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Sample records for magnetized compact objects

  1. Thermodynamics of magnetized binary compact objects

    SciTech Connect

    Uryu, Koji; Gourgoulhon, Eric; Markakis, Charalampos

    2010-11-15

    Binary systems of compact objects with electromagnetic field are modeled by helically symmetric Einstein-Maxwell spacetimes with charged and magnetized perfect fluids. Previously derived thermodynamic laws for helically symmetric perfect-fluid spacetimes are extended to include the electromagnetic fields, and electric currents and charges; the first law is written as a relation between the change in the asymptotic Noether charge {delta}Q and the changes in the area and electric charge of black holes, and in the vorticity, baryon rest mass, entropy, charge and magnetic flux of the magnetized fluid. Using the conservation laws of the circulation of magnetized flow found by Bekenstein and Oron for the ideal magnetohydrodynamic fluid, and also for the flow with zero conducting current, we show that, for nearby equilibria that conserve the quantities mentioned above, the relation {delta}Q=0 is satisfied. We also discuss a formulation for computing numerical solutions of magnetized binary compact objects in equilibrium with emphasis on a first integral of the ideal magnetohydrodynamic-Euler equation.

  2. A SCILAB Program for Computing Rotating Magnetic Compact Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papasotiriou, P. J.; Geroyannis, V. S.

    We implement the so-called ``complex-plane iterative technique'' (CIT) to the computation of classical differentially rotating magnetic white dwarf and neutron star models. The program has been written in SCILAB (© INRIA-ENPC), a matrix-oriented high-level programming language, which can be downloaded free of charge from the site http://www-rocq.inria.fr/scilab. Due to the advanced capabilities of this language, the code is short and understandable. Highlights of the program are: (a) time-saving character, (b) easy use due to the built-in graphics user interface, (c) easy interfacing with Fortran via online dynamic link. We interpret our numerical results in various ways by extensively using the graphics environment of SCILAB.

  3. Von Zeipel's theorem for a magnetized circular flow around a compact object

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanotti, O.; Pugliese, D.

    2015-04-01

    We analyze a class of physical properties, forming the content of the so-called von Zeipel theorem, which characterizes stationary, axisymmetric, non-selfgravitating perfect fluids in circular motion in the gravitational field of a compact object. We consider the extension of the theorem to the magnetohydrodynamic regime, under the assumption of an infinitely conductive fluid, both in the Newtonian and in the relativistic framework. When the magnetic field is toroidal, the conditions required by the theorem are equivalent to integrability conditions, as it is the case for purely hydrodynamic flows. When the magnetic field is poloidal, the analysis for the relativistic regime is substantially different with respect to the Newtonian case and additional constraints, in the form of PDEs, must be imposed on the magnetic field in order to guarantee that the angular velocity depends only on the specific angular momentum . In order to deduce such physical constraints, it is crucial to adopt special coordinates, which are adapted to the surfaces. The physical significance of these results is briefly discussed.

  4. TRANSITION FROM REGULAR TO CHAOTIC CIRCULATION IN MAGNETIZED CORONAE NEAR COMPACT OBJECTS

    SciTech Connect

    Kopacek, O.; Karas, V.; Kovar, J.; StuchlIk, Z.

    2010-10-20

    Accretion onto black holes and compact stars brings material in a zone of strong gravitational and electromagnetic fields. We study dynamical properties of motion of electrically charged particles forming a highly diluted medium (a corona) in the regime of strong gravity and large-scale (ordered) magnetic field. We start our work from a system that allows regular motion, then we focus on the onset of chaos. To this end, we investigate the case of a rotating black hole immersed in a weak, asymptotically uniform magnetic field. We also consider a magnetic star, approximated by the Schwarzschild metric and a test magnetic field of a rotating dipole. These are two model examples of systems permitting energetically bound, off-equatorial motion of matter confined to the halo lobes that encircle the central body. Our approach allows us to address the question of whether the spin parameter of the black hole plays any major role in determining the degree of the chaoticness. To characterize the motion, we construct the recurrence plots (RPs) and we compare them with Poincare surfaces of section. We describe the RPs in terms of the recurrence quantification analysis, which allows us to identify the transition between different dynamical regimes. We demonstrate that this new technique is able to detect the chaos onset very efficiently and provide its quantitative measure. The chaos typically occurs when the conserved energy is raised to a sufficiently high level that allows the particles to traverse the equatorial plane. We find that the role of the black hole spin in setting the chaos is more complicated than initially thought.

  5. DC CIRCUIT POWERED BY ORBITAL MOTION: MAGNETIC INTERACTIONS IN COMPACT OBJECT BINARIES AND EXOPLANETARY SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Lai Dong

    2012-09-20

    The unipolar induction DC circuit model, originally developed by Goldreich and Lynden-Bell for the Jupiter-Io system, has been applied to different types of binary systems in recent years. We show that there exists an upper limit to the magnetic interaction torque and energy dissipation rate in such a model. This arises because when the resistance of the circuit is too small, the large current flow severely twists the magnetic flux tube connecting the two binary components, leading to the breakdown of the circuit. Applying this limit, we find that in coalescing neutron star binaries, magnetic interactions produce negligible correction to the phase evolution of the gravitational waveform, even for magnetar-like field strengths. However, energy dissipation in the binary magnetosphere may still give rise to electromagnetic radiation prior to the final merger. For ultracompact white dwarf binaries, we find that unipolar induction does not provide adequate energy dissipation to explain the observed X-ray luminosities of several sources. For exoplanetary systems containing close-in Jupiters or super-Earths, the magnetic torque and energy dissipation induced by the orbital motion are negligible, except possibly during the early T Tauri phase, when the stellar magnetic field is stronger than 10{sup 3} G.

  6. Compact objects in Horndeski gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Hector O.; Maselli, Andrea; Minamitsuji, Masato; Berti, Emanuele

    2016-04-01

    Horndeski gravity holds a special position as the most general extension of Einstein’s theory of general relativity (GR) with a single scalar degree of freedom and second-order field equations. Because of these features, Horndeski gravity is an attractive phenomenological playground to investigate the consequences of modifications of GR in cosmology and astrophysics. We present a review of the progress made so far in the study of compact objects (black holes (BHs) and neutron stars (NSs)) within Horndeski gravity. In particular, we review our recent work on slowly rotating BHs and present some new results on slowly rotating NSs.

  7. Tidal deformations of a spinning compact object

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pani, Paolo; Gualtieri, Leonardo; Maselli, Andrea; Ferrari, Valeria

    2015-07-01

    The deformability of a compact object induced by a perturbing tidal field is encoded in the tidal Love numbers, which depend sensibly on the object's internal structure. These numbers are known only for static, spherically-symmetric objects. As a first step to compute the tidal Love numbers of a spinning compact star, here we extend powerful perturbative techniques to compute the exterior geometry of a spinning object distorted by an axisymmetric tidal field to second order in the angular momentum. The spin of the object introduces couplings between electric and magnetic deformations and new classes of induced Love numbers emerge. For example, a spinning object immersed in a quadrupolar, electric tidal field can acquire some induced mass, spin, quadrupole, octupole and hexadecapole moments to second order in the spin. The deformations are encoded in a set of inhomogeneous differential equations which, remarkably, can be solved analytically in vacuum. We discuss certain subtleties in defining the tidal Love numbers in general relativity, which are due to the difficulty in separating the tidal field from the linear response of the object in the solution, even in the static case. By extending the standard procedure to identify the linear response in the static case, we prove analytically that the Love numbers of a Kerr black hole remain zero to second order in the spin. As a by-product, we provide the explicit form for a slowly-rotating, tidally-deformed Kerr black hole to quadratic order in the spin, and discuss its geodesic and geometrical properties.

  8. On the diversity of compact objects within supernova remnants - I. A parametric model for magnetic field evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Adam; Safi-Harb, Samar

    2016-04-01

    A wealth of X-ray and radio observations has revealed in the past decade a growing diversity of neutron stars (NSs) with properties spanning orders of magnitude in magnetic field strength and ages, and with emission processes explained by a range of mechanisms dictating their radiation properties. However, serious difficulties exist with the magneto-dipole model of isolated NS fields and their inferred ages, such as a large range of observed braking indices (n, with values often <3) and a mismatch between the NS and associated supernova remnant (SNR) ages. This problem arises primarily from the assumptions of a constant magnetic field with n = 3, and an initial spin period that is much smaller than the observed current period. It has been suggested that a solution to this problem involves magnetic field evolution, with some NSs having magnetic fields buried within the crust by accretion of fall-back supernova material following their birth. In this work, we explore a parametric phenomenological model for magnetic field growth that generalizes previous suggested field evolution functions, and apply it to a variety of NSs with both secure SNR associations and known ages. We explore the flexibility of the model by recovering the results of previous work on buried magnetic fields in young NSs. Our model fits suggest that apparently disparate classes of NSs may be related to one another through the time evolution of the magnetic field.

  9. Modeling the X-rays from the central compact object PSR J1852+0040 in Kesteven 79: Evidence for a strongly magnetized neutron star

    SciTech Connect

    Bogdanov, Slavko

    2014-08-01

    I present modeling of the X-ray pulsations from the central compact object (CCO) PSR J1852+0040 in the Galactic supernova remnant Kesteven 79. In the context of thermal surface radiation from a rotating neutron star (NS), a conventional polar cap model can reproduce the broad, large-amplitude X-ray pulse only with a 'pencil plus fan' beam emission pattern, which is characteristic of ≳ 10{sup 12} G NS atmospheres, much greater than the ∼10{sup 10} G external dipole field inferred from the pulsar spin-down rate. This discrepancy can be explained by an axially displaced dipole. For other beaming patterns, it is necessary to invoke high-aspect-ratio emitting regions that are greatly longitudinally elongated, possibly due to an extremely offset dipole. For all assumed emission models, the existence of strong internal magnetic fields (≳ 10{sup 14} G) that preferentially channel internal heat to only a portion of the exterior is required to account for the implied high-temperature contrast across the stellar surface. This lends further observational evidence in support of the 'hidden' strong magnetic field scenario, in which CCOs possess submerged magnetic fields that are substantially stronger than the external dipole field, presumably due to burial by fallback of supernova ejecta. I also conduct phase-resolved X-ray spectroscopy and find no evidence for prominent spin-phase-dependent absorption features that could be produced by cyclotron absorption/scattering.

  10. Compact magnetic energy storage module

    DOEpatents

    Prueitt, Melvin L.

    1994-01-01

    A superconducting compact magnetic energy storage module in which a plurality of superconducting toroids, each having a toroidally wound superconducting winding inside a poloidally wound superconducting winding, are stacked so that the flow of electricity in each toroidally wound superconducting winding is in a direction opposite from the direction of electrical flow in other contiguous superconducting toroids. This allows for minimal magnetic pollution outside of the module.

  11. Compact magnetic energy storage module

    DOEpatents

    Prueitt, M.L.

    1994-12-20

    A superconducting compact magnetic energy storage module in which a plurality of superconducting toroids, each having a toroidally wound superconducting winding inside a poloidally wound superconducting winding, are stacked so that the flow of electricity in each toroidally wound superconducting winding is in a direction opposite from the direction of electrical flow in other contiguous superconducting toroids. This allows for minimal magnetic pollution outside of the module. 4 figures.

  12. Double compact objects. II. Cosmological merger rates

    SciTech Connect

    Dominik, Michal; Belczynski, Krzysztof; Bulik, Tomasz; Fryer, Christopher; Holz, Daniel E.; Berti, Emanuele; Mandel, Ilya; O'Shaughnessy, Richard

    2013-12-10

    The development of advanced gravitational wave (GW) observatories, such as Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo, provides impetus to refine theoretical predictions for what these instruments might detect. In particular, with the range increasing by an order of magnitude, the search for GW sources is extending beyond the 'local' universe and out to cosmological distances. Double compact objects (neutron star-neutron star (NS-NS), black hole-neutron star (BH-NS), and black hole-black hole (BH-BH) systems) are considered to be the most promising GW sources. In addition, NS-NS and/or BH-NS systems are thought to be the progenitors of gamma-ray bursts and may also be associated with kilonovae. In this paper, we present the merger event rates of these objects as a function of cosmological redshift. We provide the results for four cases, each one investigating a different important evolution parameter of binary stars. Each case is also presented for two metallicity evolution scenarios. We find that (1) in most cases NS-NS systems dominate the merger rates in the local universe, while BH-BH mergers dominate at high redshift, (2) BH-NS mergers are less frequent than other sources per unit volume, for all time, and (3) natal kicks may alter the observable properties of populations in a significant way, allowing the underlying models of binary evolution and compact object formation to be easily distinguished. This is the second paper in a series of three. The third paper will focus on calculating the detection rates of mergers by GW telescopes.

  13. MACHO (MAssive Compact Halo Objects) Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    The primary aim of the MACHO Project is to test the hypothesis that a significant fraction of the dark matter in the halo of the Milky Way is made up of objects like brown dwarfs or planets: these objects have come to be known as MACHOs, for MAssive Compact Halo Objects. The signature of these objects is the occasional amplification of the light from extragalactic stars by the gravitational lens effect. The amplification can be large, but events are extremely rare: it is necessary to monitor photometrically several million stars for a period of years in order to obtain a useful detection rate. For this purpose MACHO has a two channel system that employs eight CCDs, mounted on the 50 inch telescope at Mt. Stromlo. The high data rate (several GBytes per night) is accommodated by custom electronics and on-line data reduction. The Project has taken more than 27,000 images with this system since June 1992. Analysis of a subset of these data has yielded databases containing light curves in two colors for 8 million stars in the LMC and 10 million in the bulge of the Milky Way. A search for microlensing has turned up four candidates toward the Large Magellanic Cloud and 45 toward the Galactic Bulge. The web page for data provides links to MACHO Project data portals and various specialized interfaces for viewing or searching the data. (Specialized Interface)

  14. The lack of large compact symmetric objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augusto, P.

    2009-02-01

    In recent years, `baby' (< 103 yr) and `young' (103-105 yr) radio galaxies have been found and classified, although their numbers are still small (tens). Also, they have many different names, depending on the type of survey and scientific context in which they were found: compact steep spectrum sources (CSS), giga-Hertz peaked spectrum sources (GPS) and compact-medium symmetric objects (C-MSO). The latter have the radio galaxy structure more obvious and correspond to the `babies' (CSOs; < 1 kpc) and `young' (MSOs; 1-15 kpc) radio galaxies. The log-size distribution of CSOs shows a sharp drop at 0.3 kpc. This trend continues through flat-spectrum MSOs (over the full 1-15 kpc size range). In order to find out if this lack of large CSOs and flat-spectrum MSOs is due to poor sampling (lack of surveys that probe efficiently the 0.3-15 kpc size range) and/or has physical meaning (e.g. if the lobes of CSOs expand as they grow and age, they might become CSSs, `disappearing' from the flat-spectrum MSO statistics), we have built a sample of 157 flat-spectrum radio sources with structure on ˜0.3-15 kpc scales. We are using new, archived and published data to produce and inspect hundreds of multi-frequency multi-instrument maps and models. We have already found 13 new secure CSO/MSOs. We expect to uncover ˜30-40 new CSOs and MSOs, most on the 0.3-15 kpc size range, when our project is complete.

  15. Probing the Environment of Accreting Compact Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanke, Manfred

    2011-04-01

    X-ray binaries are the topic of this thesis. They consist of a compact object -- a black hole or a neutron star -- and an ordinary star, which loses matter to the compact object. The gravitational energy released through this process of mass accretion is largely converted into X-rays. The latter are used in the present work to screen the environment of the compact object. The main focus in the case of a massive star is on its wind, which is not homogeneous, but may display structures in form of temperature and density variations. Since great importance is, in multiple respects, attached to stellar winds in astrophysics, there is large interest in general to understand these structures more thoroughly. In particular for X-ray binaries, whose compact object obtains matter from the wind of its companion star, the state of the wind can decisively influence mass accretion and its related radiation processes. A detailed introduction to the fundamentals of stellar winds, compact objects, accretion and radiation processes in X-ray binaries, as well as to the employed instruments and analysis methods, is given in chapter 1. The focus of this investigation is on Cygnus X-1, a binary system with a black hole and a blue supergiant, which form a persistently very bright X-ray source because of accretion from the stellar wind. It had been known for a long time that this source -- when the black hole is seen through the dense stellar wind -- often displays abrupt absorption events whose origin is suspected to be in clumps in the wind. More detailed physical properties of these clumps and of the wind in general are explored in this work. Observations that were specifically acquired for this study, as well as archival data from different satellite observatories, are analyzed in view of signatures of the wind and its fine structures. These results are presented in chapter 2. In a first part of the analysis, the statistical distribution of the brightness of Cyg X-1, as measured since

  16. Accretion Disk Outflows from Compact Object Mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzger, Brian

    Nuclear reactions play a key role in the accretion disks and outflows associated with the merger of binary compact objects and the central engines of gamma-ray bursts and supernovae. The proposed research program will investigate the impact of nucleosynthesis on these events and their observable signatures by means of analytic calculations and numerical simulations. One focus of this research is rapid accretion following the tidal disruption of a white dwarf (WD) by a neutron star (NS) or black hole (BH) binary companion. Tidal disruption shreds the WD into a massive torus composed of C, O, and/or He, which undergoes nuclear reactions and burns to increasingly heavier elements as it flows to smaller radii towards the central compact object. The nuclear energy so released is comparable to that released gravitationally, suggesting that burning could drastically alter the structure and stability of the accretion flow. Axisymmetric hydrodynamic simulations of the evolution of the torus including nuclear burning will be performed to explore issues such as the mass budget of the flow (accretion vs. outflows) and its thermal stability (steady burning and accretion vs. runaway explosion). The mass, velocity, and composition of outflows from the disk will be used in separate radiative transfer calculations to predict the lightcurves and spectra of the 56Ni-decay powered optical transients from WD-NS/WD-BH mergers. The possible connection of such events to recently discovered classes of sub-luminous Type I supernovae will be assessed. The coalescence of NS-NS/NS-BH binaries also results in the formation of a massive torus surrounding a central compact object. Three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the long-term evolution of such accretion disks will be performed, which for the first time follow the effects of weak interactions and the nuclear energy released by Helium recombination. The nucleosynthetic yield of disk outflows will be calculated using a detailed

  17. Magnetic fields of spherical compact stars in a braneworld

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmedov, B. J.; Fattoyev, F. J.

    2008-08-15

    We study the stellar magnetic field configuration in dependence on brane tension and present solutions of Maxwell equations in the external background space-time of a magnetized spherical star in a Randall-Sundrum II type braneworld. The star is modeled as a sphere consisting of perfect highly magnetized fluid with infinite conductivity and a frozen-in magnetic field. With respect to solutions for magnetic fields found in the Schwarzschild space-time, brane tension introduces enhancing corrections to the exterior magnetic field which could be relevant for the magnetic fields of magnetized compact objects as pulsars and magnetars and may provide observational evidence for the brane tension.

  18. Hans A. Bethe Prize: Mergers of Binary Compact Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalogera, Vassiliki

    2016-03-01

    The inspiral and eventual merger of two compact objects in binary systems are important in astrophysics across the electromagnetic spectrum and as potential gravitational-wave sources. In this talk I will select a few topics of current interest to highlight compact-object mergers, including in the context of multi-messenger astrophysics.

  19. Compact Translating-Head Magnetic Memories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katti, Romney R.

    1992-01-01

    Stationary magnetic media stores information at densities up to 6.5 Gb/cm(Sup 2). High-density memory devices combine features of advanced rotating-disk magnetic recording and playback systems with compact two-axis high-acceleration linear actuators. New devices weigh less, occupy less space, and consume less power than disk and tape recorders.

  20. Electromagnetic Powers Of Merging And Collapsing Compact Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyutikov, Maxim

    2011-09-01

    Understanding possible EM signatures of the merging and collapsing compact object is important for identifying possible sources of LIGO & LISA signals. We estimate the electromagnetic powers that can be produced as a precursor to the merger, as a prompt emission during the collapse of a NS and at the spin-down stage of the resulting Kerr BH. In particular, we find exact non-linear time-dependent structure of magnetospheres of spinning and collapsing NSs in Schwarzschild geometry. Based on this solution, we argue that the collapse of a NS into the BH happens smoothly, without natural formation of current sheets or other dissipative structures on the open field lines and, thus, does not allow the magnetic field to become disconnected from the star and escape to infinity. Thus, as long as an isolated Kerr BH can produce plasma and currents, it does not lose its open magnetic field lines, its magnetospheric structure evolved towards a split monopole and the BH spins down electromagnetically (the closed field lines get absorbed by the hole). The "no hair theorem", which assumes that the outside medium is a vacuum, is not applicable in this case: highly conducting plasma introduces a topological constraint forbidding the disconnection of the magnetic field lines from the BH. Eventually, a single random large scale spontaneous reconnection event will lead to magnetic field release, shutting down the BH engine forever.

  1. Phase transformations in shock compacted magnetic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wehrenberg, Christopher

    Shock compaction experiments were performed on soft magnetic phases Fe 4N and Fe16N2, and hard magnetic phases Nd 2Fe14B and Sm2Fe17N3 in order to determine their thermo-mechanical stability during shock loading and explore the possibility of fabricating a textured nanocomposite magnet. Gas gun experiments performed on powders pressed in a three capsule fixture showed phase transformations occurring in Fe4N, Fe16N 2, and Nd2Fe14B, while Sm2Fe17 N3 was observed to be relatively stable. Shock compaction of FCC Fe4N resulted in a partial transformation to HCP Fe3N, consistent with previous reports of the transition occurring at a static pressure of ~3 GPa. Shock compaction of Fe16N 2 produced decomposition products α-Fe, Fe4N, and FeN due to a combination of thermal effects associated with dynamic void collapse and plastic deformation. Decomposition of Nd-Fe-B, producing α-Fe and amorphous Nd-Fe-B, was observed in several shock consolidated samples and is attributed to deformation associated with shock compaction, similar to decomposition reported in ball milled Nd-Fe-B. No decomposition was observed in shock compacted samples of Sm-Fe-N, which is consistent with literature reports showing decomposition occurring only in samples compacted at a pressure above ~15 GPa. Nd-Fe-B and Sm-Fe-N were shown to accommodate deformation primarily by grain size reduction, especially in large grained materials. Hard/Soft composite magnetic materials were formed by mixing single crystal particles of Nd-Fe-B with iron nanoparticles, and the alignment-by-magnetic-field technique was able to introduce significant texture into green compacts of this mixture. While problems with decomposition of the Nd2Fe14B phase prevented fabricating bulk magnets from the aligned green compacts, retention of the nanoscale morphology of the α-Fe particles and the high alignment of the green compacts shows promise for future development of textured nanocomposite magnets through shock compaction.

  2. Compact Electric- And Magnetic-Field Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winterhalter, Daniel; Smith, Edward

    1994-01-01

    Compact sensor measures both electric and magnetic fields. Includes both short electric-field dipole and search-coil magnetometer. Three mounted orthogonally providing triaxial measurements of electromagnetic field at frequencies ranging from near 0 to about 10 kHz.

  3. Compaction dynamics of a magnetized powder.

    PubMed

    Lumay, G; Dorbolo, S; Vandewalle, N

    2009-10-01

    We have investigated experimentally the influence of a magnetic interaction between the grains on the compaction dynamics of a granular pile submitted to a series of taps. The granular material used to perform this study is a mixture of metallic and glass grains. The packing is immersed in homogeneous external magnetic field. The magnetic field induces an interaction between the metallic grains that constitutes the tunable cohesion. The compaction characteristic time and the asymptotic packing fraction have been measured as a function of the Bond number which is the ratio between the cohesive magnetic force and the grain weight. These measurements have been performed for different fractions of metallic beads in the pile. When the pile is only made of metallic grains, the characteristic compaction time increases as the square root of the Bond number. While the asymptotic packing fraction decreases as the inverse of the Bond number. For mixtures, when the fraction of magnetized grains in the pile is increased, the characteristic time increases while the asymptotic packing fraction decreases. A simple mesoscopic model based on the formation of granular chains along the magnetic field direction is proposed to explain the observed macroscopic properties of the packings. PMID:19905303

  4. Cold dark matter as compact composite objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhitnitsky, Ariel

    2006-08-01

    Dark matter (DM) being the vital ingredient in the cosmos, still remains a mystery. The standard assumption is that the collisionless cold dark matter (CCDM) particles are represented by some weakly interacting fundamental fields which cannot be associated with any standard quarks or leptons. However, recent analyses of structure on galactic and subgalactic scales have suggested discrepancies and stimulated numerous alternative proposals including, e.g. self-interacting dark matter, self-annihilating dark matter, decaying dark matter, to name just a few. We propose the alternative to the standard assumption about the nature of DM particles (which are typically assumed to be weakly interacting fundamental pointlike particles, yet to be discovered). Our proposal is based on the idea that DM particles are strongly interacting composite macroscopically large objects which made of well-known light quarks (or even antiquarks). The required weakness of the DM particle interactions is guaranteed by a small geometrical factor γ˜(area)/(volume)˜B-1/3≪1 of the composite objects with a large baryon charge B≫1, rather than by a weak coupling constant of a new field. We argue that the interaction between hadronic matter and composite dark objects does not spoil the desired properties of the latter as cold matter. We also argue that such a scenario does not contradict to the current observational data. Rather, it has natural explanations of many observed data, such as ΩDM/ΩB˜1 or 511 KeV line from the bulge of our galaxy. We also suggest that composite dark matter may modify the dynamics of structure formation in the central overdense regions of galaxies. We also present a number of other cosmological/astrophysical observations which indirectly support the novel concept of DM nature.

  5. Electromagnetic power of merging and collapsing compact objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyutikov, Maxim

    2011-06-01

    Understanding possible electromagnetic signatures of merging and collapsing compact objects is important for identifying possible sources of the LIGO signal. Electromagnetic emission can be produced as a precursor to the merger, as a prompt emission during the collapse of a neutron star and at the spin-down stage of the resulting Kerr-Newman black hole. For the neutron star-neutron star mergers, the precursor power scales as L≈BNS2GMNSRNS8/(Rorb7c), while for the neutron star-black hole mergers, it is (GM/(c2RNS))2 times smaller. We demonstrate that the time evolution of the axisymmetric force-free magnetic fields can be expressed in terms of the hyperbolic Grad-Shafranov equation, and we formulate the generalization of Ferraro’s law of isorotation to time-dependent angular velocity. We find an exact nonlinear time-dependent Michel-type (split-monopole) structure of magnetospheres driven by spinning and collapsing neutron stars in Schwarzschild geometry. Based on this solution, we argue that the collapse of a neutron star into a black hole happens smoothly, without the natural formation of current sheets or other dissipative structures on the open field lines; thus, it does not allow the magnetic field to become disconnected from the star and escape to infinity. Therefore, as long as an isolated Kerr black hole can produce plasma and currents, it does not lose its open magnetic field lines. Its magnetospheric structure evolves towards a split monopole, and the black hole spins down electromagnetically (the closed field lines get absorbed by the hole). The “no-hair theorem,” which assumes that the outside medium is a vacuum, is not applicable in this case: highly conducting plasma introduces a topological constraint forbidding the disconnection of the magnetic field lines from the black hole. Eventually, a single random large scale spontaneous reconnection event will lead to magnetic field release, shutting down the electromagnetic black hole engine forever

  6. KEPLER OBSERVATIONS OF TRANSITING HOT COMPACT OBJECTS

    SciTech Connect

    Rowe, Jason F.; Borucki, William J.; Koch, David; Lissauer, Jack J.; Howell, Steve B.; Basri, Gibor; Marcy, Geoff; Batalha, Natalie; Brown, Timothy M.; Caldwell, Douglas; Jenkins, Jon; Cochran, William D.; Dunham, Edward; Dupree, Andrea K.; Latham, David W.; Sasselov, Dimitar; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Gautier, Thomas N.; Monet, David G.

    2010-04-20

    Kepler photometry has revealed two unusual transiting companions: one orbiting an early A-star and the other orbiting a late B-star. In both cases, the occultation of the companion is deeper than the transit. The occultation and transit with follow-up optical spectroscopy reveal a 9400 K early A-star, KOI-74 (KIC 6889235), with a companion in a 5.2 day orbit with a radius of 0.08 R {sub sun} and a 10,000 K late B-star KOI-81 (KIC 8823868) that has a companion in a 24 day orbit with a radius of 0.2 R {sub sun}. We infer a temperature of 12,250 K for KOI-74b and 13,500 K for KOI-81b. We present 43 days of high duty cycle, 30 minute cadence photometry, with models demonstrating the intriguing properties of these objects, and speculate on their nature.

  7. Compact electrically detected magnetic resonance setup

    SciTech Connect

    Eckardt, Michael Harneit, Wolfgang; Behrends, Jan; Münter, Detlef

    2015-04-15

    Electrically detected magnetic resonance (EDMR) is a commonly used technique for the study of spin-dependent transport processes in semiconductor materials and electro-optical devices. Here, we present the design and implementation of a compact setup to measure EDMR, which is based on a commercially available benchtop electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometer. The electrical detection part uses mostly off-the-shelf electrical components and is thus highly customizable. We present a characterization and calibration procedure for the instrument that allowed us to quantitatively reproduce results obtained on a silicon-based reference sample with a “large-scale” state-of-the-art instrument. This shows that EDMR can be used in novel contexts relevant for semiconductor device fabrication like clean room environments and even glove boxes. As an application example, we present data on a class of environment-sensitive objects new to EDMR, semiconducting organic microcrystals, and discuss similarities and differences to data obtained for thin-film devices of the same molecule.

  8. Compact electrically detected magnetic resonance setup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckardt, Michael; Behrends, Jan; Münter, Detlef; Harneit, Wolfgang

    2015-04-01

    Electrically detected magnetic resonance (EDMR) is a commonly used technique for the study of spin-dependent transport processes in semiconductor materials and electro-optical devices. Here, we present the design and implementation of a compact setup to measure EDMR, which is based on a commercially available benchtop electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometer. The electrical detection part uses mostly off-the-shelf electrical components and is thus highly customizable. We present a characterization and calibration procedure for the instrument that allowed us to quantitatively reproduce results obtained on a silicon-based reference sample with a "large-scale" state-of-the-art instrument. This shows that EDMR can be used in novel contexts relevant for semiconductor device fabrication like clean room environments and even glove boxes. As an application example, we present data on a class of environment-sensitive objects new to EDMR, semiconducting organic microcrystals, and discuss similarities and differences to data obtained for thin-film devices of the same molecule.

  9. Dynamic magnetic compaction of porous materials

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-29

    IAP Research began development of the Dynamic Magnetic Compaction (DMC) process three years before the CRADA was established. IAP Research had experimentally demonstrated the feasibility of the process, and conducted a basic market survey. IAP identified and opened discussions with industrial partners and established the basic commercial cost structure. The purpose of this CRADA project was to predict and verify optimum pressure vs. time history for the compaction of porous copper and tungsten. LLNL modeled the rapid compaction of powdered material from an initial density of about 30% theoretical maximum to more than 90% theoretical maximum. The compaction simulations were benchmarked against existing data and new data was acquired by IAP Research. The modeling was used to perform parameter studies on the pressure loading time history, initial porosity and temperature. LLNL ran simulations using codes CALE or NITO and compared the simulations with published compaction data and equation of state (EOS) data. This project did not involve the development or modification of software code. CALE and NITO were existing software programs at LLNL. No modification of these programs occurred within the scope of the CRADA effort.

  10. Evolution of binaries with compact objects in globular clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, Natalia

    2016-02-01

    Dynamical interactions that take place between objects in dense stellar systems lead to frequent formation of exotic stellar objects, unusual binaries, and systems of higher multiplicity. They are most important for the formation of binaries with neutron stars and black holes, which are usually observationally revealed in mass-transferring binaries. Here we review the current understanding of compact object's retention, of the metallicity dependence on the formation of low-mass X-ray binaries with neutron stars, and how mass-transferring binaries with a black hole and a white dwarf can be formed. We discuss as well one old unsolved puzzle and two new puzzles posed by recent observations: what descendants do ultra-compact X-ray binaries produce, how are very compact triples formed, and how can black hole low-mass X-ray binaries acquire non-degenerate companions?

  11. Thermo-Rotational Instability in Plasma Disks Around Compact Objects*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppi, Bruno

    2008-04-01

    Differentially rotating plasma disks, around compact objects, that are imbedded in a ``seed'' magnetic field are shown to develop vertically localized ballooning modes that are driven by the combined radial gradient of the rotation frequency and the vertical gradients of the plasma density and temperature [1]. When the electron mean free path is shorter than the disk height and the (vertical) thermal conductivity can be neglected, the vertical particle flows produced by of these modes have the effect to drive the density and temperature profiles toward the ``adiabatic condition'' where ηT≡(dlnT/dz/(dlnn/dz)=2/3. Here T is the plasma temperature and n the particle density. The faster growth rates correspond to steeper temperature profiles (ηT>2/3) such as those produced by an internal (e.g. viscous) heating process. In the end, ballooning modes excited for various values of ηT can lead to the evolution of the disk into a different current carrying configuration such as a sequence of plasma rings[2].*Sponsored in part by the U.S. Department of Energy[1]B. Coppi, M.I.T. (LNS) Report HEP, 07/02, Cambridge, MA (2007), Invited Paper at the International Symposium on ``Momentum Transport in Jets, Disks and Laboratory Plasmas'', Alba, Piedmont, September 2007, to be published in Europhysical Letters (EPL, IOP)[2]B. Coppi andF. Rousseau, Ap. J., 641, 458, (2006)

  12. Dynamic Hysteresis in Compacted Magnetic Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdary, Krishna M.

    The frequency and temperature dependent magnetic response of a bulk soft magnetic nanocomposite made by compacting Fe10Co 90 nanoparticles was measured and modeled. Electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction were used to characterize the size, composition, and structure of the nanoparticles and nanocomposite. Polyol synthesis was used to produce 200 nm particles with average grain size 20 nm and large superparamagnetic fraction. The nanoparticles were consolidated to 90% theoretical density by plasma pressure compaction. The compacted nanoparticles retained the 20 nm average grain size and large superparamagnetic fraction. The nanocomposite resistivity was more than three times that of the bulk alloy. Vibrating sample and SQUID-MPMS magnetometers were used for low frequency magnetic measurements of the nanoparticles and nanocomposite. Compaction reduced the coercivity from 175 Oe to 8 Oe and the effective anisotropy from 124 x 10 3 ergs/cc to 7.9 x 103 ergs/cc. These reductions were caused by increased exchange coupling between surface nanograins, consistent with predictions from the Random Anisotropy model. Varying degrees of exchange coupling existed within the nanocomposite, contributing to a distribution of energy barriers. A permeameter was used for frequency dependent magnetic measurements on a toroid cut from the nanocomposite. Complex permeability, coercivity, and power loss were extracted from dynamic minor hysteresis loops measured over a range of temperatures (77 K - 873 K) and frequencies (0.1 kHz - 100 kHz). The real and imaginary parts of the complex permeability spectrum showed asymmetries consistent with a distribution of energy barriers and high damping. When the complex permeability, power loss, and coercivity were scaled relative to the peak frequency of the imaginary permeability, all fell on universal curves. Various microscopic and macroscopic models for the complex permeability were investigated. The complex permeability was successfully fit

  13. What Are the Compact Central Objects in Supernova Remnants?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graber, James

    2002-04-01

    Recent Chandra observations of the compact central objects in supernova remnants have shown puzzling results that do not seem to be consistent with either black holes or neutron stars. (See e.g. Pavlov, Sanwal, Garmire and Zavlin, astro-ph-0112322.) In particular, the inferred effective emitting surface is too small to be the entire surface of a neutron star, but too bright to be a black hole. We discuss the possibility that these compact objects might be red holes instead of black holes or neutron stars. Red holes, which occur in alternate theories of gravity, naturally predict both the greater brightness of the emissions and the smaller effective size of the emitting surface from a collapsed object of the appropriate mass.

  14. Compact Multitube Helicon Source with Permanent Magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Francis F.; Torreblanca, Humberto

    2006-10-01

    In spite of their efficiency, helicon sources are not readily adopted by industry because they require a large, heavy electromagnet and its power supply. Annular permanent magnets can create the B-field compactly and cheaply, but only if the plasma is placed outside the magnet in its remote field, so that the internal field lines do not carry the plasma into the wall. An 8-tube array of such sources has been constructed and tested. The size and shape of each tube was optimized by computation. The source can be extended to provide uniform densities of order 10^12 cm-3 over an arbitrarily large substrate. This source, which requires only six inches of height above the processing chamber, would be useful for web-coating, optical coating, and etching of flat-panel displays and solar cells.

  15. Gravitational effects of condensate dark matter on compact stellar objects

    SciTech Connect

    Li, X.Y.; Wang, F.Y.; Cheng, K.S. E-mail: fayinwang@gmail.com

    2012-10-01

    We study the gravitational effect of non-self-annihilating dark matter on compact stellar objects. The self-interaction of condensate dark matter can give high accretion rate of dark matter onto stars. Phase transition to condensation state takes place when the dark matter density exceeds the critical value. A compact degenerate dark matter core is developed and alter the structure and stability of the stellar objects. Condensate dark matter admixed neutron stars is studied through the two-fluid TOV equation. The existence of condensate dark matter deforms the mass-radius relation of neutron stars and lower their maximum baryonic masses and radii. The possible effects on the Gamma-ray Burst rate in high redshift are discussed.

  16. Studies of compact objects with Einstein - Review and prospects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grindlay, Jonathan E.

    1990-01-01

    X-ray images and spectra of a wide range of systems containing compact objects were obtained with the Einstein X-ray Observatory. Accreting white dwarfs, neutron stars and black holes were observed in binary systems in the Galaxy, and new constraints were derived for their formation, nature and evolution. Massive black holes were studied in active galactic nuclei, and X-ray spectra (and evolution) of AGN have led to a new model for the diffuse X-ray background.

  17. Holographic equations of state and astrophysical compact objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Youngman; Lee, Chang-Hwan; Shin, Ik Jae; Wan, Mew-Bing

    2011-10-01

    We solve the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equation using an equation of state (EoS) calculated in holographic QCD. The aim is to use compact astrophysical objects like neutron stars as an indicator to test holographic equations of state. We first try an EoS from a dense D4/D8/D8 model. In this case, however, we could not find a stable compact star, a star satisfying pressure-zero condition with a radius R, p( R) = 0, within a reasonable value of the radius. This means that the EoS from the D4/D8/D8 model may not support any stable compact stars or may support one whose radius is very large. This might be due to a deficit of attractive force from a scalar field or two-pion exchange in the D4/D8/D8 model. Then, we consider D4/D6 type models with different number of quark flavors, N f = 1 , 2 , 3. Though the mass and radius of a holographic star is larger than those of normal neutron stars, the D4/D6 type EoS renders a stable compact star.

  18. Detection, classification, and tracking of compact objects in video imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlotto, Mark J.; Nebrich, Mark A.

    2012-06-01

    A video data conditioner (VDC) for automated full-­motion video (FMV) detection, classification, and tracking is described. VDC extends our multi-­stage image data conditioner (IDC) to video. Key features include robust detection of compact objects in motion imagery, coarse classification of all detections, and tracking of fixed and moving objects. An implementation of the detection and tracking components of the VDC on an Apple iPhone is discussed. Preliminary tracking results of naval ships captured during the Phoenix Express 2009 Photo Exercise are presented.

  19. Compact objects from gravitational collapse: an analytical toy model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malafarina, Daniele; Joshi, Pankaj S.

    2015-12-01

    We develop here a procedure to obtain regular static configurations resulting from dynamical gravitational collapse of a massive matter cloud in general relativity. Under certain general physical assumptions for the collapsing cloud, we find the class of dynamical models that lead to an equilibrium configuration. To illustrate this, we provide a class of perfect fluid collapse models that lead to a static constant density object as limit. We suggest that similar models might possibly constitute the basis for the description of formation of compact objects in nature.

  20. The dynamic ejecta of compact object mergers and eccentric collisions.

    PubMed

    Rosswog, Stephan

    2013-06-13

    Compact object mergers eject neutron-rich matter in a number of ways: by the dynamical ejection mediated by gravitational torques, as neutrino-driven winds, and probably also a good fraction of the resulting accretion disc finally becomes unbound by a combination of viscous and nuclear processes. If compact binary mergers indeed produce gamma-ray bursts, there should also be an interaction region where an ultra-relativistic outflow interacts with the neutrino-driven wind and produces moderately relativistic ejecta. Each type of ejecta has different physical properties, and therefore plays a different role for nucleosynthesis and for the electromagnetic (EM) transients that go along with compact object encounters. Here, we focus on the dynamic ejecta and present results for over 30 hydrodynamical simulations of both gravitational wave-driven mergers and parabolic encounters as they may occur in globular clusters. We find that mergers eject approximately 1 per cent of a Solar mass of extremely neutron-rich material. The exact amount, as well as the ejection velocity, depends on the involved masses with asymmetric systems ejecting more material at higher velocities. This material undergoes a robust r-process and both ejecta amount and abundance pattern are consistent with neutron star mergers being a major source of the 'heavy' (A>130) r-process isotopes. Parabolic collisions, especially those between neutron stars and black holes, eject substantially larger amounts of mass, and therefore cannot occur frequently without overproducing gala- ctic r-process matter. We also discuss the EM transients that are powered by radioactive decays within the ejecta ('macronovae'), and the radio flares that emerge when the ejecta dissipate their large kinetic energies in the ambient medium. PMID:23630377

  1. Compact real-time image processor for moving object tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinoshita, Noboru

    1996-03-01

    Latency time and hardware compactness are two important problems of real-time image processors for moving object tracking. We have developed a compact self-contained real-time image processor that is implemented on a single double-height VME board. The processor can execute major processing steps for moving object tacking during a single video field time. These steps are preprocessing, binarizing, labeling, feature extraction, and feature evaluation. We can obtain sorted feature vectors simultaneously when image data is read out from a sensor. Here a feature vector represents areas, centroid, and maximum intensity of each connected region in a binarized image. Some conventional image processors can execute the above steps individually in real-time and thread some steps in a pixel pipeline manner. However it is difficult to integrate feature extraction and feature evaluation in a pixel pipeline path. For real-time execution of all steps we focused on new architecture particularly for the latter three steps. To minimize the hardware we have developed three ASICs: labeler, feature accumulator, and sorter. To make our processor self-contained and scalable, it has an on- board micro processor, a digital video bus interface, and an RS232C port, and it is VME compatible in bus interface and mechanical dimension.

  2. Electromagnetic field and cylindrical compact objects in modified gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousaf, Z.; Bhatti, M. Zaeem ul Haq

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we have investigated the role of different fluid parameters particularly electromagnetic field and f(R) corrections on the evolution of cylindrical compact object. We have explored the modified field equations, kinematical quantities and dynamical equations. An expression for the mass function has been found in comparison with the Misner-Sharp formalism in modified gravity, after which different mass-radius diagrams are drawn. The coupled dynamical transport equation have been formulated to discuss the role of thermoinertial effects on the inertial mass density of the cylindrical relativistic interior. Finally, we have presented a framework, according to which all possible solutions of the metric f(R)-Maxwell field equations coupled with static fluid can be written through set of scalar functions. It is found that modified gravity induced by Lagrangians f(R) = αR2, f(R) = αR2 - βR and f(R)=α R^2-β R/1+γ R are likely to host more massive cylindrical compact objects with smaller radii as compared to general relativity.

  3. The Fate of Fallback Matter around Newly Born Compact Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perna, Rosalba; Duffell, Paul; Cantiello, Matteo; MacFadyen, Andrew I.

    2014-02-01

    The presence of fallback disks around young neutron stars (NSs) has been invoked over the years to explain a large variety of phenomena. Here we perform a numerical investigation of the formation of such disks during a supernova (SN) explosion, considering both NS and black hole (BH) remnants. Using the public code MESA, we compute the angular momentum distribution of the pre-SN material, for stars with initial masses M in the range 13-40 M ⊙, initial surface rotational velocities v surf between 25% and 75% of the critical velocity, and for metallicities Z of 1%, 10%, and 100% of the solar value. These pre-SN models are exploded with energies E varying between 1050-3 × 1052 erg, and the amount of fallback material is computed. We find that, if magnetic torques play an important role in angular momentum transport, then fallback disks around NSs, even for low-metallicity main-sequence stars, are not an outcome of SN explosions. Formation of such disks around young NSs can only happen under the condition of negligible magnetic torques and a fine-tuned explosion energy. For those stars that leave behind BH remnants, disk formation is ubiquitous if magnetic fields do not play a strong role; however, unlike the NS case, even with strong magnetic coupling in the interior, a disk can form in a large region of the Z, M, v surf, E parameter space. Together with the compact, hyperaccreting fallback disks widely discussed in the literature, we identify regions in the above parameter space that lead to extended, long-lived disks around BHs. We find that the physical conditions in these disks may be conducive to planet formation, hence leading to the possible existence of planets orbiting BHs.

  4. Electromagnetic Counterparts of Gravitational Wave Sources: Mergers of Compact Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamble, Atish; Kaplan, David L. A.

    2013-01-01

    Mergers of compact objects are considered prime sources of gravitational waves (GW) and will soon be targets of GW observatories such as the Advanced-LIGO and VIRGO. Finding electromagnetic counterparts of these GW sources will be important to understand their nature. We discuss possible electromagnetic signatures of the mergers. We show that the BH-BH mergers could have luminosities which exceed Eddington luminosity from unity to several orders of magnitude depending on the masses of the merging BHs. As a result these mergers could be explosive, release up to 1051 erg of energy and shine as radio transients. At any given time we expect about a few such transients in the sky at GHz frequencies, which could be detected to be about 300 Mpc. It has also been argued that these radio transients would look alike radio supernovae with comparable detection rates. Multi-band follow-up could, however, distinguish between the mergers and supernovae.

  5. Casimir potential of a compact object enclosed by a spherical cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Zaheer, Saad; Rahi, Sahand Jamal; Emig, Thorsten; Jaffe, Robert L.

    2010-11-15

    We study the electromagnetic Casimir interaction of a compact object contained inside a closed cavity of another compact object. We express the interaction energy in terms of the objects' scattering matrices and translation matrices that relate the coordinate systems appropriate to each object. When the enclosing object is an otherwise empty metallic spherical shell, much larger than the internal object, and the two are sufficiently separated, the Casimir force can be expressed in terms of the static electric and magnetic multipole polarizabilities of the internal object, which is analogous to the Casimir-Polder result. Although it is not a simple power law, the dependence of the force on the separation of the object from the containing sphere is a universal function of its displacement from the center of the sphere, independent of other details of the object's electromagnetic response. Furthermore, we compute the exact Casimir force between two metallic spheres contained one inside the other at arbitrary separations. Finally, we combine our results with earlier work on the Casimir force between two spheres to obtain data on the leading-order correction to the proximity force approximation for two metallic spheres both outside and within one another.

  6. Evidence for a binary origin of a central compact object

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doroshenko, Victor; Pühlhofer, Gerd; Kavanagh, Patrick; Santangelo, Andrea; Suleimanov, Valery; Klochkov, Dmitry

    2016-05-01

    Central compact objects (CCOs) are thought to be young thermally emitting isolated neutron stars that were born during the preceding core-collapse supernova explosion. Here, we present evidence that at least in one case the CCO could have been formed within a binary system. We show that the highly reddened optical source IRAS 17287-3443, located 25 arcsec away from the CCO candidate XMMUJ173203.3-344518 and classified previously as a post asymptotic giant branch star, is indeed surrounded by a dust shell. This shell is heated by the central star to temperatures of ˜90 K and observed as extended infrared emission in 8-160 μm band. The dust temperature also increases in the vicinity of the CCO which implies that it likely resides within the shell. We estimate the total dust mass to be ˜0.4-1.5 M⊙ which significantly exceeds expected dust yields by normal stars and thus likely condensed from supernova ejecta. Taking into account that both the age of the supernova remnant and the duration of active mass-loss phase by the optical star are much shorter than the total lifetime of either object, the supernova and the onset of the active mass-loss phase of the companion have likely occurred approximately simultaneously. This is most easily explained if the evolution of both objects is interconnected. We conclude, therefore, that both stars were likely members of the same binary system disrupted by a supernova.

  7. Super-spinning compact objects generated by thick accretion disks

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Zilong; Bambi, Cosimo E-mail: bambi@fudan.edu.cn

    2013-03-01

    If astrophysical black hole candidates are the Kerr black holes predicted by General Relativity, the value of their spin parameter must be subject to the theoretical bound |a{sub *}| ≤ 1. In this work, we consider the possibility that these objects are either non-Kerr black holes in an alternative theory of gravity or exotic compact objects in General Relativity. We study the accretion process when their accretion disk is geometrically thick with a simple version of the Polish doughnut model. The picture of the accretion process may be qualitatively different from the one around a Kerr black hole. The inner edge of the disk may not have the typical cusp on the equatorial plane any more, but there may be two cusps, respectively above and below the equatorial plane. We extend previous work on the evolution of the spin parameter and we estimate the maximum value of a{sub *} for the super-massive black hole candidates in galactic nuclei. Since measurements of the mean radiative efficiency of AGNs require η > 0.15, we infer the ''observational'' bound |a{sub *}|∼<1.3, which seems to be quite independent of the exact nature of these objects. Such a bound is only slightly weaker than |a{sub *}|∼<1.2 found in previous work for thin disks.

  8. Central Compact Objects in Kes 79 and RCW 103 as `Hidden' Magnetars with Crustal Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, S. B.; Kaurov, A. A.; Kaminker, A. D.

    2015-05-01

    We propose that observations of `hidden' magnetars in central compact objects can be used to probe crustal activity of neutron stars with large internal magnetic fields. Estimates based on calculations by Perna & Pons, Pons & Rea and Kaminker et al. suggest that central compact objects, which are proposed to be `hidden' magnetars, must demonstrate flux variations on the time scale of months-years. However, the most prominent candidate for the `hidden' magnetars - CXO J1852.6+0040 in Kes 79 - shows constant (within error bars) flux. This can be interpreted by lower variable crustal activity than in typical magnetars. Alternatively, CXO J1852.6+0040 can be in a high state of variable activity during the whole period of observations. Then we consider the source 1E161348 - 5055 in RCW103 as another candidate. Employing a simple 2D-modelling we argue that properties of the source can be explained by the crustal activity of the magnetar type. Thus, this object may be supplemented for the three known candidates for the `hidden' magnetars among central compact objects discussed in literature.

  9. Tidal torque induced by orbital decay in compact object binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dall'Osso, Simone; Rossi, Elena M.

    2013-01-01

    As we observe in the moon-earth system, tidal interactions in binary systems can lead to angular momentum exchange. The presence of viscosity is generally regarded as the condition for such transfer to happen. In this paper, we show how the orbital evolution can cause a persistent torque between the binary components, even for inviscid bodies. This preferentially occurs at the final stage of coalescence of compact binaries, when the orbit shrinks successively by gravitational waves and plunging on a time-scale shorter than the viscous time-scale. The total orbital energy transferred to the secondary by this torque is ˜10-2 of its binding energy. We further show that this persistent torque induces a differentially rotating quadrupolar perturbation. Specializing to the case of a secondary neutron star, we find that this non-equilibrium state has an associated free energy of 1047-1048 erg, just prior to coalescence. This energy is likely stored in internal fluid motions, with a sizeable amount of differential rotation. By tapping this free energy reservoir, a pre-existing weak magnetic field could be amplified up to a strength of ≈1015 G. Such a dynamically driven tidal torque can thus recycle an old neutron star into a magnetar, with possible observational consequences at merger.

  10. Recent developments in the tidal deformability of spinning compact objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pani, Paolo; Gualtieri, Leonardo; Maselli, Andrea; Ferrari, Valeria

    2016-04-01

    We review recent work on the theory of tidal deformability and the tidal Love numbers of a slowly spinning compact object within general relativity. Angular momentum introduces couplings between distortions of different parity and new classes of spin-induced, tidal Love numbers emerge. Due to spin-tidal effects, a rotating object immersed in a quadrupolar, electric tidal field can acquire some induced mass, spin, quadrupole, octupole and hexadecapole moments to second-order in the spin. The tidal Love numbers depend strongly on the object’s internal structure. All tidal Love numbers of a Kerr black hole (BH) were proved to be exactly zero to first-order in the spin and also to second-order in the spin, at least in the axisymmetric case. For a binary system close to the merger, various components of the tidal field become relevant. Preliminary results suggest that spin-tidal couplings can introduce important corrections to the gravitational waveforms of spinning neutron star (NS) binaries approaching the merger.

  11. DOUBLE COMPACT OBJECTS AS LOW-FREQUENCY GRAVITATIONAL WAVE SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    Belczynski, Krzysztof; Bulik, Tomasz; Benacquista, Matthew

    2010-12-10

    We study the Galactic field population of double compact objects (DCOs; NS-NS, BH-NS, BH-BH binaries) to investigate the number (if any) of these systems that can potentially be detected with the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) at low gravitational wave frequencies. We calculate the Galactic numbers and physical properties of these binaries and show their relative contributions from the disk, bulge, and halo. Although the Galaxy hosts {approx}10{sup 5} DCO binaries emitting low-frequency gravitational waves, only a handful of these objects in the disk will be detectable with LISA, but none from the halo or bulge. This is because the bulk of these binaries are NS-NS systems with high eccentricities and long orbital periods (weeks/months) causing inefficient signal accumulation (a small number of signal bursts at periastron passage in one year of LISA observations) and rendering them undetectable in the majority of these cases. We adopt two evolutionary models that differ in their treatment of the common envelope (CE) phase that is a major (and still mostly unknown) process in the formation of close DCOs. Depending on the evolutionary model adopted, our calculations indicate the likely detection of about four NS-NS binaries and two BH-BH systems (model A; likely survival of progenitors through CE) or only a couple of NS-NS binaries (model B; suppression of the DCO formation due to CE mergers).

  12. A Central Compact Object in Kes 79: The hypercritical regime and neutrino expectation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernal, C. G.; Fraija, N.

    2016-08-01

    We present magnetohydrodynamical simulations of a strong accretion onto magnetized proto-neutron stars for the Kesteven 79 (Kes 79) scenario. The supernova remnant Kes 79, observed with the Chandra ACIS-I instrument during approximately 8.3 h, is located in the constellation Aquila at a distance of 7.1 kpc in the galactic plane. It is a galactic and a very young object with an estimate age of 6 kyr. The Chandra image has revealed, for the first time, a point-like source at the center of the remnant. The Kes 79 compact remnant belongs to a special class of objects, the so-called Central Compact Objects, which exhibits no evidence for a surrounding pulsar wind nebula. In this work we show that the submergence of the magnetic field during the hypercritical phase can explain such behavior for Kes 79 and others CCOs. The simulations of such regime were carried out with the adaptive-mesh-refinement code FLASH in two spatial dimensions, including radiative loss by neutrinos and an adequate equation of state for such regime. From the simulations, we estimate that the number of thermal neutrinos expected on the Hyper-Kamiokande Experiment is 733±364. In addition, we compute the flavor ratio on Earth for a progenitor model.

  13. Gluon Vortices and Induced Magnetic Field in Compact Stars

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrer, Efrain J.

    2007-10-26

    The natural candidates for the realization of color superconductivity are the extremely dense cores of compact stars, many of which have very large magnetic fields, especially the so called magnetars. In this paper we discuss how a color superconducting core can serve to generate and enhance the stellar magnetic field without appealing to a magnetohydrodynamic dynamo mechanism.

  14. Shock compaction of magnet powder using underwater shock wave

    SciTech Connect

    Kubota, Shiro; Fujita, Masahiro; Itoh, Shigeru

    1996-12-31

    In order to get a high plug density (over 90%), the authors tried a direct consolidation of the magnet powder using the converging underwater shock wave created by the underwater explosion of explosives. The processes of the consolidation of the magnet powder were investigated by numerical calculation. They obtained the parameters of the EOS (Petrie-Page model) for Magnet powder using quasi-static loading experiments. Moreover, the characteristics of the shock compaction assembly were also verified.

  15. Using magnetic nanoparticles to manipulate biological objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yi; Gao, Yu; Xu, Chenjie

    2013-09-01

    The use of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) for the manipulation of biological objects, including proteins, genes, cellular organelles, bacteria, cells, and organs, are reviewed. MNPs are popular candidates for controlling and probing biological objects with a magnetic force. In the past decade, progress in the synthesis and surface engineering of MNPs has further enhanced this popularity.

  16. BINARY COMPACT OBJECT COALESCENCE RATES: THE ROLE OF ELLIPTICAL GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    O'Shaughnessy, R.; Kalogera, V.; Belczynski, Krzysztof E-mail: vicky@northwestern.ed

    2010-06-10

    In this paper, we estimate binary compact object merger detection rates for LIGO, including the potentially significant contribution from binaries that are produced in elliptical galaxies near the epoch of peak star formation. Specifically, we convolve hundreds of model realizations of elliptical- and spiral-galaxy population syntheses with a model for elliptical- and spiral-galaxy star formation history as a function of redshift. Our results favor local merger rate densities of 4 x 10{sup -3} Mpc{sup -3} Myr{sup -1} for binary black holes (BHs), 3 x 10{sup -2} Mpc{sup -3} Myr{sup -1} for binary neutron stars (NSs), and 10{sup -2} Mpc{sup -3} Myr{sup -1} for BH-NS binaries. We find that mergers in elliptical galaxies are a significant fraction of our total estimate for BH-BH and BH-NS detection rates; NS-NS detection rates are likely dominated by the contribution from spiral galaxies. Limiting attention to elliptical-galaxy plus only those spiral-galaxy models that reproduce current observations of Galactic NS-NS, we find slightly higher rates for NS-NS and largely similar ranges for BH-NS and BH-BH binaries. Assuming a detection signal-to-noise ratio threshold of 8 for a single detector (in practice as part of a network, to reduce its noise), corresponding to radii D {sub bns} of the effective volume inside of which a single LIGO detector could observe the inspiral of two 1.4 M {sub sun} NSs of 14 Mpc and 197 Mpc, for initial and advanced LIGO, we find event rates of any merger type of 2.9 x 10{sup -2}-0.46 and 25-400 yr{sup -1} (at 90% confidence level), respectively. We also find that the probability P {sub detect} of detecting one or more mergers with this single detector can be approximated by (1) P {sub detect} {approx_equal} 0.4 + 0.5 log(T/0.01 yr), assuming D {sub bns} = 197 Mpc and it operates for T yr, for T between 2 days and 0.1 yr, or by (2) P {sub detect} {approx_equal} 0.5 + 1.5 log(D {sub bns}/32 Mpc), for 1 yr of operation and for D {sub bns

  17. An X-ray View of the Zoo of Compact Objects and Associated Supernova Remnants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safi-Harb, Samar

    2015-08-01

    Core-collapse explosions of massive stars leave behind some of the most exotic compact objects in the Universe. These include: rotation-powered pulsars like the Crab, powering pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe) observed across the electromagnetic spectrum; highly magnetized neutron stars ("magnetars") shining or bursting at high-energies; and X-ray emitting “Central Compact Objects” (CCOs) with intrinsic properties and emission mechanism that remain largely unknown. I will highlight this observed diversity of compact stellar remnants from an X-ray perspective, and address the connection between their properties and those of their hosting supernova remnants (SNRs). In particular I will highlight topics related to their formation and evolution, including: 1) which supernovae make magnetars and the shell-less PWNe?, 2) what can we learn from the apparent age discrepancy between SNRs and their associated pulsars? I will conclude with prospects for observations of SNRs with the upcoming ASTRO-H X-ray mission. The unprecedented spectral resolution on board of ASTRO-H’s micro-calorimeter will particularly open a new discovery window for supernova progenitors' science.

  18. A Compact High Gradient Pulsed Magnetic Quadpole

    SciTech Connect

    Shuman, D.; Faltens, A.; Kajiyama, Y.; Kireeff-Covo, M.; Seidl, P.

    2005-07-05

    A design for a high gradient, low inductance pulsed quadrupole magnet is presented. The magnet is a circular current dominated design with a circular iron return yoke. Conductor angles are determined by a method of direct multipole elimination which theoretically eliminates the first four higher order multipole field components. Coils are fabricated from solid round film-insulated conductor, wound as a single layer ''non-spiral bedstead'' coil having a diagonal leadout entirely within one upturned end. The coils are wound and stretched straight in a special winder, then bent in simple fixtures to form the upturned ends.

  19. Evolution of photon and particle spectra in compact, luminous objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eilek, Jean A.; Caroff, Lawrence J.; Noerdlinger, Peter D.

    1988-01-01

    The physics of high energy photons and particles (especially electrons and positrons) in the compact, high-energy-density of galactic nuclei and quasars was investigated. A numerical code was developed which follows the nonlinear spectral evolution of a pair/photon plasma, due to two-body scattering and interaction process, in an unmagnetized system. The code was applied both to static plasmas and to relativistic expanding winds.

  20. Construction of CHESS compact undulator magnets at Kyma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temnykh, Alexander B.; Lyndaker, Aaron; Kokole, Mirko; Milharcic, Tadej; Pockar, Jure; Geometrante, Raffaella

    2015-05-01

    In 2014 KYMA S.r.l. has built two CHESS Compact Undulator (CCU) magnets that are at present installed and successfully operate at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring. This type of undulator was developed for upgrade of Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source beam-lines, but it can be used elsewhere as well. CCU magnets are compact, lightweight, cost efficient and in-vacuum compatible. They are linearly polarized undulators and have a fixed gap. Magnetic field tuning is achieved by phasing (shifting) top magnetic array relative bottom. Two CCUs constructed by KYMA S.r.l. have 28.4 mm period, 6.5 mm gap, 0.93 T peak field. Magnetic structure is of PPM type, made with NdFeB (40UH grade) permanent magnet material. Transitioning from the laboratory to industrial environment for a novel design required additional evaluation, design adjusting and extensive testing. Particular attention was given to the soldering technique used for fastening of the magnetic blocks to holders. This technique had thus far never been used before for undulator magnet construction by industry. The evaluation included tests of different types of soldering paste, measurements of strength of solder and determining the deformations of the soldered magnet and holder under simulated loading forces. This paper focuses on critical features of the CCU design, results of the soldering technique testing and the data regarding permanent magnets magnetization change due to soldering. In addition it deals with optimization-assisted assembly and the performance of the assembled devices and assesses some of the results of the CCU magnets operation at CESR.

  1. Magnetic Bunch Compression for a Compact Compton Source

    SciTech Connect

    Gamage, B.; Satogata, Todd J.

    2013-12-01

    A compact electron accelerator suitable for Compton source applications is in design at the Center for Accelerator Science at Old Dominion University and Jefferson Lab. Here we discuss two options for transverse magnetic bunch compression and final focus, each involving a 4-dipole chicane with M_{56} tunable over a range of 1.5-2.0m with independent tuning of final focus to interaction point $\\beta$*=5mm. One design has no net bending, while the other has net bending of 90 degrees and is suitable for compact corner placement.

  2. Packing fraction and compaction dynamics of magnetic powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lumay, G.; Vandewalle, N.

    2009-06-01

    We have investigated experimentally the influence of magnetic interactions between the grains (i) on the packing fraction and (ii) on the compaction dynamics of a granular pile. The granular material used to perform these studies is made of ferromagnetic grains submitted to an external magnetic field B⃗. The evolution of the packing fraction as a function of the Bond number Bo witch is the ratio between the cohesive force Fc and the grain weight mg has been measured. Moreover, we present an experimental protocol that allows one to tune the packing fraction η of a random pile of ferromagnetic spheres from a value close to the lower limit of random loose packing ηRLP≃0.56 to the upper limit of random close packing ηRCP≃0.64. This broad range of packing fraction values are obtained under normal gravity in air, by using a magnetic cohesion between the grains during the initialization of the pile. Concerning the compaction dynamics, the influence of the magnetic interaction on the compaction characteristic time τ has been measured.

  3. Magnetic levitation system for moving objects

    DOEpatents

    Post, R.F.

    1998-03-03

    Repelling magnetic forces are produced by the interaction of a flux-concentrated magnetic field (produced by permanent magnets or electromagnets) with an inductively loaded closed electric circuit. When one such element moves with respect to the other, a current is induced in the circuit. This current then interacts back on the field to produce a repelling force. These repelling magnetic forces are applied to magnetically levitate a moving object such as a train car. The power required to levitate a train of such cars is drawn from the motional energy of the train itself, and typically represents only a percent or two of the several megawatts of power required to overcome aerodynamic drag at high speeds. 7 figs.

  4. Magnetic levitation system for moving objects

    DOEpatents

    Post, Richard F.

    1998-01-01

    Repelling magnetic forces are produced by the interaction of a flux-concentrated magnetic field (produced by permanent magnets or electromagnets) with an inductively loaded closed electric circuit. When one such element moves with respect to the other, a current is induced in the circuit. This current then interacts back on the field to produce a repelling force. These repelling magnetic forces are applied to magnetically levitate a moving object such as a train car. The power required to levitate a train of such cars is drawn from the motional energy of the train itself, and typically represents only a percent or two of the several megawatts of power required to overcome aerodynamic drag at high speeds.

  5. Strange Stars : An interesting member of the compact object family

    SciTech Connect

    Bagchi, Manjari; Ray, Subharthi; Dey, Jishnu; Dey, Mira

    2008-01-10

    We have studied strange star properties both at zero temperature and at finite temperatures and searched signatures of strange stars in gamma-ray, x-ray and radio astronomy. We have a set of Equations of State (EoS) for strange quark matter (SQM) and solving the TOV equations, we get the structure of strange stars. The maximum mass for a strange star decreases with the increase of temperature, because at high temperatures, the EoS become softer. One important aspect of strange star is that, surface tension depends on the size and structure of the star and is significantly larger than the conventional values. Moment of inertia is another important parameter for compact stars as by comparing theoretical values with observed estimate, it is possible to constrain the dense matter Equation of State. We hope that this approach will help us to decide whether the members of the double pulsar system PSR J0737-3039 are neutron stars or strange stars.

  6. Modeling and detecting gravitational waves from compact stellar objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallisneri, Michele

    In the next few years, the first detections of gravity- wave signals using Earth-based interferometric detectors will begin to provide precious new information about the structure, dynamics, and evolution of compact bodies, such as neutron stars and black holes, both isolated and in binary systems. The intrinsic weakness of gravity-wave signals requires a proactive approach to modeling the prospective sources and anticipating the shape of the signals that we seek to detect. Full-blown 3-D numerical simulations of the sources are playing and will play an important role in planning the gravity-wave data-analysis effort. This thesis explores the interplay between numerical source modeling and data analysis, looking closely at three case studies. (1)I evaluate the prospects for extracting equation-of-state information from neutron-star tidal disruption in neutron-star-black- hole binaries with LIGO-II, and I estimate that the observation of disrupting systems at distances that yield about one event per year should allow the determination of the neutron-star radius to about 15%, which compares favorably to the currently available electromagnetic determinations. (2)In collaboration with Lee Lindblom and Joel Tohline, I perform numerical simulations of the nonlinear dynamics of the r-mode instability in young, rapidly spinning neutron stars, and I find evidence that nonlinear couplings to other modes will not pose a significant limitation to the growth of the r-mode amplitude. (3)In collaboration with Alessandra Buonanno and Yanbei Chen, I study the problem of detecting gravity waves from solar-mass black-hole - black-hole binaries with LIGO-I, and I construct two families of detection templates that address the inadequacy of standard post-Newtonian theory to predict reliable waveforms for these systems.

  7. Compact and extended objects from self-interacting phantom fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzhunushaliev, Vladimir; Folomeev, Vladimir; Makhmudov, Arislan; Urazalina, Ainur; Singleton, Douglas; Scott, John

    2016-07-01

    In this work, we investigate localized and extended objects for gravitating, self-interacting phantom fields. The phantom fields come from two scalar fields with a "wrong-sign" (negative) kinetic energy term in the Lagrangian. This study covers several solutions supported by these phantom fields: phantom balls, traversable wormholes, phantom cosmic strings, and "phantom" domain walls. These four systems are solved numerically, and we try to draw out general, interesting features in each case.

  8. Extremely red compact radio sources - The empty field objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beichman, C. A.; Neugebauer, G.; Soifer, B. T.; Matthews, K.; Wootten, H. A.; Pravdo, S. H.

    1981-01-01

    Radiation of 10 microns has been detected from 1413+135, one of the very red objects discovered by Rieke, Lebofsky, and Kinman (1979) at near-infrared wavelengths. The spectrum of this object flattens at wavelengths longer than 2.2 microns. Upper limits are also given for the 10-micron emission from 2255+14, 0026+34, and 0406+121. Photometry between 1.25 and 2.2 microns confirms the variability of 1413+135, 2255+41, and 0406+121. Five percent resolution spectra of 1413+135 and 0406+121 between 1.5 and 2.4 microns show no emission or absorption lines. The spectral data rule out the possibility that 1413+135 is a quasar with normal line strengths and a redshift less than 1.3 and greater than 4. The lack of features of the 1.5-2.4-micron spectra, the rapid variability, and the overall shape of the radio, infrared, and X-ray energy distributions are consistent with a BL Lac nature for these objects.

  9. Compacted Co(Fe)-Coated Sm-Co Nanocomposite Magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Qi; Zhang, Yong; Hadjipananyis, George C.

    2003-03-01

    One of the big challenges in nanocomposite magnets is to develop a synthesis route that produces a structure in which all the nanograins are crystallographically aligned. In this study, we use the novel consolidation technique of Plasma Pressure Compaction (PPC) to prepare bulk SmCo/Co(Fe) nanocomposite magnets. SmCo/Co and SmCo/FeCo nanocomposites have been fabricated by electroless plating magnetically soft nano-size Co and Co-Fe particles on the surface of micron-size hard Sm-Co powders. The influence of electroless plating conditions on the magnetic properties and structure of the coating were studied. The magnetic saturation and morphology of the deposited material were found to be dependent on the concentration of reducing agent, temperature of the solution and plating time. For 50 µm Sm(Co,Cu,Fe,Zr)7.5 particles, coating with Co has had a little effect on the coercivity maintaining a level of 7 kOe while there is a increase in the value of MS depending on Co plating time. In SmCo5 particles with a size of several microns, coating with Co alloy, Hc decreases and saturation magnetization increases with increasing plating time, but the loops remain smooth. The effect of PPC on the microstructure, the magnetic properties of exchange coupled magnets will be discussed. Work supported by DARPA-Meta-Materials Program (No. F33615-01-2-2166).

  10. CONSTRAINING THE EVOLUTIONARY FATE OF CENTRAL COMPACT OBJECTS: ''OLD'' RADIO PULSARS IN SUPERNOVA REMNANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Bogdanov, Slavko; Ng, C.-Y.; Kaspi, Victoria M.

    2014-09-10

    Central compact objects (CCOs) constitute a population of radio-quiet, slowly spinning (≥100 ms) young neutron stars with anomalously high thermal X-ray luminosities. Their spin-down properties imply weak dipole magnetic fields (∼10{sup 10-11} G) and characteristic ages much greater than the ages of their host supernova remnants (SNRs). However, CCOs may posses strong ''hidden'' internal magnetic fields that may re-emerge on timescales of ≳10 kyr, with the neutron star possibly activating as a radio pulsar in the process. This suggests that the immediate descendants of CCOs may be masquerading as slowly spinning ''old'' radio pulsars. We present an X-ray survey of all ordinary radio pulsars within 6 kpc that are positionally coincident with Galactic SNRs in order to test the possible connection between the supposedly old but possibly very young pulsars and the SNRs. None of the targets exhibit anomalously high thermal X-ray luminosities, suggesting that they are genuine old ordinary pulsars unrelated to the superposed SNRs. This implies that CCOs are either latent radio pulsars that activate long after their SNRs dissipate or they remain permanently radio-quiet. The true descendants of CCOs remain at large.

  11. High performance bonded neo magnets using high density compaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herchenroeder, J.; Miller, D.; Sheth, N. K.; Foo, M. C.; Nagarathnam, K.

    2011-04-01

    This paper presents a manufacturing method called Combustion Driven Compaction (CDC) for the manufacture of isotropic bonded NdFeB magnets (bonded Neo). Magnets produced by the CDC method have density up to 6.5 g/cm3 which is 7-10% higher compared to commercially available bonded Neo magnets of the same shape. The performance of an actual seat motor with a representative CDC ring magnet is presented and compared with the seat motor performance with both commercial isotropic bonded Neo and anisotropic NdFeB rings of the same geometry. The comparisons are made at both room and elevated temperatures. The airgap flux for the magnet produced by the proposed method is 6% more compared to the commercial isotropic bonded Neo magnet. After exposure to high temperature due to the superior thermal aging stability of isotropic NdFeB powders the motor performance with this material is comparable to the motor performance with an anisotropic NdFeB magnet.

  12. Dynamic compact model of thermally assisted switching magnetic tunnel junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Baraji, M.; Javerliac, V.; Guo, W.; Prenat, G.; Dieny, B.

    2009-12-01

    The general purpose of spin electronics is to take advantage of the electron's spin in addition to its electrical charge to build innovative electronic devices. These devices combine magnetic materials which are used as spin polarizer or analyzer together with semiconductors or insulators, resulting in innovative hybrid CMOS/magnetic (Complementary MOS) architectures. In particular, magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) can be used for the design of magnetic random access memories [S. Tehrani, Proc. IEEE 91, 703 (2003)], magnetic field programmable gate arrays [Y. Guillement, International Journal of Reconfigurable Computing, 2008], low-power application specific integrated circuits [S. Matsunaga, Appl. Phys. Express 1, 091301 (2008)], and rf oscillators. The thermally assisted switching (TAS) technology requires heating the MTJ before writing it by means of an external field. It reduces the overall power consumption, solves the data writing selectivity issues, and improves the thermal stability of the written information for high density applications. The design of hybrid architectures requires a MTJ compact model, which can be used in standard electrical simulators of the industry. As a result, complete simulations of CMOS/MTJ hybrid circuits can be performed before experimental realization and testing. This article presents a highly accurate model of the MTJ based on the TAS technology. It is compatible with the Spectre electrical simulator of Cadence design suite.

  13. A compact permanent magnet cyclotrino for accelerator mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Young, A.T.; Clark, D.J.; Kunkel, W.B.; Leung, K.N.; Li, C.Y.

    1995-02-01

    The authors describe the development of a new instrument for the detection of trace amounts of rare isotopes, a Cyclotron Mass Spectrometer (CMS). A compact low energy cyclotron optimized for high mass resolution has been designed and has been fabricated. The instrument has high sensitivity and is designed to measure carbon-14 at abundances of < 10{sup {minus}12}. A novel feature of the instrument is the use of permanent magnets to energize the iron poles of the cyclotron. The instrument uses axial injection, employing a spiral inflector. The instrument has been assembled and preliminary measurements of the magnetic field show that it has a uniformity on the order of 2 parts in 10{sup 4}.

  14. GR-AMRVAC code applications: accretion onto compact objects, boson stars versus black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meliani, Z.; Grandclément, P.; Casse, F.; Vincent, F. H.; Straub, O.; Dauvergne, F.

    2016-08-01

    In the close vicinity of a compact object strong gravity imprints its signature onto matter. Systems that contain at least one compact object are observed to exhibit extreme physical properties and typically emit highly energetic radiation. The nature of the compact objects that produce the strongest gravitational fields is to date not settled. General relativistic numerical simulations of fluid dynamics around black holes, neutron stars, and other compact objects such as boson stars (BSs) may give invaluable insights into this fundamental question. In order to study the behavior of fluid in the strong gravity regime of an arbitrary compact object we develop a new general relativistic hydrodynamics code. To this end we extend the existing versatile adaptive mesh refinement code MPI-AMRVAC into a general relativistic hydrodynamics framework and adapt it for the use of numerically given spacetime metrics. In the present article we study accretion flows in the vicinity of various types of BSs whose numerical metrics are calculated by the KADATH spectral solver library. We design specific tests to check the reliability of any code intending to study BSs and compare the solutions with those obtained in the context of Schwarzschild black holes. We perform the first ever general relativistic hydrodynamical simulations of gas accretion by a BS. The behavior of matter at small distances from the center of a BS differs notably from the black hole case. In particular we demonstrate that in the context of Bondi spherical accretion the mass accretion rate onto non-rotating BSs remains constant whereas it increases for Schwarzschild black holes. We also address the scenario of non-spherical accretion onto BSs and show that this may trigger mass ejection from the interior of the BS. This striking feature opens the door to forthcoming investigations regarding accretion-ejection flows around such types of compact objects.

  15. HARD X-RAY FLUX UPPER LIMITS OF CENTRAL COMPACT OBJECTS IN SUPERNOVA REMNANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Erdeve, I.; Kalemci, E.; Alpar, M. A.

    2009-05-10

    We searched for hard X-ray (20-300 keV) emission from nine central compact objects (CCOs) 1E 1207.4-5209, 1WGA J1713-3949, J082157.5-430017, J085201.4-461753, J160103.1-513353, J1613483-5055, J181852.0-150213, J185238.6+004020, and J232327.9+584843 with the International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory observatory. We applied spectral imaging analysis and did not detect any of the sources with luminosity upper limits in the range of 10{sup 33}-10{sup 34} erg s{sup -1} in the 20-75 keV band. For nearby CCOs (less than 4 kpc), the upper-limit luminosities are an order of magnitude lower than the measured persistent hard X-ray luminosities of anomalous X-ray pulsars. This may indicate that the CCOs are low magnetic field systems with fallback disks around them.

  16. Maria Goeppert-Mayer Award Talk: Formation and Evolution of Compact Objects in Binary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalogera, Vicky

    2008-04-01

    Ever since their discovery, first as X-ray sources and later as radio pulsars, binary stellar systems harboring neutron stars or black holes have been pivotal in our efforts to understand the formation and evolution of these most compact objects and the implications for gravitational wave searches. I will review some recent surprising results linking the formation of neutron stars and black holes. I will also discuss how studies of double compact objects can help uncover the origin of short gamma-ray bursts and assess the prospects for gravitational wave detections in the near future.

  17. Characteristics of the magnetic field distribution on compact NMR magnets using cryocooled HTS bulks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S. B.; Takano, R.; Nakano, T.; Imai, M.; Hahn, S. Y.

    2009-10-01

    Recently, the performance of high temperature superconducting (HTS) bulks such as critical current density, size, and mechanical strength has been improved rapidly. So, various applications using HTS bulks such as motors, bearings and flywheels have been investigated by many research groups. A compact nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) magnet is one of the new applications after a technique to enhance maximum trapped field of the HTS bulk more than 11.7 T (500 MHz 1H NMR frequency) has been developed. This new compact NMR magnet out of HTS bulks is cost-effective compared with conventional NMR magnets and then expected to be widely used in food and drug industry. In design and manufacture of the compact NMR magnets, spatial field homogeneity of the large trapped magnetic field in HTS bulk annuli is a crucial issue because the behavior of a trapped field is highly non-linear and, as a result, a technique to improve the field homogeneity such as active/passive shimming now becomes more challenging compared with that of the conventional counterparts. This paper presents the magnetic field distributions in single and three assembled HTS bulk annuli measured by a 3-axis and multi-arrayed Hall sensor under two different cryogenic environments: (1) in a bath of liquid nitrogen (LN 2) and (2) dry cooling by a cryocooler. The spatial homogeneity changes with various operating temperatures were investigated and the effect of critical current density enhancement by lowering the operating temperature on the field homogeneity improvement was discussed in detail.

  18. KINETIC THEORY OF EQUILIBRIUM AXISYMMETRIC COLLISIONLESS PLASMAS IN OFF-EQUATORIAL TORI AROUND COMPACT OBJECTS

    SciTech Connect

    Cremaschini, Claudio; Kovář, Jiří; Slaný, Petr; Stuchlík, Zdeněk; Karas, Vladimír

    2013-11-01

    The possible occurrence of equilibrium off-equatorial tori in the gravitational and electromagnetic fields of astrophysical compact objects has been recently proved based on non-ideal magnetohydrodynamic theory. These stationary structures can represent plausible candidates for the modeling of coronal plasmas expected to arise in association with accretion disks. However, accretion disk coronae are formed by a highly diluted environment, and so the fluid description may be inappropriate. The question is posed of whether similar off-equatorial solutions can also be determined in the case of collisionless plasmas for which treatment based on kinetic theory, rather than a fluid one, is demanded. In this paper the issue is addressed in the framework of the Vlasov-Maxwell description for non-relativistic, multi-species axisymmetric plasmas subject to an external dominant spherical gravitational and dipolar magnetic field. Equilibrium configurations are investigated and explicit solutions for the species kinetic distribution function are constructed, which are expressed in terms of generalized Maxwellian functions characterized by isotropic temperature and non-uniform fluid fields. The conditions for the existence of off-equatorial tori are investigated. It is proved that these levitating systems are admitted under general conditions when both gravitational and magnetic fields contribute to shaping the spatial profiles of equilibrium plasma fluid fields. Then, specifically, kinetic effects carried by the equilibrium solution are explicitly provided and identified here with diamagnetic energy-correction and electrostatic contributions. It is shown that these kinetic terms characterize the plasma equation of state by introducing non-vanishing deviations from the assumption of thermal pressure.

  19. Compact ECR ion source with permanent magnets for carbon therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muramatsu, M.; Kitagawa, A.; Sakamoto, Y.; Sato, Y.; Yamada, S.; Ogawa, H.; Drentje, A. G.; Biri, S.; Yoshida, Y.

    2004-05-01

    Ion sources for the medical facilities should have the following characteristics of easy maintenance, low electric power, good stability, and long operation time without trouble (1 year or longer). For this, a 10 GHz compact electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) with all permanent magnets was developed. The beam intensity and stability for C4+ were 280 e μA and better than 6% during 20 h with no adjustment of any source parameters. These results were acceptable for the medical requirements. Recently, many plans were proposed to construct the next generation cancer treatment facility. For such a facility we have designed an all permanent magnet ECRIS, in which a high magnetic field is chosen for increasing the beam intensity. The maximum mirror magnetic fields on the beam axis are 0.59 T at the extraction side and 0.87 T at the gas injection side, while the minimum B strength is 0.25 T. The source has a diameter of 32 cm and a length of 29.5 cm. Details of the design of this source and its background are described in this article.

  20. Radial oscillation of compact stars in the presence of magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baral, R. C.; Mohanta, K. K.; Panda, N. R.; Sahu, P. K.

    2016-06-01

    Compact stars are classified into three categories: neutron stars (NSs), quark stars (QSs) and hybrid stars (HSs). Stars having only hadronic matter are NSs, QSs having only quark matter up to u, d and s quarks and stars having quark core surrounded by a mixed matter (hadronic matter and quark matter) followed by hadronic matter are HSs. The mixed matter is well distributed to both hadron and quark matters. A huge magnetic field is predicted in the core of the neutron star and is observed in the surface of the neutron star. We study the effect of such huge magnetic field in the matter inside the compact objects basically the equation of state (EOS) of the matters. Since matter inside the star are very dense both hadronic and quark matter, we consider relativistic mean field theory in the hadronic matter and simple MIT bag model in the quark matter in the presence of strong magnetic field. We calculate the phase transition between hadronic and quark phases, maximum mass and eigenfrequencies of radial pulsation of NS, HS and QS in the presence of such a huge magnetic field. The mixed phase is constructed by using Glendenning conjecture in between hadron and quark phases. We find in the presence of magnetic field, the EOS in both matter becomes soft. As a result, the maximum mass is reduced and the period of oscillation is changed significantly and there is a sudden dip in the period of oscillations in the HS, which signifies the transition from one to another matter.

  1. Bidirectional motion observed in the compact symmetric object 1946+708.

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, G B; Vermeulen, R C; Pearson, T J

    1995-01-01

    We present the first direct measurements of bidirectional motions in an extragalactic radio jet. The radio source 1946+708 is a compact symmetric object with striking S-symmetry identified with a galaxy at a redshift of 0.101. From observations 2 years apart we have determined the velocities of four compact components in the jet, the fastest of which has an apparent velocity of 1.09 h-1c. By pairing up the components, assuming they were simultaneously ejected in opposite directions, we derive a 1 lower limit on the Hubble constant, H0 > 42 km.s-1.Mpc-1. PMID:11607603

  2. WHAT IS ON TAP? THE ROLE OF SPIN IN COMPACT OBJECTS AND RELATIVISTIC JETS

    SciTech Connect

    King, Ashley L.; Miller, Jon M.; Gueltekin, Kayhan; Walton, Dominic J.; Fabian, Andrew C.; Reynolds, Christopher S.; Nandra, Kirpaul

    2013-07-10

    We examine the role of spin in launching jets from compact objects across the mass scale. Our work includes 3 different Seyfert samples with a total of 37 unique Seyferts, as well as 11 stellar-mass black holes, and 13 neutron stars. We find that when the Seyfert reflection lines are modeled with simple Gaussian line features (a crude proxy for inner disk radius and therefore spin), only a slight inverse correlation is found between the Doppler-corrected radio luminosity at 5 GHz (a proxy for jet power) and line width. When the Seyfert reflection features are fit with more relativistically blurred disk reflection models that measure spin, there is a tentative positive correlation between the Doppler-corrected radio luminosity and the spin measurement. Further, when we include stellar-mass black holes in the sample, to examine the effects across the mass scale, we find a slightly stronger correlation with radio luminosity per unit mass and spin, at a marginal significance (2.3{sigma} confidence level). Finally, when we include neutron stars, in order to probe lower spin values, we find a positive correlation (3.3{sigma} confidence level) between radio luminosity per unit mass and spin. Although tentative, these results suggest that spin may have a role in determining the jet luminosity. In addition, we find a slightly more significant correlation (4.4{sigma} and 4.1{sigma} confidence level, respectively) between radio luminosity per bolometric luminosity and spin, as well as radio luminosity corrected for the fundamental plane (i.e., log ({nu}L{sub R}/L{sub Bol}{sup 0.67}/M{sub BH}{sup 0.78})) and spin, using our entire sample of black holes and neutrons stars. Again, although tentative, these relations point to the possibility that the mass accretion rate, i.e., bolometric luminosity, is also important in determining the jet luminosity, in addition to spin. Our analysis suggests that mass accretion rate and disk or coronal magnetic field strength may be the

  3. Magnetic Bubble Expansion Experimental Investigation Using a Compact Coaxial Magnetized Plasma Gun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yue; Lynn, Alan; Hsu, Scott; Li, Hui; Liu, Wei; Gilmore, Mark; Watts, Christopher

    2009-11-01

    The poster will first discuss the construction and improved design of a compact coaxial magnetized plasma gun. The plasma gun is used for experimental studies of magnetic bubble expansion into a lower pressure background plasma, which as a model for extragalactic radio lobes and solar coronal mass ejections. In this experiment, the plasma bubble's density, electron temperature, and propagation speed are measured by using a multiple-tipped langmuir probe. Also a three axis B-dot probe array is used to measure the magnetic field in three dimensions during the expansion process. In this poster experiment setup and data will be provided. Finally the comparison with the simulation result will be made.

  4. Magnetar-like Activity from the Central Compact Object in the SNR RCW103

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rea, N.; Borghese, A.; Esposito, P.; Coti Zelati, F.; Bachetti, M.; Israel, G. L.; De Luca, A.

    2016-09-01

    The 6.67 hr periodicity and the variable X-ray flux of the central compact object (CCO) at the center of the supernova remnant RCW 103, named 1E 161348–5055, have been always difficult to interpret within the standard scenarios of an isolated neutron star (NS) or a binary system. On 2016 June 22, the Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) on board Swift detected a magnetar-like short X-ray burst from the direction of 1E 161348–5055, also coincident with a large long-term X-ray outburst. Here, we report on Chandra, Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array, and Swift (BAT and XRT) observations of this peculiar source during its 2016 outburst peak. In particular, we study the properties of this magnetar-like burst, we discover a hard X-ray tail in the CCO spectrum during outburst, and we study its long-term outburst history (from 1999 to 2016 July). We find the emission properties of 1E 161348–5055 consistent with it being a magnetar. However, in this scenario, the 6.67 hr periodicity can only be interpreted as the rotation period of this strongly magnetized NS, which therefore represents the slowest pulsar ever detected, by orders of magnitude. We briefly discuss the viable slow-down scenarios, favoring a picture involving a period of fall-back accretion after the supernova explosion, similarly to what is invoked (although in a different regime) to explain the “anti-magnetar” scenario for other CCOs.

  5. Development of a compact superconducting magnet with a GdBCO magnetic lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z. Y.; Matsumoto, S.; Teranishi, R.; Kiyoshi, T.

    2013-10-01

    Concentration of a magnetic field has been achieved using a Gd-Ba-Cu-O (GdBCO) magnetic lens. A conduction-cooled compact high-field superconducting magnet with a GdBCO magnetic lens was developed. The magnet possessed a 10-mm room-temperature bore and consisted of two Nb-Ti solenoid coils and a GdBCO magnetic lens, which was installed at the center of the Nb-Ti coils in order to concentrate the background field generated by the Nb-Ti coils. The Nb-Ti coils and the GdBCO magnetic lens were cooled using a two-stage pulse-tube cryocooler. A concentrated magnetic field of 10.3 T was obtained at a background field of 5.6 T provided by the Nb-Ti coils. No degradation was found in the magnet during repeat excitation. The large field gradient generated by the GdBCO magnetic lens is expected to be used for the levitation of diamagnetic materials.

  6. A search for pulsations from the compact object of GRB 060218

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirabal, N.; Gotthelf, E. V.

    2010-02-01

    Aims: A fraction of massive stars are expected to collapse into compact objects (accreting black holes or rapidly rotating neutron stars) that successfully produce gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). We examine the possibility of directly observing these gamma-ray burst compact objects (GCOs) using post-explosion observations of past and future GRB sites. Methods: We present a search for early pulsations from the nearby (z=0.0335) gamma-ray burst GRB 060218, which exhibited features possibly consistent with a rapidly spinning neutron star as its underlying GCO. We also consider alternative techniques that could potentially achieve a detection of GCOs either in the Local Volume or near the plane of our own Galaxy. Results: We report the non-detection of pulsations from the GCO of GRB 060218. In particular, fast fourier transform analysis applied to the light curve shows no significant power over the range of frequencies 0.78 mHz < f < 227 Hz with an upper limit on the pulsed fraction of ~2%. In addition, we present detection limits of current high-resolution archival X-ray images of galaxies within the Local Volume. The existing data could be harnessed to rule out the presence of any background contaminants at the GRB position of future nearby events. Conclusions: The null detection of pulsations from the GCO of GRB 060218 is most likely explained by the fact that the afterglow emission occurs near the head of the jet and should be far removed from the compact object. We also find that the comparison of pre- and post-explosion explosion images of future GRBs within the Local Volume, as well as the firm identification of a GCO within an ancient GRB remnant near the Galactic plane are extremely challenging with current GeV/TeV capabilities. Finally, we conclude that only under some very exceptional circumstances will it be possible to directly detect the compact object responsible for gamma-ray bursts.

  7. Exploring the Physics of Compact Objects with Gravitational-Wave Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Duncan

    2016-03-01

    The Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO) has recently completed its first observing run. Future observations of gravitational waves by LIGO will open a new field in astronomy. The gravitational waves radiated by binaries containing neutron stars and/or black holes contain information about strong field gravity and the properties of dense matter. In this talk I will discuss the nuclear and gravitational physics that can be learned from the observation of compact-object mergers

  8. Spectral calculation through outflows around compact objects and its hydrodynamic simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Tessei; Ebisawa, Ken; Tsujimoto, Masahiro; Ohsuga, Ken; Nakagawa, Yujin; Nomura, Mariko

    Compact objects such as black holes and neutron starts are shining by converting the gravitational energy via mass accretion. Recent theoretical studies predict that outflows tend to accompany the mass accretion process and affect X-ray spectra. In fact, ``blue-shifted'' metal absorption lines have been observed from active galactic nuclei and X-ray binaries, indicating that the absorbers are moving toward us, namely the outflows do exist. In order to constrain physical conditions and geometries around the compact objects, we need to compare the observed X-ray spectra and theoretically expected signatures caused by the outflows. For the observational side, we will use the micro calorimeter with the unprecedented spectral resolution of E/DeltaE˜1000 on-board Astro-H (in 2015 launch), which is the ONLY detector that can observe the detailed line profiles containing information of the outflows. The radiation-hydrodynamic simulation is needed to interpret the Astro-H spectra. We construct the spectral model by the following two theoretical steps: We first determine the density and velocity profiles of the outflows around the compact object by a hydrodynamic simulation. We then calculate X-ray spectra through such outflows, by using the spectral synthesis code ``Cloudy''. We present the results of the simulated profiles and the calculated spectra.

  9. SUBARU AND GEMINI OBSERVATIONS OF SS 433: NEW CONSTRAINT ON THE MASS OF THE COMPACT OBJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Kubota, K.; Ueda, Y.; Fabrika, S.; Barsukova, E. A.; Sholukhova, O.; Medvedev, A.; Goranskij, V. P.

    2010-02-01

    We present results of optical spectroscopic observations of the mass donor star in SS 433 with Subaru and Gemini, with an aim to best constrain the mass of the compact object. Subaru/Faint Object Camera and Spectrograph observations were performed on four nights of 2007 October 6-8 and 10, covering the orbital phase of phi = 0.96 - 0.26. We first calculate the cross-correlation function (CCF) of these spectra with that of the reference star HD 9233 in the wavelength range of 4740-4840 A. This region is selected to avoid 'strong' absorption lines accompanied with contaminating emission components, which most probably originate from the surroundings of the donor star, such as the wind and gas stream. The same analysis is applied to archive data of Gemini/GMOS taken at phi = 0.84 - 0.30 by Hillwig and Gies. From the Subaru and Gemini CCF results, the amplitude of the radial velocity curve of the donor star is determined to be 58.3 +- 3.8 km s{sup -1} with a systemic velocity of 59.2 +- 2.5 km s{sup -1}. Together with the radial velocity curve of the compact object, we derive the mass of the donor star and compact object to be M{sub O} = 12.4 +- 1.9 M{sub sun} and M{sub X} = 4.3 +- 0.6 M{sub sun}, respectively. We conclude, however, that these values should be taken as upper limits. From the analysis of the averaged absorption line profiles of strong lines (mostly ions) and weak lines (mostly neutrals) observed with Subaru, we find evidence for heating effects from the compact object. Using a simple model, we find that the true radial velocity amplitude of the donor star could be as low as 40 +- 5 km s{sup -1} in order to produce the observed absorption-line profiles. Taking into account the heating of the donor star may lower the derived masses to M{sub O} = 10.4{sup +2.3}{sub -1.9} M{sub sun} and M{sub X} = 2.5{sup +0.7}{sub -0.6} M{sub sun}. Our final constraint, 1.9 M{sub sun} <=M{sub X}<= 4.9 M{sub sun}, indicates that the compact object in SS 433 is most likely a

  10. Anti-magnetars: Revealing the Pulsar Properties of Central Compact Objects in Supernova Remnants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gotthelf, Eric

    This proposal is to fund the analysis of large data sets that we were awarded in XMM- Newton AO9 to search for the pulsation periods and measure the spin-down rates of Central Compact Objects (CCOs) in supernova remnants (SNRs). These observations include a Large Program (350 ks) to search for the pulsar in Cas A, and a multi-epoch timing program (200 ks total) to measure the spin-down rate and dipole magnetic field strength of the newly discovered 0.112 s PSR J0821-4300 in Puppis A. These observations are motivated by growing evidence that the class of CCOs, which are detected only in X-rays and are the least conspicuous of young neutron stars, are characterized by weak dipole magnetic fields and relatively long initial spin periods. As such, they may comprise a large fraction of neutron star births. From upper limits that we established on their spin-down rates, as well as one measurement of P-dot in a CCO, we developed the "anti-magnetar" model, which describes CCOs as pulsars with even weaker magnetic fields (B_s = 1.e10-1.e11 G) than ordinary young pulsars. The approved observations will provide strong confirmation of this model if the expected slow spin-down rate of PSR J0821-4300 is measured, and if similar spin properties are discovered from the Cas A CCO. The remaining mystery of CCOs is what maintains their small, hot regions of surface thermal X-ray emission. Spin-down power is insufficient; otherwise, only the effects of strong (B_s > 1.e13 G) magnetic fields are thought able to enforce nonuniform surface temperature, in apparent contradiction to the anti-magnetar hypothesis. We will apply a detailed ray-tracing code to model the energy-dependent light curves and phase-resolved spectra of PSR J0821-430 and other CCOs in order to determine the geometry of their surface hot spots with respect to the rotation axis and viewing direction. Evidence for cyclotron resonance lines in the spectra will also be modeled as a function of rotation phase, which will

  11. Compact magnetic antennas for directional excitation of surface plasmons.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongmin; Palomba, Stefano; Park, Yongshik; Zentgraf, Thomas; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2012-09-12

    Plasmonics is considered as one of the most promising candidates for implementing the next generation of ultrafast and ultracompact photonic circuits. Considerable effort has been made to scale down individual plasmonic components into the nanometer regime. However, a compact plasmonic source that can efficiently generate surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) and deliver SPPs to the region of interest is yet to be realized. Here, bridging the optical antenna theory and the recently developed concept of metamaterials, we demonstrate a subwavelength, highly efficient plasmonic source for directional generation of SPPs. The designed device consists of two nanomagnetic resonators with detuned resonant frequencies. At the operating wavelength, incident photons can be efficiently channeled into SPP waves modulated by the electric field polarization. By tailoring the relative phase at resonance and the separation between the two nanoresonators, SPPs can be steered to predominantly propagate along one specific direction. This novel magnetic nanoantenna paves a new way to manipulate photons in the near-field, and also could be useful for SPP-based nonlinear applications, active modulations, and wireless optical communications. PMID:22845720

  12. Numerical simulations of axisymmetric Bondi-Hoyle accretion onto a compact object

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Mellah, I.; Casse, F.

    2015-12-01

    Compact bodies which are not at rest compare to an homogeneous ambient environment are believed to undergo Bondi-Hoyle axisymmetric accretion as soon as their relative velocity reaches supersonic levels. Contrary to its spherical counterpart, B-H accretion presents flow structures difficult to analytically derive, hence the need for numerical investigations. The broad dynamics at stake when a tiny compact object engulfs surrounding material at a much larger scale has made numerical consistency a polemical issue as it has prevented both scales to be grasped for reasonable wind velocities. We designed a numerical setup which reconciliates the requirement for finite size accretor with steady states properties of the Bondi-Hoyle flow independent of the size of the inner boundary. The robustness of this setup is evaluated accordingly to predictions concerning the mass accretion rate evolution with the Mach number at infinity and the topology of the sonic surface as determined by te{Foglizzo1996}. It provides an estimation of the mass accretion rates and thus, of the expected X-ray luminosity for an idealized B-H configuration which might not be too far off for isolated compact objects like runaway neutron stars or hyper-luminous X-ray sources.

  13. Upper bound on the magnetic field strength in the quark core of a strongly-magnetized compact star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isayev, Alexander; Yang, Jongmann

    2014-09-01

    Two types of strongly-magnetized compact stars, represented by magnetized strange quark stars and magnetized hybrid stars, are considered. In each case, there exists an upper bound H max on the magnetic field strength in the interior of a compact star. For a magnetized strange quark star, H max is determined by the magnetic field at which the upper bound on the bag pressure from the absolute stability window of magnetized strange quark matter (SQM) vanishes, assuming the Massachusetts Institute of Technology bag model description of SQM. For a hybrid star, H max is represented by the critical magnetic field for the occurrence of a longitudinal (along the magnetic field) instability in the quark core, at which the longitudinal pressure in magnetized SQM vanishes.

  14. Design of permanent magnets to chaoize doubly salient permanent magnet motors for electric compaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chau, K. T.; Wang, Zheng

    2006-04-01

    This article proposes and implements a class of chaotic motors for electric compaction. The key is to develop a design approach for the permanent magnets (PMs) of doubly salient PM (DSPM) motors in such a way that chaotic motion can be naturally produced. The bifurcation diagram is employed to derive the threshold of chaoization in terms of PM flux, while the corresponding phase-plane trajectories are used to characterize the chaotic motion. A practical three-phase 12/8-pole DSPM motor is used for exemplification. The proposed chaotic motor is critically assessed for application to a vibratory soil compactor, which is proven to offer better compaction performance than its counterparts. Both computer simulation and experimental results are given to illustrate the proposed chaotic motor.

  15. Compact dark matter objects, asteroseismology, and gravitational waves radiated by sun

    SciTech Connect

    Pokrovsky, Yu. E.

    2015-12-15

    The solar surface oscillations observed by Crimean Astrophysical Observatory and Solar Helioseismic Observatory are considered to be excited by a small fraction of Dark Matter in form of Compact Dark Matter Objects (CDMO) in the solar structure. Gravitational Waves (GW) radiated by these CDMO are predicted to be the strongest at the Earth and are easily detectable by European Laser Interferometer Space Antenna or by Gravitational-Wave Observatory “Dulkyn” which can solve two the most challenging tasks in the modern physics: direct detection of GW and DM.

  16. First spectroscopy of a short-hard GRB: the environment of a compact object merger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Ugarte Postigo, Antonio; Thöne, Christina C.; Rowllinson, Antonia; Benito, Rubén García; Levan, Andrew J.; Gorosabel, Javier; Goldoni, Paolo; Schulze, Steve

    2015-03-01

    Short gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are an extremely elusive family of cosmic explosions. They are thought to be related to the violent merger of compact objects (such as a neutron stars or black holes). Their optical counterparts were not discovered until 2005, and since then, there had been no successful spectroscopic observations. Here we present the first spectra of a short GRB, which we use to study the environment and derive implications on the progenitors of these cosmic explosions. This poster is based on the work by de Ugarte Postigo et al. (2014).

  17. Subaru And Gemini Observations Of SS 433: New Constraint On The Mass Of The Compact Object

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubota, K.; Ueda, Y.; Fabrika, S.; Medvedev, A.; Barsukova, E. A.; Sholukhova, O.; Goranskij, V. P.

    2010-02-01

    We present results of optical spectroscopic observations of the mass donor star in SS 433 with Subaru and Gemini, with an aim to best constrain the mass of the compact object. Subaru/Faint Object Camera and Spectrograph observations were performed on four nights of 2007 October 6-8 and 10, covering the orbital phase of phi = 0.96 - 0.26. We first calculate the cross-correlation function (CCF) of these spectra with that of the reference star HD 9233 in the wavelength range of 4740-4840 Å. This region is selected to avoid "strong" absorption lines accompanied with contaminating emission components, which most probably originate from the surroundings of the donor star, such as the wind and gas stream. The same analysis is applied to archive data of Gemini/GMOS taken at phi = 0.84 - 0.30 by Hillwig & Gies. From the Subaru and Gemini CCF results, the amplitude of the radial velocity curve of the donor star is determined to be 58.3 ± 3.8 km s-1 with a systemic velocity of 59.2 ± 2.5 km s-1. Together with the radial velocity curve of the compact object, we derive the mass of the donor star and compact object to be M O = 12.4 ± 1.9 M sun and M X = 4.3 ± 0.6 M sun, respectively. We conclude, however, that these values should be taken as upper limits. From the analysis of the averaged absorption line profiles of strong lines (mostly ions) and weak lines (mostly neutrals) observed with Subaru, we find evidence for heating effects from the compact object. Using a simple model, we find that the true radial velocity amplitude of the donor star could be as low as 40 ± 5 km s-1 in order to produce the observed absorption-line profiles. Taking into account the heating of the donor star may lower the derived masses to M O = 10.4+2.3 -1.9 M sun and M X = 2.5+0.7 -0.6 M sun. Our final constraint, 1.9 M sun <=M X<= 4.9 M sun, indicates that the compact object in SS 433 is most likely a low mass black hole, although the possibility of a massive neutron star cannot be firmly

  18. Gravitational-wave radiation from double compact objects with eLISA in the Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jinzhong; Zhang, Yu

    2014-03-01

    The phase of inspiral of double compact objects (DCOs: NS + WD, NS + NS, BH + NS, and BH + BH binaries) in the disk field population of the Galaxy provides a potential source in the frequency range from 10-4 to 0.1 Hz, which can be detected by the European New Gravitational Observatory (NGO: eLISA is derived from the previous LISA proposal) project. In this frequency range, much stronger gravitational wave (GW) radiation can be obtained from DCO sources because they possess more mass than other compact binaries (e.g., close double white dwarfs). In this study, we aim to calculate the gravitational wave signals from the resolvable DCO sources in the Galaxy using a binary population synthesis approach, and determine physical properties of these binaries using Monte Carlo simulations. Combining the sensitivity curve of the eLISA detector and a confusion-limited noise floor of close double white dwarfs, we find that only a handful of DCO sources can be detected by the eLISA detector. The detectable number of DCO sources reaches 160; in the context of low-frequency eLISA observations we find that the number of NS + WD, NS + NS, BH + NS, and BH + BH objects are 132, 16, 3, and 6, respectively.

  19. Time evolution of accreting magnetofluid around a compact object-Newtonian analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habibi, Fahimeh; Shaghaghian, Mahboobeh; Pazhouhesh, Reza

    2015-07-01

    Time evolution of a thick disc with finite conductivity around a nonrotating compact object is presented. Along with the Maxwell equations and the Ohm's law, the Newtonian limit of the relativistic fluid equations governing the motion of a finitely conducting plasma is derived. The magnetofluid is considered to possess only the poloidal components of the electromagnetic field. Moreover, the shear viscous stress is neglected, as well as the self-gravity of the disc. In order to solve the equations, we have used a self-similar solution. The main features of this solution are as follows. The azimuthal velocity is somewhat increased from the Keplerian value in the equator plane to the super-Keplerian values at the surface of disc. Moreover, the radial velocity is obtained proportional to the meridional velocity. Magnetofluid does not have any nonzero component of the current density. Subsequently, the electromagnetic force is vanished and does not play any role in the force balance. While the pressure gradient maintains the disc structure in latitudinal direction, magnetofluid has no accretion on the central compact object. Analogously to the parameter α in the standard model, our calculations contain one parameter η0 which specifies the size of the electrical resistivity.

  20. Insights into stellar and binary evolution from gravitational-wave observations of merging compact objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevenson, Simon

    2016-07-01

    Advanced LIGO finished its first observing run (O1) at the begining of 2016, at a sensitivity ~3 times that of the initial LIGO detectors. This increased sensitivity makes the possibility of detecting gravitational-waves a realistic prospect over the next few years. One of the most promising sources for advanced gravitational-wave detectors is the merger of two compact objects; neutron stars or black holes. These objects are formed as the end point of the evolution of massive stars in close binaries. There remain many poorly understood processes in the lives of massive stars and the evolution of close binary systems. These processes include the distribution of kicks received by black holes at birth, the amount of angular momentum lost from a system during a mass transfer episode, and the common envelope event. One way of attempting to understand these processes is to attempt to constrain them observationally using eventual gravitational-wave observations of compact binary mergers. Here we present recent work on this front.

  1. Accretion-caused deceleration of a gravitationally powerful compact stellar object moving within a dense Fermi gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tito, E. P.; Pavlov, V. I.

    2016-07-01

    We consider accretion-caused deceleration of a gravitationally-powerful compact stellar object traveling within a cold Fermi-gas medium. We provide analytical and numerical estimates of the effect manifestation.

  2. Universal charge-radius relation for subatomic and astrophysical compact objects.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Jes

    2008-04-18

    Electron-positron pair creation in supercritical electric fields limits the net charge of any static, spherical object, such as superheavy nuclei, strangelets, and Q balls, or compact stars like neutron stars, quark stars, and black holes. For radii between 4 x 10(2) and 10(4) fm the upper bound on the net charge is given by the universal relation Z=0.71R(fm), and for larger radii (measured in femtometers or kilometers) Z=7 x 10(-5)R_(2)(fm)=7 x 10(31)R_(2)(km). For objects with nuclear density the relation corresponds to Z approximately 0.7A(1/3)( (10(8)10(12)), where A is the baryon number. For some systems this universal upper bound improves existing charge limits in the literature. PMID:18518093

  3. MICROLENSING-BASED ESTIMATE OF THE MASS FRACTION IN COMPACT OBJECTS IN LENS GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Mediavilla, E.; Guerras, E.; Canovas, H.; Oscoz, A.; Falco, E.; Motta, V.; Jean, C.; Mosquera, A. M.

    2009-12-01

    We estimate the fraction of mass that is composed of compact objects in gravitational lens galaxies. This study is based on microlensing measurements (obtained from the literature) of a sample of 29 quasar image pairs seen through 20 lens galaxies. We determine the baseline for no microlensing magnification between two images from the ratios of emission line fluxes. Relative to this baseline, the ratio between the continua of the two images gives the difference in microlensing magnification. The histogram of observed microlensing events peaks close to no magnification and is concentrated below 0.6 mag, although two events of high magnification, DELTAm approx 1.5, are also present. We study the likelihood of the microlensing measurements using frequency distributions obtained from simulated microlensing magnification maps for different values of the fraction of mass in compact objects, alpha. The concentration of microlensing measurements close to DELTAm approx 0 can be explained only by simulations corresponding to very low values of alpha (10% or less). A maximum likelihood test yields alpha = 0.05{sup +0.09}{sub -0.03} (90% confidence interval) for a quasar continuum source of intrinsic size r{sub s{sub 0}}approx2.6x10{sup 15} cm. This estimate is valid in the 0.1-10 M {sub sun} range of microlens masses. We study the dependence of the estimate of alpha with r{sub s{sub 0}}, and find that alpha approx< 0.1 for r{sub s{sub 0}}approx<1.3x10{sup 16} cm. High values of alpha are possible only for source sizes much larger than commonly expected (r{sub s{sub 0}}>>2.6x10{sup 16} cm). Regarding the current controversy about Milky Way/LMC and M31 microlensing studies, our work supports the hypothesis of a very low content in MACHOS (Massive Compact Halo Objects). In fact, according to our study, quasar microlensing probably arises from the normal star populations of lens galaxies and there is no statistical evidence for MACHOS in the dark halos.

  4. Numerical simulations of axisymmetric hydrodynamical Bondi-Hoyle accretion on to a compact object

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Mellah, I.; Casse, F.

    2015-12-01

    Bondi-Hoyle accretion configurations occur as soon as a gravitating body is immersed in an ambient medium with a supersonic relative velocity. From wind-accreting X-ray binaries to runaway neutron stars, such a regime has been witnessed many times and is believed to account for shock formation, the properties of which can be only marginally derived analytically. In this paper, we present the first results of the numerical characterization of the stationary flow structure of Bondi-Hoyle accretion on to a compact object, from the large-scale accretion radius down to the vicinity of the compact body. For different Mach numbers, we study the associated bow shock. It turns out that those simulations confirm the analytical prediction by Foglizzo & Ruffert concerning the topology of the inner sonic surface with an adiabatic index of 5/3. They also enable us to derive the related mass accretion rates, the position and the temperature of the bow shock, as function of the flow parameters, along with the transverse density and temperature profiles in the wake.

  5. Estimating locations and total magnetization vectors of compact magnetic sources from scalar, vector, or tensor magnetic measurements through combined Helbig and Euler analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phillips, J.D.; Nabighian, M.N.; Smith, D.V.; Li, Y.

    2007-01-01

    The Helbig method for estimating total magnetization directions of compact sources from magnetic vector components is extended so that tensor magnetic gradient components can be used instead. Depths of the compact sources can be estimated using the Euler equation, and their dipole moment magnitudes can be estimated using a least squares fit to the vector component or tensor gradient component data. ?? 2007 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  6. Compact symmetric objects and supermassive binary black holes in the VLBA Imaging and Polarimetry Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremblay, S. E.; Taylor, G. B.; Ortiz, A. A.; Tremblay, C. D.; Helmboldt, J. F.; Romani, R. W.

    2016-06-01

    We present multifrequency Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) follow-up observations of VLBA Imaging and Polarimetry Survey sources identified as likely compact symmetric objects (CSOs) or supermassive binary black holes (SBBHs). We also present new spectroscopic redshifts for 11 sources observed with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope. While no new SBBHs can be confirmed from these observations, we have identified 24 CSOs in the sample, 15 of which are newly designated, and refuted 52 candidates leaving 33 unconfirmed candidates. This is the first large uniform sample of CSOs which can be used to elicit some of the general properties of these sources, including morphological evolution and environmental interaction. We have detected polarized emission from two of these CSOs the properties of which are consistent with active galactic nuclei unification schemes.

  7. Nuclear gamma rays from compact objects. [nuclear interactions around neutron stars and black holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lingenfelter, R. E.; Higdon, J. C.; Ramaty, R.

    1978-01-01

    Accreting compact objects may be important gamma ray line sources and may explain recent observations of celestial gamma-ray line emission from a transient source in the direction of the galactic anti-center, from the galactic center, and possibly from the radio galaxy Centaurus A. The identification of the lines from the transient source requires a strong redshift. Such a redshift permits the identification of these lines with the most intense nuclear emission lines expected in nature, positron annihilation, and neutron capture on hydrogen and iron. Their production as a result of nuclear interactions in accreting gas around a neutron star is proposed. The gamma-ray line emission from the galactic center and possibly Centaurus A appears to have a surprisingly high luminosity, amounting to perhaps as much as 10% of the total luminosity of these sources. Such high gamma-ray line emission efficiencies could result from nuclear interactions in accreting gas around a massive black hole.

  8. Exploring the Environs of Compact Symmetric Objects in the Nuclei of Galaxies and Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, G. B.; Xu, W.; Readhead, A. C. S.; Pearson, T. J.

    1994-12-01

    Two large Caltech--Jodrell Bank VLBI surveys at 5 GHz have recently been completed (CJ1 -- Xu et al. 1994, ApJS, submitted; CJ2 -- Taylor et al. 1994, ApJS, in press; Henstock et al. 1994, ApJS, submitted). Together with the Pearson--Readhead survey (1988, ApJ, 328, 114) these provide ~ 1 mas resolution images for a flux limited sample of 321 sources. One of the most interesting findings of these surveys was the discovery of three confirmed compact symmetric objects (CSOs) and forty additional candidate CSOs. These are compact (size ~ 100 pc) sources with emission on both sides of the central engine that is thought to be free of beaming effects. To account for their small sizes the CSOs must be either young or severely confined by a dense neutral medium. If these objects are young (ages ~ 3000 yrs) and growing at rates typical of equally luminous, but 1000 times larger, radio galaxies like Cygnus A then they must be a common phase in the evolution of galaxies, or perhaps a recurrent one. Alternatively, if the CSOs are strongly confined and longer lived then the large amount of material required for their confinement should have several observational consequences -- large amounts of neutral and molecular gas, high induced Faraday rotations, and possibly severe reddening and distortions of the starlight from the host galaxy. In an effort to discriminate between the above models we have performed deep infrared imaging of a number of CSOs and CSO candidates. We also report on high-dynamic range imaging with the VLA to look for large Faraday rotation measures, or for extended components that might be the result of a previous active phase. We have also observed one nearby CSO candidate in CO 1-0 with the Owens Valley millimeter array to search for molecular gas.

  9. THE LOCATIONS OF SHORT GAMMA-RAY BURSTS AS EVIDENCE FOR COMPACT OBJECT BINARY PROGENITORS

    SciTech Connect

    Fong, W.; Berger, E.

    2013-10-10

    We present a detailed investigation of Hubble Space Telescope rest-frame UV/optical observations of 22 short gamma-ray burst (GRB) host galaxies and sub-galactic environments. Utilizing the high angular resolution and depth of HST we characterize the host galaxy morphologies, measure precise projected physical and host-normalized offsets between the bursts and host centers, and calculate the locations of the bursts with respect to their host light distributions (rest-frame UV and optical). We calculate a median short GRB projected physical offset of 4.5 kpc, about 3.5 times larger than that for long GRBs, and find that ≈25% of short GRBs have offsets of ∼> 10 kpc. When compared to their host sizes, the median offset is 1.5 half-light radii (r{sub e} ), about 1.5 times larger than the values for long GRBs, core-collapse supernovae, and Type Ia supernovae. In addition, ≈20% of short GRBs having offsets of ∼> 5r{sub e} , and only ≈25% are located within 1r{sub e} . We further find that short GRBs severely under-represent their hosts' rest-frame optical and UV light, with ≈30%-45% of the bursts located in regions of their host galaxies that have no detectable stellar light, and ≈55% in the regions with no UV light. Therefore, short GRBs do not occur in regions of star formation or even stellar mass. This demonstrates that the progenitor systems of short GRBs must migrate from their birth sites to their eventual explosion sites, a signature of kicks in compact object binary systems. Utilizing the full sample of offsets, we estimate natal kick velocities of ≈20-140 km s{sup –1}. These independent lines of evidence provide the strongest support to date that short GRBs result from the merger of compact object binaries (NS-NS/NS-BH)

  10. Theoretical Study of Compact Objects: Pulsars, Thermally Emitting Neutron Stars and Magnetars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Dong

    This proposal focuses on understanding the various observational manifestations of magnetized neutron stars (NSs), including pulsars, radio-quiet thermally emitting NSs and magnetars. This is motivated by the recent and ongoing observational progress in the study of isolated NSs, made possible by space telescopes such as Chandra and XMM-Newton, and the prospect of near-future observations by NASA's Gravity and Extreme Magnetism SMEX (GEMS) mission (to be launched in 2014). Recent observations have raised a number of puzzles/questions that beg for theoretical understanding and modeling. The proposed research projects are grouped into two parts: (1) Theoretical modeling of surface (or near surface) X-ray emission from magnetized NSs, including the study of the physics of electron/ion cyclotron lines, radiative transfer during magnetar bursts, dense plasma refractive effect, partially ionized atmospheres, and calculations of X-ray polarization signatures of isolated and accreting magnetic NSs, in anticipation of their detections by GEMS. (2) Theoretical study and observational constraint on the internal structure and evolution of magnetic fields in young neutron stars in supernova remnants. The proposed research will improve our understanding of different populations of NSs and their underlying physical processes (including the extreme physics of strong-field quantum electrodynamics) and enhance the scientific return from the current and future NASA astrophysics missions. It is relevant to NASA's objective, ``Discover the origin, structure, evolution, and destiny of the universe''.

  11. Study of a new central compact object: The neutron star in the supernova remnant G15.9+0.2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klochkov, D.; Suleimanov, V.; Sasaki, M.; Santangelo, A.

    2016-08-01

    We present our study of the central point source CXOU J181852.0-150213 in the young Galactic supernova remnant (SNR) G15.9+0.2 based on the recent ~90 ks Chandra observations. The point source was discovered in 2005 in shorter Chandra observations and was hypothesized to be a neutron star associated with the SNR. Our X-ray spectral analysis strongly supports the hypothesis of a thermally emitting neutron star associated with G15.9+0.2. We conclude that the object belongs to the class of young cooling low-magnetized neutron stars referred to as central compact objects (CCOs). We modeled the spectrum of the neutron star with a blackbody spectral function and with our hydrogen and carbon neutron star atmosphere models, assuming that the radiation is uniformly emitted by the entire stellar surface. Under this assumption, only the carbon atmosphere models yield a distance that is compatible with a source located in the Galaxy. In this respect, CXOU J181852.0-150213 is similar to two other well-studied CCOs, the neutron stars in Cas A and in HESS J1731-347, for which carbon atmosphere models were used to reconcile their emission with the known or estimated distances.

  12. Hawaii 167: A compact absorption-line object at z = 2.35

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowie, L. L.; Songaila, A.; Hu, E. M.; Egami, E.; Huang, J.-S.; Pickles, A. J.; Ridgway, S. E.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Weymann, R. J.

    1994-01-01

    During the course of the Hawaii K-band (2.1 micrometer) survey we have detected a compact object, Hawaii 167, lying at a redshift of 2.33, in which are seen both low- and high-ionization absorption lines. In the near-infrared we see broad H alpha emission at a redshift of 2.35 but do not detect the other Balmer lines, (O II) lambda 3727, or (O III) lambda 5007. The absence of strong Mg II or C IV emission in the rest ultraviolet suggests that, at these wavelengths, we may be seeing a poststarburst galaxy rather than a quasar. Indeed, this class of object may be common enough to represent a major episode of galaxy formation, possibly the formation of the spheroids. However, Q0059-2735, the most extreme member of the class of Mg II absorbing broad absorption line quasars, is very similar to the present object, and there may be an evolutionary sequence or some other close connection between Hawaii 167 and the broad absorption line quasars.

  13. New code for equilibriums and quasiequilibrium initial data of compact objects. III. Axisymmetric and triaxial rotating stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uryū, Kōji; Tsokaros, Antonios; Galeazzi, Filippo; Hotta, Hideya; Sugimura, Misa; Taniguchi, Keisuke; Yoshida, Shin'ichirou

    2016-02-01

    We introduce new code for stationary and axisymmetric equilibriums, as well as for triaxial quasiequilibrium initial data, of single rotating relativistic stars. The new code is developed as a part of our versatile initial data code for compact objects, Compact Object CALculator (cocal). In computing strong gravitational fields, the waveless formulation is incorporated into the cocal code on top of the previously developed Isenberg-Wilson-Mathews formulation (conformally flat thin-sandwich formulation). Also introduced is a new differential rotation law that contains two parameters to control an angular velocity profile and a transition from uniform to differential rotation. We present convergence tests and solution sequences for both uniformly and differentially rotating equilibriums of stationary axisymmetric compact stars, as well as for quasiequilibrium initial data of uniformly rotating triaxial (nonaxisymmetric) compact stars. We also show comparisons of uniformly rotating axisymmetric solutions computed with three different codes: cocal, lorene, and the RNS code.

  14. A compact surface decontamination system for surface-sensitive magnetic imaging.

    PubMed

    Konoto, M; Akoh, H; Tokura, Y

    2009-08-01

    A surface decontamination system for application in surface sensitive magnetic imaging tools, such as a spin-polarized scanning electron microscope, is described. Adsorbed contaminant is chemically decomposed with the use of active oxygen in a compact vacuum chamber mounted in a microscope. The present method is especially suitable for fragile magnetic surfaces of complex oxide materials to which the conventional physical etching widely used for magnetic metals could cause serious structural damage. We have succeeded in detecting magnetic signals from a decontaminated oxide surface and visualizing domain images with sufficient magnetic contrast to analyze detailed domain structures. PMID:19725685

  15. A compact surface decontamination system for surface-sensitive magnetic imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Konoto, M.; Akoh, H.; Tokura, Y.

    2009-08-15

    A surface decontamination system for application in surface sensitive magnetic imaging tools, such as a spin-polarized scanning electron microscope, is described. Adsorbed contaminant is chemically decomposed with the use of active oxygen in a compact vacuum chamber mounted in a microscope. The present method is especially suitable for fragile magnetic surfaces of complex oxide materials to which the conventional physical etching widely used for magnetic metals could cause serious structural damage. We have succeeded in detecting magnetic signals from a decontaminated oxide surface and visualizing domain images with sufficient magnetic contrast to analyze detailed domain structures.

  16. Demountable Toroidal Field Magnets for Use in a Compact Modular Fusion Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangiarotti, F. J.; Goh, J.; Takayasu, M.; Bromberg, L.; Minervini, J. V.; Whyte, D.

    2014-05-01

    A concept of demountable toroidal field magnets for a compact fusion reactor is discussed. The magnets generate a magnetic field of 9.2 T on axis, in a 3.3 m major radius tokamak. Subcooled YBCO conductors have a critical current density adequate to provide this large magnetic field, while operating at 20 K reduces thermodynamic cooling cost of the resistive electrical joints. Demountable magnets allow for vertical replacement and maintenance of internal components, potentially reducing cost and time of maintenance when compared to traditional sector maintenance. Preliminary measurements of contact resistance of a demountable YBCO electrical joint between are presented.

  17. A superconducting bending magnet system for a compact synchrotron light source

    SciTech Connect

    Green, M.A.; Garren, A.A.; Leung, E.M.; Madura, D.D.; Cline, D.B.; Kolonko, J.J.; Schachinger, L.C.

    1995-07-01

    High intensity, high energy X-rays for use in protein crystallography, nano-machining and medical applications, such as non invasive coronary angiography, can be produced by a 1.2 to 1.5 GeV electron storage ring compact light source with 6 to 8 tesla superconducting bending magnets. Because the bending magnets are to be superconducting, the storage ring energy can be over factor of two lower than a conventional storage ring that delivers same photon energy. The ring, which has superconducting bending magnets, is smaller in circumference and has the advantage of having fewer particles in the ring for a given x ray source intensity. The proposed storage ring is a separated function accelerator ring with six superconducting bending magnet units. Conventional quadruples and correction elements would be located between the bending magnets. Because the synchrotron radiation is generated in the bend, the superconducting bending magnets must have a warm vacuum chamber for the electron beam. Variations of a superferric magnet design have been studied for this application. This report presents a superferric H magnet design that can produce good quality magnetic field in a region that is 50 mm high by 100 mm wide. This modified superferric H magnet design has saturated iron poles but the magnetic flux is returned from one pole to the other through an unsaturated iron return path. The dipole magnet required for a compact storage ring must be physically short (380 mm long), and the field must fall off rapidly at the ends of the magnet. This report describes a preliminary design for a pair of 6.894 tesia, thirty degree bending magnets in a common vacuum vessel for use in a 1.5 GeV compact storage ring light source.

  18. Difficulties in explaining the cosmic photon excess with compact composite object dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cumberbatch, Daniel T.; Starkman, Glenn D.; Silk, Joseph

    2008-03-01

    It has been suggested that dark matter particles are strongly interacting, composite, macroscopically large objects made of well known light quarks (or antiquarks). In doing so it is argued that these compact composite objects (CCOs) provide natural explanations of observed data, such as the 511 keV line from the bulge of our galaxy observed by INTEGRAL, and the excess of diffuse gamma rays in the 1 20 MeV band observed by COMPTEL. Here we argue that the atmospheres of positrons that surround CCOs composed of di-antiquark pairs in the favored color-flavor-locked superconducting state are sufficiently dense as to place stringent limits on the penetration depth of interstellar electrons incident upon them, resulting in an extreme suppression of previously estimated rates of positronium formation, and hence in the flux of 511 keV photons resulting from their subsequent decays. The associated rate of direct electron-positron annihilations, which yield the MeV photons postulated to explain the 1 20 MeV photon excess, is also suppressed. We also discuss how even if a fraction of positrons somehow penetrated the surface of the CCOs, the extremely strong electric fields generated from the bulk antiquark matter would result in the destruction of positronium atoms long before they decay.

  19. A hot compact dust disk around a massive young stellar object.

    PubMed

    Kraus, Stefan; Hofmann, Karl-Heinz; Menten, Karl M; Schertl, Dieter; Weigelt, Gerd; Wyrowski, Friedrich; Meilland, Anthony; Perraut, Karine; Petrov, Romain; Robbe-Dubois, Sylvie; Schilke, Peter; Testi, Leonardo

    2010-07-15

    Circumstellar disks are an essential ingredient of the formation of low-mass stars. It is unclear, however, whether the accretion-disk paradigm can also account for the formation of stars more massive than about 10 solar masses, in which strong radiation pressure might halt mass infall. Massive stars may form by stellar merging, although more recent theoretical investigations suggest that the radiative-pressure limit may be overcome by considering more complex, non-spherical infall geometries. Clear observational evidence, such as the detection of compact dusty disks around massive young stellar objects, is needed to identify unambiguously the formation mode of the most massive stars. Here we report near-infrared interferometric observations that spatially resolve the astronomical-unit-scale distribution of hot material around a high-mass ( approximately 20 solar masses) young stellar object. The image shows an elongated structure with a size of approximately 13 x 19 astronomical units, consistent with a disk seen at an inclination angle of approximately 45 degrees . Using geometric and detailed physical models, we found a radial temperature gradient in the disk, with a dust-free region less than 9.5 astronomical units from the star, qualitatively and quantitatively similar to the disks observed in low-mass star formation. Perpendicular to the disk plane we observed a molecular outflow and two bow shocks, indicating that a bipolar outflow emanates from the inner regions of the system. PMID:20631793

  20. Research on anisotropic bonded Nd-Fe-B magnets by 2-step compaction process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Bin; Sun, Aizhi; Lu, Zhenwen; Cheng, Chuan; Xu, Chen

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, a novel 2-step compaction process, called a cold preforming step and a warm alignment and densification step, is proposed to prepare anisotropic bonded Nd-Fe-B magnets with high magnetic properties. The morphology of Nd-Fe-B particles is characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Research shows that the lower the density of preforms, the higher the (BH)max and DOA of Nd-Fe-B magnets. The (BH)max of Nd-Fe-B magnets prepared by 2-step compaction process is higher than that of traditional warm compaction process at the apace rate of 20% when the preform density is lower than 4.06 g/cm3. The (BH)max and DOA first increase and then decline with increasing space rate, the maximum is obtained at the space rate of 25% when the preform density is 3.98 g/cm3. By means of 2-step compaction process, not only (BH)max and DOA of Nd-Fe-B magnets are increased by 32.2% and 61.3% at the space rate of 25%, but also problems such as the easy damage of mould and the inhomogeneous of particle packing are solved, which are in favour of the extension of mould life. The changes of coercivity is not obvious during the research. The mechanrsms of space rate on DOA and density are analyzed and discussed.

  1. Characteristics of trapped magnetic fields in HTS bulk annuli with various axial spaces for compact NMR magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S. B.; Imai, M.; Takano, R.; Kashima, K.; Hahn, S.

    2010-11-01

    Recently, the performance of high-temperature superconducting (HTS) bulks such as a critical current density, size, and mechanical strength has been improved. In consequence, various applications with HTS bulks such as motors, bearings, and flywheels are being investigated by many research groups; Compact nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) magnet is one of the new applications after a technique to enhance maximum trapped field of an HTS bulk more than 11.7 T, 500 MHz 1H NMR frequency, has been developed. This new compact NMR magnet out of HTS bulks is far less expensive than those conventional NMR magnets and expected to be widely used in food and drug industry. In design and manufacture of those compact NMR magnets, the issues of spatial homogeneity and temporal stability of trapped magnetic fields in HTS bulk annuli are very important. In this paper, the characteristics of the trapped magnetic fields in a stack of assembled HTS bulk annuli were investigated with various axial spaces between HTS bulks, experimentally and analytically.

  2. VLBA OBSERVATIONS OF H I IN THE ARCHETYPE COMPACT SYMMETRIC OBJECT B2352+495

    SciTech Connect

    Araya, E. D.; Rodriguez, C.; Pihlstroem, Y.; Taylor, G. B.; Tremblay, S.; Vermeulen, R. C.

    2010-01-15

    B2352+495 is a prototypical example of a compact symmetric object. It has a double radio lobe symmetrically located with respect to a central flat-spectrum radio core (the location of the active galactic nucleus) and has a physical extent of less than 200 pc. In this work, we report Very Long Baseline Array observation of 21 cm H I absorption toward B2352+495 to investigate the properties of this remarkable radio source, in particular, to explore whether the radio emission can be confined by circumnuclear material (frustration scenario) or whether the source is likely to be young. We confirmed the two H I absorption features previously detected toward B2352+495-a broad line nearly centered at the systemic velocity of the galaxy and a narrow redshifted component. The atomic gas from the broad absorption component is likely associated with circumnuclear material, consistent with the current paradigm of clumpy H I distribution in toroidal structures around supermassive black holes.

  3. Gravitational radiation from a spinning compact object around a supermassive Kerr black hole in circular orbit

    SciTech Connect

    Han Wenbiao

    2010-10-15

    The gravitational waves and energy radiation from a spinning compact object with stellar mass in a circular orbit in the equatorial plane of a supermassive Kerr black hole are investigated in this paper. The effect of how the spin acts on energy and angular moment fluxes is discussed in detail. The calculation results indicate that the spin of a small body should be considered in waveform-template production for the upcoming gravitational wave detections. It is clear that when the direction of spin axes is the same as the orbitally angular momentum ('positive' spin), spin can decrease the energy fluxes which radiate to infinity. For antidirection spin ('negative'), the energy fluxes to infinity can be enlarged. And the relations between fluxes (both infinity and horizon) and spin look like quadratic functions. From frequency shift due to spin, we estimate the wave-phase accumulation during the inspiraling process of the particle. We find that the time of particle inspiral into the black hole is longer for positive spin and shorter for negative compared with the nonspinning particle. Especially, for extreme spin value, the energy radiation near the horizon of the extreme Kerr black hole is much more than that for the nonspinning one. And consequently, the maximum binging energy of the extreme spinning particle is much larger than that of the nonspinning particle.

  4. Compact objects at the heart of outflows in large and small systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sell, Paul Harrison

    2013-12-01

    This thesis focuses on studying and assessing high-energy feedback generated by both stellar mass and supermassive compact objects. From these two perspectives, I help bridge the gap in understanding how jets and winds can transform their much larger environments in thousands to millions of years, astronomically short timescales. I have acquired X-ray and optical data that aim to elucidate the role these objects play in powering parsec-scale shockwaves in the ISM and in driving kiloparsec-scale outflows in galaxies. I present Chandra X-ray imaging, Hubble Space Telescope imaging, and WIYN Hydra multi-object optical spectroscopic observations. The data reveal the morphologies of the systems and constrain on a range of interesting parameters: power, outflow velocity, density, accretion efficiency, and timescale. My analysis provides perspective on the importance of black holes, both large and small, and neutron stars for driving outflows into the interstellar and intergalactic medium. On kiloparsec scales, I explore the nature of what appear to be merging or recently merging post-starburst galaxies with very high-velocity winds. This work is part of a multiwavelength effort to characterize the niche these galaxies fill in the larger scheme of galaxy evolution. My focus is on the accretion activity of the coalescing supermassive black holes in their cores. This work leads us to compare the relative importance of a massive starburst to the supermassive black holes in the cores of the galaxies. On parsec scales, I present case studies of two prominent microquasars, Galactic X-ray binaries with jets, Circinus X-1 and Cygnus X-1. In the case of Circinus X-1, I present very deep follow-up observations of parsec-scale shock plumes driven by a powerful, bipolar jet. In the case of Cygnus X-1, I present follow-up observations to probe a recently discovered outflow near the binary. I calculate robust, physically motivated limits on the total power needed to drive the outflows

  5. Study and Developement of Compact Permanent Magnet Hall Thrusters for Future Brazillian Space Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Jose Leonardo; Martins, Alexandre; Cerda, Rodrigo

    2016-07-01

    . The main difficulty to reach these minor bodies is related to their specific orbits with high eccentricity and inclination. A good example is the case for sample return missions to NEOs-Near Earth Objects. They are small bodies consisting of primitive left over building blocks of the Solar System formation processes. These missions can be accomplished by using low thrust trajectories with spacecrafts propelled by plasma thrusters with total thrust below 0.5 N, and a specific impulse around2500 s. In this work, we will show the brazilian contribution to the development of a compact electrical propulsion engine named PHALL III, designed with DCFH and foreseen to be used in future cubesats microsatellites but with possible applications in geostationary attitude control systems and on low thrust trajectory missions to the Near Earth Asteroids region. We will show a particular new permanent magnet field designed for PHALL III . Computer based simulation codes such as VSIM are also used on the design of this new proposed cuped magnet field Hall Thruster. Based on the first results wee believed PHALL III will also allow a good spacecraft performance of long duration space missions for small size spacecrafts with limited low electric source power consumption. The PHALL III plasma source characterization is presented together with the ejected plasma plume ion current intensity, ion energy and plasma flow velocity parameters measured by an integrated Plasma Diagnostic Bench (BID). Based on plasma source and plume ejected parameters a merit figure of PHALL III is constructed and compared to computer calculated low thrust transfer requirements. From these results it is goig to be possible to analyse the potential use of PHALL III on future brazillian space missions , its working parameters are compared with parameters of existing space tested plasma thrusters already used on moon , deep space missions and also on satellite geostationary positioning using low thrust orbit

  6. DOUBLE COMPACT OBJECTS. I. THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE COMMON ENVELOPE ON MERGER RATES

    SciTech Connect

    Dominik, Michal; Belczynski, Krzysztof; Bulik, Tomasz; Fryer, Christopher; Holz, Daniel E.; Berti, Emanuele; Mandel, Ilya; O'Shaughnessy, Richard

    2012-11-01

    The last decade of observational and theoretical developments in stellar and binary evolution provides an opportunity to incorporate major improvements to the predictions from population synthesis models. We compute the Galactic merger rates for NS-NS, BH-NS, and BH-BH mergers with the StarTrack code. The most important revisions include updated wind mass-loss rates (allowing for stellar-mass black holes up to 80 M {sub Sun }), a realistic treatment of the common envelope phase (a process that can affect merger rates by 2-3 orders of magnitude), and a qualitatively new neutron star/black hole mass distribution (consistent with the observed {sup m}ass gap{sup )}. Our findings include the following. (1) The binding energy of the envelope plays a pivotal role in determining whether a binary merges within a Hubble time. (2) Our description of natal kicks from supernovae plays an important role, especially for the formation of BH-BH systems. (3) The masses of BH-BH systems can be substantially increased in the case of low metallicities or weak winds. (4) Certain combinations of parameters underpredict the Galactic NS-NS merger rate and can be ruled out. (5) Models incorporating delayed supernovae do not agree with the observed NS/BH 'mass gap', in accordance with our previous work. This is the first in a series of three papers. The second paper will study the merger rates of double compact objects as a function of redshift, star formation rate, and metallicity. In the third paper, we will present the detection rates for gravitational-wave observatories, using up-to-date signal waveforms and sensitivity curves.

  7. UNDERSTANDING COMPACT OBJECT FORMATION AND NATAL KICKS. III. THE CASE OF CYGNUS X-1

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Tsing-Wai; Valsecchi, Francesca; Kalogera, Vassiliki; Fragos, Tassos E-mail: francesca@u.northwestern.edu E-mail: tfragos@cfa.harvard.edu

    2012-03-10

    In recent years, accurate observational constraints have become available for an increasing number of Galactic X-ray binaries (XRBs). Together with proper-motion measurements, we could reconstruct the full evolutionary history of XRBs back to the time of compact object formation. In this paper, we present the first study of the persistent X-ray source Cygnus X-1 that takes into account all available observational constraints. Our analysis accounts for three evolutionary phases: orbital evolution and motion through the Galactic potential after the formation of a black hole (BH), and binary orbital dynamics at the time of core collapse. We find that the mass of the BH immediate progenitor is 15.0-20.0 M{sub Sun }, and at the time of core collapse, the BH has potentially received a small kick velocity of {<=}77 km s{sup -1} at 95% confidence. If the BH progenitor mass is less than {approx}17 M{sub Sun }, a non-zero natal kick velocity is required to explain the currently observed properties of Cygnus X-1. Since the BH has only accreted mass from its companion's stellar wind, the negligible amount of accreted mass does not explain the observationally inferred BH spin of a{sub *} > 0.95, and the origin of this extreme BH spin must be connected to the BH formation itself. Right after the BH formation, we find that the BH companion is a 19.8-22.6 M{sub Sun} main-sequence star, orbiting the BH at a period of 4.7-5.2 days. Furthermore, recent observations show that the BH companion is currently super-synchronized. This super-synchronism indicates that the strength of tides exerted on the BH companion should be weaker by a factor of at least two compared to the usually adopted strength.

  8. New constraints on the cooling of the central compact object in CAS A

    SciTech Connect

    Posselt, B.; Pavlov, G. G.; Suleimanov, V.; Kargaltsev, O.

    2013-12-20

    To examine the previously claimed fast cooling of the Central Compact Object (CCO) in the Cas A supernova remnant (SNR), we analyzed two Chandra observations of this CCO, taken in a setup minimizing instrumental spectral distortions. We fit the two CCO X-ray spectra from 2006 and 2012 with hydrogen and carbon neutron star atmosphere models. The temperature and flux changes in the 5.5 yr between the two epochs depend on the adopted constraints on the fitting parameters and the uncertainties of the effective area calibrations. If we allow a change of the equivalent emitting region size, R {sub Em}, the effective temperature remains essentially the same. If R {sub Em} is held constant, the best-fit temperature change is negative, but its statistical significance ranges from 0.8σ to 2.5σ, depending on the model. If we assume that the optical depth of the ACIS filter contaminant in 2012 was ±10% different from its default calibration value, the significance of the temperature drop becomes 0.8σ-3.1σ, for the carbon atmospheres with constant R {sub Em}. Thus, we do not see a statistically significant temperature drop in our data, but the involved uncertainties are too large to firmly exclude the previously reported fast cooling. Our analysis indicate a decrease of 4%-6% (1.9σ-2.9σ significance) for the absorbed flux in the energy range 0.6-6 keV between 2006 and 2012, most prominent in the ≈1.4-1.8 keV energy range. It could be caused by unaccounted changes of the detector response or contributions from unresolved SNR material along the line of sight to the CCO.

  9. Development of magnetic fabric in sedimentary rocks: insights from early compactional structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Lasanta, Cristina; Oliva-Urcia, Belén; Román-Berdiel, Teresa; Casas, Antonio M.; Pérez-Lorente, Félix

    2013-07-01

    The timing of development of the magnetic fabric is a major issue in the application of anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) as a strain marker. Analysis of AMS in unconcealed synsedimentary structures can be a sound approximation to this task. In this work, three types of early compactional structures (ECS) were studied by means of AMS, since they can help to understand the timing of development of the magnetic fabric. All three types of ECS are found in fine-grained detrital rocks (to avoid other influences such as palaeocurrents), claystones and marls of the Enciso Group within the Cameros Basin (NE Spain): dinosaur footprints, load structures due to differential compaction and dish-and-flame structures associated with fluid migration related to seismites. In addition, to determine possible influences of lithology on the magnetic fabric, different rock types (siltstones and limestones) were also sampled. In general, the influence of ECS results in scattering of the three magnetic axes, higher at the margins of the structure than at its centre. This fact suggests that ECS occurs during the development of the magnetic fabric, disturbing the incipient magnetic fabric stages, and strongly conditions its later evolution during diagenesis. The later homogeneous compaction process due to sedimentary load and physicochemical processes reorient the susceptibility carriers to some extent (i.e. the magnetic fabric is still under development), but not totally, since AMS still records the previous scattering due to ECS imprint. For the Enciso Group deposits, the magnetic fabric begins to develop at the earliest stages after deposition and it stops when diagenetic processes have finished.

  10. Development of a compact magnetic proton recoil spectrometer for measurement of deuterium-tritium neutrons

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jianfu Ouyang, Xiaoping; Zhang, Xianpeng; Qiu, Suizheng; Zhang, Guoguang; Ruan, Jinlu; Zhang, Xiaodong; Yang, Shaohua; Song, Jiwen; Liu, Linyue; Li, Hongyun

    2015-12-15

    A new compact magnetic proton recoil (MPR) neutron spectrometer has been designed for precise measurement of deuterium-tritium (DT) neutrons. This design is presented emphasizing the magnetic analyzing system, which is based on a compact quadrupole-dipole (QD) electromagnet. The focal plane detector (FPD) is also discussed with respect to application for the next step. The characteristics of the MPR spectrometer were calculated by using Monte Carlo simulation. A preliminary experiment was performed to test the magnetic analyzing system and the proton images of the FPD. Since the QD electromagnet design allows for a larger foil thickness and solid angle to be utilized, the MPR spectrometer defined in this paper can achieve neutron detection efficiency more than 5 × 10{sup −7} at an energy resolution of 1.5% for measuring DT neutrons.

  11. Development of a compact magnetic proton recoil spectrometer for measurement of deuterium-tritium neutrons.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianfu; Ouyang, Xiaoping; Qiu, Suizheng; Zhang, Guoguang; Ruan, Jinlu; Zhang, Xiaodong; Zhang, Xianpeng; Yang, Shaohua; Song, Jiwen; Liu, Linyue; Li, Hongyun

    2015-12-01

    A new compact magnetic proton recoil (MPR) neutron spectrometer has been designed for precise measurement of deuterium-tritium (DT) neutrons. This design is presented emphasizing the magnetic analyzing system, which is based on a compact quadrupole-dipole (QD) electromagnet. The focal plane detector (FPD) is also discussed with respect to application for the next step. The characteristics of the MPR spectrometer were calculated by using Monte Carlo simulation. A preliminary experiment was performed to test the magnetic analyzing system and the proton images of the FPD. Since the QD electromagnet design allows for a larger foil thickness and solid angle to be utilized, the MPR spectrometer defined in this paper can achieve neutron detection efficiency more than 5 × 10(-7) at an energy resolution of 1.5% for measuring DT neutrons. PMID:26724081

  12. Development of a compact magnetic proton recoil spectrometer for measurement of deuterium-tritium neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jianfu; Ouyang, Xiaoping; Qiu, Suizheng; Zhang, Guoguang; Ruan, Jinlu; Zhang, Xiaodong; Zhang, Xianpeng; Yang, Shaohua; Song, Jiwen; Liu, Linyue; Li, Hongyun

    2015-12-01

    A new compact magnetic proton recoil (MPR) neutron spectrometer has been designed for precise measurement of deuterium-tritium (DT) neutrons. This design is presented emphasizing the magnetic analyzing system, which is based on a compact quadrupole-dipole (QD) electromagnet. The focal plane detector (FPD) is also discussed with respect to application for the next step. The characteristics of the MPR spectrometer were calculated by using Monte Carlo simulation. A preliminary experiment was performed to test the magnetic analyzing system and the proton images of the FPD. Since the QD electromagnet design allows for a larger foil thickness and solid angle to be utilized, the MPR spectrometer defined in this paper can achieve neutron detection efficiency more than 5 × 10-7 at an energy resolution of 1.5% for measuring DT neutrons.

  13. Development of a compact permanent magnet helicon plasma source for ion beam bioengineering

    SciTech Connect

    Kerdtongmee, P.; Srinoum, D.; Nisoa, M.

    2011-10-15

    A compact helicon plasma source was developed as a millimeter-sized ion source for ion beam bioengineering. By employing a stacked arrangement of annular-shaped permanent magnets, a uniform axial magnetic flux density up to 2.8 kG was obtained. A cost effective 118 MHz RF generator was built for adjusting forward output power from 0 to 40 W. The load impedance and matching network were then analyzed. A single loop antenna and circuit matching elements were placed on a compact printed circuit board for 50 {Omega} impedance matching. A plasma density up to 1.1 x 10{sup 12} cm{sup -3} in the 10 mm diameter tube under the magnetic flux density was achieved with 35 W applied RF power.

  14. Development of a compact permanent magnet helicon plasma source for ion beam bioengineering.

    PubMed

    Kerdtongmee, P; Srinoum, D; Nisoa, M

    2011-10-01

    A compact helicon plasma source was developed as a millimeter-sized ion source for ion beam bioengineering. By employing a stacked arrangement of annular-shaped permanent magnets, a uniform axial magnetic flux density up to 2.8 kG was obtained. A cost effective 118 MHz RF generator was built for adjusting forward output power from 0 to 40 W. The load impedance and matching network were then analyzed. A single loop antenna and circuit matching elements were placed on a compact printed circuit board for 50 Ω impedance matching. A plasma density up to 1.1 × 10(12) cm(-3) in the 10 mm diameter tube under the magnetic flux density was achieved with 35 W applied RF power. PMID:22047290

  15. Calibration of a compact magnetic proton recoil neutron spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jianfu; Ouyang, Xiaoping; Zhang, Xianpeng; Ruan, Jinlu; Zhang, Guoguang; Zhang, Xiaodong; Qiu, Suizheng; Chen, Liang; Liu, Jinliang; Song, Jiwen; Liu, Linyue; Yang, Shaohua

    2016-04-01

    Magnetic proton recoil (MPR) neutron spectrometer is considered as a powerful instrument to measure deuterium-tritium (DT) neutron spectrum, as it is currently used in inertial confinement fusion facilities and large Tokamak devices. The energy resolution (ER) and neutron detection efficiency (NDE) are the two most important parameters to characterize a neutron spectrometer. In this work, the ER calibration for the MPR spectrometer was performed by using the HI-13 tandem accelerator at China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE), and the NDE calibration was performed by using the neutron generator at CIAE. The specific calibration techniques used in this work and the associated accuracies were discussed in details in this paper. The calibration results were presented along with Monte Carlo simulation results.

  16. A Dedicated Genetic Algorithm for Localization of Moving Magnetic Objects

    PubMed Central

    Alimi, Roger; Weiss, Eyal; Ram-Cohen, Tsuriel; Geron, Nir; Yogev, Idan

    2015-01-01

    A dedicated Genetic Algorithm (GA) has been developed to localize the trajectory of ferromagnetic moving objects within a bounded perimeter. Localization of moving ferromagnetic objects is an important tool because it can be employed in situations when the object is obscured. This work is innovative for two main reasons: first, the GA has been tuned to provide an accurate and fast solution to the inverse magnetic field equations problem. Second, the algorithm has been successfully tested using real-life experimental data. Very accurate trajectory localization estimations were obtained over a wide range of scenarios. PMID:26393598

  17. HST observations of the nebula around the central compact object in the Vela Jr. supernova remnant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mignani, R. P.; de Luca, A.; Pellizzoni, A.

    2009-12-01

    Context: A handful of young (a few thousand years) supernova remnants (SNRs) host point-like X-ray sources, dubbed central compact objects (CCOs), which are thought to be radio-silent isolated neutron stars formed by the supernova explosion. So far, no CCO has been firmly detected at other wavelengths. However, ground-based observation in the Hα band detected a nebula around CXO J085201.4-461753, the CCO in the Vela Jr. SNR. The nebula has also been detected in deep R-band observations performed with the Very Large Telescope (VLT). Interestingly, both its extension and its flux in the R band are consistent with those measured in Hα, suggesting that the nebula spectrum is dominated by line emission, possibly produced by a velocity-driven bow-shock in the interstellar medium (ISM) or by its photo-ionisation from the neutron star. Aims: The aim of this work is to resolve the morphology of the Hα nebula around the CCO to verify the proposed interpretations. Methods: We performed high-resolution imaging observations of the nebula with the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) through the 656N filter, almost exactly centred on the rest wavelength of the Hα line. Results: Surprisingly enough, we did not detect the nebula in our WFPC2 image down to a 3 σ flux limit of ~3 × 10-15 erg cm-2 s-1. This limit is a factor of 10 fainter than the nebula flux measured in the discovery ground-based observations which were, however, performed with redder and broader Hα filters. Conclusions: The non-detection of the nebula in the narrower and bluer WFPC2 656N filter suggests that the peak of the emission might actually be at longer wavelengths. One possibility, compatible with the bow-shock scenario only, is that the Hα line is red-shifted by ~10-60 Å due to the neutron star motion with a radial velocity 450 ⪉ Vr ⪉ 2700 km s-1. The other possibility is that the nebula is a knot of [NII] emission (λ = 6583.6 Å) unrelated to CXO J085201

  18. The multimessenger picture of compact object encounters: binary mergers versus dynamical collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosswog, S.; Piran, T.; Nakar, E.

    2013-04-01

    We explore the multimessenger signatures of encounters between two neutron stars (ns2) and between a neutron star and a stellar mass black hole (nsbh). We focus on the differences between gravitational-wave-driven binary mergers and dynamical collisions that occur, for example, in globular clusters. Our discussion is based on Newtonian hydrodynamics simulations that incorporate a nuclear equation of state and a multiflavour neutrino treatment. For both types of encounters we compare the gravitational wave and neutrino emission properties. We also calculate the rates at which nearly unbound mass is delivered back to the central remnant in a ballistic-fallback-plus-viscous-disc model and we analyse the properties of the dynamically ejected matter. Last but not least we address the electromagnetic transients that accompany each type of encounter. We find that dynamical collisions are at least as promising as binary mergers for producing (short) gamma-ray bursts, but they also share the same possible caveats in terms of baryonic pollution. All encounter remnants produce peak neutrino luminosities of at least ˜1053 erg s-1, some of the collision cases exceed this value by more than an order of magnitude. The canonical ns2 merger case ejects more than 1 per cent of a solar mass of extremely neutron-rich (Ye ˜ 0.03) material, an amount that is consistent with double neutron star mergers being a major source of r-process in the galaxy. nsbh collisions eject very large amounts of matter (˜0.15 M⊙) which seriously constrains their admissible occurrence rates. The compact object collision rate (sum of ns2 and nsbh) must therefore be less, likely much less, than 10 per cent of the ns2 merger rate. The radioactively decaying ejecta produce optical-ultraviolet `macronova' which, for the canonical merger case, peak after ˜0.4 d with a luminosity of ˜5 × 1041 erg s-1. ns2 (nsbh) collisions reach up to two (four) times larger peak luminosities. The dynamic ejecta deposit a

  19. A Compact, High-Performance Continuous Magnetic Refrigerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shirron, Peter; Canavan, Edgar; DiPirro, Michael; Jackson, Michael; King, Todd; Panek, John; Tuttle, James; Brodeur, Stephen J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We present test results of the first adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) that can produce continuous cooling at sub-kelvin temperatures. This system uses multiple stages that operate in sequence to cascade heat from a continuous stage up to a heat sink. Continuous operation aids the usual constraints of long hold times and short recycle times that lead to the generally large mass of single-shot ADRs, and allows us to achieve much higher cooling power per unit mass. Our design goal is 10 microW of cooling at 50 mK while rejecting heat to a 6-10 K heat sink. The total cold mass is estimated to be less than 10 kg, including magnetic shielding of each stage. These parameters envelop the requirements for currently planned astronomy missions. The relatively high heat rejection capability allows it to operate with a mechanical cryocooler as part of a cryogen-free, low temperature cooling system. This has the advantages of long, mission life and reduced complexity and cost. At present, we have assembled a three-stage ADR that operates with a superfluid helium bath. Additional work is underway to develop magnetocaloric materials that can extend its heat rejection capability up to 10 K. This paper discusses the design and operation of the ADR, as well as interface requirements for cryocooler-based operation.

  20. A new design for a compact centrifugal blood pump with a magnetically levitated rotor.

    PubMed

    Asama, Junichi; Shinshi, Tadahiko; Hoshi, Hideo; Takatani, Setsuo; Shimokohbe, Akira

    2004-01-01

    A compact centrifugal blood pump has been developed using a radial magnetic bearing with a two-degree of freedom active control. The proposed magnetic bearing exhibits high stiffness, even in passively controlled directions, and low power consumption because a permanent magnet, incorporated with the rotor, suspends its weight. The rotor is driven by a Lorentz force type of built-in motor, avoiding mechanical friction and material wear. The built-in motor is designed to generate only rotational torque, without radial and axial attractive forces on the rotor, leading to low power consumption by the magnetic bearing. The fabricated centrifugal pump measured 65 mm in diameter and 45 mm in height and weighed 0.36 kg. In the closed loop circuit filled with water, the pump provided a flow rate of 4.5 L/min at 2,400 rpm against a pressure head of 100 mm Hg. Total power consumption at that point was 18 W, including 2 W required for magnetic levitation, with a total efficiency of 5.7%. The experimental results showed that the design of the compact magnetic bearing was feasible and effective for use in a centrifugal blood pump. PMID:15672787

  1. A Comprehensive Study of Binary Compact Objects as Gravitational Wave Sources: Evolutionary Channels, Rates, and Physical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belczynski, Krzysztof; Kalogera, Vassiliki; Bulik, Tomasz

    2002-06-01

    A new generation of ground-based interferometric detectors for gravitational waves is currently under construction or has entered the commissioning phase (Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory [LIGO], VIRGO, GEO600, TAMA300). The purpose of these detectors is to observe gravitational waves from astrophysical sources and help improve our understanding of the source origin and physical properties. In this paper we study the most promising candidate sources for these detectors: inspiraling double compact objects. We use population synthesis methods to calculate the properties and coalescence rates of compact object binaries: double neutron stars, black hole-neutron star systems, and double black holes. We also examine the formation channels available to double compact object binaries. We explicitly account for the evolution of low-mass helium stars and investigate the possibility of common-envelope evolution involving helium stars as well as two evolved stars. As a result we identify a significant number of new formation channels for double neutron stars, in particular, leading to populations with very distinct properties. We discuss the theoretical and observational implications of such populations, but we also note the need for hydrodynamical calculations to settle the question of whether such common-envelope evolution is possible. We also present and discuss the physical properties of compact object binaries and identify a number of robust, qualitative features as well as their origin. Using the calculated coalescence rates we compare our results to earlier studies and derive expected detection rates for LIGO. We find that our most optimistic estimate for the first LIGO detectors reach a couple of events per year and our most pessimistic estimate for advanced LIGO detectors exceed ~=10 events per year.

  2. Compact permanent magnet H+ ECR ion source with pulse gas valve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwashita, Y.; Tongu, H.; Fuwa, Y.; Ichikawa, M.

    2016-02-01

    Compact H+ ECR ion source using permanent magnets is under development. Switching the hydrogen gas flow in pulse operations can reduce the gas loads to vacuum evacuation systems. A specially designed piezo gas valve chops the gas flow quickly. A 6 GHz ECR ion source equipped with the piezo gas valve is tested. The gas flow was measured by a fast ion gauge and a few ms response time is obtained.

  3. Compact Integration of a GSM-19 Magnetic Sensor with High-Precision Positioning using VRS GNSS Technology.

    PubMed

    Martín, Angel; Padín, Jorge; Anquela, Ana Belén; Sánchez, Juán; Belda, Santiago

    2009-01-01

    Magnetic data consists of a sequence of collected points with spatial coordinates and magnetic information. The spatial location of these points needs to be as exact as possible in order to develop a precise interpretation of magnetic anomalies. GPS is a valuable tool for accomplishing this objective, especially if the RTK approach is used. In this paper the VRS (Virtual Reference Station) technique is introduced as a new approach for real-time positioning of magnetic sensors. The main advantages of the VRS approach are, firstly, that only a single GPS receiver is needed (no base station is necessary), reducing field work and equipment costs. Secondly, VRS can operate at distances separated 50-70 km from the reference stations without degrading accuracy. A compact integration of a GSM-19 magnetometer sensor with a geodetic GPS antenna is presented; this integration does not diminish the operational flexibility of the original magnetometer and can work with the VRS approach. The coupled devices were tested in marshlands around Gandia, a city located approximately 100 km South of Valencia (Spain), thought to be the site of a Roman cemetery. The results obtained show adequate geometry and high-precision positioning for the structures to be studied (a comparison with the original low precision GPS of the magnetometer is presented). Finally, the results of the magnetic survey are of great interest for archaeological purposes. PMID:22574055

  4. Magnetized plasma flow injection into tokamak and high-beta compact torus plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsunaga, Hiroyuki; Komoriya, Yuuki; Tazawa, Hiroyasu; Asai, Tomohiko; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Steinhauer, Loren; Itagaki, Hirotomo; Onchi, Takumi; Hirose, Akira

    2010-11-01

    As an application of a magnetized coaxial plasma gun (MCPG), magnetic helicity injection via injection of a highly elongated compact torus (magnetized plasma flow: MPF) has been conducted on both tokamak and field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasmas. The injected plasmoid has significant amounts of helicity and particle contents and has been proposed as a fueling and a current drive method for various torus systems. In the FRC, MPF is expected to generate partially spherical tokamak like FRC equilibrium by injecting a significant amount of magnetic helicity. As a circumstantial evidence of the modified equilibrium, suppressed rotational instability with toroidal mode number n = 2. MPF injection experiments have also been applied to the STOR-M tokamak as a start-up and current drive method. Differences in the responses of targets especially relation with beta value and the self-organization feature will be studied.

  5. Object representation and magnetic moments in thin alkali films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrett, Douglas C.

    2008-10-01

    This thesis is broken into two parts a computer vision part and a solid state physics part. In the computer vision part of the thesis (chapters 1 through 5), the concept of an architecture is discussed with a review of what is known about the brain's visual architecture as it applies to object representation. With this in mind we review the two main types of architectures that are used in computer vision for object representation. A specific object representation is then implemented and optimized to solve a problem in object tracking. This representation is then used to derive the fiducial points of a face using two distinct methods. One using evolutionary algorithms and another by a Bayesian analysis of the feature responses drawn from a gallery of faces. The evolved fiducial representation is tested as a facial detection system. It is shown that the Bayesian analysis of facial images gives an entropy measure that can be used to further improve detection results in the facial detection system. In addition, two similarity metrics are explored in the context of facial detection. It is found that a normalized vector dot product substantially outperforms the Euclidean distance measure. The solid state part of the thesis is composed of two self contained chapters. An effort has been made to reduce the redundancies between the material but some will necessarily remain (i.e., short descriptions of the experimental setup). Both chapters deal with the phenomenon of magnetism of atomic impurities in and on thin metal host films. The important difference between the chapters, besides the results, lies in the experimental technique used to measure the magnetism. In chapter 6, thin films of Pb are covered in situ with sub monolayers of V, Mo and Co in the range between 0.01 and 1 monolayers. If the surface impurities are magnetic they will reduce the superconducting transition temperature of the Pb film. From the reduction of Tc the magnetic dephasing rate of the surface

  6. Proceedings of the third symposium on the physics and technology of compact toroids in the magnetic fusion energy program

    SciTech Connect

    Siemon, R.E.

    1981-03-01

    This document contains papers contributed by the participants of the Third Symposium on Physics and Technology of Compact Toroids in the Magnetic Fusion Energy Program. Subjects include reactor aspects of compact toroids, energetic particle rings, spheromak configurations (a mixture of toroidal and poloidal fields), and field-reversed configurations (FRC's that contain purely poloidal field).

  7. Parameter Estimation Using Markov Chain Monte Carlo Methods for Gravitational Waves from Spinning Inspirals of Compact Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raymond, Vivien

    2012-05-01

    Gravitational waves are on the verge of opening a brand new window on the Universe. However, gravitational wave astronomy comes with very unique challenges in data analysis and signal processing in order to lead to new discoveries in astrophysics. Among the sources of gravitational waves, inspiraling binary systems of compact objects, neutron stars and/or black holes in the mass range 1Msun--100Msun stand out as likely to be detected and relatively easy to model. The detection of a gravitational wave event is challenging and will be a rewarding achievement by itself. After such a detection, measurement of source properties holds major promise for improving our astrophysical understanding and requires reliable methods for parameter estimation and model selection. This is a complicated problem, because of the large number of parameters (15 for spinning compact objects in a quasi-circular orbit) and the degeneracies between them, the significant amount of structure in the parameter space, and the particularities of the detector noise. This work presents the development of a parameter-estimation and model-selection algorithm, based on Bayesian statistical theory and using Markov chain Monte Carlo methods for ground-based gravitational-wave detectors (LIGO and Virgo). This method started from existing non-spinning and single spin stand-alone analysis codes and was developed into a method able to tackle the complexity of fully spinning systems, and infer all spinning parameters of a compact binary. Not only are spinning parameters believed to be astrophysically significant, but this work has shown that not including them in the analysis can lead to biases in parameter recovery. This work made it possible to answer several scientific questions involving parameter estimation of inspiraling spinning compact objects, which are addressed in the chapters of this dissertation.

  8. Real-time imaging of moving living objects using a compact terahertz scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Sang-Pil; Kim, Namje; Lee, Won-Hui; Lee, Eui Su; Ko, Hyunsung; Lee, Il-Min; Moon, Kiwon; Lee, Dong Hun; Park, Kyung Hyun

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we design a compact terahertz (THz) reflection scanner with a scan rate of 20 frames/s. This scanner is based on a benzocyclobutene-embedded InGaAs Schottky barrier diode detector having a maximum responsivity of 300 V/W at 250 GHz and a minimum noise equivalent power of 38 pW/\\sqrt{\\text{Hz}} . With this scanner, details such as sharp head and tail and wrinkled segments in a moving caterpillar are observed. The thin and thick parts of the moving caterpillar that are presented in light gray and dark gray, respectively, on the gray scale are also well distinguished.

  9. Magnetic field structure around cores with very low luminosity objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soam, A.; Maheswar, G.; Lee, Chang Won; Dib, Sami; Bhatt, H. C.; Tamura, Motohide; Kim, Gwanjeong

    2015-01-01

    Aims: We carried out optical polarimetry of five dense cores, (IRAM 04191, L1521F, L328, L673-7, and L1014) which are found to harbour very low luminosity objects (VeLLOs; Lint ≲ 0.1 L⊙). This study was conducted mainly to understand the role played by the magnetic field in the formation of very low and substellar mass range objects. Methods: Light from the stars, while passing through the dust grains that are aligned with their short axis parallel to an external magnetic field, becomes linearly polarised. The polarisation position angles measured for the stars can provide the plane-of-the sky magnetic field orientation. Because the light in the optical wavelength range is most efficiently polarised by the dust grains typically found at the outer layers of the molecular clouds, optical polarimetry mostly traces the magnetic field orientation of the core envelope. Results: The polarisation observations of stars projected on IRAM 04191, L328, L673-7, and L1014 were obtained in the R-band and those of L1521F were obtained in the V-band. The angular offsets between the envelope magnetic field direction (inferred from optical polarisation measurements) and the outflow position angles from the VeLLOs in IRAM 04191, L1521F, L328, L673-7, and L1014 are found to be 84°, 53°, 24°, 08°, and 15°, respectively. The mean value of the offsets for all the five clouds is ~ 37°. If we exclude IRAM 04191, the mean value reduces to become ~ 25°. In IRAM 04191, the offset between the projected envelope and the inner magnetic field (inferred from the submillimetre data obtained using SCUBA-POL) is found to be ~ 68°. The inner magnetic field, however, is found to be nearly aligned with the projected position angles of the minor axis, the rotation axis of the cloud, and the outflow from the IRAM 04191-IRS. We discuss a possible explanation for the nearly perpendicular orientation between the envelope and core scale magnetic fields in IRAM 04191. The angular offset between the

  10. Study and Developement of Compact Permanent Magnet Hall Thrusters for Future Brazillian Space Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Jose Leonardo; Martins, Alexandre; Cerda, Rodrigo

    2016-07-01

    . The main difficulty to reach these minor bodies is related to their specific orbits with high eccentricity and inclination. A good example is the case for sample return missions to NEOs-Near Earth Objects. They are small bodies consisting of primitive left over building blocks of the Solar System formation processes. These missions can be accomplished by using low thrust trajectories with spacecrafts propelled by plasma thrusters with total thrust below 0.5 N, and a specific impulse around2500 s. In this work, we will show the brazilian contribution to the development of a compact electrical propulsion engine named PHALL III, designed with DCFH and foreseen to be used in future cubesats microsatellites but with possible applications in geostationary attitude control systems and on low thrust trajectory missions to the Near Earth Asteroids region. We will show a particular new permanent magnet field designed for PHALL III . Computer based simulation codes such as VSIM are also used on the design of this new proposed cuped magnet field Hall Thruster. Based on the first results wee believed PHALL III will also allow a good spacecraft performance of long duration space missions for small size spacecrafts with limited low electric source power consumption. The PHALL III plasma source characterization is presented together with the ejected plasma plume ion current intensity, ion energy and plasma flow velocity parameters measured by an integrated Plasma Diagnostic Bench (BID). Based on plasma source and plume ejected parameters a merit figure of PHALL III is constructed and compared to computer calculated low thrust transfer requirements. From these results it is goig to be possible to analyse the potential use of PHALL III on future brazillian space missions , its working parameters are compared with parameters of existing space tested plasma thrusters already used on moon , deep space missions and also on satellite geostationary positioning using low thrust orbit

  11. Compact fluxgate magnetic full-tensor gradiometer with spherical feedback coil.

    PubMed

    Sui, Yangyi; Li, Guang; Wang, Shilong; Lin, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The magnetic tensor gradiometer, which is used for measuring the spatial derivatives of three orthogonal magnetic field components, is an important magnetic field characterization tool. Here, the construction of a magnetic full-tensor gradiometer is described, which utilizes four fluxgates arranged on a planar cross structure, and a single, triaxial, spherical feedback coil assembly. In this arrangement, one of the fluxgates is used as a reference, controlling the currents through the feedback coils. Since the fluxgates are working in the near-zero magnetic field environment, the magnetic tensor gradiometer is stable and of an improved accuracy. This design avoids the crosstalk normally caused by individual feedback coils for each fluxgate, and reduces the orthogonality and orientation errors. Moreover, the calibration parameters can be directly inferred using the spherical feedback coil. The measured gradient tensor magnitude can reach 0.52 nT/m/Hz(1/2) @ 1 Hz in unshielded laboratory conditions, while exhibiting good noise immunity. The functionality of the system is verified by locating a small, single, permanent, and dipole magnet in space. The gradiometer is compact, while employing global feedback, and therefore it is especially suitable for deployment on space-constrained moving platforms. PMID:24517792

  12. Compact fluxgate magnetic full-tensor gradiometer with spherical feedback coil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sui, Yangyi; Li, Guang; Wang, Shilong; Lin, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The magnetic tensor gradiometer, which is used for measuring the spatial derivatives of three orthogonal magnetic field components, is an important magnetic field characterization tool. Here, the construction of a magnetic full-tensor gradiometer is described, which utilizes four fluxgates arranged on a planar cross structure, and a single, triaxial, spherical feedback coil assembly. In this arrangement, one of the fluxgates is used as a reference, controlling the currents through the feedback coils. Since the fluxgates are working in the near-zero magnetic field environment, the magnetic tensor gradiometer is stable and of an improved accuracy. This design avoids the crosstalk normally caused by individual feedback coils for each fluxgate, and reduces the orthogonality and orientation errors. Moreover, the calibration parameters can be directly inferred using the spherical feedback coil. The measured gradient tensor magnitude can reach 0.52 nT/m/Hz1/2 @ 1 Hz in unshielded laboratory conditions, while exhibiting good noise immunity. The functionality of the system is verified by locating a small, single, permanent, and dipole magnet in space. The gradiometer is compact, while employing global feedback, and therefore it is especially suitable for deployment on space-constrained moving platforms.

  13. A compact broadband ion beam focusing device based on laser-driven megagauss thermoelectric magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albertazzi, B.; d'Humières, E.; Lancia, L.; Dervieux, V.; Antici, P.; Böcker, J.; Bonlie, J.; Breil, J.; Cauble, B.; Chen, S. N.; Feugeas, J. L.; Nakatsutsumi, M.; Nicolaï, P.; Romagnani, L.; Shepherd, R.; Sentoku, Y.; Swantusch, M.; Tikhonchuk, V. T.; Borghesi, M.; Willi, O.; Pépin, H.; Fuchs, J.

    2015-04-01

    Ultra-intense lasers can nowadays routinely accelerate kiloampere ion beams. These unique sources of particle beams could impact many societal (e.g., proton-therapy or fuel recycling) and fundamental (e.g., neutron probing) domains. However, this requires overcoming the beam angular divergence at the source. This has been attempted, either with large-scale conventional setups or with compact plasma techniques that however have the restriction of short (<1 mm) focusing distances or a chromatic behavior. Here, we show that exploiting laser-triggered, long-lasting (>50 ps), thermoelectric multi-megagauss surface magnetic (B)-fields, compact capturing, and focusing of a diverging laser-driven multi-MeV ion beam can be achieved over a wide range of ion energies in the limit of a 5° acceptance angle.

  14. A compact broadband ion beam focusing device based on laser-driven megagauss thermoelectric magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Albertazzi, B; d'Humières, E; Lancia, L; Dervieux, V; Antici, P; Böcker, J; Bonlie, J; Breil, J; Cauble, B; Chen, S N; Feugeas, J L; Nakatsutsumi, M; Nicolaï, P; Romagnani, L; Shepherd, R; Sentoku, Y; Swantusch, M; Tikhonchuk, V T; Borghesi, M; Willi, O; Pépin, H; Fuchs, J

    2015-04-01

    Ultra-intense lasers can nowadays routinely accelerate kiloampere ion beams. These unique sources of particle beams could impact many societal (e.g., proton-therapy or fuel recycling) and fundamental (e.g., neutron probing) domains. However, this requires overcoming the beam angular divergence at the source. This has been attempted, either with large-scale conventional setups or with compact plasma techniques that however have the restriction of short (<1 mm) focusing distances or a chromatic behavior. Here, we show that exploiting laser-triggered, long-lasting (>50 ps), thermoelectric multi-megagauss surface magnetic (B)-fields, compact capturing, and focusing of a diverging laser-driven multi-MeV ion beam can be achieved over a wide range of ion energies in the limit of a 5° acceptance angle. PMID:25933857

  15. Lightman-Eardley instabilities and accretion disk thickening. [for compact astronomical objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoeger, W. R.

    1979-01-01

    After reviewing the role of Compton scattering in accretion disks around black holes, it is discussed whether Lightman-Eardley (LE) secular instabilities can trigger and maintain Pringle-Rees (PR) thermal instabilities. The radiative-transfer-equation and equation-of-state criteria for LE stability in alpha-viscosity-law disk models and dynamic viscosity criteria for more general situations is derived. On the basis of these considerations the LE instability is insufficient for inducing PR instabilities and hot thick inner regions important in accretion-disk models of compact hard X-ray sources. The density thinning due to radial velocity gradients in the accretion flow is suggested as a more likely and satisfactory mechanism.

  16. Spectroscopy of the short-hard GRB 130603B. The host galaxy and environment of a compact object merger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Ugarte Postigo, A.; Thöne, C. C.; Rowlinson, A.; García-Benito, R.; Levan, A. J.; Gorosabel, J.; Goldoni, P.; Schulze, S.; Zafar, T.; Wiersema, K.; Sánchez-Ramírez, R.; Melandri, A.; D'Avanzo, P.; Oates, S.; D'Elia, V.; De Pasquale, M.; Krühler, T.; van der Horst, A. J.; Xu, D.; Watson, D.; Piranomonte, S.; Vergani, S. D.; Milvang-Jensen, B.; Kaper, L.; Malesani, D.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Cano, Z.; Covino, S.; Flores, H.; Greiss, S.; Hammer, F.; Hartoog, O. E.; Hellmich, S.; Heuser, C.; Hjorth, J.; Jakobsson, P.; Mottola, S.; Sparre, M.; Sollerman, J.; Tagliaferri, G.; Tanvir, N. R.; Vestergaard, M.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.

    2014-03-01

    Context. Short duration gamma-ray bursts (SGRBs) are thought to be related to the violent merger of compact objects, such as neutron stars or black holes, which makes them promising sources of gravitational waves. The detection of a "kilonova"-likesignature associated to the Swift-detected GRB 130603B has suggested that this event is the result of a compact object merger. Aims: Our knowledge on SGRB has been, until now, mostly based on the absence of supernova signatures and the analysis of the host galaxies to which they cannot always be securely associated. Further progress has been significantly hampered by the faintness and rapid fading of their optical counterparts (afterglows), which has so far precluded spectroscopy of such events. Afterglow spectroscopy is the key tool to firmly determine the distance at which the burst was produced, crucial to understand its physics, and study its local environment. Methods: Here we present the first spectra of a prototypical SGRB afterglow in which both absorption and emission features are clearly detected. Together with multi-wavelength photometry we study the host and environment of GRB 130603B. Results: From these spectra we determine the redshift of the burst to be z = 0.3565 ± 0.0002, measure rich dynamics both in absorption and emission, and a substantial line of sight extinction of AV = 0.86 ± 0.15 mag. The GRB was located at the edge of a disrupted arm of a moderately star forming galaxy with near-solar metallicity. Unlike for most long GRBs (LGRBs), NHX/AV is consistent with the Galactic ratio, indicating that the explosion site differs from those found in LGRBs. Conclusions: The merger is not associated with the most star-forming region of the galaxy; however, it did occur in a dense region, implying a rapid merger or a low natal kick velocity for the compact object binary. Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  17. Magnetic Fabrics and Paleomagnetism of Sedimentary Rocks: Examining Effects of Compaction and Deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Housen, B. A.

    2006-12-01

    Sedimentary rocks provide many important records of the geometry and history of the geomagnetic field, but such records are at times compromised by the effects of depositional processes, soft-sediment deformation, compaction, and tectonic strain. One productive line of research into these effects has been to utilize the well known ability of magnetic anisotropy methods to quantitatively analyze sediment fabrics that result from these processes, and to use these data to evaluate the possibility that the remanence directions in sediments and sedimentary rocks have been altered. Two approaches to this problem will be presented. The first deals with relationships between magnetic fabric shape parameters and paleomagnetic inclination error. The second approach will be to examine the shape distributions of paleomagnetic data, and compare these to the shape distributions of AMS kmin axes from the same rocks. For the first approach, analyses of magnetic fabrics and estimates of paleomagnetic inclination error in the Shikoku Basin (ODP Site 1173) sediments indicate that both initial deposition and post-depositional compaction play important roles in shallowing of inclination. The sediments down to 344 meters depth have relatively uniform flattening values and fabric-based estimates of mean inclination errors of 3.2° for a = 5, and 5.9°° for a = 2.4. The uniform flattening factors, minor inclination errors, and uniform porosity all suggest that only the initial deposition/consolidation process, rather than burial-related compaction, has influenced the paleomagnetic inclinations of the sediments within this interval. In contrast, sediments below 344 meters depth have flattening factors and calculated inclination errors that monotonically increase with depth, with mean inclination errors of 12.1° for a = 5, and 23.3° for a = 2.4. Decrease of porosity within this same depth interval suggests that burial-related compaction within these hemipelagic sediments is the dominant

  18. Compact toroids generated by a magnetized coaxial source in the CTX experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Sherwood, A.R.; Henins, I.; Hoida, H.W.; Jarboe, T.R.; McKenna, K.F.; Linford, R.K.; Marshall, J.; Platts, D.A.

    1981-01-01

    Compact toroids containing both toroidal and poloidal magnetic field (Spheromak-type) have been generated in CTX using a magnetized coaxial plasma gun. These CTs tear loose from the gun by magnetic field line reconnection, and they are trapped in flux conservers having various geometries. In a straight cylindrical flux conserver the CTs are observed to be unstable to a gross tilting mode. Stability to the tilting mode has been demonstrated in flux conservers having an oblate trapping region; however, the geometry of the entrance region leading to the trapping volume can also have important effects. Lifetimes of about 150 ..mu..s for the CTs are typically observed. Interferometric measurements give a value of about 2 x 10/sup 14/ cm/sup -3/ for the initial plasma density. The plasma temperature measured at a single spot near the minor magnetic axis decreases to around 10 eV by the time the magnetic reconnection is complete. Spectrographic measurements and pressure probe results are in agreement with this temperature. A snipper coil has been installed to induce the CT to tear loose from the gun sooner. The use of this coil is observed to speed up the magnetic field reconnection process by about a factor of 2.

  19. A compact and integrated immunoassay with on-chip dispensing and magnetic particle handling.

    PubMed

    Zirath, Helene; Peham, Johannes R; Schnetz, Guntram; Coll, Albert; Brandhoff, Lukas; Spittler, Andreas; Vellekoop, Michael J; Redl, Heinz

    2016-02-01

    We present a compact diagnostic platform for a rapid and sensitive detection of plasma biomarkers. The platform consists of a disposable microfluidic polymer chip, a processing device including a lens-free and cost efficient sensor system and a setup for dispersion of magnetic particles. The biomarkers of interest are quantified by magnetic bead based immunoassays with chemiluminescent readout technology. With a novel system for dispersion and manipulation of the magnetic particles in combination with chemiluminescence detection, the sensitivity of the immunoassay is improved and enables a rapid assay in a microfluidic format. In the disposable chip, extra chambers for storage and dispensing of biomarker specific reagents are integrated, which reduce the need of external dosing devices and thereby the cost of the platform is decreased. Plasma biomarkers for monitoring of sepsis could be quantified at 10 pg/mL concentrations within a total time of 30 min by the present system. This contribution is a fundamental step towards the development of an automatic and compact Point-of-Care testing device for monitoring of patients at the intensive care unit. PMID:26842948

  20. Constraining compactness and magnetic field geometry of X-ray pulsars using pulse profile statistics

    SciTech Connect

    Annala, Marja; Poutanen, Juri

    2010-07-15

    We use the statistics of 131 X-ray pulsar light curves in order to constrain the neutron star compactness and the inclination of the magnetic dipole. The X-ray pulse profiles are classified according to the number of pulses seen during one period, dividing them into two classes, single- and double-peaked. The relative fraction of pulsars in these classes is compared with the probabilities predicted by a theoretical model for different types of pencil-beam patterns. Our results show that a statistic of pulse profiles does not constrain compactness of the neutron stars. In contrast to the previous claim, the data do not require the magnetic inclination to be confined in a narrow interval but instead the magnetic dipole can have arbitrary inclinations to the rotational axis. The observed fractions of different types of light curves can be explained by taking into account the X-ray detector sensitivity (i.e. detection threshold for weak pulses), which decreases the fraction of the observed double-peaked light curves.

  1. Design and system integration of the superconducting wiggler magnets for the Compact Linear Collider damping rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoerling, Daniel; Antoniou, Fanouria; Bernhard, Axel; Bragin, Alexey; Karppinen, Mikko; Maccaferri, Remo; Mezentsev, Nikolay; Papaphilippou, Yannis; Peiffer, Peter; Rossmanith, Robert; Rumolo, Giovanni; Russenschuck, Stephan; Vobly, Pavel; Zolotarev, Konstantin

    2012-04-01

    To achieve high luminosity at the collision point of the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC), the normalized horizontal and vertical emittances of the electron and positron beams must be reduced to 500 and 4 nm before the beams enter the 1.5 TeV linear accelerators. An effective way to accomplish ultralow emittances with only small effects on the electron polarization is using damping rings operating at 2.86 GeV equipped with superconducting wiggler magnets. This paper describes a technical design concept for the CLIC damping wigglers.

  2. Optical, X-ray and gamma-ray observations of compact objects in globular clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grindlay, J. E.

    1993-01-01

    In the past three years, a new era of study of globular clusters has begun with multiwavelength observations from the current generation of astronomical telescopes in space. We review the recent results obtained from our studies of compact binaries and x-ray sources in globulars with ROSAT and Hubble Space Telescope (HST) as well as our balloon-borne hard x-ray telescope EXITE (Energetic X-ray Imaging Telescope Experiment) and ground-based observations (CTIO). With ROSAT, we have obtained the most sensitive high resolution soft x-ray images of clusters which show multiple low luminosity sources in cluster cores that are likely indicative of the long-sought population of cataclysmic variables (CVs). We have obtained deep H-alpha images of two clusters with HST and found CV candiates for 3 of the ROSAT sources in the core of NGC 6397. New CTIO imaging and spectroscopy of two 'dim source' fields in omega-Cen are also described. With EXITE we carried out the first hard x-ray imaging observations of the cluster 47 Tuc; such studies can ultimately limit the populations of millisecond pulsars and pulsar emission mechanisms. A long ROSAT exposure on 47 Tuc also shows probable cluster diffuse emission, possibly due to hot gas from ablating millisecond pulsars. Multiwavelength studies of globular clusters may provide new constraints on problems as diverse as the origin of CVs and low mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) and the origin of hot gas in globulars.

  3. Compact object mergers: observations of supermassive binary black holes and stellar tidal disruption events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komossa, S.; Zensus, J. A.

    2016-02-01

    The capture and disruption of stars by supermassive black holes (SMBHs), and the formation and coalescence of binaries, are inevitable consequences of the presence of SMBHs at the cores of galaxies. Pairs of active galactic nuclei (AGN) and binary SMBHs are important stages in the evolution of galaxy mergers, and an intense search for these systems is currently ongoing. In the early and advanced stages of galaxy merging, observations of the triggering of accretion onto one or both BHs inform us about feedback processes and BH growth. Identification of the compact binary SMBHs at parsec and sub-parsec scales provides us with important constraints on the interaction processes that govern the shrinkage of the binary beyond the ``final parsec''. Coalescing binary SMBHs are among the most powerful sources of gravitational waves (GWs) in the universe. Stellar tidal disruption events (TDEs) appear as luminous, transient, accretion flares when part of the stellar material is accreted by the SMBH. About 30 events have been identified by multi-wavelength observations by now, and they will be detected in the thousands in future ground-based or space-based transient surveys. The study of TDEs provides us with a variety of new astrophysical tools and applications, related to fundamental physics or astrophysics. Here, we provide a review of the current status of observations of SMBH pairs and binaries, and TDEs, and discuss astrophysical implications.

  4. COMPACT OBJECT COALESCENCE RATE ESTIMATION FROM SHORT GAMMA-RAY BURST OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Petrillo, Carlo Enrico; Dietz, Alexander; Cavaglia, Marco

    2013-04-20

    Recent observational and theoretical results suggest that short-duration gamma-ray bursts (SGRBs) originate from the merger of compact binary systems of two neutron stars or a neutron star and a black hole. The observation of SGRBs with known redshifts allows astronomers to infer the merger rate of these systems in the local universe. We use data from the SWIFT satellite to estimate this rate to be in the range {approx}500-1500 Gpc{sup -3} yr{sup -1}. This result is consistent with earlier published results which were obtained through alternative approaches. We estimate the number of coincident observations of gravitational-wave signals with SGRBs in the advanced gravitational-wave detector era. By assuming that all SGRBs are created by neutron star-neutron star (neutron star-black hole) mergers, we estimate the expected rate of coincident observations to be in the range {approx_equal} 0.2-1 ({approx_equal} 1-3) yr{sup -1}.

  5. A Permanent-Magnet Microwave Ion Source for a Compact High-Yield Neutron Generator

    SciTech Connect

    Waldmann, Ole; Ludewigt, Bernhard

    2010-10-11

    We present recent work on the development of a microwave ion source that will be used in a high-yield compact neutron generator for active interrogation applications. The sealed tube generator will be capable of producing high neutron yields, 5x1011 n/s for D-T and ~;;1x1010 n/s for D-D reactions, while remaining transportable. We constructed a microwave ion source (2.45 GHz) with permanent magnets to provide the magnetic field strength of 87.5 mT necessary for satisfying the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) condition. Microwave ion sources can produce high extracted beam currents at the low gas pressures required for sealed tube operation and at lower power levels than previously used RF-driven ion sources. A 100 mA deuterium/tritium beam will be extracted through a large slit (60x6 mm2) to spread the beam power over a larger target area. This paper describes the design of the permanent-magnet microwave ion source and discusses the impact of the magnetic field design on the source performance. The required equivalent proton beam current density of 40 mA/cm2 was extracted at a moderate microwave power of 400 W with an optimized magnetic field.

  6. A compact highly efficient and low hemolytic centrifugal blood pump with a magnetically levitated impeller.

    PubMed

    Asama, Junichi; Shinshi, Tadahiko; Hoshi, Hideo; Takatani, Setsuo; Shimokohbe, Akira

    2006-03-01

    A magnetically levitated (maglev) centrifugal blood pump (CBP), intended for use as a ventricular assist device, needs to be highly durable and reliable for long-term use without any mechanical failure. Furthermore, maglev CBPs should be small enough to be implanted into patients of various size and weight. We have developed a compact maglev CBP employing a two-degree-of-freedom controlled magnetic bearing, with a magnetically suspended impeller directly driven by an internal brushless direct current (DC) motor. The magnetic bearing actively controls the radial motion of the impeller and passively supports axial and angular motions using a permanent magnet embedded in the impeller. The overall dimensions of the maglev CBP are 65 mm in diameter and 40 mm in height. The total power consumption and pump efficiency for pumping 6 L/min against a head pressure of 105 mm Hg were 6.5 W and 21%, respectively. To evaluate the characteristics of the maglev CBP when subjected to a disturbance, excitation of the base, simulating the movement of the patient in various directions, and the sudden interception of the outlet tube connected with the pump in a mock circulatory loop, simulating an unexpected kink and emergent clamp during a heart surgery, were tested by monitoring the five-degree-of-freedom motion of the impeller. Furthermore, the hemolytic characteristics of the maglev CBP were compared with those of the Medtronic Biomedicus BPX-80, which demonstrated the superiority of the maglev CBP. PMID:16480390

  7. Stable Levitation and Alignment of Compact Objects by Casimir Spring Forces

    SciTech Connect

    Rahi, Sahand Jamal; Zaheer, Saad

    2010-02-19

    We investigate a stable Casimir force configuration consisting of an object contained inside a spherical or spheroidal cavity filled with a dielectric medium. The spring constant for displacements from the center of the cavity and the dependence of the energy on the relative orientations of the inner object and the cavity walls are computed. We find that the stability of the force equilibrium--unlike the direction of the torque--can be predicted based on the sign of the force between two slabs of the same material.

  8. Ideal magnetohydrodynamic simulations of low beta compact toroid injection into a hot strongly magnetized plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Wei; Hsu, Scott; Li, Hui

    2009-01-01

    We present results from three-dimensional ideal magnetohydrodynamic simulations of low {beta} compact toroid (CT) injection into a hot strongly magnetized plasma, with the aim of providing insight into CT fueling of a tokamak with parameters relevant for ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor). A regime is identified in terms of CT injection speed and CT-to-background magnetic field ratio that appears promising for precise core fueling. Shock-dominated regimes, which are probably unfavorable for tokamak fueling, are also identified. The CT penetration depth is proportional to the CT injection speed and density. The entire CT evolution can be divided into three stages: (1) initial penetration, (2) compression in the direction of propagation and reconnection, and (3) coming to rest and spreading in the direction perpendicular to injection. Tilting of the CT is not observed due to the fast transit time of the CT across the background plasma.

  9. Compact 14.5 GHz all-permanent magnet ECRIS for experiments with slow multicharged ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galutschek, E.; Trassl, R.; Salzborn, E.; Aumayr, F.; Winter, Hp

    2007-03-01

    A compact 14.5 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) for production of multiply charged ions (MCI) with a plasma-confining magnetic field generated by permanent magnets has been constructed. Microwave power with frequency between 12.75 and 14.5 GHz is transmitted from ground potential via an insulating window into the watercooled plasma chamber fitted with an aluminium liner. The HF coupling system serves as biased electrode. Operation in the gas-mixing mode is achieved with two remotely controlled gas inlet valves. The triode ion extraction system has been optimized for low acceleration voltages between 1 and 10 kV. The ECRIS is fully computer-controlled and can be remotely operated via Ethernet. Finally, we refer to recent experimental work on collisions of slow MCI generated by the new ECRIS with neutral gas particles and surfaces.

  10. Conducting object in the presence of a variable magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savchenko, A. O.; Savchenko, O. Ya.

    2015-07-01

    A numerical method is proposed to determine vector potential and gradient of scalar potential inside a conductor in the presence of a magnetic field that exhibits harmonic variations with time. The problem is reduced to the solution of the Helmholtz equation in a conducting object under the condition that the normal component of the right-hand side of equation on the conducting surface is zero. An iterative procedure is proposed for the solution of the original problem. First, the surface charge distribution that satisfies the boundary condition for the vector potential on the conducting surface is found, and, then, the next approximation for the vector potential is obtained with the aid of the Poisson equation. The method is illustrated using numerical experiments.

  11. Segmentation, modeling and classification of the compact objects in a pile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, Alok; Funka-Lea, Gareth; Wohn, Kwangyoen

    1990-01-01

    The problem of interpreting dense range images obtained from the scene of a heap of man-made objects is discussed. A range image interpretation system consisting of segmentation, modeling, verification, and classification procedures is described. First, the range image is segmented into regions and reasoning is done about the physical support of these regions. Second, for each region several possible three-dimensional interpretations are made based on various scenarios of the objects physical support. Finally each interpretation is tested against the data for its consistency. The superquadric model is selected as the three-dimensional shape descriptor, plus tapering deformations along the major axis. Experimental results obtained from some complex range images of mail pieces are reported to demonstrate the soundness and the robustness of our approach.

  12. Magnetic Field Line Tracing Calculations for Conceptual PFC Design in the National Compact Stellarator Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Maingi, R; Kaiser, T; Hill, D N; Lyon, J F; Monticello, D; Zarnstorff, M C

    2006-06-12

    The National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) is a three-field period compact stellarator presently in the construction phase at Princeton, NJ. The design parameters of the device are major radius R=1.4m, average minor radius = 0.32m, 1.2 {le} toroidal field (B{sub t}) {le} 1.7 T, and auxiliary input power up to 12 MW with neutral beams and radio-frequency heating. The NCSX average aspect ratio of 4.4 lies well below present stellarator experiments and designs, enabling the investigation of high {beta} physics in a compact stellarator geometry. Also the NCSX design choice for a quasi-axisymmetric configuration aims toward the achievement of tokamak-like transport. In this paper, we report on the magnetic field line tracing calculations used to evaluate conceptual plasma facing component (PFC) designs. In contrast to tokamaks, axisymmetric target plates are not required to intercept the majority of the heat flux in stellarators, owing to the nature of the 3-D magnetic field footprint. The divertor plate design investigated in this study covers approximately one half of the toroidal extent in each period. Typical Poincare plots in Figure 1 illustrate the plasma cross-section at several toroidal angles for a computed NCSX high-beta equilibrium. The plates used for these calculations are centered in each period about the elongated cross-section shown in Figure 1a, extending to +/- {pi}/6 in each direction. Two methods for tracing the edge field line topology were used in this study. The first entails use of the VMEC/MFBE-2001 packages, whereas the second entails use of the PIES code with a post-processor by Michael Drevlak; the same field line integration routine was used to evaluate the equilibria for this comparison. Both inputs were generated based on the {beta}=4%, =iota=0.5 equilibrium computed from the final NCSX coil set. We first compare these two methods for a specific plate geometry, and conclude with a comparison of the strike characteristics

  13. Magnetic Field Line Topology of the Scrape-Off Layer in the Compact Stellarator NCSX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossman, Arthur; Mioduszewski, Peter; Fenstermacher, Max; Koniges, Alice; Rognlien, Tom

    2001-10-01

    The magnetic topology of the plasma boundary of the proposed compact stellarator NCSX is investigated using the MFBE[1] and VMEC2000[2] codes. The VMEC code provides a free boundary equilibrium and the magnetics from external coils and bootstrap plasma currents inside the last closed magnetic surface (LCMS). The MFBE code uses these results to calculate the magnetic fields of these finite beta equilibria outside the LCMS in a form suitable for line tracing. The Poincaré plots of field lines started outside the LCMS indicate preservation of initial radial ordering of field lines up to intersections with vacuum vessel and plasma facing components. A large flux expansion of field lines is observed between the midplane and tips of the banana shaped cross-section, due to the presence of a nearby poloidal field null used to create the banana shape. TRIM coils used to heal islands just within the LCMS appear to reduce stochasticity just outside the LCMS as well as enhance an island structure outside the LCMS. Field lines are observed to move in and out radially as they are followed toroidally. Power and particle control design based on these observations include the limiting structure geometry and baffles designed to intersect islands outside the LCMS. [1] E.Strumberger, Nuclear Fusion 37 1997 19. [2] S.Hirshman, Comp. Phys. Commun. 43 1986 143.

  14. Compact Objects In Binary Systems: Formation and Evolution of X-ray Binaries and Tides in Double White Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valsecchi, Francesca

    Binary star systems hosting black holes, neutron stars, and white dwarfs are unique laboratories for investigating both extreme physical conditions, and stellar and binary evolution. Black holes and neutron stars are observed in X-ray binaries, where mass accretion from a stellar companion renders them X-ray bright. Although instruments like Chandra have revolutionized the field of X-ray binaries, our theoretical understanding of their origin and formation lags behind. Progress can be made by unravelling the evolutionary history of observed systems. As part of my thesis work, I have developed an analysis method that uses detailed stellar models and all the observational constraints of a system to reconstruct its evolutionary path. This analysis models the orbital evolution from compact-object formation to the present time, the binary orbital dynamics due to explosive mass loss and a possible kick at core collapse, and the evolution from the progenitor's Zero Age Main Sequence to compact-object formation. This method led to a theoretical model for M33 X-7, one of the most massive X-ray binaries known and originally marked as an evolutionary challenge. Compact objects are also expected gravitational wave (GW) sources. In particular, double white dwarfs are both guaranteed GW sources and observed electromagnetically. Although known systems show evidence of tidal deformation and a successful GW astronomy requires realistic models of the sources, detached double white dwarfs are generally approximated to point masses. For the first time, I used realistic models to study tidally-driven periastron precession in eccentric binaries. I demonstrated that its imprint on the GW signal yields constrains on the components' masses and that the source would be misclassified if tides are neglected. Beyond this adiabatic precession, tidal dissipation creates a sink of orbital angular momentum. Its efficiency is strongest when tides are dynamic and excite the components' free

  15. Air Conditioning with Magnetic Refrigeration : An Efficient, Green Compact Cooling System Using Magnetic Refrigeration

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-01

    BEETIT Project: Astronautics is developing an air conditioning system that relies on magnetic fields. Typical air conditioners use vapor compression to cool air. Vapor compression uses a liquid refrigerant to circulate within the air conditioner, absorb the heat, and pump the heat out into the external environment. Astronautics’ design uses a novel property of certain materials, called “magnetocaloric materials”, to achieve the same result as liquid refrigerants. These magnetocaloric materials essentially heat up when placed within a magnetic field and cool down when removed, effectively pumping heat out from a cooler to warmer environment. In addition, magnetic refrigeration uses no ozone-depleting gases and is safer to use than conventional air conditioners which are prone to leaks.

  16. A compact theory of magnetic nerve stimulation: predicting how to aim

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A compact theory that predicts quantitatively when and where magnetic neurostimulation will occur is needed as a guide to therapy, ideally providing a single equation that defines the target volume of tissue excited by single or dual coils. Methods A first-principles analysis of magnetic stimulation incorporating a simplified description of electromagnetic fields and a simplified cable theory of the axon yields a mathematical synthesis predicting how to aim. Results Nerve stimulation produced by a single circular coil having one or more closely packed turns occurs in donut shaped volume of tissue beneath the coil. Axons spanning several millimeters are the sites of magnetic stimulation. The sites of maximal transmembrane depolarization in nerve fibers correspond to points where the axons enter or exit this volume of magnetically induced voltage and current. The axonal membrane at one end is depolarized locally during the rising phase of current in the coil. The axonal membrane at the opposite end is depolarized locally during the falling phase of current in the coil. Penetration depths of several centimeters from the skin surface or approximately one to two coil radii are practical. With two coils placed in a figure-of-eight configuration the separate clockwise and counterclockwise currents generate magnetic fields that add, producing maximal stimulation of a spindle shaped volume, centered at a depth of one-third to one-half coil radius from the body surface. Conclusions This condensed synthesis of electromagnetic theory and cable theories of axon physiology provides a partial solution to the targeting problem in peripheral and in transcranial magnetic stimulation. PMID:24885299

  17. Towards a formalism for mapping the spacetimes of massive compact objects: Bumpy black holes and their orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Nathan A.; Hughes, Scott A.

    2004-06-01

    Astronomical observations have established that extremely compact, massive objects are common in the Universe. It is generally accepted that these objects are, in all likelihood, black holes. As observational technology has improved, it has become possible to test this hypothesis in ever greater detail. In particular, it is or will be possible to measure the properties of orbits deep in the strong field of a black hole candidate (using x-ray timing or future gravitational-wave measurements) and to test whether they have the characteristics of black hole orbits in general relativity. Past work has shown that, in principle, such measurements can be used to map the spacetime of a massive compact object, testing in particular whether the object’s multipolar structure satisfies the rather strict constraints imposed by the black hole hypothesis. Performing such a test in practice requires that we be able to compare against objects with the “wrong” multipole structure. In this paper, we present tools for constructing the spacetimes of bumpy black holes: objects that are almost black holes, but that have some multipoles with the wrong value. In this first analysis, we focus on objects with no angular momentum. Generalization to bumpy Kerr black holes should be straightforward, albeit labor intensive. Our construction has two particularly desirable properties. First, the spacetimes which we present are good deep into the strong field of the object—we do not use a “large r” expansion (except to make contact with weak field intuition). Second, our spacetimes reduce to the exact black hole spacetimes of general relativity in a natural way, by dialing the “bumpiness” of the black hole to zero. We propose that bumpy black holes can be used as the foundation for a null experiment: if black hole candidates are indeed the black holes of general relativity, their bumpiness should be zero. By comparing the properties of orbits in a bumpy spacetime with those measured

  18. A RAY-TRACING ALGORITHM FOR SPINNING COMPACT OBJECT SPACETIMES WITH ARBITRARY QUADRUPOLE MOMENTS. I. QUASI-KERR BLACK HOLES

    SciTech Connect

    Psaltis, Dimitrios; Johannsen, Tim

    2012-01-20

    We describe a new numerical algorithm for ray tracing in the external spacetimes of spinning compact objects characterized by arbitrary quadrupole moments. Such spacetimes describe non-Kerr vacuum solutions that can be used to test the no-hair theorem in conjunction with observations of accreting black holes. They are also appropriate for neutron stars with spin frequencies in the {approx_equal} 300-600 Hz range, which are typical of the bursting sources in low-mass X-ray binaries. We use our algorithm to show that allowing for the quadrupole moment of the spacetime to take arbitrary values leads to observable effects in the profiles of relativistic broadened fluorescent iron lines from geometrically thin accretion disks.

  19. Discovery of new objects in the Orion nebula on HST images - Shocks, compact sources, and protoplanetary disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Dell, C. R.; Wen, Zheng; Hu, Xihai

    1993-01-01

    We have reduced and analyzed a set of narrow-band HST images of a portion of M42 south of the Trapezium. Many new emission-line sources were found, some quite long but so narrow that they are not seen on ground-based images. These include thin shells which are high-ionization shocks. The structure around Orion HH 3 is resolved into multiple components. Slit spectroscopy data establish the high expansion velocities of all these regions. The other objects seen are compact sources. Although some had been detected in VLA surveys and several had been seen from the ground optically, the new images show previously undetected structure and clearly establish that most are protoplanetary disks, which are neutral disks surrounding low-mass pre-main-sequence stars and are ionized from the outside by Theta sup 1 C and Theta sup 2 A Ori.

  20. AN ULTRA-LOW-MASS AND SMALL-RADIUS COMPACT OBJECT IN 4U 1746-37?

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Zhaosheng; Qu, Zhijie; Guo, Yanjun; Xu, Renxin; Chen, Li; Qu, Jinlu

    2015-01-01

    Photospheric radius expansion (PRE) bursts have already been used to constrain the masses and radii of neutron stars. RXTE observed three PRE bursts in 4U 1746-37, all with low touchdown fluxes. We discuss here the possibility of a low-mass neutron star in 4U 1746-37 because the Eddington luminosity depends on stellar mass. With typical values of hydrogen mass fraction and color correction factor, a Monte Carlo simulation was applied to constrain the mass and radius of a neutron star in 4U 1746-37. 4U 1746-37 has a high inclination angle. Two geometric effects, the reflection of the far-side accretion disk and the obscuration of the near-side accretion disk, have also been included in the mass and radius constraints of 4U 1746-37. If the reflection of the far-side accretion disk is accounted for, a low-mass compact object (mass of 0.41 ± 0.14 M {sub ☉} and radius of 8.73 ± 1.54 km at 68% confidence) exists in 4U 1746-37. If another effect operated, 4U 1746-37 may contain an ultra-low-mass and small-radius object (M = 0.21 ± 0.06 M {sub ☉}, R = 6.26 ± 0.99 km at 68% confidence). Combining all possibilities, the mass of 4U 1746-37 is 0.41{sub −0.30}{sup +0.70} M{sub ⊙} at 99.7% confidence. For such low-mass neutron stars, it could be reproduced by a self-bound compact star, i.e., a quark star or quark-cluster star.

  1. DIRECT IMAGING OF A COMPACT MOLECULAR OUTFLOW FROM A VERY LOW LUMINOSITY OBJECT: L1521F-IRS

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Satoko; Ohashi, Nagayoshi; Bourke, Tyler L.

    2013-09-01

    Studying the physical conditions of very low luminosity objects (VeLLOs; L{sub bol} < 0.1 L{sub Sun }) is important for understanding the earliest evolutionary stage of protostars and brown dwarfs. We report interferometric observations of the VeLLO L1521F-IRS, in {sup 12}CO (2-1) line emission and the 1.3 mm continuum emission, using the Submillimeter Array. With the {sup 12}CO (2-1) high-resolution observations, we have spatially resolved a compact but poorly collimated molecular outflow associated with L1521F-IRS for the first time. The blueshifted and redshifted lobes are aligned along the east and west side of L1521F-IRS with a lobe size of Almost-Equal-To 1000 AU. The estimated outflow mass, maximum outflow velocity, and outflow force are (9.0-80) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} M{sub Sun }, 7.2 km s{sup -1}, and (7.4-66) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7} M{sub Sun} km s{sup -1} yr{sup -1}, respectively. The estimated outflow parameters such as size, mass, and momentum rate are similar to values derived for other VeLLOs, and are located at the lower end of values compared to previously studied outflows associated with low- to high-mass star-forming regions. Low-velocity less collimated (1.5 km s{sup -1}/1200 AU) and higher-velocity compact (4.0 km s{sup -1}/920 AU) outflow components are suggested by the data. These velocity structures are not consistent with those expected in the jet-driven or wind-driven outflow models, perhaps suggesting a remnant outflow from the first hydrostatic core as well as an undeveloped outflow from the protostar. Detection of an infrared source and compact millimeter continuum emission suggests the presence of the protostar, while its low bolometric luminosity (0.034-0.07 L{sub Sun }) and small outflow suggests that L1521F is in the earliest protostellar stage (<10{sup 4} yr) and contains a substellar mass object. The bolometric (or internal) luminosity of L1521F-IRS suggests that the current mass accretion rate is an order of

  2. TRANSITS AND LENSING BY COMPACT OBJECTS IN THE KEPLER FIELD: DISRUPTED STARS ORBITING BLUE STRAGGLERS

    SciTech Connect

    Di Stefano, R.

    2011-05-15

    Kepler's first major discoveries are two hot (T > 10,000 K) small-radius objects orbiting stars in its field. A viable hypothesis is that these are the cores of stars that have each been eroded or disrupted by a companion star. The companion, which is the star monitored today, is likely to have gained mass from its now-defunct partner and can be considered to be a blue straggler. KOI-81 is almost certainly the product of stable mass transfer; KOI-74 may be as well, or it may be the first clear example of a blue straggler created through three-body interactions. We show that mass-transfer binaries are common enough that Kepler should discover {approx}1000 white dwarfs orbiting main-sequence stars. Most of these, like KOI-74 and KOI-81, will be discovered through transits, but many will be discovered through a combination of gravitational lensing and transits, while lensing will dominate for a subset. In fact, some events caused by white dwarfs will have the appearance of 'anti-transits' - i.e., short-lived enhancements in the amount of light received from the monitored star. Lensing and other mass-measurement methods provide a way to distinguish white dwarf binaries from planetary systems. This is important for the success of Kepler's primary mission, in light of the fact that white dwarf radii are similar to the radii of terrestrial planets, and that some white dwarfs will have orbital periods that place them in the habitable zones of their stellar companions. By identifying transiting and/or lensing white dwarfs, Kepler will conduct pioneering studies of white dwarfs and of the end states of mass transfer. It may also identify orbiting neutron stars or black holes. The calculations inspired by the discovery of KOI-74 and KOI-81 have implications for ground-based wide-field surveys as well as for future space-based surveys.

  3. Object-Oriented Fast Multipole Simulation: Magnetic Colloids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visscher, Pieter; Günal, Yüksel

    1997-08-01

    In simulating a system of N particles, if the interaction is long-ranged all pair interactions must be calculated, requiring CPU time of order N^2. Recently-developed ``fast multipole'' methods (FMM) can reduce this time to order N, at the cost of considerable programming complexity. We have developed an object-oriented approach which uses similar ideas but is conceptually much simpler. The system is represented by a hierarchical tree whose root is the entire system and whose lowest nodes are the particles. The entire calculation of the particle interactions consists of a single call to a recursive function CalculateInteractions(A,B) with A=B=root, which uses a simple opening-angle criterion to choose between multipole expansion and calling itself (subdividing A and B.) The resulting algorithm is essentially equivalent to the FMM, but the choice of when to subdivide (which is laboriously hard-wired in FMM) is made automatically. We will discuss the implementation of periodic BCs and the application of the method to continuum systems (cylindrical magnetic particles).

  4. Field Performance of an Optimized Stack of YBCO Square "Annuli" for a Compact NMR Magnet.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Seungyong; Voccio, John; Bermond, Stéphane; Park, Dong-Keun; Bascuñán, Juan; Kim, Seok-Beom; Masaru, Tomita; Iwasa, Yukikazu

    2011-06-01

    The spatial field homogeneity and time stability of a trapped field generated by a stack of YBCO square plates with a center hole (square "annuli") was investigated. By optimizing stacking of magnetized square annuli, we aim to construct a compact NMR magnet. The stacked magnet consists of 750 thin YBCO plates, each 40-mm square and 80- μm thick with a 25-mm bore, and has a Ø10 mm room-temperature access for NMR measurement. To improve spatial field homogeneity of the 750-plate stack (YP750) a three-step optimization was performed: 1) statistical selection of best plates from supply plates; 2) field homogeneity measurement of multi-plate modules; and 3) optimal assembly of the modules to maximize field homogeneity. In this paper, we present analytical and experimental results of field homogeneity and temporal stability at 77 K, performed on YP750 and those of a hybrid stack, YPB750, in which two YBCO bulk annuli, each Ø46 mm and 16-mm thick with a 25-mm bore, are added to YP750, one at the top and the other at the bottom. PMID:22081753

  5. Experimental investigation of plasma relaxation using a compact coaxial magnetized plasma gun in a background plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yue; Lynn, Alan; Gilmore, Mark; Hsu, Scott; University of New Mexico Collaboration; Los Alamos National Laboratory Collaboration

    2013-10-01

    A compact coaxial plasma gun is employed for experimental studies of plasma relaxation in a low density background plasma. Experiments are being conducted in the linear HelCat device at UNM. These studies will advance the knowledge of basic plasma physics in the areas of magnetic relaxation and space and astrophysical plasmas, including the evolution of active galactic jets/radio lobes within the intergalactic medium. The gun is powered by a 120pF ignitron-switched capacitor bank which is operated in a range of 5-10 kV and ~100 kA. Multiple diagnostics are employed to investigate plasma relaxation process. Magnetized Argon plasma bubbles with velocities ~1.2Cs and densities ~1020 m-3 have been achieved. Different distinct regimes of operation with qualitatively different dynamics are identified by fast CCD camera images, with the parameter determining the operation regime. Additionally, a B-dot probe array is employed to measure the spatial toroidal and poloidal magnetic flux evolution to identify detached plasma bubble configurations. Experimental data and analysis will be presented.

  6. Development of advanced compact railguns for injection of hypervelocity hydrogen pellets into magnetic fusion plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Tompkins, M.W.; Anderson, M.A.; Kim, K.; Feng, Q.; Zhang, J.; King, T.L.

    1995-12-31

    The authors have designed, fabricated, and tested a number of compact railguns utilizing a variety of gun geometries, augmentation schemes, and state-of-the-art rail and insulator materials in order to develop an injector that can accelerate pellets of hydrogen isotopes to very high velocities ({approximately}10 km/s) continuously and at high repetition rates for refueling magnetically confined fusion plasmas. These advanced guns are designed to achieve two goals: to minimize or eliminate gunwall erosion and to produce the maximum possible pellet acceleration. These closely related goals assure long gun lifetimes. Using an advanced transaugmented compact gun with an acceleration length of only 45-cm, they have recently achieved hydrogen pellet velocities as high as 2.2 km/s with a time-averaged pellet acceleration of 4.7 {times} 10{sup 6} m/s{sup 2} at a modest rail current of 10 kA. This paper includes a brief overview of the railgun control and diagnostic systems and discusses recent results of the railgun experiments using both plexiglass and cryogenic hydrogen pellets.

  7. The characterization of human compact bone structure changes by low-field nuclear magnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Qingwen; Derwin King, J.; Wang, Xiaodu

    2004-01-01

    A technique of low-field pulsed proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spin relaxation is described for characterizing the porosity and (effective) pore size distribution in vitro in human compact bone. The technique involves spin spin relaxation measurement and inversion spin spin relaxation spectral analysis methods. The spin spin relaxation decay curve is converted into a T2 distribution spectrum by a sum of single exponential decays. The advantages of using low-field NMR for the spin spin relaxation technique are illustrated. The results obtained from NMR methodology are compared with the results obtained from currently available but destructive histomorphometry and mercury porosimetry methods. The NMR porosities correlate well with the results obtained from the histomorphometry measurements of eight samples from donors of ages 21 89 years. The pore size distributions from T2 relaxation measurements are similar to the distributions obtained from the mercury porosimetry and histomorphometry measurements. This indicates that the age-related porosity and pore size changes in human compact bone can be detected using the low-field NMR technique.

  8. Proposal of a novel compact P-band magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator with inclined vanes

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xiaoping Dang, Fangchao; Li, Yangmei; Jin, Zhenxing

    2015-06-15

    In this paper, we present a novel compact P-band magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator (MILO) with specially inclined slow-wave-structure (SWS) vanes to decrease its total dimension and weight. The dispersion characteristics of the inclined SWS are investigated in detail and made comparisons with that of the traditional straight SWS. The results show that the inclined SWS is more advantageous in operating on a steady frequency in a wide voltage range and has a better asymmetric mode segregation and a relatively large band-gap between the TM{sub 00} and TM{sub 01} modes which are in favor of avoiding the asymmetric and transverse mode competition. Besides, the transverse dimension of the proposed novel inclined SWS with the same operation frequency is decreased by about 50%, and correspondingly the device volume shrinks remarkably to its 0.35 times. In particle-in-cell simulation, the electron bunching spokes are obviously formed in the inclined SWS, and a P-band high-power microwave with a power of 5.8 GW, frequency of 645 MHz, and efficiency of 17.2% is generated by the proposed device, which indicates the feasibility of the compact design with the inclined vanes at the P-band.

  9. A comprehensive analysis of the magnetic standard star HD 94660: Host of a massive compact companion?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, J. D.; Grunhut, J.; Landstreet, J. D.

    2015-03-01

    Aims: Detailed information about the magnetic geometry, atmospheric abundances and radial velocity variations has been obtained for the magnetic standard star HD 94660 based on high-dispersion spectroscopic and spectropolarimetric observations from the UVES, HARPSpol and ESPaDOnS instruments. Methods: We perform a detailed chemical abundance analysis using the spectrum synthesis code ZEEMAN for a total of 17 elements. Using both line-of-sight and surface magnetic field measurements, we derive a simple magnetic field model that consists of dipole, quadrupole and octupole components. Results: The observed magnetic field variations of HD 94660 are complex and suggest an inhomogeneous distribution of chemical elements over the stellar surface. This inhomogeneity is not reflected in the abundance analysis, from which all available spectra are modelled, but only a mean abundance is reported for each element. The derived abundances are mostly non-solar, with striking overabundances of Fe-peak and rare-earth elements. Of note are the clear signatures of vertical chemical stratification throughout the stellar atmosphere, most notably for the Fe-peak elements. We also report on the detection of radial velocity variations with a total range of 35 km s-1 in the spectra of HD 94660. A preliminary analysis shows the most likely period of these variations to be of order 840 d and, based on the derived orbital parameters of this star, suggests the first detection of a massive compact companion for a main sequence magnetic star. Conclusions: HD 94660 exhibits interestingly complex magnetic field variations and remarkable radial velocity variations. Long term monitoring is necessary to provide further constraints on the nature of these radial velocity variations. Detection of a companion will help establish the role of binarity in the origin of magnetism in stars with radiative envelopes. Based in part on our own observations made with the European Southern Observatory (ESO

  10. Compact transverse-magnetic-pass polarizer based on one-dimensional photonic crystal waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dong Wook; Lee, Moon Hyeok; Kim, Yudeuk; Kim, Kyong Hon

    2016-03-01

    We propose a compactly integrated transverse-magnetic (TM)-pass polarizer based on rectangular-shape onedimensional photonic-crystal silicon waveguide with an extremely high polarization extinction ratio of >30 dB and low insertion loss (~1 dB) over a broad wavelength range of 210 nm from 1,460 nm to 1,670 nm. The polarizer has been numerically simulated using three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain (3D FDTD) method. The optimum length of the proposed TM-pass polarizer is about 4 μm. At the 1,550 nm wavelength, the simulated polarization extinction ratio of the polarizer is 36 dB, and its corresponding insertion loss is about 1 dB.

  11. A Compact Disk Type Plasma Propulsion System with Modulated Magnetic Field for Nanoscale Space Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuda, Takeshi; Ueda, Satoshi; Ohnishi, Yukihiro; Inomoto, Michiaki

    2008-12-01

    A compact 5 mm disk type plasma thruster simply composed of only a set of antenna windings and bias field coil which produces significant thrust of 0.74 mN with rotating magnetic field has been proposed and successfully developed for future applications to low altitude nanosatellites. The key technology issue is that the rotating speed is set above the ion plasma frequency but far below the electron plasma frequency, in order to produce the electron drag current and axial electric field as a consequence of the interaction with the bias field. The formation of axial electric field was confirmed and the produced plasma density was >6×1018 m-3, whereas the power consumption is 500 W in the inductively coupled mode of operation. The anticipated thrust density and specific thrust could potentially be extended to 7.64 Nm-2 and 850 s, respectively, which is comparable to conventional Hall effect thrusters.

  12. Monochromatic short pulse laser produced ion beam using a compact passive magnetic device

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, S. N.; Gauthier, M.; Higginson, D. P.; Dorard, S.; Marquès, J.-R.; Fuchs, J.; Mangia, F.; Atzeni, S.; Riquier, R.; CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon

    2014-04-15

    High-intensity laser accelerated protons and ions are emerging sources with complementary characteristics to those of conventional sources, namely high charge, high current, and short bunch duration, and therefore can be useful for dedicated applications. However, these beams exhibit a broadband energy spectrum when, for some experiments, monoenergetic beams are required. We present here an adaptation of conventional chicane devices in a compact form (10 cm × 20 cm) which enables selection of a specific energy interval from the broadband spectrum. This is achieved by employing magnetic fields to bend the trajectory of the laser produced proton beam through two slits in order to select the minimum and maximum beam energy. The device enables a production of a high current, short duration source with a reproducible output spectrum from short pulse laser produced charged particle beams.

  13. A Compact Disk Type Plasma Propulsion System with Modulated Magnetic Field for Nanoscale Space Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Fukuda, Takeshi; Ueda, Satoshi; Ohnishi, Yukihiro; Inomoto, Michiaki

    2008-12-31

    A compact 5 mm disk type plasma thruster simply composed of only a set of antenna windings and bias field coil which produces significant thrust of 0.74 mN with rotating magnetic field has been proposed and successfully developed for future applications to low altitude nanosatellites. The key technology issue is that the rotating speed is set above the ion plasma frequency but far below the electron plasma frequency, in order to produce the electron drag current and axial electric field as a consequence of the interaction with the bias field. The formation of axial electric field was confirmed and the produced plasma density was >6x10{sup 18} m{sup -3}, whereas the power consumption is 500 W in the inductively coupled mode of operation. The anticipated thrust density and specific thrust could potentially be extended to 7.64 Nm{sup -2} and 850 s, respectively, which is comparable to conventional Hall effect thrusters.

  14. A simple compact UHV and high magnetic field compatible inertial nanopositioner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Zongqiang; Li, Xiang; Xu, Lei; Rong, Zhou; Liu, Ruilan

    2015-01-01

    We present a novel simple piezoelectric nanopositioner which just has one piezoelectric scanner tube (PST) and one driving signal, using two short quartz rods and one BeCu spring which form a triangle to press the central shaft and can promise the nanopositioner's rigidity. Applying two pulse inverted voltage signals on the PST's outer and inner electrodes, respectively, according to the principle of piezoelectricity, the PST will elongate or contract suddenly while the central shaft will keep stationary for its inertance, so the central shaft will be sliding a distance relative to quartz rods and spring, and then withdraw the pulse voltages slowly, the central shaft will move upward or downward one step. The heavier of the central shaft, the better moving stability, so the nanopositioner has high output force. Due to its compactness and mechanical stability, it can be easily implanted into some extreme conditions, such as ultrahigh vacuum, ultralow temperature, and high magnetic field.

  15. Monochromatic short pulse laser produced ion beam using a compact passive magnetic device.

    PubMed

    Chen, S N; Gauthier, M; Higginson, D P; Dorard, S; Mangia, F; Riquier, R; Atzeni, S; Marquès, J-R; Fuchs, J

    2014-04-01

    High-intensity laser accelerated protons and ions are emerging sources with complementary characteristics to those of conventional sources, namely high charge, high current, and short bunch duration, and therefore can be useful for dedicated applications. However, these beams exhibit a broadband energy spectrum when, for some experiments, monoenergetic beams are required. We present here an adaptation of conventional chicane devices in a compact form (10 cm × 20 cm) which enables selection of a specific energy interval from the broadband spectrum. This is achieved by employing magnetic fields to bend the trajectory of the laser produced proton beam through two slits in order to select the minimum and maximum beam energy. The device enables a production of a high current, short duration source with a reproducible output spectrum from short pulse laser produced charged particle beams. PMID:24784604

  16. Methods, systems and devices for detecting threatening objects and for classifying magnetic data

    DOEpatents

    Kotter, Dale K.; Roybal, Lyle G.; Rohrbaugh, David T.; Spencer, David F.

    2012-01-24

    A method for detecting threatening objects in a security screening system. The method includes a step of classifying unique features of magnetic data as representing a threatening object. Another step includes acquiring magnetic data. Another step includes determining if the acquired magnetic data comprises a unique feature.

  17. Compact magnetic-field sensor based on optical microfiber Michelson interferometer and Fe3O4 nanofluid.

    PubMed

    Deng, Ming; Sun, Xiaokang; Han, Meng; Li, Decai

    2013-02-01

    We report a magnetic-field sensor by merging the advantages of optical fiber Michelson interferometers with that of magnetic fluid. Compact and low-cost optical fiber Michelson interferometers were first fabricated by a high-frequency CO(2) laser, and then they were inserted into glass capillaries with water-based Fe(3)O(4) magnetic fluid as sensing elements. The sensing characteristics have been investigated and the experimental results show that the reflective spectrum of the fiber-magnetic sensor linearly shifted with the change of the magnetic-field strength that is perpendicular to the axial of the devices. The fiber-magnetic sensor with interference arm's diameter of 50 μm is most sensitive to the external magnetic field, and the sensitivity is up to 64.9 pm/mT, which is 20 times higher than that of 125 μm diameter. PMID:23385914

  18. Numerical Study to Obtain the Improved Field Homogeneity and Enlarged Inner Diameter of HTS Bulk Magnet for Compact NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazawa, D.; Kim, S. B.; Kitamura, H.; Ishizuka, D.; Hojo, K.

    We have been studying the compact magnet for NMR device that consists of a stacked high temperature superconducting (HTS) GdBCO bulk annuli. We can generate the trapped magnetic field over 1.5 T at 77.4 K and 150 ppm/cm3 on inner diameter of 20 mm HTS bulks using field compensation methods. However, it is necessary to enlarge the inner diameter of the HTS bulk magnet because the diameter of commercial NMR probe is larger than 20 mm. In this paper, we studied an optimal shape of the stacked HTS bulk magnet to obtain the enlarged inner diameter using 3-D FEM based analysis. We was able to enlarge the inner diameter of the HTS bulk magnet from 20 mm to 34 mm remaining magnetic field strength of 1.5 T and magnetic field homogeneity of 666 ppm/cm3 by proposed passive field compensation method.

  19. Three-dimensional spectroscopy of local luminous compact blue galaxies: kinematic maps of a sample of 22 objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Gallego, J.; Guzmán, R.; Castillo-Morales, A.; Gallego, J.; Castander, F. J.; Garland, C. A.; Gruel, N.; Pisano, D. J.; Zamorano, J.

    2011-12-01

    We use three-dimensional optical spectroscopy observations of a sample of 22 local luminous compact blue galaxies (LCBGs) to create kinematic maps. By means of these, we classify the kinematics of these galaxies into three different classes: rotating disc (RD), perturbed rotation (PR) and complex kinematics (CK). We find 48 per cent are RDs, 28 per cent are PRs and 24 per cent are CKs. RDs show rotational velocities that range between ˜50 and ˜200 km s-1, and dynamical masses that range between ˜1 × 109 and ˜3 × 1010 M⊙. We also address the following two fundamental questions through the study of the kinematic maps: (i) What processes are triggering the current starburst in LCBGs? We search our maps of the galaxy velocity fields for signatures of recent interactions and close companions that may be responsible for the enhanced star formation in our sample. We find that 5 per cent of objects show evidence of a recent major merger, 10 per cent of a minor merger and 45 per cent of a companion. This argues in favour of ongoing interactions with close companions as a mechanism for the enhanced star formation activity in these galaxies. (ii) What processes may eventually quench the current starbust in LCBGs? Velocity and velocity width maps, together with emission line ratio maps, can reveal signatures of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) activity or supernova (SN)-driven galactic winds that could halt the current burst. We find only 5 per cent of objects with clear evidence of AGN activity and 27 per cent with kinematics consistent with SN-driven galactic winds. Therefore, a different mechanism may be responsible for quenching the star formation in LCBGs. Finally, from our analysis, we find that the velocity widths of RDs, rather than accounting exclusively for the rotational nature of these objects, may account as well for other kinematic components and may not be good tracers of their dynamical masses.

  20. Magnetic spin reduction system for free spinning objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vontiesenhausen, G. F. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A spinning Earth satellite is shown in which it is desired to reduce the rotation or spin to a level that the satellite may be secured or handled remotely from a spacecraft. This is accomplished by the spacecraft having a mast carrying an electrical current coil which encircles the satellite. The magnetic field of the coil is normal to the spin axis of the satellite which causes circular eddy current flow in the housing of the satellite. This generates magnetic force opposing the rotation. In another embodiment the magnetic field is generated by the use of an electromagnet on a remote manipulation arm.

  1. Apparatus and method for generating a magnetic field by rotation of a charge holding object

    DOEpatents

    Gerald, II, Rex E.; Vukovic, Lela; Rathke, Jerome W.

    2009-10-13

    A device and a method for the production of a magnetic field using a Charge Holding Object that is mechanically rotated. In a preferred embodiment, a Charge Holding Object surrounding a sample rotates and subjects the sample to one or more magnetic fields. The one or more magnetic fields are used by NMR Electronics connected to an NMR Conductor positioned within the Charge Holding Object to perform NMR analysis of the sample.

  2. A Large-Particle Monte Carlo Code for Simulating Non-Linear High-Energy Processes Near Compact Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, Boris E.; Svensson, Roland; Begelman, Mitchell C.; Sikora, Marek

    1995-01-01

    High-energy radiation processes in compact cosmic objects are often expected to have a strongly non-linear behavior. Such behavior is shown, for example, by electron-positron pair cascades and the time evolution of relativistic proton distributions in dense radiation fields. Three independent techniques have been developed to simulate these non-linear problems: the kinetic equation approach; the phase-space density (PSD) Monte Carlo method; and the large-particle (LP) Monte Carlo method. In this paper, we present the latest version of the LP method and compare it with the other methods. The efficiency of the method in treating geometrically complex problems is illustrated by showing results of simulations of 1D, 2D and 3D systems. The method is shown to be powerful enough to treat non-spherical geometries, including such effects as bulk motion of the background plasma, reflection of radiation from cold matter, and anisotropic distributions of radiating particles. It can therefore be applied to simulate high-energy processes in such astrophysical systems as accretion discs with coronae, relativistic jets, pulsar magnetospheres and gamma-ray bursts.

  3. Laser experiments to simulate coronal mass ejection driven magnetospheres and astrophysical plasma winds on compact magnetized stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horton, W.; Ditmire, T.; Zakharov, Yu. P.

    2010-06-01

    Laboratory experiments using a plasma wind generated by laser-target interaction are proposed to investigate the creation of a shock in front of the magnetosphere and the dynamo mechanism for creating plasma currents and voltages. Preliminary experiments are shown where measurements of the electron density gradients surrounding the obstacles are recorded to infer the plasma winds. The proposed experiments are relevant to understanding the electron acceleration mechanisms taking place in shock-driven magnetic dipole confined plasmas surrounding compact magnetized stars and planets. Exploratory experiments have been published [P. Brady, T. Ditmire, W. Horton, et al., Phys. Plasmas 16, 043112 (2009)] with the one Joule Yoga laser and centimeter sized permanent magnets.

  4. Design of a compact all-permanent magnet ECR ion source injector for ReA at the MSU NSCL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Alfonse N.; Leitner, Daniela; Glennon, Patrick; Ottarson, Jack; Lawton, Don; Portillo, Mauricio; Machicoane, Guillaume; Wenstrom, John; Lajoie, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    The design of a compact all-permanent magnet electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source injector for the ReAccelerator Facility (ReA) at the Michigan State University (MSU) National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL) is currently being carried out. The ECR ion source injector will complement the electron beam ion trap (EBIT) charge breeder as an off-line stable ion beam injector for the ReA linac. The objective of the ECR ion source injector is to provide continuous-wave beams of heavy ions from hydrogen to masses up to 136Xe within the ReA charge-to-mass ratio (Q / A) operational range from 0.2 to 0.5. The ECR ion source will be mounted on a high-voltage platform that can be adjusted to obtain the required 12 keV/u injection energy into a room temperature radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) for further acceleration. The beam line consists of a 30 kV tetrode extraction system, mass analyzing section, and optical matching section for injection into the existing ReA low energy beam transport (LEBT) line. The design of the ECR ion source and the associated beam line are discussed.

  5. Mars Environment and Magnetic Orbiter Scientific and Measurement Objectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leblanc, F.; Langlais, B.; Fouchet, T.; Barabash, S.; Breuer, D.; Chassefière, E.; Coates, A.; Dehant, V.; Forget, F.; Lammer, H.; Lewis, S.; Lopez-Valverde, M.; Mandea, M.; Menvielle, M.; Pais, A.; Paetzold, M.; Read, P.; Sotin, C.; Tarits, P.; Vennerstrom, S.

    2009-02-01

    In this paper, we summarize our present understanding of Mars' atmosphere, magnetic field, and surface and address past evolution of these features. Key scientific questions concerning Mars' surface, atmosphere, and magnetic field, along with the planet's interaction with solar wind, are discussed. We also define what key parameters and measurements should be performed and the main characteristics of a martian mission that would help to provide answers to these questions. Such a mission -- Mars Environment and Magnetic Orbiter (MEMO) -- was proposed as an answer to the Cosmic Vision Call of Opportunity as an M-class mission (corresponding to a total European Space Agency cost of less than 300 M€). MEMO was designed to study the strong interconnection between the planetary interior, atmosphere, and solar conditions, which is essential to our understanding of planetary evolution, the appearance of life, and its sustainability. The MEMO main platform combined remote sensing and in situ measurements of the atmosphere and the magnetic field during regular incursions into the martian upper atmosphere. The micro-satellite was designed to perform simultaneous in situ solar wind measurements. MEMO was defined to conduct: • Four-dimensional mapping of the martian atmosphere from the surface up to 120 km by measuring wind, temperature, water, and composition, all of which would provide a complete view of the martian climate and photochemical system; • Mapping of the low-altitude magnetic field with unprecedented geographical, altitude, local time, and seasonal resolutions; • A characterization of the simultaneous responses of the atmosphere, magnetic field, and near-Mars space to solar variability by means of in situ atmospheric and solar wind measurements.

  6. Mars environment and magnetic orbiter scientific and measurement objectives.

    PubMed

    Leblanc, F; Langlais, B; Fouchet, T; Barabash, S; Breuer, D; Chassefière, E; Coates, A; Dehant, V; Forget, F; Lammer, H; Lewis, S; Lopez-Valverde, M; Mandea, M; Menvielle, M; Pais, A; Paetzold, M; Read, P; Sotin, C; Tarits, P; Vennerstrom, S

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we summarize our present understanding of Mars' atmosphere, magnetic field, and surface and address past evolution of these features. Key scientific questions concerning Mars' surface, atmosphere, and magnetic field, along with the planet's interaction with solar wind, are discussed. We also define what key parameters and measurements should be performed and the main characteristics of a martian mission that would help to provide answers to these questions. Such a mission--Mars Environment and Magnetic Orbiter (MEMO)--was proposed as an answer to the Cosmic Vision Call of Opportunity as an M-class mission (corresponding to a total European Space Agency cost of less than 300 Meuro). MEMO was designed to study the strong interconnection between the planetary interior, atmosphere, and solar conditions, which is essential to our understanding of planetary evolution, the appearance of life, and its sustainability. The MEMO main platform combined remote sensing and in situ measurements of the atmosphere and the magnetic field during regular incursions into the martian upper atmosphere. The micro-satellite was designed to perform simultaneous in situ solar wind measurements. MEMO was defined to conduct: * Four-dimensional mapping of the martian atmosphere from the surface up to 120 km by measuring wind, temperature, water, and composition, all of which would provide a complete view of the martian climate and photochemical system; Mapping of the low-altitude magnetic field with unprecedented geographical, altitude, local time, and seasonal resolutions; A characterization of the simultaneous responses of the atmosphere, magnetic field, and near-Mars space to solar variability by means of in situ atmospheric and solar wind measurements. PMID:19317625

  7. Effect of ball milling and dynamic compaction on magnetic properties of Al2O3/Co(P) composite particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denisova, E. A.; Kuzovnikova, L. A.; Iskhakov, R. S.; Bukaemskiy, A. A.; Eremin, E. V.; Nemtsev, I. V.

    2014-05-01

    The evolution of the magnetic properties of composite Al2O3/Co(P) particles during ball milling and dynamic compaction is investigated. To prepare starting composite particles, the Al2O3 granules were coated with a Co95P5 shell by electroless plating. The magnetic and structural properties of the composite particles are characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and the use of the Physical Property Measurement System. The use of composite core-shell particles as starting powder for mechanoactivation allows to decrease treatment duration to 1 h and to produce a more homogeneous bulk sample than in the case of the mixture of Co and Al2O3 powders. The magnetic properties of the milled composite particles are correlated with changes in the microstructure. Reduction in grain size of Co during milling leads to an increase of the volume fraction of superparamagnetic particles and to a decrease of the saturation magnetization. The local magnetic anisotropy field depends on the amount of hcp-Co phase in sample. The anisotropy field value decreases from 8.4 kOe to 3.8 kOe with an increase in milling duration up to 75 min. The regimes of dynamic compaction were selected so that the magnetic characteristics—saturation magnetization and coercive field—remained unchanged.

  8. Fabrication of fully dense nanostructured MnBi magnet by hot compaction of cryo-milled powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadjipanayis, George; Neelam, Venkata; Gabay, Alex; Li, Wang

    2013-03-01

    Recently, rare-earth-free permanent magnets (REFPMs) have attracted much attention globally owing to rare-earth metal crisis and high cost. Among the REFPMs, MnBi is a potential candidate due to its unusual large magnetocrystalline anisotropy (K ~ 107 erg/cc) and positive temperature of coefficient of coercivity. In this work, we report for the first time a novel processing method that combines the cryo-milling with hot compaction to produce fully dense bulk nanostructured MnBi magnet. The effect of cryo-milling on particle size, phase formation, and magnetic properties of MnBi has been studied in detail. Also, the microstructural and magnetic properties of bulk nanostructured MnBi magnet were investigated. Adoption of cryo-milling results in nanocrystalline powders with particle size of 400-500 nm. Large coercivity (Hc) values of 18.5 kOe, and 12.9 kOe were obtained in cryo-milled powders and hot compacted magnet respectively. The MnBi magnet shows a large positive temperature coefficient of Hc and the Hc reaches a value of more than 30 kOe above 450 K. The work was supported by Siemens.

  9. Magnetic and magneto elastic properties of cobalt ferrite ceramic compacted through cold isostatic pressing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Indla, Srinivas; Chelvane, Arout; Das, Dibakar

    2016-05-01

    Nano crystalline CoFe2O4 powder was prepared by combustion synthesis method. As synthesized powder was calcined at an appropriate condition to remove the impurities and to promote phase formation. Phase pure CoFe2O4 powder was pressed into cylindrical rod at an applied pressure of 200 MPa using a cold isostatic pressing. Sintering of the green compact at 1350°c for 12 hrs resulted in sintered cylindrical rod with ~85% of the theoretical density. Single phase cubic spinel structure was observed in the powder x-ray diffraction pattern of the sintered pellet. Scanning electron micrographs (SEM) of the as sintered pellet revealed the microstructure to be composed of ferrite grains of average size ~4 µm. Saturation magnetization of 72 emu/g and coercivity of 355 Oe were observed for cobalt ferrite sample. The magnetostriction was measured on a circular disc (12mm diameter and 12mm length) with the strain gauge (350 Ω) mounted on the flat surface of the circular disc. Magnetostriciton of 180 ppm and strain derivative of 1 × 10-9 m/A were observed for the sintered CoFe2O4 sample.

  10. The Cluster magnetic field investigation: Scientific objectives and instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balogh, A.; Cowley, S. W. H.; Dunlop, M. W.; Southwood, D. J.; Thomlinson, J. G.; Glassmeier, K. H.; Musmann, G.; Luehr, H.; Acuna, M. H.; Fairfield, D. H.

    1993-01-01

    The Cluster magnetic field investigation is presented. Cluster represents a qualitatively new type of space mission which will provide, for the first time, a three dimensional view of small scale plasma processes and structures in the different regions in and around the Earth's magnetosphere. Concepts of data analysis needed to interpret the four spacecraft magnetic field data in terms of magnetospheric processes and structures are outlined. The instrument itself, a vital component of the scientific payload, follows a long tradition of fluxgate magnetometers on space missions, yet represents an evolution in terms of built in functions and reliability. A detailed description of the instrument is given with emphasis on those aspects that are unique to the mission.

  11. Non-thermal Radiation from Collisions of Compact Objects with Intermediate-scale Jets in Active Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bednarek, W.; Banasiński, P.

    2015-07-01

    Massive black holes in active galaxies are immersed in huge concentrations of late-type stars in the galactic bulges and also early-type massive stars in the nuclear stellar clusters, which are additionally surrounded by quasi-spherical halos on a scale of several kpc that contain from a few hundred up to several thousand globular clusters (GCs). It is expected that significant numbers of red giant stars, massive stars, and also GCs can move through the jet expelled from the central engine of the active galaxy. We consider collisions of stars from the galactic bulge, nuclear cluster, and GCs with the jet plasma. As a result of such collisions, multiple shocks are expected to appear in the jet around these compact objects. Therefore, the plasma in the kpc-scale jet can be significantly disturbed. We show that particles can be accelerated on these shocks up to multi-TeV energies. TeV leptons emit synchrotron radiation, extending up to X-ray energies, and also comptonize radiation produced in a stellar cluster and also the microwave background radiation to TeV γ-ray energies. We show that such non-thermal radiation is likely to be detectable from the intermediate-scale jets of nearby active galaxies for a reasonable number of stars and GCs immersed within the jet. As an example, we calculate the expected non-thermal emission in X-ray and gamma-ray energies from the nearby radio galaxy Cen A, from which steady gamma-ray emission with a complex spectrum has recently been reported by Fermi and the HESS Observatories.

  12. Micro-tidal Disruption Events by Stellar Compact Objects and the Production of Ultra-long GRBs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perets, Hagai B.; Li, Zhuo; Lombardi, James C., Jr.; Milcarek, Stephen R., Jr.

    2016-06-01

    We explore full/partial tidal disruption events (TDEs) of stars/planets by stellar compact objects (black holes (BHs) or neutron stars (NSs)), which we term micro-TDEs. Disruption of a star/planet with mass M ⋆ may lead to the formation of a debris disk around the BH/NS. Efficient accretion of a fraction ({f}{acc}=0.1 of the debris may then give rise to bright, energetic, long (103–104 s), X-ray/gamma-ray flares, with total energies of up to ({f}{acc}/0.1)× {10}52 ({M}\\star /0.6 {M}ȯ ) erg, possibly resembling ultra-long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs)/X-ray flashes (XRFs). The energy of such flares depends on the poorly constrained accretion processes. Significantly fainter flares might be produced if most of the disk mass is blown away through strong outflows. We suggest three dynamical origins for such disruptions. In the first, a star/planet is tidally disrupted following a close random encounter with a BH/NS in a dense cluster. We estimate the BH (NS) micro-TDE rates from this scenario to be a few × {10}-6 (a few × {10}-7) {{{yr}}}-1 per Milky Way galaxy. Another scenario involves the interaction of wide companions due to perturbations by stars in the field, likely producing comparable but lower rates. Finally, a third scenario involves a BH/NS that gains a natal velocity kick at birth, leading to a close encounter with a binary companion and the tidal disruption of that companion. Such events could be associated with a supernova, or even with a preceding GRB/XRF event, and would likely occur hours to days after the prompt explosion; the rates of such events could be larger than those obtained from the other scenarios, depending on the preceding complex binary stellar evolution.

  13. On the Nature of Compact Object in SS~433. An Observational Evidence of Black Hole Mass in SS 433

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titarchuk, Lev

    We present an analysis of X-ray spectral properties observed from black hole candidate (BHC) binary SS 433. We analyze RXTE data from this source, coordinated with Green Bank Interferometer/RATAN-600. We show that SS 433 demonstrates a X-ray spectral transition from low hard state to intermediate state (IS). We show that the X-ray broad-band energy spectra during all spectral states are well fit by a sum of so called "Bulk Motion Comptoniza-tion (BMC)" component and by two (broad and narrow) Gaussians for the continuum and line emissions respectively. In addition to these spectral model components we also find a strong feature of "blackbody-like (BB)" bump which color temperature is in the range of 4-5 keV in 24 IS spectra during radio outburst decay in SS 433. Our observational results on the "high temperature BB" bump leads us to support the presence of gravitationally redshifted annihila-tion lines in this source. We also established the photon index saturation at about 2.3 in index vs mass accretion correlation. This index-mass accretion correlation allows us to evaluate the low limit of black hole (BH) mass of compact object in SS 433, greater than 2 solar masses, using the scaling method using BHC GX 339-4 as a reference source. Our estimate of BH mass in SS 433 is consistent with the recent BH mass measurement by Hillwig Gies who find that BH mass about 4.3 solar masses. It is the smallest BH mass up to now found among all BHC sources where BH masses have been estimated so far. Moreover, the index saturation effect versus mass accretion rate revealed in SS 433, like in a number of other BHCs, is the strongest observational evidence of the presence of BH in SS 433.

  14. EFFECT OF A HIGH OPACITY ON THE LIGHT CURVES OF RADIOACTIVELY POWERED TRANSIENTS FROM COMPACT OBJECT MERGERS

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, Jennifer; Kasen, Daniel

    2013-09-20

    The coalescence of compact objects is a promising astrophysical source of detectable gravitational wave signals. The ejection of r-process material from such mergers may lead to a radioactively powered electromagnetic counterpart signal which, if discovered, would enhance the science returns. As very little is known about the optical properties of heavy r-process elements, previous light-curve models have adopted opacities similar to those of iron group elements. Here we consider the effect of heavier elements, particularly the lanthanides, which increase the ejecta opacity by several orders of magnitude. We include these higher opacities in time-dependent, multi-wavelength radiative transport calculations to predict the broadband light curves of one-dimensional models over a range of parameters (ejecta masses {approx}10{sup -3}-10{sup -1} M{sub Sun} and velocities {approx}0.1-0.3 c). We find that the higher opacities lead to much longer duration light curves which can last a week or more. The emission is shifted toward the infrared bands due to strong optical line blanketing, and the colors at later times are representative of a blackbody near the recombination temperature of the lanthanides (T {approx} 2500 K). We further consider the case in which a second mass outflow, composed of {sup 56}Ni, is ejected from a disk wind, and show that the net result is a distinctive two component spectral energy distribution, with a bright optical peak due to {sup 56}Ni and an infrared peak due to r-process ejecta. We briefly consider the prospects for detection and identification of these transients.

  15. Development of Compact Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source with Permanent Magnets for High-Energy Carbon-Ion Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muramatsu, M.; Kitagawa, A.; Iwata, Y.; Hojo, S.; Sakamoto, Y.; Sato, S.; Ogawa, Hirotsugu; Yamada, S.; Ogawa, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Y.; Ueda, T.; Miyazaki, H.; Drentje, A. G.

    2008-11-01

    Heavy-ion cancer treatment is being carried out at the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) with 140 to 400 MeV/n carbon ions at National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) since 1994. At NIRS, more than 4,000 patients have been treated, and the clinical efficiency of carbon ion radiotherapy has been demonstrated for many diseases. A more compact accelerator facility for cancer therapy is now being constricted at the Gunma University. In order to reduce the size of the injector (consists of ion source, low-energy beam transport and post-accelerator Linac include these power supply and cooling system), an ion source requires production of highly charged carbon ions, lower electric power for easy installation of the source on a high-voltage platform, long lifetime and easy operation. A compact Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source (ECRIS) with all permanent magnets is one of the best types for this purpose. An ECRIS has advantage for production of highly charged ions. A permanent magnet is suitable for reduce the electric power and cooling system. For this, a 10 GHz compact ECRIS with all permanent magnets (Kei2-source) was developed. The maximum mirror magnetic fields on the beam axis are 0.59 T at the extraction side and 0.87 T at the gas-injection side, while the minimum B strength is 0.25 T. These parameters have been optimized for the production of C4+ based on experience at the 10 GHz NIRS-ECR ion source. The Kei2-source has a diameter of 320 mm and a length of 295 mm. The beam intensity of C4+ was obtained to be 618 eμA under an extraction voltage of 30 kV. Outline of the heavy ion therapy and development of the compact ion source for new facility are described in this paper.

  16. Development of Compact Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source with Permanent Magnets for High-Energy Carbon-Ion Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Muramatsu, M.; Kitagawa, A.; Iwata, Y.; Hojo, S.; Sakamoto, Y.; Sato, S.; Ogawa, Hirotsugu; Yamada, S.; Ogawa, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Y.; Ueda, T.; Miyazaki, H.; Drentje, A. G.

    2008-11-03

    Heavy-ion cancer treatment is being carried out at the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) with 140 to 400 MeV/n carbon ions at National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) since 1994. At NIRS, more than 4,000 patients have been treated, and the clinical efficiency of carbon ion radiotherapy has been demonstrated for many diseases. A more compact accelerator facility for cancer therapy is now being constricted at the Gunma University. In order to reduce the size of the injector (consists of ion source, low-energy beam transport and post-accelerator Linac include these power supply and cooling system), an ion source requires production of highly charged carbon ions, lower electric power for easy installation of the source on a high-voltage platform, long lifetime and easy operation. A compact Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source (ECRIS) with all permanent magnets is one of the best types for this purpose. An ECRIS has advantage for production of highly charged ions. A permanent magnet is suitable for reduce the electric power and cooling system. For this, a 10 GHz compact ECRIS with all permanent magnets (Kei2-source) was developed. The maximum mirror magnetic fields on the beam axis are 0.59 T at the extraction side and 0.87 T at the gas-injection side, while the minimum B strength is 0.25 T. These parameters have been optimized for the production of C{sup 4+} based on experience at the 10 GHz NIRS-ECR ion source. The Kei2-source has a diameter of 320 mm and a length of 295 mm. The beam intensity of C{sup 4+} was obtained to be 618 e{mu}A under an extraction voltage of 30 kV. Outline of the heavy ion therapy and development of the compact ion source for new facility are described in this paper.

  17. Compact-device model development for the energy-delay analysis of magneto-electric magnetic tunnel junction structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, N.; Bird, J. P.; Dowben, P. A.; Marshall, A.

    2016-06-01

    We discuss the application of a novel class of device, the magneto-electric magnetic tunnel junction (ME-MTJ) to realize a variety of computational functions, including majority logic and the XNOR/XOR gate. We also develop a compact model to describe the operation of these devices, which function by utilizing the phenomenon of ‘voltage-controlled magnetism’ to switch the operational state of MTJs. The model breaks down the switching process into three key stages of operation: electrical-to-magnetic conversion, magnetization transfer, and final-state readout. Estimates for the switching energy and delay of these devices, obtained from this compact model, reveal significant improvements in both of these parameters when compared to conventional MTJs switched by spin-transfer-torque. In fact, the capacity to use the ME-MTJ to implement complex logical operations within a single device allows its energy costs to even approach those of low-power CMOS. The added benefits of non-volatility and compact circuit footprint, combined with their potential for heterogeneous integration with CMOS, make the ME devices of considerable interest for post-CMOS technology.

  18. Trapped Field Characteristics of Stacked YBCO Thin Plates for Compact NMR Magnets: Spatial Field Distribution and Temporal Stability.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Seungyong; Kim, Seok Beom; Ahn, Min Cheol; Voccio, John; Bascuñán, Juan; Iwasa, Yukikazu

    2010-06-01

    This paper presents experimental and analytical results of trapped field characteristics of a stack of square YBCO thin film plates for compact NMR magnets. Each YBCO plate, 40 mm × 40 mm × 0.08 mm, has a 25-mm diameter hole at its center. A total of 500 stacked plates were used to build a 40-mm long magnet. Its trapped field, in a bath of liquid nitrogen, was measured for spatial field distribution and temporal stability. Comparison of measured and analytical results is presented: the effects on trapped field characteristics of the unsaturated nickel substrate and the non-uniform current distribution in the YBCO plate are discussed. PMID:20585463

  19. Effect of Object Orientation Angle on T2* Image and Reconstructed Magnetic Susceptibility: Numerical Simulations

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zikuan; Calhoun, Vince

    2013-01-01

    The magnetic field resulting from material magnetization in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has an object orientation effect, which produces an orientation dependence for acquired T2* images. On one hand, the orientation effect can be exploited for object anisotropy investigation (via multi-angle imaging); on the other hand, it is desirable to remove the orientation dependence using magnetic susceptibility reconstruction. In this report, we design a stick-star digital phantom to simulate multiple orientations of a stick-like object and use it to conduct various numerical simulations. Our simulations show that the object orientation effect is not propagated to the reconstructed magnetic susceptibility distribution. This suggests that accurate susceptibility reconstruction methods should be largely orientation independent. PMID:25114542

  20. On the Nature of the Compact Object in SS 433: Observational Evidence of X-ray Photon Index Saturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seifina, Elena; Titarchuk, Lev

    2010-10-01

    We present an analysis of the X-ray spectral properties observed from the black hole candidate (BHC) binary SS 433. We have analyzed Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer data from this source, coordinated with Green Bank Interferometer/RATAN-600. We show that SS 433 undergoes an X-ray spectral transition from the low hard state to the intermediate state (IS). We show that the X-ray broadband energy spectra during all spectral states are well fitted by a sum of the so-called bulk motion Comptonization (BMC) component and by two (broad and narrow) Gaussians for the continuum and line emissions, respectively. In addition to these spectral model components, we also find a strong feature that we identify as a "blackbody-like (BB)" component in which the color temperature is in the range of 4-5 keV in 24 IS spectra during the radio outburst decay in SS 433. Our observational results on the "high-temperature BB" bump lead us to suggest the presence of gravitationally redshifted annihilation line emission in this source. In fact, this spectral feature has been recently reproduced in Monte Carlo simulations by Laurent & Titarchuk. We have also established the photon index saturation at about 2.3 in index versus mass accretion correlation. This index-mass accretion correlation allows us to evaluate the low limit of the black hole (BH) mass of the compact object in SS 433, M_{{bh}}≳ 2 solar masses, using the scaling method using BHC GX 339 - 4 as a reference source. Our estimate of the BH mass in SS 433 is consistent with the recent BH mass measurement using the radial velocity measurements of the binary system by Hillwig & Gies, who find that Mx = (4.3 ± 0.8) solar masses. This is the smallest BH mass found up to now among all BH sources. Moreover, the index saturation effect versus mass accretion rate revealed in SS 433, as in a number of other BH candidates, is strong observational evidence for the presence of a BH in SS 433.

  1. ON THE NATURE OF THE COMPACT OBJECT IN SS 433: OBSERVATIONAL EVIDENCE OF X-RAY PHOTON INDEX SATURATION

    SciTech Connect

    Seifina, Elena

    2010-10-10

    We present an analysis of the X-ray spectral properties observed from the black hole candidate (BHC) binary SS 433. We have analyzed Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer data from this source, coordinated with Green Bank Interferometer/RATAN-600. We show that SS 433 undergoes an X-ray spectral transition from the low hard state to the intermediate state (IS). We show that the X-ray broadband energy spectra during all spectral states are well fitted by a sum of the so-called bulk motion Comptonization (BMC) component and by two (broad and narrow) Gaussians for the continuum and line emissions, respectively. In addition to these spectral model components, we also find a strong feature that we identify as a 'blackbody-like (BB)' component in which the color temperature is in the range of 4-5 keV in 24 IS spectra during the radio outburst decay in SS 433. Our observational results on the 'high-temperature BB' bump lead us to suggest the presence of gravitationally redshifted annihilation line emission in this source. In fact, this spectral feature has been recently reproduced in Monte Carlo simulations by Laurent and Titarchuk. We have also established the photon index saturation at about 2.3 in index versus mass accretion correlation. This index-mass accretion correlation allows us to evaluate the low limit of the black hole (BH) mass of the compact object in SS 433, M{sub bh{approx}}>2 solar masses, using the scaling method using BHC GX 339 - 4 as a reference source. Our estimate of the BH mass in SS 433 is consistent with the recent BH mass measurement using the radial velocity measurements of the binary system by Hillwig and Gies, who find that M{sub x} = (4.3 {+-} 0.8) solar masses. This is the smallest BH mass found up to now among all BH sources. Moreover, the index saturation effect versus mass accretion rate revealed in SS 433, as in a number of other BH candidates, is strong observational evidence for the presence of a BH in SS 433.

  2. On the Nature of the Compact Object in SS 433. Observational Evidence of X-Ray Photon Index Saturation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seifina, Elena; Titarchuk, Lev

    2010-01-01

    We present an analysis of the X-ray spectral properties observed from black hole , candidate (BHC) binary SS 433. We have analyzed Rossi X-ray Time Explorer (RXTE) data from this source, coordinated with Green Bank Interferometer/RATAN-600. We show that SS 433 undergoes a X-ray spectral transition from the low hard state (LHS) to the intermediate state (IS). We show that the X-ray broad-band energy spectra during all spectral states are well fit by a sum of so called "Bulk Motion Comptonization (BMC) component" and by two (broad and narrow) Gaussians for the continuum and line emissions respectively. In addition to these spectral model components we also find a strong feature that we identify as a" blackbody-like (BB)" component which color temperature is in the range of 4-5 keV in 24 IS spectra during the radio outburst decay in SS 433. Our observational results on the "high temperature BB" bump leads us to suggest the presence of gravitationally redshifted annihilation line emission in this source. In fact this spectral feature has been recently reproduced in Monte Carlo simulations by Laurent and Titarchuk. We have also established the photon index saturation at about 2.3 in index vs mass accretion correlation. This index-mass accretion correlation allows us to evaluate the low limit of black hole (BH) mass of compact object in SS 433, M(sub bh) approximately > 2 solar masses, using the scaling method using BHC GX 339-4 as a reference source. Our estimate of the BH mass in SS 433 is consistent with recent BH mass measurement using the radial-velocity measurements of the binary system by Hillwig & Gies who find that M(sub x)( = (4.3 +/- 0.8) solar masses. This is the smallest BH mass found up to now among all BH sources. Moreover, the index saturation effect versus mass accretion rate revealed in SS 433, like in a number of other BH candidates, is the strong observational evidence for the presence of a BH in SS 433.

  3. Influence of the type of surfactant and hot compaction on the magnetic properties of SmCo5 nanoflakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Liyun; Gabay, Alexander M.; Li, Wanfeng; Cui, Baozhi; Hadjipanayis, George C.

    2011-04-01

    In this study, we discuss the effects of a type of surfactant (oleylamine, oleic acid, and trioctylamine) and hot pressing on the hard magnetic properties of crystallographically anisotropic SmCo5 nanoflakes prepared by surfactant-assisted high energy ball milling. The phase, microstructure, and magnetic properties of the hot-pressed SmCo5 were investigated by using x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and vibrating sample magnetometry. The coercivities of the precursor flakes prepared using oleylamine, oleic acid, and trioctylamine were 14.9, 15.8, and 15 kOe, respectively. Hot-compacted SmCo5 magnets prepared from the nanoflakes milled with oleic acid had the lowest coercivity of 8.1 kOe. It is believed that even after repeated washing in an ultrasonic bath with different solvents, the remaining oleic acid in the SmCo5 nanoflakes led to oxidation of SmCo5 at the surface/interface of nanoflakes during the hot-pressing process. The compacted SmCo5 magnets prepared from the nanoflakes milled with trioctylamine and oleylamine had higher coercivity values of 14.8 and 12.8 kOe, respectively. Unlike oleic acid, oleylamine and trioctylamine contain no oxygen atoms, and therefore there was less oxidation during the process. The compaction temperature also influences the coercivity. The SmCo5 magnets hot pressed at 550 °C had the highest coercivity, whereas those hot pressed at 650 °C had the lowest coercivity; this is attributed to the change of phases and composition of SmCo5 alloys during the hot-pressing process.

  4. Bolometer detection of magnetic resonances in nanoscaled objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rod, Irina; Meckenstock, Ralf; Zähres, Horst; Derricks, Christian; Mushenok, Fedor; Reckers, Nathalie; Kijamnajsuk, Puchong; Wiedwald, Ulf; Farle, Michael

    2014-10-01

    We report on a nanoscaled thermocouple (ThC) as a temperature sensor of a highly sensitive bolometer for probing the dissipative damping of spin dynamics in nanosized Permalloy (Py) stripes. The Au-Pd ThC based device is fabricated by standard electron beam lithography on a 200 nm silicon nitride membrane to minimize heat dissipation through the substrate. We show that this thermal sensor allows not only measurements of the temperature change on the order of a few mK due to the uniform resonant microwave (MW) absorption by the Py stripe but also detection of standing spin waves of different mode numbers. Using a 3D finite element method, we estimate the absorbed MW power by the stripe in resonance and prove the necessity of using substrates with an extremely low heat dissipation like a silicon nitride membrane for successful thermal detection. The voltage responsivity and the noise equivalent power for the ThC-based bolometer are equal to 15 V W-1 and 3 nW Hz-1/2, respectively. The ThC device offers a magnetic resonance response of 1 nV/(μB W) corresponding to a sensitivity of 109 spins and a temperature resolution of 300 μK under vacuum conditions.

  5. Bolometer detection of magnetic resonances in nanoscaled objects.

    PubMed

    Rod, Irina; Meckenstock, Ralf; Zähres, Horst; Derricks, Christian; Mushenok, Fedor; Reckers, Nathalie; Kijamnajsuk, Puchong; Wiedwald, Ulf; Farle, Michael

    2014-10-24

    We report on a nanoscaled thermocouple (ThC) as a temperature sensor of a highly sensitive bolometer for probing the dissipative damping of spin dynamics in nanosized Permalloy (Py) stripes. The Au-Pd ThC based device is fabricated by standard electron beam lithography on a 200 nm silicon nitride membrane to minimize heat dissipation through the substrate. We show that this thermal sensor allows not only measurements of the temperature change on the order of a few mK due to the uniform resonant microwave (MW) absorption by the Py stripe but also detection of standing spin waves of different mode numbers. Using a 3D finite element method, we estimate the absorbed MW power by the stripe in resonance and prove the necessity of using substrates with an extremely low heat dissipation like a silicon nitride membrane for successful thermal detection. The voltage responsivity and the noise equivalent power for the ThC-based bolometer are equal to 15 V W(-1) and 3 nW Hz(-1/2), respectively. The ThC device offers a magnetic resonance response of 1 nV/(μ(B) W) corresponding to a sensitivity of 10(9) spins and a temperature resolution of 300 μK under vacuum conditions. PMID:25271896

  6. Noncontact orientation of objects in three-dimensional space using magnetic levitation.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, Anand Bala; Yang, Dian; Yu, Hai-Dong; Nemiroski, Alex; Tricard, Simon; Ellerbee, Audrey K; Soh, Siowling; Whitesides, George M

    2014-09-01

    This paper describes several noncontact methods of orienting objects in 3D space using Magnetic Levitation (MagLev). The methods use two permanent magnets arranged coaxially with like poles facing and a container containing a paramagnetic liquid in which the objects are suspended. Absent external forcing, objects levitating in the device adopt predictable static orientations; the orientation depends on the shape and distribution of mass within the objects. The orientation of objects of uniform density in the MagLev device shows a sharp geometry-dependent transition: an analytical theory rationalizes this transition and predicts the orientation of objects in the MagLev device. Manipulation of the orientation of the levitating objects in space is achieved in two ways: (i) by rotating and/or translating the MagLev device while the objects are suspended in the paramagnetic solution between the magnets; (ii) by moving a small external magnet close to the levitating objects while keeping the device stationary. Unlike mechanical agitation or robotic selection, orienting using MagLev is possible for objects having a range of different physical characteristics (e.g., different shapes, sizes, and mechanical properties from hard polymers to gels and fluids). MagLev thus has the potential to be useful for sorting and positioning components in 3D space, orienting objects for assembly, constructing noncontact devices, and assembling objects composed of soft materials such as hydrogels, elastomers, and jammed granular media. PMID:25157136

  7. Noncontact orientation of objects in three-dimensional space using magnetic levitation

    PubMed Central

    Subramaniam, Anand Bala; Yang, Dian; Yu, Hai-Dong; Nemiroski, Alex; Tricard, Simon; Ellerbee, Audrey K.; Soh, Siowling; Whitesides, George M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes several noncontact methods of orienting objects in 3D space using Magnetic Levitation (MagLev). The methods use two permanent magnets arranged coaxially with like poles facing and a container containing a paramagnetic liquid in which the objects are suspended. Absent external forcing, objects levitating in the device adopt predictable static orientations; the orientation depends on the shape and distribution of mass within the objects. The orientation of objects of uniform density in the MagLev device shows a sharp geometry-dependent transition: an analytical theory rationalizes this transition and predicts the orientation of objects in the MagLev device. Manipulation of the orientation of the levitating objects in space is achieved in two ways: (i) by rotating and/or translating the MagLev device while the objects are suspended in the paramagnetic solution between the magnets; (ii) by moving a small external magnet close to the levitating objects while keeping the device stationary. Unlike mechanical agitation or robotic selection, orienting using MagLev is possible for objects having a range of different physical characteristics (e.g., different shapes, sizes, and mechanical properties from hard polymers to gels and fluids). MagLev thus has the potential to be useful for sorting and positioning components in 3D space, orienting objects for assembly, constructing noncontact devices, and assembling objects composed of soft materials such as hydrogels, elastomers, and jammed granular media. PMID:25157136

  8. Cyclotron line formation in the magnetized atmospheres of compact stars - I. The transfer equations for polarized radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garasev, M. A.; Derishev, E. V.; Kocharovsky, Vl. V.; Kocharovsky, V. V.

    2016-06-01

    We find the forms of the transfer equations for polarized cyclotron radiation in the atmospheres of compact stars, which are simple enough to allow practical implementation and still preserve all important physical effects. We take into account a frequency redistribution of radiation within the cyclotron line as well as the relativistic and quantum-electrodynamic effects. Our analysis is valid for the magnetic fields up to 1013 G and for temperatures well below 500 keV. We present and compare two forms of the radiation transfer equations. The first form, for the intensities of ordinary and extraordinary modes, is applicable for the compact stars with a moderate magnetic field strength up to 1011 G for typical neutron star and up to 109 G for magnetic white dwarfs. The second form, for the Stokes parameters, is more complex, but applicable even if a linear mode coupling takes place somewhere in the scattering-dominated atmosphere. Analysing dispersion properties of a magnetized plasma in the latter case, we describe a range of parameters where the linear mode coupling is possible and essential.

  9. Coalescing binary systems of compact objects to (post) sup 5/2 -Newtonian order: Late-time evolution and gravitational radiation emission

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, C.W.

    1990-01-01

    The late-time evolution of binary systems of compact objects (neutron stars or black holes) is studied using the Damour-Derueele (post){sup 5/2}-Newtonian equations of motion with relativistic corrections of all orders up to and including radiation reaction. Using the method of close orbital elements from celestial mechanics, the author evolves the orbits to separations of r {approx} 2 m, where m is the total mass, at which point the (post){sup 5/2}-Newtonian approximation breaks down. With the orbits as input, he calculates the gravitational waveform and luminosity using a post-Newtonian formalism of Wagoner and Will. Results are obtained for systems containing various combinations of compact objects, for various values of the mass ratio m{sub 1}/m{sub 2}, and forg various initial values of the orbital eccentricity.

  10. Thermal plasma synthesis of coated iron cobalt-iron cobalt vanadium nanoparticles as precursors for compacted nanocrystalline bulk magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turgut, Zafer

    2000-12-01

    High temperature power applications such as starter and generator components of the aircraft engines require soft magnetic materials with optimum magnetic properties. Thus creep resistance and yield strength become important material properties due to the high temperatures and high rotational forces. FeCo based alloys are the only material that can meet desired magnetic properties but they exhibit poor creep resistance at temperatures up to 775 K. Eddy current losses, which are strong dependent on the materials' volume resistivity, are also one of the main concerns designing the aforementioned devices. Current technology utilizes stacks of ˜150 mum thick FeCo alloy laminates and limitations on dimensions arising from the eddy currents and skin depth issues. It is a well known fact that any improvement in mechanical properties through a secondary phase hardening will result in poor magnetic properties due to the domain wall pinning effect of the secondary phase. Engineering of fiber re-enforced structures to improve the mechanical properties also is not feasible due to the dimensions of the material. This indicates that any improvement on mechanical properties will interfere with the magnetic performance of the system. Coated nanoparticles eventually compacted in a bulk form, may offer a solution to poor mechanical properties thus magnetic properties can be further improved, i.e. lower coercivities and higher permeabilities, by tailoring the grain sizes to be smaller than the magnetic exchange length, Lex . Presence of a highly resistive coating phase can also reduce the eddy current losses and ease the limitations on the materials thickness. Oxide and carbon coated FeCo and FeCoV nanoparticles were synthesized through thermal plasma processing as precursors for the compacted bulk magnets. Their densification characteristics as well as the magnetic, structural and microstructural properties were studied before and after compaction. A hot isostatic pressing (HIP

  11. The neutron star in HESS J1731-347: Central compact objects as laboratories to study the equation of state of superdense matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klochkov, D.; Suleimanov, V.; Pühlhofer, G.; Yakovlev, D. G.; Santangelo, A.; Werner, K.

    2015-01-01

    Context. Central compact objects (CCOs) in supernova remnants are isolated thermally emitting neutron stars (NSs). They are most probably characterized by a magnetic field strength that is roughly two orders of magnitude lower than that of most of the radio and accreting pulsars. The thermal emission of CCOs can be modeled to obtain constraints on the physical parameters of the star such as its mass, radius, effective temperature, and chemical composition. Aims: The CCO in HESS J1731-347 is one of the brightest objects in this class. Starting from 2007, it was observed several times with different X-ray satellites. Here we present our analysis of two new XMM-Newton observations of the source performed in 2013 which increase the total exposure time of the data available for spectral analysis by a factor of about five compared to the analyses presented before. Methods: We use our numerical spectral models for carbon and hydrogen atmospheres to fit the spectrum of the CCO. From our fits, we derive constraints on the physical parameters of the emitting star such as its mass, radius, distance, and effective temperature. We also use the new data to derive new upper limits on the source pulsations and to confirm the absence of a long-term flux and spectral variability. Results: The analysis shows that atmosphere models are clearly preferred by the fit over the blackbody spectral function. Under the assumption that the X-ray emission is uniformly produced by the entire star surface (supported by the lack of pulsations), hydrogen atmosphere models lead to uncomfortably large distances of the CCO, above 7-8 kpc. On the other hand, the carbon atmosphere model formally excludes distances above 5-6 kpc and is compatible with the source located in the Scutum-Crux (~3 kpc) or Norma-Cygnus (~4.5 kpc) Galactic spiral arm. We provide and discuss the corresponding confidence contours in the NS mass-radius plane. The measured effective temperature indicates that the NS is

  12. Ceramic powder compaction

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, S.J.; Ewsuk, K.G.; Mahoney, F.M.

    1995-12-31

    With the objective of developing a predictive model for ceramic powder compaction we have investigated methods for characterizing density gradients in ceramic powder compacts, reviewed and compared existing compaction models, conducted compaction experiments on a spray dried alumina powder, and conducted mechanical tests and compaction experiments on model granular materials. Die filling and particle packing, and the behavior of individual granules play an important role in determining compaction behavior and should be incorporated into realistic compaction models. These results support the use of discrete element modeling techniques and statistical mechanics principals to develop a comprehensive model for compaction, something that should be achievable with computers with parallel processing capabilities.

  13. mJIVE-20: A survey for compact mJy radio objects with the very long baseline array

    SciTech Connect

    Deller, A. T.; Middelberg, E.

    2014-01-01

    We present the description and early results of the mJy Imaging VLBA Exploration at 20 cm (mJIVE-20). mJIVE-20 is a large project on the Very Long Baseline Array which is systematically inspecting a large sample of mJy radio sources, pre-selected from the Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty cm (FIRST) survey made with the Very Large Array, to identify any compact emission that may be present. The survey is being undertaken using filler time on the VLBA, which utilizes short segments scheduled in bad weather and/or with a reduced number of antennas, during which no highly rated science projects can be scheduled. The newly available multifield capability of the VLBA makes it possible for us to inspect of the order of 100 sources per hour of observing time with a 6.75σ detection sensitivity of approximately 1 mJy beam{sup –1}. The results of the mJIVE-20 survey are made publicly available as soon as the data are calibrated. After 18 months of observing, over 20,000 FIRST sources have been inspected, with 4336 very long baseline interferometry detections. These initial results suggest that within the range 1-200 mJy, fainter sources are somewhat more likely to be dominated by a very compact component than brighter sources. Over half of all arcsecond-scale mJy radio sources contain a compact component, although the fraction of sources that are dominated by milliarcsecond scale structure (where the majority of the arcsecond scale flux is recovered in the mJIVE-20 image) is smaller at around 30%-35%, increasing toward lower flux densities. Significant differences are seen depending on the optical classification of the source. Radio sources with a stellar/point-like counterpart in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) are more likely to be detected overall, but this detection likelihood appears to be independent of the arcsecond-scale radio flux density. The trend toward higher radio compactness for fainter sources is confined to sources that are not detected in SDSS

  14. Numerical investigations on a compact magnetic fusion device for studying the effect of external applied magnetic field oscillations on the nuclear burning efficiency of D-T and p-11B fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moustaizis, S. D.; Lalousis, P.; Hora, H.; Larour, J.; Auvray, P.; Balcou, P.; Ducret, J.-E.; Martin, P.

    2015-05-01

    The burning process of high density (about 1018cm-3), high temperature (tens to hundreds of keV) plasma trapped by a high mirror-like magnetic field in a Compact Magnetic Fusion (CMF) device is numerically investigated.. The initial high density and high temperature plasma in the CMF device is produced by ultrashort high intensity laser beam interaction with clusters or thin foils, and two fuels, D-T and p-11B are studied. The spatio-temporal evolution of D-T and p-11B plasmas, the production of alphas, the generated electric fields and the high external applied magnetic field are described by a 1-D multifluid code. The initial values for the plasma densities, temperatures and external applied magnetic field (about 100 T) correspond to high β plasmas. The main objectives of the numerical simulations are: to study the plasma trapping, the neutron and alpha production for both fuels, and compare the effect of the external applied magnetic field on the nuclear burning efficiency for the two fuels.. The comparisons and the advantages for each fuel will be presented. The proposed CMF device and the potential operation of the device within the ELI-NP pillar will be discussed.

  15. Interaction between solar wind and mini-magnetosphere of magnetized objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, M.

    2009-12-01

    Interaction between the solar wind and the mini-magnetosphere of dipolar magnetized objects is investigated by a three-dimensional hybrid simulation, which treats the ions as kinetic super particles via particle-in-cell method and the electrons as a massless fluid. The study is important for not only understanding of the physical interaction processes for magnetized asteroids but also evaluation of the magnetic sail propulsion that uses an artificial dipole magnetic field to deflect the solar wind. A physical parameter characterizing the magnetosphere is a distance ahead of the magnetized object where the magnetic field pressure balances the solar wind ram pressure. If the distance is much smaller than the ion Larmor radius, the interaction is very weak and the solar wind is hardly deflected. On the other hand, if the distance becomes much larger, it will approach an earth-like magnetosphere. When the distance is the order of the ion Larmor radius, the ion kinetic effects become much important for the formation and structure of the mini-magnetosphere. We develop a three-dimensional hybrid simulation code and investigate the formation and structure of the mini-magnetosphere for the various magnitudes and inclinations of the magnetic dipole and its influence of the momentum transfer from the solar wind to the magnetized object.

  16. A compact model for magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) switched by thermally assisted Spin transfer torque (TAS + STT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Weisheng; Duval, Julien; Klein, Jacques-Olivier; Chappert, Claude

    2011-12-01

    Thermally assisted spin transfer torque [TAS + STT] is a new switching approach for magnetic tunnel junction [MTJ] nanopillars that represents the best trade-off between data reliability, power efficiency and density. In this paper, we present a compact model for MTJ switched by this approach, which integrates a number of physical models such as temperature evaluation and STT dynamic switching models. Many experimental parameters are included directly to improve the simulation accuracy. It is programmed in the Verilog-A language and compatible with the standard IC CAD tools, providing an easy parameter configuration interface and allowing high-speed co-simulation of hybrid MTJ/CMOS circuits.

  17. Discovery of a 105-ms X-ray Pulsar in Kesteven-79: On the Nature of Compact Central Objects in Supernova Remnants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gotthelf, E. V.; Halpern, J. P.; Seward, F. D.

    2005-01-01

    We report the discovery of 105-ms X-ray pulsations from the compact central object (CCO) in the supernova remnant \\snr\\ using data acquired with the {\\it Newton X-Ray Multi-Mirror Mission). Using two observations of the pulsar taken 6-days apart we derive an upper limit on its spin-down rate of $\\dot P < 9 \\times 10"{-14}$-s-${-l)$,a nd find no evidence for binary orbital motion. The implied energy loss rate is $\\dot E < 3 \\times 10A{36)$-ergs-s$A{-1)$, polar magnetic field strength is $B-{\\rm p) < 3 \\times 10A{12)$-G, and spin-down age is $\\tau > 18.5$-kyr. The latter exceeds the remnant's estimated age, suggesting that the pulsar was born spinning near its current period. The X-ray spectrum of \\psr\\ is best characterized as a blackbody of temperature $kT {BB) =, 0.43\\pm0.02$ keV, radius $R-{BB) \\approx 1.3$-km, and $I{\\rm bol) = 5.2 \\times 10A{33)$ ergs-sSA{-1)$ at $d = 7.1$-kpc. The sinusoidal light curve is modulated with a pulsed fraction of $>45\\%$, suggestive of a small hot spot on the surface of the rotating neutron star. The lack of a discernible pulsar wind nebula is consistent with an interpretation of \\psr\\ as a rotation-powered pulsar whose spin-down luminosity falls below the empirical threshold for generating bright wind nebulae, $\\dot E-{\\rm c) = 4 \\times 10A{36)$-ergs-sSA{-I)$. The age discrepancy suggests that its $\\dot E$ has always been below $\\dot E c$, perhaps a distinguishing property of the CCOs. Alternatively, the X-ray spectrum of \\psr\\ suggests a low-luminosity AXP, but the weak inferred $B-{\\rm p)$ field is incompatible with a magnetar theory of its X-ray luminosity. The ordinary spin parameters discovered from \\psr\\ highlight the inability of existing theories to explain the high luminosities and temperatures of CCO thermal X-ray spectra.

  18. Compact X-band high power load using magnetic stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Tantawi, S.G. |; Vlieks, A.E.

    1995-05-01

    We present design and experimental results of a high power X-band load. The load is formed as a disk-loaded waveguide structure using lossy, Type 430 stainless steel. The design parameters have been optimized using the recently developed mode-matching code MLEGO. The load has been designed for compactness while maintaining a band width greater than 300 MHz.

  19. Low-cost, compact, cooled photomultiplier assembly for use in magnetic fields up to 1400 Gauss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patch, R. W.; Tashjian, R. A.; Jentner, T. A.

    1975-01-01

    Use of vortex tube for cooling and concentric shielding have produced smaller and more compact unit than was previously available. Future uses of device could include installation in gas chromatographs and mass spectrometers. Additional uses would include measurements and controls in magnetohydrodynamic power generators and fusion reactors.

  20. Bulk CoNiFe-SiB Amorphous and Nanostructured Alloys Produced by Plasma Spray Deposition and Dynamic Compaction: Formation of Soft Magnetic Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denisova, Elena; Kuzovnikova, Ludmila; Iskhakov, Rauf; Kuzovnikov, Aleksandr; Lepeshev, Anatoly; Nemtsev, Ivan; Saunin, Viktor; Telegin, Sergey; Bondarenko, Galina; Mal`tsev, Vadim

    The bulk nanostructured Co58Ni10Fe5B16Si11 alloys were prepared by dynamic compaction and plasma spray deposition techniques. The investigation of structure and magnetic properties of bulk samples was carried out by X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy and correlation magnetometry. The bulk samples produced by both methods can be characterized as a heterophase system. The highest value of permeability 20 · 103 for plasma spraying coating is achieved when volume fraction of nanocrystalline phase with Curie temperature Tc ∼ 640 K is increased to 30%. The magnetic characteristics, such as the saturation magnetization, the Bloch constant, the local magnetic anisotropy field, the ferromagnetic resonance linewidth, and the coercivity remain unchanged after both compaction techniques. It was shown that the plasma spraying method allows to obtain bulk magnetically soft materials with magnetic parameters that are not inferior to the characteristics of a thermally treated rapidly quenched ribbon with the same composition.

  1. OBSERVATIONAL UPPER BOUND ON THE COSMIC ABUNDANCES OF NEGATIVE-MASS COMPACT OBJECTS AND ELLIS WORMHOLES FROM THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY QUASAR LENS SEARCH

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Ryuichi; Asada, Hideki

    2013-05-01

    The latest result in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Quasar Lens Search (SQLS) has set the first cosmological constraints on negative-mass compact objects and Ellis wormholes. There are no multiple images lensed by the above two exotic objects for {approx}50, 000 distant quasars in the SQLS data. Therefore, an upper bound is put on the cosmic abundances of these lenses. The number density of negative-mass compact objects is n < 10{sup -8}(10{sup -4}) h {sup 3} Mpc{sup -3} at the mass scale |M| > 10{sup 15}(10{sup 12}) M{sub Sun }, which corresponds to the cosmological density parameter |{Omega}| < 10{sup -4} at the galaxy and cluster mass range |M| = 10{sup 12-15} M{sub Sun }. The number density of the Ellis wormhole is n < 10{sup -4} h {sup 3} Mpc{sup -3} for a range of the throat radius a = 10-10{sup 4} pc, which is much smaller than the Einstein ring radius.

  2. Dark matter mini-halo around the compact objects: the formation, evolution and possible contribution to the cosmic ray electrons/positrons

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Rui-Zhi; Fan, Yi-Zhong; Chang, Jin; Waldman, Roni E-mail: yzfan@pmo.ac.cn E-mail: chang@pmo.ac.cn

    2012-01-01

    Dark matter particles may be captured by a star and then thermalized in the star's core. At the end of its life a massive star collapses suddenly and a compact object is formed. The dark matter particles redistribute accordingly. In the inelastic dark matter model, an extended dense dark matter mini-halo surrounding the neutron star may be formed. Such mini-halos may be common in the Galaxy. The electron/positron flux resulting in the annihilation of dark matter particles, however, is unable to give rise to observable signal unless a nascent mini-halo is within a distance ∼ a few 0.1 pc from the Earth.

  3. Complex Nano-objects Displaying Both Magnetic and Catalytic Properties: A Proof of Concept for Magnetically Induced Heterogeneous Catalysis.

    PubMed

    Meffre, Anca; Mehdaoui, Boubker; Connord, Vincent; Carrey, Julian; Fazzini, Pier Francesco; Lachaize, Sébastien; Respaud, Marc; Chaudret, Bruno

    2015-05-13

    Addition of Co2(Co)9 and Ru3(CO)12 on preformed monodisperse iron(0) nanoparticles (Fe(0) NPs) at 150 °C under H2 leads to monodisperse core-shell Fe@FeCo NPs and to a thin discontinuous Ru(0) layer supported on the initial Fe(0) NPs. The new complex NPs were studied by state-of-the-art transmission electron microscopy techniques as well as X-ray diffraction, Mössbauer spectroscopy, and magnetic measurements. These particles display large heating powers (SAR) when placed in an alternating magnetic field. The combination of magnetic and surface catalytic properties of these novel objects were used to demonstrate a new concept: the possibility of performing Fischer-Tropsch syntheses by heating the catalytic nanoparticles with an external alternating magnetic field. PMID:25867032

  4. Simulation of an improved magnetic-electrostatic detector objective lens for LVSEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knell, G.; Plies, E.

    1999-05-01

    The simulations of the imaging properties of several magnetic-electrostatic detector objective lenses are presented. We have assumed that the magnetic circuit has a radially arranged pole-piece gap. By using this snorkel lens design the specimen is immersed in a strong magnetic field. The calculations show that the chromatic aberration coefficient, which essentially determines the resolution in low-voltage scanning electron microscopy, only decreases with increasing immersion ratio if the radius of the inner pole piece is not too small. Furthermore we determined the collection efficiency of secondary electrons for a lens variant which is optimized with respect to primary electron optics.

  5. Simple estimation of dipole source z-distance with compact magnetic gradiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janošek, M.; Platil, A.; Vyhnánek, J.

    2016-03-01

    A compact magnetometer/gradiometer with combined homogeneous and gradient outputs facilitates precise measurement of both H and G values with good spatial and temporal coherence. By evaluating combination of both signals, it is possible to estimate distance to a dipole source with relatively small error and largely independent from precise knowledge of source strength, orientation and lateral displacement. The performance is limited primarily by ambient noise. With an AC-driven source, tool navigation or distance sensing is also possible.

  6. Effect of ball-milling surfactants on the interface chemistry in hot-compacted SmCo5 magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Li, WF; Sepehri-Amin, H; Zheng, LY; Cui, BZ; Gabay, AM; Hono, K; Huang, WJ; Ni, C; Hadjipanayis, GC

    2012-11-01

    Anisotropic SmCo5 nanoflakes prepared by high-energy ball-milling with surfactants have great potential in applications for high-performance nanocomposite magnets. For such "nanocomposite" applications, the surface structure and chemistry of nanoflakes are crucial for achieving high coercivity. In this study, hot-pressed samples from anisotropic SmCo5 nanoflakes, ball-milled with different surfactants, oleic acid (OA) and oleylamine (OY), were investigated. Interface layers between the SmCo5 nanoflakes were found to consist of samarium oxides and a soft magnetic Co phase. These surface layers contribute to the degradation of hard magnetic performance, which is confirmed by scanning transmission electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis of the cross-section of a single flake ball-milled with OA. Samples milled with OY show a much thinner interface layer in compacted samples, which means that the surface degradation during ball-milling with OY is much less than that with OA. The results show clearly that the choice of proper surfactant and the control of processing parameters are the key factors for improving the surface condition of the nanoflakes and the resulting hard magnetic properties. (C) 2012 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A compact small-beam XRF instrument for in-situ analysis of objects of historical and/or artistic value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vittiglio, G.; Janssens, K.; Vekemans, B.; Adams, F.; Oost, A.

    1999-11-01

    The analytical characteristics, possibilities and limitations of a compact and easily transportable small-beam XRF instrument are described. The instrument consists of a compact, mini-focus Mo X-ray tube that is collimated to produce a sub-mm beam and a peltier-cooled PIN diode detector. Relative MDLs in highly scattering matrices are situated in the 10-100-ppm range; for metallic matrices featuring strong matrix lines, the MDLs of the instrument are approximately a factor 2 higher. Since only a small irradiation area is required, a simple micro-polishing technique that may be performed in situ in combination with the measurements is shown to be effective for the determination of the bulk composition of corroded bronze objects. As an example, a series of Egyptian bronze objects date from XXII nd Egyptian Dynasty (ca. 1090 BC) to the Roman era (30 BC to 640 AD) was analyzed in order to contribute to the very limited database on Cu-alloy compositions from this period.

  8. Alternating-gradient canted cosine theta superconducting magnets for future compact proton gantries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Weishi; Brouwer, Lucas; Caspi, Shlomo; Prestemon, Soren; Gerbershagen, Alexander; Schippers, Jacobus Maarten; Robin, David

    2015-10-01

    We present a design of superconducting magnets, optimized for application in a gantry for proton therapy. We have introduced a new magnet design concept, called an alternating-gradient canted cosine theta (AG-CCT) concept, which is compatible with an achromatic layout. This layout allows a large momentum acceptance. The 15 cm radius of the bore aperture enables the application of pencil beam scanning in front of the SC-magnet. The optical and dynamic performance of a gantry based on these magnets has been analyzed using the fields derived (via Biot-Savart law) from the actual windings of the AG-CCT combined with the full equations of motion. The results show that with appropriate higher order correction, a large 3D volume can be rapidly scanned with little beam shape distortion. A very big advantage is that all this can be done while keeping the AG-CCT fields fixed. This reduces the need for fast field ramping of the superconducting magnets between the successive beam energies used for the scanning in depth and it is important for medical application since this reduces the technical risk (e.g., a quench) associated with fast field changes in superconducting magnets. For proton gantries the corresponding superconducting magnet system holds promise of dramatic reduction in weight. For heavier ion gantries there may furthermore be a significant reduction in size.

  9. Analyze and experiment on AC magnetic field's effect to fiber optic gyroscopes in compact stabilization control systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chao; Mao, Yao; Tian, Jing; Li, Zhijun

    2015-10-01

    Fiber optic gyroscopes (FOG) are getting more and more attention in areas such as stabilization control systems as they are all solid state and have a wide bandwidth. In stabilization systems that require wide bandwidth control, motors are usually used as actuating mechanism for active disturbance restrain. Voice coil motors (VCMs) are usually used in compact stabilization systems that require large torque and fast response. However, AC magnetic field, which can affect the output of FOG due to Faraday effect, will be generated during operation of VCMs. The frequency range affected by the AC magnetic field to the FOG's output is the same as VCMs drive signal frequency range, which is also exactly the stabilization system's working range. Therefore the effect of the AC magnetic field to FOGs must be evaluated to verify the feasibility of a stable system design that uses both FOGs and VCMs. In this article, the basic structure and operating principle of stabilization system is introduced. The influence of AC magnetic field to FOG is theoretically analyzed. The magnetic field generated by VCMs is numerically simulated based on the theory deduction of the magnetic field near energized wires. To verify the influence of the VCM generated magnetic field to the FOGs in practical designs, a simplified random fiber coil model is built for it's hard to accurately test the exact polarize axis's twisting rate in a fiber coil. The influence to the FOG's output of different random coil model is simulated and the result shows a same trend that the influence of the VCM's magnetic field to the FOG is reduced as the distance between the VCM and the FOG increasing. The influence of a VCM to a FOG with the same parameters is experimentally tested. In the Fourier transformed FOG data the same frequency point as the VCM drive signal frequency can be read. The result fit simulated result that as the distance increases, the influence decreases. The amplitude of the frequency point is just

  10. Thermodynamics of static black objects in D dimensional Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity with D-4 compact dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahabandu, C.; Suranyi, P.; Vaz, C.; Wijewardhana, L. C.

    2006-02-01

    We investigate the thermodynamics of static black objects such as black holes, black strings and their generalizations to D dimensions (“black branes”) in a gravitational theory containing the four-dimensional Gauss-Bonnet term in the action, with D-4 dimensions compactified torus. The entropies of black holes and black branes are compared to obtain information on the stability of these objects and to find their phase diagrams. We demonstrate the existence of a critical mass, which depends on the scale of the compactified dimensions, below which the black hole entropy dominates over the entropy of the black membrane.