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Sample records for magnetic-field-induced quadrupolar ordering

  1. Magnetic field induced 1st order transitions: Recent studies, and some new concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaddah, P.

    2015-05-01

    Phase transitions are caused by varying temperature, or pressure, or magnetic field. The observation of 1st order magneto-structural transitions has created application possibilities based on magnetoresistance, magnetocaloric effect, magnetic shape memory effect, and magneto-dielectric effect. Magnetic field induced transitions, and phase coexistence of competing magnetic phases down to the lowest temperature, gained prominence over a decade ago with theoretical models suggesting that the ground state is not homogeneous. Researchers at Indore pushed an alternative view that this phase coexistence could be due to glasslike "kinetic arrest" of a disorder-broadened first-order magnetic transition between two states with long-range magnetic order, resulting in phase coexistence down to the lowest temperatures. The CHUF (cooling and heating in unequal field) protocol created at Indore allows the observation of `devitrification', followed by `melting'. I show examples of measurements establishing kinetic arrest in various materials, emphasizing that glasslike arrest of 1st order magnetic transitions may be as ubiquitous as glass formation following the arrest of 1st order structural transitions.

  2. Antiferroquadrupolar ordering and magnetic-field-induced phase transition in the cage compound PrRh2Zn20

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, Isao; Muneshige, Hitoshi; Kamikawa, Shuhei; Fujita, Takahiro K.; Onimaru, Takahiro; Nagasawa, Naohiro; Takabatake, Toshiro; Suzuki, Takashi; Ano, Genki; Akatsu, Mitsuhiro; Nemoto, Yuichi; Goto, Terutaka

    2013-05-01

    To investigate the origin of a phase transition at TQ=0.06 K simultaneously occurring with a superconducting transition in a cage compound PrRh2Zn20, we carried out ultrasonic measurements on a single-crystalline sample. The transverse modulus (C11-C12)/2 is intimately coupled to the non-Kramers ground doublet ?3, and elastic softening is observed at low temperatures. Below TQ, the softening stops, suggesting the disappearance of quadrupole degrees of freedom. We clarified the negative quadrupole-quadrupole coupling constant and reentrant behavior of TQ(H) in a magnetic field H. These results reveal that the phase transition at TQ is antiferroquadrupolar ordering. The anisotropic magnetic field-temperature phase diagram is determined for H?[100], [110], and [111]. A magnetic-field-induced phase transition is newly found at high fields in all three field directions. We also observed ultrasonic dispersion at around 50 K owing to the rattling motion of Zn atoms at the 16c site, and pointed out the strong electron-phonon coupling in PrRh2Zn20.

  3. Magnetic field induced third order susceptibility of third order harmonic generation in a ZnMgSe strained quantum well

    SciTech Connect

    Mark, J. Abraham Hudson Peter, A. John

    2014-04-24

    Third order susceptibility of third order harmonic generation is investigated in a Zn{sub 0.1}Mg{sub 0.9}Se/Zn{sub 0.8}Mg{sub 0.2}Se/Zn{sub 0.1}Mg{sub 0.9}Se quantum well in the presence of magnetic field strength. The confinement potential is considered as the addition of energy offsets of the conduction band (or valence band) and the strain-induced potential in our calculations. The material dependent effective mass is followed throughout the computation because it has a high influence on the electron energy levels in low dimensional semiconductor systems.

  4. Magnetic field induced dynamical chaos

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, Somrita; Baura, Alendu; Bag, Bidhan Chandra

    2013-12-15

    In this article, we have studied the dynamics of a particle having charge in the presence of a magnetic field. The motion of the particle is confined in the xy plane under a two dimensional nonlinear potential. We have shown that constant magnetic field induced dynamical chaos is possible even for a force which is derived from a simple potential. For a given strength of the magnetic field, initial position, and velocity of the particle, the dynamics may be regular, but it may become chaotic when the field is time dependent. Chaotic dynamics is very often if the field is time dependent. Origin of chaos has been explored using the Hamiltonian function of the dynamics in terms of action and angle variables. Applicability of the present study has been discussed with a few examples.

  5. Magnetic field induced dynamical chaos

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, Somrita; Baura, Alendu; Bag, Bidhan Chandra

    2013-12-15

    In this article, we have studied the dynamics of a particle having charge in the presence of a magnetic field. The motion of the particle is confined in the x–y plane under a two dimensional nonlinear potential. We have shown that constant magnetic field induced dynamical chaos is possible even for a force which is derived from a simple potential. For a given strength of the magnetic field, initial position, and velocity of the particle, the dynamics may be regular, but it may become chaotic when the field is time dependent. Chaotic dynamics is very often if the field is time dependent. Origin of chaos has been explored using the Hamiltonian function of the dynamics in terms of action and angle variables. Applicability of the present study has been discussed with a few examples.

  6. Benzene at 1 GHz. Magnetic field-induced fine structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heist, L. M.; Poon, C.-D.; Samulski, E. T.; Photinos, D. J.; Jokisaari, J.; Vaara, J.; Emsley, J. W.; Mamone, S.; Lelli, M.

    2015-09-01

    The deuterium NMR spectrum of benzene-d6 in a high field spectrometer (1 GHz protons) exhibits a magnetic field-induced deuterium quadrupolar splitting ??. The magnitude of ?? observed for the central resonance is smaller than that observed for the 13C satellite doublets ???. This difference, ?(??) = ??? - ??, is due to unresolved fine structure contributions to the respective resonances. We determine the origins of and simulate this difference, and report pulse sequences that exploit the connectivity of the peaks in the 13C and 2H spectra to determine the relative signs of the indirect coupling, JCD, and ??. The positive sign found for ?? is consonant with the magnetic field biasing of an isolated benzene molecule-the magnetic energy of the aromatic ring is lowest for configurations where the C6 axis is normal to the field. In the neat liquid the magnitude of ?? is decreased by the pair correlations in this prototypical molecular liquid.

  7. Magnetic field induced anisotropy of 139La spin-lattice relaxation rates in stripe ordered La1.875Ba0.125CuO4

    DOE PAGESBeta

    S. -H. Baek; Gu, G. D.; Utz, Y.; Hucker, M.; Buchner, B.; Grafe, H. -J.

    2015-10-26

    We report 139La nuclear magnetic resonance studies performed on a La1.875Ba0.125CuO4 single crystal. The data show that the structural phase transitions (high-temperature tetragonal → low-temperature orthorhombic → low-temperature tetragonal phase) are of the displacive type in this material. The 139La spin-lattice relaxation rate T–11 sharply upturns at the charge-ordering temperature TCO = 54 K, indicating that charge order triggers the slowing down of spin fluctuations. Detailed temperature and field dependencies of the T–11 below the spin-ordering temperature TSO=40 K reveal the development of enhanced spin fluctuations in the spin-ordered state for H ∥ [001], which are completely suppressed for largemore » fields along the CuO2 planes. Lastly, our results shed light on the unusual spin fluctuations in the charge and spin stripe ordered lanthanum cuprates.« less

  8. Magnetic-field-induced charge order in the filled skutterudite SmRu4P12: Evidence from resonant and nonresonant x-ray diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumura, Takeshi; Michimura, Shinji; Inami, Toshiya; Hayashi, Yuya; Fushiya, Kengo; Matsuda, Tatsuma D.; Higashinaka, Ryuji; Aoki, Yuji; Sugawara, Hitoshi

    2014-04-01

    The antiferromagnetic ordered phase in SmRu4P12 below the metal-insulator transition at TMI=16.5 K with an unresolved transition at T*14 K has been studied by resonant and nonresonant x-ray diffraction in magnetic fields. In the intermediate phase, a nonresonant Thomson scattering with q =(1,0,0) is induced by applying a magnetic field, which is presumably caused by atomic displacements reflecting the charge order in the p band, as predicted theoretically [R. Shiina, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 82, 083713 (2013), 10.7566/JPSJ.82.083713]. Simultaneously, the antiferromagnetic moment of Sm is enhanced along the field direction, which is considered to reflect the staggered ordering of the ?7-?8 crystal-field states (scalar or hexadecapole order). The present results show that the orbital-dependent p-f hybridization in association with the nesting instability in the p band gives rise to the unconventional charge order similarly with PrRu4P12 and PrFe4P12.

  9. Dynamics of the magnetic field-induced first order magnetic-structural phase transformation of Gd5(Si0.5Ge0.5)4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leib, J.; Snyder, J. E.; Lograsso, T. A.; Schlagel, D.; Jiles, D. C.

    2004-06-01

    The system Gd5(SixGe1-x)4 for 0.4?x?0.5 has been shown to have an unusual first order, coupled magnetic-structural phase transformation at the Curie temperature. Above the transformation temperature Tc, the material is paramagnetic with a monoclinic structure; below Tc, it is ferromagnetic with an orthorhombic structure. Another unusual feature of this phase transformation is that an applied magnetic field can increase Tc by 5 K per tesla. In this study, the magnetic-structural transformation in single crystal Gd5Si2Ge2 was triggered by holding the sample at a temperature just above Tc, then using an applied field to increase Tc beyond the sample temperature, thereby inducing the magnetic-structural transformation. The dynamics of this field-induced phase transformation at various temperatures just above Tc were observed by measuring the magnetization as a function of time. This magnetization change is caused by the first order phase transformation which is distinctly different from the magnetization reversal which one observes in conventional magnetic relaxation experiments. The transformation could be modeled as a thermal activation process with a single energy barrier of height 4.20.2 eV.

  10. Drastic change in transport of entropy with quadrupolar ordering in.

    PubMed

    Pourret, A; Behnia, K; Kikuchi, D; Aoki, Y; Sugawara, H; Sato, H

    2006-05-01

    The antiferroquadrupolar ordering of is explored by probing thermal and thermoelectric transport. The lattice thermal conductivity drastically increases with the ordering, as a consequence of a large drop in carrier concentration and a strong electron-phonon coupling. The low level of carrier density in the ordered state is confirmed by the anomalously large values of the Seebeck and Nernst coefficients. The results are reminiscent of and suggest that both belong to the same class of partial metal-insulator transitions. The magnitude of the Nernst coefficient, larger than in any other metal, indicates a new route for Ettingshausen cooling at Kelvin temperatures. PMID:16712317

  11. 5f delocalization-induced suppression of quadrupolar order in U(Pd1-xPtx)₃

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Walker, H. C.; Le, M. D.; McEwen, K. A.; Bleckmann, M.; Süllow, S.; Mazzoli, C.; Wilkins, S. B.; Fort, D.

    2011-12-27

    We present bulk magnetic and transport measurements and x-ray resonant scattering measurements on U(Pd1-xPtx)₃ for x=0.005 and 0.01, which demonstrate the high sensitivity of the quadrupolar order in the canonical antiferroquadrupolar ordered system UPd₃ to doping with platinum. Bulk measurements for x=0.005 reveal behavior similar to that seen in UPd₃, albeit at a lower temperature, and x-ray resonant scattering provides evidence of quadrupolar order described by the Qxy order parameter. In contrast, bulk measurements reveal only an indistinct transition in x=0.01, consistent with the observation of short-range quadrupolar order in our x-ray resonant scattering results.

  12. Structure and orientational ordering in a fluid of elongated quadrupolar molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Ram Chandra

    2013-01-01

    A second-order density-functional theory is used to study the effect of quadrupolar interactions on the isotropic-nematic transition in a system of fluids of elongated molecules interacting via the Gay-Berne potential. The direct pair-correlation functions of the coexisting isotropic fluid that enter in the theory as input information are obtained by solving the Ornstein-Zernike equation using the Percus-Yevick integral equation theory in the (reduced) temperature range of 1.6?T??3.0 for different densities, temperatures and quadrupole moments. Using the harmonic coefficients of the direct pair-correlation functions, isotropic-nematic phase coexistence and thermodynamic parameters have been calculated. The theoretical results have been compared with the available computer simulation results.

  13. Tetrahedratic mesophases, chiral order, and helical domains induced by quadrupolar and octupolar interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trojanowski, Karol; Pająk, Grzegorz; Longa, Lech; Wydro, Thomas

    2012-07-01

    We present an exhaustive account of phases and phase transitions that can be stabilized in the recently introduced generalized Lebwohl-Lasher model with quadrupolar and octupolar microscopic interactions [L. Longa, G. Pająk, and T. Wydro, Phys. Rev. EPLEEE81539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.79.040701 79, 040701(R) (2009)]. A complete mean-field analysis of the model, along with Monte Carlo simulations allows us to identify four distinct classes of the phase diagrams with a number of multicritical points where, in addition to the standard uniaxial and biaxial nematic phases, the other nematic like phases are stabilized. These involve, among the others, tetrahedratic (T), nematic tetrahedratic (NT), and chiral nematic tetrahedratic (NT*) phases of global Td, D2d, and D2 symmetry, respectively. Molecular order parameters and correlation functions in these phases are determined. We conclude with generalizations of the model that give a simple molecular interpretation of macroscopic regions with opposite optical activity (ambidextrous chirality), observed, e.g., in bent-core systems. An estimate of the helical pitch in the NT* phase is also given.

  14. Magnetic field induced anisotropy of 139La spin-lattice relaxation rates in stripe ordered La1.875Ba0.125CuO4

    SciTech Connect

    S. -H. Baek; Gu, G. D.; Utz, Y.; Hucker, M.; Buchner, B.; Grafe, H. -J.

    2015-10-26

    We report 139La nuclear magnetic resonance studies performed on a La1.875Ba0.125CuO4 single crystal. The data show that the structural phase transitions (high-temperature tetragonal → low-temperature orthorhombic → low-temperature tetragonal phase) are of the displacive type in this material. The 139La spin-lattice relaxation rate T–11 sharply upturns at the charge-ordering temperature TCO = 54 K, indicating that charge order triggers the slowing down of spin fluctuations. Detailed temperature and field dependencies of the T–11 below the spin-ordering temperature TSO=40 K reveal the development of enhanced spin fluctuations in the spin-ordered state for H ∥ [001], which are completely suppressed for large fields along the CuO2 planes. Lastly, our results shed light on the unusual spin fluctuations in the charge and spin stripe ordered lanthanum cuprates.

  15. 5f delocalization-induced suppression of quadrupolar order in U(Pd1-xPtx)₃

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, H. C.; Le, M. D.; McEwen, K. A.; Bleckmann, M.; Süllow, S.; Mazzoli, C.; Wilkins, S. B.; Fort, D.

    2011-12-27

    We present bulk magnetic and transport measurements and x-ray resonant scattering measurements on U(Pd1-xPtx)₃ for x=0.005 and 0.01, which demonstrate the high sensitivity of the quadrupolar order in the canonical antiferroquadrupolar ordered system UPd₃ to doping with platinum. Bulk measurements for x=0.005 reveal behavior similar to that seen in UPd₃, albeit at a lower temperature, and x-ray resonant scattering provides evidence of quadrupolar order described by the Qxy order parameter. In contrast, bulk measurements reveal only an indistinct transition in x=0.01, consistent with the observation of short-range quadrupolar order in our x-ray resonant scattering results.

  16. Optical gyrotropy in quadrupolar Kondo systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, SungBin; Paramekanti, Arun; Kim, Yong Baek

    2015-01-01

    Recent experiments point to a variety of intermetallic systems which exhibit exotic quadrupolar orders driven by the Kondo coupling between conduction electrons and localized quadrupolar degrees of freedom. Using a Luttinger k .p Hamiltonian for the conduction electrons, we study the impact of such quadrupolar order on their energies and wave functions. We discover that such quadrupolar orders can induce a nontrivial Berry curvature for the conduction electron bands, leading to a nonvanishing optical gyrotropic effect. We estimate the magnitude of the gyrotropic response in a candidate quadrupolar material, PrPb3, and discuss the resulting Faraday rotation in thin films.

  17. Magnetic-field-induced liquid metal droplet manipulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Daeyoung; Lee, Jeong-Bong

    2015-01-01

    We report magnetic-field-induced liquid metal droplet on-demand manipulation by coating a liquid metal with ferromagnetic materials. The gallium-based liquid metal alloy has a challenging drawback that it is instantly oxidized in ambient air, resulting in surface wetting on most surfaces. When the oxidized surface of the droplet is coated with ferromagnetic materials, it is non-wettable and can be controlled by applying an external magnetic field. We coated the surface of a liquid metal droplet with either an electroplated CoNiMnP layer or an iron (Fe) particle by simply rolling the liquid metal droplet on an Fe particle bed. For a paper towel, the minimum required magnetic flux density to initiate movement of the ~8 ?L Fe-particle-coated liquid metal droplet was 50 gauss. Magnetic-field-induced liquid metal droplet manipulation was investigated under both horizontal and vertical magnetic fields. Compared to the CoNiMnP-electroplated liquid metal droplet, the Fe-particle-coated droplet could be well controlled because Fe particles were uniformly coated on the surface of the droplet. With a maximum applied magnetic flux density of ~1,600 gauss, the CoNiMnP layer on the liquid metal broke down, resulting in fragmentation of three smaller droplets, and the Fe particle was detached from the liquid metal surface and was re-coated after the magnetic field had been removed.

  18. Magnetic-Field Induced Diffraction Patterns from Ferrofluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rablau, Corneliu; Vaishnava, Prem; Lawes, Gavin; Naik, Ratna

    2011-04-01

    Ferrofluids are stable colloidal suspensions of superparamagnetic nanoparticles in a carrier liquid. We report studies of magneto-optic properties of two ferrofluid systems consisting of tetramethyl-ammonium-hydroxide (TMAH)-coated and of dextran-coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles of nominal sizes of 6 nm and 12 nm respectively suspended in water. Both samples showed superparamagnetic behavior. The static and time-dependent DC-magnetic-field-induced light scattering patterns produced by two orthogonal He-Ne laser beams passing through the ferrofluid samples revealed significant different optical signatures for the two surfactants. Notably, in contrast to the linear diffraction pattern produced by TMAH-coated nanoparticles, a circular diffraction pattern is reported -- for the first time -- in the dextran-coated ferrofluid.

  19. 10% magnetic-field-induced strain in Ni-Mn-Ga seven-layered martensite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sozinov, A.; Likhachev, A. A.; Lanska, N.; Ullakko, K.; Lindroos, V. K.

    2003-10-01

    Magnetic-field-induced strain of approximately 10% is reported in Ni{48.8}Mn{29.7}Ga{21.5} alloy at ambient temperature in a magnetic field of the order of 1 T. It was confirmed by different experimental methods that the strain is contributed by twin boundary motion. The crystal structure of thermally-induced martensitic phase in this alloy was found to be close to orthorhombic one in temperature range from 245 K to 333 K. The lattice parameters are a=0. 619 nm, b=0.580 nm, c=0.553 nm (relating to the cubic parent phase coordinates) at ambient temperature. Detailed x-ray study revealed seven-layer modulation along the (110) [ 1bar{1}0] p, system. The results of mechanical tests and magnetic anisotropy property measurements are also reported. The necessary conditions for the observation of a giant magnetic field-induced strain in non-stoichiometric Ni2MnGa alloys based on the new experimental data are discussed.

  20. Magnetic field induced motion behavior of gas bubbles in liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Keliang; Pei, Pucheng; Pei, Yu; Ma, Ze; Xu, Huachi; Chen, Dongfang

    2016-02-01

    The oxygen evolution reaction generally exists in electrochemical reactions. It is a ubiquitous problem about how to control the motion of oxygen bubbles released by the reaction. Here we show that oxygen bubbles during oxygen evolution reaction exhibit a variety of movement patterns in the magnetic field, including directional migration and rotational motion of oxygen bubbles when the magnet in parallel with the electrode, and exclusion movement of oxygen bubbles when the magnet perpendicular to the electrode. The results demonstrate that the direction of oxygen bubbles movement is dependent upon the magnet pole near the electrode, and the kinetics of oxygen bubbles is mainly proportional to intensity of the electromagnetic field. The magnetic-field induced rotational motion of oxygen bubbles in a square electrolyzer can increase liquid hydrodynamics, thus solve the problems of oxygen bubbles coalescence, and uneven distribution of electrolyte composition and temperature. These types of oxygen bubbles movement will not only improve energy saving and metal deposition for energy storage and metal refinery, but also propel object motion in application to medical and martial fields.

  1. Magnetic field induced motion behavior of gas bubbles in liquid

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Keliang; Pei, Pucheng; Pei, Yu; Ma, Ze; Xu, Huachi; Chen, Dongfang

    2016-01-01

    The oxygen evolution reaction generally exists in electrochemical reactions. It is a ubiquitous problem about how to control the motion of oxygen bubbles released by the reaction. Here we show that oxygen bubbles during oxygen evolution reaction exhibit a variety of movement patterns in the magnetic field, including directional migration and rotational motion of oxygen bubbles when the magnet in parallel with the electrode, and exclusion movement of oxygen bubbles when the magnet perpendicular to the electrode. The results demonstrate that the direction of oxygen bubbles movement is dependent upon the magnet pole near the electrode, and the kinetics of oxygen bubbles is mainly proportional to intensity of the electromagnetic field. The magnetic-field induced rotational motion of oxygen bubbles in a square electrolyzer can increase liquid hydrodynamics, thus solve the problems of oxygen bubbles coalescence, and uneven distribution of electrolyte composition and temperature. These types of oxygen bubbles movement will not only improve energy saving and metal deposition for energy storage and metal refinery, but also propel object motion in application to medical and martial fields. PMID:26867515

  2. Magnetic field induced motion behavior of gas bubbles in liquid.

    PubMed

    Wang, Keliang; Pei, Pucheng; Pei, Yu; Ma, Ze; Xu, Huachi; Chen, Dongfang

    2016-01-01

    The oxygen evolution reaction generally exists in electrochemical reactions. It is a ubiquitous problem about how to control the motion of oxygen bubbles released by the reaction. Here we show that oxygen bubbles during oxygen evolution reaction exhibit a variety of movement patterns in the magnetic field, including directional migration and rotational motion of oxygen bubbles when the magnet in parallel with the electrode, and exclusion movement of oxygen bubbles when the magnet perpendicular to the electrode. The results demonstrate that the direction of oxygen bubbles movement is dependent upon the magnet pole near the electrode, and the kinetics of oxygen bubbles is mainly proportional to intensity of the electromagnetic field. The magnetic-field induced rotational motion of oxygen bubbles in a square electrolyzer can increase liquid hydrodynamics, thus solve the problems of oxygen bubbles coalescence, and uneven distribution of electrolyte composition and temperature. These types of oxygen bubbles movement will not only improve energy saving and metal deposition for energy storage and metal refinery, but also propel object motion in application to medical and martial fields. PMID:26867515

  3. Spontaneous and external magnetic field-induced magnetostriction in RCo2-based multicomponent alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Politova, G. A.; Chzhan, V. B.; Tereshina, I. S.; Burkhanov, G. S.; Manakov, A. A.; Alekseeva, O. A.; Filimonov, A. V.; Ilyushin, A. S.

    2015-12-01

    The spontaneous and external magnetic field-induced magnetostrictions have been studied in multicomponent Tb0.3Dy0.35Ho0.35Co2 and Tb0.8Dy0.1Gd0.1Co2 alloys whose structures are isotypical to the C15 Laves phases. The temperature dependences of the lattice parameters have been measured in the range of 110-280 K. It has been found that the crystal lattice undergoes rhombohedral distortions at temperatures lower than the temperatures of magnetic ordering in these alloys (148.5 and 243 K, respectively). The temperature (4.2-280 K) and field (0-8 T) dependences of the longitudinal and transverse magnetostrictions have been studied. The high magnetoelastic effects have been detected.

  4. Effects of hole doping by neutron irradiation of magnetic field induced electronic phase transitions in graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Singleton, John; Yaguchi, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    We have investigated effects of hole doping by fast-neutron irradiation on the magnetic-field induced phase transitions in graphite using specimens irradiated with fast neutrons. Resistance measurements have been done in magnetic fields of up to above 50 T and at temperatures down to about 1.5 K. The neutron irradiation creates lattice defects acting as acceptors, affecting the imbalance of the electron and hole densities and the Fermi level. We have found that the reentrant field from the field induced state back to the normal state shifts towards a lower field with hole doping, suggestive of the participation of electron subbands in the magnetic-field induced state.

  5. Antiferro-Quadrupolar Ordering at the Lowest Temperature and Anisotropic Magnetic Field--Temperature Phase Diagram in the Cage Compound PrIr2Zn20

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, Isao; Muneshige, Hitoshi; Suetomi, Yasuhiko; Fujita, Takahiro K.; Onimaru, Takahiro; Matsumoto, Keisuke T.; Takabatake, Toshiro; Araki, Koji; Akatsu, Mitsuhiro; Nemoto, Yuichi; Goto, Terutaka; Suzuki, Takashi

    2011-09-01

    The cage compound PrIr2Zn20 with the non-Kramers doublet ground state shows a phase transition at TQ 0.11 K. To investigate the origin of the phase transition, we have carried out ultrasonic measurements on single-crystalline samples. From the disappearance of electric quadrupole degrees of freedom at TQ and the negative sign of a quadrupole--quadrupole coupling constant, we clarified that the phase transition is antiferro-quadrupolar ordering at the lowest temperature ever measured. We also found anisotropic magnetic field H dependence and the re-entrant behavior of TQ(H) from the measurements in H parallel to the [100], [110], and [111] axes. The quadrupole Kondo effect interrupts the long-range quadrupole interaction at very low temperatures and thus lowers TQ. We first reported the rattling motion of Zn atoms at the 16c site in the RT2Zn20 system.

  6. Vortex dynamics and the Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov state in a magnetic-field-induced organic superconductor.

    PubMed

    Uji, S; Terashima, T; Nishimura, M; Takahide, Y; Konoike, T; Enomoto, K; Cui, H; Kobayashi, H; Kobayashi, A; Tanaka, H; Tokumoto, M; Choi, E S; Tokumoto, T; Graf, D; Brooks, J S

    2006-10-13

    Under special conditions, a superconducting state where the order parameter oscillates in real space, the so-called FFLO state, is theoretically predicted to exist near the upper critical field, as first proposed by Fulde and Ferrell, and Larkin and Ovchinnikov. We report systematic measurements of the interlayer resistance in high magnetic fields to 45 T in the two-dimensional magnetic-field-induced organic superconductor lambda-(BETS)2FeCl4, where BETS is bis(ethylenedithio)tetraselenafulvalene. The resistance is found to show characteristic dip structures in the superconducting state. The results are consistent with pinning interactions between the vortices penetrating the insulating layers and the order parameter of the FFLO state. This gives strong evidence for an oscillating order parameter in real space. PMID:17155350

  7. Growth of Magnetic Fields Induced by Turbulent Motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Jungyeon; Vishniac, Ethan T.; Beresnyak, Andrey; Lazarian, A.; Ryu, Dongsu

    2009-03-01

    We present numerical simulations of driven magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence with weak/moderate imposed magnetic fields. The main goal is to clarify dynamics of magnetic field growth. We also investigate the effects of the imposed magnetic fields on the MHD turbulence, including, as a limit, the case of zero external field. Our findings are as follows. First, when we start off simulations with weak mean magnetic field only (or with small scale random field with zero imposed field), we observe that there is a stage at which magnetic energy density grows linearly with time. Runs with different numerical resolutions and/or different simulation parameters show consistent results for the growth rate at the linear stage. Second, we find that, when the strength of the external field increases, the equilibrium kinetic energy density drops by roughly the product of the rms velocity and the strength of the external field. The equilibrium magnetic energy density rises by roughly the same amount. Third, when the external magnetic field is not very strong (say, less than ~0.2 times the rms velocity when measured in the units of Alfvn speed), the turbulence at large scales remains statistically isotropic, i.e., there is no apparent global anisotropy of order B 0/v. We discuss implications of our results on astrophysical fluids.

  8. Artificial magnetic field induced by an evanescent wave

    PubMed Central

    Mochol, Małgorzata; Sacha, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    Cold atomic gases are perfect laboratories for realization of quantum simulators. In order to simulate solid state systems in the presence of magnetic fields special effort has to be made because atoms are charge neutral. There are different methods for realization of artificial magnetic fields, that is the creation of specific conditions so that the motion of neutral particles mimics the dynamics of charged particles in an effective magnetic field. Here, we consider adiabatic motion of atoms in the presence of an evanescent wave. Theoretical description of the adiabatic motion involves artificial vector and scalar potentials related to the Berry phases. Due to the large gradient of the evanescent field amplitude, the potentials can be strong enough to induce measurable effects in cold atomic gases. We show that the resulting artificial magnetic field is able to induce vortices in a Bose-Einstein condensate trapped close to a surface of a prism where the evanescent wave is created. We also analyze motion of an atomic cloud released from a magneto-optical trap that falls down on the surface of the prism. The artificial magnetic field is able to reflect falling atoms that can be observed experimentally. PMID:25567430

  9. Magnetic-field-induced microwave losses in epitaxial Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O films

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, E.; Giura, M.; Marcon, R.; Fastampa, R. ); Balestrino, G.; Marinelli, M.; Milani, E. )

    1992-06-01

    Magnetic-field-induced microwave losses in epitaxial {ital c}-axis-oriented Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O films have been observed. At low magnetic field, the behavior of the absorption is qualitatively analogous to that already observed in granular samples. The dominant part is attributed to the dephasing of a network of Josephson junctions. A structural analysis shows evidence of such a network. The dependence of the absorption on the angle between the magnetic field and the {ital a}-{ital b} plane is consistent with this model.

  10. Magnetic field induced quantum phase transitions in the two-impurity Anderson model

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Lujun; Zhu, Jian - Xin

    2010-11-17

    In the two-impurity Anderson model, the inter-impurity spin exchange interaction favors a spin singlet state between two impurities leading to the localization of quasiparticles. We show that a local uniform magnetic field can delocalize the quasiparticies to restore the Kondo resonance. This transition is found to be continuous, accompanied by not only the divergence of the staggered (anti ferromagnetic) susceptibility, but also the divergence of the uniform spin susceptibility. This implies that the magnetic field induced quantum phase transitions in Kondo systems are in favor of the local critical type.

  11. Effect of crystal structure on magnetic-field-induced strain in Ni-Mn-Ga

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sozinov, Alexei; Likhachev, Alexander A.; Lanska, Nataliya; Soderberg, Outi; Ullakko, Kari; Lindroos, Veikko K.

    2003-08-01

    Magnetic shape memory materials are expected to have a high potential in practical applications. Several ferromagnetic materials exhibiting the large magnetic-field-induced strain have been found in recent years. The largest field-induced strain is observed in Ni-Mn-Ga system. The most important experimental results on crystal structure, magnetic anisotropy and twinning stress of martensitic phases in Ni-Mn-Ga having tetragonal five-layered, orthorhombic seven-layered and tetragonal non-layered crystal structures are reported. Depending on the martensite crystal structure Ni-Mn-Ga alloys are able to show a really giant strain response (approximately 6% in tetragonal five-layered or 10% in orthorhombic seven-layered martensitic phase) in a magnetic field less than 1 T. Contrary to these two phases, a detectable field-induced strain is not observed in non-layered tetragonal martensitic phase in Ni-Mn-Ga system. Effect of crystal structure is in a good agreement with calculation of the magnetic-field-induced strain based on the model developed by authors. The effect of composition on appearance of undesirable non-layered tetragonal martensitic phase in Ni-Mn-Ga system is discussed based on the new experimental results.

  12. Magnetic field-induced breakdown of helical conduction in an InAs/GaSb bilayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pikulin, Dmitry; Hyart, Timo; Mi, Shuo; Tworzydlo, Jakub; Wimmer, Michael; Beenakker, Carlo

    2015-03-01

    We calculate the conductance of a two-dimensional bilayer with inverted electron-hole bands, to study the sensitivity of the quantum spin Hall insulator (with helical edge conduction) to the combination of the perpendicular magnetic field in presence of disorder. The characteristic breakdown field for helical edge conduction splits into two fields with increasing disorder, a field Bc for the transition into a quantum Hall insulator (supporting chiral edge conduction) and a smaller field Bc' for the transition to bulk conduction in a quasi-metallic regime. The spatial separation of the inverted bands, typical for broken-gap InAs/GaSb quantum wells, is essential for the magnetic-field induced bulk conduction - there is no such regime in HgTe quantum wells.

  13. Magnetic-field-induced transformation in FeMnGa alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, W.; Liu, E. K.; Feng, L.; Tang, X. D.; Chen, J. L.; Wu, G. H.; Liu, H. Y.; Meng, F. B.; Luo, H. Z.

    2009-11-30

    A kind of ferromagnetic shape memory alloy with off-stoichiometric composition of Heusler alloy Fe{sub 2}MnGa has been synthesized. By optimizing composition, the martensitic transformation has been modified to occur at about 163 K accompanying spontaneous magnetization, which enables a magnetic field-induced structural transition from a paramagnetic parent phase to a ferromagnetic martensite with high magnetization of 93.8 emu/g. The material performs a quite large lattice distortion through the transformation, (c-a)/c=33.5%, causing a shape memory strain upto 3.6%. Such large lattice distortions strongly influence the electron structures, and thus some special physical behavior related to the transport and conductive properties is investigated.

  14. Giant magnetic-field-induced strain in NiMnGa seven-layered martensitic phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sozinov, A.; Likhachev, A. A.; Lanska, N.; Ullakko, K.

    2002-03-01

    Giant magnetic-field-induced strain of about 9.5% was observed at ambient temperature in a magnetic field of less than 1 T in NiMnGa orthorhombic seven-layered martensitic phase. The strain proved to be caused by magnetic-field-controlled twin boundary motion. According to an analysis of x-ray diffraction data, the crystal structure of this phase is nearly orthorhombic, having lattice parameters a=0.619 nm, b=0.580 nm, and c=0.553 nm (in cubic parent phase coordinates) at ambient temperature. Seven-layer shuffling-type modulation along the (110)[110]p system was recorded. The results of mechanical tests and magnetic anisotropy property measurements are also reported.

  15. Magnetic-field induced bistability in a quasi-one-dimensional semiconductor microcavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chuanyi; Zhang, Weifeng

    2015-09-01

    We theoretically study the magnetic-field induced bistability in a quasi-one-dimensional semiconductor microcavity. A critical magnetic field is obtained, and the bistability appears if a magnetic field is greater than the critical value. For a positive energy detuning of the pump from the bare exciton polaritons, one bistability loop first emerges, then it divides into two loops, and finally one of them vanishes with the increasing magnetic field. This phenomenon originates from the magnetic-field modulated interactions for opposite spins. In the variational process, there are two important effects: one is a logic gate with a small variation of the excitation laser, and the other is a spin texture like skyrmion and this texture is periodic if the energy detuning varies periodically in real space, which is useful for designing the spin-dependent optoelectronic devices.

  16. Theory of magnetic-field-induced polarization flop in spin-spiral multiferroics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mochizuki, Masahito

    2015-12-01

    The magnetic-field-induced 90? flop of ferroelectric polarization P in a spin-spiral multiferroic material TbMnO3 is theoretically studied based on a microscopic spin model. I find that the direction of the P flop or the choice of +Pa or -Pa after the flop is governed by magnetic torques produced by the applied magnetic field H acting on the Mn spins and thus is selected in a deterministic way, in contradistinction to the naively anticipated probabilistic flop. This mechanism resolves a puzzle of the previously reported memory effect in the P direction depending on the history of the magnetic-field sweep, and enables controlled switching of multiferroic domains by externally applied magnetic fields. My Monte-Carlo analysis also uncovers that the magnetic structure in the P ?a phase under H ?b is not a previously anticipated simple a b -plane spin cycloid but a conical spin structure.

  17. Magnetic-Field-Induced Insulator-Conductor Transition in SU(2) Quenched Lattice Gauge Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Buividovich, P.V.; Kharzeev, D.; Chernodub, M.N., Kalaydzhyan, T., Luschevskaya, E.V., and M.I. Polikarpov

    2010-09-24

    We study the correlator of two vector currents in quenched SU(2) lattice gauge theory with a chirally invariant lattice Dirac operator with a constant external magnetic field. It is found that in the confinement phase the correlator of the components of the current parallel to the magnetic field decays much slower than in the absence of a magnetic field, while for other components the correlation length slightly decreases. We apply the maximal entropy method to extract the corresponding spectral function. In the limit of zero frequency this spectral function yields the electric conductivity of quenched theory. We find that in the confinement phase the external magnetic field induces nonzero electric conductivity along the direction of the field, transforming the system from an insulator into an anisotropic conductor. In the deconfinement phase the conductivity does not exhibit any sizable dependence on the magnetic field.

  18. Magnetic-field-induced diameter-selective synthesis of single-walled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Su, Yanjie; Zhang, Yaozhong; Wei, Hao; Zhang, Liling; Zhao, Jiang; Yang, Zhi; Zhang, Yafei

    2012-03-01

    We report a facile and scalable approach to synthesize single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) with selected diameter distribution by applying a magnetic field perpendicular to the electric field in the arc plasma region. It is found that this magnetic field-induced diameter-selectivity strategy enables the control of the SWNTs with different diameter distributions in different regions, and the diameter-selective efficiency could be enhanced by modifying the direction of magnetic field. Our results indicate that the motions of the catalysts with different particle sizes, positive carbon ions and electrons are significantly influenced by the magnetic field and electromagnetic force, resulting in the different nucleation and growth processes of SWNTs due to the collective interactions between the magnetic field and arc plasma. This approach would enable a viable route towards the synthesis of SWNTs with desired diameter through the tuning of arc parameters in the arc discharge process. PMID:22301844

  19. Ab initio study of the enantio-selective magnetic-field-induced second harmonic generation in chiral molecules.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Antonio; Rikken, G L J A; Mathevet, R

    2016-01-21

    We present a systematic ab initio study of enantio-selective magnetic-field-induced second harmonic generation (MFISHG) on a set of chiral systems ((l)-alanine, (l)-arginine and (l)-cysteine; 3,4-dehydro-(l)-proline; (S)-?-phellandrene; (R,S)- and (S,S)-cystine disulphide; N-(4-nitrophenyl)-(S)-prolinol, N-(4-(2-nitrovinyl)-phenyl)-(S)-prolinol, N-(4-tricyanovinyl-phenyl)-(S)-prolinol, (R)-BINOL, (S)-BINAM and 6-(M)-helicene). The needed electronic frequency dependent cubic response calculations are performed within a density functional theory (DFT) approach. A study of the dependence of the property on the choice of electron correlation, on one-electron basis set extension and on the choice of magnetic gauge origin is carried out on a prototype system (twisted oxygen peroxide). The magnetic gauge dependence analysis is extended also to the molecules of the set. An attempt to analyze the structure-property relationships is also made, based on the results obtained for biphenyl (in a frozen twisted conformation), for prolinol and for some of their derivatives. The strength of the effect is discussed, in order to establish its measurability with a proposed experimental setup. PMID:26682613

  20. Dynamic-angle spinning and double rotation of quadrupolar nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, K.T. California Univ., Berkeley, CA . Dept. of Chemistry)

    1991-07-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy of quadrupolar nuclei is complicated by the coupling of the electric quadrupole moment of the nucleus to local variations in the electric field. The quadrupolar interaction is a useful source of information about local molecular structure in solids, but it tends to broaden resonance lines causing crowding and overlap in NMR spectra. Magic- angle spinning, which is routinely used to produce high resolution spectra of spin-{1/2} nuclei like carbon-13 and silicon-29, is incapable of fully narrowing resonances from quadrupolar nuclei when anisotropic second-order quadrupolar interactions are present. Two new sample-spinning techniques are introduced here that completely average the second-order quadrupolar coupling. Narrow resonance lines are obtained and individual resonances from distinct nuclear sites are identified. In dynamic-angle spinning (DAS) a rotor containing a powdered sample is reoriented between discrete angles with respect to high magnetic field. Evolution under anisotropic interactions at the different angles cancels, leaving only the isotropic evolution of the spin system. In the second technique, double rotation (DOR), a small rotor spins within a larger rotor so that the sample traces out a complicated trajectory in space. The relative orientation of the rotors and the orientation of the larger rotor within the magnetic field are selected to average both first- and second-order anisotropic broadening. The theory of quadrupolar interactions, coherent averaging theory, and motional narrowing by sample reorientation are reviewed with emphasis on the chemical shift anisotropy and second-order quadrupolar interactions experienced by half-odd integer spin quadrupolar nuclei. The DAS and DOR techniques are introduced and illustrated with application to common quadrupolar systems such as sodium-23 and oxygen-17 nuclei in solids.

  1. Possible quantum Hall effect in a magnetic-field-induced phase transition in the quasi-one-dimensional CDW organic conductor, HMTSF-TCNQ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murata, Keizo; Fukumoto, Yuhei; Yokogawa, Keiichi; Kang, Woun; Takaoka, Ryo; Tada, Ryota; Hirayama, H.; Brooks, James S.; Graf, David; Yoshino, Harukazu; Sasaki, Takahiko; Kato, Reizo

    2015-03-01

    We have studied the angular dependence of magnetoresistance and Hall effect of the CDW organic conductor, HMTSF-TCNQ in order to see whether a magnetic-field-induced phase exists in the charge density wave (CDW) system, similarly to the magnetic-field-induced SDW phases in (TMTSF)2X. The anomaly in magnetoresistance was observed only around the pressure where the CDW is almost suppressed, i.e. around 0.8-1.1 GPa, but neither at low pressures (0 and 0.5 GPa) nor at high pressure above 2 GPa. This behavior is quite similar to that of (TMTSF)2X. At 1.1 GPa anomalies were found at fields of 0.2 T and 10 T. We speculate that at 1.1 GPa the field-induced phase is located between 0.2 T and 10 T, where 1D Fermi surface sheet and 2D Fermi-surface pocket are present. The Rxy shows plateau structure and Rxx was very small in the same region, suggestive of quantum Hall effect.

  2. Magnetic-field-induced diameter-selective synthesis of single-walled carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Yanjie; Zhang, Yaozhong; Wei, Hao; Zhang, Liling; Zhao, Jiang; Yang, Zhi; Zhang, Yafei

    2012-02-01

    We report a facile and scalable approach to synthesize single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) with selected diameter distribution by applying a magnetic field perpendicular to the electric field in the arc plasma region. It is found that this magnetic field-induced diameter-selectivity strategy enables the control of the SWNTs with different diameter distributions in different regions, and the diameter-selective efficiency could be enhanced by modifying the direction of magnetic field. Our results indicate that the motions of the catalysts with different particle sizes, positive carbon ions and electrons are significantly influenced by the magnetic field and electromagnetic force, resulting in the different nucleation and growth processes of SWNTs due to the collective interactions between the magnetic field and arc plasma. This approach would enable a viable route towards the synthesis of SWNTs with desired diameter through the tuning of arc parameters in the arc discharge process.We report a facile and scalable approach to synthesize single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) with selected diameter distribution by applying a magnetic field perpendicular to the electric field in the arc plasma region. It is found that this magnetic field-induced diameter-selectivity strategy enables the control of the SWNTs with different diameter distributions in different regions, and the diameter-selective efficiency could be enhanced by modifying the direction of magnetic field. Our results indicate that the motions of the catalysts with different particle sizes, positive carbon ions and electrons are significantly influenced by the magnetic field and electromagnetic force, resulting in the different nucleation and growth processes of SWNTs due to the collective interactions between the magnetic field and arc plasma. This approach would enable a viable route towards the synthesis of SWNTs with desired diameter through the tuning of arc parameters in the arc discharge process. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Schematic diagram of SWNT sampling points, peak areas of S22 and M11 and relative ratios of S/M. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr11783e

  3. Nanoparticle impacts reveal magnetic field induced agglomeration and reduced dissolution rates.

    PubMed

    Tschulik, Kristina; Compton, Richard G

    2014-07-21

    Superparamagnetic nanoparticles (NPs) are used in a variety of magnetic field-assisted chemical and medical applications, yet little of their fate during magnetic field interrogation is known. Here, fundamental and new insights in this are gained by cathodic particle coulometry. This methodology is used to study individual Fe3O4 NPs in the presence and absence of a magnetic field. It is first noticed that no major NP agglomeration occurs in the absence of a magnetic field even in a suspension of high ionic strength. In contrast, a significant magnetic field-induced agglomeration of NPs is observed in a magnetic field. A second new finding is that the dissolution of Fe3O4 NPs is strongly inhibited in a magnetic field. This is explained as a result of the magnetic field gradient force trapping the released Fe(2+) ions near the surface of a magnetized Fe3O4 NP and thus hindering the mass-transport controlled NP dissolution. Consequently, fundamental magnetic field effects are measured and quantified on both the single NP scale and in suspension and two novel effects are discovered. PMID:24898763

  4. Giant magnetic-field-induced strains in polycrystalline Ni-Mn-Ga foams.

    PubMed

    Chmielus, M; Zhang, X X; Witherspoon, C; Dunand, D C; Mllner, P

    2009-11-01

    The magnetic shape-memory alloy Ni-Mn-Ga shows, in monocrystalline form, a reversible magnetic-field-induced strain (MFIS) up to 10%. This strain, which is produced by twin boundaries moving solely by internal stresses generated by magnetic anisotropy energy, can be used in actuators, sensors and energy-harvesting devices. Compared with monocrystalline Ni-Mn-Ga, fine-grained Ni-Mn-Ga is much easier to process but shows near-zero MFIS because twin boundary motion is inhibited by constraints imposed by grain boundaries. Recently, we showed that partial removal of these constraints, by introducing pores with sizes similar to grains, resulted in MFIS values of 0.12% in polycrystalline Ni-Mn-Ga foams, close to those of the best commercial magnetostrictive materials. Here, we demonstrate that introducing pores smaller than the grain size further reduces constraints and markedly increases MFIS to 2.0-8.7%. These strains, which remain stable over >200,000 cycles, are much larger than those of any polycrystalline, active material. PMID:19749769

  5. Magnetic field-induced phase transformation in NiMnCoIn magnetic shape memory alloys - a new actuation mechanism with large work output.

    SciTech Connect

    Karaca, H. E.; Karaman, I.; Basaran, B.; Ren, Y.; Chumlyakov, Y. I.; Maier, H. J.; X-Ray Science Division; Texsas A&M Univ.; Univ. of Kentucky; Siberian Physical-Technical Inst.; Univ. of Paderborn

    2009-04-09

    Magnetic shape memory alloys (MSMAs) have recently been developed into a new class of functional materials that are capable of magnetic-field-induced actuation, mechanical sensing, magnetic refrigeration, and energy harvesting. In the present work, the magnetic field-induced martensitic phase transformation (FIPT) in Ni{sub 45}Mn{sub 36.5}Co{sub 5}In{sub 13.5} MSMA single crystals is characterized as a new actuation mechanism with potential to result in ultra-high actuation work outputs. The effects of the applied magnetic field on the transformation temperatures, magnetization, and superelastic response are investigated. The magnetic work output of NiMnCoIn alloys is determined to be more than 1 MJ m{sup -3} per Tesla, which is one order of magnitude higher than that of the most well-known MSMAs, i.e., NiMnGa alloys. In addition, the work output of NiMnCoIn alloys is orientation independent, potentially surpassing the need for single crystals, and not limited by a saturation magnetic field, as opposed to NiMnGa MSMAs. Experimental and theoretical transformation strains and magnetostress levels are determined as a function of crystal orientation. It is found that [111]-oriented crystals can demonstrate a magnetostress level of 140 MPa T{sup -1} with 1.2% axial strain under compression. These field-induced stress and strain levels are significantly higher than those from existing piezoelectric and magnetostrictive actuators. A thermodynamical framework is introduced to comprehend the magnetic energy contributions during FIPT. The present work reveals that the magnetic FIPT mechanism is promising for magnetic actuation applications and provides new opportunities for applications requiring high actuation work-outputs with relatively large actuation frequencies. One potential issue is the requirement for relatively high critical magnetic fields and field intervals (1.5-3 T) for the onset of FIPT and for reversible FIPT, respectively.

  6. Second-order quadrupolar effects on NMR spectra of spin- {1}/{2} nuclei in solids, transmitted by dipolar coupling. compounds containing 55Mn (S = {5}/{2}), 59Co (S = {7}/{2}), and, 93Nb (S = {9}/{2})

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gobetto, Roberto; Harris, Robin K.; Apperley, David C.

    The theory for second-order quadrupolar effects on the centerband for magic-anglespinning solid-state NMR spectra of spin-2 nuclei dipolar-coupled to a quadrupolar nucleus is summarized. Experimental examples are presented for 31P bonded to 55Mn, 59Co, and 93b in seven compounds. The information content is discussed, especially for the case where the three tensors involved are axially symmetric and are coaxial. Spinning-sideband patterns are used to expand the data obtained. Isotropic coupling constants and isotropic chemical shifts are presented, together with additional tensor information where the analysis permits.

  7. Thermodynamics of the magnetic-field-induced "normal" state in an underdoped high Tc superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riggs, Scott Chandler

    High magnetic fields are used to kill superconductivity and probe what happens to system when it cannot reach the ideal ground state, i.e. what is the normal-state ground state? Early work in High-Tc, where the application of magnetic field destroyed the zero resistance state and recovered a resistivity value that connected continuously with the zero field curve, lead people to believe this magnetic-field-induced-state had fully driven the system normal, revealing the true underlying ground state, without any vestige of superconductivity. Many experiments done in this region of phase space have results interpreted as coming from the low energy ground state excitations. With the emergence of ultra-clean crystals in a unique family of hole doped high-Tc superconductors, YBa2Cu3O 7-delta, YBCO, a new and highly unexpected phenomena of quantum oscillations were discovered, and they followed the standard Liftshitz-Kosevich (LK) theory for a normal metal. The results suddenly made the problem of high-T c appear to be analogous to superconductivity in the organics, which is brought about by a wave-vector nesting and Fermi surface reconstruction. The only problem, it appeared, that needed to be reconciled was with Angle Resolved Photo-Emission Spectroscopy (ARPES) and Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) data that claimed to see no such Fermi surface, instead only "arcs", a set of disconnected segments in the Brillouin zone which quasiparticle peaks are observed at the Fermi energy, which in a mean field description does not allow for a continuous Fermi surface contour. These two discrepancies led to the "arc vs pocket" debate, which is still unresolved. The other kink in the quantum oscillation armor is that, to this date, quantum oscillations in the hole-doped cuprates have only been seen in YBCO, the only cuprate structure to have CuO chains, which conduct and are located in between two CuO2 superconducting planes in the unit cell. In an attempt to reconcile the "arc vs pocket" debate we measure specific heat on an ultra-clean de-twinned single crystal of underdoped YBCO 6.56 with a Tc = 60 K, up to fields twice irreversibility field, define as the onset of the resistive transition. The zero temperature extrapolation of the electronic contribution to the specific heat, gamma, is the total quasiparticle density of states. For a two-dimensional system with parabolic energy bands, gamma is simply the sum of each pocket multiplied by its effective mass. Therefore, by determining gamma at high fields and using previously determined values for the effective mass from quantum oscillation transport measurements we can simply play a counting game to determine the number of pockets in the Fermi surface. Furthermore, at low fields the response to the specific heat as a function of magnetic field in a d-wave superconductor is known to have a (H) dependence, and we can look for deviations from this (H) , which are expected to happen when the system is no longer in a superconducting state. Results from our specific heat experiment shed new light on the true nature of the magnetic field induced "normal" state, and should force reinterpretation of many experimental findings. The specific heat measurements foremost show a smooth evolution of gamma from low to high magnetic fields which follows a Ac (H) dependence, with the prefactor, Ac giving the correct magnitude for the anisotropy of the d-wave superconducting gap. This means with the application of magnetic fields strong enough to restore the resistive state, the superconducting gap still exits. Additionally, we see quantum oscillations that follow conventional LK formalism and can determine an effective mass uniquely, where no fitting parameters are required. Interestingly, these oscillations fit on top of the (H) finding. How can the (H) and quantum oscillation whose phenomena arise from very different physics be reconciled? Looking at our own zero field gamma value of 1.85 mJ mol-1 K-2, which is intrinsic for YBCO, allows the pocket counting game

  8. Time domain spectroscopy of the magnetic field induced metal-insulator transition in n:InSb

    SciTech Connect

    Sohn, J. Y.; Gao, X.; Crooker, S. A.

    2004-01-01

    Temperature (T) and frequency ({omega}) dependent conductivity measurements are reported for n-type indium antimonide (InSb) around the magnetic field induced metal-insulator transition (MIT). For the sample with electron density n = 2.15 x 10{sup 14} cm{sup -3}, the critical field is observed at {approx}0.7 T in dc transport measurements. The frequency dependent conductivity {sigma}({omega}) measured via terahertz time domain spectroscopy indicates a higher critical field {approx}1.2 T. Both {sigma}{sub dc}(T) and {sigma}{sub 1}({omega}) at low temperatures show power law dependence with exponents of {alpha} = 1.2.

  9. High-field QCPMG NMR of large quadrupolar patterns using resistive magnets.

    PubMed

    Hung, Ivan; Shetty, Kiran; Ellis, Paul D; Brey, William W; Gan, Zhehong

    2009-12-01

    Spectroscopy in a high magnetic field reduces second-order quadrupolar shift while increasing chemical shift. It changes the scale between quadrupolar and chemical shift of half-integer quadrupolar spins. The application of QCPMG multiple echo for acquiring large quadrupolar pattern under the high magnetic field of a 25 T resistive magnet is presented for acquiring large quadrupolar patterns. It shows that temporal field fluctuations and spatial homogeneity of the Keck magnet at the NHMFL contribute about +/- 20 ppm in line broadening. NMR patterns which have breadths of hundreds to thousands of kilohertz can be efficiently recorded using a combination of QCPMG and magnetic field stepping with negligible hindrance from the inhomogeneity and field fluctuations of powered magnets. PMID:19913391

  10. Disorder and magnetic-field-induced breakdown of helical edge conduction in an inverted electron-hole bilayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pikulin, D. I.; Hyart, T.; Mi, Shuo; Tworzyd?o, J.; Wimmer, M.; Beenakker, C. W. J.

    2014-04-01

    We calculate the conductance of a two-dimensional bilayer with inverted electron-hole bands to study the sensitivity of the quantum spin Hall insulator (with helical edge conduction) to the combination of electrostatic disorder and a perpendicular magnetic field. The characteristic breakdown field for helical edge conduction splits into two fields with increasing disorder, a field Bc for the transition into a quantum Hall insulator (supporting chiral edge conduction) and a smaller field Bc' for the transition to bulk conduction in a quasimetallic regime. The spatial separation of the inverted bands, typical for broken-gap InAs/GaSb quantum wells, is essential for the magnetic-field-induced bulk conductionthere is no such regime in HgTe quantum wells.

  11. Microwave complex permeability of Fe3O4 nanoflake composites with and without magnetic field-induced rotational orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xianguo; Wing Or, Siu; Ming Leung, Chung; Ho, S. L.

    2013-05-01

    Magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoflakes with widths of 100-200 nm and thicknesses of 10-80 nm were prepared by a hydrothermal synthesis method. Fe3O4 nanoflake composites with and without magnetic field-induced rotational orientation of flake planes of Fe3O4 nanoflakes in paraffin binder were fabricated using 35 wt. % Fe3O4 nanoflakes. The rotationally oriented composite showed higher permeability and resonance frequency than the nonoriented one, and its value of (?0-1)fr reached 214.8 GHz and exceeded the Snoek's limit. Considering a uniform and a random distribution of flake planes of Fe3O4 nanoflakes in the oriented and nonoriented composites, respectively, the complex permeability of both composites was calculated using the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation and the Bruggeman's effective medium theory in the 2-18 GHz microwave frequency range.

  12. Large magnetic field-induced work output in a NiMnGa seven-layered modulated martensite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagounis, E.; Szczerba, M. J.; Chulist, R.; Laufenberg, M.

    2015-10-01

    We report the performance of a Ni-Mn-Ga single crystal with a seven-layered lattice modulation (14M martensite), demonstrating large actuation work output driven by an external magnetic field. A magnetic field-induced strain of 11.2%, a twinning stress of 0.64 MPa, and a magneto-crystalline anisotropy energy of 195 kJ/m3 are measured at room temperature, which exceed the best results reported in Ni-Mn-Ga 14M martensites. The produced magnetically induced work output of about 70 kJ/m3 makes the material attractive for actuator applications. Detailed XRD investigation reveals that the studied 14M martensite is stress-induced. With increasing compression stress, the stress-induced intermartensitic transformation sequence 10M ? 14M ? NM was demonstrated.

  13. Successive Magnetic-Field-Induced Transitions and Colossal Magnetoelectric Effect in Ni3TeO6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jae Wook; Artyukhin, S.; Mun, E. D.; Jaime, M.; Harrison, N.; Hansen, A.; Yang, J. J.; Oh, Y. S.; Vanderbilt, D.; Zapf, V. S.; Cheong, S.-W.

    2015-09-01

    We report the discovery of a metamagnetic phase transition in a polar antiferromagnet Ni3 TeO6 that occurs at 52 T. The new phase transition accompanies a colossal magnetoelectric effect, with a magnetic-field-induced polarization change of 0.3 ? C /cm2 , a value that is 4 times larger than for the spin-flop transition at 9 T in the same material, and also comparable to the largest magnetically induced polarization changes observed to date. Via density-functional calculations we construct a full microscopic model that describes the data. We model the spin structures in all fields and clarify the physics behind the 52 T transition. The high-field transition involves a competition between multiple different exchange interactions which drives the polarization change through the exchange-striction mechanism. The resultant spin structure is rather counterintuitive and complex, thus providing new insights on design principles for materials with strong magnetoelectric coupling.

  14. Successive Magnetic-Field-Induced Transitions and Colossal Magnetoelectric Effect in Ni_{3}TeO_{6}.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae Wook; Artyukhin, S; Mun, E D; Jaime, M; Harrison, N; Hansen, A; Yang, J J; Oh, Y S; Vanderbilt, D; Zapf, V S; Cheong, S-W

    2015-09-25

    We report the discovery of a metamagnetic phase transition in a polar antiferromagnet Ni_{3}TeO_{6} that occurs at 52 T. The new phase transition accompanies a colossal magnetoelectric effect, with a magnetic-field-induced polarization change of 0.3 ?C/cm^{2}, a value that is 4 times larger than for the spin-flop transition at 9 T in the same material, and also comparable to the largest magnetically induced polarization changes observed to date. Via density-functional calculations we construct a full microscopic model that describes the data. We model the spin structures in all fields and clarify the physics behind the 52 T transition. The high-field transition involves a competition between multiple different exchange interactions which drives the polarization change through the exchange-striction mechanism. The resultant spin structure is rather counterintuitive and complex, thus providing new insights on design principles for materials with strong magnetoelectric coupling. PMID:26451580

  15. Colloidal Stability and Magnetic Field-Induced Ordering of Magnetorheological Fluids Studied with a Quartz Crystal Microbalance

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-López, Jaime; Castro, Pedro; de Vicente, Juan; Johannsmann, Diethelm; Elvira, Luis; Morillas, Jose R.; Montero de Espinosa, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    This work proposes the use of quartz crystal microbalances (QCMs) as a method to analyze and characterize magnetorheological (MR) fluids. QCM devices are sensitive to changes in mass, surface interactions, and viscoelastic properties of the medium contacting its surface. These features make the QCM suitable to study MR fluids and their response to variable environmental conditions. MR fluids change their structure and viscoelastic properties under the action of an external magnetic field, this change being determined by the particle volume fraction, the magnetic field strength, and the presence of thixotropic agents among other factors. In this work, the measurement of the resonance parameters (resonance frequency and dissipation factor) of a QCM are used to analyze the behavior of MR fluids in static conditions (that is, in the absence of external mechanical stresses). The influence of sedimentation under gravity and the application of magnetic fields on the shifts of resonance frequency and dissipation factor were measured and discussed in the frame of the coupled resonance produced by particles touching the QCM surface. Furthermore, the MR-fluid/QCM system has a great potential for the study of high-frequency contact mechanics because the translational and rotational stiffness of the link between the surface and the particles can be tuned by the magnetic field. PMID:26690152

  16. Colloidal Stability and Magnetic Field-Induced Ordering of Magnetorheological Fluids Studied with a Quartz Crystal Microbalance.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-López, Jaime; Castro, Pedro; de Vicente, Juan; Johannsmann, Diethelm; Elvira, Luis; Morillas, Jose R; Montero de Espinosa, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    This work proposes the use of quartz crystal microbalances (QCMs) as a method to analyze and characterize magnetorheological (MR) fluids. QCM devices are sensitive to changes in mass, surface interactions, and viscoelastic properties of the medium contacting its surface. These features make the QCM suitable to study MR fluids and their response to variable environmental conditions. MR fluids change their structure and viscoelastic properties under the action of an external magnetic field, this change being determined by the particle volume fraction, the magnetic field strength, and the presence of thixotropic agents among other factors. In this work, the measurement of the resonance parameters (resonance frequency and dissipation factor) of a QCM are used to analyze the behavior of MR fluids in static conditions (that is, in the absence of external mechanical stresses). The influence of sedimentation under gravity and the application of magnetic fields on the shifts of resonance frequency and dissipation factor were measured and discussed in the frame of the coupled resonance produced by particles touching the QCM surface. Furthermore, the MR-fluid/QCM system has a great potential for the study of high-frequency contact mechanics because the translational and rotational stiffness of the link between the surface and the particles can be tuned by the magnetic field. PMID:26690152

  17. Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Magnetic Field Induced Orientation of Nanotube-Polymer Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Haik, Marwan S.; Hussaini, M. Yousuff

    2006-11-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations are carried out to study the reorientation of single wall carbon nanotubes in a polyethylene matrix under the influence of a 25 T magnetic field. The simulations are based on a variant of velocity Verlet algorithm, which relaxes the Larmor time-step restriction while preserving second-order accuracy. Simulations reveal that the unfolding and reorganization of the polyethylene (PE) chain facilitates the reorientation of the single wall carbon nanotubes closer to the direction of the applied magnetic field. Also, they bring out the difference between the behavior of the carbon nanotubes of zigzag chirality and that of armchair chirality.

  18. Neutron diffraction study of the magnetic-field-induced transition in Mn3GaC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ?akιr, .; Acet, M.; Farle, M.; Senyshyn, A.

    2014-01-01

    The antiperovskite Mn3GaC undergoes an isostructural cubic-cubic first order transition from a low-temperature, large-cell-volume antiferromagnetic state to a high-temperature, small-cell-volume ferromagnetic state at around 160 K. The transition can also be induced by applying a magnetic field. We study here the isothermal magnetic-field-evolution of the transition as ferromagnetism is stabilized at the expense of antiferromagnetism. We make use of the presence of the two distinct cell volumes of the two magnetic states as a probe to observe by neutron diffraction the evolution of the transition, as the external magnetic field carries the system from the antiferromagnetic to the ferromagnetic state. We show that the large-volume antiferromagnetic and the small-volume ferromagnetic states coexist in the temperature range of the transition. The ferromagnetic state is progressively stabilized as the field increases.

  19. Zeeman effect and magnetic field induced spin-hybridization in semiconductor quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prado, S. J.; López-Richard, V.; Alcalde, A. M.; Marques, G. E.; Hai, G. Q.

    2004-10-01

    We present a systematic theoretical study of the effective Zeeman spin- and non-linear-splitting of a single spherical quantum dot based on the 8\\times 8~\\mathbf {k}\\bdot \\mathbf {p} Hamiltonian model. The effect of spin-hybridization on conduction band states is pointed out as the main source of the strong dependence of Landè factors and effective masses on external fields. The topology of the electronic orbitals is highly sensitive to the magnetic field tuning and to the spin polarization. The electron, hole and excitonic g-factors, as well as the diamagnetic coefficient are calculated for CdTe semiconductor quantum dots. Different systematic experimental methods are proposed in order to determine the behaviour of the electronic properties under analysis as a function of magnetic field and confinement geometry. Complementary optical transitions, in Faraday and Voigt configurations, can be used in the determination of electron, hole and exciton Landè factors, effective magnetic masses and diamagnetic coefficients.

  20. Transformation of Ramsey electromagnetically induced absorption into magnetic-field induced transparency in a paraffin-coated Rb vapor cell.

    PubMed

    Moon, Han Seb; Kim, Ho-Jung

    2014-07-28

    We report on magnetic-field induced transparency (MIT) based on Ramsey electromagnetically induced absorption (EIA) in a paraffin-coated Rb vapor cell. Changing the laser polarization from linear to circular in the presence of a weak residual transverse magnetic field to the laser propagation, the narrow absorption due to the Ramsey EIA transformed into the transparency due to MIT of the 5S1/2 (F = 2)-5P3/2 (F' = 3) transition of 87Rb in the paraffin-coated Rb vapor cell. The spectral widths of the EIA and MIT in the Hanle configuration were measured to be 0.6 mG (425 Hz) and 1.2 mG, respectively. MIT depended on the long preservation time of the ground-state coherent spin states and the transverse magnetic field. From the numerical results, the crossover between the Ramsey EIA and the MIT could be illustrated as the superposition of both signals. PMID:25089479

  1. Magnetic field induced directional dichroism of spin waves in multiferroic BiFeO3 at THz frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagel, Urmas; Rõõm, T.; Bordács, S.; Kézsmárki, I.; Yi, H. T.; Cheong, S.-W.; Lee, Jun Hee; Fishman, Randy S.

    2015-03-01

    Using far infrared spectroscopy in high magnetic fields we show that spin excitations in BiFeO3 simultaneously interact with the electric and magnetic field components of light resulting in directional dichroism (DD) of absorption. DD in BiFeO3 arises because an applied static magnetic field induces a toroidal moment in the cycloidal spin structure. Strong DD is observed even in the room-temperature state of the material. The results are explained on the microscopic level as an interplay of five different interactions: isotropic exchange couplings between nearest and next nearest neighbors, an easy-axis anisotropy along the ferroelectric polarization, Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) interaction that creates the cycloid and DM interaction that causes spin canting. Research sponsored by the Estonian Ministry of Education and Research (IUT23-3), Estonian Science Foundation (ETF8703), and U.S. Department of Energy (JL), Office of Science, Materials Sciences and Engineering Division (RF and JL) and Office of Basis En.

  2. Field-induced quadrupolar quantum criticality in PrV2Al20

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimura, Yasuyuki; Tsujimoto, Masaki; Zeng, Bin; Balicas, Luis; Sakai, Akito; Nakatsuji, Satoru

    2015-06-01

    PrV2Al20 is a heavy-fermion superconductor based on the cubic ?3 doublet that exhibits nonmagnetic quadrupolar ordering below 0.6 K. Our magnetotransport study on PrV2Al20 reveals field-induced quadrupolar quantum criticality at ?0Hc11 T applied along the [111] direction. Near the critical field ?0Hc required to suppress the quadrupolar state, we find a marked enhancement of the resistivity ? (H ,T ) , a divergent quasiparticle effective mass and concomitant non-Fermi-liquid (NFL) behavior [i.e., ? (T ) ?Tn with n ?0.5 ]. We also observe the Shubnikov-de Haas effect above ?0Hc , indicating effective mass enhancement or m*/m010 . This reveals the competition between the nonmagnetic Kondo effect and the intersite quadrupolar coupling which leads to pronounced NFL behavior in an extensive region of T and ?0H emerging from the quantum-critical point.

  3. Magnetic-Field-Induced Insulator-Metal Transition in (Pr1-yYy)0.7Ca0.3CoO3 at Ultrahigh Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Suyeon; Matsuda, Yasuhiro H.; Naito, Tomoyuki; Nakamura, Daisuke; Takeyama, Shojiro

    2015-04-01

    The (Pr1-yYy)0.7Ca0.3CoO3 (y ? 0.0625) compounds show a first-order metal-insulator (MI) transition and simultaneous spin-state (SS) transition upon a change in the temperature. We have measured the electrical resistivity of the samples with y = 0.075 (the transition temperature, TMI = 64 K) and 0.10 (TMI = 93 K) in ultrahigh magnetic fields of up to 120 T using a contactless radio-frequency transmission technique. We observed a magnetic-field-induced insulator-metal (IM) transition with large hysteresis below TMI and obtained the temperature-magnetic field phase diagrams. A possible mechanism of the field-induced IM and SS transitions is discussed.

  4. Magnetic field induced polarization and magnetoelectric effect of Ba0.8Ca0.2TiO3-Ni0.2Cu0.3Zn0.5Fe2O4 nanomultiferroic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadhana, Katlakunta; Ramana Murthy, Sarabu; Jie, Shang; Xie, Yali; Liu, Yiwei; Zhan, Qingfeng; Li, Run-Wei

    2013-05-01

    The xBa0.8Ca0.2TiO3-(1 - x)NiCuZn ferrite (x = 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, and 0.9) nanocomposites were prepared by using sol-gel method. The densification of these composites was carried out using microwave sintering method. The magnetic field induced changes in the ferroelectric polarization loop may support the possible magnetoelectric coupling between Ba0.8Ca0.2TiO3 and NiCuZn ferrite phases. The observed change in ferroelectric polarization with applied magnetic field proves the coupling between magnetic and ferroelectric order parameters. The loop change is observed with the composition and with magnetic field. The magnetoelectric coefficient of the nanocomposite with x = 0.3 shows a value of 280 mV/cm Oe is obtained.

  5. Magnetic field induced insulator-metal transition in nanocrystalline Pr{sub 0.67}Ca{sub 0.33}MnO{sub 3} compounds: Evidence of large temperature co-efficient of resistance

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Kalipada Das, I.

    2015-05-07

    We report the electronic transport, magneto-transport, and magnetic properties of nanocrystalline Pr{sub 0.67}Ca{sub 0.33}MnO{sub 3} compound. A magnetic field induced insulatormetal transition appears for the external magnetic field higher than 50 kOe. We have obtained large value of the temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) along with magnetoresistance and field coefficient of resistance (FCR). The value of TCR is 135%/K at 48?K. The calculated magnetoresistance is about ?9.8??10{sup 7}% for 70 kOe and maximum FCR is about 320%/kOe around 75?K. Due to the application of the external magnetic field, charge ordered state of the compound is destabilized leading to such large values of TCR and FCR. Large values of TCR and FCR along with the large magnetoresistance exhibited by the material is interesting from the application point of view.

  6. Simple model for coupled magnetic and quadrupolar instabilities in uranium heavy-fermion materials

    SciTech Connect

    Libero, V.L. ); Cox, D.L. )

    1993-08-01

    We present a mean-field calculation of the phase diagram of a simple model of localized moments, in the hexagonal uranium heavy-fermion compounds. The model considers a non-Kramers quadrupolar doublet ground state magnetically coupled with a singlet excited state, favoring in-plane van Vleck magnetism, as has been conjectured for UPt[sub 3]. The Hamiltonian that defines the model is Heisenberg-like in both magnetic and quadrupolar moments. No Kondo-effect physics is included in the calculations. Among our main results are (i) for zero intersite quadrupolar coupling, the magnetic order is achieved by a first-order transition above a critical intersite magnetic coupling value, which becomes second order at higher coupling strengths (ii) for finite intersite quadrupolar coupling, at temperatures below a second-order quadrupolar ordering transition, the minimal magnetic coupling value is increased, but (a) the magnetic ordering temperature is enhanced above this value, and (b) the ordering of first- and second-order transitions in the phase diagram is reversed. By considering the general structure of the Ginsburg-Landau free energy, we argue that the Kondo effect will not modify the shape of the phase diagram, but will modify the quantitative values at which transitions occur.

  7. Direct evidence on magnetic-field-induced phase transition in a NiCoMnIn ferromagnetic shape memory alloy under a stress field.

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Y. D.; Ren, Y.; Huang, E. W.; Nie, Z. H.; Wang, G.; Liu, Y. D.; Deng, J. N.; Zuo, L.; Choo, H.; Liaw, P .K.; Brown, D. E.; Univ. of Tennessee; Northeastern Univ.; Northern Illinois Univ.

    2007-01-01

    The magnetoelasticity and magnetoplasticity behaviors of a Ni-Co-Mn-In ferromagnetic shape memory alloy (FSMA) induced by the reverse phase transformation interplayed under multiple (temperature, magnetic, and stress) fields were captured directly by high-energy synchrotron x-ray diffraction technique. The experiments showed the direct experimental evidence of that a stress ({approx}50 MPa) applied to this material made a complete recovery of the original orientations of the martensite variants, showing a full shape memory effect. This finding offers the in-depth understanding the fundamental properties and applications of the Ni-Co-Mn-In FSMA with the magnetic-field-induced reverse transformation.

  8. Direct evidence on magnetic-field-induced phase transition in a NiCoMnIn ferromagnetic shape memory alloy under a stress field

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Y. D.; Ren Yang; Huang, E. W.; Nie, Z. H.; Wang, G.; Liu, Y. D.; Deng, J. N.; Zuo, L.; Choo, H.; Liaw, P. K.; Brown, D. E.

    2007-03-05

    The magnetoelasticity and magnetoplasticity behaviors of a Ni-Co-Mn-In ferromagnetic shape memory alloy (FSMA) induced by the reverse phase transformation interplayed under multiple (temperature, magnetic, and stress) fields were captured directly by high-energy synchrotron x-ray diffraction technique. The experiments showed the direct experimental evidence of that a stress ({approx}50 MPa) applied to this material made a complete recovery of the original orientations of the martensite variants, showing a full shape memory effect. This finding offers the in-depth understanding the fundamental properties and applications of the Ni-Co-Mn-In FSMA with the magnetic-field-induced reverse transformation.

  9. Magnetic Field Induced Phase Transitions in Gd5(Si1.95Ge2.05)Single Crystal and the Anisotropic Magnetocaloric Effect

    SciTech Connect

    H. Tang; V.K. Pecharsky; A.O. Pecharsky; D.L. Schlagel; T.A. Lograsso; K.A. Gschneidner,jr.

    2004-09-30

    The magnetization measurements using a Gd{sub 5}(Si{sub 1.95}Ge{sub 2.05}) single crystal with the magnetic field applied along three crystallographic directions, [001], [010] and [100], were carried out as function of applied field (0-56 kOe) at various temperatures ({approx}5-320 K). The magnetic-field induced phase transformations at temperature above the zero-field critical temperature, i.e. the paramagnetic (PM) {leftrightarrow} ferromagnetic (FM) transitions with application or removal of magnetic field, are found to be temperature dependent and hysteretic. The corresponding critical fields increase with increasing temperature. The magnetic field (H)-temperature (T) phase diagrams have been constructed for the Gd{sub 5}(Si{sub 1.95}Ge{sub 2.05}) single crystal with field along the three directions. A small anisotropy has been observed. The magnetocaloric effect (MCE) has been calculated from the isothermal magnetization data, and the observed anisotropy correlates with H-T phase diagrams. The results are discussed in connection with the magnetic-field induced martensitic-like structural transition observed in the Gd{sub 5}(Si{sub 2}Ge{sub 2})-type compounds.

  10. High-resolution solid-state NMR of quadrupolar nuclei

    PubMed Central

    Meadows, Michael D.; Smith, Karen A.; Kinsey, Robert A.; Rothgeb, T. Michael; Skarjune, Robert P.; Oldfield, Eric

    1982-01-01

    We report the observation of high-resolution solid-state NMR spectra of 23Na (I = [unk]), 27Al (I = [unk]) and 51V (I = [unk]) in various inorganic systems. We show that, contrary to popular belief, relatively high-resolution (?10 ppm linewidth) spectra may be obtained from quadrupolar systems, in which electric quadrupole coupling constants (e2qQ/h) are in the range ?1-5 MHz, by means of observation of the (, -) spin transition. The (, -) transition for all nonintegral spin quadrupolar nuclei (I = [unk], [unk], [unk], or [unk]) is only normally broadened by dipolar, chemical shift (or Knight shift) anisotropy or second-order quadrupolar effects, all of which are to a greater or lesser extent averaged under fast magic-angle sample rotation. In the case of 23Na and 27Al, high-resolution spectra of 23NaNO3 (e2qQ/h ?300 kHz) and ?-27Al2O3 (e2qQ/h ?2-3 MHz) are presented; in the case of 51V2O5 (e2qQ/h ?800 kHz), rotational echo decays are observed due to the presence of a ?103-ppm chemical shift anisotropy. The observation of high-resolution solid-state spectra of systems having spins I = [unk], [unk], and [unk] in asymmetric environments opens up the possibility of examining about two out of three nuclei by solid-state NMR that were previously thought of as inaccessible due to the presence of large (a few megahertz) quadrupole coupling constants. Preliminary results for an I = [unk] system, 93Nb, having e2qQ/h ?19.5 MHz, are also reported. PMID:16593165

  11. Site-resolved multiple-quantum filtered correlations and distance measurements by magic-angle spinning NMR: Theory and applications to spins with weak to vanishing quadrupolar couplings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliav, U.; Haimovich, A.; Goldbourt, A.

    2016-01-01

    We discuss and analyze four magic-angle spinning solid-state NMR methods that can be used to measure internuclear distances and to obtain correlation spectra between a spin I = 1/2 and a half-integer spin S > 1/2 having a small quadrupolar coupling constant. Three of the methods are based on the heteronuclear multiple-quantum and single-quantum correlation experiments, that is, high rank tensors that involve the half spin and the quadrupolar spin are generated. Here, both zero and single-quantum coherence of the half spins are allowed and various coherence orders of the quadrupolar spin are generated, and filtered, via active recoupling of the dipolar interaction. As a result of generating coherence orders larger than one, the spectral resolution for the quadrupolar nucleus increases linearly with the coherence order. Since the formation of high rank tensors is independent of the existence of a finite quadrupolar interaction, these experiments are also suitable to materials in which there is high symmetry around the quadrupolar spin. A fourth experiment is based on the initial quadrupolar-driven excitation of symmetric high order coherences (up to p = 2S, where S is the spin number) and subsequently generating by the heteronuclear dipolar interaction higher rank (l + 1 or higher) tensors that involve also the half spins. Due to the nature of this technique, it also provides information on the relative orientations of the quadrupolar and dipolar interaction tensors. For the ideal case in which the pulses are sufficiently strong with respect to other interactions, we derive analytical expressions for all experiments as well as for the transferred echo double resonance experiment involving a quadrupolar spin. We show by comparison of the fitting of simulations and the analytical expressions to experimental data that the analytical expressions are sufficiently accurate to provide experimental 7Li-13C distances in a complex of lithium, glycine, and water. Discussion of the regime for which such an approach is valid is given.

  12. Elastic effects of long-range quadrupolar interactions in nematic liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faetti, S.; Evangelista, L. R.; Barbero, G.

    1998-12-01

    We discuss the role of the quadrupolar interaction in nematic liquid crystal samples in the shape of a slab, limiting the study to planar deformations. Our analysis shows that this interaction gives rise to a bulk energy density that, in the elastic approximation, depends linearly on the second spatial derivative and quadratically on the first spatial derivative of the nematic orientation. We show that this bulk energy density can be separated in a surfacelike term, which gives rise just to a surface contribution, plus a term having the usual form. Both terms depend on the first derivative of the tilt angle and are proportional to the square of the electrical quadrupolar density. The bulk term, quadratic in the first derivative of the tilt angle, renormalizes the usual elastic energy density connected to the short-range forces. The bulk elastic constant of quadrupolar origin can be negative and one order of magnitude smaller than the effective elastic constants for typical nematic liquid crystals. According to our analysis this interaction is responsible for an elastic anisotropy proportional to the square of the electrical quadrupolar density, which depends on the nematic orientation. The surfacelike term is proportional to the first derivative of the tilt angle. It calls mind to the splay-bend elastic term, although the tilt angle dependence is more complicated. The relevant elastic constant is of the same order of magnitude as the bulk one, due to the same interaction. We evaluate also the energy density in the surface layers, where the quadrupolar interaction is restricted by the surface. In this case we show that the free energy contribution due to the surface layers is reduced to a classical anchoring energy. The solution of the variational problem by means of a simple version of the density functional theory is presented.

  13. Magnetic Field-Induced Insulator-Semimetal Transition in a Pyrochlore Nd2Ir2O7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueda, K.; Fujioka, J.; Yang, B.-J.; Shiogai, J.; Tsukazaki, A.; Nakamura, S.; Awaji, S.; Nagaosa, N.; Tokura, Y.

    2015-07-01

    We investigate magnetotransport properties in a single crystal of pyrochore-type Nd2Ir2O7. The metallic conduction is observed on the antiferromagnetic domain walls of the all-in-all-out-type Ir 5 d moment ordered insulating bulk state that can be finely controlled by an external magnetic field along [111]. On the other hand, an applied field along [001] induces the bulk phase transition from insulator to semimetal as a consequence of the field-induced modification of the Nd 4 f and Ir 5 d moment configurations. A theoretical calculation consistently describing the experimentally observed features suggests a variety of exotic topological states as functions of electron correlation and Ir 5 d moment orders, which can be finely tuned by the choice of rare-earth ion and magnetic field, respectively.

  14. Magnetic Field-Induced Insulator-Semimetal Transition in a Pyrochlore Nd2Ir2O7.

    PubMed

    Ueda, K; Fujioka, J; Yang, B-J; Shiogai, J; Tsukazaki, A; Nakamura, S; Awaji, S; Nagaosa, N; Tokura, Y

    2015-07-31

    We investigate magnetotransport properties in a single crystal of pyrochore-type Nd2Ir2O7. The metallic conduction is observed on the antiferromagnetic domain walls of the all-in-all-out-type Ir 5d moment ordered insulating bulk state that can be finely controlled by an external magnetic field along [111]. On the other hand, an applied field along [001] induces the bulk phase transition from insulator to semimetal as a consequence of the field-induced modification of the Nd 4f and Ir 5d moment configurations. A theoretical calculation consistently describing the experimentally observed features suggests a variety of exotic topological states as functions of electron correlation and Ir 5d moment orders, which can be finely tuned by the choice of rare-earth ion and magnetic field, respectively. PMID:26274430

  15. Magnetic field induced controllable self-assembly of maghemite nanocrystals: From 3D arrays to 1D nanochains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yan; Chen, Qianwang; Chen, Rongsheng

    2015-08-01

    A hydrothermal process has been used to synthesize walnut-like maghemite superstructures which can be further self-assembled in a controllable manner into ordered three-dimensional (3D) architectures and one-dimensional (1D) nanochains in the presence of different external magnetic field. The assembly behavior of the maghemite nanoparticles isclosely related to the van der Waals interactions and external-field-induced magnetic dipole interactions. The magnetic properties of these nanostructures are also investigated.

  16. The polarized interface between quadrupolar insulators: Maxwell stress tensor, surface tension, and potential.

    PubMed

    Slavchov, Radomir I; Dimitrova, Iglika M; Ivanov, Tzanko

    2015-10-21

    The quadrupolar Maxwell electrostatic equations predict several qualitatively different results compared to Poisson's classical equation in their description of the properties of a dielectric interface. All interfaces between dielectrics possess surface dipole moment which results in a measurable surface potential jump. The surface dipole moment is conjugated to the bulk quadrupole moment density (the quadrupolarization) similarly to Gauss's relation between surface charge and bulk polarization. However, the classical macroscopic Maxwell equations completely neglect the quadrupolarization of the medium. Therefore, the electrostatic potential distribution near an interface of intrinsic dipole moment can be correctly described only within the quadrupolar macroscopic equations of electrostatics. They predict that near the polarized interface a diffuse dipole layer exists, which bears many similarities to the diffuse charge layer near a charged surface, in agreement with existing molecular dynamics simulation data. It turns out that when the quadrupole terms are kept in the multipole expansion of the laws of electrostatics, the solutions for the potential and the electric field are continuous functions at the surface. A well-defined surface electric field exists, interacting with the adsorbed dipoles. This allows for a macroscopic description of the surface dipole-surface dipole and the surface dipole-bulk quadrupole interactions. They are shown to have considerable contribution to the interfacial tension-of the order of tens of mN/m! To evaluate it, the Maxwell stress tensor in quadrupolar medium is deduced, including the electric field gradient action on the quadrupoles, as well as quadrupolar image force and quadrupolar electrostriction. The dependence of the interfacial tension on the external normal electric field (the dielectrocapillary curve) is predicted and the dielectric susceptibility of the dipolar double layer is related to the quadrupolarizabilities of the bulk phases and the intrinsic polarization of the interface. The coefficient of the dielectro-Marangoni effect (surface flow due to gradient of the normal electric field) is found. A model of the Langevin type for the surface dipole moment and the intrinsic surface polarizability is presented. PMID:26493922

  17. The polarized interface between quadrupolar insulators: Maxwell stress tensor, surface tension, and potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slavchov, Radomir I.; Dimitrova, Iglika M.; Ivanov, Tzanko

    2015-10-01

    The quadrupolar Maxwell electrostatic equations predict several qualitatively different results compared to Poisson's classical equation in their description of the properties of a dielectric interface. All interfaces between dielectrics possess surface dipole moment which results in a measurable surface potential jump. The surface dipole moment is conjugated to the bulk quadrupole moment density (the quadrupolarization) similarly to Gauss's relation between surface charge and bulk polarization. However, the classical macroscopic Maxwell equations completely neglect the quadrupolarization of the medium. Therefore, the electrostatic potential distribution near an interface of intrinsic dipole moment can be correctly described only within the quadrupolar macroscopic equations of electrostatics. They predict that near the polarized interface a diffuse dipole layer exists, which bears many similarities to the diffuse charge layer near a charged surface, in agreement with existing molecular dynamics simulation data. It turns out that when the quadrupole terms are kept in the multipole expansion of the laws of electrostatics, the solutions for the potential and the electric field are continuous functions at the surface. A well-defined surface electric field exists, interacting with the adsorbed dipoles. This allows for a macroscopic description of the surface dipole-surface dipole and the surface dipole-bulk quadrupole interactions. They are shown to have considerable contribution to the interfacial tension—of the order of tens of mN/m! To evaluate it, the Maxwell stress tensor in quadrupolar medium is deduced, including the electric field gradient action on the quadrupoles, as well as quadrupolar image force and quadrupolar electrostriction. The dependence of the interfacial tension on the external normal electric field (the dielectrocapillary curve) is predicted and the dielectric susceptibility of the dipolar double layer is related to the quadrupolarizabilities of the bulk phases and the intrinsic polarization of the interface. The coefficient of the dielectro-Marangoni effect (surface flow due to gradient of the normal electric field) is found. A model of the Langevin type for the surface dipole moment and the intrinsic surface polarizability is presented.

  18. Orientation control of a synthetic columnar perfluorinated supramolecular dendrimer: Surface anchoring and magnetic-field induced alignments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ki Yoon, Dong; Rim Lee, Su; Ho Kim, Yun; Seong, Baek-Seok; Soo Han, Young; Jung, Hee-Tae

    2006-11-01

    Orientation ordering of a synthetic perfluorinated supramolecule containing a hydrophilic core group and perfluorinated tails is strongly affected by the functionality, molecular shape, surface anchoring and magnetic field. Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), synchrotron X-ray diffraction, polarized light microscopy (PLM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results show that the molecule exhibits hexagonal columnar mesophase upon cooling from isotropic phase. The orientation of the columns was controlled by surface anchoring; the columnar axes were perpendicular to the hydrophobic carbon substrates, while planar alignment is favored on hydrophilic surfaces. Furthermore, the columnar domains align with the magnetic field lines, which is due to diamagnetism of these fan-shaped molecules containing aromatic rings. We show that the magnetic-induced alignment is much effective for the large-scale control of the orientation of the perfluorinated columnar mesophase.

  19. Neutron diffraction study of the magnetic-field-induced transition in Mn{sub 3}GaC

    SciTech Connect

    akir, .; Acet, M.; Farle, M.; Senyshyn, A.

    2014-01-28

    The antiperovskite Mn{sub 3}GaC undergoes an isostructural cubiccubic first order transition from a low-temperature, large-cell-volume antiferromagnetic state to a high-temperature, small-cell-volume ferromagnetic state at around 160?K. The transition can also be induced by applying a magnetic field. We study here the isothermal magnetic-field-evolution of the transition as ferromagnetism is stabilized at the expense of antiferromagnetism. We make use of the presence of the two distinct cell volumes of the two magnetic states as a probe to observe by neutron diffraction the evolution of the transition, as the external magnetic field carries the system from the antiferromagnetic to the ferromagnetic state. We show that the large-volume antiferromagnetic and the small-volume ferromagnetic states coexist in the temperature range of the transition. The ferromagnetic state is progressively stabilized as the field increases.

  20. Magnetic-field-induced synthesis of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanorods by a gas–liquid interfacial process: Microstructure control, magnetic and photocatalytic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Chun; Mo, Zunli Guo, Ruibin; Teng, Guixiang; Zhao, Guoping

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanorods were synthesized via a MFI gas–liquid interfacial route. • The morphology of the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticle can be changed during its growth process. • MF render Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanorods higher degree of crystallinity and better magnetic property. - Abstract: In this paper, we designed a magnetic field (MF) induced gas–liquid interface route to synthesize magnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanorods (NRs). The results showed that the MF can significantly affect the morphology of the particles. In this original method, only relatively inexpensive and environmental chemicals were used. The structure and morphology of the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} NRs were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and vibrating sample magnetometry technique. The crystal growth mechanisms in the magnetic field induced process were expounded in detail. The as-synthesized Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} NRs were successfully used as a catalytic carrier for the photo degradation of phenol.

  1. dc- and ac-magnetic field-induced strain effects in ferromagnetic shape memory composites of Ni-Mn-Ga single crystal and polyurethane polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Min; Or, Siu Wing; Chan, Helen Lai Wa

    2010-05-01

    Ferromagnetic shape memory composites of multilayer and sandwich types were fabricated by laminating Ni-Mn-Ga single-crystal plates with polyurethane (PU) polymer plates. The dc- and ac-magnetic field-induced strains (MFISs) in the composites were measured as functions of both magnetic field and mechanical load, and the results were compared with those of the single crystal. It was found that the load-free dc-MFISs were 5.6%, 1.5%, and 0.8%, while the load-free ac-MFISs were 0.3%, 0.8%, and 0.5% in the single crystal, multilayer composite, and sandwich composite, respectively. The relatively smaller load-free dc-MFISs and larger load-free ac-MFISs in the composites than the single crystal originated from the stress bias of the Ni-Mn-Ga plates by the PU plates in the composites. The dc-MFISs of all samples and the ac-MFISs of the composites decreased with the increase in mechanical load amplitude, while the ac-MFIS of the single crystal peaked at 1.6 MPa load.

  2. Magnetic field-induced ferroelectric domain structure evolution and magnetoelectric coupling for [110]-oriented PMN-PT/Terfenol-D multiferroic composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, F.; Jing, W. Q.

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic field-induced polarization rotation and magnetoelectric coupling effects are studied for [110]-oriented (1-x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-xPbTiO3/Tb0.3Dy0.7Fe2(PMN-xPT/Terfenol-D) multiferroic composites. Two compositions of the [110]-oriented relaxor ferroelectric single crystals, PMN-28PT and PMN-33PT, are used. In [110]-oriented PMN-28PT, domains of rhombohedral (R) and monoclinic (MB) phases coexist prior to the magnetic loadings. Upon the applied magnetic loadings, phase transition from monoclinic MB to R phase occurs. In [110]-oriented PMN-33PT, domains are initially of mixed orthorhombic (O) and MB phases, and the phase transition from O to MB phase takes place upon the external magnetic loading. Compared to PMN-28PT, the PMN-33PT single crystal exhibits much finer domain boundary structure prior to the magnetic loadings. Upon the magnetic loadings, more domain variants are induced via the phase transition in PMN-33PT than that in PMN-28PT single crystal. The finer domain band structure and more domain variants contribute to stronger piezoelectric activity. As a result, the composite of PMN-33PT/Terfenol-D manifests a stronger ME coupling than PMN-28PT/Terfenol-D composite.

  3. Magnetic-field-induced photocurrent in metal-dielectric-semiconductor heterostructures based on cobalt nanoparticles SiO2(Co)/GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlov, V. V.; Lutsev, L. V.; Usachev, P. A.; Astretsov, A. A.; Stognij, A. I.; Novitskii, N. N.; Pisarev, R. V.

    2016-02-01

    Magnetic-field influence on photocurrent in heterostructures of silicon dioxide films with cobalt nanoparticles SiO2(Co) grown on gallium arsenide GaAs substrate has been studied in the avalanche regime at room temperature. High values of magnetic-field-induced photocurrent were found in the vicinity and above the GaAs bandgap of ∼1.4 eV. For photon energies E > 1.4 eV the photocurrent significantly increases, while the avalanche process is suppressed by the magnetic field, and the current flowing through the heterostructure decreases. The photocurrent is enhanced in the SiO2(Co 60 at%)/GaAs heterostructure at the magnetic field H=1.65 kOe by factor of about 10 for the photon energy E=1.5 eV. This phenomenon is explained by a model based on electronic transitions in magnetic fields with the spin-dependent recombination process at deep impurity centers in the SiO2(Co)/GaAs interface region.

  4. Thermal and magnetic field-induced martensitic transformation in Ni50Mn25?x Ga25Cu x (0?????x?????7) melt-spun ribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zongbin; Zou, Naifu; Snchez-Valds, C. F.; Snchez Llamazares, J. L.; Yang, Bo; Hu, Yong; Zhang, Yudong; Esling, Claude; Zhao, Xiang; Zuo, Liang

    2016-01-01

    We have studied the phase transformation behavior of \\text{N}{{\\text{i}}50}\\text{M}{{\\text{n}}25}-x\\text{G}{{\\text{a}}25}\\text{C}{{\\text{u}}x} melt-spun ribbons with x??=??0, 1, 2, , 7 (at%). It is shown that Cu substitution simultaneously increases and decreases the martensitic transformation temperature T M and the magnetic transition temperature of austenite T\\text{C}\\text{A} , respectively. In Ni50Mn18Ga25Cu7 ribbons, the magnetic and structural transformations are coupled. The field-induced martensitic transformation from a paramagnetic austenite with lower magnetization to a ferromagnetic martensite with higher magnetization has been studied. The critical field ? o H cr above which the magnetic field can induce the martensitic transition is well defined and decreases linearly with the decrease of the temperature at a reduction rate of 1 T K?1. Under a magnetic field of 5 T, the starting temperature of martensitic transformation (M s) increases by ~9?K. Such a magnetic field-induced transformation is irreversible and temperature dependent, giving rise to the maximum magnetic entropy change of 17.8 J kg?1 K?1 and hysteresis losses of 43.6 J kg?1 under the magnetic field change of 5 T, respectively.

  5. Use of quadrupolar nuclei for quantum-information processing by nuclear magnetic resonance: Implementation of a quantum algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Ranabir; Kumar, Anil

    2003-09-01

    Physical implementation of quantum-information processing by liquid-state nuclear magnetic resonance, using weakly coupled spin-(1/2) nuclei of a molecule, is well established. Nuclei with spin>1/2 oriented in liquid-crystalline matrices is another possibility. Such systems have multiple qubits per nuclei and large quadrupolar couplings resulting in well separated lines in the spectrum. So far, creation of pseudopure states and logic gates has been demonstrated in such systems using transition selective radio-frequency pulses. In this paper we report two developments. First, we implement a quantum algorithm that needs coherent superposition of states. Second, we use evolution under quadrupolar coupling to implement multiqubit gates. We implement the Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm on a spin-(3/2) (2 qubit) system. The controlled-NOT operation needed to implement this algorithm has been implemented here by evolution under the quadrupolar Hamiltonian. To the best of our knowledge, this method has been implemented for the first time in quadrupolar systems. Since the quadrupolar coupling is several orders of magnitude greater than the coupling in weakly coupled spin-(1/2) nuclei, the gate time decreases, increasing the clock speed of the quantum computer.

  6. Evidence for hidden quadrupolar fluctuations behind the octupole order in Ce0.7La0.3B6 from resonant x-ray diffraction in magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumura, Takeshi; Michimura, Shinji; Inami, Toshiya; Otsubo, Toru; Tanida, Hiroshi; Iga, Fumitoshi; Sera, Masafumi

    2014-01-01

    The multipole ordered phase in Ce0.7La0.3B6, emerging below 1.5 K and named phase IV, has been studied by resonant x-ray diffraction in magnetic fields. By utilizing diamond x-ray phase plates to rotate the incident linear polarization and a conventional crystal analyzer system, full linear polarization analysis has been performed to identify the order parameters. The analysis shows that the ?5g(Oyz, Ozx, Oxy) quadrupoles are more induced by the field than the ?3g (O20 and O22) quadrupoles on the ?5u (Tx+y +z?) antiferro-octupole order in phase IV. The problem is that this result is contradictory to a mean-field calculation, which inevitably gives the ?3g quadrupole as the main induced moment. This result indicates that the ?5g quadrupole order is close in energy. We consider that a large fluctuation of the ?5g quadrupole is hidden behind the primary ordering of the ?5u octupole and that the multipolar fluctuation significantly affects the ordering phenomenon.

  7. Quadrupolar stimulation for Cochlear prostheses: modeling and experimental data.

    PubMed

    Jolly, C N; Spelman, F A; Clopton, B M

    1996-08-01

    Cochlear implants are electrically driven in monopolar, bipolar, or common ground mode. Ideally, a quadrupolar mode is created with three colinear electrodes, where the outer poles are half the inverse polarity value of the center electrode. The resulting field is highly focused. Models of point sources show that the quadrupolar paradigm offers a greater choice of parameters to shape the field. Simulation with a lumped-parameter model of the cochlea confirms the focusing action of the quadrupole in the layers of the inner ear. Field measurements in saline solution and in the scala tympani of guinea pigs show that focusing occurs with the quadrupolar mode. It is conceivable that quadrupolar stimulation will affect the pitch place coding, reduce channel interaction and limit facial or tactile stimulation induced by current spread. PMID:9216159

  8. Quantum phases of quadrupolar Fermi gases in coupled one-dimensional systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wen-Min; Lahrz, M.; Mathey, L.

    2014-01-01

    Following the recent proposal to create quadrupolar gases [Bhongale et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 155301 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.155301], we investigate what quantum phases can be created in these systems in one dimension. We consider a geometry of two coupled one-dimensional (1D) systems, and derive the quantum phase diagram of ultracold fermionic atoms interacting via quadrupole-quadrupole interactions within a Tomonaga-Luttinger-liquid framework. We map out the phase diagram as a function of the distance between the two tubes and the angle between the direction of the tubes and the quadrupolar moments. The latter can be controlled by an external field. We show that there are two magic angles θB,1c and θB,2c between 0 and π /2, where the intratube quadrupolar interactions vanish and change signs. Adopting a pseudospin language with regard to the two 1D systems, the system undergoes a spin-gap transition and displays a zigzag density pattern, above θB,2c and below θB,1c. Between the two magic angles, we show that polarized triplet superfluidity and a planar spin-density-wave order compete with each other. The latter corresponds to a bond-order solid in higher dimensions. We demonstrate that this order can be further stabilized by applying a commensurate periodic potential along the tubes.

  9. Theoretical studies of the spin dynamics of quadrupolar nuclei at rotational resonance conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walls, Jamie D.; Lim, Kwang Hun; Pines, Alexander

    2002-01-01

    A theory of the spin dynamics of I=3/2 quadrupolar nuclei in the sudden-passage limit is discussed in relation to the recently observed rotational resonance (RR) effects on the excitation and conversion of triple-quantum coherence in the FASTER multiple-quantum magic-angle spinning (MQMAS) experiments [T. Vosegaard, P. Florian, D. Massiot, and P. J. Grandinetti, J. Chem. Phys. 114, 4618 (2001)]. A novel interaction frame, which combines the quadrupolar interaction with the central transition radio frequency irradiation, is shown to be useful in understanding the complex spin dynamics at and away from RR conditions. Analytical expressions for the Hamiltonian obtained from bimodal Floquet theory are included in order to provide insight into the spin dynamics observed in the FASTER MQMAS experiments. Numerical simulations have been performed and were found to support the theoretical formalism.

  10. Two-dimensional magic-angle spinning isotropic reconstruction sequences for quadrupolar nuclei.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Massiot D; Touzo B; Trumeau D; Coutures JP; Virlet J; Florian P; Grandinetti PJ

    1996-02-01

    Two-dimensional magic-angle spinning (triple quantum, single quantum) correlation pulse sequences and phase cycles based on the technique of Frydman and Harwood for the reconstruction of the isotropic spectrum of half-integer spin quadrupolar nuclei broadened to second-order are described. These sequences provide pure absorption mode two-dimensional lineshapes and increased sensitivity. Experimental examples on spin I = 3/2 (87Rb in RbNO3) and I = 5/2 (27Al in NaSi3AlO8) are presented. The isotropic chemical shift and quadrupolar coupling parameters could be obtained from a simple analysis of the triple quantum filtered single quantum magic-angle spinning cross-sections.

  11. Computational analysis of magnetic field induced deposition of magnetic particles in lung alveolus in comparison to deposition produced with viscous drag and gravitational force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krafcik, Andrej; Babinec, Peter; Frollo, Ivan

    2015-04-01

    Magnetic targeting of drugs attached to magnetic nanoparticles with diameter ? 100 nm after their intravenous administration is an interesting method of drug delivery widely investigated both theoretically as well as experimentally. Our aim in this study is theoretical analysis of a magnetic aerosol targeting to the lung. Due to lung anatomy magnetic particles up to 5 ?m can be safely used, therefore the magnetic force would be stronger, moreover drag force exerted on the particle is according to Stokes law linearly dependent on the viscosity, would be weaker, because the viscosity of the air in the lung is approximately 200 fold smaller than viscosity of the blood. Lung therefore represents unique opportunity for magnetic drug targeting, as we have shown in this study by the analysis of magnetic particle dynamics in a rhythmically expanding and contracting distal and proximal alveolus subjected to high-gradient magnetic field generated by quadrupolar permanent Halbach magnet array.

  12. Fundamental measure density functional theory study of liquid-vapor interface of dipolar and quadrupolar fluids.

    PubMed

    Warshavsky, V B; Zeng, X C

    2013-10-01

    We have studied interfacial structure and properties of liquid-vapor interfaces of dipolar fluids and quadrupolar fluids, respectively, using the classical density functional theory (DFT). Towards this end, we employ the fundamental measure DFT for a reference hard-sphere (HS) part of free energy and the modified mean field approximation for the correlation function of dipolar or quadrupolar fluid. At low temperatures we find that both the liquid-vapor interfacial density profile and orientational order parameter profile exhibit weakly damped oscillatory decay into the bulk liquid. At high temperatures the decay of interfacial density and order parameter profiles is entirely monotonic. The scaled temperature ? = 1 - T/T(c) that separates the two qualitatively different interfacial structures is in the range 0.10-0.15. At a given (dimensionless) temperature, increasing the dipolar or quadrupolar moment enhances the density oscillations. Application of an electric field (normal to the interface) will damp the oscillations. Likewise, at the given temperature, increasing the strength of any multipolar moment also increases the surface tensions while increasing the strength of the applied electric field will reduce the surface tensions. The results are compared with those based on the local-density approximations (LDA) for the reference HS part of free energy as well as with results of numerical experiments. PMID:24116570

  13. Static quadrupolar susceptibility for a Blume-Emery-Griffiths model based on the mean-field approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawlak, A.; Glp?nar, G.; Erdem, R.; A?art?o?lu, M.

    2015-12-01

    The expressions for the dipolar and quadrupolar susceptibilities are obtained within the mean-field approximation in the Blume-Emery-Griffiths model. Temperature as well as crystal field dependences of the susceptibilities are investigated for two different phase diagram topologies which take place for K/J=3 and K/J=5.0.Their behavior near the second and first order transition points as well as multi-critical points such as tricritical, triple and critical endpoint is presented. It is found that in addition to the jumps connected with the phase transitions there are broad peaks in the quadrupolar susceptibility. It is indicated that these broad peaks lie on a prolongation of the first-order line from a triple point to a critical point ending the line of first-order transitions between two distinct paramagnetic phases. It is argued that the broad peaks are a reminiscence of very strong quadrupolar fluctuations at the critical point. The results reveal the fact that near ferromagnetic-paramagnetic phase transitions the quadrupolar susceptibility generally shows a jump whereas near the phase transition between two distinct paramagnetic phases it is an edge-like.

  14. Two-plate vs. four-plate azimuthal quadrupolar excitation for FT-ICR mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, George S.; Hendrickson, Christopher L.; Reinhold, Bruce B.; Marshall, Alan G.

    1997-11-01

    Azimuthal quadrupolar excitation has become one of the most useful techniques for ion axialization and translational cooling for FT-ICR mass spectrometry, leading to order(s)-of-magnitude improvement in mass selectivity, resolving power, mass accuracy, remeasurement efficiency, etc. Recently, Hendrickson et al. (J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. 6 (1995) 448-452) showed that axialization may be achieved by 2-plate azimuthal quadrupolar excitation, in which an rf voltage of the same amplitude and phase is applied to a single pair of opposed side electrodes, while grounding the other orthogonal opposed pair (rather than applying an rf voltage of equal amplitude but shifted in phase by 180° to the second pair as in prior 4-plate experiments). Here, we analyze theoretically and test experimentally the performance of these two electrode geometries. As previously shown, either geometry can achieve axialization by resonant excitation at the unshifted ion cyclotron frequency, ([omega]c = qB/m). For either excitation configuration, excitation at twice the reduced cyclotron frequency, 2[omega]+, leads to unwanted exponential growth of the ion cyclotron radius. For 2-plate geometry, we show that excitation at twice the axial oscillation frequency, 2 [omega]z, leads to exponential growth in z-oscillation amplitude, whereas excitation at [omega]c = [omega]+ + [omega]- and [omega]p = [omega]+ - [omega]- ([`]parametric' frequency) leads to complex ion behavior. Finally, we discuss the effect of azimuthal quadrupolar excitation amplitude (as well as frequency) on axialization.

  15. Second harmonic generation from small gold metallic particles: from the dipolar to the quadrupolar response.

    PubMed

    Nappa, J; Russier-Antoine, I; Benichou, E; Jonin, Ch; Brevet, P F

    2006-11-14

    Hyper Raleigh scattering, a common technique to investigate the second harmonic light scattered from a liquid suspension of molecular compounds and to determine their quadratic hyperpolarizability, has been used for aqueous suspensions of gold nanoparticles, the diameter of which ranges from 20 up to 150 nm. The hyper Rayleigh signal intensity was recorded as a function of the angle of polarization of the incident fundamental wave. For the particles with a diameter smaller than 50 nm, the response is dominated by the dipolar contribution arising from the deviation of the particle shape from that of a perfect sphere. For larger diameter particles, retardation effects in the interaction of the electromagnetic fields with the particles cannot be neglected any longer and the response deviates from the pure dipolar response, exhibiting a strong quadrupolar contribution. It is then shown that in order to quantify the relative magnitude of these two dipolar and quadrupolar contributions, a weighting parameter zeta(V) which equals unity for a pure quadrupolar contribution and vanishes for a pure dipolar response, can be introduced. PMID:17115784

  16. Kn 26, a new quadrupolar planetary nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerrero, M. A.; Miranda, L. F.; Ramos-Larios, G.; Vázquez, R.

    2013-03-01

    Once classified as an emission line source, the planetary nebula (PN) nature of the source Kn 26 has only recently been recognized in digital sky surveys. To investigate the spectral properties and spatio-kinematical structure of Kn 26, we have obtained high spatial-resolution optical and near-IR narrow-band images, high-dispersion long-slit echelle spectra, and intermediate-resolution spectroscopic observations. The new data reveal an hourglass morphology typical of bipolar PNe. A detailed analysis of its morphology and kinematics discloses the presence of a second pair of bipolar lobes, making Kn 26 a new member of the subclass of quadrupolar PNe. The time lapse between the ejection of the two pairs of bipolar lobes is much shorter than their dynamical ages, implying a rapid change in the preferential direction of the central engine. The chemical composition of Kn 26 is particularly unusual among PNe, with a low N/O ratio (as for type II PNe) and a high helium abundance (as for type I PNe), although not atypical among symbiotic stars. Such an anomalous chemical composition may have resulted from the curtailment of the time in the asymptotic giant branch by the evolution of the progenitor star through a common envelope phase. Based on observations made with the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT) and the William Herschel Telescope (WHT) on the island of La Palma in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC), the 2.1-m telescope of the Observatorio Astronómico Nacional at the Sierra de San Pedro Mártir (OAN-SPM), and the 1.5-m telescope at the Observatorio de Sierra Nevada (OSN), Granada, Spain. NOT is operated jointly by Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden. WHT is operated by the Isaac Newton Group. The 2.1-m telescope at the OAN-SPM is a national facility operated by the Instituto de Astronomía of the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. The 1.5-m telescope at the OSN is operated by the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (IAA).The data presented here were obtained in part with ALFOSC, which is provided by the IAA under a joint agreement with the University of Copenhagen and NOTSA.FITS files for spectra and images are available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr(130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/551/A53

  17. Site-resolved multiple-quantum filtered correlations and distance measurements by magic-angle spinning NMR: Theory and applications to spins with weak to vanishing quadrupolar couplings.

    PubMed

    Eliav, U; Haimovich, A; Goldbourt, A

    2016-01-14

    We discuss and analyze four magic-angle spinning solid-state NMR methods that can be used to measure internuclear distances and to obtain correlation spectra between a spin I = 1/2 and a half-integer spin S > 1/2 having a small quadrupolar coupling constant. Three of the methods are based on the heteronuclear multiple-quantum and single-quantum correlation experiments, that is, high rank tensors that involve the half spin and the quadrupolar spin are generated. Here, both zero and single-quantum coherence of the half spins are allowed and various coherence orders of the quadrupolar spin are generated, and filtered, via active recoupling of the dipolar interaction. As a result of generating coherence orders larger than one, the spectral resolution for the quadrupolar nucleus increases linearly with the coherence order. Since the formation of high rank tensors is independent of the existence of a finite quadrupolar interaction, these experiments are also suitable to materials in which there is high symmetry around the quadrupolar spin. A fourth experiment is based on the initial quadrupolar-driven excitation of symmetric high order coherences (up to p = 2S, where S is the spin number) and subsequently generating by the heteronuclear dipolar interaction higher rank (l + 1 or higher) tensors that involve also the half spins. Due to the nature of this technique, it also provides information on the relative orientations of the quadrupolar and dipolar interaction tensors. For the ideal case in which the pulses are sufficiently strong with respect to other interactions, we derive analytical expressions for all experiments as well as for the transferred echo double resonance experiment involving a quadrupolar spin. We show by comparison of the fitting of simulations and the analytical expressions to experimental data that the analytical expressions are sufficiently accurate to provide experimental (7)Li-(13)C distances in a complex of lithium, glycine, and water. Discussion of the regime for which such an approach is valid is given. PMID:26772564

  18. Quadrupolar, Triple [Delta]-Function Potential in One Dimension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patil, S. H.

    2009-01-01

    The energy and parity eigenstates for quadrupolar, triple [delta]-function potential are analysed. Using the analytical solutions in specific domains, simple expressions are obtained for even- and odd-parity bound-state energies. The Heisenberg uncertainty product is observed to have a minimum for a specific strength of the potential. The

  19. Quadrupolar Echo Spectra of the Tunneling CD 3Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olejniczak, Z.; Detken, A.; Manz, B.; Haeberlen, U.

    Deuteron NMR spectra of both single crystal and powder samples of acetylsalicylic acid-CD 3were measured using the quadrupolar-echo technique. The experiments were done in the temperature range 17-100 K, with a special emphasis on the range 20- 30 K, in which the observable tunneling frequency decreases rapidly from its low-temperature value of 2.7 down to 1.2 MHz. In the tunneling regime, modulations of the line intensities and phases as a function of the echo time ? are observed in the single-crystal spectra. The modulation frequency is equal to the orientation-dependent displacement of the inner satellite pairs (? lines) from the Larmor frequency. These effects were confirmed in numerical simulations and fully explain the phase-modulation effects observed previously in quadrupolar-echo spectra of methyl-deuterated methanol and para-xylene guest molecules in some inclusion compounds. By measuring the temperature and orientation dependence of the quadrupolar lineshapes, it was found that the echo spectra are more sensitive to the value of the tunneling frequency than the spectra obtained from the free induction decay. It is pointed out that, because of the modulation effects, special care must be taken when structural parameters are to be extracted from quadrupolar-echo spectra, in particular from spectra of powder samples.

  20. Magnetic Field--Temperature Phase Diagram of the Ferro-quadrupolar State and Crystal Electric Field Effect in UCu2Sn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, Isao; Katoh, Kenichi; Takabatake, Toshiro; Hashio, Susumu; Tamaki, Akira; Suzuki, Takashi

    2012-02-01

    The ternary uranium compound UCu2Sn shows a ferro-quadrupolar transition at TQ = 16 K originating from the ordering of the non-Kramers doublet ?5 ground state. To investigate the magnetic field--temperature phase diagram of the ferro-quadrupolar state in UCu2Sn, we measured elastic modulus C66 at magnetic fields of up to 14 T. We found an anisotropic field dependence of TQ(H) in H\\parallel [\\bar{1}2\\bar{1}0], [0001], and [01\\bar{1}0]. We optimized the crystal electric field level scheme using C66 under fields, magnetic susceptibility, and electronic entropy. The quadrupolar phase diagram is well reproduced by the obtained level scheme.

  1. NMR Characterization of Half-integer Quadrupolar Nuclei in Solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amoureux, J. P.

    1992-05-01

    This article describes a few aspects of NMR characterization of half-integer quadrupolar nuclei in powder samples which are either static or rotating around one fixed axis (M.A.S. and V.A.S. techniques). The simultaneous occurence of C.S.A. and quadrupole interactions with possible noncoincident tensors is discussed. Two experimental limitations are taken into accout: the sample spinning speed and the RF-amplifier power

  2. Cross polarization for quadrupolar nucleiProton to sodium-23

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Robin K.; Nesbitt, Geoffrey J.

    The role of cross polarization in magic-angle spinning spectra of quadrupolar nuclei for solids is discussed, using the 1H ? 23Na case as an example. Suitable materials for spectrometer tuning in this mode are proposed and sample spectra presented. Some relaxation experiments on the 23Na signals for borax were carried out, and the selectivity of the cross-polarization experiment is shown for the layer mineral kenyaite.

  3. Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance of quadrupolar systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Shuanhu

    1997-09-17

    This dissertation describes two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance theory and experiments which have been developed to study quadruples in the solid state. The technique of multiple-quantum magic-angle spinning (MQMAS) is extensively reviewed and expanded upon in this thesis. Specifically, MQMAS is first compared with another technique, dynamic-angle spinning (DAS). The similarity between the two techniques allows us to extend much of the DAS work to the MQMAS case. Application of MQMAS to a series of aluminum containing materials is then presented. The superior resolution enhancement through MQMAS is exploited to detect the five- and six-coordinated aluminum in many aluminosilicate glasses. Combining the MQMAS method with other experiments, such as HETCOR, greatly expands the possibility of the use of MQMAS to study a large range of problems and is demonstrated in Chapter 5. Finally, the technique switching-angle spinning (SAS) is applied to quadrupolar nuclei to fully characterize a quadrupolar spin system in which all of the 8 NMR parameters are accurately determined. This dissertation is meant to demonstrate that with the combination of two-dimensional NMR concepts and new advanced spinning technologies, a series of multiple-dimensional NMR techniques can be designed to allow a detailed study of quadrupolar nuclei in the solid state.

  4. Population transfer HMQC for half-integer quadrupolar nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Qiang; Xu, Jun; Feng, Ningdong; Deng, Feng E-mail: jean-paul.amoureux@univ-lille1.fr; Li, Yixuan; Trébosc, Julien; Lafon, Olivier; Hu, Bingwen; Chen, Qun; Amoureux, Jean-Paul E-mail: jean-paul.amoureux@univ-lille1.fr

    2015-03-07

    This work presents a detailed analysis of a recently proposed nuclear magnetic resonance method [Wang et al., Chem. Commun. 49(59), 6653-6655 (2013)] for accelerating heteronuclear coherence transfers involving half-integer spin quadrupolar nuclei by manipulating their satellite transitions. This method, called Population Transfer Heteronuclear Multiple Quantum Correlation (PT-HMQC), is investigated in details by combining theoretical analyses, numerical simulations, and experimental investigations. We find that compared to instant inversion or instant saturation, continuous saturation is the most practical strategy to accelerate coherence transfers on half-integer quadrupolar nuclei. We further demonstrate that this strategy is efficient to enhance the sensitivity of J-mediated heteronuclear correlation experiments between two half-integer quadrupolar isotopes (e.g., {sup 27}Al-{sup 17}O). In this case, the build-up is strongly affected by relaxation for small T{sub 2}′ and J coupling values, and shortening the mixing time makes a huge signal enhancement. Moreover, this concept of population transfer can also be applied to dipolar-mediated HMQC experiments. Indeed, on the AlPO{sub 4}-14 sample, one still observes experimentally a 2-fold shortening of the optimum mixing time albeit with no significant signal gain in the {sup 31}P-({sup 27}Al) experiments.

  5. Magnetic-field-induced irreversible antiferromagnetic-ferromagnetic phase transition around room temperature in as-cast Sm-Co based SmCo7-xSix alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, D. Y.; Zhao, L. Z.; Liu, Z. W.

    2016-04-01

    A magnetic-field-induced irreversible metamagnetic phase transition from antiferro- to ferromagnetism, which leads to an anomalous initial-magnetization curve lying outside the magnetic hysteresis loop, is reported in arc-melted SmCo7-xSix alloys. The transition temperatures are near room temperature, much higher than other compounds with similar initial curves. Detailed investigation shows that this phenomenon is dependent on temperature, magnetic field and Si content and shows some interesting characteristics. It is suggested that varying interactions between the Sm and Co layers in the crystal are responsible for the formation of a metastable AFM structure, which induces the anomalous phenomenon in as-cast alloys. The random occupation of 3g sites by Si and Co atoms also has an effect on this phenomenon.

  6. Interaction of Strain and Nuclear Spins in Silicon: Quadrupolar Effects on Ionized Donors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franke, David P.; Hrubesch, Florian M.; Knzl, Markus; Becker, Hans-Werner; Itoh, Kohei M.; Stutzmann, Martin; Hoehne, Felix; Dreher, Lukas; Brandt, Martin S.

    2015-07-01

    The nuclear spins of ionized donors in silicon have become an interesting quantum resource due to their very long coherence times. Their perfect isolation, however, comes at a price, since the absence of the donor electron makes the nuclear spin difficult to control. We demonstrate that the quadrupolar interaction allows us to effectively tune the nuclear magnetic resonance of ionized arsenic donors in silicon via strain and determine the two nonzero elements of the S tensor linking strain and electric field gradients in this material to S11=1.5 1022 V /m2 and S44=6 1022 V /m2 . We find a stronger benefit of dynamical decoupling on the coherence properties of transitions subject to first-order quadrupole shifts than on those subject to only second-order shifts and discuss applications of quadrupole physics including mechanical driving of magnetic resonance, cooling of mechanical resonators, and strain-mediated spin coupling.

  7. Quadrupolar Kondo effect in uranium heavy-electron materials?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, D. L.

    1987-01-01

    The possibility of an electric quadrupole Kondo effect for a non-Kramers doublet on a uranium (U) ion is a cubic metallic host is demonstrated by model calculations showing a Kondo upturn in the resistivity, universal quenching of the quadrupolar moment, and a heavy-electron anomaly in the electronic specific heat. With inclusion of excited crystal-field levels, some of the unusual magnetic-response data in the heavy-electron superconductor UBe13 may be understood. Structural phase transitions at unprecedented low temperatures may occur in U-based heavy-electron materials.

  8. On the relationship between quadrupolar magnetic field and collisionless reconnection

    SciTech Connect

    Smets, R. Belmont, G.; Aunai, N.; Boniface, C.

    2014-06-15

    Using hybrid simulations, we investigate the onset of fast reconnection between two cylindrical magnetic shells initially close to each other. This initial state mimics the plasma structure in High Energy Density Plasmas induced by a laser-target interaction and the associated self-generated magnetic field. We clearly observe that the classical quadrupolar structure of the out-of-plane magnetic field appears prior to the reconnection onset. Furthermore, a parametric study reveals that, with a non-coplanar initial magnetic topology, the reconnection onset is delayed and possibly suppressed. The relation between the out-of-plane magnetic field and the out-of-plane electric field is discussed.

  9. 2H 2O quadrupolar splitting used to measure water exchange in erythrocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuchel, Philip W.; Naumann, Christoph

    2008-05-01

    The 2H NMR resonance from HDO (D = 2H) in human red blood cells (RBCs) suspended in gelatin that was held stretched in a special apparatus was distinct from the two signals that were symmetrically arranged on either side of it, which were assigned to extracellular HDO. The large extracellular splitting is due to the interaction of the electric quadrupole moment of the 2H nuclei with the electric field gradient tensor of the stretched, partially aligned gelatin. Lack of resolved splitting of the intracellular resonance indicated greatly diminished or absent ordering of the HDO inside RBCs. The separate resonances enabled the application of a saturation transfer method to estimate the rate constants of transmembrane exchange of water in RBCs. However both the theory and the practical applications needed modifications because even in the absence of RBCs the HDO resonances were maximally suppressed when the saturating radio-frequency radiation was applied exactly at the central frequency between the two resonances of the quadrupolar HDO doublet. More statistically robust estimates of the exchange rate constants were obtained by applying two-dimensional exchange spectroscopy (2D EXSY), with back-transformation analysis. A monotonic dependence of the estimates of the efflux rate constants on the mixing time, tmix, used in the 2D EXSY experiment were seen. Extrapolation to tmix = 0, gave an estimate of the efflux rate constant at 15 C of 31.5 2.2 s -1 while at 25 C it was 50 s -1. These values are close to, but less than, those estimated by an NMR relaxation-enhancement method that uses Mn 2+ doping of the extracellular medium. The basis for this difference is thought to include the high viscosity of the extracellular gel. At the abstract level of quantum mechanics we have used the quadrupolar Hamiltonian to provide chemical shift separation between signals from spin populations across cell membranes; this is the first time, to our knowledge, that this has been achieved.

  10. Abstract: Quadrupolar interactions and structural instabilities in PrAg1 - xCux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gotaas, J. A.; Kouvel, J. S.; Brun, T. O.; Cable, J. W.

    1982-03-01

    In order to elucidate the unusually strong quadrupole-quadrupole interactions discovered earlier in PrAg, magnetic and neutron diffraction studies are being made of the pseudobinary compounds PrAg1-xCux. For PrAg0.75Cu0.25, which, like PrAg, has a cubic CsCl-type structure, analysis of high-field magnetization data above the antiferromagnetic Néel point (TN˜9 K) shows that the effective biquadratic (quadrupolar) coupling is about twice as strong as in PrAg, whereas the average bilinear exchange coupling is slightly weaker. PrAg0.5Cu0.5, which has a CsCl-type structure at room temperature, was found to transform to an orthorhombic FeB-type structure (similar to that of PrCu) when it is cooled below ˜150 K. Detailed comparison of the two structures of PrAg0.5Cu0.5 indicates that the instability of the CsCl-type structure probably stems from the softening of certain zone-boundary phonons, which presumably grows as x increases towards 0.5. Such phonons would account for strong effective quadrupolar interactions of negative (antiferro) sign, precisely of the type seen in PrAg and PrAg0.75 Cu0.25. a) Work supported by NSF Grant No. DMR 78-12777. b) Work supported by the U.S Department of Energy. c) Work sponsored by the U. S. Department of Energy under contract W-7405-eng-26 with the Union Carbide Corp. 1 T. O. Brun, J. S. Kouvel, and G. H. Lander, Phys. Rev. B 13, 5007 (1976).

  11. Vanillin-molecularly targeted extraction of stir bar based on magnetic field induced self-assembly of multifunctional Fe3O4@Polyaniline nanoparticles for detection of vanilla-flavor enhancers in infant milk powders.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jinhua; Yang, Zaiyue; Chen, Ning; Zhu, Wanying; Hong, Junli; Huang, Changgao; Zhou, Xuemin

    2015-03-15

    A molecularly imprinted stir bar was constructed based on Fe3O4@Polyaniline nanoparticles with magnetic field-induced self-assembly process. The monomer, methacrylic acid, was pre-assembled into the pre-polymers with vanillin as template by the formation of hydrogen bonds. After that, the magnetic complexes were generated by the hydrogen bonding, the hydrophobic and ?-? interaction between the pre-polymers and Fe3O4@Polyaniline. The complexes were adsorbed on the surface of magnetic stir bar under the magnetic induction, and the coating of vanillin-molecularly imprinted polymers was generated by the one-step copolymerization basing on the cross linking of ethylene glycol dimethacrylate. The molecular imprinting stir bar showed superior selectivity and fast binding kinetics for vanillin, and was used for the enrichment of vanilla-flavor enhancers (vanillin, ethyl maltol and methyl vanillin) in infant milk powders. The results measured by HPLC-UV exhibited good linear ranges of 0.01-100, 0.02-100 and 0.03-100?gmL(-1) with the limit of detection of 2.5-10.0ngmL(-1), and the recoveries were 94.7-98.9%, 82.1-96.7% and 84.5-93.2% with RSD<7.2% for the three enhancers, respectively. PMID:25514645

  12. Magnetic field cycling effect on the non-linear current-voltage characteristics and magnetic field induced negative differential resistance in α-Fe1.64Ga0.36O3 oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhowmik, R. N.; Vijayasri, G.

    2015-06-01

    We have studied current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of α-Fe1.64Ga0.36O3, a typical canted ferromagnetic semiconductor. The sample showed a transformation of the I-V curves from linear to non-linear character with the increase of bias voltage. The I-V curves showed irreversible features with hysteresis loop and bi-stable electronic states for up and down modes of voltage sweep. We report positive magnetoresistance and magnetic field induced negative differential resistance as the first time observed phenomena in metal doped hematite system. The magnitudes of critical voltage at which I-V curve showed peak and corresponding peak current are affected by magnetic field cycling. The shift of the peak voltage with magnetic field showed a step-wise jump between two discrete voltage levels with least gap (ΔVP) 0.345(± 0.001) V. The magnetic spin dependent electronic charge transport in this new class of magnetic semiconductor opens a wide scope for tuning large electroresistance (˜500-700%), magnetoresistance (70-135 %) and charge-spin dependent conductivity under suitable control of electric and magnetic fields. The electric and magnetic field controlled charge-spin transport is interesting for applications of the magnetic materials in spintronics, e.g., magnetic sensor, memory devices and digital switching.

  13. Spin Squeezing in a Quadrupolar Nuclei NMR System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auccaise, R.; Araujo-Ferreira, A. G.; Sarthour, R. S.; Oliveira, I. S.; Bonagamba, T. J.; Roditi, I.

    2015-01-01

    We have produced and characterized spin-squeezed states at a temperature of 26 C in a nuclear magnetic resonance quadrupolar system. The experiment was carried out on 133Cs nuclei of spin I =7 /2 in a sample of lyotropic liquid crystal. The source of spin squeezing was identified as the interaction between the quadrupole moment of the nuclei and the electric field gradients present within the molecules. We use the spin angular momentum representation to describe formally the nonlinear operators that produce the spin squeezing on a Hilbert space of dimension 2 I +1 =8 . The quantitative and qualitative characterization of this spin-squeezing phenomenon is expressed by a squeezing parameter and squeezing angle developed for the two-mode Bose-Einstein condensate system, as well as by the Wigner quasiprobability distribution function. The generality of the present experimental scheme points to potential applications in solid-state physics.

  14. Fluctuating magnetic field induced resonant activation

    SciTech Connect

    Mondal, Shrabani; Das, Sudip; Baura, Alendu; Bag, Bidhan Chandra

    2014-12-14

    In this paper, we have studied the properties of a Brownian particle at stationary state in the presence of a fluctuating magnetic field. Time dependence of the field makes the system thermodynamically open. As a signature of that the steady state distribution function becomes function of damping strength, intensity of fluctuations and constant parts of the applied magnetic field. It also depends on the correlation time of the fluctuating magnetic field. Our another observation is that the random magnetic field can induce the resonant activation phenomenon. Here correlation time is increased under the fixed variance of the fluctuating field. But if the correlation time (?) increases under the fixed field strength then the mean first passage time rapidly grows at low ? and it almost converges at other limit. This is sharp contrast to the usual colored noise driven open system case where the mean first passage time diverges exponentially. We have also observed that a giant enhancement of barrier crossing rate occurs particularly at large strength of constant parts of the applied magnetic field even for very weak fluctuating magnetic field. Finally, break down of the Arrhenius result and disappearance of the Kramers turn over phenomenon may occur in the presence of a fluctuating magnetic field.

  15. Influence of the Nuclear Electric Quadrupolar Interaction on the Coherence Time of Hole and Electron Spins Confined in Semiconductor Quantum Dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hackmann, J.; Glasenapp, Ph.; Greilich, A.; Bayer, M.; Anders, F. B.

    2015-11-01

    The real-time spin dynamics and the spin noise spectra are calculated for p and n -charged quantum dots within an anisotropic central spin model extended by additional nuclear electric quadrupolar interactions and augmented by experimental data. Using realistic estimates for the distribution of coupling constants including an anisotropy parameter, we show that the characteristic long time scale is of the same order for electron and hole spins strongly determined by the quadrupolar interactions even though the analytical form of the spin decay differs significantly consistent with our measurements. The low frequency part of the electron spin noise spectrum is approximately 1 /3 smaller than those for hole spins as a consequence of the spectral sum rule and the different spectral shapes. This is confirmed by our experimental spectra measured on both types of quantum dot ensembles in the low power limit of the probe laser.

  16. Quadrupolar NMR Spin Relaxation Calculated Using Ab Initio Molecular Dynamics: Group 1 and Group 17 Ions in Aqueous Solution.

    PubMed

    Badu, Shyam; Truflandier, Lionel; Autschbach, Jochen

    2013-09-10

    Electric field gradient (EFG) fluctuations for the monoatomic ions (7)Li(+), (23)Na(+), (35)Cl(-), (81)Br(-), and (127)I(-) in aqueous solution are studied using Car-Parrinello ab initio molecular dynamics (aiMD) simulations based on density functional theory. EFG calculations are typically performed with 1024 ion-solvent configurations from the aiMD simulation, using the Zeroth Order Regular Approximation (ZORA) relativistic Hamiltonian. Autocorrelation functions for the spherical EFG tensor elements are computed, transformed into the corresponding spectral densities (under the extreme narrowing condition), and subsequently converted into NMR quadrupolar relaxation rates for the ions. The relaxation rates are compared with experimental data. The order of magnitude is correctly predicted by the simulations. The computational protocol is tested in detail for (81)Br(-). PMID:26592401

  17. PRESTO polarization transfer to quadrupolar nuclei: Implications for dynamic nuclear polarization

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Perras, Frédéric A.; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Pruski, Marek

    2015-08-04

    We show both experimentally and numerically on a series of model systems that in experiments involving transfer of magnetization from 1H to the quadrupolar nuclei under magic-angle-spinning (MAS), the PRESTO technique consistently outperforms traditionally used cross polarization (CP), affording more quantitative intensities, improved lineshapes, better overall sensitivity, and straightforward optimization. This advantage derives from the fact that PRESTO circumvents the convoluted and uncooperative spin dynamics during the CP transfer under MAS, by replacing the spin-locking of quadrupolar nuclei with a single central transition selective 90° pulse and using a symmetry-based recoupling sequence in the 1H channel. This is important inmore » the context of dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) NMR of quadrupolar nuclei, where the efficient transfer of enhanced 1H polarization is desired to obtain the highest sensitivity.« less

  18. PRESTO polarization transfer to quadrupolar nuclei: Implications for dynamic nuclear polarization

    SciTech Connect

    Perras, Frédéric A.; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Pruski, Marek

    2015-08-04

    We show both experimentally and numerically on a series of model systems that in experiments involving transfer of magnetization from 1H to the quadrupolar nuclei under magic-angle-spinning (MAS), the PRESTO technique consistently outperforms traditionally used cross polarization (CP), affording more quantitative intensities, improved lineshapes, better overall sensitivity, and straightforward optimization. This advantage derives from the fact that PRESTO circumvents the convoluted and uncooperative spin dynamics during the CP transfer under MAS, by replacing the spin-locking of quadrupolar nuclei with a single central transition selective 90° pulse and using a symmetry-based recoupling sequence in the 1H channel. This is important in the context of dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) NMR of quadrupolar nuclei, where the efficient transfer of enhanced 1H polarization is desired to obtain the highest sensitivity.

  19. NMR quadrupolar system described as Bose-Einstein-condensate-like system

    SciTech Connect

    Auccaise, R.; Oliveira, I. S.; Sarthour, R. S.; Teles, J.; Bonagamba, T. J.; Azevedo, E. R. de

    2009-04-14

    This paper presents a description of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) of quadrupolar systems using the Holstein-Primakoff (HP) formalism and its analogy with a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) system. Two nuclear spin systems constituted of quadrupolar nuclei I=3/2 ({sup 23}Na) and I=7/2 ({sup 133}Cs) in lyotropic liquid crystals were used for experimental demonstrations. Specifically, we derived the conditions necessary for accomplishing the analogy, executed the proper experiments, and compared with quantum mechanical prediction for a Bose system. The NMR description in the HP representation could be applied in the future as a workbench for BEC-like systems, where the statistical properties may be obtained using the intermediate statistic, first established by Gentile. The description can be applied for any quadrupolar systems, including new developed solid-state NMR GaAS nanodevices.

  20. PRESTO polarization transfer to quadrupolar nuclei: implications for dynamic nuclear polarization.

    PubMed

    Perras, Frdric A; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Pruski, Marek

    2015-09-21

    We show both experimentally and numerically on a series of model systems that in experiments involving transfer of magnetization from (1)H to the quadrupolar nuclei under magic-angle-spinning (MAS), the PRESTO technique consistently outperforms traditionally used cross polarization (CP), affording more quantitative intensities, improved lineshapes, better overall sensitivity, and straightforward optimization. This advantage derives from the fact that PRESTO circumvents the convoluted and uncooperative spin dynamics during the CP transfer under MAS, by replacing the spin-locking of quadrupolar nuclei with a single central transition selective 90 pulse and using a symmetry-based recoupling sequence in the (1)H channel. This is of particular importance in the context of dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) NMR of quadrupolar nuclei, where the efficient transfer of enhanced (1)H polarization is desired to obtain the highest sensitivity. PMID:26266874

  1. Space-fractional Schrdinger equation for a quadrupolar triple Dirac-? potential: Central Dirac-? well and barrier cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tare, Jeffrey D.; Esguerra, Jose Perico H.

    2015-01-01

    We solve the space-fractional Schrdinger equation for a quadrupolar triple Dirac-? (QTD-?) potential for all energies using the momentum-space approach. For the E < 0 solution, we consider two cases, i.e., when the strengths of the potential are V0 > 0 (QTD-? potential with central Dirac-? well) and V0 < 0 (QTD-? potential with central Dirac-? barrier) and derive expressions satisfied by the bound-state energy. For all fractional orders ? considered, we find that there is one eigenenergy when V0 > 0, and there are two eigenenergies when V0 < 0. We also obtain both bound- and scattering-state (E > 0) wave functions and express them in terms of Fox's H-function.

  2. Possible observation of the quadrupolar Kondo effect in dilute quadrupolar system Pr(x)La(1-x)Pb3 for x

    PubMed

    Kawae, T; Kinoshita, K; Nakaie, Y; Tateiwa, N; Takeda, K; Suzuki, H S; Kitai, T

    2006-01-20

    We have studied non-Fermi-liquid (NFL) behavior in Pr(x)La(1-x)Pb3 with Gamma3 quadrupolar moments in the crystalline-electric-field ground state. The specific heat C/T shows NFL behavior in the very dilute region for x quadrupolar Kondo effect. PMID:16486631

  3. Efficient Excited-State Symmetry Breaking in a Cationic Quadrupolar System Bearing Diphenylamino Donors.

    PubMed

    Carlotti, Benedetta; Benassi, Enrico; Fortuna, Cosimo G; Barone, Vincenzo; Spalletti, Anna; Elisei, Fausto

    2016-01-01

    We report a joint experimental and theoretical investigation of a quadrupolar D-π-A(+) -π-D system, the electron donors being diphenylamino groups and the electron acceptor being a methylpyridinium, in comparison with the dipolar D-π-A(+) system. The emission spectra of the two compounds overlap in all the investigated solvents. This finding could be rationalized by TD-DFT calculations: the LUMO-HOMO molecular orbitals involved in the emission transition are localized on the same branch of the quadrupolar structure that becomes the fluorescent portion, corresponding to that of the single-arm compound. Excited-state symmetry breaking has been rarely observed for quadrupolar systems showing negative solvatochromism and is here surprisingly revealed, even in low polarity solvents. Femtosecond transient absorption measurements revealed that an efficient photoinduced intramolecular charge transfer takes place in the quadrupolar chromophore, more efficient than in its dipolar analogue. This result is promising in view of the application of these compounds as novel two-photon absorbing materials. PMID:26510394

  4. Quantifying the Sensitivity of Multipolar (Dipolar, Quadrupolar, and Octapolar) Surface Plasmon Resonances in Silver Nanoparticles: The Effect of Size, Composition, and Surface Coating.

    PubMed

    Basts, Neus G; Piella, Jordi; Puntes, Vctor

    2016-01-12

    The effect of composition, size, and surface coating on the sensitivity of localized multipolar surface plasmon resonances has been spectroscopically investigated in high-quality silver colloidal solutions with precisely controlled sizes from 10 to 220 nm and well-defined surface chemistry. Surface plasmon resonance modes have been intensively characterized, identifying the size-dependence of dipolar, quadrupolar, and octapolar modes. Modifications of the NP's surface chemistry revealed the higher sensitivity of large sizes, long molecules, thiol groups, and low-order resonance modes. We also extend this study to gold nanoparticles, aiming to compare the sensitivity of both materials, quantifying the higher sensitivity of silver. PMID:26649600

  5. Indirect measurement of N-14 quadrupolar coupling for NH3 intercalated in potassium graphite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsang, T.; Fronko, R. M.; Resing, H. A.

    1987-01-01

    A method for indirect measurement of the nuclear quadrupolar coupling was developed and applied to NH3 molecules in the graphite intercalation compound K(NH3)4.3C24, which has a layered structure with alternating carbon and intercalant layers. Three triplets were observed in the H-1 NMR spectra of the compound. The value of the N-14 quadrupolar coupling constant of NH3 (3.7 MHz), determined indirectly from the H-1 NMR spectra, was intermediate between the gas value of 4.1 MHz and the solid-state value of 3.2 MHz. The method was also used to deduce the (H-1)-(H-1) and (N-14)-(H-1) dipolar interactions, the H-1 chemical shifts, and the molecular orientations and motions of NH3.

  6. Nonlinear susceptibility: A direct test of the quadrupolar Kondo effect in UBe[sub 13

    SciTech Connect

    Ramirez, A.P.; Chandra, P.; Coleman, P.; Fisk, Z.; Smith, J.L.; Ott, H.R. NEC Research Institute, 4 Independence Way, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 Serin Physics Laboratory, Rutgers University, P.O. Box 849, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, ETH-Hoenggerberg, CH-8093 Zuerich )

    1994-11-28

    We present the nonlinear susceptibility as a direct test of the quadrupolar Kondo scenario for heavy fermion behavior, and apply it to the case of cubic crystal-field symmetry. Within a single-ion model we compute the nonlinear susceptibility resulting from low-lying [Gamma][sub 3] (5[ital f][sup 2]) and Kramers (5[ital f][sup 3]) doublets. We find that nonlinear susceptibility measurements on single-crystal UBe[sub 13] are [ital inconsistent] with a quadrupolar (5[ital f][sup 2]) ground state of the uranium ion; the experimental data indicate that the low-lying magnetic excitations of UBe[sub 13] are predominantly [ital dipolar] in character.

  7. High-Resolution NMR of Quadrupolar Nuclei in the Solid State

    SciTech Connect

    Gann, Sheryl Lee

    1995-11-30

    This dissertation describes recent developments in solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), for the most part involving the use of dynamic-angle spinning (DAS) NMR to study quadrupolar nuclei. Chapter 1 introduces some of the basic concepts and theory that will be referred to in later chapters, such as the density operator, product operators, rotations, coherence transfer pathways, phase cycling, and the various nuclear spin interactions, including the quadrupolar interaction. Chapter 2 describes the theory behind motional averaging experiments, including DAS, which is a technique where a sample is spun sequentially about two axis oriented at different angles with respect to the external magnetic field such that the chemical shift and quadrupolar anisotropy are averaged to zero. Work done on various rubidium-87 salts is presented as a demonstration of DAS. Chapter 3 explains how to remove sidebands from DAS and magic-angle spinning (MAS) experiments, which result from the time-dependence of the Hamiltonian under sample spinning conditions, using rotor-synchronized {pi}-pulses. Data from these experiments, known as DAH-180 and MAH-180, respectively, are presented for both rubidium and lead salts. In addition, the applicability of this technique to double rotation (DOR) experiments is discussed. Chapter 4 concerns the addition of cross-polarization to DAS (CPDAS). The theory behind spin locking and cross polarizing quadrupolar nuclei is explained and a method of avoiding the resulting problems by performing cross polarization at 0{sup o} (parallel) with respect to the magnetic field is presented. Experimental results are shown for a sodium-23 compound, sodium pyruvate, and for oxygen-17 labeled L-akmine. In Chapter 5, a method for broadening the Hartmann-Hahn matching condition under MAS, called variable effective field cross-polarization (VEFCI?), is presented, along with experimental work on adamantane and polycarbonate.

  8. Using tensor light shifts to measure and cancel a cell's quadrupolar frequency shift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peck, S. K.; Lane, N.; Ang, D. G.; Hunter, L. R.

    2016-02-01

    We have developed a technique that uses the tensor light shift to measure and cancel the frequency shift produced by the quadrupolar anisotropy of a vapor cell. We demonstrate the technique on the 6 S1 /2 ,F =4 level of Cs using the D1 transition. The method extends our ability to study quadrupolar wall interactions beyond diamagnetic atoms. We have deduced the twist angle per wall adhesion for cesium on an alkene coating to be θCs -alkene=1.4 mrad . This value is about 37 times larger than the twist angle observed in 131Xe, suggesting that it is not produced by the interaction of the nuclear quadrupole moment with a collisional electric-field gradient. Alternative mechanisms that may be responsible for the observed quadrupolar frequency shifts are discussed. By canceling the cell-induced quadrupole shift we have extended our cells' effective spin-relaxation times by as much as a factor of 2. This cancellation improves magnetometer sensitivity in highly anisotropic cells and could reduce systematic uncertainties in some precision measurements.

  9. Solution deuterium NMR quadrupolar relaxation study of heme mobility in myoglobin

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.D.; La Mar, G.N.; Smith, K.M.; Parish, D.W.; Langry, K.C. )

    1989-01-18

    NMR spectroscopy has been used to monitor the quadrupolar relaxation and motional dynamics of {sup 2}H selectively incorporated into skeletal and side chain positions of the heme in sperm whale myoglobin. The hyperfine shifts of the heme resonances in paramagnetic states of myoglobin allow resolution of the signals of interest, and paramagnetic contributions to the observed line widths are shown to be insignificant. The {sup 2}H line widths for the skeletal positions of deuterohemin-reconstituted myoglobin yield a correlation time identical with that of overall protein tumbling (9 ns at 30{degree}C) and hence reflect an immobile heme group. The {sup 2}H NMR line widths of heme methyl groups exhibit motional narrowing indicative of very rapid internal rotation. Hence the methyl rotation is effectively decoupled from the overall protein tumbling, and the residual quadrupolar line width can be used directly to determine the protein tumbling rate. The {sup 2}H NMR lines from heme vinyl groups were found narrower than those from the heme skeleton. However, the range of quadrupolar coupling constants for sp{sup 2} hybridized C-{sup 2}H bonds does not permit an unequivocal interpretation in terms of mobility. 48 refs., 4 figs.

  10. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of quadrupolar nuclei and dipolar field effects

    SciTech Connect

    Urban, Jeffry Todd

    2004-12-21

    Experimental and theoretical research conducted in two areas in the field of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is presented: (1) studies of the coherent quantum-mechanical control of the angular momentum dynamics of quadrupolar (spin I > 1/2) nuclei and its application to the determination of molecular structure; and (2) applications of the long-range nuclear dipolar field to novel NMR detection methodologies.The dissertation is organized into six chapters. The first two chapters and associated appendices are intended to be pedagogical and include an introduction to the quantum mechanical theory of pulsed NMR spectroscopy and the time dependent theory of quantum mechanics. The third chapter describes investigations of the solid-state multiple-quantum magic angle spinning (MQMAS) NMR experiment applied to I = 5/2 quadrupolar nuclei. This work reports the use of rotary resonance-matched radiofrequency irradiation for sensitivity enhancement of the I = 5/2 MQMAS experiment. These experiments exhibited certain selective line narrowing effects which were investigated theoretically.The fourth chapter extends the discussion of multiple quantum spectroscopy of quadrupolar nuclei to a mostly theoretical study of the feasibility of enhancing the resolution of nitrogen-14 NMR of large biomolecules in solution via double-quantum spectroscopy. The fifth chapter continues to extend the principles of multiple quantum NMR spectroscopy of quadrupolar nuclei to make analogies between experiments in NMR/nuclear quadrupolar resonance (NQR) and experiments in atomic/molecular optics (AMO). These analogies are made through the Hamiltonian and density operator formalism of angular momentum dynamics in the presence of electric and magnetic fields.The sixth chapter investigates the use of the macroscopic nuclear dipolar field to encode the NMR spectrum of an analyte nucleus indirectly in the magnetization of a sensor nucleus. This technique could potentially serve as an encoding module for the recently developed NMR remote detection experiment. The feasibility of using hyperpolarized xenon-129 gas as a sensor is discussed. This work also reports the use of an optical atomic magnetometer to detect the nuclear magnetization of Xe-129 gas, which has potential applicability as a detection module for NMR remote detection experiments.

  11. Quantum spin liquid and electric quadrupolar states of single crystal Tb2+xTi2-xO7+y

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakita, M.; Taniguchi, T.; Edamoto, H.; Takatsu, H.; Kadowaki, H.

    2016-02-01

    The ground states of the frustrated pyrochlore oxide Tb2+xTi2-xO7+y, sensitively depending on the small off-stoichiometry parameter x, have been studied by specific heat measurements using well characterized samples. Single crystal Tb2+xTi2-xO7+y boules grown by the standard floating zone technique are shown to exhibit concentration (x) gradient. This off-stoichiometry parameter is determined by precisely measuring the lattice constant of small samples cut from a crystal boule. Specific heat shows that the phase boundary of the electric quadrupolar state has a dome structure in the x-T phase diagram with the highest Tc ≃ 0.5 K at about x = 0.01. This phase diagram suggests that the putative U(1) quantum spin-liquid state of Tb2+xTi2-xO7+y exists in the range x < xc ≃ –0.0025, which is separated from the quadrupolar state via a first-order phase-transition line x = xc.

  12. Bulk and interfacial properties of a dipolar-quadrupolar fluid in a uniform electric field: a density-functional approach.

    PubMed

    Warshavsky, V B; Zeng, X C

    2003-07-01

    We have studied the bulk and interfacial properties of a dipolar-quadrupolar fluid based on an extended modified mean-field density-functional theory. Effects of a uniform electric field on the bulk and interfacial properties are also studied. Results of the coexisting vapor-liquid densities, interfacial profiles of the density and orientation order parameters, the surface tension, and their dependence on the temperature, magnitude of molecule dipole and quadrupole moment, and the applied field are obtained. In general, we find that the applied field increases the critical temperature, broadens the vapor-liquid coexistence curves, and reduces the surface tension. We also find that if the quadrupole moment is positive, the reduction in the surface tension is greater when the applied field is in the direction from the vapor to the liquid phase than the reduction when the field is in the opposite direction. This apparent symmetry breaking by reversing the field direction may offer a molecular mechanism to explain the phenomenon of the sign preference in liquid droplet formation on charged condensation centers. PMID:12935128

  13. Directed Transformation from Quadrupolar to Dipolar Nematic Colloids by an In-Plane Electric Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tagashira, Kenji; Asakura, Keita; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Ozaki, Masanori

    2013-02-01

    We demonstrate direction-controlled transformation from quadrupolar to dipolar nematic colloids using an in-plane electric field. When the electric field is applied in the direction perpendicular to the rubbing direction, a splay-bend wall is induced, which traps colloidal particles. Above the applied electric field of 0.14 V/m, a Saturn-ring defect shrinks into a hedgehog defect due to the symmetric reorientation of the liquid crystal molecules around the particle. The direction of the shrinking is determined by the pretilt angle of the liquid crystal and the field direction near the edge of the electrode.

  14. A NON-RADIAL ERUPTION IN A QUADRUPOLAR MAGNETIC CONFIGURATION WITH A CORONAL NULL

    SciTech Connect

    Sun Xudong; Hoeksema, J. Todd; Liu Yang; Hayashi, Keiji; Chen Qingrong

    2012-10-01

    We report one of the several homologous non-radial eruptions from NOAA active region (AR) 11158 that are strongly modulated by the local magnetic field as observed with the Solar Dynamic Observatory. A small bipole emerged in the sunspot complex and subsequently created a quadrupolar flux system. Nonlinear force-free field extrapolation from vector magnetograms reveals its energetic nature: the fast-shearing bipole accumulated {approx}2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 31} erg free energy (10% of AR total) over just one day despite its relatively small magnetic flux (5% of AR total). During the eruption, the ejected plasma followed a highly inclined trajectory, over 60 Degree-Sign with respect to the radial direction, forming a jet-like, inverted-Y-shaped structure in its wake. Field extrapolation suggests complicated magnetic connectivity with a coronal null point, which is favorable of reconnection between different flux components in the quadrupolar system. Indeed, multiple pairs of flare ribbons brightened simultaneously, and coronal reconnection signatures appeared near the inferred null. Part of the magnetic setting resembles that of a blowout-type jet; the observed inverted-Y structure likely outlines the open field lines along the separatrix surface. Owing to the asymmetrical photospheric flux distribution, the confining magnetic pressure decreases much faster horizontally than upward. This special field geometry likely guided the non-radial eruption during its initial stage.

  15. Structure evolution and entropy change of temperature and magnetic field induced magneto-structural transition in Mn1.1Fe0.9P0.76Ge0.24

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Ming; Liu, Danmin; Huang, Qingzhen; Wang, Tong; Hu, Fengxia; Li, Jingbo; Rao, Guanghui; Shen, Baogen; Lynn, Jeffery W.; Zhang, Jiuxing

    2013-01-01

    The compound Mn1.1Fe0.9P0.76Ge0.24 has been studied using neutron powder diffraction (NPD), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), and magnetic measurements, in order to clarify the nature of the magnetic and structural transition and measure the associated entropy change (ΔS). The strongly first order transition occurs from a paramagnetic (PM) to a ferromagnetic (FM) phase and can be induced either by temperature or by an applied magnetic field. Our investigations indicate that the two processes exhibit identical evolutions regarding the crystal and magnetic structures, indicating they should have the same entropy change. We, therefore, conclude that the ΔSDSC obtained by the DSC method (where the transition is temperature induced) is valid also for the magnetically induced transition, thus avoiding uncertainties connected with the magnetic measurements. We have obtained the ΔSDSC = 33.8 J/kg . K for this sample upon cooling, which would increase to 42.7 J/kg . K for a impurity-free and completely homogeneous sample. For comparison, the magnetic entropy changes (ΔSM) induced by magnetic field and calculated using the Maxwell relation yields a ΔSM = 46.5J/kg . K, 38% higher than ΔSDSC. These entropy results are compared and discussed.

  16. Nonresonant quadrupolar second-harmonic generation in isotropic solids by use of two orthogonally polarized laser beams.

    PubMed

    Sun, L; Figliozzi, P; An, Y Q; Downer, M C; Mochan, W L; Mendoza, B S

    2005-09-01

    We demonstrate an experimental technique for isolating and enhancing quadrupolar second-harmonic generation in isotropic materials by using two orthogonally polarized laser beams that create wavelength-scale, forward-radiating gradients in the second-harmonic polarization. PMID:16190446

  17. Quantum simulation of interaction blockade in a two-site Bose-Hubbard system with solid quadrupolar crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Xinfang; Li, Jun; Cui, Jiangyu; Luo, Zhihuang; Huang, Jiahao; Chen, Hongwei; Lee, Chaohong; Peng, Xinhua; Du, Jiangfeng

    2015-05-01

    The Bose-Hubbard model provides an excellent platform for exploring exotic quantum coherence. Interaction blockade is an important fundamental phenomenon in the two-site Bose-Hubbard system (BHS), which gives a full quantum description for the atomic Bose-Josephson junction. Using the analogy between the two-site BHS and the quadrupolar nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) crystal, we experimentally simulate a two-site Bose-Hubbard system in a NMR quantum simulator composed of the quadrupolar spin-3/2 sodium nuclei of a NaNO3 single crystal, and observe the interesting phenomenon of interaction blockade via adiabatic dynamics control. To our best knowledge, this is the first experimental implementation of the quantum simulation of the interaction blockade using quadrupolar nuclear system. Our work exhibits important applications of quadrupolar NMR in the quantum information science, i.e. a spin-3/2 system can be used as a full 2-qubit su(4) system, if the quadrupole moment is not fully averaged out by fast tumbling in the liquid phase.

  18. Complete description of the interactions of a quadrupolar nucleus with a radiofrequency field. Implications for data fitting.

    PubMed

    Spencer, T Leigh; Goward, Gillian R; Bain, Alex D

    2013-06-01

    We present a theory, with experimental tests, that treats exactly the effect of radiofrequency (RF) fields on quadrupolar nuclei, yet retains the symbolic expressions as much as possible. This provides a mathematical model of these interactions that can be easily connected to state-of-the-art optimization methods, so that chemically-important parameters can be extracted from fits to experimental data. Nuclei with spins >1/2 typically experience a Zeeman interaction with the (possibly anisotropic) local static field, a quadrupole interaction and are manipulated with RF fields. Since RF fields are limited by hardware, they seldom dominate the other interactions of these nuclei and so the spectra show unusual dependence on the pulse width used. The theory is tested with (23)Na NMR nutation spectra of a single crystal of sodium nitrate, in which the RF is comparable with the quadrupole coupling and is not necessarily on resonance with any of the transitions. Both the intensity and phase of all three transitions are followed as a function of flip angle. This provides a more rigorous trial than a powder sample where many of the details are averaged out. The formalism is based on a symbolic approach which encompasses all the published results, yet is easily implemented numerically, since no explicit spin operators or their commutators are needed. The classic perturbation results are also easily derived. There are no restrictions or assumptions on the spin of the nucleus or the relative sizes of the interactions, so the results are completely general, going beyond the standard first-order treatments in the literature. PMID:23611427

  19. From bipolar to quadrupolar - The collimation processes of the Cepheus A outflow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torrelles, Jose M.; Verdes-Montenegro, Lourdes; Ho, Paul T. P.; Rodriguez, Luis F.; Canto, Jorge

    1993-01-01

    Results of new K-band observations of the (1, 1) and (2, 2) ammonia lines toward Cepheus A are reported. The lines are mapped with approximately 2 arcsec of angular resolution and 0.3 km/s of velocity resolution. A sensitivity of 10 mJy has been achieved. The observations reveal details of the spatial and kinematics structure of the ambient high-density gas. It is suggested that the interstellar high-density gas is diverting and redirecting the outflow in the sense that the quadrupolar structure of the molecular outflow is produced by the interaction with the ammonia condensationss, with Cep A-1 and Cep A-3 splitting in two halves, respectively the blue- and redshifted lobes of an east-west bipolar molecular outflow.

  20. Solid-state STRAFI NMR probe for material imaging of quadrupolar nuclei.

    PubMed

    Tang, Joel A; Zhong, Guiming; Dugar, Sneha; Kitchen, Jason A; Yang, Yong; Fu, Riqiang

    2012-12-01

    Stray field imaging (STRAFI) has provided an alternative imaging method to study solid materials that are typically difficult to obtain using conventional MRI methods. For small volume samples, image resolution is a challenge since extremely strong gradients are required to examine narrow slices. Here we present a STRAFI probe for imaging materials with quadrupolar nuclei. Experiments were performed on a 19.6 T magnet which has a fringe field gradient strength of 72 T/m, nearly 50 times stronger than commercial microimagers. We demonstrate the ability to acquire (7)Li 1D profiles of liquid and solid state lithium phantoms with clearly resolved features in the micrometer scale and as a practical example a Li ion battery electrode material is also examined. PMID:23151490

  1. Pulmonary MRI contrast using Surface Quadrupolar Relaxation (SQUARE) of hyperpolarized (83)Kr.

    PubMed

    Six, Joseph S; Hughes-Riley, Theodore; Lilburn, David M L; Dorkes, Alan C; Stupic, Karl F; Shaw, Dominick E; Morris, Peter G; Hall, Ian P; Pavlovskaya, Galina E; Meersmann, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Hyperpolarized (83)Kr has previously been demonstrated to enable MRI contrast that is sensitive to the chemical composition of the surface in a porous model system. Methodological advances have lead to a substantial increase in the (83)Kr hyperpolarization and the resulting signal intensity. Using the improved methodology for spin exchange optical pumping of isotopically enriched (83)Kr, internal anatomical details of ex vivo rodent lung were resolved with hyperpolarized (83)Kr MRI after krypton inhalation. Different (83)Kr relaxation times were found between the main bronchi and the parenchymal regions in ex vivo rat lungs. The T1 weighted hyperpolarized (83)Kr MRI provided a first demonstration of surface quadrupolar relaxation (SQUARE) pulmonary MRI contrast. PMID:24144493

  2. Pulmonary MRI contrast using Surface Quadrupolar Relaxation (SQUARE) of hyperpolarized 83Kr?

    PubMed Central

    Six, Joseph S.; Hughes-Riley, Theodore; Lilburn, David M.L.; Dorkes, Alan C.; Stupic, Karl F.; Shaw, Dominick E.; Morris, Peter G.; Hall, Ian P.; Pavlovskaya, Galina E.; Meersmann, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Hyperpolarized 83Kr has previously been demonstrated to enable MRI contrast that is sensitive to the chemical composition of the surface in a porous model system. Methodological advances have lead to a substantial increase in the 83Kr hyperpolarization and the resulting signal intensity. Using the improved methodology for spin exchange optical pumping of isotopically enriched 83Kr, internal anatomical details of ex vivo rodent lung were resolved with hyperpolarized 83Kr MRI after krypton inhalation. Different 83Kr relaxation times were found between the main bronchi and the parenchymal regions in ex vivo rat lungs. The T1 weighted hyperpolarized 83Kr MRI provided a first demonstration of surface quadrupolar relaxation (SQUARE) pulmonary MRI contrast. PMID:24144493

  3. Quadrupolar effects in PrCu{sub 2}Si{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Osborn, R.; Goremychkin, E.A.

    1994-05-01

    As part of a systematic study of the crystal field (CF) potential in RCu{sub 2}Si{sub 2} compounds (R = Ce, Pr, Nd, Tb, Ho, Er) using inelastic neutron scattering, we have determined the CF level scheme and potential in the antiferromagnet PrCu{sub 2}Si{sub 2} both above and below T{sub N}. There have been recent speculations that the quadrupole moment of PrCu{sub 2}Si{sub 2} has been quenched by the quadrupolar Kondo effect. Using the CF potential derived from our results, we have calculated the quadrupole moment Q{sub 2} of PrCu{sub 2}Si{sub 2} and compared it to the other members of the RCu{sub 2}Si{sub 2} series. The temperature dependence of the quadrupole moment of PrCu{sub 2}Si{sub 2} is significantly weaker-than all the other compounds eg. it is approximately five times smaller than HoCu{sub 2}Si{sub 2}. Therefore, it is the CF potential which is responsible for quenching Q{sub 2} at low temperature rather than a quadrupolar Kondo effect. Furthermore, the CF Schottky contribution to C/T {nu} T{sup 2} is approximately linear above T{sub N} and explains the anomalously high linear term in the specific heat. However, the evolution of the CF potential across the rare earth series provides evidence of an enhanced hybridization contribution to the CF potential of PrCu{sub 2}Si{sub 2}, intermediate between the heavy fermion CeCu{sub 2}Si{sub 2} and the other rare earth compounds.

  4. Magnetic-field induced screening effect and collective excitations

    SciTech Connect

    Fukushima, Kenji

    2011-06-01

    We explicitly construct the fermion propagator in a magnetic field background B to take the lowest Landau-level approximation. We analyze the energy and momentum dependence in the polarization tensor and discuss the collective excitations. We find there appear two branches of collective modes in one of two transverse gauge particles; one represents a massive and attenuated gauge particle and the other behaves similar to the zero sound at finite density.

  5. Magnetic field induced differential neutron phase contrast imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Strobl, M.; Treimer, W.; Walter, P.; Keil, S.; Manke, I.

    2007-12-17

    Besides the attenuation of a neutron beam penetrating an object, induced phase changes have been utilized to provide contrast in neutron and x-ray imaging. In analogy to differential phase contrast imaging of bulk samples, the refraction of neutrons by magnetic fields yields image contrast. Here, it will be reported how double crystal setups can provide quantitative tomographic images of magnetic fields. The use of magnetic air prisms adequate to split the neutron spin states enables a distinction of field induced phase shifts and these introduced by interaction with matter.

  6. Temporally-Patterned Magnetic Fields Induce Complete Fragmentation in Planaria

    PubMed Central

    Murugan, Nirosha J.; Karbowski, Lukasz M.; Lafrenie, Robert M.; Persinger, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    A tandem sequence composed of weak temporally-patterned magnetic fields was discovered that produced 100% dissolution of planarian in their home environment. After five consecutive days of 6.5 hr exposure to a frequency-modulated magnetic field (0.1 to 2 µT), immediately followed by an additional 6.5 hr exposure on the fifth day, to another complex field (0.5 to 5 µT) with exponentially increasing spectral power 100% of planarian dissolved within 24 hr. Reversal of the sequence of the fields or presentation of only one pattern for the same duration did not produce this effect. Direct video evidence showed expansion (by visual estimation ∼twice normal volume) of the planarian following the first field pattern followed by size reduction (estimated ∼1/2 of normal volume) and death upon activation of the second pattern. The contortions displayed by the planarian during the last field exposure suggest effects on contractile proteins and alterations in the cell membrane’s permeability to water. PMID:23620783

  7. Magnetic field induced spin-wave energy focusing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, Noel; Lopez-Diaz, Luis

    2015-07-01

    Local temperature variations induced by spin-wave propagation are studied using a model that couples nonuniform magnetization dynamics and heat flow. We show that the remote heating at the sample edge reported recently [T. An et al., Nat. Mater. 12, 549 (2013)], 10.1038/nmat3628 is due to the geometry-induced gradual reduction of the effective field. We demonstrate that the same effect can be achieved by a reduction in the external field instead of a constriction at the edge and, furthermore, that both the location and the amount of energy to be delivered to the lattice can be controlled accurately this way.

  8. Magnetic Field Induced by a Submerged Inhomogenous Current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobien, Daniel; Paterson, Eric

    2013-11-01

    A one-way coupled approach has been developed for studying the electromagnetic field induced by a submerged inhomogenous current. The method is based upon solving the Navier-Stokes equations, transport equations for salinity and temperature, the UNESCO equation of state for seawater density and conductivity, and a steady-state Poisson equation for the magnetic-field perturbation. The computational domain includes both the ocean and the atmosphere. Simulations are conducted for a net-zero-momentum wake in a linearly stratified ocean, and the influence of depth and Brunt-Visl frequency is studied. Simulation data will quantify the magnitude and distribution of magnetic-field perturbation. Graduate Research Associate.

  9. Strong Magnetic Field Induced Changes of Gene Expression in Arabidopsis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, A.-L.; Ferl, R. J.; Klingenberg, B.; Brooks, J. S.; Morgan, A. N.; Yowtak, J.; Meisel, M. W.

    2005-07-01

    We review our studies of the biological impact of magnetic field strengths of up to 30 T on transgenic arabidopsis plants engineered with a stress response gene consisting of the alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) gene promoter driving the β-glucuronidase (GUS) gene reporter. Field strengths in excess of 15 T induce expression of the Adh/GUS transgene in the roots and leaves. Microarray analyses indicate that such field strengths have a far reaching effect on the genome. Wide spread induction of stress-related genes and transcription factors, and a depression of genes associated with cell wall metabolism are prominent examples.

  10. Identification of Quadrupolar Excitation Channels at the {ital L}{sub 3} Edge of Rare-Earth Compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Bartolome, F.; Tonnerre, J.M.; Seve, L.; Raoux, D.; Chaboy, J.; Garcia, L.M.; Krisch, M.; Kao, C.C.

    1997-11-01

    Resonant inelastic x-ray scattering spectra are recorded at the L{sub 3} absorption edge of rare-earth ions in R{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B . In all cases, weak resonances are observed at energies below the dipolar white line resonance, originating from 2p{r_arrow}4f quadrupolar excitations. Their energy position is in excellent agreement with that of preedge features in the x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) spectra of the same samples. Our results therefore evidence the systematic appearance of quadrupolar excitation channels and the importance of their inclusion in the correct interpretation of the XMCD at the L{sub 3} edges of rare-earth systems. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  11. In vivo observation of quadrupolar splitting in (39) K magnetic resonance spectroscopy of human muscle tissue.

    PubMed

    Rösler, M B; Nagel, A M; Umathum, R; Bachert, P; Benkhedah, N

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this work was to explore the origin of oscillations of the T(*) 2 decay curve of (39) K observed in studies of (39) K magnetic resonance imaging of the human thigh. In addition to their magnetic dipole moment, spin-(3) /2 nuclei possess an electric quadrupole moment. Its interaction with non-vanishing electrical field gradients leads to oscillations in the free induction decay and to splitting of the resonance. All measurements were performed on a 7T whole-body MRI scanner (MAGNETOM 7T, Siemens AG, Erlangen, Germany) with customer-built coils. According to the theory of quadrupolar splitting, a model with three Lorentzian-shaped peaks is appropriate for (39) K NMR spectra of the thigh and calf. The frequency shifts of the satellites depend on the angle between the calf and the static magnetic field. When the leg is oriented parallel to the static magnetic field, the satellites are shifted by about 200 Hz. In the thigh, rank-2 double quantum coherences arising from anisotropic quadrupolar interaction are observed by double-quantum filtration with magic-angle excitation. In addition to the spectra, an image of the thigh with a nominal resolution of (16 × 16 × 32) mm(3) was acquired with this filtering technique in 1:17 h. From the line width of the resonances, (39) K transverse relaxation time constants T(*) 2, fast  = (0.51 ± 0.01) ms and T(*) 2, slow  = (6.21 ± 0.05) ms for the head were determined. In the thigh, the left and right satellite, both corresponding to the short component of the transverse relaxation time constant, take the following values: T(*) 2, fast  = (1.56 ± 0.03) ms and T(*) 2, fast  = (1.42 ± 0.03) ms. The centre line, which corresponds to the slow component, is T(*) 2 , slow  = (9.67 ± 0.04) ms. The acquisition time of the spectra was approximately 10 min. Our results agree well with a non-vanishing electrical field gradient interacting with (39) K nuclei in the intracellular space of muscle tissue. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26837061

  12. On the microscopic fluctuations driving the NMR relaxation of quadrupolar ions in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carof, Antoine; Salanne, Mathieu; Charpentier, Thibault; Rotenberg, Benjamin

    2015-11-01

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) relaxation is sensitive to the local structure and dynamics around the probed nuclei. The Electric Field Gradient (EFG) is the key microscopic quantity to understand the NMR relaxation of quadrupolar ions, such as 7Li+, 23Na+, 25Mg2+, 35Cl-, 39K+, or 133Cs+. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we investigate the statistical and dynamical properties of the EFG experienced by alkaline, alkaline Earth, and chloride ions at infinite dilution in water. Specifically, we analyze the effect of the ionic charge and size on the distribution of the EFG tensor and on the multi-step decay of its auto-correlation function. The main contribution to the NMR relaxation time arises from the slowest mode, with a characteristic time on the picosecond time scale. The first solvation shell of the ion plays a dominant role in the fluctuations of the EFG, all the more that the ion radius is small and its charge is large. We propose an analysis based on a simplified charge distribution around the ion, which demonstrates that the auto-correlation of the EFG, hence the NMR relaxation time, reflects primarily the collective translational motion of water molecules in the first solvation shell of the cations. Our findings provide a microscopic route to the quantitative interpretation of NMR relaxation measurements and open the way to the design of improved analytical theories for NMR relaxation for small ionic solutes, which should focus on water density fluctuations around the ion.

  13. K-39 quadrupolar and chemical shift tensors for organic potassium complexes and diatomic molecules.

    PubMed

    Lee, Philip K; Chapman, Rebecca P; Zhang, Lei; Hu, Jiaxin; Barbour, Leonard J; Elliott, Elizabeth K; Gokel, George W; Bryce, David L

    2007-12-20

    Solid-state potassium-39 NMR spectra of two potassium complexes of crown-ether-based organic ligands (1.KI and 2) have been acquired at 11.75 and 21.1 T and interpreted to provide information on the 39K quadrupolar and chemical shift tensors. The analyses reveal a large potassium chemical shift tensor span of 75+/-20 ppm for 1.KI. This appears to be the first such measurement for potassium in an organic complex, thereby suggesting the utility of potassium chemical shift tensors for characterizing organic and biomolecular K+ binding environments. Compound 2 exhibits a cation-pi interaction between K+ and a phenyl group, and therefore, the 39K NMR tensors obtained for this compound must be partly representative of this interaction. Analyses of potassium-39 spin-rotation data for gaseous 39K19F and 39K35Cl available from molecular beam experiments performed by Cederberg and co-workers reveal the largest potassium CS tensor spans known to date, 84.39 and 141 ppm, respectively. Collectively, the results obtained highlight the potential of ultrahigh-field potassium-39 solid-state NMR spectroscopy and, in particular, the wide range of the anisotropy of the potassium CS tensor when organic and diatomic systems are considered. PMID:18020321

  14. On the microscopic fluctuations driving the NMR relaxation of quadrupolar ions in water.

    PubMed

    Carof, Antoine; Salanne, Mathieu; Charpentier, Thibault; Rotenberg, Benjamin

    2015-11-21

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) relaxation is sensitive to the local structure and dynamics around the probed nuclei. The Electric Field Gradient (EFG) is the key microscopic quantity to understand the NMR relaxation of quadrupolar ions, such as (7)Li(+), (23)Na(+), (25)Mg(2+), (35)Cl(-), (39)K(+), or (133)Cs(+). Using molecular dynamics simulations, we investigate the statistical and dynamical properties of the EFG experienced by alkaline, alkaline Earth, and chloride ions at infinite dilution in water. Specifically, we analyze the effect of the ionic charge and size on the distribution of the EFG tensor and on the multi-step decay of its auto-correlation function. The main contribution to the NMR relaxation time arises from the slowest mode, with a characteristic time on the picosecond time scale. The first solvation shell of the ion plays a dominant role in the fluctuations of the EFG, all the more that the ion radius is small and its charge is large. We propose an analysis based on a simplified charge distribution around the ion, which demonstrates that the auto-correlation of the EFG, hence the NMR relaxation time, reflects primarily the collective translational motion of water molecules in the first solvation shell of the cations. Our findings provide a microscopic route to the quantitative interpretation of NMR relaxation measurements and open the way to the design of improved analytical theories for NMR relaxation for small ionic solutes, which should focus on water density fluctuations around the ion. PMID:26590539

  15. Enhancing sensitivity of quadrupolar nuclei in solid-state NMR with multiple rotor assisted population transfers.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Hyung-Tae; Prasad, Subramanian; Clark, Ted; Grandinetti, Philip J

    2003-01-01

    Rotor-assisted population transfer (RAPT) was developed as a method for enhancing MAS NMR sensitivity of quadrupolar nuclei by transferring polarization associated with satellite transitions to the central m=12-->-12 transition. After a single RAPT transfer, there still remains polarization in the satellite transitions that can be transferred to the central transition. This polarization is available without having to wait for the spin system to return to thermal equilibrium. We describe a new RAPT scheme that uses the remaining polarization of the satellites to obtain a further enhancement of the central transition by performing RAPT-enhanced experiments multiple times before waiting for re-equilibration of the spin system. For 27Al (I=5/2) in albite we obtain a multiple RAPT enhancement of 3.02, a 48% increase over single RAPT. For 93Nb (I=9/2) in NaNbO(3) we obtain a multiple RAPT enhancement of 5.76, an 89% increase over single RAPT. We also describe a data processing procedure for obtaining the maximum possible signal-to-noise ratio. PMID:12943905

  16. Deuterium Nuclear Spin-Lattice Relaxation Times and Quadrupolar Coupling Constants in Isotopically Labeled Saccharides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bose-Basu, Bidisha; Zajicek, Jaroslav; Bondo, Gail; Zhao, Shikai; Kubsch, Meredith; Carmichael, Ian; Serianni, Anthony S.

    2000-06-01

    13C and 2H spin-lattice relaxation times have been determined by inversion recovery in a range of site-specific 13C- and 2H-labeled saccharides under identical solution conditions, and the data were used to calculate deuterium nuclear quadrupolar coupling constants (2H NQCC) at specific sites within cyclic and acyclic forms in solution. 13C T1 values ranged from ?0.6 to 8.2 s, and 2H T1 values ranged from ?79 to 450 ms, depending on molecular structure (0.4 M sugar in 5 mM EDTA (disodium salt) in 2H2O-depleted H2O, pH 4.8, 30C). In addition to providing new information on 13C and 2H relaxation behavior of saccharides in solution, the resulting 2H1 NQCC values reveal a dependency on anomeric configuration within aldopyranose rings, whereas 2H NQCC values at other ring sites appear less sensitive to configuration at C1. In contrast, 2H NQCC values at both anomeric and nonanomeric sites within aldofuranose rings appear to be influenced by anomeric configuration. These experimental observations were confirmed by density functional theory (DFT) calculations of 2H NQCC values in model aldopyranosyl and aldofuranosyl rings.

  17. Formation of a White-Light Jet Within a Quadrupolar Magnetic Configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippov, Boris; Koutchmy, Serge; Tavabi, Ehsan

    2013-08-01

    We analyze multi-wavelength and multi-viewpoint observations of a large-scale event viewed on 7 April 2011, originating from an active-region complex. The activity leads to a white-light jet being formed in the outer corona. The topology and evolution of the coronal structures were imaged in high resolution using the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). In addition, large field-of-view images of the corona were obtained using the Sun Watcher using Active Pixel System detector and Image Processing (SWAP) telescope onboard the PRoject for Onboard Autonomy (PROBA2) microsatellite, providing evidence for the connectivity of the coronal structures with outer coronal features that were imaged with the Large Angle Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO) C2 on the S olar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO). The data sets reveal an Eiffel-tower type jet configuration extending into a narrow jet in the outer corona. The event starts from the growth of a dark area in the central part of the structure. The darkening was also observed in projection on the disk by the Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory-Ahead (STEREO-A) spacecraft from a different point of view. We assume that the dark volume in the corona descends from a coronal cavity of a flux rope that moved up higher in the corona but still failed to erupt. The quadrupolar magnetic configuration corresponds to a saddle-like shape of the dark volume and provides a possibility for the plasma to escape along the open field lines into the outer corona, forming the white-light jet.

  18. Magnetic Orders and Fluctuations in the Dipolar Pyrochlore Antiferromagnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cepas, Olivier; Shastry, B. Sriram

    2005-03-01

    While the classical Heisenberg antiferromagnet on the pyrochlore lattice does not order, we will discuss, from a theoretical standpoint, possible magnetic phases induced by the dipole-dipole interactions. Such interactions play a role in systems such as Gd2Ti2O7 or Gd2Sn2O7 in stabilizing exotic forms of magnetic order, a subject of current debate. We will also argue that the external magnetic field induces multiple transitions, one of which is associated with no obvious broken symmetry, but can be characterized by a disorder parameter. Finally, Monte-Carlo simulations and Landau-Ginzburg expansion show that the dipolar Heisenberg model exhibits a fluctuation-induced first-order transition, thanks to the frustration and a continuous set of soft modes.

  19. DFT-D study of 14N nuclear quadrupolar interactions in tetra-n-alkyl ammonium halide crystals.

    PubMed

    Dib, Eddy; Alonso, Bruno; Mineva, Tzonka

    2014-05-15

    The density functional theory-based method with periodic boundary conditions and addition of a pair-wised empirical correction for the London dispersion energy (DFT-D) was used to study the NMR quadrupolar interaction (coupling constant CQ and asymmetry parameter ηQ) of (14)N nuclei in a homologous series of tetra-n-alkylammonium halides (C(x)H(2x+1))4N(+)X(-) (x = 1-4), (X = Br, I). These (14)N quadrupolar properties are particularly challenging for the DFT-D computations because of their very high sensitivity to tiny geometrical changes, being negligible for other spectral property calculations as, for example, NMR (14)N chemical shift. In addition, the polarization effect of the halide anions in the considered crystal mesophases combines with interactions of van der Waals type between cations and anions. Comparing experimental and theoretical results, the performance of PBE-D functional is preferred over that of B3LYP-D. The results demonstrated a good transferability of the empirical parameters in the London dispersion formula for crystals with two or more carbons per alkyl group in the cations, whereas the empirical corrections in the tetramethylammonium halides appeared to be inappropriate for the quadrupolar interaction calculation. This is attributed to the enhanced cation-anion attraction, which causes a strong polarization at the nitrogen site. Our results demonstrated that the (14)N CQ and ηQ are predominantly affected by the molecular structures of the cations, adapted to the symmetry of the anion arrangements. The long-range polarization effect of the surrounding anions at the target nitrogen site becomes more important for cells with lower spatial symmetry. PMID:24758512

  20. Two-Photon Absorption Properties of Proquinoidal D-A-D and A-D-A Quadrupolar Chromophores

    PubMed Central

    Susumu, Kimihiro; Fisher, Jonathan A. N.; Zheng, Jieru

    2011-01-01

    We report the synthesis, one- and two-photon absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence, and electrochemical properties of a series of quadrupolar molecules that feature proquinoidal π-aromatic acceptors. These quadrupolar molecules possess either donor-acceptor-donor (D–A–D) or acceptor-donor-acceptor (A–D–A) electronic motifs, and feature 4-N,N-dihexylaminophenyl, 4-dodecyloxyphenyl, 4-(N,N-dihexylamino)benzo[c][1,2,5]thiadiazolyl or 2,5-dioctyloxyphenyl electron donor moieties and benzo[c][1,2,5]thiadiazole (BTD) or 6,7-bis(3’,7’-dimethyloctyl)[1,2,5]thiadiazolo[3,4-g]quinoxaline (TDQ) electron acceptor units. These conjugated structures are highly emissive in nonpolar solvents and exhibit large spectral red-shifts of their respective lowest energy absorption bands relative to analogous reference compounds that incorporate phenylene components in place of BTD and TDQ moieties. BTD-based D-A-D and A-D-A chromophores exhibit increasing fluorescence emission red-shifts, and a concomitant decrease of the fluorescence quantum yield (Φf) with increasing solvent polarity; these data indicate that electronic excitation augments benzothiadiazole electron density via an internal charge transfer mechanism. The BTD- and TDQ-containing structures exhibit blue-shifted two-photon absorption (TPA) spectra relative to their corresponding one-photon absorption (OPA) spectra, and display high TPA cross-sections (>100 GM) within these spectral windows. D-A-D and A-D-A structures that feature more extensive conjugation within this series of compounds exhibit larger TPA cross-sections consistent with computational simulation. Factors governing TPA properties of these quadrupolar chromophores are discussed within the context of a three-state model. PMID:21568299

  1. Using the dipolar and quadrupolar moments to improve solar-cycle predictions based on the polar magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Muoz-Jaramillo, Andrs; Balmaceda, Laura A; DeLuca, Edward E

    2013-07-26

    The solar cycle and its associated magnetic activity are the main drivers behind changes in the interplanetary environment and Earth's upper atmosphere (commonly referred to as space weather and climate). In recent years there has been an effort to develop accurate solar cycle predictions, leading to nearly a hundred widely spread predictions for the amplitude of solar cycle 24. Here we show that cycle predictions can be made more accurate if performed separately for each hemisphere, taking advantage of information about both the dipolar and quadrupolar moments of the solar magnetic field during minimum. PMID:23931351

  2. The synthesis and single and two-photon excited fluorescence of a new quasi-quadrupolar organoborane compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ying; Cao, Duxia; Wang, Shasha; Zhang, Changqiao; Liu, Zhiqiang

    2010-04-01

    A new acceptor-π-acceptor quadrupolar compound with a dimesitylboryl as acceptor and 2,7-dithienylfluorene as the conjugated bridge has been synthesized using the Suzuki-Miyaura coupling reaction. Its single and two-photon related photo-physical properties were experimentally examined. The combination of a large two-photon cross-section ( δ = 1150 GM at 730 nm in hexane), high emission quantum yield ( Ф = 0.81 in hexane) and a strong binding constant with fluoride anions ( K1 = 3.0 × 10 5 mol -1 L) make this compound attractive for application as a two-photon excited fluorescent chemosensor for fluoride anions.

  3. From bipolar to quadrupolar electrode structures: an application of bond-detach lithography for dielectrophoretic particle assembly.

    PubMed

    Menad, Samia; El-Gaddar, Amal; Haddour, Naoufel; Toru, Sylvain; Brun, Mathieu; Buret, Franois; Frenea-Robin, Marie

    2014-05-20

    We describe a new, simple process for fabricating transparent quadrupolar electrode arrays enabling large-scale particle assembly by means of dielectrophoresis. In the first step, interdigitated electrode arrays are made by chemical wet etching of indium tin oxide (ITO). Then, the transition from a bipolar to a quadrupolar electrode arrangement is obtained by covering the electrode surface with a thin poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) film acting as an electrical insulation layer in which selective openings are formed using bond-detach lithography. The PDMS insulating layer thickness was optimized and controlled by adjusting experimental parameters such as the PDMS viscosity (modulated by the addition of heptane) and the PDMS spin-coating velocity. The insulating character of the PDMS membrane was successfully demonstrated by performing a dielectrophoretic assembly of polystyrene particles using interdigitated electrodes with and without a PDMS layer. The results show that the patterned PDMS film functions properly as an electrical insulation layer and allows the reconfiguration of the electric field cartography. Electric field simulations were performed in both configurations to predict the dielectrophoretic behavior of the particles. The simulation results are in perfect agreement with experiments, in which we demonstrated the formation of concentrated clusters of polystyrene particles and living cells of regular size and shape. PMID:24758738

  4. Single- and Double-Resonance Experiments of Quadrupolar Nuclei in Solids Using Sensitivity Enhancement of the Central Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haase, J.; Conradi, M. S.; Oldfield, E.

    Population enhancement for NMR of the central transition of quadrupolar nuclei in solids is performed by using adiabatic radiofrequency sweeps of the satellite transitions. Single-resonance experiments are reported for 17O, 23Na, 27Al, and 93Nb nuclei in powders of Al 2O 3, NaNbO 3, and LiNbO 3, and in Pyrex glass. Experimental techniques using single-coil probe circuits capable of both wideband frequency sweeps and narrowband detection are presented. The combination of population enhancement with cross polarization from 27Al to 17O in ?-Al 2O 3 (corundum) powder is demonstrated. The sensitivity-enhancement technique is robust, with no critical parameters.

  5. Spin-driven bond order in a (1)/(5)-magnetization plateau phase in the triangular lattice antiferromagnet CuFeO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Taro; Terada, Noriki; Mitsuda, Setsuo; Bewley, Robert

    2013-10-01

    We have investigated spin-wave excitations in a magnetic-field-induced 1/5-magnetization plateau phase in the triangular lattice antiferromagnet CuFeO2 (CFO), by means of inelastic neutron-scattering measurements under applied magnetic fields of up to 13.4 T. Comparing the observed spectra with the calculations in which spin-lattice coupling effects for the nearest-neighbor exchange interactions are taken into account, we have determined the Hamiltonian parameters in the field-induced 1/5-plateau phase, which directly show that CFO exhibits a bond order associated with the magnetic structure in this phase.

  6. Impurity model for Mn ions: Possibility of charge order and lattice distortions

    SciTech Connect

    Schlottmann, P.

    1999-04-01

    Mixed valent manganese ions play an important role in the magnetoresistance of LaMnO{sub 3}-based systems. We consider a Mn impurity with the Mn{sup 4+} represented by a spin S=3/2 (three localized 3d-t{sub 2g} electrons) and the Mn{sup 3+} configuration having an additional localized 3d-e{sub g} electron to form a total spin (S+1/2). The e{sub g} electron hybridizes with conduction electrons (representing the crystal), giving rise to a quadrupolar Kondo effect. The formation of the quadrupolar singlet interferes with the usual spin Kondo effect. Using the noncrossing diagram approximation, we calculate the ground state energy, valence, charge susceptibility, and the quadrupolar susceptibility as a function of the energy of the e{sub g} level for H{r_arrow}0 and compare it to results for H=0 and the ferromagnetic lattice. Both, the charge and quadrupolar susceptibilities, are larger in the spin-polarized limit, indicating that this state is more favorable for charge order and lattice distortions. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  7. Non-Spherical Source-Surface Model of the Corona and Heliosphere for a Quadrupolar Main Field of the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, M.

    2008-05-01

    Different methods of modeling the coronal and heliospheric magnetic field are conveniently visualized and intercompared by applying them to ideally axisymmetric field models. Thus, for example, a dipolar main B field with its moment parallel to the Sun's rotation axis leads to a flat heliospheric current sheet. More general solar main B fields (still axisymmetric about the solar rotation axis for simplicity) typically lead to cone-shaped current sheets beyond the source surface (and presumably also in MHD models). As in the dipolar case [Schulz et al., Solar Phys., 60, 83-104, 1978], such conical current sheets can be made realistically thin by taking the source surface to be non-spherical in a way that reflects the underlying structure of the Sun's main B field. A source surface that seems to work well in this respect [Schulz, Ann. Geophysicae, 15, 1379-1387, 1997] is a surface of constant F = (1/r)kB, where B is the scalar strength of the Sun's main magnetic field and k (~ 1.4) is a shape parameter. This construction tends to flatten the source surface in regions where B is relatively weak. Thus, for example, the source surface for a dipolar B field is shaped somewhat like a Rugby football, whereas the source surface for an axisymmetric quadrupolar B field is similarly elongated but somewhat flattened (as if stuffed into a pair of co-axial cones) at mid-latitudes. A linear combination of co-axial dipolar and quadrupolar B fields generates a somewhat apple-shaped source surface. If the region surrounded by the source surface is regarded as current-free, then the source surface itself should be (as nearly as possible) an equipotential surface for the corresponding magnetic scalar potential (expanded, for example, in spherical harmonics). More generally, the mean-square tangential component of the coronal magnetic field over the source surface should be minimized with respect to any adjustable parameters of the field model. The solar wind should then flow not quite radially, but rather in a straight line along the outward normal to the source surface, and the heliospheric B field should follow a corresponding generalization of Parker's spiral [Levine et al., Solar Phys., 77, 363-392, 1982]. In this work the above program is implemented for a Sun with an axisymmetric but purely quadrupolar main magnetic field. Two heliospheric current sheets emanate from circular neutral lines at mid-latitudes on the corresponding source surface. However, because the source surface is relatively flattened in regions where these neutral lines appear, the radial component of the heliospheric B field at r ~ 1 AU and beyond is much more nearly latitude-independent in absolute value than one would expect from a model based on a spherical source surface.

  8. Collective Mode in a Superconductor with Mixed-Symmetry Order Parameter Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balatsky, A. V.; Kumar, P.; Schrieffer, J. R.

    2000-05-01

    We consider a superconducting state with mixed-symmetry order parameter components, e.g., d+is or d+id' with d' = dxy. We argue for the existence of a new orbital magnetization mode which corresponds to oscillations of relative phase ? between two components around an equilibrium value of ? = ?2. It is similar to the ``clapping'' mode in superfluid 3He-A. We estimate the frequency of this mode ?0\\(B,T\\) depending on the field and temperature for the specific case of magnetic field induced d' = dxy state. This mode is tunable with a magnetic field with ?0\\(B,T\\)~B?0, where ?0 is the magnitude of the d-wave order parameter. We also estimate the velocity s\\(B,T\\) of this mode.

  9. Effect of strongly coupled plasma on the magnetic dipolar and quadrupolar transitions of two-electron ions

    SciTech Connect

    Saha, Jayanta K.; Mukherjee, T. K.; Mukherjee, P. K.; Fricke, B.

    2013-04-15

    Effect of strongly coupled plasma on the excitation energies and transition probabilities for the respective transitions 1s{sup 2}:{sup 1}S{sup e}{yields} 1sns:{sup 3}S{sup e} (n = 2, 3, 4) and 1s{sup 2}:{sup 1}S{sup e}{yields} 1snp:{sup 3}P{sup o} (n = 2, 3, 4) allowed by magnetic dipolar and quadrupolar excitations have been analyzed for the first time for the two-electron ions C{sup 4+}, O{sup 6+}, Ne{sup 8+}, Mg{sup 10+}, Si{sup 12+}, and S{sup 14+}. Time dependent Hatree-Fock theory within variational approach has been adopted for such a study. The effect of surrounding plasma has been treated through the standard Ion-Sphere (IS) model of the plasma where the plasma density is varied systematically from a low value to a pretty high value such that the respective excited states go over to continuum due to such a confinement. The effect of external pressure generated due to plasma confinement on the estimated spectral properties has been analyzed systematically.

  10. Observation of proximities between spin-1/2 and quadrupolar nuclei: Which heteronuclear dipolar recoupling method is preferable?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, X.; Lafon, O.; Trbosc, J.; Tricot, G.; Delevoye, L.; Mar, F.; Montagne, L.; Amoureux, J. P.

    2012-10-01

    We have recently shown that the dipolar-mediated heteronuclear multiple-quantum coherence (D-HMQC) method allows observing through-space proximities between spin-1/2 (1H, 13C, 31P) and quadrupolar (23Na, 27Al) nuclei. However, the D-HMQC effectiveness depends on the choice of the heteronuclear dipolar recoupling sequence. Here, we compare the efficiency and the robustness of four rotor-synchronized sequences: the symmetry-based ones, R4_1^2 R4_1^{ - 2} and its super-cycled version, SR4_1^2, and two schemes based on simultaneous amplitude and frequency modulations, denoted SFAM-1 and SFAM-2. For the SFAM methods, we point out efficient recoupling conditions that facilitate their experimental optimization and we introduce analytical expressions for the buildup of D-HMQC signal in the case of an isolated spin pair. We show that the main differences between these four sequences lie in the number of adjustable parameters and in their robustness with respect to chemical shift and homonuclear dipolar interactions. The relative performances of these four recoupling sequences are analyzed using average Hamiltonian theory, numerical simulations, and 27Al-{31P} D-HMQC experiments on crystalline aluminophosphate.

  11. Magnetic dipolar and quadrupolar transitions in two-electron atoms under exponential-cosine-screened Coulomb potential

    SciTech Connect

    Modesto-Costa, Lucas; Canuto, Sylvio; Mukherjee, Prasanta K.

    2015-03-15

    A detailed investigation of the magnetic dipolar and quadrupolar excitation energies and transition probabilities of helium isoelectronic He, Be{sup 2+}, C{sup 4+}, and O{sup 6+} have been performed under exponential cosine screened Coulomb potential generated in a plasma environment. The low-lying excited states 1s{sup 2}:{sup 1}S{sup e} → 1sns:{sup 3}S{sup e}{sub 0}, and 1snp:{sup 3}P{sup o}{sub 2} (n = 2, 3, 4, and 5) are considered. The variational time-dependent coupled Hartree-Fock scheme has been used. The effect of the confinement produced by the potential on the structural properties is investigated for increasing coupling strength of the plasma. It is noted that there is a gradual destabilization of the energy of the system with the reduction of the ionization potential and the number of excited states. The effect of the screening enhancement on the excitation energies and transition probabilities has also been investigated and the results compared with those available for the free systems and under the simple screened Coulomb potential.

  12. AN ENVELOPE DISRUPTED BY A QUADRUPOLAR OUTFLOW IN THE PRE-PLANETARY NEBULA IRAS 19475+3119

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, Ming-Chien; Lee, Chin-Fei E-mail: cflee@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw

    2011-07-20

    IRAS 19475+3119 is a quadrupolar pre-planetary nebula (PPN), with two bipolar lobes, one in the east-west (E-W) direction and one in the southeast-northwest (SE-NW) direction. We have observed it in CO J = 2-1 with the Submillimeter Array at {approx}1'' resolution. The E-W bipolar lobe is known to trace a bipolar outflow and it is detected at high velocity. The SE-NW bipolar lobe appears at low velocity, and could trace a bipolar outflow moving in the plane of the sky. Two compact clumps are seen at low velocity around the common waist of the two bipolar lobes, spatially coincident with the two emission peaks in the NIR, tracing dense envelope material. They are found to trace the two limb-brightened edges of a slowly expanding torus-like circumstellar envelope produced in the late asymptotic giant branch phase. This torus-like envelope originally could be either a torus or a spherical shell, and it appears as it is now because of the two pairs of cavities along the two bipolar lobes. Thus, the envelope appears to be disrupted by the two bipolar outflows in the PPN phase.

  13. Competition between charge and superconducting orders in underdoped YBCO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Julien, Marc-Henri

    2012-02-01

    We report nuclear magnetic resonance measurements (NMR) showing that high magnetic fields induce a static, unidirectional, modulation of the charge density in the CuO2 planes of underdoped YBa2Cu3Oy [T. Wu et al., Nature 477, 191 (2011)]. The appearance of the charge order coincides with the Fermi surface reconstruction inferred from quantum oscillation and other transport measurements. This charge order appears to be most probably the same 4a-periodic stripe modulation as in La-214 cuprates. That it develops only when superconductivity fades away (no charge order is observed under strong fields parallel to the planes) and near the same 1/8 hole doping as in La-214 suggests that charge order, although visibly pinned by CuO chains in YBa2Cu3Oy, is an intrinsic propensity of the superconducting planes of high-Tc copper oxides. Since field induced stripe order is also compatible with neutron scattering data in La-214 and with STM data in Bi-2212, charge order could be a generic competitor of high Tc superconductivity. [4pt] Work performed with T. Wu, H. Mayaffre, S. Kr"amer, M. Horvatic, C. Berthier (LNCMI Grenoble), W.N. Hardy, R. Liang, D.A. Bonn (University of British Columbia, Vancouver)

  14. TOPICAL REVIEW: Quantum spin nanotubes—frustration, competing orders and criticalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, Tôru; Sato, Masahiro; Okamoto, Kiyomi; Okunishi, Kouichi; Itoi, Chigak

    2010-10-01

    Recent developments of theoretical studies on spin nanotubes are reviewed, especially focusing on the S = 1/2 three-leg spin tube. In contrast to the three-leg spin ladder, the tube has a spin gap in the case of the regular-triangle unit cell when the rung interaction is sufficiently large. The effective theory based on the Hubbard Hamiltonian indicates a quantum phase transition to a gapless spin liquid due to the lattice distortion to an isosceles triangle. This is also supported by the numerical diagonalization and the density matrix renormalization group analyses. Furthermore, combining analytical and numerical approaches, we reveal several novel magnetic-field-induced phenomena: Néel, dimer, chiral and/or inhomogeneous orders, a new mechanism for the magnetization plateau formation, and others. The recently synthesized spin tube materials are also briefly introduced.

  15. {open_quotes}Quadrupoled{close_quotes} materials for second-order nonlinear optics

    SciTech Connect

    Hubbard, S.F.; Petschek, R.G.; Singer, K.D.

    1997-10-01

    We describe a new approach to second-order nonlinear optical materials, namely quadrupoling. This approach is valid in the regime of Kleinman (full permutation) symmetry breaking, and thus requires a two- or three dimensional microscopic nonlinearity at wavelengths away from material resonances. This {open_quotes}quadrupolar{close_quotes} nonlinearity arises from the second rank pseudotensor of the rotationally invariant representation of the second-order nonlinear optical tensor. We have experimentally investigated candidate molecules comprised of chiral camphorquinone derivatives by measuring the scalar invariant associated with the rank two pseudotensor using hyper-Rayleigh scattering. We have found sizable scalar figures of merit for several compounds using light for which the second harmonic wavelengths are greater than 100 nm longer than the absorption peak location. At these wavelengths, the quadrupolar scalar is as large as the polar (EFISH) scalar of p-nitroaniline. Prospects for applications are discussed.

  16. Quantum Stark broadening of Ar XV lines. Strong collision and quadrupolar potential contributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elabidi, H.; Sahal-Brchot, S.; Dimitrijevi?, M. S.

    2014-10-01

    We present in this paper electron impact broadening for six Ar XV lines using our quantum mechanical formalism and the semiclassical perturbation one. Additionally, our calculations of the corresponding atomic structure data (energy levels and oscillator strengths) and collision strengths are given as well. The lines considered here are divided into two sets: a first set of four lines involving the ground level: 1s22s21S0- 1s22snp 1P1o where 2?n?5 and a second set of two lines involving excited levels: 1s22s2p 1P1o-1s22s3s 1S0 and 1s22s2p 3P0o-1s22s3s 3S1. An extensive comparison between the quantum and the semiclassical results was performed in order to analyze the reason for differences between quantum and semiclassical results up to the factor of two. It has been shown that the difference between the two results may be due to the evaluation of strong collision contributions by the semiclassical formalism. Except few semiclassical results, the present results are the first to be published. After the recent discovery of the far UV lines of Ar VII in the spectra of very hot central stars of planetary nebulae and white dwarfs, the present -and may be further- results can be used also for the corresponding future spectral analysis.

  17. Quadrupolar transients, cosine correlation functions, and two-dimensional exchange spectra of non-selectively excited spin-3/2 nuclei: A (7)Li NMR study of the superionic conductor lithium indium phosphate.

    PubMed

    Storek, M; Bhmer, R

    2015-11-01

    Cos-cos stimulated echoes of non-selectively excited spin-3/2 nuclei were not exploited in studies of slow motional processes in solids and solid-like samples, so far. Based on a theoretical analysis of the quadrupolar transients which hitherto obviously precluded the application of such echoes, their utility is demonstrated for the example of (7)Li NMR on the polycrystalline fast ion conductor lithium indium phosphate. Quadrupolar transients can adversely affect the shape of two- and three-pulse echo spectra and strategies are successfully tested that mitigate their impact. Furthermore, by means of suitably adapted cos-cos echo sequences an effective suppression of central-line contributions to the NMR spectra is achieved. By combining cos-cos and sin-sin datasets static two-dimensional exchange spectra were recorded that display quadrupolarly modulated off-diagonal intensity indicative of ionic motion. PMID:26454137

  18. Quadrupolar transients, cosine correlation functions, and two-dimensional exchange spectra of non-selectively excited spin-3/2 nuclei: A 7Li NMR study of the superionic conductor lithium indium phosphate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storek, M.; Bhmer, R.

    2015-11-01

    Cos-cos stimulated echoes of non-selectively excited spin-3/2 nuclei were not exploited in studies of slow motional processes in solids and solid-like samples, so far. Based on a theoretical analysis of the quadrupolar transients which hitherto obviously precluded the application of such echoes, their utility is demonstrated for the example of 7Li NMR on the polycrystalline fast ion conductor lithium indium phosphate. Quadrupolar transients can adversely affect the shape of two- and three-pulse echo spectra and strategies are successfully tested that mitigate their impact. Furthermore, by means of suitably adapted cos-cos echo sequences an effective suppression of central-line contributions to the NMR spectra is achieved. By combining cos-cos and sin-sin datasets static two-dimensional exchange spectra were recorded that display quadrupolarly modulated off-diagonal intensity indicative of ionic motion.

  19. Structure and magnetic field-induced transition in a one-dimensional hybrid inorganic-organic chain system, Co2(4,4'-bpy)(tfhba)2.4,4'-bpy (4,4'-bpy = 4,4'-bipyridine; tfhba = 2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-4-hydroxybenzoate).

    PubMed

    Hulvey, Zeric; Melot, Brent C; Cheetham, Anthony K

    2010-05-17

    Two isostructural hybrid inorganic-organic frameworks, M(2)(4,4'-bpy)(tfhba)(2).4,4'-bpy, (M = Co (1), Zn (2); 4,4'-bpy = 4,4'-bipyridine; tfhba = 2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-4-hydroxybenzoate) have been synthesized and their structures elucidated using single crystal X-ray diffraction. These materials are the first hybrid structures synthesized using the tfhba ligand. They contain a one-dimensional chain of corner-sharing MO(4)N trigonal bipyramids that has not been observed to date for Co(2+) units. The magnetic properties of 1 have been investigated and indicate ferromagnetic ordering along the chains, with weak antiferromagnetic interactions between them. Overall the system is antiferromagnetic with a Neel temperature of 3 K, but undergoes a field-induced magnetic phase transition at 3 kOe. PMID:20405901

  20. Giant magnetothermal conductivity and magnetostriction effect in the charge ordered Nd0.8Na0.2MnO3 compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samantaray, B.; Khan, N.; Midya, A.; Ravi, S.; Mandal, P.

    2016-01-01

    We present results on resistivity (?), magnetization (M), thermal conductivity (?), magnetostriction (\\frac{? L}{L(0)}) and specific heat (C p ) of the charge-orbital ordered antiferromagnetic Nd0.8Na0.2MnO3 compound. Magnetic-fieldinduced antiferromagnetic/charge-orbital ordered insulating to ferromagnetic metallic transition leads to giant magnetothermal conductivity and magnetostriction effect. The low-temperature irreversibility behavior in ?, M, ? and \\frac{? L}{L(0)} due to field cycling together with a striking similarity among the field and temperature dependence of these parameters manifest the presence of a strong and complex spin-charge-lattice coupling in this compound. The giant magnetothermal conductivity is attributed mainly to the suppression of phonon scattering due to the destabilization of spin fluctuations and static/dynamic Jahn-Teller distortion by the application of magnetic field.

  1. Pressure-magnetic field induced phase transformation in Ni46Mn41In13 Heusler alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rama Rao, N. V.; Manivel Raja, M.; Esakki Muthu, S.; Arumugam, S.; Pandian, S.

    2014-12-01

    The effect of hydrostatic pressure and magnetic field on the magnetic properties and phase transformation in Ni46Mn41In13 Heusler alloy was investigated. Pressure (P)-magnetic field (H)-temperature (T) phase diagram has been constructed from experimental results. In the P-T contour of the phase diagram, the slope of the austenite-martensite phase boundary line appears positive (dT/dP > 0), while it appears negative (dT/dH < 0) in the H-T contour. The results revealed that pressure and magnetic field have opposite effect on phase stabilization. The combined effect of pressure and magnetic field on martensitic transition has led to two important findings: (i) pressure dependent shift of austenite start temperature (As) is higher when larger field is applied, and (ii) field dependent shift of As is lowered when a higher pressure is applied. The pressure and magnetic field dependent shift observed in the martensitic transformation has been explained on the basis of thermodynamic calculations. Curie temperature of the phases was found to increase with pressure at a rate of 0.6 K/kbar.

  2. Phonon spectrum of the QCD vacuum in a magnetic-field-induced superconducting phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernodub, M. N.; Van Doorsselaere, Jos; Verschelde, Henri

    2014-05-01

    In the background of a sufficiently strong magnetic field the vacuum was suggested to become an ideal electric conductor (highly anisotropic superconductor) due to an interplay between the strong and electromagnetic forces. The superconducting ground state resembles an Abrikosov lattice state in an ordinary type-II superconductor: it is an inhomogeneous structure made of a (charged vector) quark-antiquark condensate pierced by vortices. In this paper the acoustic (phonon) vibrational modes of the vortex lattice are studied at zero temperature. Using an effective model based on a vector meson dominance, we show that in the infrared limit the longitudinal (transverse) acoustic vibrations of the vortex lattice possess a linear (quadratic) dispersion relation corresponding to type-I (type-II) Nambu-Goldstone modes.

  3. Magnetic field induced flow pattern reversal in a ferrofluidic Taylor-Couette system

    PubMed Central

    Altmeyer, Sebastian; Do, Younghae; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the dynamics of ferrofluidic wavy vortex flows in the counter-rotating Taylor-Couette system, with a focus on wavy flows with a mixture of the dominant azimuthal modes. Without external magnetic field flows are stable and pro-grade with respect to the rotation of the inner cylinder. More complex behaviors can arise when an axial or a transverse magnetic field is applied. Depending on the direction and strength of the field, multi-stable wavy states and bifurcations can occur. We uncover the phenomenon of flow pattern reversal as the strength of the magnetic field is increased through a critical value. In between the regimes of pro-grade and retrograde flow rotations, standing waves with zero angular velocities can emerge. A striking finding is that, under a transverse magnetic field, a second reversal in the flow pattern direction can occur, where the flow pattern evolves into pro-grade rotation again from a retrograde state. Flow reversal is relevant to intriguing phenomena in nature such as geomagnetic reversal. Our results suggest that, in ferrofluids, flow pattern reversal can be induced by varying a magnetic field in a controlled manner, which can be realized in laboratory experiments with potential applications in the development of modern fluid devices. PMID:26687638

  4. Affective response to 5 microT ELF magnetic field-induced physiological changes.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Paul

    2007-02-01

    Research into effects of weak magnetic fields (MFs) at biologically relevant frequencies has produced ambiguous results. Although they do affect human physiology and behaviour, the direction of effects is inconsistent, with a range of complex and unrelated behaviours being susceptible. A possible explanation is that these effects, rather than being directly caused, are instead related to changes in affective state. A previous study showed that MFs altered the affective content of concurrent perceptions, but it was unclear whether the emotional response was direct or indirect. Here it is shown that exposure to a 0-5 microT MF (DC-offset sinudsoidal wave form) within EEG alpha-band frequencies (8-12 Hz), results in a reported change in emotional state. This relates to a decrease global field power but lacks the frontal alpha-asymmetry that would physiologically indicate a directly induced emotional state, suggesting that participant experiences are due to an interpretation of the effects of MF exposure. PMID:17004245

  5. Magnetic-field-induced charge redistribution in disordered graphene double quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, K. L.; Connolly, M. R.; Cresti, A.; Griffiths, J. P.; Jones, G. A. C.; Smith, C. G.

    2015-10-01

    We have studied the transport properties of a large graphene double quantum dot under the influence of a background disorder potential and a magnetic field. At low temperatures, the evolution of the charge-stability diagram as a function of the B field is investigated up to 10 T. Our results indicate that the charging energy of the quantum dot is reduced, and hence the effective size of the dot increases at a high magnetic field. We provide an explanation of our results using a tight-binding model, which describes the charge redistribution in a disordered graphene quantum dot via the formation of Landau levels and edge states. Our model suggests that the tunnel barriers separating different electron/hole puddles in a dot become transparent at high B fields, resulting in the charge delocalization and reduced charging energy observed experimentally.

  6. External magnetic field-induced selective biodistribution of magnetoliposomes in mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garca-Jimeno, Sonia; Escribano, Elvira; Queralt, Josep; Estelrich, Joan

    2012-08-01

    This study looked at the effect of an external magnet on the biodistribution of magnetoliposomes intravenously administrated in mice (8 mg iron/kg) with and without induced acute inflammation. Our results showed that due to enhanced vascular permeability, magnetoliposomes accumulated at the site of inflammation in the absence of an external magnetic field, but the amount of iron present increased under the effect of a magnet located at the inflammation zone. This increase was dependent on the time (20 or 60 min) of exposure of the external magnetic field. It was also observed that the presence of the magnet was associated with lower amounts of iron in the liver, spleen, and plasma than was found in mice in which a magnet had not been applied. The results of this study confirm that it is possible to target drugs encapsulated in magnetic particles by means of an external magnet.

  7. Magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH): Cancer treatment with AC magnetic field induced excitation of biocompatible superparamagnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, Andreas; Scholz, Regina; Wust, Peter; Fähling, Horst; Felix, Roland

    1999-07-01

    The story of hyperthermia with small particles in AC magnetic fields started in the late 1950s, but most of the studies were unfortunately conducted with inadequate animal systems, inexact thermometry and poor AC magnetic field parameters, so that any clinical implication was far behind the horizon. More than three decades later, it was found, that colloidal dispersions of superparamagnetic (subdomain) iron oxide nanoparticles exhibit an extraordinary specific absorption rate (SAR [ W/ g]), which is much higher at clinically tolerable H 0 f combinations in comparison to hysteresis heating of larger multidomain particles. This was the renaissance of a cancer treatment method, which has gained more and more attention in the last few years. Due to the increasing number of randomized clinical trials preferentially in Europe with conventional E-field hyperthermia systems, the general medical and physical experience in hyperthermia application is also rapidly growing. Taking this increasing clinical experience carefully into account together with the huge amount of new biological data on heat response of cells and tissues, the approach of magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) is nowadays more promising than ever before. The present contribution reviews the current state of the art and some of the future perspectives supported by advanced methods of the so-called nanotechnology.

  8. Weak extremely-low-frequency magnetic field-induced regeneration anomalies in the planarian Dugesia tigrina.

    PubMed

    Jenrow, K A; Smith, C H; Liboff, A R

    1996-01-01

    We recently reported that cephalic regeneration in the planarian Dugesia tigrina was significantly delayed in populations exposed continuously to combined parallel DC and AC magnetic fields. This effect was consistent with hypotheses suggesting an underlying resonance phenomenon. We report here, in a parallel series of investigations on the same model system, that the incidence of regeneration anomalies presenting as tumor-like protuberances also increases significantly (P < .001) in association with exposure to weak 60 Hz magnetic fields, with peak intensities ranging between 1.0 and 80.0 microT. These anomalies often culminate in the complete disaggregation of the organism. Similar to regeneration rate effects, the incidence of regeneration anomalies is specifically dependent upon the planaria possessing a fixed orientation with respect to the applied magnetic field vectors. However, unlike the regeneration rate effects, the AC magnetic field alone, in the absence of any measurable DC field, is capable of producing these anomalies. Moreover, the incidence of regeneration anomalies follows a clear dose-response relationship as a function of AC magnetic field intensity, with the threshold for induced electric field intensity estimated at 5 microV/m. The addition of either 51.1 or 78.4 microT DC magnetic fields, applied in parallel combination with the AC field, enhances the appearance of anomalies relative to the 60 Hz AC field alone, but only at certain AC field intensities. Thus, whereas our previous study of regeneration rate effects appeared to involve exclusively resonance interactions, the regeneration anomalies reported here appear to result primarily from Faraday induction coupling. These results together with those reported previously point to two distinct physiological effects produced in regenerating planaria by exposure to weak extremely-low-frequency (ELF) magnetic fields. They further suggest that the planarian, which has recently been identified elsewhere as an excellent system for use in teratogenic investigations involving chemical teratogens, might be used similarly in teratogenic investigations involving ELF magnetic fields. PMID:8986364

  9. Exposure to a 50-Hz magnetic field induced ceramide generation in cultured cells.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Liping; Feng, Baihuan; Ni, Zuowei; Wu, Xiaodan; Sun, Wenjun

    2016-04-01

    Purpose To investigate the effects of a 50-Hz magnetic field (MF) exposure on ceramide metabolism, as well as the cascade downstream signaling pathways in human amniotic (FL) cells. Materials and methods FL cells were exposed to MF at 0.4 mT for different durations (from 5-60 min). The ceramides levels were analyzed with high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The activity of cathepsin D was assayed using a fluorometric assay kit, and the activity of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) was examined by Western blotting. After exposing to MF at 0.4 mT for 60 min with sequential culture for different durations (0, 3, 6, 12 or 36 h), the rate of cell apoptosis was assessed by flow cytometry. Results Exposing cells to MF at 0.4 mT for different durations caused a significant increase in ceramide production via de novo synthesis and hydrolysis of sphingomyelin (SM), and the effect was different according to the exposure time. However, no significant change in cell apoptosis was detected after MF exposure for 60 min with sequentially culturing for up to 36 h. In addition, increase in ceramide did not activate its downstream signal molecules, cathepsin D and PP2A, which are usually closely related to apoptosis of cells. Conclusions Exposure to a 50-Hz MF could raise ceramide levels but had no significant effect on apoptosis in cultured cells. PMID:26887861

  10. Enhanced magnetic-field-induced optical properties of nanostructured magnetic fluids by doping nematic liquid crystals

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Ferronematic materials composed of 4-cyano-4?-pentylbiphenyl nematic liquid crystal and oil-based Fe3O4 magnetic fluid were prepared using ultrasonic agitation. The birefringence (?n) and figure of merit of optical properties (Q?=??n/?, where ? is the extinction coefficient) of pure magnetic fluids and the as-prepared ferronematic materials were examined and compared. The figure of merit of optical properties weighs the birefringence and extinction of the materials and is more appropriate to evaluate their optical properties. Similar magnetic-field- and magnetic-particle-concentration-dependent properties of birefringence and figure of merit of optical properties were obtained for the pure magnetic fluids and the ferronematic materials. For the ferronematic materials, the values of Q increase with the volume fractions of nematic liquid crystal under certain fixed field strength and are larger than those of their corresponding pure magnetic fluids at high field region. In addition, the enhancement of Q value increases monotonously with the magnetic field and becomes remarkable when the applied magnetic field is beyond 50 mT. The maximum relative enhanced value of QR exceeds 6.8% in our experiments. The results of this work may conduce to extend the pragmatic applications of nanostructured magnetic fluids in optical field. PMID:22587542

  11. Rotating magnetic field induced oscillation of magnetic particles for in vivo mechanical destruction of malignant glioma.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yu; Muroski, Megan E; Petit, Dorothée C M C; Mansell, Rhodri; Vemulkar, Tarun; Morshed, Ramin A; Han, Yu; Balyasnikova, Irina V; Horbinski, Craig M; Huang, Xinlei; Zhang, Lingjiao; Cowburn, Russell P; Lesniak, Maciej S

    2016-02-10

    Magnetic particles that can be precisely controlled under a magnetic field and transduce energy from the applied field open the way for innovative cancer treatment. Although these particles represent an area of active development for drug delivery and magnetic hyperthermia, the in vivo anti-tumor effect under a low-frequency magnetic field using magnetic particles has not yet been demonstrated. To-date, induced cancer cell death via the oscillation of nanoparticles under a low-frequency magnetic field has only been observed in vitro. In this report, we demonstrate the successful use of spin-vortex, disk-shaped permalloy magnetic particles in a low-frequency, rotating magnetic field for the in vitro and in vivo destruction of glioma cells. The internalized nanomagnets align themselves to the plane of the rotating magnetic field, creating a strong mechanical force which damages the cancer cell structure inducing programmed cell death. In vivo, the magnetic field treatment successfully reduces brain tumor size and increases the survival rate of mice bearing intracranial glioma xenografts, without adverse side effects. This study demonstrates a novel approach of controlling magnetic particles for treating malignant glioma that should be applicable to treat a wide range of cancers. PMID:26708022

  12. Magnetic field-induced self-assembly of iron oxide nanocubes.

    PubMed

    Singh, Gurvinder; Chan, Henry; Udayabhaskararao, T; Gelman, Elijah; Peddis, Davide; Baskin, Artem; Leitus, Gregory; Král, Petr; Klajn, Rafal

    2015-01-01

    Self-assembly of inorganic nanoparticles has been studied extensively for particles having different sizes and compositions. However, relatively little attention has been devoted to how the shape and surface chemistry of magnetic nanoparticles affects their self-assembly properties. Here, we undertook a combined experiment-theory study aimed at better understanding of the self-assembly of cubic magnetite (Fe3O4) particles. We demonstrated that, depending on the experimental parameters, such as the direction of the magnetic field and nanoparticle density, a variety of superstructures can be obtained, including one-dimensional filaments and helices, as well as C-shaped assemblies described here for the first time. Furthermore, we functionalized the surfaces of the magnetic nanocubes with light-sensitive ligands. Using these modified nanoparticles, we were able to achieve orthogonal control of self-assembly using a magnetic field and light. PMID:25920522

  13. Magnetic-field-induced domain-wall motion in permalloy nanowires with modified Gilbert damping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Thomas A.; Mhrke, Philipp; Heyne, Lutz; Kaldun, Andreas; Klui, Mathias; Backes, Dirk; Rhensius, Jan; Heyderman, Laura J.; Thiele, Jan-Ulrich; Woltersdorf, Georg; Fraile Rodrguez, Arantxa; Nolting, Frithjof; Mente?, Tevfik O.; Nio, Miguel .; Locatelli, Andrea; Potenza, Alessandro; Marchetto, Helder; Cavill, Stuart; Dhesi, Sarnjeet S.

    2010-09-01

    Domain wall (DW) depinning and motion in the viscous regime induced by magnetic fields, are investigated in planar permalloy nanowires in which the Gilbert damping ? is tuned in the range 0.008-0.26 by doping with Ho. Real time, spatially resolved magneto-optic Kerr effect measurements yield depinning field distributions and DW mobilities. Depinning occurs at discrete values of the field which are correlated with different metastable DW states and changed by the doping. For ?<0.033 , the DW mobilities are smaller than expected while for ??0.033 , there is agreement between the measured DW mobilities and those predicted by the standard one-dimensional model of field-induced DW motion. Micromagnetic simulations indicate that this is because as ? increases, the DW spin structure becomes increasingly rigid. Only when the damping is large can the DW be approximated as a pointlike quasiparticle that exhibits the simple translational motion predicted in the viscous regime. When the damping is small, the DW spin structure undergoes periodic distortions that lead to a velocity reduction. We therefore show that Ho doping of permalloy nanowires enables engineering of the DW depinning and mobility, as well as the extent of the viscous regime.

  14. Dynamo magnetic field-induced angular momentum transport in protostellar nebulae - The 'minimum mass' protosolar nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stepinski, T. F.; Levy, E. H.

    1990-01-01

    Magnetic torques can produce angular momentum redistribution in protostellar nebulas. Dynamo magnetic fields can be generated in differentially rotating and turbulent nebulas and can be the source of magnetic torques that transfer angular momentum from a protostar to a disk, as well as redistribute angular momentum within a disk. A magnetic field strength of 100-1000 G is needed to transport the major part of a protostar's angular momentum into a surrounding disk in a time characteristic of star formation, thus allowing formation of a solar-system size protoplanetary nebula in the usual 'minimum-mass' model of the protosolar nebula. This paper examines the possibility that a dynamo magnetic field could have induced the needed angular momentum transport from the proto-Sun to the protoplanetary nebula.

  15. Magnetic field-induced fracture changes in metastable austenites at 4. 2K

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, Jin Wah.

    1991-06-01

    Austenitic stainless steels have been used as structural alloys in high field superconducting magnets. Some of the candidate structural alloys for the next generation of magnetic confinement fusion reactors are of this type. In this application the alloys sustain high stresses in high strength magnetic fields at 4.2K. It is known that plastic deformation at low temperatures induces a martensitic transformation in some of these alloys and that the presence of a strong magnetic field enhances the transformation. If such potentially metastable alloys are selected for this application, their mechanical behavior under service conditions has to be examined closely. Work on the tensile behavior of 18-8 type stainless steels under conditions of cryogenic temperatures and high-strength magnetic fields indicates that the tensile behavior does not undergo large changes in an engineering sense. However, fatigue and fracture properties have not yet been examined closely. This work addresses the fracture behavior of 18-8 type austenitic alloys at 4.2K in an 8T magnetic field. The fracture toughness is found to change with the application of the magnetic field. The direction of the fracture toughness change is related to enhanced transformation due to the reduction in the stability of the alloy in the magnetic field. Materials of low stability decrease in toughness and materials of intermediate stability increase in toughness; fully stable alloys showed no change. Several mechanisms that contribute to the observed differences are identified. These include: formation of low toughness martensite regions, strain hardening rate increases due to the transformation, transformation toughening, magnetostatic interactions, and changes in the slip characteristics. The timing of the transformation influences the relative strength of the operative mechanisms and determines the direction and amount of fracture toughness change. 63 refs., 35 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Measurements of the magnetic field induced by a turbulent flow of liquid metal

    SciTech Connect

    Nornberg, M.D.; Spence, E.J.; Kendrick, R.D.; Jacobson, C.M.; Forest, C.B.

    2006-05-15

    Initial results from the Madison Dynamo Experiment provide details of the inductive response of a turbulent flow of liquid sodium to an applied magnetic field. The magnetic field structure is reconstructed from both internal and external measurements. A mean toroidal magnetic field is induced by the flow when an axial field is applied, thereby demonstrating the omega effect. Poloidal magnetic flux is expelled from the fluid by the poloidal flow. Small-scale magnetic field structures are generated by turbulence in the flow. The resulting magnetic power spectrum exhibits a power-law scaling consistent with the equipartition of the magnetic field with a turbulent velocity field. The magnetic power spectrum has an apparent knee at the resistive dissipation scale. Large-scale eddies in the flow cause significant changes to the instantaneous flow profile resulting in intermittent bursts of nonaxisymmetric magnetic fields, demonstrating that the transition to a dynamo is not smooth for a turbulent flow.

  17. Magnetic field induced quantum dot brightening in liquid crystal synergized magnetic and semiconducting nanoparticle composite assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Amaral, Jose Jussi; Wan, Jacky; Rodarte, Andrea L.; Ferri, Christopher; Quint, Makiko T.; Pandolfi, Ronald J.; Scheibner, Michael; Hirst, Linda S.; Ghosh, Sayantani

    2014-10-22

    The design and development of multifunctional composite materials from artificial nano-constituents is one of the most compelling current research areas. This drive to improve over nature and produce ‘meta-materials’ has met with some success, but results have proven limited with regards to both the demonstration of synergistic functionalities and in the ability to manipulate the material properties post-fabrication and in situ. Here, magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and semiconducting quantum dots (QDs) are co-assembled in a nematic liquid crystalline (LC) matrix, forming composite structures in which the emission intensity of the quantum dots is systematically and reversibly controlled with a small applied magnetic field (<100 mT). This magnetic field-driven brightening, ranging between a two- to three-fold peak intensity increase, is a truly cooperative effect: the LC phase transition creates the co-assemblies, the clustering of the MNPs produces LC re-orientation at atypical low external field, and this re-arrangement produces compaction of the clusters, resulting in the detection of increased QD emission. These results demonstrate a synergistic, reversible, and an all-optical process to detect magnetic fields and additionally, as the clusters are self-assembled in a fluid medium, they offer the possibility for these sensors to be used in broad ranging fluid-based applications.

  18. Magnetic field induced flow pattern reversal in a ferrofluidic Taylor-Couette system.

    PubMed

    Altmeyer, Sebastian; Do, Younghae; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the dynamics of ferrofluidic wavy vortex flows in the counter-rotating Taylor-Couette system, with a focus on wavy flows with a mixture of the dominant azimuthal modes. Without external magnetic field flows are stable and pro-grade with respect to the rotation of the inner cylinder. More complex behaviors can arise when an axial or a transverse magnetic field is applied. Depending on the direction and strength of the field, multi-stable wavy states and bifurcations can occur. We uncover the phenomenon of flow pattern reversal as the strength of the magnetic field is increased through a critical value. In between the regimes of pro-grade and retrograde flow rotations, standing waves with zero angular velocities can emerge. A striking finding is that, under a transverse magnetic field, a second reversal in the flow pattern direction can occur, where the flow pattern evolves into pro-grade rotation again from a retrograde state. Flow reversal is relevant to intriguing phenomena in nature such as geomagnetic reversal. Our results suggest that, in ferrofluids, flow pattern reversal can be induced by varying a magnetic field in a controlled manner, which can be realized in laboratory experiments with potential applications in the development of modern fluid devices. PMID:26687638

  19. Electronic scattering of pseudo-magnetic field induced by local bump in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Mou; Cui, Yan; Wang, Rui-Qiang; Zhao, Hong-Bo

    2012-10-01

    We investigated the electronic scattering properties of a local bump strain in graphene sheet in frame of Born approximation. The differential scattering cross section is a function of outgoing and incident angles and has the six-fold rotational symmetry with respect to both angles. The incident plane wave is scattered into two backward fan-waves in different directions in low energy limit and is split into two branches spanning the angle reversely proportional to the incident wavevector k in high energy limit. The total scattering cross section depends on incident wavevector by the form k5 in the former limit, while it is independent of k and sensitive to the incident orientation in the latter limit. We explained these features using the symmetry of the strain-induced pseudo-magnetic field.

  20. Terahertz probes of magnetic field induced spin reorientation in YFeO{sub 3} single crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Xian; Jiang, Junjie; Ma, Guohong; Jin, Zuanming; Wang, Dongyang; Tian, Zhen; Han, Jiaguang; Cheng, Zhenxiang

    2015-03-02

    Using the terahertz time-domain spectroscopy, we demonstrate the spin reorientation of a canted antiferromagnetic YFeO{sub 3} single crystal, by evaluating the temperature and magnetic field dependence of resonant frequency and amplitude for the quasi-ferromagnetic (FM) and quasi-antiferromagnetic modes (AFM), a deeper insight into the dynamics of spin reorientation in rare-earth orthoferrites is established. Due to the absence of 4f-electrons in Y ion, the spin reorientation of Fe sublattices can only be induced by the applied magnetic field, rather than temperature. In agreement with the theoretical predication, the frequency of FM mode decreases with magnetic field. In addition, an obvious step of spin reorientation phase transition occurs with a relatively large applied magnetic field of 4?T. By comparison with the family members of RFeO{sub 3} (R?=?Y{sup 3+} or rare-earth ions), our results suggest that the chosen of R would tailor the dynamical rotation properties of Fe ions, leading to the designable spin switching in the orthoferrite antiferromagnetic systems.

  1. External magnetic field-induced selective biodistribution of magnetoliposomes in mice

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    This study looked at the effect of an external magnet on the biodistribution of magnetoliposomes intravenously administrated in mice (8 mg iron/kg) with and without induced acute inflammation. Our results showed that due to enhanced vascular permeability, magnetoliposomes accumulated at the site of inflammation in the absence of an external magnetic field, but the amount of iron present increased under the effect of a magnet located at the inflammation zone. This increase was dependent on the time (20 or 60 min) of exposure of the external magnetic field. It was also observed that the presence of the magnet was associated with lower amounts of iron in the liver, spleen, and plasma than was found in mice in which a magnet had not been applied. The results of this study confirm that it is possible to target drugs encapsulated in magnetic particles by means of an external magnet. PMID:22883385

  2. Magnetic-field-induced enhancement of atomic stabilization in intense high-frequency laser fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonsen, Aleksander Skjerlie; Frre, Morten

    2015-07-01

    The role of the magnetic-field component of the laser pulse on the phenomenon of atomic stabilization is investigated in an ab initio study. This is achieved by solving the time-dependent Schrdinger equation for the laser-atom interaction beyond the dipole approximation. The system under study is atomic hydrogen and the atom is assumed to be irradiated by an intense xuv laser light pulse of varying intensity and duration. We consider two different photon energies, ? ? =54 and 95 eV. The main finding is that there exists a range of laser pulse durations lasting for a few tens of field cycles where the atomic stabilization effect is enhanced due to the magnetic-field component. This is a rather surprising result that contradicts earlier statements made in the few-cycle pulse regime, where it has been shown that the magnetic field has a destructive effect in that the degree of stabilization is suppressed. It is further found that in the long-pulse limit the ionization probabilities obtained when illuminating the target with dipole and nondipole fields eventually coincide, meaning that the magnetic-field component of the laser field finally loses its significance in the context of atomic stabilization. It is also found that within the window of enhanced stabilization, the surplus population is distributed among excited bound states rather than in the initial ground state.

  3. Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Fields Induce Spermatogenic Germ Cell Apoptosis: Possible Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang-Kon; Park, Sungman; Gimm, Yoon-Myoung; Kim, Yoon-Won

    2014-01-01

    The energy generated by an extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) is too weak to directly induce genotoxicity. However, it is reported that an extremely low frequency magnetic field (ELF-MF) is related to DNA strand breakage and apoptosis. The testes that conduct spermatogenesis through a dynamic cellular process involving meiosis and mitosis seem vulnerable to external stress such as heat, MF exposure, and chemical or physical agents. Nevertheless the results regarding adverse effects of ELF-EMF on human or animal reproductive functions are inconclusive. According to the guideline of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP; 2010) for limiting exposure to time-varying MF (1?Hz to 100?kHz), overall conclusion of epidemiologic studies has not consistently shown an association between human adverse reproductive outcomes and maternal or paternal exposure to low frequency fields. In animal studies there is no compelling evidence of causal relationship between prenatal development and ELF-MF exposure. However there is increasing evidence that EL-EMF exposure is involved with germ cell apoptosis in testes. Biophysical mechanism by which ELF-MF induces germ cell apoptosis has not been established. This review proposes the possible mechanism of germ cell apoptosis in testes induced by ELF-MF. PMID:25025060

  4. Weak extremely-low-frequency magnetic field-induced regeneration anomalies in the planarian, Dugesia tigrina

    SciTech Connect

    Jenrow, K.A.; Smith, C.H.; Liboff, A.R.

    1996-12-31

    The authors recently reported that cephalic regeneration in the planarian Dugesia tigrina was significantly delayed in populations exposed continuously to combined parallel DC and AC magnetic fields. This effect was consistent with hypotheses suggesting an underlying resonance phenomenon. The authors report here, in a parallel series of investigations on the same model system, that the incidence of regeneration anomalies presenting as tumor-like protuberances also increases significantly (P < .001) in association with exposure to weak 60 Hz magnetic fields, with peak intensities ranging between 1.0 and 80.0 {micro}T. These anomalies often culminate in the complete disaggregation of the organism. Similar to regeneration rate effects, the incidence of regeneration anomalies is specifically dependent upon the planaria possessing a fixed orientation with respect to the applied magnetic field vectors. However, unlike the regeneration rate effects, the AC magnetic field alone, in the absence of any measurable DC field, is capable of producing these anomalies. Moreover, the incidence of regeneration anomalies follows a clear dose-response relationship as a function of AC magnetic field intensity, with the threshold for induced electric field intensity estimated at 5 {micro} V/m. The addition of either 51.1 or 78.4 {micro}T DC magnetic fields, applied in parallel combination with the AC field, enhances the appearance of anomalies relative to the 60 Hz AC field alone, but only at certain AC field intensities. Thus, whereas the previous study of regeneration rate effects appeared to involve exclusively resonance interactions, the regeneration anomalies reported here appear to result primarily from Faraday induction coupling.

  5. High magnetic field inducing magnetic transitions of Fe and Ni doped InO nanocubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Qingbo; Zeng, Yu-Ping; Jiang, Dongliang

    2011-09-01

    Fe 3+ and Ni 2+ (5 at.%) doped In 2O 3 single-crystalline nanocubes showed distinctly different magnetic properties before and after 4T high magnetic field treatments. Fe 3+ doped In 2O 3 nanocrystals were transferred from paramagnetic to super-paramagnetic by treating them in high magnetic field while Ni 2+ doped In 2O 3 nanocubes obviously improved primary ferromagnetism. These special phenomena may open up a way to endow nanomaterials with novel and special functions. In addition, their magnetic properties were not caused by impurities or changes of morphologies and crystalline structures.

  6. An Experimental Determination of Static Magnetic Fields Induced Noise in Living Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brady, Megan; Laramee, Craig

    2013-03-01

    Living systems are constantly exposed to static magnetic fields (SMFs) from both natural and man-made sources. Exposures vary in dose and duration ranging from geomagnetic (~50 ?T) to residential and industrial (~10s of mT) fields. Efforts to characterize responses to SMFs have yielded conflicting results, showing a dependence on experimental variables used. Here we argue that low to moderate SMF exposure is a sub-threshold perturbation operating below thermal noise, and assays that evaluate statistical characteristics of a single cell may identify responses not consistently found by population averaging approaches. Recent studies of gene expression show that it is a stochastic process capable of producing bursting dynamics. Moreover, theoretical and experimental methods have also been developed to allow quantitative estimates of the associated biophysical parameters. These developments provide a new way to assess responses of living systems to SMFs. In this work, we report on our efforts to use single molecule fluorescence in situ hybridization to assess responses of NIH-3T3 cells to SMF exposure at flux densities ranging from 1 to 440 mT for 48 hours. Results will contribute to determining mechanisms by which SMF exposure influences gene expression.

  7. Observation of magnetic field-induced contraction of fission yeast cells using optical projection microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xi; Beckwith, A. W.

    2005-03-01

    The charges in live cells interact with or produce electric fields, which results in enormous dielectric responses, flexoelectricity, and related phenomena. Here we report on a contraction of Schizosaccharomyces pombe (fission yeast) cells induced by magnetic fields, as observed using a phase-sensitive projection imaging technique. Unlike electric fields, magnetic fields only act on moving charges. The observed behavior is therefore quite remarkable, and may result from a contractile Lorentz force acting on diamagnetic screening currents. This would indicate extremely high intracellular charge mobilities. Besides, we observed a large electro-optic response from fission yeast cells.

  8. Observation of magnetic field-induced contraction of fission yeast cells using optical projection microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xi; Beckwith, Andrew; Miller, John; Wood, Lowell

    2004-12-01

    The charges in live cells interact with or produce electric fields, which results in enormous dielectric responses, flexoelectricity, and related phenomena. Here we report on a contraction of Schizosaccharomyces pombe (fission yeast) cells induced by magnetic fields, as observed using a phase-sensitive projection imaging technique. Unlike electric fields, magnetic fields only act on moving charges. The observed behavior is therefore quite remarkable, and may result from a contractile Lorentz force acting on diamagnetic screening currents. This would indicate extremely high intracellular charge mobilities. Besides, we observed a large electro-optic response from fission yeast cells.

  9. Magnetic field induced quantum dot brightening in liquid crystal synergized magnetic and semiconducting nanoparticle composite assemblies

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Amaral, Jose Jussi; Wan, Jacky; Rodarte, Andrea L.; Ferri, Christopher; Quint, Makiko T.; Pandolfi, Ronald J.; Scheibner, Michael; Hirst, Linda S.; Ghosh, Sayantani

    2014-10-22

    The design and development of multifunctional composite materials from artificial nano-constituents is one of the most compelling current research areas. This drive to improve over nature and produce ‘meta-materials’ has met with some success, but results have proven limited with regards to both the demonstration of synergistic functionalities and in the ability to manipulate the material properties post-fabrication and in situ. Here, magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and semiconducting quantum dots (QDs) are co-assembled in a nematic liquid crystalline (LC) matrix, forming composite structures in which the emission intensity of the quantum dots is systematically and reversibly controlled with a small appliedmore » magnetic field (<100 mT). This magnetic field-driven brightening, ranging between a two- to three-fold peak intensity increase, is a truly cooperative effect: the LC phase transition creates the co-assemblies, the clustering of the MNPs produces LC re-orientation at atypical low external field, and this re-arrangement produces compaction of the clusters, resulting in the detection of increased QD emission. These results demonstrate a synergistic, reversible, and an all-optical process to detect magnetic fields and additionally, as the clusters are self-assembled in a fluid medium, they offer the possibility for these sensors to be used in broad ranging fluid-based applications.« less

  10. Fine structure in the quadrupolar transition of the Ho L{sub 3} pre-edge observed by lifetime-broadening-suppressed XANES spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashi, Hisashi; Kawata, Masaki; Sato, Atsushi; Udagawa, Yasuo; Inami, Toshiya; Ishii, Kenji; Ogasawara, Haruhiko; Nanao, Susumu

    2005-07-15

    The 2p3d resonant inelastic x-ray-scattering spectra of Ho{sub 2}O{sub 3} are measured under 0.7 eV resolution and analyzed in terms of an equation based on the Kramers-Heisenberg formula. Broadening due to core-hole lifetime (4.26 eV) is completely suppressed to give sharp absorption bands with width of <0.5 eV together with energy position uncertainty {approx}0.3 eV. Observed bands are assigned to be well-known 2p{yields}4f quadrupolar transitions that are otherwise buried under lifetime-broadened intense 2p{yields}5d dipole transition. The present work opens up an opportunity to study 4f-5d interactions more accurately.

  11. Influence of quadrupolar interactions on the crystal packing of organic compounds: the pentafluorophenyl ester of a tricyclic ?,?-unsaturated-?-amino acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Enrique; Maha, Jos; Maestro, Miguel A.; Herradn, Bernardo

    2002-10-01

    The single crystal X-ray diffraction structure of (-)-pentafluorophenyl( Z, S, S)-2-(6-oxo-1,3,4,6,11,11a-hexahydro-2 H-pyrido[1,2- b]isoquinolin-11-yliden)acetate ( 1) is reported. We have found that the crystal packing of the ?,?-unsaturated-?-amino acid derivative 1 is mainly determined by the interaction between the two aromatic rings, namely the benzenic type and the pentafluorinated ring. The crystal packing of 1 shows a herringbone (zig-zag) structure, that is quite typical of aromatic compound with intermolecular arene-arene interactions. The benzenic and the fluorinated phenyl rings in 1 are in a matched face-to-face arrangement. The origin of this interaction can be ascribed to a favourably quadrupolar interaction between both types of aromatic ring. The results reported in the present paper indicate that the pentafluorophenyl ester functionality can be a useful building block in crystal engineering.

  12. Iterative Lineshape Analysis of Quadrupolar Echo Spectra of a Damped CD 3 Quantum Rotor: Preliminary Evidence of a Novel Mechanism of Stochastic Spin Exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szyma?ski, S.; Olejniczak, Z.; Detken, A.; Haeberlen, U.

    2001-02-01

    It is demonstrated that the wealth of information about damped quantum rotation of CD3 groups, contained in quadrupolar echo spectra, can be fully explored in a broad temperature range using a method of iterative analysis of the spectral lineshapes. The recently reported lineshape equation which, apart from the quantum tunneling and the dissipative Alexander-Binsch terms, contains an additional dissipative term having no classical analog is shown to be capable of describing even subtle details of the spectra of a crystal of acetylsalicylic acid-CD3 oriented specifically in the magnetic field. Preliminary evidence of the occurrence of this novel dissipative mechanism in the system studied is reported. The results obtained seem to suggest that there is no "classical limit" in the dissipative behavior of this system.

  13. The mitochondrial precursor protein apocytochrome c strongly influences the order of the headgroup and acyl chains of phosphatidylserine dispersions. A sup 2 H and sup 31 P NMR study

    SciTech Connect

    Jordi, W.; de Kroon, A.I.P.M.; Killian, A.; de Kruijff, B. )

    1990-03-06

    Deuterium and phosphorus nuclear magnetic resonance techniques were used to study the interaction of the mitochondrial precursor protein apocytochrome c with headgroup-deuterated (dioleoylphosphatidyl-L-(2-{sup 2}H{sub 1})serine) and acyl chain deuterated (1,2-(11,11-{sup 2}H{sub 2})dioleoylphosphatidylserine) dispersions. Binding of the protein to dioleoylphosphatidylserine liposomes results in phosphorus nuclear magnetic resonance spectra typical of phospholipids undergoing fast axial rotation in extended liquid-crystalline bilayers with a reduced residual chemical shift anisotropy and an increased line width. {sup 2}H NMR spectra on headgroup-deuterated dioleoylphosphatidylserine dispersions showed a decrease in quadrupolar splitting and a broadening of the signal on interaction with apocytochrome c. Addition of increasing amounts of apocytochrome c to the acyl chain deuterated dioleoylphosphatidylserine dispersions results in the gradual appearance of a second component in the spectra with a 44% reduced quadrupolar splitting. Such large reduction of the quadrupolar splitting has never been observed for any protein studied yet. The induction of a new spectral component with a well-defined reduced quadrupolar splitting seems to be confined to the N-terminus since addition of a small hydrophilic amino-terminal peptide (residues 1-38) also induces a second component with a strongly reduced quadrupolar splitting. A chemically synthesized peptide corresponding to amino acid residues 2-17 of the presequence of the mitochondrial protein cytochrome oxidase subunit IV also has a large perturbing effect on the order of the acyl chains, indicating that the observed effects may be a property shared by many mitochondrial precursor proteins. Implications of these data for the import of apocytochrome c into mitochondria will be discussed.

  14. Determination of the 17O quadrupolar coupling constant and of the 13C shielding tensor anisotropy in solution for molecules containing a COOH group. NMR relaxation study and theoretical calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubini, P.; Champmartin, D.; Assfeld, X.

    1998-02-01

    The shielding anisotropy (SA) of the 13C-nucleus ? ? in COOH groups of some molecules could be deduced, in solution, from the measurements of the relaxation time T1 for different values of the magnetic field (contribution of the SA mechanism to the total relaxation rate) and from the determination of the reorientational correlation time of these species. ? ? was determined in function of the solvent for benzoic acid, in function of pH for glycine and for free and bound (to Mg2+) ethylene diamine tetraacetate (EDTA) ion. For benzoic acid dissolved in benzene the results were compared to those obtained in an aqueous solution and in the solid state, and in diamine tetraacetate (EDTA) ion. For benzoic acid dissolved in benzene the results were compared to those obtained in an aqueous solution and in the solid state, and in order to try to explain the observed variations, theoretical calculations of ? ? were performed. 17O NMR allowed us also to obtain the 17O quadrupolar coupling constant. A partir de l'tude de la variation du temps de relaxation T1 en fonction de la frquence (contribution, la relaxation totale, du mcanisme d l'anisotropie du tenseur d'cran) et de la connaissance du temps de corrlation de rorientation de ces espces, nous avons pu atteindre la valeur de l'anisotropie du tenseur d'cran ? ? du noyau 13C des groupes COOH de quelques molcules, en solution. Nous avons dtermin ? ? pour une mme molcule dans diffrentes conditions : en fonction du solvant (acide benzoque ), du pH (glycine) et de la prsence ou non d'un cation (thylne diamine ttraactate : EDTA). Pour l'acide benzoque dissous dans le benzne nous avons compar nos rsultats ceux obtenus en phase aqueuse et l'tat solide. Pour tenter d'expliquer les carts observs, nous avons effectu des calculs thoriques de ? ?. La RMN de l'oxygne-17 nous a permis galement d'obtenir la constante de couplage quadripolaire de ce noyau.

  15. Collective Mode in a Superconductor with Mixed-Symmetry Order Parameter Components

    SciTech Connect

    Balatsky, A. V.; Kumar, P.; Schrieffer, J. R.

    2000-05-08

    We consider a superconducting state with mixed-symmetry order parameter components, e.g., d+is or d+id{sup '} with d{sup '}=d{sub xy} . We argue for the existence of a new orbital magnetization mode which corresponds to oscillations of relative phase {phi} between two components around an equilibrium value of {phi}=({pi}/2) . It is similar to the ''clapping'' mode in superfluid {sup 3}He- A . We estimate the frequency of this mode {omega}{sub 0}(B, T) depending on the field and temperature for the specific case of magnetic field induced d{sup '}=d{sub xy} state. This mode is tunable with a magnetic field with {omega}{sub 0}(B, T)(propor to)B{delta}{sub 0} , where {delta}{sub 0} is the magnitude of the d -wave order parameter. We also estimate the velocity s(B, T) of this mode. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  16. Quadrupolar excitation and collisional cooling for axialization and high pressure trapping of ions in Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweikhard, Lutz; Guan, Shenheng; Marshall, Alan G.

    1992-10-01

    A recently developed technique for axialization of ions in a Penning (i.e. hyperbolic) trap has been adapted for Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometry in a dual cubic trap instrument. A resonant alternating electric azimuthal quadrupolar field at the combination frequency, [omega]c = [omega]+ + [omega]-, converts ion magnetron motion into collision-damped cyclotron motion. The usual collision- induced drift of ions from the center of the trap under the influence of the radially outward-directed electric force of the trapping field is thereby effectively inverted, so that ions with off-axis ICR orbit centers may be driven back to on-axis low radius ion cyclotron orbits. This effect is frequency-dependent and therefore mass-selective. The experiment requires only minor wiring modifications to an existing cubic, tetragonal, or cylindrical ICR ion trap. With this technique, we have been able to store benzene molecular ions for several seconds at high pressure (> 1 x 10-5 mbar) in one half of a dual trap, as demonstrated by subsequent transfer of these ions to the other half of the dual trap for ICR excitation and detection. We also report simultaneous axialization and extended trapping of ions of different mass-to-charge ratios by use of multiple-frequency stored-waveform inverse Fourier transform excitation. Proposed applications include axialization and cooling for improved detection of product ions in MS---MS experiments, ion trapping at high pressure for extended periods for measurement of slow ion/molecule reaction rates, and increased sensitivity for detection of externally injected ions.

  17. Ab initio calculations of external-field shifts of the 661-nm quadrupolar clock transition in neutral Ag atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Topcu, Suat; Nasser, Jamil; Daku, Latevi Max Lawson; Fritzsche, Stephan

    2006-04-15

    Frequency shifts of the Ag I 4d{sup 10}5s {sup 2}S{sub 1/2}(F=0,M{sub F}=0) to 4d{sup 9}5s{sup 2} {sup 2}D{sub 5/2}(F{sup '}=2,M{sub F{sup '}}=0) electric-quadrupole transition at 330.6 nm due to external fields are calculated using multiconfigurational self-consistent field methods. As this forbidden transition is free from first order Doppler and Zeeman effects, it is under investigation for the realization of an atomic optical clock. The calculated perturbations are the light shift, the blackbody frequency shift, and the quadratic Zeeman shift. Results show that a total uncertainty of 10{sup -18} could be reach without confining the atoms in a Lamb-Dicke regime in an optical lattice.

  18. Dynamics of Spin I=3/2 under Spin-Locking Conditions in an Ordered Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Maarel, J. R. C.; Jesse, W.; Hancu, I.; Woessner, D. E.

    2001-08-01

    We have derived approximate analytic solutions to the master equation describing the evolution of the spin I=3/2 density operator in the presence of a radio-frequency (RF) field and both static and fluctuating quadrupolar interactions. Spectra resulting from Fourier transformation of the evolutions of the on-resonance spin-locked magnetization into the various coherences display two satellite pairs and, in some cases, a central line. The central line is generally trimodal, consisting of a narrow component related to a slowly relaxing mode and two broad components pertaining to two faster relaxing modes. The rates of the fast modes are sensitive to slow molecular motion. Neither the amplitude nor the width of the narrow component is affected by the magnitude of the static coupling, whereas the corresponding features of the broad components depend in a rather complicated manner on the spin-lock field strength and static quadrupolar interaction. Under certain experimental conditions, the dependencies of the amplitudes on the dynamics are seen to vanish and the relaxation rates reduce to relatively simple expressions. One of the promising emerging features is the fact that the evolutions into the selectively detected quadrupolar spin polarization order and the rank-two double-quantum coherence do not exhibit a slowly relaxing mode and are particularly sensitive to slow molecular motion. Furthermore, these coherences can only be excited in the presence of a static coupling and this makes it possible to discern nuclei in anisotropic from those in isotropic environment. The feasibility of the spin-lock pulse sequences with limited RF power and a nonvanishing average electric field gradient has been demonstrated through experiments on sodium in a dense lyotropic DNA liquid crystal.

  19. Quadrupole order in the frustrated pyrochlore magnet Tb2Ti2O7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takatsu, H.; Taniguchi, T.; Kittaka, S.; Sakakibara, T.; Kadowaki, H.

    2016-02-01

    We have studied the hidden long-range order (LRO) of the frustrated pyrochlore magnet Tb2Ti2O7 by means of specific-heat experiments and Monte-Carlo (MC) simulations, which has been discussed as the LRO of quadrupole moments inherent to the non-Kramers ion of Tb3+. We have found that the sharp specific-heat peak is collapsed into a broad hump by magnetic fields above 0.3 T for H//[001]. This result, qualitatively reproduced by MC simulations, suggests that a field-induced magnetic state overcomes the quadrupolar LRO state, as a similar case of a classical spin ice. The present results support the interpretation that Tb2+xTi2-xO7+y is a unique material in the boundary between the quadrupolar (x ⩾ xc = - 0.0025) and spin-liquid (x ⩽ xc) states, where the magnetic field along the [001] axis is a tuning parameter which induces the magnetic ordered state.

  20. Order Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibeault, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Change orders. The words can turn the stomachs of administrators. Horror stories about change orders create fear and distrust among school officials, designers and builders. Can change orders be avoided? If car manufacturers can produce millions of intricately designed vehicles, why can't the same quality control be achieved on a construction

  1. Order Nidovirales

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter, entitled "Order Nidovirales", is for inclusion in the Ninth Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV), to be published as both a single volume text and online. The chapter details the taxonomy of members of the Nidovirus order, including family Arteriviridae o...

  2. In-plane gradient-magnetic-field-induced vortex lattices in spin-orbit-coupled Bose-Einstein condensations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xiang-Fa; Zhou, Zheng-Wei; Wu, Congjun; Guo, Guang-Can

    2015-03-01

    We consider the ground-state properties of the two-component spin-orbit-coupled ultracold bosons subject to a rotationally symmetric in-plane gradient magnetic field. In the noninteracting case, the ground state supports giant vortices carrying large angular momenta without rotating the trap. The vorticity is highly tunable by varying the amplitudes and orientations of the magnetic field. Interactions drive the system from a giant-vortex state to various configurations of vortex lattice states along a ring. Vortices exhibit ellipse-shaped envelopes with the major and minor axes determined by the spin-orbit coupling and healing lengths, respectively. Phase diagrams of vortex lattice configurations are constructed and their stabilities are analyzed.

  3. Anomalous hysteresis as evidence for a magnetic-field-induced chiral superconducting state in LiFeAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, G.; Urbano, R. R.; Goswami, P.; Tarantini, C.; Lv, B.; Kuhns, P.; Reyes, A. P.; Chu, C. W.; Balicas, L.

    2013-01-01

    Magnetometry measurements in high-quality LiFeAs single crystals reveal a change in the sign of the magnetic hysteresis in the vicinity of the upper critical field Hc2, from a clear diamagnetic response dominated by the pinning of vortices to a considerably smaller net hysteretic response of opposite sign, which disappears at Hc2. If the diamagnetic response at high fields results from pinned vortices and associated screening supercurrents, this sign change must result from currents circulating in the opposite sense, which give rise to a small field-dependent magnetic moment below Hc2. This behavior seems to be extremely sensitive to the sample quality or stoichiometry, as we have observed it only in a few fresh crystals, which also display the de Haas van Alphen effect. We provide arguments against the surface superconductivity, the flux compression, and the random ? junction scenarios, which have been previously put forward to explain a paramagnetic Meissner effect, below the lower critical field Hc1. The observed anomalous hysteresis at high fields will be compatible with the existence of chiral gap wave functions, which possess a field-dependent magnetic moment. Within a Landau-Ginzburg framework, we demonstrate how a (dx2-y2+idxy) or a (px+ipy) chiral superconducting component can be stabilized in the mixed state of s superconductor, due to the combined effects of the magnetic field and the presence of competing pairing channels. The realization of a particular chiral pairing depends on the microscopic details of the strengths of the competing pairing channels.

  4. Magnetic-field-induced effects in the electronic structure of itinerant d- and f-metal systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grechnev, G. E.

    2009-08-01

    A paramagnetic response of transition metals and itinerant d- and f-metal compounds in an external magnetic field is studied by employing ab initio full-potential LMTO method in the framework of the local spin density approximation. Within this method the anisotropy of the magnetic susceptibility in hexagonal close-packed transition metals is evaluated for the first time. This anisotropy is owing to the orbital Van Vleck-like paramagnetic susceptibility, which is revealed to be substantial in transition-metal systems due to hybridization effects in the electronic structure. It is demonstrated that compounds TiCo, Ni3Al, YCo2, CeCo2, YNi5, LaNi5, and CeNi5 are strong paramagnets close to the quantum critical point. For these systems the Stoner approximation underestimates the spin susceptibility, whereas the calculated field-induced spin moments provide a good description of the large paramagnetic susceptibilities and magnetovolume effects. It is revealed that an itinerant description of hybridized f electrons produces magnetic properties of the compounds CeCo2, CeNi5, UAl3, UGa3, USi3, and UGe3 in close agreement with experiment. In the uranium compounds UX3 the strong spin-orbit coupling together with hybridization effects give rise to peculiar magnetic states in which the field-induced spin moments are antiparallel to the external field, and the magnetic response is dominated by the orbital contribution.

  5. Oscillations of echo amplitude in glasses in a magnetic field induced by nuclear dipole-dipole interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shumilin, A. V.; Parshin, D. A.

    2009-08-01

    The influence of a magnetic field on the dipole echo amplitude in glasses (at temperatures of about 10 mK) induced by the dipole-dipole interaction of nuclear spins has been theoretically studied. It has been shown that a change in the mutual position of nuclear spins at tunneling and the Zeeman energy E H of their interaction with the external magnetic field lead to a nonmonotonic magnetic-field dependence of the dipole echo amplitude. The approximation that the nuclear dipole-dipole interaction energy E d is much smaller than the Zeeman energy has been found to be valid in the experimentally important cases. It has been shown that the dipole echo amplitude in this approximation may be described by a simple universal analytic function independent of the microscopic structure of the two-level systems. An excellent agreement of the theory with the experimental data has been obtained without fitting parameters (except for the unknown echo amplitude).

  6. High Domain Wall Velocity at Zero Magnetic Field Induced by Low Current Densities in Spin Valve Nanostripes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizzini, Stefania; Uhl?, Vojt?ch; Vogel, Jan; Rougemaille, Nicolas; Laribi, Sana; Cros, Vincent; Jimnez, Erika; Camarero, Julio; Tieg, Carsten; Bonet, Edgar; Bonfim, Marlio; Mattana, Richard; Deranlot, Cyrile; Petroff, Frdric; Ulysse, Christian; Faini, Giancarlo; Fert, Albert

    2009-02-01

    Current-induced magnetic domain wall motion at zero magnetic field is observed in the permalloy layer of a spin-valve-based nanostripe using photoemission electron microscopy. The domain wall movement is hampered by pinning sites, but in between them high domain wall velocities (exceeding 150 m/s) are obtained for current densities well below 1012 A/m2, suggesting that these trilayer systems are promising for applications in domain wall devices in case of well controlled pinning positions. Vertical spin currents in these structures provide a potential explanation for the increase in domain wall velocity at low current densities.

  7. Extremely low frequency magnetic field induced changes in motor behaviour of gerbils submitted to global cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Rau, Sneana; Selakovi?, Vesna; Radenovi?, Lidija; Proli?, Zlatko; Jana?, Branka

    2012-03-17

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate behavioural effects of an extremely low frequency magnetic field (ELF-MF) in 3-month-old Mongolian gerbils submitted to global cerebral ischemia. After 10-min occlusion of both common carotid arteries, the gerbils were placed in the vicinity of an electromagnet and continuously exposed to ELF-MF (50Hz, 0.5mT) for 7 days. Their behaviour (locomotion, stereotypy, rotations, and immobility) was monitored on days 1, 2, 4, 7, and 14 after reperfusion for 60min in the open field. It was shown that the 10-min global cerebral ischemia per se induced a significant motor activity increase (locomotion, stereotypy and rotations), and consequently immobility decrease until day 4 after reperfusion, compared to control gerbils. Exposure to ELF-MF inhibited development of ischemia-induced motor hyperactivity during the whole period of registration, but significantly in the first 2 days after reperfusion, when the postischemic hyperactivity was most evident. Motor activity of these gerbils was still significantly increased compared to control ones, but only on day 1 after reperfusion. Our results revealed that the applied ELF-MF (50Hz, 0.5mT) decreased motor hyperactivity induced by the 10-min global cerebral ischemia, via modulation of the processes that underlie this behavioural response. PMID:22119248

  8. Magnetic field-induced spectroscopy of forbidden optical transitions with application to lattice-based optical atomic clocks.

    PubMed

    Taichenachev, A V; Yudin, V I; Oates, C W; Hoyt, C W; Barber, Z W; Hollberg, L

    2006-03-01

    We develop a method of spectroscopy that uses a weak static magnetic field to enable direct optical excitation of forbidden electric-dipole transitions that are otherwise prohibitively weak. The power of this scheme is demonstrated using the important application of optical atomic clocks based on neutral atoms confined to an optical lattice. The simple experimental implementation of this method--a single clock laser combined with a dc magnetic field--relaxes stringent requirements in current lattice-based clocks (e.g., magnetic field shielding and light polarization), and could therefore expedite the realization of the extraordinary performance level predicted for these clocks. We estimate that a clock using alkaline-earth-like atoms such as Yb could achieve a fractional frequency uncertainty of well below 10(-17) for the metrologically preferred even isotopes. PMID:16606175

  9. Ab initio theory of magnetic-field-induced odd-frequency two-band superconductivity in MgB2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aperis, Alex; Maldonado, Pablo; Oppeneer, Peter M.

    2015-08-01

    We develop the anisotropic Eliashberg framework for superconductivity in the presence of an applied magnetic field. Using as input the ab initio calculated electron and phonon band structures and electron-phonon coupling, we solve self-consistently the anisotropic Eliashberg equations for the archetypal superconductor MgB2. We find two self-consistent solutions, time-even two-band superconductivity, as well as unconventional time-odd s -wave spin triplet two-band superconductivity emerging with applied field. We provide the full momentum, frequency, and spin-resolved dependence and magnetic field-temperature phase diagrams of the time-even and time-odd superconducting pair amplitudes and predict fingerprints of this novel odd-frequency state in tunneling experiments.

  10. A variational approach towards the modeling of magnetic field-induced strains in magnetic shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jiong; Steinmann, Paul

    2012-06-01

    In this paper, the magneto-mechanical responses of a magnetic shape memory alloy (MSMA) sample are modeled through the variational approach. Motivated by the experimental results, a constitutive form for the effective magnetization vector is proposed. A (pseudo-)total energy functional for the whole magneto-mechanical system is then formulated, which takes into account the energy dissipations during the variant transformation process. By calculating the variations of the total energy functional with respect to the independent variables, the governing equation system for this model is derived, which is composed of the mechanical equilibrium equations, the magnetic field equations and some evolution laws for the internal variables. Under some simplifications, this model is used to study the magneto-mechanical responses of a MSMA sample under different magnetic and mechanical loading patterns. It can be seen that the results obtained in the model can capture the characteristic features of the field-strain, field-magnetization and stress-strain curves measured in the experiments.

  11. Exposure to a 50-Hz magnetic field induced mitochondrial permeability transition through the ROS/GSK-3β signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Feng, Baihuan; Qiu, Liping; Ye, Chunmei; Chen, Liangjing; Fu, Yiti; Sun, Wenjun

    2016-03-01

    Purpose To investigate the biological effects of a 50-Hz magnetic field (MF) on mitochondrial permeability. Materials and methods Human amniotic epithelial cells were exposed to MF (50 Hz, 0.4 mT) for different durations. Mitochondrial permeability, mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), cytochrome c (Cyt-c) release and the related mechanisms were explored. Results Exposure to the MF at 0.4 mT for 60 min transiently induced mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) and Cyt-c release, although there was no significant effect on mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm). Other than decreasing the total Bcl-2 associated X protein (Bax) level, MF exposure did not significantly affect the levels of Bax and B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) in mitochondria. In addition, cells exposed to the MF showed increased intracellular reactive oxidative species (ROS) levels and glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) dephosphorylation at 9 serine residue (Ser(9)). Moreover, the MF-induced MPT was attenuated by ROS scavenger (N-acetyl-L-cysteine, NAC) or GSK-3β inhibitor, and NAC pretreatment prevented GSK-3β dephosphorylation (Ser(9)) caused by MF exposure. Conclusion MPT induced by MF exposure was mediated through the ROS/GSK-3β signaling pathway. PMID:26850078

  12. Magnetic-field-induced dose effects in MR-guided radiotherapy systems: dependence on the magnetic field strength.

    PubMed

    Raaijmakers, A J E; Raaymakers, B W; Lagendijk, J J W

    2008-02-21

    Several institutes are currently working on the development of a radiotherapy treatment system with online MR imaging (MRI) modality. The main difference between their designs is the magnetic field strength of the MRI system. While we have chosen a 1.5 Tesla (T) magnetic field strength, the Cross Cancer Institute in Edmonton will be using a 0.2 T MRI scanner and the company Viewray aims to use 0.3 T. The magnetic field strength will affect the severity of magnetic field dose effects, such as the electron return effect (ERE): considerable dose increase at tissue air boundaries due to returning electrons. This paper has investigated how the ERE dose increase depends on the magnetic field strength. Therefore, four situations where the ERE occurs have been simulated: ERE at the distal side of the beam, the lateral ERE, ERE in cylindrical air cavities and ERE in the lungs. The magnetic field comparison values were 0.2, 0.75, 1.5 and 3 T. Results show that, in general, magnetic field dose effects are reduced at lower magnetic field strengths. At the distal side, the ERE dose increase is largest for B = 0.75 T and depends on the irradiation field size for B = 0.2 T. The lateral ERE is strongest for B = 3 T but shows no effect for B = 0.2 T. Around cylindrical air cavities, dose inhomogeneities disappear if the radius of the cavity becomes small relative to the in-air radius of the secondary electron trajectories. At larger cavities (r > 1 cm), dose inhomogeneities exist for all magnetic field strengths. In water-lung-water phantoms, the ERE dose increase takes place at the water-lung transition and the dose decreases at the lung-water transition, but these effects are minimal for B = 0.2 T. These results will contribute to evaluating the trade-off between magnetic field dose effects and image quality of MR-guided radiotherapy systems. PMID:18263948

  13. A self-monitored theranostic platform based on nanoparticle hyperthermia therapy and alternating magnetic field induced thermoacoustic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Xiaohua; Gao, Fei; Zheng, Yuanjin

    2015-03-01

    Low frequency alternating magnetic field (AMF) had been advocated for thermoacoustic imaging to exploit their inherent deeper penetrations. AMF induced thermoacoustic imaging of magnetic nanoparticles is particularly appealing since the system setup is inherently compatible with nanoparticle hyperthermia therapy. More importantly, owing to the capacity of thermoacoustics for accurate temperature measurement, the integration of AMF induced thermoacoustic imaging into nanoparticle hyperthermia therapy will potentially enable a theranostic platform with imaging guidance and temperature monitoring capabilities. We present herein the AMF induced thermoacoustic process of magnetic nanoparticles experimentally and then investigate furthermore its utilization in temperature monitoring for the nanoparticle hyperthermia. To demonstrate the concept of an integrated theranostic system with minimal overhead, a single coil is used for both the hyperthermia heating and thermoacoustic imaging by interleaving the two processes in time domain. In thermoacoustic imaging mode, the power is set at the amplifier's maximum value whereas to avoid excess heating of the coil in hyperthermia-mode, the power is switched to a lower value and the coil is further cooled by static water. Phantom imaging results of the magnetic nanoparticles and the self temperature monitoring with sub-degree accuracy during hyperthermia process are demonstrated. These proof-of-concept experiments showcase the potential to integrate thermoacoustic imaging with nanoparticle hyperthermia system.

  14. Magnetic Field-Induced T Cell Receptor Clustering by Nanoparticles Enhances T Cell Activation and Stimulates Antitumor Activity

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Irondextran nanoparticles functionalized with T cell activating proteins have been used to study T cell receptor (TCR) signaling. However, nanoparticle triggering of membrane receptors is poorly understood and may be sensitive to physiologically regulated changes in TCR clustering that occur after T cell activation. Nano-aAPC bound 2-fold more TCR on activated T cells, which have clustered TCR, than on naive T cells, resulting in a lower threshold for activation. To enhance T cell activation, a magnetic field was used to drive aggregation of paramagnetic nano-aAPC, resulting in a doubling of TCR cluster size and increased T cell expansion in vitro and after adoptive transfer in vivo. T cells activated by nano-aAPC in a magnetic field inhibited growth of B16 melanoma, showing that this novel approach, using magnetic field-enhanced nano-aAPC stimulation, can generate large numbers of activated antigen-specific T cells and has clinically relevant applications for adoptive immunotherapy. PMID:24564881

  15. The magnetic properties of well-aligned nickel nanochains synthesized by magnetic field-induced assembly approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kou, Zhaoxia; Liu, Er; Yue, Jinjin; Sui, Yunxia; Huang, Zhaocong; Zhang, Dong; Wang, Yukun; Zhai, Ya; Du, Jun; Zhai, Hongru

    2015-05-01

    Highly uniform one-dimensional Ni chains with controllable diameters and lengths have been synthesized at 70 C by a hydrothermal process under a 0.35 T induced magnetic field. The diameter of the spheres in the magnetic Ni chains is adjusted from 80 nm to 1000 nm with the chain length changed from 1.2 ?m to 50 ?m by varying the concentration of ethylene glycol and potassium hydroxide in the solution. The Ni chains with different length-to-diameter aspect ratio show the different particle shape and interparticle spacing. Magnetic hysteresis loop measurements demonstrate a uniaxial magnetic anisotropy (UMA) on the coercivity (Hc), and saturation field (Hs). The ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) shows that the difference between demagnetizing fields in the direction of easy and hard increases with increasing the length-to-diameter aspect ratio of nanochains, which is close to then that in Hs. From FMR measurements and theoretical simulation, the difference of the demagnetizing field between the length and width directions of chains are obtained, which increases with increasing aspect ratio of chain. The value of the non-uniformity parameter c which describes the relative importance of the non-uniform demagnetizing effect is found to decrease as the aspect ratio increases.

  16. INFLUENCE OF TEMPERATURE DURING THE ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC FIELD-INDUCED ALTERATION OF CALCIUM RELEASE FROM BRAIN TISSUE, IN VITRO

    EPA Science Inventory

    The release of calcium ions from in vitro preparation of chicken brain-tissue has been used by several investigators to demonstrate the interaction of electric and magnetic (EM) fields with biological systems. or exposures with radiofrequency radiation amplitude modulated at extr...

  17. INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT INCUBATOR MODELS ON MAGNETIC FIELD-INDUCED CHANGES IN NEURITE OUTGROWTH IN PC-12 CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    OBJECTIVE: Devise a method to standardize responses of cells to MF-exposure in different incubator environments. METHODS: We compared the cell responses to generated MF in a standard cell-culture incubator (Forma, model #3158) with cell responses to the same exposure when a mu-m...

  18. Specific heat and entropy change at the first order phase transition of La(Fe-Mn-Si)13-H compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basso, Vittorio; Kpferling, Michaela; Curcio, Carmen; Bennati, Cecilia; Barzca, Alexander; Katter, Matthias; Bratko, Milan; Lovell, Edmund; Turcaud, Jeremy; Cohen, Lesley F.

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we present the results of an experimental investigation on the magnetocaloric properties of hydrogenated La(Fe-Mn-Si)13-H with Mn substituting Fe to finely tune the transition temperature. We measured the specific heat under magnetic field cp(H, T) and the magnetic field induced isothermal entropy change ?s(H, T) of a series of compounds by direct Peltier calorimetry. Results show that increasing Mn from 0.06 to 0.46 reduces the transition temperature from 339 K to 270 K whilst the total entropy change due to a 1.5 T field is depressed from 18.7 J kg-1 K-1 to 10.2 J kg-1 K-1 and the thermal hysteresis similarly is reduced from 1.5 K to zero. In the paper, we interpret the results in terms of a magnetic phase transition changing from the first to the second order with increasing Mn content, and we discuss the value of the results for magnetic cooling applications.

  19. Spin-orbit coupling in octamers in the spinel sulfide CuIr2S4: Competition between spin-singlet and quadrupolar states and its relevance to remnant paramagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasu, Joji; Motome, Yukitoshi

    2014-07-01

    We theoretically investigate magnetic properties in the low-temperature phase with the formation of eight-site clusters, octamers, in the spinel compound CuIr2S4. The octamer state was considered to be a spin-singlet state induced by a Peierls instability through the strong anisotropy of d orbitals, the so-called orbital Peierls state. We reexamine this picture by taking into account the spin-orbit coupling, which was ignored in the previous study. We derive a low-energy effective model between jeff=1/2 quasispins on Ir4+ cations in an octamer from the multiorbital Hubbard model with the strong spin-orbit coupling by performing the perturbation expansion from the strong correlation limit. The effective Hamiltonian is in the form of the Kitaev-Heisenberg model but with an additional interaction, a symmetric off-diagonal exchange interaction originating from the perturbation process including both d-d and d-p-d hoppings. Analyzing the effective Hamiltonian on two sites and the octamer by the exact diagonalization, we find that there is competition between a spin-singlet state and a quadrupolar state. The former singlet state is a conventional one, adiabatically connected to the orbital Peierls state. On the other hand, the latter quadrupolar state is stabilized by the additional interaction, which consists of a linear combination of different total spin momenta along the spin quantization axis. In the competing region, the model exhibits paramagnetic behavior with a renormalized small effective moment at low temperature. This peculiar remnant paramagnetism is not obtained in the Kitaev-Heisenberg model without the additional interaction. Our results renew the picture of the octamer state and provide a scenario for the intrinsic paramagnetic behavior recently observed in a muon spin rotation experiment [K. M. Kojima et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 087203 (2014)]., 10.1103/PhysRevLett.112.087203

  20. Theoretical aspects of higher-order truncations in solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, M. ); Grandinetti, P.J.; Llor, A.; Olejniczak, Z.; Sachleben, J.R. Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 ); Zwanziger, J.W. )

    1992-12-15

    Recent experimental developments of high-resolution NMR in solids (for example, double rotation and dynamic-angle spinning) address the reduction of second-order line broadening effects, particularly in systems involving quadrupolar nuclei such as {sup 23}Na, {sup 17}O, {sup 27}Al, and {sup 14}N. However, some aspects of the theoretical description of these systems have not been clearly understood; in particular, the various procedures available to truncate the interactions give incompatible results. We present a general framework, based on static perturbative methods, which provides a natural procedure to derive the correct Hamiltonian for higher-order effects in irreducible tensor form. Applications of this method to coherent averaging techniques (sample motion or radio-frequency irradiation) are described and compared to previous treatments based on average Hamiltonian theory.

  1. Influence of Chirality in Ordered Block Copolymer Phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, Ishan; Grason, Gregory

    2015-03-01

    Block copolymers are known to assemble into rich spectrum of ordered phases, with many complex phases driven by asymmetry in copolymer architecture. Despite decades of study, the influence of intrinsic chirality on equilibrium mesophase assembly of block copolymers is not well understood and largely unexplored. Self-consistent field theory has played a major role in prediction of physical properties of polymeric systems. Only recently, a polar orientational self-consistent field (oSCF) approach was adopted to model chiral BCP having a thermodynamic preference for cholesteric ordering in chiral segments. We implement oSCF theory for chiral nematic copolymers, where segment orientations are characterized by quadrupolar chiral interactions, and focus our study on the thermodynamic stability of bi-continuous network morphologies, and the transfer of molecular chirality to mesoscale chirality of networks. Unique photonic properties observed in butterfly wings have been attributed to presence of chiral single-gyroid networks, this has made it an attractive target for chiral metamaterial design.

  2. Second order optical nonlinearity in silicon by symmetry breaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cazzanelli, Massimo; Schilling, Joerg

    2016-03-01

    Although silicon does not possess a dipolar bulk second order nonlinear susceptibility due to its centro-symmetric crystal structure, in recent years several attempts were undertaken to create such a property in silicon. This review presents the different sources of a second order susceptibility (χ(2)) in silicon and the connected second order nonlinear effects which were investigated up to now. After an introduction, a theoretical overview discusses the second order nonlinearity in general and distinguishes between the dipolar contribution—which is usually dominating in non-centrosymmetric structures—and the quadrupolar contribution, which even exists in centro-symmetric materials. Afterwards, the classic work on second harmonic generation from silicon surfaces in reflection measurements is reviewed. Due to the abrupt symmetry breaking at surfaces and interfaces locally a dipolar second order susceptibility appears, resulting in, e.g., second harmonic generation. Since the bulk contribution is usually small, the study of this second harmonic signal allows a sensitive observation of the surface/interface conditions. The impact of covering films, strain, electric fields, and defect states at the interfaces was already investigated in this way. With the advent of silicon photonics and the search for ever faster electrooptic modulators, the interest turned to the creation of a dipolar bulk χ(2) in silicon. These efforts have been focussing on several experiments applying an inhomogeneous strain to the silicon lattice to break its centro-symmetry. Recent results suggesting the impact of electric fields which are exerted from fixed charges in adjacent covering layers are also included. After a subsequent summary on "competing" concepts using not Si but Si-related materials, the paper will end with some final conclusions, suggesting possible future research direction in this dynamically developing field.

  3. Experimental and theoretical studies of quadrupolar oligothiophene-cored chromophores containing dimesitylboryl moieties as π-accepting end-groups: syntheses, structures, fluorescence, and one- and two-photon absorption.

    PubMed

    Ji, Lei; Edkins, Robert M; Sewell, Laura J; Beeby, Andrew; Batsanov, Andrei S; Fucke, Katharina; Drafz, Martin; Howard, Judith A K; Moutounet, Odile; Ibersiene, Fatima; Boucekkine, Abdou; Furet, Eric; Liu, Zhiqiang; Halet, Jean-François; Katan, Claudine; Marder, Todd B

    2014-10-13

    Quadrupolar oligothiophene chromophores composed of four to five thiophene rings with two terminal (E)-dimesitylborylvinyl groups (4 V-5 V), and five thiophene rings with two terminal aryldimesitylboryl groups (5 B), as well as an analogue of 5 V with a central EDOT ring (5 VE), have been synthesized via Pd-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions in high yields (66-89%). Crystal structures of 4 V, 5 B, bithiophene 2 V, and five thiophene-derived intermediates are reported. Chromophores 4 V, 5 V, 5 B and 5 VE have photoluminescence quantum yields of 0.26-0.29, which are higher than those of the shorter analogues 1 V-3 V (0.01-0.20), and short fluorescence lifetimes (0.50-1.05 ns). Two-photon absorption (TPA) spectra have been measured for 2 V-5 V, 5 B and 5 VE in the range 750-920 nm. The measured TPA cross-sections for the series 2 V-5 V increase steadily with length up to a maximum of 1930 GM. We compare the TPA properties of 2 V-5 V with the related compounds 5 B and 5 VE, giving insight into the structure-property relationship for this class of chromophore. DFT and TD-DFT results, including calculated TPA spectra, complement the experimental findings and contribute to their interpretation. A comparison to other related thiophene and dimesitylboryl compounds indicates that our design strategy is promising for the synthesis of efficient dyes for two-photon-excited fluorescence applications. PMID:25168267

  4. Hyperfine interactions in titanates: Study of orbital ordering and local magnetic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Agzamova, P. A. Leskova, Yu. V.; Nikiforov, A. E.

    2013-05-15

    Hyperfine magnetic fields induced on the nuclei of nonmagnetic ions {sup 139}La and {sup 89}Y in LaTiO{sub 3} and YTiO{sub 3}, respectively, have been microscopically calculated. The dependence of the hyperfine fields on the orbital and magnetic structures of the compounds under study has been analyzed. The comparative analysis of the calculated and known experimental data confirms the existence of the static orbital structure in lanthanum and yttrium titanates.

  5. Variable Order and Distributed Order Fractional Operators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenzo, Carl F.; Hartley, Tom T.

    2002-01-01

    Many physical processes appear to exhibit fractional order behavior that may vary with time or space. The continuum of order in the fractional calculus allows the order of the fractional operator to be considered as a variable. This paper develops the concept of variable and distributed order fractional operators. Definitions based on the Riemann-Liouville definitions are introduced and behavior of the operators is studied. Several time domain definitions that assign different arguments to the order q in the Riemann-Liouville definition are introduced. For each of these definitions various characteristics are determined. These include: time invariance of the operator, operator initialization, physical realization, linearity, operational transforms. and memory characteristics of the defining kernels. A measure (m2) for memory retentiveness of the order history is introduced. A generalized linear argument for the order q allows the concept of "tailored" variable order fractional operators whose a, memory may be chosen for a particular application. Memory retentiveness (m2) and order dynamic behavior are investigated and applications are shown. The concept of distributed order operators where the order of the time based operator depends on an additional independent (spatial) variable is also forwarded. Several definitions and their Laplace transforms are developed, analysis methods with these operators are demonstrated, and examples shown. Finally operators of multivariable and distributed order are defined in their various applications are outlined.

  6. Order and disorder in pure and doped KTaO3: A 181Ta NMR study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rod, S.; Borsa, F.; van der Klink, J. J.

    1988-08-01

    Measurements of quadrupolar effects on the NMR spectrum and of nuclear spin-lattice relaxation T1 are reported for 181Ta in pure and weakly Nb-, Li-, and Na-doped KTaO3 crystals. A new effect related to the KTaO3 host lattice is observed in the line-shape measurements indicating that below 40 K the Ta ions are in a local noncubic symmetry on a time scale longer than 10-7 sec. The off-center displacement of the Ta ion is estimated to 0.04 Å. In KTa1-xNbxO3 the 181Ta and 93Nb T-11 data near the transition temperature Tc confirm the existence of a collective ordering of the Nb ions. The Nb displacement below Tc is estimated to be less than 0.15 Å. Moreover, the 181Ta line shape is consistent with a nonuniform distortion of the host lattice around each Nb ion below Tc. The NMR results in K1-xLixTaO3 are in agreement with the usual picture of an order-disorder transition dominated by the Li-ion hopping.

  7. Pressure-magnetic field induced phase transformation in Ni{sub 46}Mn{sub 41}In{sub 13} Heusler alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Rama Rao, N. V. Manivel Raja, M.; Pandian, S.; Esakki Muthu, S.; Arumugam, S.

    2014-12-14

    The effect of hydrostatic pressure and magnetic field on the magnetic properties and phase transformation in Ni{sub 46}Mn{sub 41}In{sub 13} Heusler alloy was investigated. Pressure (P)-magnetic field (H)-temperature (T) phase diagram has been constructed from experimental results. In the P–T contour of the phase diagram, the slope of the austenite-martensite phase boundary line appears positive (dT/dP > 0), while it appears negative (dT/dH < 0) in the H–T contour. The results revealed that pressure and magnetic field have opposite effect on phase stabilization. The combined effect of pressure and magnetic field on martensitic transition has led to two important findings: (i) pressure dependent shift of austenite start temperature (A{sub s}) is higher when larger field is applied, and (ii) field dependent shift of A{sub s} is lowered when a higher pressure is applied. The pressure and magnetic field dependent shift observed in the martensitic transformation has been explained on the basis of thermodynamic calculations. Curie temperature of the phases was found to increase with pressure at a rate of 0.6 K/kbar.

  8. Neutron diffraction study of magnetic field induced behavior in the heavy Fermion Ce3Co4Sn13

    SciTech Connect

    Christianson, Andrew D; Goremychkin, E. A.; Gardner, J. S.; Kang, H. J.; Chung, J.-H.; Manuel, P.; Thompson, J. D.; Sarrao, J. L.; Lawrence, J. M.

    2008-01-01

    The specific heat of Ce3Co4Sn13 exhibits a crossover from heavy Fermion behavior with antiferromagnetic correlations at low field to single impurity Kondo behavior above 2 T. We have performed neutron diffraction measurements in magnetic fields up to 6 Tesla on single crystal samples. The (001) position shows a dramatic increase in intensity in field which appears to arise from static polarization of the 4f level and which at 0.14 K also exhibits an anomaly near 2T reflecting the crossover to single impurity behavior.

  9. Magnetic Field Induced Charged Exciton Studies in a GaAs/Al(0.3)Ga(0.7)As Single Heterojunction

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yongmin; Munteanu, F.M.; Perry, C.H.; Reno, J.L.; Rickel, D.G.; Simmons, J.A.

    1999-05-25

    The magnetophotoluminescence (MPL) behavior of a GaAs/Al0.3Ga0.7As single heterojunction has been investigated to 60T. We observed negatively charged singlet and triplet exciton states that are formed at high magnetic fields beyond the {nu}=l quantum Hall state. The variation of the charged exciton binding energies are in good agreement with theoretical predictions. The MPL transition intensities for these states showed intensity variations (maxima and minima) at the {nu}=l/3 and 1/5 fractional quantum Hall (FQH) state as a consequence of a large reduction of electron-hole screening at these filling factors.

  10. Magnetic Field Induced Sign Reversal of the Anomalous Hall Effect in a Pyrochlore Ferromagnet Nd2Mo2O7: Evidence for a Spin Chirality Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taguchi, Y.; Sasaki, T.; Awaji, S.; Iwasa, Y.; Tayama, T.; Sakakibara, T.; Iguchi, S.; Ito, T.; Tokura, Y.

    2003-06-01

    The anisotropic Hall effect and magnetization have been investigated for single crystals of Nd2Mo2O7 under high magnetic fields up to 27T and at low temperatures down to 50mK. The magnetization curves indicate that the Nd moments with strong Ising anisotropy are coupled antiferromagnetically with the Mo spins and show field-induced flipping on the respective sites. The Hall resistivity changes its sign with increasing field applied along the [111] direction, while it monotonously approaches zero with the field applied along the [100] or [110] direction. This behavior is in accord with the prediction by the Berry phase theory and is interpreted in terms of the field-induced reversal of spin chirality on the pyrochlore lattice.

  11. Thermo-magnetic history effects in the giant magnetostriction across the first-order transition and minor hysteresis loops modeling in Fe0.955Ni0.045Rh alloy.

    PubMed

    Manekar, Meghmalhar; Sharma, V K; Roy, S B

    2012-05-30

    Results of temperature- and magnetic field-dependent strain measurements across the first-order antiferromagnetic to ferromagnetic phase transition in Fe(0.955)Ni(0.045)Rh are presented. Distinct thermal and magnetic field hystereses are observed in the measured strain across the phase transition. The minor hysteresis loops inside the hysteretic regime across the temperature-driven transition are modeled using the Preisach model of hysteresis. The applicability of the Preisach model to explain the general features of minor hysteresis loops is discussed for a disorder influenced first-order transition. The minor hysteresis loops show the property of retaining the memory of the starting or end point of the temperature cycle followed within the hysteretic region. A larger temperature excursion within the hysteretic region wipes out the memory of a smaller temperature cycle which contains one of the extrema of the larger cycle. The end-point memory and the wiping-out property of the minor hysteresis loops can be described quite well within the Preisach model, irrespective of the temperature history followed to reach a particular starting point. Thermo-magnetic history effects across the magnetic field-induced transition are explained, which will enable the choice of the starting point of an experimental cycle in the field-temperature phase space so as to achieve the desired functionality. Our results highlight the necessity to understand the influence of disorder on a first-order phase transition so as to achieve a repeatable performance of materials whose functionalities are based on such a transition. PMID:22543692

  12. Order Theoretical Semantic Recommendation

    SciTech Connect

    Joslyn, Cliff A.; Hogan, Emilie A.; Paulson, Patrick R.; Peterson, Elena S.; Stephan, Eric G.; Thomas, Dennis G.

    2013-07-23

    Mathematical concepts of order and ordering relations play multiple roles in semantic technologies. Discrete totally ordered data characterize both input streams and top-k rank-ordered recommendations and query output, while temporal attributes establish numerical total orders, either over time points or in the more complex case of startend temporal intervals. But also of note are the fully partially ordered data, including both lattices and non-lattices, which actually dominate the semantic strcuture of ontological systems. Scalar semantic similarities over partially-ordered semantic data are traditionally used to return rank-ordered recommendations, but these require complementation with true metrics available over partially ordered sets. In this paper we report on our work in the foundations of partial order measurement in ontologies, with application to top-k semantic recommendation in workflows.

  13. Higher-order interaction-induced effects on the allowed Raman spectra of liquid CS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geiger, L. C.; Ladanyi, B. M.

    1988-12-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) computer simulation is used to study nonvibrational contributions to the ?1 (symmetric stretch) mode Raman spectra of liquid carbon disulfide in two thermodynamic states: 193 K, 1.42 g/cm3 and 293 K, 1.30 g/cm3. A computational method for evaluating the Raman polarizability to all orders of dipole-induced dipole (DID) interactions is developed. The exact DID model results for Raman intensities, effective polarizabilities, time correlation functions and line shapes are compared to their counterparts obtained using the same model and first order perturbation theory for the interaction-induced Raman polarizability. Inclusion of higher-order DID interaction terms causes a dramatic change in the relative importance of collision-induced (CI) and orientational components of the depolarized Raman spectrum. The first order model predicts that the CI contribution to the spectrum is considerably larger than the orientational one, while the exact DID model predicts the reverse. The presence of higher-order DID interactions results in appreciably faster relaxation of the CI components of both isotropic and depolarized spectra. It is shown that the depolarized CI spectral component in both models contains a significant slowly relaxing portion due to mutual diffusion of pairs of molecules. The results for Raman and Rayleigh spectra are compared and their high-frequency line shapes are discussed in terms of the Madden-Cox theory. MD Raman depolarization ratios and depolarized spectra are compared to experiment at 293 K. The inclusion of higher-order DID terms improves agreement with experiment, but the DID model does not reproduce accurately the high frequency line shape. The sensitivity of this line shape to the changes in potential parameters is tested by varying the atom-atom Lennard-Jones parameters within reasonable limits and by adding atom-atom Coulomb potential terms to represent quadrupolar interactions. It is found to be only slightly sensitive to these changes.

  14. Minimal Orderings Revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Peyton, B.W.

    1999-07-01

    When minimum orderings proved too difficult to deal with, Rose, Tarjan, and Leuker instead studied minimal orderings and how to compute them (Algorithmic aspects of vertex elimination on graphs, SIAM J. Comput., 5:266-283, 1976). This paper introduces an algorithm that is capable of computing much better minimal orderings much more efficiently than the algorithm in Rose et al. The new insight is a way to use certain structures and concepts from modern sparse Cholesky solvers to re-express one of the basic results in Rose et al. The new algorithm begins with any initial ordering and then refines it until a minimal ordering is obtained. it is simple to obtain high-quality low-cost minimal orderings by using fill-reducing heuristic orderings as initial orderings for the algorithm. We examine several such initial orderings in some detail.

  15. Contribution of higher order plasmonic modes on optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Aparajita; Chaudhuri, Partha

    2013-07-01

    For an array of regularly patterned interacting spherical Ag nano particles over an amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) layer of thickness 200 nm, we use Finite Difference Time Domain method for studying the plasmonic absorption enhancement within the a-Si:H layer over the visible range (400 nm-750 nm). The nano particle radius (R) has been varied from 100 nm to 200 nm and array period (D) from 320 nm to 500 nm satisfying the criteria 2Rorder plasmonic modes (mainly quadrupolar and octupolar) have significant contribution to the absorption enhancement within the a-Si:H layer. The role of the spectral overlap between different plasmonic modes has been described in controlling the absorption spectra for various configurations of R and D. It has been shown that a broad spectral absorption enhancement within the visible spectrum may be possible for a wide range of D variation from 320 nm to 500 nm using array of nano particles having R=140 nm. On the other hand, choosing a surface coverage factor of 19%, enhanced absorption within narrow wavelengths bands has been observed. The position of these narrow bands may be tuned by suitable choice of nano particle size. We propose these findings to proffer promising applications in solar cells as also in visible range photo detectors.

  16. Order Parameters of a Transmembrane Helix in a Fluid Bilayer: Case Study of a WALP Peptide

    PubMed Central

    Holt, Andrea; Rougier, La; Rat, Valrie; Jolibois, Franck; Saurel, Olivier; Czaplicki, Jerzy; Killian, J. Antoinette; Milon, Alain

    2010-01-01

    Abstract A new solid-state NMR-based strategy is established for the precise and efficient analysis of orientation and dynamics of transmembrane peptides in fluid bilayers. For this purpose, several dynamically averaged anisotropic constraints, including 13C and 15N chemical shift anisotropies and 13C-15N dipolar couplings, were determined from two different triple-isotope-labeled WALP23 peptides (2H, 13C, and 15N) and combined with previously published quadrupolar splittings of the same peptide. Chemical shift anisotropy tensor orientations were determined with quantum chemistry. The complete set of experimental constraints was analyzed using a generalized, four-parameter dynamic model of the peptide motion, including tilt and rotation angle and two associated order parameters. A tilt angle of 21 was determined for WALP23 in dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine, which is much larger than the tilt angle of 5.5 previously determined from 2H NMR experiments. This approach provided a realistic value for the tilt angle of WALP23 peptide in the presence of hydrophobic mismatch, and can be applied toany transmembrane helical peptide. The influence of the experimental data set on the solution space is discussed, as are potential sources of error. PMID:20441750

  17. ASDC Order Tools

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2012-04-17

    ... grid format. ASDC Web Ordering Tools Java Tool Help HTML Tool Help These tools allow users to ... or time range. The ordering tool is available in both Java and HTML versions. Reverb Search Tool Reverb ...

  18. All-orders Skyrmions

    SciTech Connect

    Marleau, L. )

    1992-03-01

    We consider a special class of Skyrme-like Lagrangians which include higher-order terms in the derivatives of the pion field but leave the degree of the chiral angle equation at 2. Explicit Lagrangians are constructed up to order 24. They are found to be in agreement with a previous conjecture regarding the general form of the static energy density to all orders for the hedgehog solution. In addition, the static energy density gets zero contribution from Lagrangians of order 10, 14, 18, and 22, suggesting that this result extends to all order 4{ital k}+2 for {ital k}{ge}2. We then proceed to prove both conjectures.

  19. Ferromagnetic Order, Strong Magnetocrystalline Anisotropy, and Magnetocaloric Effect in the Layered Telluride Fe(3-?)GeTe2.

    PubMed

    Verchenko, Valeriy Yu; Tsirlin, Alexander A; Sobolev, Alexei V; Presniakov, Igor A; Shevelkov, Andrei V

    2015-09-01

    The ternary transition-metal compound Fe(3-?)GeTe2 is formed for 0 < ? < 0.3. X-ray diffraction and Mssbauer spectroscopy reveal its layered crystal structure with occasional Fe vacancies in the Fe2 site, whereas no Fe atoms occupy the interlayer space, so that only van der Waals interactions exist between adjacent layers. We explore magnetic behavior and ensuing functional properties of Fe(2.9)GeTe2 via neutron diffraction, thermodynamic and transport measurements, Mssbauer spectroscopy, and electronic structure calculations. Below T(C) = 225 K, Fe(2.9)GeTe2 is ferromagnetically ordered with the magnetic moments of 1.95(5) and 1.56(4) ?(B) at T = 1.5 K, both directed along c, which is the magnetic easy axis. Electronic structure calculations confirm this magnetic structure and reveal a remarkably high easy-axis anisotropy of 4.2 meV/f.u. Mssbauer spectra reveal the magnetic ordering too, although a drastic influence of Fe vacancies on quadrupolar splittings and local magnetic fields has been observed. A moderate magnetocaloric effect with the magnetic entropy change upon the ferromagnetic ordering transition, -?S ? 1.1 Jkg(-1)K(-1) at 5 T, is found. PMID:26267350

  20. Characterizing limit order prices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Withanawasam, R. M.; Whigham, P. A.; Crack, Timothy Falcon

    2013-11-01

    A computational model of a limit order book is used to study the effect of different limit order distribution offsets. Reference prices such as same side/contra side best market prices and last traded price are considered in combination with different price offset distributions. We show that when characterizing limit order prices, varying the offset distribution only produces different behavior when the reference price is the contra side best price. Irrespective of the underlying mechanisms used in computing the limit order prices, the shape of the price graph and the behavior of the average order book profile distribution are strikingly similar in all the considered reference prices/offset distributions. This implies that existing averaging methods can cancel variabilities in limit order book shape/attributes and may be misleading.

  1. Medium-range order in sodium phosphate glasses: a quantitative rotational echo double resonance solid state NMR study.

    PubMed

    Strojek, Wenzel; Eckert, Hellmut

    2006-05-21

    Sodium ultraphosphate glasses (Na(2)O)(x)(P(2)O(5))(1-x) show a strongly non-linear dependence of the glass transition temperatures T(g)(x) on composition. To explore the structural origins of this behaviour, local and medium range ordering processes have been investigated by state-of-the-art (23)Na high-resolution and dipolar NMR spectroscopies. In particular, (31)P(23)Na) and (23)Na((31)P) rotational echo double resonance (REDOR) experiments have been analyzed to yield quantitative constraints for the structural description of these glasses. The sodium ions are found to be randomly distributed and, for x < 0.25, spatially correlated with a single metaphosphate-type Q((2)) unit at a distance of 330 pm. In this region, unusual compositional trends observed for the (23)Na chemical shifts and nuclear electric quadrupolar coupling constants, measured by triple-quantum magic-angle spinning (TQMAS) NMR, suggest a systematic decrease of Na coordination number with x. At higher sodium contents (x > 0.25), the magnitude of the (31)P((23)Na) dipolar interaction increases markedly, indicating a significantly increased extent of Q((2))-Na-Q((2)) crosslinking. Based on these results, a comprehensive description of medium-range order in sodium ultraphosphate glasses is developed, suggesting that the T(g)(x) dependence is closely linked to changes in the relative phosphorus/sodium distance distributions. PMID:16688310

  2. Order Preserving Sparse Coding.

    PubMed

    Ni, Bingbing; Moulin, Pierre; Yan, Shuicheng

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we investigate order-preserving sparse coding for classifying structured data whose atomic features possess ordering relationships. Examples include time sequences where individual frame-wise features are temporally ordered, as well as still images (landscape, street view, etc.) where different regions of the image are spatially ordered. Classification of these structured data is often tackled by first decomposing the input data into individual atomic features, then performing sparse coding or other processing for each atomic feature vector independently, and finally aggregating individual responses to classify the input data. However, this heuristic approach ignores the underlying order of the individual atomic features within the input data, and results in suboptimal discriminative capability. In this work, we introduce an order preserving regularizer which aims to preserve the ordering structure of the reconstruction coefficients within the sparse coding framework. An efficient Nesterov-type smooth approximation method is developed for optimization of the new regularization criterion, with theoretically guaranteed error bound. We perform extensive experiments for time series classification on a synthetic dataset, several machine learning benchmarks, and an RGB-D human activity dataset. We also report experiments for scene classification on a benchmark image dataset. The encoded representation is discriminative and robust, and our classifier outperforms state-of-the-art methods on these tasks. PMID:26352999

  3. Court Ordered Desegregation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reber, Sarah J.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of the court ordered desegregation plans, on trends in segregation and white flight, are estimated. The effect of availability of school districts and other factors on the white flight across districts is also mentioned.

  4. Intermolecular order in coals

    SciTech Connect

    Skripchenko, G.B.

    1984-01-01

    Questions of the molecular and supermolecular ordering of the structural units of the organic matter of coals are considered. The influence of the chemical structure of molecular clusters on the possibility of their dense packing in the coal structure has been shown. A hypothesis has been put forward concerning the heterogeneous process of crystallization during the metamorphism of coals. The influence of the texture and petrographic composition on the molecular and supermolecular ordering in coals is considered.

  5. Concomitant Ordering and Symmetry Lowering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boo, William O. J.; Mattern, Daniell L.

    2008-01-01

    Examples of concomitant ordering include magnetic ordering, Jahn-Teller cooperative ordering, electronic ordering, ionic ordering, and ordering of partially-filled sites. Concomitant ordering sets in when a crystal is cooled and always lowers the degree of symmetry of the crystal. Concomitant ordering concepts can also be productively applied to

  6. Concomitant Ordering and Symmetry Lowering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boo, William O. J.; Mattern, Daniell L.

    2008-01-01

    Examples of concomitant ordering include magnetic ordering, Jahn-Teller cooperative ordering, electronic ordering, ionic ordering, and ordering of partially-filled sites. Concomitant ordering sets in when a crystal is cooled and always lowers the degree of symmetry of the crystal. Concomitant ordering concepts can also be productively applied to…

  7. Quasicrystalline Charge Order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Wezel, Jasper; Flicker, Felix

    2015-03-01

    Incommensurate charge density waves occur in a large variety of materials in one, two and even three dimensions. As a function of decreasing temperature or applied pressure, the propagation vector characterizing such charge order typically evolves smoothly towards a commensurate value, before discontinuously jumping to a fully commensurate phase. This so-called lock-in transition is often explained in terms of a proliferation of discommensurations, which separate local regions of commensurate CDW within a globally incommensurate structure. Here, we argue that in strongly incommensurate systems with a sharply peaked electronic susceptibility, a second possibility exists. Rather than forming a regular array of discommensurations, we show that within an extended region of parameter space, the system may lower its free energy further by forming a quasicrystalline charge ordered state. The characteristic properties of this novel implementation of a quasicrystal, as well as its effect on the phase diagram and wave vector evolution of typical incommensurate charge ordered materials will be discussed.

  8. Ordering in niobium monocarbide

    SciTech Connect

    Khaenko, B.V.; Sivak, O.P.

    1985-04-01

    An attempt is made, on the basis of information obtained in the course of an x-ray diffraction investigation of crystallites separated out of ingots, to summarize data relating to ordering in niobium monocarbide. The x-ray photographs of crystalline niobium monocarbide fragments separated out of annealed alloys with 45% C are shown. It follows from the data that the delta'modification of NbCx is the only ordered phase existing in the homogeneity range of niobium monocarbide. Its diffraction characteristics match fully those found in an investigation of NbCx single crystal with a trigonal elementary cell.

  9. Sympathy and Social Order

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irwin, Kyle; McGrimmon, Tucker; Simpson, Brent

    2008-01-01

    Social order is possible only if individuals forgo the narrow pursuit of self-interest for the greater good. For over a century, social scientists have argued that sympathy mitigates self-interest and recent empirical work supports this claim. Much less is known about why actors experience sympathy in the first place, particularly in fleeting

  10. Land and World Order.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mische, Patricia, Ed.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    The papers in this publication discuss the land and how what happens to the land affects us. The publication is one in a series of monographs that examine the linkages between local and global concerns and explore alternative world futures. Examples of topics discussed in the papers follow. The paper "Land and World Order" examines implications of

  11. Land and World Order.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mische, Patricia, Ed.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    The papers in this publication discuss the land and how what happens to the land affects us. The publication is one in a series of monographs that examine the linkages between local and global concerns and explore alternative world futures. Examples of topics discussed in the papers follow. The paper "Land and World Order" examines implications of…

  12. Sympathy and Social Order

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irwin, Kyle; McGrimmon, Tucker; Simpson, Brent

    2008-01-01

    Social order is possible only if individuals forgo the narrow pursuit of self-interest for the greater good. For over a century, social scientists have argued that sympathy mitigates self-interest and recent empirical work supports this claim. Much less is known about why actors experience sympathy in the first place, particularly in fleeting…

  13. The Birth Order Puzzle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zajonc, R. B.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the controversy of the relationship between birth order and intellectual performance through a detailed evaluation of the confluence model which assumes that the rate of intellectual growth is a function of the intellectual environment within the family and associated with the special circumstances of last children. (CM)

  14. Education and World Order

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Phillip W.

    2007-01-01

    The impact on educational analysis of mainstream international relations (IR) theories is yet to realize its full potential. The problem of education in relation to the construction of world order is considered in relation to core developments in IR theory since the Second World War. In particular, the global architecture of education is seen as a…

  15. Order, topology and preference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sertel, M. R.

    1971-01-01

    Some standard order-related and topological notions, facts, and methods are brought to bear on central topics in the theory of preference and the theory of optimization. Consequences of connectivity are considered, especially from the viewpoint of normally preordered spaces. Examples are given showing how the theory of preference, or utility theory, can be applied to social analysis.

  16. Education and World Order

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Phillip W.

    2007-01-01

    The impact on educational analysis of mainstream international relations (IR) theories is yet to realize its full potential. The problem of education in relation to the construction of world order is considered in relation to core developments in IR theory since the Second World War. In particular, the global architecture of education is seen as a

  17. Birth Order Debate Resolved?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zajonc, R. B.

    2001-01-01

    Critiques Rodgers et al.'s June 2000 research on the relation between birth order and intelligence, which suggests that it is a methodological illusion. Explains how the intellectual environment and the teaching function (whereby older children tutor younger ones) contribute to the growth of intellectual maturity, the first negatively and the…

  18. Second order gauge theory

    SciTech Connect

    Cuzinatto, R.R. . E-mail: rodrigo@ift.unesp.br; Melo, C.A.M. de . E-mail: cassius.anderson@gmail.com; Pompeia, P.J. . E-mail: pompeia@ift.unesp.br

    2007-05-15

    A gauge theory of second order in the derivatives of the auxiliary field is constructed following Utiyama's program. A novel field strength G = {partial_derivative}F + fAF arises besides the one of the first order treatment, F = {partial_derivative}A - {partial_derivative}A + fAA. The associated conserved current is obtained. It has a new feature: topological terms are determined from local invariance requirements. Podolsky Generalized Eletrodynamics is derived as a particular case in which the Lagrangian of the gauge field is L {sub P} {proportional_to} G {sup 2}. In this application the photon mass is estimated. The SU (N) infrared regime is analysed by means of Alekseev-Arbuzov-Baikov's Lagrangian.

  19. Second order symmetry operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, Lars; Bckdahl, Thomas; Blue, Pieter

    2014-07-01

    Using systematic calculations in spinor language, we obtain simple descriptions of the second order symmetry operators for the conformal wave equation, the Dirac-Weyl equation and the Maxwell equation on a curved four-dimensional Lorentzian manifold. The conditions for existence of symmetry operators for the different equations are seen to be related. Computer algebra tools have been developed and used to systematically reduce the equations to a form which allows geometrical interpretation.

  20. Higher order Bezier circles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, Jin

    1993-01-01

    Rational Bezier and B-spline representations of circles have been heavily publicized. However, all the literature assumes the rational Bezier segments in the homogeneous space are both planar and (equivalent to) quadratic. This creates the illusion that circles can only be achieved by planar and quadratic curves. Circles that are formed by higher order rational Bezier curves which are nonplanar in the homogeneous space are shown. The problem of whether it is possible to represent a complete circle with one Bezier curve is investigated. In addition, some other interesting properties of cubic Bezier arcs are discussed.

  1. Fractional order junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machado, J. Tenreiro

    2015-01-01

    Gottfried Leibniz generalized the derivation and integration, extending the operators from integer up to real, or even complex, orders. It is presently recognized that the resulting models capture long term memory effects difficult to describe by classical tools. Leon Chua generalized the set of lumped electrical elements that provide the building blocks in mathematical models. His proposal of the memristor and of higher order elements broadened the scope of variables and relationships embedded in the development of models. This paper follows the two directions and proposes a new logical step, by generalizing the concept of junction. Classical junctions interconnect system elements using simple algebraic restrictions. Nevertheless, this simplistic approach may be misleading in the presence of unexpected dynamical phenomena and requires including additional "parasitic" elements. The novel γ -junction includes, as special cases, the standard series and parallel connections and allows a new degree of freedom when building models. The proposal motivates the search for experimental and real world manifestations of the abstract conjectures.

  2. Localization protected quantum order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandkishore, Rahul

    2015-03-01

    Many body localization occurs in isolated quantum systems, usually with strong disorder, and is marked by absence of dissipation, absence of thermal equilibration, and a memory of the initial conditions that survives in local observables for arbitrarily long times. The many body localized regime is a non-equilibrium, strongly disordered, non-self averaging regime that presents a new frontier for quantum statistical mechanics. In this talk, I point out that there exists a vast zoo of correlated many body localized states of matter, which may be classified using familiar notions of spontaneous symmetry breaking and topological order. I will point out that in the many body localized regime, spontaneous symmetry breaking can occur even at high energy densities in one dimensional systems, and topological order can occur even without a bulk gap. I will also discuss the phenomenology of imperfectly isolated many body localized systems, which are weakly coupled to a heat bath. I will conclude with a brief discussion of how these phenomena may best be detected in experiments. Collaborators: David Huse, S.L. Sondhi, Arijeet Pal, Vadim Oganesyan, A.C. Potter, Sarang Gopalakrishnan, S. Johri, R.N. Bhatt.

  3. First order kaon condensate

    SciTech Connect

    Glendenning, N.K.; Schaffner-Bielich, J.; Schaffner-Bielich, J.

    1999-08-01

    First order Bose condensation in asymmetric nuclear matter and in neutron stars is studied, with particular reference to kaon condensation. We demonstrate explicitly why the Maxwell construction fails to assure equilibrium in multicomponent substances. Gibbs conditions and conservation laws require that for phase equilibrium, the charge density must have opposite sign in the two phases of isospin asymmetric nuclear matter. The mixed phase will therefore form a Coulomb lattice with the rare phase occupying lattice sites in the dominant phase. Moreover, the kaon condensed phase differs from the normal phase, not by the mere presence of kaons in the first, but also by a difference in the nucleon effective masses. The mixed phase region, which occupies a large radial extent amounting to some kilometers in our model neutron stars, is thus highly heterogeneous. It should be particularly interesting in connection with the pulsar glitch phenomenon as well as transport properties. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  4. First order kaon condensate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glendenning, Norman K.; Schaffner-Bielich, Jürgen

    1999-08-01

    First order Bose condensation in asymmetric nuclear matter and in neutron stars is studied, with particular reference to kaon condensation. We demonstrate explicitly why the Maxwell construction fails to assure equilibrium in multicomponent substances. Gibbs conditions and conservation laws require that for phase equilibrium, the charge density must have opposite sign in the two phases of isospin asymmetric nuclear matter. The mixed phase will therefore form a Coulomb lattice with the rare phase occupying lattice sites in the dominant phase. Moreover, the kaon condensed phase differs from the normal phase, not by the mere presence of kaons in the first, but also by a difference in the nucleon effective masses. The mixed phase region, which occupies a large radial extent amounting to some kilometers in our model neutron stars, is thus highly heterogeneous. It should be particularly interesting in connection with the pulsar glitch phenomenon as well as transport properties.

  5. Prehospital DNR orders.

    PubMed

    Iserson, K V; Rouse, F

    1989-01-01

    This case study and commentaries concern a terminally ill patient dying at home who is resuscitated and transported to a hospital emergency department despite having signed a living will refusing resuscitative efforts. Only after her identity is confirmed, and her medical records located at another hospital and interpreted, is treatment halted and the woman allowed to die. Iserson, a physician in emergency medicine, outlines the responsibilities of paramedics and emergency room personnel when confronted with an unfamiliar patient in an acute condition. He believes that the prehospital DNR order is an idea whose time has come, despite problems with its implementation in emergency settings. Rouse, director of legal services for the Society for the Right to Die, sees this case as an inevitable death made worse by confusion and uncertainty, and calls for education preparing family and care givers for death at home. PMID:2606653

  6. Birth order and myopia

    PubMed Central

    Guggenheim, Jeremy A.; McMahon, George; Northstone, Kate; Mandel, Yossi; Kaiserman, Igor; Stone, Richard A.; Lin, Xiaoyu; Saw, Seang Mei; Forward, Hannah; Mackey, David A.; Yazar, Seyhan; Young, Terri L.; Williams, Cathy

    2013-01-01

    Purpose An association between birth order and reduced unaided vision (a surrogate for myopia) has been observed previously. We examined the association between birth order and myopia directly in 4 subject groups. Methods Subject groups were participants in 1) the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC; UK; age 15 years; N=4,401), 2) the Singapore Cohort Study of Risk Factors for Myopia (SCORM; Singapore; age 13 years; N=1,959), 3) the Raine Eye Health Study (REHS; Australia; age 20 years; N=1,344), and 4) Israeli Defense Force recruitment candidates (IDFC; Israel; age 16-22 years; N=888,277). Main outcome: Odds ratio (OR) for myopia in first born versus non-first born individuals after adjusting for potential risk factors. Results The prevalence of myopia was numerically higher in first-born versus non-first-born individuals in all study groups, but the strength of evidence varied widely. The adjusted ORs (95% CI) were: ALSPAC, 1.31 (1.05-1.64); SCORM, 1.25 (0.89-1.77); REHS, 1.18 (0.90-1.55); IDFC, 1.04 (1.03-1.06). In the large IDFC sample, the effect size was greater (a) for the first born versus fourth or higher born comparison than for the first born versus second/third born comparison (P<0.001) and (b) with increasing myopia severity (P<0.001). Conclusions Across all studies, the increased risk of myopia in first born individuals was low (OR <1.3). Indeed, only the studies with >4000 participants provided strong statistical support for the association. The available evidence suggested the relationship was independent of established risk factors such as time outdoors/reading, and thus may arise through a different causal mechanism. PMID:24168726

  7. An electromagnetic Thirring problem.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehlers, J.; Rindler, W.

    1971-01-01

    A neutral rotating mass shell surrounds a concentric stationary electrically charged insulating shell. The dipole-like magnetic field induced by (and proportional to) the rotation of the neutral shell is calculated on the basis of the coupled linearized Einstein-Maxwell field equations of general relativity. This field is apparently at variance with a conjecture made on Machian grounds, for which a possible explanation is suggested. The corresponding induced quadrupolar electric field is calculated for the region within the charged shell, and the potential is given for this field everywhere. Though understandable on mutually inconsistent elementary grounds, we regard this field as a useful example of a solution of linearized general relativity.-

  8. Isotropic sequence order learning.

    PubMed

    Porr, Bernd; Wrgtter, Florentin

    2003-04-01

    In this article, we present an isotropic unsupervised algorithm for temporal sequence learning. No special reward signal is used such that all inputs are completely isotropic. All input signals are bandpass filtered before converging onto a linear output neuron. All synaptic weights change according to the correlation of bandpass-filtered inputs with the derivative of the output. We investigate the algorithm in an open- and a closed-loop condition, the latter being defined by embedding the learning system into a behavioral feedback loop. In the open-loop condition, we find that the linear structure of the algorithm allows analytically calculating the shape of the weight change, which is strictly heterosynaptic and follows the shape of the weight change curves found in spike-time-dependent plasticity. Furthermore, we show that synaptic weights stabilize automatically when no more temporal differences exist between the inputs without additional normalizing measures. In the second part of this study, the algorithm is is placed in an environment that leads to closed sensor-motor loop. To this end, a robot is programmed with a prewired retraction reflex reaction in response to collisions. Through isotropic sequence order (ISO) learning, the robot achieves collision avoidance by learning the correlation between his early range-finder signals and the later occurring collision signal. Synaptic weights stabilize at the end of learning as theoretically predicted. Finally, we discuss the relation of ISO learning with other drive reinforcement models and with the commonly used temporal difference learning algorithm. This study is followed up by a mathematical analysis of the closed-loop situation in the companion article in this issue, "ISO Learning Approximates a Solution to the Inverse-Controller Problem in an Unsupervised Behavioral Paradigm" (pp. 865-884). PMID:12689389

  9. Topology in Ordered Phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanda, Satoshi; Matsuyama, Toyoki; Oda, Migaku; Asano, Yasuhiro; Yakubo, Kousuke

    2006-08-01

    I. Topology as universal concept. Optical vorticulture / M. V. Berry. On universality of mathematical structure in nature: topology / T. Matsuyama. Topology in physics / R. Jackiw. Isoholonomic problem and holonomic quantum computation / S. Tanimura -- II. Topological crystals. Topological crystals of NbSe[symbol] / S. Tanda ... [et al.]. Superconducting states on a Möbius strip / M. Hayashi ... [et al.]. Structure analyses of topological crystals using synchrotron radiation / Y. Nogami ... [et al.]. Transport measurement for topological charge density waves / T. Matsuura ... [et al.]. Theoretical study on Little-Parks oscillation in nanoscale superconducting ring / T. Suzuki, M. Hayashi and H. Ebisawa. Frustrated CDW states in topological crystals / K. Kuboki ... [et al.]. Law of growth in topological crystal / M. Tsubota ... [et al.]. Synthesis and electric properties of NbS[symbol]: possibility of room temperature charge density wave devices / H. Nobukane ... [et al.]. How does a single crystal become a Möbius strip? / T. Matsuura ... [et al.]. Development of X-ray analysis method for topological crystals / K. Yamamoto ... [et al.] -- III. Topological materials. Femtosecond-timescale structure dynamics in complex materials: the case of (NbSe[symbol])[symbol]I / D. Dvorsek and D. Mihailovic. Ultrafast dynamics of charge-density-wave in topological crystals / K. Shimatake ... [et al.]. Topology in morphologies of a folded single-chain polymer / Y. Takenaka, D. Baigl and K. Yoshikawa. One to two-dimensional conversion in topological crystals / T. Toshima, K. Inagaki and S. Tanda. Topological change of Fermi surface in Bismuth under high pressure / M. Kasami ... [et al.]. Topological change of 4, 4'-bis[9-dicarbazolyl]-2, 2'-biphenyl (CBP) by international rearrangement / K. S. Son ... [et al.]. Spin dynamics in Heisenberg triangular system VI5 cluster studied by [symbol]H-NMR / Y. Furukawa ... [et al.]. STM/STS on NbSe[symbol] nanotubes / K. Ichimura ...[et al.]. Nanofibers of hydrogen storage alloy / I. Saita ... [et al.]. Synthesis of stable icosahedral quasicrystals in Zn-Sc based alloys and their magnetic properties / S. Kashimoto and T. Ishimasa. One-armed spiral wave excited by eam pressure in accretion disks in Be/X-Ray binaries / K. Hayasaki and A. T. Okazaki -- IV. Topological defects and excitations. Topological excitations in the ground state of charge density wave systems / P. Monceau. Soliton transport in nanoscale charge-density-wave systems / K. Inagaki, T. Toshima and S. Tanda. Topological defects in triplet superconductors UPt3, Sr[symbol]RuO[symbol], etc. / K. Maki ... [et al.]. Microscopic structure of vortices in type II superconductors / K. Machida ... [et al.]. Microscopic neutron investigation of the Abrikosov state of high-temperature superconductors / J. Mesot. Energy dissipation at nano-scale topological defects of high-Tc superconductors: microwave study / A. Maeda. Pressure induced topological phase transition in the heavy Fermion compound CeAl[symbol] / H. Miyagawa ... [et al.]. Explanation for the unusual orientation of LSCO square vortex lattice in terms of nodal superconductivity / M. Oda. Local electronic states in Bi[symbol]Sr[symbol]CaCu[symbol]O[symbol] / A. Hashimoto ... [et al.] -- V. Topology in quantum phenomena. Topological vortex formation in a Bose-Einstein condensate of alkali-metal atoms / M. Nakahara. Quantum phase transition of [symbol]He confined in nano-porous media / K. Shirahama, K. Yamamoto and Y. Shibayama. A new mean-field theory for Bose-Einstein condensates / T. Kita. Spin current in topological cristals / Y. Asano. Antiferromagnetic defects in non-magnetic hidden order of the heavy-electron system URu[symbol]Si[symbol] / H. Amitsuka, K. Tenya and M. Yokoyama. Magnetic-field dependences of thermodynamic quantities in the vortex state of Type-II superconductors / K. Watanabe, T. Kita and M. Arai. Three-magnon-mediated nuclear spin relaxation in quantum ferrimagnets of topological origin / H. Hori and S, Yamamoto. Topological aspects of wave function statistics at the Anderson transition / H. Obuse and K. Yakubo. Metal-insulator transition in 1D correlated disorder / H. Shima and T. Nakayama. Superconductivity in URu[symbol]Si[symbol] under high pressure / K. Tenya ...[et al.] -- VI. Topology in optics. Optical vorticulture / M. V. Berry. The topology of vortex lines in light beams / M. J. Padgett ... [et al.]. Optical spin vortex: topological objects in nonlinear polarization optics / H. Kuratsuji and S. Kakigi. Coherent dynamics of collective motion in the NbSe[symbol] charge density wave state / Y. Toda ... [et al.]. Coherent collective excitation of charge-density wave in the commensurate phase of the TaS[symbol] compound / T. Minami ... [et al.]. Real time imaging of surface acoustic waves on topological structures / H. Yamazaki, O. B. Wright and O. Matsuda. Optical vortex generation for characterization of topological materials / Y. Tokizane ... [et al.]. Real time imaging techniques for surface waves on topological structures / T. Tachizaki ... [et al.]. Nonlinear oscillations of the Stokes parameters in birefringent media / R. Seto, H. Kuratsuji and R. Botet. Phonon vortex localized in a quantum wire / N. Nishiguchi -- VII. Topology in quantum device. Quantum device applications of mesoscopic superconductivity / P. J. Hakonen. Theory of current-driven domain wall dynamics / G. Tatara ... [et al.]. Squid of a Ruthenate superconductor / Y. Asano, Y. Tanaka and S. Kashiwaya. Path integral formalism for quantum tunneling of relativistic fluxon / K. Konno, T. Fujii and N. Hatakenaka. Experimental study of two and three-dimensional superconducting networks / S. Tsuchiya ... [et al.].

  10. Second-Order Algebraic Theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiore, Marcelo; Mahmoud, Ola

    Fiore and Hur [10] recently introduced a conservative extension of universal algebra and equational logic from first to second order. Second-order universal algebra and second-order equational logic respectively provide a model theory and a formal deductive system for languages with variable binding and parameterised metavariables. This work completes the foundations of the subject from the viewpoint of categorical algebra. Specifically, the paper introduces the notion of second-order algebraic theory and develops its basic theory. Two categorical equivalences are established: at the syntactic level, that of second-order equational presentations and second-order algebraic theories; at the semantic level, that of second-order algebras and second-order functorial models. Our development includes a mathematical definition of syntactic translation between second-order equational presentations. This gives the first formalisation of notions such as encodings and transforms in the context of languages with variable binding.

  11. Water dynamics on ice and hydrate lattices studied by second-order central-line stimulated-echo oxygen-17 nuclear magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Adjei-Acheamfour, Mischa; Tilly, Julius F; Beerwerth, Joachim; Bhmer, Roland

    2015-12-01

    Oxygen-17 stimulated-echo spectroscopy is a novel nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique that allows one to investigate the time scale and geometry of ultraslow molecular motions in materials containing oxygen. The method is based on detecting orientationally encoded frequency changes within oxygen's central-transition NMR line that are caused by second-order quadrupolar interactions. In addition to the latter, the present theoretical analysis of various two-pulse echo and stimulated-echo pulse sequences takes also heteronuclear dipolar interactions into account. As an experimental example, the ultraslow water motion in polycrystals of tetrahydrofuran clathrate hydrate is studied via two-time oxygen-17 stimulated-echo correlation functions. The resulting correlation times and those of hexagonal ice are similar to those from previous deuteron NMR measurements. Calculations of the echo functions' final-state correlations for various motional models are compared with the experimental data of the clathrate hydrate. It is found that a six-site model including the oxygen-proton dipolar interaction describes the present results. PMID:26646875

  12. Water dynamics on ice and hydrate lattices studied by second-order central-line stimulated-echo oxygen-17 nuclear magnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adjei-Acheamfour, Mischa; Tilly, Julius F.; Beerwerth, Joachim; Bhmer, Roland

    2015-12-01

    Oxygen-17 stimulated-echo spectroscopy is a novel nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique that allows one to investigate the time scale and geometry of ultraslow molecular motions in materials containing oxygen. The method is based on detecting orientationally encoded frequency changes within oxygen's central-transition NMR line that are caused by second-order quadrupolar interactions. In addition to the latter, the present theoretical analysis of various two-pulse echo and stimulated-echo pulse sequences takes also heteronuclear dipolar interactions into account. As an experimental example, the ultraslow water motion in polycrystals of tetrahydrofuran clathrate hydrate is studied via two-time oxygen-17 stimulated-echo correlation functions. The resulting correlation times and those of hexagonal ice are similar to those from previous deuteron NMR measurements. Calculations of the echo functions' final-state correlations for various motional models are compared with the experimental data of the clathrate hydrate. It is found that a six-site model including the oxygen-proton dipolar interaction describes the present results.

  13. Getting Your Affairs in Order

    MedlinePLUS

    ... raquo Getting Your Affairs in Order Heath and Aging Getting Your Affairs in Order Plan for the ... more about selecting a health care proxy . My aging parents can no longer make their own health ...

  14. Quadrupole sensitive pulse for signal filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evgeny, Nimerovsky; Jerschow, Alexej

    2016-04-01

    A longstanding problem in quadrupolar NMR of semi-solids is the selection of signals originating from ordered nuclei, i.e. those that experience a non-vanishing quadrupolar coupling. Established techniques, such as for example multiple-quantum filters are not adequate in situations when the radio frequency power is on the order of the quadrupolar coupling or the quadrupolar relaxation rates, such as may be the case on an MRI scanner, or in ex situ applications. In this manuscript we show a new method for the selective excitation of ordered spin-3/2 nuclei, which produces the desired results when the radio frequency power is approximately equal or smaller than quadrupolar frequency. Using a combination of simulations and experiments with 23Na in NaCl solution, Pf1-solutions, and bovine patellar cartilage samples we further show how the value of the quadrupolar frequency and global features of a quadrupolar coupling distribution can be extracted from these experiments.

  15. Order metrics and order maps of octahedron packings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lufeng; Lu, Peng; Meng, Lingyi; Jin, Weiwei; Li, Shuixiang

    2016-02-01

    We apply the ideal octahedron model and the relaxation algorithm in generating octahedron packings. The cubatic order parameter [P4]1, bond-orientational order metric Q6, and local cubatic order parameter P4local of the packings are calculated and their correlations with the packing density are investigated in the order maps. The border curve of packing density separates the geometrically feasible and infeasible regions in the order maps. Observing the transition phenomenon on the border curve, we propose the concept of the maximally dense random packing (MDRP) as the densest packing in the random state in which the particle positions and orientations are randomly distributed and there is no nontrivial spatial correlations among particles. The MDRP characterizes the onset of nontrivial spatial correlations among particles. A special packing with a density about 0.7 is found in the order maps and considered to be the MDRP of octahedra. The P4local is proposed as a new order parameter for octahedron packings, which measures the average order degree in the neighborhoods of particles. The [P4]1, Q6 and P4local evaluate the order degree of orientation, bond orientation and local structures, respectively and are applied simultaneously to measure the order degree of the octahedron packings. Their thresholds in the random state are determined by Monte Carlo simulations.

  16. Ordered delinquency: the "effects" of birth order on delinquency.

    PubMed

    Cundiff, Patrick R

    2013-08-01

    Juvenile delinquency has long been associated with birth order in popular culture. While images of the middle child acting out for attention or the rebellious youngest child readily spring to mind, little research has attempted to explain why. Drawing from Adlerian birth order theory and Sulloway's born-to-rebel hypothesis, I examine the relationship between birth order and a variety of delinquent outcomes during adolescence. Following some recent research on birth order and intelligence, I use new methods that allow for the examination of between-individual and within-family differences to better address the potential spurious relationship. My findings suggest that contrary to popular belief, the relationship between birth order and delinquency is spurious. Specifically, I find that birth order effects on delinquency are spurious and largely products of the analytic methods used in previous tests of the relationship. The implications of this finding are discussed. PMID:23719623

  17. Adiabatic Preparation of Topological Order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamma, Alioscia; Lidar, Daniel

    2007-03-01

    Topological order characterizes those phases of matter that defy the standard description in terms of symmetry breaking and local order parameters. Topological order is found in nature in the fractional quantum Hall effect. Topologically ordered systems have ground state degeneracy that is robust against perturbations, which has given the root to topological quantum information processing. We discusss the second order quantum phase transition between a spin-polarized phase and a topologically ordered string-net condensed phase. Next we show how to prepare the topologically ordered phase through adiabatic evolution in a time that is upper bounded by O(?n). This provides a physically plausible method for constructing a topological quantum memory. We discuss applications to topological and adiabatic quantum computing.

  18. 7 CFR 1216.16 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions 1216.16 Order. Order...

  19. 7 CFR 1216.16 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions 1216.16 Order. Order...

  20. 7 CFR 1280.113 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAMB PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Lamb Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions 1280.113 Order. Order means...

  1. 7 CFR 1280.113 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAMB PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Lamb Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions 1280.113 Order. Order means...

  2. 7 CFR 1280.113 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAMB PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Lamb Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions 1280.113 Order. Order means...

  3. 7 CFR 1280.113 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAMB PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Lamb Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions 1280.113 Order. Order means...

  4. 7 CFR 1280.113 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAMB PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Lamb Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions 1280.113 Order. Order means...

  5. 7 CFR 1216.16 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions 1216.16 Order. Order...

  6. 7 CFR 1216.16 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions 1216.16 Order. Order...

  7. 7 CFR 1216.16 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions 1216.16 Order. Order...

  8. Counterbalancing for Serial Order Carryover Effects in Experimental Condition Orders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Joseph L.

    2012-01-01

    Reactions of neural, psychological, and social systems are rarely, if ever, independent of previous inputs and states. The potential for serial order carryover effects from one condition to the next in a sequence of experimental trials makes counterbalancing of condition order an essential part of experimental design. Here, a method is proposed

  9. Counterbalancing for Serial Order Carryover Effects in Experimental Condition Orders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Joseph L.

    2012-01-01

    Reactions of neural, psychological, and social systems are rarely, if ever, independent of previous inputs and states. The potential for serial order carryover effects from one condition to the next in a sequence of experimental trials makes counterbalancing of condition order an essential part of experimental design. Here, a method is proposed…

  10. Surface melting of electronic order.

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkins, S. B.; Liu, X.; Wakabayashi, Y.; Kim, J.-W.; Ryan, P. J.; Mitchell, J. F.; Hill, J. P.

    2011-01-01

    We report temperature-dependent surface x-ray scattering studies of the orbital ordered surface in La{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 1.5}MnO{sub 4}. We find that as the bulk ordering temperature is approached from below the thickness of the interface between the electronically ordered and electronically disordered regions at the surface grows, though the bulk correlation length remains unchanged. Close to the transition, the surface is so rough that there is no well-defined electronic surface, despite the presence of bulk electronic order. That is, the electronic ordering at the surface has melted. Above the bulk transition, long-range ordering in the bulk is destroyed but finite-sized isotropic fluctuations persist, with a correlation length roughly equal to that of the low-temperature in-plane surface correlation length.

  11. Quadrupolar ion excitation for radiofrequency-only mass filter operation.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Don J; Polyakov, A; Konenkov, Nikolai V

    2014-01-01

    Trajectory calculations are used to model a mass filter based on the radiofrequency (rf)-only operation of a linear quadrupole with resonant quadrupole excitation of ions (resonant excitation applied with the same spatial electric field as the main quadrupole rf field). Ions are not trapped, but pass continuously through the quadrupole. Excited ions gain axial kinetic energy in the fringe field at the quadrupole exit, overcome a stopping potential and are transmitted to an external detector. No quadrupole direct current is required, unlike conventional operation at the tip of the first stability diagram. Quadrupole excitation can be applied with amplitude or frequency modulation of the main rf voltage, or with an auxiliary excitation voltage. All three methods give the same mass resolution. The mass resolution, R, is given by R ? 0.5q(d?/dq)n where q is a Mathieu parameter, ?(q), determines the frequency of ion oscillation and n is the number of cycles of the rf field experienced by an ion, determined by the flight time through the quadrupole. A disadvantage of this mode of operation is that the flight times of the ions and the excitation amplitudes or modulation depths need to be synchronized. PMID:24892291

  12. Equilibrium structures of anisometric, quadrupolar particles confined to a monolayer.

    PubMed

    Heinemann, Thomas; Antlanger, Moritz; Mazars, Martial; Klapp, Sabine H L; Kahl, Gerhard

    2016-02-21

    We investigate the structural properties of a two-dimensional system of ellipsoidal particles carrying a linear quadrupole moment in their center. These particles represent a simple model for a variety of uncharged, non-polar conjugated organic molecules. Using optimization tools based on ideas of evolutionary algorithms, we first examine the ground state structures as we vary the aspect ratio of the particles and the pressure. Interestingly, we find, besides the intuitively expected T-like configurations, a variety of complex structures, characterized with up to three different particle orientations. In an effort to explore the impact of thermal fluctuations, we perform constant-pressure molecular dynamics simulations within a range of rather low temperatures. We observe that ground state structures formed by particles with a large aspect ratio are in particular suited to withstand fluctuations up to rather high temperatures. Our comprehensive investigations allow for a deeper understanding of molecular or colloidal monolayer arrangements under the influence of a typical electrostatic interaction on a coarse-grained level. PMID:26896992

  13. Hierarchical Ordering of Reticular Networks

    PubMed Central

    Mileyko, Yuriy; Edelsbrunner, Herbert; Price, Charles A.; Weitz, Joshua S.

    2012-01-01

    The structure of hierarchical networks in biological and physical systems has long been characterized using the Horton-Strahler ordering scheme. The scheme assigns an integer order to each edge in the network based on the topology of branching such that the order increases from distal parts of the network (e.g., mountain streams or capillaries) to the root of the network (e.g., the river outlet or the aorta). However, Horton-Strahler ordering cannot be applied to networks with loops because they they create a contradiction in the edge ordering in terms of which edge precedes another in the hierarchy. Here, we present a generalization of the Horton-Strahler order to weighted planar reticular networks, where weights are assumed to correlate with the importance of network edges, e.g., weights estimated from edge widths may correlate to flow capacity. Our method assigns hierarchical levels not only to edges of the network, but also to its loops, and classifies the edges into reticular edges, which are responsible for loop formation, and tree edges. In addition, we perform a detailed and rigorous theoretical analysis of the sensitivity of the hierarchical levels to weight perturbations. In doing so, we show that the ordering of the reticular edges is more robust to noise in weight estimation than is the ordering of the tree edges. We discuss applications of this generalized Horton-Strahler ordering to the study of leaf venation and other biological networks. PMID:22701559

  14. High-Order/Low-Order methods for ocean modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, Christopher; Womeldorff, Geoff; Chacón, Luis; Knoll, Dana A.

    2015-06-01

    We examine a High Order/Low Order (HOLO) approach for a z-level ocean model and show that the traditional semi-implicit and split-explicit methods, as well as a recent preconditioning strategy, can easily be cast in the framework of HOLO methods. The HOLO formulation admits an implicit-explicit method that is algorithmically scalable and second-order accurate, allowing timesteps much larger than the barotropic time scale. We demonstrate how HOLO approaches, in particular the implicit-explicit method, can provide a solid route for ocean simulation to heterogeneous computing and exascale environments.

  15. Problem Order Implications for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Nan; Cohen, William W.; Koedinger, Kenneth R.

    2013-01-01

    The order of problems presented to students is an important variable that affects learning effectiveness. Previous studies have shown that solving problems in a blocked order, in which all problems of one type are completed before the student is switched to the next problem type, results in less effective performance than does solving the problems…

  16. First order ball bearing kinematics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kingbury, E.

    1984-01-01

    Two first order equations are given connecting geometry and internal motions in an angular contact ball bearing. Total speed, kinematic equivalence, basic speed ratio, and modal speed ratio are defined and discussed; charts are given for the speed ratios covering all bearings and all rotational modes. Instances where specific first order assumptions might fail are discussed, and the resulting effects on bearing performance reviewed.

  17. Analysis of Computed Order Tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fyfe, K. R.; Munck, E. D. S.

    1997-03-01

    Vibration analysis of rotating machinery is an important part of industrial predictive maintenance programmes, so that wear and defects in moving parts can be discovered and repaired before the machine breaks down, thus reducing operating and maintenance costs. One method of vibration analysis is known as order tracking. This is a frequency analysis method that uses multiples of the running speed (orders), instead of absolute frequencies (Hz), as the frequency base. Order tracking is useful for machine condition monitoring because it can easily identify speed-related vibrations such as shaft defects and bearing wear. To use order tracking analysis, the vibration signal must be sampled at constant increments of shaft angle. Conventional order tracking data acquisition uses special analog hardware to sample at a rate proportional to the shaft speed. A computed order tracking method samples at a constant rate (i.e. uniform ?t), and then uses software to resample the data at constant angular increments. This study examines which factors and assumptions, inherent in this computed order tracking method, have the greatest effect on its accuracy. Both classical and computed methods were evaluated and compared using a digital simulation. It was found that the method is extremely sensitive to the timing accuracy of the keyphasor pulses and that great improvements in the spectral accuracy were observed when making use of higher-order interpolation functions.

  18. Birth Order: Reconciling Conflicting Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zajonc, Robert B.; Mullally, Patricia R.

    1997-01-01

    Introduces the confluence model as a theory specifying the process by which the intellectual environment modifies intellectual development. Using this model, explores the contradiction between prediction of secular trends in test scores by trends in aggregate birth order and the lack of prediction of individual test scores by birth order using

  19. Tensions between Liberty and Order.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemerinsky, Erwin

    2002-01-01

    Explores the issue of balancing liberty and order within the United States. Discusses the role of the Bill of Rights, focusing on the amendments in the document and the later amendments that ensure the liberty of U.S. citizens. Explains how order and liberty are ensured and includes discussion questions. (CMK)

  20. Do-not-resuscitate order

    MedlinePLUS

    No code; End-of-life; Do not resuscitate; Do not resuscitate order; DNR; DNR order ... If you are near the end of your life or you have an illness that will not improve, you can choose whether you want CPR to be ...

  1. Children's Order 10 Years on

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, Linda

    2006-01-01

    Ten years ago I wrote an article on the Children's Order, which was coming into force in Northern Ireland in October 1996. I examined the principles behind the Children's Order and considered how these principles interacted with the practice of family mediation (at that stage I was Coordinator of the Family Mediation service). Since that date…

  2. Problem Order Implications for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Nan; Cohen, William W.; Koedinger, Kenneth R.

    2013-01-01

    The order of problems presented to students is an important variable that affects learning effectiveness. Previous studies have shown that solving problems in a blocked order, in which all problems of one type are completed before the student is switched to the next problem type, results in less effective performance than does solving the problems

  3. Orderings for conjugate gradient preconditionings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ortega, James M.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of orderings on the rate of convergence of the conjugate gradient method with SSOR or incomplete Cholesky preconditioning is examined. Some results also are presented that help to explain why red/black ordering gives an inferior rate of convergence.

  4. Adiabatic preparation of topological order.

    PubMed

    Hamma, Alioscia; Lidar, Daniel A

    2008-01-25

    Topological order characterizes those phases of matter that defy a description in terms of symmetry and cannot be distinguished in terms of local order parameters. Here we show that a system of n spins forming a lattice on a Riemann surface can undergo a second order quantum phase transition between a spin-polarized phase and a string-net condensed phase. This is an example of a quantum phase transition between magnetic and topological order. We furthermore show how to prepare the topologically ordered phase through adiabatic evolution in a time that is upper bounded by O(sqrt[n]). This provides a physically plausible method for constructing and initializing a topological quantum memory. PMID:18232953

  5. Adiabatic Preparation of Topological Order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamma, Alioscia; Lidar, Daniel A.

    2008-01-01

    Topological order characterizes those phases of matter that defy a description in terms of symmetry and cannot be distinguished in terms of local order parameters. Here we show that a system of n spins forming a lattice on a Riemann surface can undergo a second order quantum phase transition between a spin-polarized phase and a string-net condensed phase. This is an example of a quantum phase transition between magnetic and topological order. We furthermore show how to prepare the topologically ordered phase through adiabatic evolution in a time that is upper bounded by O(n). This provides a physically plausible method for constructing and initializing a topological quantum memory.

  6. Operon Gene Order Is Optimized for Ordered Protein Complex Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Wells, JonathanN.; Bergendahl, L.Therese; Marsh, JosephA.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The assembly of heteromeric protein complexes is an inherently stochastic process in which multiple genes are expressed separately into proteins, which must then somehow find each other within the cell. Here, we considered one of the ways by which prokaryotic organisms have attempted to maximize the efficiency of protein complex assembly: the organization of subunit-encoding genes into operons. Using structure-based assembly predictions, we show that operon gene order has been optimized to match the order in which protein subunits assemble. Exceptions to this are almost entirely highly expressed proteins for which assembly is less stochastic and for which precisely ordered translation offers less benefit. Overall, these results show that ordered protein complex assembly pathways are of significant biological importance and represent a major evolutionary constraint on operon gene organization. PMID:26804901

  7. 7 CFR 1208.14 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROCESSED RASPBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions 1208.14 Order. Order means the Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order....

  8. 7 CFR 1208.14 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROCESSED RASPBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions 1208.14 Order. Order means the Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order....

  9. Order parameters in hydrocarbon chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edholm, Olle

    1982-03-01

    Order in lipid bilayers is often described by order parameters SCD, SHH and Schain which are rather directly obtained from deuterium NMR, proton NMR and ESR spectroscopy respectively. A relation is derived that makes one of these parameters redundant from purely geometrical reasons. Further, the effect of conformational disorder upon these order parameters is investigated theoretically using a transgauche model. Corrections from the finite of the transgauche wells and from non-fixed valence angles are shown to be negligible.

  10. Multiple order common path spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newbury, Amy B. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to a dispersive spectrometer. The spectrometer allows detection of multiple orders of light on a single focal plane array by splitting the orders spatially using a dichroic assembly. A conventional dispersion mechanism such as a defraction grating disperses the light spectrally. As a result, multiple wavelength orders can be imaged on a single focal plane array of limited spectral extent, doubling (or more) the number of spectral channels as compared to a conventional spectrometer. In addition, this is achieved in a common path device.

  11. Complex higher order derivative theories

    SciTech Connect

    Margalli, Carlos A.; Vergara, J. David

    2012-08-24

    In this work is considered a complex scalar field theory with higher order derivative terms and interactions. A procedure is developed to quantize consistently this system avoiding the presence of negative norm states. In order to achieve this goal the original real scalar high order field theory is extended to a complex space attaching a complex total derivative to the theory. Next, by imposing reality conditions the complex theory is mapped to a pair of interacting real scalar field theories without the presence of higher derivative terms.

  12. 7 CFR 1218.12 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.12 Order....

  13. 7 CFR 1218.12 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.12 Order....

  14. 7 CFR 1218.12 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.12 Order....

  15. 7 CFR 1218.12 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.12 Order....

  16. 7 CFR 1218.12 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.12 Order....

  17. 7 CFR 1206.13 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.13 Order. Order means an...

  18. 7 CFR 1206.13 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.13 Order. Order means an...

  19. 7 CFR 1206.13 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.13 Order. Order means an...

  20. 7 CFR 1206.13 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.13 Order. Order means an...

  1. 7 CFR 1206.13 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.13 Order. Order means an...

  2. Order, Chaos and All That!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glasser, L.

    1989-01-01

    The evolution of ideas about the concept of chaos is surveyed. Discussed are chaos in deterministic, dynamic systems; order in dissipative systems; and thermodynamics and irreversibility. Included are logistic and bifurcation maps to illustrate points made in the discussion. (CW)

  3. Helicoidal ordering in iron perovskites.

    PubMed

    Mostovoy, Maxim

    2005-04-01

    We study the double exchange in transition metal oxides with itinerant and localized electrons. We show that the charge transfer energy Delta and the oxygen-oxygen hopping amplitude t(pp) have a strong effect on magnetic ordering: while for Delta>0 the ground state is ferromagnetic, for negative Delta and large t(pp) the double exchange gives rise to an incommensurate helicoidal ordering of local spins, observed, e.g., in the iron perovskites SrFeO3 and CaFeO3. For negative Delta, the metal-insulator transition into a charge-ordered state has little effect on magnetic ordering. This explains the difference in magnetic and transport properties of ferrates and manganites. PMID:15904026

  4. Nursing Aides, Orderlies, and Attendants

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nurses and registered nurses . <- Summary Work Environment -> Work Environment About this section Orderlies are responsible for keeping ... also covers different types of occupational specialties. Work Environment The Work Environment tab includes the number of ...

  5. Supersymmetric fifth order evolution equations

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, K.; Liu, Q. P.

    2010-03-08

    This paper considers supersymmetric fifth order evolution equations. Within the framework of symmetry approach, we give a list containing six equations, which are (potentially) integrable systems. Among these equations, the most interesting ones include a supersymmetric Sawada-Kotera equation and a novel supersymmetric fifth order KdV equation. For the latter, we supply some properties such as a Hamiltonian structures and a possible recursion operator.

  6. High Order Continuous Approximation for the Top Order Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzia, Francesca; Sestini, Alessandra; Trigiante, Donato

    2007-09-01

    The Top Order Methods are a class of linear multistep schemes to be used as Boundary Value Methods and with the feature of having maximal order (2k if k is the number of steps). This often implies that accurate numerical approximations of general BVPs can be produced just using the 3-step TOM. In this work, we consider two different possibilities for defining a continuous approximation of the numerical solution, the standard C1 cubic spline collocating the differential equation at the knots and a C2k-1 spline of degree 2k. The computation of the B-spline coefficients of this higher degree spline requires the solution of N+2k banded linear systems of size 4k×4k. The resulting B-spline function is convergent of order 2k to the exact solution of the continuous BVPs.

  7. A Law of Order: Word Order Change in Classical Aztec

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Susan M.

    1976-01-01

    The verb in Classical Aztec is slowly moving from the end of the sentence to the beginning due to the attraction of sentence initial modal particles to the verb. Not only the function but also the position of elements should be examined to account for word-order change. (SCC)

  8. Order-order transitions in ABC triblock nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong-Ren Chen; Kornfield, J.A.; Smith, S.; Satkowski, M.

    1996-12-31

    This report discusses a triblock copolymer of isoprene I, styrene S, and a random copolymer of styrene and isoprene. Optical methods are used to examine flow-induced alignment kinetics and final alignment state; nanostructures and global order are also studied.

  9. Order-parameter scaling in fluctuation-dominated phase ordering.

    PubMed

    Kapri, Rajeev; Bandyopadhyay, Malay; Barma, Mustansir

    2016-01-01

    In systems exhibiting fluctuation-dominated phase ordering, a single order parameter does not suffice to characterize the order, and it is necessary to monitor a larger set. For hard-core sliding particles on a fluctuating surface and the related coarse-grained depth (CD) models, this set comprises the long-wavelength Fourier components of the density profile, which capture the breakup and remerging of particle-rich regions. We study both static and dynamic scaling laws obeyed by the Fourier modes Q_{mL} and find that the mean value obeys the static scaling law 〈Q_{mL}〉∼L^{-ϕ}f(m/L) with ϕ≃2/3 and ϕ≃3/5 for Edwards-Wilkinson (EW) and Kardar-Parisi-Zhang (KPZ) surface evolution, respectively, and ϕ≃3/4 for the CD model. The full probability distribution P(Q_{mL}) exhibits scaling as well. Further, time-dependent correlation functions such as the steady-state autocorrelation and cross-correlations of order-parameter components are scaling functions of t/L^{z}, where L is the system size and z is the dynamic exponent, with z=2 for EW and z=3/2 for KPZ surface evolution. In addition we find that the CD model shows temporal intermittency, manifested in the dynamical structure functions of the density and the weak divergence of the flatness as the scaled time approaches 0. PMID:26871034

  10. Order-parameter scaling in fluctuation-dominated phase ordering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapri, Rajeev; Bandyopadhyay, Malay; Barma, Mustansir

    2016-01-01

    In systems exhibiting fluctuation-dominated phase ordering, a single order parameter does not suffice to characterize the order, and it is necessary to monitor a larger set. For hard-core sliding particles on a fluctuating surface and the related coarse-grained depth (CD) models, this set comprises the long-wavelength Fourier components of the density profile, which capture the breakup and remerging of particle-rich regions. We study both static and dynamic scaling laws obeyed by the Fourier modes Qm L and find that the mean value obeys the static scaling law ˜L-ϕf (m /L ) with ϕ ≃2 /3 and ϕ ≃3 /5 for Edwards-Wilkinson (EW) and Kardar-Parisi-Zhang (KPZ) surface evolution, respectively, and ϕ ≃3 /4 for the CD model. The full probability distribution P (Qm L) exhibits scaling as well. Further, time-dependent correlation functions such as the steady-state autocorrelation and cross-correlations of order-parameter components are scaling functions of t /Lz , where L is the system size and z is the dynamic exponent, with z =2 for EW and z =3 /2 for KPZ surface evolution. In addition we find that the CD model shows temporal intermittency, manifested in the dynamical structure functions of the density and the weak divergence of the flatness as the scaled time approaches 0.

  11. Order in a multidimensional system

    PubMed Central

    Roy Frieden, B.; Gatenby, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    We show that any convex K-dimensional system has a level of order R that is proportional to its level of Fisher information I. The proportionality constant is 1/8 the square of the longest chord connecting two surface points of the system. This result follows solely from the requirement that R decrease under small perturbations caused by a coarse graining of the system. The form for R is generally unitless, allowing the order for different phenomena, or different representations (e.g., using time vs frequency) of a given phenomenom, to be compared objectively. Order R is also invariant to uniform magnification of the system. The monotonic contraction properties of R and I define an arrow of time and imply that they are entropies, in addition to their usual status as informations. This also removes the need for data, and therefore an observer, in derivations of nonparticipatory phenomena that utilize I. Simple graphical examples of the new order measure show that it measures as well the level of “complexity” in the system. Finally, an application to cell growth during enforced distortion shows that a single hydrocarbon chain can be distorted into a membrane having equal order or complexity. Such membranes are prime constituents of living cells. PMID:21867134

  12. Direct Observation of Magnetic Field Induced Ferroelectric Domain Evolution in Self-Assembled Quasi (0-3) BiFeO3-CoFe2O4 Thin Films.

    PubMed

    Li, Linglong; Lu, Lu; Zhang, Dawei; Su, Ran; Yang, Guang; Zhai, Junyi; Yang, Yaodong

    2016-01-13

    Strain-mediated magnetoelectric (ME) coupling effect is expected in self-assembly heterostructures engineered by ferroelectric and ferromagnetic materials, contributing to the enhanced overall magnetoelectric effect. Microstructures as well as the connectivity configuration are considered to play a significant role in achieving efficient magnetoelectric properties. Different from the conventional (1-3) and (2-2) type composite films, we fabricate BiFeO3-CoFe2O4 (BFO-CFO) composite thin films with a novel quasi (0-3) type connectivity via a dual-target pulsed laser deposition process. The self-assembly growth mechanism has been studied, which demonstrates that the perovskite (BFO) matrix segments the connectivity of spinel (CFO) resulting in a quasi (0-3) composite. Direct observation of ferroelectric domain wall motion under external magnetic fields proves a strong magnetoelectric coupling effect in these (0-3) thin films. Our preliminary findings reveal the promising application potential of this new structure as multiferroic domain wall devices. PMID:26698906

  13. Magnetic-field-induced modifications of the electronic structure of Ni(en)2NO2BF4 : A signature of the Haldane gap in the electronic-excitation intensities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, V. C.; Chou, Y.-H.; Cross, I. A.; Kozen, A. C.; Montague, J. R.; Schundler, E. C.; Wei, X.; McGill, S. A.; Landry, B. R.; Maxcy-Pearson, K. R.; Turnbull, M. M.; Landee, C. P.

    2007-07-01

    Ni(en)2NO2BF4 (NENB) is isostructural to Ni(en)2NO2ClO4 , the well-known Haldane compound. We have measured the near infrared and visible frequency polarized transmittances of NENB as a function of temperature from 6to300K and in magnetic fields (H) up to 30T . We identify near infrared spin-allowed and spin-forbidden (SF) d-d excitations of the Ni2+ ion as well as a Ni2+ -to- NO2- charge-transfer (CT) transition at 2.5eV , confirmed by vibrational fine structure on the CT band due to the nitrite ion. The spin-allowed d-d bands exhibit temperature dependence consistent with vibronic transitions. The spin-forbidden and electron transfer transitions are noticeably sensitive to magnetic field. Above H?10T , the NENB SF excitation is linearly suppressed by field, whereas the CT transition intensity increases; the onset field agrees with that observed in the high-field magnetization. For comparison, we made the same measurements on a compound having similar near infrared electronic transitions but a different magnetic ground state: the paramagnetic material Ni(en)3(ClO4)2H2O (NEN3P). The SF bands of NENB are relatively more intense than those of NEN3P, suggesting that a spin exchange mechanism enhances their intensity in NENB, in contrast to activation solely by spin-orbit coupling in NEN3P. The H dependence of the SF band also differs in the two materials; in NEN3P, suppression of the SF intensity commences at H?0T . In general, the contrasting behaviors of field-sensitive excitations in the Haldane and paramagnetic analog compounds reveal a correlation between the electronic structure and magnetic properties.

  14. Determining Reduced Order Models for Optimal Stochastic Reduced Order Models

    SciTech Connect

    Bonney, Matthew S.; Brake, Matthew R.W.

    2015-08-01

    The use of parameterized reduced order models(PROMs) within the stochastic reduced order model (SROM) framework is a logical progression for both methods. In this report, five different parameterized reduced order models are selected and critiqued against the other models along with truth model for the example of the Brake-Reuss beam. The models are: a Taylor series using finite difference, a proper orthogonal decomposition of the the output, a Craig-Bampton representation of the model, a method that uses Hyper-Dual numbers to determine the sensitivities, and a Meta-Model method that uses the Hyper-Dual results and constructs a polynomial curve to better represent the output data. The methods are compared against a parameter sweep and a distribution propagation where the first four statistical moments are used as a comparison. Each method produces very accurate results with the Craig-Bampton reduction having the least accurate results. The models are also compared based on time requirements for the evaluation of each model where the Meta- Model requires the least amount of time for computation by a significant amount. Each of the five models provided accurate results in a reasonable time frame. The determination of which model to use is dependent on the availability of the high-fidelity model and how many evaluations can be performed. Analysis of the output distribution is examined by using a large Monte-Carlo simulation along with a reduced simulation using Latin Hypercube and the stochastic reduced order model sampling technique. Both techniques produced accurate results. The stochastic reduced order modeling technique produced less error when compared to an exhaustive sampling for the majority of methods.

  15. Tree reconstruction from partial orders

    SciTech Connect

    Kannan, S.K.; Warnow, T.J.

    1993-03-01

    The problem of constructing trees given a matrix of interleaf distances is motivated by applications in computational evolutionary biology and linguistics. The general problem is to find an edge-weighted tree which most closely approximates the distance matrix. Although the construction problem is easy when the tree exactly fits the distance matrix, optimization problems under all popular criteria are either known or conjectured to be NP-complete. In this paper we consider the related problem where we are given a partial order on the pairwise distances, and wish to construct (if possible) an edge-weighted tree realizing the partial order. In particular we are interested in partial orders which arise from experiments on triples of species, which determine either a linear ordering of the three pairwise distances (called Total Order Model or TOM experiments) or only the pair(s) of minimum distance apart (called Partial Order Model or POM experiments). The POM and TOM experimental model is inspired by the model proposed by Kannan, Lawler, and Warnow for constructing trees from experiments which determine the rooted topology for any triple of species. We examine issues of construction of trees and consistency of TOM and POM experiments, where the trees may either be weighted or unweighted. Using these experiments to construct unweighted trees without nodes of degree two is motivated by a similar problem studied by Winkler, called the Discrete Metric Realization problem, which he showed to be strongly NP-hard. We have the following results: Determining consistency of a set of TOM or POM experiments is NP-Complete whether the tree is weighted or constrained to be unweighted and without degree two nodes. We can construct unweighted trees without degree two nodes from TOM experiments in optimal O(n{sup 3}) time and from POM experiments in O(n{sup 4}) time.

  16. Tree reconstruction from partial orders

    SciTech Connect

    Kannan, S.K. ); Warnow, T.J. )

    1993-01-01

    The problem of constructing trees given a matrix of interleaf distances is motivated by applications in computational evolutionary biology and linguistics. The general problem is to find an edge-weighted tree which most closely approximates the distance matrix. Although the construction problem is easy when the tree exactly fits the distance matrix, optimization problems under all popular criteria are either known or conjectured to be NP-complete. In this paper we consider the related problem where we are given a partial order on the pairwise distances, and wish to construct (if possible) an edge-weighted tree realizing the partial order. In particular we are interested in partial orders which arise from experiments on triples of species, which determine either a linear ordering of the three pairwise distances (called Total Order Model or TOM experiments) or only the pair(s) of minimum distance apart (called Partial Order Model or POM experiments). The POM and TOM experimental model is inspired by the model proposed by Kannan, Lawler, and Warnow for constructing trees from experiments which determine the rooted topology for any triple of species. We examine issues of construction of trees and consistency of TOM and POM experiments, where the trees may either be weighted or unweighted. Using these experiments to construct unweighted trees without nodes of degree two is motivated by a similar problem studied by Winkler, called the Discrete Metric Realization problem, which he showed to be strongly NP-hard. We have the following results: Determining consistency of a set of TOM or POM experiments is NP-Complete whether the tree is weighted or constrained to be unweighted and without degree two nodes. We can construct unweighted trees without degree two nodes from TOM experiments in optimal O(n[sup 3]) time and from POM experiments in O(n[sup 4]) time.

  17. Risk attitudes and birth order.

    PubMed

    Krause, Philipp; Heindl, Johannes; Jung, Andreas; Langguth, Berthold; Hajak, Göran; Sand, Philipp G

    2014-07-01

    Risk attitudes play important roles in health behavior and everyday decision making. It is unclear, however, whether these attitudes can be predicted from birth order. We investigated 200 mostly male volunteers from two distinct settings. After correcting for multiple comparisons, for the number of siblings and for confounding by gender, ordinal position predicted perception of health-related risks among participants in extreme sports (p < .01). However, the direction of the effect contradicted Adlerian theory. Except for alcohol consumption, these findings extended to self-reported risk behavior. Together, the data call for a cautious stand on the impact of birth order on risk attitudes. PMID:23520357

  18. Order effects in dynamic semantics.

    PubMed

    Graben, Peter Beim

    2014-01-01

    In their target article, Wang and Busemeyer (2013) discuss question order effects in terms of incompatible projectors on a Hilbert space. In a similar vein, Blutner recently presented an orthoalgebraic query language essentially relying on dynamic update semantics. Here, I shall comment on some interesting analogies between the different variants of dynamic semantics and generalized quantum theory to illustrate other kinds of order effects in human cognition, such as belief revision, the resolution of anaphors, and default reasoning that result from the crucial non-commutativity of mental operations upon the belief state of a cognitive agent. PMID:24259268

  19. Parametric ordering of complex systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binder, P.-M.

    1994-03-01

    Cellular automata (CA) dynamics are ordered in terms of two global parameters, computable a priori from the description of rules. While one of them (activity) has been used before, the second one is new; it estimates the average sensitivity of rules to small configurational changes. For two-well-known families of rules, the Wolfram complexity classes cluster satisfactorily. The observed simultaneous occurrence of sharp and smooth transitions from ordered to disordered dynamics in CA can be explained with the two-parameter diagram.

  20. Order-by-order predictions for nuclear and neutron matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sammarruca, Francesca

    2014-09-01

    We report on ab initio predictions of nuclear and neutron matter obtained within the BHF approach together with chiral forces. The parameters of the two- and many-body forces are constrained by the properties of the two- and the few-nucleon systems and not readjusted when such forces are applied in nuclear matter. Chiral effective field theories are based on a low-momentum expansion (ChPT) valid for momenta less than the chiral symmetry breaking scale, Λ. Therefore, nucleon-nucleon potentials based on ChPT are usually multiplied by a regulator function f (p' , p) = exp [ - (p' / Λ)2n - (p / Λ)2n ] , where 0.5 GeV is a typical choice for the cutoff Λ. Together with power counting, ChPT allows for a systematic development of nuclear forces, where two- and many-body forces emerge on an equal footing at each order. The question we wish to explore is: how good is the rate of convergence of the chiral expansion? Better and better convergence with increasing order should be seen as improved cutoff independence. We will be concerned with the energy per particle in nuclear and neutron matter as well as the symmetry energy. The purpose is to determine the accuracy with which these quantities can be predicted in ChPT, order by order. We report on ab initio predictions of nuclear and neutron matter obtained within the BHF approach together with chiral forces. The parameters of the two- and many-body forces are constrained by the properties of the two- and the few-nucleon systems and not readjusted when such forces are applied in nuclear matter. Chiral effective field theories are based on a low-momentum expansion (ChPT) valid for momenta less than the chiral symmetry breaking scale, Λ. Therefore, nucleon-nucleon potentials based on ChPT are usually multiplied by a regulator function f (p' , p) = exp [ - (p' / Λ)2n - (p / Λ)2n ] , where 0.5 GeV is a typical choice for the cutoff Λ. Together with power counting, ChPT allows for a systematic development of nuclear forces, where two- and many-body forces emerge on an equal footing at each order. The question we wish to explore is: how good is the rate of convergence of the chiral expansion? Better and better convergence with increasing order should be seen as improved cutoff independence. We will be concerned with the energy per particle in nuclear and neutron matter as well as the symmetry energy. The purpose is to determine the accuracy with which these quantities can be predicted in ChPT, order by order. Support from DOE is acknowledged.

  1. Moral Order and the Humanities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Thomas

    1980-01-01

    Argues that a society without reverence for myths and history inevitably falls prone to chaos and evil, pointing to abortion, Andy Warhol's celebrity, and Woodstock as evidence of this disintegration of society. Proposes that humanities education expose students to human experience based on some awesome and fixed moral order. (AYC)

  2. Peacekeeping. Perspectives in World Order.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraenkel, Jack R., Ed.; And Others

    This pamphlet, intended for senior high classroom use, defines war, peace, and peacekeeping systems; discusses the destructiveness of war; and proposes the case study method for studying world order. The major portion of the booklet explores ways of peacekeeping through analysis of four different models: collective security, collective force,…

  3. Peacekeeping. Perspectives in World Order.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraenkel, Jack R., Ed.; And Others

    This pamphlet, intended for senior high classroom use, defines war, peace, and peacekeeping systems; discusses the destructiveness of war; and proposes the case study method for studying world order. The major portion of the booklet explores ways of peacekeeping through analysis of four different models: collective security, collective force,

  4. Weighted order statistic classifiers with large rank-order margin.

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, R. B.; Hush, D. R.; Theiler, J. P.; Gokhale, M.

    2003-01-01

    We describe how Stack Filters and Weighted Order Statistic function classes can be used for classification problems. This leads to a new design criteria for linear classifiers when inputs are binary-valued and weights are positive . We present a rank-based measure of margin that can be directly optimized as a standard linear program and investigate its effect on generalization error with experiment. Our approach can robustly combine large numbers of base hypothesis and easily implement known priors through regularization.

  5. 48 CFR 252.216-7006 - Ordering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... delivery orders or task orders by the individuals or activities designated in the contract schedule. Such orders may be issued from through . (b) All delivery orders or task orders are subject to the terms and conditions of this contract. In the event of conflict between a delivery order or task order and...

  6. 48 CFR 52.216-18 - Ordering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... services to be furnished under this contract shall be ordered by issuance of delivery orders or task orders... ___ through ___ . (b) All delivery orders or task orders are subject to the terms and conditions of this contract. In the event of conflict between a delivery order or task order and this contract, the...

  7. 48 CFR 52.216-18 - Ordering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... services to be furnished under this contract shall be ordered by issuance of delivery orders or task orders... ___ through ___ . (b) All delivery orders or task orders are subject to the terms and conditions of this contract. In the event of conflict between a delivery order or task order and this contract, the...

  8. Recent advances in ordered intermetallics

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, C.T.

    1994-12-31

    Ordered intermetallic alloys based on aluminides and silicides offer many advantages for structural use at high temperatures in hostile environments. Attractive properties include excellent oxidation and corrosion resistance, light weight, and superior strength at high temperatures. The major concern for structural use of intermetallics was their low ductility and poor fracture resistance at ambient temperatures. For the past 10 years, considerable effort was devoted to R&D of ordered intermetallic alloys, and progress has been made on understanding intrinsic and extrinsic factors controlling brittle fracture in intermetallic alloys based on aluminides and silicides. Parallel effort on alloy design has led to the development of a number of ductile and strong intermetallic alloys based on Ni{sub 3}Al, NiAl, Fe{sub 3}Al, FeAl, Ti{sub 3}Al, and TiAl systems for structural applications.

  9. Second Order Corrected Hadamard Formulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epele, L. N.; Fanchiotti, H.; Garcia Canal, C. A.

    The second order correction to the Hadamard formulae for the Green function, harmonic measures and period matrix of a two-dimensional domain is obtained iu the context of the domain variational theory.Translated AbstractDie Hadmard-Formel mit Korrekturen der zweiten OrdnungDie Korrekturen der zweiten Ordnung zur Hadamard Formel fr die Greensche Funktion, harmonische Mae und die Perioden-Matrix eines zweidimensionalen Bereichs werden berechnet im Rahmen der Theorie der Variation des Definitionsbereichs.

  10. Digital first order hold circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Fred N. (Inventor); Wensley, Gerald J. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    There is provided a digitally controlled first order hold circuit and waveform synthesizer for digitally controlling the representation of a function over an approximation interval. In accordance with the operation of the invention, the first order hold circuit and waveform generator receives a digital data input signal which contains initial condition data, up/down data, and slope data for the approximation interval. The initial condition data is loaded into an up/down counter which is incremented using counting data at a rate depending on the value of the slope data and in a direction depending on the value of the up-down data. In order to minimize delays arising from data acquistion, two frequency synthesizer circuits are provided such that one frequency synthesizer provides counting data while the other frequency synthesizer receives slope data. During alternating intervals, the other frequency synthesizer circuit provides counting data while the other circuit receives slope data. In addition, long length data input signals covering a plurality of approximation intervals are provided to reduce the demands on a main system central processing unit.

  11. 7 CFR 1214.12 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHRISTMAS TREE PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Christmas Tree Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions ...

  12. 7 CFR 1214.12 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHRISTMAS TREE PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Christmas Tree Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions ...

  13. 7 CFR 1214.12 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHRISTMAS TREE PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Christmas Tree Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions ...

  14. Charge ordering and intermediate range order in ammonium ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Siqueira, Leonardo J A; Ribeiro, Mauro C C

    2011-11-28

    Molecular dynamics simulations were performed for ionic liquids based on the bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide anion, [NTf(2)], and ammonium cations with increasing length of the alkyl chain and ether functionalized chain. The signature of charge ordering is a sharp peak in the charge-charge structure factor, S(qq)(k), whose intensity is barely affected for longer carbon chain in tetraalkylammonium systems, but decreases in ether functionalized ionic liquids. The first sharp diffraction peak (FSDP) and the corresponding intermediate range order (IRO) are observed in the total S(k) of ionic liquids containing ammonium cations with relatively long chains. The intensity of the FSDP is lower in the total S(k) of the ether derivative in comparison with the tetraalkylammonium counterpart of the same chain length. It is shown that the nature of the IRO is structural heterogeneity of polar and non-polar domains, even though domains defined by chain interactions in the ether derivatives become more polar. Charge correlation in the ether derivative is modified because cations can be coordinated by oxygen atoms of the ether functionalized chain of neighboring cations. PMID:22128942

  15. Ordering events of biochemical evolution.

    PubMed

    Cunchillos, C; Lecointre, G

    2007-05-01

    Metabolic pathways exhibit structures resulting from an evolutionary process. Pathways have been inherited through time with modification, from the earliest periods of life. It is possible to compare the structure of pathways as done in comparative anatomy, i.e. for inferring ancestral pathways or parts of it (ancestral enzymatic functions), using standard phylogenetic reconstruction. Thus a phylogenetic tree of pathways provides a relative ordering of the rise of enzymatic functions. It even becomes possible to order the birth of each complete pathway in time. This particular "DNA-free" conceptual approach to evolutionary biochemistry is reviewed, gathering all the justifications given for it. Then, the method of assigning a given pathway to a time span of biochemical development is revisited. The previous method used an implicit "clock" of metabolic development that is difficult to justify. We develop a new clock-free approach, using functional biochemical arguments. Results of the two methods are not significantly different; our method is just more precise. This suggests that the clock assumed in the first method does not provoke any important artefact in describing the development of biochemical evolution. It is just unnecessary to postulate it. As a result, most of the amino acid metabolic pathways develop forwards, confirming former models of amino acid catabolism evolution, but not those for amino acid anabolism. The order of appearance of sectors of universal cellular metabolism is: (1) amino acid catabolism, (2) amino acid anabolism and closure of the urea cycle, (3) glycolysis and glycogenesis, (4) closure of the pentose-phosphate cycle, (5) closure of the Krebs cycle and fatty acids metabolism, (6) closure of the Calvin cycle. PMID:17408843

  16. All Order Covariant Tubular Expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Partha

    2014-11-01

    We consider tubular neighborhood of an arbitrary submanifold embedded in a (pseudo-) Riemannian manifold. This can be described by Fermi normal coordinates (FNC) satisfying certain conditions as described by Florides and Synge in [15]. By generalizing the work of Muller et al. in [54] on Riemann normal coordinate expansion, we derive all order FNC expansion of vielbein in this neighborhood with closed form expressions for the curvature expansion coefficients. Our result is shown to be consistent with certain integral theorem for the metric proved in [15].

  17. The New International Economic Order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Streeten, Paul P.

    1982-12-01

    Starting from a premise of optimism, this paper first sets out the essence of the proposed New International Economic Order and then traces its origins and interpretations. It examines the options available for different groups of the developing countries and those open to the constructively-minded of the industrialized states. It also explores what avenues there might be for furthering common interests, for countering hidden biases which might be operating against developing states, and for avoiding unnecessary conflicts. The paper ends with a plea for the consideration of the higher interests both of the nation-state and of the human race.

  18. Reducing errant ordered radiology exams.

    PubMed

    Duman, Benjamin; Martin, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    With grant funds, Providence Saint Patrick Hospital set out to reduce the occurrences of errant ordered radiology exams from clinicians. The goal was to also provide a tool that would assist in reducing unwarranted dose from diagnostic imaging modalities. An interactive web based utility for CT protocols was developed, which included ACR Appropriateness Criteria that was easy to use and maintain. The second stage of the program will be expanded to include more modalities, as well as to provide patients with a convenient source of information. PMID:22413608

  19. Multiferroicity due to Charge Ordering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Brink, Jeroen

    2012-02-01

    In this contribution I discuss multiferroicity that is driven by different forms of charge ordering, presenting first the generic mechanisms by which charge ordering can induce ferroelectricity in magnetic systems. In type-I multiferroics [1], ferroelectricity and magnetism have different origins and occur at different temperatures. There is a number of specific classes of materials for which this is relevant. Discussed will be in some detail (i) perovskite manganites of the type (PrCa)MnO3 [2,3], (ii) the complex and interesting situation in magnetite Fe3O4, (iii) strongly ferroelectric frustrated LuFe2O4 and (iv) an example of a quasi-one-dimensional organic system [4]. In type-II multiferroics [1], ferroelectricity is completely due to magnetism, but with charge ordering playing an important role [5], such as (v) multiferroic Ca3CoMnO6, (vi) possible ferroelectricity in rare earth perovskite nickelates of the type RNiO3 [6,7], (vii) multiferroic properties of manganites of the type RMn2O5 [8], (viii) perovskite manganites with magnetic E-type ordering. [4pt] [1] J. van den Brink and D. Khomskii, J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 20, 434217 (2008).[0pt] [2] D.V. Efremov, J. van den Brink and D.I. Khomskii, Nature Materials 3, 853 (2004).[0pt] [3] G. Giovannetti, S. Kumar, J. van den Brink, S. Picozzi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 037601 (2009).[0pt] [4] G. Giovannetti, S. Kumar, A. Stroppa, J. van den Brink and S. Picozzi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 266401 (2009). [0pt] [5] J. Betouras G. Giovannetti and J. van den Brink, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 257602 (2007).[0pt] [6] G. Giovannetti, S. Kumar, D. Khomskii, S. Picozzi and J. van den Brink, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 156401 (2009).[0pt] [7] S. Kumar, G. Giovannetti, J. van den Brink and S. Picozzi, Phys. Rev. B 82, 134429 (2010).[0pt] [8] G. Giovannetti and J. van den Brink, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 227603 (2008).

  20. Biocatalytic induction of supramolecular order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirst, Andrew R.; Roy, Sangita; Arora, Meenakshi; Das, Apurba K.; Hodson, Nigel; Murray, Paul; Marshall, Stephen; Javid, Nadeem; Sefcik, Jan; Boekhoven, Job; van Esch, Jan H.; Santabarbara, Stefano; Hunt, Neil T.; Ulijn, Rein V.

    2010-12-01

    Supramolecular gels, which demonstrate tunable functionalities, have attracted much interest in a range of areas, including healthcare, environmental protection and energy-related technologies. Preparing these materials in a reliable manner is challenging, with an increased level of kinetic defects observed at higher self-assembly rates. Here, by combining biocatalysis and molecular self-assembly, we have shown the ability to more quickly access higher-ordered structures. By simply increasing enzyme concentration, supramolecular order expressed at molecular, nano- and micro-levels is dramatically enhanced, and, importantly, the gelator concentrations remain identical. Amphiphile molecules were prepared by attaching an aromatic moiety to a dipeptide backbone capped with a methyl ester. Their self-assembly was induced by an enzyme that hydrolysed the ester. Different enzyme concentrations altered the catalytic activity and size of the enzyme clusters, affecting their mobility. This allowed structurally diverse materials that represent local minima in the free energy landscape to be accessed based on a single gelator structure.

  1. The Fitness of Genomic Order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qiucen; Vyawahare, Saurabh; Austin, Robert

    2012-02-01

    Most bacteria have a single circular chromosome that can range in size from 160,000 to 12,200,000 base pairs. Considering the typical gene density, i.e. 1 gene per 1,000 base pairs, both the number of genes and the ways to arrange are huge. Intuitively, the arrangement of genes on the circle is not important if all of them can be replicated. However, there is typically one origin of replication, and when bacteria is attacked by genotoxic stress during replication, the whole replication process can not be finished. As a result, which gene is replicated first, which is second, ..., becomes very important. Experimentally, we found a broad increase of DNA copy number near the origin of replication (OriC) of bacteria E.coli (3200 genes) under genotoxic stress. Since the genes near OriC are mostly efflux pump genes, we propose that there is fitness advantage for those rapid stress response genes got replicated first, because they can facilitate the replication of the rest of genome. Similar to bacterial evolution to present genomic order, in the somatic evolution of cancer, genomic shuffling was also frequently observed, especially under genotoxic chemotherapy. Such re-arrangement of genome can be viewed as a journey to optimal point in the rugged fitness landscape of genomic order.

  2. Spatiotemporal order out of noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagus, Francesc; Sancho, Jos M.; Garca-Ojalvo, Jordi

    2007-07-01

    Natural systems are undeniably subject to random fluctuations, arising from either environmental variability or thermal effects. The consideration of those fluctuations supposes to deal with noisy quantities whose variance might at times be a sizable fraction of their mean levels. It is known that, under these conditions, noisy fluctuations can interact with the systems nonlinearities to render counterintuitive behavior, in which an increase in the noise level produces a more regular behavior. In systems with spatial degrees of freedom, this regularity takes the form of spatiotemporal order. An overview is presented of the mechanisms through which noise induces, enhances, and sustains ordered behavior in passive and active nonlinear media, and different spatiotemporal phenomena are described resulting from these effects. The general theoretical framework used in the analysis of these effects is reviewed, encompassing the theory of stochastic partial differential equations and coupled sets of ordinary stochastic differential equations. Experimental observations of self-organized behavior arising out of noise are also described, and details on the numerical algorithms needed in the computer simulation of these problems are given.

  3. Acyl chain conformational ordering of individual components in liquid-crystalline bilayers of mixtures of phosphatidylcholines and phosphatidic acids. A comparative FTIR and 2H NMR study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziegler, Wolfgang; Blume, Alfred

    1995-09-01

    The conformational ordering of the acyl chains of all possible binary 1:1 mixtures containing the phospholipids DMPC, DMPA, DPPC, and DPPA was investigated using FTIR and 2H NMR spectroscopy. One of the components was always labelled with perdeuterated chains to be able to observe the individual behaviour of the two components. From the temperature dependence of the frequencies of the symmetric and antisymmetric CH 2- and CD 2-stretching vibrations the transition temperatures were determined. The integral intensities of the conformation sensitive CH 2-wagging bands at ca. 1368 cm -1(gtg' and gtg sequences), 1356 cm -1 (double gauche), and 1342 cm -1 (end gauche) can be converted to numbers of gauche conformers per acyl chain using calibration factors published by Senak et al. J. Phys. Chem. 95 (1991) 2565. The 2H NMR quadrupolar splittings of the CD 2-segments of the perdeuterated lipid components are affected not only by trans-gauche isomerizations but also by long axis rotations and restricted wobbling motions of the acyl chains. The values of the average gauche probability overlinep3 from FTIR spectroscopy and the average order parameters overlineSCD, the order parameter of the terminal methyl groups SCDCD 3 and the average order parameter for the plateau region overlineSCDPlat of components in the mixtures are compared to those of the pure lipids evaluated in a previous publication Tuchtenhagen et al. Eur. Biophys. J. 23 (1994) 323. The conformational behaviour of lipids in mixtures is mainly influenced by head groups interactions, PAs always being more ordered than the corresponding PCs. Depending on absolute chain length and on chain length differences between the two components different conformational behaviour is observed for the two components in the mixtures, indicating non-ideal mixing and formation of micro-domains in the liquid-crystalline phase. Increases in order at the chain ends with a concomitant decrease in probabilities for end gauche conformations give hints to chain interdigitation in the liquid-crystalline phase.

  4. Recent advances in ordered intermetallics

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, C.T.

    1992-12-31

    This paper briefly summarizes recent advances in intermetallic research and development. Ordered intermetallics based on aluminides and silicides possess attractive properties for structural applications at elevated temperatures in hostile environments; however, brittle fracture and poor fracture resistance limit their use as engineering materials in many cases. In recent years, considerable efforts have been devoted to the study of the brittle fracture behavior of intermetallic alloys; as a result, both intrinsic and extrinsic factors governing brittle fracture have been identified. Recent advances in first-principles calculations and atomistic simulations further help us in understanding atomic bonding, dislocation configuration, and alloying effects in intermetallics. The basic understanding has led to the development of nickel, iron, and titanium aluminide alloys with improved mechanical and metallurgical properties for structural use. Industrial interest in ductile intermetallic alloys is high, and several examples of industrial involvement are mentioned.

  5. Ferromagnetic ordering in superatomic solids.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chul-Ho; Liu, Lian; Bejger, Christopher; Turkiewicz, Ari; Goko, Tatsuo; Arguello, Carlos J; Frandsen, Benjamin A; Cheung, Sky C; Medina, Teresa; Munsie, Timothy J S; D'Ortenzio, Robert; Luke, Graeme M; Besara, Tiglet; Lalancette, Roger A; Siegrist, Theo; Stephens, Peter W; Crowther, Andrew C; Brus, Louis E; Matsuo, Yutaka; Nakamura, Eiichi; Uemura, Yasutomo J; Kim, Philip; Nuckolls, Colin; Steigerwald, Michael L; Roy, Xavier

    2014-12-01

    In order to realize significant benefits from the assembly of solid-state materials from molecular cluster superatomic building blocks, several criteria must be met. Reproducible syntheses must reliably produce macroscopic amounts of pure material; the cluster-assembled solids must show properties that are more than simply averages of those of the constituent subunits; and rational changes to the chemical structures of the subunits must result in predictable changes in the collective properties of the solid. In this report we show that we can meet these requirements. Using a combination of magnetometry and muon spin relaxation measurements, we demonstrate that crystallographically defined superatomic solids assembled from molecular nickel telluride clusters and fullerenes undergo a ferromagnetic phase transition at low temperatures. Moreover, we show that when we modify the constituent superatoms, the cooperative magnetic properties change in predictable ways. PMID:25379957

  6. Frustrated Order on Extrinsic Geometries

    SciTech Connect

    Mbanga, Badel L.; Grason, Gregory M.; Santangelo, Christian D.

    2012-01-03

    We study, numerically and theoretically, defects in an anisotropic liquid that couple to the extrinsic geometry of a surface. Though the intrinsic geometry tends to confine topological defects to regions of large Gaussian curvature, extrinsic couplings tend to orient the order along the local direction of maximum or minimum bending. This additional frustration is generically unavoidable, and leads to complex ground-state thermodynamics. Using the catenoid as a prototype, we show, in contradistinction to the well-known effects of intrinsic geometry, that extrinsic curvature expels disclinations from the region of maximum curvature above a critical coupling threshold. On catenoids lacking an inside-outside symmetry, defects are expelled altogether above a critical neck size.

  7. Scaling exponents for ordered maxima

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Naim, E.; Krapivsky, P. L.; Lemons, N. W.

    2015-12-01

    We study extreme value statistics of multiple sequences of random variables. For each sequence with N variables, independently drawn from the same distribution, the running maximum is defined as the largest variable to date. We compare the running maxima of m independent sequences and investigate the probability SN that the maxima are perfectly ordered, that is, the running maximum of the first sequence is always larger than that of the second sequence, which is always larger than the running maximum of the third sequence, and so on. The probability SN is universal: it does not depend on the distribution from which the random variables are drawn. For two sequences, SNN-1 /2 , and in general, the decay is algebraic, SNN-?m , for large N . We analytically obtain the exponent ?3?1.302931 as root of a transcendental equation. Furthermore, the exponents ?m grow with m , and we show that ?mm for large m .

  8. Deriving Laws from Ordering Relations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knuth, Kevin H.

    2003-01-01

    It took much effort in the early days of non-Euclidean geometry to break away from the mindset that all spaces are flat and that two distinct parallel lines do not cross. Up to that point, all that was known was Euclidean geometry, and it was difficult to imagine anything else. We have suffered a similar handicap brought on by the enormous relevance of Boolean algebra to the problems of our age-logic and set theory. Previously, I demonstrated that the algebra of questions is not Boolean, but rather is described by the free distributive algebra. To get to this stage took much effort, as many obstacles-most self-placed-had to be overcome. As Boolean algebras were all I had ever known, it was almost impossible for me to imagine working with an algebra where elements do not have complements. With this realization, it became very clear that the sum and product rules of probability theory at the most basic level had absolutely nothing to do with the Boolean algebra of logical statements. Instead, a measure of degree of inclusion can be invented for many different partially ordered sets, and the sum and product rules fall out of the associativity and distributivity of the algebra. To reinforce this very important idea, this paper will go over how these constructions are made, while focusing on the underlying assumptions. I will derive the sum and product rules for a distributive lattice in general and demonstrate how this leads to probability theory on the Boolean lattice and is related to the calculus of quantum mechanical amplitudes on the partially ordered set of experimental setups. I will also discuss the rules that can be derived from modular lattices and their relevance to the cross-ratio of projective geometry.

  9. Boundary degeneracy of topological order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Juven C.; Wen, Xiao-Gang

    2015-03-01

    We introduce the concept of boundary degeneracy, as the ground state degeneracy of topologically ordered states on a compact orientable spatial manifold with gapped boundaries. We emphasize that the boundary degeneracy provides richer information than the bulk degeneracy. Beyond the bulk-edge correspondence, we find the ground state degeneracy of the fully gapped edge modes depends on boundary gapping conditions. By associating different types of boundary gapping conditions as different ways of particle or quasiparticle condensations on the boundary, we develop an analytic theory of gapped boundaries. By Chern-Simons theory, this allows us to derive the ground state degeneracy formula in terms of boundary gapping conditions, which encodes more than the fusion algebra of fractionalized quasiparticles. We apply our theory to Kitaev's toric code and Levin-Wen string-net models. We predict that the Z2 toric code and Z2 double-semion model [more generally, the Zk gauge theory and the U (1) kU (1) -k nonchiral fractional quantum Hall state at even integer k ] can be numerically and experimentally distinguished, by measuring their boundary degeneracy on an annulus or a cylinder.

  10. Repeated Red-Black ordering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciarlet, P.

    1994-09-01

    Hereafter, we describe and analyze, from both a theoretical and a numerical point of view, an iterative method for efficiently solving symmetric elliptic problems with possibly discontinuous coefficients. In the following, we use the Preconditioned Conjugate Gradient method to solve the symmetric positive definite linear systems which arise from the finite element discretization of the problems. We focus our interest on sparse and efficient preconditioners. In order to define the preconditioners, we perform two steps: first we reorder the unknowns and then we carry out a (modified) incomplete factorization of the original matrix. We study numerically and theoretically two preconditioners, the second preconditioner corresponding to the one investigated by Brand and Heinemann [2]. We prove convergence results about the Poisson equation with either Dirichlet or periodic boundary conditions. For a meshsizeh, Brand proved that the condition number of the preconditioned system is bounded byO(h-1/2) for Dirichlet boundary conditions. By slightly modifying the preconditioning process, we prove that the condition number is bounded byO(h-1/3).

  11. Fourth order spatial derivative gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Bemfica, F. S.; Gomes, M.

    2011-10-15

    In this work, we study a modified theory of gravity that contains up to fourth order spatial derivatives as a model for the Horava-Lifshitz gravity. The propagator is evaluated and, as a result, one extra pole is obtained, corresponding to a spin-2 nonrelativistic massless particle, an extra term which jeopardizes renormalizability, besides the unexpected general relativity unmodified propagator. Then unitarity is proved at the tree level, where the general relativity pole has been shown to have no dynamics, remaining only the 2 degrees of freedom of the new pole. Next, the nonrelativistic effective potential is determined from a scattering process of two identical massive gravitationally interacting bosons. In this limit, Newton's potential is obtained, together with a Darwin-like term that comes from the extra nonpole term in the propagator. Regarding renormalizability, this extra term may be harmful by power counting, but it can be eliminated by adjusting the free parameters of the model. This adjustment is in accord with the detailed balance condition suggested in the literature and shows that the way in which extra spatial derivative terms are added is of fundamental importance.

  12. Scaling exponents for ordered maxima

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ben-Naim, E.; Krapivsky, P. L.; Lemons, N. W.

    2015-12-22

    We study extreme value statistics of multiple sequences of random variables. For each sequence with N variables, independently drawn from the same distribution, the running maximum is defined as the largest variable to date. We compare the running maxima of m independent sequences and investigate the probability SN that the maxima are perfectly ordered, that is, the running maximum of the first sequence is always larger than that of the second sequence, which is always larger than the running maximum of the third sequence, and so on. The probability SN is universal: it does not depend on the distribution frommore » which the random variables are drawn. For two sequences, SN~N–1/2, and in general, the decay is algebraic, SN~N–σm, for large N. We analytically obtain the exponent σ3≅1.302931 as root of a transcendental equation. Moreover, the exponents σm grow with m, and we show that σm~m for large m.« less

  13. Dislocation sources in ordered intermetallics

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, M.H.; Appel, F.; Wagner, R.; Mecking, H.

    1996-09-01

    An overview on the current understanding of dislocation sources and multiplication mechanisms is made for ordered intermetallic alloys of the L1{sub 2}, B2, and D0{sub 19} structures. In L1{sub 2} alloys, a large disparity of edge/screw segments in their relative mobility reduces the efficiency of a Frank-Read Type multiplication mechanism. In Fe-40%Al of the B2 structure, a variety of dislocation sources are available for <111> slip, including ones resulting from condensation of thermal vacancies. In NiAl with the relatively high APB energy, <100> dislocations may result from the dislocation decomposition reactions, the prismatic punching out from inclusion particles, and/or steps and coated layers of the surface. Internal interfaces often provide sites for dislocation multiplication, e.g., grain boundaries, sub-boundaries in Ni{sub 3}Ga, NiAl and Ti{sub 3}Al, and antiphase domain boundaries in Ti{sub 3}Al. As for the crack tip as a dislocation source, extended SISFs trailed by super-Shockley partials emanating form the cracks in Ni{sub 3}Al and Co{sub 3}Ti are discussed in view of a possible toughening mechanism.

  14. Liquid crystalline order in mucus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viney, C.; Huber, A. E.; Verdugo, P.

    1993-01-01

    Mucus plays an exceptionally wide range of important biological roles. It operates as a protective, exchange, and transport medium in the digestive, respiratory, and reproductive systems of humans and other vertebrates. Mucus is a polymer hydrogel. It is secreted as discrete packages (secretory granules) by specialized secretory cells. Mucus hydrogel is stored in a condensed state inside the secretory granules. Depending upon the architecture of their constituent macromolecules and on the composition of the solvent, polymer gels can form liquid crystalline microstructures, with orientational order being exhibited over optically resolvable distances. Individual mucin molecules consist of alternating rigid segments (heavily glycosylated; hydrophilic) and flexible segments (nonglycosylated; hydrophobic). Polymer molecules consisting of rigid units linked by flexible spacers are frequently associated with liquid crystalline behavior, which again raises the possibility that mucus could form anisotropic fluid phases. Suggestions that mucins may be self-associating in dilute solution have previously been challenged on the basis of sedimentation-equilibrium studies performed on mucus in which potential sites of association were competitively blocked with inhibitors. However, the formation of stable liquid crystalline phases does not depend on the existence of inter- or intramolecular associations; these phases can form on the basis of steric considerations alone.

  15. Interior order expands minerals management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    In a surprise move on May 10, Secretary of the Interior James G. Watt ordered the consolidation of all leasing and resource management functions for the outer continental shelf (OCS) into the Minerals Management Service (MMS). Among those programs shifted to MMS are ‘all functions in direct support of the OCS program’ in the Geologic Division and in the Office of the Assistant Director for Resource Programs of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), including oil and gas resources, energy-related hazards, and marine geology investigations. It is unclear whether research associated with the OCS leasing functions will be considered ‘direct support’ and what will happen to the research if it is so considered.Also to be shuttled to MMS are the oil-spill trajectory functions of the Office of Earth Sciences Applications and all the functions of the Office of Policy Analysis relating to the OCS that had been transferred from the Department of Energy as a result of the Interior and Related Agencies Appropriations Act.

  16. Deriving Laws from Ordering Relations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knuth, Kevin H.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of Richard T. Cox's contribution to probability theory was to generalize Boolean implication among logical statements to degrees of implication, which are manipulated using rules derived from consistency with Boolean algebra. These rules are known as the sum rule, the product rule and Bayes Theorem, and the measure resulting from this generalization is probability. In this paper, I will describe how Cox s technique can be further generalized to include other algebras and hence other problems in science and mathematics. The result is a methodology that can be used to generalize an algebra to a calculus by relying on consistency with order theory to derive the laws of the calculus. My goals are to clear up the mysteries as to why the same basic structure found in probability theory appears in other contexts, to better understand the foundations of probability theory, and to extend these ideas to other areas by developing new mathematics and new physics. The relevance of this methodology will be demonstrated using examples from probability theory, number theory, geometry, information theory, and quantum mechanics.

  17. Scaling exponents for ordered maxima

    SciTech Connect

    Ben-Naim, E.; Krapivsky, P. L.; Lemons, N. W.

    2015-12-22

    We study extreme value statistics of multiple sequences of random variables. For each sequence with N variables, independently drawn from the same distribution, the running maximum is defined as the largest variable to date. We compare the running maxima of m independent sequences and investigate the probability SN that the maxima are perfectly ordered, that is, the running maximum of the first sequence is always larger than that of the second sequence, which is always larger than the running maximum of the third sequence, and so on. The probability SN is universal: it does not depend on the distribution from which the random variables are drawn. For two sequences, SN~N–1/2, and in general, the decay is algebraic, SN~N–σm, for large N. We analytically obtain the exponent σ3≅1.302931 as root of a transcendental equation. Moreover, the exponents σm grow with m, and we show that σm~m for large m.

  18. 10 CFR 590.402 - Conditional orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... WITH RESPECT TO THE IMPORT AND EXPORT OF NATURAL GAS Opinions and Orders 590.402 Conditional orders... issuance of a final opinion and order. The conditional order shall include the basis for not issuing a final opinion and order at that time and a statement of findings and conclusions. The findings...

  19. 10 CFR 590.402 - Conditional orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... WITH RESPECT TO THE IMPORT AND EXPORT OF NATURAL GAS Opinions and Orders 590.402 Conditional orders... issuance of a final opinion and order. The conditional order shall include the basis for not issuing a final opinion and order at that time and a statement of findings and conclusions. The findings...

  20. 10 CFR 590.402 - Conditional orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... WITH RESPECT TO THE IMPORT AND EXPORT OF NATURAL GAS Opinions and Orders 590.402 Conditional orders... issuance of a final opinion and order. The conditional order shall include the basis for not issuing a final opinion and order at that time and a statement of findings and conclusions. The findings...

  1. 48 CFR 2416.505 - Ordering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... contracting officer shall be the ordering official for all task orders except as provided for herein. The... Departmental competition advocate also serves as the Departmental task and delivery order ombudsman...

  2. 7 CFR 1219.17 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.17...

  3. 7 CFR 1219.17 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.17...

  4. 7 CFR 1219.17 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.17...

  5. 7 CFR 1219.17 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.17...

  6. 7 CFR 1219.17 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.17...

  7. 7 CFR 1212.15 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HONEY PACKERS AND IMPORTERS RESEARCH, PROMOTION, CONSUMER EDUCATION AND INDUSTRY INFORMATION ORDER Honey Packers and Importers Research, Promotion, Consumer Education, and Industry Information Order Definitions § 1212.15 Order. “Order” means the...

  8. 7 CFR 1212.15 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HONEY PACKERS AND IMPORTERS RESEARCH, PROMOTION, CONSUMER EDUCATION AND INDUSTRY INFORMATION ORDER Honey Packers and Importers Research, Promotion, Consumer Education, and Industry Information Order Definitions § 1212.15 Order. “Order” means the...

  9. 7 CFR 1212.15 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HONEY PACKERS AND IMPORTERS RESEARCH, PROMOTION, CONSUMER EDUCATION AND INDUSTRY INFORMATION ORDER Honey Packers and Importers Research, Promotion, Consumer Education, and Industry Information Order Definitions § 1212.15 Order. “Order” means the...

  10. 7 CFR 1212.15 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HONEY PACKERS AND IMPORTERS RESEARCH, PROMOTION, CONSUMER EDUCATION AND INDUSTRY INFORMATION ORDER Honey Packers and Importers Research, Promotion, Consumer Education, and Industry Information Order Definitions § 1212.15 Order. “Order” means the...

  11. 7 CFR 1212.15 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HONEY PACKERS AND IMPORTERS RESEARCH, PROMOTION, CONSUMER EDUCATION AND INDUSTRY INFORMATION ORDER Honey Packers and Importers Research, Promotion, Consumer Education, and Industry Information Order Definitions § 1212.15 Order. “Order” means the...

  12. 49 CFR 109.17 - Emergency Orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Emergency Orders. 109.17 Section 109.17... PROGRAM PROCEDURES Emergency Orders § 109.17 Emergency Orders. (a) Determination of imminent hazard. When... emergency restrictions, prohibitions, recalls, or out-of-service orders, without advance notice or...

  13. 49 CFR 109.17 - Emergency Orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Emergency Orders. 109.17 Section 109.17... TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS PROCEDURAL REGULATIONS FOR OPENING OF PACKAGES, EMERGENCY ORDERS, AND EMERGENCY RECALLS Emergency Orders § 109.17 Emergency Orders. (a) Determination of imminent hazard. When...

  14. 49 CFR 109.17 - Emergency Orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Emergency Orders. 109.17 Section 109.17... TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS PROCEDURAL REGULATIONS FOR OPENING OF PACKAGES, EMERGENCY ORDERS, AND EMERGENCY RECALLS Emergency Orders § 109.17 Emergency Orders. (a) Determination of imminent hazard. When...

  15. 48 CFR 416.505 - Ordering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Departmental Task Order Ombudsman. (b) Each HCA shall designate a task order ombudsman for the contracting activity. The HCA shall forward a copy of the designation memorandum to the Departmental Task Order... task or delivery orders placed by the contracting activity. (c) Any contractor who is not...

  16. 48 CFR 2816.505 - Ordering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ....505(b)(4), the Department of Justice Task Order and Delivery Order Ombudsman is the DOJ Competition Advocate. (b) Heads of contracting activities shall designate a contracting activity Task Order and... resolve complaints from contractors concerning task or delivery orders placed by the contracting...

  17. 48 CFR 416.505 - Ordering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Departmental Task Order Ombudsman. (b) Each HCA shall designate a task order ombudsman for the contracting activity. The HCA shall forward a copy of the designation memorandum to the Departmental Task Order... task or delivery orders placed by the contracting activity. (c) Any contractor who is not...

  18. 48 CFR 416.505 - Ordering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Departmental Task Order Ombudsman. (b) Each HCA shall designate a task order ombudsman for the contracting activity. The HCA shall forward a copy of the designation memorandum to the Departmental Task Order... task or delivery orders placed by the contracting activity. (c) Any contractor who is not...

  19. 48 CFR 2816.505 - Ordering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ....505(b)(4), the Department of Justice Task Order and Delivery Order Ombudsman is the DOJ Competition Advocate. (b) Heads of contracting activities shall designate a contracting activity Task Order and... resolve complaints from contractors concerning task or delivery orders placed by the contracting...

  20. 48 CFR 2816.505 - Ordering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ....505(b)(4), the Department of Justice Task Order and Delivery Order Ombudsman is the DOJ Competition Advocate. (b) Heads of contracting activities shall designate a contracting activity Task Order and... resolve complaints from contractors concerning task or delivery orders placed by the contracting...

  1. 48 CFR 416.505 - Ordering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Departmental Task Order Ombudsman. (b) Each HCA shall designate a task order ombudsman for the contracting activity. The HCA shall forward a copy of the designation memorandum to the Departmental Task Order... task or delivery orders placed by the contracting activity. (c) Any contractor who is not...

  2. 48 CFR 416.505 - Ordering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Departmental Task Order Ombudsman. (b) Each HCA shall designate a task order ombudsman for the contracting activity. The HCA shall forward a copy of the designation memorandum to the Departmental Task Order... task or delivery orders placed by the contracting activity. (c) Any contractor who is not...

  3. 48 CFR 213.7002 - Purchase orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Purchase orders. 213.7002... Acquisition Procedures Under the 8(a) Program 213.7002 Purchase orders. The contracting officer need not obtain a contractor's written acceptance of a purchase order or modification of a purchase order for...

  4. 25 CFR 117.20 - Purchase orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Purchase orders. 117.20 Section 117.20 Indians BUREAU OF... Purchase orders. Purchase orders may be issued by the superintendent for expenditures authorized by the... prevent hardship or suffering, purchase orders may be issued by the superintendent against the...

  5. 25 CFR 117.20 - Purchase orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Purchase orders. 117.20 Section 117.20 Indians BUREAU OF... Purchase orders. Purchase orders may be issued by the superintendent for expenditures authorized by the... prevent hardship or suffering, purchase orders may be issued by the superintendent against the...

  6. 48 CFR 213.7002 - Purchase orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purchase orders. 213.7002... Acquisition Procedures Under the 8(a) Program 213.7002 Purchase orders. The contracting officer need not obtain a contractor's written acceptance of a purchase order or modification of a purchase order for...

  7. 6 CFR 27.300 - Orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Orders. 27.300 Section 27.300 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY CHEMICAL FACILITY ANTI-TERRORISM STANDARDS Orders and Adjudications § 27.300 Orders. (a) Orders Generally. When the Assistant Secretary determines...

  8. 6 CFR 27.300 - Orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Orders. 27.300 Section 27.300 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY CHEMICAL FACILITY ANTI-TERRORISM STANDARDS Orders and Adjudications § 27.300 Orders. (a) Orders Generally. When the Assistant Secretary determines...

  9. 6 CFR 27.300 - Orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Orders. 27.300 Section 27.300 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY CHEMICAL FACILITY ANTI-TERRORISM STANDARDS Orders and Adjudications § 27.300 Orders. (a) Orders Generally. When the Assistant Secretary determines...

  10. 6 CFR 27.300 - Orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Orders. 27.300 Section 27.300 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY CHEMICAL FACILITY ANTI-TERRORISM STANDARDS Orders and Adjudications § 27.300 Orders. (a) Orders Generally. When the Assistant Secretary determines...

  11. 6 CFR 27.300 - Orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Orders. 27.300 Section 27.300 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY CHEMICAL FACILITY ANTI-TERRORISM STANDARDS Orders and Adjudications § 27.300 Orders. (a) Orders Generally. When the Assistant Secretary determines...

  12. Order-(incommensurable disorder) phase transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Kovalenko, A.; Nagaev, E.

    1982-01-05

    In first-order phase transitions in magnetic materials exhibiting a high-order spin, the short-range-order vector above the transition point may be incommensurable with the long-range-order vector below the transition point. This theoretical result explains some experiments on UAs. Some other materials which may exhibit this effect are pointed out.

  13. 10 CFR 218.11 - Supply orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Supply orders. 218.11 Section 218.11 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL STANDBY MANDATORY INTERNATIONAL OIL ALLOCATION Supply Orders 218.11 Supply orders. (a) A...) The DOE shall serve a copy of the supply order on the firm directed to act as stated therein. (c)...

  14. 10 CFR 218.11 - Supply orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Supply orders. 218.11 Section 218.11 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL STANDBY MANDATORY INTERNATIONAL OIL ALLOCATION Supply Orders 218.11 Supply orders. (a) A...) The DOE shall serve a copy of the supply order on the firm directed to act as stated therein. (c)...

  15. 10 CFR 218.11 - Supply orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Supply orders. 218.11 Section 218.11 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL STANDBY MANDATORY INTERNATIONAL OIL ALLOCATION Supply Orders 218.11 Supply orders. (a) A...) The DOE shall serve a copy of the supply order on the firm directed to act as stated therein. (c)...

  16. 10 CFR 218.11 - Supply orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Supply orders. 218.11 Section 218.11 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL STANDBY MANDATORY INTERNATIONAL OIL ALLOCATION Supply Orders 218.11 Supply orders. (a) A...) The DOE shall serve a copy of the supply order on the firm directed to act as stated therein. (c)...

  17. 40 CFR 90.503 - Test orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Test orders. 90.503 Section 90.503....503 Test orders. (a) The Administrator shall require any testing under this subpart by means of a test order addressed to the manufacturer. (b) The test order will be signed by the Assistant...

  18. 40 CFR 89.503 - Test orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Test orders. 89.503 Section 89.503... Test orders. (a) A test order addressed to the manufacturer is required for any testing under this subpart. (b) The test order is signed by the Assistant Administrator for Air and Radiation or his or...

  19. 40 CFR 89.503 - Test orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Test orders. 89.503 Section 89.503... Test orders. (a) A test order addressed to the manufacturer is required for any testing under this subpart. (b) The test order is signed by the Assistant Administrator for Air and Radiation or his or...

  20. 40 CFR 90.503 - Test orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Test orders. 90.503 Section 90.503....503 Test orders. (a) The Administrator shall require any testing under this subpart by means of a test order addressed to the manufacturer. (b) The test order will be signed by the Assistant...

  1. 48 CFR 316.505 - Ordering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ordering. 316.505 Section 316.505 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Indefinite-Delivery Contracts 316.505 Ordering. (b)(5) The HHS task-order and delivery-order ombudsman is the...

  2. 39 CFR 952.28 - Orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Orders. 952.28 Section 952.28 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO FALSE REPRESENTATION AND LOTTERY ORDERS 952.28 Orders. (a) If an order is issued which prohibits delivery of mail to...

  3. 39 CFR 952.28 - Orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Orders. 952.28 Section 952.28 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO FALSE REPRESENTATION AND LOTTERY ORDERS 952.28 Orders. (a) If an order is issued which prohibits delivery of mail...

  4. 39 CFR 952.28 - Orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Orders. 952.28 Section 952.28 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO FALSE REPRESENTATION AND LOTTERY ORDERS 952.28 Orders. (a) If an order is issued which prohibits delivery of mail...

  5. 39 CFR 952.28 - Orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Orders. 952.28 Section 952.28 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO FALSE REPRESENTATION AND LOTTERY ORDERS 952.28 Orders. (a) If an order is issued which prohibits delivery of mail...

  6. 39 CFR 952.28 - Orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Orders. 952.28 Section 952.28 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO FALSE REPRESENTATION AND LOTTERY ORDERS (EFF. UNTIL 7-22-2011) 952.28 Orders. (a) If an order is issued which...

  7. 43 CFR 35.24 - Protective order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... protective order, the ALJ may make any order which justice requires to protect a party or person from... CLAIMS AND STATEMENTS 35.24 Protective order. (a) A party or a prospective witness or deponent may file a motion for a protective order with respect to discovery sought by an opposing party or...

  8. 43 CFR 35.24 - Protective order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... protective order, the ALJ may make any order which justice requires to protect a party or person from... CLAIMS AND STATEMENTS 35.24 Protective order. (a) A party or a prospective witness or deponent may file a motion for a protective order with respect to discovery sought by an opposing party or...

  9. 48 CFR 552.216-74 - Task-Order and Delivery-Order Ombudsman.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Task-Order and Delivery....216-74 Task-Order and Delivery-Order Ombudsman. As prescribed in 516.506(b), insert the following clause: Task-Order and Delivery-Order Ombudsman (AUG 2010) GSA has designated a Task-Order and...

  10. 48 CFR 552.216-74 - Task-Order and Delivery-Order Ombudsman.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Task-Order and Delivery....216-74 Task-Order and Delivery-Order Ombudsman. As prescribed in 516.506(b), insert the following clause: Task-Order and Delivery-Order Ombudsman (AUG 2010) GSA has designated a Task-Order and...

  11. 48 CFR 552.216-74 - Task-Order and Delivery-Order Ombudsman.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Task-Order and Delivery....216-74 Task-Order and Delivery-Order Ombudsman. As prescribed in 516.506(b), insert the following clause: Task-Order and Delivery-Order Ombudsman (AUG 2010) GSA has designated a Task-Order and...

  12. 48 CFR 552.216-74 - Task-Order and Delivery-Order Ombudsman.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Task-Order and Delivery....216-74 Task-Order and Delivery-Order Ombudsman. As prescribed in 516.506(b), insert the following clause: Task-Order and Delivery-Order Ombudsman (AUG 2010) GSA has designated a Task-Order and...

  13. 48 CFR 552.216-74 - Task-Order and Delivery-Order Ombudsman.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Task-Order and Delivery....216-74 Task-Order and Delivery-Order Ombudsman. As prescribed in 516.506(b), insert the following clause: Task-Order and Delivery-Order Ombudsman (AUG 2010) GSA has designated a Task-Order and...

  14. 3 CFR 13499 - Executive Order 13499 of February 5, 2009. Further Amendments to Executive Order 12835...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Executive Order 13499 of February 5, 2009. Further Amendments to Executive Order 12835, Establishment of the National Economic Council 13499 Order 13499 Presidential Documents Executive Orders Executive Order 13499 of February 5, 2009 EO 13499 Further Amendments to Executive Order 12835,...

  15. 3 CFR 13500 - Executive Order 13500 of February 5, 2009. Further Amendments to Executive Order 12859...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Executive Order 13500 of February 5, 2009. Further Amendments to Executive Order 12859, Establishment of the Domestic Policy Council 13500 Order 13500 Presidential Documents Executive Orders Executive Order 13500 of February 5, 2009 EO 13500 Further Amendments to Executive Order 12859,...

  16. 76 FR 62831 - Public Land Order No. 7784; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6886; Wyoming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-11

    ... ordered as follows: Public Land Order No. 6886 (56 FR 50661 (1991)), which withdrew 21,636.29 acres of... Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7784; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6886; Wyoming AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Public Land Order. SUMMARY: This order extends...

  17. 76 FR 28241 - Public Land Order No. 7767; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6857; Oregon

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-16

    ... Act of 1976, 43 U.S.C. 1714, it is ordered as follows: Public Land Order No. 6857 (56 FR 20551 (1991... Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7767; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6857; Oregon AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Public Land Order. SUMMARY: This order extends...

  18. 76 FR 59736 - Public Land Order No. 7778; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6876; Oregon

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    .... 1714, it is ordered as follows: Public Land Order No. 6876 (56 FR 46122 (1991)), which withdrew... Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7778; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6876; Oregon AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Public Land Order. SUMMARY: This order extends...

  19. 76 FR 38207 - Public Land Order No. 7771; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6865; Oregon

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-29

    ..., 43 U.S.C. 1714, it is ordered as follows: Public Land Order No. 6865 (56 FR 32515 (1991)), which... Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7771; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6865; Oregon AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Public Land Order. SUMMARY: This order extends...

  20. 19 CFR 210.75 - Proceedings to enforce exclusion orders, cease and desist orders, consent orders, and other...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., cease and desist orders, consent orders, and other Commission orders. (a) Informal enforcement proceedings. Informal enforcement proceedings may be conducted by the Commission, through the Office of Unfair... effect of such action upon the public health and welfare, competitive conditions in the U.S. economy,...

  1. Visual perception of order-disorder transition

    PubMed Central

    Katkov, Mikhail; Harris, Hila; Sagi, Dov

    2015-01-01

    Our experience with the natural world, as composed of ordered entities, implies that perception captures relationships between image parts. For instance, regularities in the visual scene are rapidly identified by our visual system. Defining the regularities that govern perception is a basic, unresolved issue in neuroscience. Mathematically, perfect regularities are represented by symmetry (perfect order). The transition from ordered configurations to completely random ones has been extensively studied in statistical physics, where the amount of order is characterized by a symmetry-specific order parameter. Here we applied tools from statistical physics to study order detection in humans. Different sets of visual textures, parameterized by the thermodynamic temperature in the Boltzmann distribution, were designed. We investigated how much order is required in a visual texture for it to be discriminated from random noise. The performance of human observers was compared to Ideal and Order observers (based on the order parameter). The results indicated a high consistency in performance across human observers, much below that of the Ideal observer, but well-approximated by the Order observer. Overall, we provide a novel quantitative paradigm to address order perception. Our findings, based on this paradigm, suggest that the statistical physics formalism of order captures regularities to which the human visual system is sensitive. An additional analysis revealed that some order perception properties are captured by traditional texture discrimination models according to which discrimination is based on integrated energy within maps of oriented linear filters. PMID:26113826

  2. 48 CFR 213.302 - Purchase orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Purchase orders. 213.302 Section 213.302 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT... Acquisition Methods 213.302 Purchase orders....

  3. 48 CFR 213.302 - Purchase orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purchase orders. 213.302 Section 213.302 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT... Acquisition Methods 213.302 Purchase orders....

  4. On the order of general linear methods.

    SciTech Connect

    Constantinescu, E. M.; Mathematics and Computer Science

    2009-09-01

    General linear (GL) methods are numerical algorithms used to solve ODEs. The standard order conditions analysis involves the GL matrix itself and a starting procedure; however, a finishing method (F) is required to extract the actual ODE solution. The standard order analysis and stability are sufficient for the convergence of any GL method. Nonetheless, using a simple GL scheme, we show that the order definition may be too restrictive. Specifically, the order for GL methods with low order intermediate components may be underestimated. In this note we explore the order conditions for GL schemes and propose a new definition for characterizing the order of GL methods, which is focused on the final result--the outcome of F--and can provide more effective algebraic order conditions.

  5. 46 CFR Sec. 7 - Job order numbering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... REPAIRS UNDER NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY MASTER LUMP SUM REPAIR CONTRACT-NSA-LUMPSUMREP Sec. 7 Job order numbering. (a) The NSA-LUMPSUMREP Contract number shall be inserted in every job order and supplemental...

  6. 46 CFR Sec. 7 - Job order numbering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... REPAIRS UNDER NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY MASTER LUMP SUM REPAIR CONTRACT-NSA-LUMPSUMREP Sec. 7 Job order numbering. (a) The NSA-LUMPSUMREP Contract number shall be inserted in every job order and supplemental...

  7. 46 CFR Sec. 7 - Job order numbering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... REPAIRS UNDER NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY MASTER LUMP SUM REPAIR CONTRACT-NSA-LUMPSUMREP Sec. 7 Job order numbering. (a) The NSA-LUMPSUMREP Contract number shall be inserted in every job order and supplemental...

  8. 46 CFR Sec. 7 - Job order numbering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... REPAIRS UNDER NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY MASTER LUMP SUM REPAIR CONTRACT-NSA-LUMPSUMREP Sec. 7 Job order numbering. (a) The NSA-LUMPSUMREP Contract number shall be inserted in every job order and supplemental...

  9. 46 CFR Sec. 7 - Job order numbering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... REPAIRS UNDER NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY MASTER LUMP SUM REPAIR CONTRACT-NSA-LUMPSUMREP Sec. 7 Job order numbering. (a) The NSA-LUMPSUMREP Contract number shall be inserted in every job order and supplemental...

  10. 36 CFR 261.50 - Orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... in Areas Designated by Order 261.50 Orders. (a) The Chief, each Regional Forester, each Experiment... Forester, each Experiment Station Director, the Administrator of the Lake Tahoe Basin Management Unit...

  11. 48 CFR 16.505 - Ordering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... cost control. (2) Potential impact on other orders placed with the contractor. (3) Minimum order... CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and at...

  12. 7 CFR 993.101 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DRIED PRUNES PRODUCED IN CALIFORNIA... amended, and Order No. 993, as amended (§§ 993.1 through 993.97), regulating the handling of dried...

  13. 7 CFR 993.101 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DRIED PRUNES PRODUCED IN CALIFORNIA... amended, and Order No. 993, as amended (§§ 993.1 through 993.97), regulating the handling of dried...

  14. 7 CFR 993.101 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DRIED PRUNES PRODUCED IN CALIFORNIA... amended, and Order No. 993, as amended (§§ 993.1 through 993.97), regulating the handling of dried...

  15. 7 CFR 993.101 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DRIED PRUNES PRODUCED IN CALIFORNIA... amended, and Order No. 993, as amended (§§ 993.1 through 993.97), regulating the handling of dried...

  16. 7 CFR 993.101 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DRIED PRUNES PRODUCED IN CALIFORNIA... amended, and Order No. 993, as amended (§§ 993.1 through 993.97), regulating the handling of dried...

  17. 37 CFR 5.2 - Secrecy order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Secrecy order. 5.2 Section 5.2 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF... COUNTRIES Secrecy Orders 5.2 Secrecy order. (a) When notified by the chief officer of a defense...

  18. 37 CFR 5.2 - Secrecy order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Secrecy order. 5.2 Section 5.2 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF... COUNTRIES Secrecy Orders 5.2 Secrecy order. (a) When notified by the chief officer of a defense...

  19. 48 CFR 1216.505 - Ordering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Administration (OA) is designated as the OA Task and Delivery Order Ombudsman. If any corrective action is needed after reviewing complaints from contractors on task and delivery order contracts, the OA Ombudsman shall... within the OA, shall be forwarded to the DOT Task and Delivery Order Ombudsman for review and...

  20. 48 CFR 2416.505 - Ordering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Contracting Officer shall be the ordering official for all task orders when the price or cost, or any other... also serves as the departmental ombudsman for task and delivery order contracts in accordance with FAR 16.505(b)(5). (i) Each HCA shall designate a contracting activity ombudsman for task and...

  1. 48 CFR 1216.505 - Ordering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Administration (OA) is designated as the OA Task and Delivery Order Ombudsman. If any corrective action is needed after reviewing complaints from contractors on task and delivery order contracts, the OA Ombudsman shall... within the OA, shall be forwarded to the DOT Task and Delivery Order Ombudsman for review and...

  2. 48 CFR 1216.505 - Ordering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Administration (OA) is designated as the OA Task and Delivery Order Ombudsman. If any corrective action is needed after reviewing complaints from contractors on task and delivery order contracts, the OA Ombudsman shall... within the OA, shall be forwarded to the DOT Task and Delivery Order Ombudsman for review and...

  3. 48 CFR 1216.505 - Ordering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Administration (OA) is designated as the OA Task and Delivery Order Ombudsman. If any corrective action is needed after reviewing complaints from contractors on task and delivery order contracts, the OA Ombudsman shall... within the OA, shall be forwarded to the DOT Task and Delivery Order Ombudsman for review and...

  4. 48 CFR 1216.505 - Ordering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Administration (OA) is designated as the OA Task and Delivery Order Ombudsman. If any corrective action is needed after reviewing complaints from contractors on task and delivery order contracts, the OA Ombudsman shall... within the OA, shall be forwarded to the DOT Task and Delivery Order Ombudsman for review and...

  5. 48 CFR 816.505 - Ordering

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ordering 816.505 Section 816.505 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Indefinite-Delivery Contracts 816.505 Ordering The task order...

  6. 48 CFR 2416.505 - Ordering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Contracting Officer shall be the ordering official for all task orders when the price or cost, or any other... also serves as the departmental ombudsman for task and delivery order contracts in accordance with FAR 16.505(b)(5). (i) Each HCA shall designate a contracting activity ombudsman for task and...

  7. 4 CFR 21.4 - Protective orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Protective orders. 21.4 Section 21.4 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE GENERAL PROCEDURES BID PROTEST REGULATIONS 21.4 Protective orders. (a) At the request of a party or on its own initiative, GAO may issue a protective order controlling the treatment of protected information. Such...

  8. 1 CFR 8.2 - Orderly development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Orderly development. 8.2 Section 8.2 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER SPECIAL EDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS 8.2 Orderly development. To assure orderly development of the Code of...

  9. 1 CFR 8.2 - Orderly development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Orderly development. 8.2 Section 8.2 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER SPECIAL EDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS 8.2 Orderly development. To assure orderly development of the Code of...

  10. 1 CFR 8.2 - Orderly development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Orderly development. 8.2 Section 8.2 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER SPECIAL EDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS 8.2 Orderly development. To assure orderly development of the Code of...

  11. 1 CFR 8.2 - Orderly development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Orderly development. 8.2 Section 8.2 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER SPECIAL EDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS 8.2 Orderly development. To assure orderly development of the Code of...

  12. 1 CFR 8.2 - Orderly development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Orderly development. 8.2 Section 8.2 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER SPECIAL EDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS 8.2 Orderly development. To assure orderly development of the Code of...

  13. Discrete Fractional Diffusion Equation of Chaotic Order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Guo-Cheng; Baleanu, Dumitru; Xie, He-Ping; Zeng, Sheng-Da

    Discrete fractional calculus is suggested in diffusion modeling in porous media. A variable-order fractional diffusion equation is proposed on discrete time scales. A function of the variable order is constructed by a chaotic map. The model shows some new random behaviors in comparison with other variable-order cases.

  14. An Analysis of Second-Order Autoshaping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward-Robinson, Jasper

    2004-01-01

    Three mechanisms can explain second-order conditioning: (1) The second-order conditioned stimulus (CS2) could activate a representation of the first-order conditioned stimulus (CS1), thereby provoking the conditioned response (CR); The CS2 could enter into an excitatory association with either (2) the representation governing the CR, or (3) with a…

  15. 10 CFR 1013.24 - Protective order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Protective order. 1013.24 Section 1013.24 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES AND PROCEDURES 1013.24 Protective order. (a) A party or a prospective witness or deponent may file a motion for a protective order with respect to discovery sought by an opposing...

  16. 47 CFR 1.1415 - Other orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Other orders. 1.1415 Section 1.1415 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Pole Attachment Complaint Procedures 1.1415 Other orders. The Commission may issue such other orders and so conduct its...

  17. 40 CFR 89.503 - Test orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Test orders. 89.503 Section 89.503... EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Selective Enforcement Auditing 89.503 Test orders. (a) A test order addressed to the manufacturer is required for any testing under...

  18. Sign Order in Argentine Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massone, Maria Ignacia; Curiel, Monica

    2004-01-01

    This article focuses on word order - the order of constituents in the sentence - as one way in which languages establish the relationship between a verb and its arguments. The spoken languages of the world have been classified into three, major word-order types: SVO, VSO, and SOV. Greenberg' work (1963) on language typology has been a stimulus to

  19. 36 CFR 261.50 - Orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Orders. 261.50 Section 261.50 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROHIBITIONS Prohibitions in Areas Designated by Order § 261.50 Orders. (a) The Chief, each Regional Forester, each Experiment Station Director, the Administrator of...

  20. 48 CFR 2916.505 - Ordering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 2916.505 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF LABOR CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACT TYPES Indefinite-Delivery Contracts 2916.505 Ordering. In accordance with FAR 16.505(b)(5), the Department of Labor Task Order and Delivery Order Ombudsman is the DOL Competition Advocate...