Science.gov

Sample records for magneto-chemical character studies

  1. MAGNETO-CHEMICAL CHARACTER STUDIES OF NOVEL Fe CATALYSTS FOR COAL LIQUEFACTION

    SciTech Connect

    Murty A. Akundi; Jian H. Zhang; A.N. Murty; S.V. Naidu

    2002-04-01

    The objectives of the present study are: (1) To synthesize iron catalysts: Fe/MoO{sub 3}, and Fe/Co/MoO{sub 3} employing two distinct techniques: Pyrolysis with organic precursors and Co-precipitation of metal nitrates; (2) To investigate the magnetic character of the catalysts before and after exposure to CO and CO+H{sub 2} by (a) Mossbauer study of Iron (b) Zerofield Nuclear Magnetic Resonance study of Cobalt, and (c) Magnetic character of the catalyst composite; (3) To study the IR active surface species of the catalyst while stimulating (CO--Metal, (CO+H{sub 2})--Metal) interactions, by FTIR Spectroscopy; and (4) To analyze the catalytic character (conversion efficiency and product distribution) in both direct and indirect liquefaction Process and (5) To examine the correlations between the magnetic and chemical characteristics. This report presents the results of our investigation on (a) the effect of metal loading (b) the effect of intermetallic ratio and (c) the effect of catalyst preparation procedure on (i) the magnetic character of the catalyst composite (ii) the IR active surface species of the catalyst and (iii) the catalytic yields for three different metal loadings: 5%, 15%, and 25% (nominal) for three distinct intermetallic ratios (Fe/Co = 0.3, 1.5, 3.0).

  2. MAGNETO-CHEMICAL CHARACTER STUDIES OF NOVEL FE CATALYSTS FOR COAL LIQUEFACTION

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    1998-04-01

    The primary objectives of research during this period were: (1) To prepare ferric molybdate-molybdenum trioxide catalysts with different Fe/Mo ratio using co-precipitation method; (2) To investigate the adsorption character, prior to, after adsorption of CO only, and after adsorption of CO+H{sub 2} (syngas) by diffuse reflectance FTIR technique; and (3) To examine the catalytic character of these catalysts.

  3. MAGNETO-CHEMICAL CHARACTER STUDIES OF NOVEL FE CATALYSTS FOR COAL LIQUEFACTION

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    1998-11-01

    The primary objectives of research during this period were: (1) To prepare ferric molybdate-molybdenum trioxide catalysts with different Fe/Mo ratio using co-precipitation method and Pyrolysis; (2) To examine the magnetic character of the catalysts at different stages (i.e, prior to and after exposing to CO only and CO + H{sub 2}); and (3) To examine the catalytic character of these catalysts.

  4. MAGNETO-CHEMICAL CHARACTER STUDIES OF NOVEL FE CATALYSTS FOR COAL LIQUEFACTION

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2000-05-01

    The primary objectives of research during this period were: (1) To prepare iron-cobalt-molybdenum trioxide catalysts using co-precipitation method; (2) To investigate the NMR and the magnetic character of these catalysts using the Zero field NMR and Vibration sample magnetometry; and (3) To determine the particle size using scanning electron microscopy.

  5. MAGNETO-CHEMICAL CHARACTER STUDIES OF NOVEL FE CATALYSTS FOR COAL LIQUEFACTION

    SciTech Connect

    Murty A. Akundi

    1999-10-01

    The primary objectives of research during this period were: (1) To prepare iron-cobalt-molybdenum trioxide catalysts using co-precipitation method; (2) To examine the surface character of these catalysts with CO and Syngas as probe molecules by FTIR spectroscopy; and (3) To examine the magnetic properties of these catalysts using NMR and Magnetization techniques.

  6. MAGNETO-CHEMICAL CHARACTER STUDIES OF NOVEL FE CATALYSTS FOR COAL LIQUEFACTION

    SciTech Connect

    Murty A. Akundi

    1999-04-01

    The primary objectives of research during this period were: (1) To prepare iron-cobalt-molybdenum trioxide catalysts using co-precipitation method; and (2) To examine the surface character of these catalysts with CO and Syngas as probe molecules by FTIR spectroscopy.

  7. MAGNETO-CHEMICAL CHARACTER STUDIES OF NOVEL FE CATALYSTS FOR COAL LIQUEFACTION

    SciTech Connect

    Murty A. Akundi

    1997-10-01

    Co-precipitation is the major method proposed for synthesis of molybdenum oxide supported Fe, Fe/Co, and Fe/Cu catalysts. However, many variables may effect the particle size and surface properties of the synthesized catalysts, such as pH of molybdate solution, precipitation temperature and pH, Fe/Mo atomic ratio, pH of the washing solution, aging of the freshly prepared samples, and the length and temperature of calcination. In this period, we have been working on precipitation between iron(III) nitrate solution and ammonium para-molybdate solution under controlled pH condition, and with different Me/Fe atomic ratio. The effect of aging time on the property of the samples was also studied. The samples with the ratio of Fe/MoO{sub 3}: 6.5%, 20%, 26%, and 30% were prepared using above mentioned method. The samples with 6.5% and 26% were characterized with thermal analysis, infrared spectroscopy, magnetization, Moessbauer and X-ray diffraction before and after calcination at 400 C. FTIR was examined on precipitate, calacined and reduced samples as well as CO adsorbed and desorbed samples. Magnetization Studies were made on precipitated, calacined, and reduced samples. Their synthesis and characterization are presented in this report.

  8. MAGNETO-CHEMICAL CHARACTER STUDIES OF NOVEL FE CATALYSTS FOR COAL LIQUEFACTION

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2001-04-01

    Transition metal catalysts have been widely used in the catalytic process. Method of preparation, morphology, and particle size governs the spectroscopic, magnetic, and catalytic properties. Catalytic studies have shown that selectivity is dependant on the above three characteristics. But very little is understood about the mechanism governing the process (1-4). With a view to understand the mechanism involved, we examined a series of Fe/MoO{sub 3} and Fe/Co/MoO{sub 3} catalysts using FTIR spectroscopy prepared by co-precipitation and pyrolysis methods. The primary objectives of research during this period was to compare the results obtained through FTIR spectroscopy on samples prepared by coprecipitation and Pyrolysis methods. The results of this work has been presented at the National Council of Undergraduate Research conference during March 2001.

  9. MAGNETO-CHEMICAL CHARACTER STUDIES OF NOVEL Fe CATALYSTS FOR COAL LIQUEFACTION

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2001-08-16

    FTIR studies on FeMoO{sub 3} catalysts indicate that samples prepared by the pyrolysis method produce smaller size particles and promote more interactions with the metal catalysts. In samples prepared by coprecipitation, it is likely that iron carbides might be forming, inhibiting carbonyl and carbonate formations. In Fe-Co-MoO{sub 3} catalysts exposure to syngas seems to replace MoO{sub 3} with CO, generating cobalt carbonyl structures. Even though iron with other supports is known to be a hydrocarbon selective catalyst, with MoO{sub 3} as a support, seems to be a poor syngas conversion catalyst, while cobalt with MoO{sub 3} as a support generate carbonyl-like structures. These findings suggest that Fe-CO-MoO{sub 3} is a better syngas conversion catalyst and pyrolysis method seems to promote these formations better than coprecipiation method. Our direct liquefaction experimental results support these findings.

  10. Studying Characters in "Romeo and Juliet."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guinhawa, Wilhelmina

    1994-01-01

    Describes an activity in which high school students who are reading "Romeo and Juliet" compile information on major characters and create a collection of cards similar to sports cards, to help them understand each character and that character's motives. (SR)

  11. What a Character! Character Study as a Guide to Literary Meaning Making in Grades K?8

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roser, Nancy L., Ed.; Martinez, Miriam G., Ed.; Yokota, Junko; O'Neal, Sharon

    2005-01-01

    Bring text and its meaning alive for students! This collection offers the perspectives of classroom teachers, researchers, and children's book authors, including award-winners Kate DiCamillo and Katherine Paterson. Together, they share their thoughts on the power of character study and how to use it to guide elementary-and middle-grade students…

  12. Efficiency of Social Studies Integrated Character Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katilmis, Ahmet; Eksi, Halil; Ozturk, Cemil

    2011-01-01

    In this research, it is aimed to find out (i) the efficiency of a character education program based on overt values of Turkish 7th grade social studies lesson, and (ii) its hidden effects on the academic success. This research employed a semi-experimental design with pre-test, post-test and control group For this research primarily character…

  13. Comparison of brain mechanisms underlying the processing of Chinese characters and pseudo-characters: an event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ting; Li, Hong; Zhang, Qinglin; Tu, Shen; Yu, Caiyun; Qiu, Jiang

    2010-04-01

    Most Chinese characters are composed of a semantic radical on the left and a phonetic radical on the right. The semantic radical provides the semantic information; the phonetic radical provides information concerning the pronunciation of the whole character. The pseudo-characters in the study consisted of different sub-lexical parts of real Chinese characters and consequently they also had the semantic radical and the phonetic radical. But they were not readable and had no actual meaning. In order to investigate the spatiotemporal cortical activation patterns underlying the orthographic, phonological and semantic processing of Chinese characters, we used event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to explore the processing of Chinese characters and pseudo-characters when 14 healthy Chinese college students viewed the characters passively. Results showed that both Chinese characters and pseudo-characters elicited an evident negative potential peaking around 120 ms (N120), which appeared to reflect initial orthographic distinction and evaluation. Then, Chinese pseudo-characters elicited a more positive ERP deflection (P220) than did Chinese characters 200-250 ms after onset of the stimuli. It was similar to the recognition potential (RP) and might reflect the integration processes of phonological and semantic processing on the basis of early orthographic information. Dipole source analysis of the difference wave (pseudo-characters minus characters) indicated that a generator localized in the left temporal-occipital junction contributed to this effect, which was possibly related to phonological and perceptual-semantic information integration. Between 350-450 ms, a greater negativity (N360) in pseudo-characters as compared to characters was found over midline fronto-central scalp regions. Dipole analysis localized the generator of N360 in the right parahippocampal cortex. Therefore, the N360 might be an N400 component and reflect the higher-level semantic activation on the

  14. NOVEL PREPARATION AND MAGNETO CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF NANO-PARTICLE MIXED ALCOHOL CATALYSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Seetala V. Naidu; Upali Siriwardane

    2005-01-14

    We have developed effective nanoparticle incorporated heterogeneous F-T catalysts starting with the synthesis of Fe, Co, Cu nanoparticles using Fe(acac){sub 3}, Co(acac){sub 2}, and Cu(acac){sub 2} precursors and incorporating the nanoparticles into alumina sol-gel to yield higher alkanes production. SEM/EDX, XRD, BET, VSM and SQUID experimental techniques were used to characterize the catalysts, and GC/MS were used for catalytic product analysis. The nanoparticle oxide method gave the highest metal loading. In case of mixed metals it seems that Co or Cu interferes and reduces Fe metal loading. The XRD pattern for nanoparticle mixed metal oxides show alloy formation between cobalt and iron, and between copper and iron in sol-gel prepared alumina granules. The alloy formation is also supported by DTA and VMS data. The magnetization studies were used to estimate the catalyst activity in pre- and post-catalysts. A lower limit of {approx}40% for the reduction efficiency was obtained due to hydrogenation at 450 C for 4 hrs. About 85% of the catalyst has become inactive after 25 hrs of catalytic reaction, probably by forming carbides of Fe and Co. The low temperature (300 K to 4.2 K) SQUID magnetometer results indicate a superparamagnetic character of metal nanoparticles with a wide size distribution of < 20 nm nanoparticles. We have developed an efficient and economical procedure for analyzing the F-T products using low cost GC-TCD system with hydrogen as a carrier gas. Two GC columns DC 200/500 and Supelco Carboxen-1000 column were tested for the separation of higher alkanes and the non-condensable gases. The Co/Fe on alumina sol-gel catalyst showed the highest yield for methane among Fe, Co, Cu, Co/Fe, Cu/Co, Fe/Cu. The optimization of CO/H{sub 2} ratio indicated that 1:1 ratio gave more alkanes distribution in F-T process with Co/Fe (6% each) impregnated on alumina mesoporous catalyst.

  15. [Landscape character assessment framework in rural area: A case study in Qiaokou, Chang-sha, China].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian; Liu, Wen-ping; Yu, Zhen-rong

    2015-05-01

    Based on the concept and methods of landscape character assessment (LCA) in England, this paper applied a complete process of landscape character assessment with a case study in Qiaokou Town, which is located in a typical southern paddy fields area in Changsha City. We drew the landscape character map of Qiaokou Town through desk classification and field survey, identified and compared the key characters of each character area, and proposed suggestions on the improvement and stewardship of landscape characters. The results showed that Qiaokou could be divided into 2 landscape character types and 7 landscape character areas with the main differences in cropland and vegetation pattern as well as aesthetic characters. The case study indicated that LCA could be a critical tool to identify the characteristics in rural area, and provide helpful guidance to protect, restore and maintain the unique culture and characters of rural landscape, which is useful for targeted rural landscape development. In the future, we suggested that the assessment on the effects of landscape construction measures on the ecosystem services should be incorporated in LCA research as well. PMID:26571675

  16. Culture and Character Education in a Jewish Day School: A Case Study of Life and Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roso, Calvin G.

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses how to teach character comprehensively by studying ways a school's concurrent curricula (the official curriculum, the operational curriculum, the extra curriculum, and the hidden curriculum) can be used to teach character to students. A single case study analyzes the curriculum at a Jewish day school by examining school…

  17. A Phenomenological Study on Turkish Language Teachers' Views on Characters in Children's Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yilmaz, Oguzhan

    2016-01-01

    One of the indirect functions of the books is to help children discern the good, the nice and the correct through characters or protagonists to be self-identified. This study is to reveal what Turkish language teachers think about the character traits in children's books. One of the qualitative methods, phenomonological design was used in the…

  18. Mahatma Gandhi and Character Education in Non-Violence: Its Relevance in Religious Studies Today

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damm, Alex

    2011-01-01

    This essay presents educational principles of Mahatma Gandhi, specifically principles of character education, as a model for strengthening non-violence in students. Its major concern is to show that Gandhi's ideal of non-violent character education is important for university teaching in disciplines including religious studies, and that Gandhi…

  19. Clusters of landscape characters as a way of communication in characterisation: A study from side, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Atik, Meryem; Işıklı, Rabia Canay; Ortaçeşme, Veli

    2016-11-01

    Landscape is the natural and cultural features of the environment. Characters are distinct recognisable patterns in the landscape that were comprised as a result of human and nature interactions. Landscape characters demonstrate precise features and values that exist in the current environment and provide information for those who use, manage, live in, benefit from and enjoy the landscape. The aim of this study was to interpret landscape characters with a common set of terminology and to evaluate clusters of characters and so to discuss how they can be used as a communicative tool in characterisation in the case of Side District in Turkish Mediterranean. Number of 35 landscape characters were analysed as variables with aesthetic, cultural, value, perceptual and natural features so to communicate between characters and landscapes. The study results demonstrated that clusters of landscape characters were divided into 3 character groups; mainly cultural, mainly cultural and a joint cluster of aesthetic, and perceptual and value aspects while spatial composition of landscape character groups was named and mapped as natural, rural, historical, urban and buffer. Aesthetic features were the most prominent elements as they combined in all sub-clusters giving the evidence that landscape is a visual construct. However, landscape characters which can be either outstanding or ordinary and their clusters provide exchange of information about relationship between man and nature, natural and cultural, objective and subjective for planners and managers, for public and professionals. Landscape characters become a body of message which ultimately offers a framework for planners and decision makers for both maintenance and protection of landscapes. PMID:27500899

  20. Unexplored Character Diversity in Onychophora (Velvet Worms): A Comparative Study of Three Peripatid Species

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Ivo de Sena; Franke, Franziska Anni; Hering, Lars; Schaffer, Stefan; Rowell, David M.; Weck-Heimann, Andreas; Monge-Nájera, Julián; Morera-Brenes, Bernal; Mayer, Georg

    2012-01-01

    Low character variation among onychophoran species has been an obstacle for taxonomic and phylogenetic studies in the past, however we have identified a number of new and informative characters using morphological, molecular, and chromosomal techniques. Our analyses involved a detailed examination of Epiperipatus biolleyi from Costa Rica, Eoperipatus sp. from Thailand, and a new onychophoran species and genus from Costa Rica, Principapillatus hitoyensis gen. et sp. nov.. Scanning electron microscopy on embryos and specimens of varying age revealed novel morphological characters and character states, including the distribution of different receptor types along the antennae, the arrangement and form of papillae on the head, body and legs, the presence and shape of interpedal structures and fields of modified scales on the ventral body surface, the arrangement of lips around the mouth, the number, position and structure of crural tubercles and anal gland openings, and the presence and shape of embryonic foot projections. Karyotypic analyses revealed differences in the number and size of chromosomes among the species studied. The results of our phylogenetic analyses using mitochondrial COI and 12S rRNA gene sequences are in line with morphological and karyotype data. However, our data show a large number of unexplored, albeit informative, characters in the Peripatidae. We suggest that analysing these characters in additional species would help unravel species diversity and phylogeny in the Onychophora, and that inconsistencies among most diagnostic features used for the peripatid genera in the literature could be addressed by identifying a suite of characters common to all peripatids. PMID:23284667

  1. Unexplored character diversity in onychophora (velvet worms): A comparative study of three peripatid species.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Ivo de Sena; Franke, Franziska Anni; Hering, Lars; Schaffer, Stefan; Rowell, David M; Weck-Heimann, Andreas; Monge-Nájera, Julián; Morera-Brenes, Bernal; Mayer, Georg

    2012-01-01

    Low character variation among onychophoran species has been an obstacle for taxonomic and phylogenetic studies in the past, however we have identified a number of new and informative characters using morphological, molecular, and chromosomal techniques. Our analyses involved a detailed examination of Epiperipatus biolleyi from Costa Rica, Eoperipatus sp. from Thailand, and a new onychophoran species and genus from Costa Rica, Principapillatus hitoyensisgen. et sp. nov.. Scanning electron microscopy on embryos and specimens of varying age revealed novel morphological characters and character states, including the distribution of different receptor types along the antennae, the arrangement and form of papillae on the head, body and legs, the presence and shape of interpedal structures and fields of modified scales on the ventral body surface, the arrangement of lips around the mouth, the number, position and structure of crural tubercles and anal gland openings, and the presence and shape of embryonic foot projections. Karyotypic analyses revealed differences in the number and size of chromosomes among the species studied. The results of our phylogenetic analyses using mitochondrial COI and 12S rRNA gene sequences are in line with morphological and karyotype data. However, our data show a large number of unexplored, albeit informative, characters in the Peripatidae. We suggest that analysing these characters in additional species would help unravel species diversity and phylogeny in the Onychophora, and that inconsistencies among most diagnostic features used for the peripatid genera in the literature could be addressed by identifying a suite of characters common to all peripatids. PMID:23284667

  2. NOVEL PREPARATION AND MAGNETO CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF NANO-PARTICLE MIXED ALCOHOL CATALYSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Setala V. Naidu

    2003-01-01

    We have produced Co, Cu, and Fe nano-particles by Laser-induced solution deposition (LISD) as evidenced by TEM investigations. Sizes of the nano-particles created are in the order of 5 nm. The LISD system could generate nano-particles in quantities only in the order of a milligram. This may be mainly due to the limited photo induced reactions taking place on the surface of the solutions. We have designed experiments to use drop flow technique with LISD for nano-particle deposition on microreactors. Preliminary work has been done on Co and Fe thin film deposited microreactors. We are also investigating the catalytic properties of nano-particles of FeO and CoO prepared by ball milling and dispersed into sol-gel prepared alumina granules. We have continued our investigation of catalytic reactions of Cu, Co, Fe, Cu/Co, Cu/Fe and Co/Fe on alumina support. The metal oxides were first reduced with hydrogen and used for the conversion of CO/H{sub 2}. The surface area of the catalysts has been determined by nitrogen disorption. They are in the range of 200-300 m{sup 2}/g. Cu, Co, Fe, Co/Fe, Cu/Co and Cu/Fe showed increasing order of catalytic activity for CO/H{sub 2} conversion. We are also studying catalytic conversion rates for CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2} and CO/CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2} mixtures using these catalysts. Our investigations of Co and Fe thin film deposited microreactors showed higher CO/H{sub 2} conversion for Fe compared to Co. We have used vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) to study the magnetic characteristics of as prepared, reduced, post-reaction catalysts. Comparative study of the ferromagnetic component of these samples gives the reduction efficiency and the changes in metal centers during catalytic reactions. Magnetic studies of post-reaction Co and Fe micro-reactors show that more carbide formation occurs for iron compared to cobalt.

  3. NOVEL PREPARATION AND MAGNETO CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF NANO-PARTICLE MIXED ALCOHOL CATALYSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Seetala V. Naidu; Upali Siriwardane; Akundi N. Murty

    2004-02-23

    The preparation of Cu, Co, Fe, Cu/Co, Cu/Fe and Co/Fe nano-particle metal loaded mesoporous 1 mm spherical granular {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts, by combined sol-gel/oil-drop methods followed by calcination and hydrogenation steps, is accomplished. Parameters for calcination process were optimized using DTA. The properties of metal loaded {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} granules were compared for the preparations starting with two precursors: aluminum tri-sec-butoxide (ALTSB) and aluminum tri-iso-propoxide (ALTIP). Three sol-gel/oil-drop catalyst preparation methods; (1) Metal nitrate solutions co-entrapped-sol-gel (2) nano-particle metal oxide co-entrapped-sol-gel, and (3) Metal impregnation on preformed alumina granules, were used. Structure and composition of metal-loaded-granules were investigated using XRD, SEM, EDX, and surface area measurements (BET method). The nano-particle nature of catalysts was confirmed using SEM and X-ray diffraction. The reduction efficiency of hydrogenation of catalysts was examined by magnetic studies using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). Catalysts could be effectively calcined at 450 C and the surface area values obtained were between 200-350 m{sup 2}/g, indicating the mesoporous nature of catalyst support. Parameters affecting the metal loading process were also studied, and the optimum conditions were identified and reported for reproducible synthesis of the metal loaded {gamma}-alumina granular particles. The catalyst activities of Fe, Co, and Co/Fe on alumina for the conversion of CO/H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2} mixtures were investigated using Gas chromatography (GC) with N{sub 2} as a standard carrier gas. Both, slurry-phase-batch and gas-phase-continuous-flow, reactors were used. Magnetization studies on reduced, CO/H{sub 2} post-reaction catalyst in both gas and slurry phase were performed using vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). Magnetic studies of post-reaction Co and Fe nano-catalysts showed that the

  4. Large magneto-chemical-elastic coupling in highly magnetostrictive Fe-Ga alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Narsu, B.; Wang, Gui-Sheng; Johansson, B.; Department of Physics and Materials Science, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 516, Uppsala SE-75120 ; Vitos, L.; Department of Physics and Materials Science, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 516, Uppsala SE-75120; Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Research Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics, P.O. Box 49, Budapest H-1525

    2013-12-02

    The strong softening of the tetragonal shear elastic constant (C{sup ′}) is the main reason for the second magnetostriction peak observed in Fe{sub 100–x}Ga{sub x} alloys. Here, we study the coupling between chemical order and magnetism with the aim to understand the origin of the elastic softening. We demonstrate that C{sup ′} strongly depends on the degree of order of Ga atoms in α-Fe. The B{sub 2} type ordering proves to have an important role on the elastic softening for x<19%, whereas the extreme shear lattice softening and the anomalous temperature dependence of C{sup ′} are found to be due to the strong magnetochemical coupling in the DO{sub 3} phase.

  5. NOVEL PREPARATION AND MAGNETO CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF NANOPARTICLE MIXED ALCOHOL CATALYSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Seetala V. Naidu; Upali Siriwardane

    2005-05-24

    We have developed and streamlined the experimental systems: (a) Laser-induced solution deposition (LISD) photosynthesis, ball-milling, and chemical synthesis of Fe, Co, and Cu nanoparticle catalysts; (b) Sol-gel method for mesoporous {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, SiO{sub 2}, hybrid alumina/silica granular supports; (c) Three sol-gel/oil-drop catalyst preparation methods to incorporate metal nanoparticles into mesoporous 1 mm granular supports; (d) Low-cost GC-TCD system with hydrogen as carrier gas for the determination of wide spectrum of alkanes produced during the F-T reactions; and (e) Gas-flow reactor and microchannel reactor for fast screening of catalysts. The LISD method could produce Co, Cu, and Fe (5 nm) nanoparticles, but in milligram quantities. We could produce nanoparticles in gram quantities using high-energy ball milling and chemical synthesis methods. Ball milling gave wide particle size distribution compared to the chemical synthesis method that gave almost uniform size ({approx}5 nm) particles. Metal nanoparticles Cu, Co, Fe, Cu/Co, Cu/Fe and Co/Fe were loaded (2-12 wt%) uniformly into {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, SiO{sub 2}, or alumina/silica hybrid supports by combined sol-gel/oil-drop methods followed by calcination and hydrogenation steps, prior to syngas FT reaction studies. The properties of metal loaded {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} granules were compared for the two precursors: aluminum tri-sec-butoxide (ALTSB) and aluminum tri-iso-propoxide (ALTIP). The effect of solgel supports alumina, silica, and alumina/silica hybrid were examined on catalytic properties. Metal loading efficiencies for pure metal catalysts increased in the order Co, Cu and Fe in agreement with solubility of metal hydroxides. In case of mixed metals, Co and Cu seams to interfere and reduce Fe metal loading when metal nitrate solutions are used. The solubility differences of metal hydroxides would not allow precise control of metal loading. We have overcome this problem by

  6. Neural correlates of foveal splitting in reading: evidence from an ERP study of Chinese character recognition

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Janet Hui-wen; Shillcock, Richard; Lee, Chia-ying

    2007-01-01

    Recent research on foveal structure and reading suggests that the two halves of a centrally fixated word seem to be initially projected to, and processed in, different hemispheres. In the current study, we utilize two contrasting structures in Chinese orthography, “SP” (the semantic radical on the left and the phonetic radical on the right) and “PS” characters (the opposite structure), to examine foveal splitting effects in Event Related Potential (ERP) recordings. We showed that when participants silently named centrally presented characters, there was a significant interaction between character type and hemisphere in N1 amplitude: SP characters elicited larger N1 compared with PS characters in the left hemisphere, whereas the right hemisphere had the opposite pattern. This effect is consistent with the split fovea claim, suggesting that the two halves of a character may be initially projected to and processed in different hemispheres. There was no such interaction observed in an earlier component P1. Also, there was an interaction between character type and sex of the reader in N350 amplitude. This result is consistent with Hsiao and Shillcock’s (2005b) behavioural study, which showed a similar interaction in naming response time. They argued that this effect was due to a more left-lateralized network for phonological processing in the male brain compared with the female brain. The results hence showed that foveal splitting effects in visual word recognition were observed in N1 the earliest, and could extend far enough to interact with the sex of the reader as revealed in N350. Neural correlates of foveal splitting in reading: evidence from an ERP study of Chinese character pronunciation PMID:17098263

  7. Comparative study of notoungulate (Placentalia, Mammalia) bony labyrinths and new phylogenetically informative inner ear characters

    PubMed Central

    Macrini, Thomas E; Flynn, John J; Ni, Xijun; Croft, Darin A; Wyss, André R

    2013-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of notoungulates, an extinct group of predominantly South American herbivores, remain poorly resolved with respect to both other placental mammals and among one another. Most previous phylogenetic analyses of notoungulates have not included characters of the internal cranium, not least because few such features, including the bony labyrinth, have been described for members of the group. Here we describe the inner ears of the notoungulates Altitypotherium chucalensis (Mesotheriidae), Pachyrukhos moyani (Hegetotheriidae) and Cochilius sp. (Interatheriidae) based on reconstructions of bony labyrinths obtained from computed tomography imagery. Comparisons of the bony labyrinths of these taxa with the basally diverging notoungulate Notostylops murinus (Notostylopidae), an isolated petrosal from Itaboraí, Brazil, referred to Notoungulata, and six therian outgroups, yielded an inner ear character matrix of 25 potentially phylogenetically informative characters, 14 of them novel to this study. Two equivocally optimized character states potentially support a pairing of Mesotheriidae and Hegetotheriidae, whereas four others may be diagnostic of Notoungulata. Three additional characters are potentially informative for diagnosing more inclusive clades: one for crown Placentalia; another for a clade containing Kulbeckia, Zalambdalestes, and Placentalia; and a third for Eutheria (crown Placentalia plus stem taxa). Several other characters are apomorphic for at least one notoungulate in our study and are of potential interest for broader taxonomic sampling within Notoungulata to clarify currently enigmatic interrelationships. Measures of the semicircular canals were used to infer agility (e.g. capable of quick movements vs. lethargic movements) of these taxa. Agility scores calculated from these data generally corroborate interpretations based on postcranial remains of these or closely related species. We provide estimates of the low

  8. Foundations of Character: Methodological Aspects of a Study of Character Development in Three- to Six-Year-Old Children with a Focus on Sharing Behaviours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arthur, James; Powell, Sacha; Lin, Hsing-Chiung

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on methodological issues arising in a study of character development, using illustrations of "sharing behaviours." Based primarily in six early years settings in southeast England the research records naturalistic observations of peer interactions for 55 children aged three to six years. Applying grounded theory to…

  9. The Character of Curriculum Studies: Bildung, Currere, and the Recurring Question of the Subject

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinar, William F.

    2011-01-01

    This volume assembles essays addressing the recurring question of the "subject," understood both as human person and school subject, thereby elaborating the subjective and disciplinary character of curriculum studies. After examining scholarship on the "subject," Pinar critiques its absence in the new sociology of curriculum, its historically…

  10. Seeing Chinese Characters in Action: An fMRI Study of the Perception of Writing Sequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Hongbo; Gong, Lanyun; Qiu, Yinchen; Zhou, Xiaolin

    2011-01-01

    The Chinese character is composed of a finite set of strokes whose order in writing follows consensual principles and is learnt through school education. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), this study investigates the neural activity associated with the perception of writing sequences by asking participants to observe…

  11. A Study on the Learning and Teaching of Hanzi-Chinese Characters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Shu-han C.

    1998-01-01

    A study investigated how Chinese characters (hanzi) were taught and learned in a first-year Chinese language class in an American university. Traditionally the teaching of hanzi in higher education has taken one of four approaches: radical; high-frequency-hanzi; phonetic; and non-teaching. The four approaches are analyzed from the second language…

  12. Integrating Ethics in Teaching Social Studies: A Focus on the Students' Values and Character

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    So, Odette G.; Castolo, Carmencita L.

    2008-01-01

    The article discusses about the importance of ethics, values and character integration in the teaching and learning process particularly on the part of the teacher. In the teaching of Social Studies as a subject, the teacher has also the responsibility of imparting and implying values and ethics particularly in the secondary schools education. In…

  13. Femtosecond Heterodyne Transient Grating Spectroscopic Studies of Intramolecular Charge Transfer Character of Peridinin and Peridinin Analogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, Michael; Khosravi, Soroush; Obaid, Razib; Whitelock, Hope; Carroll, Ann Marie; Lafountain, Amy; Frank, Harry; Beck, Warren; Gibson, George; Berrah, Nora

    2016-05-01

    The peridinin chlorophyll-a protein is a light harvesting complex found in several species of dinoflagellates. Peridinin absorbs strongly in the mid-visible spectral region and, despite the lack of a strong permanent dipole moment in its lowest energy excited state, is able to transfer excitation energy quickly and efficiently to chlorophyll-a. It is believed that the high efficiency arises from the development of intramolecular charge-transfer (ICT) character upon photoexcitation. Recently, heterodyne transient grating spectroscopy has been used to study the ultrafast (<50 fs) dynamics of β carotene and peridinin. The studies show evidence for a structurally displaced intermediate in both cases and strong ICT character in the case of peridinin, but up to now the work has not provided appropriate control experiments. The present experiments examine peridinin and two peridinin analogs, S1-peridinin and S2-peridinin. S1-peridinin is reported to have greatly diminished ICT character, and S2-peridinin is reported to have little-or-no ICT character. Heterodyne transient grating data will be presented and provide a more unambiguous characterization spectral and kinetic properties associated with the peridinin ICT state. Funded by the DoE-BES, Grant No. DE-SC0012376.

  14. Do Sports Build or Reveal Character?--An Exploratory Study at One Service Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doty, Joseph P.; Lumpkin, Angela

    2010-01-01

    Whether participating in sports builds character and if character can be measured continues to be a debated, though important, topic. Almost daily we read or hear about athletes displaying poor character. Most research shows that as the level of sport competition increases, the level of character decreases. However, participating in sports, at any…

  15. Phylogenetic Stability, Tree Shape, and Character Compatibility: A Case Study Using Early Tetrapods.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, Massimo; Angielczyk, Kenneth D; Mitchell, Jonathan S; Ruta, Marcello

    2016-09-01

    Phylogenetic tree shape varies as the evolutionary processes affecting a clade change over time. In this study, we examined an empirical phylogeny of fossil tetrapods during several time intervals, and studied how temporal constraints manifested in patterns of tree imbalance and character change. The results indicate that the impact of temporal constraints on tree shape is minimal and highlights the stability through time of the reference tetrapod phylogeny. Unexpected values of imbalance for Mississippian and Pennsylvanian time slices strongly support the hypothesis that the Carboniferous was a period of explosive tetrapod radiation. Several significant diversification shifts take place in the Mississippian and underpin increased terrestrialization among the earliest limbed vertebrates. Character incompatibility is relatively high at the beginning of tetrapod history, but quickly decreases to a relatively stable lower level, relative to a null distribution based on constant rates of character change. This implies that basal tetrapods had high, but declining, rates of homoplasy early in their evolutionary history, although the origin of Lissamphibia is an exception to this trend. The time slice approach is a powerful method of phylogenetic analysis and a useful tool for assessing the impact of combining extinct and extant taxa in phylogenetic analyses of large and speciose clades. PMID:27288479

  16. A Study of the Effectiveness of a Character Education Program to Prevent Bullying in Fourth and Seventh Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Deborah J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess whether bullying behaviors were impacted by the character education curriculum "Character Counts!" in fourth and seventh grade students. More specifically, over time are the perceptions that the students had of bullying behaviors impacted and is there a difference between the perceptions that boys…

  17. A Multi-Method Approach to Studying the Relationship between Character Strengths and Vocational Interests in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proyer, Rene T.; Sidler, Nicole; Weber, Marco; Ruch, Willibald

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between character strengths and vocational interests was tested. In an online study, 197 thirteen to eighteen year-olds completed a questionnaire measuring character strengths and a multi-method measure for interests (questionnaire, nonverbal test, and objective personality tests). The main findings were that intellectual…

  18. Combining Different Tools for EEG Analysis to Study the Distributed Character of Language Processing.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Armando Freitas da; Foz, Flávia Benevides; Pereira, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies on language processing indicate that language cognition is better understood if assumed to be supported by a distributed intelligent processing system enrolling neurons located all over the cortex, in contrast to reductionism that proposes to localize cognitive functions to specific cortical structures. Here, brain activity was recorded using electroencephalogram while volunteers were listening or reading small texts and had to select pictures that translate meaning of these texts. Several techniques for EEG analysis were used to show this distributed character of neuronal enrollment associated with the comprehension of oral and written descriptive texts. Low Resolution Tomography identified the many different sets (s i ) of neurons activated in several distinct cortical areas by text understanding. Linear correlation was used to calculate the information H(e i ) provided by each electrode of the 10/20 system about the identified s i . H(e i ) Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to study the temporal and spatial activation of these sources s i . This analysis evidenced 4 different patterns of H(e i ) covariation that are generated by neurons located at different cortical locations. These results clearly show that the distributed character of language processing is clearly evidenced by combining available EEG technologies. PMID:26713089

  19. Combining Different Tools for EEG Analysis to Study the Distributed Character of Language Processing

    PubMed Central

    da Rocha, Armando Freitas; Foz, Flávia Benevides; Pereira, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies on language processing indicate that language cognition is better understood if assumed to be supported by a distributed intelligent processing system enrolling neurons located all over the cortex, in contrast to reductionism that proposes to localize cognitive functions to specific cortical structures. Here, brain activity was recorded using electroencephalogram while volunteers were listening or reading small texts and had to select pictures that translate meaning of these texts. Several techniques for EEG analysis were used to show this distributed character of neuronal enrollment associated with the comprehension of oral and written descriptive texts. Low Resolution Tomography identified the many different sets (si) of neurons activated in several distinct cortical areas by text understanding. Linear correlation was used to calculate the information H(ei) provided by each electrode of the 10/20 system about the identified si. H(ei) Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to study the temporal and spatial activation of these sources si. This analysis evidenced 4 different patterns of H(ei) covariation that are generated by neurons located at different cortical locations. These results clearly show that the distributed character of language processing is clearly evidenced by combining available EEG technologies. PMID:26713089

  20. Density functional study on d-orbital characters of the Fe magnetic moment in BaFe2As2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Hyungju; Choi, Hyoung Joon

    2012-02-01

    There have been many published papers related on the orbital characters of band structures in the iron-based superconductors. However, the orbital characters of the Fe magnetic moment still remain unrevealed. By performing first-principles calculations of the electronic and magnetic properties with constraint on the real space shape of Fe magnetic moments, we study the d-orbital characters of the Fe magnetic moment in BaFe2As2. We compare obtained band structures with published angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) result, and propose that the Fe magnetic moment in BaFe2As2 has in-plane dxy character. This work was supported by the NRF of Korea (Grant Nos. 2009-0081204 and 2011-0018306). Computational resources have been provided by KISTI Supercomputing Center (Project No. KSC-2011-C3-05)

  1. Character Development at the United States Air Force Academy: A Phenomenological Case Study of Graduates' Reflections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, J. Micheal

    2010-01-01

    The United States Air Force Academy develops commissionable officers of character through an intense 4-year program that includes academic, athletic, and military education and training. The literature was silent on whether the Academy effectively develops character or, if so, how the development takes place. This was a phenomenological case study…

  2. Spatial complexity of character-based writing systems and arithmetic in primary school: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Rodic, Maja; Tikhomirova, Tatiana; Kolienko, Tatiana; Malykh, Sergey; Bogdanova, Olga; Zueva, Dina Y.; Gynku, Elena I.; Wan, Sirui; Zhou, Xinlin; Kovas, Yulia

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has consistently found an association between spatial and mathematical abilities. We hypothesized that this link may partially explain the consistently observed advantage in mathematics demonstrated by East Asian children. Spatial complexity of the character-based writing systems may reflect or lead to a cognitive advantage relevant to mathematics. Seven hundered and twenty one 6–9-year old children from the UK and Russia were assessed on a battery of cognitive skills and arithmetic. The Russian children were recruited from specialist linguistic schools and divided into four different language groups, based on the second language they were learning (i.e., English, Spanish, Chinese, and Japanese). The UK children attended regular schools and were not learning any second language. The testing took place twice across the school year, once at the beginning, before the start of the second language acquisition, and once at the end of the year. The study had two aims: (1) to test whether spatial ability predicts mathematical ability in 7–9 year-old children across the samples; (2) to test whether acquisition and usage of a character-based writing system leads to an advantage in performance in arithmetic and related cognitive tasks. The longitudinal link from spatial ability to mathematics was found only in the Russian sample. The effect of second language acquisition on mathematics or other cognitive skills was negligible, although some effect of Chinese language on mathematical reasoning was suggested. Overall, the findings suggest that although spatial ability is related to mathematics at this age, one academic year of exposure to spatially complex writing systems is not enough to provide a mathematical advantage. Other educational and socio-cultural factors might play a greater role in explaining individual and cross-cultural differences in arithmetic at this age. PMID:25859235

  3. Spatial complexity of character-based writing systems and arithmetic in primary school: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Rodic, Maja; Tikhomirova, Tatiana; Kolienko, Tatiana; Malykh, Sergey; Bogdanova, Olga; Zueva, Dina Y; Gynku, Elena I; Wan, Sirui; Zhou, Xinlin; Kovas, Yulia

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has consistently found an association between spatial and mathematical abilities. We hypothesized that this link may partially explain the consistently observed advantage in mathematics demonstrated by East Asian children. Spatial complexity of the character-based writing systems may reflect or lead to a cognitive advantage relevant to mathematics. Seven hundered and twenty one 6-9-year old children from the UK and Russia were assessed on a battery of cognitive skills and arithmetic. The Russian children were recruited from specialist linguistic schools and divided into four different language groups, based on the second language they were learning (i.e., English, Spanish, Chinese, and Japanese). The UK children attended regular schools and were not learning any second language. The testing took place twice across the school year, once at the beginning, before the start of the second language acquisition, and once at the end of the year. The study had two aims: (1) to test whether spatial ability predicts mathematical ability in 7-9 year-old children across the samples; (2) to test whether acquisition and usage of a character-based writing system leads to an advantage in performance in arithmetic and related cognitive tasks. The longitudinal link from spatial ability to mathematics was found only in the Russian sample. The effect of second language acquisition on mathematics or other cognitive skills was negligible, although some effect of Chinese language on mathematical reasoning was suggested. Overall, the findings suggest that although spatial ability is related to mathematics at this age, one academic year of exposure to spatially complex writing systems is not enough to provide a mathematical advantage. Other educational and socio-cultural factors might play a greater role in explaining individual and cross-cultural differences in arithmetic at this age. PMID:25859235

  4. A comparative study of local descriptors for Arabic character recognition on mobile devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tounsi, Maroua; Moalla, Ikram; Alimi, Adel M.; Lebourgeois, Franck

    2015-02-01

    Nowadays, the number of mobile applications based on image registration and recognition is increasing. Most interesting applications include mobile translator which can read text characters in the real world and translates it into the native language instantaneously. In this context, we aim to recognize characters in natural scenes by computing significant points so called key points or features/interest points in the image. So, it will be important to compare and evaluate features descriptors in terms of matching accuracy and processing time in a particular context of natural scene images. In this paper, we were interested on comparing the efficiency of the binary features as alternatives to the traditional SIFT and SURF in matching Arabic characters descended from natural scenes. We demonstrate that the binary descriptor ORB yields not only to similar results in terms of matching characters performance that the famous SIFT but also to faster computation suitable for mobile applications.

  5. Neural division of labor in reading is constrained by culture: A training study of reading Chinese characters

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jingjing; Wang, Xiaoyi; Frost, Stephen J.; Sun, Wan; Fang, Shin-Yi; Mencl, W. Einar; Pugh, Kenneth R.; Shu, Hua; Rueckl, Jay G.

    2014-01-01

    Word reading in alphabetic language involves a cortical system with multiple components whose division of labor depends on the transparency of the writing system. To gain insight about the division of labor between phonology and semantics subserving word reading in Chinese, a deep non-alphabetic writing system, fMRI was used to investigate the effects of phonological and semantic training on the cortical circuitry for oral naming of Chinese characters. In a training study, we examined whether a training task that differentially focused readers' attention on the phonological or semantic properties of a Chinese character changes the patterns of cortical activation that was evoked by that character in a subsequent naming task. Our imaging results corroborate that the cortical regions underlying reading in Chinese largely overlaps the left-hemisphere reading system responsible for reading in alphabetic languages, with some cortical regions in the left-hemisphere uniquely recruited for reading in Chinese. However, in contrast to findings from studies of English word naming, we observed considerable overlap in the neural activation patterns associated with phonological and semantic training on naming Chinese characters, which we suggest may reflect a balanced neural division of labor between phonology and semantics in Chinese character reading. The equitable division of labor for Chinese reading might be driven by the special statistical structure of the writing system, which includes equally systematic mappings in the correspondences between written forms and their pronunciations and meanings. PMID:24607883

  6. Character & Cane

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sartorius, Tara Cady

    2009-01-01

    They say first impressions can be deceiving. The difficulty of getting to know someone increases when that person is mostly fictional. Whatever the author writes is all readers can know. Whatever they read about the character is all they have to go on. Now take it another step back, and imagine a portrait drawing, painting or print of that…

  7. Believable Characters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Nasr, Magy Seif; Bishko, Leslie; Zammitto, Veronica; Nixon, Michael; Vasiliakos, Athanasios V.; Wei, Huaxin

    The interactive entertainment industry is one of the fastest growing industries in the world. In 1996, the U.S. entertainment software industry reported 2.6 billion in sales revenue, this figure has more than tripled in 2007 yielding 9.5 billion in revenues [1]. In addition, gamers, the target market for interactive entertainment products, are now reaching beyond the traditional 8-34 year old male to include women, Hispanics, and African Americans [2]. This trend has been observed in several markets, including Japan, China, Korea, and India, who has just published their first international AAA title (defined as high quality games with high budget), a 3D third person action game: Ghajini - The Game [3]. The topic of believable characters is becoming a central issue when designing and developing games for today's game industry. While narrative and character were considered secondary to game mechanics, games are currently evolving to integrate characters, narrative, and drama as part of their design. One can see this pattern through the emergence of games like Assassin's Creed (published by Ubisoft 2008), Hotel Dusk (published by Nintendo 2007), and Prince of Persia series (published by Ubisoft), which emphasized character and narrative as part of their design.

  8. An Exploratory Study of Young Students' Core Virtues of e-Character Education: The Taiwanese Teachers' Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Chih-Ming; Chou, Chien

    2015-01-01

    The e-character education (e-CE) approach refers to systems of ethics education that pertain specifically to cyberspace. This exploratory study used a survey to collect 2495 teachers' responses regarding virtues important to e-CE. Furthermore, in order to identify the teaching concerns associated with these most important virtues, this study used…

  9. Encoding and Recognition Processing of Chinese Characters: A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jinlong; Shu, Siyun; Wang, Bin; Tian, Xiangyang; Bao, Xinmin; Wu, Yongming; Zhang, Zengqiang; Cao, Xiangyang; Ma, Lin

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the conceptual memory processes that underlie encoding and recognition processing of Chinese characters. Healthy participants (n = 14) performed a semantic-relatedness paradigm using categorically related logogram pairs from four different categories (fruit, animal, tool, and clothing). During intentional encoding, subjects were instructed to make semantic judgments and select category-correlated features to bind and memorize logogram pairs. During recognition, subjects were asked to recognize the memorized items. The MATLAB software and spatial clustering analysis were used for image data processing. Compared with baseline, encoding mainly activated BA13, with significant effects in BA6/8/9/46/45/47, BA24, BA7/39/40, BA37/20, and BA18/19; meanwhile, recognition mainly activated BA6/8/9/10/13/45/46/47, BA31, BA7/40, and BA18/19. Compared with recognition, encoding activated BA18/19/37/20/36 with a peak activation area in BA18. Compared with encoding, recognition significantly activated BA7, BA31/32, and BA10. In conclusion, distributed networks of discrete cortical regions with distinct roles are active during semantic processing of logograms. The ventral occipitotemporal and inferior frontal regions display increased levels of encoding-related activity. The dorsal medial brain regions, including the superior frontal gyrus and occipitoparietal regions, are associated with recognition-related activity. PMID:26881222

  10. Encoding and Recognition Processing of Chinese Characters: A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jinlong; Shu, Siyun; Wang, Bin; Tian, Xiangyang; Bao, Xinmin; Wu, Yongming; Zhang, Zengqiang; Cao, Xiangyang; Ma, Lin

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the conceptual memory processes that underlie encoding and recognition processing of Chinese characters. Healthy participants (n = 14) performed a semantic-relatedness paradigm using categorically related logogram pairs from four different categories (fruit, animal, tool, and clothing). During intentional encoding, subjects were instructed to make semantic judgments and select category-correlated features to bind and memorize logogram pairs. During recognition, subjects were asked to recognize the memorized items. The MATLAB software and spatial clustering analysis were used for image data processing. Compared with baseline, encoding mainly activated BA13, with significant effects in BA6/8/9/46/45/47, BA24, BA7/39/40, BA37/20, and BA18/19; meanwhile, recognition mainly activated BA6/8/9/10/13/45/46/47, BA31, BA7/40, and BA18/19. Compared with recognition, encoding activated BA18/19/37/20/36 with a peak activation area in BA18. Compared with encoding, recognition significantly activated BA7, BA31/32, and BA10. In conclusion, distributed networks of discrete cortical regions with distinct roles are active during semantic processing of logograms. The ventral occipitotemporal and inferior frontal regions display increased levels of encoding-related activity. The dorsal medial brain regions, including the superior frontal gyrus and occipitoparietal regions, are associated with recognition-related activity. PMID:26881222

  11. The Role of Character Strengths in Adolescent Romantic Relationships: An Initial Study on Partner Selection and Mates' Life Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Marco; Ruch, Willibald

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the role of 24 character strengths in 87 adolescent romantic relationships focusing on their role in partner selection and their role in mates' life satisfaction. Measures included the Values in Action Inventory of Strengths for Youth, the Students' Life Satisfaction Scale, and an Ideal Partner Profiler for the…

  12. Temperament, Character, and Depressive Symptoms during Pregnancy: A Study of a Japanese Population.

    PubMed

    Minatani, Mariko; Kita, Sachiko; Ohashi, Yukiko; Kitamura, Toshinori; Haruna, Megumi; Sakanashi, Kyoko; Tanaka, Tomoko

    2013-01-01

    Background. To examine the effects of temperament and character domains on depression during pregnancy. Methods. We examined 601 pregnant women using a questionnaire that included the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), and demographic variables. Results. In a hierarchical regression analysis, severity of depression during pregnancy was predicted by the women's negative response towards the current pregnancy, low self-directedness, and high harm avoidance, persistence, and self-transcendence. Conclusion. Depression during pregnancy is predicted by personality traits as well as women's negative attitudes towards the current pregnancy. PMID:24455225

  13. A character network study of two Sci-Fi TV series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, M. S. A.; Ujum, E. A.; Ratnavelu, K.

    2014-03-01

    This work is an analysis of the character networks in two science fiction television series: Stargate and Star Trek. These networks are constructed on the basis of scene co-occurrence between characters to indicate the presence of a connection. Global network structure measures such as the average path length, graph density, network diameter, average degree, median degree, maximum degree, and average clustering coefficient are computed as well as individual node centrality scores. The two fictional networks constructed are found to be quite similar in structure which is astonishing given that Stargate only ran for 18 years in comparison to the 48 years for Star Trek.

  14. Using "Exceptional" Children's Literature to Promote Character Education in Elementary Social Studies Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lintner, Timothy

    2011-01-01

    Although a myriad of definitions and interpretations of character education exists, many are premised on core principles and values such as honesty, kindness, generosity, tolerance, freedom, equality, and respect of/for diversity (Bohlin, Farmer, and Ryan 2001; Brooks 2001; Creasy 2008; Lickona 1996). As evidenced through its position paper,…

  15. Character Journaling through Social Networks: Exemplifying Tenets of the New Literacy Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, John Wesley; Hungerford-Kresser, Holly

    2014-01-01

    Countering reactionary attempts to ban social media from schools is a strong research based rationale for bringing social media into the literacy classroom. When used as a medium to explore literature--or more specifically for interactive character journaling--this medium exemplifies how meaning is created by individuals' interactions with…

  16. On Developing HyperCard Stacks for the Study of Chinese Characters: KanjiCard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakajima, Kazuko

    1988-01-01

    Describes "KanjiCard," an interactive self-tutorial program for beginning students of Japanese to learn Kanji, Chinese characters used in the Japanese language. The Macintosh-developed approach uses "HyperCard" technology, computer-assisted animation, and voice digitizing to achieve enhanced graphic presentation. (Author/CB)

  17. Characters as Guides to Meaning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roser, Nancy; Martinez, Miriam; Fuhrken, Charles; McDonnold, Kathleen

    2007-01-01

    Characters in children's books can help to guide readers through stories, contributing to deepened understandings of plot and themes. The authors discuss why characters become vivid and lasting in readers' minds, the ways in which students are often asked to think about characters in classroom literature study, and how students' understanding of…

  18. Changes of a continuous character caused by gene flow. A Monte Carlo study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sznajd-Weron, Katarzyna; Pȩkalski, Andrzej

    We introduce a model of a large, sexual, population in which partners for reproduction are chosen randomly, without any bias. This large population is composed of two groups of local populations living in different environments and being in contact. We propose a dynamic equation describing, like the existing one for the allele frequency, the temporal changes of a continuous character due to gene flow, i.e. the transfer of the allels resulting from migration of individuals between the populations, and natural selection. We show that the gene flow can be described by the linear term in the proposed equation and the natural selection by the nonlinear term. Additional killing rule introduces a random factor into our model. We discuss the role of both factors (gene flow and selection) on the structure of the population, i.e. spatial distribution of the considered character and the resulting from it existence of hybrid zones. We use the standard Monte Carlo simulations.

  19. Studyed On The Externaldefects Segmentation Based On The Color Character Of Potatoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Min; Ma, Shuoshi

    Potato quality detection in China remains at the stage of dependent on human sense organ to identify and judge. According to the characteristics and requests of potatoes' detection, The original image was disposed fast and smoothly by the median filtering, and based on the threshold segmentation by setting up the values of B(blue), the background was effectively wiped off. By analyzing the circumscription of color characters between the normal and external defect potatoes, the external defect segmentation was realized. This way is simple and feasible.

  20. Studyed On The Externaldefects Segmentation Based On The Color Character Of Potatoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Min; Ma, Shuoshi

    Potato quality detection in China remains at the stage of dependent on human sense organ to identify and judge. According to the characteristics and requests of potatoes’ detection, The original image was disposed fast and smoothly by the median filtering, and based on the threshold segmentation by setting up the values of B(blue), the background was effectively wiped off. By analyzing the circumscription of color characters between the normal and external defect potatoes, the external defect segmentation was realized. This way is simple and feasible.

  1. STUDY OF GRAIN BOUNDARY CHARACTER ALONG INTERGRANULAR STRESS CORROSION CRACK PATHS IN AUSTENITIC ALLOYS

    SciTech Connect

    Guertsman, Valery Y.; Bruemmer, Stephen M.

    2001-05-25

    Samples of austenitic stainless alloys were examined by means of scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Misorientations were measured by electron backscattered diffraction. Grain boundary distributions were analyzed with special emphasis on the grain boundary character along intergranular stress-corrosion cracks and at crack arrest points. It was established that only coherent twin S3 boundaries could be considered as "special" ones with regard to crack resistance. However, it is possible that twin interactions with random grain boundaries may inhibit crack propagation. The results suggest that other factors besides geometrical ones play an important role in the intergranular stress-corrosion cracking of commercial alloys.

  2. A prospective study of character strengths as predictors of selection into the Australian army special force.

    PubMed

    Gayton, Scott D; Kehoe, E James

    2015-02-01

    For entry into the Australian Army Special Forces (SF), applicants undergo a barrage of strenuous physical and psychological assessments. Despite this screening, subsequent attrition rates in the first weeks of initial selection courses are typically high, and entry testing results have had limited success for predicting who will complete these courses. An SF applicant's character is often thought to be a decisive factor; however, this claim has remained untested. Accordingly, SF applicants (N = 115) were asked to rank themselves on 24 character strengths at the start of the selection process. Successful applicants (n =18) assigned their top ranks to team worker (72%), integrity (67%), and persistence (50%). Applicants (n = 31) who did not include any of those three strengths in their top ranks all failed to complete the selection process. In contrast, successful versus unsuccessful applicants did not discernibly differ on physical assessments and a written test. Results are discussed with respect to their implications for enhancing the assessment of SF applicants. PMID:25643382

  3. Testing for Divergent Transmission Histories among Cultural Characters: A Study Using Bayesian Phylogenetic Methods and Iranian Tribal Textile Data

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Luke J.; Tehrani, Jamie J.; Jordan, Fiona M.; Collard, Mark; Nunn, Charles L.

    2011-01-01

    Background Archaeologists and anthropologists have long recognized that different cultural complexes may have distinct descent histories, but they have lacked analytical techniques capable of easily identifying such incongruence. Here, we show how Bayesian phylogenetic analysis can be used to identify incongruent cultural histories. We employ the approach to investigate Iranian tribal textile traditions. Methods We used Bayes factor comparisons in a phylogenetic framework to test two models of cultural evolution: the hierarchically integrated system hypothesis and the multiple coherent units hypothesis. In the hierarchically integrated system hypothesis, a core tradition of characters evolves through descent with modification and characters peripheral to the core are exchanged among contemporaneous populations. In the multiple coherent units hypothesis, a core tradition does not exist. Rather, there are several cultural units consisting of sets of characters that have different histories of descent. Results For the Iranian textiles, the Bayesian phylogenetic analyses supported the multiple coherent units hypothesis over the hierarchically integrated system hypothesis. Our analyses suggest that pile-weave designs represent a distinct cultural unit that has a different phylogenetic history compared to other textile characters. Conclusions The results from the Iranian textiles are consistent with the available ethnographic evidence, which suggests that the commercial rug market has influenced pile-rug designs but not the techniques or designs incorporated in the other textiles produced by the tribes. We anticipate that Bayesian phylogenetic tests for inferring cultural units will be of great value for researchers interested in studying the evolution of cultural traits including language, behavior, and material culture. PMID:21559083

  4. Developmental Trajectories of Youth Character: A Five-Wave Longitudinal Study of Cub Scouts and Non-Scout Boys.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Ferris, Kaitlyn A; Hershberg, Rachel M; Lerner, Richard M

    2015-12-01

    Youth development programs, such as the Boy Scouts of America, aim to develop positive attributes in youth (e.g., character virtues, prosocial behaviors, and positive civic actions), which are necessary for individuals and societies to flourish. However, few developmental studies have focused on how specific positive attributes develop through participation in programs such as the Boy Scouts of America. As part of the Character and Merit Project, this article examined the developmental trajectories of character and other positive attributes, which are of focal concern of the Boy Scouts of America and the developmental literature. Data were collected from 1398 Scouts (M = 8.59 years, SD = 1.29 years, Range 6.17-11.92 years) and 325 non-Scout boys (M = 9.06 years, SD = 1.43 years, Range 6.20-11.81 years) over five waves of testing across a two-and-half-year period. Latent growth-curve analyses of self-report survey data examined the developmental trajectories of the attributes. Older youth rated themselves lower than younger participants on helpfulness, reverence, thriftiness, and school performance. However, all youth had moderately high self-ratings on all the attributes. Across waves, Scouts' self-ratings increased significantly for cheerfulness, helpfulness, kindness, obedience, trustworthiness, and hopeful future expectations. Non-Scout boys' self-ratings showed no significant change for any attributes except for a significant decrease in religious reverence among non-Scout boys from religious institutions. We discuss implications for positive youth development and for the role of the Boy Scouts of America programming in character development. PMID:26280400

  5. Macromolecular character of amber

    SciTech Connect

    Wert, C.A.; Weller, M.; Schlee, D.; Ledbetter, H.

    1989-03-15

    Measurements are reported of anelastic and dielectric loss of various ambers and copals. They show spectra typical of synthetic polymers. This similarity permits description of the macromolecular character of amber which was not possible from previous studies of chemical composition. Measurements on amber of several origins and geological ages show generally similar character, but also differences in detail. These may be caused by differences in chemistry of the original resin and the geological age and history of the amber, reflecting differences in degree of polymerization. Also reported are elastic constants measured at high frequency.

  6. Building Character through Literacy with Children's Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almerico, Gina M.

    2014-01-01

    Character education is described as curriculum specifically developed to teach children about the quality and traits of good character. One means in which children can learn about good character is through the pages of high quality children's literature. In this study, the author defines the characteristics of an effective character development…

  7. Character Development in a Distance Education Literature Course: Perspectives on Independent Study English 395R--Christian Fantasy Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Michael C.

    2009-01-01

    The goals of higher education often entail the development of students' character. Rarely, however, are these character development goals connected to the unique design and delivery of distance education programs. Additionally, the research literature that explores the character development aspects of distance education is sparse. Thus the purpose…

  8. [Study of clinical character and medicinal therapy of viral hepatitis in hospital based on real world].

    PubMed

    Li, Yun-ru; Wang, Lian-xin; Xie, Yan-ming; Yang, Wei; Wang, Zhuo-yue; Yi, Dan-hui; Wang, Yong-yan

    2014-09-01

    Viral hepatitis was the most common infectious disease in china. But the diagnosis and treatment were varied because the viral hepatitis patients were hospitalized in different kinds of hospital such as infectious disease hospital, general hospital and Chinese medical hospital. It was necessary to know clinical characters and information of viral hepatitis patients in different hospitals. The general information, subtype distribution, prognosis, complication, medication and relations of onset with solar term from 41 180 viral hepatitis patients based on HIS data were analyzed. It was found that the age of patients between 18 to 59 years old was most; most patients were males. The national basic medical insurance was the most type of payment. The outcome of viral hepatitis in the youth and female were better than that in the old and male. Acute hepatitis was easer to restore than chronic hepatitis. Liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma were the two most complications. The peak of onset was during summer solstice, slight heat and great heat. The most common Chinese medicine was Diammonium glycyrrhizinate and the most common western medicine was reduced glutathione. The combination of D. glycyrrhizinate with reduced glutathione, polyene phosphatidylcholine and thymosin was the main pattern. But It was not knew if the combination of western and Chinese medicine was the most effective therapy to protect liver function. It was necessary to take deeply research of the relationship between the combination therapy and their effectiveness. PMID:25532376

  9. Experimental study on pore distribution characters and convert rate of CaO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Li; Zeng, Yanyan; Zhang, Tao

    2005-03-01

    During the reaction between calcium sorbents and SO2, calcium sorbents are first calcined and converted into CaO. CaO can be obtained by calcining Ca(OH)2 or CaCO3. The porosity of the sorbent is increased because of calcination and is decreased because of sulfurization. In the calcination process H2O or CO2 is escaped from the particles and pores are formed in particles. The reaction or convert rate of CaO is influenced strongly by the pore structure characters. From Ca(OH)2 to CaO the escape velocity of H2O or its mass transfer is one of the key factors influencing the pore forming. During calcination process different heating velocity, different heating time and temperature were suggested. The temperature rising rate and calcining temperature play important role to the pore structure. The convert rates of CaO obtained through different calcining conditions were investigated experimentally. Some interesting results were showed that the calcium utilization of CaO particles is determined not only by the special surface area and total pore volume, but also by pore-size distribution. The main factor influencing the sulfation is the pore diameter distribution at lower sulfation temperature. For higher reaction temperature specific volume is the important reason. But pore-size distribution is strongly influenced by heat flux and temperature in the calcining process.

  10. Character in fiction and fiction in character.

    PubMed

    Baudry, F

    1990-07-01

    This paper examines the concept of fictional character from a psychoanalytic point of view, including its synthesis and the role of reader response. A second section takes up the role of fiction in the development of character. PMID:2399287

  11. Temperament and Character in the Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden (CATSS): Comparison to the General Population, and Genetic Structure Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Danilo; Lundström, Sebastian; Brändström, Sven; Råstam, Maria; Cloninger, C. Robert; Kerekes, Nóra; Nilsson, Thomas; Anckarsäter, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Background The Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden (CATSS) is an on-going, large population-based longitudinal twin study. We aimed (1) to investigate the reliability of two different versions (125-items and 238-items) of Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) used in the CATSS and the validity of extracting the short version from the long version, (2) to compare these personality dimensions between twins and adolescents from the general population, and (3) to investigate the genetic structure of Cloninger's model. Method Reliability and correlation analyses were conducted for both TCI versions, 2,714 CATSS-twins were compared to 631 adolescents from the general population, and the genetic structure was investigated through univariate genetic analyses, using a model-fitting approach with structural equation-modeling techniques based on same-sex twin pairs from the CATSS (423 monozygotic and 408 dizygotic pairs). Results The TCI scores from the short and long versions showed comparable reliability coefficients and were strongly correlated. Twins scored about half a standard deviation higher in the character scales. Three of the four temperament dimensions (Novelty Seeking, Harm Avoidance, and Persistence) had strong genetic and non-shared environmental effects, while Reward Dependence and the three character dimensions had moderate genetic effects, and both shared and non-shared environmental effects. Conclusions Twins showed higher scores in character dimensions compared to adolescents from the general population. At least among adolescents there is a shared environmental influence for all of the character dimensions, but only for one of the temperament dimensions (i.e., Reward Dependence). This specific finding regarding the existence of shared environmental factors behind the character dimensions in adolescence, together with earlier findings showing a small shared environmental effects on character among young adults and no shared

  12. Role of Kekulé and Non-Kekulé Structures in the Radical Character of Alternant Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons: A TAO-DFT Study

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Chia-Nan; Chai, Jeng-Da

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the role of Kekulé and non-Kekulé structures in the radical character of alternant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using thermally-assisted-occupation density functional theory (TAO-DFT), an efficient electronic structure method for the study of large ground-state systems with strong static correlation effects. Our results reveal that the studies of Kekulé and non-Kekulé structures qualitatively describe the radical character of alternant PAHs, which could be useful when electronic structure calculations are infeasible due to the expensive computational cost. In addition, our results support previous findings on the increase in radical character with increasing system size. For alternant PAHs with the same number of aromatic rings, the geometrical arrangements of aromatic rings are responsible for their radical character. PMID:27457289

  13. Role of Kekulé and Non-Kekulé Structures in the Radical Character of Alternant Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons: A TAO-DFT Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Chia-Nan; Chai, Jeng-Da

    2016-07-01

    We investigate the role of Kekulé and non-Kekulé structures in the radical character of alternant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using thermally-assisted-occupation density functional theory (TAO-DFT), an efficient electronic structure method for the study of large ground-state systems with strong static correlation effects. Our results reveal that the studies of Kekulé and non-Kekulé structures qualitatively describe the radical character of alternant PAHs, which could be useful when electronic structure calculations are infeasible due to the expensive computational cost. In addition, our results support previous findings on the increase in radical character with increasing system size. For alternant PAHs with the same number of aromatic rings, the geometrical arrangements of aromatic rings are responsible for their radical character.

  14. Role of Kekulé and Non-Kekulé Structures in the Radical Character of Alternant Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons: A TAO-DFT Study.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Chia-Nan; Chai, Jeng-Da

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the role of Kekulé and non-Kekulé structures in the radical character of alternant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using thermally-assisted-occupation density functional theory (TAO-DFT), an efficient electronic structure method for the study of large ground-state systems with strong static correlation effects. Our results reveal that the studies of Kekulé and non-Kekulé structures qualitatively describe the radical character of alternant PAHs, which could be useful when electronic structure calculations are infeasible due to the expensive computational cost. In addition, our results support previous findings on the increase in radical character with increasing system size. For alternant PAHs with the same number of aromatic rings, the geometrical arrangements of aromatic rings are responsible for their radical character. PMID:27457289

  15. "Invitations" to Character

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milliren, Al; Messer, Mitchell H.

    2009-01-01

    If we are to help children develop character, we have to go beyond offering a character education class once or twice each month. We actually have to validate character when we see it or hear about it happening. Through the use of a new strategy called "focused invitations," counselors and teachers can focus on the 36 core components of character.…

  16. The Role of Character in the Hiring Process: A Pilot Study Survey of College Seniors' Potential Employers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Firmin, Michael; Proemmel, Elizabeth; McDivitt, Sarah; Evens, Jennifer; Gibbs, Lew

    2009-01-01

    We surveyed 31 prospective employers (65% response rate) regarding their views on character as part of the employment selection process. The results showed character qualities superordinate, relative to skills that prospective employees bring to potential jobs. We discuss survey results in light of business educators' responsibility for helping…

  17. Positive Behavior Support as Character Education: A Non-Experimental, Explanatory, Cross-Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connell, Erin B.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the impact of Positive Behavior Support (PBS) on office discipline referrals (Category 1), suspensions (Category 2), and absence of infractions (Category 3) in an urban public elementary school in New Jersey. A sample of 267 second, third, fourth, and fifth grade students provided the data for the research. A chi-square…

  18. The Chicano Labyrinth of Solitude: A Study in the Making of the Chicano Mind and Character.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orozco, E. C.

    This book overviews the process by which Mexican American children are socialized to the dominant Anglo American society and analyzes a 1973-76 study and 1983-86 follow-up of Mexican American college students regarding their knowledge of their own race and ethnicity and their attitudes toward the White race and culture. The chapters are: chapter…

  19. Numerical simulation and experimental study of the submarine's cold wake temperature character

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shengtao; Zhong, Jingjun; Sun, Peng

    2014-06-01

    The temperature difference of the submarine's wake on the sea surface is the base for the IR detection. In this paper, the temperature difference on the sea surface caused by the submarine's propellers and the submarine's hull is studied by solving the three dimensional N-S equations. The results show that under the condition of sea temperature surroundings of minus gradient, such as in summer the upper water's temperature is higher than the lower water, it is cold wake on the sea surface and hot wake on the submarine's plane. The temperature difference between the wake and the water around in the wake's initial part becomes more and more obvious as the wake's distance gets longer. Through the IR camera, the submarine's propeller wake is studied under the same temperature status. Obvious IR temperature difference signals can be observed and it is consistent with the numerical simulation for the submarine.

  20. Documentary evidence of economic character as a source for the study of hydrometeorological extremes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chromá, K.; Brázdil, R.; Valášek, H.

    2009-04-01

    Various human activities, such as agriculture, forestry and water management, have always been influenced by climate variability and hydrometeorological extremes. From this reason historical economic records often include information about contemporaneous weather as well as descriptions of its impacts. This study deals with the interpretation of hydrometeorological extremes for the territory of Moravia (eastern part of the Czech Republic) derived from taxation records and reports of domain and estate administrators. Information obtained reflects the occurrence of floods, convective storms (including hailstorms), windstorms, late spring and early autumn frosts. Based on data from eight domains or estates, frequency series of floods and convective storms (including hailstorms) were compiled for the period 1650-1849. Detail analysis of disastrous weather event from 10 August 1694 in the Pernštejn domain is used to demonstrate the potential of such data for the study of hydrometeorological extremes and their impacts on human activity. Another example is analysis of data about tax reduction due to hailstorm damage on agriculture crops in Moravia in the period 1896-1906.

  1. The Role of Phonological Processing in Semantic Access of Chinese Characters: A Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Study.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jinyan; Rao, Linshang; Gao, Chenyang; Zhang, Lei; Liang, Lan; Gong, Hui

    2016-01-01

    The Stroop task was used to investigate the role of phonological processing in semantic access for written Chinese language. Fourteen children were recruited to perform the Stroop task, using color characters, their homophones and neutral characters as stimuli. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) was used to measure the brain activation in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) during the task. In view of better sensitivity, oxy-hemoglobin was chosen to indicate the task activation. In behavioral performance, there was a significant classical Stroop interference effect as indexed by longer response time and higher error rate for the color task than the neutral task, whereas there was no evident interference effect for the color homophones. The NIRS data agreed with the behavioral data, and showed a significant Stroop effect only for the color characters in the bilateral PFC. These results suggested that phonology may not play an important role in semantic activation of Chinese characters for children. PMID:27526148

  2. Making Character Education Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colgan, Craig

    2003-01-01

    Describes charter education program at the Moraine Elementary School in Northville, Michigan, named a National School of Character in 2002 by the Washington, D.C.-based Character Education Partnership. (PKP)

  3. Handprinted Forms and Characters

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    NIST Handprinted Forms and Characters (PC database for purchase)   NIST Special Database 19 contains NIST's entire corpus of training materials for handprinted document and character recognition. It supersedes NIST Special Databases 3 and 7.

  4. New identities between unitary minimal Virasoro characters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taormina, Anne

    1994-10-01

    Two sets of identities between unitary minimal Virasoro characters at levels m=3, 4, 5 are presented and proven. The first identity suggests a connection between the Ising and the tricritical Ising models since the m=3 Virasoro characters are obtained as bilinears of m=4 Virasoro characters. The second identity given the tricritical Ising model characters as bilinears in the Ising model characters and the six combinations of m=5 Virasoro characters which do not appear in the spectrum of the three state Potts model. The implication of these identities on the study of the branching rules of N=4 superconformal characters intoSwidehat{U(2)} × Swidehat{U(2)} characters is discussed.

  5. The case for character displacement in plants

    PubMed Central

    Beans, Carolyn M

    2014-01-01

    The evidence for character displacement as a widespread response to competition is now building. This progress is largely the result of the establishment of rigorous criteria for demonstrating character displacement in the animal literature. There are, however, relatively few well-supported examples of character displacement in plants. This review explores the potential for character displacement in plants by addressing the following questions: (1) Why aren't examples of character displacement in plants more common? (2) What are the requirements for character displacement to occur and how do plant populations meet those requirements? (3) What are the criteria for testing the pattern and process of character displacement and what methods can and have been used to address these criteria in the plant literature? (4) What are some additional approaches for studying character displacement in plants? While more research is needed, the few plant systems in which character displacement hypotheses have been rigorously tested suggest that character displacement may play a role in shaping plant communities. Plants are especially amenable to character displacement studies because of the experimental ease with which they can be used in common gardens, selection analyses, and breeding designs. A deeper investigation of character displacement in plants is critical for a more complete understanding of the ecological and evolutionary processes that permit the coexistence of plant species. PMID:24683467

  6. Are children with autism more responsive to animated characters? A study of interactions with humans and human-controlled avatars.

    PubMed

    Carter, Elizabeth J; Williams, Diane L; Hodgins, Jessica K; Lehman, Jill F

    2014-10-01

    Few direct comparisons have been made between the responsiveness of children with autism to computer-generated or animated characters and their responsiveness to humans. Twelve 4- to 8-year-old children with autism interacted with a human therapist; a human-controlled, interactive avatar in a theme park; a human actor speaking like the avatar; and cartoon characters who sought social responses. We found superior gestural and verbal responses to the therapist; intermediate response levels to the avatar and the actor; and poorest responses to the cartoon characters, although attention was equivalent across conditions. These results suggest that even avatars that provide live, responsive interactions are not superior to human therapists in eliciting verbal and non-verbal communication from children with autism in this age range. PMID:24859047

  7. Document Form and Character Recognition using SVM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sang-Sung; Shin, Young-Geun; Jung, Won-Kyo; Ahn, Dong-Kyu; Jang, Dong-Sik

    2009-08-01

    Because of development of computer and information communication, EDI (Electronic Data Interchange) has been developing. There is OCR (Optical Character Recognition) of Pattern recognition technology for EDI. OCR contributed to changing many manual in the past into automation. But for the more perfect database of document, much manual is needed for excluding unnecessary recognition. To resolve this problem, we propose document form based character recognition method in this study. Proposed method is divided into document form recognition part and character recognition part. Especially, in character recognition, change character into binarization by using SVM algorithm and extract more correct feature value.

  8. Diagnosis and Characters of Non-Specific Low Back Pain in Japan: The Yamaguchi Low Back Pain Study

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Hidenori; Kanchiku, Tsukasa; Imajo, Yasuaki; Yoshida, Yuichiro; Nishida, Norihiro; Taguchi, Toshihiko

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Cross sectional data from the Yamaguchi low back pain study conducted in Yamaguchi prefecture, Japan, was used for this analysis. Methods A total of 320 patients were recruited from walk-in orthopedic clinics in Yamaguchi Prefecture, Japan. Patients visited the clinics primarily for low back pain (LBP) and sought treatment between April and May 2015. A self-questionnaire was completed by patients, while radiographic testing and neurological and physical examination was performed by the orthopedist in each hospital. The cause and characters of LBP was determined following examination of the data, regional anesthesia and block injection. Results ‘Specific LBP’ was diagnosed in 250 (78%) patients and non-diagnosable, ‘non-specific LBP’ in 70 (22%) patients. The VAS scores of patients were: LBP, 5.8±0.18; leg pain, 2.9±0.18 and the intensity of leg numbness was 1.9±0.16. Item scores for SF-8 were: general health, 46.6±0.40; physical function, 43.5±0.51; physical limitations, 42.8±0.53; body pain, 42.1±0.52; vitality, 48.4±0.37; social function, 46.9±0.53; emotional problems, 48.9±0.43; mental health, 46.9±0.43. Conclusions The incidence of non-specific LBP in Japan was lower than previous reports from western countries, presumably because of variation in the diagnosis of LBP between different health care systems. In Japan, 78% of cases were classified as ‘specific LBP’ by orthopedists. Identification of the definitive cause of LBP should help to improve the quality of LBP treatment. PMID:27548658

  9. A Comprehensive Approach in Developing "akhlaq": A Case Study on the Implementation of Character Education at Pondok Pesantren Darunnajah

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Izfanna, Duna; Hisyam, Nik Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe how a unique Islamic education system, named Pondok Pesantren, implemented and contributed substantially to the character education of its students. Design/methodology/approach: In total, 12 teachers and 24 students of Pondok Pesantren Darunnajah, Indonesia were interviewed, participated in focus…

  10. Are Children with Autism More Responsive to Animated Characters? A Study of Interactions with Humans and Human-Controlled Avatars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Elizabeth J.; Williams, Diane L.; Hodgins, Jessica K.; Lehman, Jill F.

    2014-01-01

    Few direct comparisons have been made between the responsiveness of children with autism to computer-generated or animated characters and their responsiveness to humans. Twelve 4-to 8-year-old children with autism interacted with a human therapist; a human-controlled, interactive avatar in a theme park; a human actor speaking like the avatar; and…

  11. The Construction of Children's Character. Ninety-Sixth Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education. Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molnar, Alex, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive and critical assessment of contemporary character education theory and practice from a variety of perspectives: historical, cultural, philosophical, psychological, empirical, political, and ethical. The essays in this book are divided into five sections intended to help develop a well-grounded understanding of…

  12. Study on grain boundary character and strain distribution of intergranular cracking in the CGHAZ of T23 steel

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Y.J.; Lu, H. Yu, C.; Xu, J.J.

    2013-10-15

    Intergranular reheat cracking in the coarse-grained heat-affected zone of T23 steel was produced by strain to fracture tests on a Gleeble 3500 thermal–mechanical simulator. Then the grain boundary character, as well as the strain distribution after reheat crack propagation, was studied by electron backscatter diffraction technique. The results showed that incoherent Σ3 boundaries were seldom found on the prior austenite grain boundaries. Therefore, only the type of random high-angle boundaries played a crucial role in the intergranular cracking. Microstructurally cavities and small cracks were preferentially initiated from high-angle grain boundaries. Low-angle grain boundaries and high-angle ones with misorientation angles less than 15° were more resistant to the cracking. More importantly, the fraction of high-angle grain boundaries increased with the plastic strain induced by both temperature gradient and stress in the coarse-grained heat-affected zone, which contributed to the crack initiation and propagation. Furthermore, the strain distributions in the vicinity of cavities and cracks revealed the accommodation processes of plastic deformation during stress relaxation. It also reflected the strength differences between grain interior and grain boundary at different heat-treated temperatures, which had a large influence on the cracking mechanism. - Highlights: • The coincidence site lattice boundaries play little role in the reheat cracking. • Cavity and crack occur at high-angle grain boundaries rather than low-angle ones. • The strain leads low-angle grain boundaries to transform to high-angle ones. • Strain distribution differs for cavity and crack zones at different temperatures.

  13. Moral character in the workplace.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Taya R; Panter, A T; Turan, Nazli; Morse, Lily; Kim, Yeonjeong

    2014-11-01

    Using two 3-month diary studies and a large cross-sectional survey, we identified distinguishing features of adults with low versus high levels of moral character. Adults with high levels of moral character tend to: consider the needs and interests of others and how their actions affect other people (e.g., they have high levels of Honesty-Humility, empathic concern, guilt proneness); regulate their behavior effectively, specifically with reference to behaviors that have positive short-term consequences but negative long-term consequences (e.g., they have high levels of Conscientiousness, self-control, consideration of future consequences); and value being moral (e.g., they have high levels of moral identity-internalization). Cognitive moral development, Emotionality, and social value orientation were found to be relatively undiagnostic of moral character. Studies 1 and 2 revealed that employees with low moral character committed harmful work behaviors more frequently and helpful work behaviors less frequently than did employees with high moral character, according to their own admissions and coworkers' observations. Study 3 revealed that adults with low moral character committed more delinquent behavior and had more lenient attitudes toward unethical negotiation tactics than did adults with high moral character. By showing that individual differences have consistent, meaningful effects on employees' behaviors, after controlling for demographic variables (e.g., gender, age, income) and basic attributes of the work setting (e.g., enforcement of an ethics code), our results contest situationist perspectives that deemphasize the importance of personality. Moral people can be identified by self-reports in surveys, and these self-reports predict consequential behaviors months after the initial assessment. PMID:25133716

  14. Keys to Chinese Character Writing. Step-by-Step Directions to Writing Characters Quickly and Easily.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Jing Heng Sheng

    The most interesting and challenging aspect of studying Chinese is writing Chinese characters. Unfortunately, the learning of Chinese characters receives only marginal attention in a typical classroom. Given that vocabularies in textbooks are based on spoken language rather than the principles of character formation, and also given the pressures…

  15. Character in Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, David

    2007-01-01

    Qualities of personal character would appear to play a significant role in the professional conduct of teachers. It is often said that we remember teachers as much for the kinds of people they were than for anything they may have taught us, and some kinds of professional expertise may best be understood as qualities of character. After (roughly)…

  16. Complex Characters Made Simple

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kettle, Sidney F. A.

    2009-01-01

    The physical significance of complex characters is explored with particular reference to the C[subscript 4] point group. While a diagrammatic representation of these characters in this group is possible, the extension to higher groups C[subscript n], n greater than 4 is left as a problem for discussion. (Contains 3 tables, 8 figures, and 1 note.)

  17. Character-Based Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Jasper

    1996-01-01

    In the ethical arena, our society offers the choice of an ethics of emotion versus an ethics of rules, inadequate choices when compared to ethics based in strong moral character. Moral education and character development are basic elements of adventure and experiential education, and practitioners achieve excellence in practice only when they…

  18. Polymeric character of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Wert, C.A.; Weller, M.

    1982-10-01

    We have measured the internal friction spectrum of a number of coals through the range bituminous to anthracite. Damping peaks are seen which bear great similarity in position and height to those found for many polymers. This manifestation of polymer-like character adds to our understanding of the macromolecular character of the coal structure.

  19. Essays on Character & Opportunity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Children and Families at Brookings, 2014

    2014-01-01

    These essays provide richer set of writings on the philosophical, empirical and practical issues raised by a focus on character, and in particular its relationship to questions of opportunity. Each one is an intellectual pemmican: sharp and to the point. Two scholars draw attention to the gendered nature of character formation (Segal and Lexmond);…

  20. Knowing Chinese character grammar.

    PubMed

    Myers, James

    2016-02-01

    Chinese character structure has often been described as representing a kind of grammar, but the notion of character grammar has hardly been explored. Patterns in character element reduplication are particularly grammar-like, displaying discrete combinatoriality, binarity, phonology-like final prominence, and potentially the need for symbolic rules (X→XX). To test knowledge of these patterns, Chinese readers were asked to judge the acceptability of fake characters varying both in grammaticality (obeying or violating reduplication constraints) and in lexicality (of the reduplicative configurations). While lexical knowledge was important (lexicality improved acceptability and grammatical configurations were accepted more quickly when also lexical), grammatical knowledge was important as well, with grammaticality improving acceptability equally for lexical and nonlexical configurations. Acceptability was also higher for more frequent reduplicative elements, suggesting that the reduplicative configurations were decomposed. Chinese characters present an as-yet untapped resource for exploring fundamental questions about the nature of the human capacity for grammar. PMID:26684059

  1. Relationship of temperament and character in remitted depressed patients with suicidal ideation and suicide attempts--results from the CRESCEND study.

    PubMed

    Woo, Young Sup; Jun, Tae-Youn; Jeon, Yang-Hwan; Song, Hoo Rim; Kim, Tae-Suk; Kim, Jung-Bum; Lee, Min-Soo; Kim, Jae-Min; Jo, Sun-Jin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) scores of a sample of Korean patients with remitted depression who had attempted suicide and reported suicidal ideation and to compare their scores with those of remitted depressed patients without suicidal ideation. Adult depression patients who had completed 12 weeks of follow-up (N = 138) were divided into three groups: patients with a history of suicide attempts (N = 23); patients with current suicidal ideation (N = 59); and patients without current suicidal ideation (N = 56). After controlling for covariates, no significant differences were found among the three groups on any measure of temperament or character except self-directedness and self-transcendence. The self-transcendence scores of the lifetime suicide-attempt group were significantly higher compared with those of the suicidal-ideation group; post hoc analysis revealed that self-directedness was significantly lower in the suicide-attempt group compared with the non-suicidal group. The results from the present study suggest that remitted depression patients with a history of suicide attempts do not differ from non-attempters in temperament, but do differ in certain character traits. PMID:25279671

  2. Complex root networks of Chinese characters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Po-Han; Chen, Jia-Ling; Wang, Po-Cheng; Chi, Ting-Ting; Xiao, Zhi-Ren; Jhang, Zih-Jian; Yeh, Yeong-Nan; Chen, Yih-Yuh; Hu, Chin-Kun

    There are several sets of Chinese characters still available today, including Oracle Bone Inscriptions (OBI) in Shang Dynasty, Chu characters (CC) used in Chu of Warring State Period, Small Seal Script in dictionary Shuowen Jiezi (SJ) in Eastern Han Dynasty, and Kangxi Dictionary (KD) in Qing Dynasty. Such as Chinese characters were all constructed via combinations of meaningful patterns, called roots. Our studies for the complex networks of all roots indicate that the roots of the characters in OBI, CC, SJ and KD have characteristics of small world networks and scale-free networks.

  3. Arabic character recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allam, May

    1994-03-01

    This paper presents a complete system for learning and recognizing Arabic characters. Arabic OCR faces technical problems not encountered in other languages such as cursiveness, overriding and overlapping of characters, multiple shapes per character and the presence of vowels above and below the characters. The proposed approach relies on the fact that the process of connecting Arabic characters to produce cursive writing tends to form a fictitious baseline. During preprocessing, contour analysis provides both component isolation and baseline location. In the feature extraction phase, the words are processed from right to left to generate a sequence of labels. Each label is one of a predetermined codebook that represents all possible bit distribution with respect to the baseline. At a certain position, which depends on the label context, a segmentation decision is taken. During training, a model is generated for each character. This model describes the probability of the occurrence of the labels at each vertical position. During recognition, the probability of the label observation sequence is computed and accumulated. The system has been tested on different typewritten, typeset fonts and diacriticized versions of both and the evaluation results are presented.

  4. Character Education in School Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Hanford D.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Describes how various teachers in public and parochial schools have used CRP (Character Research Project Curriculum) materials to insert positive character training into their particular class situations. (DS)

  5. Factors Influencing the Learning of Chinese Characters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sung, Ko-Yin; Wu, Hsiao-Ping

    2011-01-01

    This survey study, which involved 108 language learners enrolled in first-year Chinese as a foreign language classrooms in the United States, intended to address the research questions, "What types of Chinese-character learning strategies do US learners use?" and "Do US learners' Chinese-character learning strategy use differ based on the…

  6. Neural Strategies for Reading Japanese and Chinese Sentences: A Cross-Linguistic fMRI Study of Character-Decoding and Morphosyntax

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Koongliang; Itoh, Kosuke; Kwee, Ingrid L.; Nakada, Tsutomu

    2012-01-01

    Japanese and Chinese share virtually identical morphographic characters invented in ancient China. Whereas modern Chinese retained the original morphographic functionality of these characters (hanzi), modern Japanese utilizes these characters (kanji) as complex syllabograms. This divergence provides a unique opportunity to systematically…

  7. Use of morphological characters in the study of Simulium damnosum s.l. populations in West Africa.

    PubMed

    Garms, R

    1978-12-01

    Morphological characters were tested which could be used to compare and to associate Stimulium damnosum s.l. populations reinvading the area of the Onchocerciasis Control Programme in the Volta River basin with those of potential source areas. The savanna cytospecies S. damnosum s.str. and S. sirbanum could be distinguished from the forest species S. sanctipauli, S. soubrense and S. yahense by the size and shape of the antennae and the colour of the basal wing tufts. Wing tufts of S. squamosum were of variable colour. Results did not confirm morphological keys for the complex which used counts of maxiillary teeth to separate S. damnosum s.str. and S. sirbanum, and numbers of spinules on the radial vein of the wings to separate S. yahense and S. squamosum. Populations of the S. damnosum complex could be characterised by morphometric methods. Measurements of the length of the thorax provided a rapid and easy means to distinguish different populations. The length of the thorax was positively correlated with the length of the wings. By using several measurements in combination populations could be more clearly characterised. PMID:741508

  8. First-principles study on incidence direction, individual site character, and atomic projection dependences of ELNES for perovskite compounds.

    PubMed

    Mizoguchi, Teruyasu; Buban, James P; Matsunaga, Katsuyuki; Yamamoto, Takahisa; Ikuhara, Yuichi

    2006-01-01

    The incidence direction dependence, the individual site character dependence, and the atomic projection dependence of O-K near edge fine structure of the EEL spectrum (ELNES) from YBa2Cu3O7 (YBCO) and SrTiO3 were theoretically simulated using the first-principles band structure calculation. In order to calculate ELNES, a core-hole was introduced at the oxygen 1s orbital, and sufficiently large supercells composed of more than 100 atoms were employed. We found that the intensity of the first peak of O-K ELNES from YBCO strongly depends on the atomic projection direction, and disappears when the spectrum is measured with the other projection directions. The large projection dependence was also predicted in the O-K ELNES of SrTiO3. It was found that those spectral changes according to the position of the projection are caused by the unidirectional Ti-O-Ti bond in SrTiO3. PMID:16043296

  9. Character Education Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duer, Marg; Parisi, Adam; Valintis, Mark

    An action research project developed a program for implementing character education to improve behavior, particularly as related to respect and responsibility and to reduce inappropriate behavioral choices. Targeted population consisted of junior high and high school students at three sites in a community located in a Midwestern suburban…

  10. Promoting Character Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wales, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    In many school districts, teachers of all subjects are asked to incorporate teaching values. In trying to incorporate Character Education into the art classroom, this teacher chose three areas to work with: art history, art production, and classroom procedures. These three areas are described in this article.

  11. Investigations into Character Enhancement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartoonian, H. Michael

    2001-01-01

    Presents six different investigations of character enhancement that attempts to answer three questions: (1) who are you; (2) what is your destination; and (3) who is your captain? Intends to build relationships among ideas such as perspective taking, seeing and making connections with the other, and understanding more about ethical development.…

  12. Kids with Character

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Tamsen J.

    2004-01-01

    The author of this paper, a primary educator at Jack Jackter Elementary School in Colchester, Connecticut, describes several activities teachers can use to enhance character development lessons and help put children on track for becoming problem-solving citizens both in school and in society.

  13. Optical Character Recognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Converso, L.; Hocek, S.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes computer-based optical character recognition (OCR) systems, focusing on their components (the computer, the scanner, the OCR, and the output device); how the systems work; and features to consider in selecting a system. A list of 26 questions to ask to evaluate systems for potential purchase is included. (JDD)

  14. Character and Citizenship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uerling, Donald F.

    2004-01-01

    The American way of life rests on a foundation of rational thought and civil behavior. Simply put, the strength of America depends on its culture--the set of beliefs, values, and behavioral norms to which most citizens adhere. Most educators have always viewed schooling for character and citizenship as a fundamental purpose of public education.…

  15. Acquisition of Chinese characters: the effects of character properties and individual differences among second language learners.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Li-Jen; Kim, Tae-Jin; Yang, Xinyuan; Li, Huiwen; Liu, Yan; Wang, Haixia; Hyun Park, Jeong; Li, Ying

    2015-01-01

    In light of the dramatic growth of Chinese learners worldwide and a need for cross-linguistic research on Chinese literacy development, this study drew upon theories of visual complexity effect (Su and Samuels, 2010) and dual-coding processing (Sadoski and Paivio, 2013) and investigated (a) the effects of character properties (i.e., visual complexity and radical presence) on character acquisition and (b) the relationship between individual learner differences in radical awareness and character acquisition. Participants included adolescent English-speaking beginning learners of Chinese in the U.S. Following Kuo et al. (2014), a novel character acquisition task was used to investigate the process of acquiring the meaning of new characters. Results showed that (a) characters with radicals and with less visual complexity were easier to acquire than characters without radicals and with greater visual complexity; and (b) individual differences in radical awareness were associated with the acquisition of all types of characters, but the association was more pronounced with the acquisition of characters with radicals. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings were discussed. PMID:26379562

  16. Acquisition of Chinese characters: the effects of character properties and individual differences among second language learners

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Li-Jen; Kim, Tae-Jin; Yang, Xinyuan; Li, Huiwen; Liu, Yan; Wang, Haixia; Hyun Park, Jeong; Li, Ying

    2015-01-01

    In light of the dramatic growth of Chinese learners worldwide and a need for cross-linguistic research on Chinese literacy development, this study drew upon theories of visual complexity effect (Su and Samuels, 2010) and dual-coding processing (Sadoski and Paivio, 2013) and investigated (a) the effects of character properties (i.e., visual complexity and radical presence) on character acquisition and (b) the relationship between individual learner differences in radical awareness and character acquisition. Participants included adolescent English-speaking beginning learners of Chinese in the U.S. Following Kuo et al. (2014), a novel character acquisition task was used to investigate the process of acquiring the meaning of new characters. Results showed that (a) characters with radicals and with less visual complexity were easier to acquire than characters without radicals and with greater visual complexity; and (b) individual differences in radical awareness were associated with the acquisition of all types of characters, but the association was more pronounced with the acquisition of characters with radicals. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings were discussed. PMID:26379562

  17. Improved Characters and Student Learning Outcomes through Development of Character Education Based General Physics Learning Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derlina; Sabani; Mihardi, Satria

    2015-01-01

    Education Research in Indonesia has begun to lead to the development of character education and is no longer fixated on the outcomes of cognitive learning. This study purposed to produce character education based general physics learning model (CEBGP Learning Model) and with valid, effective and practical peripheral devices to improve character…

  18. Culture or Disability? Examining Deaf Characters in Children's Book Illustrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golos, Debbie B.; Moses, Annie M.; Wolbers, Kimberly A.

    2012-01-01

    Picture books can influence how children perceive those from backgrounds and cultures different from their own. Studies have been conducted examining how the text of children's literature portrays multicultural characters or characters with disabilities. However, few have looked specifically at the portrayal of characters through illustrations,…

  19. How Character Complexity Modulates Eye Movement Control in Chinese Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Guojie; Li, Xingshan

    2015-01-01

    This empirical study examined whether the visual complexities of the first and second characters in two-character words play similar roles in modulating the fixation time and saccade target selection during un-spaced Chinese reading. Consistent with prior research, words with low-complexity characters were fixated for shorter times than words with…

  20. Applying Adult Learning Theory through a Character Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baskas, Richard S.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the behavior of a character, Celie, in a movie, 'The Color Purple," through the lens of two adult learning theorists to determine the relationships the character has with each theory. The development and portrayal of characters in movies can be explained and understood by the analysis of adult learning…

  1. Character Education in Three Schools: Catholic, Quaker and Public

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meidl, Christopher; Meidl, Tynisha

    2013-01-01

    Character education has always played a role in the purpose of schools. Most US states have a statement about character education as a part of the mission of the schools. This research studied how character education was perceived by participants in regards to school mission statements/philosophies, school atmosphere and curriculum in a Catholic…

  2. Bring Character Education into Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agboola, Alex; Tsai, Kaun Chen

    2012-01-01

    Character education is a growing discipline with the deliberate attempt to optimize students' ethical behavior. The outcome of character education has always been encouraging, solidly, and continually preparing the leaders of tomorrow. The promotion of character education should not just a leap service but has an action plan for practice. In order…

  3. Research on Russian National Character

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Na, Zhuo

    2008-01-01

    The special geographical location Russia lies in creates the unique character of the Russian nation. Based on the dual nature of the Russian national character, the Russian geographical environment and the analysis of its social structure, this text tries to explore the reasons of the dual nature of Russian national character.

  4. Character Education in China Today

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Yali

    2005-01-01

    Character education has been a hot topic in the past decade in American public schools. Although many states and schools have initiated character education programs, politicians, educators, social workers, and the public are still arguing whether character education should be conducted in schools and how it should be conducted. China, as a country…

  5. Personality features in ultra-high risk for psychosis: a comparative study with schizophrenia and control subjects using the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised (TCI-R).

    PubMed

    Fresán, Ana; León-Ortiz, Pablo; Robles-García, Rebeca; Azcárraga, Mariana; Guizar, Diana; Reyes-Madrigal, Francisco; Tovilla-Zárate, Carlos Alfonso; de la Fuente-Sandoval, Camilo

    2015-02-01

    Several variables have been identified as risk factors for conversion to overt psychosis in ultra-high risk for psychosis (UHR) individuals. Although almost two-thirds of them do not experience a transition to psychosis, they still exhibit functional disabilities. Other subjective developmental features may be useful for a more precise identification of individuals at UHR. Avoidant behaviors are consistently reported in schizophrenia and in UHR individuals and may be the reflection of a pattern of personality. Thus, personality features in UHR individuals deserves further research. The objective of the present study was to compare temperament and character dimensions between UHR individuals, patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls. One hundred participants (25 UHR individuals, 25 schizophrenia patients and 50 control subjects) where evaluated with the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised (TCI-R). Univariate ANOVAs followed by Bonferroni tests were used. UHR individuals and schizophrenia patients exhibited higher levels of Harm Avoidance (HA) when compared to control subjects. For HA1 Anticipatory worry vs Uninhibited optimism and HA4 Fatigability & asthenia, UHR and schizophrenia groups showed similar scores and both groups were higher compared to control subjects. With respect to Cooperativeness (CO), UHR and schizophrenia reported lower scores than control subjects, in particular CO2 Empathy vs Social disinterest and CO3 Helpfulness vs unhelpfulness. This study replicates and extends the consideration of HA as a psychopathological related endophenotype and gives us further information of the possible role of personality features in the expression of some of the social dysfunctions observed both in prodromal subjects and schizophrenia patients. PMID:25554622

  6. [The study on the characters of membrane protein interaction and its network based on integrated intelligence method].

    PubMed

    Shen, Yizhen; Ding, Yongsheng; Hao, Kuangrong

    2011-08-01

    Membrane protein and its interaction network have become a novel research direction in bioinformatics. In this paper, a novel membrane protein interaction network simulator is proposed for system biology studies by integrated intelligence method including spectrum analysis, fuzzy K-Nearest Neighbor(KNN) algorithm and so on. We consider biological system as a set of active computational components interacting with each other and with the external environment. Then we can use the network simulator to construct membrane protein interaction networks. Based on the proposed approach, we found that the membrane protein interaction network almost has some dynamic and collective characteristics, such as small-world network, scale free distributing, and hierarchical module structure. These properties are similar to those of other extensively studied protein interaction networks. The present studies on the characteristics of the membrane protein interaction network will be valuable for its relatively biological and medical studies. PMID:21936357

  7. Influence of dissolved organic matter character on mercury incorporation by planktonic organisms: an experimental study using oligotrophic water from Patagonian lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diéguez, Maria C.; Queimaliños, Claudia P.; Guevara, Sergio Ribeiro; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark C.; Cárdenas, Carolina Soto; Arribére, María A.

    2013-01-01

    Ligands present in dissolved organic matter (DOM) form complexes with inorganic divalent mercury (Hg2+) affecting its bioavailability in pelagic food webs. This investigation addresses the influence of a natural gradient of DOM present in Patagonian lakes on the bioaccumulation of Hg2+ (the prevailing mercury species in the water column of these lakes) by the algae Cryptomonas erosa and the zooplankters Brachionus calyciflorus and Boeckella antiqua. Hg2+ accumulation was studied through laboratory experiments using natural water of four oligotrophic Patagonian lakes amended with197Hg2+. The bioavailability of Hg2+ was affected by the concentration and character of DOM. The entrance of Hg2+ into pelagic food webs occurs mostly through passive and active accumulation. The incorporation of Hg2+ by Cryptomonas, up to 27% of the Hg2+ amended, was found to be rapid and dominated by passive adsorption, and was greatest when low molecular weight compounds with protein-like or small phenolic signatures prevailed in the DOM. Conversely, high molecular weight compounds with a humic or fulvic signature kept Hg2+ in the dissolved phase, resulting in the lowest Hg2+ accumulation in this algae. In Brachionus and Boeckella the direct incorporation of Hg from the aqueous phase was up to 3% of the Hg2+ amended. The dietary incorporation of Hg2+ by Boeckella exceeded the direct absorption of this metal in natural water, and was remarkably similar to the Hg2+ adsorbed in their prey. Overall, DOM concentration and character affected the adsorption of Hg2+ by algae through competitive binding, while the incorporation of Hg2+ into the zooplankton was dominated by trophic or dietary transfer.

  8. Evolution of the surface polar character of pyrogenic silicas, with their grafting ratios by dimethylchlorosilane, studied by microcalorimetry.

    PubMed

    Donnet, Jean-Baptiste; Ridaoui, Hassan; Balard, Henri; Barthel, Herbert; Gottschalk-Gaudig, Torsten

    2008-09-01

    The interactions of water, hexamethyldisiloxane, and dodecane with pyrogenic silica samples, modified by a controlled partial silylation with dimethyldichlorosilane, were studied by microcalorimetry and wettability measurements. The samples, having a coverage ratio lower than dimethylsilyl (DMS) monolayer capacity ( approximately 2.6 DMS/nm(2)), show a regular and linear decrease of their heat of immersion into water with the coverage ratio and correlate with the increase of residual silanol groups. Two critical coverage ratios were evidenced at about 25 and 50% of the DMS monolayer capacity, the grafted silica remaining hydrophilic, below 25% being strongly hydrophobic beyond. The heat of immersion into hexamethyldisiloxane decreases until 50% of the DMS monolayer whereas that of dodecane remains independent of the grafting ratio. This study demonstrates that the water/residual free silica surface plays the main role in the stabilization of the W/O Pickering's emulsions. PMID:18555266

  9. Biradical character in the ground state of [Mn@Si12](+): a DFT and CASPT2 study.

    PubMed

    Arcisauskaite, Vaida; Fijan, Domagoj; Spivak, Mariano; Graaf, Coen de; McGrady, John E

    2016-09-14

    Both density functional theory and multi-configurational ab initio (CASPT2) calculations are used to explore the potential energy surface of the hexagonal prismatic cluster [Mn@Si12](+). Unlike isoelectronic Cr@Si12, the ground state is a biradical, with triplet and open-shell singlet states lying very close in energy. The results are discussed in the context of recent experimental studies using infra-red multiple photon dissociation spectroscopy and X-ray MCD spectroscopy. PMID:27524177

  10. Effects of Character Weighting and Species Sampling on Phylogeny Reconstruction: A Case Study Based on DNA Sequence Data in Cetaceans

    PubMed Central

    Milinkovitch, M. C.; LeDuc, R. G.; Adachi, J.; Farnir, F.; Georges, M.; Hasegawa, M.

    1996-01-01

    Different phylogenetic analyses of the same genetic data set can yield conflicting results, depending on the choic of parameter settings and included taxa. This is particularly true in studies involving data sets where levels of homoplasy are high and likely to obscure the phylogenetic signal. Filtering of this phylogenetic noise can be attempted, with varying degrees of success, by using different weighting schemes and ingroup/outgroup choices, but it can be difficult to decide objectively which approach is best. Using a cytochrome b data set from cetaceans and artiodactyls, we examined the effects of a suite of parameter settings on the outcome of phylogenetic analyses. We tested 2968 combinations among the seven parameters that most often vary among phylogenetic studies. It is our contention that this sensitivity analysis identifies portions of the multidimensional parameter space where phylogenetic signal is most reliably recovered, and simple rules are given to guide the choice of settings. Portions of this data set have been used in previous studies with conflicting results, namely the monophyly vs. paraphyly of one of the two major recognized cetacean suborders, the toothed whales. This analysis strongly supports the sister relationship between sperm whales and baleen whales. PMID:8978067

  11. Effects of character weighting and species sampling on phylogeny reconstruction: a case study based on DNA sequence data in cetaceans.

    PubMed

    Milinkovitch, M C; LeDuc, R G; Adachi, J; Farnir, F; Georges, M; Hasegawa, M

    1996-12-01

    Different phylogenetic analyses of the same genetic data set can yield conflicting results, depending on the choice of parameter settings and included taxa. This is particularly true in studies involving data sets where levels of homoplasy are high and likely to obscure the phylogenetic signal. Filtering of this phylogenetic noise can be attempted, with varying degrees of success, by using different weighting schemes and ingroup/outgroup choices, but it can be difficult to decide objectively which approach is best. Using a cytochrome b data set from cetaceans and artiodactyls, we examined the effects of a suite of parameter settings on the outcome of phylogenetic analyses. We tested 2968 combinations among the seven parameters that most often vary among phylogenetic studies. It is our contention that this sensitivity analysis identifies portions of the multidimensional parameter space where phylogenetic signal is most reliably recovered, and simple rules are given to guide the choice of settings. Portions of this data set have been used in previous studies with conflicting results, namely the monophyly vs. paraphyly of one of the two major recognized cetacean suborders, the toothed whales. This analysis strongly supports the sister relationship between sperm whales and baleen whales. PMID:8978067

  12. Frequency and Character of Extreme Aerosol Events in the Southwestern United States: A Case Study Analysis in Arizona

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, David H.; Rabbani, Michael R.; Crosbie, Ewan; Raman, Aishwarya; Arellano, Avelino F.; Sorooshian, Armin

    2016-01-01

    This study uses more than a decade’s worth of data across Arizona to characterize the spatiotemporal distribution, frequency, and source of extreme aerosol events, defined as when the concentration of a species on a particular day exceeds that of the average plus two standard deviations for that given month. Depending on which of eight sites studied, between 5% and 7% of the total days exhibited an extreme aerosol event due to either extreme levels of PM10, PM2.5, and/or fine soil. Grand Canyon exhibited the most extreme event days (120, i.e., 7% of its total days). Fine soil is the pollutant type that most frequently impacted multiple sites at once at an extreme level. PM10, PM2.5, fine soil, non-Asian dust, and Elemental Carbon extreme events occurred most frequently in August. Nearly all Asian dust extreme events occurred between March and June. Extreme Elemental Carbon events have decreased as a function of time with statistical significance, while other pollutant categories did not show any significant change. Extreme events were most frequent for the various pollutant categories on either Wednesday or Thursday, but there was no statistically significant difference in the number of events on any particular day or on weekends versus weekdays. PMID:27088005

  13. Hemodynamic and electrophysiological signals of conflict processing in the Chinese-character Stroop task: a simultaneous near-infrared spectroscopy and event-related potential study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Jiahuan; Li, Ting; Zhang, Zhongxing; Gong, Hui

    2009-09-01

    A dual-modality method combining continuous-wave near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and event-related potentials (ERPs) was developed for the Chinese-character color-word Stroop task, which included congruent, incongruent, and neutral stimuli. Sixteen native Chinese speakers participated in this study. Hemodynamic and electrophysiological signals in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) were monitored simultaneously by NIRS and ERP. The hemodynamic signals were represented by relative changes in oxy-, deoxy-, and total hemoglobin concentration, whereas the electrophysiological signals were characterized by the parameters P450, N500, and P600. Both types of signals measured at four regions of the PFC were analyzed and compared spatially and temporally among the three different stimuli. We found that P600 signals correlated significantly with the hemodynamic parameters, suggesting that the PFC executes conflict-solving function. Additionally, we observed that the change in deoxy-Hb concentration showed higher sensitivity in response to the Stroop task than other hemodynamic signals. Correlation between NIRS and ERP signals revealed that the vascular response reflects the cumulative effect of neural activities. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that this new dual-modality method is a useful approach to obtaining more information during cognitive and physiological studies.

  14. Internalization of Character Traits by Those Who Teach Character Counts!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harms, Kristyn; Fritz, Susan

    2001-01-01

    Cooperative extension personnel (n=53) completed a Web-based survey analyzing the impact of the Character Counts! program on extension, their personal lives, and society. Results demonstrated that extension educators and assistants were more likely to make ethical decisions as a result of teaching Character Counts! The need for increased…

  15. Cartographic Character Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafal, Howard B.; Ward, Matthew O.

    1989-11-01

    This work details a methodology for recognizing text elements on cartographic documents. Cartographic Character Recognition differs from traditional OCR in that many fonts may occur on the same page, text may have any orientation, text may follow a curved path, and text may be interfered with by graphics. The technique presented reduces the process to three steps: blobbing, stringing, and recognition. Blobbing uses image processing techniques to turn the gray level image into a binary image and then separates the image into probable graphic elements and probable text elements. Stringing relates the text elements into words. This is done by using proximity information of the letters to create string contours. These contours also help to retrieve orientation information of the text element. Recognition takes the strings and associates a letter with each blob. The letters are first approximated using feature descriptions, resulting in a set of possible letters. Orientation information is then used to refine the guesses. Final recognition is performed using elastic matching Feedback is employed at all phases of execution to refine the processing. Stringing and recognition give information that is useful in finding hidden blobs. Recognition helps make decisions about string paths. Results of this work are shown.

  16. Using Storybooks as a Character Education Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turan, Fethi; Ulutas, Ilkay

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the views and implementations of preschool teachers in "giving character education through picture storybooks." Descriptive review method was used in the research and supported with focus group interviews. For this reason data were took from two study groups (for the descriptive study group n = 245, for the…

  17. A comparative study of semi-squaraine and squaraine dyes using computational techniques: tuning the charge transfer/biradicaloid character by substitution.

    PubMed

    Puyad, Avinash L; Chaitanya, Gunturu Krishna; Prabhakar, Chetti; Bhanuprakash, Kotamarthi

    2013-01-01

    Semi-squaraines (SMSQ) are known as donor-acceptor (D-A) type molecules whereas squaraines (SQ), which differs from SMSQ by an extra donor group, are more or less biradicaloids in nature. The effect of the additional donor group in SQ, which changes the nature of the molecule, on geometrical and electronic structure are studied here and compared with the corresponding SMSQ. It is noticed from the geometrical parameters that, a strong resonance exists in SQ whereas disparity in carbon-carbon bond lengths of central C4 ring is seen in SMSQ dyes. The increasing and decreasing of antibonding interactions between central C4 ring and side donor groups cause destabilization of HOMO and stabilization of LUMO respectively in case of SQ compared to SMSQ molecules. This leads to decreasing the HOMO-LUMO gap and promotes biradicaloid character of SQ. The absorption maxima obtained by using TD-DFT method with BLYP, B3LYP, BHandHLYP, CAM-B3LYP and M06-2X functionals are not in good agreement with experimental results. On the other hand SAC-CI method gives better results for all the molecules. From this work we can evolve a design principle of these molecules which play a role as sensitizers in dye sensitized solar cells. PMID:22878861

  18. Polyradical Character of Triangular Non-Kekulé Structures, Zethrenes, p-Quinodimethane-Linked Bisphenalenyl, and the Clar Goblet in Comparison: An Extended Multireference Study.

    PubMed

    Das, Anita; Müller, Thomas; Plasser, Felix; Lischka, Hans

    2016-03-10

    In this work, two different classes of polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) systems have been investigated in order to characterize the amount of polyradical character and to localize the specific regions of chemical reactivity: (a) the non-Kekulé triangular structures phenalenyl, triangulene and a π-extended triangulene system with high-spin ground state and (b) PAHs based on zethrenes, p-quinodimethane-linked bisphenalenyl, and the Clar goblet containing varying polyradical character in their singlet ground state. The first class of structures already have open-shell character because of their high-spin ground state, which follows from the bonding pattern, whereas for the second class the open-shell character is generated either because of the competition between the closed-shell quinoid Kekulé and the open-shell singlet biradical resonance structures or the topology of the π-electron arrangement of the non-Kekulé form. High-level ab initio calculations based on multireference theory have been carried out to compute singlet-triplet splitting for the above-listed compounds and to provide insight into their chemical reactivity based on the polyradical character by means of unpaired densities. Unrestricted density functional theory and Hartree-Fock calculations have been performed for comparison also in order to obtain better insight into their applicability to these types of complicated radical systems. PMID:26859789

  19. Polyradical Character of Triangular Non-Kekulé Structures, Zethrenes, p-Quinodimethane-Linked Bisphenalenyl, and the Clar Goblet in Comparison: An Extended Multireference Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    In this work, two different classes of polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) systems have been investigated in order to characterize the amount of polyradical character and to localize the specific regions of chemical reactivity: (a) the non-Kekulé triangular structures phenalenyl, triangulene and a π-extended triangulene system with high-spin ground state and (b) PAHs based on zethrenes, p-quinodimethane-linked bisphenalenyl, and the Clar goblet containing varying polyradical character in their singlet ground state. The first class of structures already have open-shell character because of their high-spin ground state, which follows from the bonding pattern, whereas for the second class the open-shell character is generated either because of the competition between the closed-shell quinoid Kekulé and the open-shell singlet biradical resonance structures or the topology of the π-electron arrangement of the non-Kekulé form. High-level ab initio calculations based on multireference theory have been carried out to compute singlet–triplet splitting for the above-listed compounds and to provide insight into their chemical reactivity based on the polyradical character by means of unpaired densities. Unrestricted density functional theory and Hartree–Fock calculations have been performed for comparison also in order to obtain better insight into their applicability to these types of complicated radical systems. PMID:26859789

  20. Liking them thin: adolescents' favorite television characters and body image.

    PubMed

    Te'eni-Harari, Tali; Eyal, Keren

    2015-01-01

    Considering the alarming worldwide increases in eating disorders among adolescents, thought to be linked with body image, this study uses social cognitive theory as a framework to combine the examination of adolescent body image with the topic of mediated characters. The study places a new focus in this realm on favorite television characters, extending past research on general social comparison tendencies or comparisons with unfamiliar mediated models. A survey of 756 students in Grades 7-8 and 10-11 identified their favorite same-gender television characters as well as the adolescents' body image and social comparison with the characters. The survey was accompanied by a content analysis of the favorite characters and their body sizes. Adolescents' favorite television characters were mostly identified as thin or average in body size. The thinner the characters, the more adolescents self-compared with them. The discrepancy between the adolescents' body size and that of their favorite characters significantly and negatively predicted adolescents' body image both directly and indirectly through its relationship with social comparison with the character. The study finds that television characters are important references for adolescents and may serve as targets for social comparison in the context of body image. PMID:25832319

  1. Character Education: Frill or Foundation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Merle J.; Beatty, Alexandra; Dachnowicz, Eileen

    2006-01-01

    Proof of academic performance often serves as the litmus test for maintaining instructional practices and programs. Just as the national focus on academic improvement has gained momentum, so too has another movement calling for character education. Educators find themselves caught in the middle, questioning whether character education is just…

  2. Character Education: Christian Education Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelm, Gretchen M.; Firmin, Michael W.

    2008-01-01

    Character is defined broadly by leading authorities, including concepts such as practicing apt behavior and teaching right from wrong. Virtue and moral undertones tend to pervade most experts' use of character, although in secular settings, the notion of ethics is more prominent. Overall, developing in students a desire for the good is how most…

  3. Influence of anisotropic grain boundary properties on the evolution of grain boundary character distribution during grain growth—a 2D level set study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallberg, Håkan

    2014-12-01

    The present study elaborates on a 2D level set model of polycrystal microstructures that was recently established by adding the influence of anisotropic grain boundary energy and mobility on microstructure evolution. The new model is used to trace the evolution of grain boundary character distribution during grain growth. The employed level set formulation conveniently allows the grain boundary characteristics to be quantified in terms of coincidence site lattice (CSL) type per unit of grain boundary length, providing a measure of the distribution of such boundaries. In the model, both the mobility and energy of the grain boundaries are allowed to vary with misorientation. In addition, the influence of initial polycrystal texture is studied by comparing results obtained from a polycrystal with random initial texture against results from a polycrystal that initially has a cube texture. It is shown that the proposed level set formulation can readily incorporate anisotropic grain boundary properties and the simulation results further show that anisotropic grain boundary properties only have a minor influence on the evolution of CSL boundary distribution during grain growth. As anisotropic boundary properties are considered, the most prominent changes in the CSL distributions are an increase of general low-angle Σ1 boundaries as well as a more stable presence of Σ3 boundaries. The observations also hold for the case of an initially cube-textured polycrystal. The presence of this kind of texture has little influence over the evolution of the CSL distribution. Taking into consideration the anisotropy of grain boundary properties, grain growth alone does not seem to be sufficient to promote any significantly increased overall presence of CSL boundaries.

  4. Biases of tree-independent-character-subsampling methods.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Mark P; Gatesy, John

    2016-07-01

    Observed Variability (OV) and Tree Independent Generation of Evolutionary Rates (TIGER) are quick and easy-to-apply tree-independent methods that have been proposed to provide unbiased estimates of each character's rate of evolution and serve as the basis for excluding rapidly evolving characters. Both methods have been applied to multiple phylogenomic datasets, and in many cases the authors considered their trees inferred from the OV- and TIGER-delimited sub-matrices to be better estimates of the phylogeny than their trees based on all characters. In this study we use four sets of simulations and an empirical phylogenomic example to demonstrate that both methods share a systematic bias against characters with more symmetric distributions of character states, against characters with greater observed character-state space, and against large clades in the context of character conflict. As a result these methods can favor convergences and reversals over synapomorphy, exacerbate long-branch attraction, and produce mutually exclusive phylogenetic inferences that are dependent upon differential taxon sampling. We assert that neither OV nor TIGER should be relied upon to increase the ratio of phylogenetic to non-phylogenetic signal in a data matrix. We also assert that skepticism is warranted for empirical phylogenetic results that are based on OV- and/or TIGER-based character deletion wherein a small clade is supported after deletion of characters, yet is contradicted by a larger clade when the entire data matrix was analyzed. PMID:27103257

  5. Study of double exposure holography of the 3-dimensional character of the flow around an airfoil profile in a wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heid, G.; Stanislas, M.

    1986-01-01

    The tridimensional character of the flow around a profile placed between walls is demonstrated and the incidence induced with the assistance of measurements of velocities by double exposure holography is evaluated. The values obtained by the theory of Menard are compared satisfactorily to the values obtained by this experiment.

  6. Digitization of Full-Text Documents Before Publishing on the Internet: A Case Study Reviewing the Latest Optical Character Recognition Technologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClean, Clare M.

    1998-01-01

    Reviews strengths and weaknesses of five optical character recognition (OCR) software packages used to digitize paper documents before publishing on the Internet. Outlines options available and stages of the conversion process. Describes the learning experience of Eurotext, a United Kingdom-based electronic libraries project (eLib). (PEN)

  7. Most Likely to Succeed: Seeking Self-Knowledge in the Company of Characters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardoqui, Kate Ehrenfeld

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes several innovative activities for engaging students in studies of literary characters: voting on superlatives for characters, creating characters' Facebook profiles, and composing creative dialogs in which characters from different works meet each other. The author points out that it is this self-knowledge…

  8. Developmental Changes in Character-Complexity and Word-Length Effects when Reading Chinese Script

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, Yi-Fen; Samuels, S. Jay

    2010-01-01

    The present study was designed to examine the developmental changes in the character-complexity and word-length effects when reading Chinese script. Character complexity was defined in two ways: (1) the number of constituent strokes for characters (Experiment 1), and (2) the number of constituent radicals for characters (Experiment 2). The word…

  9. Visual Similarity of Words Alone Can Modulate Hemispheric Lateralization in Visual Word Recognition: Evidence from Modeling Chinese Character Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiao, Janet H.; Cheung, Kit

    2016-01-01

    In Chinese orthography, the most common character structure consists of a semantic radical on the left and a phonetic radical on the right (SP characters); the minority, opposite arrangement also exists (PS characters). Recent studies showed that SP character processing is more left hemisphere (LH) lateralized than PS character processing.…

  10. Character Education: A Relationship with Building Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crider, Robert B.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to investigate the relationship between the use of character education programming and school health. Measuring and improving school health is a process that supports social, emotional, ethical and civic education. Hoy, Tarter, and Kottkamp define this concept as a healthy school is one in which the institutional,…

  11. Using Picture Storybooks To Teach Character Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Susan

    To help aid teachers and librarians in the search for appropriate resources to emphasize good character traits, this book provides an annotated guide to picture storybooks and the character traits each describes. It begins with an introduction that defines character, offers a history of character education, discusses what character education is,…

  12. Flash Cards: Common Chinese-Cantonese Characters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This set of flash cards is designed to accompany the Defense Language Institute's instructional programs in Cantonese Chinese. Each card displays six Chinese characters, for a total of 1500 characters. Each character is printed two inches tall. Above each character are transcriptions of the Chinese words represented by the character (marked for…

  13. Printed Arabic optical character segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammad, Khader; Ayyesh, Muna; Qaroush, Aziz; Tumar, Iyad

    2015-03-01

    A considerable progress in recognition techniques for many non-Arabic characters has been achieved. In contrary, few efforts have been put on the research of Arabic characters. In any Optical Character Recognition (OCR) system the segmentation step is usually the essential stage in which an extensive portion of processing is devoted and a considerable share of recognition errors is attributed. In this research, a novel segmentation approach for machine Arabic printed text with diacritics is proposed. The proposed method reduces computation, errors, gives a clear description for the sub-word and has advantages over using the skeleton approach in which the data and information of the character can be lost. Both of initial evaluation and testing of the proposed method have been developed using MATLAB and shows 98.7% promising results.

  14. The Forgotten American: A Story for Character Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Tony

    2007-01-01

    As character education continues to be an objective of the social studies, the more effective educators have taken up the challenge by first understanding the principles of their discipline and the opportunities for examining the values of character to be encountered. Social studies is rediscovering the focus on the actual men and women of history…

  15. Spectroscopic and quantum chemical study of the structure of a new paramagnetic dimeric palladium(II,III) complex with creatine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitewa, Mariana; Enchev, Venelin; Bakalova, Tatyana

    2002-05-01

    The structure and coordination mode of the newly synthesized dimeric paramagnetic Pd(II,III) complex are studied using magneto-chemical, EPR and IR spectroscopic methods. In order to perform reliable assignment of the IR bands, the structure and IR spectrum of the free creatine were calculated using ab initio method. For calculation of the configuration of its deprotonated and doubly deprotonated forms the semiempirical AM1 method was used.

  16. Text vectorization based on character recognition and character stroke modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Zhigang; Zhou, Bingfeng; Tse, Francis; Mu, Yadong; He, Tao

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, a text vectorization method is proposed using OCR (Optical Character Recognition) and character stroke modeling. This is based on the observation that for a particular character, its font glyphs may have different shapes, but often share same stroke structures. Like many other methods, the proposed algorithm contains two procedures, dominant point determination and data fitting. The first one partitions the outlines into segments and second one fits a curve to each segment. In the proposed method, the dominant points are classified as "major" (specifying stroke structures) and "minor" (specifying serif shapes). A set of rules (parameters) are determined offline specifying for each character the number of major and minor dominant points and for each dominant point the detection and fitting parameters (projection directions, boundary conditions and smoothness). For minor points, multiple sets of parameters could be used for different fonts. During operation, OCR is performed and the parameters associated with the recognized character are selected. Both major and minor dominant points are detected as a maximization process as specified by the parameter set. For minor points, an additional step could be performed to test the competing hypothesis and detect degenerated cases.

  17. The proximate unit in Chinese handwritten character production

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jenn-Yeu; Cherng, Rong-Ju

    2013-01-01

    In spoken word production, a proximate unit is the first phonological unit at the sublexical level that is selectable for production (O'Seaghdha et al., 2010). The present study investigated whether the proximate unit in Chinese handwritten character production is the stroke, the radical, or something in between. A written version of the form preparation task was adopted. Chinese participants learned sets of two-character words, later were cued with the first character of each word, and had to write down the second character (the target). Response times were measured from the onset of a cue character to the onset of a written response. In Experiment 1, the target characters within a block shared (homogeneous) or did not share (heterogeneous) the first stroke. In Experiment 2, the first two strokes were shared in the homogeneous blocks. Response times in the homogeneous blocks and in the heterogeneous blocks were comparable in both experiments (Experiment 1: 687 vs. 684 ms, Experiment 2: 717 vs. 716). In Experiment 3 and 4, the target characters within a block shared or did not share the first radical. Response times in the homogeneous blocks were significantly faster than those in the heterogeneous blocks (Experiment 3: 685 vs. 704, Experiment 4: 594 vs. 650). In Experiment 5 and 6, the shared component was a Gestalt-like form that is more than a stroke, constitutes a portion of the target character, can be a stand-alone character itself, can be a radical of another character but is not a radical of the target character (e.g., ± in , , , ; called a logographeme). Response times in the homogeneous blocks were significantly faster than those in the heterogeneous blocks (Experiment 5: 576 vs. 625, Experiment 6: 586 vs. 620). These results suggest a model of Chinese handwritten character production in which the stroke is not a functional unit, the radical plays the role of a morpheme, and the logographeme is the proximate unit. PMID:23950752

  18. Life Skills Based in Nation Building Character Value Tauhidullah

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yapandi, H.

    2015-01-01

    This study discusses the values Tauhidullah as a base in the training process of life skills can be developed in the community to build the character of the nation, by describing and simultaneously evaluate the education and training system that we've experienced. The paper argues that builds the character of the nation through education…

  19. An Examination of Fourth Graders' Aesthetic Engagement with Literary Characters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Linda T.

    2013-01-01

    Reader response, simulation, and assimilation theories offer insights to our emotional connections with characters. Findings from a study conducted with avid fourth-grade readers show that when the children feel they are next to the character, they acentrally imagine the narrative and experience sympathy. The children also participate and…

  20. Character in Childhood and Early Adolescence: Models and Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jun; Hilliard, Lacey J.; Hershberg, Rachel M.; Bowers, Edmond P.; Chase, Paul A.; Champine, Robey B.; Buckingham, Mary H.; Braun, Dylan A.; Gelgoot, Erin S.; Lerner, Richard M.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the construct of character has received substantial attention among developmental scientists, but no consensus exists about the content and structure of character, especially among children and early adolescents. In a study of positive development among racially diverse Cub Scouts in the greater Philadelphia area, we assessed the…

  1. Sherlock Holmes Meets Othello: A MDS Analysis of Literary Characters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, G. W.; Lambert, W. B.

    1980-01-01

    Changes in college freshmen's perceptual organization of characters from "Othello" after three weeks of study and lecture were assessed using multidimensional scaling procedures. Sherlock Holmes experts also provided dissimilarity ratings of Conan Doyle's characters. Discussion centers on the extent to which the lectures on "Othello" effected…

  2. Preservice Secondary Teachers' Sense of Efficacy in Teaching Character Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Stewart; Russell, William B., III

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the personal teaching efficacy and general teaching efficacy for character education of 130 preservice secondary teachers at a large university where there were no formal courses dedicated to character education, but the topic was included in some of the content coursework. The subjects were in one teacher education program…

  3. Making Characters Come Alive: Using Characters for Identification and Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chadwick, Jocelyn A.

    2012-01-01

    How do English teachers, with their amazing gift, empower students to see and experience literature not as a burden that must be endured and memorized for the test and then mercifully forgotten, but as a vehicle for self-discovery and reflection? One effective way to help students experience and discover literature is through the characters. For…

  4. Good character at school: positive classroom behavior mediates the link between character strengths and school achievement.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Lisa; Ruch, Willibald

    2015-01-01

    Character strengths have been found to be substantially related to children's and adolescents' well-being. Initial evidence suggests that they also matter for school success (e.g., Weber and Ruch, 2012). The present set of two studies aimed at replicating and extending these findings in two different age groups, primary school students (N = 179; mean age = 11.6 years) and secondary school students (N = 199; mean age = 14.4 years). The students completed the VIA-Youth (Values in Action Inventory of Strengths for Youth), a self-report measure of the 24 character strengths in the VIA classification. Their teachers rated the students' positive behavior in the classroom. Additionally, school achievement was assessed: For the primary school students (Study 1), teachers rated the students' overall school achievement and for the secondary school students (Study 2), we used their grades as a measure of school achievement. We found that several character strengths were associated with both positive classroom behavior and school achievement. Across both samples, school achievement was correlated with love of learning, perseverance, zest, gratitude, hope, and perspective. The strongest correlations with positive classroom behavior were found for perseverance, self-regulation, prudence, social intelligence, and hope. For both samples, there were indirect effects of some of the character strengths on school achievement through teacher-rated positive classroom behavior. The converging findings from the two samples support the notion that character strengths contribute to positive classroom behavior, which in turn enhances school achievement. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for future research and for school interventions based on character strengths. PMID:26029144

  5. Good character at school: positive classroom behavior mediates the link between character strengths and school achievement

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Lisa; Ruch, Willibald

    2015-01-01

    Character strengths have been found to be substantially related to children’s and adolescents’ well-being. Initial evidence suggests that they also matter for school success (e.g., Weber and Ruch, 2012). The present set of two studies aimed at replicating and extending these findings in two different age groups, primary school students (N = 179; mean age = 11.6 years) and secondary school students (N = 199; mean age = 14.4 years). The students completed the VIA-Youth (Values in Action Inventory of Strengths for Youth), a self-report measure of the 24 character strengths in the VIA classification. Their teachers rated the students’ positive behavior in the classroom. Additionally, school achievement was assessed: For the primary school students (Study 1), teachers rated the students’ overall school achievement and for the secondary school students (Study 2), we used their grades as a measure of school achievement. We found that several character strengths were associated with both positive classroom behavior and school achievement. Across both samples, school achievement was correlated with love of learning, perseverance, zest, gratitude, hope, and perspective. The strongest correlations with positive classroom behavior were found for perseverance, self-regulation, prudence, social intelligence, and hope. For both samples, there were indirect effects of some of the character strengths on school achievement through teacher-rated positive classroom behavior. The converging findings from the two samples support the notion that character strengths contribute to positive classroom behavior, which in turn enhances school achievement. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for future research and for school interventions based on character strengths. PMID:26029144

  6. Eleven Principles of Effective Character Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lickona, Thomas

    1996-01-01

    Outlines 11 principles to guide schools as they plan their character education programs. These include a definition of character, developing the school as a caring community, a comprehensive and intentional approach to developing good character, and the relationship between character education and the academic curriculum. (MJP)

  7. Character Education Makes a Big Difference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaeffer, Esther F.

    2003-01-01

    Describes character education, selected research related thereto, and a character-education program at Columbine Elementary School in Woodland Park, Colorado. Describes assessment results of this and other character-education programs and curricula. Includes 11 principles of effective character education such as promotes core ethical values and…

  8. Character Interviews Help Bring Literature to Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swindall, Vickie; Cantrell, R. Jeffrey

    1999-01-01

    Describes "Character Interviews," a class activity that guides children, especially reluctant readers, to the meaning of a story through a thoughtful understanding of character as they consider a character's emotions and motives, to respond to a question as that character would. Describes the interview process. Offers sample interviews and…

  9. Advertising and Defamation of Character.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohrer, Daniel Morgan

    Defamation of character, as applied to libel and slander legal decisions, is the subject of this paper. After briefly describing the basis of liability, the author discusses "libels per quod." He then cites numerous court decisions in commenting on mitigating circumstances in action for libel or slander, including absolute privilege, fair comment,…

  10. Teaching Character through Sports Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minchew, Sue S.

    2002-01-01

    Illustrates how sports literature can be used in character education. Focuses on 10 ingredients for being a successful or "highly effective" person, and includes examples drawn from sports or sports literature. Discusses setting goals; proactive responses/positive thinking; a strong work ethic; a never-surrender attitude; physical and…

  11. Moral Character and Student Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flint, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    Thirty years after the creation of federal student financial aid programs through the Higher Education Act of 1965, the link between moral character and student financial aid programs is once again influencing the public policy debate. A careful look at the debate, though, shows that the nature of concerns has shifted. In the past, the question…

  12. Character Toys as Psychological Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smirnova, Elena O.

    2011-01-01

    The main characteristic of children's play is its mental aspect--the fact that it is based on thoughts and feelings and not on objective reality. During imaginary play, children go beyond the limits of reality, and toys are tools that help them to do this. Children need character toys--toys that play the role of companion or partner--in the early…

  13. Understanding Agency and Educating Character

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Klas

    2011-01-01

    How can we understand human agency, and what does it mean to educate character? In this essay Klas Roth develops a Kantian notion, one that suggests we render ourselves efficacious and autonomous in education and elsewhere. This requires, among other things, that we are successful in bringing about the intended result through our actions and the…

  14. Shakespeare Live! and Character Counts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookshire, Cathy A.

    This paper discusses a live production of Shakespeare's "Macbeth" (in full costume but with no sets) for all public middle school and high school students in Harrisonburg and Rockingham, Virginia. The paper states that the "Character Counts" issues that are covered in the play are: decision making, responsibility and citizenship, trustworthiness,…

  15. Lessons in Leadership and Character.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilding, James A.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how an organization can demonstrate leadership and character through its operating principles and practices based on experiences at the Metro West Airports Authority (MWAA). Explains how the MWAA made the transition from a department within the federal government to an independent, not-for-profit organization. (Author/LRW)

  16. The Fundamentals of Character Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Close, Frederick

    1997-01-01

    Defines character education as the intentional teaching of ethical reasoning and analysis, the nurturing of moral emotions, and the encouragement of, and insistence upon, moral behavior. Maintains that schools, parents, and communities are all responsible for the moral development of children. Briefly discusses the work of the Ethics Resource…

  17. Character and the Composing Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivers, Thomas M.

    As communication is a moral action involving personal choice, composition instructors must help promote their students' character development. Whether during audience analysis, invention, or disposition, composition always involves the development and testing of four virtues: honesty, courage, love, and a combination of hope and humility. Teachers…

  18. Dual character concepts and the normative dimension of conceptual representation.

    PubMed

    Knobe, Joshua; Prasada, Sandeep; Newman, George E

    2013-05-01

    Five experiments provide evidence for a class of 'dual character concepts.' Dual character concepts characterize their members in terms of both (a) a set of concrete features and (b) the abstract values that these features serve to realize. As such, these concepts provide two bases for evaluating category members and two different criteria for category membership. Experiment 1 provides support for the notion that dual character concepts have two bases for evaluation. Experiments 2-4 explore the claim that dual character concepts have two different criteria for category membership. The results show that when an object possesses the appropriate concrete features, but does not fulfill the appropriate abstract value, it is judged to be a category member in one sense but not in another. Finally, Experiment 5 uses the theory developed here to construct artificial dual character concepts and examines whether participants react to these artificial concepts in the same way as naturally occurring dual character concepts. The present studies serve to define the nature of dual character concepts and distinguish them from other types of concepts (e.g., natural kind concepts), which share some, but not all of the properties of dual character concepts. More broadly, these phenomena suggest a normative dimension in everyday conceptual representation. PMID:23454798

  19. Virtual muscularity: a content analysis of male video game characters.

    PubMed

    Martins, Nicole; Williams, Dmitri C; Ratan, Rabindra A; Harrison, Kristen

    2011-01-01

    The 150 top-selling video games were content analyzed to study representations of male bodies. Human males in the games were captured via screenshot and body parts measured. These measurements were then compared to anthropometric data drawn from a representative sample of 1120 North American men. Characters at high levels of photorealism were larger than the average American male, but these characters did not mirror the V-shaped ideal found in mainstream media. Characters at low levels of photorealism were also larger than the average American male, but these characters were so much larger that they appeared cartoonish. Idealized male characters were more likely to be found in games for children than in games for adults. Implications for cultivation theory are discussed. PMID:21093394

  20. A pseudo-3D approach based on electron backscatter diffraction and backscatter electron imaging to study the character of phase boundaries between Mg and long period stacking ordered phase in a Mg–2Y–Zn alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Afshar, Mehran Zaefferer, Stefan

    2015-03-15

    In Mg–2 at.% Y–1 at.% Zn alloys, the LPSO (Long Period Stacking Ordered) phase is important to improve mechanical properties of the material. The aim of this paper is to present a study on the phase boundary character in these two-phase alloys. Using EBSD pattern analysis it was found that the 24R structure is the dominant LPSO phase structure in the current alloy. The phase boundary character between the Mg matrix and the LPSO phase was investigated using an improved pseudo-3D EBSD (electron backscatter diffraction) technique in combination with BSE or SE (backscatter or secondary electron) imaging. A large amount of very low-angle phase boundaries was detected. The (0 0 0 2) plane in the Mg matrix which is parallel to the (0 0 0 24) plane in the LPSO phase was found to be the most frequent plane for these phase boundaries. This plane is supposed to be the habit plane of the eutectic co-solidification of the Mg matrix and the LPSO phase. - Highlights: • It is shown that for the investigated alloy the LPSO phase has mainly 24R crystal structure. • A new method is presented which allows accurate determination of the 5-parameter grain or phase boundary character. • It is found that the low-angle phase boundaries appearing in the alloy all have basal phase boundary planes.

  1. Moral character predominates in person perception and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Geoffrey P; Piazza, Jared; Rozin, Paul

    2014-01-01

    What sorts of trait information do people most care about when forming impressions of others? Recent research in social cognition suggests that "warmth," broadly construed, should be of prime importance in impression formation. Yet, some prior research suggests that information about others' specifically moral traits--their moral "character"--may be a primary dimension. Although warmth and character have sometimes been conceived of as interchangeable, we argue that they are separable, and that across a wide variety of contexts, character is usually more important than warmth in impression formation. We first showed that moral character and social warmth traits are indeed separable (Studies 1 and 2). Further studies that used correlational and experimental methods showed that, as predicted, in most contexts, moral character information is more important in impression formation than is warmth information (Studies 2-6). Character information was also more important than warmth information with respect to judgments of traits' perceived fundamentalness to identity, their uniquely human quality, their context-independence, and their controllability (Study 2). Finally, Study 7 used an archival method to show that moral character information appears more prominently than warmth information in obituaries, and more strongly determines the impressions people form of the individuals described in those obituaries. We discuss implications for current theories of person perception and social cognition. PMID:24274087

  2. Effects of numbers of strokes on Chinese character recognition during a normal reading condition.

    PubMed

    Huang, Kuo-Chen; Hsu, Sheng-Hsiung

    2005-12-01

    Two experiments investigated recognition during a normal reading condition of Chinese characters which had varied numbers of strokes. In Exp. 1 the minimal legible character size necessary for attaining 95% recognition accuracy for various Chinese characters was empirically determined. The number of strokes comprising the characters ranged from 3 to 27. The results of a normal reading condition indicated that characters with more strokes had to be larger. In Exp. 2, recognition error rate and reading time measured in seconds were investigated for one Chinese character string composed of characters of minimally legible size versus conventional equal-size characters presented in a normal reading condition. Recognition error rates for the minimally legible size conditions were lower than those for the conventional size conditions. The reading times for the former were shorter. These results should provide a valuable reference for designing informational formats, literacy teaching, and the study of simplifying Chinese characters. PMID:16491688

  3. Evolution of character displacement in Darwin's finches.

    PubMed

    Grant, Peter R; Grant, B Rosemary

    2006-07-14

    Competitor species can have evolutionary effects on each other that result in ecological character displacement; that is, divergence in resource-exploiting traits such as jaws and beaks. Nevertheless, the process of character displacement occurring in nature, from the initial encounter of competitors to the evolutionary change in one or more of them, has not previously been investigated. Here we report that a Darwin's finch species (Geospiza fortis) on an undisturbed Galápagos island diverged in beak size from a competitor species (G. magnirostris) 22 years after the competitor's arrival, when they jointly and severely depleted the food supply. The observed evolutionary response to natural selection was the strongest recorded in 33 years of study, and close to the value predicted from the high heritability of beak size. These findings support the role of competition in models of community assembly, speciation, and adaptive radiations. PMID:16840700

  4. Character Education through Story: K-6 Lessons To Build Character through Multi-Cultural Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hester, Joseph P., Ed.

    This resource manual integrates literature and social studies with an emphasis on character development. Using children's literature as a catalyst for investigating representative cultures, the manual's curriculum writers crafted multicultural, integrated, thematic lessons for the K-6 classroom that can be used throughout the year. Included are…

  5. The Integration of Character Education and Its Impact on Teachers' Professional Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahm, Katie L.

    2012-01-01

    Character education is a growing practice in the world of education and has been widely studied in the K-12 grades. Multiple research studies report specific character education strategies that are effective in the K-12 setting. Research on pre-service teacher training in character education is minimal at best, as is the case with research on best…

  6. Dyslexia and configural perception of character sequences

    PubMed Central

    Houpt, Joseph W.; Sussman, Bethany L.; Townsend, James T.; Newman, Sharlene D.

    2015-01-01

    Developmental dyslexia is a complex and heterogeneous disorder characterized by unexpected difficulty in learning to read. Although it is considered to be biologically based, the degree of variation has made the nature and locus of dyslexia difficult to ascertain. Hypotheses regarding the cause have ranged from low-level perceptual deficits to higher order cognitive deficits, such as phonological processing and visual-spatial attention. We applied the capacity coefficient, a measure obtained from a mathematical cognitive model of response times to measure how efficiently participants processed different classes of stimuli. The capacity coefficient was used to test the extent to which individuals with dyslexia can be distinguished from normal reading individuals based on their ability to take advantage of word, pronounceable non-word, consonant sequence or unfamiliar context when categorizing character strings. Within subject variability of the capacity coefficient across character string types was fairly regular across normal reading adults and consistent with a previous study of word perception with the capacity coefficient—words and pseudowords were processed at super-capacity and unfamiliar characters strings at limited-capacity. Two distinct patterns were observed in individuals with dyslexia. One group had a profile similar to the normal reading adults while the other group showed very little variation in capacity across string-type. It is possible that these individuals used a similar strategy for all four string-types and were able to generalize this strategy when processing unfamiliar characters. This difference across dyslexia groups may be used to identify sub-types of the disorder and suggest significant differences in word level processing among these subtypes. Therefore, this approach may be useful in further delineating among types of dyslexia, which in turn may lead to better understanding of the etiologies of dyslexia. PMID:25954234

  7. Dyslexia and configural perception of character sequences.

    PubMed

    Houpt, Joseph W; Sussman, Bethany L; Townsend, James T; Newman, Sharlene D

    2015-01-01

    Developmental dyslexia is a complex and heterogeneous disorder characterized by unexpected difficulty in learning to read. Although it is considered to be biologically based, the degree of variation has made the nature and locus of dyslexia difficult to ascertain. Hypotheses regarding the cause have ranged from low-level perceptual deficits to higher order cognitive deficits, such as phonological processing and visual-spatial attention. We applied the capacity coefficient, a measure obtained from a mathematical cognitive model of response times to measure how efficiently participants processed different classes of stimuli. The capacity coefficient was used to test the extent to which individuals with dyslexia can be distinguished from normal reading individuals based on their ability to take advantage of word, pronounceable non-word, consonant sequence or unfamiliar context when categorizing character strings. Within subject variability of the capacity coefficient across character string types was fairly regular across normal reading adults and consistent with a previous study of word perception with the capacity coefficient-words and pseudowords were processed at super-capacity and unfamiliar characters strings at limited-capacity. Two distinct patterns were observed in individuals with dyslexia. One group had a profile similar to the normal reading adults while the other group showed very little variation in capacity across string-type. It is possible that these individuals used a similar strategy for all four string-types and were able to generalize this strategy when processing unfamiliar characters. This difference across dyslexia groups may be used to identify sub-types of the disorder and suggest significant differences in word level processing among these subtypes. Therefore, this approach may be useful in further delineating among types of dyslexia, which in turn may lead to better understanding of the etiologies of dyslexia. PMID:25954234

  8. Font generation of personal handwritten Chinese characters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jeng-Wei; Wang, Chih-Yin; Ting, Chao-Lung; Chang, Ray-I.

    2014-01-01

    Today, digital multimedia messages have drawn more and more attention due to the great achievement of computer and network techniques. Nevertheless, text is still the most popular media for people to communicate with others. Many fonts have been developed so that product designers can choose unique fonts to demonstrate their idea gracefully. It is commonly believed that handwritings can reflect one's personality, emotion, feeling, education level, and so on. This is especially true in Chinese calligraphy. However, it is not easy for ordinary users to customize a font of their personal handwritings. In this study, we performed a process reengineering in font generation. We present a new method to create font in a batch mode. Rather than to create glyphs of characters one by one according to their codepoints, people create glyphs incrementally in an on-demand manner. A Java Implementation is developed to read a document image of user handwritten Chinese characters, and make a vector font of these handwritten Chinese characters. Preliminary experiment result shows that the proposed method can help ordinary users create their personal handwritten fonts easily and quickly.

  9. Systematic review of character development and childhood chronic illness

    PubMed Central

    Maslow, Gary R; Hill, Sherika N

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To review empirical evidence on character development among youth with chronic illnesses. METHODS: A systematic literature review was conducted using PubMed and PSYCHINFO from inception until November 2013 to find quantitative studies that measured character strengths among youth with chronic illnesses. Inclusion criteria were limited to English language studies examining constructs of character development among adolescents or young adults aged 13-24 years with a childhood-onset chronic medical condition. A librarian at Duke University Medical Center Library assisted with the development of the mesh search term. Two researchers independently reviewed relevant titles (n = 549), then abstracts (n = 45), and finally manuscripts (n = 3). RESULTS: There is a lack of empirical research on character development and childhood-onset chronic medical conditions. Three studies were identified that used different measures of character based on moral themes. One study examined moral reasoning among deaf adolescents using Kohlberg’s Moral Judgement Instrument; another, investigated moral values of adolescent cancer survivors with the Values In Action Classification of Strengths. A third study evaluated moral behavior among young adult survivors of burn injury utilizing the Tennessee Self-Concept, 2nd edition. The studies observed that youth with chronic conditions reasoned at less advanced stages and had a lower moral self-concept compared to referent populations, but that they did differ on character virtues and strengths when matched with healthy peers for age, sex, and race/ethnicity. Yet, generalizations could not be drawn regarding character development of youth with chronic medical conditions because the studies were too divergent from each other and biased from study design limitations. CONCLUSION: Future empirical studies should learn from the strengths and weaknesses of the existing literature on character development among youth with chronic medical conditions

  10. The Development of Character Education Model Based on Strengthening Social Capital for Students of State Islamic University (UIN) Sunan Kalijaga

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumarni, Sri M.; Dardiri, Achmad; Zuchdi, Darmiyati

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to find out the concept of character education model that is appropriate for students to build character of students of UIN Sunan Kalijaga and also to find out the teaching materials design of character education based on social capital to build character of students of UIN Sunan Kalijaga. This research is motivated by…

  11. N170 Changes Show Identifiable Chinese Characters Compete Primarily with Faces Rather than Houses

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Cong; He, Weiqi; He, Huamin; Ren, Guofang; Luo, Yuejia; Li, Hong; Luo, Wenbo

    2016-01-01

    Character processing is a crucial cognitive skill that is highly emphasized and industriously cultivated in contemporary society. In the present study, using a competition paradigm, we examined the electrophysiological correlates of different relationships between Chinese characters and faces and between Chinese characters and houses during early visual processing. We observed that identifiable Chinese characters compete primarily with faces rather than houses at an early visual processing stage, with a significantly reduced N170 for faces but not for houses, when they were viewed concurrently with identifiable characters relative to when they were viewed concurrently with unidentifiable characters. Consistent with our previous study, there was a significant increase in N170 after characters have been learned, indicating a modulatory effect of Chinese character identification level on N170 amplitude. Furthermore, we found an enlarged N170 in response to faces compared to houses, indicating that the neural mechanisms for processing faces and houses are different at an early visual processing stage. PMID:26779073

  12. Chinese characters elicit face-like N170 inversion effects.

    PubMed

    Wang, Man-Ying; Kuo, Bo-Cheng; Cheng, Shih-Kuen

    2011-12-01

    Recognition of both faces and Chinese characters is commonly believed to rely on configural information. While faces typically exhibit behavioral and N170 inversion effects that differ from non-face stimuli (Rossion, Joyce, Cottrell, & Tarr, 2003), the current study examined whether a similar reliance on configural processing may result in similar inversion effects for faces and Chinese characters. Participants were engaged in an orientation judgment task (Experiment 1) and a one-back identity matching task (Experiment 2). Across two experiments, the N170 was delayed and enhanced in magnitude for upside-down faces and compound Chinese characters, compared to upright stimuli. The inversion effects for these two stimulus categories were bilateral for latency and right-lateralized for amplitudes. For simple Chinese characters, only the latency inversion effects were significant. Moreover, the size of the right-hemisphere inversion effects in N170 amplitude was larger for faces than Chinese characters. These findings show the N170 inversion effects from non-face stimuli closely parallel effects seen with faces. Face-like N170 inversion effects elicited by Chinese compound characters were attributed to the difficulty of part-whole integration as well as the disrupted regularity in relational information due to inversion. Hemispheric difference in Chinese character processing is also discussed. PMID:21944865

  13. Support and Importance of Character Education: Pre-Service Teacher Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beachum, Floyd D.; McCray, Carlos R.; Yawn, Christopher D.; Obiakor, Festus E.

    2013-01-01

    Character education is the explicit teaching of positive values by teachers, which is supported by the school. Currently, there is a lack of research on character education with regard to pre-service teachers. The purpose of this study was to ascertain the perceptions of pre-service teachers with regard to their support for character education and…

  14. The Effects of Privileging Moral or Performance Character Development in Urban Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seider, Scott; Novick, Sarah; Gomez, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    This study compared the effects of emphasizing moral character development or performance character development at three high-performing, high-poverty urban middle schools. Performance character consists of the qualities that allow individuals to regulate their thoughts and actions in ways that support achievement in a particular endeavor. Moral…

  15. Characters with Visual Impairment: Looking at Books for Young Adults through Their Eyes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Pamela S.; Rosenblum, L. Penny

    A study that joined the fields of young adult literature and vision impairment explored the questions: How are characters who have visual impairment presented by young adult books?; and How do readers respond to those characters? Only a few books were found (13) that feature characters with visual impairments, and the portrayal of characters…

  16. Study of device mass production capability of the character projection based electron beam direct writing process technology toward 14 nm node and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kojima, Yoshinori; Takahashi, Yasushi; Takakuwa, Masaki; Ohshio, Shuzo; Sugatani, Shinji; Tujimura, Ryo; Takita, Hiroshi; Ogino, Kozo; Hoshino, Hiromi; Ito, Yoshio; Miyajima, Masaaki; Kon, Jun-ichi

    2012-03-01

    Techniques to appropriately control the key factors for a character projection (CP) based electron beam direct writing (EBDW) technology for mass production are shown and discussed. In order to achieve accurate CD control, the CP technique using the master CP is adopted. Another CP technique, the Packed CP, is used to obtain suitable shot count. For the alignment on the some critical layers which have the normally an even surface, the alignment methodology differ from photolithography is required. The process that etches the SiO2 material in the shallow trench isolation is added and then the alignment marks can be detected using electron beam even at the gate layer, which is normally on an even surface. The proximity effect correction using the simplified electron energy flux model and the hybrid exposure are used to obtain enough process margins. As a result, the sufficient CD accuracy, overlay accuracy, and yield are obtained on the 65 nm node device. The condition in our system is checked using self-diagnosis on a regular basis, and scheduled maintenances have been properly performed. Due to the proper system control, more than 10,000 production wafers have been successfully exposed so far without any major system downtime. It is shown that those techniques can be adapted to the 32 nm node production with slight modifications. For the 14 nm node and beyond, however, the drastic increment of the shot count becomes more of a concern. The Multi column cell (MCC) exposure method, the key concept of which is the parallelization of the electron beam columns with a CP, can overcome this concern. It is expected that by using the MCC exposure system, those techniques will be applicable to the rapid establishment for the 14 nm node technology.

  17. Placing cryptic, recently extinct, or hypothesized taxa into an ultrametric phylogeny using continuous character data: a case study with the lizard Anolis roosevelti.

    PubMed

    Revell, Liam J; Mahler, D Luke; Reynolds, R Graham; Slater, Graham J

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, enormous effort and investment has been put into assembling the tree of life: a phylogenetic history for all species on Earth. Overwhelmingly, this progress toward building an ever increasingly complete phylogeny of living things has been accomplished through sophisticated analysis of molecular data. In the modern genomic age, molecular genetic data have become very easy and inexpensive to obtain for many species. However, some lineages are poorly represented in or absent from tissue collections, or are unavailable for molecular analysis for other reasons such as restrictive biological sample export laws. Other species went extinct recently and are only available in formalin museum preparations or perhaps even as subfossils. In this brief communication we present a new method for placing cryptic, recently extinct, or hypothesized taxa into an ultrametric phylogeny of extant taxa using continuous character data. This method is based on a relatively simple modification of an established maximum likelihood (ML) method for phylogeny inference from continuous traits. We show that the method works well on simulated trees and data. We then apply it to the case of placing the Culebra Island Giant Anole (Anolis roosevelti) into a phylogeny of Caribbean anoles. Anolis roosevelti is a "crown-giant" ecomorph anole hypothesized to have once been found throughout the Spanish, United States, and British Virgin Islands, but that has not been encountered or collected since the 1930s. Although this species is widely thought to be closely related to the Puerto Rican giant anole, A. cuvieri, our ML method actually places A. roosevelti in a different part of the tree and closely related to a clade of morphologically similar species. We are unable, however, to reject a phylogenetic position for A. roosevelti that places it as sister taxon to A. cuvieri; although close relationship with the remainder of Puerto Rican anole species is strongly rejected by our method. PMID

  18. Public domain optical character recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garris, Michael D.; Blue, James L.; Candela, Gerald T.; Dimmick, Darrin L.; Geist, Jon C.; Grother, Patrick J.; Janet, Stanley A.; Wilson, Charles L.

    1995-03-01

    A public domain document processing system has been developed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The system is a standard reference form-based handprint recognition system for evaluating optical character recognition (OCR), and it is intended to provide a baseline of performance on an open application. The system's source code, training data, performance assessment tools, and type of forms processed are all publicly available. The system recognizes the handprint entered on handwriting sample forms like the ones distributed with NIST Special Database 1. From these forms, the system reads hand-printed numeric fields, upper and lowercase alphabetic fields, and unconstrained text paragraphs comprised of words from a limited-size dictionary. The modular design of the system makes it useful for component evaluation and comparison, training and testing set validation, and multiple system voting schemes. The system contains a number of significant contributions to OCR technology, including an optimized probabilistic neural network (PNN) classifier that operates a factor of 20 times faster than traditional software implementations of the algorithm. The source code for the recognition system is written in C and is organized into 11 libraries. In all, there are approximately 19,000 lines of code supporting more than 550 subroutines. Source code is provided for form registration, form removal, field isolation, field segmentation, character normalization, feature extraction, character classification, and dictionary-based postprocessing. The recognition system has been successfully compiled and tested on a host of UNIX workstations. This paper gives an overview of the recognition system's software architecture, including descriptions of the various system components along with timing and accuracy statistics.

  19. Rapid Naming Speed and Chinese Character Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liao, Chen-Huei; Georgiou, George K.; Parrila, Rauno

    2008-01-01

    We examined the relationship between rapid naming speed (RAN) and Chinese character recognition accuracy and fluency. Sixty-three grade 2 and 54 grade 4 Taiwanese children were administered four RAN tasks (colors, digits, Zhu-Yin-Fu-Hao, characters), and two character recognition tasks. RAN tasks accounted for more reading variance in grade 4 than…

  20. A Review of Virtual Character's Emotion Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhen

    2008-11-01

    Emotional virtual characters are essential to digital entertainment, an emotion is related to virtual environment and a virtual character's inner variables, emotion model of virtual character is a hot topic in many fields, domain knowledge is very important for modeling emotion, and the current research of emotion expression in the world was also summarized, and some new research directions of emotion model are presented.

  1. Understanding the Properties of Interactive Televised Characters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claxton, Laura J.; Ponto, Katelyn C.

    2013-01-01

    Children's television programming frequently uses interactive characters that appear to directly engage the viewers. These characters encourage children to answer questions and perform actions to help the characters solve problems in the televised world. Children readily engage in these interactions; however, it is unclear why they do so. To…

  2. Exploring Good Character and Citizenship in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arthur, James; Harrison, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Citizenship, character and the virtues that constitute both are increasingly concerns of public policy in the UK. This article understands character to encompass the morally valuable, reason-response and education part of personality, and understands virtues as states of character concerned with praiseworthy feelings and conduct in specific…

  3. CEP's Eleven Principles of Effective Character Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lickona, Tom; Schaps, Eric; Lewis, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    There is no single script for effective character education, but there are some important basic principles. This document presents eleven principles that schools and other groups can use to plan a character education effort and to evaluate available character education programs: (1) Promotes core ethical values and supportive performance values as…

  4. [Vasomotor Endothelial Function in Healthy Individuals: Contact Types of Character].

    PubMed

    Kirichuk, V F; Olenko, E S; Kodochigova, A I; Barylnik, Y B; Deeva, M A; Bazhenov, V A

    2015-01-01

    We studied the vascular endothelial vasomotor function in healthy young individuals, depending on the type of character accentuation, levels of neuroticism, depression and anxiety. It is shown that the types of character accentuation effect on endothelial vasomotor function in healthy men and women. Personality characteristics of a person can be a significant risk factor for disease, the pathogenesis of which is the starting element of endothelial vasomotor dysfunction. PMID:26237954

  5. The influence of sex on character attribute preferences.

    PubMed

    Companion, Michèle; Sambrook, Roger

    2008-12-01

    This study investigates the sex-based differences in preferences for character types and game play. It is hypothesized that males will prefer more combat-oriented roles, while females will prefer less violent ones, with an emphasis on nurturing others and supporting the group. We find support for sex-based differences in character type selection. Violence aversion is a factor for females, while cooperative, nurturing factors are not. PMID:18954270

  6. A cognitive network for oracle bone characters related to animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dress, Andreas; Grünewald, Stefan; Zeng, Zhenbing

    2016-01-01

    Xitong Zai Yanjiu, (The Structural System of Oracle Inscriptions) (Shanghai Renmin Chubanshe, Shanghai, 2010); Jiaguwen Shiwen Yongzi Pinlü Biao (A Frequency List of Oracle Characters), Center for the Study and Application of Chinese Characters (East China Normal University, Shanghai, 2010), http://www.wenzi.cn/en/default.aspx. And in Appendix D, we list the animals registered in the last five chapters of the Er Ya.

  7. The character strengths of class clowns

    PubMed Central

    Ruch, Willibald; Platt, Tracey; Hofmann, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Class clowns traditionally were studied as a type concept and identified via sociometric procedures. In the present study a variable-centered approach was favored and class clown behaviors were studied in the context of character strengths, orientations to happiness and satisfaction with life. A sample of 672 Swiss children and adolescents filled in an 18 item self-report instrument depicting class clown behaviors. A hierarchical model of class clown behaviors was developed distinguishing a general factor and the four positively correlated dimensions of “identified as a class clown,” “comic talent,” “disruptive rule-breaker,” and “subversive joker.” Analysis of the general factor showed that class clowns were primarily male, and tended to be seen as class clowns by the teacher. Analyses of the 24 character strengths of the VIA-Youth (Park and Peterson, 2006) showed that class clowns were high in humor and leadership, and low in strengths like prudence, self-regulation, modesty, honesty, fairness, perseverance, and love of learning. An inspection of signature strengths revealed that 75% of class clowns had humor as a signature strength. Furthermore, class clown behaviors were generally shown by students indulging in a life of pleasure, but low life of engagement. The four dimensions yielded different character strengths profiles. While all dimensions of class clowns behaviors were low in temperance strengths, the factors “identified as the class clown” and “comic talent” were correlated with leadership strengths and the two negative factors (“disruptive rule-breaker,” “subversive joker”) were low in other directed strengths. The disruptive rule breaking class clown was additionally low in intellectual strengths. While humor predicted life satisfaction, class clowning tended to go along with diminished satisfaction with life. It is concluded that different types of class clowns need to be kept apart and need different attention by

  8. The character strengths of class clowns.

    PubMed

    Ruch, Willibald; Platt, Tracey; Hofmann, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Class clowns traditionally were studied as a type concept and identified via sociometric procedures. In the present study a variable-centered approach was favored and class clown behaviors were studied in the context of character strengths, orientations to happiness and satisfaction with life. A sample of 672 Swiss children and adolescents filled in an 18 item self-report instrument depicting class clown behaviors. A hierarchical model of class clown behaviors was developed distinguishing a general factor and the four positively correlated dimensions of "identified as a class clown," "comic talent," "disruptive rule-breaker," and "subversive joker." Analysis of the general factor showed that class clowns were primarily male, and tended to be seen as class clowns by the teacher. Analyses of the 24 character strengths of the VIA-Youth (Park and Peterson, 2006) showed that class clowns were high in humor and leadership, and low in strengths like prudence, self-regulation, modesty, honesty, fairness, perseverance, and love of learning. An inspection of signature strengths revealed that 75% of class clowns had humor as a signature strength. Furthermore, class clown behaviors were generally shown by students indulging in a life of pleasure, but low life of engagement. The four dimensions yielded different character strengths profiles. While all dimensions of class clowns behaviors were low in temperance strengths, the factors "identified as the class clown" and "comic talent" were correlated with leadership strengths and the two negative factors ("disruptive rule-breaker," "subversive joker") were low in other directed strengths. The disruptive rule breaking class clown was additionally low in intellectual strengths. While humor predicted life satisfaction, class clowning tended to go along with diminished satisfaction with life. It is concluded that different types of class clowns need to be kept apart and need different attention by teachers. PMID:25324796

  9. Temperament and Character Dimensions: Correlates of Impulsivity in Morphine Addicts

    PubMed Central

    Abassi, Moslem; Abolghasemi, Abbas

    2015-01-01

    Background: Given the role of temperament and character dimensions on impulsivity in addicts, the purpose of this study was to temperament and character dimensions: correlates of impulsivity in morphine addicts. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine and verify the association of temperament and character dimensions with impulsivity in morphine addicts. Patients and Methods: The research method was descriptive and correlational. The study sample consisted of 120 morphine addicts referred to drug addiction treatment centers in Ardabil city in 2013. The participants were selected through convenience sampling method from 5 centers. We used impulsivity scale as well as temperament and character inventory to collect data. Results: The results showed that significant relationship existed between impulsivity and characteristics such as novelty seeking, harm avoidance, reward dependence, persistence, self-directedness, and cooperativeness, while no significant relationship between impulsivity and self-transcendence was observed. The results of the multiple regression analysis showed that 47% of the impulsivity variance was explained by temperament and character dimensions. Conclusions: These findings suggest that temperament and character dimensions are associated with impulsivity. The findings also have important implications for prevention, pathology, and treatment in the morphine addicts. PMID:26870706

  10. Building Hierarchical Representations for Oracle Character and Sketch Recognition.

    PubMed

    Jun Guo; Changhu Wang; Roman-Rangel, Edgar; Hongyang Chao; Yong Rui

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study oracle character recognition and general sketch recognition. First, a data set of oracle characters, which are the oldest hieroglyphs in China yet remain a part of modern Chinese characters, is collected for analysis. Second, typical visual representations in shape- and sketch-related works are evaluated. We analyze the problems suffered when addressing these representations and determine several representation design criteria. Based on the analysis, we propose a novel hierarchical representation that combines a Gabor-related low-level representation and a sparse-encoder-related mid-level representation. Extensive experiments show the effectiveness of the proposed representation in both oracle character recognition and general sketch recognition. The proposed representation is also complementary to convolutional neural network (CNN)-based models. We introduce a solution to combine the proposed representation with CNN-based models, and achieve better performances over both approaches. This solution has beaten humans at recognizing general sketches. PMID:26571529

  11. Data set for Tifinagh handwriting character recognition.

    PubMed

    Bencharef, Omar; Chihab, Younes; Mousaid, Nouredine; Oujaoura, Mustapha

    2015-09-01

    The Tifinagh alphabet-IRCAM is the official alphabet of the Amazigh language widely used in North Africa [1]. It includes thirty-one basic letter and two letters each composed of a base letter followed by the sign of labialization. Normalized only in 2003 (Unicode) [2], ICRAM-Tifinagh is a young character repertoire. Which needs more work on all levels. In this context we propose a data set for handwritten Tifinagh characters composed of 1376 image; 43 Image For Each character. The dataset can be used to train a Tifinagh character recognition system, or to extract the meaning characteristics of each character. PMID:26217753

  12. System and method for character recognition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, J. P. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A character recognition system is disclosed in which each character in a retina, defining a scanning raster, is scanned with random lines uniformly distributed over the retina. For each type of character to be recognized the system stores a probability density function (PDF) of the random line intersection lengths and/or a PDF of the random line number of intersections. As an unknown character is scanned, the random line intersection lengths and/or the random line number of intersections are accumulated and based on a comparison with the prestored PDFs a classification of the unknown character is performed.

  13. Group discriminatory power of handwritten characters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomai, Catalin I.; Kshirsagar, Devika M.; Srihari, Sargur N.

    2003-12-01

    Using handwritten characters we address two questions (i) what is the group identification performance of different alphabets (upper and lower case) and (ii) what are the best characters for the verification task (same writer/different writer discrimination) knowing demographic information about the writer such as ethnicity, age or sex. The Bhattacharya distance is used to rank different characters by their group discriminatory power and the k-nn classifier to measure the individual performance of characters for group identification. Given the tasks of identifying the correct gender/age/ethnicity or handedness, the accumulated performance of characters varies between 65% and 85%.

  14. Actual use scene of Han-Character for proper name and coded character set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Tatsuo

    This article discusses the following two issues. One is overview of standardization of Han-Character in coded character set including Universal coded character set (ISO/IEC 10646), with the relation to Japanese language policy of the government. The other is the difference and particularity of Han-Character usage for proper name and difficulty to implement in ICT systems.

  15. Kannada character recognition system using neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Suresh D. S.; Kamalapuram, Srinivasa K.; Kumar, Ajay B. R.

    2013-03-01

    Handwriting recognition has been one of the active and challenging research areas in the field of pattern recognition. It has numerous applications which include, reading aid for blind, bank cheques and conversion of any hand written document into structural text form. As there is no sufficient number of works on Indian language character recognition especially Kannada script among 15 major scripts in India. In this paper an attempt is made to recognize handwritten Kannada characters using Feed Forward neural networks. A handwritten Kannada character is resized into 20x30 Pixel. The resized character is used for training the neural network. Once the training process is completed the same character is given as input to the neural network with different set of neurons in hidden layer and their recognition accuracy rate for different Kannada characters has been calculated and compared. The results show that the proposed system yields good recognition accuracy rates comparable to that of other handwritten character recognition systems.

  16. Some evidence about character and mate selection.

    PubMed

    Hanko, Karlene; Master, Sarah; Sabini, John

    2004-06-01

    The authors conducted four studies (total N = 292) about character and mate desirability. In Study 1, undergraduates judged stimuli for attractiveness-physically and as a casual or longterm date. The target was described as faithful, having cheated but stayed with mates, or having cheated and left. Contrary to the hypothesis, men and women were equally affected by both kinds of cheaters. Study 2 replicated Study 1 with nonstudent adults. In Study 3, undergraduates rated a stimulus on the same attractiveness variables. This target had $14 million from winning a lottery or selling a dot-com company. Women, but not men, found the dot-com creator to be more physically attractive than the lottery winner. In Study 4, undergraduates rated someone who sold a cookie-making company or profited from a lucky real estate transaction. Both men and women preferred the cookie-company seller on all three measures of attractiveness. PMID:15155037

  17. An Automatic Chinese Character Maltifont Generating System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeng, Bor-Shenn; Chang, Kuang-Yao; Liu, Tsann-Shyong; Lin, Jang-Keng; Wu, Tieh-Min; Wu, Yung-Lai; Chang, Gan-How; Yang, Chih-Yen; Tzou, Kou-Hu

    1986-12-01

    In computerized Chinese character printing, it is infeasible to use the fully-formed character approach since there are about 8,000 Chinese characters in common use. Therefore, dot-matrix printing with a large dictionary of binary images of Chinese characters stored in memory is commonly used. To generate these Chinese character patterns in the dot-matrix form by manual operation is tedious. A better approach is to apply image processing techniques to automatically convert the image of a character into its corresponding dot-matrix pattern. We developed a system that can automatically generate a Chinese character multifont. This system includes image processing and CAD subsystems. Each input picture, consisting of about 100 Chinese characters, is scanned by a scanner. The digitized line-scanned image is processed by the image processing subsystem to form the Chinese characters by a dot matrix. The modules of the image processing subsystem include noise reducer, text detector, adaptive threshold, slicer, and size corrector. Due to the effect of quantization error, there are some defects in these digitized Chinese characters. The CAD subsystem is used to trim these characters. The modules of the CAD subsystem include radical extractor, radical classifier , radical generator, radical copier, stroke extractor, and stroke trimmer. This system can automatically generate Chinese characters in a wide range of resolutions ( 24x24 to 240x240 ) and in any specified font, such as Sung style, Ming style, Formal style, Running style, and Script style of Chinese characters. Using the proposed system, we have generated about 160,000 Chinese characters, which consist of five styles in four dif-ferent resolutions. The advantages of this system are time saving, cost saving and high quality.

  18. Mediated Character of Economic Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanic, Josip; Bertovic, Igor; Kasac, Josip

    2003-06-01

    Economic interactions are conducted between economic agents - individuals and collectives, through exchange of natural or artificial entities - goods, services and money, in a myriad of combinations. In this article we adopt a microscopic point of view, concentrate on the exchanged entities, and extract their relevant attributes as seen from structurally simple economic processes. Following that, we approach the interpretation of the economic interactions with their mediated character emphasized. Mediators of the interaction are locally available environment units. They are locally recognized and appropriately interpreted in a given value set as goods and money. The overall intensity of economic interactions considered is related to mediators' spatial and temporal characteristics. Extracted characteristics of mediators and economic processes are compacted in the set of formal rules. The approach is connected with similar approaches in economy and physics.

  19. Temperament, character, and adolescents' depressive symptoms: focusing on affect.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Danilo; Kerekes, Nóra; Andersson Arntén, Ann-Christine; Archer, Trevor

    2012-01-01

    Positive (PA) and negative affect (NA) are two separate systems markers of subjective well-being and measures of the state depression (low PA combined with high NA). The present study investigated differences in temperament, character, locus of control, and depressive symptoms (sleep quality, stress, and lack of energy) between affective profiles in an adolescent sample. Participants (N = 304) were categorized into four affective profiles: "self-fulfilling" (high PA, low NA), "high affective" (high PA, high NA), "low affective" (low PA, low NA), and "self-destructive" (low PA, high NA). Personality was measured by the Temperament and Character Inventory and affective profiles by the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule. The "self-fulfilling" profile was characterized by, compared to the other affective profiles, higher levels of sleep quality, less stress and more energy and also higher levels of persistence and a mature character (i.e., high scores in self-directedness and cooperativeness). "Self-destructive" adolescents reported higher levels of external locus of control, high scores in harm avoidance and reward dependence combined with less mature character. The results identify the importance of character maturity in well-being and suggest that depressive state can be positively influenced by promoting positive emotions which appears to be achieved by character development. PMID:22844588

  20. Understanding phenotypical character evolution in parmelioid lichenized fungi (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota).

    PubMed

    Divakar, Pradeep K; Kauff, Frank; Crespo, Ana; Leavitt, Steven D; Lumbsch, H Thorsten

    2013-01-01

    Parmelioid lichens form a species-rich group of predominantly foliose and fruticose lichenized fungi encompassing a broad range of morphological and chemical diversity. Using a multilocus approach, we reconstructed a phylogeny including 323 OTUs of parmelioid lichens and employed ancestral character reconstruction methods to understand the phenotypical evolution within this speciose group of lichen-forming fungi. Specifically, we were interested in the evolution of growth form, epicortex structure, and cortical chemistry. Since previous studies have shown that results may differ depending on the reconstruction method used, here we employed both maximum-parsimony and maximum-likelihood approaches to reconstruct ancestral character states. We have also implemented binary and multistate coding of characters and performed parallel analyses with both coding types to assess for potential coding-based biases. We reconstructed the ancestral states for nine well-supported major clades in the parmelioid group, two higher-level sister groups and the ancestral character state for all parmelioid lichens. We found that different methods for coding phenotypical characters and different ancestral character state reconstruction methods mostly resulted in identical reconstructions but yield conflicting inferences of ancestral states, in some cases. However, we found support for the ancestor of parmelioid lichens having been a foliose lichen with a non-pored epicortex and pseudocyphellae. Our data suggest that some traits exhibit patterns of evolution consistent with adaptive radiation. PMID:24312438

  1. Understanding Phenotypical Character Evolution in Parmelioid Lichenized Fungi (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota)

    PubMed Central

    Divakar, Pradeep K.; Kauff, Frank; Crespo, Ana; Leavitt, Steven D.; Lumbsch, H. Thorsten

    2013-01-01

    Parmelioid lichens form a species-rich group of predominantly foliose and fruticose lichenized fungi encompassing a broad range of morphological and chemical diversity. Using a multilocus approach, we reconstructed a phylogeny including 323 OTUs of parmelioid lichens and employed ancestral character reconstruction methods to understand the phenotypical evolution within this speciose group of lichen-forming fungi. Specifically, we were interested in the evolution of growth form, epicortex structure, and cortical chemistry. Since previous studies have shown that results may differ depending on the reconstruction method used, here we employed both maximum-parsimony and maximum-likelihood approaches to reconstruct ancestral character states. We have also implemented binary and multistate coding of characters and performed parallel analyses with both coding types to assess for potential coding-based biases. We reconstructed the ancestral states for nine well-supported major clades in the parmelioid group, two higher-level sister groups and the ancestral character state for all parmelioid lichens. We found that different methods for coding phenotypical characters and different ancestral character state reconstruction methods mostly resulted in identical reconstructions but yield conflicting inferences of ancestral states, in some cases. However, we found support for the ancestor of parmelioid lichens having been a foliose lichen with a non-pored epicortex and pseudocyphellae. Our data suggest that some traits exhibit patterns of evolution consistent with adaptive radiation. PMID:24312438

  2. Temperament, Character, and Adolescents' Depressive Symptoms: Focusing on Affect

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Danilo; Kerekes, Nóra; Andersson Arntén, Ann-Christine; Archer, Trevor

    2012-01-01

    Positive (PA) and negative affect (NA) are two separate systems markers of subjective well-being and measures of the state depression (low PA combined with high NA). The present study investigated differences in temperament, character, locus of control, and depressive symptoms (sleep quality, stress, and lack of energy) between affective profiles in an adolescent sample. Participants (N = 304) were categorized into four affective profiles: “self-fulfilling” (high PA, low NA), “high affective” (high PA, high NA), “low affective” (low PA, low NA), and “self-destructive” (low PA, high NA). Personality was measured by the Temperament and Character Inventory and affective profiles by the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule. The “self-fulfilling” profile was characterized by, compared to the other affective profiles, higher levels of sleep quality, less stress and more energy and also higher levels of persistence and a mature character (i.e., high scores in self-directedness and cooperativeness). “Self-destructive” adolescents reported higher levels of external locus of control, high scores in harm avoidance and reward dependence combined with less mature character. The results identify the importance of character maturity in well-being and suggest that depressive state can be positively influenced by promoting positive emotions which appears to be achieved by character development. PMID:22844588

  3. Brain Activity while Reading Sentences with Kanji Characters Expressing Emotions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuasa, Masahide; Saito, Keiichi; Mukawa, Naoki

    In this paper, we describe the brain activity associated with kanji characters expressing emotion, which are places at the end of a sentence. Japanese people use a special kanji character in brackets at the end of sentences in text messages such as those sent through e-mail and messenger tools. Such kanji characters plays a role to expresses the sender's emotion (such as fun, laughter, sadness, tears), like emoticons. It is a very simple and effective way to convey the senders' emotions and his/her thoughts to the receiver. In this research, we investigate the effects of emotional kanji characters by using an fMRI study. The experimental results show that both the right and left inferior frontal gyrus, which have been implicated on verbal and nonverbal information, were activated. We found that we detect a sentence with an emotional kanji character as the verbal and nonverval information, and a sentence with emotional kanji characters enrich communication between the sender and the reciever.

  4. Polytope expansion of Lie characters and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Walton, Mark A.

    2013-12-15

    The weight systems of finite-dimensional representations of complex, simple Lie algebras exhibit patterns beyond Weyl-group symmetry. These patterns occur because weight systems can be decomposed into lattice polytopes in a natural way. Since lattice polytopes are relatively simple, this decomposition is useful, in addition to being more economical than the decomposition into single weights. An expansion of characters into polytope sums follows from the polytope decomposition of weight systems. We study this polytope expansion here. A new, general formula is given for the polytope sums involved. The combinatorics of the polytope expansion are analyzed; we point out that they are reduced from those of the Weyl character formula (described by the Kostant partition function) in an optimal way. We also show that the weight multiplicities can be found easily from the polytope multiplicities, indicating explicitly the equivalence of the two descriptions. Finally, we demonstrate the utility of the polytope expansion by showing how polytope multiplicities can be used in the calculation of tensor product decompositions, and subalgebra branching rules.

  5. Rank-frequency relation for Chinese characters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Weibing; Allahverdyan, Armen E.; Li, Bo; Wang, Qiuping A.

    2014-02-01

    We show that the Zipf's law for Chinese characters perfectly holds for sufficiently short texts (few thousand different characters). The scenario of its validity is similar to the Zipf's law for words in short English texts. For long Chinese texts (or for mixtures of short Chinese texts), rank-frequency relations for Chinese characters display a two-layer, hierarchic structure that combines a Zipfian power-law regime for frequent characters (first layer) with an exponential-like regime for less frequent characters (second layer). For these two layers we provide different (though related) theoretical descriptions that include the range of low-frequency characters (hapax legomena). We suggest that this hierarchic structure of the rank-frequency relation connects to semantic features of Chinese characters (number of different meanings and homographies). The comparative analysis of rank-frequency relations for Chinese characters versus English words illustrates the extent to which the characters play for Chinese writers the same role as the words for those writing within alphabetical systems.

  6. On the Character of Consciousness.

    PubMed

    Annila, Arto

    2016-01-01

    The human brain is a particularly demanding system to infer its nature from observations. Thus, there is on one hand plenty of room for theorizing and on the other hand a pressing need for a rigorous theory. We apply statistical mechanics of open systems to describe the brain as a hierarchical system in consuming free energy in least time. This holistic tenet accounts for cellular metabolism, neuronal signaling, cognitive processes all together, or any other process by a formal equation of motion that extends down to the ultimate precision of one quantum of action. According to this general thermodynamic theory cognitive processes are no different by their operational and organizational principle from other natural processes. Cognition too will emerge and evolve along path-dependent and non-determinate trajectories by consuming free energy in least time to attain thermodynamic balance within the nervous system itself and with its surrounding systems. Specifically, consciousness can be ascribed to a natural process that integrates various neural networks for coherent consumption of free energy, i.e., for meaningful deeds. The whole hierarchy of integrated systems can be formally summed up to thermodynamic entropy. The holistic tenet provides insight to the character of consciousness also by acknowledging awareness in other systems at other levels of nature's hierarchy. PMID:27065819

  7. On the Character of Consciousness

    PubMed Central

    Annila, Arto

    2016-01-01

    The human brain is a particularly demanding system to infer its nature from observations. Thus, there is on one hand plenty of room for theorizing and on the other hand a pressing need for a rigorous theory. We apply statistical mechanics of open systems to describe the brain as a hierarchical system in consuming free energy in least time. This holistic tenet accounts for cellular metabolism, neuronal signaling, cognitive processes all together, or any other process by a formal equation of motion that extends down to the ultimate precision of one quantum of action. According to this general thermodynamic theory cognitive processes are no different by their operational and organizational principle from other natural processes. Cognition too will emerge and evolve along path-dependent and non-determinate trajectories by consuming free energy in least time to attain thermodynamic balance within the nervous system itself and with its surrounding systems. Specifically, consciousness can be ascribed to a natural process that integrates various neural networks for coherent consumption of free energy, i.e., for meaningful deeds. The whole hierarchy of integrated systems can be formally summed up to thermodynamic entropy. The holistic tenet provides insight to the character of consciousness also by acknowledging awareness in other systems at other levels of nature's hierarchy. PMID:27065819

  8. Islamic and Indonesianic Characters Perspective of Higher Education of Muhammadiyah

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobroni; Purwojuwono, Ribut

    2016-01-01

    The study aims to describe the educational model of Islamic and Indonesianic character in Muhammadiyah, perspective of phenomenological studies at School of Higher Education Teaching (STKIP) of Muhammadiyah Sorong of Papua Province Indonesia. The study is done by using qualitative approach with phenomenological paradigm. The main data was obtained…

  9. Effect of pattern complexity on the visual span for Chinese and alphabet characters.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; He, Xuanzi; Legge, Gordon E

    2014-01-01

    The visual span for reading is the number of letters that can be recognized without moving the eyes and is hypothesized to impose a sensory limitation on reading speed. Factors affecting the size of the visual span have been studied using alphabet letters. There may be common constraints applying to recognition of other scripts. The aim of this study was to extend the concept of the visual span to Chinese characters and to examine the effect of the greater complexity of these characters. We measured visual spans for Chinese characters and alphabet letters in the central vision of bilingual subjects. Perimetric complexity was used as a metric to quantify the pattern complexity of binary character images. The visual span tests were conducted with four sets of stimuli differing in complexity--lowercase alphabet letters and three groups of Chinese characters. We found that the size of visual spans decreased with increasing complexity, ranging from 10.5 characters for alphabet letters to 4.5 characters for the most complex Chinese characters studied. A decomposition analysis revealed that crowding was the dominant factor limiting the size of the visual span, and the amount of crowding increased with complexity. Errors in the spatial arrangement of characters (mislocations) had a secondary effect. We conclude that pattern complexity has a major effect on the size of the visual span, mediated in large part by crowding. Measuring the visual span for Chinese characters is likely to have high relevance to understanding visual constraints on Chinese reading performance. PMID:24993020

  10. Effect of pattern complexity on the visual span for Chinese and alphabet characters

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hui; He, Xuanzi; Legge, Gordon E.

    2014-01-01

    The visual span for reading is the number of letters that can be recognized without moving the eyes and is hypothesized to impose a sensory limitation on reading speed. Factors affecting the size of the visual span have been studied using alphabet letters. There may be common constraints applying to recognition of other scripts. The aim of this study was to extend the concept of the visual span to Chinese characters and to examine the effect of the greater complexity of these characters. We measured visual spans for Chinese characters and alphabet letters in the central vision of bilingual subjects. Perimetric complexity was used as a metric to quantify the pattern complexity of binary character images. The visual span tests were conducted with four sets of stimuli differing in complexity—lowercase alphabet letters and three groups of Chinese characters. We found that the size of visual spans decreased with increasing complexity, ranging from 10.5 characters for alphabet letters to 4.5 characters for the most complex Chinese characters studied. A decomposition analysis revealed that crowding was the dominant factor limiting the size of the visual span, and the amount of crowding increased with complexity. Errors in the spatial arrangement of characters (mislocations) had a secondary effect. We conclude that pattern complexity has a major effect on the size of the visual span, mediated in large part by crowding. Measuring the visual span for Chinese characters is likely to have high relevance to understanding visual constraints on Chinese reading performance. PMID:24993020

  11. Character Decomposition and Transposition Processes in Chinese Compound Words Modulates Attentional Blink

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Hongwen; Gao, Min; Yan, Hongmei

    2016-01-01

    The attentional blink (AB) is the phenomenon in which the identification of the second of two targets (T2) is attenuated if it is presented less than 500 ms after the first target (T1). Although the AB is eliminated in canonical word conditions, it remains unclear whether the character order in compound words affects the magnitude of the AB. Morpheme decomposition and transposition of Chinese two-character compound words can provide an effective means to examine AB priming and to assess combinations of the component representations inherent to visual word identification. In the present study, we examined the processing of consecutive targets in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) paradigm using Chinese two-character compound words in which the two characters were transposed to form meaningful words or meaningless combinations (reversible, transposed, or canonical words). We found that when two Chinese characters that form a compound word, regardless of their order, are presented in an RSVP sequence, the likelihood of an AB for the second character is greatly reduced or eliminated compared to when the two characters constitute separate words rather than a compound word. Moreover, the order of the report for the two characters is more likely to be reversed when the normal order of the two characters in a compound word is reversed, especially when the interval between the presentation of the two characters is extremely short. These findings are more consistent with the cognitive strategy hypothesis than the resource-limited hypothesis during character decomposition and transposition of Chinese two-character compound words. These results suggest that compound characters are perceived as a unit, rather than two separate words. The data further suggest that readers could easily understand the text with character transpositions in compound words during Chinese reading. PMID:27379003

  12. Character Decomposition and Transposition Processes in Chinese Compound Words Modulates Attentional Blink.

    PubMed

    Cao, Hongwen; Gao, Min; Yan, Hongmei

    2016-01-01

    The attentional blink (AB) is the phenomenon in which the identification of the second of two targets (T2) is attenuated if it is presented less than 500 ms after the first target (T1). Although the AB is eliminated in canonical word conditions, it remains unclear whether the character order in compound words affects the magnitude of the AB. Morpheme decomposition and transposition of Chinese two-character compound words can provide an effective means to examine AB priming and to assess combinations of the component representations inherent to visual word identification. In the present study, we examined the processing of consecutive targets in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) paradigm using Chinese two-character compound words in which the two characters were transposed to form meaningful words or meaningless combinations (reversible, transposed, or canonical words). We found that when two Chinese characters that form a compound word, regardless of their order, are presented in an RSVP sequence, the likelihood of an AB for the second character is greatly reduced or eliminated compared to when the two characters constitute separate words rather than a compound word. Moreover, the order of the report for the two characters is more likely to be reversed when the normal order of the two characters in a compound word is reversed, especially when the interval between the presentation of the two characters is extremely short. These findings are more consistent with the cognitive strategy hypothesis than the resource-limited hypothesis during character decomposition and transposition of Chinese two-character compound words. These results suggest that compound characters are perceived as a unit, rather than two separate words. The data further suggest that readers could easily understand the text with character transpositions in compound words during Chinese reading. PMID:27379003

  13. Temperament and character profiles of patients with chronic idiopathic urticaria

    PubMed Central

    Canan, Fatih; Karakaş, Ayşe Akman; Geçici, Nihal

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Psychosocial factors have been implicated as being important in the onset and/or exacerbation of urticaria. Aim To examine both personality factors of patients with chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU) and the correlations between illness duration, severity of itching, urticaria activity score (UAS) and temperament-character dimensions. Material and methods A total number of 70 CIU patients and 60 healthy individuals were included in the study. The Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) was administered individually. The relationship between UAS, illness duration and severity of pruritus and TCI subscales were evaluated. Results The CIU group had significantly higher scores of novelty seeking and lower scores of cooperativeness, reward dependence and self-directedness than the control group. Conclusions The current study shows that CIU patients have distinctive temperament and character dimensions when compared with the control group. We suggest that evaluation and treatment of CIU should also include psychosomatic approaches in clinical practice. PMID:26161056

  14. Character, Civility, and the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts State Dept. of Education, Boston.

    As the educational community works together to improve academic achievement, the importance of character traits such as honesty, trustworthiness, self discipline, kindness, empathy, respect, responsibility, and courage must not be neglected. This guide has been designed to help educators and families in Massachusetts link character development and…

  15. Character Education. What Works Clearinghouse Topic Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Character education is a fairly new and rapidly evolving topic for curriculum interventions. Character can encompass such moral and ethical values as respect, fairness, and caring -- as well as responsibility, trustworthiness, and citizenship. It can refer to the demonstration of these values in behavior, reasoning, and emotions. The What Works…

  16. Character Education, New Media, and Political Spectacle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winton, Sue

    2010-01-01

    Ontario's new Character Development Initiative is analyzed to determine whether it can be characterized as political spectacle. Examination of official policy texts, media reports, speeches, web pages, webcasts, and events at the Character Development Symposium suggests that the Initiative contains many elements of political spectacle; however,…

  17. Character Education Provides Focus for Advisory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deitte, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    Describes development of a middle school advisory program based in character education. Includes descriptions of class activities to introduce character education emphasizing respect, perseverance, integrity, citizenship, trustworthiness, responsibility, compassion, honesty, self-discipline, and fairness. Notes that the advisory program resulted…

  18. 47 CFR 10.430 - Character limit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Character limit. 10.430 Section 10.430 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL MOBILE ALERT SYSTEM Alert Message Requirements § 10.430 Character limit. A CMAS Alert Message processed by a Participating CMS Provider must...

  19. 47 CFR 10.430 - Character limit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Character limit. 10.430 Section 10.430 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL WIRELESS EMERGENCY ALERTS Alert Message Requirements § 10.430 Character limit. A WEA Alert Message processed by a Participating CMS Provider must not...

  20. 47 CFR 10.430 - Character limit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Character limit. 10.430 Section 10.430 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL WIRELESS EMERGENCY ALERTS Alert Message Requirements § 10.430 Character limit. A WEA Alert Message processed by a Participating CMS Provider must not...

  1. 47 CFR 10.430 - Character limit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Character limit. 10.430 Section 10.430 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL MOBILE ALERT SYSTEM Alert Message Requirements § 10.430 Character limit. A CMAS Alert Message processed by a Participating CMS Provider must...

  2. 47 CFR 10.430 - Character limit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Character limit. 10.430 Section 10.430 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL MOBILE ALERT SYSTEM Alert Message Requirements § 10.430 Character limit. A CMAS Alert Message processed by a Participating CMS Provider must...

  3. Improving Student Achievement through Character Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finck, Chip; Hansen, Cynthia; Jensen, Jane

    This report describes a program for improving moral character to increase academic achievement. Targeted population consisted of middle school students in a growing middle class community in a northern suburb of Chicago, Illinois. The problem, an absence of proper moral character, was documented through data collected from discipline referrals to…

  4. Character Education, K-12, in Uniondale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis-Seinik, Cynthia; McCarthy, Margaret; Nadal, Kathleen; Pfeiffer, Deborah; Tella, Adeola; Wagner, Nancy

    2006-01-01

    The Uniondale, New York School District and community believe that their character education program creates a safe and positive environment for their students. Through character education, they are increasing students' social competence and reducing students' aggressive behaviors. Their school district's goal is to build a district and school…

  5. Moral and Character Development in Public Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demmon, Terri; And Others

    This paper addresses the pros and cons educators may encounter if they are involved in a character education program. Those supporting a character education program offer the following reasons: (1) decline of a traditional family structure; (2) erosion of the values system of key institutions; (3) the position of schools as the second most…

  6. Character Development Practices in Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wesley, Vernon L.

    2010-01-01

    Character Development continues to be the all too unintentional elephant in the room of Higher Education. This project looked at what character development practices are being accomplished and who in higher education is making it happen. No longer satisfied with leaving the task to elementary and secondary education, higher education has begun to…

  7. Developing Individual and Team Character in Sport

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaines, Stacey A.

    2012-01-01

    The idea that participation in sport builds character is a long-standing one. Advocates of sport participation believe that sport provides an appropriate context for the learning of social skills such as cooperation and the development of prosocial behavior (Weiss, Smith, & Stuntz, 2008). Research in sport regarding character development has…

  8. Portrayal of Older Characters in Children's Magazines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almerico, Gina M.; Fillmer, Thompson

    1988-01-01

    Examined portrayal of older characters in 1985 issues (N=101) of 11 children's magazines. Results indicated older characters were not victims of blatant discrimination, but subtle hints of prejudice were present in the stories. Concluded that the messages to young readers regarding the elderly were mixed and inaccurate. (Author/ABL)

  9. A Missing Piece of the Contemporary Character Education Puzzle: The Individualisation of Moral Character

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yi-Lin

    2013-01-01

    The different sorts of virtuous people who display various virtues to a remarkable degree have brought the issue of individualisation of moral character to the forefront. It signals a more personal dimension of character development which is notoriously ignored in the current discourse on character education. The case is made that since in…

  10. The Communicative Response Repertoire of Children's Television Cartoon Characters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobkins, David H.; And Others

    In order to determine some of the effects of children's television, a study investigated the communicative response repertoire of primary female characters in Saturday morning children's cartoons as perceived by children. Those perceptions were then compared with those of the researchers, formulated through previous studies, showing a relationship…