that triazine-functionalized beads are a suitable low-cost alternative to selectively adsorb D1.3 fragments, and measured maximum loads of 0.08 g D1.3 per g of beads. Although copper-loaded metal-chelate beads did adsorb his-tagged D1.3 well during cultivation, this particle system must be optimized by minimizing metal leakage from the beads in order to avoid negative inhibitory effects on growth of the microorganisms and target production. Hereby, other types of metal chelate complexes should be tested to demonstrate biocompatibility. Such optimized particle systems can be regarded as ISMS platform technology, especially for the production of antibodies and their fragments with low stability in the medium. The proposed model can be applied to design future ISMS experiments in order to maximize the overall product yield while the amount of particles being used is minimized as well as the number of required ISMS steps.

2013-01-01

248

Phase Synchronous System of Separated Units  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When SSPS(Space Solar Power System) is practically operated, plural units of microwave transmission in a satellite should work in collaborate style with each other, in order to transmit sufficient power to the earth. However, if each microwave transmission unit operates individually, a direction of a microwave beam varies from time to time or it is impossible to direct the beam to rectennas on the earth. In this study, firstly, some methods for frequency and phase synchronization were investigated and some simulations for phase difference detection between two units using phase modulation technique were performed. Furthermore, proto type equipments were developed, and it was experimentally examined that the requirement such as the frequency stability was less than 0.6 ppm and that the phase difference was less than 3.5 degrees.

Tominaga, M.; Morishita, K.; Nakada, T.; Usef Ssps Study Team

2004-12-01

249

14 CFR 25.1707 - System separation: EWIS.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Electrical Wiring Interconnection Systems (EWIS...be designed and installed so that any electrical interference likely to be present in...ensure adequate physical separation and electrical isolation so that damage to...

2013-01-01

250

Aqueous two-phase systems for protein separation: phase separation and applications.  

PubMed

Aqueous two-phase systems (ATPS) that are formed by mixing a polymer (usually polyethylene glycol, PEG) and a salt (e.g. phosphate, sulphate or citrate) or two polymers, and water can be effectively used for the separation and purification of proteins. The partitioning between both phases is dependent on the surface properties of the proteins and on the composition of the two phase system as has been recently reviewed by Asenjo and Andrews [1]. This paper analyses and reviews some elements that are important for implementation of these processes which are related to phase separation and continuous processing of ATPS. Phase separation for ATPS formed by PEG and salts has been studied and has been found to depend on which of the phases is continuous. Profiles of dispersion heights can be represented as a fraction of the initial height and are independent of the dimensions of the separator. This is important for the design of large scale aqueous two-phase separations. The kinetics of phase separation has been investigated as a function of the physical properties of the system. The settling rate is a crucial parameter for equipment design and it has been studied as a function of viscosity and density of the phases as well as the interfacial tension between them. Correlations that describe the rate of phase separation have been developed. Working in a continuous bottom-phase region is advantageous to ensure fast separation. A mathematical model to describe the continuous, study state operation of these systems has been investigated. Two simulations to show the effect of phase ratio on purification have been carried out which clearly show the effectivity of using such models. The practical application of ATPS has been demonstrated in many cases including a number of industrial applications with excellent levels of purity and yield. Examples include the purification of ?-amylase and the large scale "in situ" purification of IGF-1 carried out by Genentech. The production scale purification of chymosin from recombinant Aspergillus supernatant is the most successful industrial application of this technology. Other applications include the separation and purification of human ?-antitrypsin from transgenic sheep milk, the purification of monoclonal antibodies, tPA from CHO supernatant and recombinant VLPs (virus like particles) from yeast cells. PMID:22494642

Asenjo, Juan A; Andrews, Barbara A

2012-03-23

251

Zonal centrifuges and other separation systems.  

PubMed

This discussion has included only a partial list of the systems now under development at Oak Ridge as part of the feasibility studies for the Molecular Anatomy Program. It is evident that we are still in the "Robert Goddard" phase of this work. It may not be premature, however, to suggest several conclusions. Biomedical scientists are discouraged on discovering that developmental efforts cost more, by one or two orders of magnitude, than pure research. In part this is because the full cost of development is generally shown, while in pure research some of the costs may be hidden, or the funds supplied by several sources. Regardless of the reason, the fact remains that development is expensive, as is well understood in nuclear physics and space science. The role and mission of the large national laboratories, and the kinds of research that should be done in them, have been discussed by Weinberg (63). The studies described here were in part stimulated by his ideas. We have been unable to find an environment outside a large national laboratory where a program like the Molecular Anatomy Program could be undertaken at the present rate. It appears that programs which attempt to make use of the multidisciplinary approach characteristic of national laboratories should be carefully designed and should evolve experimentally. There is less chance of success when a program is an administrative invention than when it evolves from scientific invention and discovery. It has been pointed out (64) that most program decisions in science are secret decisions in the sense that the scientific community as a whole does not participate in them. If a choice is to be made at some future time between large-scale expenditures for exploring space, for developing new weapons systems, for constructing new accelerators, for designing large reactors, or for systematically developing methods to explore the molecular basis of human disease, then we will need sufficient information to evaluate each alternative fully, and the information should be generally available. It appears desirable, therefore, to allow the Molecular Anatomy Program to proceed to a point where the full range of its contributions and its inherent limitations may be seen. A rational choice may then be made. PMID:5332156

Anderson, N G

1966-10-01

252

The Superconducting Magnets of the ILC Beam Delivery System  

SciTech Connect

The ILC Beam Delivery System (BDS) uses a variety of superconducting magnets to maximize luminosity and minimize background. Compact final focus quadrupoles with multifunction correction coils focus incoming beams to few nanometer spot sizes while focusing outgoing disrupted beams into a separate extraction beam line. Anti-solenoids mitigate effects from overlapping focusing and the detector solenoid field. Far from the interaction point (IP) strong octupoles help minimize IP backgrounds. A low-field but very large aperture dipole is integrated with the detector solenoid to reduce backgrounds from beamstrahlung pairs generated at the IP. Physics requirements and magnetic design solutions for the BDS superconducting magnets are reviewed in this paper.

Parker, B.; Anerella, M.; Escallier, J.; He, P.; Jain, A.; Marone, A.; /Brookhaven; Nosochkov, Y.; Seryi, Andrei; /SLAC

2007-09-28

253

DOE/Simplec Magnetic Susceptibility Logging System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A magnetic susceptibility logging system has been developed which is relatively stable under normal field logging conditions and which produces logs that accurately represent in situ variations in magnetic susceptibility. However, both field and laborator...

D. A. Emilia J. W. Allen R. B. Chessmore R. B. Wilson

1981-01-01

254

Temperature expansions for magnetic systems  

SciTech Connect

We derive finite temperature expansions for relativistic fermion systems in the presence of background magnetic fields, and with nonzero chemical potential. We use the imaginary-time formalism for the finite temperature effects, the proper-time method for the background field effects, and zeta function regularization for developing the expansions. We emphasize the essential difference between even and odd dimensions, focusing on 2+1 and 3+1 dimensions. We concentrate on the high temperature limit, but we also discuss the {ital T}=0 limit with nonzero chemical potential. Copyright {copyright} 1996 Academic Press, Inc.

Cangemi, D. [Department of Physics, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095-1547 (United States); Dunne, G. [Department of Physics, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269-3046 (United States)

1996-08-01

255

Vortex-like magnetization of multilayer magnetic nanoisland systems in weak magnetic fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of studies of magnetization processes of multilayer structures, consisting of periodically alternating island layers of various magnetic materials, are presented. The unidirectional axis of magnetization, which does not lead to exchange bias of hysteresis loops, is found in these structures. A vortex-like type of magnetization of island structures, when the vortex magnetization is distributed on set of nanoislands, is proposed. Preliminary simulations and experiments on the effects of vortex magnetic field on island systems have shown that proposed vortex-like state can be implemented in multilayer island systems and can influence their magnetic structure.

Boltaev, A. P.; Pudonin, F. A.; Sherstnev, I. A.

2013-04-01

256

Magnetic levitation self-regulating systems  

SciTech Connect

A magnet levitation self-regulating system is described comprising monotypic magnetic devices combined together by rigid nonmagnetic couplers; said magnetic device comprising two cylindrical parts extended along a cylinder generatrix: a. an iron core having a symmetrical C-shaped cross section and an air gap between its core shoes; and b. a permanent magnet having a rectangular cross-section disposed in said air gap; wherein all the iron cores of said magnetic devices are fixed on a common foundation by a first plurality of rigid nonmagnetic couplers and formed a stator assembly; all the permanent magnets of said magnetic devices are connected together by a second plurality of rigid non-magnetic couplers and form a levitator assembly; said permanent magnets of said levitator generate an original magnetic field and magnetize the stator cores; said stator cores create a secondary magnetic field; both said original and secondary magnetic fields create a magnetic levitation force that provides a stable hovering of said levitator in a resulting magnetic field of said system.

Tozoni, O.

1993-06-08

257

Membrane separation systems---A research and development needs assessment  

SciTech Connect

Industrial separation processes consume a significant portion of the energy used in the United States. A 1986 survey by the Office of Industrial Programs estimated that about 4.2 quads of energy are expended annually on distillation, drying and evaporation operations. This survey also concluded that over 0.8 quads of energy could be saved in the chemical, petroleum and food industries alone if these industries adopted membrane separation systems more widely. Membrane separation systems offer significant advantages over existing separation processes. In addition to consuming less energy than conventional processes, membrane systems are compact and modular, enabling easy retrofit to existing industrial processes. The present study was commissioned by the Department of Energy, Office of Program Analysis, to identify and prioritize membrane research needs in light of DOE's mission. Each report will be individually cataloged.

Baker, R.W. (Membrane Technology and Research, Inc., Menlo Park, CA (USA)); Cussler, E.L. (Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis, MN (USA). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science); Eykamp, W. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (USA)); Koros, W.J. (Texas Univ., Austin, TX (USA)); Riley, R.L. (Separation Systems Technology, San Diego, CA (USA)); Strathmann, H. (Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Grenzflaech

1990-04-01

258

Switchable 10 Hz/1 Hz LEB magnet power supply system  

SciTech Connect

The Low Energy Booster (LEB) is a rapid cycling synchrotron to be built at the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory in the Injector Complex. The Low Energy Booster will be ready for operation by late 1995. The LEB is used to accelerator protons from an injection momentum of 1.2 GeV/c to an extraction momentum of 12 GeV/c. The machine is a separated function design with dipole and quadrupole magnets driven by a single power supply system. Tracking errors between dipoles and quadrupoles are corrected by separate quadrupole magnets powered from independent power supplies. The dipoles and quadrupoles are excited with a 10 Hz biased sine wave or 1 Hz linear ramp. Change of operating mode from 10 hz to 1 Hz takes no more than 2 hours. This paper describes the present design of the ring magnet power supply system. 5 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

Jach, C.

1991-05-01

259

Magnetic nanofluids and magnetic composite fluids in rotating seal systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent results are presented concerning the development of magnetofluidic leakage-free rotating seals for vacuum and high pressure gases, evidencing significant advantages compared to mechanical seals. The micro-pilot scale production of various types of magnetizable sealing fluids is shortly reviewed, in particular the main steps of the chemical synthesis of magnetic nanofluids and magnetic composite fluids with light hydrocarbon, mineral oil and synthetic oil carrier liquids. The behavior of different types of magnetizable fluids in the rotating sealing systems is analyzed. Design concepts, some constructive details and testing procedures of magnetofluidic rotating seals are presented such as the testing equipment. The main characteristics of several magnetofluidic sealing systems and their applications will be presented: vacuum deposition systems and liquefied gas pumps applications, mechanical and magnetic nanofluid combined seals, gas valves up to 40 bar equipped by rotating seal with magnetic nanofluids and magnetic composite fluids.

Borbáth, T.; Bica, D.; Potencz, I.; Vékás, L.; Borbáth, I.; Boros, T.

2010-08-01

260

Composite laminate applications in magnetic fusion energy superconducting magnet systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of advanced composite laminates in the cryogenic portion of magnetic fusion energy systems is considered. It is suggested that laminates, characterized by high modulus, low thermal conductivity, and high electrical conductivity, can substitute for stainless steel in some components of superconducting magnets. Thermal insulation, nonmetallic dewars, and superconducting composites are discussed. Problems associated with the use of current

M. B. Kasen

1978-01-01

261

Separating Effect of a Novel Combined Magnetic Field on Inclusions in Molten Aluminum Alloy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The feasibility and effectiveness of a novel combined magnetic field (CMF) on the removal of inclusions with a density smaller than the surrounding melt were investigated. The experiment of the separating effect of CMF was conducted on a laboratory-scale apparatus by the simultaneous application of a rotating magnetic field (RMF) and a downward traveling magnetic field (TMF). Primary silicon particles precipitating from the solidification process of Al-Si-Cu alloy were regarded as the inclusions in a molten aluminum alloy. It was found that a CMF consisting of both a RMF and a downward TMF was able to separate silicon particles from the molten Al-Si-Cu alloy by making these particles migrate vertically toward the upper part of the samples. Compared with downward TMF or RMF, CMF improved the separating effectiveness substantially. It was proposed that this type of CMF was approved to be highly effective at eliminating the inclusions with a density smaller than the surrounding molten alloy. A tentative mechanism for the high separating effect of CMF was discussed.

He, Yanjie; Li, Qiulin; Liu, Wei

2012-10-01

262

Removal and recycle of phosphate from treated water of sewage plants with zirconium ferrite adsorbent by high gradient magnetic separation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zirconium ferrite particles are good adsorbent for phosphate ions. Magnetic separation characteristics for removal of phosphate from treated water of sewage plants with the adsorbent have been studied to prevent eutrophication of semi-enclosed bay, e.g. the bay of Tokyo. Based on the adsorption for the phosphate ions and ferromagnetic properties of the zirconium ferrite adsorbent, high gradient magnetic separation characteristics

D. Ito; K. Nishimura; O. Miura

2009-01-01

263

Non-Hamiltonian systems separable by Hamilton Jacobi method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that with every separable classical Stäckel system of Benenti type on a Riemannian space one can associate, by a proper deformation of the metric tensor, a multi-parameter family of non-Hamiltonian systems on the same space, sharing the same trajectories and related to the seed system by appropriate reciprocal transformations. These systems are known as bi-cofactor systems and are integrable in quadratures as the seed Hamiltonian system is. We show that with each class of bi-cofactor systems a pair of separation curves can be related. We also investigate the conditions under which a given flat bi-cofactor system can be deformed to a family of geodesically equivalent flat bi-cofactor systems.

Marciniak, Krzysztof; B?aszak, Maciej

2008-05-01

264

Spin-charge separation in the t-J model: Magnetic and transport anomalies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A real spin-charge separation scheme is found based on a saddle-point state of the t-J model. In the one-dimensional (1D) case, such a saddle-point reproduces the correct asymptotic correlations at the strong-coupling fixed point of the model. In the two-dimensional (2D) case, the transverse gauge field confining spinon and holon is shown to be gapped at finite doping so that a spin-charge deconfinement is obtained for its first time in 2D. The gap in the gauge fluctuation disappears at half-filling limit, where a long-range antiferromagnetic order is recovered at zero temperature and spinons become confined. The most interesting features of spin dynamics and transport are exhibited at finite doping where exotic residual couplings between spin and charge degrees of freedom lead to systematic anomalies with regard to a Fermi-liquid system. In spin dynamics, a commensurate antiferromagnetic fluctuation with a small, doping-dependent energy scale is found, which is characterized in momentum space by a Gaussian peak at (?/a,?/a) with a doping-dependent width (~ ?? , ? is the doping concentration). This commensurate magnetic fluctuation contributes a non-Korringa behavior for the NMR spin-lattice relaxation rate. There also exists a characteristic temperature scale below thich a pseudogap behavior appears in the spin dynamics. Furthermore, an incommensurate magnetic fluctuation is also obtained at a finite energy regime. In the transport, a strong-range phase intereference leads to an effective holon Lagrangian which can give rise to a series of interesting phenomena including linear-T resistivity and a T2 Hall angle. We discuss the striking similarities of these theoretical features with those found in the high-Tc cuprates and give a consistent picture for the latter. Electronic properties like Fermi surface and superconducting pairing in this framework are also discussed.

Weng, Z. Y.; Sheng, D. N.; Ting, C. S.

1995-07-01

265

Quantitative separation of bacteria in saline solution using lanthanide Er(III) and a magnetic field.  

PubMed

A trivalent lanthanide ion, erbium (Er3+), has been used in combination with a magnetic separation technique to isolate seven bacterial species from suspensions in 0.9% saline. Erbium has an exceptionally high atomic magnetic moment of 9.3 Bohr magnetons, and following addition as ErCl3 (final concentration 5 mM) to bacterial suspensions, it imparts the magnetic moment to the bacterial cells by ionic binding to the cell surface. Strains of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus saprophyticus and Enterococcus faecalis were obtained from the Quality Control Depository of The Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio, USA as suspensions in 0.9% NaCl, in concentrations ranging from 10(2) to 10(8) c.f.u. ml-1. Bacteria were separated from solution inside a capillary flow cell exposed to a highly non-homogeneous magnetic field (maximum field intensity was 0.4 T) and quantified by a light scattering method. The quantity of cellular deposition in the magnetic field was correlated with the initial concentration of cells in the suspension, expressed in c.f.u. ml-1, and sample volume (1.5 and 3.0 ml), sample pH (prior to ErCl3 addition), affinity to Gram stain (negative vs positive) and species.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1556557

Zborowski, M; Malchesky, P S; Jan, T F; Hall, G S

1992-01-01

266

Adaptation de la separation cryomagnetique aux technologies de l'environnement: application a l'epuration d'effluents liquides industriels. (Cryo magnetic separation adaptation to environment technologies: application to industrial effluents).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Cryomagnetic separation adaptation to environment technologies application to industrial liquid effluents. The performance, obtained by superconducting high filed - high gradient magnetic separation, permitted to foresee the magnetic treatment of heavy me...

V. Bureau

1993-01-01

267

Review and evaluation of extractants for strontium removal using magnetically assisted chemical separation  

SciTech Connect

A literature review on extractants for strontium removal was initially performed at Northern Illinois University to assess their potential in magnetically assisted chemical separation. A series of potential strontium extractants was systematically evaluated there using radioanalytical methods. Initial experiments were designed to test the uptake of strontium from nitric acid using several samples of magnetic extractant particles that were coated with various crown ether ligands. High partition coefficient (K{sub d}) values for stimulant tank waste were obtained. Further studies demonstrated that the large partitioning was due to uncoated particles.

Bauer, C.B.; Rogers, R.D. [Northern Illinois Univ., De Kalb, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Nunez, L.; Ziemer, M.D.; Pleune, T.T.; Vandegrift, G.F. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1995-11-01

268

Transition currents of superconducting magnet system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The normal transition of a superconducting magnet may be initiated by the instability of the superconducting state. This instability develops in the winding in transient regimes at certain definite values of transport current, l(t), and magnetic field, B(t ). In the present work the transition current, Ira, of the superconducting magnet system has been measured and calculated theoretically. The calcula-

V. V. Andrianov; V. P. Baev; S. S. Ivanov; R. G. Mints; A. L. Rakhmanov

1990-01-01

269

Separation of Sudan dyes from chilli powder by magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer.  

PubMed

A simple method based on magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers (MMIPs) for the separation of Sudan dyes from chilli powder samples has been developed. The MMIPs were synthesized as follows: the Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles were encapsulated with a SiO(2) shell and functionalized with -CH=CH(2), then the polymers were further fabricated by surface-imprinted polymerization using Sudan IV as template molecule, methacrylic acid as functional monomer, and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as cross-linking agent. The prepared MMIPs were characterized by scanning electron microscope, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry and physical property measurement system. The isothermal absorption experiment, kinetics absorption experiment and selectivity of MMIPs were tested. The analytes were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. Under the optimal conditions, the limits of detection of the four Sudan dyes are 6.2, 1.6, 4.3 and 4.5 ng g(-1), respectively. The precision expressed as relative standard deviation ranging from 4.8% to 9.1% was obtained. In all three fortified levels (25, 250 and 2500 ng g(-1)), recoveries of Sudan dyes were in the range of 79.9-87.8%. PMID:23141623

Piao, Chunying; Chen, Ligang

2012-10-26

270

The magnetic field induced phase separation in a model of a superconductor with local electron pairing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have studied the extended Hubbard model with pair hopping in the atomic limit for arbitrary electron density and chemical potential and focus on paramagnetic effects of the external magnetic field. The Hamiltonian considered consists of (i) the effective on-site interaction U and (ii) the intersite charge exchange interactions I, determining the hopping of electron pairs between nearest-neighbour sites. The phase diagrams and thermodynamic properties of this model have been determined within the variational approach (VA), which treats the on-site interaction term exactly and the intersite interactions within the mean-field approximation. Our investigation of the general case shows that the system can exhibit not only the homogeneous phases—superconducting (SS) and non-ordered (NO)—but also the phase separated states (PS: SS-NO). Depending on the values of interaction parameters, the PS state can occur in higher fields than the SS phase (field induced PS). Some ground state results beyond the VA are also presented.

Kapcia, Konrad; Robaszkiewicz, Stanis?aw

2013-02-01

271

The magnetic field induced phase separation in a model of a superconductor with local electron pairing.  

PubMed

We have studied the extended Hubbard model with pair hopping in the atomic limit for arbitrary electron density and chemical potential and focus on paramagnetic effects of the external magnetic field. The Hamiltonian considered consists of (i) the effective on-site interaction U and (ii) the intersite charge exchange interactions I, determining the hopping of electron pairs between nearest-neighbour sites. The phase diagrams and thermodynamic properties of this model have been determined within the variational approach (VA), which treats the on-site interaction term exactly and the intersite interactions within the mean-field approximation. Our investigation of the general case shows that the system can exhibit not only the homogeneous phases-superconducting (SS) and non-ordered (NO)-but also the phase separated states (PS: SS-NO). Depending on the values of interaction parameters, the PS state can occur in higher fields than the SS phase (field induced PS). Some ground state results beyond the VA are also presented. PMID:23334285

Kapcia, Konrad; Robaszkiewicz, Stanis?aw

2013-02-13

272

Magnetization of planar four-fermion systems  

SciTech Connect

We consider a planar system of fermions, at finite temperature and density under a static magnetic field parallel to the two-dimensional plane. This magnetic field generates a Zeeman effect and then a spin polarization of the system. The critical properties are studied from the Landau's free energy. The possible observable consequences of the magnetization of planar systems such as polymer films and graphene are discussed.

Caldas, Heron [Departamento de Ciencias Naturais, Universidade Federal de Sao Joao del Rei, 36301-160 Sao Joao del Rei, MG (Brazil); Ramos, Rudnei O. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, 20550-013 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

2009-09-15

273

Separated master system to decrease operational force of bilateral control  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes separated master system to decrease operational force of bilateral control in free motion. Operational force in bilateral control is not desirable because it prevent accurate reproduction of remote environmental force. Thus to decrease operational force is important. The master system consists of a grip part and an actuator part. A human operator manipulates the grip part. In

Haruya Sato; Takahiro Mizoguchi; Fumiya Mitome; Kouhei Ohnishi

2012-01-01

274

Separable Hamiltonians and integrable systems of hydrodynamic type  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We exhibit a surprising relationship between separable Hamiltonians and integrable, linearly degenerate systems of hydrodynamic type. This gives a new way of obtaining the general solution of the latter. Our formulae also lead to interesting canonical transformations between large classes of Stäckel systems.

Ferapontov, E. V.; Fordy, A. P.

1997-01-01

275

A hazard separation system for dismantlement of nuclear weapon components  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the next decade, the US Department of Energy (DOE) must retire and dismantle many nuclear weapon systems. In support of this effort, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has developed the Hazard Separation System (HSS). The HSS combines abrasive waterjet cutting technology and real-time radiography. Using the HSS, operators determine the exact location of interior, hazardous sub-components and remove them through

J. D. Lutz; S. T. Purvis; R. L. Hospelhorn; K. R. Thompson

1995-01-01

276

Dimensions, lengths, and separability in finite-dimensional quantum systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many important sets of normalized states in a multipartite quantum system of finite dimension d, such as the set of all separable states, are real semialgebraic sets. We compute dimensions of many such sets in several low-dimensional systems. By using dimension arguments, we show that there exist separable states which are not convex combinations of d or less pure product states. For instance, such states exist in bipartite M?N systems when (M - 2)(N - 2) > 1. This solves an open problem proposed by DiVincenzo, Terhal and Thapliyal about 12 years ago. We prove that there exist a separable state ? and a pure product state, whose mixture has smaller length than that of ?. We show that any real ??, which is invariant under all partial transpose operations, is a convex sum of real pure product states. In the case of the 2?N system, the number r of product states can be taken to be r=rank?. We also show that the general multipartite separability problem can be reduced to the case of real states. Regarding the separability problem, we propose two conjectures describing as a semialgebraic set, which may eventually lead to an analytic solution in some low-dimensional systems such as 2?4, 3?3, and 2?2?2.

Chen, Lin; ðokovi?, Dragomir Ž.

2013-02-01

277

Superconducting magnet system U-25 MHD facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Argonne National Laboratory has designed and is constructing a superconducting dipole magnet system for use in the bypass loop of the U-25 MHD facility in Moscow. Presented in detail are the system design parameters. Reviewed are the magnet geometry, stability criteria, cryostat thermal and mechanical design, cryogenic system parameters, and controls. Details of the servo mechanism winding machine, the

R. Niemann; S. Wang; W. Pelczarski; J. Gonczy; K. Mataya; H. Ludwig; D. Hillis; H. Phillips; L. Turner; J. Purcell; D. Montgomery; J. Williams; A. Hatch; P. Marston; P. Smelser; V. Zenkevitch; L. Kirjenen; W. Young

1977-01-01

278

High efficiency X-band magnetically insulated line oscillator with a separate cathode  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An X-band magnetically insulated line oscillator (MILO) with a separate cathode has been proposed in order to improve microwave output characteristics. The separate cathode consists of three parts with gradually decreased radii, which are divided by two deep grooves, and only partial cathode surfaces are allowed to emit electrons. In particle-in-cell simulation, high-power microwave with a power of 6.9 GW, frequency of 9.26 GHz, and efficiency of 20.6% is generated, compared with that of 12.2% obtained in a conventional cathode X-band MILO, and the power ratio of the output transverse-electromagnetic mode to transverse-magnetic (TM01) mode is increased from 4 to 27.

Xiao, Renzhen; Song, Wei; Song, Zhimin; Sun, Jun; Shao, Hao; Chen, Changhua

2010-04-01

279

Magnetic separation of malaria-infected red blood cells in various developmental stages.  

PubMed

Malaria is a serious disease that threatens the public health, especially in developing countries. Various methods have been developed to separate malaria-infected red blood cells (i-RBCs) from blood samples for clinical diagnosis and biological and epidemiological research. In this study, we propose a simple and label-free method for separating not only late-stage but also early-stage i-RBCs on the basis of their paramagnetic characteristics due to the malaria byproduct, hemozoin, by using a magnetic field gradient. A polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic channel was fabricated and integrated with a ferromagnetic wire fixed on a glass slide. To evaluate the performance of the microfluidic device containing the ferromagnetic wire, lateral displacement of NaNO2-treated RBCs, which also have paramagnetic characteristics, was observed at various flow rates. The results showed excellent agreement with theoretically predicted values. The same device was applied to separate i-RBCs. Late-stage i-RBCs (trophozoites and schizonts), which contain optically visible black dots, were separated with a recovery rate of approximately 98.3%. In addition, using an optimal flow rate, early-stage (ring-stage) i-RBCs, which had been difficult to separate because of their low paramagnetic characteristics, were successfully separated with a recovery rate of 73%. The present technique, using permanent magnets and ferromagnetic wire in a microchannel, can effectively separate i-RBCs in various developmental stages so that it could provide a potential tool for studying the invasion mechanism of the malarial parasite, as well as performing antimalarial drug assays. PMID:23815099

Nam, Jeonghun; Huang, Hui; Lim, Hyunjung; Lim, Chaeseung; Shin, Sehyun

2013-07-10

280

5 CFR 293.402 - Establishment of separate employee performance record system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Establishment of separate employee performance record system. 293.402 ...PERSONNEL RECORDS Employee Performance File System Records § 293...Establishment of separate employee performance record system. (a)...

2013-01-01

281

Study on the Cytochrome C Separation Based on Silica Coated Magnetic Nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple and fast method for separation of cytochrome C (Cyt-C) has been reported based on the electrostatic adsorption between silica coated magnetic nanoparticles (SMNPs) and Cyt-C. When the solution pH is above 6.0, but below the isoelectric point of Cyt-C (pi = 10.6), SMNPs possess zeta potential below -30 mV and can electrically adsorb positively charged Cyt-C to form

Yingjie Chen; Xiaoxiao He; Kemin Wang; Ping Wu; Weihong Tan

2007-01-01

282

High-efficiency bioaffinity separation of cells and proteins using novel thermoresponsive biotinylated magnetic nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermoresponsive magnetic nanoparticles with an upper critical solution temperature (UCST) in aqueous solution were synthesized\\u000a for the first time. Named Therma-Max, the material was synthesized by redox copolymerization of N-acryloyl glycinamide with a monomer form of biotin using methacrylated dextran-magnetite. While the resulting Therma-Max\\u000a was completely dispersed at temperatures above the UCST (18°C) and could not be separated by a

Noriyuki Ohnishi; Hirotaka Furukawa; Hata Hideyuki; Jing-Ming Wang; Chung-Il An; Eiichiro Fukusaki; Kazunori Kataoka; Katsuhiko Ueno; Akihiko Kondo

2006-01-01

283

Dual-template synthesis of magnetically-separable hierarchically-ordered porous carbons by catalytic graphitization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetically-separable hierarchically-ordered porous carbons with graphitic structures (HPC-G) have been directly synthesized by one-pot dual-templating with evaporation-induced self-assembly at calcination temperatures ranging between 600 and 1000°C. Polystyrene latex spheres and triblock copolymer F127 were used as macro- and meso-porous structure-directing agents, while phenol–formaldehyde resins and Ni species were added as the carbon source and graphitization catalyst, respectively. The microstructures in

Chun-hsien Huang; Ruey-an Doong; Dong Gu; Dongyuan Zhao

2011-01-01

284

Theory of Magnetically Dilute Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The variation of the critical temperature (the Curie or Néel temperature) of a magnetic crystal randomly diluted with non-magnetic atoms is evaluated as a function of concentration p of magnetic atoms by the effective Hamiltonian method based on the Ising and the Heisenberg models. The specific heat of Ising ferromagnet above the Curie temperature is calculated for various concentrations in

Takehiko Oguchi; Takeshi Obokata

1969-01-01

285

Magnetic anisotropy of phase-separated CaO–Fe 3O 4–SiO 2 glasses prepared from a two-liquids immiscible melt  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phase-separated glass containing magnetite in CaO–Fe3O4–SiO2 system was prepared through liquid–liquid stable immiscibility. Possibilities of the distortion of the phase-separation texture by elongation during quenching were investigated in order to introduce magnetic anisotropy in the glass. The sintered rods of raw materials were melted at 2200 °C first for homogenizing the liquid melt, and subsequently melted at 1800 °C

Atsuo Yasumori; Akio Koike; Yoshikazu Kameshima; Kiyoshi Okada; Hiroaki Nishio

2002-01-01

286

Selective separation of lambdacyhalothrin by porous/magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers prepared by Pickering emulsion polymerization.  

PubMed

Porous/magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers (PM-MIPs) were prepared by Pickering emulsion polymerization. The reaction was carried out in an oil/water emulsion using magnetic halloysite nanotubes as the stabilizer instead of a toxic surfactant. In the oil phase, the imprinting process was conducted by radical polymerization of functional and cross-linked monomers, and porogen chloroform generated steam under the high reaction temperature, which resulted in some pores decorated with easily accessible molecular binding sites within the as-made PM-MIPs. The characterization demonstrated that the PM-MIPs were porous and magnetic inorganic-polymer composite microparticles with magnetic sensitivity (Ms = 0.7448 emu/g), thermal stability (below 473 K) and magnetic stability (over the pH range of 2.0-8.0). The PM-MIPs were used as a sorbent for the selective binding of lambdacyhalothrin (LC) and rapidly separated under an external magnetic field. The Freundlich isotherm model gave a good fit to the experimental data. The adsorption kinetics of the PM-MIPs was well described by pseudo-second-order kinetics, indicating that the chemical process could be the rate-limiting step in the adsorption of LC. The selective recognition experiments exhibited the outstanding selective adsorption effect of the PM-MIPs for target LC. Moreover, the PM-MIPs regeneration without significant loss in adsorption capacity was demonstrated by at least four repeated cycles. PMID:23894024

Hang, Hui; Li, Chunxiang; Pan, Jianming; Li, Linzi; Dai, Jiangdong; Dai, Xiaohui; Yu, Ping; Feng, Yonghai

2013-08-27

287

New monodisperse magnetic polymer microspheres biofunctionalized for enzyme catalysis and bioaffinity separations.  

PubMed

Magnetic macroporous PGMA and PHEMA microspheres containing carboxyl groups are synthesized by multi-step swelling and polymerization followed by precipitation of iron oxide inside the pores. The microspheres are characterized by SEM, IR spectroscopy, AAS, and zeta-potential measurements. Their functional groups enable bioactive ligands of various sizes and chemical structures to couple covalently. The applicability of these monodisperse magnetic microspheres in biospecific catalysis and bioaffinity separation is confirmed by coupling with the enzyme trypsin and huIgG. Trypsin-modified magnetic PGMA-COOH and PHEMA-COOH microspheres are investigated in terms of their enzyme activity, operational and storage stability. The presence of IgG molecules on microspheres is confirmed. PMID:22411761

Horák, Daniel; Ku?erová, Jana; Korecká, Lucie; Jankovi?ová, Barbora; Palar?ík, Ji?í; Mikulášek, Petr; Bílková, Zuzana

2012-03-13

288

Design and Development of Integrated Compact Multiphase Separation System (CMSS)  

SciTech Connect

The petroleum industry has relied in the past mainly on conventional vessel-type separators, which are bulky, heavy and expensive, to process wellhead production of oil-water-gas flow. Economic and operational pressures continue to force the petroleum industry to seek less expensive and more efficient separation alternatives in the form of compact separators. The compact dimensions, smaller footprint and lower weight of compact separators have a potential for cost savings to the industry, especially in offshore and subsea applications. Also, compact separators reduce the inventory of hydrocarbons significantly, which is critical for environmental This report presents a brief overview of the activities and tasks accomplished during the Budget Period II (October 09, 2004-April 30, 2006) of the DOE project titled ''Design and Development of Integrated Compact Multiphase Separation System (CMSS{copyright})''. An executive summary is presented initially followed by the tasks of the current budget period. Then, detailed description of the experimental and modeling investigations are presented. Subsequently, the technical and scientific results of the activities of this project period are presented with discussions. The findings of this investigation are summarized in the ''Conclusions'' section In this investigation, the concept of CMSS{copyright} has been developed and is proven through simulation studies and validated by experimental data. As part of the second phase of the project (Budget Period II--10/09/2004-04/30/2006) experimental investigation of the integrated CMSS{copyright} for different configurations has been conducted in order to evaluate the performance of the individual separation components, and determine how they will affect the performance of each other when integrated in the CMSS{copyright}. An intelligent control system is also developed to improve the total system efficiency of Compact Multiphase Separation System (CMSS{copyright}). In mature oil fields, water handling poses a huge problem. Thus water knock out at the earliest stage helps in significant cost savings during handling, separation and transportation of oil. One of the objectives of the CMSS{copyright} configuration is to knock out free water from the upstream fluids. The results from theoretical and experimental studies show that Free Water Knock Out (FWKO) CMSS{copyright} system can be readily deployed in the field using the control system strategies designed, implemented and tested in this study.

Ram S. Mohan; Ovadia Shoham

2006-04-30

289

Particles sorting in micro-channel system utilizing magnetic tweezers and optical tweezers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study evaluates a method for separating magnetic microparticles in a micro channel by using embedded inverted-laser tweezers, a microflow pump, and a micro magnet. Various particles were separated using optical and/or magnetic tweezers, and were identified and counted to determine the dependence of the sorting rate on the channel flow velocity. The particle sorting experiment showed good separation results when the designed channel and magnetic tweezers were used. For magnetic particles, lower flow velocities corresponded to larger separating rates with a maximum separating rate of 81%. When the designed channel and optical tweezers were used, the polystyrene particle separating rate was as high as 94%. When both the optical tweezers and the magnetic tweezers were used, the optical tweezers were more effective in trapping polystyrene particles with flow velocities between 0.09 and 0.25 ?m/s. For flow velocities between 0.09 and 0.17 ?m/s, the separating rate for polystyrene particles reached 95% and the separating rate for magnetic particles reached 85%. This hybrid system can be applied to the separation of various particles in unknown mixtures.

Chung, Yung-Chiang; Chen, Po-Wen; Fu, Chao-Ming; Wu, Jian-Min

2013-05-01

290

DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF INTEGRATED COMPACT MULTIPHASE SEPARATION SYSTEM (CMSS)  

SciTech Connect

The petroleum industry has relied in the past mainly on conventional vessel-type separators, which are bulky, heavy and expensive, to process wellhead production of oil-water-gas flow. Economic and operational pressures continue to force the petroleum industry to seek less expensive and more efficient separation alternatives in the form of compact separators. The compact dimensions, smaller footprint and lower weight of compact separators have a potential for cost savings to the industry, especially in offshore and subsea applications. Also, compact separators reduce the inventory of hydrocarbons significantly, which is critical for environmental and safety considerations. This report presents a brief overview of the activities and tasks accomplished during the part July 09, 2003--October 08, 2004, related to the Budget Period I (July 09, 2003--October 08, 2004) of the DOE project titled ''Design and Development of Integrated Compact Multiphase Separation System (CMSS{copyright})''. An executive summary is presented initially followed by the tasks of the current budget period. Then, detailed description of the experimental and modeling investigations are presented. Subsequently, the technical and scientific results of the activities of this project period are presented with discussions. The findings of this investigation are summarized in the ''Conclusions'' section followed by relevant references. The initial phase of the project (Budget Period I--07/09/2003 to 10/08/2004) focuses on the development of additional individual compact separation components, such as the horizontal pipe separator (HPS{copyright}), for obtaining clean oil stream from oil-water mixture, flow conditioning components, such as the helical pipe (HP) and slug damper (SD{copyright}), for dissipating slugs upstream of the compact separators. The project will also design and test an upstream slug generator (SG).

Ram S. Mohan; Ovadia Shoham

2004-12-31

291

Identification of Heavy and Superheavy Nuclides Using Chemical Separator Systems  

SciTech Connect

With the recent synthesis of superheavy nuclides produced in the reactions {sup 48}Ca+{sup 238}U and {sup 48}Ca+{sup 242,244}Pu, much longer-lived nuclei than the previously known neutron-deficient isotopes of the heaviest elements have been identified. Half-lives of several hours and up to several years have been predicted for the longest-lived isotopes of these elements. Thus, the sensitivity of radiochemical separation techniques may present a viable alternative to physical separator systems for the discovery of some of the predicted longer-lived heavy and superheavy nuclides. The advantages of chemical separator systems in comparison to kinematic separators lie in the possibility of using thick targets, high beam intensities spread over larger target areas and in providing access to nuclides emitted under large angles and low velocities. Thus, chemical separator systems are ideally suited to study also transfer and (HI, axn) reaction products. In the following, a study of (HI, axn) reactions will be presented and prospects to chemically identify heavy and superheavy elements discussed.

Turler, Andreas

1999-12-31

292

Cooling system for superconducting magnet  

SciTech Connect

A cooling system is configured to control the flow of a refrigerant by controlling the rate at which the refrigerant is heated, thereby providing an efficient and reliable approach to cooling a load (e.g., magnets, rotors). The cooling system includes a conduit circuit connected to the load and within which a refrigerant circulates; a heat exchanger, connected within the conduit circuit and disposed remotely from the load; a first and a second reservoir, each connected within the conduit, each holding at least a portion of the refrigerant; a heater configured to independently heat the first and second reservoirs. In a first mode, the heater heats the first reservoir, thereby causing the refrigerant to flow from the first reservoir through the load and heat exchanger, via the conduit circuit and into the second reservoir. In a second mode, the heater heats the second reservoir to cause the refrigerant to flow from the second reservoir through the load and heat exchanger via the conduit circuit and into the first reservoir. 3 figs.

Gamble, B.B.; Sidi-Yekhlef, A.

1998-12-15

293

Cooling system for superconducting magnet  

DOEpatents

A cooling system is configured to control the flow of a refrigerant by controlling the rate at which the refrigerant is heated, thereby providing an efficient and reliable approach to cooling a load (e.g., magnets, rotors). The cooling system includes a conduit circuit connected to the load and within which a refrigerant circulates; a heat exchanger, connected within the conduit circuit and disposed remotely from the load; a first and a second reservoir, each connected within the conduit, each holding at least a portion of the refrigerant; a heater configured to independently heat the first and second reservoirs. In a first mode, the heater heats the first reservoir, thereby causing the refrigerant to flow from the first reservoir through the load and heat exchanger, via the conduit circuit and into the second reservoir. In a second mode, the heater heats the second reservoir to cause the refrigerant to flow from the second reservoir through the load and heat exchanger via the conduit circuit and into the first reservoir.

Gamble, Bruce B. (Wellesley, MA); Sidi-Yekhlef, Ahmed (Framingham, MA)

1998-01-01

294

An Innovative Cascade System for Simultaneous Separation of Multiple Cell Types  

PubMed Central

Isolation of different cell types from one sample by fluorescence activated cell sorting is standard but expensive and time consuming. Magnetic separation is more cost effective and faster by but requires substantial effort. An innovative pluriBead-cascade cell isolation system (pluriSelect GmbH, Leipzig, Germany) simultaneously separates two or more different cell types. It is based on antibody-mediated binding of cells to beads of different size and their isolation with sieves of different mesh-size. For the first time, we validated the pluriSelect system for simultaneous separation of CD4+- and CD8+-cells from human EDTA-blood samples. Results were compared with those obtained by magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS; two steps -first isolation of CD4+, then restaining of the residual cell suspension with anti-human CD8+ MACS antibody followed by the second isolation). pluriSelect separation was done in whole blood, MACS separation on density gradient isolated mononuclear cells. Isolated and residual cells were immunophenotyped by 7-color 9-marker panel (CD3; CD16/56; CD4; CD8; CD14; CD19; CD45; HLA-DR) using flow cytometry. Cell count, purity, yield and viability (7-AAD exclusion) were determined. There were no significant differences between both systems regarding purity (MACS (median[range]: 92.4% [91.5-94.9] vs. pluriSelect 95% [94.9-96.8])) of CD4+ cells, however CD8+ isolation showed lower purity by MACS (74.8% [67.6-77.9], pluriSelect 89.9% [89.0-95.7]). Yield was not significantly different for CD4 (MACS 58.5% [54.1-67.5], pluriSelect 67.9% [56.8-69.8]) and for CD8 (MACS 57.2% [41.3-72.0], pluriSelect 67.2% [60.0-78.5]). Viability was slightly higher with MACS for CD4+ (98.4% [97.8-99.0], pluriSelect 94.1% [92.1-95.2]) and for CD8+-cells (98.8% [98.3-99.1], pluriSelect 86.7% [84.2-89.9]). pluriSelect separation was substantially faster than MACS (1h vs. 2.5h) and no pre-enrichment steps were necessary. In conclusion, pluriSelect is a fast, simple and gentle system for efficient simultaneous separation of two and more cell subpopulation directly from whole blood and provides a simple alternative to magnetic separation.

Pierzchalski, Arkadiusz; Mittag, Anja; Bocsi, Jozsef; Tarnok, Attila

2013-01-01

295

DIELECTROPHORESIS-BASED MICROFLUIDIC SEPARATION AND DETECTION SYSTEMS.  

PubMed

Diagnosis and treatment of human diseases frequently requires isolation and detection of certain cell types from a complex mixture. Compared with traditional separation and detection techniques, microfluidic approaches promise to yield easy-to-use diagnostic instruments tolerant of a wide range of operating environments and capable of accomplishing automated analyses. These approaches will enable diagnostic advances to be disseminated from sophisticated clinical laboratories to the point-of-care. Applications will include the separation and differential analysis of blood cell subpopulations for host-based detection of blood cell changes caused by disease, infection, or exposure to toxins, and the separation and analysis of surface-sensitized, custom dielectric beads for chemical, biological, and biomolecular targets. Here we report a new particle separation and analysis microsystem that uses dielectrophoretic field-flow fractionation (DEP-FFF). The system consists of a microfluidic chip with integrated sample injector, a DEP-FFF separator, and an AC impedance sensor. We show the design of a miniaturized impedance sensor integrated circuit (IC) with improved sensitivity, a new packaging approach for micro-flumes that features a slide-together compression package and novel microfluidic interconnects, and the design, control, integration and packaging of a fieldable prototype. Illustrative applications will be shown, including the separation of different sized beads and different cell types, blood cell differential analysis, and impedance sensing results for beads, spores and cells. PMID:22025905

Yang, Jun; Vykoukal, Jody; Noshari, Jamileh; Becker, Frederick; Gascoyne, Peter; Krulevitch, Peter; Fuller, Chris; Ackler, Harold; Hamilton, Julie; Boser, Bernhard; Eldredge, Adam; Hitchens, Duncan; Andrews, Craig

2000-01-01

296

DIELECTROPHORESIS-BASED MICROFLUIDIC SEPARATION AND DETECTION SYSTEMS  

PubMed Central

Diagnosis and treatment of human diseases frequently requires isolation and detection of certain cell types from a complex mixture. Compared with traditional separation and detection techniques, microfluidic approaches promise to yield easy-to-use diagnostic instruments tolerant of a wide range of operating environments and capable of accomplishing automated analyses. These approaches will enable diagnostic advances to be disseminated from sophisticated clinical laboratories to the point-of-care. Applications will include the separation and differential analysis of blood cell subpopulations for host-based detection of blood cell changes caused by disease, infection, or exposure to toxins, and the separation and analysis of surface-sensitized, custom dielectric beads for chemical, biological, and biomolecular targets. Here we report a new particle separation and analysis microsystem that uses dielectrophoretic field-flow fractionation (DEP-FFF). The system consists of a microfluidic chip with integrated sample injector, a DEP-FFF separator, and an AC impedance sensor. We show the design of a miniaturized impedance sensor integrated circuit (IC) with improved sensitivity, a new packaging approach for micro-flumes that features a slide-together compression package and novel microfluidic interconnects, and the design, control, integration and packaging of a fieldable prototype. Illustrative applications will be shown, including the separation of different sized beads and different cell types, blood cell differential analysis, and impedance sensing results for beads, spores and cells.

Yang, Jun; Vykoukal, Jody; Noshari, Jamileh; Becker, Frederick; Gascoyne, Peter; Krulevitch, Peter; Fuller, Chris; Ackler, Harold; Hamilton, Julie; Boser, Bernhard; Eldredge, Adam; Hitchens, Duncan; Andrews, Craig

2009-01-01

297

Capture and separation of biomolecules using magnetic beads in a simple microfluidic channel without an external flow device.  

PubMed

The use of microfluidic devices and magnetic beads for applications in biotechnology has been extensively explored over the past decade. Many elaborate microfluidic chips have been used in efficient systems for biological assays. However most fail to achieve the ideal point of care (POC) status, as they require larger conventional external devices in conjunction with the microchip. This paper presents a simple technique to capture and separate biomolecules using magnetic bead movement on a microchip without the use of an external flow device. This microchip consisted of two well reservoirs (W1 and W2) connected via a tapered microchannel. Beads were dragged through the microchannel between the two wells at an equivalent speed to a permanent magnet that moved alongside the microchip. More than 95% of beads were transferred from W1 to W2 within 2 min at an average velocity of 0.7 mm s(-1). Enzymatic reactions were employed to test our microchip. Specifically, three assays were performed using the streptavidin coated magnetic beads as a solid support to capture and transfer biomolecules: (1) non-specific adsorption of the substrate, 6-8-difluoro-4-methylumbelliferyl phosphate (DiFMUP), (2) capture of the enzyme, biotinylated alkaline phosphatase (AP), and (3) separation of AP from DiFMUP. Our non-specific adsorption assay indicated that the microchip was capable of transferring the beads with less than 0.002% carryover of DiFMUP. Our capture assay indicated efficient capture and transfer of AP with beads to W2 containing DiFMUP, where the transferred AP converted 100% of DiFMUP to DiFMU within 15 minutes. Our separation assay showed effective separation of AP from DiFMUP and elucidated the binding capacity of the beads for AP. The leftover unbound AP in W1 converted 100% of DiFMUP within 10 minutes and samples with less than the full bead capacity of AP (i.e. all AP was transferred) did not convert any of the DiFMUP. The immobilization of AP on the bead surface resulted in 32% reduced enzymatic speed compared to that of free AP in solution, as a result of altered protein conformation and/or steric hindrance of the catalytic site. Overall, this microfluidic platform was established as a simple, efficient and effective approach for separating biomolecules without any flow apparatus. PMID:24051541

Wang, Jingjing; Morabito, Kenneth; Erkers, Tom; Tripathi, Anubhav

2013-09-30

298

A lysozyme and magnetic bead based method of separating intact bacteria.  

PubMed

As a response to environmental stress, bacterial cells can enter a physiological state called viable but noncultivable (VBNC). In this state, bacteria fail to grow on routine bacteriological media. Consequently, standard methods of contamination detection based on bacteria cultivation fail. Although they are not growing, the cells are still alive and are able to reactivate their metabolism. The VBNC state and low bacterial densities are big challenges for cultivation-based pathogen detection in drinking water and the food industry, for example. In this context, a new molecular-biological separation method for bacteria using point-mutated lysozymes immobilised on magnetic beads for separating bacteria is described. The immobilised mutated lysozymes on magnetic beads serve as bait for the specific capture of bacteria from complex matrices or water due to their remaining affinity for bacterial cell wall components. Beads with bacteria can be separated using magnetic racks. To avoid bacterial cell lysis by the lysozymes, the protein was mutated at amino acid position 35, leading to the exchange of the catalytic glutamate for alanine (LysE35A) and glutamine (LysE35Q). As proved by turbidity assay with reference bacteria, the muramidase activity was knocked out. The mutated constructs were expressed by the yeast Pichia pastoris and secreted into expression medium. Protein enrichment and purification were carried out by SO(3)-functionalised nanoscale cationic exchanger particles. For a proof of principle, the proteins were biotinylated and immobilised on streptavidin-functionalised, fluorescence dye-labelled magnetic beads. These constructs were used for the successful capture of Syto9-marked Microccocus luteus cells from cell suspension, as visualised by fluorescence microscopy, which confirmed the success of the strategy. PMID:21574057

Diler, Ebru; Obst, Ursula; Schmitz, Katja; Schwartz, Thomas

2011-05-17

299

Multiperiod design of azeotropic separation systems II: approximate models  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the final in a two part series considering the multiperiod design of azeotropic separation systems, we focus on the development of simplified models for azeotropic distillation design. Several shortcut design techniques from the literature are reviewed and key aspects of a successful model for use in multiperiod azeotropic distillation design are identified. Simplified models for azeotropic design

K. H Tyner; A. W Westerberg

2001-01-01

300

A Reverse Osmosis System for an Advanced Separation Process Laboratory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Focuses on the development of a pilot unit for use in an advanced separations process laboratory in an effort to develop experiments on such processes as reverse osmosis, ultrafiltration, adsorption, and chromatography. Discusses reverse osmosis principles, the experimental system design, and some experimental studies. (TW)|

Slater, C. S.; Paccione, J. D.

1987-01-01

301

"Plessy" Revisited: Louisiana's Separate and Unequal University System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the resistance of both Blacks and Whites to the federally mandated integration of the Louisiana State University system and an end to its "separate but equal" policies. Emphasizes the role of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). (FMW)|

Cassimere, Ralph, Jr.

1988-01-01

302

The design of an isotope separation system for JET  

SciTech Connect

Cryogenic distillation is planned as one of the processes to be used for isotope separation at JET. Three possible configurations of columns for this service are presented and discussed. The ability to easily control a system of columns must weigh heavily in the final selection of a process for construction. 5 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

Sherman, R.H.

1987-10-01

303

Integrated fluidic system for bio-molecule separation  

Microsoft Academic Search

An integrated fluidic system has been fabricated, capable of separating a mixture of different bio-molecules into its components. It is composed of a filter and an actuator; the pressure generated by the actuator sustains the flow of the mixture through the filter. The actuator is made by stacking several layers of conductive polymer. Actuator strain in excess of 10% has

M. Hiraoka; P. Fiorini; L. Zhang; W. De Malsche; B. Majeed; D. S. Tezcan; G. Desmet; I. Yamashita; C. Van Hoof; M. Op de Beeck

2010-01-01

304

USCG Oily Water Separator System Cartridge Usage Data Survey.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Eighty U.S. Coast Guard cutters with Oily Water Separator Systems installed were surveyed. These cutters range in size from 65 foot river buoy tenders to 378 foot high endurance cutters. Filter-coalescer cartridge usage rate and cost data was obtained. Co...

R. L. Skewes

1976-01-01

305

On a plasma sheath separating regions of oppositely directed magnetic field  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  An exact solution of the Vlasov equations is found which describes a layer of plasma confined between two regions of oppositely\\u000a directed magnetic field. The electrons and ions have Maxwellian distributions on the plane where the magnetic field vanishes.\\u000a In the coordinate system, in which the electron and ion drift velocities are equal in magnitude but opposite in direction,\\u000a the

E. G. Harris

1962-01-01

306

A separation principle for hybrid control system design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presented here is a method, based on automatic control system design practice, for the synthesis of hybrid control systems, controllers that contain both real-time feedback loops and logical decision-making components. In the proposed framework, the overall design task is separated into three component parts: (1) design of the real-time control loops, (2) synthesis of the decision-making logic, and (3) construction

William J. Bencze; Gene E Franklin

1995-01-01

307

State multiplicity in CSTR–separator–recycle polymerisation systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article continues earlier work (Comput. Chem. Eng. 24 (2000) 209) concerning the design and control of isothermal reactor–separator–recycle systems. The multiplicity behaviour of six reaction systems of increasing complexity, from one-reactant, first-order reaction to chain-growth polymerisation, is investigated. Below a critical value of the plant Damkohler number, Da

Anton A. Kiss; Costin S. Bildea; Alexandre C. Dimian; Piet D. Iedema

2002-01-01

308

Constrained superfields and supersymmetric magnetic field systems  

SciTech Connect

After Lancaster the authors examine chiral constraints in N = 2 superspace formulation for supersymmetric magnetic field systems. Such odd constraints are connected with the so-called spin-orbit coupling procedure of supersymmetrization. They propose new even constraints for magnetic supersymmetric systems and relate them to the standard procedure enhanced by Witten. These models describing spin-one half particles moving in a plane with a transverse magnetic field are compared and discussed. The cases of a constant magnetic field and of the harmonic oscillator are connected through different correspondences.

Dehin, D.; Hussin, V. (Universite de Liege, Physique Theorique et Mathematique, Institut de Physique au Sart Tilman, Batiment B.5, B-4000 Liege (BE))

1988-01-01

309

Spin-charge separation in the {ital t}-{ital J} model: Magnetic and transport anomalies  

SciTech Connect

A real spin-charge separation scheme is found based on a saddle-point state of the {ital t}-{ital J} model. In the one-dimensional (1D) case, such a saddle-point reproduces the correct asymptotic correlations at the strong-coupling fixed point of the model. In the two-dimensional (2D) case, the transverse gauge field confining spinon and holon is shown to be gapped at {ital finite} {ital doping} so that a spin-charge deconfinement is obtained for its first time in 2D. The gap in the gauge fluctuation disappears at half-filling limit, where a long-range antiferromagnetic order is recovered at zero temperature and spinons become confined. The most interesting features of spin dynamics and transport are exhibited at finite doping where exotic {ital residual} couplings between spin and charge degrees of freedom lead to systematic anomalies with regard to a Fermi-liquid system. In spin dynamics, a commensurate antiferromagnetic fluctuation with a small, doping-dependent energy scale is found, which is characterized in momentum space by a Gaussian peak at ({pi}/{ital a},{pi}/{ital a}) with a doping-dependent width. This commensurate magnetic fluctuation contributes a non-Korringa behavior for the NMR spin-lattice relaxation rate. There also exists a characteristic temperature scale below thich a pseudogap behavior appears in the spin dynamics. Furthermore, an incommensurate magnetic fluctuation is also obtained at a {ital finite} energy regime. In the transport, a strong-range phase intereference leads to an effective holon Lagrangian which can give rise to a series of interesting phenomena including linear-{ital T} resistivity and a {ital T}{sup 2} Hall angle. We discuss the striking similarities of these theoretical features with those found in the high-{ital T}{sub {ital c}} cuprates and give a consistent picture for the latter. Electronic properties like Fermi surface and superconducting pairing in this framework are also discussed.

Weng, Z.Y.; Sheng, D.N.; Ting, C.S. [Texas Center for Superconductivity and Department of Physics, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204-5506 (United States)

1995-07-01

310

Magnetic-field-dosimetry system  

DOEpatents

A device is provided for measuring the magnetic field dose and peak field exposure. The device includes three Hall-effect sensors all perpendicular to each other, sensing the three dimensional magnetic field and associated electronics for data storage, calculating, retrieving and display.

Lemon, D.K.; Skorpik, J.R.; Eick, J.L.

1981-01-21

311

THE DETECTION OF NUMEROUS MAGNETIC SEPARATORS IN A THREE-DIMENSIONAL MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC MODEL OF SOLAR EMERGING FLUX  

SciTech Connect

Magnetic separators in three-dimensional (3D) magnetic fields are believed to be often associated with locations of magnetic reconnection. In this preliminary study, we investigate this relationship using data from a numerical resistive 3D MHD experiment of a solar flux emergence event. For the first time separators are detected in complex magnetic fields resulting from a 3D resistive MHD model of flux emergence. Two snapshots of the model, taken from different stages of its evolution, are analyzed. Numerous separators are found in both snapshots, and their properties, including their geometry, length, relationship to the magnetic null points, and integrated parallel electric field are studied. The separators reside at the junctions between the emerging flux, the overlying field, and two other flux domains that are newly formed by reconnection. The long separators, which connect clusters of nulls that lie either side of the emerging flux, pass through spatially localized regions of high parallel electric field and correspond to local maxima in integrated parallel electric field. These factors indicate that strong magnetic reconnection takes place along many of the separators, and that separators play a key role during the interaction of emerging and overlying flux.

Parnell, C. E.; Maclean, R. C.; Haynes, A. L., E-mail: clare@mcs.st-and.ac.u [School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St Andrews, The North Haugh, St Andrews, Fife, KY16 9SS (United Kingdom)

2010-12-20

312

Upgrading of Low-Grade Manganese Ore by Selective Reduction of Iron Oxide and Magnetic Separation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The utilization of low-grade manganese ores has become necessary due to the intensive mining of high-grade ores for a long time. In this study, calcined ferruginous low-grade manganese ore was selectively reduced by CO, which converted hematite to magnetite, while manganese oxide was reduced to MnO. The iron-rich component was then separated by magnetic separation. The effects of the various reduction parameters such as particle size, reduction time, temperature, and CO content on the efficiency of magnetic separation were studied by single-factor experiments and by a comprehensive full factorial experiment. Under the best experimental conditions tested, the manganese content in the ore increased from around 36 wt pct to more than 44 wt pct, and almost 50 wt pct of iron was removed at a Mn loss of around 5 pct. The results of the full factorial experiments allowed the identification of the significant effects and yielded regression equations for pct Fe removed, Mn/Fe, and pct Mn loss that characterize the efficiency of the upgrading process.

Gao, Yubo; Olivas-Martinez, M.; Sohn, H. Y.; Kim, Hang Goo; Kim, Chan Wook

2012-12-01

313

Nonlinear Phenomena in Magnetic Nanoparticle Systems at Microwave Frequencies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonlinear interactions of electromagnetic waves (EMW) in magnetic nanoparticle systems at microwave frequencies were numerically simulated using rigorous mathematical models to solve the nonlinear diffraction boundary problem. The transmission coefficients |S12| of arrays of ferrite spheres, depending on the normalized frequency omega\\/gamma (gamma gyromagnetic ratio), for radii of 250 mm and 0.1 mm, and separation between the spheres from 600

Martha Pardavi-Horvath; Galina S. Makeeva; Oleg A. Golovanov

2008-01-01

314

Preparation of a Magnetically Switchable Bioelectrocatalytic System Employing Cross-Linked Enzyme Aggregates in Magnetic Mesocellular Carbon Foam  

SciTech Connect

Nanostructured magnetic materials (NMMs)[1] have attracted much attention recently because of their broad biotechnological applications including support matrices for enzyme immobilization,[2] immunoassays,[3] drug delivery,[4] and biosensors.[ 5] Specifically, the easy separation and controlled placement of NMMs by means of an external magnetic field enables their application in the development of immobilized enzyme processes[2] and the construction of magnetically controllable bio-electrocatalytic systems.[5, 6] Herein, we demonstrate the use of immobilized enzymes in NMMs for magnetically switchable bio-electrocatalysis.

Lee, Jinwoo; Lee, Dohun; Oh, Eunkeu; Kim, Jaeyun; Kim, Young-Pil; Jin, Sunmi; Kim, Hak Sung; Hwang, Yosun; Kwak, Ja Hun; Park, Je-Geun; Shin, Chae-Ho; Kim, Jungbae; Hyeon, Taeghwan

2005-11-18

315

Contactless magnetically levitated silicon wafer transport system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new magnetically levitated wafer transport system is developed for the semiconductor fabrication process to get rid of the particle and oil contaminations that normally exist in conventional transport systems. The transport system consists of levitation, stabilization tracks, and a propelling system. Stabilities needed for levitation in the transport system are achieved by an antagonistic property produced in the tracks

K. H. Park; S. K. Lee; J. H. Yi; S. H. Kim; Y. K. Kwak; I. A. Wang

1996-01-01

316

The superconducting magnet system for the LHC  

Microsoft Academic Search

The new facility for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will mainly consist of a 27-km-long double ring of high-field superconducting magnets installed in the Large Electron-Positron Collider (LEP) tunnel, above the LEP machine components. The magnet system comprises nearly 2000 twin-aperture, 8-10-T, 10-m-long, dipole bending magnets, more than 500 250-T\\/m, twin-aperture quadrupoles, and a very large number of other superconducting

R. Perin

1991-01-01

317

Microfluidic biosensing systems using magnetic nanoparticles.  

PubMed

In recent years, there has been rapidly growing interest in developing hand held, sensitive and cost-effective on-chip biosensing systems that directly translate the presence of certain bioanalytes (e.g., biomolecules, cells and viruses) into an electronic signal. The impressive and rapid progress in micro- and nanotechnology as well as in biotechnology enables the integration of a variety of analytical functions in a single chip. All necessary sample handling and analysis steps are then performed within the chip. Microfluidic systems for biomedical analysis usually consist of a set of units, which guarantees the manipulation, detection and recognition of bioanalytes in a reliable and flexible manner. Additionally, the use of magnetic fields for performing the aforementioned tasks has been steadily gaining interest. This is because magnetic fields can be well tuned and applied either externally or from a directly integrated solution in the biosensing system. In combination with these applied magnetic fields, magnetic nanoparticles are utilized. Some of the merits of magnetic nanoparticles are the possibility of manipulating them inside microfluidic channels by utilizing high gradient magnetic fields, their detection by integrated magnetic microsensors, and their flexibility due to functionalization by means of surface modification and specific binding. Their multi-functionality is what makes them ideal candidates as the active component in miniaturized on-chip biosensing systems. In this review, focus will be given to the type of biosening systems that use microfluidics in combination with magnetoresistive sensors and detect the presence of bioanalyte tagged with magnetic nanoparticles. PMID:24022689

Giouroudi, Ioanna; Keplinger, Franz

2013-09-09

318

Microfluidic Biosensing Systems Using Magnetic Nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

In recent years, there has been rapidly growing interest in developing hand held, sensitive and cost-effective on-chip biosensing systems that directly translate the presence of certain bioanalytes (e.g., biomolecules, cells and viruses) into an electronic signal. The impressive and rapid progress in micro- and nanotechnology as well as in biotechnology enables the integration of a variety of analytical functions in a single chip. All necessary sample handling and analysis steps are then performed within the chip. Microfluidic systems for biomedical analysis usually consist of a set of units, which guarantees the manipulation, detection and recognition of bioanalytes in a reliable and flexible manner. Additionally, the use of magnetic fields for performing the aforementioned tasks has been steadily gaining interest. This is because magnetic fields can be well tuned and applied either externally or from a directly integrated solution in the biosensing system. In combination with these applied magnetic fields, magnetic nanoparticles are utilized. Some of the merits of magnetic nanoparticles are the possibility of manipulating them inside microfluidic channels by utilizing high gradient magnetic fields, their detection by integrated magnetic microsensors, and their flexibility due to functionalization by means of surface modification and specific binding. Their multi-functionality is what makes them ideal candidates as the active component in miniaturized on-chip biosensing systems. In this review, focus will be given to the type of biosening systems that use microfluidics in combination with magnetoresistive sensors and detect the presence of bioanalyte tagged with magnetic nanoparticles.

Giouroudi, Ioanna; Keplinger, Franz

2013-01-01

319

Movable magnetic probe system in the T-10 tokamak.  

PubMed

New magnetic probe system is installed on the T-10 tokamak to investigate fast-scale magnetic perturbations (f up to 2 MHz). The system is based on vertical and horizontal magnetic probes made by nickel wire in glass enamel isolation (effective area 20-250 cm(2)) separated from the support structures by ceramic spacers (5-10 mm). The probe system is mounted on the top of movable rode allowing positioning along vertical axis close to the plasma boundary at the low field side of the torus. Additional positioning system allows rotation of the probes around the vertical axis on pulse-to-pulse basis. The probes are directly connected to the analog-to-digital converter (ADC) module (acquisition rate 60 MHz) through short (~4 m) coaxial cables. The system allowed identification of the fast-scale magnetic oscillations (0.2-0.5 MHz) during energy quench phase of the disruption instability in plasma with high density. Amplitude of the fast-scale magnetic oscillations decays with distance from the plasma boundary 2-10 times faster than one of the standard magnetohydrodynamic modes. PMID:22299949

Savrukhin, P V; Shestakov, E A

2012-01-01

320

Rapid and selective separation for mixed proteins with thiol functionalized magnetic nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thiol group functionalized silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles (Si-MNPs@SH) were synthesized for rapid and selective magnetic field-based separation of mixed proteins. The highest adsorption efficiencies of binary proteins, bovine serum albumin (BSA; 66 kDa; p I = 4.65) and lysozyme (LYZ; 14.3 kDa; p I = 11) were shown at the pH values corresponding to their own p I in the single-component protein. In the mixed protein, however, the adsorption performance of BSA and LYZ by Si-MNPs@SH was governed not only by pH but also by the molecular weight of each protein in the mixed protein.

Lee, Soo Youn; Ahn, Chi Young; Lee, Jiho; Lee, Jin Hyung; Chang, Jeong Ho

2012-05-01

321

Preparation of quantum dot-coated magnetic polystyrene nanospheres for cancer cell labelling and separation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CdTe-coated magnetic polystyrene nanospheres (MPN) were prepared via a stepwise electrostatic self-assembly approach, and the conjugation of epidermal growth factor (EGF) to the MPN/CdTe core-shell nanocomposites was prepared by using 1-ethyl-3(3-dimethylamino propyl)-carbodiimide (EDC) as a cross-linking reagent. The MPN/CdTe and their bioconjugates yielded not only emitted bright fluorescence, but also exhibited superparamagnetism. The human breast cancer MDA-MB-435S cells could be labelled and rapidly separated by the MPN/CdTe-EGF bioconjugates. These magnetofluorescent nanospheres, consisting of magnetic spheres and quantum dots (QDs), may be of special interest for many biomedical applications.

Chu, Maoquan; Song, Xin; Cheng, Duo; Liu, Shupeng; Zhu, Jian

2006-07-01

322

Synthesis of new type of Au-magnetic nanocomposite and application for protein separation thereof  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a different strategy for synthesizing the Au-?-Fe2O3 bifunctional nanoparticle by using a larger (50 nm) Au nanoparticle as the core surrounded by smaller (10 nm) ?-Fe2O3 nanoparticles. The synthesis of the composite nanoparticles is quite facile based on a simple redox process whereby Fe2+ is used to reduce Au3+. The morphology and composition of the product is measured by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction and UV-vis spectroscopy. We demonstrate the utility of these as-prepared Au-?-Fe2O3 nanoparticles by showing they can be used to separate proteins in solution. For example, bovine serum is efficiently removed from an aqueous solution with the simple addition of the NPs and application of a small magnet. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis is performed to evaluate the fidelity and efficiency of the protein separation procedure.

Song, Yu; Tao, Ling; Shen, Xiangchun

2012-07-01

323

MICE Spectrometer Magnet System Progress  

SciTech Connect

The first magnets for the muon ionization cooling experimentwill be the tracker solenoids that form the ends of the MICE coolingchannel. The primary purpose of the tracker solenoids is to provide auniform 4 T field (to better than +-0.3 percent over a volume that is 1meter long and 0.3 meters in diameter) spectrometer magnet field for thescintillating fiber detectors that are used to analyze the muons in thechannel before and after ionization cooling. A secondary purpose for thetracker magnet is the matching of the muon beam between the rest of theMICE cooling channel and the uniform field spectrometer magnet. Thetracker solenoid is powered by three 300 amp power supplies. Additionaltuning of the spectrometer is provided by a pair of 50 amp power suppliesacross the spectrometer magnet end coils. The tracker magnet will becooled using a pair of 4 K pulse tube coolers that each provide 1.5 W ofcooling at 4.2 K. Final design and construction of the tracker solenoidsbegan during the summer of 2006. This report describes the progress madeon the construction of the tracker solenoids.

Green, Michael A.; Virostek, Steve P.

2007-08-27

324

Formation and properties of magnetic chains for 100 nm nanoparticles used in separations of molecules and cells  

PubMed Central

Optical observations of 100 nm metallic magnetic nanoparticles are used to study their magnetic field induced self assembly. Chains with lengths of tens of microns are observed to form within minutes at nanoparticle concentrations of 1010 per mL. Chain rotation and magnetophoresis are readily observed, and SEM reveals that long chains are not simple single particle filaments. Similar chains are detected for several 100 nm commercial bio-separation nanoparticles. We demonstrate the staged magnetic condensation of different types of nanoparticles into composite structures and show that magnetic chains bind to immunomagnetically labeled cells, serving as temporary handles which allow novel magnetic cell manipulations.

Wilson, Robert J.; Hu, Wei; Fu, Cheryl Wong Po; Koh, Ai Leen; Gaster, Richard S.; Earhart, Christopher M.; Fu, Aihua; Heilshorn, Sarah C.; Sinclair, Robert; Wang, Shan X.

2009-01-01

325

Infinite-Order Symmetries for Quantum Separable Systems  

SciTech Connect

We develop a calculus to describe the (in general) infinite-order differential operator symmetries of a nonrelativistic Schroedinger eigenvalue equation that admits an orthogonal separation of variables in Riemannian n space. The infinite-order calculus exhibits structure not apparent when one studies only finite-order symmetries. The search for finite-order symmetries can then be reposed as one of looking for solutions of a coupled system of PDEs that are polynomial in certain parameters. Among the simple consequences of the calculus is that one can generate algorithmically a canonical basis for the space. Similarly, we can develop a calculus for conformal symmetries of the time-dependent Schroedinger equation if it admits R separation in some coordinate system. This leads to energy-shifting symmetries.

Miller, W. [School of Mathematics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis (United States); Kalnins, E.G. [Department of Mathematics, University of Waikato, Hamilton (New Zealand); Kress, J.M. [School of Mathematics, University of New South Wales, Sydney (Australia); Pogosyan, G.S. [Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Moscow oblast, 141980 (Russian Federation); Departamento de Matematicas, CUCEA, Universidad de Guadalayara (Mexico)

2005-10-01

326

Method and apparatus for separating gases based on electrically and magnetically enhanced monolithic carbon fiber composite sorbents  

DOEpatents

A method for separating gases or other fluids involves placing a magnetic field on a monolithic carbon fiber composite sorption material to more preferentially attract certain gases or other fluids to the sorption material to which a magnetic field is applied. This technique may be combined with the known pressure swing adsorption'' technique utilizing the same sorption material. 1 fig.

Judkins, R.R.; Burchell, T.D.

1999-07-20

327

Method and apparatus for separating gases based on electrically and magnetically enhanced monolithic carbon fiber composite sorbents  

DOEpatents

A method for separating gases or other fluids involves placing a magnetic field on a monolithic carbon fiber composite sorption material to more preferentially attract certain gases or other fluids to the sorption material to which a magnetic field is applied. This technique may be combined with the known "pressure swing adsorption" technique utilizing the same sorption material.

Judkins, Roddie R. (9917 Rainbow Dr., Knoxville, TN 37922); Burchell, Timothy D. (109 Greywood Pl., Oak Ridge, TN 37830)

1999-01-01

328

LPV system analysis via quadratic separator for uncertain implicit systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers a class of linear systems containing time-varying parameters whose behavior is not known exactly. We assume that the parameters vary within known intervals and there are known bounds on their rates of variation. Our objective is to give a computationally verifiable condition that guarantees stability of the system for all possible parameter variations. We first point out

Tetsuya Iwasaki; Go Shibata

2001-01-01

329

Phase separation and rheology of aqueous starch\\/galactomannan systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phase behaviour (at 258C and 608C), phase separation kinetics and rheological properties of aqueous starch\\/galactomannan systems were studied. Pure, soluble amylopectin and waxy maize starch dispersions with varying degrees of granule disintegration were employed to investigate the effect of starch granules and aggregation of starch polysaccharides. Polysaccharide blends were made by either mixing starch and galactomannan stock solutions (solution-based preparations)

C. B. Clossa; B. Conde-Petit; I. D. Roberts; F. Escher

330

Assessment of two-dimensional separative systems using the nearest neighbor distances approach. Part 2: separation quality aspects.  

PubMed

In this paper we propose a method for the evaluation of real separation quality in multidimensional separations based on the nearest neighbor distances (NND). This approach allows us to overcome the principal drawback of the orthogonality measurement which does not evaluate how good the real separation obtained with one system is, especially when compared to another one. Separation quality evaluation takes into account the distances (di(s)) between peaks in whole separation space. The distances between nearest neighbors were calculated in resolution scaled analysis space to overcome statistically different peak widths in each dimension. The obtained separation quality is ranked by harmonic mean (H?(s)) of the distances di(s). The extent of peak spreading, described by arithmetic mean (A?(s)), gives an appreciation of the effective analysis space of 2D separation. The classifications of systems obtained with the same retention data using separation quality and orthogonality approaches show important differences in ranking orders depending on two different targets of these evaluations: the separation potential of a 2D system and the divergence of selectivity between both separation directions. This study shows separation quality and orthogonality merit to be evaluated in parallel for the same systems. The other new threshold descriptor, minimal limit distance (dilim) derived from resolution dependent peak capacity scale, was used to predict the separation quality as a function of desired resolution. We also introduce here a composed descriptor for 2D systems: the optimality coefficient (Oc), which may be useful in the 2D separation optimization process. It takes into account the maximization of homogeneity of peak spreading (H?(s)/A?(s)) and the minimization of effective analysis space (or compactness, dilim/A?(s)) terms. PMID:23998686

Nowik, Witold; Bonose, Myriam; Héron, Sylvie; Nowik, Mateusz; Tchapla, Alain

2013-09-25

331

Magnetic network model including loss separation and Preisach principles for the evaluation of core losses in devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a method is developed to calculate the core loss in a switched reluctance machine. The magnetic circuit of the motor is described as a magnetic network. The electromagnetic behavior of each magnetic network element takes into account the iron loss using the Preisach model and the principle of loss separation. Using the numerical routines, the local core loss in the different motor sections is calculated. The global core loss is compared with the experimentally determined core loss.

Dupré, Luc; Sergeant, Peter; Vandenbossche, Lode

2005-05-01

332

Refrigerated MR magnet support system  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a superconductive magnet cooled by a two stage cryocooler. It comprises: a vacuum vessel; a magnet cartridge having a least one superconductive coil situated in the vacuum vessel; a first stage heat station for removably thermally engaging the first stage of the crycooler; removably thermally engaging the second stage of the cryocooler, the second stage heat station in thermal and supporting contact with the magnet cartridge; a thermal radiation shield surrounding the magnet cartridge, the shield spaced away from the vacuum vessel and the magnet cartridge the thermal radiation shield defining an aperture; three concentric cylindrical tubes, spring bias means secured between second end of the intermediate tube and the first stage heat station for maintaining a constant pressure between the cryocooler first stage and the first stage heat station when the second stage of the cryocooler is forced in contact with the second stage heat station; and means for thermally connecting the thermal radiation shield to the first stage heat station.

Laskaris, E.T.

1991-01-22

333

Separation of variables in an asymmetric cyclidic coordinate system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A global analysis is presented of solutions for Laplace's equation on three-dimensional Euclidean space in one of the most general orthogonal asymmetric confocal cyclidic coordinate systems which admit solutions through separation of variables. We refer to this coordinate system as five-cyclide coordinates since the coordinate surfaces are given by two cyclides of genus zero which represent inversions of each other with respect to the unit sphere, a cyclide of genus one, and two disconnected cyclides of genus zero. This coordinate system is obtained by stereographic projection of sphero-conal coordinates on four-dimensional Euclidean space. The harmonics in this coordinate system are given by products of solutions of second-order Fuchsian ordinary differential equations with five elementary singularities. The Dirichlet problem for the global harmonics in this coordinate system is solved using multiparameter spectral theory in the regions bounded by the asymmetric confocal cyclidic coordinate surfaces.

Cohl, H. S.; Volkmer, H.

2013-06-01

334

Synthesis of teicoplanin-modified hybrid magnetic mesoporous silica nanoparticles and their application in chiral separation of racemic compounds.  

PubMed

Teicoplanin-conjugated mesoporous silica magnetic nanoparticles (TE-MSMNPs) were fabricated as novel chiral magnetic nano-selectors. Successful preparation of the functional magnetic mesoporous materials was achieved by grafting teicoplanin on N-(2-aminoethyl)-3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane-modified mesoporous silica Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (AEAPTMS-MSMNPs), and this was confirmed by various characterization techniques. The synthesized magnetic nanoparticles were regularly spherical and uniformly mesoporous with an average diameter of around 600 nm and a mean pore size of about 3.9 nm, respectively. These versatile magnetic nanoparticles were effective in a direct chiral separation of five racemic compounds in phosphate buffer. Much stronger interactions were observed with the (+)-enantiomers than with the (-)-enantiomers. After washing with water and ethanol by sonication, TE-MSMNPs could be reused at least three times with little efficiency loss. The functional magnetic mesoporous nanoparticles were easily separated from the racemic solutions using an external magnetic field. These magnetic nano-materials are suitable for enantiomer separations. PMID:23541694

Wu, Jingwei; Su, Ping; Huang, Jun; Wang, Siming; Yang, Yi

2013-03-13

335

Torque transfer through plastic bonded Nd 2Fe 14B magnetic gear system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nd2Fe14B plastic bonded magnet segments prepared using the injection moulding technique were magnetised and then assembled in order to form magnetic multipole gear coupling systems. No load measurements were performed using various numbers of poles and various separation distances between the gears. The transmitted torque behaviour is associated with the configuration of the magnitude field distribution between the two multipoles.

D. M. Tsamakis; M. G. Ionnides; G. K. Nicolaides

1996-01-01

336

High voltage, magnetically switched pulsed power systems  

SciTech Connect

The principles of magnetic switching are briefly described. Then the results of experiments on the following substantive topics for magnetic switching are presented: material properties and how they relate to switch performance, risetime limitations, and core insulation. Magnetic switching is then evaluated from a system perspective. An idealized pulse power system with 200 kJ or stored energy and a 40 ns output pulse is examined. The multi-megavolt electrical insulation requirements impose limitations on the switches. The cost of the magnetically switched system exceeds the cost of the conventional superpower generator system by up to 75%. The potential for reliability, reproducibility, and repetitive pulse capability must be evaluated for each application to offset the increased cost.

VanDevender, J.P.; Reber, R.A.

1981-01-01

337

Geometrically Frustrated Magnets as Model Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The specific aim of this research program has been to understand the cooperative magnetic properties of geometrically frustrated antiferromagnets which are model frustrated systems. We have performed extensive thermal studies of one such material, gadolin...

P. Schiffer

2001-01-01

338

A New Unified Scheme for Controlled Power System Separation Using Synchronized Phasor Measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Controlled power system separation, which separates the transmission system into islands in a controlled manner, is considered the final resort against a blackout under severe disturbances, e.g., cascading events. Three critical problems of controlled separation are where and when to separate and what to do after separation, which are rarely studied together. They are addressedinthispaperbyaproposedunifiedcontrolledseparation scheme based on synchrophasors. The

Kai Sun; Kyeon Hur; Pei Zhang

2011-01-01

339

Tank waste remediation system milestone report magnetic separation of tank waste: Surrogate system separations report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

High-level radioactive waste (HLW) has been stored in large underground storage tanks (UST) at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site since 1944. More than 253,000 m(sup 3) of waste have been accumulated in 177 tanks. The waste consists of many differ...

L. R. Avens L. A. Worl A. R. Schake D. D. Padilla K. J. de Aguero

1994-01-01

340

Isolation/separation of plasmid DNA using hemoglobin modified magnetic nanocomposites as solid-phase adsorbent.  

PubMed

Hemoglobin (Hb) modified magnetic nanocomposites are prepared by immobilization of Hb onto the surface of amino-functionalized Fe(3)O(4)@SiO(2) magnetic nanoparticles via covalent bonding with glutaraldehyde as cross-linker. The obtained nanocomposites are characterized with FT-IR, SEM, XRD and surface charge analysis. A direct solid-phase extraction procedure for the isolation/separation of plasmid DNA using this nanocomposite as a novel adsorbent is thus developed. Some important experimental parameters governing the sorption efficiency, i.e., the pH of sample solution and the ionic strength, are investigated. The Hb modified magnetic nanocomposites provide a sorption capacity of 27.86 mg g(-1) for DNA. By using 2.0mg of the nanocomposites as sorption medium and a suitable acidity of pH 6.1, a sorption efficiency of 93% is achieved for 25 ?g mL(-1) of DNA in 1.0 mL of sample solution. Afterwards, the absorbed DNA could be readily recovered by using 1.0 mL of Tris-HCl buffer (pH 8.9, 0.01 mol L(-1)), giving rise to a recovery of ca. 68.3%. The present solid-phased extraction protocol is applied for the isolation of plasmid DNA from Escherichia coli culture, resulting in comparable yield and purity of plasmid DNA with respect to those obtained by using commercial kits. PMID:23141317

Chen, Xu-Wei; Mao, Quan-Xing; Liu, Jia-Wei; Wang, Jian-Hua

2012-08-07

341

Magnetic mirror fusion power systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The magnetic mirror plasma confinement concept has characteristics conducive to attractive central station power plants; namely linear geometry, high fusion power density, steady state, and direct conversion of plasma energy to electricity. Recent advances in mirror physics-tandem mirror plugs with thermal barriers, enhanced microstability from sloshing ions, drift pumping have improved performance to the point where technically viable commercial reactors

J. D. Gordon; B. G. Logan

1983-01-01

342

Separations technologies supporting the development of a deployable ATW system  

SciTech Connect

A program has been initiated for the purpose of developing the chemical separations technologies necessary to support a large Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) system capable of dealing with the projected inventory of spent fuel from the commercial nuclear power stations in the United States. The first several years of the program will be directed toward an elucidation of related technical issues and to the establishment, by means of comprehensive trade studies, of an optimum configuration of the elements of the chemical processing infrastructure required for support of the total ATW system. By adopting this sort of disciplined systems engineering approach, it is expected that development and demonstration costs can be minimized and that it will be possible to deploy an ATW system that is an environmentally sound and economically viable venture.

Laidler, J. J.

2000-01-07

343

Polymerase chain reaction system using magnetic beads for analyzing a sample that includes nucleic acid  

SciTech Connect

A polymerase chain reaction system for analyzing a sample containing nucleic acid includes providing magnetic beads; providing a flow channel having a polymerase chain reaction chamber, a pre polymerase chain reaction magnet position adjacent the polymerase chain reaction chamber, and a post pre polymerase magnet position adjacent the polymerase chain reaction chamber. The nucleic acid is bound to the magnetic beads. The magnetic beads with the nucleic acid flow to the pre polymerase chain reaction magnet position in the flow channel. The magnetic beads and the nucleic acid are washed with ethanol. The nucleic acid in the polymerase chain reaction chamber is amplified. The magnetic beads and the nucleic acid are separated into a waste stream containing the magnetic beads and a post polymerase chain reaction mix containing the nucleic acid. The reaction mix containing the nucleic acid flows to an analysis unit in the channel for analysis.

Nasarabadi, Shanavaz (Livermore, CA)

2011-01-11

344

Coolant quality for magnetic resonance imaging systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

As radiologists demand increased power, speed and duty cycle from their magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems, thermal management of the gradient sub-system becomes more challenging. A heat exchanger in the MRI system cools heat-generating components by pumping water through hollow copper tubing, which also carries high electrical currents. Water is used as a coolant because of its high specific heat

Julie Wong; Garron K Morris

2008-01-01

345

Simplified definition system: magnetic products fabrication  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Simplified Definition System, a product definition approach that differentiates between design and production agency manufacturing requirements, has been used in producing 50 types of magnetic products. This system was formed as a result of cooperative work and proposed modifications by engineers from Bendix Kansas City and Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque (SNLA) to reduce product costs. The system places responsibility

1981-01-01

346

Geometric magnetism in open quantum systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An isolated classical chaotic system, when driven by the slow change in several parameters, responds with two reaction forces: geometric friction and geometric magnetism. By using the theory of quantum fluctuation relations, we show that this holds true also for open quantum systems and provide explicit expressions for those forces in this case. This extends the concept of Berry curvature to the realm of open quantum systems. We illustrate our findings by calculating the geometric magnetism of a damped charged quantum harmonic oscillator transported along a path in physical space in the presence of a magnetic field and a thermal environment. We find that, in this case, the geometric magnetism is unaffected by the presence of the heat bath.

Campisi, Michele; Denisov, Sergey; Hänggi, Peter

2012-09-01

347

DOE/Simplec magnetic susceptibility logging system  

SciTech Connect

A magnetic susceptibility logging system has been developed which is relatively stable under normal field logging conditions and which produces logs that accurately represent in situ variations in magnetic susceptibility. However, both field and laboratory tests indicate the need for further improvement of temperature stabilization and bridge compensation; a new generation system designed by Simplec may fill that need. A cubic granite block with a magnetic susceptibility of 385 ..mu..CGS is designated as the primary calibration standard and is available for public use at the DOE facility in Grand Junction, Colorado. Models are also available for characterization of magnetic susceptibility systems. These include models to provide borehole size correction factors, thin layer interpretation parameters, reproducibility limits, longitudinal resolution, and radius of investigation. The DOE/Simplec system has a 99-percent radius of investigation, approximately equal to the coil length (15 inches), and a 99-percent thickness of investigation, approximately equal to two coil lengths. The true magnetic susceptibility and thickness of isolated layers less than two coil lengths in thickness can be obtained through use of parameters measured from their log responses. Field tests show that the system has a reproducibility of at least 5 ..mu..CGS and that logging at 25 ft/min is a good compromise between speed of operation and keeping the probe on the sidewall. Comparison of log and core magnetic susceptibility measurements confirms the fact that the logging system samples a rather large volume and that interpretive aids are necessary to unfold the true variation of magnetic susceptibility with depth. Finally, logs from known uranium-favorable environments show that magnetic susceptibility measurements can give an indication of the degree of geochemical alteration, which is one of the uranium-favorable haloes sought by exploration geologists.

Emilia, D.A.; Allen, J.W.; Chessmore, R.B.; Wilson, R.B.

1981-03-01

348

Magnetic properties of macroscopic colloid crystals of silica-coated FePt nanoparticles with controllable interstices for molecular separation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports on the magnetic properties of macroscopic colloidal crystals comprising silica-encapsulated FePt nanoparticles which assembled into three dimensional regular arrays by magnetic crystallization. The crystals have potential for magnetic separation of paramagnetic chemical or biochemical entities (e.g., proteins) by providing local magnetic fields at the interstitial sites to promote magnetic retention of the entities of interest. Structural characterizations by transmission electron microscopy and small angle x-ray scattering using a synchrotron source indicate a hcp arrangement of the nanoparticles in the colloidal crystals. The crystals have a large surface area (110.6 m2 g-1) and a sharp pore size of 15 nm which is adjustable by controlling the silica shell thickness. Under applied fields, the colloidal crystals display substantially stronger magnetic responses than the unaligned particle assembly, thus favoring removal of the colloidal crystals from the mixture by magnetic means after magnetic separation. The potential of the colloidal crystals for separating paramagnetic biological or chemical species is demonstrated in absorption experiments using two proteins with and without a paramagnetic center.

Lo, Chester C. H.; Tsang, Shik Chi; Yu, Chih H.; Tam, Kin

2009-04-01

349

Separation of Plasmodium falciparum late stage-infected erythrocytes by magnetic means.  

PubMed

Unlike other Plasmodium species, P. falciparum can be cultured in the lab, which facilitates its study (1). While the parasitemia achieved can reach the ?40% limit, the investigator usually keeps the percentage at around 10%. In many cases it is necessary to isolate the parasite-containing red blood cells (RBCs) from the uninfected ones, to enrich the culture and proceed with a given experiment. When P. falciparum infects the erythrocyte, the parasite degrades and feeds from haemoglobin (2, 3). However, the parasite must deal with a very toxic iron-containing haem moiety (4, 5). The parasite eludes its toxicity by transforming the haem into an inert crystal polymer called haemozoin (6, 7). This iron-containing molecule is stored in its food vacuole and the metal in it has an oxidative state which differs from the one in haem (8). The ferric state of iron in the haemozoin confers on it a paramagnetic property absent in uninfected erythrocytes. As the invading parasite reaches maturity, the content of haemozoin also increases (9), which bestows even more paramagnetism on the latest stages of P. falciparum inside the erythrocyte. Based on this paramagnetic property, the latest stages of P. falciparum infected-red blood cells can be separated by passing the culture through a column containing magnetic beads. These beads become magnetic when the columns containing them are placed on a magnet holder. Infected RBCs, due to their paramagnetism, will then be trapped inside the column, while the flow-through will contain, for the most part, uninfected erythrocytes and those containing early stages of the parasite. Here, we describe the methodology to enrich the population of late stage parasites with magnetic columns, which maintains good parasite viability (10). After performing this procedure, the unattached culture can be returned to an incubator to allow the remaining parasites to continue growing. PMID:23486405

Coronado, Lorena Michelle; Tayler, Nicole Michelle; Correa, Ricardo; Giovani, Rita Marissa; Spadafora, Carmenza

2013-03-02

350

Application of magnetic fluids in tribotechnical systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the results of investigations on applications of magnetic fluids as lubricant. Magnetic fluids can be used as lubricants in gears, plain bearings and roller bearings. With an appropriate designed magnetic field the lubricants can be fixed at those places, where they are needed. The main advantage of the use of magnetic fluids as lubricant is based on the considerable reduction of the maintenance for the lubricant supply, because the lubricant is prevented from leaving the contact zone of the tribological system. Further advantages are the small amount of the necessary lubricant and the avoidance of leakages. The rheological and tribological behaviour of magnetic fluids was investigated and compared with conventional lubricants between friction pairs under boundary conditions.

Uhlmann, E.; Spur, G.; Bayat, N.; Patzwald, R.

2002-11-01

351

In-plane magnetic pattern separation in NiFe/NiO and Co/NiO exchange biased bilayers investigated by magnetic force microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ion bombardment induced magnetic patterning (IBMP) was used to write in-plane magnetized micro and submicron patterns in exchange biased magnetic bilayers, where the magnetization directions of the adjacent patterns are antiparallel to each other in remanence. These magnetic patterns were investigated by non-contact magnetic force microscopy (MFM). It is shown that the recorded MFM images of the IBMP patterns in two exemplarily chosen standard layer systems (NiFe(4.8nm)/NiO(68nm) and Co(4.8nm)/NiO(68nm)) can be well described by a model within the point-dipole approximation for the tip magnetization. For 5 and 0.9?m wide bar patterns the domain wall widths between adjacent magnetically patterned areas were determined to a~1?m. The minimum magnetically stable pattern width was estimated to be 0.7?m in the standard system Co(4.8nm)/NiO(68nm).

Ehresmann, A.; Krug, I.; Kronenberger, A.; Ehlers, A.; Engel, D.

2004-09-01

352

Magnetic systems for fusion devices  

SciTech Connect

Mirror experiments have led the way in applying superconductivity to fusion research because of unique requirements for high and steady magnetic fields. The first significant applications were Baseball II at LLNL and IMP at ORNL. More recently, the MFTF-B yin-yang coil was successfully tested and the entire tandem configuration is nearing completion. Tokamak magnets have also enjoyed recent success with the large coil project tests at ORNL, preceded by single coil tests in Japan and Germany. In the USSR, the T-7 Tokamak has been operational for many years and the T-15 Tokamak is under construction, with the TF coils nearing completion. Also the Tore Supra is being built in France.

Henning, C.D.

1985-02-01

353

Magnetic systems for fusion devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mirror experiments have led the way in applying superconductivity to fusion research because of unique requirements for high and steady magnetic fields. The first significant applications were Baseball II at LLNL and IMP at ORNL. More recently, the MFTF-B yin-yang coil was successfully tested and the entire tandem configuration is nearing completion. Tokamak magnets have also enjoyed recent success with the large coil project tests at ORNL, preceded by single coil tests in Japan and Germany. In the USSR, the T-7 tokamak has been operational for many years and the T-15 tokamak is under construction, with the TF coils nearing completion. Also the Tore Supra is being built in France.

Henning, C. D.

1985-02-01

354

Magnetic mirror fusion power systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnetic mirror plasma confinement concept has characteristics conducive to attractive central station power plants; namely linear geometry, high fusion power density, steady state, and direct conversion of plasma energy to electricity. Recent advances in mirror physics-tandem mirror plugs with thermal barriers, enhanced microstability from sloshing ions, drift pumping have improved performance to the point where technically viable commercial reactors can be designed now and economic power production is envisioned by evolution and maturation of fusion technology.

Gordon, J. D.; Logan, B. G.

1983-09-01

355

Physical separations soil washing system cold test results  

SciTech Connect

This test summary describes the objectives, methodology, and results of a physical separations soil-washing system setup and shakedown test using uncontaminated soil. The test is being conducted in preparation for a treatability test to be conducted in the North Pond of the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit. It will be used to assess the feasibility of using a physical separations process to reduce the volume of contaminated soils in the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit. The test is described in DOE-RL (1993). The setup test was conducted at an uncontrolled area located approximately 3.2 km northwest of the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit. The material processed was free of contamination. The physical separation equipment to be used in the test was transferred to the US Department of Energy (DOE) by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory. On May 13, 1993, soil-washing equipment was moved to the cold test location. Design assistance and recommendation for operation was provided by the EPA.

McGuire, J.P.

1993-07-28

356

Chemical separations schemes for partitioning and transmutation systems.  

SciTech Connect

In the initial phase of the U.S. Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) program, a single-tier system was foreseen in which the transuranics and long-lived fission products (specifically, {sup 99}Tc and {sup 129}I) recovered from spent LWR oxide fuel would be sent directly to an accelerator-driven transmuter reactor [1]. Because the quantity of fuel to be processed annually was so large (almost 1,500 tons per year), an aqueous solvent extraction process was chosen for LWR fuel processing. Without the need to separate transuranics from one another for feed to the transmuter, it became appropriate to develop an advanced aqueous separations method that became known as UREX. The UREX process employs an added reagent (acetohydroxamic acid) that suppresses the extraction of plutonium and promotes the extraction of technetium together with uranium. Technetium can then be efficiently removed from the uranium; the recovered uranium, being highly decontaminated, can be disposed of as a low-level waste or stored in an unshielded facility for future use. Plutonium and the other transuranic elements, plus the remaining fission products, are directed to the liquid waste stream. This stream is calcined, converting the transuranics and fission products to their oxides. The resulting oxide powder, now representing only about four percent of the original mass of the spent fuel, is reduced to metallic form by means of a pyrometallurgical process. Subsequently, the transuranics are separated from the fission products in another pyro-metallurgical step involving molten salt electrorefining.

Laidler, J.

2002-05-02

357

Digital spectral separation methods and systems for bioluminescence imaging.  

PubMed

We propose a digital spectral separation (DSS) system and methods to extract spectral information optimally from a weak multi-spectral signal such as in the bioluminescent imaging (BLI) studies. This system utilizes our newly invented spatially-translated spectral-image mixer (SSM), which consists of dichroic beam splitters, a mirror, and a DSS algorithm. The DSS approach overcomes the shortcomings of the data acquisition scheme used for the current BLI systems. Primarily, using our DSS scheme, spectral information will not be filtered out. Accordingly, truly parallel multi-spectral multi-view acquisition is enabled for the first time to minimize experimental time and optimize data quality. This approach also permits recovery of the bioluminescent signal time course, which is useful to study the kinetics of multiple bioluminescent probes using multi-spectral bioluminescence tomography (MSBT). PMID:18542251

Wang, Ge; Shen, Haiou; Liu, Ying; Cong, Alex; Cong, Wenxiang; Wang, Yue; Dubey, Purnima

2008-02-01

358

Phase-separating elastic system of mixed lipid bilayers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A phase-separating elastic system is studied to investigate the morphological dynamics in mixed lipid bilayers. The system can realize two kinds of interactions, elastic and trans-bilayer coupling. In the numerical simulations, even in simple situations with homogeneous and isotropic moduli, some characteristic intramembrane subdomain structures can be observed. The elastic interaction produces fine, distinctive morphology in the lipid membrane and the trans-bilayer coupling interaction regulates the symmetry of the two leaflets of the bilayer. On the basis of the numerical observation, some special states are formulated to simplify the system and to focus on the elastic interaction. Several mathematical properties of the resulting steady states are presented. In particular, it is proved that the elastic interaction stabilizes intramembrane subdomain structures by secondary bifurcations of the steady states.

Tasaki, Sohei

2013-03-01

359

Unconventional magnetism via optical pumping of interacting spin systems.  

PubMed

We consider strongly interacting systems of effective spins, subject to dissipative spin-flip processes associated with optical pumping. We predict the existence of novel magnetic phases in the steady state of this system, which emerge due to the competition between coherent and dissipative processes. Specifically, for strongly anisotropic spin-spin interactions, we find ferromagnetic, antiferromagnetic, spin-density-wave, and staggered-XY steady states, which are separated by nonequilibrium phase transitions meeting at a Lifshitz point. These transitions are accompanied by quantum correlations, resulting in spin squeezing. Experimental implementations in ultracold atoms and trapped ions are discussed. PMID:23829757

Lee, Tony E; Gopalakrishnan, Sarang; Lukin, Mikhail D

2013-06-19

360

The effect of charge separation on nonlinear electrostatic waves in a magnetized dusty plasma with two-temperature ions  

SciTech Connect

In view of the observations of parallel (to Earth's magnetic field) spiky electric field structures by the FAST satellite, a theoretical study is conducted using a dusty plasma model comprising Boltzmann distributed hot and cool ions, Boltzmann electrons and a negatively charged cold dust fluid to investigate the existence of similar low frequency nonlinear electrostatic waves in a dusty plasma which could have a similar appearance as the observed waveforms. Charge separation effects are incorporated into our model by the inclusion of Poisson's equation as opposed to assuming quasineutrality. The system of nonlinear equations is then numerically solved. The resulting electric field structure is examined as a function of various plasma parameters such as Mach number, driving electric field amplitude, bulk dust drift speed, particle densities and particle temperatures.

Maharaj, S. K. [Hermanus Magnetic Observatory, P.O. Box 32, Hermanus 7200 (South Africa); Bharuthram, R. [University of the Western Cape, Modderdam Road, Bellville 7530 (South Africa); Pillay, S. R. [University of KwaZulu-Natal, Private Bag X54001, Durban 4000 (South Africa); Singh, S. V.; Reddy, R. V.; Lakhina, G. S. [Indian Institute of Geomagnetism, New Panvel, Navi Mumbai-410218 (India)

2008-09-07

361

Permanent-magnet-less synchronous reluctance system  

SciTech Connect

A permanent magnet-less synchronous system includes a stator that generates a magnetic revolving field when sourced by an alternating current. An uncluttered rotor is disposed within the magnetic revolving field and spaced apart from the stator to form an air gap relative to an axis of rotation. The rotor includes a plurality of rotor pole stacks having an inner periphery biased by single polarity of a north-pole field and a south-pole field, respectively. The outer periphery of each of the rotor pole stacks are biased by an alternating polarity.

Hsu, John S

2012-09-11

362

Wide gap, permanent magnet biased magnetic bearing system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The unique features and applications of the presented electrical permanent magnetic bearing system essentially result from three facts: (1) the only bearing rotor components are nonlaminated ferromagnetic steel collars or cylinders; (2) all radial and axial forces are transmitted via radial gaps; and (3) large radial bearing gaps can be provided with minimum electric power consumption. The large gaps allow for effective encapsulation and shielding of the rotors at elevated or low temperatures, corrosive or ultra clean atmosphere or vacuum or high pressure environment. Two significant applications are described: (1) a magnetically suspended x ray rotary anode was operated under high vacuum conditions at 100 KV anode potential, 600 C temperature at the rotor collars and speed 18000 rpm with 13 mm radial bearing gap; and (2) an improved Czochralski type crystal growth apparatus using the hot wall method for pulling GaAs single crystals of low dislocation density. Both crystal and crucible are carried and transported by magnetically suspended shafts inside a hermetically sealed housing at 800 C shaft and wall temperature. The radial magnetic bearing gap measures 24 mm.

Boden, Karl

1992-05-01

363

Separation of semiconducting and ferromagnetic FeSi2-nanoparticles by magnetic filtering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have investigated the potential of solution-processed ?-phase iron disilicide (FeSi2) nanoparticles as a novel semiconducting material for photovoltaic applications. Combined ultraviolet-visible absorption and photothermal deflection spectroscopy measurements have revealed a direct band gap of 0.85 eV and, therefore, a particularly high absorption in the near infrared. With the help of Fourier-transform infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, we have observed that exposure to air primarily leads to the formation of a silicon oxide rather than iron oxide. Mössbauer measurements have confirmed that the nanoparticles possess a phase purity of more than 99%. To diminish the small fraction of metallic iron impurities, which were detected by superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry and which would act as unwanted Auger recombination centers, we present a novel concept to magnetically separate the FeSi2 nanoparticles (NPs). This process leads to a reduction of more than 95% of the iron impurities.

Aigner, Willi; Niesar, Sabrina; Mehmedovic, Ervin; Opel, Matthias; Wagner, Friedrich E.; Wiggers, Hartmut; Stutzmann, Martin

2013-10-01

364

Separation of the Magnetic Field into Parts Produced by Internal and External Sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Given the total magnetic field on a toroidal plasma surface, a method for decomposing the field into a part due to internal currents (often the plasma) and a part due to external currents is presented. The decomposition exploits Laplace theory which is valid in the vacuum region between the plasma surface and the chamber walls. The method does not assume toroidal symmetry, and it is partly based on Merkel's 1986 work on vacuum field computations. A change in the plasma shape is produced by the total normal field perturbation on the plasma surface. This method allows a separation of the total normal field perturbation into a part produced by external currents and a part produced by the plasma response.

Lazanja, David

2005-10-01

365

Optimal design of hybrid magnet in maglev system with both permanent and electro magnets  

SciTech Connect

A magnetic levitation system with both permanent magnets and electromagnets has less power loss than a conventional attractive-type system. In this paper, the authors propose an analysis procedure of the hybrid magnet in the experimental levitation system. First, they make a two-dimensional analysis of the hybrid magnet. Though the vector potential A method is often adopted to solve magnetic problems, they propose the magnetic field intensity H method. Second, utilizing the sequential quadratic programming method, they attempt to optimize the arrangement of permanent magnets, which have the maximum guidance force. Finally, they investigate the responses of the experimental magnet levitation system by simulations.

Onuki, Takashi; Toda, Yasushi (Waseda Univ., Tokyo (Japan))

1993-03-01

366

A NOVEL CO{sub 2} SEPARATION SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

Because of concern over global climate change, new systems are needed that produce electricity from fossil fuels and emit less CO{sub 2}. The fundamental problem with current systems which recover and concentrate CO{sub 2} from flue gases is the need to separate dilute CO{sub 2} and pressurize it to roughly 35 atm for storage or sequestration. This is an energy intensive process that can reduce plant efficiency by 9-37% and double the cost of electricity. There are two fundamental reasons for the current high costs of power consumption, CO{sub 2} removal, and concentration systems: (1) most disposal, storage and sequestering systems require high pressure CO{sub 2} (at roughly 35 atm). Thus, assuming 90% removal of the CO{sub 2} from a typical atmospheric pressure flue gas that contains 10% CO{sub 2}, the CO{sub 2} is essentially being compressed from 0.01 atm to 35 atm (a pressure ratio of 3,500). This is a very energy intensive process. (2) The absorption-based (amine) separation processes that are used to remove the CO{sub 2} from the flue gas and compress it to 1 atm consume approximately 10 times as much energy as the theoretical work of compression because they are heat driven cycles working over a very low temperature difference. Thus, to avoid the problems of current systems, we need a power cycle in which the CO{sub 2} produced by the oxidation of the fuel is not diluted with a large excess of nitrogen, a power cycle which would allow us to eliminate the very inefficient thermally driven absorption/desorption step. In addition, we would want the CO{sub 2} to be naturally available at high pressure (approximately 3 to 6 atmospheres), which would allow us to greatly reduce the compression ratio between generation and storage (from roughly 3,500 to approximately 8).

Robert J. Copeland

2000-03-01

367

A NOVEL CO{sub 2} SEPARATION SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

Because of concern over global climate change, new systems are needed that produce electricity from fossil fuels and emit less CO{sub 2}. The fundamental problem with current systems which recover and concentrate CO{sub 2} from flue gases is the need to separate dilute CO{sub 2} and pressurize it to roughly 35 atm for storage or sequestration. This is an energy intensive process that can reduce plant efficiency by 9-37% and double the cost of electricity. There are two fundamental reasons for the current high costs of power consumption, CO{sub 2} removal, and concentration systems: (1) most disposal, storage and sequestering systems require high pressure CO{sub 2} (at roughly 35 atm). Thus, assuming 90% removal of the CO{sub 2} from a typical atmospheric pressure flue gas that contains 10% CO{sub 2}, the CO{sub 2} is essentially being compressed from 0.01 atm to 35 atm (a pressure ratio of 3,500). This is a very energy intensive process. (2) The absorption-based (amine) separation processes that are used to remove the CO{sub 2} from the flue gas and compress it to 1 atm consume approximately 10 times as much energy as the theoretical work of compression because they are heat driven cycles working over a very low temperature difference. Thus, to avoid the problems of current systems, we need a power cycle in which the CO{sub 2} produced by the oxidation of the fuel is not diluted with a large excess of nitrogen, a power cycle which would allow us to eliminate the very inefficient thermally driven absorption/desorption step. In addition, we would want the CO{sub 2} to be naturally available at high pressure (approximately 3 to 6 atmospheres), which would allow us to greatly reduce the compression ratio between generation and storage (from roughly 3,500 to approximately 8).

Robert J. Copeland

2000-05-01

368

A NOVEL CO{sub 2} SEPARATION SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

Because of concern over global climate change, new systems are needed that produce electricity from fossil fuels and emit less CO{sub 2}. The fundamental problem with current systems which recover and concentrate CO{sub 2} from flue gases is the need to separate dilute CO{sub 2} and pressurize it to roughly 35 atm for storage or sequestration. This is an energy intensive process that can reduce plant efficiency by 9-37% and double the cost of electricity. There are two fundamental reasons for the current high costs of power consumption, CO{sub 2} removal, and concentration systems: (1) most disposal, storage and sequestering systems require high pressure CO{sub 2} (at roughly 35 atm). Thus, assuming 90% removal of the CO{sub 2} from a typical atmospheric pressure flue gas that contains 10% CO{sub 2}, the CO{sub 2} is essentially being compressed from 0.01 atm to 35 atm (a pressure ratio of 3,500). This is a very energy intensive process. (2) The absorption-based (amine) separation processes that are used to remove the CO{sub 2} from the flue gas and compress it to 1 atm consume approximately 10 times as much energy as the theoretical work of compression because they are heat driven cycles working over a very low temperature difference. Thus, to avoid the problems of current systems, we need a power cycle in which the CO{sub 2} produced by the oxidation of the fuel is not diluted with a large excess of nitrogen, a power cycle which would allow us to eliminate the very inefficient thermally driven absorption/desorption step. In addition, we would want the CO{sub 2} to be naturally available at high pressure (approximately 3 to 6 atmospheres), which would allow us to greatly reduce the compression ratio between generation and storage (from roughly 3,500 to approximately 8).

Robert J. Copeland

2000-08-01

369

A semi-automatic parachute separation system for balloon payloads  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the National Scientific balloon Facility (NSBF), when operating stratospheric balloons with scientific payloads, the current practice for separating the payload from the parachute after descent requires the sending of commands, over a UHF uplink, from the chase airplane or the ground control site. While this generally works well, there have been occasions when, due to shadowing of the receive antenna or unfavorable aircraft attitude, the command has not been received and the parachute has failed to separate. In these circumstances the payload may be dragged for long distances before being recovered, with consequent danger of damage to expensive and sometimes irreplaceable scientific instrumentation. The NSBF has therefore proposed a system which would automatically separate the parachute without the necessity for commanding after touchdown. Such a system is now under development.. Mechanical automatic release systems have been tried in the past with only limited success. The current design uses an electronic system based on a tilt sensor which measures the angle that the suspension train subtends relative to the gravity vector. With the suspension vertical, there is minimum output from the sensor. When the payload touches down, the parachute tilts and in any tilt direction the sensor output increases until a predetermined threshold is reached. At this point, a threshold detector is activated which fires the pyrotechnic cutter to release the parachute. The threshold level is adjustable prior to the flight to enable the optimum tilt angle to be determined from flight experience. The system will not operate until armed by command. This command is sent during the descent when communication with the on-board systems is still normally reliable. A safety interlock is included to inhibit arming if the threshold is already high at the time the command is sent. While this is intended to be the primary system, the manual option would be retained as a back- up. A market survey was carried out to choose a suitable tilt sensor and three prototype systems were built for evaluation. These were installed in standard NSBF terminate units, and flown on routine operational flights throughout 2001 with the automatic pyrotechnic cutter active but off-line. A data logger was also installed to record system parameters during the descent phase. The results of these flights validated the system concept and it was found that the telemetry threshold monitor was also an asset to the operator in deciding when it was safe to send a manual parachute release command. However, the accumu lated test experience indicated that the originally- chosen tilt sensor, which uses a liquid electrolyte and requires an in-flight microprocessor, was not sufficiently rugged or reliable. A solid-state accelerometer, with encapsulated analog signal processing, was therefore selected as a replacement and the threshold electronics redesigned to match this sensor. This system is currently being evaluated on NSBF operation al flights during 2002. On completion of this phase, NASA will review the results and a decision will be made whether to use this design as the primary operational system on future flights. This paper discusses the requirements for such a system and describes the current design in detail. It reports on the evaluation flights of 2001 and 2002 and their results to date.

Farman, M.

370

Magnetic Dipole Moment of the Bhabha System  

Microsoft Academic Search

A systematic procedure was recently developed for extracting the intrinsic moments of a system described by the general first-order linear field equation (ibetamu?mu+k)psi=0. The procedure is here applied to compute the magnetic dipole moments of a dibaric system proposed by Bhabha.

Robert L. Pease; Jane Pease

1957-01-01

371

Temperature-induced phenomena in systems of magnetic nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic nanoparticle ensembles have received a lot of attention, stemming in part from their current and potential applications in biomedicine and in the development of high-density magnetic storage media. Key to the functionality of these systems are microscopic structures and mechanisms that make them exhibit unique properties and behave differently from their bulk counterparts. We studied microscopic structures and processes that dictate macroscopic properties, behavior and functionality of magnetic nanoparticle ensembles. As the temperature T strongly influences the magnetic behavior of these systems, we studied temperature dependent magnetic properties using AC-susceptibility and DC-magnetization measurements carried out over a broad range of temperatures, between 3 and 300 K. We extracted structural information from X-ray diffraction (XRD) and direct imaging techniques and correlate it with magnetic properties, in an attempt at better understanding the microscopic structures and magnetic mechanisms responsible for the macroscopic magnetic behavior. We studied ensembles of magnetic nanoparticles: nickel ferrite immobilized in a solid matrix and cobalt ferrite immersed in carrier fluid respectively, in order to explore their potential use in biomedical applications and magnetic recording. For both NiFe2O4(NFO) and Co0.2Fe2.8O4 (CFO) relaxation mechanisms were determined. Structural properties and average particle sizes were derived from XRD, including synchrotron XRD, and direct imaging techniques such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Temperature dependent magnetic measurements, FC-ZFC DC magnetometry, as well as AC complex susceptibility measurements at frequencies between 10 and 10,000 Hz were carried out within the temperature range 3Kmagnetization and AC susceptibility measurements were performed using a Physical Property Measurement System (PPMS), which allows measurements in magnetic fields up to 9T and within a temperature range between 2 and 350 K. For NFO, besides the expected blocking of the superspin, observed at T1 ? 45 K, we found that the system undergoes a magnetic transition at T2 ? 6 K. For the latter, frequency- and temperature-resolved dynamic susceptibility data reveal characteristics that are unambiguously related to collective spin freezing: the relative variation (per frequency decade) of the in-phase-susceptibility peak temperature is ˜0.025, critical dynamics analysis yields an exponent zv = 9.6 and a zero-field freezing temperature TF = 5.8 K, and, in a magnetic field, TF (H) is excellently described by the de Almeida-Thouless line deltaT F infinity H2/3. Moreover, out-of-phase-susceptibility vs. temperature datasets collected at different frequencies collapse on a universal dynamic scaling curve. All these observations indicate the existence of a spin-glass-like surface layer that surrounds the superparamagnetic core and undergoes a transition to a frozen state upon cooling below 5.8 K. For the CFO ferrofluid, we used temperature- and frequency-resolved AC-susceptibility measurements to investigate its magnetic relaxation above the freezing point of the liquid carrier. Our data show that both the Neel and the Brown relaxation mechanisms are operative at temperatures in the vicinity of the out-of-phase (imaginary) susceptibility peak. We separate the contributions of the two mechanisms to the overall-relaxation time, and demonstrate that Brownian relaxation plays a dominant role at all temperatures within this high-dissipation regime.

Bhuiya, Abdul Wazed

372

Optimized high gradient magnetic separation for isolation of Plasmodium-infected red blood cells  

PubMed Central

Background Highly purified infected red blood cells (irbc), or highly synchronized parasite cultures, are regularly required in malaria research. Conventional isolation and synchronization rely on density and osmotic fragility of irbc, respectively. High gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) offers an alternative based on intrinsic magnetic properties of irbc, avoiding exposure to chemicals and osmotic stress. Successful HGMS concentration in malaria research was previously reported using polymer coated columns, while HGMS depletion has not been described yet. This study presents a new approach to both HGMS concentration and depletion in malaria research, rendering polymer coating unnecessary. Methods A dipole magnet generating a strong homogenous field was custom assembled. Polypropylene syringes were fitted with one-way stopcocks and filled with stainless steel wool. Rbc from Plasmodium falciparum cultures were resuspended in density and viscosity optimized HGMS buffers and HGMS processed. Purification and depletion results were analysed by flow cytometer and light microscopy. Viability was evaluated by calculating the infection rate after re-culturing of isolates. Results In HGMS concentration, purity of irbc isolates from asynchronous cultures consistently ranged from 94.8% to 98.4% (mean 95.7%). With further optimization, over 90% of isolated irbc contained segmented schizonts. Processing time was less than 45 min. Reinfection rates ranged from 21.0% to 56.4%. In HGMS depletion, results were comparable to treatment with sorbitol, as demonstrated by essentially identical development of cultures. Conclusion The novel HGMS concentration procedure achieves high purities of segmented stage irbc from standard asynchronous cultures, and is the first HGMS depletion alternative to sorbitol lysis. It represents a simple and highly efficient alternative to conventional irbc concentration and synchronization methods.

2010-01-01

373

Templated synthesis of monodisperse mesoporous maghemite/silica microspheres for magnetic separation of genomic DNA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel method is described for the preparation of superparamagnetic mesoporous maghemite (?-Fe2O3)/silica (SiO2) composite microspheres to allow rapid magnetic separation of DNA from biological samples. With magnetite (Fe3O4) and silica nanoparticles as starting materials, such microspheres were synthesized by the following two consecutive steps: (1) formation of monodispersed organic/inorganic hybrid microspheres through urea-formaldedyde (UF) polymerization and (2) removal of the organic template and phase transformation of Fe3O4 to ?-Fe2O3 by calcination at elevated temperatures. The as-synthesized particles obtained by heating at temperature 300 °C feature spherical shape and uniform particle size (dparticle=1.72 ?m), high saturation magnetization (Ms=17.22 emu/g), superparamagnetism (Mr/Ms=0.023), high surface area (SBET=240 m2/g), and mesoporosity (dpore=6.62 nm). The composite microsphere consists of interlocked amorphous SiO2 nanoparticles, in which cubic ?-Fe2O3 nanocrystals are homogeneously dispersed and thermally stable against ?- to ?-phase transformation at temperatures up to 600 °C. With the exposed iron oxide nanoparticles coated with a thin layer of silica shell, the magnetic microspheres were used as a solid-phase adsorbent for rapid extraction of genomic DNA from plant samples. The results show that the DNA templates isolated from pea and green pepper displayed single bands with molecular weights greater than 8 kb and A260/A280 values of 1.60-1.72. The PCR amplification of a fragment encoding the endogenous chloroplast ndhB gene confirmed that the DNA templates obtained were inhibitor-free and amenable to sensitive amplification-based DNA technologies.

Chen, Feng; Shi, Ruobing; Xue, Yun; Chen, Lei; Wan, Qian-Hong

2010-08-01

374

Control of separated flow in a reflected shock interaction using a magnetically-accelerated surface discharge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A numerical investigation was carried out to explore the effects of a magnetically-accelerated surface discharge on a separated, turbulent boundary layer in supersonic flow. The geometry and test conditions were chosen for comparison to experiments carried out at Princeton University. For those studies, a reflected shock interaction was created using a 14° shock generator acting on an incoming turbulent boundary layer with a Reynolds number based on momentum thickness of 1 × 104 and a freestream Mach number of 2.6. Three-dimensional, Reynolds-averaged, Navier-Stokes (RANS) calculations were carried out to simulate the experiments, using the US3D code developed at the University of Minnesota. The baseline code was modified to include a semi-empirical model of the surface discharge actuator, implemented through source terms in the momentum equation, vibrational energy equation, and total energy equation. The computational results for the baseline flow and several control cases were compared to experimental measurements of mean surface pressure. The level of discrepancy was typical of well-resolved RANS computations of three-dimensional, separated flows: qualitative agreement was obtained, and the general experimental trends were captured by the numerical model. Substantial three-dimensionality was observed even in the baseline flow, and significant changes in the flow topology were observed with the application of the actuator. Because of the highly three-dimensional nature of this shock interaction, the initial interpretation of the experiments may need to be revisited.

Atkinson, Michael D.; Poggie, Jonathan; Camberos, José A.

2012-12-01

375

Combined air stripper/membrane vapor separation systems. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Air stripping is an economical and efficient method of removing dissolved volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from contaminated groundwater. Air strippers, however, produce a vent air stream, which must meet the local air quality limits. If the VOC content exceeds the limits, direct discharge is not possible; therefore, a carbon adsorption VOC capture system is used to treat the vent air. This treatment step adds a cost of at least $50/lb of VOC captured. In this program, a combined air stripper/membrane vapor separation system was constructed and demonstrated in the laboratory. The membrane system captures VOCs from the stripper vent stream at a projected cost of $15/lb VOC for a water VOC content of 5 ppmw, and $75/lb VOC for a water VOC content of 1 ppmw. The VOCs are recovered as a small, concentrated liquid fraction for disposal or solvent recycling. The concept has been demonstrated in experiments with a system capable of handling up to 150,000 gpd of water. The existing demonstration system is available for field tests at a DOE facility or remediation site. Replacement of the current short air stripping tower (effective height 3 m) with a taller tower is recommended to improve VOC removal.

Wijmans, J.G.; Baker, R.W.; Kamaruddin, H.D.; Kaschemekat, J.; Olsen, R.P.; Rose, M.E.; Segelke, S.V.

1992-11-01

376

Drive systems with permanent magnet synchronous motors  

SciTech Connect

This article reports that simulations indicate that a 15% longer electric-vehicle driving range is possible with permanent magnet synchronous motor drive systems compared with asynchronous types. The simplified driveline made possible by a permanent magnet design more than offsets its extra cost. A number of electric-motor types are suitable for electric-vehicle drive systems, one being the permanent magnet (PM) motor. The available of powerful PM materials, the choice of a high number of poles, and the possibility of field weakening are all essential factors for high-performance PM motors. Except for the magnets, PM motor designs are similar to other types of ac motors, and can use the same inverters as other ac motors. Tests and simulations of vehicle drive cycles have indicated that a substantially greater driving range is possible when PM motor drive systems are used. Due to the magnets, the cost of such systems is somewhat higher, but this can be compensated for by improved performance and simplified installation.

Eriksson, S.

1995-02-01

377

A new MAGLEV system for magnetically levitated carrier system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A power-saving electromagnetic suspension system has been developed in which electromagnets with permanent magnets are used to suspend the vehicle. The electromagnets are controlled to maintain air gap length so that the attractive force by the permanent magnet always balances the total weight of the vehicle and its loads, based on modern control theory. This technology realizes a significantly power-saving

Mimpei Morishita; Teruo Azukizawa; Shuji Kanda; Noburu Tamura; Toyohiko Yokoyama

1989-01-01

378

Synthesis and performance of novel magnetically separable nanospheres of titanium dioxide photocatalyst with egg-like structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

A magnetically separable photocatalyst TiO2\\/SiO2\\/NiFe2O4 (TSN) nanosphere with egg-like structure was prepared by a unique process that combined a liquid catalytic phase transformation method, reverse micelle technique and chemical precipitation means. The prepared photocatalyst shows high photocatalytic activity for the degradation of methyl orange in water. The magnetic property measurements indicate that the photocatalyst possesses a superparamagnetic nature. It can

Shihong Xu; Wenfeng Shangguan; Jian Yuan; Mingxia Chen; Jianwei Shi; Zhi Jiang

2008-01-01

379

78 FR 9908 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Issuance of the Small Municipal Separate Storm Sewer System...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Issuance of the Small Municipal Separate Storm Sewer System NPDES General Permit--New...discharges from small Municipal Separate Storm Sewer Systems (MS4s) to certain waters...16) define a small municipal separate storm sewer system as ``all separate...

2013-02-12

380

Separation of Intra- and Extramyocellular Lipid Signals in Proton MR Spectra by Determination of Their Magnetic Field Distribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In skeletal musculature intramyocellular (IMCL) and extramyocellular lipids (EMCL) are stored in compartments of different geometry and experience different magnetic field strengths due to geometrical susceptibility effects. The effect is strong enough to-at least partly-separate IMCL and EMCL contributions in 1H MR spectroscopy, despite IMCL and EMCL consisting of the same substances. The assessment of intramyocellular lipid stores in skeletal musculature by 1H MR spectroscopy plays an important role for studying physiological and pathological aspects of lipid metabolism. Therefore, a method using mathematical tools of Fourier analysis is developed to obtain the magnetic field distribution (MFD) from the measured spectra by deconvolution. A reference lipid spectrum is required which was recorded in tibial yellow bone marrow. It is shown that the separation of IMCL contributions can be performed more precisely-compared to other methods-based on the MFD. Examples of deconvolution in model systems elucidate the principle. Applications of the proposed approach on in vivo examinations in m. soleus and m. tibialis anterior are presented. Fitting the IMCL part of the MFD by a Gaussian lineshape with a linewidth kept fixed with respect to the linewidth of creatine and with the assumption of a smooth but not necessarily symmetrical shape for the EMCL part, the only free fit parameter, the amplitude of the IMCL part, is definite and subtraction leads to the EMCL part in the MFD. This procedure is especially justified for the soleus muscle showing a severely asymmetrical distribution which might lead to a marked overestimation of IMCL using common line fitting procedures. .

Steidle, G.; Machann, J.; Claussen, C. D.; Schick, F.

2002-02-01

381

Permanent magnetic system design for the wall-climbing robot  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the design of the permanent magnetic system for the wall climbing robot with permanent magnetic tracks. A proposed wall climbing robot with permanent magnetic adhesion mechanism for inspecting the oil tanks is briefly put forward, including the mechanical system architecture. The permanent magnetic adhesion mechanism and the tracked locomotion mechanism are employed in the robot system. By

Weimin Shen; Jason Gu; Yanjun Shen

2005-01-01

382

Thermodynamic Analysis of Geothermal Power Systems Employing Separating Expanders.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A thermodynamic analysis was performed in order to study the possibility of upgrading the thermodynamic performance of a direct-steam geothermal power plant through the use of a separating expander which produces work while achieving effective separation ...

H. E. Khalifa E. Michaelides

1978-01-01

383

Enhancement of the efficiency of magnetic targeting for drug delivery: Development and evaluation of magnet system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deep magnetic capture and clinical application are the current trends for magnetic targeted drug delivery system. More promising and possible strategies are needed to overcome the current limitations and further improve the magnetic targeting technique. Recent advances in the development of targeting magnet system show promise in progressing this technology from the laboratory to the clinic. Starting from well-known basic concepts, current limitations of magnetic targeted drug delivery system are analyzed. Meanwhile, the design concepts and evaluations of some effective improvements in magnet system are discussed and reviewed with reference to (i) reasonable design of magnet system; (ii) control modes of magnet system used to generate dynamical magnetic fields; and (iii) magnetic field driving types.

Cao, Quanliang; Han, Xiaotao; Li, Liang

2011-08-01

384

A novel CO{sub 2} separation system  

SciTech Connect

Current technologies for capturing CO{sub 2} are in-efficient and expensive. TDA Research objectives are to: Sequester most to all of the CO{sub 2}; Generate electricity at high efficiency and low costs; Usable for GTCC, Fuel Cells, GT and any fossil fuel (after gasification or other pre-treatment). Their approach is to Use a chemical sorbent to transfer the energy in the fossil fuel to heat air in a power generation cycle; Condense the water; and to use their Sorbent Energy Transfer System (SETS) which is described in the paper. No Additional Energy Required for CO{sub 2} Separation, they oxidize the fuel in two steps for the same net reaction: full oxidation of the fuel to water and CO{sub 2}.

Copeland, R.J.

2001-01-15

385

Theory of orbital magnetization in disordered systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a general formula of the orbital magnetization of disordered systems based on the Keldysh Green's function theory in the gauge-covariant Wigner space. In our approach, the gauge invariance of physical quantities is ensured from the very beginning, and the vertex corrections are easily included. Our formula applies not only for insulators but also for metallic systems where the quasiparticle behavior is usually strongly modified by the disorder scattering. In the absence of disorders, our formula recovers the previous results obtained from the semiclassical theory and the perturbation theory. As an application, we calculate the orbital magnetization of a weakly disordered two-dimensional electron gas with Rashba spin-orbit coupling. We find that for the short-range disorder scattering, its major effect is to the shifting of the distribution of orbital magnetization corresponding to the quasiparticle energy renormalization.

Zhu, Guobao; Yang, Shengyuan A.; Fang, Cheng; Liu, W. M.; Yao, Yugui

2012-12-01

386

Magnetic Susceptibility in Liquid In Se System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnetic susceptibility of the liquid In1-xSex system have been measured as functions of concentration and temperature. The magnetic susceptibility of the system shows a broad diamagnetic maximum near x=0.58. This behaviour corresponds to the concentration variation of electronic conductivity reported previously and supports our previous suggestion of the valence fluctuation of In ions. By using the data of magnetic susceptibility with known electronic conductivity and thermoelectric power data, the density of state N(E) have been determined and the diamagnetic susceptibility due to ion core, ?d, has also been obtained. The obtained value of ?d suggests the occurrence of monovalent In ion near the composition x=0.58.

Itoh, Keiji; Usuki, Takeshi; Tamaki, Shigeru

1998-09-01

387

An intelligent digital magnetic recording system (DIMARS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The system consists of three magnetic variometers with electrical output signals for the H, D, and Z components, a proton magnetometer for the total field, a data acquisition system, two cassette recorders, an analogue chart recorder, a calendar clock, and a telex. The analogue and digital input data are sampled at 10 sec intervals, averaged over a minute, and recorded on a magnetic tape cassette. The computed hourly and daily mean values and the daily minimum and maximum values are recorded together with the occurrence times on a second cassette, at the operator's request. Rapid run recording of the 10 sec values of each measured component is initiated automatically during magnetic storms. DIMARS incorporates several test functions as ROM test, A/D converter test, recorder test, telexline test and checking the memory content. The test functions can be activated by the equipment keyboard, or via the telex. The telex can also be operated as an output printer.

Hegymegi, L.; Drimusz, L.

1984-07-01

388

Mirror Fusion Test Facility magnet system  

SciTech Connect

In 1979, R.H. Bulmer of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) discussed a proposed tandem-mirror magnet system for the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) at the 8th symposium on Engineering Problems in Fusion Research. Since then, Congress has voted funds for expanding LLNL's MFTF to a tandem-mirror facility (designated MFTF-B). The new facility, scheduled for completion by 1985, will seek to achieve two goals: (1) Energy break-even capability (Q or the ratio of fusion energy to plasma heating energy = 1) of mirror fusion, (2) Engineering feasibility of reactor-scale machines. Briefly stated, 22 superconducting magnets contained in a 11-m-diam by 65-m-long vacuum vessel will confine a fusion plasma fueled by 80 axial streaming-plasma guns and over 40 radial neutral beams. We have already completed a preliminary design of this magnet system.

VanSant, J.H.; Kozman, T.A.; Bulmer, R.H.; Ng, D.S.

1981-09-11

389

Thermodynamic analysis of geothermal power systems employing separating expanders  

Microsoft Academic Search

A thermodynamic analysis was performed in order to study the possibility of upgrading the thermodynamic performance of a direct-steam geothermal power plant through the use of a separating expander which produces work while achieving effective separation of the two phases. One such device is the Biphase rotary separator. Preliminary testing of this device demonstrated that the isentropic efficiency is about

H. E. Khalifa; E. Michaelides

1978-01-01

390

Separation system with a sheath-flow supported electrochemical detector  

DOEpatents

An electrochemical detector including side channels associated with a separation channel of a sample component separation apparatus is provided. The side channels of the detector, in one configuration, provide a sheath-flow for an analyte exiting the separation channel which directs the analyte to the electrically developed electrochemical detector.

Mathies, Richard A. (Moraga, CA); Emrich, Charles A. (Berkeley, CA); Singhal, Pankaj (Pasadena, CA); Ertl, Peter (Styria, AT)

2008-10-21

391

Magnetic Thin Films for Perpendicular Magnetic Recording Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the advanced information society of today, information storage technology, which helps to store a mass of electronic data and offers high-speed random access to the data, is indispensable. Against this background, hard disk drives (HDD), which are magnetic recording devices, have gained in importance because of their advantages in capacity, speed, reliability, and production cost. These days, the uses of HDD extend not only to personal computers and network servers but also to consumer electronics products such as personal video recorders, portable music players, car navigation systems, video games, video cameras, and personal digital assistances.

Sugiyama, Atsushi; Hachisu, Takuma; Osaka, Tetsuya

392

Separation of charge-order and magnetic QCPs in heavy fermions and high Tc cuprates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Fermi surface topology of high temperature superconductors inferred from magnetic quantum oscillation measurements provides clues for the origin of unconventional pairing thus previously not accessed by other spectroscopy techniques. While the overdoped regime of the high Tc phase diagram has a large Fermi surface consistent with bandstructure calculations, the underdoped regime of YBa2Cu2O6+x is found to be composed of small pockets. There is considerable debate as to whether the small observed ``pocket'' is hole-like or electron-like- whether the Fermi surface is best described by a t-J model or a conventional band folding picture- whether or not a Fermi liquid description applies- or- whether bilayer coupling splits the degeneracy of the observed pockets. We (myself and collaborators) have now collected an extensive body of experimental data that brings this debate to rest, but raises new questions about the nature of itinerant magnetism in underdoped high Tc cuprates. Quantum oscillation measurements are performed on multiple samples in magnetic fields extending to 85 T, temperatures between 30 mK (dilution fridge in dc fields to 45 T) and 18 K, over a range of hole dopings and with samples rotated in-situ about multiple axes with respect to the magnetic field. We perform a topographical map of the Fermi surface, enabling the in-plane shape of one of the pockets to be determined- imposing stringent constraints on the origin of the Fermi surface. While quantum oscillations measurements are consistent with a topological Fermi surface change associated with magnetism near optimal doping, they also point to a secondary instability deep within the underdoped regime beneath a high Tc superconducting sub-dome. An steep upturn in the quasiparticle effective mass is observed on underdoping, suggestive of a quantum critical point near x= 0.46 separating the metallic regime (composed of small pockets) from a more underdoped insulating charge-ordered regime (earlier reported in neutron scattering measurements). Our findings suggest the importance of two critical instabilities affecting the Fermi surface beneath the high Tc superconducting dome(s). While one of these has been proposed to provide the likely origin of unconventional pairing in the cuprates, the other can be an important factor in boosting transition temperatures. [4pt] This work is supported by the DoE BES grant ``Science in 100 T''. The author would like to thank collaborators S. E. Sebastian, C. H. Mielke, P. A. Goddard, M. M. Altarawneh, R. Liang, D. A. Bonn, W. N. Hardy and G. G. Lonzarich, and supporting staff at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (NHMFL). Quantum oscillation experiments are performed at the NHMFL, which is funded by the NSF with support from the DoE and State of Florida.

Harrison, Neil

2010-03-01

393

Magnetic properties of phase separated Fe3O4-TiO2-SiO2 glasses prepared from a two-liquids immiscible melt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The glassy composite materials were prepared by quenching the phase separated melts in two-liquids immiscibility region of Fe3O4-TiO2-SiO2 ternary system. The fine phase-separation textures which consisted of Fe-Ti rich phase and Si rich one were formed in the samples, and the precipitation of Fe3O4-TiO2 solid solution was observed in the samples of the specific compositions. The samples containing Fe3O4-TiO2 solid solution showed ferrimagnetic properties on their magnetization curves. In low Fe3O4-TiO2 content, coercivity increased with increase of Fe3O4-TiO2 content since the precipitated particles in the samples grew and had single magnetic domain. In high Fe3O4-TiO2 content, the coercivity decreased with increase of Fe3O4-TiO2 content because the magnetostatical interparticle interaction among the precipitated particles appeared. These results indicate that the magnetic properties of the composite materials owing to the crystalline phase and its size can be controlled by utilizing the phase separation in this system.

Kono, K.; Kishi, T.; Ohgaki, T.; Yasumori, A.

2008-03-01

394

PDMAEMA-Grafted Core-Shell-Corona Particles for Nonviral Gene Delivery and Magnetic Cell Separation.  

PubMed

Monodisperse, magnetic nanoparticles as vectors for gene delivery were successfully synthesized via the grafting-from approach. First, oleic acid stabilized maghemite nanoparticles (?-Fe2O3) were encapsulated with silica utilizing a reverse microemulsion process with simultaneous functionalization with initiating sites for atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). Polymerization of 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA) from the core-shell nanoparticles led to core-shell-corona hybrid nanoparticles (?-Fe2O3@silica@PDMAEMA) with an average grafting density of 91 polymer chains of DPn = 540 (PDMAEMA540) per particle. The permanent attachment of the arms was verified by field-flow fractionation. The dual-responsive behavior (pH and temperature) was confirmed by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and turbidity measurements. The interaction of the hybrid nanoparticles with plasmid DNA at various N/P ratios (polymer nitrogen/DNA phosphorus) was investigated by DLS and zeta-potential measurements, indicating that for N/P ? 7.5 the complexes bear a positive net charge and do not undergo secondary aggregation. The hybrids were tested as transfection agents under standard conditions in CHO-K1 and L929 cells, revealing transfection efficiencies >50% and low cytotoxicity at N/P ratios of 10 and 15, respectively. Due to the magnetic properties of the hybrid gene vector, it is possible to collect most of the cells that have incorporated a sufficient amount of magnetic material by using a magnetic activated cell sorting system (MACS). Afterward, cells were further cultivated and displayed a transfection efficiency of ca. 60% together with a high viability. PMID:23889326

Majewski, Alexander P; Stahlschmidt, Ullrich; Jérôme, Valérie; Freitag, Ruth; Müller, Axel H E; Schmalz, Holger

2013-08-12

395

Equations for Nonlinear MHD Convection in Shearless Magnetic Systems  

SciTech Connect

A closed set of reduced dynamic equations is derived that describe nonlinear low-frequency flute MHD convection and resulting nondiffusive transport processes in weakly dissipative plasmas with closed or open magnetic field lines. The equations obtained make it possible to self-consistently simulate transport processes and the establishment of the self-consistent plasma temperature and density profiles for a large class of axisymmetric nonparaxial shearless magnetic devices: levitated dipole configurations, mirror systems, compact tori, etc. Reduced equations that are suitable for modeling the long-term evolution of the plasma on time scales comparable to the plasma lifetime are derived by the method of the adiabatic separation of fast and slow motions.

Pastukhov, V.P. [Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Institute, pl. Kurchatova 1, Moscow, 123182 (Russian Federation)

2005-07-15

396

Electrical supply for MFTF-B superconducting magnet system  

SciTech Connect

The MFTF-B magnet system consists of 42 superconducting magnets which must operate continuously for long periods of time. The magnet power supply system is designed to meet the operational requirements of accuracy, flexibility, and reliability. The superconducting magnets require a protection system to protect against critical magnet faults of quench, current lead overtemperature, and overcurrent. The protection system is complex because of the large number of magnets, the strong coupling between magnets, and the high reliability requirement. This paper describes the power circuits and the components used in the design.

Shimer, D.W.; Owen, E.W.

1985-02-13

397

Electrical supply for MFTF-B superconducting magnet system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The MFTF-B magnet system consists of 42 superconducting magnets which must operate continuously for long periods of time. The magnet power supply system is designed to meet the operational requirements of accuracy, flexibility, and reliability. The superconducting magnets require a protection system to protect against critical magnet faults of quench, current lead overtemperature, and overcurrent. The protection system is complex because of the large number of magnets, the strong coupling between magnets, and the high reliability requirement. The power circuits and the components used in the design are described.

Shimer, D. W.; Owen, E. W.

1985-02-01

398

Driving stability of superconducting magnetic bearing system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A superconducting bearing system including a 7.5 kg disc shaped rotor is stabilized by using superconducting and magnetic levitation combination. The rotor is stabilized with the Evershed type bearing where the majority of the rotor mass is lifted via attractive permanent magnets configuration, and the stability of the rotor is provided by superconductors. The stability tests are performed via obtaining levitation force characteristic. Preliminary levitation force results show that the system is stable and robust; indicating rotor mass can be increased more without losing the efficiency. Dynamic tests are performed during spin of the designed bearing system. The resonance behavior of the system indicates that the bearing is not vulnerable to higher speeds.

Cansiz, Ahmet; Oral, Emin Argun; Gundogdu, Omer

2012-06-01

399

Magnetically separable nanocomposites with photocatalytic activity under visible light for the selective transformation of biomass-derived platform molecules  

EPA Science Inventory

Novel magnetically separable TiO2-guanidine-(Ni,Co)Fe2O4 nanomaterials were prepared and characterised by a series of techniques including XRD, SEM, TEM, N2 physisorption as well as XPS and subsequently tested for their photocatalytic activities in the selective transformation of...

400

Superconducting electromagnets for large wind tunnel magnetic suspension and balance systems  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a new design study of a Magnetic Suspension and Balance System (MSBS) for airplane models in a large 8 ft x 8 ft wind tunnel. New developments in the design include: use of a superconducting solenoid as a model core instead of magnetized iron; combination of permanent magnet material in the model wings along with four race-track coils to produce the required roll torque; and mounting of all the magnets in an integral cold structure instead of in separate cryostats. Design of superconducting solenoid model cores and practical experience with a small-scale prototype are discussed.

Boom, R.W.; Abdelsalam, M.K.; Bakerek, K.; Britcher, C.P.; Esking, J.; Eyssa, Y.M.; Goodyer, M.J.; McIntosh, G.E.; Scurlock, R.G.; Wu, Y.Y.

1985-03-01

401

Identification of new astatine isotopes using the gas-filled magnetic separator, SASSY  

Microsoft Academic Search

A He-filled on-line mass separator system was built at the SuperHILAC and used to study the fusion products in the reaction ⁵⁶Fe + ¹⁴¹Pr. The new neutron-deficient isotopes ¹⁹⁴At and ¹⁹⁵At were produced in this bombardment as three- and two- neutron-out products, respectively, and were identified by the ..cap alpha..-..cap alpha.. time-correlation technique. The measured ..cap alpha.. energies and half

Yashita

1984-01-01

402

Identification of new astatine isotopes using the gas-filled magnetic separator, Sassy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A He-filled on-line separator system was built at the SuperHILAC and used to study the fusion products in the reaction ⁵⁶Fe + ¹⁴¹Pr. The new neutron-deficient isotopes ¹⁹⁴At and ¹⁹⁵At were produced in this bombardment as three- and two-neutron-out products, respectively, and were identified by the ..cap alpha..-..cap alpha.. time-correlation technique. The measured ..cap alpha.. energies and half lives are

Yashita

1983-01-01

403

Multifunctional Magnetic-Optical Nanoparticle Probes for Simultaneous Detection, Separation, and Thermal Ablation of Multiple Pathogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multifunctional nanoparticles possessing magnetization and near-infrared (NIR) absorption have warranted interest due to their significant applications in magnetic resonance imaging, diagnosis, bioseparation, target delivery, and NIR photothermal ablation. Herein, the site-selective assembly of magnetic nanoparticles onto the ends or ends and sides of gold nanorods with different aspect ratios (ARs) to create multifunctional nanorods decorated with varying numbers of magnetic

Chungang Wang; Joseph Irudayaraj

2010-01-01

404

A Phos-tag-based magnetic-bead method for rapid and selective separation of phosphorylated biomolecules.  

PubMed

A simple and efficient method based on magnetic-bead technology has been developed for the separation of phosphorylated and nonphosphorylated low-molecular-weight biomolecules, such as nucleotides, phosphorylated amino acids, or phosphopeptides. The phosphate-binding site on the bead is an alkoxide-bridged dinuclear zinc(II) complex with 1,3-bis(pyridin-2-ylmethylamino)propan-2-olate (Phos-tag), which is linked to a hydrophilic cross-linked agarose coating on a magnetic core particle. All steps for the phosphate-affinity separation are conducted in buffers of neutral pH with 50 ?L of the magnetic beads in a 1.5-mL microtube. The entire separation protocol for phosphomonoester-type compounds, from addition to elution, requires less than 12 min per sample if the buffers and the zinc(II)-bound Phos-tag magnetic beads have been prepared in advance. The phosphate-affinity magnetic beads are reusable at least 15 times without a decrease in their phosphate-binding ability and they are stable for three months in propan-2-ol. PMID:23523882

Tsunehiro, Masaya; Meki, Yuma; Matsuoka, Kanako; Kinoshita-Kikuta, Emiko; Kinoshita, Eiji; Koike, Tohru

2013-03-08

405

Propulsion and stabilization system for magnetically levitated vehicles  

DOEpatents

A propulsion and stabilization system for an inductive repulsion type magnetically levitated vehicle which is propelled and stabilized by a system which includes propulsion windings mounted above and parallel to vehicle-borne suspension magnets. A linear synchronous motor is part of the vehicle guideway and is mounted above and parallel to superconducting magnets attached to the magnetically levitated vehicle.

Coffey, H.T.

1992-12-31

406

Observing solitons in one dimensional magnetic systems  

SciTech Connect

Classical models of one dimensional magnetic systems show that in addition to the linear spin wave excitations, there should exist localized, large amplitude excitations, that can move along the chains while retaining their integrity. It is expected that these excitations, solitons, exist in real materials. The progress that has been made to date in observing solitons in one dimensional magnets by means of neutron scattering, and the difficulties that still remain in unambiguously identifying the soliton contributions to S(q,..omega..) are discussed.

Reiter, G.

1981-01-01

407

A desktop magnetic resonance imaging system.  

PubMed

Modern magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems consist of several complex, high cost subsystems. The cost and complexity of these systems often makes them impractical for use as routine laboratory instruments, limiting their use to hospitals and dedicated laboratories. However, advances in the consumer electronics industry have led to the widespread availability of inexpensive radio-frequency integrated circuits with exceptional abilities. We have developed a small, low-cost MR system derived from these new components. When combined with inexpensive desktop magnets, this type of MR scanner has the promise of becoming standard laboratory equipment for both research and education. This paper describes the development of a prototype desktop MR scanner utilizing a 0.21 T permanent magnet with an imaging region of approximately 2 cm diameter. The system uses commercially available components where possible and is programmed in LabVIEW software. Results from 3D data sets of resolution phantoms and fixed, newborn mice demonstrate the capability of this system to obtain useful images from a system constructed for approximately $13,500. PMID:11755094

Wright, Steven M; Brown, David G; Porter, Jay R; Spence, David C; Esparza, Emilio; Cole, David C; Huson, F Russell

2002-01-01

408

Induced Magnetic Fields in Solar System Bodies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electromagnetic induction is a powerful technique to study the electrical conductivity of the interior of the Earth and other solar system bodies. Information about the electrical conductivity structure can provide strong constraints on the associated internal composition of planetary bodies. Here we give a review of the basic principles of the electromagnetic induction technique and discuss its application to various bodies of our solar system. We also show that the plasma environment, in which the bodies are embedded, generates in addition to the induced magnetic fields competing plasma magnetic fields. These fields need to be treated appropriately to reliably interpret magnetic field measurements in the vicinity of solar system bodies. Induction measurements are particularly important in the search for liquid water outside of Earth. Magnetic field measurements by the Galileo spacecraft provide strong evidence for a subsurface ocean on Europa and Callisto. The induction technique will provide additional important constraints on the possible subsurface water, when used on future Europa and Ganymede orbiters. It can also be applied to probe Enceladus and Titan with Cassini and future spacecraft.

Saur, Joachim; Neubauer, Fritz M.; Glassmeier, Karl-Heinz

2010-05-01

409

Effect of outer wing separation on lift and thrust generation in a flapping wing system  

Microsoft Academic Search

We explore the implementation of wing feather separation and lead-lagging motion to a flapping wing. A biomimetic flapping wing system with separated outer wings is designed and demonstrated. The artificial wing feather separation is implemented in the biomimetic wing by dividing the wing into inner and outer wings. The features of flapping, lead-lagging, and outer wing separation of the flapping

Nanang Mahardika; Nguyen Quoc Viet; Hoon Cheol Park

2011-01-01

410

Separation of Heterogeneous Systems in a Cylindrical Direct-Flow Hydraulic Cyclone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various vessels and machines are used in industry for the hydromechanical separation of disperse systems. High separation indicators can be achieved with the use of settling and filtering equipment, but machines and vessels operating on the ce ntrifugal principle are most effective: centrifuges, separators, and hydraulic cyclones. The latter are favorably distinguished fro m centrifuges and separators by the absence

A. M. Kutepov; M. G. Lagutkin; V. I. Mushtaev; S. Yu. Bulychev

2002-01-01

411

Magnetic Structure and Phase Separation in Epitaxial SrCoOx Thin Films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bulk SrCoOx separates into three distinct ferromagnetic phases as the oxygen content is increased from x = 2.75 to 3.0, corresponding to TC = 165 K (SrCoO2.75), TC = 220 K (SrCoO2.88), and TC = 280 K (SrCoO3.0). Over this composition, the lattice evolves smoothly and remains a single crystallographic phase. Using pulsed laser deposition and electrochemical oxidation, we have prepared epitaxial films of SrCoOx of varying thickness and orientation on SiTiO3 substrates. While in polycrystalline samples intermediate oxygen concentrations show a two-phase magnetic behavior, 100nm thick (0 0 1) films remain single phase but still favor the same ferromagnetic transitions. Thicker, 150 nm (1 1 1) films also order at comparable TC's, but again show two-phase behavior during deoxidation. Resonant x-ray diffraction on these samples reveals both commensurate and incommensurate ordering dependent on the oxidation state. This implies a charge or orbital ordering which may be influenced by finite size effects.

Rueckert, F. J.; Abughayada, C.; Sabok, S. A.; He, F.; Mohottala, H.; Budnick, J. I.; Hines, W. A.; Dabrowski, B.; Wells, B. O.

2013-03-01

412

A Longitudinal Study of Abnormal Behaviour of Vertical Magnetic Field in Equatorial Stations Separated by 40  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Variations of the geomagnetic componenets at three equatorial stations Ascension Island(7.95S,14.38W),Ad (9.03N,38.77E)and Trivandrum (8.48N,76.94E) are studied using hourly mean values of geo-magnetic componenents.It is shown that the Sq current system have shown a new type of Sq current distribution dierent from those associated with normal or counter electrojet(EEJ) events on 30 July 1995.This abnormal feature described seems to be a rare phenomenon. Both the horizontal and the vertical componenets of the geomagnetic eld at Addis ababa showed ab-normal maximum when compared with neighbouring days. The daily range of EEJ is found to exist in Indian longitudes did not show any correlation with this event.This additional current system could be due to excitation of certain tidal modes.

Thiagarajan, Arunachalam

413

Magnetic correlations in a classic Mott system  

SciTech Connect

The metal-insulator transition in V{sub 2}O{sub 3} causes a fundamental change in its magnetism. While the antiferromagnetic insulator (AFI) is a Heisenberg localized spin system, the antiferromagnetism in the strongly correlated metal is determined by a Fermi surface instability. Paramagnetic fluctuations in the metal and insulator represent similar spatial spin correlations, but are unrelated to the long range order in the AFI. The phase transition to the AFI induces an abrupt switching of magnetic correlations to a different magnetic wave vector. The AFI transition, therefore, is not a conventional spin order-disorder transition. Instead it is accounted for by an ordering in the occupation of the two degenerate d-orbitals at the Fermi level.

Bao, W. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Broholm, C. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States); Aeppli, G. [NEC, Princeton, NJ (United States); Carter, S.A. [Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Dai, D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Frost, C.D. [ISIS, Oxon (United Kingdom). Rutherford Appleton Lab.; Honig, J.M.; Metcalf, P. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)

1997-07-01

414

Fuel cell system with separating structure bonded to electrolyte  

SciTech Connect

A fuel cell assembly comprises a separating structure configured for separating a first reactant and a second reactant wherein the separating structure has an opening therein. The fuel cell assembly further comprises a fuel cell comprising a first electrode, a second electrode, and an electrolyte interposed between the first and second electrodes, and a passage configured to introduce the second reactant to the second electrode. The electrolyte is bonded to the separating structure with the first electrode being situated within the opening, and the second electrode being situated within the passage.

Bourgeois, Richard Scott (Albany, NY); Gudlavalleti, Sauri (Albany, NY); Quek, Shu Ching (Clifton Park, NY); Hasz, Wayne Charles (Pownal, VT); Powers, James Daniel (Santa Monica, CA)

2010-09-28

415

The synthesis, characterization and application of iron oxide nanocrystals in magnetic separations for arsenic and uranium removal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Arsenic and uranium in the environment are hazardous to human health and require better methods for detection and remediation. Nanocrystalline iron oxides offer a number of advantages as sorbents for water purification and environmental remediation. First, highly uniform and crystalline iron oxide nanocrystals (nMAG) were prepared using thermal decomposition of iron salts in organic solutions; for the applications of interest in this thesis, a central challenge was the adaptation of these conventional synthetic methods to the needs of low infrastructure and economically disadvantaged settings. We show here that it is possible to form highly uniform and magnetically responsive nanomaterials using starting reagents and equipment that are readily available and economical. The products of this approach, termed the 'Kitchen Synthesis', are of comparable quality and effectiveness to laboratory materials. The narrow size distributions of the iron oxides produced in the laboratory synthesis made it possible to study the size-dependence of the magnetic separation efficiency of nanocrystals; generally as the diameter of particles increased they could be removed under lower applied magnetic fields. In this work we take advantage of this size-dependence to use magnetic separation as a tool to separate broadly distributed populations of magnetic materials. Such work makes it possible to use these materials in multiplexed separation and sensing schemes. With the synthesis and magnetic separation studies of these materials completed, it was possible to optimize their applications in water purification and environmental remediation. These materials removed both uranium and arsenic from contaminated samples, and had remarkably high sorption capacities --- up to 12 wt% for arsenic and 30 wt% for uranium. The contaminated nMAG is removed from the drinking water by either retention in a sand column, filter, or by magnetic separation. The uranium adsorption process was also utilized for the enhanced detection of uranium in environmental matrices. By relying on alpha-particle detection in well-formed and dense nMAG films, it was possible to improve soil detection of uranium by more than ten-thousand-fold. Central for this work was a detailed understanding of the chemistry at the iron oxide interface, and the role of the organic coatings in mediating the sorption process.

Mayo, John Thomas

416

Synthesis of separation systems for azeotropic mixtures: Preferred distillation region  

Microsoft Academic Search

An algorithm for automatic generation of sequences of distillation columns and decanters for separation of azeotropic mixtures has been developed where distillation boundaries can be crossed by moving them with pressure change, by exploring curvatures of distillation boundaries or by liquid-liquid splits in decanters. Based on a broad knowledge of distillation regions and distillation boundaries for the separated mixture, open-loop

Stanislaw K. Wasylkiewicz

2006-01-01

417

Improving Water Quality Using Hydrodynamic Vortex Separators And Screening Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper reviews the evolution of Hydrodynamic Vortex Separators (HDVS) in the context of their application as high rate rotary flow separators for achieving water quality improvements to meet with regulatory requirements in Europe and North America. The types of HDVS and their application for the control of urban water quality such as combined sewer overflows (CSOs), sanitary sewer overflows

Robert Y. G. Andoh; Stephen P. Hides; Adrian J. Saul

418

MICROFABRICATION METHODS FOR MICROCHANNEL REACTORS AND SEPARATIONS SYSTEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fabrication of a microchannel chemical solvent separation unit and a microchannel chemical reactor is described. The performance of the solvent separation unit was enhanced by improved kinetic effects resulting from short liquid\\/liquid contact times in the device. These effects were exploited to allow preferential extraction of solute species from a fluid waste stream. The completed unit consisted of a

P. M. MARTIN; D. W. MATSON; W. D. BENNETT

1999-01-01

419

LBL Magnetic-Measurements Data-Acquisition System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The LBL Magnetic Measurements Engineering (MME) Group has developed a Real-Time Data Acquisition System (DAS) for magnetic measurements. The design objective was for a system that was versatile, portable, modular, expandable, quickly and easily reconfigur...

M. I. Green D. H. Nelson

1983-01-01

420

Phase-separated alloys for bulk exchange-biased permanent magnets  

SciTech Connect

Explorations in the metallurgical synthesis from the melt of bulk permanent magnets with coercivity conferred by the exchange bias mechanism were carried out in a two-phase materials system composed of ferromagnetic FeCo and antiferromagnetic, nominally equiatomic AuMn. Rapid solidification synthesis of composite alloys of nominal composition (Fe{sub 65}Co{sub 35}){sub 100-x}(AuMn){sub x} (x=5, 10, and 15) was carried out. The ribbons possess AuMn and Au{sub 2}Mn spherical phases in a bcc (Fe,Co) matrix with a bimodal size distribution of nanoscaled and micron sizes. Magnetization measurements of the composite confirm an exchange bias effect correlated with a coercivity increase over that of the (Fe,Co) melt-spun base alloy. While the exchange bias effect is small, the enhanced coercivity and shifted hysteresis loop observed in a single sample create a strong argument for coercivity enhancement conferred by the exchange bias interaction between antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic phases in a bulk melt-spun nanocomposite material.

Lewis, L. H.; Harland, C. L.; McCallum, R. W.; Kramer, M. J.; Dennis, K. W. [Materials Science Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973-5000 (United States); Ames Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States)

2006-04-15

421

Magnetic and Cryogenic Design of MICE Coupling Solenoid Magnet System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) will demonstrate ionization cooling in a short section of a realistic cooling channel using a muon beam at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory in the UK. The coupling magnet is a superconducting solenoid mounted around four 201 MHz RF cavities, which produces magnetic field up to 2.6 T on the magnet centerline to keep muons within

Li Wang; Fengyu Xu; Hong Wu; Xiaokun Liu; Lankai Li; Xinglong Guo; Heng Pan; Anbin Chen; Michael Anthony Green; Derun R. Li; Steve P. Virostek

2009-01-01

422

The superconducting magnet for the Maglev transport system  

SciTech Connect

Magnetically levitated vehicles (Maglev) using superconducting magnets have been under development in Japan for the past 23 years. The superconducting magnets for the Maglev system are used in a special environment compared to other applications. They have to work stably subject to both mechanical and electromagnetic disturbances. The brief history of the Maglev development in Japan, the planning of new test line, the superconducting magnet`s stability and the on board refrigeration system will be presented.

Nakashima, Hiroshi [Railway Technical Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan). Maglev System Development Div.

1994-07-01

423

A paper-based surface-enhanced resonance Raman spectroscopic (SERRS) immunoassay using magnetic separation and enzyme-catalyzed reaction.  

PubMed

In this study, a novel paper-based SERRS immunoassay based on magnetic separation and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) enzyme catalyzed hydrolysis reaction was developed. By using modified antibodies conjugated to magnetic beads, capture of mouse IgG followed by addition of ALP-labeled antibodies would form a sandwich-like immunoconjugate. After magnetic separation, 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl phosphate (BCIP), a low SERRS active compound, was added as the substrate for ALP to generate a high SERRS response. Detection was conducted on a silver colloid/PVP/filter paper SERS substrate by spotting a pre-aggregated silver colloid sol onto polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) modified filter paper using a semi-automatic TLC sample applicator. The optimization of the highly SERS active paper-based substrate, dynamic hydrolysis process of BCIP, quantitative detection of IgG, and selectivity of the assay was studied in detail. By taking advantage of magnetic separation in order to decrease the background interference, the selective enzyme reaction involved in producing a highly SERRS active product could detect mouse IgG from 1 to 500 ng mL(-1) with a LOD of 0.33 ng mL(-1). PMID:23486763

Chen, Yuanyuan; Cheng, Hanwen; Tram, Kha; Zhang, Shengfeng; Zhao, Yanhua; Han, Liyang; Chen, Zengping; Huan, Shuangyan

2013-05-01

424

Design and fabrication of the MFTF-B magnet system  

SciTech Connect

The MFTF-B superconducting magnet system consists of 40 NbTi magnets and two Nb/sub 3/Sn magnets. General Dynamics (GD) designed all magnets except for the small trim coils. GD then fabricated 20 NbTi magnets, while LLNL fabricated 20 NbTi magnets and two Nb/sub 3/Sn magnets. The design phase was completed in February 1984 and included the competitive procurement of magnet structural fabrication, superconductor, G-10CR insulation, support struts and bearings, vapor-cooled leads, and thermal shields for all magnets. Fabrication of all magnets was completed in March 1985. At GD, dual assembly lines were necessary during fabrication in order to meet the aggressive LLNL schedule. The entire magnet system has been installed and aligned at LLNL, and Tech Demo tests will be performed during September-November 1985.

Tatro, R.E.; Kozman, T.A.

1985-09-01

425

Alternatives of the stage separation and its impact on system design of future two-staged HTOL Space Transportation Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following a discussion of the stage separation principles, the Separation Motor System and the Frame System of ESA's two-staged Winged Launcher Configuration concept are analyzed in detail. In this analysis, particular attention is gven to the separation strategy, kinematics, flight dynamics, and stability. The results related to the system mass, integration space, complexity, flight performance and stability, and risk assessment

Edgar A. Staniszewski

1993-01-01

426

Fabrication of magnetic core@shell Fe oxide@Au nanoparticles for interfacial bioactivity and bio-separation.  

PubMed

The immobilization of proteins on gold-coated magnetic nanoparticles and the subsequent recognition of the targeted proteins provide an effective means for the separation of proteins via application of a magnetic filed. A key challenge is the ability to fabricate such nanoparticles with the desired core-shell nanostructure. In this article, we report findings of the fabrication and characterization of gold-coated iron oxide (Fe2O3 and Fe3O4) core@shell nanoparticles (Fe oxide@Au) toward novel functional biomaterials. A hetero-interparticle coalescence strategy has been demonstrated for fabricating Fe oxide@Au nanoparticles that exhibit controllable sizes ranging from 5 to 100 nm and high monodispersity. Composition and surface analyses have proven that the resulting nanoparticles consist of the Fe2O3 core and the Au shell. The magnetically active Fe oxide core and thiolate-active Au shell were shown to be viable for exploiting the Au surface protein-binding reactivity for bioassay and the Fe oxide core magnetism for magnetic bioseparation. These findings are entirely new and could form the basis for fabricating magnetic nanoparticles as biomaterials with tunable size, magnetism, and surface binding properties. PMID:17629315

Park, Hye-Young; Schadt, Mark J; Wang, Lingyan; Lim, I-Im Stephanie; Njoki, Peter N; Kim, Soo Hong; Jang, Min-Young; Luo, Jin; Zhong, Chuan-Jian

2007-07-13

427

A note on pseudo-Hermitian systems with point interactions and quantum separability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the quantum entanglement and separability of Hermitian and pseudo-Hermitian systems of identical bosonic or fermionic particles with point interactions. The separability conditions are investigated in detail.

Fei, Shao-Ming

2006-09-01

428

Focus on Hybrid Magnetic/Superconducting Systems  

SciTech Connect

Like antagonistic cousins from a common heritage, the competition between superconductivity and magnetism for correlated electron states, and coexistence in some rare cases, produces a rich variety of physical behavior, useful materials, and technologically important properties. Many pages of Superconductor Science and Technology are devoted to cuprates, pnictides, and other compounds where the mechanism of superconductivity itself is intertwined with magnetism. This focus issue explores another area, in which superconductivity and magnetism are combined as a hybrid system to create new properties not possible with either system alone, or to improve upon the properties of either system in dramatic ways. In recent years, great progress has been made in this exciting, relatively new field, followed by many workshops and special sessions in major international conferences. A concise and up-to-date focus issue of Superconductor Science and Technology is timely to summarize the latest developments. We, the Guest Editors, would like to thank those colleagues who contributed their most recent and interesting findings to this focus issue: Silhanek and co-workers reported both theoretical and experimental investigations of the dynamics of vortex chains for different arrangements of magnetic moments. Their approach of time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau formalism now replaces the previously proposed empirical models to explain the most relevant properties of the dynamics of these S/F hybrid systems. Hikino and co-workers presented a new route to observe the spin-wave excitation by the Josephson effect, through a theoretical investigation of the resistively shunted junction model, extended by considering the gauge invariance including magnetization. When the magnetization is driven by the microwave adjusted to the ferromagnetic resonance frequency, the dc supercurrent is induced in the junction, and the current-voltage curve shows step structures as a function of applied voltage. The magnitudes of step-height can be controlled by tuning the shape of interface. Nevirkovets and Belogolovskii demonstrated theoretically and experimentally that an ultra thin ferromagnetic layer, nearly transparent for non-superconducting charge transport, can block the transport of charge-carrier superconducting correlations as a cut-off filter in some device applications, for instance, a few nanometer thick ferromagnetic layer in a double barrier S{sub 1}IS{sub 2}FIS{sub 3} multi-terminal devices (S, I, and F are superconductor, insulator, and ferromagnetic metal, respectively) considerably improves the device's input-output isolation in comparison with the symmetric S{sub 1}IS{sub 2}IS{sub 3} devices. These are just a few examples among many exciting works published in this focus issue.

Cooley, L.; Li, Q.; Moshchalkov, V.

2011-02-01

429

Magnetic levitated high precision positioning system based on antagonistic mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

A six degree-of-freedom magnetically levitated high precision micro positioning system is designed to get rid of the friction which is one of the important factors limiting the resolution and accuracy of positioning devices. Since magnetic levitation systems are inherently unstable, most of the emphasis is placed on a magnetic circuit design so as to increase the system dynamic stability. For

Kee-Bong Choi; Soo-Hyun Kim; Yoon Keun Kwak

1996-01-01

430

Magnetically insulated electron flows in pulsed power systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic insulation is crucial in the operation of large pulsed power systems. Particular attention will be paid to describing magnetic insulation in realistic pulsed power systems. A theoretical model is developed that allows the production of self consistent magnetically insulated laminar flows in perturbed cylindrical systems given only the electron density profile. The theory is checked and justified by detailed

Robert I. Lawconnell

1989-01-01

431

Nonreciprocal elastic scattering of unpolarized neutrons by magnetic systems with the noncoplanar magnetization distribution  

SciTech Connect

It is shown that the elastic scattering of unpolarized neutrons by systems with the noncoplanar spatial magnetic induction distribution in nonreciprocal. Two systems with the noncoplanar distribution of the magnetic field are proposed and calculated, i.e., a nanoparticle with vortex magnetization and a system of three magnetic mirrors. It is shown that, under certain conditions, the nonreciprocity is rather large and can be observed experimentally.

Tatarskiy, D. A., E-mail: tatarsky@ipmras.ru; Udalov, O. G.; Fraerman, A. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Physics of Microstructures (Russian Federation)

2012-10-15

432

Airborne Separation Video System (ASVS): High Speed Digital Imaging.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Currently, flight-worthy, high-speed instrumentation film cameras are carried externally on aircraft to document the separation characteristics of stores released from aircraft. The compatibility engineer conducts qualitative analysis by reviewing the fil...

C. Paust S. Pender

2000-01-01

433

Identification of new astatine isotopes using the gas-filled magnetic separator, Sassy  

SciTech Connect

A He-filled on-line separator system was built at the SuperHILAC and used to study the fusion products in the reaction /sup 56/Fe + /sup 141/Pr. The new neutron-deficient isotopes /sup 194/At and /sup 195/At were produced in this bombardment as three- and two-neutron-out products, respectively, and were identified by the ..cap alpha..-..cap alpha.. time-correlation technique. The measured ..cap alpha.. energies and half lives are 7.20 +/- 0.02 MeV and 180 +/- 80 msec for /sup 194/At, and 7.12 +/- 0.02 MeV and 200 +/- 100 msec for /sup 195/At.

Yashita, S.

1983-01-01

434

Identification of new astatine isotopes using the gas-filled magnetic separator, SASSY  

SciTech Connect

A He-filled on-line mass separator system was built at the SuperHILAC and used to study the fusion products in the reaction /sup 56/Fe + /sup 141/Pr. The new neutron-deficient isotopes /sup 194/At and /sup 195/At were produced in this bombardment as three- and two- neutron-out products, respectively, and were identified by the ..cap alpha..-..cap alpha.. time-correlation technique. The measured ..cap alpha.. energies and half lives are 7.20 +- 0.02 MeV and 180 +- 80 msec for /sup 194/At, and 7.12 +- 0.02 MeV and 200 +- 100 msec for /sup 195/At. 66 references.

Yashita, S.

1984-02-01

435

Synthesis of orientedly bioconjugated core\\/shell Fe 3O 4@Au magnetic nanoparticles for cell separation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Orientedly bioconjugated core\\/shell Fe3O4@Au magnetic nanoparticles were synthesized for cell