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Sample records for magnetic-field-induced quadrupolar ordering

  1. Magnetic field induced 1st order transitions: Recent studies, and some new concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaddah, P.

    2015-05-01

    Phase transitions are caused by varying temperature, or pressure, or magnetic field. The observation of 1st order magneto-structural transitions has created application possibilities based on magnetoresistance, magnetocaloric effect, magnetic shape memory effect, and magneto-dielectric effect. Magnetic field induced transitions, and phase coexistence of competing magnetic phases down to the lowest temperature, gained prominence over a decade ago with theoretical models suggesting that the ground state is not homogeneous. Researchers at Indore pushed an alternative view that this phase coexistence could be due to glasslike "kinetic arrest" of a disorder-broadened first-order magnetic transition between two states with long-range magnetic order, resulting in phase coexistence down to the lowest temperatures. The CHUF (cooling and heating in unequal field) protocol created at Indore allows the observation of `devitrification', followed by `melting'. I show examples of measurements establishing kinetic arrest in various materials, emphasizing that glasslike arrest of 1st order magnetic transitions may be as ubiquitous as glass formation following the arrest of 1st order structural transitions.

  2. Magnetic field induced third order susceptibility of third order harmonic generation in a ZnMgSe strained quantum well

    SciTech Connect

    Mark, J. Abraham Hudson Peter, A. John

    2014-04-24

    Third order susceptibility of third order harmonic generation is investigated in a Zn{sub 0.1}Mg{sub 0.9}Se/Zn{sub 0.8}Mg{sub 0.2}Se/Zn{sub 0.1}Mg{sub 0.9}Se quantum well in the presence of magnetic field strength. The confinement potential is considered as the addition of energy offsets of the conduction band (or valence band) and the strain-induced potential in our calculations. The material dependent effective mass is followed throughout the computation because it has a high influence on the electron energy levels in low dimensional semiconductor systems.

  3. Magnetic field induced dynamical chaos

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, Somrita; Baura, Alendu; Bag, Bidhan Chandra

    2013-12-15

    In this article, we have studied the dynamics of a particle having charge in the presence of a magnetic field. The motion of the particle is confined in the x–y plane under a two dimensional nonlinear potential. We have shown that constant magnetic field induced dynamical chaos is possible even for a force which is derived from a simple potential. For a given strength of the magnetic field, initial position, and velocity of the particle, the dynamics may be regular, but it may become chaotic when the field is time dependent. Chaotic dynamics is very often if the field is time dependent. Origin of chaos has been explored using the Hamiltonian function of the dynamics in terms of action and angle variables. Applicability of the present study has been discussed with a few examples.

  4. Benzene at 1 GHz. Magnetic field-induced fine structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heist, L. M.; Poon, C.-D.; Samulski, E. T.; Photinos, D. J.; Jokisaari, J.; Vaara, J.; Emsley, J. W.; Mamone, S.; Lelli, M.

    2015-09-01

    The deuterium NMR spectrum of benzene-d6 in a high field spectrometer (1 GHz protons) exhibits a magnetic field-induced deuterium quadrupolar splitting ??. The magnitude of ?? observed for the central resonance is smaller than that observed for the 13C satellite doublets ???. This difference, ?(??) = ??? - ??, is due to unresolved fine structure contributions to the respective resonances. We determine the origins of and simulate this difference, and report pulse sequences that exploit the connectivity of the peaks in the 13C and 2H spectra to determine the relative signs of the indirect coupling, JCD, and ??. The positive sign found for ?? is consonant with the magnetic field biasing of an isolated benzene molecule-the magnetic energy of the aromatic ring is lowest for configurations where the C6 axis is normal to the field. In the neat liquid the magnitude of ?? is decreased by the pair correlations in this prototypical molecular liquid.

  5. Magnetic field induced anisotropy of 139La spin-lattice relaxation rates in stripe ordered La1.875Ba0.125CuO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, S.-H.; Utz, Y.; Hücker, M.; Gu, G. D.; Büchner, B.; Grafe, H.-J.

    2015-10-01

    We report 139La nuclear magnetic resonance studies performed on a La1.875Ba0.125CuO4 single crystal. The data show that the structural phase transitions (high-temperature tetragonal?low-temperature orthorhombic?low-temperature tetragonal phase) are of the displacive type in this material. The 139La spin-lattice relaxation rate T1-1 sharply upturns at the charge-ordering temperature TCO=54 K, indicating that charge order triggers the slowing down of spin fluctuations. Detailed temperature and field dependencies of the T1-1 below the spin-ordering temperature TSO=40 K reveal the development of enhanced spin fluctuations in the spin-ordered state for H ?[001 ] , which are completely suppressed for large fields along the CuO2 planes. Our results shed light on the unusual spin fluctuations in the charge and spin stripe ordered lanthanum cuprates.

  6. Magnetic-field-induced charge order in the filled skutterudite SmRu4P12: Evidence from resonant and nonresonant x-ray diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumura, Takeshi; Michimura, Shinji; Inami, Toshiya; Hayashi, Yuya; Fushiya, Kengo; Matsuda, Tatsuma D.; Higashinaka, Ryuji; Aoki, Yuji; Sugawara, Hitoshi

    2014-04-01

    The antiferromagnetic ordered phase in SmRu4P12 below the metal-insulator transition at TMI=16.5 K with an unresolved transition at T*˜14 K has been studied by resonant and nonresonant x-ray diffraction in magnetic fields. In the intermediate phase, a nonresonant Thomson scattering with q =(1,0,0) is induced by applying a magnetic field, which is presumably caused by atomic displacements reflecting the charge order in the p band, as predicted theoretically [R. Shiina, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 82, 083713 (2013), 10.7566/JPSJ.82.083713]. Simultaneously, the antiferromagnetic moment of Sm is enhanced along the field direction, which is considered to reflect the staggered ordering of the ?7-?8 crystal-field states (scalar or hexadecapole order). The present results show that the orbital-dependent p-f hybridization in association with the nesting instability in the p band gives rise to the unconventional charge order similarly with PrRu4P12 and PrFe4P12.

  7. Spin-locking of half-integer quadrupolar nuclei in nuclear magnetic resonance of solids: second-order quadrupolar and resonance offset effects.

    PubMed

    Ashbrook, Sharon E; Wimperis, Stephen

    2009-11-21

    Spin-locking of spin I=3/2 and I=5/2 nuclei in the presence of small resonance offset and second-order quadrupolar interactions has been investigated using both exact and approximate theoretical and experimental nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) approaches. In the presence of second-order quadrupolar interactions, we show that the initial rapid dephasing that arises from the noncommutation of the state prepared by the first pulse and the spin-locking Hamiltonian gives rise to tensor components of the spin density matrix that are antisymmetric with respect to inversion, in addition to those symmetric with respect to inversion that are found when only a first-order quadrupolar interaction is considered. We also find that spin-locking of multiple-quantum coherence in a static solid is much more sensitive to resonance offset than that of single-quantum coherence and show that good spin-locking of multiple-quantum coherence can still be achieved if the resonance offset matches the second-order shift of the multiple-quantum coherence in the appropriate reference frame. Under magic angle spinning (MAS) conditions, and in the "adiabatic" limit, we demonstrate that rotor-driven interconversion of central-transition single- and three-quantum coherences for a spin I=3/2 nucleus can be best achieved by performing the spin-locking on resonance with the three-quantum coherence in the three-quantum frame. Finally, in the "sudden" MAS limit, we show that spin I=3/2 spin-locking behavior is generally similar to that found in static solids, except when the central-transition nutation rate matches a multiple of the MAS rate and a variety of rotary resonance phenomena are observed depending on the internal spin interactions present. This investigation should aid in the application of spin-locking techniques to multiple-quantum NMR of quadrupolar nuclei and of cross-polarization and homonuclear dipolar recoupling experiments to quadrupolar nuclei such as (7)Li, (11)B, (17)O, (23)Na, and (27)Al. PMID:19929062

  8. 5f delocalization-induced suppression of quadrupolar order in U(Pd1-xPtx)?

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Walker, H. C.; Le, M. D.; McEwen, K. A.; Bleckmann, M.; Süllow, S.; Mazzoli, C.; Wilkins, S. B.; Fort, D.

    2011-12-27

    We present bulk magnetic and transport measurements and x-ray resonant scattering measurements on U(Pd1-xPtx)? for x=0.005 and 0.01, which demonstrate the high sensitivity of the quadrupolar order in the canonical antiferroquadrupolar ordered system UPd? to doping with platinum. Bulk measurements for x=0.005 reveal behavior similar to that seen in UPd?, albeit at a lower temperature, and x-ray resonant scattering provides evidence of quadrupolar order described by the Qxy order parameter. In contrast, bulk measurements reveal only an indistinct transition in x=0.01, consistent with the observation of short-range quadrupolar order in our x-ray resonant scattering results.

  9. Structure and orientational ordering in a fluid of elongated quadrupolar molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Ram Chandra

    2013-01-01

    A second-order density-functional theory is used to study the effect of quadrupolar interactions on the isotropic-nematic transition in a system of fluids of elongated molecules interacting via the Gay-Berne potential. The direct pair-correlation functions of the coexisting isotropic fluid that enter in the theory as input information are obtained by solving the Ornstein-Zernike equation using the Percus-Yevick integral equation theory in the (reduced) temperature range of 1.6?T??3.0 for different densities, temperatures and quadrupole moments. Using the harmonic coefficients of the direct pair-correlation functions, isotropic-nematic phase coexistence and thermodynamic parameters have been calculated. The theoretical results have been compared with the available computer simulation results.

  10. 5f delocalization-induced suppression of quadrupolar order in U(Pd1-xPtx)?

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, H. C.; Le, M. D.; McEwen, K. A.; Bleckmann, M.; Süllow, S.; Mazzoli, C.; Wilkins, S. B.; Fort, D.

    2011-12-27

    We present bulk magnetic and transport measurements and x-ray resonant scattering measurements on U(Pd1-xPtx)? for x=0.005 and 0.01, which demonstrate the high sensitivity of the quadrupolar order in the canonical antiferroquadrupolar ordered system UPd? to doping with platinum. Bulk measurements for x=0.005 reveal behavior similar to that seen in UPd?, albeit at a lower temperature, and x-ray resonant scattering provides evidence of quadrupolar order described by the Qxy order parameter. In contrast, bulk measurements reveal only an indistinct transition in x=0.01, consistent with the observation of short-range quadrupolar order in our x-ray resonant scattering results.

  11. Magnetic field induced charge redistribution in artificially disordered quantum Hall superlattices

    E-print Network

    Gusev, Guennady

    Magnetic field induced charge redistribution in artificially disordered quantum Hall superlattices.1209/0295-5075/97/17010 Magnetic field induced charge redistribution in artificially disordered quantum Hall superlattices L ­ The photoluminescence from individual quantum wells of artificially disordered weakly coupled multi-layers embedded

  12. Temperature and magnetic field induced multiple magnetic transitions in DyAg2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arora, Parul; Chattopadhyay, M. K.; Sharath Chandra, L. S.; Sharma, V. K.; Roy, S. B.

    2011-02-01

    The magnetic properties of the rare-earth intermetallic compound DyAg2 are studied in detail with the help of magnetization and heat capacity measurements. It is shown that the multiple magnetic phase transitions can be induced in DyAg2 both by temperature and magnetic field. The detailed magnetic phase diagram of DyAg2 is determined experimentally. It was already known that DyAg2 undergoes an incommensurate to commensurate antiferromagnetic phase transition close to 10 K. The present experimental results highlight the first order nature of this phase transition, and show that this transition can be induced by magnetic field as well. It is further shown that another isothermal magnetic field induced transition or metamagnetic transition exhibited by DyAg2 at still lower temperatures is also of first order nature. The multiple magnetic phase transitions in DyAg2 give rise to large peaks in the temperature dependence of the heat capacity below 17 K, which indicates its potential as a magnetic regenerator material for cryocooler related applications. In addition it is found that because of the presence of the temperature and field induced magnetic phase transitions, and because of short range magnetic correlations deep inside the paramagnetic regime, DyAg2 exhibits a fairly large magnetocaloric effect over a wide temperature window, e.g., between 10 and 60 K.

  13. Nematic ordering of suspension of charged anisotropic colloids detected by multinuclear quadrupolar spectra and 1H PGSE-NMR measurements.

    PubMed

    Porion, P; Al-Mukhtar, M; Faugère, A-M; Meyer, S; Delville, A

    2003-11-01

    The structure of aqueous dispersion of charged anisotropic nano-composites (synthetic Laponite clays) have been studied by NMR and numerical simulations based on a multi-scale statistical analysis have been used to interpret the mobility of the confined water molecule diffusing within dense Laponite aqueous dispersions (29-52% w/w) prepared by uniaxial compression. Firstly, the lineshape detected by NMR quadrupolar spectroscopy of the counterions ((23)Na or (7)Li) exhibits a large residual splitting Delta nu which is the fingerprint of the macroscopic nematic ordering of the anisotropic particles. Secondly, these results are also confirmed by the anisotropy of the self-diffusion tensor of the water molecule measured by (1)H Pulsed Gradient Spin Echo NMR. This self-diffusion anisotropy increases with the suspension density. Thirdly, the multi-scale statistical analysis of the water mobility bridges the gap between the time-scale (ps) accessible by Molecular Dynamics simulations and the time-scale (micros) accessible by Brownian Dynamics, leading to macroscopic behaviour comparable with PGSE-NMR data measurements. PMID:15011007

  14. Effects of hole doping by neutron irradiation of magnetic field induced electronic phase transitions in graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Singleton, John; Yaguchi, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    We have investigated effects of hole doping by fast-neutron irradiation on the magnetic-field induced phase transitions in graphite using specimens irradiated with fast neutrons. Resistance measurements have been done in magnetic fields of up to above 50 T and at temperatures down to about 1.5 K. The neutron irradiation creates lattice defects acting as acceptors, affecting the imbalance of the electron and hole densities and the Fermi level. We have found that the reentrant field from the field induced state back to the normal state shifts towards a lower field with hole doping, suggestive of the participation of electron subbands in the magnetic-field induced state.

  15. Magnetic-field-induced crystallographic texture enhancement in cold-deformed FePt nanostructured magnets

    E-print Network

    Garmestani, Hamid

    Magnetic-field-induced crystallographic texture enhancement in cold-deformed FePt nanostructured magnets B. Z. Cuia and K. Han National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Florida State University Grenoble, France H. J. Schneider-Muntau National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Florida State University

  16. Vortex dynamics and the Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov state in a magnetic-field-induced organic superconductor.

    PubMed

    Uji, S; Terashima, T; Nishimura, M; Takahide, Y; Konoike, T; Enomoto, K; Cui, H; Kobayashi, H; Kobayashi, A; Tanaka, H; Tokumoto, M; Choi, E S; Tokumoto, T; Graf, D; Brooks, J S

    2006-10-13

    Under special conditions, a superconducting state where the order parameter oscillates in real space, the so-called FFLO state, is theoretically predicted to exist near the upper critical field, as first proposed by Fulde and Ferrell, and Larkin and Ovchinnikov. We report systematic measurements of the interlayer resistance in high magnetic fields to 45 T in the two-dimensional magnetic-field-induced organic superconductor lambda-(BETS)2FeCl4, where BETS is bis(ethylenedithio)tetraselenafulvalene. The resistance is found to show characteristic dip structures in the superconducting state. The results are consistent with pinning interactions between the vortices penetrating the insulating layers and the order parameter of the FFLO state. This gives strong evidence for an oscillating order parameter in real space. PMID:17155350

  17. Combining magnetic field induced locomotion and supramolecular interaction to micromanipulate glass fibers: toward assembly of complex structures at mesoscale.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Mengjiao; Gao, Haitao; Zhang, Yajun; Tremel, Wolfgang; Chen, Jian-Feng; Shi, Feng; Knoll, Wolfgang

    2011-06-01

    The formation of ordered complex structures is one of the most challenging fields in the research of biomimic materials because those structures are promising with respect to improving the physical and mechanical properties of man-made materials. In this letter, we have developed a novel approach to fabricating complex structures on the mesoscale by combining magnetic-field-induced locomotion and supramolecular-interaction-assisted immobilization. We have employed a magnetic field to locomote the glass fiber, which was modified by the layer-by-layer self-assembly of magnetic nanoparticles, to desired positions and have exploited the supramolecular interaction to immobilize glass fiber onto the appointed position. By magnetically induced micromanipulation, we can drive another fiber across the former one and finally obtain a crossing structure, which can lead to more complex structures on the mesocale. Moreover, we have constructed a mesoscale structure, termed "CHEM", to demonstrate further the application of this method. PMID:21542598

  18. Magnetic-field-induced phases in anisotropic triangular antiferromagnets: Application to CuCrO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Shi-Zeng; Barros, Kipton; Mun, Eundeok; Kim, Jae-Wook; Frontzek, Matthias; Barilo, S.; Shiryaev, S. V.; Zapf, Vivien S.; Batista, Cristian D.

    2014-06-01

    We introduce a minimal spin model for describing the magnetic properties of CuCrO2. Our Monte Carlo simulations of this model reveal a rich magnetic-field-induced phase diagram, which explains the measured field dependence of the electric polarization. The sequence of phase transitions between different multiferroic states arises from a subtle interplay between spatial and spin anisotropy, magnetic frustration, and thermal fluctuations. Our calculations are compared to new measurements up to 92 T.

  19. Quantitative photoacoustic depth profilometry of magnetic field-induced thermal diffusivity inhomogeneity in the liquid crystal octylcyanobiphenyl

    E-print Network

    Mandelis, Andreas

    Quantitative photoacoustic depth profilometry of magnetic field-induced thermal diffusivity inhomogeneity in the liquid crystal octylcyanobiphenyl Andreas Mandelisa) Photoacoustic and Photothermal, Department of Physics, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium Samuel B. Paralta Photoacoustic

  20. Magnetic-field-induced microwave losses in epitaxial Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O films

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, E.; Giura, M.; Marcon, R.; Fastampa, R. ); Balestrino, G.; Marinelli, M.; Milani, E. )

    1992-06-01

    Magnetic-field-induced microwave losses in epitaxial {ital c}-axis-oriented Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O films have been observed. At low magnetic field, the behavior of the absorption is qualitatively analogous to that already observed in granular samples. The dominant part is attributed to the dephasing of a network of Josephson junctions. A structural analysis shows evidence of such a network. The dependence of the absorption on the angle between the magnetic field and the {ital a}-{ital b} plane is consistent with this model.

  1. Magnetic-Field-Induced Insulator-Conductor Transition in SU(2) Quenched Lattice Gauge Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Buividovich, P.V.; Kharzeev, D.; Chernodub, M.N., Kalaydzhyan, T., Luschevskaya, E.V., and M.I. Polikarpov

    2010-09-24

    We study the correlator of two vector currents in quenched SU(2) lattice gauge theory with a chirally invariant lattice Dirac operator with a constant external magnetic field. It is found that in the confinement phase the correlator of the components of the current parallel to the magnetic field decays much slower than in the absence of a magnetic field, while for other components the correlation length slightly decreases. We apply the maximal entropy method to extract the corresponding spectral function. In the limit of zero frequency this spectral function yields the electric conductivity of quenched theory. We find that in the confinement phase the external magnetic field induces nonzero electric conductivity along the direction of the field, transforming the system from an insulator into an anisotropic conductor. In the deconfinement phase the conductivity does not exhibit any sizable dependence on the magnetic field.

  2. Magnetic-field induced bistability in a quasi-one-dimensional semiconductor microcavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chuanyi; Zhang, Weifeng

    2015-09-01

    We theoretically study the magnetic-field induced bistability in a quasi-one-dimensional semiconductor microcavity. A critical magnetic field is obtained, and the bistability appears if a magnetic field is greater than the critical value. For a positive energy detuning of the pump from the bare exciton polaritons, one bistability loop first emerges, then it divides into two loops, and finally one of them vanishes with the increasing magnetic field. This phenomenon originates from the magnetic-field modulated interactions for opposite spins. In the variational process, there are two important effects: one is a logic gate with a small variation of the excitation laser, and the other is a spin texture like skyrmion and this texture is periodic if the energy detuning varies periodically in real space, which is useful for designing the spin-dependent optoelectronic devices.

  3. Magnetic-field-induced diameter-selective synthesis of single-walled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Su, Yanjie; Zhang, Yaozhong; Wei, Hao; Zhang, Liling; Zhao, Jiang; Yang, Zhi; Zhang, Yafei

    2012-03-01

    We report a facile and scalable approach to synthesize single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) with selected diameter distribution by applying a magnetic field perpendicular to the electric field in the arc plasma region. It is found that this magnetic field-induced diameter-selectivity strategy enables the control of the SWNTs with different diameter distributions in different regions, and the diameter-selective efficiency could be enhanced by modifying the direction of magnetic field. Our results indicate that the motions of the catalysts with different particle sizes, positive carbon ions and electrons are significantly influenced by the magnetic field and electromagnetic force, resulting in the different nucleation and growth processes of SWNTs due to the collective interactions between the magnetic field and arc plasma. This approach would enable a viable route towards the synthesis of SWNTs with desired diameter through the tuning of arc parameters in the arc discharge process. PMID:22301844

  4. Possible quantum Hall effect in a magnetic-field-induced phase transition in the quasi-one-dimensional CDW organic conductor, HMTSF-TCNQ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murata, Keizo; Fukumoto, Yuhei; Yokogawa, Keiichi; Kang, Woun; Takaoka, Ryo; Tada, Ryota; Hirayama, H.; Brooks, James S.; Graf, David; Yoshino, Harukazu; Sasaki, Takahiko; Kato, Reizo

    2015-03-01

    We have studied the angular dependence of magnetoresistance and Hall effect of the CDW organic conductor, HMTSF-TCNQ in order to see whether a magnetic-field-induced phase exists in the charge density wave (CDW) system, similarly to the magnetic-field-induced SDW phases in (TMTSF)2X. The anomaly in magnetoresistance was observed only around the pressure where the CDW is almost suppressed, i.e. around 0.8-1.1 GPa, but neither at low pressures (0 and 0.5 GPa) nor at high pressure above 2 GPa. This behavior is quite similar to that of (TMTSF)2X. At 1.1 GPa anomalies were found at fields of 0.2 T and 10 T. We speculate that at 1.1 GPa the field-induced phase is located between 0.2 T and 10 T, where 1D Fermi surface sheet and 2D Fermi-surface pocket are present. The Rxy shows plateau structure and Rxx was very small in the same region, suggestive of quantum Hall effect.

  5. Phase transitions in a ferrofluid at magnetic-field-induced microphase separation D. Lacoste and T. C. Lubensky

    E-print Network

    Lacoste, David

    perpendicular to a thin sample layer, a suspension of magnetic colloidal particles ferrofluid can form spatially of these suspensions in which particle concentration and magnetization, determined by the degree of alignmentPhase transitions in a ferrofluid at magnetic-field-induced microphase separation D. Lacoste and T

  6. Magnetic-field-induced diameter-selective synthesis of single-walled carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Yanjie; Zhang, Yaozhong; Wei, Hao; Zhang, Liling; Zhao, Jiang; Yang, Zhi; Zhang, Yafei

    2012-02-01

    We report a facile and scalable approach to synthesize single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) with selected diameter distribution by applying a magnetic field perpendicular to the electric field in the arc plasma region. It is found that this magnetic field-induced diameter-selectivity strategy enables the control of the SWNTs with different diameter distributions in different regions, and the diameter-selective efficiency could be enhanced by modifying the direction of magnetic field. Our results indicate that the motions of the catalysts with different particle sizes, positive carbon ions and electrons are significantly influenced by the magnetic field and electromagnetic force, resulting in the different nucleation and growth processes of SWNTs due to the collective interactions between the magnetic field and arc plasma. This approach would enable a viable route towards the synthesis of SWNTs with desired diameter through the tuning of arc parameters in the arc discharge process.We report a facile and scalable approach to synthesize single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) with selected diameter distribution by applying a magnetic field perpendicular to the electric field in the arc plasma region. It is found that this magnetic field-induced diameter-selectivity strategy enables the control of the SWNTs with different diameter distributions in different regions, and the diameter-selective efficiency could be enhanced by modifying the direction of magnetic field. Our results indicate that the motions of the catalysts with different particle sizes, positive carbon ions and electrons are significantly influenced by the magnetic field and electromagnetic force, resulting in the different nucleation and growth processes of SWNTs due to the collective interactions between the magnetic field and arc plasma. This approach would enable a viable route towards the synthesis of SWNTs with desired diameter through the tuning of arc parameters in the arc discharge process. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Schematic diagram of SWNT sampling points, peak areas of S22 and M11 and relative ratios of S/M. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr11783e

  7. High Magnetic Field-Induced Birefringence in Lyotropic Chromonic Liquid Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostapenko, T.; Nastishin, Yu.; Gleeson, J. T.; Sprunt, S. N.; Lavrentovich, O. D.; Collings, P. J.

    2009-03-01

    We studied the effect of magnetic-field induced birefringence of a 14% solution of disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) in water at temperatures above the nematic-isotropic coexistence region. According to Landau-deGennes mean field theory, we expect to find a linear relationship between the inverse of the induced birefringence, ?n, and the quantity (T-T*), where T* is the stability limit of the isotropic phase. Using the 31 T resistive magnet at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, we observed that, as we increase the temperature above the coexistence region, we deviate from this linear dependence. Our data shows that ?n goes to zero, whereas Landau-deGennes predicts that ?n should decrease asymptotically. This may be due to the lack of isodesmic aggregate formation at a finite temperature above the coexistence region.Supported by NSF (DMR-0710544 and DMR-0606160). Work performed at NHMFL, supported by NSF cooperative agreements DMR-0084173, the State of Florida and the DOE.

  8. Nanoparticle impacts reveal magnetic field induced agglomeration and reduced dissolution rates.

    PubMed

    Tschulik, Kristina; Compton, Richard G

    2014-07-21

    Superparamagnetic nanoparticles (NPs) are used in a variety of magnetic field-assisted chemical and medical applications, yet little of their fate during magnetic field interrogation is known. Here, fundamental and new insights in this are gained by cathodic particle coulometry. This methodology is used to study individual Fe3O4 NPs in the presence and absence of a magnetic field. It is first noticed that no major NP agglomeration occurs in the absence of a magnetic field even in a suspension of high ionic strength. In contrast, a significant magnetic field-induced agglomeration of NPs is observed in a magnetic field. A second new finding is that the dissolution of Fe3O4 NPs is strongly inhibited in a magnetic field. This is explained as a result of the magnetic field gradient force trapping the released Fe(2+) ions near the surface of a magnetized Fe3O4 NP and thus hindering the mass-transport controlled NP dissolution. Consequently, fundamental magnetic field effects are measured and quantified on both the single NP scale and in suspension and two novel effects are discovered. PMID:24898763

  9. Giant magnetic-field-induced strains in polycrystalline Ni-Mn-Ga foams.

    PubMed

    Chmielus, M; Zhang, X X; Witherspoon, C; Dunand, D C; Müllner, P

    2009-11-01

    The magnetic shape-memory alloy Ni-Mn-Ga shows, in monocrystalline form, a reversible magnetic-field-induced strain (MFIS) up to 10%. This strain, which is produced by twin boundaries moving solely by internal stresses generated by magnetic anisotropy energy, can be used in actuators, sensors and energy-harvesting devices. Compared with monocrystalline Ni-Mn-Ga, fine-grained Ni-Mn-Ga is much easier to process but shows near-zero MFIS because twin boundary motion is inhibited by constraints imposed by grain boundaries. Recently, we showed that partial removal of these constraints, by introducing pores with sizes similar to grains, resulted in MFIS values of 0.12% in polycrystalline Ni-Mn-Ga foams, close to those of the best commercial magnetostrictive materials. Here, we demonstrate that introducing pores smaller than the grain size further reduces constraints and markedly increases MFIS to 2.0-8.7%. These strains, which remain stable over >200,000 cycles, are much larger than those of any polycrystalline, active material. PMID:19749769

  10. A dislocation model for the magnetic field induced shape memory effect in Ni2MnGa

    E-print Network

    Ferreira, Paulo J.

    A dislocation model for the magnetic field induced shape memory effect in Ni2MnGa S. Rajasekhara, P 6 July 2005 Abstract The magnetically driven shape memory effect in Ni2MnGa body-centered tetragonal martensite is onset by the motion of 0.144 h1 1 1i type twin dislocations on the {1 1 2} type planes

  11. Dynamic-angle spinning and double rotation of quadrupolar nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, K.T. California Univ., Berkeley, CA . Dept. of Chemistry)

    1991-07-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy of quadrupolar nuclei is complicated by the coupling of the electric quadrupole moment of the nucleus to local variations in the electric field. The quadrupolar interaction is a useful source of information about local molecular structure in solids, but it tends to broaden resonance lines causing crowding and overlap in NMR spectra. Magic- angle spinning, which is routinely used to produce high resolution spectra of spin-{1/2} nuclei like carbon-13 and silicon-29, is incapable of fully narrowing resonances from quadrupolar nuclei when anisotropic second-order quadrupolar interactions are present. Two new sample-spinning techniques are introduced here that completely average the second-order quadrupolar coupling. Narrow resonance lines are obtained and individual resonances from distinct nuclear sites are identified. In dynamic-angle spinning (DAS) a rotor containing a powdered sample is reoriented between discrete angles with respect to high magnetic field. Evolution under anisotropic interactions at the different angles cancels, leaving only the isotropic evolution of the spin system. In the second technique, double rotation (DOR), a small rotor spins within a larger rotor so that the sample traces out a complicated trajectory in space. The relative orientation of the rotors and the orientation of the larger rotor within the magnetic field are selected to average both first- and second-order anisotropic broadening. The theory of quadrupolar interactions, coherent averaging theory, and motional narrowing by sample reorientation are reviewed with emphasis on the chemical shift anisotropy and second-order quadrupolar interactions experienced by half-odd integer spin quadrupolar nuclei. The DAS and DOR techniques are introduced and illustrated with application to common quadrupolar systems such as sodium-23 and oxygen-17 nuclei in solids.

  12. Thermodynamics of the magnetic-field-induced "normal" state in an underdoped high Tc superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riggs, Scott Chandler

    High magnetic fields are used to kill superconductivity and probe what happens to system when it cannot reach the ideal ground state, i.e. what is the normal-state ground state? Early work in High-Tc, where the application of magnetic field destroyed the zero resistance state and recovered a resistivity value that connected continuously with the zero field curve, lead people to believe this magnetic-field-induced-state had fully driven the system normal, revealing the true underlying ground state, without any vestige of superconductivity. Many experiments done in this region of phase space have results interpreted as coming from the low energy ground state excitations. With the emergence of ultra-clean crystals in a unique family of hole doped high-Tc superconductors, YBa2Cu3O 7-delta, YBCO, a new and highly unexpected phenomena of quantum oscillations were discovered, and they followed the standard Liftshitz-Kosevich (LK) theory for a normal metal. The results suddenly made the problem of high-T c appear to be analogous to superconductivity in the organics, which is brought about by a wave-vector nesting and Fermi surface reconstruction. The only problem, it appeared, that needed to be reconciled was with Angle Resolved Photo-Emission Spectroscopy (ARPES) and Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) data that claimed to see no such Fermi surface, instead only "arcs", a set of disconnected segments in the Brillouin zone which quasiparticle peaks are observed at the Fermi energy, which in a mean field description does not allow for a continuous Fermi surface contour. These two discrepancies led to the "arc vs pocket" debate, which is still unresolved. The other kink in the quantum oscillation armor is that, to this date, quantum oscillations in the hole-doped cuprates have only been seen in YBCO, the only cuprate structure to have CuO chains, which conduct and are located in between two CuO2 superconducting planes in the unit cell. In an attempt to reconcile the "arc vs pocket" debate we measure specific heat on an ultra-clean de-twinned single crystal of underdoped YBCO 6.56 with a Tc = 60 K, up to fields twice irreversibility field, define as the onset of the resistive transition. The zero temperature extrapolation of the electronic contribution to the specific heat, gamma, is the total quasiparticle density of states. For a two-dimensional system with parabolic energy bands, gamma is simply the sum of each pocket multiplied by its effective mass. Therefore, by determining gamma at high fields and using previously determined values for the effective mass from quantum oscillation transport measurements we can simply play a counting game to determine the number of pockets in the Fermi surface. Furthermore, at low fields the response to the specific heat as a function of magnetic field in a d-wave superconductor is known to have a (H) dependence, and we can look for deviations from this (H) , which are expected to happen when the system is no longer in a superconducting state. Results from our specific heat experiment shed new light on the true nature of the magnetic field induced "normal" state, and should force reinterpretation of many experimental findings. The specific heat measurements foremost show a smooth evolution of gamma from low to high magnetic fields which follows a Ac (H) dependence, with the prefactor, Ac giving the correct magnitude for the anisotropy of the d-wave superconducting gap. This means with the application of magnetic fields strong enough to restore the resistive state, the superconducting gap still exits. Additionally, we see quantum oscillations that follow conventional LK formalism and can determine an effective mass uniquely, where no fitting parameters are required. Interestingly, these oscillations fit on top of the (H) finding. How can the (H) and quantum oscillation whose phenomena arise from very different physics be reconciled? Looking at our own zero field gamma value of 1.85 mJ mol-1 K-2, which is intrinsic for YBCO, allows the pocket counting game

  13. Time domain spectroscopy of the magnetic field induced metal-insulator transition in n:InSb

    SciTech Connect

    Sohn, J. Y.; Gao, X.; Crooker, S. A.

    2004-01-01

    Temperature (T) and frequency ({omega}) dependent conductivity measurements are reported for n-type indium antimonide (InSb) around the magnetic field induced metal-insulator transition (MIT). For the sample with electron density n = 2.15 x 10{sup 14} cm{sup -3}, the critical field is observed at {approx}0.7 T in dc transport measurements. The frequency dependent conductivity {sigma}({omega}) measured via terahertz time domain spectroscopy indicates a higher critical field {approx}1.2 T. Both {sigma}{sub dc}(T) and {sigma}{sub 1}({omega}) at low temperatures show power law dependence with exponents of {alpha} = 1.2.

  14. Magnetic-field-induced quantum criticality in a spin- S planar ferromagnet with single-ion anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercaldo, M. T.; Rabuffo, I.; De Cesare, L.; Caramico D'Auria, A.

    2013-08-01

    The effects of single-ion anisotropy on quantum criticality in a d-dimensional spin- S planar ferromagnet is explored by means of the two-time Green's function method. We work at the Tyablikov decoupling level for exchange interactions and the Anderson-Callen decoupling level for single-ion anisotropy. In our analysis a longitudinal external magnetic field is used as the non-thermal control parameter and the phase diagram and the quantum critical properties are established for suitable values of the single-ion anisotropy parameter D. We find that the single-ion anisotropy has sensible effects on the structure of the phase diagram close to the quantum critical point. However, for values of the uniaxial crystal-field parameter below a positive threshold, the conventional magnetic-field-induced quantum critical scenario remains unchanged.

  15. Magnetic field-induced phase transformation and variant reorientation in Ni2MnGa and NiMnCoIn magnetic shape memory alloys 

    E-print Network

    Karaca, Haluk Ersin

    2009-05-15

    The purpose of this work is to reveal the governing mechanisms responsible for the magnetic field-induced i) martensite reorientation in Ni2MnGa single crystals, ii) stress-assisted phase transformation in Ni2MnGa single crystals and iii) phase...

  16. Magnetic-field-induced Heisenberg to XY crossover in a quasi-2D quantum antiferromagnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortune, N. A.; Hannahs, S. T.; Landee, C. P.; Turnbull, M. M.; Xiao, F.

    2014-12-01

    The magnetic-field-dependent ordering temperature of the quasi-2D quantum Heisenberg antiferromagnet (QHAF) Cu(pz)2(ClO4)2 was determined by calorimetric measurement in applied dc fields up to 33 tesla. The magnetic phase diagram shows a round maximum at 5.95 K and 17.5 T (at ? 1/3 of its saturation field), a 40 percent enhancement of the ordering temperature above the zero field value of 4.25 K. The enhancement and reentrance are consistent with predictions of a field-induced Heisenberg to XY crossover behavior for an ideal 2D QHAF system.

  17. Magnetic-field-induced quantum criticality in a spin-1 planar ferromagnet with single-ion anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercaldo, Maria Teresa; Rabuffo, Ileana; Decesare, Luigi; Caramicod'Auria, Alvaro

    2014-03-01

    The effects of single-ion anisotropy on field-induced quantum criticality in spin-1 planar ferromagnet is explored by means of the two-time Green's function method. We work at the Tyablikov decoupling level for exchange interactions and the Anderson-Callen decoupling level for single-ion anisotropy. In our analysis a longitudinal external magnetic field is used as the non-thermal control parameter and the phase diagram and the quantum critical properties are established for suitable values of the single-ion anisotropy parameter. We find that the single-ion anisotropy has sensible effects on the structure of the phase diagram close to the quantum critical point. Indeed, for values of the uniaxial crystal-field parameter above a positive threshold a re-entrant behavior appears for the critical line, while above this value the conventional magnetic-field-induced quantum critical scenario remains unchanged. M. T. Mercaldo, I. Rabuffo, L. De Cesare, A. Caramico D'Auria, Eur. Phys. J. B 86, 340 (2013)

  18. Magnetic field induced directional dichroism of spin waves in multiferroic BiFeO3 at THz frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagel, Urmas; Rõõm, T.; Bordács, S.; Kézsmárki, I.; Yi, H. T.; Cheong, S.-W.; Lee, Jun Hee; Fishman, Randy S.

    2015-03-01

    Using far infrared spectroscopy in high magnetic fields we show that spin excitations in BiFeO3 simultaneously interact with the electric and magnetic field components of light resulting in directional dichroism (DD) of absorption. DD in BiFeO3 arises because an applied static magnetic field induces a toroidal moment in the cycloidal spin structure. Strong DD is observed even in the room-temperature state of the material. The results are explained on the microscopic level as an interplay of five different interactions: isotropic exchange couplings between nearest and next nearest neighbors, an easy-axis anisotropy along the ferroelectric polarization, Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) interaction that creates the cycloid and DM interaction that causes spin canting. Research sponsored by the Estonian Ministry of Education and Research (IUT23-3), Estonian Science Foundation (ETF8703), and U.S. Department of Energy (JL), Office of Science, Materials Sciences and Engineering Division (RF and JL) and Office of Basis En.

  19. Neutron diffraction study of the magnetic-field-induced transition in Mn3GaC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ?akιr, Ö.; Acet, M.; Farle, M.; Senyshyn, A.

    2014-01-01

    The antiperovskite Mn3GaC undergoes an isostructural cubic-cubic first order transition from a low-temperature, large-cell-volume antiferromagnetic state to a high-temperature, small-cell-volume ferromagnetic state at around 160 K. The transition can also be induced by applying a magnetic field. We study here the isothermal magnetic-field-evolution of the transition as ferromagnetism is stabilized at the expense of antiferromagnetism. We make use of the presence of the two distinct cell volumes of the two magnetic states as a probe to observe by neutron diffraction the evolution of the transition, as the external magnetic field carries the system from the antiferromagnetic to the ferromagnetic state. We show that the large-volume antiferromagnetic and the small-volume ferromagnetic states coexist in the temperature range of the transition. The ferromagnetic state is progressively stabilized as the field increases.

  20. Colloidal Stability and Magnetic Field-Induced Ordering of Magnetorheological Fluids Studied with a Quartz Crystal Microbalance.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-López, Jaime; Castro, Pedro; de Vicente, Juan; Johannsmann, Diethelm; Elvira, Luis; Morillas, Jose R; Montero de Espinosa, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    This work proposes the use of quartz crystal microbalances (QCMs) as a method to analyze and characterize magnetorheological (MR) fluids. QCM devices are sensitive to changes in mass, surface interactions, and viscoelastic properties of the medium contacting its surface. These features make the QCM suitable to study MR fluids and their response to variable environmental conditions. MR fluids change their structure and viscoelastic properties under the action of an external magnetic field, this change being determined by the particle volume fraction, the magnetic field strength, and the presence of thixotropic agents among other factors. In this work, the measurement of the resonance parameters (resonance frequency and dissipation factor) of a QCM are used to analyze the behavior of MR fluids in static conditions (that is, in the absence of external mechanical stresses). The influence of sedimentation under gravity and the application of magnetic fields on the shifts of resonance frequency and dissipation factor were measured and discussed in the frame of the coupled resonance produced by particles touching the QCM surface. Furthermore, the MR-fluid/QCM system has a great potential for the study of high-frequency contact mechanics because the translational and rotational stiffness of the link between the surface and the particles can be tuned by the magnetic field. PMID:26690152

  1. Magnetic Field Induced Phase Transitions in Gd5(Si1.95Ge2.05)Single Crystal and the Anisotropic Magnetocaloric Effect

    SciTech Connect

    H. Tang; V.K. Pecharsky; A.O. Pecharsky; D.L. Schlagel; T.A. Lograsso; K.A. Gschneidner,jr.

    2004-09-30

    The magnetization measurements using a Gd{sub 5}(Si{sub 1.95}Ge{sub 2.05}) single crystal with the magnetic field applied along three crystallographic directions, [001], [010] and [100], were carried out as function of applied field (0-56 kOe) at various temperatures ({approx}5-320 K). The magnetic-field induced phase transformations at temperature above the zero-field critical temperature, i.e. the paramagnetic (PM) {leftrightarrow} ferromagnetic (FM) transitions with application or removal of magnetic field, are found to be temperature dependent and hysteretic. The corresponding critical fields increase with increasing temperature. The magnetic field (H)-temperature (T) phase diagrams have been constructed for the Gd{sub 5}(Si{sub 1.95}Ge{sub 2.05}) single crystal with field along the three directions. A small anisotropy has been observed. The magnetocaloric effect (MCE) has been calculated from the isothermal magnetization data, and the observed anisotropy correlates with H-T phase diagrams. The results are discussed in connection with the magnetic-field induced martensitic-like structural transition observed in the Gd{sub 5}(Si{sub 2}Ge{sub 2})-type compounds.

  2. Magnetic Field-Induced Insulator-Semimetal Transition in a Pyrochlore Nd2Ir2O7.

    PubMed

    Ueda, K; Fujioka, J; Yang, B-J; Shiogai, J; Tsukazaki, A; Nakamura, S; Awaji, S; Nagaosa, N; Tokura, Y

    2015-07-31

    We investigate magnetotransport properties in a single crystal of pyrochore-type Nd2Ir2O7. The metallic conduction is observed on the antiferromagnetic domain walls of the all-in-all-out-type Ir 5d moment ordered insulating bulk state that can be finely controlled by an external magnetic field along [111]. On the other hand, an applied field along [001] induces the bulk phase transition from insulator to semimetal as a consequence of the field-induced modification of the Nd 4f and Ir 5d moment configurations. A theoretical calculation consistently describing the experimentally observed features suggests a variety of exotic topological states as functions of electron correlation and Ir 5d moment orders, which can be finely tuned by the choice of rare-earth ion and magnetic field, respectively. PMID:26274430

  3. Magnetic Field-Induced Insulator-Semimetal Transition in a Pyrochlore Nd2Ir2O7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueda, K.; Fujioka, J.; Yang, B.-J.; Shiogai, J.; Tsukazaki, A.; Nakamura, S.; Awaji, S.; Nagaosa, N.; Tokura, Y.

    2015-07-01

    We investigate magnetotransport properties in a single crystal of pyrochore-type Nd2Ir2O7. The metallic conduction is observed on the antiferromagnetic domain walls of the all-in-all-out-type Ir 5 d moment ordered insulating bulk state that can be finely controlled by an external magnetic field along [111]. On the other hand, an applied field along [001] induces the bulk phase transition from insulator to semimetal as a consequence of the field-induced modification of the Nd 4 f and Ir 5 d moment configurations. A theoretical calculation consistently describing the experimentally observed features suggests a variety of exotic topological states as functions of electron correlation and Ir 5 d moment orders, which can be finely tuned by the choice of rare-earth ion and magnetic field, respectively.

  4. Magnetic field induced controllable self-assembly of maghemite nanocrystals: From 3D arrays to 1D nanochains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yan; Chen, Qianwang; Chen, Rongsheng

    2015-08-01

    A hydrothermal process has been used to synthesize walnut-like maghemite superstructures which can be further self-assembled in a controllable manner into ordered three-dimensional (3D) architectures and one-dimensional (1D) nanochains in the presence of different external magnetic field. The assembly behavior of the maghemite nanoparticles isclosely related to the van der Waals interactions and external-field-induced magnetic dipole interactions. The magnetic properties of these nanostructures are also investigated.

  5. Theory of magnetic-field-induced Bose-Einstein condensation of triplons in Ba3Cr2O8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodds, Tyler; Yang, Bohm-Jung; Kim, Yong Baek

    2010-02-01

    Motivated by recent experiments on Ba3Cr2O8 , a new spin-dimer compound with spin-1/2 moments of Cr5+ ions, we theoretically investigate the field-induced magnetic ordering in this material in view of the Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) of triplet excitations (triplons). We apply the self-consistent Hartree-Fock-Popov (HFP) approach to a microscopic Hamiltonian, using the realistic triplon dispersion measured in an inelastic neutron-scattering experiment. In particular, we ask to what extent the BEC of dilute triplons near the critical field can explain the magnetic ordering in this material. For example, we investigate the temperature range where the BEC picture of triplons can be applied via the HFP approach. We also determine the temperature regime where a quadratic approximation of the triplon dispersion works. It is found that the strength of the effective repulsive interaction between triplons is much weaker in Ba3Cr2O8 than in the canonical spin-dimer compound TlCuCl3 . Small effective repulsive interaction in combination with the narrow band of triplons leads to higher density of triplons ncr at the critical point. The combined effect points to a bigger HFP correction Uncr in Ba3Cr2O8 than in TlCuCl3 . Nonetheless, the HFP approach provides a reasonable explanation of the transverse magnetization and the specific-heat data of Ba3Cr2O8 .

  6. Magnetic-field-induced synthesis of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanorods by a gas–liquid interfacial process: Microstructure control, magnetic and photocatalytic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Chun; Mo, Zunli Guo, Ruibin; Teng, Guixiang; Zhao, Guoping

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanorods were synthesized via a MFI gas–liquid interfacial route. • The morphology of the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticle can be changed during its growth process. • MF render Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanorods higher degree of crystallinity and better magnetic property. - Abstract: In this paper, we designed a magnetic field (MF) induced gas–liquid interface route to synthesize magnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanorods (NRs). The results showed that the MF can significantly affect the morphology of the particles. In this original method, only relatively inexpensive and environmental chemicals were used. The structure and morphology of the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} NRs were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and vibrating sample magnetometry technique. The crystal growth mechanisms in the magnetic field induced process were expounded in detail. The as-synthesized Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} NRs were successfully used as a catalytic carrier for the photo degradation of phenol.

  7. Aliovalent-ion and magnetic field induced phase transition in multiferroic biFe(1-x)Ti(x)O3 system.

    PubMed

    Yadav, K L

    2011-03-01

    Multiferroic compounds with general formula BiFe(1-x)Ti(x)O3 (x = 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.35) have been synthesized by conventional solid state reaction method. The effect of Ti substitution on ferroelectric and magnetic properties is studied. From X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, a rhombohedral to orthorhombic phase transition for x > 0.3 was observed. From SQUID measurements, a magnetic field induced phase transition has been observed in the BiFe(1-x)T(x)O3 system for x = 0.3. An anomaly in dielectric constant and dielectric loss in the vicinity of antiferromagnetic Néel temperature (T(N)) and a small enhancement in magnetization have been observed. Magnetization measurements above room temperature showed no systematic variation in antiferromagnetic Néel temperatures on Ti substitution. Further it is seen that this system shows the coupling between electric and magnetic dipoles exhibiting magnetoelectric (ME) effect at room temperature and possess high dielectric constant. PMID:21449454

  8. Neutron diffraction study of the magnetic-field-induced transition in Mn{sub 3}GaC

    SciTech Connect

    Çakir, Ö.; Acet, M.; Farle, M.; Senyshyn, A.

    2014-01-28

    The antiperovskite Mn{sub 3}GaC undergoes an isostructural cubic–cubic first order transition from a low-temperature, large-cell-volume antiferromagnetic state to a high-temperature, small-cell-volume ferromagnetic state at around 160?K. The transition can also be induced by applying a magnetic field. We study here the isothermal magnetic-field-evolution of the transition as ferromagnetism is stabilized at the expense of antiferromagnetism. We make use of the presence of the two distinct cell volumes of the two magnetic states as a probe to observe by neutron diffraction the evolution of the transition, as the external magnetic field carries the system from the antiferromagnetic to the ferromagnetic state. We show that the large-volume antiferromagnetic and the small-volume ferromagnetic states coexist in the temperature range of the transition. The ferromagnetic state is progressively stabilized as the field increases.

  9. Formation of ordered films of axially bridged aluminum phthalocyanine [(tBu){sub 4}PcAl]{sub 2}O via magnetic field-induced reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Basova, Tamara Berezin, Aleksei; Nadolinny, Vladimir; Peisert, Heiko; Chassé, Thomas; Banimuslem, Hikmat; Hassan, Aseel

    2013-11-28

    The ?-(oxo)bis[tetra-tert-butylphthalocyaninato] aluminum(III) [(tBu){sub 4}PcAl]{sub 2}O films with the crystallites oriented preferably in one direction were obtained via chemical transformation of tetra-tert-butylsubstituted chloroaluminum(III) phthalocyanine (tBu){sub 4}PcAlCl film upon its annealing in magnetic field. A comparative analysis of the influence of post-deposition annealing process without and under applied magnetic field of 1 T, on the orientation and morphology of (tBu){sub 4}PcAlCl and [(tBu){sub 4}PcAl]{sub 2}O films, has been carried out by the methods of UV-vis, Infrared and Raman spectroscopies, XRD as well as atomic force microscopy. The formation of [(tBu){sub 4}PcAl]{sub 2}O films with elongated crystallites having preferential orientation was observed upon heating of the films in magnetic field while annealing without magnetic field under the same conditions does not demonstrate any effect on the structure and morphology of these films. The reasons of the sensitivity of this reaction to the presence of such magnetic field is discussed and studied by electronic paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy.

  10. Investigation of the effect of a variety of pulse errors on spin I=1 quadrupolar alignment echo spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiang; Sun, Cheng; Boutis, Gregory S

    2011-08-01

    We report on an analysis of a well known three-pulse sequence for generating and detecting spin I=1 quadrupolar order when various pulse errors are taken into account. In the situation of a single quadrupolar frequency, such as the case found in a single crystal, we studied the potential leakage of single and/or double quantum coherence when a pulse flip error, finite pulse width effect, RF transient or a resonance offset is present. Our analysis demonstrates that the four-step phase cycling scheme studied is robust in suppressing unwanted double and single quantum coherence as well as Zeeman order that arise from the experimental artifacts, allowing for an unbiased measurement of the quadrupolar alignment relaxation time, T(1Q). This work also reports on distortions in quadrupolar alignment echo spectra in the presence of experimental artifacts in the situation of a powdered sample, by simulation. Using our simulation tool, it is demonstrated that the spectral distortions associated with the pulse artifacts may be minimized, to some extent, by optimally choosing the time between the first two pulses. We highlight experimental results acquired on perdeuterated hexamethylbenzene and polyethylene that demonstrate the efficacy of the phase cycling scheme for suppressing unwanted quantum coherence when measuring T(1Q). It is suggested that one employ two separate pulse sequences when measuring T(1Q) to properly analyze the short time behavior of quadrupolar alignment relaxation data. PMID:21664160

  11. The polarized interface between quadrupolar insulators: Maxwell stress tensor, surface tension, and potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slavchov, Radomir I.; Dimitrova, Iglika M.; Ivanov, Tzanko

    2015-10-01

    The quadrupolar Maxwell electrostatic equations predict several qualitatively different results compared to Poisson's classical equation in their description of the properties of a dielectric interface. All interfaces between dielectrics possess surface dipole moment which results in a measurable surface potential jump. The surface dipole moment is conjugated to the bulk quadrupole moment density (the quadrupolarization) similarly to Gauss's relation between surface charge and bulk polarization. However, the classical macroscopic Maxwell equations completely neglect the quadrupolarization of the medium. Therefore, the electrostatic potential distribution near an interface of intrinsic dipole moment can be correctly described only within the quadrupolar macroscopic equations of electrostatics. They predict that near the polarized interface a diffuse dipole layer exists, which bears many similarities to the diffuse charge layer near a charged surface, in agreement with existing molecular dynamics simulation data. It turns out that when the quadrupole terms are kept in the multipole expansion of the laws of electrostatics, the solutions for the potential and the electric field are continuous functions at the surface. A well-defined surface electric field exists, interacting with the adsorbed dipoles. This allows for a macroscopic description of the surface dipole-surface dipole and the surface dipole-bulk quadrupole interactions. They are shown to have considerable contribution to the interfacial tension—of the order of tens of mN/m! To evaluate it, the Maxwell stress tensor in quadrupolar medium is deduced, including the electric field gradient action on the quadrupoles, as well as quadrupolar image force and quadrupolar electrostriction. The dependence of the interfacial tension on the external normal electric field (the dielectrocapillary curve) is predicted and the dielectric susceptibility of the dipolar double layer is related to the quadrupolarizabilities of the bulk phases and the intrinsic polarization of the interface. The coefficient of the dielectro-Marangoni effect (surface flow due to gradient of the normal electric field) is found. A model of the Langevin type for the surface dipole moment and the intrinsic surface polarizability is presented.

  12. Quantum phases of quadrupolar Fermi gases in coupled one-dimensional systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wen-Min; Lahrz, M.; Mathey, L.

    2014-01-01

    Following the recent proposal to create quadrupolar gases [Bhongale et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 155301 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.155301], we investigate what quantum phases can be created in these systems in one dimension. We consider a geometry of two coupled one-dimensional (1D) systems, and derive the quantum phase diagram of ultracold fermionic atoms interacting via quadrupole-quadrupole interactions within a Tomonaga-Luttinger-liquid framework. We map out the phase diagram as a function of the distance between the two tubes and the angle between the direction of the tubes and the quadrupolar moments. The latter can be controlled by an external field. We show that there are two magic angles ?B,1c and ?B,2c between 0 and ? /2, where the intratube quadrupolar interactions vanish and change signs. Adopting a pseudospin language with regard to the two 1D systems, the system undergoes a spin-gap transition and displays a zigzag density pattern, above ?B,2c and below ?B,1c. Between the two magic angles, we show that polarized triplet superfluidity and a planar spin-density-wave order compete with each other. The latter corresponds to a bond-order solid in higher dimensions. We demonstrate that this order can be further stabilized by applying a commensurate periodic potential along the tubes.

  13. Quadrupolar stimulation for Cochlear prostheses: modeling and experimental data.

    PubMed

    Jolly, C N; Spelman, F A; Clopton, B M

    1996-08-01

    Cochlear implants are electrically driven in monopolar, bipolar, or common ground mode. Ideally, a quadrupolar mode is created with three colinear electrodes, where the outer poles are half the inverse polarity value of the center electrode. The resulting field is highly focused. Models of point sources show that the quadrupolar paradigm offers a greater choice of parameters to shape the field. Simulation with a lumped-parameter model of the cochlea confirms the focusing action of the quadrupole in the layers of the inner ear. Field measurements in saline solution and in the scala tympani of guinea pigs show that focusing occurs with the quadrupolar mode. It is conceivable that quadrupolar stimulation will affect the pitch place coding, reduce channel interaction and limit facial or tactile stimulation induced by current spread. PMID:9216159

  14. Static quadrupolar susceptibility for a Blume-Emery-Griffiths model based on the mean-field approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawlak, A.; Gülp?nar, G.; Erdem, R.; A?art?o?lu, M.

    2015-12-01

    The expressions for the dipolar and quadrupolar susceptibilities are obtained within the mean-field approximation in the Blume-Emery-Griffiths model. Temperature as well as crystal field dependences of the susceptibilities are investigated for two different phase diagram topologies which take place for K/J=3 and K/J=5.0.Their behavior near the second and first order transition points as well as multi-critical points such as tricritical, triple and critical endpoint is presented. It is found that in addition to the jumps connected with the phase transitions there are broad peaks in the quadrupolar susceptibility. It is indicated that these broad peaks lie on a prolongation of the first-order line from a triple point to a critical point ending the line of first-order transitions between two distinct paramagnetic phases. It is argued that the broad peaks are a reminiscence of very strong quadrupolar fluctuations at the critical point. The results reveal the fact that near ferromagnetic-paramagnetic phase transitions the quadrupolar susceptibility generally shows a jump whereas near the phase transition between two distinct paramagnetic phases it is an edge-like.

  15. A system for NMR stark spectroscopy of quadrupolar nuclei.

    PubMed

    Tarasek, Matthew R; Kempf, James G

    2010-05-13

    Electrostatic influences on NMR parameters are well accepted. Experimental and computational routes have been long pursued to understand and utilize such Stark effects. However, existing approaches are largely indirect informants on electric fields, and/or are complicated by multiple causal factors in spectroscopic change. We present a system to directly measure quadrupolar Stark effects from an applied electric (E) field. Our apparatus and applications are relevant in two contexts. Each uses a radiofrequency (rf) E field at twice the nuclear Larmor frequency (2omega(0)). The mechanism is a distortion of the E-field gradient tensor that is linear in the amplitude (E(0)) of the rf E field. The first uses 2omega(0) excitation of double-quantum transitions for times similar to T(1) (the longitudinal spin relaxation time). This perturbs the steady state distribution of spin population. Nonlinear analysis versus E(0) can be used to determine the Stark response rate. The second context uses POWER (perturbations observed with enhanced resolution) NMR. Here, coherent, short-time (quadrupolar multiplet with splitting proportional to E(0). The POWER sequence converts the 2omega(0) interaction from off-diagonal/nonsecular to the familiar diagonal form (I(z)(2)) of static quadrupole interactions. Meanwhile, background contributions to line width are averaged to zero, providing orders-of-magnitude resolution enhancement for correspondingly high sensitivity to the Stark effect. Using GaAs as a test case with well-defined Stark response, we provide the first demonstration of the 2omega(0) effect at high-field (14.1 T) and room temperature. This, along with the simplicity of our apparatus and spectral approach, may facilitate extensions to a wider array of material and molecular systems. The POWER context, which has not previously been tested, is detailed here with new design insights. Several key aspects are demonstrated here, while complete implementation is to be presented at a later time. At present, we (1) account for finite pulse times in pulse sequence design, (2) demonstrate two-channel phase coherence for magnetic (omega(0)) and electric (2omega(0)) excitation, and (3) provide line narrowing by a factor of 10(3). In addition, we find that certain anomalous contributions to the line shape, observed in previous low-field (250 mT) applications, are absent here. PMID:20394397

  16. Kn 26, a new quadrupolar planetary nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerrero, M. A.; Miranda, L. F.; Ramos-Larios, G.; Vázquez, R.

    2013-03-01

    Once classified as an emission line source, the planetary nebula (PN) nature of the source Kn 26 has only recently been recognized in digital sky surveys. To investigate the spectral properties and spatio-kinematical structure of Kn 26, we have obtained high spatial-resolution optical and near-IR narrow-band images, high-dispersion long-slit echelle spectra, and intermediate-resolution spectroscopic observations. The new data reveal an hourglass morphology typical of bipolar PNe. A detailed analysis of its morphology and kinematics discloses the presence of a second pair of bipolar lobes, making Kn 26 a new member of the subclass of quadrupolar PNe. The time lapse between the ejection of the two pairs of bipolar lobes is much shorter than their dynamical ages, implying a rapid change in the preferential direction of the central engine. The chemical composition of Kn 26 is particularly unusual among PNe, with a low N/O ratio (as for type II PNe) and a high helium abundance (as for type I PNe), although not atypical among symbiotic stars. Such an anomalous chemical composition may have resulted from the curtailment of the time in the asymptotic giant branch by the evolution of the progenitor star through a common envelope phase. Based on observations made with the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT) and the William Herschel Telescope (WHT) on the island of La Palma in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC), the 2.1-m telescope of the Observatorio Astronómico Nacional at the Sierra de San Pedro Mártir (OAN-SPM), and the 1.5-m telescope at the Observatorio de Sierra Nevada (OSN), Granada, Spain. NOT is operated jointly by Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden. WHT is operated by the Isaac Newton Group. The 2.1-m telescope at the OAN-SPM is a national facility operated by the Instituto de Astronomía of the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. The 1.5-m telescope at the OSN is operated by the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (IAA).The data presented here were obtained in part with ALFOSC, which is provided by the IAA under a joint agreement with the University of Copenhagen and NOTSA.FITS files for spectra and images are available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr(130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/551/A53

  17. Quadrupolar Echo Spectra of the Tunneling CD 3Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olejniczak, Z.; Detken, A.; Manz, B.; Haeberlen, U.

    Deuteron NMR spectra of both single crystal and powder samples of acetylsalicylic acid-CD 3were measured using the quadrupolar-echo technique. The experiments were done in the temperature range 17-100 K, with a special emphasis on the range 20- 30 K, in which the observable tunneling frequency decreases rapidly from its low-temperature value of 2.7 down to 1.2 MHz. In the tunneling regime, modulations of the line intensities and phases as a function of the echo time ? are observed in the single-crystal spectra. The modulation frequency is equal to the orientation-dependent displacement of the inner satellite pairs (? lines) from the Larmor frequency. These effects were confirmed in numerical simulations and fully explain the phase-modulation effects observed previously in quadrupolar-echo spectra of methyl-deuterated methanol and para-xylene guest molecules in some inclusion compounds. By measuring the temperature and orientation dependence of the quadrupolar lineshapes, it was found that the echo spectra are more sensitive to the value of the tunneling frequency than the spectra obtained from the free induction decay. It is pointed out that, because of the modulation effects, special care must be taken when structural parameters are to be extracted from quadrupolar-echo spectra, in particular from spectra of powder samples.

  18. Quadrupolar, Triple [Delta]-Function Potential in One Dimension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patil, S. H.

    2009-01-01

    The energy and parity eigenstates for quadrupolar, triple [delta]-function potential are analysed. Using the analytical solutions in specific domains, simple expressions are obtained for even- and odd-parity bound-state energies. The Heisenberg uncertainty product is observed to have a minimum for a specific strength of the potential. The…

  19. Effect of an arbitrary spin orientation on the quadrupolar structure of an extended body in a Schwarzschild spacetime

    E-print Network

    Donato Bini; Andrea Geralico

    2015-09-16

    The influence of an arbitrary spin orientation on the quadrupolar structure of an extended body moving in a Schwarzschild spacetime is investigated. The body dynamics is described by the Mathisson-Papapetrou-Dixon model, without any restriction on the motion or simplifying assumption on the associated spin vector and quadrupole tensor, generalizing previous works. The equations of motion are solved analytically in the limit of small values of the characteristic length scales associated with the spin and quadrupole variables with respect to the characteristic length of the background curvature. The solution provides all corrections to the circular geodesic on the equatorial plane taken as the reference trajectory due to both dipolar and quadrupolar structure of the body as well as the conditions which the nonvanishing components of the quadrupole tensor must fulfill in order that the problem be self-consistent.

  20. Magnetic field cycling effect on the non-linear current-voltage characteristics and magnetic field induced negative differential resistance in ?-Fe1.64Ga0.36O3 oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhowmik, R. N.; Vijayasri, G.

    2015-06-01

    We have studied current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of ?-Fe1.64Ga0.36O3, a typical canted ferromagnetic semiconductor. The sample showed a transformation of the I-V curves from linear to non-linear character with the increase of bias voltage. The I-V curves showed irreversible features with hysteresis loop and bi-stable electronic states for up and down modes of voltage sweep. We report positive magnetoresistance and magnetic field induced negative differential resistance as the first time observed phenomena in metal doped hematite system. The magnitudes of critical voltage at which I-V curve showed peak and corresponding peak current are affected by magnetic field cycling. The shift of the peak voltage with magnetic field showed a step-wise jump between two discrete voltage levels with least gap (?VP) 0.345(± 0.001) V. The magnetic spin dependent electronic charge transport in this new class of magnetic semiconductor opens a wide scope for tuning large electroresistance (˜500-700%), magnetoresistance (70-135 %) and charge-spin dependent conductivity under suitable control of electric and magnetic fields. The electric and magnetic field controlled charge-spin transport is interesting for applications of the magnetic materials in spintronics, e.g., magnetic sensor, memory devices and digital switching.

  1. Magnetic Field-Induced Phase Transitions in the S=1/2 Two-Leg Spin-Ladder Material Cu(DEP)Br2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honda, Zentaro; Katori, Hiroko Aruga; Ikeda, Masami; Hagiwara, Masayuki; Okunishi, Kouichi; Sakai, Masamichi; Fukuda, Takeshi; Kamata, Norihiko

    2012-11-01

    From heat capacity (Cp) measurements on a single crystal sample of the spin (S) 1/2 two-leg spin-ladder material Cu(DEP)Br2 above a critical magnetic field (Hc0) where the energy gap between the singlet ground state and the excited magnetic state closes, we have observed a peak anomaly, which is indicative of a magnetic long-range ordering. We have examined how the position of the anomaly in Cp changes with temperature (T) and magnetic field (H) to obtain the experimental H--T phase diagram of this S=1/2 two-leg spin ladder material. From the low-temperature specific heat below Hc0, we have evaluated the field-dependent energy gap that vanishes at about 7.6 T.

  2. Cross polarization for quadrupolar nuclei—Proton to sodium-23

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Robin K.; Nesbitt, Geoffrey J.

    The role of cross polarization in magic-angle spinning spectra of quadrupolar nuclei for solids is discussed, using the 1H ? 23Na case as an example. Suitable materials for spectrometer tuning in this mode are proposed and sample spectra presented. Some relaxation experiments on the 23Na signals for borax were carried out, and the selectivity of the cross-polarization experiment is shown for the layer mineral kenyaite.

  3. Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance of quadrupolar systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Shuanhu

    1997-09-17

    This dissertation describes two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance theory and experiments which have been developed to study quadruples in the solid state. The technique of multiple-quantum magic-angle spinning (MQMAS) is extensively reviewed and expanded upon in this thesis. Specifically, MQMAS is first compared with another technique, dynamic-angle spinning (DAS). The similarity between the two techniques allows us to extend much of the DAS work to the MQMAS case. Application of MQMAS to a series of aluminum containing materials is then presented. The superior resolution enhancement through MQMAS is exploited to detect the five- and six-coordinated aluminum in many aluminosilicate glasses. Combining the MQMAS method with other experiments, such as HETCOR, greatly expands the possibility of the use of MQMAS to study a large range of problems and is demonstrated in Chapter 5. Finally, the technique switching-angle spinning (SAS) is applied to quadrupolar nuclei to fully characterize a quadrupolar spin system in which all of the 8 NMR parameters are accurately determined. This dissertation is meant to demonstrate that with the combination of two-dimensional NMR concepts and new advanced spinning technologies, a series of multiple-dimensional NMR techniques can be designed to allow a detailed study of quadrupolar nuclei in the solid state.

  4. Interaction of Strain and Nuclear Spins in Silicon: Quadrupolar Effects on Ionized Donors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franke, David P.; Hrubesch, Florian M.; Künzl, Markus; Becker, Hans-Werner; Itoh, Kohei M.; Stutzmann, Martin; Hoehne, Felix; Dreher, Lukas; Brandt, Martin S.

    2015-07-01

    The nuclear spins of ionized donors in silicon have become an interesting quantum resource due to their very long coherence times. Their perfect isolation, however, comes at a price, since the absence of the donor electron makes the nuclear spin difficult to control. We demonstrate that the quadrupolar interaction allows us to effectively tune the nuclear magnetic resonance of ionized arsenic donors in silicon via strain and determine the two nonzero elements of the S tensor linking strain and electric field gradients in this material to S11=1.5 ×1022 V /m2 and S44=6 ×1022 V /m2 . We find a stronger benefit of dynamical decoupling on the coherence properties of transitions subject to first-order quadrupole shifts than on those subject to only second-order shifts and discuss applications of quadrupole physics including mechanical driving of magnetic resonance, cooling of mechanical resonators, and strain-mediated spin coupling.

  5. On the relationship between quadrupolar magnetic field and collisionless reconnection

    SciTech Connect

    Smets, R. Belmont, G.; Aunai, N.; Boniface, C.

    2014-06-15

    Using hybrid simulations, we investigate the onset of fast reconnection between two cylindrical magnetic shells initially close to each other. This initial state mimics the plasma structure in High Energy Density Plasmas induced by a laser-target interaction and the associated self-generated magnetic field. We clearly observe that the classical quadrupolar structure of the out-of-plane magnetic field appears prior to the reconnection onset. Furthermore, a parametric study reveals that, with a non-coplanar initial magnetic topology, the reconnection onset is delayed and possibly suppressed. The relation between the out-of-plane magnetic field and the out-of-plane electric field is discussed.

  6. Multiple beam interference in a quadrupolar glass fiber

    E-print Network

    Martina Hentschel; Matthias Vojta

    2001-06-20

    Motivated by the recent observation of periodic filter characteristics of an oval-shaped micro-cavity, we study the possible interference of multiple beams in the far field of a laser-illuminated quadrupolar glass fiber. From numerical ray-tracing simulations of the experimental situation we obtain the interference-relevant length-difference spectrum and compare it with data extracted from the experimental filter results. Our analysis reveals that different polygonal cavity modes being refractively output-coupled in the high-curvature region of the fiber contribute to the observed far-field interference.

  7. Quadrupolar Kondo effect in uranium heavy-electron materials?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, D. L.

    1987-01-01

    The possibility of an electric quadrupole Kondo effect for a non-Kramers doublet on a uranium (U) ion is a cubic metallic host is demonstrated by model calculations showing a Kondo upturn in the resistivity, universal quenching of the quadrupolar moment, and a heavy-electron anomaly in the electronic specific heat. With inclusion of excited crystal-field levels, some of the unusual magnetic-response data in the heavy-electron superconductor UBe13 may be understood. Structural phase transitions at unprecedented low temperatures may occur in U-based heavy-electron materials.

  8. Radio-frequency-mediated dipolar recoupling among half-integer quadrupolar spins

    E-print Network

    Griffin, Robert G.

    Radio-frequency-mediated dipolar recoupling among half-integer quadrupolar spins Marc Baldus quadrupolar spins in the presence of an appropriate radio-frequency field. Experimental and theoretical in close spatial proximity. Unfortunately, most spin-1/2 methods involving radio frequency rf irradiation

  9. Quadrupolar correlations and spin freezing in S=1 triangular lattice antiferromagnets E. M. Stoudenmire

    E-print Network

    Trebst, Simon

    Quadrupolar correlations and spin freezing in S=1 triangular lattice antiferromagnets E. M have suggested the possibility of quadrupolar spin-nematic ground states in the presence of sufficient-nematic ground state and give rise to a two-peak structure of the specific heat. We characterize this behavior

  10. Spin Squeezing in a Quadrupolar Nuclei NMR System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auccaise, R.; Araujo-Ferreira, A. G.; Sarthour, R. S.; Oliveira, I. S.; Bonagamba, T. J.; Roditi, I.

    2015-01-01

    We have produced and characterized spin-squeezed states at a temperature of 26 °C in a nuclear magnetic resonance quadrupolar system. The experiment was carried out on 133Cs nuclei of spin I =7 /2 in a sample of lyotropic liquid crystal. The source of spin squeezing was identified as the interaction between the quadrupole moment of the nuclei and the electric field gradients present within the molecules. We use the spin angular momentum representation to describe formally the nonlinear operators that produce the spin squeezing on a Hilbert space of dimension 2 I +1 =8 . The quantitative and qualitative characterization of this spin-squeezing phenomenon is expressed by a squeezing parameter and squeezing angle developed for the two-mode Bose-Einstein condensate system, as well as by the Wigner quasiprobability distribution function. The generality of the present experimental scheme points to potential applications in solid-state physics.

  11. Influence of the Nuclear Electric Quadrupolar Interaction on the Coherence Time of Hole and Electron Spins Confined in Semiconductor Quantum Dots.

    PubMed

    Hackmann, J; Glasenapp, Ph; Greilich, A; Bayer, M; Anders, F B

    2015-11-13

    The real-time spin dynamics and the spin noise spectra are calculated for p and n-charged quantum dots within an anisotropic central spin model extended by additional nuclear electric quadrupolar interactions and augmented by experimental data. Using realistic estimates for the distribution of coupling constants including an anisotropy parameter, we show that the characteristic long time scale is of the same order for electron and hole spins strongly determined by the quadrupolar interactions even though the analytical form of the spin decay differs significantly consistent with our measurements. The low frequency part of the electron spin noise spectrum is approximately 1/3 smaller than those for hole spins as a consequence of the spectral sum rule and the different spectral shapes. This is confirmed by our experimental spectra measured on both types of quantum dot ensembles in the low power limit of the probe laser. PMID:26613469

  12. Influence of the Nuclear Electric Quadrupolar Interaction on the Coherence Time of Hole and Electron Spins Confined in Semiconductor Quantum Dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hackmann, J.; Glasenapp, Ph.; Greilich, A.; Bayer, M.; Anders, F. B.

    2015-11-01

    The real-time spin dynamics and the spin noise spectra are calculated for p and n -charged quantum dots within an anisotropic central spin model extended by additional nuclear electric quadrupolar interactions and augmented by experimental data. Using realistic estimates for the distribution of coupling constants including an anisotropy parameter, we show that the characteristic long time scale is of the same order for electron and hole spins strongly determined by the quadrupolar interactions even though the analytical form of the spin decay differs significantly consistent with our measurements. The low frequency part of the electron spin noise spectrum is approximately 1 /3 smaller than those for hole spins as a consequence of the spectral sum rule and the different spectral shapes. This is confirmed by our experimental spectra measured on both types of quantum dot ensembles in the low power limit of the probe laser.

  13. Resolution enhancement using a new multiple-pulse decoupling sequence for quadrupolar nuclei.

    PubMed

    Delevoye, L; Trébosc, J; Gan, Z; Montagne, L; Amoureux, J-P

    2007-05-01

    A new decoupling composite pulse sequence is proposed to remove the broadening on spin S=1/2 magic-angle spinning (MAS) spectra arising from the scalar coupling with a quadrupolar nucleus I. It is illustrated on the (31)P spectrum of an aluminophosphate, AlPO(4)-14, which is broadened by the presence of (27)Al/(31)P scalar couplings. The multiple-pulse (MP) sequence has the advantage over the continuous wave (CW) irradiation to efficiently annul the scalar dephasing without reintroducing the dipolar interaction. The MP decoupling sequence is first described in a rotor-synchronised version (RS-MP) where one parameter only needs to be adjusted. It clearly avoids the dipolar recoupling in order to achieve a better resolution than using the CW sequence. In a second improved version, the MP sequence is experimentally studied in the vicinity of the perfect rotor-synchronised conditions. The linewidth at half maximum (FWHM) of 65 Hz using (27)Al CW decoupling decreases to 48 Hz with RS-MP decoupling and to 30 Hz with rotor-asynchronised MP (RA-MP) decoupling. The main phenomena are explained using both experimental results and numerical simulations. PMID:17303456

  14. PRESTO polarization transfer to quadrupolar nuclei: Implications for dynamic nuclear polarization

    SciTech Connect

    Perras, Frédéric A.; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Pruski, Marek

    2015-08-04

    We show both experimentally and numerically on a series of model systems that in experiments involving transfer of magnetization from 1H to the quadrupolar nuclei under magic-angle-spinning (MAS), the PRESTO technique consistently outperforms traditionally used cross polarization (CP), affording more quantitative intensities, improved lineshapes, better overall sensitivity, and straightforward optimization. This advantage derives from the fact that PRESTO circumvents the convoluted and uncooperative spin dynamics during the CP transfer under MAS, by replacing the spin-locking of quadrupolar nuclei with a single central transition selective 90° pulse and using a symmetry-based recoupling sequence in the 1H channel. This is important in the context of dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) NMR of quadrupolar nuclei, where the efficient transfer of enhanced 1H polarization is desired to obtain the highest sensitivity.

  15. PRESTO polarization transfer to quadrupolar nuclei: Implications for dynamic nuclear polarization

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Perras, Frédéric A.; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Pruski, Marek

    2015-08-04

    We show both experimentally and numerically on a series of model systems that in experiments involving transfer of magnetization from 1H to the quadrupolar nuclei under magic-angle-spinning (MAS), the PRESTO technique consistently outperforms traditionally used cross polarization (CP), affording more quantitative intensities, improved lineshapes, better overall sensitivity, and straightforward optimization. This advantage derives from the fact that PRESTO circumvents the convoluted and uncooperative spin dynamics during the CP transfer under MAS, by replacing the spin-locking of quadrupolar nuclei with a single central transition selective 90° pulse and using a symmetry-based recoupling sequence in the 1H channel. This is important inmore »the context of dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) NMR of quadrupolar nuclei, where the efficient transfer of enhanced 1H polarization is desired to obtain the highest sensitivity.« less

  16. PRESTO polarization transfer to quadrupolar nuclei: implications for dynamic nuclear polarization.

    PubMed

    Perras, Frédéric A; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Pruski, Marek

    2015-09-21

    We show both experimentally and numerically on a series of model systems that in experiments involving transfer of magnetization from (1)H to the quadrupolar nuclei under magic-angle-spinning (MAS), the PRESTO technique consistently outperforms traditionally used cross polarization (CP), affording more quantitative intensities, improved lineshapes, better overall sensitivity, and straightforward optimization. This advantage derives from the fact that PRESTO circumvents the convoluted and uncooperative spin dynamics during the CP transfer under MAS, by replacing the spin-locking of quadrupolar nuclei with a single central transition selective 90° pulse and using a symmetry-based recoupling sequence in the (1)H channel. This is of particular importance in the context of dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) NMR of quadrupolar nuclei, where the efficient transfer of enhanced (1)H polarization is desired to obtain the highest sensitivity. PMID:26266874

  17. Solid State Separated-Local-Field NMR Spectroscopy on Half-Integer Quadrupolar Nuclei: Principles and Applications

    E-print Network

    Frydman, Lucio

    Solid State Separated-Local-Field NMR Spectroscopy on Half-Integer Quadrupolar Nuclei: Principles-mail: lucio.frydman@weizmann.ac.il Abstract: New multidimensional NMR methods correlating the quadrupolar and exemplified. The methods extend separated-local-field magic-angle spinning (SLF MAS) NMR techniques that have

  18. Quadrupolar particles in a nematic liquid crystal: effects of particle size and shape.

    PubMed

    Hung, Francisco R

    2009-02-01

    We investigate the effects of particle size and shape on the quadrupolar (Saturn-ring-like) defect structures formed by a nematic liquid crystal around nm-sized and mum -sized particles with spherical and spherocylindrical shapes. We also report results for the potentials of mean force in our systems, calculated using a mesoscale theory for the tensor order parameter Q of the nematic. Our results indicate that for pairs of nm-sized particles in close proximity, the nematic forms "entangled hyperbolic" defect structures regardless of the shape of the nanoparticles. In our calculations with nanoparticles we did not observe any other entangled or unentangled defect structures, in contrast to what was reported for pairs of mum -sized spherical particles. Such a finding suggests that the "entangled hyperbolic" defect structures are the most stable for pairs of nanoparticles in close proximity. For pairs of mum -sized particles, our results indicate that the nematic forms entangled "figure-of-eight" defect structures around pairs of spheres and spherocylinders. Our results suggest that the transition between "entangled hyperbolic" and figure-of-eight defect structures takes place when the diameter of the particle is between D=100 nm and 1 microm . We have also calculated the torques that develop when pairs of spherocylindrical nanoparticles in a nematic approach each other. Our calculations suggest that the nematic-mediated interactions between the nm-sized particles are fairly strong, up to 5700 k{B}T for the case of pairs of spherocylindrical nanoparticles arranged with their long axis parallel to each other. Furthermore, these interactions can make the particles to bind together at specific locations, and thus could be used to assemble the particles into ordered structures with different morphologies. PMID:19391763

  19. Quantitative Multiple-Quantum Magic-Angle-Spinning NMR Spectroscopy of Quadrupolar Nuclei in Solids

    E-print Network

    Griffin, Robert G.

    Quantitative Multiple-Quantum Magic-Angle-Spinning NMR Spectroscopy of Quadrupolar Nuclei in Solids, 1996X Abstract: We describe a new approach for observation of multiple-quantum (MQ) NMR spectra populations from isotropic MQ NMR spectra. We illustrate the utility of the approach with 23Na (S ) 3/2) MQ

  20. Benzene quadrupolarity and arene-arene interactions Zhengyu Wu and Rainer Glaser*

    E-print Network

    Glaser, Rainer

    1 Benzene quadrupolarity and arene-arene interactions Zhengyu Wu and Rainer Glaser* Department in employing benzenes as lateral synthons in crystal engineering. We recently synthesized a series of perfectly organic NLO crystals. The benzene-benzene T-contact plays a critical role in stabilizing the crystal

  1. Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance studies of cross- polarization from quadrupolar nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Paul, Susan Margaret

    The development of solid-state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) has, to a large extent, focused on using spin-1/2 nuclei as probes to investigate molecular structure and dynamics. For such nuclei, the technique of cross polarization is well-established as a method for sensitivity enhancement. However, over two-thirds of the nuclei in the periodic table have a spin-quantum number greater than one-half and are known as quadrupolar nuclei. Such nuclei are fundamental constituents of many inorganic materials including minerals, zeolites, glasses, and gels. It is, therefore, of interest to explore the extent to which polarization can be transferred from quadrupolar nuclei. In this dissertation, solid-state NMR experiments involving cross polarization from quadrupolar nuclei to spin-1/2 nuclei under magic-angle spinning (MAS) conditions are investigated in detail. The behavior of the central transition of a quadrupolar nucleus under a low-power radiofrequency spin-lock field is examined both experimentally and with numerical simulations. Complications in choosing the matching spin-lock field strength for the spin-1/2 nucleus are discussed. The dynamics of the cross-polarization process are characterized in a model compound (low albite) and a protocol for optimizing the polarization-transfer efficiency is presented. Significant enhancement of 29Si NMR sensitivity by using 27Al-to- 29Si and 23Na-to-29Si cross polarization is demonstrated in several inorganic compounds. This sensitivity enhancement permits otherwise impractical two-dimensional NMR experiments to be performed. Cross polarization from quadrupolar nuclei is incorporated into experiments designed to correlate the isotropic and anisotropic parts of the chemical-shielding tensor. Several different pulse sequences for performing such correlations under magic-angle spinning conditions are analyzed and compared. Cross polarization from quadrupolar nuclei is also combined with the recently- developed Multiple-Quantum Magic-Angle Spinning (MQMAS) experiment to create a new technique for measuring heteronuclear correlation spectra. In addition, the motion of cyclopentadienyl rings in four organometallic solids is studied by variable-temperature NMR, and two-dimensional exchange spectroscopy is used to demonstrate that sigmatropic rearrangements occur in the monohaptocyclopentadienyl groups of Hf(?5- C5H5)2(?1- C5H5)2. An experiment which demonstrates that a rapid mechanical sample reorientation leads to a time reversal of radio- frequency driven spin diffusion among 13C spins is also presented.

  2. Indirect measurement of N-14 quadrupolar coupling for NH3 intercalated in potassium graphite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsang, T.; Fronko, R. M.; Resing, H. A.

    1987-01-01

    A method for indirect measurement of the nuclear quadrupolar coupling was developed and applied to NH3 molecules in the graphite intercalation compound K(NH3)4.3C24, which has a layered structure with alternating carbon and intercalant layers. Three triplets were observed in the H-1 NMR spectra of the compound. The value of the N-14 quadrupolar coupling constant of NH3 (3.7 MHz), determined indirectly from the H-1 NMR spectra, was intermediate between the gas value of 4.1 MHz and the solid-state value of 3.2 MHz. The method was also used to deduce the (H-1)-(H-1) and (N-14)-(H-1) dipolar interactions, the H-1 chemical shifts, and the molecular orientations and motions of NH3.

  3. Spin-glass state and magnetic-field-induced phenomena in distorted Eu{sub 0.58}Sr{sub 0.42}MnO{sub 3} perovskite

    SciTech Connect

    Sundaresan, A.; Maignan, A.; Raveau, B.

    1997-03-01

    Magnetic and magnetoresistance measurements were carried out on a distorted perovskite, Eu{sub 0.58}Sr{sub 0.42}MnO{sub 3}. In the absence of applied magnetic field, this compound is an insulator down to 5 K. Results of the ac- and dc-susceptibility measurements suggest a spin-glass ground state. An applied field of 7 T drives the insulator ground state to a ferromagnetic metallic state below T{sub C}=120 K. For a range of intermediate fields, the compound undergoes insulator-metal-insulator transitions which resemble those of 1:1 Mn{sup 3+}/Mn{sup 4+} charge-ordered compounds. A temperature-field phase diagram is established which depicts different magnetic and electronic states. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  4. High-Resolution NMR of Quadrupolar Nuclei in the Solid State

    SciTech Connect

    Gann, Sheryl Lee

    1995-11-30

    This dissertation describes recent developments in solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), for the most part involving the use of dynamic-angle spinning (DAS) NMR to study quadrupolar nuclei. Chapter 1 introduces some of the basic concepts and theory that will be referred to in later chapters, such as the density operator, product operators, rotations, coherence transfer pathways, phase cycling, and the various nuclear spin interactions, including the quadrupolar interaction. Chapter 2 describes the theory behind motional averaging experiments, including DAS, which is a technique where a sample is spun sequentially about two axis oriented at different angles with respect to the external magnetic field such that the chemical shift and quadrupolar anisotropy are averaged to zero. Work done on various rubidium-87 salts is presented as a demonstration of DAS. Chapter 3 explains how to remove sidebands from DAS and magic-angle spinning (MAS) experiments, which result from the time-dependence of the Hamiltonian under sample spinning conditions, using rotor-synchronized {pi}-pulses. Data from these experiments, known as DAH-180 and MAH-180, respectively, are presented for both rubidium and lead salts. In addition, the applicability of this technique to double rotation (DOR) experiments is discussed. Chapter 4 concerns the addition of cross-polarization to DAS (CPDAS). The theory behind spin locking and cross polarizing quadrupolar nuclei is explained and a method of avoiding the resulting problems by performing cross polarization at 0{sup o} (parallel) with respect to the magnetic field is presented. Experimental results are shown for a sodium-23 compound, sodium pyruvate, and for oxygen-17 labeled L-akmine. In Chapter 5, a method for broadening the Hartmann-Hahn matching condition under MAS, called variable effective field cross-polarization (VEFCI?), is presented, along with experimental work on adamantane and polycarbonate.

  5. Solution deuterium NMR quadrupolar relaxation study of heme mobility in myoglobin

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.D.; La Mar, G.N.; Smith, K.M.; Parish, D.W.; Langry, K.C. )

    1989-01-18

    NMR spectroscopy has been used to monitor the quadrupolar relaxation and motional dynamics of {sup 2}H selectively incorporated into skeletal and side chain positions of the heme in sperm whale myoglobin. The hyperfine shifts of the heme resonances in paramagnetic states of myoglobin allow resolution of the signals of interest, and paramagnetic contributions to the observed line widths are shown to be insignificant. The {sup 2}H line widths for the skeletal positions of deuterohemin-reconstituted myoglobin yield a correlation time identical with that of overall protein tumbling (9 ns at 30{degree}C) and hence reflect an immobile heme group. The {sup 2}H NMR line widths of heme methyl groups exhibit motional narrowing indicative of very rapid internal rotation. Hence the methyl rotation is effectively decoupled from the overall protein tumbling, and the residual quadrupolar line width can be used directly to determine the protein tumbling rate. The {sup 2}H NMR lines from heme vinyl groups were found narrower than those from the heme skeleton. However, the range of quadrupolar coupling constants for sp{sup 2} hybridized C-{sup 2}H bonds does not permit an unequivocal interpretation in terms of mobility. 48 refs., 4 figs.

  6. EASY-GOING deconvolution: Combining accurate simulation and evolutionary algorithms for fast deconvolution of solid-state quadrupolar NMR spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimminck, Dennis L. A. G.; Polman, Ben J. W.; Kentgens, Arno P. M.; Leo Meerts, W.

    2011-08-01

    A fast and accurate fit program is presented for deconvolution of one-dimensional solid-state quadrupolar NMR spectra of powdered materials. Computational costs of the synthesis of theoretical spectra are reduced by the use of libraries containing simulated time/frequency domain data. These libraries are calculated once and with the use of second-party simulation software readily available in the NMR community, to ensure a maximum flexibility and accuracy with respect to experimental conditions. EASY-GOING deconvolution ( EGdeconv) is equipped with evolutionary algorithms that provide robust many-parameter fitting and offers efficient parallellised computing. The program supports quantification of relative chemical site abundances and (dis)order in the solid-state by incorporation of (extended) Czjzek and order parameter models. To illustrate EGdeconv's current capabilities, we provide three case studies. Given the program's simple concept it allows a straightforward extension to include other NMR interactions. The program is available as is for 64-bit Linux operating systems.

  7. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of quadrupolar nuclei and dipolar field effects

    SciTech Connect

    Urban, Jeffry Todd

    2004-12-21

    Experimental and theoretical research conducted in two areas in the field of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is presented: (1) studies of the coherent quantum-mechanical control of the angular momentum dynamics of quadrupolar (spin I > 1/2) nuclei and its application to the determination of molecular structure; and (2) applications of the long-range nuclear dipolar field to novel NMR detection methodologies.The dissertation is organized into six chapters. The first two chapters and associated appendices are intended to be pedagogical and include an introduction to the quantum mechanical theory of pulsed NMR spectroscopy and the time dependent theory of quantum mechanics. The third chapter describes investigations of the solid-state multiple-quantum magic angle spinning (MQMAS) NMR experiment applied to I = 5/2 quadrupolar nuclei. This work reports the use of rotary resonance-matched radiofrequency irradiation for sensitivity enhancement of the I = 5/2 MQMAS experiment. These experiments exhibited certain selective line narrowing effects which were investigated theoretically.The fourth chapter extends the discussion of multiple quantum spectroscopy of quadrupolar nuclei to a mostly theoretical study of the feasibility of enhancing the resolution of nitrogen-14 NMR of large biomolecules in solution via double-quantum spectroscopy. The fifth chapter continues to extend the principles of multiple quantum NMR spectroscopy of quadrupolar nuclei to make analogies between experiments in NMR/nuclear quadrupolar resonance (NQR) and experiments in atomic/molecular optics (AMO). These analogies are made through the Hamiltonian and density operator formalism of angular momentum dynamics in the presence of electric and magnetic fields.The sixth chapter investigates the use of the macroscopic nuclear dipolar field to encode the NMR spectrum of an analyte nucleus indirectly in the magnetization of a sensor nucleus. This technique could potentially serve as an encoding module for the recently developed NMR remote detection experiment. The feasibility of using hyperpolarized xenon-129 gas as a sensor is discussed. This work also reports the use of an optical atomic magnetometer to detect the nuclear magnetization of Xe-129 gas, which has potential applicability as a detection module for NMR remote detection experiments.

  8. Magnetic-field-induced antiferromagnetism in the Kondo lattice

    E-print Network

    Beach, Kevin S. D. (Kevin Stuart David), 1975-

    2004-01-01

    The half-filled Kondo lattice model, augmented by a Zeeman term, serves as a useful model of a Kondo insulator in an applied magnetic field. A variational mean field analysis of this system on a square lattice, backed up ...

  9. Magnetic-field induced screening effect and collective excitations

    SciTech Connect

    Fukushima, Kenji

    2011-06-01

    We explicitly construct the fermion propagator in a magnetic field background B to take the lowest Landau-level approximation. We analyze the energy and momentum dependence in the polarization tensor and discuss the collective excitations. We find there appear two branches of collective modes in one of two transverse gauge particles; one represents a massive and attenuated gauge particle and the other behaves similar to the zero sound at finite density.

  10. Strong Magnetic Field Induced Changes of Gene Expression in Arabidopsis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, A.-L.; Ferl, R. J.; Klingenberg, B.; Brooks, J. S.; Morgan, A. N.; Yowtak, J.; Meisel, M. W.

    2005-07-01

    We review our studies of the biological impact of magnetic field strengths of up to 30 T on transgenic arabidopsis plants engineered with a stress response gene consisting of the alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) gene promoter driving the ?-glucuronidase (GUS) gene reporter. Field strengths in excess of 15 T induce expression of the Adh/GUS transgene in the roots and leaves. Microarray analyses indicate that such field strengths have a far reaching effect on the genome. Wide spread induction of stress-related genes and transcription factors, and a depression of genes associated with cell wall metabolism are prominent examples.

  11. Magnetic-field-induced periodic deformations in planar nematic layers.

    PubMed

    Krzyza?ski, D; Derfel, G

    2000-06-01

    Periodic deformations of strongly anchored planar nematic layers subjected to magnetic fields were studied numerically. Two magnetic-field configurations, giving rise to the so-called periodic splay-twist and periodic twist-splay patterns, were taken into account. The stationary director distribution was calculated for various values of elastic anisotropy and magnetic-field strength. Some alternative conclusions that shed light on the properties of the periodic deformations were drawn: (i) the transition from the periodically deformed structure to the homogeneously deformed one, which occurs in high field, is due to the divergence of the spatial period of the deformations to infinity; (ii) the spatial dependence of the angles determining the high-field director distribution strongly deviates from the theoretically predicted functions of sinusoidal form. The diagrams showing the ranges of parameters, for which the periodic deformations can realize, were built. The stable wave-number bands were determined numerically. PMID:11088358

  12. Magnetic field induced differential neutron phase contrast imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Strobl, M.; Treimer, W.; Walter, P.; Keil, S.; Manke, I.

    2007-12-17

    Besides the attenuation of a neutron beam penetrating an object, induced phase changes have been utilized to provide contrast in neutron and x-ray imaging. In analogy to differential phase contrast imaging of bulk samples, the refraction of neutrons by magnetic fields yields image contrast. Here, it will be reported how double crystal setups can provide quantitative tomographic images of magnetic fields. The use of magnetic air prisms adequate to split the neutron spin states enables a distinction of field induced phase shifts and these introduced by interaction with matter.

  13. Magnetic-field-induced breakdown of equivalence of multidimensional motion.

    PubMed

    Baura, Alendu; Sen, Monoj Kumar; Bag, Bidhan Chandra

    2010-10-01

    In this paper, we have studied Brownian motion in multidimension phase space in presence of a magnetic field. The nonequilibrium behavior of thermodynamically inspired quantities along the individual component of motion has been studied in detail. Based on the Fokker-Planck description of the stochastic process and entropy balance equation, we have calculated information entropy production and entropy flux at nonequilibrium state. The dependence of these quantities on time, magnetic field, and thermal bath is studied. In this context, we have observed that there exists extremum behavior in the dynamics and the applied magnetic field breaks the equivalence in motion of the components in the nonequilibrium state. PMID:21230233

  14. Magnetic-field-induced breakdown of equivalence of multidimensional motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baura, Alendu; Sen, Monoj Kumar; Bag, Bidhan Chandra

    2010-10-01

    In this paper, we have studied Brownian motion in multidimension phase space in presence of a magnetic field. The nonequilibrium behavior of thermodynamically inspired quantities along the individual component of motion has been studied in detail. Based on the Fokker-Planck description of the stochastic process and entropy balance equation, we have calculated information entropy production and entropy flux at nonequilibrium state. The dependence of these quantities on time, magnetic field, and thermal bath is studied. In this context, we have observed that there exists extremum behavior in the dynamics and the applied magnetic field breaks the equivalence in motion of the components in the nonequilibrium state.

  15. On magnetic-field-induced dissipationless electric current in nanowires

    E-print Network

    M. N. Chernodub

    2013-05-15

    We propose a general design of a metallic double-nanowire structure which may support an equilibrium dissipationless electric current in the presence of magnetic field. The structure consists of a compact wire element of a specific shape, which is periodically extended in one spatial dimension. Topologically, each wire element is equivalent to a ring, which supports a dissipationless current in the presence of magnetic flux similarly to the persistent electric current in a normal metal nanoring. Geometrically, each wire element breaks spatial inversion symmetry so that the equilibrium electric current through the device becomes nonzero. We also argue that the same effect should exist in long planar chiral nanoribbons subjected to external magnetic field.

  16. Measurement of the space charge tune spread with a quadrupolar pick-up: New (general) formula VS. "Usual" one

    E-print Network

    Metral, Elias

    2015-01-01

    In 1966, W. Hardt derived the oscillation frequencies obtained in the presence of space charge forces and gradients errors for elliptical beams. Since then, a simple formula is usually used to relate the shift of the quadrupolar mode (obtained from the quadrupolar pick-up) and the space charge tune spread, depending only on the ratio between the two transverse equilibrium beam sizes. However, this formula is not always valid, in particular for machines running close to the coupling resonance Qx = Qy with almost round beams. A new general formula is presented, giving the space charge tune spread as a function of i) the measured shift of the quadrupolar mode, ii) the ratio between the two transverse equilibrium beam sizes and iii) the distance between the two transverse tunes.

  17. A NON-RADIAL ERUPTION IN A QUADRUPOLAR MAGNETIC CONFIGURATION WITH A CORONAL NULL

    SciTech Connect

    Sun Xudong; Hoeksema, J. Todd; Liu Yang; Hayashi, Keiji; Chen Qingrong

    2012-10-01

    We report one of the several homologous non-radial eruptions from NOAA active region (AR) 11158 that are strongly modulated by the local magnetic field as observed with the Solar Dynamic Observatory. A small bipole emerged in the sunspot complex and subsequently created a quadrupolar flux system. Nonlinear force-free field extrapolation from vector magnetograms reveals its energetic nature: the fast-shearing bipole accumulated {approx}2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 31} erg free energy (10% of AR total) over just one day despite its relatively small magnetic flux (5% of AR total). During the eruption, the ejected plasma followed a highly inclined trajectory, over 60 Degree-Sign with respect to the radial direction, forming a jet-like, inverted-Y-shaped structure in its wake. Field extrapolation suggests complicated magnetic connectivity with a coronal null point, which is favorable of reconnection between different flux components in the quadrupolar system. Indeed, multiple pairs of flare ribbons brightened simultaneously, and coronal reconnection signatures appeared near the inferred null. Part of the magnetic setting resembles that of a blowout-type jet; the observed inverted-Y structure likely outlines the open field lines along the separatrix surface. Owing to the asymmetrical photospheric flux distribution, the confining magnetic pressure decreases much faster horizontally than upward. This special field geometry likely guided the non-radial eruption during its initial stage.

  18. Separating chemical shift and quadrupolar anisotropies via multiple-quantum NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ash, Jason T; Trease, Nicole M; Grandinetti, Philip J

    2008-08-20

    Chemical shift anisotropy (CSA) has been an invaluable probe of structure and dynamics for a variety of systems in NMR spectroscopy. Unfortunately, the presence of strong quadrupolar couplings has severely limited the ability to measure CSA in nuclei with spins I > 1/2. Here we show that these two interactions can be refocused at different times in a 2D multiple-quantum NMR experiment on polycrystalline samples. Combining this experiment with appropriate affine transformations allows these interactions to be cleanly separated into orthogonal dimensions. The 1D projection onto each axis can be fit to extract the respective principal tensor components. These components can then be used to fit the 2D spectrum for the relative orientation between the CSA and quadrupolar-coupling tensors. The necessary affine transformation parameters are given for all possible I values. Illustrative examples of spectra and analyses are given for 63Cu in K3[Cu(CN)4], 59Co in K3[Co(CN)6], and 87Rb in RbCrO4. PMID:18652455

  19. Separate-Local-Field NMR Spectroscopy on Half-Integer Quadrupolar Nuclei Julia Grinshtein, Christopher V. Grant, and Lucio Frydman*

    E-print Network

    Frydman, Lucio

    Separate-Local-Field NMR Spectroscopy on Half-Integer Quadrupolar Nuclei Julia Grinshtein anisotropy affecting these species generally restricts their solid-state NMR study to central anisotropies. During the last years a number of 2D NMR alternatives have been proposed for the acquisition

  20. Quantum simulation of interaction blockade in a two-site Bose-Hubbard system with solid quadrupolar crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Xinfang; Li, Jun; Cui, Jiangyu; Luo, Zhihuang; Huang, Jiahao; Chen, Hongwei; Lee, Chaohong; Peng, Xinhua; Du, Jiangfeng

    2015-05-01

    The Bose-Hubbard model provides an excellent platform for exploring exotic quantum coherence. Interaction blockade is an important fundamental phenomenon in the two-site Bose-Hubbard system (BHS), which gives a full quantum description for the atomic Bose-Josephson junction. Using the analogy between the two-site BHS and the quadrupolar nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) crystal, we experimentally simulate a two-site Bose-Hubbard system in a NMR quantum simulator composed of the quadrupolar spin-3/2 sodium nuclei of a NaNO3 single crystal, and observe the interesting phenomenon of interaction blockade via adiabatic dynamics control. To our best knowledge, this is the first experimental implementation of the quantum simulation of the interaction blockade using quadrupolar nuclear system. Our work exhibits important applications of quadrupolar NMR in the quantum information science, i.e. a spin-3/2 system can be used as a full 2-qubit su(4) system, if the quadrupole moment is not fully averaged out by fast tumbling in the liquid phase.

  1. Complete description of the interactions of a quadrupolar nucleus with a radiofrequency field. Implications for data fitting.

    PubMed

    Spencer, T Leigh; Goward, Gillian R; Bain, Alex D

    2013-06-01

    We present a theory, with experimental tests, that treats exactly the effect of radiofrequency (RF) fields on quadrupolar nuclei, yet retains the symbolic expressions as much as possible. This provides a mathematical model of these interactions that can be easily connected to state-of-the-art optimization methods, so that chemically-important parameters can be extracted from fits to experimental data. Nuclei with spins >1/2 typically experience a Zeeman interaction with the (possibly anisotropic) local static field, a quadrupole interaction and are manipulated with RF fields. Since RF fields are limited by hardware, they seldom dominate the other interactions of these nuclei and so the spectra show unusual dependence on the pulse width used. The theory is tested with (23)Na NMR nutation spectra of a single crystal of sodium nitrate, in which the RF is comparable with the quadrupole coupling and is not necessarily on resonance with any of the transitions. Both the intensity and phase of all three transitions are followed as a function of flip angle. This provides a more rigorous trial than a powder sample where many of the details are averaged out. The formalism is based on a symbolic approach which encompasses all the published results, yet is easily implemented numerically, since no explicit spin operators or their commutators are needed. The classic perturbation results are also easily derived. There are no restrictions or assumptions on the spin of the nucleus or the relative sizes of the interactions, so the results are completely general, going beyond the standard first-order treatments in the literature. PMID:23611427

  2. Solid-state STRAFI NMR probe for material imaging of quadrupolar nuclei.

    PubMed

    Tang, Joel A; Zhong, Guiming; Dugar, Sneha; Kitchen, Jason A; Yang, Yong; Fu, Riqiang

    2012-12-01

    Stray field imaging (STRAFI) has provided an alternative imaging method to study solid materials that are typically difficult to obtain using conventional MRI methods. For small volume samples, image resolution is a challenge since extremely strong gradients are required to examine narrow slices. Here we present a STRAFI probe for imaging materials with quadrupolar nuclei. Experiments were performed on a 19.6 T magnet which has a fringe field gradient strength of 72 T/m, nearly 50 times stronger than commercial microimagers. We demonstrate the ability to acquire (7)Li 1D profiles of liquid and solid state lithium phantoms with clearly resolved features in the micrometer scale and as a practical example a Li ion battery electrode material is also examined. PMID:23151490

  3. Nonlinear Dependence Observed in Quadrupolar Collective Excitation of a Trapped BEC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritsch, A. R.; Tavares, P. E. S.; Bahrami, A.; Tonin, Y. R.; Henn, E. A. L.; Bagnato, V. S.; Telles, G. D.

    2015-07-01

    We report the experimental observation of the collective excitations induced in a magnetically trapped Rb Bose-Einstein condensate. Low-lying mode excitations were studied by tracking the condensate's center-of-mass displacement, and its aspect ratio as a function of the hold time in the trap. We were able to partially control the modes onset by modulating the amplitude of the additional field gradient used to excite the BEC. The measured excitation frequencies were found to be in good agreement with the literature. We have also found that the modulation amplitude was able to change the phase of the center-of-mass oscillation. Finally, an interesting, nonlinear dependence was observed on the condensate aspect ratio as a function of the perturbing amplitude which induces the quadrupolar mode.

  4. Pulmonary MRI contrast using Surface Quadrupolar Relaxation (SQUARE) of hyperpolarized (83)Kr.

    PubMed

    Six, Joseph S; Hughes-Riley, Theodore; Lilburn, David M L; Dorkes, Alan C; Stupic, Karl F; Shaw, Dominick E; Morris, Peter G; Hall, Ian P; Pavlovskaya, Galina E; Meersmann, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Hyperpolarized (83)Kr has previously been demonstrated to enable MRI contrast that is sensitive to the chemical composition of the surface in a porous model system. Methodological advances have lead to a substantial increase in the (83)Kr hyperpolarization and the resulting signal intensity. Using the improved methodology for spin exchange optical pumping of isotopically enriched (83)Kr, internal anatomical details of ex vivo rodent lung were resolved with hyperpolarized (83)Kr MRI after krypton inhalation. Different (83)Kr relaxation times were found between the main bronchi and the parenchymal regions in ex vivo rat lungs. The T1 weighted hyperpolarized (83)Kr MRI provided a first demonstration of surface quadrupolar relaxation (SQUARE) pulmonary MRI contrast. PMID:24144493

  5. Theory of spin-lattice relaxation in lipid bilayers and biological membranes. 2H and 14N quadrupolar relaxation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Michael F.

    1982-08-01

    Based on a previous, more approximate treatment [M. F. Brown, J. Magn. Reson. 35, 203 (1979)], expressions are derived for the quadrupolar spin-lattice (T1) relaxation rates of 2H and 14N in lipid bilayers. Results are presented for the most general, anisotropic rotational diffusion model describing the segmental or molecular reorientation in lipid bilayers, and the analysis is extended to include relatively slow fluctuations of the local director with respect to the macroscopic bilayer normal. Numerically computed values of T1 for the diffusion model suggest that, even for extremes of ordering and motional anisotropy, such a model cannot by itself quantitatively account for the observed 2H T1 values of multilamellar dispersions of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC), in the liquid crystalline state, as a function of temperature and frequency. The contribution from relatively low frequency motions is modeled in terms either (i) a simple noncollective model in which the slow motions are described in terms of a single effective correlation time, or (ii) a collective model in which the relatively slow reorientation is described by a distribution of correlation times, corresponding to collective fluctuations of the instantaneous director. The experimentally observed dependence of the 2H T1 relaxation rates on the acyl chain segmental order parameter SCD and the resonance frequency ?0 are most consistent with a collective model for slow molecular reorientations in lipid bilayers. The 2H T1 data for the saturated DPPC bilayer, in the liquid crystalline state, can be quantitatively described by a relaxation law of the form T-11 = A?f+BS2CD ?-1/20 as observed for simpler nematic and smectic liquid crystals. The first (A) term is suggested to correspond to trans-gauche isomerizations of the lipid acyl chains, while the (B) term describes collective bilayer modes which predominantly influence the frequency dependence of the relaxation. In contrast to earlier conclusions [M. F. Brown et al., J. Chem. Phys. 70, 5045 (1979)], the dominant contribution to the 2H T1 relaxation rates of the saturated DPPC bilayer may arise from collective order fluctuations rather than fast local motions. The value of ?f˜10-11 s obtained by extrapolating T-11 to infinite frequency or zero ordering is consistent with the correlation times calculated from 2H or 13C T1 data for n-alkanes of equivalent chain lengths, suggesting that the microviscosity of the bilayer hydrocarbon region is not appreciably different from that of paraffinic liquids.

  6. NMR of group 2 element quadrupolar nuclei and some applications in materials science and biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaohua

    1999-11-01

    For many years, NMR has provided an easy access for chemists to perform structural and kinetic studies on a whole variety of systems. To a great extent, these investigations have been restricted to non-quadrupolar nuclei. The study of quadrupolar nuclei (I > 1/2) offers the potential to gain insight into important problems in material science and biology. In addition to the large quadrupole moment associated with the spin active nuclei of interest, several of the most interesting species also possess an extremely low natural abundance. My recent research focuses on 87Sr NMR, which has been cited by earlier workers as being limited to only ionic species. Several strontium-containing compounds have been synthesized and characterized by single crystal x-ray diffraction. 87Sr NMR signals were determined for these compounds in a series of aprotic polar solvents. The chemical shift variation was found to be consistent with linen free energy relationship, which can be very useful in helping to elucidate mechanism, in predicting reaction rates, and the extent of reaction at equilibrium, and in discovering under what conditions a change in mechanism occurs. Control over symmetry of the compound was found to be the key to obtain the good NMR signals. One application of the new technique that has been developed was in the area of material science. An observation relative to sol-gel derived ionic conductors (La0.8Sr0.2Co0.8Fe0.2O 3.2) was that films often formed cracks upon pyrolysis. By careful examination of the sol-gel process by 87Sr NMR, a model for the structure of the sol was developed. Through the relaxation rate study of the strontium sites, the polymerization mechanism was determined to be predominantly bimolecular within the concentration region studied. The kinetic study of the fast cation exchange between two strontium sites indicated that the inhomogeneity of the polymeric network lads to the film cracking during pyrolysis. As a consequence of understanding the fundamental coordination chemistry of strontium present in the sol, the homogeneity of the ceramic was substantially enhanced, and the resulting electronic properties were improved. In another application of the new technique which have been developed, 87Sr NMR was employed to study the metal ion binding properties of alpha-Lactalbumin. The NMR data was fitted into a model with one high affinity and one low affinity site in alpha-Lactalbumin. The calculation of the correlation time, quadrupolar coupling constant provided the opportunity to study the location and the structure of the binding sites. In the application of the new technique in the area of biology, 25Mg NMR was employed to study the metal ion binding properties of bacteriorhodopsin. We presented the results of our studies regarding to two important questions in the photo conversion process: (1) The number of metal binding sites and their binding constants; and (2) What is the role of metal cations in the proton dissociation process/proton transfer (e.g., the key issue of the switch of the proton pump)? 113Cd NM of metal-bR complexes was employed as a probe of the chemical structure of bR calcium binding sites. We discuss the results in terms of the possible involvement of the metal cations in the bR function.

  7. Combining STMAS and CRAMPS NMR spectroscopy: High-resolution HETCOR NMR spectra of quadrupolar and 1H nuclei in solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegel, Renée; Rocha, João; Mafra, Luís

    2009-03-01

    High-resolution two-dimensional (2D) heteronuclear correlation spectra between half-integer quadrupolar and 1H nuclei have been obtained combining Satellite Transition Magic-Angle Spinning (STMAS) and wPMLG3 CRAMPS methods. The experiments use split-t 1 versions of DQ/DQF-STMAS adapted to 3/2 and 5/2 spins to obtain a 23Na and 27Al isotropic dimension, respectively. Transfer of magnetization from quadrupolar nuclei to protons has been achieved by cross-polarization, and high-resolution 1H spectra have been recorded using the wPMLG3 decoupling during the t 2 evolution period. The performance of the pulse sequences have been tested on the templated microporous aluminophosphate IST-1 and trisodium citrate employing a B0 field of 9.4 T.

  8. Spin-driven bond order in a (1)/(5)-magnetization plateau phase in the triangular lattice antiferromagnet CuFeO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Taro; Terada, Noriki; Mitsuda, Setsuo; Bewley, Robert

    2013-10-01

    We have investigated spin-wave excitations in a magnetic-field-induced 1/5-magnetization plateau phase in the triangular lattice antiferromagnet CuFeO2 (CFO), by means of inelastic neutron-scattering measurements under applied magnetic fields of up to 13.4 T. Comparing the observed spectra with the calculations in which spin-lattice coupling effects for the nearest-neighbor exchange interactions are taken into account, we have determined the Hamiltonian parameters in the field-induced 1/5-plateau phase, which directly show that CFO exhibits a bond order associated with the magnetic structure in this phase.

  9. BRICTEST: a code for charge breeding simulations in RF quadrupolar field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Variale, V.; Claudione, M.

    2005-05-01

    In the framework of the SPES project (Study for Production of Exotic Species), funded by Istituto Nazionale Fisica Nucleare (INFN) at the Laboratori Nazionali Legnaro (LNL) (Padua) for Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) production, an R&D experiment of a charge breeder device, called BRIC (BReeding Ion Charge), is in progress at LNL. BRIC is an Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) type ion charge state breeder in which a radio frequency (RF) quadrupolar field has been superimposed in the trapped ion region to introduce a selective containment with the aim of increasing the wanted ion trapping efficiency. A code that studies the motion and the ion charge state evolution in the trap region of the BRIC device has been recently developed in the Bari INFN section. That code has the aim of showing if, in the presence of an axial magnetic field and electron beam space charge force, the RF quadrupole field can still give a selective ion containment in the EBIS trap region. The code, furthermore, should allow choosing the RF quadrupole parameters to optimize the ion charge containment efficiency. In this paper the main feature of the code, named BRICTEST, and the simulation test will be presented and shortly discussed.

  10. On the microscopic fluctuations driving the NMR relaxation of quadrupolar ions in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carof, Antoine; Salanne, Mathieu; Charpentier, Thibault; Rotenberg, Benjamin

    2015-11-01

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) relaxation is sensitive to the local structure and dynamics around the probed nuclei. The Electric Field Gradient (EFG) is the key microscopic quantity to understand the NMR relaxation of quadrupolar ions, such as 7Li+, 23Na+, 25Mg2+, 35Cl-, 39K+, or 133Cs+. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we investigate the statistical and dynamical properties of the EFG experienced by alkaline, alkaline Earth, and chloride ions at infinite dilution in water. Specifically, we analyze the effect of the ionic charge and size on the distribution of the EFG tensor and on the multi-step decay of its auto-correlation function. The main contribution to the NMR relaxation time arises from the slowest mode, with a characteristic time on the picosecond time scale. The first solvation shell of the ion plays a dominant role in the fluctuations of the EFG, all the more that the ion radius is small and its charge is large. We propose an analysis based on a simplified charge distribution around the ion, which demonstrates that the auto-correlation of the EFG, hence the NMR relaxation time, reflects primarily the collective translational motion of water molecules in the first solvation shell of the cations. Our findings provide a microscopic route to the quantitative interpretation of NMR relaxation measurements and open the way to the design of improved analytical theories for NMR relaxation for small ionic solutes, which should focus on water density fluctuations around the ion.

  11. Local spin-density-wave order inside vortex cores in multiband superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Vivek; Koshelev, Alexei E.

    2015-08-01

    Coexistence of antiferromagnetic order with superconductivity in many families of newly discovered iron-based superconductors has renewed interest to this old problem. Due to competition between the two types of order, one can expect appearance of the antiferromagnetism inside the cores of the vortices generated by the external magnetic field. The structure of a vortex in type II superconductors holds significant importance from the theoretical and the application points of view. Here we consider the internal vortex structure in a two-band s± superconductor near a spin-density-wave instability. We treat the problem in a completely self-consistent manner within the quasiclassical Eilenberger formalism. We study the structure of the s± superconducting order and magnetic field-induced spin-density-wave order near an isolated vortex. We examine the effect of this spin-density-wave state inside the vortex cores on the local density of states.

  12. Formation of a White-Light Jet Within a Quadrupolar Magnetic Configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippov, Boris; Koutchmy, Serge; Tavabi, Ehsan

    2013-08-01

    We analyze multi-wavelength and multi-viewpoint observations of a large-scale event viewed on 7 April 2011, originating from an active-region complex. The activity leads to a white-light jet being formed in the outer corona. The topology and evolution of the coronal structures were imaged in high resolution using the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). In addition, large field-of-view images of the corona were obtained using the Sun Watcher using Active Pixel System detector and Image Processing (SWAP) telescope onboard the PRoject for Onboard Autonomy (PROBA2) microsatellite, providing evidence for the connectivity of the coronal structures with outer coronal features that were imaged with the Large Angle Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO) C2 on the S olar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO). The data sets reveal an Eiffel-tower type jet configuration extending into a narrow jet in the outer corona. The event starts from the growth of a dark area in the central part of the structure. The darkening was also observed in projection on the disk by the Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory-Ahead (STEREO-A) spacecraft from a different point of view. We assume that the dark volume in the corona descends from a coronal cavity of a flux rope that moved up higher in the corona but still failed to erupt. The quadrupolar magnetic configuration corresponds to a saddle-like shape of the dark volume and provides a possibility for the plasma to escape along the open field lines into the outer corona, forming the white-light jet.

  13. Two-Photon Absorption Properties of Proquinoidal D-A-D and A-D-A Quadrupolar Chromophores

    PubMed Central

    Susumu, Kimihiro; Fisher, Jonathan A. N.; Zheng, Jieru

    2011-01-01

    We report the synthesis, one- and two-photon absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence, and electrochemical properties of a series of quadrupolar molecules that feature proquinoidal ?-aromatic acceptors. These quadrupolar molecules possess either donor-acceptor-donor (D–A–D) or acceptor-donor-acceptor (A–D–A) electronic motifs, and feature 4-N,N-dihexylaminophenyl, 4-dodecyloxyphenyl, 4-(N,N-dihexylamino)benzo[c][1,2,5]thiadiazolyl or 2,5-dioctyloxyphenyl electron donor moieties and benzo[c][1,2,5]thiadiazole (BTD) or 6,7-bis(3’,7’-dimethyloctyl)[1,2,5]thiadiazolo[3,4-g]quinoxaline (TDQ) electron acceptor units. These conjugated structures are highly emissive in nonpolar solvents and exhibit large spectral red-shifts of their respective lowest energy absorption bands relative to analogous reference compounds that incorporate phenylene components in place of BTD and TDQ moieties. BTD-based D-A-D and A-D-A chromophores exhibit increasing fluorescence emission red-shifts, and a concomitant decrease of the fluorescence quantum yield (?f) with increasing solvent polarity; these data indicate that electronic excitation augments benzothiadiazole electron density via an internal charge transfer mechanism. The BTD- and TDQ-containing structures exhibit blue-shifted two-photon absorption (TPA) spectra relative to their corresponding one-photon absorption (OPA) spectra, and display high TPA cross-sections (>100 GM) within these spectral windows. D-A-D and A-D-A structures that feature more extensive conjugation within this series of compounds exhibit larger TPA cross-sections consistent with computational simulation. Factors governing TPA properties of these quadrupolar chromophores are discussed within the context of a three-state model. PMID:21568299

  14. DFT-D study of 14N nuclear quadrupolar interactions in tetra-n-alkyl ammonium halide crystals.

    PubMed

    Dib, Eddy; Alonso, Bruno; Mineva, Tzonka

    2014-05-15

    The density functional theory-based method with periodic boundary conditions and addition of a pair-wised empirical correction for the London dispersion energy (DFT-D) was used to study the NMR quadrupolar interaction (coupling constant CQ and asymmetry parameter ?Q) of (14)N nuclei in a homologous series of tetra-n-alkylammonium halides (C(x)H(2x+1))4N(+)X(-) (x = 1-4), (X = Br, I). These (14)N quadrupolar properties are particularly challenging for the DFT-D computations because of their very high sensitivity to tiny geometrical changes, being negligible for other spectral property calculations as, for example, NMR (14)N chemical shift. In addition, the polarization effect of the halide anions in the considered crystal mesophases combines with interactions of van der Waals type between cations and anions. Comparing experimental and theoretical results, the performance of PBE-D functional is preferred over that of B3LYP-D. The results demonstrated a good transferability of the empirical parameters in the London dispersion formula for crystals with two or more carbons per alkyl group in the cations, whereas the empirical corrections in the tetramethylammonium halides appeared to be inappropriate for the quadrupolar interaction calculation. This is attributed to the enhanced cation-anion attraction, which causes a strong polarization at the nitrogen site. Our results demonstrated that the (14)N CQ and ?Q are predominantly affected by the molecular structures of the cations, adapted to the symmetry of the anion arrangements. The long-range polarization effect of the surrounding anions at the target nitrogen site becomes more important for cells with lower spatial symmetry. PMID:24758512

  15. Using the dipolar and quadrupolar moments to improve solar-cycle predictions based on the polar magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Jaramillo, Andrés; Balmaceda, Laura A; DeLuca, Edward E

    2013-07-26

    The solar cycle and its associated magnetic activity are the main drivers behind changes in the interplanetary environment and Earth's upper atmosphere (commonly referred to as space weather and climate). In recent years there has been an effort to develop accurate solar cycle predictions, leading to nearly a hundred widely spread predictions for the amplitude of solar cycle 24. Here we show that cycle predictions can be made more accurate if performed separately for each hemisphere, taking advantage of information about both the dipolar and quadrupolar moments of the solar magnetic field during minimum. PMID:23931351

  16. From bipolar to quadrupolar electrode structures: an application of bond-detach lithography for dielectrophoretic particle assembly.

    PubMed

    Menad, Samia; El-Gaddar, Amal; Haddour, Naoufel; Toru, Sylvain; Brun, Mathieu; Buret, François; Frenea-Robin, Marie

    2014-05-20

    We describe a new, simple process for fabricating transparent quadrupolar electrode arrays enabling large-scale particle assembly by means of dielectrophoresis. In the first step, interdigitated electrode arrays are made by chemical wet etching of indium tin oxide (ITO). Then, the transition from a bipolar to a quadrupolar electrode arrangement is obtained by covering the electrode surface with a thin poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) film acting as an electrical insulation layer in which selective openings are formed using bond-detach lithography. The PDMS insulating layer thickness was optimized and controlled by adjusting experimental parameters such as the PDMS viscosity (modulated by the addition of heptane) and the PDMS spin-coating velocity. The insulating character of the PDMS membrane was successfully demonstrated by performing a dielectrophoretic assembly of polystyrene particles using interdigitated electrodes with and without a PDMS layer. The results show that the patterned PDMS film functions properly as an electrical insulation layer and allows the reconfiguration of the electric field cartography. Electric field simulations were performed in both configurations to predict the dielectrophoretic behavior of the particles. The simulation results are in perfect agreement with experiments, in which we demonstrated the formation of concentrated clusters of polystyrene particles and living cells of regular size and shape. PMID:24758738

  17. Modeling Dipolar and Quadrupolar Defect Structures generated by Chiral Islands in Freely-Suspended Liquid Crystal Films

    E-print Network

    N. M. Silvestre; P. Patricio; M. M. Telo da Gama; A. Pattanaporkrattana; C. S. Park; J. E. Maclennan; N. A. Clark

    2009-04-17

    We report a detailed theoretical analysis of novel quadrupolar interactions observed between islands, which are disk-like inclusions of extra layers, floating in thin, freely suspended smectic C liquid crystal films. Strong tangential anchoring at the island boundaries result in a strength +1 chiral defect in each island and a companion -1 defect in the film, these forming a topological dipole. While islands of the same handedness form linear chains with the topological dipoles pointing in the same direction, as reported in the literature, islands with different handedness form compact quadrupolar structures with the associated dipoles pointing in opposite directions. The interaction between such heterochiral island--defect pairs is complex, with the defects moving to minimize the director field distortion as the distance between the islands changes. The details of the inter-island potential and the trajectories of the -1 defects depend strongly on the elastic anisotropy of the liquid crystal, which can be modified in the experiments by varying the material chirality of the liquid crystal. A Landau model that describes the energetics of freely mobile defects is solved numerically to find equilibrium configurations for a wide range of parameters.

  18. Multi-rank nuclear magnetic resonance studies of half-integer quadrupolar nuclei in solids by three-dimensional dynamic-angle

    E-print Network

    Frydman, Lucio

    minerals, structural ceramics, semiconductors, glasses and catalysts, the nuclear magnetic resonance NMR to characterize their chemical composition.1,2 These NMR observations are usually complicated by the fact-rank expansion of the central transition quadrupolar Hamiltonian also helped to define the problem of second

  19. Exploiting Near-Field Coupling between Closely Spaced, Gas-Phase, 10 ( 5 nm Ag Nanoparticles Deposited on NaCl To Observe the Quadrupolar Surface Plasmon Absorption

    E-print Network

    Hitchcock, Adam P.

    Deposited on NaCl To Observe the Quadrupolar Surface Plasmon Absorption David B. Pedersen* and Shiliang Wang of peak absorbance of the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) associated with the nanoparticles. Several of the surface plasmon resonance to longer wavelengths as the interparticle separation decreases is typically

  20. Efficient rotational echo double resonance recoupling of a spin-1/2 and a quadrupolar spin at high spinning rates and weak irradiation fields.

    PubMed

    Nimerovsky, Evgeny; Goldbourt, Amir

    2010-09-01

    A modification of the rotational echo (adiabatic passage) double resonance experiments, which allows recoupling of the dipolar interaction between a spin-1/2 and a half integer quadrupolar spin is proposed. We demonstrate efficient and uniform recoupling at high spinning rates (nu(r)), low radio-frequency (RF) irradiation fields (nu(1)), and high values of the quadrupolar interaction (nu(q)) that correspond to values of alpha=nu(1)(2)/nu(q)nu(r), the adiabaticity parameter, which are down to less than 10% of the traditional adiabaticity limit for a spin-5/2 (alpha=0.55). The low-alpha rotational echo double resonance curve is obtained when the pulse on the quadrupolar nucleus is extended to full two rotor periods and beyond. For protons (spin-1/2) and aluminum (spin-5/2) species in the zeolite SAPO-42, a dephasing curve, which is significantly better than the regular REAPDOR experiment (pulse length of one-third of the rotor period) is obtained for a spinning rate of 13 kHz and RF fields down to 10 and even 6 kHz. Under these conditions, alpha is estimated to be approximately 0.05 based on an average quadrupolar coupling in zeolites. Extensive simulations support our observations suggesting the method to be robust under a large range of experimental values. PMID:20580579

  1. TOPICAL REVIEW: Quantum spin nanotubes—frustration, competing orders and criticalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, Tôru; Sato, Masahiro; Okamoto, Kiyomi; Okunishi, Kouichi; Itoi, Chigak

    2010-10-01

    Recent developments of theoretical studies on spin nanotubes are reviewed, especially focusing on the S = 1/2 three-leg spin tube. In contrast to the three-leg spin ladder, the tube has a spin gap in the case of the regular-triangle unit cell when the rung interaction is sufficiently large. The effective theory based on the Hubbard Hamiltonian indicates a quantum phase transition to a gapless spin liquid due to the lattice distortion to an isosceles triangle. This is also supported by the numerical diagonalization and the density matrix renormalization group analyses. Furthermore, combining analytical and numerical approaches, we reveal several novel magnetic-field-induced phenomena: Néel, dimer, chiral and/or inhomogeneous orders, a new mechanism for the magnetization plateau formation, and others. The recently synthesized spin tube materials are also briefly introduced.

  2. Non-Spherical Source-Surface Model of the Corona and Heliosphere for a Quadrupolar Main Field of the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, M.

    2008-05-01

    Different methods of modeling the coronal and heliospheric magnetic field are conveniently visualized and intercompared by applying them to ideally axisymmetric field models. Thus, for example, a dipolar main B field with its moment parallel to the Sun's rotation axis leads to a flat heliospheric current sheet. More general solar main B fields (still axisymmetric about the solar rotation axis for simplicity) typically lead to cone-shaped current sheets beyond the source surface (and presumably also in MHD models). As in the dipolar case [Schulz et al., Solar Phys., 60, 83-104, 1978], such conical current sheets can be made realistically thin by taking the source surface to be non-spherical in a way that reflects the underlying structure of the Sun's main B field. A source surface that seems to work well in this respect [Schulz, Ann. Geophysicae, 15, 1379-1387, 1997] is a surface of constant F = (1/r)kB, where B is the scalar strength of the Sun's main magnetic field and k (~ 1.4) is a shape parameter. This construction tends to flatten the source surface in regions where B is relatively weak. Thus, for example, the source surface for a dipolar B field is shaped somewhat like a Rugby football, whereas the source surface for an axisymmetric quadrupolar B field is similarly elongated but somewhat flattened (as if stuffed into a pair of co-axial cones) at mid-latitudes. A linear combination of co-axial dipolar and quadrupolar B fields generates a somewhat apple-shaped source surface. If the region surrounded by the source surface is regarded as current-free, then the source surface itself should be (as nearly as possible) an equipotential surface for the corresponding magnetic scalar potential (expanded, for example, in spherical harmonics). More generally, the mean-square tangential component of the coronal magnetic field over the source surface should be minimized with respect to any adjustable parameters of the field model. The solar wind should then flow not quite radially, but rather in a straight line along the outward normal to the source surface, and the heliospheric B field should follow a corresponding generalization of Parker's spiral [Levine et al., Solar Phys., 77, 363-392, 1982]. In this work the above program is implemented for a Sun with an axisymmetric but purely quadrupolar main magnetic field. Two heliospheric current sheets emanate from circular neutral lines at mid-latitudes on the corresponding source surface. However, because the source surface is relatively flattened in regions where these neutral lines appear, the radial component of the heliospheric B field at r ~ 1 AU and beyond is much more nearly latitude-independent in absolute value than one would expect from a model based on a spherical source surface.

  3. Observation of proximities between spin-1/2 and quadrupolar nuclei: Which heteronuclear dipolar recoupling method is preferable?

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, X.; Lafon, O.; Trebosc, J.; Tricot, G.; Delevoye, L.; Mear, F.; Montagne, L.; Amoureux, J. P.

    2012-10-14

    We have recently shown that the dipolar-mediated heteronuclear multiple-quantum coherence (D-HMQC) method allows observing through-space proximities between spin-1/2 ({sup 1}H, {sup 13}C, {sup 31}P Horizontal-Ellipsis ) and quadrupolar ({sup 23}Na, {sup 27}Al Horizontal-Ellipsis ) nuclei. However, the D-HMQC effectiveness depends on the choice of the heteronuclear dipolar recoupling sequence. Here, we compare the efficiency and the robustness of four rotor-synchronized sequences: the symmetry-based ones, R4{sub 1}{sup 2}R4{sub 1}{sup -2} and its super-cycled version, SR4{sub 1}{sup 2}, and two schemes based on simultaneous amplitude and frequency modulations, denoted SFAM-1 and SFAM-2. For the SFAM methods, we point out efficient recoupling conditions that facilitate their experimental optimization and we introduce analytical expressions for the buildup of D-HMQC signal in the case of an isolated spin pair. We show that the main differences between these four sequences lie in the number of adjustable parameters and in their robustness with respect to chemical shift and homonuclear dipolar interactions. The relative performances of these four recoupling sequences are analyzed using average Hamiltonian theory, numerical simulations, and {sup 27}Al-{l_brace}{sup 31}P{r_brace} D-HMQC experiments on crystalline aluminophosphate.

  4. Observation of proximities between spin-1/2 and quadrupolar nuclei: which heteronuclear dipolar recoupling method is preferable?

    PubMed

    Lu, X; Lafon, O; Trébosc, J; Tricot, G; Delevoye, L; Méar, F; Montagne, L; Amoureux, J P

    2012-10-14

    We have recently shown that the dipolar-mediated heteronuclear multiple-quantum coherence (D-HMQC) method allows observing through-space proximities between spin-1/2 ((1)H, (13)C, (31)P...) and quadrupolar ((23)Na, (27)Al...) nuclei. However, the D-HMQC effectiveness depends on the choice of the heteronuclear dipolar recoupling sequence. Here, we compare the efficiency and the robustness of four rotor-synchronized sequences: the symmetry-based ones, R4(1)(2)R4(1)(-2) and its super-cycled version, SR4(1)(2), and two schemes based on simultaneous amplitude and frequency modulations, denoted SFAM-1 and SFAM-2. For the SFAM methods, we point out efficient recoupling conditions that facilitate their experimental optimization and we introduce analytical expressions for the buildup of D-HMQC signal in the case of an isolated spin pair. We show that the main differences between these four sequences lie in the number of adjustable parameters and in their robustness with respect to chemical shift and homonuclear dipolar interactions. The relative performances of these four recoupling sequences are analyzed using average Hamiltonian theory, numerical simulations, and (27)Al-{(31)P} D-HMQC experiments on crystalline aluminophosphate. PMID:23061841

  5. Magnetic dipolar and quadrupolar transitions in two-electron atoms under exponential-cosine-screened Coulomb potential

    SciTech Connect

    Modesto-Costa, Lucas; Canuto, Sylvio; Mukherjee, Prasanta K.

    2015-03-15

    A detailed investigation of the magnetic dipolar and quadrupolar excitation energies and transition probabilities of helium isoelectronic He, Be{sup 2+}, C{sup 4+}, and O{sup 6+} have been performed under exponential cosine screened Coulomb potential generated in a plasma environment. The low-lying excited states 1s{sup 2}:{sup 1}S{sup e} ? 1sns:{sup 3}S{sup e}{sub 0}, and 1snp:{sup 3}P{sup o}{sub 2} (n?=?2, 3, 4, and 5) are considered. The variational time-dependent coupled Hartree-Fock scheme has been used. The effect of the confinement produced by the potential on the structural properties is investigated for increasing coupling strength of the plasma. It is noted that there is a gradual destabilization of the energy of the system with the reduction of the ionization potential and the number of excited states. The effect of the screening enhancement on the excitation energies and transition probabilities has also been investigated and the results compared with those available for the free systems and under the simple screened Coulomb potential.

  6. Deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance of specifically labeled native collagen. Investigation of protein molecular dynamics using the quadrupolar echo technique.

    PubMed Central

    Jelinski, L W; Sullivan, C E; Batchelder, L S; Torchia, D A

    1980-01-01

    Collagen was labeled with [3,3,3-d3]alanine and with [d10]leucine via tissue culture. 2H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra were obtained of collagen in solution and as fibrils using the quadrupolar echo technique. The 2H NMR data for [3,3,3-d3]alanine-labeled collagen fibrils were analyzed in terms of a model for motion in which the molecule is considered to jump between two sites, separated azimuthally by an angle 2 delta, in a time which is rapid compared with the residence time in both sites. The data suggest that the molecule undergoes reorientation over an angle, 2 delta, of approximately 30 degrees in the fibrils, and that the average angle between the alanine C alpha--C beta bond axis and the long axis of the helix is approximately 75 degrees. Reorientation is possibly segmental. The T2 for [3,3,3-d3]alanine-labeled collagen fibrils was estimated to be 105 mus. The 2H NMR data for the methyl groups of [d10]leucine-labeled collagen were analyzed qualitatively. These data established that for collagen in solution and as fibrils, rotation occurs about the leucine side-chain bonds, in addition to threefold methyl rotation and reorientation of the peptide backbone. The T2 for the methyl groups of leucine-labeled collagen is estimated to be approximately 130 mus. Taken together, these data provide strong evidence that both polypeptide backbone reorientation and amino acid side-chain motion occur in collagen molecules in the fibrils. Stabilizing interactions that determine fibril structure must therefore depend upon at least two sets of contacts in any given local region. PMID:7248459

  7. Molecular modelling and simulation of the surface tension of real quadrupolar fluids

    E-print Network

    Stephan Werth; Katrin Stöbener; Peter Klein; Karl-Heinz Küfer; Martin Horsch; Hans Hasse

    2014-08-21

    Molecular modelling and simulation of the surface tension of fluids with force fields is discussed. 29 real fluids are studied, including nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, ethane, ethylene, acetylene, propyne, propylene, propadiene, carbon disulfide, sulfur hexafluoride, and many refrigerants. The fluids are represented by two-centre Lennard-Jones plus point quadrupole models from the literature. These models were adjusted only to experimental data of the vapour pressure and saturated liquid density so that the results for the surface tension are predictions. The deviations between the predictions and experimental data for the surface tension are of the order of 20 percent. The surface tension is usually overestimated by the models. For further improvements, data on the surface tension can be included in the model development. A suitable strategy for this is multi-criteria optimization based on Pareto sets. This is demonstrated using the model for carbon dioxide as an example.

  8. Johannes Richter, Oleg Derzhko and Jorg Schulenburg MAGNETIC-FIELD INDUCED SPIN-PEIERLS INSTABILITY

    E-print Network

    i i ¡ ¢ £ ¤¥ I I ' & $ % Johannes Richter, Oleg Derzhko and J¨org Schulenburg MAGNETIC lattices Johannes Richter, Oleg Derzhko and J¨org Schulenburg Abstract. For a class of frustrated rigorous analytical results completed by large-scale exact diago- nalization data for lattices up to N = 54

  9. Magnetic field induced flow pattern reversal in a ferrofluidic Taylor-Couette system.

    PubMed

    Altmeyer, Sebastian; Do, Younghae; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the dynamics of ferrofluidic wavy vortex flows in the counter-rotating Taylor-Couette system, with a focus on wavy flows with a mixture of the dominant azimuthal modes. Without external magnetic field flows are stable and pro-grade with respect to the rotation of the inner cylinder. More complex behaviors can arise when an axial or a transverse magnetic field is applied. Depending on the direction and strength of the field, multi-stable wavy states and bifurcations can occur. We uncover the phenomenon of flow pattern reversal as the strength of the magnetic field is increased through a critical value. In between the regimes of pro-grade and retrograde flow rotations, standing waves with zero angular velocities can emerge. A striking finding is that, under a transverse magnetic field, a second reversal in the flow pattern direction can occur, where the flow pattern evolves into pro-grade rotation again from a retrograde state. Flow reversal is relevant to intriguing phenomena in nature such as geomagnetic reversal. Our results suggest that, in ferrofluids, flow pattern reversal can be induced by varying a magnetic field in a controlled manner, which can be realized in laboratory experiments with potential applications in the development of modern fluid devices. PMID:26687638

  10. Power and magnetic field-induced microwave absorption in Tl-based high Tc superconducting films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portis, A. M.; Cooke, D. W.; Gray, E. R.; Arendt, P. N.; Bohn, C. L.; Delayen, J. R.; Roche, C. T.; Hein, M.; Klein, N.; Müller, G.; Orbach, S.; Piel, H.

    1991-01-01

    The increase in the microwave surface resistance Rs of high Tc superconductors at elevated microwave power levels is reported for both oriented and unoriented Tl-based films as a function of rf magnetic field at 820 MHz and 18 GHz. The application of dc magnetic fields produces qualitatively similar increases in Rs and in the surface reactance Xs. The increase in Rs with dc field is shown to arise from simple decoupling of grains by intergranular magnetic flux. The increase in Rs with microwave power, on the other hand, is a consequence of hysteretic intergranular processes.

  11. Magnetic-field-induced quantum criticality in a planar ferromagnet with single-ion anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercaldo, M. T.; Rabuffo, I.; De Cesare, L.; Caramico D'Auria, A.

    2014-08-01

    We analyze the effects induced by single-ion anisotropy on quantum criticality in a d-dimensional spin-3/2 planar ferromagnet. To tackle this problem we employ the two-time Green's function method, using the Tyablikov decoupling for exchange interactions and the Anderson-Callen decoupling for single-ion anisotropy. In our analysis the role of non-thermal control parameter which drives the quantum phase transition is played by a longitudinal external magnetic field. We find that the single-ion anisotropy has substantial effects on the structure of the phase diagram close to the quantum critical point.

  12. Magnetic-Field Induced Stability in Two-Flavor Color Superconductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhandari, Churna Bahadur

    2011-12-01

    It has long been understood that the ground state of a superdense quark system, a Fermi liquid of weakly interacting quarks, is unstable with respect to the formation of diquark condensates. This nonperturbative phenomenon is essentially equivalent to the Cooper instability of conventional BCS superconductivity. As the quark pairs have nonzero color charge, this kind of superconductivity breaks the SU(3) color gauge symmetry, thus it is called color superconductivity. A peculiar feature of spin-zero color superconductivity is the lack of Meissner effect for a combination of the regular electromagnetic field and one of the gluon fields. This combination behaves as an in-medium electromagnetic field and as a consequence, a regular magnetic field can penetrate the color superconductor through its long-range in-medium component. Since the conditions of very high dense matter and very strong magnetic fields are naturally found in neutron stars, the investigations of magnetic field effects in color superconductivity are relevant for astrophysics. In this work we investigate the effects of an external magnetic field in the stability of the ground state of a neutral two-flavor color superconductor. Our results show that a strong magnetic field tends to increase the stability of the ground state, moving it from the unstable gapped region to the stable one.

  13. Simulation of Magnetic-Field-Induced Chain Dynamics In a Dilute Magnetorheological Fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Xuelei; Zhu, Yun; Liu, Jing

    1997-03-01

    A computer simulation is used to investigate the dynamics of a chain formed by dipoles in a dilute magnetorheological fluid in an externally applied magnetic field. The simulation results will be comparied with the experimental data obtained by dynamic light scattering. Different internal vibration modes will be discussed.

  14. Phonon spectrum of QCD vacuum in magnetic-field-induced superconducting phase

    E-print Network

    Chernodub, M N; Verschelde, Henri

    2014-01-01

    In the background of a sufficiently strong magnetic field the vacuum was suggested to become an ideal electric conductor (highly anisotropic superconductor) due to an interplay between the strong and electromagnetic forces. The superconducting ground state resembles an Abrikosov lattice state in an ordinary type-II superconductor: it is an inhomogeneous structure made of a (charged vector) quark-antiquark condensate pierced by vortices. In this paper the acoustic (phonon) vibrational modes of the vortex lattice are studied in the mean-field approach at zero temperature. Using an effective model based on a vector meson dominance, we show that in the infrared limit the longitudinal (transverse) acoustic vibrations of the vortex lattice possess a linear (quadratic) dispersion relation corresponding to type I (type II) Nambu-Goldstone modes.

  15. Phonon spectrum of QCD vacuum in magnetic-field-induced superconducting phase

    E-print Network

    M. N. Chernodub; Jos Van Doorsselaere; Henri Verschelde

    2014-06-16

    In the background of a sufficiently strong magnetic field the vacuum was suggested to become an ideal electric conductor (highly anisotropic superconductor) due to an interplay between the strong and electromagnetic forces. The superconducting ground state resembles an Abrikosov lattice state in an ordinary type--II superconductor: it is an inhomogeneous structure made of a (charged vector) quark-antiquark condensate pierced by vortices. In this paper the acoustic (phonon) vibrational modes of the vortex lattice are studied at zero temperature. Using an effective model based on a vector meson dominance, we show that in the infrared limit the longitudinal (transverse) acoustic vibrations of the vortex lattice possess a linear (quadratic) dispersion relation corresponding to type I (type II) Nambu--Goldstone modes.

  16. Glass-ceramic-mediated, magnetic-field-induced localized hyperthermia: response of a murine mammary carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Luderer, A.A.; Borrelli, N.F.; Panzarino, J.N.; Mansfield, G.R.; Hess, D.M.; Brown, J.L.; Barnett, E.H.; Hahn, E.W.

    1983-04-01

    Hyperthermia has found to be a useful modality for cancer therapy. In this report, a biocompatible, ferrimagnetic glass-ceramic capable of inducing localized hyperthermia by hysteresis heating upon exposure to an alternating magnetic field is presented. When the glass-ceramic was placed in the region of a subcutaneously transplanted, weakly antigenic breast carcinoma and subjected to the magnetic field, sufficient temperature rise was obtained to cause significant (approx.50%) tumor regrowth delay and a 12% permanent control. The data demonstrate that glass-ceramic-mediated hysteresis heating may be a useful therapeutic approach in the treatment of cancer which offers the advantage of producing a highly localized and predictable tumor volume hyperthermia.

  17. Structure of the photon and magnetic field induced birefringence and dichroism

    E-print Network

    Juan Alberto Beswick; Carlo Rizzo

    2007-02-13

    In this letter we show that the dichroism and ellipticity induced on a linear polarized light beam by the presence of a magnetic field in vacuum can be explained in the framework of the de Broglie's fusion model of a photon. In this model it is assumed that the usual photon is the spin 1 state of a particle-antiparticle bound state of two spin 1/2 fermions. The other S=0 state is referred to as the \\emph{second} photon. On the other hand, since no charged particle neither particles having an electric dipole are considered, no effect is predicted in the presence of electric fields and this model is not in contradiction with star cooling data or solar axion search.

  18. Affective response to 5 microT ELF magnetic field-induced physiological changes.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Paul

    2007-02-01

    Research into effects of weak magnetic fields (MFs) at biologically relevant frequencies has produced ambiguous results. Although they do affect human physiology and behaviour, the direction of effects is inconsistent, with a range of complex and unrelated behaviours being susceptible. A possible explanation is that these effects, rather than being directly caused, are instead related to changes in affective state. A previous study showed that MFs altered the affective content of concurrent perceptions, but it was unclear whether the emotional response was direct or indirect. Here it is shown that exposure to a 0-5 microT MF (DC-offset sinudsoidal wave form) within EEG alpha-band frequencies (8-12 Hz), results in a reported change in emotional state. This relates to a decrease global field power but lacks the frontal alpha-asymmetry that would physiologically indicate a directly induced emotional state, suggesting that participant experiences are due to an interpretation of the effects of MF exposure. PMID:17004245

  19. Weak extremely-low-frequency magnetic field-induced regeneration anomalies in the planarian, Dugesia tigrina

    SciTech Connect

    Jenrow, K.A.; Smith, C.H.; Liboff, A.R.

    1996-12-31

    The authors recently reported that cephalic regeneration in the planarian Dugesia tigrina was significantly delayed in populations exposed continuously to combined parallel DC and AC magnetic fields. This effect was consistent with hypotheses suggesting an underlying resonance phenomenon. The authors report here, in a parallel series of investigations on the same model system, that the incidence of regeneration anomalies presenting as tumor-like protuberances also increases significantly (P < .001) in association with exposure to weak 60 Hz magnetic fields, with peak intensities ranging between 1.0 and 80.0 {micro}T. These anomalies often culminate in the complete disaggregation of the organism. Similar to regeneration rate effects, the incidence of regeneration anomalies is specifically dependent upon the planaria possessing a fixed orientation with respect to the applied magnetic field vectors. However, unlike the regeneration rate effects, the AC magnetic field alone, in the absence of any measurable DC field, is capable of producing these anomalies. Moreover, the incidence of regeneration anomalies follows a clear dose-response relationship as a function of AC magnetic field intensity, with the threshold for induced electric field intensity estimated at 5 {micro} V/m. The addition of either 51.1 or 78.4 {micro}T DC magnetic fields, applied in parallel combination with the AC field, enhances the appearance of anomalies relative to the 60 Hz AC field alone, but only at certain AC field intensities. Thus, whereas the previous study of regeneration rate effects appeared to involve exclusively resonance interactions, the regeneration anomalies reported here appear to result primarily from Faraday induction coupling.

  20. External magnetic field-induced selective biodistribution of magnetoliposomes in mice

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    This study looked at the effect of an external magnet on the biodistribution of magnetoliposomes intravenously administrated in mice (8?mg iron/kg) with and without induced acute inflammation. Our results showed that due to enhanced vascular permeability, magnetoliposomes accumulated at the site of inflammation in the absence of an external magnetic field, but the amount of iron present increased under the effect of a magnet located at the inflammation zone. This increase was dependent on the time (20 or 60?min) of exposure of the external magnetic field. It was also observed that the presence of the magnet was associated with lower amounts of iron in the liver, spleen, and plasma than was found in mice in which a magnet had not been applied. The results of this study confirm that it is possible to target drugs encapsulated in magnetic particles by means of an external magnet. PMID:22883385

  1. Observations of magnetic field induced contraction of fission yeast cells using optical projection microscopy

    E-print Network

    Xi Yang; Andrew Beckwith

    2004-09-02

    The charges in live cells interact with or produce electric fields, which results in enormous dielectric responses, flexoelectricity, and related phenomena. Here we report on a contraction of schizosacchraoymces pombe (fission yeast) cells induced by magnetic fields, as observed using a phase sensitive projection image technique. Unlike electric fields, magnetic fields only act on moving charges. The observed behavior is quite remarkable, and may result from a contractile Lorentz force acting on diamagnetic screening currents. This would indicate extremely high intracellular charge mobilities. Besides, we observed a large electro - optical response from fission yeast cells.

  2. Magnetic field induced quantum dot brightening in liquid crystal synergized magnetic and semiconducting nanoparticle composite assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Amaral, Jose Jussi; Wan, Jacky; Rodarte, Andrea L.; Ferri, Christopher; Quint, Makiko T.; Pandolfi, Ronald J.; Scheibner, Michael; Hirst, Linda S.; Ghosh, Sayantani

    2014-10-22

    The design and development of multifunctional composite materials from artificial nano-constituents is one of the most compelling current research areas. This drive to improve over nature and produce ‘meta-materials’ has met with some success, but results have proven limited with regards to both the demonstration of synergistic functionalities and in the ability to manipulate the material properties post-fabrication and in situ. Here, magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and semiconducting quantum dots (QDs) are co-assembled in a nematic liquid crystalline (LC) matrix, forming composite structures in which the emission intensity of the quantum dots is systematically and reversibly controlled with a small applied magnetic field (<100 mT). This magnetic field-driven brightening, ranging between a two- to three-fold peak intensity increase, is a truly cooperative effect: the LC phase transition creates the co-assemblies, the clustering of the MNPs produces LC re-orientation at atypical low external field, and this re-arrangement produces compaction of the clusters, resulting in the detection of increased QD emission. These results demonstrate a synergistic, reversible, and an all-optical process to detect magnetic fields and additionally, as the clusters are self-assembled in a fluid medium, they offer the possibility for these sensors to be used in broad ranging fluid-based applications.

  3. Magnetic-field-induced charge redistribution in disordered graphene double quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, K. L.; Connolly, M. R.; Cresti, A.; Griffiths, J. P.; Jones, G. A. C.; Smith, C. G.

    2015-10-01

    We have studied the transport properties of a large graphene double quantum dot under the influence of a background disorder potential and a magnetic field. At low temperatures, the evolution of the charge-stability diagram as a function of the B field is investigated up to 10 T. Our results indicate that the charging energy of the quantum dot is reduced, and hence the effective size of the dot increases at a high magnetic field. We provide an explanation of our results using a tight-binding model, which describes the charge redistribution in a disordered graphene quantum dot via the formation of Landau levels and edge states. Our model suggests that the tunnel barriers separating different electron/hole puddles in a dot become transparent at high B fields, resulting in the charge delocalization and reduced charging energy observed experimentally.

  4. Terahertz probes of magnetic field induced spin reorientation in YFeO{sub 3} single crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Xian; Jiang, Junjie; Ma, Guohong; Jin, Zuanming; Wang, Dongyang; Tian, Zhen; Han, Jiaguang; Cheng, Zhenxiang

    2015-03-02

    Using the terahertz time-domain spectroscopy, we demonstrate the spin reorientation of a canted antiferromagnetic YFeO{sub 3} single crystal, by evaluating the temperature and magnetic field dependence of resonant frequency and amplitude for the quasi-ferromagnetic (FM) and quasi-antiferromagnetic modes (AFM), a deeper insight into the dynamics of spin reorientation in rare-earth orthoferrites is established. Due to the absence of 4f-electrons in Y ion, the spin reorientation of Fe sublattices can only be induced by the applied magnetic field, rather than temperature. In agreement with the theoretical predication, the frequency of FM mode decreases with magnetic field. In addition, an obvious step of spin reorientation phase transition occurs with a relatively large applied magnetic field of 4?T. By comparison with the family members of RFeO{sub 3} (R?=?Y{sup 3+} or rare-earth ions), our results suggest that the chosen of R would tailor the dynamical rotation properties of Fe ions, leading to the designable spin switching in the orthoferrite antiferromagnetic systems.

  5. Magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH): Cancer treatment with AC magnetic field induced excitation of biocompatible superparamagnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, Andreas; Scholz, Regina; Wust, Peter; Fähling, Horst; Felix, Roland

    1999-07-01

    The story of hyperthermia with small particles in AC magnetic fields started in the late 1950s, but most of the studies were unfortunately conducted with inadequate animal systems, inexact thermometry and poor AC magnetic field parameters, so that any clinical implication was far behind the horizon. More than three decades later, it was found, that colloidal dispersions of superparamagnetic (subdomain) iron oxide nanoparticles exhibit an extraordinary specific absorption rate (SAR [ W/ g]), which is much higher at clinically tolerable H 0 f combinations in comparison to hysteresis heating of larger multidomain particles. This was the renaissance of a cancer treatment method, which has gained more and more attention in the last few years. Due to the increasing number of randomized clinical trials preferentially in Europe with conventional E-field hyperthermia systems, the general medical and physical experience in hyperthermia application is also rapidly growing. Taking this increasing clinical experience carefully into account together with the huge amount of new biological data on heat response of cells and tissues, the approach of magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) is nowadays more promising than ever before. The present contribution reviews the current state of the art and some of the future perspectives supported by advanced methods of the so-called nanotechnology.

  6. Magnetic-field-induced domain-wall motion in permalloy nanowires with modified Gilbert damping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Thomas A.; Möhrke, Philipp; Heyne, Lutz; Kaldun, Andreas; Kläui, Mathias; Backes, Dirk; Rhensius, Jan; Heyderman, Laura J.; Thiele, Jan-Ulrich; Woltersdorf, Georg; Fraile Rodríguez, Arantxa; Nolting, Frithjof; Mente?, Tevfik O.; Niño, Miguel Á.; Locatelli, Andrea; Potenza, Alessandro; Marchetto, Helder; Cavill, Stuart; Dhesi, Sarnjeet S.

    2010-09-01

    Domain wall (DW) depinning and motion in the viscous regime induced by magnetic fields, are investigated in planar permalloy nanowires in which the Gilbert damping ? is tuned in the range 0.008-0.26 by doping with Ho. Real time, spatially resolved magneto-optic Kerr effect measurements yield depinning field distributions and DW mobilities. Depinning occurs at discrete values of the field which are correlated with different metastable DW states and changed by the doping. For ?<0.033 , the DW mobilities are smaller than expected while for ??0.033 , there is agreement between the measured DW mobilities and those predicted by the standard one-dimensional model of field-induced DW motion. Micromagnetic simulations indicate that this is because as ? increases, the DW spin structure becomes increasingly rigid. Only when the damping is large can the DW be approximated as a pointlike quasiparticle that exhibits the simple translational motion predicted in the viscous regime. When the damping is small, the DW spin structure undergoes periodic distortions that lead to a velocity reduction. We therefore show that Ho doping of permalloy nanowires enables engineering of the DW depinning and mobility, as well as the extent of the viscous regime.

  7. Biomaterials 28 (2007) 11051114 Flow and magnetic field induced collagen alignment

    E-print Network

    Kaufman, Laura

    2007-01-01

    that are several millimeters thick. r 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: Collagen; Confocal, which vary in the length of helix and nature and size of the non-helical portions, exist in animal and supports animal cells. Type I collagen is the predominant form of collagen in animal tissue and is found

  8. Magnetic field-induced martensitic transformation and large magnetoresistance in NiCoMnSb alloys

    E-print Network

    Zexian, Cao

    intermetallic compounds having Co partially replacing Ni have attracted considerable attention in recent years5­9 in these alloys. Another intriguing member of this intermetallic family is the NiMnSb system

  9. Measurements of the magnetic field induced by a turbulent flow of liquid metal

    SciTech Connect

    Nornberg, M.D.; Spence, E.J.; Kendrick, R.D.; Jacobson, C.M.; Forest, C.B.

    2006-05-15

    Initial results from the Madison Dynamo Experiment provide details of the inductive response of a turbulent flow of liquid sodium to an applied magnetic field. The magnetic field structure is reconstructed from both internal and external measurements. A mean toroidal magnetic field is induced by the flow when an axial field is applied, thereby demonstrating the omega effect. Poloidal magnetic flux is expelled from the fluid by the poloidal flow. Small-scale magnetic field structures are generated by turbulence in the flow. The resulting magnetic power spectrum exhibits a power-law scaling consistent with the equipartition of the magnetic field with a turbulent velocity field. The magnetic power spectrum has an apparent knee at the resistive dissipation scale. Large-scale eddies in the flow cause significant changes to the instantaneous flow profile resulting in intermittent bursts of nonaxisymmetric magnetic fields, demonstrating that the transition to a dynamo is not smooth for a turbulent flow.

  10. Electronic scattering of pseudo-magnetic field induced by local bump in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Mou; Cui, Yan; Wang, Rui-Qiang; Zhao, Hong-Bo

    2012-10-01

    We investigated the electronic scattering properties of a local bump strain in graphene sheet in frame of Born approximation. The differential scattering cross section is a function of outgoing and incident angles and has the six-fold rotational symmetry with respect to both angles. The incident plane wave is scattered into two backward fan-waves in different directions in low energy limit and is split into two branches spanning the angle reversely proportional to the incident wavevector k in high energy limit. The total scattering cross section depends on incident wavevector by the form k5 in the former limit, while it is independent of k and sensitive to the incident orientation in the latter limit. We explained these features using the symmetry of the strain-induced pseudo-magnetic field.

  11. Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Fields Induce Spermatogenic Germ Cell Apoptosis: Possible Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang-Kon; Park, Sungman; Gimm, Yoon-Myoung; Kim, Yoon-Won

    2014-01-01

    The energy generated by an extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) is too weak to directly induce genotoxicity. However, it is reported that an extremely low frequency magnetic field (ELF-MF) is related to DNA strand breakage and apoptosis. The testes that conduct spermatogenesis through a dynamic cellular process involving meiosis and mitosis seem vulnerable to external stress such as heat, MF exposure, and chemical or physical agents. Nevertheless the results regarding adverse effects of ELF-EMF on human or animal reproductive functions are inconclusive. According to the guideline of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP; 2010) for limiting exposure to time-varying MF (1?Hz to 100?kHz), overall conclusion of epidemiologic studies has not consistently shown an association between human adverse reproductive outcomes and maternal or paternal exposure to low frequency fields. In animal studies there is no compelling evidence of causal relationship between prenatal development and ELF-MF exposure. However there is increasing evidence that EL-EMF exposure is involved with germ cell apoptosis in testes. Biophysical mechanism by which ELF-MF induces germ cell apoptosis has not been established. This review proposes the possible mechanism of germ cell apoptosis in testes induced by ELF-MF. PMID:25025060

  12. Magnetic field-induced phase transformation & power harvesting capabilities in magnetic shape memory alloys 

    E-print Network

    Basaran, Burak

    2011-02-22

    Magnetic Shape Memory Alloys (MSMAs) combine shape-change/deformationrecovery abilities of heat driven conventional shape memory alloys (SMA) and magnetic field driven magnetostrictives through martensitic transformation. They are promising...

  13. Magnetic field induced quantum dot brightening in liquid crystal synergized magnetic and semiconducting nanoparticle composite assemblies

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Amaral, Jose Jussi; Wan, Jacky; Rodarte, Andrea L.; Ferri, Christopher; Quint, Makiko T.; Pandolfi, Ronald J.; Scheibner, Michael; Hirst, Linda S.; Ghosh, Sayantani

    2014-10-22

    The design and development of multifunctional composite materials from artificial nano-constituents is one of the most compelling current research areas. This drive to improve over nature and produce ‘meta-materials’ has met with some success, but results have proven limited with regards to both the demonstration of synergistic functionalities and in the ability to manipulate the material properties post-fabrication and in situ. Here, magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and semiconducting quantum dots (QDs) are co-assembled in a nematic liquid crystalline (LC) matrix, forming composite structures in which the emission intensity of the quantum dots is systematically and reversibly controlled with a small appliedmore »magnetic field (« less

  14. Magnetic field induced flow pattern reversal in a ferrofluidic Taylor-Couette system

    PubMed Central

    Altmeyer, Sebastian; Do, Younghae; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the dynamics of ferrofluidic wavy vortex flows in the counter-rotating Taylor-Couette system, with a focus on wavy flows with a mixture of the dominant azimuthal modes. Without external magnetic field flows are stable and pro-grade with respect to the rotation of the inner cylinder. More complex behaviors can arise when an axial or a transverse magnetic field is applied. Depending on the direction and strength of the field, multi-stable wavy states and bifurcations can occur. We uncover the phenomenon of flow pattern reversal as the strength of the magnetic field is increased through a critical value. In between the regimes of pro-grade and retrograde flow rotations, standing waves with zero angular velocities can emerge. A striking finding is that, under a transverse magnetic field, a second reversal in the flow pattern direction can occur, where the flow pattern evolves into pro-grade rotation again from a retrograde state. Flow reversal is relevant to intriguing phenomena in nature such as geomagnetic reversal. Our results suggest that, in ferrofluids, flow pattern reversal can be induced by varying a magnetic field in a controlled manner, which can be realized in laboratory experiments with potential applications in the development of modern fluid devices. PMID:26687638

  15. On magnetic-field-induced dissipationless electric current in helicoidal graphene nanoribbons

    E-print Network

    M. N. Chernodub

    2013-04-11

    We argue that twisted (helicoidal) graphene nanoribbons may support dissipationless electric current in the presence of static uniform magnetic field. The non-resistive charge transfer in this parity-odd system should be enhanced by thermal fluctuations.

  16. Magnetic-field-induced charge redistribution in disordered graphene double quantum dots

    E-print Network

    Connolly, M. R.

    We have studied the transport properties of a large graphene double quantum dot under the influence of a background disorder potential and a magnetic field. At low temperatures, the evolution of the charge-stability diagram ...

  17. Correlation energies by the generator coordinate method: computational aspects for quadrupolar deformations

    E-print Network

    M. Bender; G. Bertsch; P. -H. Heenen

    2003-11-07

    We investigate truncation schemes to reduce the computational cost of calculating correlations by the generator coordinate method based on mean-field wave functions. As our test nuclei, we take examples for which accurate calculations are available. These include a strongly deformed nucleus, 156Sm, a nucleus with strong pairing, 120Sn, the krypton isotope chain which contains examples of soft deformations, and the lead isotope chain which includes the doubly magic 208Pb. We find that the Gaussian overlap approximation for angular momentum projection is effective and reduces the computational cost by an order of magnitude. Cost savings in the deformation degrees of freedom are harder to realize. A straightforward Gaussian overlap approximation can be applied rather reliably to angular-momentum projected states based on configuration sets having the same sign deformation (prolate or oblate), but matrix elements between prolate and oblate deformations must be treated with more care. We propose a two-dimensional GOA using a triangulation procedure to treat the general case with both kinds of deformation. With the computational gains from these approximations, it should be feasible to carry out a systematic calculation of correlation energies for the nuclear mass table.

  18. Quadrupolar transients, cosine correlation functions, and two-dimensional exchange spectra of non-selectively excited spin-3/2 nuclei: A (7)Li NMR study of the superionic conductor lithium indium phosphate.

    PubMed

    Storek, M; Böhmer, R

    2015-11-01

    Cos-cos stimulated echoes of non-selectively excited spin-3/2 nuclei were not exploited in studies of slow motional processes in solids and solid-like samples, so far. Based on a theoretical analysis of the quadrupolar transients which hitherto obviously precluded the application of such echoes, their utility is demonstrated for the example of (7)Li NMR on the polycrystalline fast ion conductor lithium indium phosphate. Quadrupolar transients can adversely affect the shape of two- and three-pulse echo spectra and strategies are successfully tested that mitigate their impact. Furthermore, by means of suitably adapted cos-cos echo sequences an effective suppression of central-line contributions to the NMR spectra is achieved. By combining cos-cos and sin-sin datasets static two-dimensional exchange spectra were recorded that display quadrupolarly modulated off-diagonal intensity indicative of ionic motion. PMID:26454137

  19. Quadrupolar transients, cosine correlation functions, and two-dimensional exchange spectra of non-selectively excited spin-3/2 nuclei: A 7Li NMR study of the superionic conductor lithium indium phosphate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storek, M.; Böhmer, R.

    2015-11-01

    Cos-cos stimulated echoes of non-selectively excited spin-3/2 nuclei were not exploited in studies of slow motional processes in solids and solid-like samples, so far. Based on a theoretical analysis of the quadrupolar transients which hitherto obviously precluded the application of such echoes, their utility is demonstrated for the example of 7Li NMR on the polycrystalline fast ion conductor lithium indium phosphate. Quadrupolar transients can adversely affect the shape of two- and three-pulse echo spectra and strategies are successfully tested that mitigate their impact. Furthermore, by means of suitably adapted cos-cos echo sequences an effective suppression of central-line contributions to the NMR spectra is achieved. By combining cos-cos and sin-sin datasets static two-dimensional exchange spectra were recorded that display quadrupolarly modulated off-diagonal intensity indicative of ionic motion.

  20. Examples of Hartmann-Hahn match conditions for CP/MAS between two half-integer quadrupolar nuclei.

    PubMed

    Eastman, M A

    1999-07-01

    Hartmann-Hahn match conditions for n2 --> M2 CP/MAS between two quadrupolar nuclei, spin-lock signal as a function of effective nutation frequency, and the correlation of effective nutation frequency and radiofrequency field strength are reported for three samples: sodium diborate (Na2B4O7), aluminum boride (AlB2), and lithiump aluminate (LiAlO2). Radiofrequency field strengths used for CP/MAS are both greater and less than the sample spinning speed of 10 kHz, resulting in the observation of both zero-quantum and double-quantum matches, which have signals of opposite sign. The match conditions for Na2B4O7 are as expected from published theory and CP/MAS experiments on spins 12 and n2 (n = 3 or 5) with quadrupole frequencies (omegaQ) large compared to the radiofrequency field strength of the CP contact pulse, consisting mainly of sideband matches at one and two times the sample spinning frequency, and the correlation of effective nutation frequency and radiofrequency field strength supports the conclusion that omegaQ is large for both 11B and 23Na. Aluminum-27 in AlB2 may have either small or intermediate omegaQ, and 7Li in LiAlO2 is proposed to have intermediate omegaQ in relation to the radiofrequency field strength, and both have curves of the spin-lock signal as a function of effective nutation frequency with central minima, differing from those of the nuclei with large omegaQ. The sign of the CP/MAS signal for AlB2 and LiAlO2 appears to vary with the CP field strengths for the two nuclei so that positive or negative signals cannot be consistently correlated with zero- or double-quantum matches. However, it is possible to assign at least some of the matches as close to integral multiples of the sample spinning frequency, and some of these are matches at greater than two times the sample spinning frequency. PMID:10388589

  1. Examples of Hartmann-Hahn Match Conditions for CP/MAS between Two Half-Integer Quadrupolar Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eastman, Margaret A.

    1999-07-01

    Hartmann-Hahn match conditions for {n}/{2} ? {M}/{2} CP/MAS between two quadrupolar nuclei, spin-lock signal as a function of effective nutation frequency, and the correlation of effective nutation frequency and radiofrequency field strength are reported for three samples: sodium diborate (Na2B4O7), aluminum boride (AlB2), and lithium aluminate (LiAlO2). Radiofrequency field strengths used for CP/MAS are both greater and less than the sample spinning speed of 10 kHz, resulting in the observation of both zero-quantum and double-quantum matches, which have signals of opposite sign. The match conditions for Na2B4O7 are as expected from published theory and CP/MAS experiments on spins {1}/{2} and {n}/{2} (n = 3 or 5) with quadrupole frequencies (?Q) large compared to the radiofrequency field strength of the CP contact pulse, consisting mainly of sideband matches at one and two times the sample spinning frequency, and the correlation of effective nutation frequency and radiofrequency field strength supports the conclusion that ?Q is large for both 11B and 23Na. Aluminum-27 in AlB2 may have either small or intermediate ?Q, and 7Li in LiAlO2 is proposed to have intermediate ?Q in relation to the radiofrequency field strength, and both have curves of the spin-lock signal as a function of effective nutation frequency with central minima, differing from those of the nuclei with large ?Q. The sign of the CP/MAS signal for AlB2 and LiAlO2 appears to vary with the CP field strengths for the two nuclei so that positive or negative signals cannot be consistently correlated with zero- or double-quantum matches. However, it is possible to assign at least some of the matches as close to integral multiples of the sample spinning frequency, and some of these are matches at greater than two times the sample spinning frequency.

  2. Iterative Lineshape Analysis of Quadrupolar Echo Spectra of a Damped CD 3 Quantum Rotor: Preliminary Evidence of a Novel Mechanism of Stochastic Spin Exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szyma?ski, S.; Olejniczak, Z.; Detken, A.; Haeberlen, U.

    2001-02-01

    It is demonstrated that the wealth of information about damped quantum rotation of CD3 groups, contained in quadrupolar echo spectra, can be fully explored in a broad temperature range using a method of iterative analysis of the spectral lineshapes. The recently reported lineshape equation which, apart from the quantum tunneling and the dissipative Alexander-Binsch terms, contains an additional dissipative term having no classical analog is shown to be capable of describing even subtle details of the spectra of a crystal of acetylsalicylic acid-CD3 oriented specifically in the magnetic field. Preliminary evidence of the occurrence of this novel dissipative mechanism in the system studied is reported. The results obtained seem to suggest that there is no "classical limit" in the dissipative behavior of this system.

  3. Effects of L-spin longitudinal quadrupolar relaxation in S[L] heteronuclear recoupling and S-spin magic-angle spinning NMR.

    PubMed

    Hu, Y-Y; Schmidt-Rohr, K

    2009-04-01

    In experiments on S-L heteronuclear spin systems with evolution of the S-spin magnetization under the influence of a quadrupolar nucleus (L-spin), effects of longitudinal quadrupolar (T(1Q)) relaxation of the L-spin coherence on the sub-millisecond time scale have been documented and explored, and methods for minimizing their effect have been demonstrated. The longitudinal relaxation results in heteronuclear dephasing even in the reference signal S(0) of S[L] REDOR, REAPDOR, RIDER, or SPIDER experiments, due to T(1Q)-relaxation of the transiently generated S(y)L(z) coherence, reducing or even eliminating the observable dephasing DeltaS. Pulse sequences for measuring an improved reference signal S(00) with minimal heteronuclear recoupling but the same number of pulses as for S(0) and S have been demonstrated. From the observed intensity DeltaS(0)=S(00)-S(0) and the SPIDER signal DeltaS/S(0), T(1Q) can be estimated. Accelerated decays analogous to the dipolar S(0) curves will occur in T(2) measurements for J-coupled S-L spin pairs. Even in the absence of recoupling pulses, fast T(1Q) relaxation of the unobserved nucleus shortens the transverse relaxation time T(2S,MAS) of the observed nucleus, in particular at low spinning frequencies, due to unavoidable heteronuclear dipolar evolution during a rotation period. The observed spinning-frequency dependence of T(2S,MAS) matches the theoretical prediction and may be used to estimate T(1Q). The effects are demonstrated on several (13)C[(14)N] spin systems, including an arginine derivative, the natural N-acetylated polysaccharide chitin, and a model peptide, (POG)(10). PMID:19217811

  4. Structural characterisation of phosphate materials: new insights into the spatial proximities between phosphorus and quadrupolar nuclei using the D-HMQC MAS NMR technique.

    PubMed

    Tricot, G; Lafon, O; Trébosc, J; Delevoye, L; Méar, F; Montagne, L; Amoureux, J-P

    2011-10-01

    We show in this article how the spatial proximity between phosphorus and quadrupolar nuclei can be efficiently and easily investigated with the D-HMQC (Dipolar Hetero-nuclear Multiple-Quantum Coherences) NMR technique. Compared to the commonly used CP-HETCOR (Cross-Polarisation HETero-nuclear CORrelation) sequence, the D-HMQC pulse scheme exhibits a higher sensitivity and a better robustness with respect to spinning frequency, electronic shielding and quadrupole interaction, and thus does not require time-consuming and complicated optimisation procedures. The advantages of the D-HMQC are demonstrated in this article through the acquisition of (31)P/S through-space two-dimensional correlation NMR spectra providing unreported structural information on (i) a sodium alumino-silicate glass doped with only 3% of P(2)O(5), (ii) a potassium boro-phosphate glass containing BO(3) and BO(4) groups and (iii) a crystalline zirconium vanado-phosphate. All these systems, representative of the most important mixed phosphate network materials, cannot be correctly investigated with the conventional CP-HETCOR NMR technique. PMID:21853181

  5. Towards homonuclear J solid-state NMR correlation experiments for half-integer quadrupolar nuclei: experimental and simulated 11B MAS spin-echo dephasing and calculated 2J(BB) coupling constants for lithium diborate.

    PubMed

    Barrow, Nathan S; Yates, Jonathan R; Feller, Steven A; Holland, Diane; Ashbrook, Sharon E; Hodgkinson, Paul; Brown, Steven P

    2011-04-01

    Magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR spin-echo dephasing is systematically investigated for the spin I = 3/2 (11)B nucleus in lithium diborate, Li(2)O·2B(2)O(3). A clear dependence on the quadrupolar frequency (?(Q)(PAS)/2? = 3C(Q)/[4I(2I- 1)]) is observed: the B3 (larger C(Q)) site dephases more slowly than the B4 site at all investigated MAS frequencies (5 to 20 kHz) at 14.1 T. Increasing the MAS frequency leads to markedly slower dephasing for the B3 site, while there is a much less evident effect for the B4 site. Considering samples at 5, 25, 80 (natural abundance) and 100% (11)B isotopic abundance, dephasing becomes faster for both sites as the (11)B isotopic abundance increases. The experimental behaviour is rationalised using density matrix simulations for two and three dipolar-coupled (11)B nuclei. The experimentally observed slower dephasing for the larger C(Q) (B3) site is reproduced in all simulations and is explained by the reintroduction of the dipolar coupling by the so-called "spontaneous quadrupolar-driven recoupling mechanism" having a different dependence on the MAS frequency for different quadrupolar frequencies. Specifically, isolated spin-pair simulations show that the spontaneous quadrupolar-driven recoupling mechanism is most efficient when the quadrupolar frequency is equal to twice the MAS frequency. While for isolated spin-pair simulations, increasing the MAS frequency leads to faster dephasing, agreement with experiment is observed for three-spin simulations which additionally include the homogeneous nature of the homonuclear dipolar coupling network. First-principles calculations, using the GIPAW approach, of the (2)J(11B-11B) couplings in lithium diborate, metaborate and triborate are presented: a clear trend is revealed whereby the (2)J(11B-11B) couplings increase with increasing B-O-B bond angle and B-B distance. However, the calculated (2)J(11B-11B) couplings are small (0.95, 1.20 and 2.65 Hz in lithium diborate), thus explaining why no zero crossing due to J modulation is observed experimentally, even for the sample at 25% (11)B where significant spin-echo intensity remains out to durations of ?200 ms. PMID:21321719

  6. New types of short-range orientational ordering in ortho- para hydrogen monolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokshenev, V. B.; Sullivan, N. S.

    2003-05-01

    Orientational ordering in monolayers of solid hydrogen is discussed in view of recent experimental findings in NMR studies of ( ortho) c-( para) 1- c-hydrogen mixtures on boron nitride substrate reported for ortho-H 2 concentrations 0.35? c?0.92 and temperatures 0.14? T?1.80 K. Analysis of the temperature-concentration behavior for the observed NMR frequency splitting is given on the basis of a two-dimension ( J=1) c-( J=0) 1- c-rotor model for which the fundamental parameters, quadrupolar coupling constant ?0=0.50±0.03 K and the crystal-field amplitude V0=0.70±0.10 K, are derived from experiment. The two distinct para-rotational (PR) short-range ordered structures driven by positive and negative crystalline fields are described in terms of the local alignment and orientation of the polar principal axis. It is shown that they are rather different from the ferromagnetic-type ordering suggested earlier by Harris and Berlinsky as a unique PR structure. The common quadrupolar glass and a new hindered rotor phases found below the 2D site percolation threshold cp=0.72 are also discussed.

  7. Apparatus for rapid adjustment of the degree of alignment of NMR samples in aqueous media: Verification with residual quadrupolar splittings in 23Na and 133Cs spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuchel, Philip W.; Chapman, Bogdan E.; Müller, Norbert; Bubb, William A.; Philp, David J.; Torres, Allan M.

    2006-06-01

    NMR spectra of 23Na + and 133Cs + in gelatine in a silicone rubber tube that was stretched to various extents showed remarkably reproducible resonance multiplicity. The relative intensities of the components of the split peaks had ratios, 3:4:3, and 7:12:15:16:15:12:7, respectively, that conformed with those predicted using a Mathematica program. The silicone-rubber tube was sealed at its lower end by a small rubber stopper and placed inside a thick-walled glass tube. Gelatine was injected in solution into the silicone tube and 'set' by cooling below 30 °C. A plastic thumb-screw held the silicone tube at various degrees of extension, up to ˜2-fold. After constituting the gel in buffers containing NaCl and CsCl, both 23Na and 133Cs NMR spectroscopy revealed that after stretching the initial single Lorentzian line was split into a well-resolved triplet and a heptet, respectively. This was interpreted as being due to coupling between the electric quadrupoles of the nuclei and the average electric field gradient tensor of the collagen molecules of gelatine; these molecules became progressively more aligned in the direction of the main magnetic field, B0, of the vertical bore magnet, as the gel was stretched. This apparatus provides a simple way of demonstrating fundamental physical characteristics of quadrupolar cations, some characteristics of gelatine under stretching, and a way to invoke static distortion of red blood cells. It should be useful with these and other cell types, for studies of metabolic and membrane transport characteristics that may change when the cells are distorted, and possibly for structural studies of macromolecules.

  8. Ab initio calculations of external-field shifts of the 661-nm quadrupolar clock transition in neutral Ag atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Topcu, Suat; Nasser, Jamil; Daku, Latevi Max Lawson; Fritzsche, Stephan

    2006-04-15

    Frequency shifts of the Ag I 4d{sup 10}5s {sup 2}S{sub 1/2}(F=0,M{sub F}=0) to 4d{sup 9}5s{sup 2} {sup 2}D{sub 5/2}(F{sup '}=2,M{sub F{sup '}}=0) electric-quadrupole transition at 330.6 nm due to external fields are calculated using multiconfigurational self-consistent field methods. As this forbidden transition is free from first order Doppler and Zeeman effects, it is under investigation for the realization of an atomic optical clock. The calculated perturbations are the light shift, the blackbody frequency shift, and the quadratic Zeeman shift. Results show that a total uncertainty of 10{sup -18} could be reach without confining the atoms in a Lamb-Dicke regime in an optical lattice.

  9. Specific heat and entropy change at the first order phase transition of La(Fe-Mn-Si)13-H compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basso, Vittorio; Küpferling, Michaela; Curcio, Carmen; Bennati, Cecilia; Barzca, Alexander; Katter, Matthias; Bratko, Milan; Lovell, Edmund; Turcaud, Jeremy; Cohen, Lesley F.

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we present the results of an experimental investigation on the magnetocaloric properties of hydrogenated La(Fe-Mn-Si)13-H with Mn substituting Fe to finely tune the transition temperature. We measured the specific heat under magnetic field cp(H, T) and the magnetic field induced isothermal entropy change ?s(H, T) of a series of compounds by direct Peltier calorimetry. Results show that increasing Mn from 0.06 to 0.46 reduces the transition temperature from 339 K to 270 K whilst the total entropy change due to a 1.5 T field is depressed from 18.7 J kg-1 K-1 to 10.2 J kg-1 K-1 and the thermal hysteresis similarly is reduced from 1.5 K to zero. In the paper, we interpret the results in terms of a magnetic phase transition changing from the first to the second order with increasing Mn content, and we discuss the value of the results for magnetic cooling applications.

  10. INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT INCUBATOR MODELS ON MAGNETIC FIELD-INDUCED CHANGES IN NEURITE OUTGROWTH IN PC-12 CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    OBJECTIVE: Devise a method to standardize responses of cells to MF-exposure in different incubator environments. METHODS: We compared the cell responses to generated MF in a standard cell-culture incubator (Forma, model #3158) with cell responses to the same exposure when a mu-m...

  11. Magnetic-field-induced effects in the electronic structure of itinerant d- and f-metal systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grechnev, G. E.

    2009-08-01

    A paramagnetic response of transition metals and itinerant d- and f-metal compounds in an external magnetic field is studied by employing ab initio full-potential LMTO method in the framework of the local spin density approximation. Within this method the anisotropy of the magnetic susceptibility in hexagonal close-packed transition metals is evaluated for the first time. This anisotropy is owing to the orbital Van Vleck-like paramagnetic susceptibility, which is revealed to be substantial in transition-metal systems due to hybridization effects in the electronic structure. It is demonstrated that compounds TiCo, Ni3Al, YCo2, CeCo2, YNi5, LaNi5, and CeNi5 are strong paramagnets close to the quantum critical point. For these systems the Stoner approximation underestimates the spin susceptibility, whereas the calculated field-induced spin moments provide a good description of the large paramagnetic susceptibilities and magnetovolume effects. It is revealed that an itinerant description of hybridized f electrons produces magnetic properties of the compounds CeCo2, CeNi5, UAl3, UGa3, USi3, and UGe3 in close agreement with experiment. In the uranium compounds UX3 the strong spin-orbit coupling together with hybridization effects give rise to peculiar magnetic states in which the field-induced spin moments are antiparallel to the external field, and the magnetic response is dominated by the orbital contribution.

  12. Magnetic-field-induced dose effects in MR-guided radiotherapy systems: dependence on the magnetic field strength.

    PubMed

    Raaijmakers, A J E; Raaymakers, B W; Lagendijk, J J W

    2008-02-21

    Several institutes are currently working on the development of a radiotherapy treatment system with online MR imaging (MRI) modality. The main difference between their designs is the magnetic field strength of the MRI system. While we have chosen a 1.5 Tesla (T) magnetic field strength, the Cross Cancer Institute in Edmonton will be using a 0.2 T MRI scanner and the company Viewray aims to use 0.3 T. The magnetic field strength will affect the severity of magnetic field dose effects, such as the electron return effect (ERE): considerable dose increase at tissue air boundaries due to returning electrons. This paper has investigated how the ERE dose increase depends on the magnetic field strength. Therefore, four situations where the ERE occurs have been simulated: ERE at the distal side of the beam, the lateral ERE, ERE in cylindrical air cavities and ERE in the lungs. The magnetic field comparison values were 0.2, 0.75, 1.5 and 3 T. Results show that, in general, magnetic field dose effects are reduced at lower magnetic field strengths. At the distal side, the ERE dose increase is largest for B = 0.75 T and depends on the irradiation field size for B = 0.2 T. The lateral ERE is strongest for B = 3 T but shows no effect for B = 0.2 T. Around cylindrical air cavities, dose inhomogeneities disappear if the radius of the cavity becomes small relative to the in-air radius of the secondary electron trajectories. At larger cavities (r > 1 cm), dose inhomogeneities exist for all magnetic field strengths. In water-lung-water phantoms, the ERE dose increase takes place at the water-lung transition and the dose decreases at the lung-water transition, but these effects are minimal for B = 0.2 T. These results will contribute to evaluating the trade-off between magnetic field dose effects and image quality of MR-guided radiotherapy systems. PMID:18263948

  13. INFLUENCE OF TEMPERATURE DURING THE ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC FIELD-INDUCED ALTERATION OF CALCIUM RELEASE FROM BRAIN TISSUE, IN VITRO

    EPA Science Inventory

    The release of calcium ions from in vitro preparation of chicken brain-tissue has been used by several investigators to demonstrate the interaction of electric and magnetic (EM) fields with biological systems. or exposures with radiofrequency radiation amplitude modulated at extr...

  14. Ab initio theory of magnetic-field-induced odd-frequency two-band superconductivity in MgB2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aperis, Alex; Maldonado, Pablo; Oppeneer, Peter M.

    2015-08-01

    We develop the anisotropic Eliashberg framework for superconductivity in the presence of an applied magnetic field. Using as input the ab initio calculated electron and phonon band structures and electron-phonon coupling, we solve self-consistently the anisotropic Eliashberg equations for the archetypal superconductor MgB2. We find two self-consistent solutions, time-even two-band superconductivity, as well as unconventional time-odd s -wave spin triplet two-band superconductivity emerging with applied field. We provide the full momentum, frequency, and spin-resolved dependence and magnetic field-temperature phase diagrams of the time-even and time-odd superconducting pair amplitudes and predict fingerprints of this novel odd-frequency state in tunneling experiments.

  15. A self-monitored theranostic platform based on nanoparticle hyperthermia therapy and alternating magnetic field induced thermoacoustic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Xiaohua; Gao, Fei; Zheng, Yuanjin

    2015-03-01

    Low frequency alternating magnetic field (AMF) had been advocated for thermoacoustic imaging to exploit their inherent deeper penetrations. AMF induced thermoacoustic imaging of magnetic nanoparticles is particularly appealing since the system setup is inherently compatible with nanoparticle hyperthermia therapy. More importantly, owing to the capacity of thermoacoustics for accurate temperature measurement, the integration of AMF induced thermoacoustic imaging into nanoparticle hyperthermia therapy will potentially enable a theranostic platform with imaging guidance and temperature monitoring capabilities. We present herein the AMF induced thermoacoustic process of magnetic nanoparticles experimentally and then investigate furthermore its utilization in temperature monitoring for the nanoparticle hyperthermia. To demonstrate the concept of an integrated theranostic system with minimal overhead, a single coil is used for both the hyperthermia heating and thermoacoustic imaging by interleaving the two processes in time domain. In thermoacoustic imaging mode, the power is set at the amplifier's maximum value whereas to avoid excess heating of the coil in hyperthermia-mode, the power is switched to a lower value and the coil is further cooled by static water. Phantom imaging results of the magnetic nanoparticles and the self temperature monitoring with sub-degree accuracy during hyperthermia process are demonstrated. These proof-of-concept experiments showcase the potential to integrate thermoacoustic imaging with nanoparticle hyperthermia system.

  16. High Domain Wall Velocity at Zero Magnetic Field Induced by Low Current Densities in Spin Valve Nanostripes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizzini, Stefania; Uhlí?, Vojt?ch; Vogel, Jan; Rougemaille, Nicolas; Laribi, Sana; Cros, Vincent; Jiménez, Erika; Camarero, Julio; Tieg, Carsten; Bonet, Edgar; Bonfim, Marlio; Mattana, Richard; Deranlot, Cyrile; Petroff, Frédéric; Ulysse, Christian; Faini, Giancarlo; Fert, Albert

    2009-02-01

    Current-induced magnetic domain wall motion at zero magnetic field is observed in the permalloy layer of a spin-valve-based nanostripe using photoemission electron microscopy. The domain wall movement is hampered by pinning sites, but in between them high domain wall velocities (exceeding 150 m/s) are obtained for current densities well below 1012 A/m2, suggesting that these trilayer systems are promising for applications in domain wall devices in case of well controlled pinning positions. Vertical spin currents in these structures provide a potential explanation for the increase in domain wall velocity at low current densities.

  17. Order Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibeault, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Change orders. The words can turn the stomachs of administrators. Horror stories about change orders create fear and distrust among school officials, designers and builders. Can change orders be avoided? If car manufacturers can produce millions of intricately designed vehicles, why can't the same quality control be achieved on a construction…

  18. Theoretical aspects of higher-order truncations in solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, M. ); Grandinetti, P.J.; Llor, A.; Olejniczak, Z.; Sachleben, J.R. Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 ); Zwanziger, J.W. )

    1992-12-15

    Recent experimental developments of high-resolution NMR in solids (for example, double rotation and dynamic-angle spinning) address the reduction of second-order line broadening effects, particularly in systems involving quadrupolar nuclei such as {sup 23}Na, {sup 17}O, {sup 27}Al, and {sup 14}N. However, some aspects of the theoretical description of these systems have not been clearly understood; in particular, the various procedures available to truncate the interactions give incompatible results. We present a general framework, based on static perturbative methods, which provides a natural procedure to derive the correct Hamiltonian for higher-order effects in irreducible tensor form. Applications of this method to coherent averaging techniques (sample motion or radio-frequency irradiation) are described and compared to previous treatments based on average Hamiltonian theory.

  19. Order Nidovirales

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter, entitled "Order Nidovirales", is for inclusion in the Ninth Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV), to be published as both a single volume text and online. The chapter details the taxonomy of members of the Nidovirus order, including family Arteriviridae o...

  20. Orientational ordering in monolayers of ortho-para hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokshenev, V. B.; Sullivan, N. S.

    2003-09-01

    We discuss orientational ordering in monolayers of solid hydrogen in view of recent experimental findings in NMR studies of (ortho)c-(para)1-c-hydrogen mixtures on a boron nitride substrate. Analysis of the temperature-concentration behavior for the observed NMR frequency splitting is given on the basis of a two-dimensional (J=1)c-(J=0)1-c-rotor model with the quadrupolar coupling constant ?0=(0.50±0.03) K and the crystalline field amplitude V0=(0.70±0.10) K derived from experiment. The two distinct pararotational short-range ordered structures are described in terms of the local alignment and orientation of the polar principal axis and are shown to be due to the interplay between the positive and negative crystalline fields. It is shown that the local structures observed below the 2D site-percolation threshold cp=0.72 are rather different from the ferromagnetic-type para-rotational ordering suggested earlier by Harris and Berlinsky.

  1. Design of a dynamically orthogonalized Penning trap with higher order anharmonicity compensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikdar, A. K.; Ray, A.; Das, P.; Reza, A.

    2013-06-01

    We present an analysis of a doubly compensated, open ended, cylindrical Penning ion trap including the effect of realistic gaps between adjacent electrodes. This work is a generalization of the work of X. Fei, W.M. Snow, Nuclear Instruments and Methods A 425(1999) 431. By varying the lengths of the electrodes, we have been able to make the trap dynamically orthogonalized and tune out higher order anharmonicities up to C8 term over a wide range of inner radii of the cylindrical trap and gap lengths between adjacent electrodes. This work should help to generate a higher quality quadrupolar potential near the center of the cylindrical trap and be useful for studies involving high precision measurements of the trapped particles.

  2. Hyperfine interactions in titanates: Study of orbital ordering and local magnetic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Agzamova, P. A. Leskova, Yu. V.; Nikiforov, A. E.

    2013-05-15

    Hyperfine magnetic fields induced on the nuclei of nonmagnetic ions {sup 139}La and {sup 89}Y in LaTiO{sub 3} and YTiO{sub 3}, respectively, have been microscopically calculated. The dependence of the hyperfine fields on the orbital and magnetic structures of the compounds under study has been analyzed. The comparative analysis of the calculated and known experimental data confirms the existence of the static orbital structure in lanthanum and yttrium titanates.

  3. Order parameters and hysteresis behavior of a ferromagnetic Blume-Capel thin film: The role of the crystal field interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yüksel, Yusuf

    2014-03-01

    As a complementary work of a recent study (Physica B 433 (2014) 96), ferromagnetic thin films in simple cubic lattice structure described by a spin-1 Blume-Capel Hamiltonian have been considered within the framework of effective-field theory (EFT). Thermal variations of bulk and surface order parameters (i.e. magnetization and quadrupolar moments), as well as hysteresis loops in the presence of modified surface interactions, and crystal fields have been examined. We have found that depending on the type of the phase transition (i.e. ordinary or extraordinary), bulk and surface order parameters may exhibit fairly non-monotonous and quite exotic profiles. Regarding the bulk and surface hysteresis loops, at a fixed set of system parameters, both the bulk and surface hysteresis loops exhibit the same coercivity whereas remanence of a bulk (surface) loop is greater than that of a surface (bulk) loop in ordinary (extraordinary) case.

  4. Acoustic assisted actuation of Ni-Mn-Ga ferromagnetic shape memory alloys

    E-print Network

    Peterson, Bradley William

    2006-01-01

    Ferromagnetic shape memory alloys (FSMA) have been shown in recent work to exhibit large magnetic field induced strains. The material generally requires a large threshold field (of order 3-4 kOe) to initiate the strain. ...

  5. Shapiro Delays at the Quadrupole Order for Tests of the No-Hair Theorem Using Pulsars around Spinning Black Holes

    E-print Network

    Christian, Pierre; Loeb, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    One avenue for testing the no-hair theorem is obtained through timing a pulsar orbiting close to a black hole and fitting for quadrupolar effects on the time-of-arrival of pulses. If deviations from the Kerr quadrupole are measured, then the no-hair theorem is invalidated. To this end, we derive an expression for the light travel time delay for a pulsar orbiting in a black-hole spacetime described by the Butterworth-Ipser metric, which has an arbitrary spin and quadrupole moment. We consider terms up to the quadrupole order in the black-hole metric and derive the time-delay expression in a closed analytic form. This allows for fast computations that are useful in fitting time-of-arrival observations of pulsars orbiting close to astrophysical black holes.

  6. Impact of gravitational radiation higher order modes on single aligned-spin gravitational wave searches for binary black holes

    E-print Network

    Juan Calderón Bustillo; Sascha Husa; Alicia M. Sintes; Michael Pürrer

    2015-11-13

    Current template-based gravitational wave searches for compact binary coalescences (CBC) use waveform models that neglect the higher order modes content of the gravitational radiation emitted, considering only the quadrupolar $(\\ell,|m|)=(2,2)$ modes. We study the effect of such a neglection for the case of aligned-spin CBC searches for equal-spin (and non-spinning) binary black holes in the context of two versions of Advanced LIGO: the upcoming 2015 version, known as early Advanced LIGO (eaLIGO) and its Zero-Detuned High Energy Power version, that we will refer to as Advanced LIGO (AdvLIGO). In addition, we study the case of a non-spinning search for initial LIGO (iLIGO). We do this via computing the effectualness of the aligned-spin SEOBNRv1 ROM waveform family, which only considers quadrupolar modes, towards hybrid post-Newtonian/Numerical Relativity waveforms which contain higher order modes. We find that for all LIGO versions, losses of more than $10\\%$ of events occur for mass ratio $q\\geq6$ and $M \\geq 100M_\\odot$ due to the neglection of higher modes. Moreover, for iLIGO and eaLIGO, losses notably increase up to $(39,23)\\%$ respectively for the highest mass $(220M_\\odot)$ and mass ratio ($q=8$) studied. For the case of early AdvLIGO, losses of $10\\%$ occur for $M>50M_\\odot$ and $q\\geq6$. Neglection of higher modes leads to observation-averaged systematic parameter biases towards lower spin, total mass and chirp mass. For completeness, we perform a preliminar, non-exhaustive comparison of systematic biases to statistical errors. We find that, for a given SNR, systematic biases dominate over statistical errors at much lower total mass for eaLIGO than for AdvLIGO.

  7. Thermo-magnetic history effects in the giant magnetostriction across the first-order transition and minor hysteresis loops modeling in Fe0.955Ni0.045Rh alloy.

    PubMed

    Manekar, Meghmalhar; Sharma, V K; Roy, S B

    2012-05-30

    Results of temperature- and magnetic field-dependent strain measurements across the first-order antiferromagnetic to ferromagnetic phase transition in Fe(0.955)Ni(0.045)Rh are presented. Distinct thermal and magnetic field hystereses are observed in the measured strain across the phase transition. The minor hysteresis loops inside the hysteretic regime across the temperature-driven transition are modeled using the Preisach model of hysteresis. The applicability of the Preisach model to explain the general features of minor hysteresis loops is discussed for a disorder influenced first-order transition. The minor hysteresis loops show the property of retaining the memory of the starting or end point of the temperature cycle followed within the hysteretic region. A larger temperature excursion within the hysteretic region wipes out the memory of a smaller temperature cycle which contains one of the extrema of the larger cycle. The end-point memory and the wiping-out property of the minor hysteresis loops can be described quite well within the Preisach model, irrespective of the temperature history followed to reach a particular starting point. Thermo-magnetic history effects across the magnetic field-induced transition are explained, which will enable the choice of the starting point of an experimental cycle in the field-temperature phase space so as to achieve the desired functionality. Our results highlight the necessity to understand the influence of disorder on a first-order phase transition so as to achieve a repeatable performance of materials whose functionalities are based on such a transition. PMID:22543692

  8. Composite Spin and Quadrupole Wave in the Ordered Phase of Tb2+xTi2-xO7+y

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadowaki, H.; Takatsu, H.; Taniguchi, T.; Fåk, B.; Ollivier, J.

    2015-07-01

    The hidden ordered state of the frustrated pyrochlore oxide Tb2+xTi2-xO7+y is possibly one of the two electric multipolar, or quadrupolar, states of the effective pseudospin-1/2 Hamiltonian derived from crystal-field ground state doublets of non-Kramers Tb3+ ions. These long-range orders are antiparallel or parallel alignments of transverse pseudospin components representing electric quadrupole moments, which cannot be observed as magnetic Bragg reflections by neutron scattering. However, pseudospin waves of these states are composite waves of the magnetic-dipole and electric-quadrupole moments, and can be partly observed by inelastic magnetic neutron scattering. We calculate these spin-quadrupole waves using linear spin-wave theory and discuss previously observed low-energy magnetic excitation spectra of a polycrystalline sample with x = 0.005(Tc = 0.5 K).

  9. Pressure-magnetic field induced phase transformation in Ni{sub 46}Mn{sub 41}In{sub 13} Heusler alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Rama Rao, N. V. Manivel Raja, M.; Pandian, S.; Esakki Muthu, S.; Arumugam, S.

    2014-12-14

    The effect of hydrostatic pressure and magnetic field on the magnetic properties and phase transformation in Ni{sub 46}Mn{sub 41}In{sub 13} Heusler alloy was investigated. Pressure (P)-magnetic field (H)-temperature (T) phase diagram has been constructed from experimental results. In the P–T contour of the phase diagram, the slope of the austenite-martensite phase boundary line appears positive (dT/dP?>?0), while it appears negative (dT/dH?

  10. Neutron diffraction study of magnetic field induced behavior in the heavy Fermion Ce3Co4Sn13

    SciTech Connect

    Christianson, Andrew D; Goremychkin, E. A.; Gardner, J. S.; Kang, H. J.; Chung, J.-H.; Manuel, P.; Thompson, J. D.; Sarrao, J. L.; Lawrence, J. M.

    2008-01-01

    The specific heat of Ce3Co4Sn13 exhibits a crossover from heavy Fermion behavior with antiferromagnetic correlations at low field to single impurity Kondo behavior above 2 T. We have performed neutron diffraction measurements in magnetic fields up to 6 Tesla on single crystal samples. The (001) position shows a dramatic increase in intensity in field which appears to arise from static polarization of the 4f level and which at 0.14 K also exhibits an anomaly near 2T reflecting the crossover to single impurity behavior.

  11. arXiv:cond-mat/9505016v13May1995 What happens to the quantum Hall effect when magnetic-field-induced spin-density

    E-print Network

    Goan, Hsi-Sheng

    the resultant Hall conductivity is zero. In real systems, the Hall conductivity should vanish at the high to the Hall conductivity. This effect is found at zero temperature in the absence of normal carriers and has conductivity is zero. In real systems, this effect should manifest itself at high enough frequencies where

  12. Magnetic-field-induced control of breather dynamics in a single plaquette of Josephson junctions M. V. Fistul, S. Flach, and A. Benabdallah

    E-print Network

    Flach, Sergej

    and various switching phenomena between different resistive states voltage jumps in the I-V curves 2001; published 8 April 2002 We present a theoretical study of inhomogeneous dynamic resistive states the Josephson current oscillations of two resistive junctions. By making use of the rotation wave approximation

  13. PHYSICAL REVIEW B 89, 165120 (2014) Magnetic-field-induced shift of the optical band gap in Ni3V2O8

    E-print Network

    2014-01-01

    reveal field-induced blue shifts of the band gap that are much larger than that of the Zeeman effect in the optical properties requires reaching beyond traditional mechanisms like the Zeeman effect to include]. The magnetic field also drives changes in the electronic properties. This effect can be as simple

  14. Mössbauer study on the magnetic field-induced insulator-to-metal transition in perovskite EU0.6Sr0.4MnO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Shin; Sato, Masami; Morimoto, Shotaro; Nasu, Saburo; Tsunoda, Yorihiko

    We have investigated the spin dynamics of a distorted perovskite EU0.6Sr0.4MnO3 by means of Mössbauer spectroscopy. Below 70 K the exchange interaction grows gradually, and below 42 K the spins tum into a cluster glass state. The magnetic fieldinduced insulator-to-metal (IM) transition at low temperature is a transition from cluster glass to ferromagnet. The induced metallic phase seems to be still in non-uniform electronic state. On the other hand, at 80 K, just above T c of the induced ferromagnet, a metamagnetic transition was observed.

  15. Solving the viscous hydrodynamics order by order

    E-print Network

    Gao, Jian-Hua

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a method of solving the viscous hydrodynamics order by order in a derivative expansion. In such method, the zero order solution is just the one of the ideal hydrodynamics. All the other higher order corrections satisfy the same first-order partial differential equations but with different inhomogeneous terms. We therefore argue that our method could be easily extended to any orders. The problem of causality and stability will be released if the gradient expansion is guaranteed. This method might be of great help to both theoretical and numerical calculations of relativistic hydrodynamics.

  16. Fragile charge order in the non-superconducting ground state of the underdoped high temperature superconductors

    E-print Network

    Tan, B. S.; Harrison, N.; Zhu, Z.; Balakirev, F. F.; Ramshaw, B. J.; Srivastava, A.; Sabok, S. A.; Dabrowski, B.; Lonzarich, G. G.; Sebastian, Suchitra E.

    2015-07-21

    by microwave conductivity to be the dominant source of weak-limit (Born) scatter- ing [25]. Intriguingly, we find magnetic field and angle- dependent signatures of quantum oscillations in YBa2Cu4O8 [13, 14] that are very similar to those in YBa2Cu3O6+?... (2012). [12] Riggs, S. C. et al. Heat capacity through the magnetic- field-induced resistive transition in an underdoped high- temperature superconductor. Nature Phys. 7, 332-335 (2011). [13] Bangura, A. F. et al. Small Fermi surface pockets in un...

  17. FRENCH ORDER WITHOUT ORDER* Gabriel G. B~

    E-print Network

    FRENCH ORDER WITHOUT ORDER* Gabriel G. B~ Universit6 Blaise Pascal - Clermont II, Formation Universit6 Blaise Pascal -Clermont II and University of Edinburgh, Centre for Cognitive Science, 2 Buccleuch

  18. Variable Order and Distributed Order Fractional Operators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenzo, Carl F.; Hartley, Tom T.

    2002-01-01

    Many physical processes appear to exhibit fractional order behavior that may vary with time or space. The continuum of order in the fractional calculus allows the order of the fractional operator to be considered as a variable. This paper develops the concept of variable and distributed order fractional operators. Definitions based on the Riemann-Liouville definitions are introduced and behavior of the operators is studied. Several time domain definitions that assign different arguments to the order q in the Riemann-Liouville definition are introduced. For each of these definitions various characteristics are determined. These include: time invariance of the operator, operator initialization, physical realization, linearity, operational transforms. and memory characteristics of the defining kernels. A measure (m2) for memory retentiveness of the order history is introduced. A generalized linear argument for the order q allows the concept of "tailored" variable order fractional operators whose a, memory may be chosen for a particular application. Memory retentiveness (m2) and order dynamic behavior are investigated and applications are shown. The concept of distributed order operators where the order of the time based operator depends on an additional independent (spatial) variable is also forwarded. Several definitions and their Laplace transforms are developed, analysis methods with these operators are demonstrated, and examples shown. Finally operators of multivariable and distributed order are defined in their various applications are outlined.

  19. Order Parameters of a Transmembrane Helix in a Fluid Bilayer: Case Study of a WALP Peptide

    PubMed Central

    Holt, Andrea; Rougier, Léa; Réat, Valérie; Jolibois, Franck; Saurel, Olivier; Czaplicki, Jerzy; Killian, J. Antoinette; Milon, Alain

    2010-01-01

    Abstract A new solid-state NMR-based strategy is established for the precise and efficient analysis of orientation and dynamics of transmembrane peptides in fluid bilayers. For this purpose, several dynamically averaged anisotropic constraints, including 13C and 15N chemical shift anisotropies and 13C-15N dipolar couplings, were determined from two different triple-isotope-labeled WALP23 peptides (2H, 13C, and 15N) and combined with previously published quadrupolar splittings of the same peptide. Chemical shift anisotropy tensor orientations were determined with quantum chemistry. The complete set of experimental constraints was analyzed using a generalized, four-parameter dynamic model of the peptide motion, including tilt and rotation angle and two associated order parameters. A tilt angle of 21° was determined for WALP23 in dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine, which is much larger than the tilt angle of 5.5° previously determined from 2H NMR experiments. This approach provided a realistic value for the tilt angle of WALP23 peptide in the presence of hydrophobic mismatch, and can be applied to any transmembrane helical peptide. The influence of the experimental data set on the solution space is discussed, as are potential sources of error. PMID:20441750

  20. Ferromagnetic Order, Strong Magnetocrystalline Anisotropy, and Magnetocaloric Effect in the Layered Telluride Fe(3-?)GeTe2.

    PubMed

    Verchenko, Valeriy Yu; Tsirlin, Alexander A; Sobolev, Alexei V; Presniakov, Igor A; Shevelkov, Andrei V

    2015-09-01

    The ternary transition-metal compound Fe(3-?)GeTe2 is formed for 0 < ? < 0.3. X-ray diffraction and Mössbauer spectroscopy reveal its layered crystal structure with occasional Fe vacancies in the Fe2 site, whereas no Fe atoms occupy the interlayer space, so that only van der Waals interactions exist between adjacent layers. We explore magnetic behavior and ensuing functional properties of Fe(2.9)GeTe2 via neutron diffraction, thermodynamic and transport measurements, Mössbauer spectroscopy, and electronic structure calculations. Below T(C) = 225 K, Fe(2.9)GeTe2 is ferromagnetically ordered with the magnetic moments of 1.95(5) and 1.56(4) ?(B) at T = 1.5 K, both directed along c, which is the magnetic easy axis. Electronic structure calculations confirm this magnetic structure and reveal a remarkably high easy-axis anisotropy of 4.2 meV/f.u. Mössbauer spectra reveal the magnetic ordering too, although a drastic influence of Fe vacancies on quadrupolar splittings and local magnetic fields has been observed. A moderate magnetocaloric effect with the magnetic entropy change upon the ferromagnetic ordering transition, -?S ? 1.1 J·kg(-1)·K(-1) at 5 T, is found. PMID:26267350

  1. Order Theoretical Semantic Recommendation

    SciTech Connect

    Joslyn, Cliff A.; Hogan, Emilie A.; Paulson, Patrick R.; Peterson, Elena S.; Stephan, Eric G.; Thomas, Dennis G.

    2013-07-23

    Mathematical concepts of order and ordering relations play multiple roles in semantic technologies. Discrete totally ordered data characterize both input streams and top-k rank-ordered recommendations and query output, while temporal attributes establish numerical total orders, either over time points or in the more complex case of startend temporal intervals. But also of note are the fully partially ordered data, including both lattices and non-lattices, which actually dominate the semantic strcuture of ontological systems. Scalar semantic similarities over partially-ordered semantic data are traditionally used to return rank-ordered recommendations, but these require complementation with true metrics available over partially ordered sets. In this paper we report on our work in the foundations of partial order measurement in ontologies, with application to top-k semantic recommendation in workflows.

  2. An electromagnetic Thirring problem.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehlers, J.; Rindler, W.

    1971-01-01

    A neutral rotating mass shell surrounds a concentric stationary electrically charged insulating shell. The dipole-like magnetic field induced by (and proportional to) the rotation of the neutral shell is calculated on the basis of the coupled linearized Einstein-Maxwell field equations of general relativity. This field is apparently at variance with a conjecture made on Machian grounds, for which a possible explanation is suggested. The corresponding induced quadrupolar electric field is calculated for the region within the charged shell, and the potential is given for this field everywhere. Though understandable on mutually inconsistent elementary grounds, we regard this field as a useful example of a solution of linearized general relativity.-

  3. First-order inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Kolb, E.W. Chicago Univ., IL . Enrico Fermi Inst.)

    1990-09-01

    In the original proposal, inflation occurred in the process of a strongly first-order phase transition. This model was soon demonstrated to be fatally flawed. Subsequent models for inflation involved phase transitions that were second-order, or perhaps weakly first-order; some even involved no phase transition at all. Recently the possibility of inflation during a strongly first-order phase transition has been revived. In this talk I will discuss some models for first-order inflation, and emphasize unique signatures that result in inflation is realized in a first-order transition. Before discussing first-order inflation, I will briefly review some of the history of inflation to demonstrate how first-order inflation differs from other models. 58 refs., 3 figs.

  4. First-order inflation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolb, Edward W.

    1991-01-01

    In the original proposal, inflation occurred in the process of a strongly first-order phase transition. This model was soon demonstrated to be fatally flawed. Subsequent models for inflation involved phase transitions that were second-order, or perhaps weakly first-order; some even involved no phase transition at all. Recently the possibility of inflation during a strongly first-order phase transition has been revived. In this talk I will discuss some models for first-order inflation, and emphasize unique signatures that result if inflation is realized in a first-order transition. Before discussing first-order inflation, I will briefly review some of the history of inflation to demonstrate how first-order inflation differs from other models.

  5. ASDC Order Tools

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2012-04-17

    ... grid format. ASDC Web Ordering Tools Java Tool Help HTML Tool Help These tools allow users to ... or time range. The ordering tool is available in both Java and HTML versions. Reverb Search Tool Reverb ...

  6. Medium-range order in sodium phosphate glasses: a quantitative rotational echo double resonance solid state NMR study.

    PubMed

    Strojek, Wenzel; Eckert, Hellmut

    2006-05-21

    Sodium ultraphosphate glasses (Na(2)O)(x)(P(2)O(5))(1-x) show a strongly non-linear dependence of the glass transition temperatures T(g)(x) on composition. To explore the structural origins of this behaviour, local and medium range ordering processes have been investigated by state-of-the-art (23)Na high-resolution and dipolar NMR spectroscopies. In particular, (31)P(23)Na) and (23)Na((31)P) rotational echo double resonance (REDOR) experiments have been analyzed to yield quantitative constraints for the structural description of these glasses. The sodium ions are found to be randomly distributed and, for x < 0.25, spatially correlated with a single metaphosphate-type Q((2)) unit at a distance of 330 pm. In this region, unusual compositional trends observed for the (23)Na chemical shifts and nuclear electric quadrupolar coupling constants, measured by triple-quantum magic-angle spinning (TQMAS) NMR, suggest a systematic decrease of Na coordination number with x. At higher sodium contents (x > 0.25), the magnitude of the (31)P((23)Na) dipolar interaction increases markedly, indicating a significantly increased extent of Q((2))-Na-Q((2)) crosslinking. Based on these results, a comprehensive description of medium-range order in sodium ultraphosphate glasses is developed, suggesting that the T(g)(x) dependence is closely linked to changes in the relative phosphorus/sodium distance distributions. PMID:16688310

  7. A New Communication Order.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Ilana

    This paper argues that literacy needs to be conceived within a broad social order, what Street and others have called a "new communicative order." This new order takes account of the literacy practices associated with screen-based technologies. It recognizes that print-based reading and writing is now only part of what people have to learn to be…

  8. Concomitant Ordering and Symmetry Lowering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boo, William O. J.; Mattern, Daniell L.

    2008-01-01

    Examples of concomitant ordering include magnetic ordering, Jahn-Teller cooperative ordering, electronic ordering, ionic ordering, and ordering of partially-filled sites. Concomitant ordering sets in when a crystal is cooled and always lowers the degree of symmetry of the crystal. Concomitant ordering concepts can also be productively applied to…

  9. Court Ordered Desegregation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reber, Sarah J.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of the court ordered desegregation plans, on trends in segregation and white flight, are estimated. The effect of availability of school districts and other factors on the white flight across districts is also mentioned.

  10. Word Order in Klamath

    E-print Network

    Sundberg, Karen

    1987-01-01

    Klamath, a Native American language of Oregon, has particularly "free" word order. Methods developed by Givon (1983) for the measurement of topic continuity, when applied to Klamath narrative texts, show that the position of NP's relative...

  11. Optimizing Order Promising

    E-print Network

    Li, Zhipeng (Zhipeng Simon)

    2007-01-01

    Online purchasing is now popular following the growth of E-business. Retailers ordering online will get the exact delivery date of goods for their better management of sales operations. Suppliers should keep their competence ...

  12. Nested Topological Order

    E-print Network

    H. Bombin; M. A. Martin-Delgado

    2008-03-30

    We introduce the concept of nested topological order in a class of exact quantum lattice Hamiltonian models with non-abelian discrete gauge symmetry. The topological order present in the models can be partially destroyed by introducing a gauge symmetry reduction mechanism. When symmetry is reduced in several islands only, this imposes boundary conditions to the rest of the system giving rise to topological ground state degeneracy. This degeneracy is related to the existence of topological fluxes in between islands or, alternatively, hidden charges at islands. Additionally, island deformations give rise to an extension of topological quantum computation beyond quasiparticles.

  13. Keeping Order in Anaphase.

    PubMed

    Malumbres, Marcos

    2015-11-23

    The critical components of chromosome segregation machinery are well established, but how they orchestrate the relative order of events during mitosis remains unclear. Kamenz et al. (2015) now report in Molecular Cell quantitative data suggesting competing networks and adaptive thresholds in the control of mitotic exit by the anaphase-promoting complex. PMID:26609955

  14. Education and World Order

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Phillip W.

    2007-01-01

    The impact on educational analysis of mainstream international relations (IR) theories is yet to realize its full potential. The problem of education in relation to the construction of world order is considered in relation to core developments in IR theory since the Second World War. In particular, the global architecture of education is seen as a…

  15. Land and World Order.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mische, Patricia, Ed.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    The papers in this publication discuss the land and how what happens to the land affects us. The publication is one in a series of monographs that examine the linkages between local and global concerns and explore alternative world futures. Examples of topics discussed in the papers follow. The paper "Land and World Order" examines implications of…

  16. Signatures of hidden-order symmetry in torque oscillations, elastic constant anomalies, and field-induced moments in URu2Si2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thalmeier, Peter; Takimoto, Tetsuya

    2011-04-01

    We discuss the conclusions on the symmetry of hidden order (HO) in URu2Si2 that may be drawn from recent torque experiments in a rotating magnetic field by Okazaki [Science0036-807510.1126/science.1197358 331, 439 (2011)] (to be published). They are very sensitive to changes in the magnetic susceptibility induced by HO. We show that the observed twofold angular torque oscillations give evidence that HO has degenerate E-type (yz, zx) symmetry where both components are realized. The oscillations have the wrong characteristics or are absent for the one-dimensional (1D) nontrivial representations like quadrupolar B1(x2-y2) and B2(xy) type HO or hexadecapolar A2[xy(x2-y2)] type HO. Therefore, they may be excluded as candidates for HO. We also predict the field-angular variation of possible field-induced Bragg peaks based on the underlying E-type order parameter and discuss the expected elastic constant anomalies.

  17. Fractional order junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machado, J. Tenreiro

    2015-01-01

    Gottfried Leibniz generalized the derivation and integration, extending the operators from integer up to real, or even complex, orders. It is presently recognized that the resulting models capture long term memory effects difficult to describe by classical tools. Leon Chua generalized the set of lumped electrical elements that provide the building blocks in mathematical models. His proposal of the memristor and of higher order elements broadened the scope of variables and relationships embedded in the development of models. This paper follows the two directions and proposes a new logical step, by generalizing the concept of junction. Classical junctions interconnect system elements using simple algebraic restrictions. Nevertheless, this simplistic approach may be misleading in the presence of unexpected dynamical phenomena and requires including additional "parasitic" elements. The novel ? -junction includes, as special cases, the standard series and parallel connections and allows a new degree of freedom when building models. The proposal motivates the search for experimental and real world manifestations of the abstract conjectures.

  18. Orientational ordering and dynamics of the hydrate and exchangeable hydrogen atoms in crystalline crambin.

    PubMed

    Usha, M G; Wittebort, R J

    1989-08-20

    Deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance studies of crambin crystals grown from deuterated solvent (2H2O/CH3CH2O2H or H2O/C2H3CH2OH) are reported. The extent to which the hydrate and exchangeable hydrogen atoms are dynamically disordered are then determined from the size of the residual deuterium quadrupole couplings, qcc. Rapid molecular reorientation (tau c-1 greater than 10(5) s-1) reduces the magnitude of the quadrupole coupling from its static value (216 kHz for solid water). We find that the room temperature spectrum of crambin is dominated by two features: a sharp line with very small residual quadrupolar coupling less than 3 kHz, and a broad pattern with a quadrupolar coupling in the range 185 to 195 kHz. The former is indicative of very nearly isotropically reorienting deuterons, whereas the latter is somewhat narrower than that observed for the amide deuterons of poly-gamma-benzyl-L-glutamate and thus indicative of deuterons that are almost but not completely stationary. By considering the nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum intensities along with the amino acid sequence, X-ray structure and the manner in which quadrupole couplings are reduced by dynamics, we conclude that the nuclear magnetic resonance signal from most of the water molecules of hydration are contained in the sharp line, i.e. reorient nearly isotropically in the crystalline protein. Unlike bulk water, which freezes abruptly in the manner of a phase transition, the water of hydration in crambin has a broad freezing range from 180 to 250K, as evidenced by the decreasing intensity of the sharp line that disappears at 180K. At temperatures between 150 and 200K, a typical hydrate molecule reorients at a rate comparable to the quadrupole coupling, 10(4) s-1 to 10(5) s-1, a process that occurs in hexagonal ice in the range of 240 to 270K. At 140K, the hydrate is stationary, tau c-1 less than 10(3) s-1. Studies of the protein crystallized from solvent deuterated only at the non-exchangeable methyl group of ethanol confirm that ethanol is in the lattice and show that this solvate behaves in much the same way as the hydrate. The refined X-ray structure has identified four ethanol solvate molecules. The deuterium spectrum at room temperature has a well-defined residual pattern with qcc = 2.2 kHz, i.e. a small-order parameter consistent with nearly isotropically reorienting molecules. The spectrum width broadens substantially only at temperatures below 200K and achieves the characteristic spectrum of a rotating methyl group with stationary C-C axis at 140K.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2810359

  19. Higher order Bezier circles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, Jin

    1993-01-01

    Rational Bezier and B-spline representations of circles have been heavily publicized. However, all the literature assumes the rational Bezier segments in the homogeneous space are both planar and (equivalent to) quadratic. This creates the illusion that circles can only be achieved by planar and quadratic curves. Circles that are formed by higher order rational Bezier curves which are nonplanar in the homogeneous space are shown. The problem of whether it is possible to represent a complete circle with one Bezier curve is investigated. In addition, some other interesting properties of cubic Bezier arcs are discussed.

  20. Localization protected quantum order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandkishore, Rahul

    2015-03-01

    Many body localization occurs in isolated quantum systems, usually with strong disorder, and is marked by absence of dissipation, absence of thermal equilibration, and a memory of the initial conditions that survives in local observables for arbitrarily long times. The many body localized regime is a non-equilibrium, strongly disordered, non-self averaging regime that presents a new frontier for quantum statistical mechanics. In this talk, I point out that there exists a vast zoo of correlated many body localized states of matter, which may be classified using familiar notions of spontaneous symmetry breaking and topological order. I will point out that in the many body localized regime, spontaneous symmetry breaking can occur even at high energy densities in one dimensional systems, and topological order can occur even without a bulk gap. I will also discuss the phenomenology of imperfectly isolated many body localized systems, which are weakly coupled to a heat bath. I will conclude with a brief discussion of how these phenomena may best be detected in experiments. Collaborators: David Huse, S.L. Sondhi, Arijeet Pal, Vadim Oganesyan, A.C. Potter, Sarang Gopalakrishnan, S. Johri, R.N. Bhatt.

  1. Prehospital DNR orders.

    PubMed

    Iserson, K V; Rouse, F

    1989-01-01

    This case study and commentaries concern a terminally ill patient dying at home who is resuscitated and transported to a hospital emergency department despite having signed a living will refusing resuscitative efforts. Only after her identity is confirmed, and her medical records located at another hospital and interpreted, is treatment halted and the woman allowed to die. Iserson, a physician in emergency medicine, outlines the responsibilities of paramedics and emergency room personnel when confronted with an unfamiliar patient in an acute condition. He believes that the prehospital DNR order is an idea whose time has come, despite problems with its implementation in emergency settings. Rouse, director of legal services for the Society for the Right to Die, sees this case as an inevitable death made worse by confusion and uncertainty, and calls for education preparing family and care givers for death at home. PMID:2606653

  2. Birth order and myopia

    PubMed Central

    Guggenheim, Jeremy A.; McMahon, George; Northstone, Kate; Mandel, Yossi; Kaiserman, Igor; Stone, Richard A.; Lin, Xiaoyu; Saw, Seang Mei; Forward, Hannah; Mackey, David A.; Yazar, Seyhan; Young, Terri L.; Williams, Cathy

    2013-01-01

    Purpose An association between birth order and reduced unaided vision (a surrogate for myopia) has been observed previously. We examined the association between birth order and myopia directly in 4 subject groups. Methods Subject groups were participants in 1) the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC; UK; age 15 years; N=4,401), 2) the Singapore Cohort Study of Risk Factors for Myopia (SCORM; Singapore; age 13 years; N=1,959), 3) the Raine Eye Health Study (REHS; Australia; age 20 years; N=1,344), and 4) Israeli Defense Force recruitment candidates (IDFC; Israel; age 16-22 years; N=888,277). Main outcome: Odds ratio (OR) for myopia in first born versus non-first born individuals after adjusting for potential risk factors. Results The prevalence of myopia was numerically higher in first-born versus non-first-born individuals in all study groups, but the strength of evidence varied widely. The adjusted ORs (95% CI) were: ALSPAC, 1.31 (1.05-1.64); SCORM, 1.25 (0.89-1.77); REHS, 1.18 (0.90-1.55); IDFC, 1.04 (1.03-1.06). In the large IDFC sample, the effect size was greater (a) for the first born versus fourth or higher born comparison than for the first born versus second/third born comparison (P<0.001) and (b) with increasing myopia severity (P<0.001). Conclusions Across all studies, the increased risk of myopia in first born individuals was low (OR <1.3). Indeed, only the studies with >4000 participants provided strong statistical support for the association. The available evidence suggested the relationship was independent of established risk factors such as time outdoors/reading, and thus may arise through a different causal mechanism. PMID:24168726

  3. Water dynamics on ice and hydrate lattices studied by second-order central-line stimulated-echo oxygen-17 nuclear magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Adjei-Acheamfour, Mischa; Tilly, Julius F; Beerwerth, Joachim; Böhmer, Roland

    2015-12-01

    Oxygen-17 stimulated-echo spectroscopy is a novel nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique that allows one to investigate the time scale and geometry of ultraslow molecular motions in materials containing oxygen. The method is based on detecting orientationally encoded frequency changes within oxygen's central-transition NMR line that are caused by second-order quadrupolar interactions. In addition to the latter, the present theoretical analysis of various two-pulse echo and stimulated-echo pulse sequences takes also heteronuclear dipolar interactions into account. As an experimental example, the ultraslow water motion in polycrystals of tetrahydrofuran clathrate hydrate is studied via two-time oxygen-17 stimulated-echo correlation functions. The resulting correlation times and those of hexagonal ice are similar to those from previous deuteron NMR measurements. Calculations of the echo functions' final-state correlations for various motional models are compared with the experimental data of the clathrate hydrate. It is found that a six-site model including the oxygen-proton dipolar interaction describes the present results. PMID:26646875

  4. The Order Herpesvirales

    PubMed Central

    Eberle, Richard; Ehlers, Bernhard; Hayward, Gary S.; McGeoch, Duncan J.; Minson, Anthony C.; Pellett, Philip E.; Roizman, Bernard; Studdert, Michael J.; Thiry, Etienne

    2011-01-01

    The taxonomy of herpesviruses has been updated by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). The former family Herpesviridae has been split into three families, which have been incorporated into the new order Herpesvirales. The revised family Herpesviridae retains the mammal, bird and reptile viruses, the new family Alloherpesviridae incorporates the fish and frog viruses, and the new family Malacoherpesviridae contains a bivalve virus. Three new genera have been created in the family Herpesviridae, namely Proboscivirus in the subfamily Betaherpesvirinae and Macavirus and Percavirus in the subfamily Gammaherpesvirinae. These genera have been formed by the transfer of species from established genera and the erection of new species, and other new species have been added to some of the established genera. In addition, the names of some nonhuman primate virus species have been changed. The family Alloherpesviridae has been populated by transfer of the genus Ictalurivirus and addition of the new species Cyprinid herpesvirus 3. The family Malacoherpesviridae incorporates the new genus Ostreavirus containing the new species Ostreid herpesvirus 1. PMID:19066710

  5. Field-induced structures in miscible ferrofluid suspensions with and without latex spheres M. F. Islam, K. H. Lin, D. Lacoste, T. C. Lubensky, and A. G. Yodh

    E-print Network

    Lacoste, David

    2002; published 14 February 2003 We explore magnetic-field-induced ordering and microphase separation is water, and both the magnetic and nonmagnetic particles are stabilized in water. More commonly, the ferrofluid is composed of magnetic par- ticles suspended in one solvent e.g., oil that is then mixed

  6. Second-Order Algebraic Theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiore, Marcelo; Mahmoud, Ola

    Fiore and Hur [10] recently introduced a conservative extension of universal algebra and equational logic from first to second order. Second-order universal algebra and second-order equational logic respectively provide a model theory and a formal deductive system for languages with variable binding and parameterised metavariables. This work completes the foundations of the subject from the viewpoint of categorical algebra. Specifically, the paper introduces the notion of second-order algebraic theory and develops its basic theory. Two categorical equivalences are established: at the syntactic level, that of second-order equational presentations and second-order algebraic theories; at the semantic level, that of second-order algebras and second-order functorial models. Our development includes a mathematical definition of syntactic translation between second-order equational presentations. This gives the first formalisation of notions such as encodings and transforms in the context of languages with variable binding.

  7. Topology in Ordered Phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanda, Satoshi; Matsuyama, Toyoki; Oda, Migaku; Asano, Yasuhiro; Yakubo, Kousuke

    2006-08-01

    I. Topology as universal concept. Optical vorticulture / M. V. Berry. On universality of mathematical structure in nature: topology / T. Matsuyama. Topology in physics / R. Jackiw. Isoholonomic problem and holonomic quantum computation / S. Tanimura -- II. Topological crystals. Topological crystals of NbSe[symbol] / S. Tanda ... [et al.]. Superconducting states on a Möbius strip / M. Hayashi ... [et al.]. Structure analyses of topological crystals using synchrotron radiation / Y. Nogami ... [et al.]. Transport measurement for topological charge density waves / T. Matsuura ... [et al.]. Theoretical study on Little-Parks oscillation in nanoscale superconducting ring / T. Suzuki, M. Hayashi and H. Ebisawa. Frustrated CDW states in topological crystals / K. Kuboki ... [et al.]. Law of growth in topological crystal / M. Tsubota ... [et al.]. Synthesis and electric properties of NbS[symbol]: possibility of room temperature charge density wave devices / H. Nobukane ... [et al.]. How does a single crystal become a Möbius strip? / T. Matsuura ... [et al.]. Development of X-ray analysis method for topological crystals / K. Yamamoto ... [et al.] -- III. Topological materials. Femtosecond-timescale structure dynamics in complex materials: the case of (NbSe[symbol])[symbol]I / D. Dvorsek and D. Mihailovic. Ultrafast dynamics of charge-density-wave in topological crystals / K. Shimatake ... [et al.]. Topology in morphologies of a folded single-chain polymer / Y. Takenaka, D. Baigl and K. Yoshikawa. One to two-dimensional conversion in topological crystals / T. Toshima, K. Inagaki and S. Tanda. Topological change of Fermi surface in Bismuth under high pressure / M. Kasami ... [et al.]. Topological change of 4, 4'-bis[9-dicarbazolyl]-2, 2'-biphenyl (CBP) by international rearrangement / K. S. Son ... [et al.]. Spin dynamics in Heisenberg triangular system VI5 cluster studied by [symbol]H-NMR / Y. Furukawa ... [et al.]. STM/STS on NbSe[symbol] nanotubes / K. Ichimura ...[et al.]. Nanofibers of hydrogen storage alloy / I. Saita ... [et al.]. Synthesis of stable icosahedral quasicrystals in Zn-Sc based alloys and their magnetic properties / S. Kashimoto and T. Ishimasa. One-armed spiral wave excited by eam pressure in accretion disks in Be/X-Ray binaries / K. Hayasaki and A. T. Okazaki -- IV. Topological defects and excitations. Topological excitations in the ground state of charge density wave systems / P. Monceau. Soliton transport in nanoscale charge-density-wave systems / K. Inagaki, T. Toshima and S. Tanda. Topological defects in triplet superconductors UPt3, Sr[symbol]RuO[symbol], etc. / K. Maki ... [et al.]. Microscopic structure of vortices in type II superconductors / K. Machida ... [et al.]. Microscopic neutron investigation of the Abrikosov state of high-temperature superconductors / J. Mesot. Energy dissipation at nano-scale topological defects of high-Tc superconductors: microwave study / A. Maeda. Pressure induced topological phase transition in the heavy Fermion compound CeAl[symbol] / H. Miyagawa ... [et al.]. Explanation for the unusual orientation of LSCO square vortex lattice in terms of nodal superconductivity / M. Oda. Local electronic states in Bi[symbol]Sr[symbol]CaCu[symbol]O[symbol] / A. Hashimoto ... [et al.] -- V. Topology in quantum phenomena. Topological vortex formation in a Bose-Einstein condensate of alkali-metal atoms / M. Nakahara. Quantum phase transition of [symbol]He confined in nano-porous media / K. Shirahama, K. Yamamoto and Y. Shibayama. A new mean-field theory for Bose-Einstein condensates / T. Kita. Spin current in topological cristals / Y. Asano. Antiferromagnetic defects in non-magnetic hidden order of the heavy-electron system URu[symbol]Si[symbol] / H. Amitsuka, K. Tenya and M. Yokoyama. Magnetic-field dependences of thermodynamic quantities in the vortex state of Type-II superconductors / K. Watanabe, T. Kita and M. Arai. Three-magnon-mediated nuclear spin relaxation in quantum ferrimagnets of topological origin / H. Hori and S, Yamamoto. Topological aspects of wave function statistics at t

  8. 7 CFR 1221.18 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.18 Order. Order...

  9. 7 CFR 1221.18 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.18 Order. Order...

  10. 7 CFR 1221.18 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.18 Order. Order...

  11. 7 CFR 1221.18 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.18 Order. Order...

  12. 7 CFR 1221.18 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.18 Order. Order...

  13. 7 CFR 1280.113 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAMB PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Lamb Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1280.113 Order. Order means...

  14. 7 CFR 1280.113 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAMB PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Lamb Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1280.113 Order. Order means...

  15. 7 CFR 1280.113 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAMB PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Lamb Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1280.113 Order. Order means...

  16. 7 CFR 1280.113 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAMB PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Lamb Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1280.113 Order. Order means...

  17. 7 CFR 1280.113 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAMB PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Lamb Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1280.113 Order. Order means...

  18. Author Order and Research Quality

    E-print Network

    Kissan, Joseph; Laband, David N.; Patil, Vivek

    2005-01-01

    We observe a great deal of heterogeneity in the manner in which author orderings are assigned both across and within academic markets. To better understand this phenomenon, we develop and analyze a stochastic model of author orderings. In our model...

  19. Nursing Aides, Orderlies, and Attendants

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Z INDEX | OOH SITE MAP | EN ESPAÑOL Healthcare > Nursing Assistants and Orderlies PRINTER-FRIENDLY EN ESPAÑOL Summary ... of workers and occupations. What They Do -> What Nursing Assistants and Orderlies Do About this section Nursing ...

  20. NCI Mouse Repository - Ordering Information

    Cancer.gov

    We have had a number of problems with orders and material transfer agreements (MTAs), so we have prepared instructions to shorten the time for processing orders. The MTA is a legal document. Therefore, please read these instructions completely before placing your order.

  1. Amends General Minimum Wage Order

    E-print Network

    Dahlquist, Kam D.

    Amends General Minimum Wage Order and IWC Industry and Occupation Orders Please Post Next to Your IWC Industry or Occupation Order OFFICIAL NOTICE California Minimum Wage MW-2014 Minimum Wage - Every and representatives of persons working in industries and occupations in the State of California: SUMMARY OF ACTIONS

  2. Amends General Minimum Wage Order

    E-print Network

    Amends General Minimum Wage Order and IWC Industry and Occupation Orders Please Post Next to Your IWC Industry or Occupation Order OFFICIAL NOTICE California Minimum Wage MW-2007 Minimum Wage - Every in industries and occupations in the State of California: SUMMARY OF ACTIONS TAKE NOTICE that on September 12

  3. A point of order 8

    E-print Network

    Semjon Adlaj

    2011-10-03

    A formula expressing a point of order 8 on an elliptic curve, in terms of the roots of the associated cubic polynomial, is given. Doubling such a point yields a point of order 4 distinct from the well-known points of order 4 given in standard references such as "A course of Modern Analysis" by Whittaker and Watson.

  4. The Greenbergian Word Order Correlations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dryer, Matthew S.

    1992-01-01

    An empirical study of word order correlations, based on a sample of 625 languages, determined exactly what pairs of elements correlate in order with the verb and object. An alternative to the Head-Dependent Theory is presented: the Branching Direction Theory, based on consistent ordering of phrasal and nonphrasal elements. (85 references)…

  5. Equilibrium structures of anisometric, quadrupolar particles confined to a monolayer

    E-print Network

    Thomas Heinemann; Moritz Antlanger; Martial Mazars; Sabine H. L. Klapp; Gerhard Kahl

    2015-12-04

    We investigate the structural properties of a two-dimensional system of ellipsoidal particles carrying a linear quadrupole moment in their center. These particles represent a simple model for a variety of uncharged, non-polar conjugated organic molecules. Using optimization tools based on ideas of Evolutionary Algorithms, we first examine the ground state structures as we vary the aspect ratio of the particles and the pressure. Interestingly, we find, besides the intuitively expected T-like configurations, a variety of complex structures, characterized with up to three different particle orientations. In an effort to explore the impact of thermal fluctuations, we perform constant-pressure Molecular Dynamics simulations within a range of rather low temperatures. We observe that ground state structures formed by particles with a large aspect ratio are in particular suited to withstand fluctuations up to rather high temperatures. Our comprehensive investigations allow for a deeper understanding of molecular or colloidal monolayer arrangements under the influence of a typical electrostatic interaction on a coarse-grained level.

  6. Adiabatic Preparation of Topological Order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamma, Alioscia; Lidar, Daniel

    2007-03-01

    Topological order characterizes those phases of matter that defy the standard description in terms of symmetry breaking and local order parameters. Topological order is found in nature in the fractional quantum Hall effect. Topologically ordered systems have ground state degeneracy that is robust against perturbations, which has given the root to topological quantum information processing. We discusss the second order quantum phase transition between a spin-polarized phase and a topologically ordered string-net condensed phase. Next we show how to prepare the topologically ordered phase through adiabatic evolution in a time that is upper bounded by O(?n). This provides a physically plausible method for constructing a topological quantum memory. We discuss applications to topological and adiabatic quantum computing.

  7. Ordered Delinquency: The “Effects” of Birth Order On Delinquency

    PubMed Central

    Cundiff, Patrick R.

    2014-01-01

    Juvenile delinquency has long been associated with birth order in popular culture. While images of the middle child acting out for attention or the rebellious youngest child readily spring to mind, little research has attempted to explain why. Drawing from Adlerian birth order theory and Sulloway's born to rebel hypothesis I examine the relationship between birth order and a variety of delinquent outcomes during adolescence. Following some recent research on birth order and intelligence, I use new methods that allow for the examination of both between-individual and within-family differences to better address the potential spurious relationship. My findings suggest that contrary to popular belief the relationship between birth order and delinquency is spurious. Specifically, I find that birth order effects on delinquency are spurious and largely products of the analytic methods used in previous tests of the relationship. The implications of this finding are discussed. PMID:23719623

  8. 7 CFR 1208.14 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROCESSED RASPBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1208.14 Order. Order means the Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order....

  9. 7 CFR 1208.14 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROCESSED RASPBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1208.14 Order. Order means the Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order....

  10. Ordering relations for quantum states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durham, Ian

    2015-03-01

    It is often desirable to model physical states in an order-theoretic manner, e.g. as a partially ordered set. Classical states are known to possess a unique ordering relation corresponding to a neo-realist interpretation of these states. No such unique relation exists for quantum states. This lack of a unique ordering relation for quantum states turns out to be a manifestation of quantum contextuality vis-à-vis the Kochen-Specker theorem. It also turns out that this provides a link to certain large-scale thermodynamic processes. The suggestion that the ordering of quantum states leads to macroscopic thermodynamic processes is at least five decades old. The suggestion that the mechanism that drives the ordering is contextuality, is unique to this work. The argument is framed in the language of the theories of domains, categories, and topoi. Financial support provided by FQXi.

  11. Complete Normal Ordering 1: Foundations

    E-print Network

    Ellis, John; Skliros, Dimitri P

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a new prescription for quantising scalar field theories perturbatively around a true minimum of the full quantum effective action, which is to `complete normal order' the bare action of interest. When the true vacuum of the theory is located at zero field value, the key property of this prescription is the automatic cancellation, to any finite order in perturbation theory, of all tadpole and, more generally, all `cephalopod' Feynman diagrams. The latter are connected diagrams that can be disconnected into two pieces by cutting one internal vertex, with either one or both pieces free from external lines. In addition, this procedure of `complete normal ordering' (which is an extension of the standard field theory definition of normal ordering) reduces by a substantial factor the number of Feynman diagrams to be calculated at any given loop order. We illustrate explicitly the complete normal ordering procedure and the cancellation of cephalopod diagrams in scalar field theories with non-derivative i...

  12. 7 CFR 1221.18 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.18 Order....

  13. 7 CFR 1221.18 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.18 Order....

  14. 7 CFR 1221.18 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.18 Order....

  15. 7 CFR 1221.18 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.18 Order....

  16. 7 CFR 1221.18 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.18 Order....

  17. 7 CFR 1218.12 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.12 Order....

  18. 7 CFR 1218.12 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.12 Order....

  19. 7 CFR 1218.12 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.12 Order....

  20. 7 CFR 1218.12 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.12 Order....

  1. 7 CFR 1218.12 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.12 Order....

  2. 7 CFR 1206.13 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.13 Order. Order...

  3. 7 CFR 1206.13 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.13 Order. Order...

  4. 7 CFR 1206.13 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.13 Order. Order means an...

  5. 7 CFR 1206.13 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.13 Order. Order means an...

  6. 7 CFR 1206.13 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.13 Order. Order means an...

  7. 7 CFR 1206.13 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.13 Order. Order means an...

  8. 7 CFR 1206.13 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.13 Order. Order means an...

  9. 7 CFR 1214.12 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHRISTMAS TREE PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Christmas Tree Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1214.12 Order....

  10. 7 CFR 1214.12 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHRISTMAS TREE PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Christmas Tree Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1214.12 Order....

  11. 7 CFR 1214.12 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHRISTMAS TREE PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Christmas Tree Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1214.12 Order....

  12. 7 CFR 1218.12 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.12 Order....

  13. 7 CFR 1218.12 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.12 Order....

  14. 7 CFR 1218.12 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.12 Order....

  15. 7 CFR 1218.12 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.12 Order....

  16. 7 CFR 1218.12 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.12 Order....

  17. Problem Order Implications for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Nan; Cohen, William W.; Koedinger, Kenneth R.

    2013-01-01

    The order of problems presented to students is an important variable that affects learning effectiveness. Previous studies have shown that solving problems in a blocked order, in which all problems of one type are completed before the student is switched to the next problem type, results in less effective performance than does solving the problems…

  18. Orderings for conjugate gradient preconditionings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ortega, James M.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of orderings on the rate of convergence of the conjugate gradient method with SSOR or incomplete Cholesky preconditioning is examined. Some results also are presented that help to explain why red/black ordering gives an inferior rate of convergence.

  19. High-Order/Low-Order methods for ocean modeling

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Newman, Christopher; Womeldorff, Geoff; Chacón, Luis; Knoll, Dana A.

    2015-06-01

    We examine a High Order/Low Order (HOLO) approach for a z-level ocean model and show that the traditional semi-implicit and split-explicit methods, as well as a recent preconditioning strategy, can easily be cast in the framework of HOLO methods. The HOLO formulation admits an implicit-explicit method that is algorithmically scalable and second-order accurate, allowing timesteps much larger than the barotropic time scale. We demonstrate how HOLO approaches, in particular the implicit-explicit method, can provide a solid route for ocean simulation to heterogeneous computing and exascale environments.

  20. Adiabatic preparation of topological order.

    PubMed

    Hamma, Alioscia; Lidar, Daniel A

    2008-01-25

    Topological order characterizes those phases of matter that defy a description in terms of symmetry and cannot be distinguished in terms of local order parameters. Here we show that a system of n spins forming a lattice on a Riemann surface can undergo a second order quantum phase transition between a spin-polarized phase and a string-net condensed phase. This is an example of a quantum phase transition between magnetic and topological order. We furthermore show how to prepare the topologically ordered phase through adiabatic evolution in a time that is upper bounded by O(sqrt[n]). This provides a physically plausible method for constructing and initializing a topological quantum memory. PMID:18232953

  1. Adiabatic Preparation of Topological Order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamma, Alioscia; Lidar, Daniel A.

    2008-01-01

    Topological order characterizes those phases of matter that defy a description in terms of symmetry and cannot be distinguished in terms of local order parameters. Here we show that a system of n spins forming a lattice on a Riemann surface can undergo a second order quantum phase transition between a spin-polarized phase and a string-net condensed phase. This is an example of a quantum phase transition between magnetic and topological order. We furthermore show how to prepare the topologically ordered phase through adiabatic evolution in a time that is upper bounded by O(n). This provides a physically plausible method for constructing and initializing a topological quantum memory.

  2. Constructing higher-order hydrodynamics: The third order

    E-print Network

    Sašo Grozdanov; Nikolaos Kaplis

    2015-11-04

    Hydrodynamics can be formulated as the gradient expansion of conserved currents in terms of the fundamental fields describing the near-equilibrium fluid flow. In the relativistic case, the Navier-Stokes equations follow from the conservation of the stress-energy tensor to first order in derivatives. In this paper, we go beyond the presently understood second-order hydrodynamics and discuss the systematisation of obtaining the hydrodynamic expansion to an arbitrarily high order. As an example of the algorithm that we present, we fully classify the gradient expansion at third order for neutral fluids in four dimensions, thus finding the most general next-to-leading-order corrections to the relativistic Navier-Stokes equations in curved space-time. In doing so, we list $20$ new transport coefficients in the conformal and $68$ in the non-conformal case, without considering any constraints that could potentially arise from the entropy current analysis. To investigate the physical implications of these new transport coefficients, we obtain the third-order corrections to the linear dispersion relations that describe the propagation of diffusion and sound waves in relativistic fluids. We also compute the corrections to the scalar (spin-$2$) two-point correlation function of the third-order stress-energy tensor. Furthermore, as an example of a non-linear hydrodynamic flow, we calculate the third-order corrections to the energy density of a boost-invariant Bjorken flow. Finally, we apply our field theoretic results to the $\\mathcal{N}=4$ supersymmetric Yang-Mills fluid at infinite 't Hooft coupling and infinite number of colours to find the values of five new linear combinations of the conformal transport coefficients.

  3. Constructing higher-order hydrodynamics: The third order

    E-print Network

    Grozdanov, Sašo

    2015-01-01

    Hydrodynamics can be formulated as the gradient expansion of conserved currents, in terms of the fundamental fields describing the near-equilibrium fluid flow. In the relativistic case, the Navier-Stokes equations follow from the conservation of the stress-energy tensor to first order in derivatives. In this paper, we go beyond the presently understood second-order hydrodynamics and discuss the systematisation of obtaining the hydrodynamic expansion to an arbitrarily high order. As an example, we fully classify the gradient expansion at third order for neutral fluids in four dimensions, thus finding the most general next-to-leading-order corrections to the relativistic Navier-Stokes equations. In the process, we list $20$ new transport coefficients in the conformal and $68$ in the non-conformal case. We also obtain the third-order corrections to the linear dispersion relations that describe the propagation of diffusion and sound waves in relativistic fluids. We apply our results to the energy-momentum transpo...

  4. Multiple order common path spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newbury, Amy B. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to a dispersive spectrometer. The spectrometer allows detection of multiple orders of light on a single focal plane array by splitting the orders spatially using a dichroic assembly. A conventional dispersion mechanism such as a defraction grating disperses the light spectrally. As a result, multiple wavelength orders can be imaged on a single focal plane array of limited spectral extent, doubling (or more) the number of spectral channels as compared to a conventional spectrometer. In addition, this is achieved in a common path device.

  5. 7 CFR 1212.15 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HONEY PACKERS AND IMPORTERS RESEARCH, PROMOTION, CONSUMER EDUCATION AND INDUSTRY INFORMATION ORDER Honey Packers and Importers Research, Promotion, Consumer Education, and Industry Information Order Definitions § 1212.15 Order. “Order” means the...

  6. Cation Ordering in Layered Nickelates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson-Cheeseman, Brittany; Zhou, Hua; Cammarata, Antonio; Hoffman, Jason; Balachandran, Prasanna; Rondinelli, James; Bhattacharya, Anand

    2013-03-01

    The single layer Ruddlesden-Popper nickelates present a model system to understand how the effects of digital dopant cation ordering may affect the properties of 2-dimensional conducting sheets. We investigate the effects of aliovalent A-site cation order on LaSrNiO4 films. Using molecular beam epitaxy, we interleave full layers of SrO and LaO in a series of chemically equivalent films, varying the pattern of SrO and LaO layers relative to the NiO2 layers. Through synchrotron surface x-ray diffraction and Coherant Bragg Rod Analysis (COBRA), we directly investigate the A-site cation order and the resulting atomic displacements for each ordering pattern. We correlate these results with theoretical calculations and transport measurements of the layered nickelate films.

  7. Order, Chaos and All That!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glasser, L.

    1989-01-01

    The evolution of ideas about the concept of chaos is surveyed. Discussed are chaos in deterministic, dynamic systems; order in dissipative systems; and thermodynamics and irreversibility. Included are logistic and bifurcation maps to illustrate points made in the discussion. (CW)

  8. Computerized provider order entry systems.

    PubMed

    2001-01-01

    Computerized provider order entry (CPOE) systems are designed to replace a hospital's paper-based ordering system. They allow users to electronically write the full range of orders, maintain an online medication administration record, and review changes made to an order by successive personnel. They also offer safety alerts that are triggered when an unsafe order (such as for a duplicate drug therapy) is entered, as well as clinical decision support to guide caregivers to less expensive alternatives or to choices that better fit established hospital protocols. CPOE systems can, when correctly configured, markedly increase efficiency and improve patient safety and patient care. However, facilities need to recognize that currently available CPOE systems require a tremendous amount of time and effort to be spent in customization before their safety and clinical support features can be effectively implemented. What's more, even after they've been customized, the systems may still allow certain unsafe orders to be entered. Thus, CPOE systems are not currently a quick or easy remedy for medical errors. ECRI's Evaluation of CPOE systems--conducted in collaboration with the Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP)--discusses these and other related issues. It also examines and compares CPOE systems from three suppliers: Eclipsys Corp., IDX Systems Corp., and Siemens Medical Solutions Health Services Corp. Our testing focuses primarily on the systems' interfacing capabilities, patient safeguards, and ease of use. PMID:11696968

  9. Complete Normal Ordering 1: Foundations

    E-print Network

    John Ellis; Nick E. Mavromatos; Dimitri P. Skliros

    2015-12-08

    We introduce a new prescription for quantising scalar field theories perturbatively around a true minimum of the full quantum effective action, which is to `complete normal order' the bare action of interest. When the true vacuum of the theory is located at zero field value, the key property of this prescription is the automatic cancellation, to any finite order in perturbation theory, of all tadpole and, more generally, all `cephalopod' Feynman diagrams. The latter are connected diagrams that can be disconnected into two pieces by cutting one internal vertex, with either one or both pieces free from external lines. In addition, this procedure of `complete normal ordering' (which is an extension of the standard field theory definition of normal ordering) reduces by a substantial factor the number of Feynman diagrams to be calculated at any given loop order. We illustrate explicitly the complete normal ordering procedure and the cancellation of cephalopod diagrams in scalar field theories with non-derivative interactions, and by using a point splitting `trick' we extend this result to theories with derivative interactions, such as those appearing as non-linear sigma-models in the world-sheet formulation of string theory. We focus here on theories with trivial vacua, generalising the discussion to non-trivial vacua in a follow-up paper.

  10. Order in a multidimensional system

    PubMed Central

    Roy Frieden, B.; Gatenby, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    We show that any convex K-dimensional system has a level of order R that is proportional to its level of Fisher information I. The proportionality constant is 1/8 the square of the longest chord connecting two surface points of the system. This result follows solely from the requirement that R decrease under small perturbations caused by a coarse graining of the system. The form for R is generally unitless, allowing the order for different phenomena, or different representations (e.g., using time vs frequency) of a given phenomenom, to be compared objectively. Order R is also invariant to uniform magnification of the system. The monotonic contraction properties of R and I define an arrow of time and imply that they are entropies, in addition to their usual status as informations. This also removes the need for data, and therefore an observer, in derivations of nonparticipatory phenomena that utilize I. Simple graphical examples of the new order measure show that it measures as well the level of “complexity” in the system. Finally, an application to cell growth during enforced distortion shows that a single hydrocarbon chain can be distorted into a membrane having equal order or complexity. Such membranes are prime constituents of living cells. PMID:21867134

  11. FIRST-ORDER SYSTEM LEAST SQUARES FOR SECOND-ORDER ...

    E-print Network

    second-order uniformly elliptic partial differential equations in n = 2 or 3 ... As an alternative to perturbation-based approaches, the least-squares ... unmodified form must be handled carefully because oscillatory divergence-free error ...... AND P. A. RAVIART, Finite Element Methods for Navier-Stokes Equations: Theory.

  12. A Law of Order: Word Order Change in Classical Aztec

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Susan M.

    1976-01-01

    The verb in Classical Aztec is slowly moving from the end of the sentence to the beginning due to the attraction of sentence initial modal particles to the verb. Not only the function but also the position of elements should be examined to account for word-order change. (SCC)

  13. Determining Reduced Order Models for Optimal Stochastic Reduced Order Models

    SciTech Connect

    Bonney, Matthew S.; Brake, Matthew R.W.

    2015-08-01

    The use of parameterized reduced order models(PROMs) within the stochastic reduced order model (SROM) framework is a logical progression for both methods. In this report, five different parameterized reduced order models are selected and critiqued against the other models along with truth model for the example of the Brake-Reuss beam. The models are: a Taylor series using finite difference, a proper orthogonal decomposition of the the output, a Craig-Bampton representation of the model, a method that uses Hyper-Dual numbers to determine the sensitivities, and a Meta-Model method that uses the Hyper-Dual results and constructs a polynomial curve to better represent the output data. The methods are compared against a parameter sweep and a distribution propagation where the first four statistical moments are used as a comparison. Each method produces very accurate results with the Craig-Bampton reduction having the least accurate results. The models are also compared based on time requirements for the evaluation of each model where the Meta- Model requires the least amount of time for computation by a significant amount. Each of the five models provided accurate results in a reasonable time frame. The determination of which model to use is dependent on the availability of the high-fidelity model and how many evaluations can be performed. Analysis of the output distribution is examined by using a large Monte-Carlo simulation along with a reduced simulation using Latin Hypercube and the stochastic reduced order model sampling technique. Both techniques produced accurate results. The stochastic reduced order modeling technique produced less error when compared to an exhaustive sampling for the majority of methods.

  14. Tree reconstruction from partial orders

    SciTech Connect

    Kannan, S.K.; Warnow, T.J.

    1993-03-01

    The problem of constructing trees given a matrix of interleaf distances is motivated by applications in computational evolutionary biology and linguistics. The general problem is to find an edge-weighted tree which most closely approximates the distance matrix. Although the construction problem is easy when the tree exactly fits the distance matrix, optimization problems under all popular criteria are either known or conjectured to be NP-complete. In this paper we consider the related problem where we are given a partial order on the pairwise distances, and wish to construct (if possible) an edge-weighted tree realizing the partial order. In particular we are interested in partial orders which arise from experiments on triples of species, which determine either a linear ordering of the three pairwise distances (called Total Order Model or TOM experiments) or only the pair(s) of minimum distance apart (called Partial Order Model or POM experiments). The POM and TOM experimental model is inspired by the model proposed by Kannan, Lawler, and Warnow for constructing trees from experiments which determine the rooted topology for any triple of species. We examine issues of construction of trees and consistency of TOM and POM experiments, where the trees may either be weighted or unweighted. Using these experiments to construct unweighted trees without nodes of degree two is motivated by a similar problem studied by Winkler, called the Discrete Metric Realization problem, which he showed to be strongly NP-hard. We have the following results: Determining consistency of a set of TOM or POM experiments is NP-Complete whether the tree is weighted or constrained to be unweighted and without degree two nodes. We can construct unweighted trees without degree two nodes from TOM experiments in optimal O(n{sup 3}) time and from POM experiments in O(n{sup 4}) time.

  15. Tree reconstruction from partial orders

    SciTech Connect

    Kannan, S.K. ); Warnow, T.J. )

    1993-01-01

    The problem of constructing trees given a matrix of interleaf distances is motivated by applications in computational evolutionary biology and linguistics. The general problem is to find an edge-weighted tree which most closely approximates the distance matrix. Although the construction problem is easy when the tree exactly fits the distance matrix, optimization problems under all popular criteria are either known or conjectured to be NP-complete. In this paper we consider the related problem where we are given a partial order on the pairwise distances, and wish to construct (if possible) an edge-weighted tree realizing the partial order. In particular we are interested in partial orders which arise from experiments on triples of species, which determine either a linear ordering of the three pairwise distances (called Total Order Model or TOM experiments) or only the pair(s) of minimum distance apart (called Partial Order Model or POM experiments). The POM and TOM experimental model is inspired by the model proposed by Kannan, Lawler, and Warnow for constructing trees from experiments which determine the rooted topology for any triple of species. We examine issues of construction of trees and consistency of TOM and POM experiments, where the trees may either be weighted or unweighted. Using these experiments to construct unweighted trees without nodes of degree two is motivated by a similar problem studied by Winkler, called the Discrete Metric Realization problem, which he showed to be strongly NP-hard. We have the following results: Determining consistency of a set of TOM or POM experiments is NP-Complete whether the tree is weighted or constrained to be unweighted and without degree two nodes. We can construct unweighted trees without degree two nodes from TOM experiments in optimal O(n[sup 3]) time and from POM experiments in O(n[sup 4]) time.

  16. 7 CFR 1214.12 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHRISTMAS TREE PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Christmas Tree Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions §...

  17. 7 CFR 1214.12 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHRISTMAS TREE PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Christmas Tree Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions §...

  18. 7 CFR 1214.12 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHRISTMAS TREE PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Christmas Tree Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions §...

  19. 7 CFR 1208.14 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROCESSED RASPBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research, and Information...Order. Order means the Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research, and...

  20. 7 CFR 1208.14 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROCESSED RASPBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research, and Information...Order. Order means the Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research, and...

  1. 7 CFR 1220.608 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures... Definitions § 1220.608 Order. Order means the Soybean Promotion and Research...

  2. 7 CFR 1220.608 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures... Definitions § 1220.608 Order. Order means the Soybean Promotion and Research...

  3. 7 CFR 1220.608 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures... Definitions § 1220.608 Order. Order means the Soybean Promotion and Research...

  4. 7 CFR 1220.608 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures... Definitions § 1220.608 Order. Order means the Soybean Promotion and Research...

  5. 7 CFR 1220.608 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures... Definitions § 1220.608 Order. Order means the Soybean Promotion and Research...

  6. 7 CFR 1219.17 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.17 Order....

  7. 7 CFR 1219.17 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.17 Order....

  8. 7 CFR 1219.17 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.17 Order....

  9. 7 CFR 1219.17 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.17 Order....

  10. Ripening of ordered breath figures

    PubMed

    Gau; Herminghaus

    2000-05-01

    We have investigated the ripening of breath figures with variable initial order. A dramatic impact of the degree of order on the coalescence behavior is observed. As opposed to the two-droplet coalescence events common to the usual disordered droplet arrays, four-droplet coalescence cascades predominate in a perfectly hexagonal breath figure. Upon introduction of disorder, a gradual transition to a regime dominated by three-droplet cascades is observed. The statistics of coalescence cascades allows for detailed conclusions on the microscopic droplet dynamics. PMID:10990634

  11. Order effects in dynamic semantics.

    PubMed

    Graben, Peter Beim

    2014-01-01

    In their target article, Wang and Busemeyer (2013) discuss question order effects in terms of incompatible projectors on a Hilbert space. In a similar vein, Blutner recently presented an orthoalgebraic query language essentially relying on dynamic update semantics. Here, I shall comment on some interesting analogies between the different variants of dynamic semantics and generalized quantum theory to illustrate other kinds of order effects in human cognition, such as belief revision, the resolution of anaphors, and default reasoning that result from the crucial non-commutativity of mental operations upon the belief state of a cognitive agent. PMID:24259268

  12. February 11, 1994 EXECUTIVE ORDER

    E-print Network

    of this order, the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency ("Administrator") or the Administrator) Department of Energy; (k) Environmental Protection Agency; (1) Office of Management and Budget; (m) Office, the Environmental Protection Agency, the Department of Health and Human Services, the Department of Housing

  13. Order computations in generic groups

    E-print Network

    Sutherland, Andrew V

    2007-01-01

    We consider the problem of computing the order of an element in a generic group. The two standard algorithms, Pollard's rho method and Shanks' baby-steps giant-steps technique, both use [theta](N^1/2) group operations to ...

  14. Peacekeeping. Perspectives in World Order.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraenkel, Jack R., Ed.; And Others

    This pamphlet, intended for senior high classroom use, defines war, peace, and peacekeeping systems; discusses the destructiveness of war; and proposes the case study method for studying world order. The major portion of the booklet explores ways of peacekeeping through analysis of four different models: collective security, collective force,…

  15. Graded infinite order jet manifolds

    E-print Network

    G. Sardanashvily

    2007-08-17

    The relevant material on differential calculus on graded infinite order jet manifolds and its cohomology is summarized. This mathematics provides the adequate formulation of Lagrangian theories of even and odd variables on smooth manifolds in terms of the Grassmann-graded variational bicomplex.

  16. Octupolar order in two dimensions

    E-print Network

    Epifanio G. Virga

    2015-04-29

    Octupolar order is described in two space dimensions in terms of the maxima (and conjugated minima) of the probability density associated with a third-rank, fully symmetric and traceless tensor. Such a representation is shown to be equivalent to diagonalizing the relevant third-rank tensor, an equivalence which however is only valid in the two-dimensional case.

  17. Moral Order and the Humanities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Thomas

    1980-01-01

    Argues that a society without reverence for myths and history inevitably falls prone to chaos and evil, pointing to abortion, Andy Warhol's celebrity, and Woodstock as evidence of this disintegration of society. Proposes that humanities education expose students to human experience based on some awesome and fixed moral order. (AYC)

  18. NCI Mouse Repository - Ordering Information

    Cancer.gov

    Mouse models are provided free of charge through the NCI Mouse Repository, however, the customer is responsible for shipping charges if the shipment must go by air or special truck. There is no charge for normal truck delivery. Up to three (3) breeder pairs are routinely supplied on an order. On occasion, larger numbers of breeder pairs may be available - please inquire.

  19. Do-not-resuscitate order

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the future. Talk to your doctor about the pros and cons of CPR. A DNR order may be a part of a hospice care plan. The focus of this care is not to prolong life, but to treat symptoms of pain or shortness ...

  20. Theses & Dissertations Binding Order Information

    E-print Network

    Gustafsson, Torgny

    , friends and colleagues, additions to a personal library, or as a handy reference. Graduate students whoseTheses & Dissertations Binding Order Information About this service... Many graduate students, or replacement of, the RUetd electronic submission process. These bound copies are useful as gifts for family

  1. The Copyright (International Conventions) (Amendment) Order 1986 

    E-print Network

    Her Majesty's Stationary Office

    1986-01-01

    This Order corrects an error In the Copyright (International Conventions) (Amendment) Order 1984, which amended the Copyright (International Conventions) Order 1979. The 1984 Order applied the Copyright Act 1956 to copyright ...

  2. Recent advances in ordered intermetallics

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, C.T.

    1994-12-31

    Ordered intermetallic alloys based on aluminides and silicides offer many advantages for structural use at high temperatures in hostile environments. Attractive properties include excellent oxidation and corrosion resistance, light weight, and superior strength at high temperatures. The major concern for structural use of intermetallics was their low ductility and poor fracture resistance at ambient temperatures. For the past 10 years, considerable effort was devoted to R&D of ordered intermetallic alloys, and progress has been made on understanding intrinsic and extrinsic factors controlling brittle fracture in intermetallic alloys based on aluminides and silicides. Parallel effort on alloy design has led to the development of a number of ductile and strong intermetallic alloys based on Ni{sub 3}Al, NiAl, Fe{sub 3}Al, FeAl, Ti{sub 3}Al, and TiAl systems for structural applications.

  3. Umbilic Lines in Orientational Order

    E-print Network

    Thomas Machon; Gareth P. Alexander

    2015-07-31

    Three-dimensional orientational order in systems whose ground states possess non-zero, chiral gradients typically exhibits line-like structures or defects: $\\lambda$ lines in cholesterics or Skyrmion tubes in ferromagnets for example. Here we show that such lines can be identified as a set of natural geometric singularities in a unit vector field, the generalisation of the umbilic points of a surface. We characterise these lines in terms of the natural vector bundles that the order defines and show that they give a way to localise and identify Skyrmion distortions in chiral materials -- in particular that they supply a natural representative of the Poincar\\'{e} dual of the cocycle describing the topology. Their global structure leads to the definition of a self-linking number and helicity integral which relates the linking of umbilic lines to the Hopf invariant of the texture.

  4. Ordering self-assembled nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Feng

    Many innovative applications of nanosciences, such as semiconductor lasers, quantum computing, information storage, quantum cryptography, and semiconductor transistors largely rely on the ability to fabricate long-range ordered nanostructures. However, conventional top-down techniques have mostly reached a bottleneck that thwarts the progress toward future miniaturization needed for the next generation of nanodevices. This constraint imposes the need to develop new manufacturing methods to engineering nanodevices on the single-digit-nanometer scale. Self-assembly, the spontaneous formation of regular arrays, is emerging as one of the most promising avenues for both miniaturization and fabrication. While self-assembly can bring us the direct large scale fabrication of nanostructures, the stochastic nature stemming from symmetry breaking bifurcation inhibits the full realization of ordered nano-arrays. Since the quality of electronic, optical, magnetic and photonic properties of nanodevices depends substantially on the uniformity of their arrangement, avoiding imperfections in self-assembly is important; thus forms the central subject of this dissertation. We propose a method for ordering self-assembled nanostructures by imposing control on the deposition using an opaque mask placed a finite distance above the substrate. This choice is motivated by studies of symmetry breaking, which suggest that boundary conditions provide a means to select among all possible broken symmetry states. We have conducted both linear and nonlinear stability analyses to derive optimal control parameters that support specific pattern formation. Numerical integrations of two morphological self-assembly models (2D biphasic surface islands in a monolayer and 3D epitaxial quantum dot growth in Stranski-Krastanow mode) show that the proposed method can indeed give large scale, well organized nanostructures.

  5. Fourth order deformed general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuttell, Peter D.; Sakellariadou, Mairi

    2014-11-01

    Whenever the condition of anomaly freedom is imposed within the framework of effective approaches to loop quantum cosmology, one seems to conclude that a deformation of general covariance is required. Here, starting from a general deformation we regain an effective gravitational Lagrangian including terms up to fourth order in extrinsic curvature. We subsequently constrain the form of the corrections for the homogeneous case, and then investigate the conditions for the occurrence of a big bounce and the realization of an inflationary era, in the presence of a perfect fluid or scalar field.

  6. The New International Economic Order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Streeten, Paul P.

    1982-12-01

    Starting from a premise of optimism, this paper first sets out the essence of the proposed New International Economic Order and then traces its origins and interpretations. It examines the options available for different groups of the developing countries and those open to the constructively-minded of the industrialized states. It also explores what avenues there might be for furthering common interests, for countering hidden biases which might be operating against developing states, and for avoiding unnecessary conflicts. The paper ends with a plea for the consideration of the higher interests both of the nation-state and of the human race.

  7. Approximate Deconvolution Reduced Order Modeling

    E-print Network

    Xie, Xuping; Wang, Zhu; Iliescu, Traian

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a large eddy simulation reduced order model(LES-ROM) framework for the numerical simulation of realistic flows. In this LES-ROM framework, the proper orthogonal decomposition(POD) is used to define the ROM basis and a POD differential filter is used to define the large ROM structures. An approximate deconvolution(AD) approach is used to solve the ROM closure problem and develop a new AD-ROM. This AD-ROM is tested in the numerical simulation of the one-dimensional Burgers equation with a small diffusion coefficient(10^{-3})

  8. Royal Order, 14 July 1987.

    PubMed

    1987-01-01

    This Order is designed to promote equality of opportunity for men and women in the private sector. It provides that equal opportunity plans can be established by employers with the cooperation of worker representatives. These plans should include a description of the plan's objective with respect to equal opportunity; a description of affirmative actions to be taken; and the date of the implementation of the plan and the dates on which intermediary steps in the plan should be attained. The plans should also contain procedures for periodical evaluation. PMID:12346625

  9. Biocatalytic induction of supramolecular order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirst, Andrew R.; Roy, Sangita; Arora, Meenakshi; Das, Apurba K.; Hodson, Nigel; Murray, Paul; Marshall, Stephen; Javid, Nadeem; Sefcik, Jan; Boekhoven, Job; van Esch, Jan H.; Santabarbara, Stefano; Hunt, Neil T.; Ulijn, Rein V.

    2010-12-01

    Supramolecular gels, which demonstrate tunable functionalities, have attracted much interest in a range of areas, including healthcare, environmental protection and energy-related technologies. Preparing these materials in a reliable manner is challenging, with an increased level of kinetic defects observed at higher self-assembly rates. Here, by combining biocatalysis and molecular self-assembly, we have shown the ability to more quickly access higher-ordered structures. By simply increasing enzyme concentration, supramolecular order expressed at molecular, nano- and micro-levels is dramatically enhanced, and, importantly, the gelator concentrations remain identical. Amphiphile molecules were prepared by attaching an aromatic moiety to a dipeptide backbone capped with a methyl ester. Their self-assembly was induced by an enzyme that hydrolysed the ester. Different enzyme concentrations altered the catalytic activity and size of the enzyme clusters, affecting their mobility. This allowed structurally diverse materials that represent local minima in the free energy landscape to be accessed based on a single gelator structure.

  10. 49 CFR 109.17 - Emergency Orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...PACKAGES, EMERGENCY ORDERS, AND EMERGENCY RECALLS Emergency Orders § 109.17 Emergency...emergency restrictions, prohibitions, recalls, or out-of-service orders, without...requirements of § 109.19. (c) Recalls. PHMSA's Associate...

  11. 49 CFR 109.17 - Emergency Orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...PACKAGES, EMERGENCY ORDERS, AND EMERGENCY RECALLS Emergency Orders § 109.17 Emergency...emergency restrictions, prohibitions, recalls, or out-of-service orders, without...requirements of § 109.19. (c) Recalls. PHMSA's Associate...

  12. 49 CFR 109.17 - Emergency Orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...PACKAGES, EMERGENCY ORDERS, AND EMERGENCY RECALLS Emergency Orders § 109.17 Emergency...emergency restrictions, prohibitions, recalls, or out-of-service orders, without...requirements of § 109.19. (c) Recalls. PHMSA's Associate...

  13. 7 CFR 1212.15 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HONEY PACKERS AND IMPORTERS RESEARCH, PROMOTION...EDUCATION AND INDUSTRY INFORMATION ORDER Honey Packers and Importers Research, Promotion...1212.15 Order. “Order” means the Honey Packers and Importers Research,...

  14. 7 CFR 1212.15 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HONEY PACKERS AND IMPORTERS RESEARCH, PROMOTION...EDUCATION AND INDUSTRY INFORMATION ORDER Honey Packers and Importers Research, Promotion...1212.15 Order. “Order” means the Honey Packers and Importers Research,...

  15. 7 CFR 1212.15 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HONEY PACKERS AND IMPORTERS RESEARCH, PROMOTION...EDUCATION AND INDUSTRY INFORMATION ORDER Honey Packers and Importers Research, Promotion...1212.15 Order. “Order” means the Honey Packers and Importers Research,...

  16. 7 CFR 1212.15 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HONEY PACKERS AND IMPORTERS RESEARCH, PROMOTION...EDUCATION AND INDUSTRY INFORMATION ORDER Honey Packers and Importers Research, Promotion...1212.15 Order. “Order” means the Honey Packers and Importers Research,...

  17. 7 CFR 1212.15 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HONEY PACKERS AND IMPORTERS RESEARCH, PROMOTION...EDUCATION AND INDUSTRY INFORMATION ORDER Honey Packers and Importers Research, Promotion...1212.15 Order. “Order” means the Honey Packers and Importers Research,...

  18. Ferromagnetic ordering in superatomic solids.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chul-Ho; Liu, Lian; Bejger, Christopher; Turkiewicz, Ari; Goko, Tatsuo; Arguello, Carlos J; Frandsen, Benjamin A; Cheung, Sky C; Medina, Teresa; Munsie, Timothy J S; D'Ortenzio, Robert; Luke, Graeme M; Besara, Tiglet; Lalancette, Roger A; Siegrist, Theo; Stephens, Peter W; Crowther, Andrew C; Brus, Louis E; Matsuo, Yutaka; Nakamura, Eiichi; Uemura, Yasutomo J; Kim, Philip; Nuckolls, Colin; Steigerwald, Michael L; Roy, Xavier

    2014-12-01

    In order to realize significant benefits from the assembly of solid-state materials from molecular cluster superatomic building blocks, several criteria must be met. Reproducible syntheses must reliably produce macroscopic amounts of pure material; the cluster-assembled solids must show properties that are more than simply averages of those of the constituent subunits; and rational changes to the chemical structures of the subunits must result in predictable changes in the collective properties of the solid. In this report we show that we can meet these requirements. Using a combination of magnetometry and muon spin relaxation measurements, we demonstrate that crystallographically defined superatomic solids assembled from molecular nickel telluride clusters and fullerenes undergo a ferromagnetic phase transition at low temperatures. Moreover, we show that when we modify the constituent superatoms, the cooperative magnetic properties change in predictable ways. PMID:25379957

  19. Thermodynamics of Intragenic Nucleosome Ordering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chevereau, G.; Palmeira, L.; Thermes, C.; Arneodo, A.; Vaillant, C.

    2009-10-01

    The nucleosome ordering observed in vivo along yeast genes is described by a thermodynamical model of nonuniform fluid of 1D hard rods confined by two excluding energy barriers at gene extremities. For interbarrier distances L?1.5kbp, nucleosomes equilibrate into a crystal-like configuration with a nucleosome repeat length (NRL) L/ñ165bp, where n is the number of regularly positioned nucleosomes. We also observe “bistable” genes with a fuzzy chromatin resulting from a statistical mixing of two crystal states, one with an expanded chromatin (NRL ˜L/n) and the other with a compact one (NRL ˜L/(n+1)). By means of single nucleosome switching, bistable genes may drastically alter their expression level as suggested by their higher transcriptional plasticity. These results enlighten the role of the intragenic chromatin on gene expression regulation.

  20. Recent advances in ordered intermetallics

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, C.T.

    1992-12-31

    This paper briefly summarizes recent advances in intermetallic research and development. Ordered intermetallics based on aluminides and silicides possess attractive properties for structural applications at elevated temperatures in hostile environments; however, brittle fracture and poor fracture resistance limit their use as engineering materials in many cases. In recent years, considerable efforts have been devoted to the study of the brittle fracture behavior of intermetallic alloys; as a result, both intrinsic and extrinsic factors governing brittle fracture have been identified. Recent advances in first-principles calculations and atomistic simulations further help us in understanding atomic bonding, dislocation configuration, and alloying effects in intermetallics. The basic understanding has led to the development of nickel, iron, and titanium aluminide alloys with improved mechanical and metallurgical properties for structural use. Industrial interest in ductile intermetallic alloys is high, and several examples of industrial involvement are mentioned.

  1. Deriving Laws from Ordering Relations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knuth, Kevin H.

    2003-01-01

    It took much effort in the early days of non-Euclidean geometry to break away from the mindset that all spaces are flat and that two distinct parallel lines do not cross. Up to that point, all that was known was Euclidean geometry, and it was difficult to imagine anything else. We have suffered a similar handicap brought on by the enormous relevance of Boolean algebra to the problems of our age-logic and set theory. Previously, I demonstrated that the algebra of questions is not Boolean, but rather is described by the free distributive algebra. To get to this stage took much effort, as many obstacles-most self-placed-had to be overcome. As Boolean algebras were all I had ever known, it was almost impossible for me to imagine working with an algebra where elements do not have complements. With this realization, it became very clear that the sum and product rules of probability theory at the most basic level had absolutely nothing to do with the Boolean algebra of logical statements. Instead, a measure of degree of inclusion can be invented for many different partially ordered sets, and the sum and product rules fall out of the associativity and distributivity of the algebra. To reinforce this very important idea, this paper will go over how these constructions are made, while focusing on the underlying assumptions. I will derive the sum and product rules for a distributive lattice in general and demonstrate how this leads to probability theory on the Boolean lattice and is related to the calculus of quantum mechanical amplitudes on the partially ordered set of experimental setups. I will also discuss the rules that can be derived from modular lattices and their relevance to the cross-ratio of projective geometry.

  2. Effect of shear on order-disorder and order-order transitions in block copolymers

    SciTech Connect

    Chien-Yueh Huang; Muthukumar, M.

    1996-12-31

    We have solved numerically the self-consistent equation for composition fluctuations in diblock and triblock copolymer systems under shear. Our results are in good agreement with known experimental data and analytical perturbation calculations. The controversy involving an apparent discrepancy between experimental data and predictions from perturbation theories is resolved. When a simple shear is applied to a chemically mismatched block copolymer melt, the composition fluctuations in the melt are distorted and suppressed; also the formation of mesophases may be induced by the hydrodynamic force. Theoretical explanations of this were given by Cates and Milner and Marques and Cates who also predicted that the shift in the shear-induced order-disorder transition (ODT) temperature increases quadratically with low shear rates ({gamma}), {delta}T{sub ODT} = T{sub ODT}{gamma} {minus} T{sub ODT}({gamma} = 0) {approximately} {gamma}{sup 2}, and saturates at high shear rates so that T{sub ODT}({gamma} {r_arrow} {integral}) will approach the prediction of the mean field theory. Recently, Nakatani et al. analyzed their experimental results together with others and constructed a master curve characterizing the common features of the shift of the transition temperatures due to shear ordering. This curve exhibits a rapid increase at low to intermediate shear rates and saturates at high shear rates and looks very different from the earlier theoretical predictions.

  3. 7 CFR 1219.17 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.17...

  4. 7 CFR 1219.17 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.17...

  5. 7 CFR 1219.17 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.17...

  6. 7 CFR 1219.17 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.17...

  7. 7 CFR 1219.17 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.17...

  8. Multilevel hierarchically ordered artificial biomineral.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoguo; Lin, Kaili; Wu, Chengtie; Wang, Yueyue; Zou, Zhaoyong; Chang, Jiang

    2014-01-15

    Living organisms are known for creating complex organic-inorganic hybrid materials such as bone, teeth, and shells, which possess outstanding functions as compared to their simple mineral forms. This has inspired many attempts to mimic such structures, but has yielded few practical advances. In this study, a multilevel hierarchically ordered artificial biomineral (a composite of hydroxyapatite and gelatine) with favorable nanomechanical properties is reported. A typical optimized HAp/gelatin hybrid material in the perpendicular direction of the HAp c-axis has a modulus of 25.91 + 1.78 GPa and hardness of 0.90 + 0.10 GPa, which well matches that of human cortical bone (modulus 24.3 + 1.4 GPa, hardness 0.69 + 0.05 GPa). The bottom-up crystal constructions (from nano- to micro- to macroscale) of this material are achieved through a hard template approach by the phase transformation from DCP to HAp. The structural biomimetic material shows another way to mimic the complex hierarchical designs of sclerous tissues which have potential value for application in hard tissue engineering. PMID:23847156

  9. Diagnosing Deconfinement and Topological Order

    E-print Network

    K. Gregor; David A. Huse; R. Moessner; S. L. Sondhi

    2010-11-18

    Topological or deconfined phases are characterized by emergent, weakly fluctuating, gauge fields. In condensed matter settings they inevitably come coupled to excitations that carry the corresponding gauge charges which invalidate the standard diagnostic of deconfinement---the Wilson loop. Inspired by a mapping between symmetric sponges and the deconfined phase of the $Z_2$ gauge theory, we construct a diagnostic for deconfinement that has the interpretation of a line tension. One operator version of this diagnostic turns out to be the Fredenhagen-Marcu order parameter known to lattice gauge theorists and we show that a different version is best suited to condensed matter systems. We discuss generalizations of the diagnostic, use it to establish the existence of finite temperature topological phases in $d \\ge 3$ dimensions and show that multiplets of the diagnostic are useful in settings with multiple phases such as $U(1)$ gauge theories with charge $q$ matter. [Additionally we present an exact reduction of the partition function of the toric code in general dimensions to a well studied problem.

  10. Boundary degeneracy of topological order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Juven C.; Wen, Xiao-Gang

    2015-03-01

    We introduce the concept of boundary degeneracy, as the ground state degeneracy of topologically ordered states on a compact orientable spatial manifold with gapped boundaries. We emphasize that the boundary degeneracy provides richer information than the bulk degeneracy. Beyond the bulk-edge correspondence, we find the ground state degeneracy of the fully gapped edge modes depends on boundary gapping conditions. By associating different types of boundary gapping conditions as different ways of particle or quasiparticle condensations on the boundary, we develop an analytic theory of gapped boundaries. By Chern-Simons theory, this allows us to derive the ground state degeneracy formula in terms of boundary gapping conditions, which encodes more than the fusion algebra of fractionalized quasiparticles. We apply our theory to Kitaev's toric code and Levin-Wen string-net models. We predict that the Z2 toric code and Z2 double-semion model [more generally, the Zk gauge theory and the U (1) k×U (1) -k nonchiral fractional quantum Hall state at even integer k ] can be numerically and experimentally distinguished, by measuring their boundary degeneracy on an annulus or a cylinder.

  11. Dislocation sources in ordered intermetallics

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, M.H.; Appel, F.; Wagner, R.; Mecking, H.

    1996-09-01

    An overview on the current understanding of dislocation sources and multiplication mechanisms is made for ordered intermetallic alloys of the L1{sub 2}, B2, and D0{sub 19} structures. In L1{sub 2} alloys, a large disparity of edge/screw segments in their relative mobility reduces the efficiency of a Frank-Read Type multiplication mechanism. In Fe-40%Al of the B2 structure, a variety of dislocation sources are available for <111> slip, including ones resulting from condensation of thermal vacancies. In NiAl with the relatively high APB energy, <100> dislocations may result from the dislocation decomposition reactions, the prismatic punching out from inclusion particles, and/or steps and coated layers of the surface. Internal interfaces often provide sites for dislocation multiplication, e.g., grain boundaries, sub-boundaries in Ni{sub 3}Ga, NiAl and Ti{sub 3}Al, and antiphase domain boundaries in Ti{sub 3}Al. As for the crack tip as a dislocation source, extended SISFs trailed by super-Shockley partials emanating form the cracks in Ni{sub 3}Al and Co{sub 3}Ti are discussed in view of a possible toughening mechanism.

  12. Interior order expands minerals management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    In a surprise move on May 10, Secretary of the Interior James G. Watt ordered the consolidation of all leasing and resource management functions for the outer continental shelf (OCS) into the Minerals Management Service (MMS). Among those programs shifted to MMS are ‘all functions in direct support of the OCS program’ in the Geologic Division and in the Office of the Assistant Director for Resource Programs of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), including oil and gas resources, energy-related hazards, and marine geology investigations. It is unclear whether research associated with the OCS leasing functions will be considered ‘direct support’ and what will happen to the research if it is so considered.Also to be shuttled to MMS are the oil-spill trajectory functions of the Office of Earth Sciences Applications and all the functions of the Office of Policy Analysis relating to the OCS that had been transferred from the Department of Energy as a result of the Interior and Related Agencies Appropriations Act.

  13. Liquid crystalline order in mucus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viney, C.; Huber, A. E.; Verdugo, P.

    1993-01-01

    Mucus plays an exceptionally wide range of important biological roles. It operates as a protective, exchange, and transport medium in the digestive, respiratory, and reproductive systems of humans and other vertebrates. Mucus is a polymer hydrogel. It is secreted as discrete packages (secretory granules) by specialized secretory cells. Mucus hydrogel is stored in a condensed state inside the secretory granules. Depending upon the architecture of their constituent macromolecules and on the composition of the solvent, polymer gels can form liquid crystalline microstructures, with orientational order being exhibited over optically resolvable distances. Individual mucin molecules consist of alternating rigid segments (heavily glycosylated; hydrophilic) and flexible segments (nonglycosylated; hydrophobic). Polymer molecules consisting of rigid units linked by flexible spacers are frequently associated with liquid crystalline behavior, which again raises the possibility that mucus could form anisotropic fluid phases. Suggestions that mucins may be self-associating in dilute solution have previously been challenged on the basis of sedimentation-equilibrium studies performed on mucus in which potential sites of association were competitively blocked with inhibitors. However, the formation of stable liquid crystalline phases does not depend on the existence of inter- or intramolecular associations; these phases can form on the basis of steric considerations alone.

  14. Fourth order spatial derivative gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Bemfica, F. S.; Gomes, M.

    2011-10-15

    In this work, we study a modified theory of gravity that contains up to fourth order spatial derivatives as a model for the Horava-Lifshitz gravity. The propagator is evaluated and, as a result, one extra pole is obtained, corresponding to a spin-2 nonrelativistic massless particle, an extra term which jeopardizes renormalizability, besides the unexpected general relativity unmodified propagator. Then unitarity is proved at the tree level, where the general relativity pole has been shown to have no dynamics, remaining only the 2 degrees of freedom of the new pole. Next, the nonrelativistic effective potential is determined from a scattering process of two identical massive gravitationally interacting bosons. In this limit, Newton's potential is obtained, together with a Darwin-like term that comes from the extra nonpole term in the propagator. Regarding renormalizability, this extra term may be harmful by power counting, but it can be eliminated by adjusting the free parameters of the model. This adjustment is in accord with the detailed balance condition suggested in the literature and shows that the way in which extra spatial derivative terms are added is of fundamental importance.

  15. Deriving Laws from Ordering Relations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knuth, Kevin H.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of Richard T. Cox's contribution to probability theory was to generalize Boolean implication among logical statements to degrees of implication, which are manipulated using rules derived from consistency with Boolean algebra. These rules are known as the sum rule, the product rule and Bayes Theorem, and the measure resulting from this generalization is probability. In this paper, I will describe how Cox s technique can be further generalized to include other algebras and hence other problems in science and mathematics. The result is a methodology that can be used to generalize an algebra to a calculus by relying on consistency with order theory to derive the laws of the calculus. My goals are to clear up the mysteries as to why the same basic structure found in probability theory appears in other contexts, to better understand the foundations of probability theory, and to extend these ideas to other areas by developing new mathematics and new physics. The relevance of this methodology will be demonstrated using examples from probability theory, number theory, geometry, information theory, and quantum mechanics.

  16. 46 CFR Sec. 7 - Job order numbering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Job order numbering. Sec. 7 Section 7...REPAIR CONTRACT-NSA-LUMPSUMREP Sec. 7 Job order numbering. (a) The NSA-LUMPSUMREP...Contract number shall be inserted in every job order and supplemental job order...

  17. 46 CFR Sec. 7 - Job order numbering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Job order numbering. Sec. 7 Section 7...REPAIR CONTRACT-NSA-LUMPSUMREP Sec. 7 Job order numbering. (a) The NSA-LUMPSUMREP...Contract number shall be inserted in every job order and supplemental job order...

  18. 46 CFR Sec. 7 - Job order numbering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Job order numbering. Sec. 7 Section 7...REPAIR CONTRACT-NSA-LUMPSUMREP Sec. 7 Job order numbering. (a) The NSA-LUMPSUMREP...Contract number shall be inserted in every job order and supplemental job order...

  19. 25 CFR 117.20 - Purchase orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Purchase orders. 117.20 Section 117.20 Indians BUREAU OF... Purchase orders. Purchase orders may be issued by the superintendent for expenditures authorized by the... prevent hardship or suffering, purchase orders may be issued by the superintendent against the...

  20. 48 CFR 213.7002 - Purchase orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Purchase orders. 213.7002... Acquisition Procedures Under the 8(a) Program 213.7002 Purchase orders. The contracting officer need not obtain a contractor's written acceptance of a purchase order or modification of a purchase order for...

  1. 48 CFR 213.7002 - Purchase orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purchase orders. 213.7002... Acquisition Procedures Under the 8(a) Program 213.7002 Purchase orders. The contracting officer need not obtain a contractor's written acceptance of a purchase order or modification of a purchase order for...

  2. 25 CFR 117.20 - Purchase orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Purchase orders. 117.20 Section 117.20 Indians BUREAU OF... Purchase orders. Purchase orders may be issued by the superintendent for expenditures authorized by the... prevent hardship or suffering, purchase orders may be issued by the superintendent against the...

  3. 40 CFR 89.503 - Test orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Test orders. 89.503 Section 89.503... Test orders. (a) A test order addressed to the manufacturer is required for any testing under this subpart. (b) The test order is signed by the Assistant Administrator for Air and Radiation or his or...

  4. 40 CFR 89.503 - Test orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Test orders. 89.503 Section 89.503... Test orders. (a) A test order addressed to the manufacturer is required for any testing under this subpart. (b) The test order is signed by the Assistant Administrator for Air and Radiation or his or...

  5. 40 CFR 90.503 - Test orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Test orders. 90.503 Section 90.503....503 Test orders. (a) The Administrator shall require any testing under this subpart by means of a test order addressed to the manufacturer. (b) The test order will be signed by the Assistant...

  6. 40 CFR 90.503 - Test orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Test orders. 90.503 Section 90.503....503 Test orders. (a) The Administrator shall require any testing under this subpart by means of a test order addressed to the manufacturer. (b) The test order will be signed by the Assistant...

  7. Order-(incommensurable disorder) phase transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Kovalenko, A.; Nagaev, E.

    1982-01-05

    In first-order phase transitions in magnetic materials exhibiting a high-order spin, the short-range-order vector above the transition point may be incommensurable with the long-range-order vector below the transition point. This theoretical result explains some experiments on UAs. Some other materials which may exhibit this effect are pointed out.

  8. 6 CFR 27.300 - Orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Orders. 27.300 Section 27.300 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY CHEMICAL FACILITY ANTI-TERRORISM STANDARDS Orders and Adjudications § 27.300 Orders. (a) Orders Generally. When the Assistant Secretary determines that a facility is in violation of any of...

  9. Executive Order 1096 Revised June 23, 2015

    E-print Network

    Puha, Amber

    Executive Order 1096 Revised June 23, 2015 Attachment B Executive Order 1096 Procedure Timeline Page 1 of 2 Executive Order 1096 provides a systemwide procedure for handling allegations individuals (see Article III C. 1. Filing a Complaint.) Below is a summary of the Executive Order 1096

  10. Structuring Order Sets for Interoperable Distribution

    PubMed Central

    McClay, James C.; Campbell, James R; Parker, Craig; Hrabak, Karen; Tu, Samson W.; Abarbanel, Robert

    2006-01-01

    A major portion of patient care planning occurs during the process of writing orders. Computerized order entry can present collections of predefined orders to the user during the ordering process. These order sets are useful for promoting standards of care, and provide one element of structured clinical knowledge to be used by Computerized Provider Order Entry (CPOE) systems at the point of care. Since the creation, confirmation and maintenance of order sets is resource intensive, sharing order sets is a useful goal. We describe a standard representation of order sets that supports maintenance, sharing and interoperation of pre-defined order sets. A dialogue within the HL7 community seeks to harmonize this proposal with the Clinical Document Architecture and the HL7 Reference Information Model. PMID:17238401

  11. 3 CFR 13499 - Executive Order 13499 of February 5, 2009. Further Amendments to Executive Order 12835...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Executive Order 13499 of February 5, 2009. Further Amendments to Executive Order 12835, Establishment of the National Economic Council 13499 Order 13499 Presidential Documents Executive Orders Executive Order 13499 of February 5, 2009 EO 13499 Further Amendments to Executive Order 12835,...

  12. 3 CFR 13500 - Executive Order 13500 of February 5, 2009. Further Amendments to Executive Order 12859...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Executive Order 13500 of February 5, 2009. Further Amendments to Executive Order 12859, Establishment of the Domestic Policy Council 13500 Order 13500 Presidential Documents Executive Orders Executive Order 13500 of February 5, 2009 EO 13500 Further Amendments to Executive Order 12859,...

  13. Ordering molecular energies by moving boxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Restrepo, Guillermo; Bernal, Andrés

    2014-09-01

    Structures such as isoprotonic-isoelectronic molecules can be mathematically represented by Young diagrams (or integer partitions), whose columns correspond to the different nuclear charges in a molecule. We found that these Young diagrams, when ordered by majorization, produce a partially ordered set, which is equivalent to the ordering of ground-state energies of the represented molecules. This result shows that the ordering of such energies can be derived by moving boxes in Young diagrams. The correspondence between majorization order and energy ordering opens the door for obtaining new general expressions for molecular properties.

  14. 19 CFR 210.75 - Proceedings to enforce exclusion orders, cease and desist orders, consent orders, and other...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., cease and desist orders, consent orders, and other Commission orders. (a) Informal enforcement proceedings. Informal enforcement proceedings may be conducted by the Commission, through the Office of Unfair... welfare, competitive conditions in the U.S. economy, the production of like or directly...

  15. 19 CFR 210.75 - Proceedings to enforce exclusion orders, cease and desist orders, consent orders, and other...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., cease and desist orders, consent orders, and other Commission orders. (a) Informal enforcement proceedings. Informal enforcement proceedings may be conducted by the Commission, through the Office of Unfair... effect of such action upon the public health and welfare, competitive conditions in the U.S. economy,...

  16. 19 CFR 210.75 - Proceedings to enforce exclusion orders, cease and desist orders, consent orders, and other...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., cease and desist orders, consent orders, and other Commission orders. (a) Informal enforcement proceedings. Informal enforcement proceedings may be conducted by the Commission, through the Office of Unfair... effect of such action upon the public health and welfare, competitive conditions in the U.S. economy,...

  17. 19 CFR 210.75 - Proceedings to enforce exclusion orders, cease and desist orders, consent orders, and other...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., cease and desist orders, consent orders, and other Commission orders. (a) Informal enforcement proceedings. Informal enforcement proceedings may be conducted by the Commission, through the Office of Unfair... effect of such action upon the public health and welfare, competitive conditions in the U.S. economy,...

  18. Visual perception of order-disorder transition

    PubMed Central

    Katkov, Mikhail; Harris, Hila; Sagi, Dov

    2015-01-01

    Our experience with the natural world, as composed of ordered entities, implies that perception captures relationships between image parts. For instance, regularities in the visual scene are rapidly identified by our visual system. Defining the regularities that govern perception is a basic, unresolved issue in neuroscience. Mathematically, perfect regularities are represented by symmetry (perfect order). The transition from ordered configurations to completely random ones has been extensively studied in statistical physics, where the amount of order is characterized by a symmetry-specific order parameter. Here we applied tools from statistical physics to study order detection in humans. Different sets of visual textures, parameterized by the thermodynamic temperature in the Boltzmann distribution, were designed. We investigated how much order is required in a visual texture for it to be discriminated from random noise. The performance of human observers was compared to Ideal and Order observers (based on the order parameter). The results indicated a high consistency in performance across human observers, much below that of the Ideal observer, but well-approximated by the Order observer. Overall, we provide a novel quantitative paradigm to address order perception. Our findings, based on this paradigm, suggest that the statistical physics formalism of order captures regularities to which the human visual system is sensitive. An additional analysis revealed that some order perception properties are captured by traditional texture discrimination models according to which discrimination is based on integrated energy within maps of oriented linear filters. PMID:26113826

  19. Ordered Rate Constitutive Theories in Eulerian Description

    E-print Network

    Nunez, Daniel

    2012-12-31

    , Giesekus model etc with variable transport properties are a subset of the general ordered rate constitutive theories for thermoviscoelastic fluids of orders (m,n). The conditions resulting from entropy inequality, leading to restrictions on the material...

  20. Petroleum: The Petroleum (Carbon Disulphide) Order, 1958 

    E-print Network

    Agnew, W.G.

    1958-01-01

    The Order in Council now revoked by Article 2 of this Order when originally made applied to bisulphide of carbon the provisions of the Acts repealed and replaced by the Petroleum (Consolidation) Act, 1928, relating to the ...

  1. How do I order SRB data?

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-10-28

    ... button for Reverb (ordering tool) or you can use the ASDC HTML Order Tool:       https://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/HORDERBIN/HTML_Start.cgi 5. You will receive email with status updates and download ...

  2. 48 CFR 213.302 - Purchase orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Purchase orders. 213.302 Section 213.302 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT... Acquisition Methods 213.302 Purchase orders....

  3. 48 CFR 213.302 - Purchase orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purchase orders. 213.302 Section 213.302 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT... Acquisition Methods 213.302 Purchase orders....

  4. 46 CFR Sec. 7 - Job order numbering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Job order numbering. Sec. 7 Section 7 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...AUTHORITY MASTER LUMP SUM REPAIR CONTRACT-NSA-LUMPSUMREP Sec. 7 Job order numbering. (a) The NSA-LUMPSUMREP...

  5. 46 CFR Sec. 7 - Job order numbering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Job order numbering. Sec. 7 Section 7 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...AUTHORITY MASTER LUMP SUM REPAIR CONTRACT-NSA-LUMPSUMREP Sec. 7 Job order numbering. (a) The NSA-LUMPSUMREP...

  6. Prioritization and control of order picking system

    E-print Network

    Kanburapa, Prachyathit

    2013-01-01

    Order Picking System (OPS) efficiency at a warehouse was studied with the goal of reducing production order lead time to 8 hours. Current material flow system and strategy were studied through interviews with personnel ...

  7. 46 CFR Sec. 7 - Job order numbering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... REPAIRS UNDER NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY MASTER LUMP SUM REPAIR CONTRACT-NSA-LUMPSUMREP Sec. 7 Job order numbering. (a) The NSA-LUMPSUMREP Contract number shall be inserted in every job order and supplemental...

  8. On the order of general linear methods.

    SciTech Connect

    Constantinescu, E. M.; Mathematics and Computer Science

    2009-09-01

    General linear (GL) methods are numerical algorithms used to solve ODEs. The standard order conditions analysis involves the GL matrix itself and a starting procedure; however, a finishing method (F) is required to extract the actual ODE solution. The standard order analysis and stability are sufficient for the convergence of any GL method. Nonetheless, using a simple GL scheme, we show that the order definition may be too restrictive. Specifically, the order for GL methods with low order intermediate components may be underestimated. In this note we explore the order conditions for GL schemes and propose a new definition for characterizing the order of GL methods, which is focused on the final result--the outcome of F--and can provide more effective algebraic order conditions.

  9. 47 CFR 1.1415 - Other orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...1415 Section 1.1415 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Grants by Random Selection Pole Attachment Complaint Procedures § 1.1415 Other orders. The Commission may issue such other orders...

  10. 20 CFR 655.121 - Job orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... orders in 20 CFR part 653, subpart F and the requirements set forth in § 655.122. (b) SWA review. (1) The SWA will review the contents of the job order for compliance with the requirements specified in 20 CFR... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Job orders. 655.121 Section 655.121...

  11. 20 CFR 655.121 - Job orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... orders in 20 CFR part 653, subpart F and the requirements set forth in § 655.122. (b) SWA review. (1) The SWA will review the contents of the job order for compliance with the requirements specified in 20 CFR... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Job orders. 655.121 Section 655.121...

  12. 20 CFR 655.121 - Job orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... orders in 20 CFR part 653, subpart F and the requirements set forth in § 655.122. (b) SWA review. (1) The SWA will review the contents of the job order for compliance with the requirements specified in 20 CFR... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Job orders. 655.121 Section 655.121...

  13. 46 CFR Sec. 7 - Job order numbering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Job order numbering. Sec. 7 Section 7 Shipping MARITIME... REPAIRS UNDER NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY MASTER LUMP SUM REPAIR CONTRACT-NSA-LUMPSUMREP Sec. 7 Job order numbering. (a) The NSA-LUMPSUMREP Contract number shall be inserted in every job order and supplemental...

  14. 20 CFR 655.121 - Job orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... orders in 20 CFR part 653, subpart F and the requirements set forth in § 655.122. (b) SWA review. (1) The SWA will review the contents of the job order for compliance with the requirements specified in 20 CFR... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Job orders. 655.121 Section 655.121...

  15. 20 CFR 655.121 - Job orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... orders in 20 CFR part 653, subpart F and the requirements set forth in § 655.122. (b) SWA review. (1) The SWA will review the contents of the job order for compliance with the requirements specified in 20 CFR... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Job orders. 655.121 Section 655.121...

  16. 46 CFR Sec. 7 - Job order numbering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Job order numbering. Sec. 7 Section 7 Shipping MARITIME... REPAIRS UNDER NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY MASTER LUMP SUM REPAIR CONTRACT-NSA-LUMPSUMREP Sec. 7 Job order numbering. (a) The NSA-LUMPSUMREP Contract number shall be inserted in every job order and supplemental...

  17. 46 CFR Sec. 7 - Job order numbering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Job order numbering. Sec. 7 Section 7 Shipping MARITIME... REPAIRS UNDER NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY MASTER LUMP SUM REPAIR CONTRACT-NSA-LUMPSUMREP Sec. 7 Job order numbering. (a) The NSA-LUMPSUMREP Contract number shall be inserted in every job order and supplemental...

  18. 46 CFR Sec. 7 - Job order numbering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Job order numbering. Sec. 7 Section 7 Shipping MARITIME... REPAIRS UNDER NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY MASTER LUMP SUM REPAIR CONTRACT-NSA-LUMPSUMREP Sec. 7 Job order numbering. (a) The NSA-LUMPSUMREP Contract number shall be inserted in every job order and supplemental...

  19. 40 CFR 27.24 - Protective order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protective order. 27.24 Section 27.24 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 27.24 Protective order. (a) A party or a prospective witness or deponent may file a motion for a protective order with respect to discovery sought by...

  20. AIAA 99--1467 LOW ORDER AERODYNAMIC

    E-print Network

    Peraire, Jaime

    AIAA 99--1467 LOW ORDER AERODYNAMIC MODELS FOR AEROELASTIC CONTROL OF TURBOMACHINES K.E. Willcox, J of Aeronautics and Astronautics 1801 Alexander Bell Drive, Suite 500, Reston, VA 22091 #12; LOW ORDER AERODYNAMIC order aerodynamic model is developed for aeroelastic analysis of turbomachines. The proper or­ thogonal

  1. 45 CFR 79.24 - Protective order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Protective order. 79.24 Section 79.24 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 79.24 Protective order. (a) A party or a prospective witness or deponent may file a motion for a protective order with respect to discovery sought by...

  2. 20 CFR 655.121 - Job orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Job orders. 655.121 Section 655.121... Prefiling Procedures § 655.121 Job orders. (a) Area of intended employment...Certification, the employer must submit a job order, Form ETA-790, to the SWA...

  3. 20 CFR 655.121 - Job orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Job orders. 655.121 Section 655.121... Prefiling Procedures § 655.121 Job orders. (a) Area of intended employment...Certification, the employer must submit a job order, Form ETA-790, to the SWA...

  4. 20 CFR 655.121 - Job orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Job orders. 655.121 Section 655.121... Prefiling Procedures § 655.121 Job orders. (a) Area of intended employment...Certification, the employer must submit a job order, Form ETA-790, to the SWA...

  5. 20 CFR 655.121 - Job orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Job orders. 655.121 Section 655.121... Prefiling Procedures § 655.121 Job orders. (a) Area of intended employment...Certification, the employer must submit a job order, Form ETA-790, to the SWA...

  6. 20 CFR 655.121 - Job orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Job orders. 655.121 Section 655.121... Prefiling Procedures § 655.121 Job orders. (a) Area of intended employment...Certification, the employer must submit a job order, Form ETA-790, to the SWA...

  7. 1 CFR 8.2 - Orderly development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Orderly development. 8.2 Section 8.2 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER SPECIAL EDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS § 8.2 Orderly development. To assure orderly development of the Code of...

  8. 1 CFR 8.2 - Orderly development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Orderly development. 8.2 Section 8.2 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER SPECIAL EDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS § 8.2 Orderly development. To assure orderly development of the Code of...

  9. 1 CFR 8.2 - Orderly development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Orderly development. 8.2 Section 8.2 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER SPECIAL EDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS § 8.2 Orderly development. To assure orderly development of the Code of...

  10. Half Orders of Magnitude Jerry R. Hobbs

    E-print Network

    Hobbs, Jerry R.

    Half Orders of Magnitude Jerry R. Hobbs USC Information Sciences Institute Marina del Rey with precise values for quantities we encounter in everyday life. We can easily come up with order-of-magnitude. However, people find it nearly as easy to come up with half-order-of- magnitude estimates

  11. Half Orders of Magnitude Jerry R. Hobbs

    E-print Network

    Hobbs, Jerry R.

    Half Orders of Magnitude Jerry R. Hobbs USC Information Sciences Institute Marina del Rey with precise values for quantities we encounter in everyday life. We can easily come up with order­of­magnitude. However, people find it nearly as easy to come up with half­order­of­ magnitude estimates

  12. 46 CFR 201.74 - Declaratory orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Declaratory orders. 201.74 Section 201.74 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION POLICY, PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Formal Proceedings, Notice, Pleadings, Replies (Rule 7) § 201.74 Declaratory orders. The Administration may issue a declaratory order...

  13. 19 CFR 4.74 - Transportation orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Transportation orders. 4.74 Section 4.74 Customs... VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Foreign Clearances § 4.74 Transportation orders. Clearance shall... voyage would be in violation of any provision of any transportation order, regulation, or...

  14. 19 CFR 4.74 - Transportation orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Transportation orders. 4.74 Section 4.74 Customs... VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Foreign Clearances § 4.74 Transportation orders. Clearance shall... voyage would be in violation of any provision of any transportation order, regulation, or...

  15. 19 CFR 4.74 - Transportation orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Transportation orders. 4.74 Section 4.74 Customs... VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Foreign Clearances § 4.74 Transportation orders. Clearance shall... voyage would be in violation of any provision of any transportation order, regulation, or...

  16. 19 CFR 4.74 - Transportation orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Transportation orders. 4.74 Section 4.74 Customs... VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Foreign Clearances § 4.74 Transportation orders. Clearance shall... voyage would be in violation of any provision of any transportation order, regulation, or...

  17. 19 CFR 4.74 - Transportation orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transportation orders. 4.74 Section 4.74 Customs... VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Foreign Clearances § 4.74 Transportation orders. Clearance shall... voyage would be in violation of any provision of any transportation order, regulation, or...

  18. Sign Order in Argentine Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massone, Maria Ignacia; Curiel, Monica

    2004-01-01

    This article focuses on word order - the order of constituents in the sentence - as one way in which languages establish the relationship between a verb and its arguments. The spoken languages of the world have been classified into three, major word-order types: SVO, VSO, and SOV. Greenberg' work (1963) on language typology has been a stimulus to…

  19. Orderly and Disorderly Play: A Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henricks, Thomas S.

    2009-01-01

    Play is sometimes said to be paradoxical because it displays one quality and the opposite of that quality at the same time. One of the best examples of this is the copresence of order and disorder. This article explores the differences between orderly and disorderly play. The author emphasizes the ways in which any event can be said to be orderly

  20. 1 CFR 8.2 - Orderly development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Orderly development. 8.2 Section 8.2 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER SPECIAL EDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS § 8.2 Orderly development. To assure orderly development of the Code of...

  1. 1 CFR 8.2 - Orderly development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Orderly development. 8.2 Section 8.2 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER SPECIAL EDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS § 8.2 Orderly development. To assure orderly development of the Code of...

  2. Extended-range order in glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Ellison, A.J.G.; Price, D.L.; Saboungi, M.L.; Egami, T.; Hu, Rui-Zhong; Howells, W.S.

    1994-03-01

    A new type of order is identified in complex glasses, characterized by diffraction peaks at values of the wave vector below those typical of intermediate-range order. Combined neutron and anomalous x-ray diffraction studies of one glass exhibiting this behavior, vitreous rubidium germanate, indicate it to be associated with chemical ordering of the two cations with respect to each other.

  3. An Analysis of Second-Order Autoshaping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward-Robinson, Jasper

    2004-01-01

    Three mechanisms can explain second-order conditioning: (1) The second-order conditioned stimulus (CS2) could activate a representation of the first-order conditioned stimulus (CS1), thereby provoking the conditioned response (CR); The CS2 could enter into an excitatory association with either (2) the representation governing the CR, or (3) with a…

  4. Abel's Theorem Simplifies Reduction of Order

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, William R.

    2011-01-01

    We give an alternative to the standard method of reduction or order, in which one uses one solution of a homogeneous, linear, second order differential equation to find a second, linearly independent solution. Our method, based on Abel's Theorem, is shorter, less complex and extends to higher order equations.

  5. Second order noncommutative corrections to gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Calmet, Xavier; Kobakhidze, Archil

    2006-08-15

    In this work, we calculate the leading order corrections to general relativity formulated on a canonical noncommutative spacetime. These corrections appear in the second order of the expansion in theta. First order corrections can only appear in the gravity-matter interactions. Some implications are briefly discussed.

  6. Executive Order 1097 Revised June 23, 2015

    E-print Network

    Puha, Amber

    Executive Order 1097 Revised June 23, 2015 Attachment B CSU Student Complaint Procedure Timeline Page 1 of 2 Pursuant to Executive Order (EO) 1097, a "Student", defined as an applicant for admission/action/incident that falls under Executive Order 1097 or as soon as possible thereafter, Students who believe they are or may

  7. Orderings and valuations 10.1 Ordered fields and their natural valuations

    E-print Network

    Kuhlmann, Franz-Viktor

    Chapter 10 Orderings and valuations 10.1 Ordered fields and their natural valuations One of the main examples for group valuations was the natural valuation of an ordered abelian group. Let us the natural valuation of the additive ordered group of the ordered field (K,

  8. The role of order in distributed programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birman, Kenneth P.; Marzullo, Keith

    1989-01-01

    The role of order in building distributed systems is discussed. It is the belief that a principle of event ordering underlies the wide range of operating systems mechanisms that were put forward for building robust distributed software. Stated concisely, this principle achieves correct distributed behavior by ordering classes of distributed events that conflict with one another. By focusing on order, simplified descriptions can be obtained and convincingly correct solutions to problems that might otherwise have looked extremely complex. Moreover, it is observed that there are a limited number of ways to obtain order, and that the choice made impacts greatly on performance.

  9. Binocular Combination of Second-Order Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jiawei; Liu, Rong; Zhou, Yifeng; Hess, Robert F.

    2014-01-01

    Phase information is a fundamental aspect of visual stimuli. However, the nature of the binocular combination of stimuli defined by modulations in contrast, so-called second-order stimuli, is presently not clear. To address this issue, we measured binocular combination for first- (luminance modulated) and second-order (contrast modulated) stimuli using a binocular phase combination paradigm in seven normal adults. We found that the binocular perceived phase of second-order gratings depends on the interocular signal ratio as has been previously shown for their first order counterparts; the interocular signal ratios when the two eyes were balanced was close to 1 in both first- and second-order phase combinations. However, second-order combination is more linear than previously found for first-order combination. Furthermore, binocular combination of second-order stimuli was similar regardless of whether the carriers in the two eyes were correlated, anti-correlated, or uncorrelated. This suggests that, in normal adults, the binocular phase combination of second-order stimuli occurs after the monocular extracting of the second-order modulations. The sensory balance associated with this second-order combination can be obtained from binocular phase combination measurements. PMID:24404180

  10. Probing order beyond the Landau paradigm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, Michael

    2007-03-01

    For many years, it was thought that Landau's theory of symmetry breaking could describe essentially all phases and phase transitions. Then, in 1982, the limitations of Landau theory were exposed in a dramatic way with the discovery of the fractional quantum Hall (FQH) effect. The FQH states contain a new kind of order - known as ``topological order'' - that is fundamentally beyond the Landau paradigm. Topological order cannot be understood using symmetry breaking, order parameters, or long range order. This poses an interesting theoretical problem: these states must contain some kind of structure that is responsible for their unusual physical properties. But what is this structure and how can we probe it without order parameters? In my talk, I will describe recent progress in answering this question. I will show that topological order is intimately connected with nonlocal quantum entanglement. I will introduce a new quantity - called ``topological entropy'' - that measures precisely this nonlocal entanglement.

  11. First-order inflation. [in cosmology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolb, Edward W.

    1991-01-01

    In the original proposal, inflation occurred in the process of a strongly first-order phase transition. This model was soon demonstrated to be fatally flawed. Subsequent models for inflation involved phase transitions that were second-order, or perhaps weakly first-order; some even involved no phase transition at all. Recently the possibility of inflation during a strongly first-order phase transition has been revived. In this paper, some models for first-order inflation are discussed, and unique signatures that result if inflation is realized in a first-order transition are emphasized. Some of the history of inflation is reviewed to demonstrate how first-order inflation differs from other models.

  12. Ionic Conductivity of Block Copolymer Electrolytes in the Vicinity of Order?Disorder and Order?Order Transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Wanakule, Nisita S.; Panday, Ashoutosh; Mullin, Scott A.; Gann, Eliot; Hexemer, Alex; Balsara, Nitash P.

    2009-09-15

    Order-order and order-disorder phase transitions in mixtures of poly(styrene-block-ethylene oxide) (SEO) copolymers and lithium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonimide) (LiTFSI), a common lithium salt used in polymer electrolytes, were studied using a combination of small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), birefringence, and ac impedance spectroscopy. The SEO/LiTFSI mixtures exhibit lamellar, hexagonally packed cylinders, and gyroid microphases. The molecular weight of the blocks and the salt concentration was adjusted to obtain order-order and order-disorder transition temperatures within the available experimental window. The ionic conductivities of the mixtures, normalized by the ionic conductivity of a 20 kg/mol homopolymer PEO sample at the salt concentration and temperature of interest, were independent of temperature, in spite of the presence of the above-mentioned phase transitions.

  13. Control of Initialized Fractional-Order Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartly, Tom T.; Lorenzo, Carl F.

    2002-01-01

    Due to the importance of historical effects in fractional-order systems, this paper presents a general fractional-order control theory that includes the time-varying initialization response. Previous studies have not properly accounted for these historical effects. The initialization response, along with the forced response, for fractional-order systems is determined. Stability properties of fractional-order systems are presented in the complex Airplane, which is a transformation of the s-plane. Time responses are discussed with respect to pole positions in the complex Airplane and frequency response behavior is included. A fractional-order vector space representation, which is a generalization of the state space concept, is presented including the initialization response. Control methods for vector representations of initialized fractional-order systems are shown. Nyquist, root-locus, and other input-output control methods are adapted to the control of fractional-order systems. Finally, the fractional-order differintegral is generalized to continuous order-distributions that have the possibility of including a continuum of fractional orders in a system element.

  14. Two variants of minimum discarded fill ordering

    SciTech Connect

    D'Azevedo, E.F. ); Forsyth, P.A.; Tang, Wei-Pai . Dept. of Computer Science)

    1991-01-01

    It is well known that the ordering of the unknowns can have a significant effect on the convergence of Preconditioned Conjugate Gradient (PCG) methods. There has been considerable experimental work on the effects of ordering for regular finite difference problems. In many cases, good results have been obtained with preconditioners based on diagonal, spiral or natural row orderings. However, for finite element problems having unstructured grids or grids generated by a local refinement approach, it is difficult to define many of the orderings for more regular problems. A recently proposed Minimum Discarded Fill (MDF) ordering technique is effective in finding high quality Incomplete LU (ILU) preconditioners, especially for problems arising from unstructured finite element grids. Testing indicates this algorithm can identify a rather complicated physical structure in an anisotropic problem and orders the unknowns in the preferred'' direction. The MDF technique may be viewed as the numerical analogue of the minimum deficiency algorithm in sparse matrix technology. At any stage of the partial elimination, the MDF technique chooses the next pivot node so as to minimize the amount of discarded fill. In this work, two efficient variants of the MDF technique are explored to produce cost-effective high-order ILU preconditioners. The Threshold MDF orderings combine MDF ideas with drop tolerance techniques to identify the sparsity pattern in the ILU preconditioners. These techniques identify an ordering that encourages fast decay of the entries in the ILU factorization. The Minimum Update Matrix (MUM) ordering technique is a simplification of the MDF ordering and is closely related to the minimum degree algorithm. The MUM ordering is especially for large problems arising from Navier-Stokes problems. Some interesting pictures of the orderings are presented using a visualization tool. 22 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs.

  15. Characteristics and override rates of order checks in a practitioner order entry system.

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Thomas H.; Nichol, W. Paul; Hoey, Patty; Savarino, James

    2002-01-01

    Order checks are important error prevention tools when used in conjunction with practitioner order entry systems. We studied characteristics of order checks generated in a sample of consecutively entered orders during a 4 week period in an electronic medical record at VA Puget Sound. We found that in the 42,641 orders where an order check could potentially be generated, 11% generated at least one order check and many generated more than one order check. The rates at which the ordering practitioner overrode 'Critical drug interaction' and 'Allergy-drug interaction' alerts in this sample were 88% and 69% respectively. This was in part due to the presence of alerts for interactions between systemic and topical medications and for alerts generated during medication renewals. Refinement in order check logic could lead to lower override rates and increase practitioner acceptance and effectiveness of order checks. PMID:12463894

  16. Imaging membrane order using environmentally sensitive fluorophores.

    PubMed

    Ashdown, G W; Owen, Dylan M

    2015-01-01

    In the lipid raft hypothesis, ordered and disordered lipid membranes are responsible for regulating the distribution, dynamics, and interactions of membrane associated proteins. Ordered and disordered bilayers may be distinguished by the degree of order in their acyl tails (the order parameter) which in turn affects lipid mobility and lipid packing. Low density lipid packing in the disordered phase allows polar water molecules to penetrate into the usually non-polar bilayer interior. Transition to the ordered phase causes condensation of the membrane, tighter lipid packing, and more complete exclusion of polar water. This process can be measured and quantified using polarity sensitive fluorophores embedded within the bilayer which then have different emission properties depending on membrane phase. Two examples of these are Laurdan and di-4-ANEPPDHQ which can be used to image membrane order distributions in live cells via a variety of microscopy techniques. PMID:25331132

  17. Variable-order fuzzy fractional PID controller.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lu; Pan, Feng; Xue, Dingyu

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, a new tuning method of variable-order fractional fuzzy PID controller (VOFFLC) is proposed for a class of fractional-order and integer-order control plants. Fuzzy logic control (FLC) could easily deal with parameter variations of control system, but the fractional-order parameters are unable to change through this way and it has confined the effectiveness of FLC. Therefore, an attempt is made in this paper to allow all the five parameters of fractional-order PID controller vary along with the transformation of system structure as the outputs of FLC, and the influence of fractional orders ? and ? on control systems has been investigated to make the fuzzy rules for VOFFLC. Four simulation results of different plants are shown to verify the availability of the proposed control strategy. PMID:25440947

  18. Invariant Higher-Order Variational Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gay-Balmaz, François; Holm, Darryl D.; Meier, David M.; Ratiu, Tudor S.; Vialard, François-Xavier

    2012-01-01

    We investigate higher-order geometric k-splines for template matching on Lie groups. This is motivated by the need to apply diffeomorphic template matching to a series of images, e.g., in longitudinal studies of Computational Anatomy. Our approach formulates Euler-Poincaré theory in higher-order tangent spaces on Lie groups. In particular, we develop the Euler-Poincaré formalism for higher-order variational problems that are invariant under Lie group transformations. The theory is then applied to higher-order template matching and the corresponding curves on the Lie group of transformations are shown to satisfy higher-order Euler-Poincaré equations. The example of SO(3) for template matching on the sphere is presented explicitly. Various cotangent bundle momentum maps emerge naturally that help organize the formulas. We also present Hamiltonian and Hamilton-Ostrogradsky Lie-Poisson formulations of the higher-order Euler-Poincaré theory for applications on the Hamiltonian side.

  19. Duplicate Orders: An Unintended Consequence of Computerized provider/physician order entry (CPOE) Implementation

    PubMed Central

    Magid, S.; Forrer, C.; Shaha, S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Computerized provider/physician order entry (CPOE) with clinical decision support (CDS) is designed to improve patient safety. However, a number of unintended consequences which include duplicate ordering have been reported. The objective of this time-series study was to characterize duplicate orders and devise strategies to minimize them. Methods Time series design with systematic weekly sampling for 84 weeks. Each week we queried the CPOE database, downloaded all active orders onto a spreadsheet, and highlighted duplicate orders. We noted the following details for each duplicate order: time, order details (e.g. drug, dose, route and frequency), ordering prescriber, including position and role, and whether the orders originated from a single order or from an order set (and the name of the order set). This analysis led to a number of interventions, including changes in: order sets, workflow, prescriber training, pharmacy procedures, and duplicate alerts. Results Duplicates were more likely to originate from different prescribers than from same prescribers; and from order sets than from single orders. After interventions, there was an 84.8% decrease in the duplication rate from weeks 1 to 84 and a 94.6% decrease from the highest (1) to the lowest week (75). Currently, we have negligible duplicate orders. Conclusions Duplicate orders can be a significant unintended consequence of CPOE. By analyzing these orders, we were able to devise and implement generalizable strategies that significantly reduced them. The incidence of duplicate orders before CPOE implementation is unknown, and our data originate from a weekly snapshot of active orders, which serves as a sample of total active orders. Thus, it should be noted that this methodology likely under-reports duplicate orders. PMID:23646085

  20. Two-dimensional order and disorder thermofields

    SciTech Connect

    Belvedere, L. V.

    2006-11-15

    The main objective of this paper was to obtain the two-dimensional order and disorder thermal operators using the Thermofield Bosonization formalism. We show that the general property of the two-dimensional world according with the bosonized Fermi field at zero temperature can be constructed as a product of an order and a disorder variables which satisfy a dual field algebra holds at finite temperature. The general correlation functions of the order and disorder thermofields are obtained.

  1. ? (H ? b b bar) to order ??s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihaila, Luminita; Schmidt, Barbara; Steinhauser, Matthias

    2015-12-01

    We compute the decay rate of the Standard Model Higgs boson to bottom quarks to order ??s. We apply the optical theorem and calculate the imaginary part of three-loop corrections to the Higgs boson propagator using asymptotic expansions in appropriately chosen mass ratios. The corrections of order ??s are of the same order of magnitude as the O (?s3) QCD corrections but have the opposite sign.

  2. An overview of task order 10

    SciTech Connect

    Rousculp, Christopher L

    2011-01-12

    Task Order 10 formalizes a collaboration in high explosive pulsed power (HEPP) experiments between LANL and VNIIEF. The focus is the VNIIEF disk explosive magnetic generator (DEMG) technology. The task order outlines a sequence of tasks and deliverables culminating in an experiment which takes place in the US utilizing US explosives and a Russian DEMG. This talk summarizes task order 10. It gives a brief history and present status in terms of the proposed high pressure EOS experiment (ALT-3).

  3. Order-memory and association-memory.

    PubMed

    Caplan, Jeremy B

    2015-09-01

    Two highly studied memory functions are memory for associations (items presented in pairs, such as SALT-PEPPER) and memory for order (a list of items whose order matters, such as a telephone number). Order- and association-memory are at the root of many forms of behaviour, from wayfinding, to language, to remembering people's names. Most researchers have investigated memory for order separately from memory for associations. Exceptions to this, associative-chaining models build an ordered list from associations between pairs of items, quite literally understanding association- and order-memory together. Alternatively, positional-coding models have been used to explain order-memory as a completely distinct function from association-memory. Both classes of model have found empirical support and both have faced serious challenges. I argue that models that combine both associative chaining and positional coding are needed. One such hybrid model, which relies on brain-activity rhythms, is promising, but remains to be tested rigourously. I consider two relatively understudied memory behaviours that demand a combination of order- and association-information: memory for the order of items within associations (is it William James or James William?) and judgments of relative order (who left the party earlier, Hermann or William?). Findings from these underexplored procedures are already difficult to reconcile with existing association-memory and order-memory models. Further work with such intermediate experimental paradigms has the potential to provide powerful findings to constrain and guide models into the future, with the aim of explaining a large range of memory functions, encompassing both association- and order-memory. PMID:25894964

  4. Marketing Milk Under Federal Orders in Texas. 

    E-print Network

    Stelly, Randall

    1960-01-01

    Milk un er Federal Orders in Texas order ZAIm includes Beckman county, Oklahoma. 3Also includes eight counties in Oklahoma. TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION R. D. LEWIS, DIRECTOR. COLLEGE STATION, TEXAS SUMMARY Some Texas dairy farmers have... been market- ing milk under federal orders since October 1951. In December 1959, 5,270, or 68 percent of Texas producers sold milk under the seven federal or- ders. In 1959 these producers marketed more than 1.8 billion pounds of milk, which...

  5. Pi Bond Orders and Bond Lengths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herndon, William C.; Parkanyi, Cyril

    1976-01-01

    Discusses three methods of correlating bond orders and bond lengths in unsaturated hydrocarbons: the Pauling theory, the Huckel molecular orbital technique, and self-consistent-field techniques. (MLH)

  6. Resonant radiation from oscillating higher order solitons.

    PubMed

    Driben, R; Yulin, A V; Efimov, A

    2015-07-27

    We present radiation mechanism exhibited by a higher order soliton. In a course of its evolution the higher-order soliton emits polychromatic radiation resulting in formation of multipeak frequency comb-like spectral band. The shape and spectral position of this band can be effectively controlled by the relative strength of the third order dispersion. An analytical description is corroborated by numerical simulations. It is shown that for longer pulses the described effect persists also under the action of higher order perturbations such as Raman and self-steepening. PMID:26367574

  7. CCII based fractional filters of different orders

    PubMed Central

    Soltan, Ahmed; Radwan, Ahmed G.; Soliman, Ahmed M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to generalize the design of continuous-time filters to the fractional domain with different orders and validates the theoretical results with two different CCII based filters. In particular, the proposed study introduces the generalized formulas for the previous fractional-order analysis of equal orders. The fractional-order filters enhance the design flexibility and prove that the integer-order performance is a very narrow subset from the fractional-order behavior due to the extra degrees of freedom. The general fundamentals of these filters are presented by calculating the maximum and minimum frequencies, the half power frequency and the right phase frequency which are considered a critical issue for the filter design. Different numerical solutions for the generalized fractional order low pass filters with two different fractional order elements are introduced and verified by the circuit simulations of two fractional-order filters: Kerwin–Huelsman–Newcomb (KHN) and Tow-Tomas CCII-based filters, showing great matching. PMID:25685483

  8. Bond-orientational order in liquid Si

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Z. Q.; Stroud, D.

    1991-01-01

    Bond-orientational order in liquid Si via Monte Carlo simulation in conjuncation with empirical two- and three-body potentials of the form proposed by Stillinger and Weber are studied. Bond-orientational order (BOO) is described in terms of combinations of spherical harmonic functions. Liquid Si is found to have pronounced short-range BOO corresponding to l = 3, as expected for a structure with local tetrahedral order. No long-range BOO is found either in the equilibrium or the supercooled liquid. When the three-body potential is artificially removed, the tetrahedral bond-orientation order disappears and the liquid assumes a close-packed structure.

  9. Higher order mechanics on graded bundles

    E-print Network

    Andrew James Bruce; Katarzyna Grabowska; Janusz Grabowski

    2014-12-09

    In this paper we develop a geometric approach to higher order mechanics on graded bundles in both, the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formalism, via the recently discovered weighted algebroids. We present the corresponding Tulczyjew triple for this higher order situation and derive in this framework the phase equations from an arbitrary (also singular) Lagrangian or Hamiltonian, as well as the Euler-Lagrange equations. As important examples, we geometrically derive the classical higher order Euler-Lagrange equations and analogous reduced equations for invariant higher order Lagrangians on Lie groupoids.

  10. Synchronization of fractional order complex dynamical networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yu; Li, Tianzeng

    2015-06-01

    In this letter the synchronization of complex dynamical networks with fractional order chaotic nodes is studied. A fractional order controller for synchronization of complex network is presented. Some new sufficient synchronization criteria are proposed based on the Lyapunov stability theory and the LaSalle invariance principle. These synchronization criteria can apply to an arbitrary fractional order complex network in which the coupling-configuration matrix and the inner-coupling matrix are not assumed to be symmetric or irreducible. It means that this method is more general and effective. Numerical simulations of two fractional order complex networks demonstrate the universality and the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  11. Higher Order Deformations of Complex Structures

    E-print Network

    Eric D'Hoker; Duong H. Phong

    2015-06-23

    Deformations of complex structures by finite Beltrami differentials are considered on general Riemann surfaces. Exact formulas to any fixed order are derived for the corresponding deformations of the period matrix, Green's functions, and correlation functions in conformal field theories with vanishing total central charge. The stress tensor is shown to give a simple representation of these deformations valid to all orders. Such deformation formulas naturally enter into the evaluation of superstring amplitudes at two-loop order with Ramond punctures, and at higher loop order, in the supergravity formulation of the RNS superstring.

  12. Chaos in a Fractional Order Chua System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenzo, Carl F.; Hartley, Tom T.; Qammar, Helen Killory

    1996-01-01

    This report studies the effects of fractional dynamics in chaotic systems. In particular, Chua's system is modified to include fractional order elements. Varying the total system order incrementally from 2.6 to 3.7 demonstrates that systems of 'order' less than three can exhibit chaos as well as other nonlinear behavior. This effectively forces a clarification of the definition of order which can no longer be considered only by the total number of differentiations or by the highest power of the Laplace variable.

  13. Tadpoles, Cephalopods, and `Complete Normal Ordering'

    E-print Network

    Dimitri P. Skliros

    2015-10-09

    We describe how to cancel (when this is desirable) all tadpole and more generally all cephalopod Feynman diagrams in generic interacting scalar field theories to all orders in perturbation theory. This cancelation reduces the number of Feynman diagrams at a given loop order by a factor of two or more, and is accomplished by introducing the notion of 'complete normal ordering' (an extension of the standard field theory definition of normal ordering) which when applied to the bare action of the theories of interest results in tadpole- and cephalopod-free Greens functions.

  14. Tadpoles, Cephalopods, and `Complete Normal Ordering'

    E-print Network

    Skliros, Dimitri P

    2015-01-01

    We describe how to cancel (when this is desirable) all tadpole and more generally all cephalopod Feynman diagrams in generic interacting scalar field theories to all orders in perturbation theory. This cancelation reduces the number of Feynman diagrams at a given loop order by a factor of two or more, and is accomplished by introducing the notion of 'complete normal ordering' (an extension of the standard field theory definition of normal ordering) which when applied to the bare action of the theories of interest results in tadpole- and cephalopod-free Greens functions.

  15. Resonant radiation from oscillating higher order solitons

    SciTech Connect

    Driben, R.; Yulin, A. V.; Efimov, A.

    2015-07-15

    We present radiation mechanism exhibited by a higher order soliton. In a course of its evolution the higher-order soliton emits polychromatic radiation resulting in formation of multipeak frequency comb-like spectral band. The shape and spectral position of this band can be effectively controlled by the relative strength of the third order dispersion. An analytical description is corroborated by numerical simulations. Research showed that for longer pulses the described effect persists also under the action of higher order perturbations such as Raman and self-steepening.

  16. Optical method of atomic ordering estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Prutskij, T.; Attolini, G.

    2013-12-04

    It is well known that within metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy (MOVPE) grown semiconductor III-V ternary alloys atomically ordered regions are spontaneously formed during the epitaxial growth. This ordering leads to bandgap reduction and to valence bands splitting, and therefore to anisotropy of the photoluminescence (PL) emission polarization. The same phenomenon occurs within quaternary semiconductor alloys. While the ordering in ternary alloys is widely studied, for quaternaries there have been only a few detailed experimental studies of it, probably because of the absence of appropriate methods of its detection. Here we propose an optical method to reveal atomic ordering within quaternary alloys by measuring the PL emission polarization.

  17. Ordered categories and ordered semigroups Jean-Eric Pin , Arnaud Pinguet, and Pascal Weil y

    E-print Network

    Weil, Pascal

    Ordered categories and ordered semigroups Jean-Eric Pin #3; , Arnaud Pinguet, and Pascal Weil y Jean-Eric.Pin@liafa.jussieu.fr, apinguet@clipper.ens.fr, Pascal.Weil@labri.u-bordeaux.fr Abstract We ordered analogues of the derived category theorem and of the delay theorem. Next we prove that the ordered

  18. 76 FR 4201 - Kiwifruit Grown in California; Order Amending Marketing Order No. 920; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-25

    ... Tuesday, June 29, 2010 (75 FR 37288). The final rule amended Marketing Order No. 920 (order), which... districts with the highest shipping volume. A final rule was published on June 29, 2010 (75 FR 37288) that... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 920 Kiwifruit Grown in California; Order Amending Marketing Order...

  19. 76 FR 23335 - Public Land Order No. 7761; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6849; Nevada

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-26

    ... Act of 1976, 43 U.S.C. 1714, it is ordered as follows: Public Land Order No. 6849 (56 FR 16278 (1991)), as corrected by Public Land Order No. 6907 (56 FR 57806 (1991)), 56 FR 24119 (1991), Public Land Order No. 6862 (56 FR 27692 (1991)), and 75 FR 74743 (2010), that withdrew 457,800 acres of the...

  20. SECOND{ORDER AND HIGHER{ORDER PERTURBATIONS OF TRAVEL TIME IN ISOTROPIC AND ANISOTROPIC MEDIA

    E-print Network

    Cerveny, Vlastislav

    SECOND{ORDER AND HIGHER{ORDER PERTURBATIONS OF TRAVEL TIME IN ISOTROPIC AND ANISOTROPIC MEDIA Lud derivatives of travel time with respect to model parameters are re- ferred to as perturbations. Explicit equations for the second{order and higher{order perturbations of travel time in both isotropic

  1. Cub Wear Order Form PRE-ORDERS are due on JULY 2

    E-print Network

    Harms, Kyle E.

    Cub Wear Order Form PRE-ORDERS are due on JULY 2 Please return completed form with check payable to Cub Wear to school office or fax copy of order form________________FILLED BY_________________ #12;Cub Wear PRE- Order Form for TRACKSUIT and LEGGINS ONLY PRE

  2. Fractional Order Sliding Mode Controller Design for Fractional Order Dynamic Systems

    E-print Network

    Efe, Mehmet Önder

    Fractional Order Sliding Mode Controller Design for Fractional Order Dynamic Systems Mehmet ¨Onder in this work. After adopting the reaching law approach, it is shown how in- teger order fractional variable structure control (FVSC) is achieved and the results are extended to the case of fractional order plants

  3. 46 CFR 108.643 - Rudder orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Rudder orders. 108.643 Section 108.643 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.643 Rudder orders. At each steering station, the direction which the wheel or steering device must...

  4. 46 CFR 550.201 - Information orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Information orders. 550.201 Section 550.201 Shipping... Production of Information § 550.201 Information orders. In furtherance of the purposes of this part— (a) The..., answers to questions, documentary material, or other information which the Commission considers...

  5. 40 CFR 27.24 - Protective order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Protective order. 27.24 Section 27.24 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 27.24... order which justice requires to protect a party or person from annoyance, embarrassment, oppression,...

  6. 40 CFR 27.24 - Protective order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Protective order. 27.24 Section 27.24 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 27.24... order which justice requires to protect a party or person from annoyance, embarrassment, oppression,...

  7. 40 CFR 27.24 - Protective order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Protective order. 27.24 Section 27.24 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 27.24... order which justice requires to protect a party or person from annoyance, embarrassment, oppression,...

  8. Chemical Dosing and First-Order Kinetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hladky, Paul W.

    2011-01-01

    College students encounter a variety of first-order phenomena in their mathematics and science courses. Introductory chemistry textbooks that discuss first-order processes, usually in conjunction with chemical kinetics or radioactive decay, stop at single, discrete dose events. Although single-dose situations are important, multiple-dose events,…

  9. 45 CFR 79.24 - Protective order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Protective order. 79.24 Section 79.24 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 79.24 Protective order. (a) A party or a prospective witness or deponent may file a motion for...

  10. Variable separation and second order superintegrability

    E-print Network

    Ciocan-Fontanine, Ionut

    Variable separation and second order superintegrability Willard Miller (Joint with E describe clearly what "separation of variables" means in general, the mechanism of variable separation order su- perintegrable systems. IMA Talk ­ p.2/59 #12;SEPARABILITY: Intuitive Partial differential

  11. Ordered Linear Logic and Applications Jeff Polakow

    E-print Network

    Spirtes, Peter

    , and for teaching me most of what I know about logic and type theory. I would also like to acknowledge some useful. After introducing the basic logical system, we show how to extend tech­ niques from linear logic to achieve an ordered logic programming language, Olli, and an ordered logical framework, OLF. Olli and OLF

  12. 40 CFR 22.31 - Final order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... order is effective 45 days after the initial decision is served on the parties. (c) Payment of a civil... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Final order. 22.31 Section 22.31 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL CONSOLIDATED RULES OF PRACTICE...

  13. 40 CFR 22.31 - Final order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... order is effective 45 days after the initial decision is served on the parties. (c) Payment of a civil... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Final order. 22.31 Section 22.31 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL CONSOLIDATED RULES OF PRACTICE...

  14. 21 CFR 1312.47 - Final order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Final order. 1312.47 Section 1312.47 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMPORTATION AND EXPORTATION OF CONTROLLED... the application for and import, export, or transshipment permit. The order shall include the...

  15. 21 CFR 1312.47 - Final order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Final order. 1312.47 Section 1312.47 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMPORTATION AND EXPORTATION OF CONTROLLED... the application for and import, export, or transshipment permit. The order shall include the...

  16. 10 CFR 590.402 - Conditional orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conditional orders. 590.402 Section 590.402 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) NATURAL GAS (ECONOMIC REGULATORY ADMINISTRATION) ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES WITH RESPECT TO THE IMPORT AND EXPORT OF NATURAL GAS Opinions and Orders § 590.402 Conditional...

  17. 7 CFR 917.100 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Order. 917.100 Section 917.100 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN...

  18. 7 CFR 917.100 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Order. 917.100 Section 917.100 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN...

  19. 7 CFR 917.100 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Order. 917.100 Section 917.100 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN...

  20. Reaction Order Ambiguity in Integrated Rate Plots

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Joe

    2008-01-01

    Integrated rate plots are frequently used in reaction kinetics to determine orders of reactions. It is often emphasised, when using this methodology in practice, that it is necessary to monitor the reaction to a substantial fraction of completion for these plots to yield unambiguous orders. The present article gives a theoretical and statistical…

  1. 45 CFR 672.10 - Default order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Default order. 672.10 Section 672.10 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ENFORCEMENT AND... showing the grounds for the order, conclusions regarding all material issues of law or discretion, and...

  2. 45 CFR 672.10 - Default order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Default order. 672.10 Section 672.10 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ENFORCEMENT AND... showing the grounds for the order, conclusions regarding all material issues of law or discretion, and...

  3. 45 CFR 672.10 - Default order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Default order. 672.10 Section 672.10 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ENFORCEMENT AND... showing the grounds for the order, conclusions regarding all material issues of law or discretion, and...

  4. 45 CFR 672.10 - Default order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Default order. 672.10 Section 672.10 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ENFORCEMENT AND... showing the grounds for the order, conclusions regarding all material issues of law or discretion, and...

  5. 45 CFR 672.10 - Default order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Default order. 672.10 Section 672.10 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ENFORCEMENT AND HEARING PROCEDURES § 672.10 Default order. (a) Default. The Presiding Officer may find a party in default (1) after motion, upon failure to file a...

  6. 40 CFR 305.24 - Default order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Default order. 305.24 Section 305.24... Default order. (a) Default. A party may be found to be in default: after motion, upon failure of the Claims Official to file a timely answer to the Request for a Hearing; after motion or sua sponte,...

  7. Absoluteness of convexly orderable A. Miller

    E-print Network

    Miller, Arnold W.

    is countable but it isn't for uncountable languages. Definition 1 An L-structure M is convexly orderable of size !1 which is not convexly orderable but in every extension of the universe V in which !V1 family mod finite does not effect independence we may assume each An is the union of k open intervals

  8. 19 CFR 4.37 - General order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false General order. 4.37 Section 4.37 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Landing and Delivery of Cargo § 4.37 General order. (a) Any merchandise or baggage regularly landed but not...

  9. 19 CFR 4.37 - General order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false General order. 4.37 Section 4.37 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Landing and Delivery of Cargo § 4.37 General order. (a) Any merchandise or baggage regularly landed but not...

  10. 48 CFR 1313.302 - Purchase orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purchase orders. 1313.302 Section 1313.302 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SIMPLIFIED ACQUISITION PROCEDURES Simplified Acquisitions Methods 1313.302 Purchase orders....

  11. 48 CFR 1313.302 - Purchase orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Purchase orders. 1313.302 Section 1313.302 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SIMPLIFIED ACQUISITION PROCEDURES Simplified Acquisitions Methods 1313.302 Purchase orders....

  12. Low-order Hamiltonian operators having momentum

    E-print Network

    Jirina Vodova

    2012-12-17

    We describe all fifth-order Hamiltonian operators in one dependent and one independent variable that possess the momentum, i.e., for which there exists a Hamiltonian associated with translation in the independent variable. Similar results for first- and third-order Hamiltonian operators were obtained earlier by Mokhov.

  13. Prediction of polar ordered oxynitride perovskites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caracas, Razvan; Cohen, R. E.

    2007-08-01

    Using a materials by design approach, the authors find a class of ordered oxynitride piezoelectrics with perovskite structure. They predict that ordered YSiO2N and YGeO2N are characterized by large nonlinear optic responses and by some of the largest polarizations known to date.

  14. 78 FR 32155 - Difenzoquat; Order Revoking Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-29

    ... Federal Register of December 19, 2012 (77 FR 75037) (FRL-9372-9), EPA issued a final data call-in order in follow-up to a proposed order which published in the Federal Register on July 6, 2012 (77 FR 39962) (FRL... Planning and Review'' (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993), this action is not subject to review by the Office...

  15. Time and Order Effects on Causal Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarado, Angelica; Jara, Elvia; Vila, Javier; Rosas, Juan M.

    2006-01-01

    Five experiments were conducted to explore trial order and retention interval effects upon causal predictive judgments. Experiment 1 found that participants show a strong effect of trial order when a stimulus was sequentially paired with two different outcomes compared to a condition where both outcomes were presented intermixed. Experiment 2…

  16. Perception of Serial Order in Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewkowicz, David J.

    2004-01-01

    Serial order is fundamental to perception, cognition and behavioral action. Three experiments investigated infants' perception, learning and discrimination of serial order. Four- and 8-month-old infants were habituated to three sequentially moving objects making visible and audible impacts and then were tested on separate test trials for their…

  17. Posterior Probabilities for a Consensus Ordering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fligner, Michael A.; Verducci, Joseph S.

    1990-01-01

    The concept of consensus ordering is defined, and formulas for exact and approximate posterior probabilities for consensus ordering are developed under the assumption of a generalized Mallows' model with a diffuse conjugate prior. These methods are applied to a data set concerning 98 college students. (SLD)

  18. 21 CFR 1301.46 - Final order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Final order. 1301.46 Section 1301.46 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE REGISTRATION OF MANUFACTURERS, DISTRIBUTORS, AND DISPENSERS OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Hearings § 1301.46 Final order. As soon as practicable...

  19. Human motion perception: Higher-order organization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, Mary K.; Proffitt, Dennis R.

    1990-01-01

    An overview is given of higher-order motion perception and organization. It is argued that motion is sufficient to fully specify a number of environmental properties, including: depth order, three-dimensional form, object displacement, and dynamics. A grammar of motion perception is proposed; applications of this work for display design are discussed.

  20. Serial Order: A Parallel Distributed Processing Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Michael I.

    Human behavior shows a variety of serially ordered action sequences. This paper presents a theory of serial order which describes how sequences of actions might be learned and performed. In this theory, parallel interactions across time (coarticulation) and parallel interactions across space (dual-task interference) are viewed as two aspects of a…