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Sample records for magnetohydrodynamic jets interacting

  1. On magnetohydrodynamic solitons in jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, B.

    1987-01-01

    Nonlinear solitary wave propagation in a compressible magnetic beam model of an extragalactic radio jet is examined and shown to lead to solitons of the Benjamin-Ono type. A number of similarities between such magnetic beam models of jets and models of solar photospheric flux tubes are pointed out and exploited. A single soliton has the appearance of a symmetric bulge on the jet which propagates faster than the jet's flow.

  2. Magneto-hydrodynamic simulation of hypervelocity neutral plasma jets and their interactions with materials generating extreme conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramaniam, Vivek; Raja, Laxminarayan; Sitaraman, Hariswaran

    2014-10-01

    The development of a Magneto-hydrodynamics (MHD) numerical tool to study high density thermal plasma in a co-axial plasma gun is presented. The MHD governing equations are numerically solved using a matrix free implicit scheme in an unstructured grid finite volume framework. The MHD model is used to characterize the high energy jet which emanates from the accelerator. The solver is then used to predict the conditions created at the surface of a flat plate placed at a fixed distance from the exit of the gun. The model parameters are adjusted so that the energy density of the jet impacting the plate is of the same order of magnitude as that of the Edge Localized Mode (ELM) disruptions in thermonuclear fusion reactors. The idea is to use the pressure and temperature on the plate surface to obtain an estimate of the stress created on the plate due to jet impact. The model is used to quantify damage caused by ELM disruptions on the confining material surface.

  3. Magnetohydrodynamic stability of a compound liquid jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radwan, Ahmed E.

    1989-10-01

    The magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) stability of a compound nonmiscible fluid jet is discussed. A general eigenvalue relation, for that model which involves the fluid inertia, capillarity and electromagnetic forces, is derived. The model is capillary unstable only for small axisymmetric disturbances and stable for the rest. The magnetic fields interior and exterior to the gas-mantle jet have always a stabilizing influence. The radii ratio of the concentric jets plays an important role in the (instability) stability states and are (decreasing) increasing with increasing magnetic field intensity as the exterior radius is much larger than the interior radius; under some restrictions of the radii ratio and above a certain value of the magnetic field the capillary instability is omitted and completely suppressed and then stability sets in. The latter result is verified analytically and confirmed numerically in the case in which the cylindrical surface of the outer jet is sited at infinity.

  4. A Magnetohydrodynamic Boost for Relativistic Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mizuno, Yosuke; Hardee, Philip; Hartmann, Dieter H.; Nishikawa, Ken-Ichi; Zhang, Bing

    2007-01-01

    We performed relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the hydrodynamic boosting mechanism for relativistic jets explored by Aloy & Rezzolla (2006) using the RAISHIN code. Simulation results show that the presence of a magnetic field changes the properties of the shock interface between the tenuous, overpressured jet (V^z j) flowing tangentially to a dense external medium. We find that magnetic fields can lead to more efficient acceleration of the jet, in comparison to the pure-hydrodynamic case. A "poloidal" magnetic field (B^z), tangent to the interface and parallel to the jet flow, produces both a stronger outward moving shock and a stronger inward moving rarefaction wave. This leads to a large velocity component normal to the interface in addition to acceleration tangent to the interface, and the jet is thus accelerated to larger Lorentz factors than those obtained in the pure-hydrodynamic case. Likewise, a strong "toroidal" magnetic field (B^y), tangent to the interface but perpendicular to the jet flow, also leads to stronger acceleration tangent to the shock interface relative to the pure-hydrodynamic case. Thus. the presence and relative orientation of a magnetic field in relativistic jets can significant modify the hydrodynamic boost mechanism studied by Aloy & Rezzolla (2006).

  5. A Magnetohydrodynamic Boost for Relativistic Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mizuno, Yosuke; Hardee, Philip; Hartmann, dieter; Nishikwa, Ken-Ichi; Zhang, Bing

    2006-01-01

    We have performed relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the hydrodynamic boosting mechanism for relativistic jets explored by Aloy & Rezzolla (2006) using the RAISHIN code. Simulation results show that the presence of a magnetic field may change the properties of the shock interface between the tenuous, overpressured jet (V(sub j) (sup z)) flowing tangentially to a dense external medium. Magnetic fields can lead to more efficient acceleration of the jet, in comparison to the pure-hydrodynamic case. A poloidal magnetic field (B(sup z)), tangent to the interface and parallel to the jet flow, produces both a stronger outward moving shock and inward moving rarefaction wave. This leads to a large velocity component normal to the interface in addition to acceleration tangent to the interface, and the jet is thus accelerated to a larger Lorentz factors than those obtained in the pure-hydrodynamic case. In contrast, a strong toroidal magnetic field (B(sup y)), tangent to the interface but perpendicular to the jet flow, also leads to stronger acceleration tangent to the shock interface relative to the pure-hydrodynamic case, but to a lesser extent than found for the poloidal case due to the fact that the velocity component normal to the shock interface is now much smaller. Overall, the acceleration efficiency in the toroidal case is less than that of the poloidal case but both geometries still result in higher Lorentz factors than the pure-hydrodynamic case. Thus, the presence and relative orientation of a magnetic field in relativistic jets can have a significant influence on the hydrodynamic boost mechanism studied by Aloy & Rezzolla (2006).

  6. COUNTER-ROTATION IN RELATIVISTIC MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC JETS

    SciTech Connect

    Cayatte, V.; Sauty, C.; Vlahakis, N.; Tsinganos, K.; Matsakos, T.; Lima, J. J. G.

    2014-06-10

    Young stellar object observations suggest that some jets rotate in the opposite direction with respect to their disk. In a recent study, Sauty et al. showed that this does not contradict the magnetocentrifugal mechanism that is believed to launch such outflows. Motion signatures that are transverse to the jet axis, in two opposite directions, have recently been measured in M87. One possible interpretation of this motion is that of counter-rotating knots. Here, we extend our previous analytical derivation of counter-rotation to relativistic jets, demonstrating that counter-rotation can indeed take place under rather general conditions. We show that both the magnetic field and a non-negligible enthalpy are necessary at the origin of counter-rotating outflows, and that the effect is associated with a transfer of energy flux from the matter to the electromagnetic field. This can be realized in three cases: if a decreasing enthalpy causes an increase of the Poynting flux, if the flow decelerates, or if strong gradients of the magnetic field are present. An illustration of the involved mechanism is given by an example of a relativistic magnetohydrodynamic jet simulation.

  7. Nucleosynthesis in Magnetohydrodynamical Jets from Collapsars

    SciTech Connect

    Ono, M.; Hashimoto, M.; Fujimoto, S.; Kotake, K.

    2011-10-28

    We investigate the heavy-element nucleosynthesis of a massive star whose mass in the main sequence stage is M{sub ms} = 70 M{sub {center_dot}}. Detailed calculations of the nucleosynthesis are performed during the hydrostatic stellar evolution until the core composed of iron-group nuclei begins to collapse. As a supernova explosion model, a collapsar model is constructed whose jets are driven by magnetohydrodynamical effects of a differentially rotating core. The heavy-element nucleosynthesis inside the jet of a collapsar model is followed along the trajectories of stream lines of the jet. We combine the results of both hydrostatic and heavy-element nucleosyntheses to compare with the solar abundances. We find that neutron-rich elements of 70140.

  8. Efficient acceleration of relativistic magnetohydrodynamic jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toma, Kenji; Takahara, Fumio

    2013-08-01

    Relativistic jets in active galactic nuclei, galactic microquasars, and gamma-ray bursts are widely considered to be magnetohydrodynamically driven by black hole accretion systems, although the conversion mechanism from the Poynting into the particle kinetic energy flux is still open. Recent detailed numerical and analytical studies of global structures of steady, axisymmetric magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flows with specific boundary conditions have not reproduced as rapid an energy conversion as required by observations. In order to find more suitable boundary conditions, we focus on the flow along a poloidal magnetic field line just inside the external boundary, without treating the transfield force balance in detail. We find some examples of the poloidal field structure and corresponding external pressure profile for an efficient and rapid energy conversion as required by observations, and that the rapid acceleration requires a rapid decrease of the external pressure above the accretion disk. We also clarify the differences between the fast magnetosonic point of the MHD flow and the sonic point of the de Laval nozzle.

  9. JET ROTATION DRIVEN BY MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC SHOCKS IN HELICAL MAGNETIC FIELDS

    SciTech Connect

    Fendt, Christian

    2011-08-10

    In this paper, we present a detailed numerical investigation of the hypothesis that a rotation of astrophysical jets can be caused by magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) shocks in a helical magnetic field. Shock compression of the helical magnetic field results in a toroidal Lorentz force component that will accelerate the jet material in the toroidal direction. This process transforms magnetic angular momentum (magnetic stress) carried along the jet into kinetic angular momentum (rotation). The mechanism proposed here only works in a helical magnetic field configuration. We demonstrate the feasibility of this mechanism by axisymmetric MHD simulations in 1.5 and 2.5 dimensions using the PLUTO code. In our setup, the jet is injected into the ambient gas with zero kinetic angular momentum (no rotation). We apply different dynamical parameters for jet propagation such as the jet internal Alfven Mach number and fast magnetosonic Mach number, the density contrast of the jet to the ambient medium, and the external sonic Mach number of the jet. The mechanism we suggest should work for a variety of jet applications, e.g., protostellar or extragalactic jets, and internal jet shocks (jet knots) or external shocks between the jet and the ambient gas (entrainment). For typical parameter values for protostellar jets, the numerically derived rotation feature looks consistent with the observations, i.e., rotational velocities of 0.1%-1% of the jet bulk velocity.

  10. Jet Rotation Driven by Magnetohydrodynamic Shocks in Helical Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fendt, Christian

    2011-08-01

    In this paper, we present a detailed numerical investigation of the hypothesis that a rotation of astrophysical jets can be caused by magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) shocks in a helical magnetic field. Shock compression of the helical magnetic field results in a toroidal Lorentz force component that will accelerate the jet material in the toroidal direction. This process transforms magnetic angular momentum (magnetic stress) carried along the jet into kinetic angular momentum (rotation). The mechanism proposed here only works in a helical magnetic field configuration. We demonstrate the feasibility of this mechanism by axisymmetric MHD simulations in 1.5 and 2.5 dimensions using the PLUTO code. In our setup, the jet is injected into the ambient gas with zero kinetic angular momentum (no rotation). We apply different dynamical parameters for jet propagation such as the jet internal Alfvén Mach number and fast magnetosonic Mach number, the density contrast of the jet to the ambient medium, and the external sonic Mach number of the jet. The mechanism we suggest should work for a variety of jet applications, e.g., protostellar or extragalactic jets, and internal jet shocks (jet knots) or external shocks between the jet and the ambient gas (entrainment). For typical parameter values for protostellar jets, the numerically derived rotation feature looks consistent with the observations, i.e., rotational velocities of 0.1%-1% of the jet bulk velocity.

  11. Formation of Relativistic Jets : Magnetohydrodynamics and Synchrotron Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porth, Oliver J. G.

    2011-11-01

    In this thesis, the formation of relativistic jets is investigated by means of special relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulations and synchrotron radiative transfer. Our results show that the magnetohydrodynamic jet self-collimation paradigm can also be applied to the relativistic case. In the first part, jets launched from rotating hot accretion disk coronae are explored, leading to well collimated, but only mildly relativistic flows. Beyond the light-cylinder, the electric charge separation force balances the classical trans-field Lorentz force almost entirely, resulting in a decreased efficiency of acceleration and collimation in comparison to non-relativistic disk winds. In the second part, we examine Poynting dominated flows of various electric current distributions. By following the outflow for over 3000 Schwarzschild radii, highly relativistic jets of Lorentz factor 8 and half-opening angles below 1 degree are obtained, providing dynamical models for the parsec scale jets of active galactic nuclei. Applying the magnetohydrodynamic structure of the quasi-stationary simulation models, we solve the relativistically beamed synchrotron radiation transport. This yields synthetic radiation maps and polarization patterns that can be used to confront high resolution radio and (sub-) mm observations of nearby active galactic nuclei. Relativistic motion together with the helical magnetic fields of the jet formation site imprint a clear signature on the observed polarization and Faraday rotation. In particular, asymmetries in the polarization direction across the jet can disclose the handedness of the magnetic helix and thus the spin direction of the central engine. Finally, we show first results from fully three-dimensional, high resolution adaptive mesh refinement simulations of jet formation from a rotating magnetosphere and examine the jet stability. Relativistic field-line rotation leads to an electric charge separation force that opposes the magnetic Lorentz

  12. SYNCHROTRON RADIATION OF SELF-COLLIMATING RELATIVISTIC MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC JETS

    SciTech Connect

    Porth, Oliver; Fendt, Christian; Vaidya, Bhargav; Meliani, Zakaria E-mail: fendt@mpia.de

    2011-08-10

    The goal of this paper is to derive signatures of synchrotron radiation from state-of-the-art simulation models of collimating relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) jets featuring a large-scale helical magnetic field. We perform axisymmetric special relativistic MHD simulations of the jet acceleration region using the PLUTO code. The computational domain extends from the slow-magnetosonic launching surface of the disk up to 6000{sup 2} Schwarzschild radii allowing jets to reach highly relativistic Lorentz factors. The Poynting-dominated disk wind develops into a jet with Lorentz factors of {Gamma} {approx_equal} 8 and is collimated to 1{sup 0}. In addition to the disk jet, we evolve a thermally driven spine jet emanating from a hypothetical black hole corona. Solving the linearly polarized synchrotron radiation transport within the jet, we derive very long baseline interferometry radio and (sub-) millimeter diagnostics such as core shift, polarization structure, intensity maps, spectra, and Faraday rotation measure (RM) directly from the Stokes parameters. We also investigate depolarization and the detectability of a {lambda}{sup 2}-law RM depending on beam resolution and observing frequency. We find non-monotonic intrinsic RM profiles that could be detected at a resolution of 100 Schwarzschild radii. In our collimating jet geometry, the strict bimodality in the polarization direction (as predicted by Pariev et al.) can be circumvented. Due to relativistic aberration, asymmetries in the polarization vectors across the jet can hint at the spin direction of the central engine.

  13. Magnetohydrodynamic solitons and radio knots in jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiedler, R.

    1986-01-01

    Weakly nonlinear surface waves are examined in the context of the beam model for jetlike radio sources. By introducing a finite scale length, viz. the beam radius, geometrical dispersion can act to balance nonlinear wave growth and thereby produce solitons, localized wave packets of stable waveform. A method for obtaining a soliton equation from the MHD equations is presented and then applied to radio knots in jets.

  14. A General Relativistic Magnetohydrodynamic Simulation of Jet Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishikawa, K.-I.; Richardson, G.; Koide, S.; Shibata, K.; Kudoh, T.; Hardee, P.; Fishman, G. J.

    2005-05-01

    We have performed a fully three-dimensional general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) simulation of jet formation from a thin accretion disk around a Schwarzschild black hole with a free-falling corona. The initial simulation results show that a bipolar jet (velocity ~0.3c) is created, as shown by previous two-dimensional axisymmetric simulations with mirror symmetry at the equator. The three-dimensional simulation ran over 100 light crossing time units (τS=rS/c, where rS≡2GM/c2), which is considerably longer than the previous simulations. We show that the jet is initially formed as predicted owing in part to magnetic pressure from the twisting of the initially uniform magnetic field and from gas pressure associated with shock formation in the region around r=3rS. At later times, the accretion disk becomes thick and the jet fades resulting in a wind that is ejected from the surface of the thickened (torus-like) disk. It should be noted that no streaming matter from a donor is included at the outer boundary in the simulation (an isolated black hole not binary black hole). The wind flows outward with a wider angle than the initial jet. The widening of the jet is consistent with the outward-moving torsional Alfvén waves. This evolution of disk-jet coupling suggests that the jet fades with a thickened accretion disk because of the lack of streaming material from an accompanying star.

  15. Magnetohydrodynamic Origin of Jets from Accretion Disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lovelace, R. V. E.; Romanova, M. M.

    1998-01-01

    A review is made of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theory and simulation of outflows from disks for different distributions of magnetic field threading the disk. In one limit of a relatively weak, initially diverging magnetic field, both thermal and magnetic pressure gradients act to drive matter to an outflow, while a toroidal magnetic field develops which strongly collimates the outflow. The collimation greatly reduces the field divergence and the mass outflow rate decreases after an initial peak. In a second limit of a strong magnetic field, the initial field configuration was taken with the field strength on the disk decreasing outwards to small values so that collimation was reduced. As a result, a family of stationary solutions was discovered where matter is driven mainly by the strong magnetic pressure gradient force. The collimation in this case depends on the pressure of an external medium. These flows are qualitatively similar to the analytic solutions for magnetically driven outflows. The problem of the opening of a closed field line configuration linking a magnetized star and an accretion disk is also discussed.

  16. Magnetohydrodynamic Stability of a Streaming Gas Core Liquid Jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radwan, Ahmed E.; Elazab, Samia S.

    1989-01-01

    The magnetohydrodynamic instability of a streaming fluid jet (radius R0) ambient with streaming liquid is studied to the axisymmetric (m{=}0) and the non-axisymmetric (m{≥slant}1) disturbances (m is the azimuthal wavenumber). When the surface tension effect is suppressed; the jet is stable to all m{≥slant}0 for all wavelengths. In the absence of the magnetic field; the model is stable to all m{≥slant}1 for all wavelengths and also stable to m{=}0 if the perturbed wavelength is equal to or shorter than 2π R0. While it is unstable only to m{=}0 if the perturbed wavelength is longer than 2π R0. The streaming has a destabilizing effect. If the magnetic fields are sufficiently high, so that the Alfvén wave velocities are greater than the streaming velocities of the two fluids; the jet is stable against all disturbances and vice versa.

  17. DETERMINING THE OPTIMAL LOCATIONS FOR SHOCK ACCELERATION IN MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMICAL JETS

    SciTech Connect

    Polko, Peter; Markoff, Sera; Meier, David L.

    2010-11-10

    Observations of relativistic jets from black hole systems suggest that particle acceleration often occurs at fixed locations within the flow. These sites could be associated with critical points that allow the formation of standing shock regions, such as the magnetosonic modified fast point (MFP). Using the self-similar formulation of special relativistic magnetohydrodynamics by Vlahakis and Koenigl, we derive a new class of flow solutions that are both relativistic and cross the MFP at a finite height. Our solutions span a range of Lorentz factors up to at least 10, appropriate for most jets in X-ray binaries and active galactic nuclei, and a range in injected particle internal energy. A broad range of solutions exists, which will allow the eventual matching of these scale-free models to physical boundary conditions in the analysis of observed sources.

  18. A General Relativistic Magnetohydrodynamic Simulation of Jet Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishikawa, K.-I.; Richardson, G.; Koide, S.; Shibata, K.; Kudoh, T.; Hardee, P.; Fishman, G. J.

    2005-01-01

    We have performed a fully three-dimensional general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) simulation ofjet formation from a thin accretion disk around a Schwarzschild black hole with a free-falling corona. The initial simulation results show that a bipolar jet (velocity approx.0.3c) is created, as shown by previous two-dimensional axi- symmetric simulations with mirror symmetry at the equator. The three-dimensional simulation ran over 100 light crossing time units (T(sub s) = r(sub s)/c, where r(sub s = 2GM/c(sup 2), which is considerably longer than the previous simulations. We show that the jet is initially formed as predicted owing in part to magnetic pressure from the twisting of the initially uniform magnetic field and from gas pressure associated with shock formation in the region around r = 3r(sub s). At later times, the accretion disk becomes thick and the jet fades resulting in a wind that is ejected from the surface ofthe thickened (torus-like) disk. It should be noted that no streaming matter from a donor is included at the outer boundary in the simulation (an isolated black hole not binary black hole). The wind flows outward with a wider angle than the initial jet. The widening of the jet is consistent with the outward-moving torsional Alfven waves. This evolution of disk-jet coupling suggests that the jet fades with a thickened accretion disk because of the iack of streaming materiai from an accompanying star.

  19. Interaction between perpendicular magnetohydrodynamic shocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, Y. Q.; Habbal, S. R.

    1993-01-01

    A general analysis is made of the collision and merging of perpendicular shocks as well as the interaction between a shock and a tangential discontinuity. It is found that two head-on shocks diminish both in strength after collisions and a tangential discontinuity forms between them. The property of the discontinuity depends on the relative strength of the two shocks. No discontinuity occurs if the shocks are equal in strength. The emerging of two shocks propagating in the same direction results in a strong shock followed by a tangential discontinuity and a reverse wave. The reverse wave is a rarefaction wave if one or both of the shocks are strong. If the shocks are both weak, a critical adiabatic index (CAI) exists. The reverse wave is a rarefaction wave if the wavelength is less than the CAI and a shock exists if the wavelength is greater than the CAI. As a wake shock enters from a medium of higher wave impedance into that of lower wave impedance, the reflected wave is a rarefaction wave and the total pressure ratio decreases and the velocity jump increases after the shock passes through the border.

  20. Protostellar jets and magnetised turbulence with smoothed particle magnetohydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tricco, Terrence

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic fields are an integral component of the formation of stars. During my thesis work, I built new methods to model magnetic fields in smoothed particle magnetohydrodynamics which enforce the divergence-free constraint on the magnetic field and reduce numerical dissipation of the magnetic field. Using these methods, we have performed simulations of isolated protostar formation, studying the production of jets and outflows of material and their effect on transporting angular momentum away from the protostar and reducing the efficiency of star formation. A major code comparison project on the small-scale turbulent dynamo amplification of magnetic fields was performed, using conditions representative of molecular clouds, the formation site of stars. The results were compared against results from grid-based methods, finding excellent agreement on their statistics and qualitative behaviour. I will outline the numerical methods developed, and present the results from our protostar and molecular cloud simulations.

  1. Magnetohydrodynamic models of bipolar knotty jet in henize 2-90

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, C.; Sahai, R.

    2004-01-01

    A remarkably linear, bipolar, knotty jet was recently discovered in Hen 2-90, an object classified as a young planetary nebula. Using two-dimensional, magnetohydrodynamic simulations, we investigate periodic variations in jet density and velocity as the mechanism for producing the jet and its knotty structures.

  2. MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC EFFECTS ON PULSED YOUNG STELLAR OBJECT JETS. I. 2.5D SIMULATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, E. C.; Frank, A.; Hartigan, P.

    2015-02-10

    In this paper, we explore the dynamics of radiative axisymmetric magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) jets at high resolution using adaptive mesh refinement methods. The goal of the study is to determine both the dynamics and emission properties of such jets. To that end, we have implemented microphysics enabling us to produce synthetic maps of Hα and [S II]. The jets are pulsed either sinusoidally or randomly via a time-dependent ejection velocity which leads to a complicated structure of internal shocks and rarefactions as has been seen in previous simulations. The high resolution of our simulations allows us to explore in great detail the effect of pinch forces (due to the jet's toroidal magnetic field) within the ''working surfaces'' where pulses interact. We map the strong Hα emission marking shock fronts and the strong [S II] emission inside cooling regions behind shocks as observed with high-resolution images of jets. We find that pinch forces in the stronger field cases produce additional emission regions along the axis as compared with purely hydrodynamic runs. These simulations are a first step to understanding the full three-dimensional emission properties of radiative MHD jets.

  3. THREE-DIMENSIONAL RELATIVISTIC MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC SIMULATIONS OF CURRENT-DRIVEN INSTABILITY. III. ROTATING RELATIVISTIC JETS

    SciTech Connect

    Mizuno, Yosuke; Lyubarsky, Yuri; Nishikawa, Ken-Ichi; Hardee, Philip E.

    2012-09-20

    We have investigated the influence of jet rotation and differential motion on the linear and nonlinear development of the current-driven (CD) kink instability of force-free helical magnetic equilibria via three-dimensional relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulations. In this study, we follow the temporal development within a periodic computational box. Displacement of the initial helical magnetic field leads to the growth of the CD kink instability. We find that, in accordance with the linear stability theory, the development of the instability depends on the lateral distribution of the poloidal magnetic field. If the poloidal field significantly decreases outward from the axis, then the initial small perturbations grow strongly, and if multiple wavelengths are excited, then nonlinear interaction eventually disrupts the initial cylindrical configuration. When the profile of the poloidal field is shallow, the instability develops slowly and eventually saturates. We briefly discuss implications of our findings for Poynting-dominated jets.

  4. JET FORMATION FROM MASSIVE YOUNG STARS: MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMICS VERSUS RADIATION PRESSURE

    SciTech Connect

    Vaidya, Bhargav; Porth, Oliver; Fendt, Christian; Beuther, Henrik E-mail: fendt@mpia.de

    2011-11-20

    Observations indicate that outflows from massive young stars are more collimated during their early evolution compared to later stages. Our paper investigates various physical processes that impact the outflow dynamics, i.e., its acceleration and collimation. We perform axisymmetric magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations particularly considering the radiation pressure exerted by the star and the disk. We have modified the PLUTO code to include radiative forces in the line-driving approximation. We launch the outflow from the innermost disk region (r < 50 AU) by magnetocentrifugal acceleration. In order to disentangle MHD effects from radiative forces, we start the simulation in pure MHD and later switch on the radiation force. We perform a parameter study considering different stellar masses (thus luminosity), magnetic flux, and line-force strength. For our reference simulation-assuming a 30 M{sub Sun} star-we find substantial de-collimation of 35% due to radiation forces. The opening angle increases from 20 Degree-Sign to 32 Degree-Sign for stellar masses from 20 M{sub Sun} to 60 M{sub Sun }. A small change in the line-force parameter {alpha} from 0.60 to 0.55 changes the opening angle by {approx}8 Degree-Sign . We find that it is mainly the stellar radiation that affects the jet dynamics. Unless the disk extends very close to the star, its force is too small to have much impact. Essentially, our parameter runs with different stellar masses can be understood as a proxy for the time evolution of the star-outflow system. Thus, we have shown that when the stellar mass (thus luminosity) increases with age, the outflows become less collimated.

  5. Magnetohydrodynamic simulations of a jet drilling an H I cloud: Shock induced formation of molecular clouds and jet breakup

    SciTech Connect

    Asahina, Yuta; Ogawa, Takayuki; Matsumoto, Ryoji; Kawashima, Tomohisa; Furukawa, Naoko; Enokiya, Rei; Yamamoto, Hiroaki; Fukui, Yasuo

    2014-07-01

    The formation mechanism of the jet-aligned CO clouds found by NANTEN CO observations is studied by magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) simulations taking into account the cooling of the interstellar medium. Motivated by the association of the CO clouds with the enhancement of H I gas density, we carried out MHD simulations of the propagation of a supersonic jet injected into the dense H I gas. We found that the H I gas compressed by the bow shock ahead of the jet is cooled down by growth of the cooling instability triggered by the density enhancement. As a result, a cold dense sheath is formed around the interface between the jet and the H I gas. The radial speed of the cold, dense gas in the sheath is a few km s{sup –1} almost independent of the jet speed. Molecular clouds can be formed in this region. Since the dense sheath wrapping the jet reflects waves generated in the cocoon, the jet is strongly perturbed by the vortices of the warm gas in the cocoon, which breaks up the jet and forms a secondary shock in the H I-cavity drilled by the jet. The particle acceleration at the shock can be the origin of radio and X-ray filaments observed near the eastern edge of the W50 nebula surrounding the galactic jet source SS433.

  6. Impinging jet separators for liquid metal magnetohydrodynamic power cycles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogdanoff, D. W.

    1973-01-01

    In many liquid metal MHD power, cycles, it is necessary to separate the phases of a high-speed liquid-gas flow. The usual method is to impinge the jet at a glancing angle against a solid surface. These surface separators achieve good separation of the two phases at a cost of a large velocity loss due to friction at the separator surface. This report deals with attempts to greatly reduce the friction loss by impinging two jets against each other. In the crude impinging jet separators tested to date, friction losses were greatly reduced, but the separation of the two phases was found to be much poorer than that achievable with surface separators. Analyses are presented which show many lines of attack (mainly changes in separator geometry) which should yield much better separation for impinging jet separators).

  7. General relativistic magnetohydrodynamical simulations of the jet in M 87

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mościbrodzka, Monika; Falcke, Heino; Shiokawa, Hotaka

    2016-02-01

    Context. The connection between black hole, accretion disk, and radio jet can be constrained best by fitting models to observations of nearby low-luminosity galactic nuclei, in particular the well-studied sources Sgr A* and M 87. There has been considerable progress in modeling the central engine of active galactic nuclei by an accreting supermassive black hole coupled to a relativistic plasma jet. However, can a single model be applied to a range of black hole masses and accretion rates? Aims: Here we want to compare the latest three-dimensional numerical model, originally developed for Sgr A* in the center of the Milky Way, to radio observations of the much more powerful and more massive black hole in M 87. Methods: We postprocess three-dimensional GRMHD models of a jet-producing radiatively inefficient accretion flow around a spinning black hole using relativistic radiative transfer and ray-tracing to produce model spectra and images. As a key new ingredient in these models, we allow the proton-electron coupling in these simulations depend on the magnetic properties of the plasma. Results: We find that the radio emission in M 87 is described well by a combination of a two-temperature accretion flow and a hot single-temperature jet. Most of the radio emission in our simulations comes from the jet sheath. The model fits the basic observed characteristics of the M 87 radio core: it is "edge-brightened", starts subluminally, has a flat spectrum, and increases in size with wavelength. The best fit model has a mass-accretion rate of Ṁ ~ 9 × 10-3M⊙ yr-1 and a total jet power of Pj ~ 1043 erg s-1. Emission at λ = 1.3 mm is produced by the counter-jet close to the event horizon. Its characteristic crescent shape surrounding the black hole shadow could be resolved by future millimeter-wave VLBI experiments. Conclusions: The model was successfully derived from one for the supermassive black hole in the center of the Milky Way by appropriately scaling mass and

  8. A General Relativistic Magnetohydrodynamics Simulation of Jet Formation with a State Transition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishikawa, K. I.; Richardson, G.; Koide, S.; Shibata, K.; Kudoh, T.; Hardee, P.; Fushman, G. J.

    2004-01-01

    We have performed the first fully three-dimensional general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) simulation of jet formation from a thin accretion disk around a Schwarzschild black hole with a free-falling corona. The initial simulation results show that a bipolar jet (velocity sim 0.3c) is created as shown by previous two-dimensional axisymmetric simulations with mirror symmetry at the equator. The 3-D simulation ran over one hundred light-crossing time units which is considerably longer than the previous simulations. We show that the jet is initially formed as predicted due in part to magnetic pressure from the twisting the initially uniform magnetic field and from gas pressure associated with shock formation. At later times, the accretion disk becomes thick and the jet fades resulting in a wind that is ejected from the surface of the thickened (torus-like) disk. It should be noted that no streaming matter from a donor is included at the outer boundary in the simulation (an isolated black hole not binary black hole). The wind flows outwards with a wider angle than the initial jet. The widening of the jet is consistent with the outward moving shock wave. This evolution of jet-disk coupling suggests that the low/hard state of the jet system may switch to the high/soft state with a wind, as the accretion rate diminishes.

  9. THE PARABOLIC JET STRUCTURE IN M87 AS A MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC NOZZLE

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, Masanori; Asada, Keiichi E-mail: asada@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw

    2013-10-01

    The structure and dynamics of the M87 jet from sub-milliarcsec to arcsecond scales are continuously examined. We analyzed the Very Long Baseline Array archival data taken at 43 and 86 GHz to measure the size of very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) cores. Millimeter/sub-millimeter VLBI cores are considered as innermost jet emissions, which has been originally suggested by Blandford and Königl. Those components fairly follow an extrapolated parabolic streamline in our previous study so that the jet has a single power-law structure with nearly 5 orders of magnitude in the distance starting from the vicinity of the supermassive black hole (SMBH), less than 10 Schwarzschild radius (r{sub s}). We further inspect the jet parabolic structure as a counterpart of the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) nozzle in order to identify the property of a bulk acceleration. We interpret that the parabolic jet consists of Poynting-flux dominated flows, powered by large-amplitude, nonlinear torsional Alfvén waves. We examine the non-relativistic MHD nozzle equation in a parabolic shape. The nature of trans-fast magnetosonic flow is similar to the one of transonic solution of Parker's hydrodynamic solar wind; the jet becomes super-escape as well as super-fast magnetosonic at around ∼10{sup 3} r{sub s}, while the upstream trans-Alfvénic flow speed increases linearly as a function of the distance at ∼10{sup 2}-10{sup 3} r{sub s}. We here point out that this is the first evidence to identify these features in astrophysical jets. We propose that the M87 jet is magnetically accelerated, but thermally confined by the stratified interstellar medium inside the sphere of gravitational influence of the SMBH potential, which may be a norm in active galactic nucleus jets.

  10. The effect of compressibility on magnetohydrodynamic jets and Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Praturi, Divya Sri; Girimaji, Sharath

    2015-11-01

    We investigate the effect of compressibility and magnetic field on the evolution of planar magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) jets. These jets are susceptible to Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability when subjected to an in-plane transverse velocity perturbation. Various linear stability analyses have shown that compressibility and magnetic field along the jet have a stabilizing influence on the KH instability. We performed three-dimensional numerical simulations using magneto gas kinetic method (MGKM) to study the effect of the Mach number, Alfvén Mach number, and the orientation of the magnetic field with respect to the jet velocity direction on the flow-field evolution. In MGKM, the magnetic effects are added as source terms in the hydrodynamic gas kinetic scheme which also take into account the non-ideal MHD terms for finite plasma conductivity and the Hall effects. An in-depth analysis of linear and nonlinear physics is presented. The first author was supported by Texas A&M University Institute for Advanced Study HEEP fellowship.

  11. Multiwave Interactions in Turbulent Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mankbadi, Reda R.

    1989-01-01

    Nonlinear wave-wave interactions in turbulent jets were investigated based on the integrated energy of each scale of motion in a cross section of the jet. The analysis indicates that two frequency components in the axisymmetric mode can interact with other background frequencies in the axisymmetric mode, thereby amplifying an enormous number of other frequencies. Two frequency components in a single helical mode cannot, by themselves, amplify other frequency components. But combinations of frequency components of helical and axisymmetric modes can amplify other frequencies in other helical modes. The present computations produce several features consistent with experimental observations such as: (1) dependency of the interactions on the initial phase differences, (2) enhancement of the momentum thickness under multifrequency forcing, and (3) the increase in background turbulence under forcing. In a multifrequency-excited jet, mixing enhancement was found to be a result of the turbulence enhancement rather than simply the amplification of forced wave components. The excitation waves pump energy from the mean flow to the turbulence, thus enhancing the latter. The high frequency waves enhance the turbulence close to the jet exit, but, the low frequency waves are most effective further downstream.

  12. 3D Relativistic Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations of Magnetized Spine-Sheath Relativistic Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mizuno, Yosuke; Hardee, Philip; Nishikawa, Ken-Ichi

    2006-01-01

    Numerical simulations of weakly magnetized and strongly magnetized relativistic jets embedded in a weakly magnetized and strongly magnetized stationary or weakly relativistic (v = c/2) sheath have been performed. A magnetic field parallel to the flow is used in these simulations performed by the new GRMHD numerical code RAISHIN used in its RMHD configuration. In the numerical simulations the Lorentz factor gamma = 2.5 jet is precessed to break the initial equilibrium configuration. In the simulations sound speeds are less than or equal to c/the square root of 3 in the weakly magnetized simulations and less than or equal to 0.56 c in the strongly magnetized simulations. The Alfven wave speed is less than or equal to 0.07 c in the weakly magnetized simulations and less than or equal to 0.56 c in the strongly magnetized simulations. The results of the numerical simulations are compared to theoretical predictions from a normal mode analysis of the linearized relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (RMHD) equations capable of describing a uniform axially magnetized cylindrical relativistic jet embedded in a uniform axially magnetized relativistically moving sheath. The theoretical dispersion relation allows investigation of effects associated with maximum possible sound speeds, Alfven wave speeds near light speed and relativistic sheath speeds. The prediction of increased stability of the weakly magnetized system resulting from c/2 sheath speeds and the stabilization of the strongly magnetized system resulting from c/2 sheath speeds is verified by the numerical simulation results.

  13. Driving Solar Spicules and Jets with Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence: Testing a Persistent Idea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cranmer, Steven R.; Woolsey, Lauren N.

    2015-10-01

    The solar chromosphere contains thin, highly dynamic strands of plasma known as spicules. Recently, it has been suggested that the smallest and fastest (Type II) spicules are identical to intermittent jets observed by the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph. These jets appear to expand out along open magnetic field lines rooted in unipolar network regions of coronal holes. In this paper we revisit a thirty-year-old idea that spicules may be caused by upward forces associated with Alfvén waves. These forces involve the conversion of transverse Alfvén waves into compressive acoustic-like waves that steepen into shocks. The repeated buffeting due to upward shock propagation causes nonthermal expansion of the chromosphere and a transient levitation of the transition region (TR). Some older models of wave-driven spicules assumed sinusoidal wave inputs, but the solar atmosphere is highly turbulent and stochastic. Thus, we model this process using the output of a time-dependent simulation of reduced magnetohydrodynamic turbulence. The resulting mode-converted compressive waves are strongly variable in time, with a higher TR occurring when the amplitudes are large and a lower TR when the amplitudes are small. In this picture, the TR bobs up and down by several Mm on timescales less than a minute. These motions produce narrow, intermittent extensions of the chromosphere that have similar properties as the observed jets and Type II spicules.

  14. Two-dimensional non-reacting jet-gas mixing in an MHD (magnetohydrodynamic) second stage combustor

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, S.L.; Lottes, S.A.; Berry, G.F.

    1990-01-01

    Computer simulation is used to aid in the design of a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) second stage combustor. A two-dimensional steady state computer model, based on mass and momentum conservation laws for multiple gas species, is used to simulate the hydrodynamics of the combustor in which a jet of oxidizer is injected into a confined cross-stream gas flow. The model predicts jet-gas mixing patterns by computing the velocity and species concentration distributions in the combustor. In this paper the effects of parametric variation of jet angle and flow symmetry on the mixing patterns were evaluated. The modeling helps to determine better mixing patterns for the combustor design because improved mixing can increase combustion efficiency and enhance MHD generator performance. A parametric study reveals that (1) non-reacting jet-gas mixing strongly depends on jet angle for coflow injection (jet angle < 90 degrees), (2) counterflow jets have better jet-gas mixing, (3) asymmetry of the inlet gas flow affects the mixing pattern, and (4) exit flow characteristics from two-dimensional simulation can be matched reasonably well with experimental data when experimental jet and simulated slot jet Reynolds numbers are of the same order. 12 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. The interaction of a magnetohydrodynamical shock with a filament

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldsmith, K. J. A.; Pittard, J. M.

    2016-09-01

    We present 3D magnetohydrodynamic numerical simulations of the adiabatic interaction of a shock with a dense, filamentary cloud. We investigate the effects of various filament lengths and orientations on the interaction using different orientations of the magnetic field, and vary the Mach number of the shock, the density contrast of the filament χ, and the plasma beta, in order to determine their effect on the evolution and lifetime of the filament. We find that in a parallel magnetic field filaments have longer lifetimes if they are orientated more `broadside' to the shock front, and that an increase in χ hastens the destruction of the cloud, in terms of the modified cloud-crushing time-scale, tcs. The combination of a mild shock and a perpendicular or oblique field provides the best condition for extending the life of the filament, with some filaments able to survive almost indefinitely since they are cocooned by the magnetic field. A high value for χ does not initiate large turbulent instabilities in either the perpendicular or oblique field cases but rather draws the filament out into long tendrils which may eventually fragment. In addition, flux ropes are only formed in parallel magnetic fields. The length of the filament is, however, not as important for the evolution and destruction of a filament.

  16. Nonlinear wave interactions in shallow water magnetohydrodynamics of astrophysical plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimachkov, D. A.; Petrosyan, A. S.

    2016-05-01

    The rotating magnetohydrodynamic flows of a thin layer of astrophysical and space plasmas with a free surface in a vertical external magnetic field are considered in the shallow water approximation. The presence of a vertical external magnetic field changes significantly the dynamics of wave processes in an astrophysical plasma, in contrast to a neutral fluid and a plasma layer in an external toroidal magnetic field. There are three-wave nonlinear interactions in the case under consideration. Using the asymptotic method of multiscale expansions, we have derived nonlinear equations for the interaction of wave packets: three magneto- Poincare waves, three magnetostrophic waves, two magneto-Poincare and one magnetostrophic waves, and two magnetostrophic and one magneto-Poincare waves. The existence of decay instabilities and parametric amplification is predicted. We show that a magneto-Poincare wave decays into two magneto-Poincare waves, a magnetostrophic wave decays into two magnetostrophic waves, a magneto-Poincare wave decays into one magneto-Poincare and one magnetostrophic waves, and a magnetostrophic wave decays into one magnetostrophic and one magneto-Poincare waves. There are the following parametric amplification mechanisms: the parametric amplification of magneto-Poincare waves, the parametric amplification of magnetostrophic waves, the amplification of a magneto-Poincare wave in the field of a magnetostrophic wave, and the amplification of a magnetostrophic wave in the field of a magneto-Poincare wave. The instability growth rates and parametric amplification factors have been found for the corresponding processes.

  17. General Relativistic Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations of Jets from Black Hole Accretions Disks: Two-Component Jets Driven by Nonsteady Accretion of Magnetized Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koide, Shinji; Shibata, Kazunari; Kudoh, Takahiro

    1998-03-01

    The radio observations have revealed the compelling evidence of the existence of relativistic jets not only from active galactic nuclei but also from ``microquasars'' in our Galaxy. In the cores of these objects, it is believed that a black hole exists and that violent phenomena occur in the black hole magnetosphere, forming the relativistic jets. To simulate the jet formation in the magnetosphere, we have newly developed the general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic code. Using the code, we present a model of these relativistic jets, in which magnetic fields penetrating the accretion disk around a black hole play a fundamental role of inducing nonsteady accretion and ejection of plasmas. According to our simulations, a jet is ejected from a close vicinity to a black hole (inside 3rS, where rS is the Schwarzschild radius) at a maximum speed of ~90% of the light velocity (i.e., a Lorentz factor of ~2). The jet has a two-layered shell structure consisting of a fast gas pressure-driven jet in the inner part and a slow magnetically driven jet in the outer part, both of which are collimated by the global poloidal magnetic field penetrating the disk. The former jet is a result of a strong pressure increase due to shock formation in the disk through fast accretion flow (``advection-dominated disk'') inside 3rS, which has never been seen in the nonrelativistic calculations.

  18. Radio Jet Interactions with Massive Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z.; Wiita, P. J.; Joyce, J.; Hooda, J. S.

    1998-12-01

    Rather high resolution three-dimensional simulations of hydrodynamical jets are computed using the Zeus-3D code. The parameters we employ are suitable for moderate to high power radio jets emerging through a galactic atmosphere or halo, and eventually crossing a tilted pressure matched interface with a hotter intracluster medium. Before they cross this interface, these simulations aim the jets so that they hit massive clouds within the galactic halo, with densities 10 or more times higher than the ambient atmospheric density, and 100's of times the jet density. Such clouds are set up with radii several times that of the jet, and could correspond to giant molecular cloud complexes or small cannibalized galaxies. We find that powerful jets eventually disperse the clouds, but that, for off-center collisions, non-axisymmetric instabilities are induced in those jets. Those instabilities grow faster for lower Mach number jets, and can produce disruptions substantially sooner than occurred in our earlier work on jets crossing tilted interfaces in the absence of collisions with massive clouds. Such interactions, particularly with weaker jets, could be related to some Compact Steep Spectrum source morphologies. Very weak jets can be effectively halted by reasonably massive clouds, and this may have relevance for the paucity of radio jets in spiral galaxies. The possibility of jets being bent, yet remaining stable, after such collisions is also investigated. This work was supported by NPACI allocation GSU200 on the Cray T90 and by RPE funds at Georgia State University.

  19. Towards Observational Astronomy of Jets in Active Galaxies from General Relativistic Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anantua, Richard; Roger Blandford, Jonathan McKinney and Alexander Tchekhovskoy

    2016-01-01

    We carry out the process of "observing" simulations of active galactic nuclei (AGN) with relativistic jets (hereafter called jet/accretion disk/black hole (JAB) systems) from ray tracing between image plane and source to convolving the resulting images with a point spread function. Images are generated at arbitrary observer angle relative to the black hole spin axis by implementing spatial and temporal interpolation of conserved magnetohydrodynamic flow quantities from a time series of output datablocks from fully general relativistic 3D simulations. We also describe the evolution of simulations of JAB systems' dynamical and kinematic variables, e.g., velocity shear and momentum density, respectively, and the variation of these variables with respect to observer polar and azimuthal angles. We produce, at frequencies from radio to optical, fixed observer time intensity and polarization maps using various plasma physics motivated prescriptions for the emissivity function of physical quantities from the simulation output, and analyze the corresponding light curves. Our hypothesis is that this approach reproduces observed features of JAB systems such as superluminal bulk flow projections and quasi-periodic oscillations in the light curves more closely than extant stylized analytical models, e.g., cannonball bulk flows. Moreover, our development of user-friendly, versatile C++ routines for processing images of state-of-the-art simulations of JAB systems may afford greater flexibility for observing a wide range of sources from high power BL-Lacs to low power quasars (possibly with the same simulation) without requiring years of observation using multiple telescopes. Advantages of observing simulations instead of observing astrophysical sources directly include: the absence of a diffraction limit, panoramic views of the same object and the ability to freely track features. Light travel time effects become significant for high Lorentz factor and small angles between

  20. Radio jet interactions with massive clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiita, Paul J.; Wang, Zhongxiang; Hooda, Jagbir S.

    2002-05-01

    Three-dimensional simulations of light hydrodynamic jets are computed using the Zeus-3D code. We employ parameters corresponding to moderate to high power radio jets emerging through a galactic atmosphere or halo, and eventually crossing a tilted pressure matched interface with a hotter intracluster medium. These simulations aim the jets so that they hit massive dense clouds within the galactic halo. Such clouds are set up with radii several times that of the jet, and nominally correspond to giant molecular cloud complexes or small cannibalized galaxies. We find that powerful jets eventually disperse the clouds, but that, for the off-center collisions considered, non-axisymmetric instabilities are induced in those jets. Those instabilities grow faster for lower Mach number jets, and can produce disruptions substantially sooner than occurred in our earlier work on jets in the absence of collisions with massive clouds. Such interactions could be related to some Compact Steep Spectrum source morphologies. Very weak jets can be effectively halted by reasonably massive clouds, and this may have relevance for the paucity of radio jets in spiral galaxies. Slow, dense jets may be bent, yet remain stable for fairly extended times, thereby explaining some Wide-Angle-Tail and most "dog-leg" morphologies.

  1. Interaction of a supersonic, radiatively cooled plasma jet with an ambient medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki-Vidal, F.; Bocchi, M.; Lebedev, S. V.; Swadling, G. F.; Burdiak, G.; Bland, S. N.; de Grouchy, P.; Hall, G. N.; Harvey-Thompson, A. J.; Khoory, E.; Patankar, S.; Pickworth, L.; Skidmore, J.; Smith, R.; Chittenden, J. P.; Krishnan, M.; Madden, R. E.; Wilson-Elliot, K.; Ciardi, A.; Frank, A.

    2012-02-01

    An experimental investigation into the interaction of a supersonic, radiatively cooled plasma jet with argon gas is presented. The jet is formed by ablation of an aluminum foil driven by a 1.4 MA, 250 ns current pulse in a radial foil Z-pinch configuration. The outflow consists of a supersonic (Mach number ˜3-5), dense (ion density ni ˜ 1018 cm-3), highly collimated (half-opening angle ˜2°-5°) jet surrounded by a lower density halo plasma moving with the same axial velocity as the jet. The addition of argon above the foil leads to the formation of a shock driven by the ablation of halo plasma, together with a bow-shock driven by the dense jet. Experimental data with and without the presence of argon are compared with three-dimensional, magneto-hydrodynamic simulations using the GORGON code.

  2. Minimum induced drag configurations with jet interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pao, J. L.; Lan, C. E.

    1978-01-01

    A theoretical method is presented for determining the optimum camber shape and twist distribution for the minimum induced drag in the wing-alone case without prescribing the span loading shape. The same method was applied to find the corresponding minimum induced drag configuration with the upper-surface-blowing jet. Lan's quasi-vortex-lattice method and his wing-jet interaction theory was used. Comparison of the predicted results with another theoretical method shows good agreement for configurations without the flowing jet. More applicable experimental data with blowing jets are needed to establish the accuracy of the theory.

  3. Exotic interactions among C-jets and Pb-jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The C-jets and Pb-jets were surveyed on the part of Chacaltaya emulsion chamber No.19 amounting to an exposure of 28.8 sq m yr. It is shown that the adopted events make up an unbiased sample of C-jets for sigma sub E gamma TeV. Mini-Centauro interaction gives the most natural explanation for the eight pinaught-less C-jets with three or more constituent shower core. Out of the eight double-cored pinaught-less events, three are found to have visible invariant masses 1.8 GeV/c. Three Pb-jets-lower are composed of double cores whose respective visible transverse momenta are greater than 0.5 GeV/c, suggesting that they are of Geminion origin or chiron origin. The energies of the parent particles are estimated to be 100 to 200 TeV for all three kinds of events. The implications of this energy estimate and the frequency of observed exotic events are discussed.

  4. Battery-Powered RF Pre-Ionization System for the Caltech Magnetohydrodynamically-Driven Jet Experiment: RF Discharge Properties and MHD-Driven Jet Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaplin, Vernon H.

    This thesis describes investigations of two classes of laboratory plasmas with rather different properties: partially ionized low pressure radiofrequency (RF) discharges, and fully ionized high density magnetohydrodynamically (MHD)-driven jets. An RF pre-ionization system was developed to enable neutral gas breakdown at lower pressures and create hotter, faster jets in the Caltech MHD-Driven Jet Experiment. The RF plasma source used a custom pulsed 3 kW 13.56 MHz RF power amplifier that was powered by AA batteries, allowing it to safely float at 4-6 kV with the cathode of the jet experiment. The argon RF discharge equilibrium and transport properties were analyzed, and novel jet dynamics were observed. Although the RF plasma source was conceived as a wave-heated helicon source, scaling measurements and numerical modeling showed that inductive coupling was the dominant energy input mechanism. A one-dimensional time-dependent fluid model was developed to quantitatively explain the expansion of the pre-ionized plasma into the jet experiment chamber. The plasma transitioned from an ionizing phase with depressed neutral emission to a recombining phase with enhanced emission during the course of the experiment, causing fast camera images to be a poor indicator of the density distribution. Under certain conditions, the total visible and infrared brightness and the downstream ion density both increased after the RF power was turned off. The time-dependent emission patterns were used for an indirect measurement of the neutral gas pressure. The low-mass jets formed with the aid of the pre-ionization system were extremely narrow and collimated near the electrodes, with peak density exceeding that of jets created without pre-ionization. The initial neutral gas distribution prior to plasma breakdown was found to be critical in determining the ultimate jet structure. The visible radius of the dense central jet column was several times narrower than the axial current channel

  5. A magnetohydrodynamic model of the M87 jet. II. Self-consistent quad-shock jet model for optical relativistic motions and particle acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, Masanori

    2014-04-20

    We describe a new paradigm for understanding both relativistic motions and particle acceleration in the M87 jet: a magnetically dominated relativistic flow that naturally produces four relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) shocks (forward/reverse fast and slow modes). We apply this model to a set of optical super- and subluminal motions discovered by Biretta and coworkers with the Hubble Space Telescope during 1994-1998. The model concept consists of ejection of a single relativistic Poynting jet, which possesses a coherent helical (poloidal + toroidal) magnetic component, at the remarkably flaring point HST-1. We are able to reproduce quantitatively proper motions of components seen in the optical observations of HST-1 with the same model we used previously to describe similar features in radio very long baseline interferometry observations in 2005-2006. This indicates that the quad relativistic MHD shock model can be applied generally to recurring pairs of super/subluminal knots ejected from the upstream edge of the HST-1 complex as observed from radio to optical wavelengths, with forward/reverse fast-mode MHD shocks then responsible for observed moving features. Moreover, we identify such intrinsic properties as the shock compression ratio, degree of magnetization, and magnetic obliquity and show that they are suitable to mediate diffusive shock acceleration of relativistic particles via the first-order Fermi process. We suggest that relativistic MHD shocks in Poynting-flux-dominated helical jets may play a role in explaining observed emission and proper motions in many active galactic nuclei.

  6. Interaction of small-amplitude fluctuations with a strong magnetohydrodynamic shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, H.-C.; Russell, C. T.

    1982-05-01

    The interaction of small fluctuations with a strong magnetohydrodynamic shock is considered theoretically in the most general situation using an ideal model. An analytical treatment of the cutoff conditions for penetration of the upstream fluctuation through the bow shock is presented. The situation in which there exist unique solutions of the interaction is investigated quantitatively. Numerical examples of the interaction of waves in the solar wind with the terrestrial bow shock are given to illustrate the refracted waves to be found in the earth's magnetosheath.

  7. Interaction of small-amplitude fluctuations with a strong magnetohydrodynamic shock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhuang, H.-C.; Russell, C. T.

    1982-01-01

    The interaction of small fluctuations with a strong magnetohydrodynamic shock is considered theoretically in the most general situation using an ideal model. An analytical treatment of the cutoff conditions for penetration of the upstream fluctuation through the bow shock is presented. The situation in which there exist unique solutions of the interaction is investigated quantitatively. Numerical examples of the interaction of waves in the solar wind with the terrestrial bow shock are given to illustrate the refracted waves to be found in the earth's magnetosheath.

  8. Relativistic jet interaction with forming galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bicknell, Geoffrey Vincent; Mukherjee, Dipanjan; Wagner, Alex; Slatyer Sutherland, Ralph

    2015-08-01

    We are conducting simulations of jets interacting with molecular and atomic gas on scales of a few kpc in forming galaxies. Competing processes, such as the dispersion of gas in the galaxy and star formation in the high-pressure environment determine whether positive or negative feedback predominates. We shall present our new simulations including an assessment of these different effects. Our simulations also predict the velocity and velocity dispersion of atomic and molecular gas in galaxies, which are undergoing interaction with relativistic jets. These results are of interest to radio and optical spectral imaging observations of galaxies undergoing feedback. The other product of our simulations is the determination of the free-free optical depth due to free-free absorption. This is relevant to the low frequency turnover in Gigahertz Peak Spectrum and Compact Steep Spectrum radio sources.

  9. Particle-jet interactions in an MHD second stage combustor

    SciTech Connect

    Lottes, S.A.; Chang, S.L.

    1992-07-01

    An Argonne two-phase combustion flow computer code is used to simulate reacting flows to aid in the development of an advanced combustor for magnetohydrodynamic power generation. The combustion code is a general hydrodynamics computer code for two-phase, two- dimensional, steady state, turbulent, and reacting flows, based on mass, momentum, and energy conservation laws for multiple gas species and particles. The combustion code includes turbulence, integral combustion, and particle evaporation submodels. A recently developed integral combustion submodel makes calculations more efficient and more stable while still preserving the major physical effects of the complex combustion processes. The combustor under investigation is a magnetohydrodynamic second stage combustor in which opposed jets of oxidizer are injected into a confined cross-stream of hot coal gas flow following a first stage swirl combustor. The simulation is intended to enhance the understanding the of seed particle evaporation in the combustor and evaluate the effects of combustor operating conditions on seed particle evaporation and vapor dispersion, which directly affect overall magnetohydrodynamic power generation. Computation results show that oxidizer jet angle and particle size may greatly affect particle evaporation and vapor dispersion. At a jet angle about 130 degrees, particle evaporation rate is the highest because of the highest average gas temperature. As particle size increases beyond 10 microns in diameter, the effects of particle size on wall deposition rate, evaporation delay, and downstream seed vapor dispersion become more pronounced. 16 refs., 10 figs.

  10. Acoustics of Jet Surface Interaction - Scrubbing Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khavaran, Abbas

    2014-01-01

    Concepts envisioned for the future of civil air transport consist of unconventional propulsion systems in the close proximity to the structure or embedded in the airframe. While such integrated systems are intended to shield noise from the community, they also introduce new sources of sound. Sound generation due to interaction of a jet flow past a nearby solid surface is investigated here using the generalized acoustic analogy theory. The analysis applies to the boundary layer noise generated at and near a wall, and excludes the scattered noise component that is produced at the leading or the trailing edge. While compressibility effects are relatively unimportant at very low Mach numbers, frictional heat generation and thermal gradient normal to the surface could play important roles in generation and propagation of sound in high speed jets of practical interest. A general expression is given for the spectral density of the far field sound as governed by the variable density Pridmore-Brown equation. The propagation Green's function is solved numerically for a high aspect-ratio rectangular jet starting with the boundary conditions on the surface and subject to specified mean velocity and temperature profiles between the surface and the observer. It is shown the magnitude of the Green's function decreases with increasing source frequency and/or jet temperature. The phase remains constant for a rigid surface, but varies with source location when subject to an impedance type boundary condition. The Green's function in the absence of the surface, and flight effects are also investigated

  11. Analysis of some acoustics-jet flow interaction problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chow, P. L.

    1984-01-01

    Analytical problems in the interactions between the mean-shear flows and the acoustic field in the planar and circular jets are examined. These problems are basic in understanding the effects of coherent large structure on the generation and complications of sound in a sub-sonic jet. Three problems were investigated: (1) spatial (vs. temporal) normal mode analysis in a planar jets; (2) a slightly divergent, planar jet; and (3) acoustic waves in an axisymmetrical jet.

  12. Measurements of velocity shear and ion viscosity profile in a magnetohydrodynamic plasma jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorf, L. A.; Intrator, T.; Sun, X.; Hendryx, J.; Wurden, G. A.; Furno, I.; Lapenta, G.

    2010-10-01

    Time-dependent, two-dimensional profiles of the axial flow velocity, density, electron temperature, and magnetic field components are measured at two axial locations in a screw pinch plasma column of the reconnection scaling experiment. The results show that the ion momentum flux for a given column radius is dissipated by the ion-ion Coulomb scattering viscosity due to a significant radial shear of the axial velocity. By comparing the terms of the magnetohydrodynamic momentum balance equation, radial profile of ion viscosity is determined. Chord-integrated ion temperature measurements performed at several radial locations using Doppler broadening spectroscopy show ion temperature of about 1 eV. Measured ion viscosity agrees within a factor of 2 with the classical Braginskii expectations.

  13. Measurements of velocity shear and ion viscosity profile in a magnetohydrodynamic plasma jet

    SciTech Connect

    Dorf, L. A.; Intrator, T.; Sun, X.; Hendryx, J.; Wurden, G. A.; Furno, I; Lapenta, G.

    2010-10-15

    Time-dependent, two-dimensional profiles of the axial flow velocity, density, electron temperature, and magnetic field components are measured at two axial locations in a screw pinch plasma column of the reconnection scaling experiment. The results show that the ion momentum flux for a given column radius is dissipated by the ion-ion Coulomb scattering viscosity due to a significant radial shear of the axial velocity. By comparing the terms of the magnetohydrodynamic momentum balance equation, radial profile of ion viscosity is determined. Chord-integrated ion temperature measurements performed at several radial locations using Doppler broadening spectroscopy show ion temperature of about 1 eV. Measured ion viscosity agrees within a factor of 2 with the classical Braginskii expectations.

  14. General Relativistic Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations of Jet Formation with a Thin Keplerian Disk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mizuno, Yosuke; Nishikawa, Ken-Ichi; Koide, Shinji; Hardee, Philip; Gerald, J. Fishman

    2006-01-01

    We have performed several simulations of black hole systems (non-rotating, black hole spin parameter a = 0.0 and rapidly rotating, a = 0.95) with a geometrically thin Keplerian disk using the newly developed RAISHIN code. The simulation results show the formation of jets driven by the Lorentz force and the gas pressure gradient. The jets have mildly relativistic speed (greater than or equal to 0.4 c). The matter is continuously supplied from the accretion disk and the jet propagates outward until each applicable terminal simulation time (non-rotating: t/tau S = 275 and rotating: t/tau S = 200, tau s equivalent to r(sub s/c). It appears that a rotating black hole creates an additional, faster, and more collimated inner outflow (greater than or equal to 0.5 c) formed and accelerated by the twisted magnetic field resulting from frame-dragging in the black hole ergosphere. This new result indicates that jet kinematic structure depends on black hole rotation.

  15. Three-dimensional Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations of Relativistic Jets Injected into an Oblique Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishikawa, Ken-Ichi; Koide, Shinji; Sakai, Jun-ichi; Christodoulou, Dimitris M.; Sol, Hélène; Mutel, Robert L.

    1998-05-01

    We discuss the structure and relativistic kinematics that develop in three spatial dimensions when a moderately hot, supersonic jet propagates into a denser background medium and encounters resistance from an oblique magnetic field. Our simulations incorporate relativistic MHD in a four-dimensional spacetime and clearly show that (1) relatively weak, oblique fields (at 1/16 of the equipartition value) have only a negligible influence on the propagating jet and they are passively pushed away by the relativistically moving head; (2) oblique fields in equipartition with the ambient plasma provide more resistance and cause bending at the jet head but the magnitude of this deflection and the associated backflow are small compared to those identified by previous studies. The new results are understood as follows: Relativistic simulations have consistently shown that these jets are effectively heavy, and so they do not suffer substantial momentum losses and are not decelerated as efficiently as their nonrelativistic counterparts. In addition, the ambient magnetic field, however strong, can be pushed aside with relative ease by the beam, provided that the degrees of freedom associated with all three spatial dimensions are followed self-consistently during the simulations. The effect is analogous to pushing Japanese ``noren'' or vertical venetian blinds out of the way while the slats are allowed to bend in three-dimensional space rather than as a two-dimensional slab structure. Applied to relativistic extragalactic jets from blazars, the new results are encouraging, since superluminal outflows exhibit bending near their sources and their environments are profoundly magnetized--but observations do not provide support for irregular kinematics such as large-scale vortical motions and pronounced reverse flows near the points of origin.

  16. Profile-turbulence interactions, magnetohydrodynamic relaxations, and transport in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Thyagaraja, A.; Knight, P.J.; Baar, M.R. de; Hogeweij, G.M.D.; Min, E.

    2005-09-15

    The dynamical behavior of the global, two-fluid, electromagnetic model of a tokamak plasma is explored under conditions corresponding to the Rijnhuizen tokamak project [A. J. H. Donne, Plasma Phys. Rep. 20, 192 (1994)] using the CUTIE code [A. Thyagaraja, Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 42, B255 (2000)]. Simulations of an off-axis electron-cyclotron-heated (350 kW) hydrogen discharge and a purely Ohmic one over several resistive evolution times ({tau}{sub res}{approx_equal}15-20 ms) are described. The results illustrate profile-turbulence interactions and the spectral transfer processes implicated in the spontaneous generation and maintenance of mesoscale zonal flows and dynamo currents. Relaxation phenomena, including off- and on-axis sawteeth and periodically repeating edge ballooning instabilities mediated by these mechanisms, are presented. The CUTIE model reproduces many observed features of the experiment qualitatively and suggests that global electromagnetic simulations may play an essential role in understanding tokamak turbulence and transport.

  17. Jet-Supercavity Interaction: Insights from Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moeny, M. J.; Krane, M. H.; Kirschner, I. N.; Kinzel, M. P.

    2015-12-01

    An experimental study was performed to evaluate some of the claims of Paryshev (2006) regarding changes to ventilated cavity behavior caused by the interaction of a jet with the cavity closure region. The experiments, conducted in the 1.22m dia. Garfield Thomas Water Tunnel, were performed for EDD to tunnel diameter of 0.022, Fr = 14.5 and 26.2. The model consisted of a converging-section nozzle mounted to the base of a 27.9mm 37° cone cavitator placed on the tunnel centerline at the end of a 138.4mm long streamlined strut. A ventilated cavity was formed over the model, then an air jet, issuing from a converging nozzle, was initiated. Changes to cavity behavior were quantified in terms of cavitation number, thrust-to- drag ratio, and stagnation pressure ratio at the jet nozzle. The results show that, while the overall trends predicted by Paryshev were observed, the data did not fully collapse, suggesting that many of the effects neglected by Paryshev's model have measureable effect.

  18. Physics and evolution of constant opening angle jets using a quasi-one-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koupelis, Theodoros

    1994-01-01

    We discuss the significance of the assumptions of infinite conductivity and time independence in the context of an ideal MHD model for constant opening angle jets. The model is developed by projecting the MHD equations onto the jet axis. We find that for initially sub-Alfvenic flows (i.e., flows emanating from active galactic nuclei and neutron stars) wind-type solutions exist only when the field lines at the origin are wound up in a direction opposite to the direction of rotation of the compact source. We discuss the possibility that the time evolution of these outflows may be a cycle between breeze- and wind-type solutions as a result of continuous changes in the boundary conditions at the origin due to accretion. We propose that such cycles may explain the apparent one-sideness of some jets, especially the ones for which we cannot use arguments of relativistic beaming. We examine the dependence of the wind-type solutions on the following parameters describing the outflow at the origin: the degree of winding of the field lines, the value of the gas pressure, the polytropic index, the strength of the magnetic field, the value of the rotational velocity, the gravitational potential of the compact object, and the injection velocity. We compare results with results obtained previously, and discuss briefly the qualitative features and physical interpretation of the solutions for outflows emanating from neutron stars and protostars.

  19. Liquid metal magnetohydrodynamic flows in circular ducts at intermediate Hartmann numbers and interaction parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molokov, S.; Reed, C. B.

    2003-12-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic flows in circular ducts in nonuniform magnetic fields are studied with reference to liquid metal blankets and divertors of fusion reactors. Flows in small and medium size reactors are characterized by moderate and low values of the Hartmann number (˜ 50-2000) and the interaction parameter (˜ 0.1-1000). The validity of the high-Hartmann number flow model for the intermediate range is discussed and the results of theoretical and experimental investigations are presented. Tables 2, Figs 5, Refs 8.

  20. Wind Instability and Interaction of Vibrations of a Thin Plate with a Magnetohydrodynamic Hypersonic Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gestrin, S. G.; Gorbatenko, B. B.; Mezhonnova, A. S.

    2016-05-01

    It is shown that the resonance effect of a magnetohydrodynamic hypersonic shear flow on an elastic plate placed in it causes the development of wind instability. Plate bending oscillations propagating along the flow are stabilized in the hypersonic flow regime, whereas waves running at an angle to the flow remain unstable. Expression derived for the instability increment allows conclusions about the effect of the magnetic field on the interaction of waves with the flow to be drawn as well as about the feasibility of its suppression in an unstable flow regime.

  1. Nucleosynthesis in a massive star associated with magnetohydrodynamical jets from collapsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, M.; Hashimoto, M.; Fujimoto, S.; Kotake, K.; Yamada, S.

    2012-11-01

    We investigate the nucleosynthesis during the stellar evolution and the jet-like supernova explosion of a massive star of 70 Msolar having the solar metallicity in the main sequence stage. The nucleosynthesis calculations have been performed with large nuclear reaction networks, where the weak s-, p-, and r-processes are taken into account. As a result s-elements of 60 > A > 90 and r-elements of 90 > A > 160 are highly overproduced relative to the solar system abundances. We find that the Sr-Y-Zr isotopes are primarily synthesized in the explosive nucleosynthesis which could be one of the sites of the lighter element primary process (LEPP).

  2. Nucleosynthesis in a massive star associated with magnetohydrodynamical jets from collapsars

    SciTech Connect

    Ono, M.; Hashimoto, M.; Fujimoto, S.; Kotake, K.; Yamada, S.

    2012-11-12

    We investigate the nucleosynthesis during the stellar evolution and the jet-like supernova explosion of a massive star of 70 M{sub Circled-Dot-Operator} having the solar metallicity in the main sequence stage. The nucleosynthesis calculations have been performed with large nuclear reaction networks, where the weak s-, p-, and r-processes are taken into account. As a result s-elements of 60 > A > 90 and r-elements of 90 > A > 160 are highly overproduced relative to the solar system abundances. We find that the Sr-Y-Zr isotopes are primarily synthesized in the explosive nucleosynthesis which could be one of the sites of the lighter element primary process (LEPP).

  3. Jet-intracluster medium interaction in Hydra A - I. Estimates of jet velocity from inner knots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nawaz, M. A.; Wagner, A. Y.; Bicknell, G. V.; Sutherland, R. S.; McNamara, B. R.

    2014-10-01

    We present the first stage of an investigation of the interactions of the jets in the radio galaxy Hydra A with the intracluster medium. We consider the jet kinetic power, the galaxy and cluster atmosphere and the inner structure of the radio source. Analysing radio observations of the inner lobes of Hydra A by Taylor et al. we confirm the jet power estimates ˜1045 erg s-1 derived by Wise et al. from dynamical analysis of the X-ray cavities. With this result and a model for the galaxy halo, we explore the jet-intracluster medium interactions occurring on a scale of 10 kpc using two-dimensional, axisymmetric, relativistic pure hydrodynamic simulations. A key feature is that we identify the three bright knots in the northern jet as biconical reconfinement shocks, which result when an overpressured jet starts to come into equilibrium with the galactic atmosphere. Through an extensive parameter space study we deduce that the jet velocity is approximately 0.8c at a distance 0.5 kpc from the black hole. The combined constraints of jet power, the observed jet radius profile along the jet and the estimated jet pressure and jet velocity imply a value of the jet density parameter χ ≈ 13 for the northern jet. We show that for a jet β = 0.8 and θ = 42°, an intrinsic asymmetry in the emissivity of the northern and southern jet is required for a consistent brightness ratio ≈7 estimated from the 6-cm Very Large Array image of Hydra A.

  4. Interaction of Hydra A jets with the intracluster medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nawaz, Mohammad Ali; Bicknell, Geoffrey Vincent; Wagner, Alex; Slatyer Sutherland, Ralph; McNamara, Brian

    2015-08-01

    An important research area of modern astronomy is to understand the physics of jets from Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) and their interaction with the interstellar medium (ISM) or intracluster medium (ICM). The aims of our project is to understand the energetics and composition of the jet near its origin, and its interaction with the ICM, focusing on detailed models of the inner structure of a spectacular radio source Hydra A. The key features of our modelling are that 1) We identify the four bright knots in the northern jet of Hydra A as biconical reconfinement shocks, which result when an over-pressured jet starts to come into equilibrium whit the galactic atmosphere 2) The curved morphology of the source and the turbulent transition of the jet to a plume are produced by the dynamical interaction of a precessing jet with the ICM. We provided an innovative theoretical approach to estimate the jet velocity from the information of the inner jet knots and the oscillation of the jet boundary. We also explored the complex morphology of the source and the heating of the ambient medium via the forward shock using a three dimensional precessing jet-ICM interaction model. With the 3D models We successfully reproduced key features of the source, for example, i) Four bright knots along the jet trajectory at approximately correct locations, 2) The curvature of the jet within 10 kpc, 3) The turbulent transition of the jet to a plume, and 4) A misaligned bright knot in the turbulent flaring zone. From our model we determined that the heating of the atmosphere by the jet would be gentle, which is consistent with the assessment of the physics of cooling flow.

  5. Analysis of interaction phenomena between liquid jets and materials [preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, S-W.; Reitter, T.; Carlson, G.

    1995-04-01

    The interaction phenomena of high-velocity liquid jets impinging on a material surface have been investigated theoretically and experimentally to understand the physics of material removal by jet-machining processes. Experiments were performed to delineate conditions under which liquid jet impacts will cause mass removal and to determine optimum jet-cutting conditions. Theoretical analyses have also been carried out to study the effects of multiple jet-droplet impacts on a target surface as a material deformation mechanism. The calculated target response and spallation behavior following droplet impacts and their physical implications are also discussed.

  6. Interaction of Relativistic Jets with Their Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna; Begelman, M. C.

    2014-01-01

    Relativistic jets such as those emitted by active galactic nuclei are observed to be collimated over great distances, but the cause of this collimation is uncertain. Also not fully understood are the means by which these jets become accelerated to their extreme velocities. To probe these questions, I examine the possibility of collimation and acceleration of relativistic jets by the pressure of the ambient medium surrounding the jet base, in the limit in which the jet interior has lost causal contact with its surroundings. I model the jet with an ultrarelativistic equation of state, injected into an ambient medium that has a pressure that decreases as a power of spherical radius, p ~ r^-n. Within the range 2jet interior will be out of causal contact, but the outer layers of the jet gradually collimate toward the jet axis, leading to the formation of a shocked boundary layer. By constructing partially self-similar solutions to the fluid equations within this boundary layer, I examine the impact of the external pressure profile on the behavior of the fluid in the layer. I determine both the structure of the jet and the rate of energy conversion from internal to kinetic as the jet propagates outward, establishing both the collimation and acceleration profiles of the jet. I will discuss the differences in predicted jet behavior based on whether the jet is purely hydrodynamic or whether the model also includes the effects of a toroidal magnetic field threading the jet interior. I will also describe the conditions that create specific observed jet morphology, such as the "hollow cone" structure seen in jets such as M87. Finally, I will discuss the specific application of these models to describe the relativistic jets that are created by some tidal disruption events --- events in which a star passing near a supermassive black hole (SMBH) is torn apart by tidal forces, and the star material then accretes back onto the SMBH --- such as in the observations of Swift

  7. Relativistic Jet Formation from Black Hole Magnetized Accretion Disks: Method, Tests, and Applications of a General RelativisticMagnetohydrodynamic Numerical Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koide, Shinji; Shibata, Kazunari; Kudoh, Takahiro

    1999-09-01

    Relativistic jets are observed in both active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and ``microquasars'' in our Galaxy. It is believed that these relativistic jets are ejected from the vicinity of black holes. To investigate the formation mechanism of these jets, we have developed a new general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) code. We report on the basic methods and test calculations to check whether the code reproduces some analytical solutions, such as a standing shock and a Keplerian disk with a steady state infalling corona or with a corona in hydrostatic equilibrium. We then apply the code to the formation of relativistic MHD jets, investigating the dynamics of an accretion disk initially threaded by a uniform poloidal magnetic field in a nonrotating corona (either in a steady state infall or in hydrostatic equilibrium) around a nonrotating black hole. The numerical results show the following: as time goes on, the disk loses angular momentum as a result of magnetic braking and falls into the black hole. The infalling motion of the disk, which is faster than in the nonrelativistic case because of general relativistic effects below 3rS (rS is the Schwarzschild radius), is strongly decelerated around r=2rS by centrifugal force to form a shock inside the disk. The magnetic field is tightly twisted by the differential rotation, and plasma in the shocked region of the disk is accelerated by the JXB force to form bipolar relativistic jets. In addition, and interior to, this magnetically driven jet, we also found a gas-pressure-driven jet ejected from the shocked region by the gas-pressure force. This two-layered jet structure is formed not only in the hydrostatic corona case but also in the steady state falling corona case.

  8. Jet-Surface Interaction Test: Far-Field Noise Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Clifford A.

    2012-01-01

    Many configurations proposed for the next generation of aircraft rely on the wing or other aircraft surfaces to shield the engine noise from the observers on the ground. However, the ability to predict the shielding effect and any new noise sources that arise from the high-speed jet flow interacting with a hard surface is currently limited. Furthermore, quality experimental data from jets with surfaces nearby suitable for developing and validating noise prediction methods are usually tied to a particular vehicle concept and, therefore, very complicated. The Jet/Surface Interaction Test was intended to supply a high quality set of data covering a wide range of surface geometries and positions and jet flows to researchers developing aircraft noise prediction tools. During phase one, the goal was to measure the noise of a jet near a simple planar surface while varying the surface length and location in order to: (1) validate noise prediction schemes when the surface is acting only as a jet noise shield and when the jet/surface interaction is creating additional noise, and (2) determine regions of interest for more detailed tests in phase two. To meet these phase one objectives, a flat plate was mounted on a two-axis traverse in two distinct configurations: (1) as a shield between the jet and the observer (microphone array) and (2) as a reflecting surface on the opposite side of the jet from the observer.

  9. Jet-intracluster medium interaction in Hydra A - II. The effect of jet precession

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nawaz, M. A.; Bicknell, G. V.; Wagner, A. Y.; Sutherland, R. S.; McNamara, B. R.

    2016-05-01

    We present three-dimensional relativistic hydrodynamical simulations of a precessing jet interacting with the intracluster medium and compare the simulated jet structure with the observed structure of the Hydra A northern jet. For the simulations, we use jet parameters obtained in the parameter space study of the first paper in this series and probe different values for the precession period and precession angle. We find that for a precession period P ≈ 1 Myr and a precession angle ψ ≈ 20°, the model reproduces (i) the curvature of the jet, (ii) the correct number of bright knots within 20 kpc at approximately correct locations and (iii) the turbulent transition of the jet to a plume. The Mach number of the advancing bow shock ≈1.85 is indicative of gentle cluster atmosphere heating during the early stages of the AGN's activity.

  10. Magnetohydrodynamic structure of a plasmoid in fast reconnection in low-beta plasmas: Shock-shock interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Zenitani, Seiji

    2015-03-15

    The shock structure of a plasmoid in magnetic reconnection in low-beta plasmas is investigated by two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations. Using a high-accuracy code with unprecedented resolution, shocks, discontinuities, and their intersections are resolved and clarified. Contact discontinuities emanate from triple-shock intersection points, separating fluids of different origins. Shock-diamonds inside the plasmoid appear to decelerate a supersonic flow. New shock-diamonds and a slow expansion fan are found inside the Petschek outflow. A sufficient condition for the new shock-diamonds and the relevance to astrophysical jets are discussed.

  11. LIF Measurement of Interacting Gas Jet Flow with Plane Wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagi, A.; Kurihara, S.; Yamazaki, S.; Ota, M.; Maeno, K.

    2011-05-01

    Discharging rarefied gas jets in low-pressure conditions are interesting and important phenomena from an engineering point of view. For example they relate to the attitude control of the space satellite, or the semiconductor technology. The jets, however, deform to the complicated shapes by interacting with solid walls. In this paper we have performed the experiments the flow visualization as a first step by applying the LIF (Laser Induced Fluorescence) method on the jet-wall interaction. Jet is spouting out from a φ1.0 mm circular hole into the low pressure air chamber, impinging on a flat plate. The LIF visualization of interacting rarefied gas jet is carried out by using the iodine (I2) tracer and argon ion laser.

  12. A Parametric Study of Jet Interactions with Rarefied Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, C. E.

    2004-01-01

    Three-dimensional computational techniques, in particular the uncoupled CFD-DSMC of the present study, are available to be applied to problems such as jet interactions with variable density regions ranging from a continuum jet to a rarefied free stream. When the value of the jet to free stream momentum flux ratio approximately greater than 2000 for a sharp leading edge flat plate forward separation vortices induced by the jet interaction are present near the surface. Also as the free stream number density n (infinity) decreases, the extent and magnitude of normalized pressure increases and moves upstream of the nozzle exit. Thus for the flat plate model the effect of decreasing n (infinity) is to change the sign of the moment caused by the jet interaction on the flat plate surface.

  13. Simulation of the Interaction Between Two Counterflowing Rarefied Jets

    SciTech Connect

    Galitzine, Cyril; Boyd, Iain D.

    2011-05-20

    A preliminary analysis of the flow between a jet of argon plasma and one containing argon excited states is conducted using the direct simulation Monte Carlo method (DSMC). As a prelude to the use of more advanced models and to help design the accompanying experiment, a simplified model is formulated that ignores electron kinetics and field effects. This model allows the capture of most of the gas dynamics phenomena present with a standard DSMC code. Two interaction criteria are then used and compared to analyze the flow pattern of the interaction. An increase in the mass flow rate of the neutral jet is found to increase the level of interaction between the jets.

  14. Simulation of the Interaction Between Two Counterflowing Rarefied Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galitzine, Cyril; Boyd, Iain D.

    2011-05-01

    A preliminary analysis of the flow between a jet of argon plasma and one containing argon excited states is conducted using the direct simulation Monte Carlo method (DSMC). As a prelude to the use of more advanced models and to help design the accompanying experiment, a simplified model is formulated that ignores electron kinetics and field effects. This model allows the capture of most of the gas dynamics phenomena present with a standard DSMC code. Two interaction criteria are then used and compared to analyze the flow pattern of the interaction. An increase in the mass flow rate of the neutral jet is found to increase the level of interaction between the jets.

  15. Developing an Empirical Model for Jet-Surface Interaction Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Clif

    2014-01-01

    The process of developing an empirical model for jet-surface interaction noise is described and the resulting model evaluated. Jet-surface interaction noise is generated when the high-speed engine exhaust from modern tightly integrated or conventional high-bypass ratio engine aircraft strikes or flows over the airframe surfaces. An empirical model based on an existing experimental database is developed for use in preliminary design system level studies where computation speed and range of configurations is valued over absolute accuracy to select the most promising (or eliminate the worst) possible designs. The model developed assumes that the jet-surface interaction noise spectra can be separated from the jet mixing noise and described as a parabolic function with three coefficients: peak amplitude, spectral width, and peak frequency. These coefficients are t to functions of surface length and distance from the jet lipline to form a characteristic spectra which is then adjusted for changes in jet velocity and/or observer angle using scaling laws from published theoretical and experimental work. The resulting model is then evaluated for its ability to reproduce the characteristic spectra and then for reproducing spectra measured at other jet velocities and observer angles; successes and limitations are discussed considering the complexity of the jet-surface interaction noise versus the desire for a model that is simple to implement and quick to execute.

  16. Developing an Empirical Model for Jet-Surface Interaction Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Clifford A.

    2014-01-01

    The process of developing an empirical model for jet-surface interaction noise is described and the resulting model evaluated. Jet-surface interaction noise is generated when the high-speed engine exhaust from modern tightly integrated or conventional high-bypass ratio engine aircraft strikes or flows over the airframe surfaces. An empirical model based on an existing experimental database is developed for use in preliminary design system level studies where computation speed and range of configurations is valued over absolute accuracy to select the most promising (or eliminate the worst) possible designs. The model developed assumes that the jet-surface interaction noise spectra can be separated from the jet mixing noise and described as a parabolic function with three coefficients: peak amplitude, spectral width, and peak frequency. These coefficients are fit to functions of surface length and distance from the jet lipline to form a characteristic spectra which is then adjusted for changes in jet velocity and/or observer angle using scaling laws from published theoretical and experimental work. The resulting model is then evaluated for its ability to reproduce the characteristic spectra and then for reproducing spectra measured at other jet velocities and observer angles; successes and limitations are discussed considering the complexity of the jet-surface interaction noise versus the desire for a model that is simple to implement and quick to execute.

  17. Analysis of interaction phenomena between liquid jets and materials

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Sang-Wook; Reitter, T.; Carlson, G.

    1995-02-01

    The interaction phenomena of high-velocity liquid jets impinging on a material surface have been investigated theoretically and experimentally to gain an understanding of the physical mechanisms involved in material removal by fluidjet machining processes. Experiments were performed to determine conditions under which the liquid jet impacting a solid material will cause material removal and also to delineate possible physical mechanisms of mass removal at optimum jet-cutting conditions. We have also carried out numerical simulations of jet-induced surface pressure rises and of the material deformation and spallation behavior due to multiple droplet impacts. Results obtained from the experiments and theoretical calculations and their physical implications are also discussed.

  18. Inductive and Electrostatic Acceleration in Relativistic Jet-Plasma Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, Johnny S.T.; Noble, Robert J.; /SLAC

    2005-07-13

    We report on the observation of rapid particle acceleration in numerical simulations of relativistic jet-plasma interactions and discuss the underlying mechanisms. The dynamics of a charge-neutral, narrow, electron-positron jet propagating through an unmagnetized electron-ion plasma was investigated using a three-dimensional, electromagnetic, particle-in-cell computer code. The interaction excited magnetic filamentation as well as electrostatic (longitudinal) plasma instabilities. In some cases, the longitudinal electric fields generated inductively and electrostatically reached the cold plasma wave-breaking limit, and the longitudinal momentum of about half the positrons increased by 50% with a maximum gain exceeding a factor of two. The results are relevant to understanding the micro-physics at the interface region of an astrophysical jet with the interstellar plasma, for example, the edge of a wide jet or the jet-termination point.

  19. Interaction between jets during laser-induced forward transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Patrascioiu, A.; Florian, C.; Fernández-Pradas, J. M.; Morenza, J. L.; Serra, P.; Hennig, G.; Delaporte, P.

    2014-07-07

    Simultaneous two-beam laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT) was carried out for various inter-beam separations, analyzing both the resulting printing outcomes and the corresponding liquid transfer dynamics. In a first experiment, droplets of an aqueous solution were printed onto a substrate at different inter-beam distances, which proved that a significant departure from the single-beam LIFT dynamics takes places at specific separations. In the second experiment, time-resolved imaging analysis revealed the existence of significant jet-jet interactions at those separations; such interactions proceed through a dynamics that results in remarkable jet deflection for which a possible onset mechanism is proposed.

  20. Overview of the Jet/Surface Interaction Test (JSIT1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podboy, Gary; Brown, Cliff; Bencic, Tim

    2011-01-01

    This material was presented at the Acoustics Technical Working Group Meeting on April22, 2011. It provides an overview of an experiment called the Jet / Surface Interaction Test which was conducted to expand the database available regarding how a planar surface interacts with a jet to shield and/or enhance the jet noise. This presentation focuses on data obtained during Phase 1 of the test, JSIT1, which was conducted using the Small Hot Jet Acoustic Rig located in the Aeroacoustics Propulsion Lab at NASA GRCduring January and February, 2011. A second phase of the test, JSIT2, is planned for 2012.There were two parts of the phase 1 test. In part 1, known as the shielding surface part of the test, a planar surface was placed between the jet and the microphones. In part 2, the reflecting surface part of the test, the surface was placed on the opposite side of the jet so that the jet noise was free to reflect off the surface toward the microphones. Phased array, pressure sensitive paint, and far field acoustic data obtained during JSIT1 are presented. The phased array data illustrate how the jet noise is blocked by the shielding surface. It also shows that the low frequency scrubbing noise generated when the surface is impacted by the jet comes predominantly from the surface trailing edge. The far field data show the trailing edge noise to be a dipole source. The pressure sensitive paint data show how the pressure distribution on the surface varies as the surface is traversed toward jet.This material was presented at the Acoustics Technical Working Group Meeting on April22, 2011. It provides an overview of an experiment called the Jet/Surface Interaction Test which was conducted to expand the database available regarding how a planar surface interacts with a jet to shield and/or enhance the jet noise. This presentation focuses on data obtained during Phase 1 of the test, JSIT1, which was conducted using the Small Hot Jet Acoustic Rig located in the Aeroacoustics

  1. Interaction of jet noise with a nearby panel assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGreevy, J. L.; Bayliss, A.; Maestrello, L.

    1995-04-01

    A model of the interaction of the noise from a spreading subsonic jet with a panel-stringer assembly is studied numerically in two dimensions. The radiation resulting from this flow/acoustic/structure coupling is computed and analyzed in both the time and frequency domains. The jet is initially excited by a pulse-like source inserted into the flowfield. The pulse triggers instabilities associated with the inviscid instability of the jet mean flow shear layer. These instabilities in turn generate sound which provides the primary loading for the panels. The resulting structural vibration and radiation depends strongly on panel placement relative to the jet/nozzle configuration. Results are obtained for the panel responses as well as the transmitted and incident pressure. The effect of the panels is to act as a narrow filter, converting the relatively broadband forcing, heavily influenced by jet instabilities, into radiation concentrated in narrow spectral bands.

  2. 3D Global Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations of the Solar Wind/Earth's Magnetosphere Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yalim, M. S.; Poedts, S.

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we present results of real-time 3D global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of the solar wind interaction with the Earth's magnetosphere using time-varying data from the NASA Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) satellite during a few big magnetic storm events of the previous and current solar cycles, namely the 06 April 2000, 20 November 2003 and 05 April 2010 storms. We introduce a numerical magnetic storm index and compare the geo-effectiveness of these events in terms of this storm index which is a measure for the resulting global perturbation of the Earth's magnetic field. Steady simulations show that the upstream solar wind plasma parameters enter the low-β switch-on regime for some time intervals during a magnetic storm causing a complex dimpled bow shock structure. We also investigate the traces of such bow shock structures during time-dependent simulations of the events. We utilize a 3D, implicit, parallel, unstructured grid, compressible finite volume ideal MHD solver with an anisotropic grid adaptation technique for the computer simulations.

  3. A multifluid magnetohydrodynamic simulation of the interaction between Jupiter's magnetosphere and its moon Europa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, M.; Jia, X.; Altwegg, K.; Combi, M. R.; Daldorff, L. K. S.; Gombosi, T. I.; Khurana, K. K.; Kivelson, M.; Tenishev, V.; Toth, G.; van der Holst, B.; Wurz, P.

    2015-12-01

    Jupiter's moon Europa is believed to contain a subsurface water ocean whose finite electrical conductance imposes clear induction signatures on the magnetic field in its surroundings. The evidence rests heavily on measurements performed by the magnetometer on board the Galileo spacecraft during multiple flybys of the moon. Europa's interaction with the Jovian magnetosphere has become a major target of research in planetary science, partly because of the potential of a salty ocean to harbor life outside our own planet. Thus it is of considerable interest to develop numerical simulations of the Europa-Jupiter interaction that can be compared with data in order to refine our knowledge of Europa's subsurface structure. In this presentation we show aspects of Europa's interaction with the Jovian magnetosphere extracted from a multifluid magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) code BATS-R-US recently developed at the University of Michigan. The model dynamically separates magnetospheric and pick-up ions and is capable of capturing some of the physics previously accessible only to kinetic approaches. The model utilizes an adaptive grid to maintain the high spatial resolution on the surface required to resolve the portion of Europa's neutral atmosphere with a scale height of a few tens of kilometers that is in thermal equilibrium. The model also derives the electron temperature, which is crucial to obtain the local electron impact ionization rates and hence the plasma mass loading in Europa's atmosphere. We compare our results with observations made by the plasma particles and fields instruments on the Galileo spacecraft to validate our model. We will show that multifluid MHD is able to reproduce the basic features of the plasma moments and magnetic field observations obtained during the Galileo E4 and E26 flybys at Europa.

  4. An Analytical Investigation of Wing-Jet Interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lan, E. C.

    1974-01-01

    The aerodynamic interaction between the wing and an inviscid jet with Mach number nonuniformity is formulated by using a two-vortex-sheet model for the jet. One of the vortex sheets accounts for the induced jet flow and the other the induced outer flow. No additional source distribution is needed for the jet at an angle of attack. The above problem is solved by satisfying the jet and wing tangency and the jet pressure-continuity conditions and using a quasi vortex lattice method for computing the induced flow field. The latter method is derived through theoretical consideration by properly accounting for singularities present in the equations and possesses the same simplicity and generality as the conventional vortex lattice method but has a better rate of numerical convergence. The resulting system of algebraic equations is solved by Purcell's vector method. The numerical formulation is first applied to the wing-slipstream interaction problem. Results for one centered-jet configuration are compared with those predicted by some existing theories.

  5. Liquid gallium jet-plasma interaction studies in ISTTOK tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, R. B.; Fernandes, H.; Silva, C.; Sarakovskis, A.; Pereira, T.; Figueiredo, J.; Carvalho, B.; Soares, A.; Duarte, P.; Varandas, C.; Lielausis, O.; Klyukin, A.; Platacis, E.; Tale, I.; Alekseyv, A.

    2009-06-01

    Liquid metals have been pointed out as a suitable solution to solve problems related to the use of solid walls submitted to high power loads allowing, simultaneously, an efficient heat exhaustion process from fusion devices. The most promising candidate materials are lithium and gallium. However, lithium has a short liquid state temperature range when compared with gallium. To explore further this property, ISTTOK tokamak is being used to test the interaction of a free flying liquid gallium jet with the plasma. ISTTOK has been successfully operated with this jet without noticeable discharge degradation and no severe effect on the main plasma parameters or a significant plasma contamination by liquid metal. Additionally the response of an infrared sensor, intended to measure the jet surface temperature increase during its interaction with the plasma, has been studied. The jet power extraction capability is extrapolated from the heat flux profiles measured in ISTTOK plasmas.

  6. Synthetic Jet Interaction With A Turbulent Boundary Layer Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Douglas R.

    2002-01-01

    effectiveness of synthetic jet actuators in an application setting has been confirmed through a number of studies, the fluid dynamic mechanism by which control is effected is not well understood. Issues like yaw angle arid velocity ratio that have been studied for steady control jets have not been investigated for synthetic jets. Moreover, the role played by the inherently unsteady nature of a synthetic jet in the interaction with the controlled flow is not known. Some recent work by Rinehart and Glazer and Smith suggests that away from tile immediate vicinity of the jet orifice the flow field is steady in the mean, and that the interaction of a synthetic jet and a boundary layer creates a secondary flow in the boundary layer consisting primarily of streamwise vortices.

  7. Interaction of a Liquid Gallium Jet with ISTTOK Edge Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, R. B.; Fernandes, H.; Silva, C.; Sarakovskis, A.; Pereira, T.; Figueiredo, J.; Carvalho, B.; Soares, A.; Duarte, P.; Varandas, C.; Lielausis, O.; Klyukin, A.; Platacis, E.; Tale, I.

    2008-04-01

    The use of liquid metals as plasma facing components in tokamaks has recently experienced a renewed interest stimulated by their advantages in the development of a fusion reactor. Liquid metals have been proposed to solve problems related to the erosion and neutronic activation of solid walls submitted to high power loads allowing an efficient heat exhaust from fusion devices. Presently the most promising candidate materials are lithium and gallium. However, lithium has a short liquid state range when compared, for example, with gallium that has essentially better thermal properties and lower vapor pressure. To explore further these properties, ISTTOK tokamak is being used to test the interaction of a free flying, fully formed liquid gallium jet with the plasma. The interacting, 2.3 mm diameter, jet is generated by hydrostatic pressure and has a 2.5 m/s flow velocity. The liquid metal injector has been build to allow the positioning of the jet inside the tokamak chamber, within a 13 mm range. This paper presents the first obtained experimental results concerning the liquid gallium jet-plasma interaction. A stable jet has been obtained, which was not noticeably affected by the magnetic field transients. ISTTOK has been successfully operated with the gallium jet without degradation of the discharge or a significant plasma contamination by liquid metal. This observation is supported by spectroscopic measurements showing that gallium radiation is limited to the region around the jet. Furthermore, the power deposited on the jet has been evaluated at different radial locations and the surface temperature increase estimated.

  8. Overexpanded viscous supersonic jet interacting with a unilateral barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrynin, B. M.; Maslennikov, V. G.; Sakharov, V. A.; Serova, E. V.

    1986-07-01

    The interaction of a two-dimensional supersonic jet with a unilateral barrier parallel to the flow symmetry plane was studied to account for effects due to gas viscosity and backgound-gas ejection from the region into which the jet expands. In the present experiments, the incident shock wave was reflected at the end of a shock tube equipped with a nozzle. The jet emerged into a pressure chamber 6 cu m in volume and the environmental pressure ratio of the flow in the quasi-stationary phase remained constant. The light source was an OGM-20 laser operating in the giant-pulse mode. Due to background-gas ejection, the gas density in the vicinity of the barrier is much less than on the unconfined side of the jet. The resulting flow is characterized by two distinct environmental pressure ratios: the flow is underexpanded near the barrier, while on the other side it is overexpanded.

  9. Interaction of multiple supersonic jets with a transonic flow field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seginer, A.; Manela, J.

    1983-01-01

    The influence of multiple high pressure, supersonic, radial or tangential jets, that are injected from the circumference of the base plane of an axisymmetric body, on its longitudinal aerodynamic coefficients in transonic flow is studied experimentally. The interaction of the jets with the body flow field increases the pressures on the forebody, thus altering its lift and static stability characteristics. It is shown that, within the range of parameters studied. This interaction has a stabilizing effect on the body. The contribution to lift and stability is significant at small angles of attack and decreases nonlinearly at higher angles when the crossflow mechanism becomes dominant.

  10. Jet Surface Interaction-Scrubbing Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khavaran, Abbas

    2013-01-01

    Generation of sound due to scrubbing of a jet flow past a nearby solid surface is investigated within the framework of the generalized acoustic analogy theory. The analysis applies to the boundary layer noise generated at and near a wall, and excludes the scattered noise component that is produced at the leading or the trailing edge. While compressibility effects are relatively unimportant at very low Mach numbers, frictional heat generation and thermal gradient normal to the surface could play important roles in generation and propagation of sound in high speed jets of practical interest. A general expression is given for the spectral density of the far-field sound as governed by the variable density Pridmore- Brown equation. The propagation Green's function should be solved numerically starting with the boundary conditions on the surface and subject to specified mean velocity and temperature profiles between the surface and the observer. The equivalent sources of aerodynamic sound are associated with non-linear momentum flux and enthalpy flux terms that appear in the linearized Navier-Stokes equations. These multi-pole sources should be modeled and evaluated with input from a Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) solver with an appropriate turbulence model.

  11. The interaction of synthetic jets with turbulent boundary layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Jing

    In recent years, a promising approach to the control of wall bounded as well as free shear flows, using synthetic jet (oscillatory jet with zero-net-mass-flux) actuators, has received a great deal of attention. A variety of impressive flow control results have been achieved experimentally by many researchers including the vectoring of conventional propulsive jets, modification of aerodynamic characteristics of bluff bodies, control of lift and drag of airfoils, reduction of skin-friction of a flat plate boundary layer, enhanced mixing in circular jets, and control of external as well as internal flow separation and of cavity oscillations. More recently, attempts have been made to numerically simulate some of these flowfields. Numerically several of the above mentioned flow fields have been simulated primarily by employing the Unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier Stokes (URANS) equations with a turbulence model and a limited few by Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS). In simulations, both the simplified boundary conditions at the exit of the jet as well as the details of the cavity and lip have been included. In this dissertation, I describe the results of simulations for several two- and three-dimensional flowfields dealing with the interaction of a synthetic jet with a turbulent boundary layer and control of separation. These simulations have been performed using the URANS equations in conjunction with either one- or a two-equation turbulence model. 2D simulations correspond to the experiments performed by Honohan at Georgia Tech. and 3D simulations correspond to the CFD validation test cases proposed in the NASA Langley Research Center Workshop---"CFD Validation of Synthetic Jets and Turbulent Separation Control" held at Williamsburg VA in March 2004. The sources of uncertainty due to grid resolution, time step, boundary conditions, turbulence modeling etc. have been examined during the computations. Extensive comparisons for various flow variables are made with the

  12. Reducing Propulsion Airframe Aeroacoustic Interactions With Uniquely Tailored Chevrons: 3. Jet-Flap Interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Russ H.; Mengle, Vinod G.; Brunsniak, Leon; Elkoby, Ronen

    2006-01-01

    Propulsion airframe aeroacoustic (PAA) interactions, resulting from the integration of engine and airframe, lead to azimuthal asymmetries in the flow/acoustic field, e.g., due to the interaction between the exhaust jet flow and the pylon, the wing and its high-lift devices, such as, flaps and flaperons. In the first two parts of this series we have presented experimental results which show that isolated and installed nozzles with azimuthally varying chevrons (AVCs) can reduce noise more than conventional chevrons when integrated with a pylon and a wing with flaps at take-off conditions. In this paper, we present model-scale experimental results for the reduction of jet-flap interaction noise source due to these AVCs and document the PAA installation effects (difference in noise between installed and isolated nozzle configurations) at both approach and take-off conditions. It is found that the installation effects of both types of chevron nozzles, AVCs and conventional, are reversed at approach and take-off, in that there is more installed noise reduction at approach and less at take-off compared to that of the isolated nozzles. Moreover, certain AVCs give larger total installed noise benefits at both conditions compared to conventional chevrons. Phased microphone array results show that at approach conditions (large flap deflection, low jet speed and low ambient Mach number), chevrons gain more noise benefit from reducing jetflap interaction noise than they do from quieting the jet plume noise source which is already weak at these low jet speeds. In contrast, at take-off (small flap deflection, high jet speed and high ambient Mach number) chevrons reduce the dominant jet plume noise better than the reduction they create in jet-flap interaction noise source. In addition, fan AVCs with enhanced mixing near the pylon are found to reduce jet-flap interaction noise better than conventional chevrons at take-off.

  13. A viscous-inviscid interaction model of jet entrainment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilmoth, R. G.; Dash, S. M.

    1981-01-01

    A viscous-inviscid interaction model for predicting jet entrainment effects on axisymmetric, nozzle afterbodies at subsonic speeds is presented. The model is based on a displacement thickness correction to the inviscid jet boundary that accounts for mixing-induced streamline deflections in the inviscid region. The displacement correction is shown to be related to the local mass entrainment rate and, for thin mixing layers, the model is shown to be analogous to displacement models used in conventional boundary-layer interaction theory. A method is presented for computing the entrainment rate by an overlaid mixing layer model that accounts for the nonsimilar behavior and pressure gradients occurring in the near field region. An iterative scheme for coupling the model to analyses for the external inviscid flow, the external boundary layer, and the inviscid jet exhaust is also given. Results are presented that illustrate the qualitative behavior of the entrainment interaction under various flow conditions and that demonstrate the validity of the model by comparisons with experiment.

  14. Solar wind interaction with the earth's magnetic field. II - Magnetohydrodynamic bow shock.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Formisano, V.; Moreno, G.; Palmiotto, F.; Hedgecock, P. C.; Chao, J. K.

    1973-01-01

    The earth's bow shock has been investigated as a magnetohydrodynamic discontinuity using the plasma and magnetic data supplied by the European satellite Heos 1. The jumps of the fluid parameters through the shock have been studied as a function of the Mach number and of the geometry of the shock surface. The solar wind specific heat ratio has been found to be equal to 1.75 or 2.25, depending on the presence or absence of upstream waves. Computations of the shock velocity performed for 23 crossings gave an average speed of about 85 km/sec.

  15. Jet-Surface Interaction Test: Flow Measurements Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Cliff; Wernet, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Modern aircraft design often puts the engine exhaust in close proximity to the airframe surfaces. Aircraft noise prediction tools must continue to develop in order to meet the challenges these aircraft present. The Jet-Surface Interaction Tests have been conducted to provide a comprehensive quality set of experimental data suitable for development and validation of these exhaust noise prediction methods. Flow measurements have been acquired using streamwise and cross-stream particle image velocimetry (PIV) and fluctuating surface pressure data acquired using flush mounted pressure transducers near the surface trailing edge. These data combined with previously reported far-field and phased array noise measurements represent the first step toward the experimental data base. These flow data are particularly applicable to development of noise prediction methods which rely on computational fluid dynamics to uncover the flow physics. A representative sample of the large flow data set acquired is presented here to show how a surface near a jet affects the turbulent kinetic energy in the plume, the spatial relationship between the jet plume and surface needed to generate surface trailing-edge noise, and differences between heated and unheated jet flows with respect to surfaces.

  16. Acoustics of Jet Surface Interaction-Scrubbing Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khavaran, Abbas

    2014-01-01

    Concepts envisioned for the future of civil air transport consist of unconventional propulsion systems in the close proximity of the structure or embedded in the airframe. While such integrated systems are intended to shield noise from community, they also introduce new sources of sound. Sound generation due to interaction of a jet flow past a nearby solid surface is investigated here using the generalized acoustic analogy theory. The analysis applies to the boundary layer noise generated at and near a wall, and excludes the scattered noise component that is produced at the leading or the trailing edge. While compressibility effects are relatively unimportant at very low Mach numbers, frictional heat generation and thermal gradient normal to the surface could play important roles in generation and propagation of sound in high speed jets of practical interest. A general expression is given for the spectral density of the far field sound as governed by the variable density Pridmore-Brown equation. The propagation Greens function is solved numerically for a high aspect-ratio rectangular jet starting with the boundary conditions on the surface and subject to specified mean velocity and temperature profiles between the surface and the observer. It is shown the magnitude of the Greens function decreases with increasing source frequency andor jet temperature. The phase remains constant for a rigid surface, but varies with source location when subject to an impedance type boundary condition. The Greens function in the absence of the surface, and flight effect are also investigated.

  17. Magnetohydrodynamic analysis of the interaction of magnetized plasma flow with a perfect-conducting object

    SciTech Connect

    Nishida, Hiroyuki; Abe, Takashi

    2010-05-15

    In this study, a supersonic and super-Alfvenic magnetized plasma flow past a perfect-conducting cylinder was simulated based on single-fluid ideal magnetohydrodynamics to clarify the piling-up process of the magnetic field frozen in the plasma flow. Therefore, the magnetic field is assumed to be perpendicular to both the cylinder axis and the flow direction. Simulation results indicated that the cylinder continuously traps the magnetic field and an unsteady flow field is generated. Even though the drag force exerting on the cylinder is expected to continuously increase with the continuous increase in the trapped magnetic field and the shock layer, the intensity of magnetic flux density at the cylinder surface is saturated at a certain value and the drag force is also saturated. The saturated values are characterized by the Alfven Mach number of the mainstream. Furthermore, on this flow structure the wake flow in which magnetic reconnection plays an important role was found to have a strong influence by using the pseudomagnetic reconnection in the ideal magnetohydrodynamic flow.

  18. POD Analysis of Jet-Plume/Afterbody-Wake Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, Nathan E.; Seiner, John M.; Jansen, Bernard J.; Gui, Lichuan; Sockwell, Shuan; Joachim, Matthew

    2009-11-01

    The understanding of the flow physics in the base region of a powered rocket is one of the keys to designing the next generation of reusable launchers. The base flow features affect the aerodynamics and the heat loading at the base of the vehicle. Recent efforts at the National Center for Physical Acoustics at the University of Mississippi have refurbished two models for studying jet-plume/afterbody-wake interactions in the NCPA's 1-foot Tri-Sonic Wind Tunnel Facility. Both models have a 2.5 inch outer diameter with a nominally 0.5 inch diameter centered exhaust nozzle. One of the models is capable of being powered with gaseous H2 and O2 to study the base flow in a fully combusting senario. The second model uses hi-pressure air to drive the exhaust providing an unheated representative flow field. This unheated model was used to acquire PIV data of the base flow. Subsequently, a POD analysis was performed to provide a first look at the large-scale structures present for the interaction between an axisymmetric jet and an axisymmetric afterbody wake. PIV and Schlieren data are presented for a single jet-exhaust to free-stream flow velocity along with the POD analysis of the base flow field.

  19. THREE-DIMENSIONAL RELATIVISTIC MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC SIMULATIONS OF CURRENT-DRIVEN INSTABILITY WITH A SUB-ALFVENIC JET: TEMPORAL PROPERTIES

    SciTech Connect

    Mizuno, Yosuke; Nishikawa, Ken-Ichi; Hardee, Philip E.

    2011-06-10

    We have investigated the influence of a velocity shear surface on the linear and nonlinear development of the current-driven (CD) kink instability of force-free helical magnetic equilibria in three dimensions. In this study, we follow the temporal development within a periodic computational box and concentrate on flows that are sub-Alfvenic on the cylindrical jet's axis. Displacement of the initial force-free helical magnetic field leads to the growth of CD kink instability. We find that helically distorted density structure propagates along the jet with speed and flow structure dependent on the radius of the velocity shear surface relative to the characteristic radius of the helically twisted force-free magnetic field. At small velocity shear surface radius, the plasma flows through the kink with minimal kink propagation speed. The kink propagation speed increases as the velocity shear radius increases and the kink becomes more embedded in the plasma flow. A decreasing magnetic pitch profile and faster flow enhance the influence of velocity shear. Simulations show continuous transverse growth in the nonlinear phase of the instability. The growth rate of the CD kink instability and the nonlinear behavior also depend on the velocity shear surface radius and flow speed, and the magnetic pitch radial profile. Larger velocity shear radius leads to slower linear growth, makes a later transition to the nonlinear stage, and with larger maximum amplitude than that occuring for a static plasma column. However, when the velocity shear radius is much greater than the characteristic radius of the helical magnetic field, linear and nonlinear development can be similar to the development of a static plasma column.

  20. Jet Surface Interaction Scrubbing Noise from High Aspect-Ratio Rectangular Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khavaran, Abbas; Bozak, Richard F.

    2015-01-01

    Concepts envisioned for the future of civil air transport consist of unconventional propulsion systems in the close proximity of the airframe. Distributed propulsion system with exhaust configurations that resemble a high aspect ratio rectangular jet are among geometries of interest. Nearby solid surfaces could provide noise shielding for the purpose of reduced community noise. Interaction of high-speed jet exhaust with structure could also generate new sources of sound as a result of flow scrubbing past the structure, and or scattered noise from sharp edges. The present study provides a theoretical framework to predict the scrubbing noise component from a high aspect ratio rectangular exhaust in proximity of a solid surface. The analysis uses the Greens function (GF) to the variable density Pridmore-Brown equation in a transversely sheared mean flow. Sources of sound are defined as the auto-covariance function of second-rank velocity fluctuations in the jet plume, and are modeled using a RANS-based acoustic analogy approach. Acoustic predictions are presented in an 8:1 aspect ratio rectangular exhaust at three subsonic Mach numbers. The effect of nearby surface on the scrubbing noise component is shown on both reflected and shielded sides of the plate.

  1. Oblique Shock Interaction with a Laminar Cylindrical Jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wayne, Patrick; Olmstead, Dell; Truman, C. Randall; Vorobieff, Peter; Kumar, Sanjay

    2015-06-01

    We present an experimental study of a planar shock interaction with an initially cylindrical, diffuse density interface, where the angle α between the plane of the shock and the axis of the cylinder can be zero (planar normal interaction) or non-zero (oblique interaction). The interface is formed by injecting a laminar jet of a heavy gas mixture (sulfure hexafluoride, acetone, nitrogen) into quiescent air. The jet is stabilized by an annular co-flow of air to minimize diffusion. Interaction between the pressure gradient (shock front) and density gradients leads to vorticity deposition, and during the subsequent evolution, the flow undergoes mixing (injected material - air) and eventually transitions to turbulence. Several parameters affect this evolution, including the angle α, the Atwood number (density ratio), and the Mach number of the shock. For quantitative and qualitative characterization of the influence of these parameters, we use flow visualization in two planes that relies on planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) in acetone, which forms a part of the injected material. This research is supported by NNSA Grant DE-NA000220.

  2. Magnetohydrodynamic oscillation of a gas jet of zero inertia dispersed in a resistive liquid with energy conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radwan, Ahmed E.

    1992-01-01

    The dynamical oscillation and instability of a gas cylinder of zero inertia immersed in a resistive liquid is developed for symmetric perturbations. In the absence of the magnetic field the conservation of energy is employed to study the problem for all symmetric and asymmetric perturbations. In the latter it is found that the temporal amplification is much lower than that of the full fluid jet. The model is capillary stable for all short and long wavelengths in the asymmetric perturbation while in the symmetric disturbances it is stabilizing or not according to whether the perturbed wavelength is shorter than the gas-cylinder circumference or not. The resistivity is stabilizing or destabilizing according to restrictions. The electromagnetic body force is stabilizing for all wavelengths in the rotationally-symmetric disturbances. The Lorentz body force for high magnetic-field intensity could be suppressing the destabilizing character of the present model. This may be due to the fact that the acting magnetic field is uniform and that the fluid is considered to be incompressible.

  3. Explosive Nucleosynthesis in Magnetohydrodynamical Jets from Collapsars. II --- Heavy-Element Nucleosynthesis of s, p, r-Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, M.; Hashimoto, M.; Fujimoto, S.; Kotake, K.; Yamada, S.

    2012-10-01

    We investigate the nucleosynthesis in a massive star of 70 M_{⊙} with solar metallicity in the main sequence stage. The helium core mass after hydrogen burning corresponds to 32 M_{⊙}. Nucleosynthesis calculations have been performed during the stellar evolution and the jetlike supernova explosion of a collapsar model. We focus on the production of elements heavier than iron group nuclei. Nucleosynthesis calculations have been accomplished consistently from hydrostatic to dynamic stages by using large nuclear reaction networks, where the weak s-, p-, and r-processes are taken into account. We confirm that s-elements of 60 < A < 90 are highly overproduced relative to the solar abundances in the hydrostatic nucleosynthesis. During oxygen burning, p-elements of A > 90 are produced via photodisintegrations of seed s-elements. However, the produced p-elements are disintegrated in later stages except for ^{180}Ta. In the explosive nucleosynthesis, elements of 90 < A < 160 are significantly overproduced relative to the solar values owing to the r-process, which is very different from the results of spherical explosion models. Only heavy p-elements (N > 50) are overproduced via the p-process because of the low peak temperatures in the oxygen- and neon-rich layers. Compared with the previous study of r-process nucleosynthesis calculations in the collapsar model of 40 M_{⊙} by Fujimoto et al. [S. Fujimoto, M. Hashimoto, K. Kotake and S. Yamada, Astrophys. J. 656 (2007), 382; S. Fujimoto, N. Nishimura and M. Hashimoto, Astrophys. J. 680 (2008), 1350], our jet model cannot contribute to the third peak of the solar r-elements and intermediate p-elements, which have been much produced because of the distribution of the lowest part of electron fraction in the ejecta. Averaging the overproduction factors over the progenitor masses with the use of Salpeter's IMF, we suggest that the 70 M_{⊙} star could contribute to the solar weak s}-elements of 60 < A < 90 and neutron

  4. Interaction of two-dimensional transverse jet with a supersonic mainstream

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraemer, G. O.; Tiwari, S. N.

    1983-01-01

    The interaction of a two dimensional sonic jet injected transversely into a confined main flow was studied. The main flow consisted of air at a Mach number of 2.9. The effects of varying the jet parameters on the flow field were examined using surface pressure and composition data. Also, the downstream flow field was examined using static pressure, pitot pressure, and composition profile data. The jet parameters varied were gapwidth, jet static pressure, and injectant species of either helium or nitrogen. The values of the jet parameters used were 0.039, 0.056, and 0.109 cm for the gapwidth and 5, 10, and 20 for the jet to mainstream static pressure ratios. The features of the flow field produced by the mixing and interaction of the jet with the mainstream were related to the jet momentum. The data were used to demonstrate the validity of an existing two dimensional elliptic flow code.

  5. MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC MODELING FOR A FORMATION PROCESS OF CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS: INTERACTION BETWEEN AN EJECTING FLUX ROPE AND AN AMBIENT FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Shiota, Daikou; Kusano, Kanya; Miyoshi, Takahiro; Shibata, Kazunari

    2010-08-01

    We performed a magnetohydrodynamic simulation of a formation process of coronal mass ejections (CMEs), focusing on the interaction (reconnection) between an ejecting flux rope and its ambient field. We examined three cases with different ambient fields: one had no ambient field, while the other two had dipole fields with opposite directions, parallel and anti-parallel to that of the flux rope surface. We found that while the flux rope disappears in the anti-parallel case, in the other cases the flux ropes can evolve to CMEs and show different amounts of flux rope rotation. The results imply that the interaction between an ejecting flux rope and its ambient field is an important process for determining CME formation and CME orientation, and also show that the amount and direction of the magnetic flux within the flux rope and the ambient field are key parameters for CME formation. The interaction (reconnection) plays a significant role in the rotation of the flux rope especially with a process similar to 'tilting instability' in a spheromak-type experiment of laboratory plasma.

  6. Vortex/Flame Interactions in Microgravity Pulsed Jet Diffusion Flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahadori, M. Y.; Hegde, U.; Stocker, D. P.

    2001-01-01

    Significant differences have been observed between the structure of laminar, transitional, and turbulent flames under downward, upward, and microgravity conditions. These include flame height, jet shear layer, flame instability, flicker, lift-off height, blow-off Reynolds number, and radiative properties. The primary objective of this investigation is to identify the mechanisms involved in the generation and interaction of large-scale structures in microgravity flames. This involves a study of vortex/flame interactions in a space-flight experiment utilizing a controlled, well-defined set of disturbances imposed on a laminar diffusion flame. The results provide a better understanding of the naturally occurring structures that are an inherent part of microgravity turbulent flames. The paper presents the current progress in this program.

  7. Magnetohydrodynamic electromagnetic pulse (MHD-EMP) interaction with power transmission and distribution systems

    SciTech Connect

    Tesche, F.M.; Barnes, P.R.; Meliopoulos, A.P.S.

    1992-02-01

    This report discusses the effects of the late-time high-altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP) on electrical transmission and distribution (T&D) systems. This environment, known as the magnetohydrodynamic electromagnetic pulse (MHD-EMP), is a very slowly varying electric field induced in the earth`s surface, similar to the field induced by a geomagnetic storm. It can result in the flow of a quasi-dc current in grounded power lines and in the subsequent magnetic saturation of transformers. This saturation, in turn, causes 6-Hz harmonic distortion and an increase in the reactive power required by generation facilities. This report analyzes and discusses these phenomena. The MHD-EMP environment is briefly discussed, and a simplified form of the earth-induced electric field is developed for use in a parametric study of transmission line responses. Various field coupling models are described, and calculated results for the responses of both transmission- and distribution-class power lines are presented. These calculated responses are compared with measurements of transformer operation under dc excitation to infer the MHD-EMP response of these power system components. It is found that the MHD-EMP environment would have a marked effect on a power system by inducing up to several hundreds of amperes of quasi-dc current on power lines. These currents will cause transformers to saturate which could result in excessive harmonic generation, voltage swings, and voltage suppression. The design of critical facilities which are required to operate during and after MHD-EMP events will have to be modified in order to mitigate the effects of these abnormal power system conditions.

  8. Magnetohydrodynamic electromagnetic pulse (MHD-EMP) interaction with power transmission and distribution systems

    SciTech Connect

    Tesche, F.M. , Dallas, TX ); Barnes, P.R. ); Meliopoulos, A.P.S. . Dept. of Electrical Engineering)

    1992-02-01

    This report discusses the effects of the late-time high-altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP) on electrical transmission and distribution (T D) systems. This environment, known as the magnetohydrodynamic electromagnetic pulse (MHD-EMP), is a very slowly varying electric field induced in the earth's surface, similar to the field induced by a geomagnetic storm. It can result in the flow of a quasi-dc current in grounded power lines and in the subsequent magnetic saturation of transformers. This saturation, in turn, causes 6-Hz harmonic distortion and an increase in the reactive power required by generation facilities. This report analyzes and discusses these phenomena. The MHD-EMP environment is briefly discussed, and a simplified form of the earth-induced electric field is developed for use in a parametric study of transmission line responses. Various field coupling models are described, and calculated results for the responses of both transmission- and distribution-class power lines are presented. These calculated responses are compared with measurements of transformer operation under dc excitation to infer the MHD-EMP response of these power system components. It is found that the MHD-EMP environment would have a marked effect on a power system by inducing up to several hundreds of amperes of quasi-dc current on power lines. These currents will cause transformers to saturate which could result in excessive harmonic generation, voltage swings, and voltage suppression. The design of critical facilities which are required to operate during and after MHD-EMP events will have to be modified in order to mitigate the effects of these abnormal power system conditions.

  9. Interaction of an argon plasma jet with a silicon wafer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelhardt, Max; Pothiraja, Ramasamy; Kartaschew, Konstantin; Bibinov, Nikita; Havenith, Martina; Awakowicz, Peter

    2016-04-01

    A filamentary discharge is ignited in an argon plasma jet under atmospheric pressure conditions. The gas discharge is characterized with voltage-current measurements, optical emission spectroscopy and an ICCD-camera with a high temporal resolution down to 10 ns. In the effluent of the plasma jet, filaments come into contact with the surface of a silicon wafer and modify it, namely etching traces are produced and microcrystals are deposited. These traces are studied with optical and electron microscopes. The material of the deposited microcrystals and the surface modifications of the silicon wafer are analyzed with Raman microspectroscopy. Amorphous silicon is found within the etching traces. The largest part of the deposited microcrystals are composed of nitratine (NaNO3) and some of them are calcite (CaCO3). Analyzing the possible reasons for the silicon wafer modifications we come to the conclusion that plasmoids, which are produced near the substrate surface by interaction with ionization waves, are a plausible explanation for the observed surface modifications of the silicon wafer.

  10. Vortex/Flame Interactions in Microgravity Pulsed Jet Diffusion Flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahadori, M. Y.; Hegde, U.; Stocker, D. P.

    1999-01-01

    The problem of vortex/flame interaction is of fundamental importance to turbulent combustion. These interactions have been studied in normal gravity. It was found that due to the interactions between the imposed disturbances and buoyancy induced instabilities, several overall length scales dominated the flame. The problem of multiple scales does not exist in microgravity for a pulsed laminar flame, since there are no buoyancy induced instabilities. The absence of buoyant convection therefore provides an environment to study the role of vortices interacting with flames in a controlled manner. There are strong similarities between imposed and naturally occurring perturbations, since both can be described by the same spatial instability theory. Hence, imposing a harmonic disturbance on a microgravity laminar flame creates effects similar to those occurring naturally in transitional/turbulent diffusion flames observed in microgravity. In this study, controlled, large-scale, axisymmetric vortices are imposed on a microgravity laminar diffusion flame. The experimental results and predictions from a numerical model of transient jet diffusion flames are presented and the characteristics of pulsed flame are described.

  11. Interactions of radially outgoing jets through gaps between periodically arranged bars in a circle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takemoto, Yukio; Mizushima, Jiro

    2006-09-01

    Mutual interactions of jets radially spouting from gaps between periodically arranged sector-shaped bars in a circle are investigated. Confluences of jets were confirmed by flow visualization and numerical simulation assuming a two-dimensional and incompressible flow field. The jets are independent of each other at small Reynolds numbers, but interact in a complex manner to yield various flow patterns such as confluences of several jets or oscillatory flows synchronized in the same phase between several jets. We found that the confluence of two or three steady jets occurs due to a pitchfork bifurcation and that the synchronized oscillation is a consequence of a Hopf bifurcation. Quasi-periodic oscillation in jets was also found and confirmed to originate from a Neimark-Sacker bifurcation; i.e., a Hopf bifurcation for maps. The critical Reynolds numbers for these bifurcations were determined numerically for various values of the pitch-to-nozzle-width ratio.

  12. A wing-jet interaction theory for USB configurations. [Upper Surface Blowing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lan, C. E.; Campbell, J. F.

    1976-01-01

    The aerodynamic interaction between the wing and an inviscid upper-surface blowing (USB) thick jet with Mach number nonuniformity is treated within the framework of a linear inviscid subsonic compressible flow theory. A two-vortex-sheet model for the jet surface is used to represent the induced flowfields inside and outside the jet. Comparison of the predicted results with experimental data shows good agreement in lift, induced drag, and pitching moment. It is shown that the thin jet flap theory is inadequate for USB configurations with thick jet.

  13. Analysis of interaction phenomena between liquid jets and materials. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, S.W.; Reitter, T.; Carlson, G.

    1995-04-01

    The interaction phenomena of high-velocity liquid jets impinging on a material surface have been investigated theoretically and experimentally to understand the physics of material removal by jet-machining processes. Experiments were performed to delineate conditions under which liquid jet impacts will cause mass removal, and to determine optimum jet-cutting conditions. Theoretical analyses have also been carried out to study the effects of multiple jet-droplet impacts on a target surface as a material deformation mechanism. The calculated target response and spallation behavior following droplet impacts and their physical implications are also discussed.

  14. Space shuttle orbiter reaction control system jet interaction study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rausch, J. R.

    1975-01-01

    The space shuttle orbiter has forward mounted and rear mounted Reaction Control Systems (RCS) which are used for orbital maneuvering and also provide control during entry and abort maneuvers in the atmosphere. The effects of interaction between the RCS jets and the flow over the vehicle in the atmosphere are studied. Test data obtained in the NASA Langley Research Center 31 inch continuous flow hypersonic tunnel at a nominal Mach number of 10.3 is analyzed. The data were obtained with a 0.01 scale force model with aft mounted RCS nozzles mounted on the sting off of the force model balance. The plume simulations were accomplished primarily using air in a cold gas simulation through scaled nozzles, however, various cold gas mixtures of Helium and Argon were also tested. The effect of number of nozzles was tested as were limited tests of combined controls. The data show that RCS nozzle exit momentum ratio is the primary correlating parameter for effects where the plume impinges on an adjacent surface and mass flow ratio is the parameter where the plume interaction is primarily with the external stream. An analytic model of aft mounted RCS units was developed in which the total reaction control moments are the sum of thrust, impingement, interaction, and cross-coupling terms.

  15. Resonant Interaction of a Linear Array of Supersonic Rectangular Jets: an Experimental Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raman, Ganesh; Taghavi, Ray

    1994-01-01

    This paper examines a supersonic multi jet interaction problem that we believe is likely to be important for mixing enhancement and noise reduction in supersonic mixer-ejector nozzles. We demonstrate that it is possible to synchronize the screech instability of four rectangular jets by precisely adjusting the inter jet spacing. Our experimental data agrees with a theory that assumes that the phase-locking of adjacent jets occurs through a coupling at the jet lip. Although the synchronization does not change the frequency of the screech tone, its amplitude is augmented by 10 dB. The synchronized multi jets exhibit higher spreading than the unsynchronized jets, with the single jet spreading the least. We compare the nearfield noise of the four jets with synchronized screech to the noise of the sum of four jets operated individually. Our noise measurements reveal that the more rapid mixing of the synchronized multi jets causes the peak jet noise source to move up stream and to radiate noise at larger angles to the flow direction. Based on our results, we believe that screech synchronization is advantageous for noise reduction internal to a mixer-ejector nozzle, since the noise can now be suppressed by a shorter acoustically lined ejector.

  16. Control of shock-wave boundary layer interaction using steady micro-jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, S. B.; Manisankar, C.; Akshara, P.

    2015-09-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to control the amplitude of shock unsteadiness associated with the interaction induced by a cylindrical protuberance on a flat plate in a Mach 2.18 flow. The control was applied in the form of an array of steady micro air-jets of different configurations with variation in pitch and skew angle of the jets. The effect of air-jet supply pressure on control was also studied. Each of the micro-jet configurations was placed 20 boundary layer thicknesses upstream of the leading edge of the cylinder. The overall interaction is seen to get modified for all control configurations and shows a reduction in both separation- and bow-shock strengths and in triple-point height. A significant reduction in the peak rms value is also observed in the intermittent region of separation for each case. For pitched jets placed in a zig-zag configuration, good control effectiveness is achieved at control pressures similar to the stagnation pressure of the freestream. At higher control pressures, however, their obstruction component increases and if these jets are not spaced sufficiently far apart, the effectiveness of their control begins to drop due to the beginning of spanwise jet-to-jet interaction. On the other hand, pitching or skewing the jets to reduces the obstruction component considerably which at lower control pressures shows lower effectiveness. But at higher control pressure, the effectiveness of these configurations continues to increase unlike the pitched jets.

  17. Interaction of Pulsed Vortex Generator Jets with Turbulent Boundary Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McManus, K. R.; Johari, H.

    1996-11-01

    Vortex Generator Jets (VGJ) have been proposed as a means for active control of turbulent boundary layer separation by Johnston footnote AIAA J. 28, 989 (1990). It has been shown that a vortex generator jet can create weak longitudinal vorticity of a single sign when the surface-mounted jets are pitched and skewed with respect to the solid surface. The primary advantages of VGJs when compared to solid vortex generators are their lack of parasitic drag when the jets are off and the ability to rapidly activate and deactivate the jets for dynamic control. Pulsing of the jets is proposed as a way of increasing the turbulent mixing and therefore, improving the performance of vortex generator jets. Initial experiments with jets pitched at 45 deg and skewed at 90 deg degrees in air have indicated that large-scale turbulent structures are formed by the pulsed VGJs. Subsequent flow visualization experiments in a water tunnel suggest that fully-modulated jets embedded in a flat plate boundary layer result in a series of puffs which penetrate through the boundary layer. The influence of jet velocity, diameter, pulsing frequency and duty-cycle will be discussed. * Supported by NSF and PSI.

  18. Magnetohydrodynamic simulation of the interaction between interplanetary strong shock and magnetic cloud and its consequent geoeffectiveness: 2. Oblique collision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Ming; Zheng, Huinan; Wang, Yuming; Wang, Shui

    2006-11-01

    Numerical studies of the interplanetary "shock overtaking magnetic cloud (MC)" event are continued by a 2.5-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model in heliospheric meridional plane. Interplanetary direct collision (DC)/oblique collision (OC) between an MC and a shock results from their same/different initial propagation orientations. For radially erupted MC and shock in solar corona, the orientations are only determined respectively by their heliographic locations. OC is investigated in contrast with the results in DC (Xiong, 2006). The shock front behaves as a smooth arc. The cannibalized part of MC is highly compressed by the shock front along its normal. As the shock propagates gradually into the preceding MC body, the most violent interaction is transferred sideways with an accompanying significant narrowing of the MC's angular width. The opposite deflections of MC body and shock aphelion in OC occur simultaneously through the process of the shock penetrating the MC. After the shock's passage, the MC is restored to its oblate morphology. With the decrease of MC-shock commencement interval, the shock front at 1 AU traverses MC body and is responsible for the same change trend of the latitude of the greatest geoeffectiveness of MC-shock compound. Regardless of shock orientation, shock penetration location regarding the maximum geoeffectiveness is right at MC core on the condition of very strong shock intensity. An appropriate angular difference between the initial eruption of an MC and an overtaking shock leads to the maximum deflection of the MC body. The larger the shock intensity is, the greater is the deflection angle. The interaction of MCs with other disturbances could be a cause of deflected propagation of interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME).

  19. Jet atomization and cavitation induced by interactions between focused ultrasound and a water surfacea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomita, Y.

    2014-09-01

    Atomization of a jet produced by the interaction of 1 MHz focused ultrasound with a water surface was investigated using high-speed photography. Viewing various aspects of jet behavior, threshold conditions were obtained necessary for water surface elevation and jet breakup, including drop separation and spray formation. In addition, the position of drop atomization, where a single drop separates from the tip of a jet without spraying, showed good correlation with the jet Weber number. For a set of specified conditions, multiple beaded water masses were formed, moving upwards to produce a vigorous jet. Cavitation phenomena occurred near the center of the primary drop-shaped water mass produced at the leading part of the jet; this was accompanied by fine droplets at the neck between the primary and secondary drop-shaped water masses, due to the collapse of capillary waves.

  20. Advanced Response Surface Modeling of Ares I Roll Control Jet Aerodynamic Interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Favaregh, Noah M.

    2010-01-01

    The Ares I rocket uses roll control jets. These jets have aerodynamic implications as they impinge on the surface and protuberances of the vehicle. The jet interaction on the body can cause an amplification or a reduction of the rolling moment produced by the jet itself, either increasing the jet effectiveness or creating an adverse effect. A design of experiments test was planned and carried out using computation fluid dynamics, and a subsequent response surface analysis ensued on the available data to characterize the jet interaction across the ascent portion of the Ares I flight envelope. Four response surface schemes were compared including a single response surface covering the entire design space, separate sector responses that did not overlap, continuously overlapping surfaces, and recursive weighted response surfaces. These surfaces were evaluated on traditional statistical metrics as well as visual inspection. Validation of the recursive weighted response surface was performed using additionally available data at off-design point locations.

  1. Experimental and computational investigation of supersonic counterflow jet interaction in atmospheric conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanchenko, Oleksandr

    The flow field generated by the interaction of a converging-diverging nozzle (exit diameter, D=26 mm M=1.5) flow and a choked flow from a minor jet (exit diameter, d=2.6 mm) in a counterflow configuration was investigated. During the tests both the main C-D nozzle and the minor jet stagnation pressures were varied as well as the region of interaction. Investigations were made in the near field, at most about 2D distance, and in the far field, where the repeated patterns of shock waves were eliminated by turbulence. Both nozzles exhausted to the atmospheric pressure conditions. The flow physics was studied using Schlieren imaging techniques, Pitot-tube, conical Mach number probe, Digital Particle Image Velocimetry (DPIV) and acoustic measurement methods. During the experiments in the far field the jets interaction was observed as the minor jet flow penetrates into the main jet flow. The resulting shock structure caused by the minor jet's presence was dependent on the stagnation pressure ratio between the two jets. The penetration length of the minor jet into the main jet was also dependent on the stagnation pressure ratio. In the far field, increasing the minor jet stagnation pressure moved the bow shock forward, towards the main jet exit. In the near field, the minor jet flow penetrates into the main jet flow, and in some cases modified the flow pattern generated by the main jet, revealing a new effect of jet flow interaction that was previously unknown. A correlation function between the flow modes and the jet stagnation pressure ratios was experimentally determined. Additionally the flow interaction between the main and minor jets was simulated numerically using FLUENT. The optimal mesh geometry was found and the k-epsilon turbulence model was defined as the best fit. The results of the experimental and computational studies were used to describe the shock attenuation effect as self-sustain oscillations in supersonic flow. The effects described here can be used

  2. Coupling hydrodynamics and radiation calculations for star-jet interactions in active galactic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Cita, V. M.; Bosch-Ramon, V.; Paredes-Fortuny, X.; Khangulyan, D.; Perucho, M.

    2016-06-01

    Context. Stars and their winds can contribute to the non-thermal emission in extragalactic jets. Because of the complexity of jet-star interactions, the properties of the resulting emission are closely linked to those of the emitting flows. Aims: We simulate the interaction between a stellar wind and a relativistic extragalactic jet and use the hydrodynamic results to compute the non-thermal emission under different conditions. Methods: We performed relativistic axisymmetric hydrodynamical simulations of a relativistic jet interacting with a supersonic, non-relativistic stellar wind. We computed the corresponding streamlines out of the simulation results and calculated the injection, evolution, and emission of non-thermal particles accelerated in the jet shock, focusing on electrons or e±-pairs. Several cases were explored, considering different jet-star interaction locations, magnetic fields, and observer lines of sight. The jet luminosity and star properties were fixed, but the results are easily scalable when these parameters are changed. Results: Individual jet-star interactions produce synchrotron and inverse Compton emission that peaks from X-rays to MeV energies (depending on the magnetic field), and at ~100-1000 GeV (depending on the stellar type), respectively. The radiation spectrum is hard in the scenarios explored here as a result of non-radiative cooling dominance, as low-energy electrons are efficiently advected even under relatively high magnetic fields. Interactions of jets with cold stars lead to an even harder inverse Compton spectrum because of the Klein-Nishina effect in the cross section. Doppler boosting has a strong effect on the observer luminosity. Conclusions: The emission levels for individual interactions found here are in the line of previous, more approximate, estimates, strengthening the hypothesis that collective jet-star interactions could significantly contribute at high energies under efficient particle acceleration.

  3. Thermal Interaction Between Molten Metal and Sodium: Examination of the Fragmentation Mechanism of Molten Jet

    SciTech Connect

    Satoshi Nishimura; Izumi Kinshita; Nobuyuki Ueda; Ken-ichiro Sugiyama; Ryohei Okada

    2002-07-01

    In order to clarify the mechanism of thermal fragmentation of a molten jet dropped into a sodium pool at instantaneous contact interface temperatures below its freezing point, a basic experiment was carried out using molten copper and sodium. Copper was melted in a crucible with an electrical heater and was dropped through a short nozzle into a sodium pool, in the form of a jet column. Thermal fragmentation originating inside the molten copper jet with a solid crust was clearly observed in all runs. It is verified that a small quantity of sodium, which is locally entrained inside the molten jet due to the organized motion between the molten jet and sodium, is vaporized by the sensible heat and the latent heat of molten copper, and the high internal pressure causes the molten jet with a solid crust to fragment. It is also concluded that the thermal fragmentation is more dominant than the hydrodynamic fragmentation, in the present range of Weber number and superheating of molten jet. Furthermore, it can be explained that the thermal fragmentation caused by the molten copper jet - sodium interaction is severer than that caused by the molten uranium alloy jet - sodium interaction, which was reported by Gabor et al., because the latent heat and the thermal diffusivity of molten copper, which are the physical properties that dominate the degree of fragmentation, are much higher than those of molten uranium alloy jets. (authors)

  4. Theoretical aerodynamics of upper-surface-blowing jet-wing interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lan, C. E.; Campbell, J. F.

    1975-01-01

    A linear, inviscid subsonic compressible flow theory is formulated to treat the aerodynamic interaction between the wing and an inviscid upper-surface-blowing (USB) thick jet with Mach number nonuniformity. The predicted results show reasonably good agreement with some available lift and induced-drag data. It was also shown that the thin-jet-flap theory is inadequate for the USB configurations with thick jet. Additional theoretical results show that the lift and induced drag were reduced by increasing jet temperature and increased by increasing jet Mach number. Reducing jet aspect ratio, while holding jet area constant, caused reductions in lift, induced drag, and pitching moment at a given angle of attack but with a minimal change in the curve of lift coefficient against induced-drag coefficient. The jet-deflection effect was shown to be beneficial to cruise performance. The aerodynamic center was shifted forward by adding power or jet-deflection angle. Moving the jet away from the wing surface resulted in rapid changes in lift and induced drag. Reducing the wing span of a rectangular wing by half decreased the jet-circulation lift by only 24 percent at a thrust coefficient of 2.

  5. Interaction between a vortex generator and a synthetic jet in a crossflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Buren, Tyler; Whalen, Edward; Amitay, Michael

    2015-10-01

    The interaction of a combined vortex generator and a finite-span synthetic jet, i.e., a hybrid actuator, with a zero pressure gradient laminar boundary layer over a flat plate was explored experimentally using Stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry (SPIV). The free stream velocity was U∞ = 10 m/s corresponding to a Reynolds number based on the local boundary layer thickness Reδ ≈ 2000. The synthetic jet was activated at multiple blowing ratios, and the vortex generator (placed either upstream or downstream of the synthetic jet) had a height of 1.6 times the local boundary layer thickness. When exposed to the crossflow, the pitched and skewed synthetic jet and vortex generator independently produced a single streamwise vortex in the far field. However, when the combined synthetic jet and vortex generator were placed together on the flat plate, the two streamwise vortices, associated with the two devices, did not combine. When the vortex generator was upstream of the synthetic jet, the jet pushed the vortex generator's vortex upward into the free stream. When the vortex generator was placed downstream of the synthetic jet, the vortex associated with it was completely destroyed. Although the presence of the vortex generator did not impact the added enstrophy from the synthetic jet, it resulted in higher velocities near the surface when the vortex generator was upstream of the synthetic jet. It was shown that placing the vortex generator upstream of the synthetic jet was imperative for the performance of the hybrid actuator.

  6. DECELERATING RELATIVISTIC TWO-COMPONENT JETS

    SciTech Connect

    Meliani, Z.; Keppens, R. E-mail: Rony.Keppens@wis.kuleuven.b

    2009-11-10

    Transverse stratification is a common intrinsic feature of astrophysical jets. There is growing evidence that jets in radio galaxies consist of a fast low-density outflow at the jet axis, surrounded by a slower, denser, extended jet. The inner and outer jet components then have a different origin and launching mechanism, making their effective inertia, magnetization, associated energy flux, and angular momentum content different as well. Their interface will develop differential rotation, where disruptions may occur. Here we investigate the stability of rotating, two-component relativistic outflows typical for jets in radio galaxies. For this purpose, we parametrically explore the long-term evolution of a transverse cross section of radially stratified jets numerically, extending our previous study where a single, purely hydrodynamic evolution was considered. We include cases with poloidally magnetized jet components, covering hydro and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) models. With grid-adaptive relativistic MHD simulations, augmented with approximate linear stability analysis, we revisit the interaction between the two jet components. We study the influence of dynamically important poloidal magnetic fields, with varying contributions of the inner component jet to the total kinetic energy flux of the jet, on their non-linear azimuthal stability. We demonstrate that two-component jets with high kinetic energy flux and inner jet effective inertia which is higher than the outer jet effective inertia are subject to the development of a relativistically enhanced, rotation-induced Rayleigh-Taylor-type instability. This instability plays a major role in decelerating the inner jet and the overall jet decollimation. This novel deceleration scenario can partly explain the radio source dichotomy, relating it directly to the efficiency of the central engine in launching the inner jet component. The FRII/FRI transition could then occur when the relative kinetic energy flux of the

  7. Theoretical predictions of jet interaction effects for USB and OWB configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lan, C. E.; Campbell, J. F.

    1976-01-01

    A wing jet interaction theory is presented for predicting the aerodynamic characteristics of upper surface blowing and over wing blowing configurations. For the latter configurations, a new jet entrainment theory is developed. Comparison of predicted results with some available data showed good agreement. Some applications of the theory are also presented.

  8. Magnetohydrodynamic electrode

    DOEpatents

    Boquist, Carl W.; Marchant, David D.

    1978-01-01

    A ceramic-metal composite suitable for use in a high-temperature environment consists of a refractory ceramic matrix containing 10 to 50 volume percent of a continuous high-temperature metal reinforcement. In a specific application of the composite, as an electrode in a magnetohydrodynamic generator, the one surface of the electrode which contacts the MHD fluid may have a layer of varying thickness of nonreinforced refractory ceramic for electrode temperature control. The side walls of the electrode may be coated with a refractory ceramic insulator. Also described is an electrode-insulator system for a MHD channel.

  9. Magnetohydrodynamic instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Priest, E. R.; Cargill, P.; Forbes, T. G.; Hood, A. W.; Steinolfson, R. S.

    1986-01-01

    There have been major advances in the theory of magnetic reconnection and of magnetic instability, with important implications for the observations, as follows: (1) Fast and slow magnetic shock waves are produced by the magnetohydrodynamics of reconnection and are potential particle accelerators. (2) The impulsive bursty regime of reconnection gives a rapid release of magnetic energy in a series of bursts. (3) The radiative tearing mode creates cool filamentary structures in the reconnection process. (4) The stability analyses imply that an arcade can become unstable when either its height or twist of plasma pressure become too great.

  10. Interaction of a round turbulent jet with a thermocline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezhova, Ekaterina; Cenedese, Claudia; Brandt, Luca

    2016-04-01

    Vertical turbulent jets serve as the models of numerous flows both in nature and industry including convective cloud flows in the atmosphere, effluents from submerged wastewater outfall systems in the ocean, pollutant discharge from industrial chimneys, subglacial discharge. We investigate the dynamics of an axisymmetric vertical turbulent jet in a stratified fluid with two layers of different temperature separated by a thermocline. This configuration is a typical model of the upper thermocline layer of lakes and pycnocline in oceans as well as thermal inversions in the atmosphere. In general, turbulent jets in nature and industry originate from the mixed sources of buoyancy and momentum. However, when the source is located far enough from the pycnocline, the jet mixes effectively with the surrounding fluid and the density of the flow at the pycnocline entrance tends to the density of the lower layer of stratification. Dynamics of such a flow in the pycnocline can be modelled employing a neutrally buoyant turbulent jet with the positive vertical momentum. We study the behaviour of a vertical round turbulent jet in an unconfined stratified environment by means of well-resolved large eddy simulation. We consider two cases: when the thermocline width is small and of the same order with the jet diameter at the thermocline entrance. Mean jet penetration, stratified turbulent entrainment and jet oscillations as well as the generation of internal waves are quantified. The mean jet penetration is predicted well by a simple model based on the conservation of the jet volume, momentum and buoyancy fluxes. The entrainment coefficient for the thin thermocline is consistent with the theoretical model for a two-layer stratification with a sharp interface, while for the thick thermocline entrainment is larger at low Froude numbers. For the thick thermocline we demonstrate the presence of a secondary horizontal flow in the upper thermocline, resulting in the entrainment of fluid

  11. The interaction of an O star wind with a Herbig-Haro jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esquivel, A.; Raga, A. C.; Cantó, J.; Rodríguez-González, A.

    2009-11-01

    Context: Herbig-Haro jets ejected from young, low mass stars in the proximity of O/B stars will interact with the more or less isotropic winds from the more massive stars. An example of this are the jets from the stars within the proplyds near θ-Orionis. Aims: In this paper, we consider the interaction of an externally photoionized HH jet with an isotropic wind ejected from the ionizing photon source. We study this problem through numerical simulations, allowing us to obtain predictions of the detailed structure of the flow and predictions of Hα intensity maps. This is a natural extension of a previously developed analytic model for the interaction between a jet and an isotropic stellar wind. Methods: We present 3D simulations of a bipolar HH jet interacting with an isotropic wind from a massive star, assuming that the radiation from the star photoionizes all of the flow. We describe different possible flow configurations, exploring a limited set of jet and stellar wind parameters and orientations of the jet/counterjet ejection. We have computed 6 models, two of which also include a time-variability in the jet velocity. Results: We compare the locus of the computed jet/counterjet systems with the analytic model, and find very good agreement except for cases in which the direction of the jet (or the counterjet) approaches the direction to the wind source (i.e., the O star). For the models with variable ejection velocities, we find that the internal working surfaces follow straighter trajectories (and the inter-working surface segments more curved trajectories) than the equivalent steady jet model.

  12. [Nonlinear magnetohydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-01

    Theoretical predictions were compared with available data from JET on the threshold unstable MHD activity in toroidal confinement devices. In particular, questions arising as to Hartmans number and the selection of a kinematic viscosity are discussed.

  13. Interaction of Sound from Supersonic Jets with Nearby Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fenno, C. C., Jr.; Bayliss, A.; Maestrello, L.

    1997-01-01

    A model of sound generated in an ideally expanded supersonic (Mach 2) jet is solved numerically. Two configurations are considered: (1) a free jet and (2) an installed jet with a nearby array of flexible aircraft type panels. In the later case the panels vibrate in response to loading by sound from the jet and the full coupling between the panels and the jet is considered, accounting for panel response and radiation. The long time behavior of the jet is considered. Results for near field and far field disturbance, the far field pressure and the vibration of and radiation from the panels are presented. Panel response crucially depends on the location of the panels. Panels located upstream of the Mach cone are subject to a low level, nearly continuous spectral excitation and consequently exhibit a low level, relatively continuous spectral response. In contrast, panels located within the Mach cone are subject to a significant loading due to the intense Mach wave radiation of sound and exhibit a large, relatively peaked spectral response centered around the peak frequency of sound radiation. The panels radiate in a similar fashion to the sound in the jet, in particular exhibiting a relatively peaked spectral response at approximately the Mach angle from the bounding wall.

  14. Final Technical Report - SciDAC Cooperative Agreement: Center for Wave Interactions with Magnetohydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Schnack, Dalton D.

    2012-07-01

    Final technical report for research performed by Dr. Thomas G. Jenkins in collaboration with Professor Dalton D. Schnack on SciDAC Cooperative Agreement: Center for Wave Interactions with Magnetohydrodyanics, DE-FC02-06ER54899, for the period of 8/15/06 - 8/14/11. This report centers on the Slow MHD physics campaign work performed by Dr. Jenkins while at UW-Madison and then at Tech-X Corporation. To make progress on the problem of RF induced currents affect magnetic island evolution in toroidal plasmas, a set of research approaches are outlined. Three approaches can be addressed in parallel. These are: (1) Analytically prescribed additional term in Ohm's law to model the effect of localized ECCD current drive; (2) Introduce an additional evolution equation for the Ohm's law source term. Establish a RF source 'box' where information from the RF code couples to the fluid evolution; and (3) Carry out a more rigorous analytic calculation treating the additional RF terms in a closure problem. These approaches rely on the necessity of reinvigorating the computation modeling efforts of resistive and neoclassical tearing modes with present day versions of the numerical tools. For the RF community, the relevant action item is - RF ray tracing codes need to be modified so that general three-dimensional spatial information can be obtained. Further, interface efforts between the two codes require work as well as an assessment as to the numerical stability properties of the procedures to be used.

  15. Nonlinear electron magnetohydrodynamics physics. II. Wave propagation and wave-wave interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Urrutia, J. M.; Stenzel, R. L.; Strohmaier, K. D.

    2008-04-15

    The propagation of low-frequency whistler modes with wave magnetic field exceeding the ambient field is investigated experimentally. Such nonlinear waves are excited with magnetic loop antennas whose axial field is aligned with the background magnetic field and greatly exceeds its strength. The oscillatory antenna field excites propagating wave packets with field topologies alternating between whistler spheromaks and mirrors. The propagation speed of spheromaks is observed to decrease with amplitude while that of mirrors increases with amplitude. The field distribution varies with amplitude: Spheromaks contract axially while mirrors spread out compared to linear whistlers. Consequently, the peak magnetic field and current densities in spheromaks exceed that of mirrors. Wave-wave interactions of nonlinear whistler modes is also studied. Counterpropagating spheromaks collide inelastically and form a stationary field-reversed configuration. The radius of the toroidal current ring depends on current and can be larger than that of the loop antenna. A tilted field-reversed configuration precesses in the direction of the electron drift. The free magnetic energy is dissipated in the plasma volume and converted into electron heat.

  16. Consequences of a possible jet-star interaction in the inner central parsec of Centaurus A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, C.; Kadler, M.; Mannheim, K.; Perucho, M.; Ojha, R.; Ros, E.; Schulz, R.; Wilms, J.

    The jet-counterjet system of the closest radio-loud active galaxy Centaurus A (Cen A) can be studied with Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) on unprecedented small linear scales of ~0.018 pc. These high-resolution observations provide essential information on jet emission and propagation within the inner parsec of an AGN jet. We present the results of a kinematic study performed within the framework of the Southern-hemisphere AGN monitoring program TANAMI. Over 3.5 years, the evolution of the central-parsec jet structure of Cen A was monitored with VLBI. These observations reveal complex jet dynamics which are well explained by a spine-sheath structure supported by the downstream acceleration occurring where the jet becomes optically thin. Both moving and stationary jet features are tracked. A persistent local minimum in surface brightness suggests the presence of an obstacle interrupting the jet flow, which can be explained by the interaction of the jet with a star at a distance of ~0.4 pc from the central black hole. We briefly discuss possible implications of such an interaction regarding the expected neutrino and high-energy emission and the effect on a putative planet.

  17. Interaction of Moist Convection with Zonal Jets on Jupiter and Saturn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Liming; Ingersoll, Andrew P.; Huang, Xianglei

    2006-01-01

    Observations suggest that moist convection plays an important role in the large-scale dynamics of Jupiter s and Saturn s atmospheres. Here we use a reduced-gravity quasigeostrophic model, with a parameterization of moist convection that is based on observations, to study the interaction between moist convection and zonal jets on Jupiter and Saturn. Stable jets with approximately the same width and strength as observations are generated in the model. The observed zonal jets violate the barotropic stability criterion but the modeled jets do so only if the flow in the deep underlying layer is westward. The model results suggest that a length scale and a velocity scale associated with moist convection control the width and strength of the jets. The length scale and velocity scale offer a possible explanation of why the jets of Saturn are stronger and wider than those of Jupiter.

  18. Interaction of a jet with a radiation pressure-dominated atmosphere - The case of SS 433

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arav, Nahum; Begelman, Mitchell C.

    1993-01-01

    A phenomenological model for the enigmatic object SS 433 is developed in which SS 433 is a neutron star (NS) surrounded by a dense accreted atmosphere. Jets are created close to the neutron star surface by the rapidly spinning NS, toward which matter flows at a super-Eddington rate. This supercritical accretion leads to a quasi-spherical atmosphere around the NS with very high pressure and density close to the surface. The interaction of the jet with the atmosphere as it propagates through it is discussed in detail. A boundary layer (BL) due to radiation viscosity forms between the jet and the surrounding medium. This BL can be visualized as a cocoon of low-density matter around the jet which prevents mass entrainment into the jet. A study of X-ray spectra shows how the radiation-viscous BL can explain the very small Delta v/v that is observed in the jets.

  19. Associated production of weak bosons and jets by multiple parton interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Eboli, O.; Halzen, F.; Mizukoshi, J.K.

    1998-02-01

    The sources of W+n-jet events in hadron collisions are higher-order QCD processes, but also multiple-parton interactions. A subprocess producing a W+k-jet final state, followed by one producing l jets in the same nucleon-nucleon interaction, will result in a W+n-jet event if k+l=n. In the simplest case a W+2-jet event can be produced by a quark-antiquark annihilation into W and a 2-jet event occurring in the same proton-antiproton interaction. We compute that this happens at the 10{percent} level of the higher-order QCD processes for the type of cuts made by the Fermilab Tevatron experiments. For jet p{sub T} values of order 5{endash}10 GeV, multiple-parton interactions dominate higher-order QCD-processes. The emergence of this new source of W+n-jet events towards lower p{sub T} simulates the running of {alpha}{sub s}; it is imperative to remove these processes from the event sample in order to extract information on the strong coupling constant. Also, BFKL studies of low-p{sub T} jet cross sections are held hostage to a detailed understanding of the multiple-parton interactions. We perform the calculations required to achieve these goals. A detailed experimental analysis of the data may, for the first time, determine the effective areas occupied by quarks and gluons in the nucleon. These are not necessarily identical. We also compute the multiple-parton contribution to Z+n-jet events. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  20. Final Report for "Tech-X Corporation work for the SciDAC Center for Simulation of RF Wave Interactions with Magnetohydrodynamics (SWIM)"

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, Thomas G.; Kruger, Scott E.

    2013-03-25

    Work carried out by Tech-X Corporation for the DoE SciDAC Center for Simulation of RF Wave Interactions with Magnetohydrodynamics (SWIM; U.S. DoE Office of Science Award Number DE-FC02-06ER54899) is summarized and is shown to fulfil the project objectives. The Tech-X portion of the SWIM work focused on the development of analytic and computational approaches to study neoclassical tearing modes and their interaction with injected electron cyclotron current drive. Using formalism developed by Hegna, Callen, and Ramos [Phys. Plasmas 16, 112501 (2009); Phys. Plasmas 17, 082502 (2010); Phys. Plasmas 18, 102506 (2011)], analytic approximations for the RF interaction were derived and the numerical methods needed to implement these interactions in the NIMROD extended MHD code were developed. Using the SWIM IPS framework, NIMROD has successfully coupled to GENRAY, an RF ray tracing code; additionally, a numerical control system to trigger the RF injection, adjustment, and shutdown in response to tearing mode activity has been developed. We discuss these accomplishments, as well as prospects for ongoing future research that this work has enabled (which continue in a limited fashion under the SciDAC Center for Extended Magnetohydrodynamic Modeling (CEMM) project and under a baseline theory grant). Associated conference presentations, published articles, and publications in progress are also listed.

  1. Numerical Study of a Continuum Sonic Jet Interacting with a Rarefield Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, Christoper E.

    1997-01-01

    The results of a numerical study with flow and boundary conditions based on an experiment of a continuum sonic jet interacting with rarefied flow about a sharp leading edge flat plate at zero incidence are presented. Comparisons are made between computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) solutions which provide an assessment of applying each technique to the flow conditions of the experiment. An analysis of the CFD results revealed a correlation between the interaction interface of the jet continuum breakdown surface and a non-dimensional parameter derived from jet and free stream flow conditions. Using the breakdown surface from the correlation, the continuum jet was uncoupled from the interaction, thus allowing an uncoupled CFD-DSMC solution to be obtained. Also, a nearest neighbor collision algorithm, similar to the subcell technique, was implemented in the DSMC solution technique. The comparison between CFD and DSMC results shows good qualitative agreement in the interaction region and good quantitative agreement elsewhere.

  2. A Numerical Investigation of a Gaseous Jet Interacting with a Supercavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinzel, Michael; Moeny, Michael; Krane, Michael; Kirschner, Ivan

    2015-11-01

    In this work, the interaction between a ventilated supercavity and a jet are examined using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). In this context, supercavities are large gaseous cavities that surround a vehicle for drag reduction. Its interaction with a gaseous jet is not well understood, and CFD is used to help understand the physical interactions. A validated CFD model is used, indicating that the CFD qualitatively captures a wide range of interaction regimes. More importantly, for the context of developing physical insight, the CFD seems to capture the correct qualitative trend in the bulk cavity behavior. Using these validated models, a number of novel insights into the physical characteristics of the interaction are developed. These interactions are described by: (1) the jet gas and ventilation gas poorly mix within the cavity, (2) the jet appears to cause additional gas leakage by transitioning the cavity from a recirculating flow to an axial flow, (3) the jet has the ability to lengthen the cavity, and (4) the jet invokes wake instabilities that drive cavity pulsation. These phenomena are to be presented and discussed within the presentation.

  3. Magnetohydrodynamic simulation of the interaction between two interplanetary magnetic clouds and its consequent geoeffectiveness: 2. Oblique collision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Ming; Zheng, Huinan; Wang, Shui

    2009-11-01

    The numerical studies of the interplanetary coupling between multiple magnetic clouds (MCs) are continued by a 2.5-dimensional ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model in the heliospheric meridional plane. The interplanetary direct collision (DC)/oblique collision (OC) between both MCs results from their same/different initial propagation orientations. Here the OC is explored in contrast to the results of the DC. Both the slow MC1 and fast MC2 are consequently injected from the different heliospheric latitudes to form a compound stream during the interplanetary propagation. The MC1 and MC2 undergo contrary deflections during the process of oblique collision. Their deflection angles of ∣δ$\\theta$1∣ and ∣δ$\\theta$2∣ continuously increase until both MC-driven shock fronts are merged into a stronger compound one. The ∣δ$\\theta$1∣, ∣δ$\\theta$2∣, and total deflection angle Δ$\\theta$ (Δ$\\theta$ = ∣δ$\\theta$1∣ + ∣δ$\\theta$2∣) reach their corresponding maxima when the initial eruptions of both MCs are at an appropriate angular difference. Moreover, with the increase of MC2's initial speed, the OC becomes more intense, and the enhancement of δ$\\theta$1 is much more sensitive to δ$\\theta$2. The ∣δ$\\theta$1∣ is generally far less than the ∣δ$\\theta$2∣, and the unusual case of ∣δ$\\theta$1∣ $\\simeq$ ∣δ$\\theta$2∣ only occurs for an extremely violent OC. But because of the elasticity of the MC body to buffer the collision, this deflection would gradually approach an asymptotic degree. As a result, the opposite deflection between the two MCs, together with the inherent magnetic elasticity of each MC, could efficiently relieve the external compression for the OC in the interplanetary space. Such a deflection effect for the OC case is essentially absent for the DC case. Therefore, besides the magnetic elasticity, magnetic helicity, and reciprocal compression, the deflection due to the OC should be considered for the

  4. Inclined Jet in Crossflow Interacting with a Vortex Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaman, K. B. M. Q.; Rigby, D .L.; Heidmann, J. D.

    2011-01-01

    An experiment is conducted on the effectiveness of a vortex generator in preventing liftoff of a jet in crossflow, with possible relevance to film-cooling applications. The jet issues into the boundary layer at an angle of 20 degreees to the freestream. The effect of a triangular ramp-shaped vortex generator is studied while varying its geometry and location. Detailed flowfield properties are obtained for a case in which the height of the vortex generator and the diameter of the orifice are comparable with the approach boundary-layer thickness. The vortex generator produces a streamwise vortex pair with a vorticity magnitude 3 times larger (and of opposite sense) than that found in the jet in crossflow alone. Such a vortex generator appears to be most effective in keeping the jet attached to the wall. The effect of parametric variation is studied mostly from surveys 10 diameters downstream from the orifice. Results over a range of jet-to-freestream momentum flux ratio (1 < J < 11) show that the vortex generator has a significant effect even at the highest J covered in the experiment. When the vortex generator height is halved, there is a liftoff of the jet. On the other hand, when the height is doubled, the jet core is dissipated due to larger turbulence intensity. Varying the location of the vortex generator, over a distance of three diameters from the orifice, is found to have little impact. Rounding off the edges of the vortex generator with the increasing radius of curvature progressively diminishes its effect. However, allowing for a small radius of curvature may be quite tolerable in practice.

  5. Magnetohydrodynamic electrode

    DOEpatents

    Marchant, David D.; Killpatrick, Don H.

    1978-01-01

    An electrode capable of withstanding high temperatures and suitable for use as a current collector in the channel of a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generator consists of a sintered powdered metal base portion, the upper surface of the base being coated with a first layer of nickel aluminide, an intermediate layer of a mixture of nickel aluminide - refractory ceramic on the first layer and a third or outer layer of a refractory ceramic material on the intermediate layer. The sintered powdered metal base resists spalling by the ceramic coatings and permits greater electrode compliance to thermal shock. The density of the powdered metal base can be varied to allow optimization of the thermal conductivity of the electrode and prevent excess heat loss from the channel.

  6. Giant Chromospheric Anemone Jet Observed with Hinode and Comparison with Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations: Evidence of Propagating Alfvén Waves and Magnetic Reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishizuka, N.; Shimizu, M.; Nakamura, T.; Otsuji, K.; Okamoto, T. J.; Katsukawa, Y.; Shibata, K.

    2008-08-01

    Hinode discovered a beautiful giant jet with both cool and hot components at the solar limb on 2007 February 9. Simultaneous observations by the Hinode SOT, XRT, and TRACE 195 Å satellites revealed that hot (~5 × 106 K) and cool (~104 K) jets were located side by side and that the hot jet preceded the associated cool jet (~1-2 minutes). A current-sheet-like structure was seen in optical (Ca II H), EUV (195 Å), and soft X-ray emissions, suggesting that magnetic reconnection is occurring in the transition region or upper chromosphere. Alfvén waves were also observed with Hinode SOT. These propagated along the jet at velocities of ~200 km s-1 with amplitudes (transverse velocity) of ~5-15 km s-1 and a period of ~200 s. We performed two-dimensional MHD simulation of the jets on the basis of the emerging flux-reconnection model, by extending Yokoyama and Shibata's model. We extended the model with a more realistic initial condition (~106 K corona) and compared our model with multiwavelength observations. The improvement of the coronal temperature and density in the simulation model allowed for the first time the reproduction of the structure and evolution of both the cool and hot jets quantitatively, supporting the magnetic reconnection model. The generation and the propagation of Alfvén waves are also reproduced self-consistently in the simulation model.

  7. Interaction of a synthetic jet with a flat plate boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rampunggoon, Prakit

    The interaction of a 2-dimensional modeled synthetic jet with a flat plate boundary layer is investigated numerically using an incompressible Navier-Stokes solver. A simple, two-dimensional synthetic jet configuration along with a flat plate, laminar Blasius boundary layer was used in the current study. The oscillating diaphragm of the actuator is modeled in a realistic manner as a moving boundary in an effort to accurately compute the flow inside the jet cavity. The primary focus of the current study is on describing the dynamics of the synthetic jet in the presence of external crossflow. However, in addition, simulations of the jet with quiescent external flow have also been performed. A systematic framework was put forth for characterizing the jet that consists of computing the various moments of the velocity profile along with an integral measure of the profile skewness. A comprehensive parametric study has been carried out where the diaphragm amplitude, external flow Reynolds number, boundary layer thickness, and slot dimensions are varied; and the scaling of the jet characteristics with parameters is examined. The simulations also allow us to extract some interesting flow physics associated with the vortex dynamics of the jet and to elucidate the effect of external cross flow on jet development. In addition, a low-dimensional model for jet velocity profile is proposed and tested. Finally, the so-called "virtual aero-shaping" effect of synthetic jets is examined and the current simulations indicate a simple scaling of this effect with the dynamical characteristics of the jet and external crossflow.

  8. Background Oriented Schlieren Implementation in a Jet-Surface Interaction Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clem, Michelle M.; Brown, Clifford A.; Fagan, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Many current and future aircraft designs rely on the wing or other aircraft surfaces to shield the engine noise from observers on the ground. However the available data regarding how a planar surface interacts with a jet to shield and/or enhance the jet noise are currently limited. Therefore, the Jet-Surface Interaction Tests supported by NASA's Fundamental Aeronautics Program's Fixed Wing Project were undertaken to supply experimental data covering a wide range of surface geometries and positions interacting with high-speed jet flows in order to support the development of noise prediction methods. Phase 1 of the Test was conducted in the Aero-Acoustic Propulsion Laboratory at NASA Glenn Research Center and consisted of validating noise prediction schemes for a round nozzle interacting with a planar surface. Phased array data and far-field acoustic data were collected for both the shielded and reflected sides of the surface. Phase 1 results showed that the broadband shock noise was greatly reduced by the surface when the jet was operated at the over-expanded condition, however, it was unclear whether this reduction was due a change in the shock cell structure by the surface. In the present study, Background Oriented Schlieren is implemented in Phase 2 of the Jet-Surface Interaction Tests to investigate whether the planar surface interacts with the high-speed jet ow to change the shock cell structure. Background Oriented Schlieren data are acquired for under-expanded, ideally-expanded, and over-expanded ow regimes for multiple axial and radial positions of the surface at three different plate lengths. These data are analyzed with far-field noise measurements to relate the shock cell structure to the broadband shock noise produced by a jet near a surface.

  9. Interaction of multiple atmospheric-pressure micro-plasma jets in small arrays: He/O2 into humid air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babaeva, Natalia Yu; Kushner, Mark J.

    2014-02-01

    Arrays of atmospheric-pressure plasma jets are being considered as a means to increase the area being treated in surface modification and in plasma medicine in particular. A unique challenge of scaling plasma jet arrays is that individual plasma jets in an array tend to interact with each other, which can lead to quenching of some individual jets. To investigate these potential interactions, a computational study of one-, two- and three-tube arrays of micro-plasma jet arrays was performed. An atmospheric-pressure He/O2 = 99.8/0.2 mixture was flowed through the tubes into humid room air. We found that the jets interact through electrostatic, hydrodynamic and photolytic means. The hydrodynamic interactions result from the merging of individual He channels emerging from individual tubes as air diffuses into the extended gas jets. Ionization waves (IWs) or plasma bullets, which form the jets on the boundaries of an array, encounter higher mole fractions of air earlier compared with the center jet and so are slower or are quenched earlier. The close proximity of the jets produces electrostatic repulsion, which affects the trajectories of the IWs. If the jets are close enough, photoionizing radiation from their neighbors is an additional form of interaction. These interactions are sensitive to the spacing of the jets.

  10. Cold atmospheric pressure plasma jet interactions with plasmid DNA

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connell, D.; Cox, L. J.; Hyland, W. B.; McMahon, S. J.; Reuter, S.; Graham, W. G.; Gans, T.; Currell, F. J.

    2011-01-24

    The effect of a cold (<40 deg. C) radio frequency-driven atmospheric pressure plasma jet on plasmid DNA has been investigated. Gel electrophoresis was used to analyze the DNA forms post-treatment. The experimental data are fitted to a rate equation model that allows for quantitative determination of the rates of single and double strand break formation. The formation of double strand breaks correlates well with the atomic oxygen density. Taken with other measurements, this indicates that neutral components in the jet are effective in inducing double strand breaks.

  11. On the interaction of jet noise with a nearby flexible structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgreevy, J. L.; Bayliss, A.; Maestrello, L.

    1994-01-01

    The model of the interaction of the noise from a spreading subsonic jet with a panel-stringer assembly is studied numerically in two dimensions. The radiation resulting from this flow/acoustic/structure coupling is computed and analyzed in both the time and frequency domains. The jet is initially excited by a pulse-like source inserted into the flow field. The pulse triggers instabilities associated with the inviscid instability of the jet mean flow shear layer. These instabilities in turn generate sound which provides the primary loading for the panels. The resulting structural vibration and radiation depends strongly on their placement relative to the jet/nozzle configuration. Results are obtained for the panel responses as well as the transmitted and incident pressure. The effect of the panels is to act as a narrow filter, converting the relatively broad band forcing, heavily influenced by jet instabilities, into radiation concentrated in narrow spectral bands.

  12. On the interaction of jet noise with a nearby flexible structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGreevy, J. L.; Bayliss, A.; Maestrello, L.

    1994-06-01

    The model of the interaction of the noise from a spreading subsonic jet with a panel-stringer assembly is studied numerically in two dimensions. The radiation resulting from this flow/acoustic/structure coupling is computed and analyzed in both the time and frequency domains. The jet is initially excited by a pulse-like source inserted into the flow field. The pulse triggers instabilities associated with the inviscid instability of the jet mean flow shear layer. These instabilities in turn generate sound which provides the primary loading for the panels. The resulting structural vibration and radiation depends strongly on their placement relative to the jet/nozzle configuration. Results are obtained for the panel responses as well as the transmitted and incident pressure. The effect of the panels is to act as a narrow filter, converting the relatively broad band forcing, heavily influenced by jet instabilities, into radiation concentrated in narrow spectral bands.

  13. On the nature of incompressible magnetohydrodynamic turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Gogoberidze, G.

    2007-02-15

    A novel model of incompressible magnetohydrodynamic turbulence in the presence of a strong external magnetic field is proposed for the explanation of recent numerical results. According to the proposed model, in the presence of the strong external magnetic field, incompressible magnetohydrodynamic turbulence becomes nonlocal in the sense that low-frequency modes cause decorrelation of interacting high-frequency modes from the inertial interval. It is shown that the obtained nonlocal spectrum of the inertial range of incompressible magnetohydrodynamic turbulence represents an anisotropic analogue of Kraichnan's nonlocal spectrum of hydrodynamic turbulence. Based on the analysis performed in the framework of the weak-coupling approximation, which represents one of the equivalent formulations of the direct interaction approximation, it is shown that incompressible magnetohydrodynamic turbulence could be both local and nonlocal, and therefore anisotropic analogues of both the Kolmogorov and Kraichnan spectra are realizable in incompressible magnetohydrodynamic turbulence.

  14. Jet-Supercavity Interaction: Insights from Physics Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirschner, I. N.; Moeny, M. J.; Krane, M. H.; Kinzel, M. P.

    2015-12-01

    Various closure conditions of a ventilated cavity enveloping all or part of a high-speed underwater body are introduced, including those involving a propulsion jet. The flow regimes for the latter are described based on Efros-Paryshev theory, which is extended to estimate the efficiency and fundamental limitations of a rocket-type propulsor.

  15. Dust generation at interaction of plasma jet with surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ticos, Catalin; Toader, Dorina; Banu, Nicoleta; Scurtu, Adrian; Oane, Mihai

    2013-10-01

    Coatings of W and C with widths of a few microns will be exposed to plasma jet for studying the erosion of the surface and detachment of micron size dust particles. A coaxial plasma gun has been built inside a vacuum chamber for producing supersonic plasma jets. Its design is based on a 50 kJ coaxial plasma gun which has been successfully used for accelerating hypervelocity dust. Initial shots were carried out for a capacitor bank with C = 12 μF and charged up to 2 kV. Currents of tens of amps were measured with a Rogowsky coil and plasma flow speeds of 4 km/s were inferred from high-speed images of jet propagation. An upgrade consisting in adding capacitors in parallel will be performed in order to increase the energy up to 2 kJ. A coil will be installed at the gun muzzle to compress the plasma flow and increase the energy density of the jet on the sample surface. A CCD camera with a maximum recording speed of 100 k fps and a maximum resolution of 1024 × 1024 pixels was set for image acquisition of the plasma and dust. A laser system used to illuminate the ejected dust from the surface includes a laser diode emitting at 650 nm with a beam power of 25 mW. The authors acknowledge support from EURATOM WP13-IPH-A03-P2-02-BS22.

  16. An Empirical Jet-Surface Interaction Noise Model with Temperature and Nozzle Aspect Ratio Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Cliff

    2015-01-01

    An empirical model for jet-surface interaction (JSI) noise produced by a round jet near a flat plate is described and the resulting model evaluated. The model covers unheated and hot jet conditions (1 less than or equal to jet total temperature ratio less than or equal to 2.7) in the subsonic range (0.5 less than or equal to M(sub a) less than or equal to 0.9), surface lengths 0.6 less than or equal to (axial distance from jet exit to surface trailing edge (inches)/nozzle exit diameter) less than or equal to 10, and surface standoff distances (0 less than or equal to (radial distance from jet lipline to surface (inches)/axial distance from jet exit to surface trailing edge (inches)) less than or equal to 1) using only second-order polynomials to provide predictable behavior. The JSI noise model is combined with an existing jet mixing noise model to produce exhaust noise predictions. Fit quality metrics and comparisons to between the predicted and experimental data indicate that the model is suitable for many system level studies. A first-order correction to the JSI source model that accounts for the effect of nozzle aspect ratio is also explored. This correction is based on changes to the potential core length and frequency scaling associated with rectangular nozzles up to 8:1 aspect ratio. However, more work is needed to refine these findings into a formal model.

  17. Interaction of Radio Jets with Magnetic Fields in Clusters of Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soker, Noam

    1997-10-01

    High Faraday rotation measures in the centers of cooling-flow clusters indicate the presence of strong magnetic fields. We examine the effects of these strong fields on the propagation of radio jets emerging from the central cD galaxies of these clusters, and the deformation of the magnetic fields by the fast-propagating jets. We argue that active regions will develop around these radio jets as a result of the violent response of the strong ambient magnetic fields. The magnetic tension can act back on the jets by influencing the development of Rayleigh-Taylor and Kelvin-Helmholtz instability modes, and by exerting a nonaxisymmetric force on the jets. If the jet propagation direction is not along the magnetic field lines, then the jet will be sharply bent by the magnetic tension. Future MHD numerical simulations that will study these effects more quantitatively should be compared directly with specific clusters. If, indeed, some properties of jets expanding from cD galaxies in cooling-flow clusters will turn out to result from interaction with strong magnetic fields in the intracluster medium at the centers of these clusters, then this will strengthen the cooling-flow model, since it will support the presence of inflow.

  18. Interactive phenomena in supersonic jet mixing problems. I Phenomenology and numerical modeling techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dash, S. M.; Wolf, D. E.

    1984-01-01

    The interactive phenomena that occur in supersonic jet mixing flowfields, and numerical modeling techniques developed to analyze such phenomena are discussed. A spatial marching procedure based on solving the parabolized Navier-Stokes jet mixing equations is presented. This procedure combines shock-capturing methodology for the analysis of supersonic mixing regions with pressure-split methodology for the analysis of subsonic mixing regions. The two regions are coupled at viscous sonic lines utilizing a viscous-characteristic coupling procedure. Specialized techniques for the treatment of jet boundary growth, strong discontinuties (Mach disks), and small embedded subsonic zones (behind Mach disks) are presented. Turbulent processes are represented by two-equation turbulence model formulations. In Part II of this article, numerical studies are presented for a variety of supersonic jet interactive phenomena.

  19. Direct measurement of aeroacoustic source spectrum due to a jet/wall interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lani, Shane; Krane, Michael

    2009-11-01

    The aeroacoustic source spectrum due to a turbulent jet passing over an obstruction is found experimentally. The model consists of a constriction and planar obstacle in a duct with dimensions commensurate with the those of a human vocal tract. An unsteady jet formed at a constriction interacts with a planar obstruction downstream with the jet normal to the planar surface. The aeroacoustic source spectrum is found both by measuring the unsteady force imparted on the planar obstruction as well as measuring radiated sound outside the duct. A comparison of the force spectrum to the inverse-filtered radiated sound measurements will be presented.

  20. Magnetohydrodynamic Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdélyi, R.

    2007-07-01

    The heating of solar atmosphere from chromosphere to corona is one of the key fundamental and yet unresolved questions of modern space and plasma physics. In spite of the multi-fold efforts spanning over half a century including the many superb technological advances and theoretical developments (both analytical and computational) the unveiling of the subtle of coronal heating still remains an exciting job for the 21st century! In the present paper I review the various popular heating mechanisms put forward in the existing extensive literature. The heating processes are, somewhat arbitrarily, classified as hydrodynamic (HD), magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) or kinetic based on the model medium. These mechanisms are further divided based on the time scales of the ultimate dissipation involved (i.e. AC and DC heating, turbulent heating). In particular, attention is paid to discuss shock dissipation, Landau damping, mode coupling, resonant absorption, phase mixing, and, reconnection. Finally, I briefly review the various observational consequences of the many proposed heating mechanisms and confront them with high-resolution ground-based and satellite data currently available.

  1. Tone Noise and Nearfield Pressure Produced by Jet-Cavity Interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raman, Ganesh; Envia, Edmane; Bencic, Timothy J.

    1998-01-01

    Cavity flow resonance can cause numerous problems in aerospace applications. While our long-term goal is to understand cavity flows well enough to devise effective cavity resonance suppression techniques, this paper describes a fundamental study of resonant tones produced by jet-cavity interaction at subsonic and supersonic speeds. Our specific jet-cavity configuration can also be used as a test bed for evaluating active and passive flow resonance control concepts. Two significant findings emerge from this study. 1) Originally, we expected that tones produced by jet-cavity interaction would resemble cavity tones or jet tones or would involve some simple combinations of each. The experimental data do not support these expectations: instead, the jet cavity interaction produce a unique set of tones. We propose simple yet and physically insightful correlations for these tones. Although the pressure patterns on the cavity floor display very complex variations with the Mach number for a length/depth = 8 cavity, the tones correspond to the acoustic modes of the cavity-independent of flow. For a length/ depth = 3 cavity, however, a surprise emerges: the pressure patterns on the cavity floor are not so complex but the tones depend significantly on the flow. Additionally, we examine the role of external feedback unique to jet-cavity interaction. 2) Previous research led us to expect that traditional classifications (open, transitional, or closed) for cavities in an infinite flight stream would be insensitive to small changes in Mach number and would depend primarily on cavity length/depth ratios. Use of the novel high resolution photoluminescent pressure sensitive paint shows that the classifications are actually quite sensitive to jet Mach number for a length/depth = 8 cavity. However, these classifications provide no guidance whatsoever for tone amplitude or frequency. Detailed experimental data and insights presented here will assist researchers who are performing

  2. Effect of Pulsed Plasma Jets on Reflected Shock-Turbulent Boundary Layer Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greene, Benton R.; Clemens, Noel T.; Magari, Patrick; Micka, Daniel

    2013-11-01

    Shock-induced turbulent boundary layer separation can have many detrimental effects in supersonic inlets including flow instability, fatigue of structural panels, poor pressure recovery, and unstart. Pulsed plasma jets (or ``spark jets''), zero net mass flow jets characterized by high bandwidth and the ability to direct momentum into the flow, are one promising method of reducing shock-induced separation and boundary layer distortion. The current study is focused on investigating the efficacy of pulsed plasma jets to reduce the boundary layer distortion induced by a reflected shock interaction in a Mach 3 flow. A 7° shock generator placed outside the tunnel ceiling boundary layer produces an incident shock on the floor of the tunnel of sufficient strength to induce separation. An array of pulsed plasma jets are placed approximately 2 boundary layer thicknesses upstream of the interaction and pulsed at between 1 kHz and 4 kHz. PIV is used to investigate the effect of the jets on the nature of the separation as well as the boundary layer distortion and pressure recovery downstream of the interaction. Funded through AFRL in collaboration with Creare, Inc.

  3. A personal-computer-based package for interactive assessment of magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium and poloidal field coil design in axisymmetric toroidal geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Kelleher, W.P. ); Steiner, D. . Dept. of Nuclear Science)

    1989-07-01

    A personal-computer (PC)-based calculational approach assesses magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equilibrium and poloidal field (PF) coil arrangement in a highly interactive mode, well suited for tokamak scoping studies. The system developed involves a two-step process: the MHD equilibrium is calculated and then a PF coil arrangement, consistent with the equilibrium is determined in an interactive design environment. In this paper the approach is used to examine four distinctly different toroidal configurations: the STARFIRE rector, a spherical torus (ST), the Big Dee, and an elongated tokamak. In these applications the PC-based results are benchmarked against those of a mainframe code for STARFIRE, ST, and Big Dee. The equilibrium and PF coil arrangement calculations obtained with the PC approach agree within a few percent with those obtained with the mainframe code.

  4. Experimental Measurement of RCS Jet Interaction Effects on a Capsule Entry Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buck, Gregory M.; Watkins, A. Neal; Danehy, Paul M.; Inman, Jennifer A.; Alderfer, David W.; Dyakonov, Artem A.

    2008-01-01

    An investigation was made in NASA Langley Research Center s 31-Inch Mach 10 Tunnel to determine the effects of reaction-control system (RCS) jet interactions on the aft-body of a capsule entry vehicle. The test focused on demonstrating and improving advanced measurement techniques that would aid in the rapid measurement and visualization of jet interaction effects for the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle while providing data useful for developing engineering models or validation of computational tools used to assess actual flight environments. Measurements included global surface imaging with pressure and temperature sensitive paints and three-dimensional flow visualization with a scanning planar laser induced fluorescence technique. The wind tunnel model was fabricated with interchangeable parts for two different aft-body configurations. The first, an Apollo-like configuration, was used to focus primarily on the forward facing roll and yaw jet interactions which are known to have significant aft-body heating augmentation. The second, an early Orion Crew Module configuration (4-cluster jets), was tested blowing only out of the most windward yaw jet, which was expected to have the maximum heating augmentation for that configuration. Jet chamber pressures and tunnel flow conditions were chosen to approximate early Apollo wind tunnel test conditions. Maximum heating augmentation values measured for the Apollo-like configuration (>10 for forward facing roll jet and 4 for yaw jet) using temperature sensitive paint were shown to be similar to earlier experimental results (Jones and Hunt, 1965) using a phase change paint technique, but were acquired with much higher surface resolution. Heating results for the windward yaw jet on the Orion configuration had similar augmentation levels, but affected much less surface area. Numerical modeling for the Apollo-like yaw jet configuration with laminar flow and uniform jet outflow conditions showed similar heating patterns

  5. Collective Interaction of a Compressible Periodic Parallel Jet Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miles, Jeffrey Hilton

    1997-01-01

    A linear instability model for multiple spatially periodic supersonic rectangular jets is solved using Floquet-Bloch theory. The disturbance environment is investigated using a two dimensional perturbation of a mean flow. For all cases large temporal growth rates are found. This work is motivated by an increase in mixing found in experimental measurements of spatially periodic supersonic rectangular jets with phase-locked screech. The results obtained in this paper suggests that phase-locked screech or edge tones may produce correlated spatially periodic jet flow downstream of the nozzles which creates a large span wise multi-nozzle region where a disturbance can propagate. The large temporal growth rates for eddies obtained by model calculation herein are related to the increased mixing since eddies are the primary mechanism that transfer energy from the mean flow to the large turbulent structures. Calculations of growth rates are presented for a range of Mach numbers and nozzle spacings corresponding to experimental test conditions where screech synchronized phase locking was observed. The model may be of significant scientific and engineering value in the quest to understand and construct supersonic mixer-ejector nozzles which provide increased mixing and reduced noise.

  6. Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, David C.

    2004-01-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence theory is modeled on neutral fluid (Navier-Stokes) turbulence theory, but with some important differences. There have been essentially no repeatable laboratory MHD experiments wherein the boundary conditions could be controlled or varied and a full set of diagnostics implemented. The equations of MHD are convincingly derivable only in the limit of small ratio of collision mean-free-paths to macroscopic length scales, an inequality that often goes the other way for magnetofluids of interest. Finally, accurate information on the MHD transport coefficients-and thus, the Reynolds-like numbers that order magnetofluid behavior-is largely lacking; indeed, the algebraic expressions used for such ingredients as the viscous stress tensor are often little more than wishful borrowing from fluid mechanics. The one accurate thing that has been done extensively and well is to solve the (strongly nonlinear) MHD equations numerically, usually in the presence of rectangular periodic boundary conditions, and then hope for the best when drawing inferences from the computations for those astrophysical and geophysical MHD systems for which some indisputably turbulent detailed data are available, such as the solar wind or solar prominences. This has led to what is perhaps the first field of physics for which computer simulations are regarded as more central to validating conclusions than is any kind of measurement. Things have evolved in this way due to a mixture of the inevitable and the bureaucratic, but that is the way it is, and those of us who want to work on the subject have to live with it. It is the only game in town, and theories that have promised more-often on the basis of some alleged ``instability''-have turned out to be illusory.

  7. Nozzle Exit Over-Pressure and Vortex Ring Interaction in a Fully-Pulsed Jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krueger, Paul S.; Gharib, Morteza

    2002-11-01

    Vortex rings formed by a starting jets will stop entraining circulation and pinch off from their generating or "trailing" jet for sufficiently large piston stroke length to jet diameter ratios (L/D) [Gharib et. al., JFM, 1998]. Recent work by the authors has demonstrated that the leading vortex ring contributes more impulse per unit L/D than does the trailing jet, highlighting the significance of vortex ring pinch off for propulsive applications. The impulse advantage of the leading vortex ring is provided by nozzle exit over-pressure resulting from the acceleration of ambient fluid during ring formation. The present work extends these single-pulse results to a periodic series of starting jets, i.e., a fully-pulsed jet. Measurements were made of the time-averaged thrust of fully-pulsed jets generated using a piston-cylinder mechanism for 2 < L/D < 6 and a range of pulsing frequencies. The results indicate that vortex ring formation provides substantial nozzle exit over-pressure (and hence, thrust benefit) in the pulsed case as well, but the benefit tends to diminish with increasing frequency. Various vortex ring interactions contribute to this trend.

  8. Computational Analysis of Ares I Roll Control System Jet Interaction Effects on Rolling Moment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deere, Karen A.; Pao, S. Paul; Abdol-Hamid, Khaled S.

    2011-01-01

    The computational flow solver USM3D was used to investigate the jet interaction effects from the roll control system on the rolling moment of the Ares I full protuberance configuration at wind tunnel Reynolds numbers. Solutions were computed at freestream Mach numbers from M = 0.5 to M = 5 at the angle of attack 0deg, at the angle of attack 3.5deg for a roll angle of 120deg, and at the angle of attack 7deg for roll angles of 120deg and 210deg. Results indicate that the RoCS housing provided a beneficial jet interaction effect on vehicle rolling moment for M > or = 0.9. Most of the components downstream of the roll control system housing contributed to jet interaction penalties on vehicle rolling moment.

  9. Jet-Surface Interaction Test: Phased Array Noise Source Localization Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podboy, Gary G.

    2013-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect that a planar surface located near a jet flow has on the noise radiated to the far-field. Two different configurations were tested: 1) a shielding configuration in which the surface was located between the jet and the far-field microphones, and 2) a reflecting configuration in which the surface was mounted on the opposite side of the jet, and thus the jet noise was free to reflect off the surface toward the microphones. Both conventional far-field microphone and phased array noise source localization measurements were obtained. This paper discusses phased array results, while a companion paper (Brown, C.A., "Jet-Surface Interaction Test: Far-Field Noise Results," ASME paper GT2012-69639, June 2012.) discusses far-field results. The phased array data show that the axial distribution of noise sources in a jet can vary greatly depending on the jet operating condition and suggests that it would first be necessary to know or be able to predict this distribution in order to be able to predict the amount of noise reduction to expect from a given shielding configuration. The data obtained on both subsonic and supersonic jets show that the noise sources associated with a given frequency of noise tend to move downstream, and therefore, would become more difficult to shield, as jet Mach number increases. The noise source localization data obtained on cold, shock-containing jets suggests that the constructive interference of sound waves that produces noise at a given frequency within a broadband shock noise hump comes primarily from a small number of shocks, rather than from all the shocks at the same time. The reflecting configuration data illustrates that the law of reflection must be satisfied in order for jet noise to reflect off of a surface to an observer, and depending on the relative locations of the jet, the surface, and the observer, only some of the jet noise sources may satisfy this requirement.

  10. Interaction of Highly Underexpanded Jets with Simulated Lunar Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stitt, Leonard E.

    1961-01-01

    Pressure distributions and erosion patterns on simulated lunar surfaces (hard and soft) and interference effects between the surface and two representative lunar vehicles (cylindrical and spherical) were obtained with cold-air jets at various descent heights and nozzle total-pressure ratios up to 288,000. Surface pressure distributions were dependent on both nozzle area ratio and, nozzle contour. Peak pressures obtained with a sonic nozzle agreed closely with those predicted theoretically for a near-sonic jet expanding into a vacuum. Short bell-shaped nozzles gave annular pressure distributions; the low center pressure resulted from the coalescence of shocks that originated within the nozzle. The high surface pressures were contained within a circle whose diameter was about 16 throat diameters, regardless of nozzle area ratio or contour. The peak pressure increased rapidly as the vehicle approached the surface; for example, at a descent height of 40 throat diameters the peak pressure was 0.4 percent of the chamber pressure, but increased to 6 percent at 13 throat diameters. The exhaust jet eroded a circular concave hole in white sand at descent heights from about 200 to 600 throat diameters. The hole diameter was about 225 throat diameters, while the depth was approximately 60 throat diameters. The sand particles, which formed a conical sheet at a semivertex angle of 50 deg, appeared to follow a ballistic trajectory and at no time struck the vehicle. An increase in pressure was measured on the base of the cylindrical lunar vehicle when it approached to within 14 throat diameters of the hard, flat surface. No interference effects were noted between the spherical model and the surface to descent heights as low as 8 throat diameters.

  11. Resonant Interaction of a Rectangular Jet with a Flat-Plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaman, K. B. M. Q.; Fagan, A. F.; Clem, M. M.; Brown, C. A.

    2014-01-01

    A resonant interaction between a large aspect ratio rectangular jet and a flat-plate is addressed in this experimental study. The plate is placed parallel to but away from the direct path of the jet. At high subsonic conditions and for certain relative locations of the plate, the resonance accompanied by an audible tone is encountered. The trends of the tone frequency variation exhibit some similarities to, but also marked differences from, corresponding trends of the well-known edge-tone phenomenon. Under the resonant condition flow visualization indicates a periodic flapping motion of the jet column. Phase-averaged Mach number data obtained near the plate's trailing edge illustrate that the jet cross-section goes through large contortions within the period of the tone. Farther downstream a clear 'axis switching' takes place. These results suggest that the assumption of two-dimensionality should be viewed with caution in any analysis of the flow.

  12. Investigating the Feedback Path in a Jet-Surface Resonant Interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaman, Khairul; Fagan, Amy; Bridges, James; Brown, Cliff

    2015-01-01

    A resonant interaction between an 8:1 aspect ratio rectangular jet and flat-plates, placed parallel to the jet, is addressed in this study. For certain relative locations of the plates, the resonance takes place with accompanying audible tones. Even when the tone is not audible the sound pressure level spectra is often marked by conspicuous peaks. The frequencies of the spectral peaks, as functions of the streamwise length of the plate and its relative location to the jet as well as the jet Mach number, are explored in an effort of understand the flow mechanism. It is demonstrated that the tones are not due to a simple feedback between the plates trailing edge and the nozzle exit; the leading edge also comes into play in determining the frequency. An acoustic feedback path, involving diffraction from the leading edge, appears to explain the frequencies of some of the spectral peaks.

  13. Computational Analysis of the Flow and Acoustic Effects of Jet-Pylon Interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Craig A.; Thomas, Russell H.; Abdol-Hamid, K. S.; Pao, S. Paul; Elmiligui, Alaa A.; Massey, Steven J.

    2005-01-01

    Computational simulation and prediction tools were used to understand the jet-pylon interaction effect in a set of bypass-ratio five core/fan nozzles. Results suggest that the pylon acts as a large scale mixing vane that perturbs the jet flow and jump starts the jet mixing process. The enhanced mixing and associated secondary flows from the pylon result in a net increase of noise in the first 10 diameters of the jet s development, but there is a sustained reduction in noise from that point downstream. This is likely the reason the pylon nozzle is quieter overall than the baseline round nozzle in this case. The present work suggests that focused pylon design could lead to advanced pylon shapes and nozzle configurations that take advantage of propulsion-airframe integration to provide additional noise reduction capabilities.

  14. On triad nonlinear resonant interactions of deep water waves trapped by jet currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrira, Victor; Slunyaev, Alexey

    2014-05-01

    We derive an asymptotic description of weakly nonlinear wave interactions between waves trapped by opposing jet currents by extending the asymptotic modal approach developed in Shrira & Slunyaev (2014). It is widely believed that to the leading order the nonlinear interactions between water waves in deep water are always quartic and potential. We show that for waves trapped on the jet currents it is not true: triad resonant interactions between trapped modes are always allowed. Moreover, the nonlinear evolution of the wave field is to the leading order determined by these triad interactions if the current is sufficiently strong or wave field nonlinearity is appropriately weak. To the leading order the corresponding interaction coefficients are controlled by the background vorticity due to the jet. More specifically, we consider waves upon a longitudinally uniform jet current; the current is assumed to be stationary and without vertical shear. The approximate separation of variables allows us to find the two-dimensional mode structure by means of one-dimensional boundary value problem (BVP) for wave Fourier harmonics along the current. The asymptotic weakly nonlinear theory taking into account quadratic nonlinearity for broad but not necessary weak currents is developed. The evolution equations for three interacting modes are written explicitly, the nonlinear interaction coefficients are computed. The three-wave interactions weaken when the current is weak. When the ratio of the current magnitude to wave celerity is of order of wave steepness the effects of 3-wave and 4-wave resonances appear at the same asymptotic order. These regimes, as well as the identified regimes where triad resonant interactions between trapped waves are dominant, lead to a qualitatively new wave dynamics which remains to be explored yet. V.I. Shrira, A.V. Slunyaev, Trapped waves on jet currents: asymptotic modal approach. J. Fluid Mech. 738, 65-104 (2014).

  15. Orion Exploration Flight Test Reaction Control System Jet Interaction Heating Environment from Flight Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Molly E.; Hyatt, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    The Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Reaction Control System (RCS) is critical to guide the vehicle along the desired trajectory during re-­-entry. However, this system has a significant impact on the convective heating environment to the spacecraft. Heating augmentation from the jet interaction (JI) drives thermal protection system (TPS) material selection and thickness requirements for the spacecraft. This paper describes the heating environment from the RCS on the afterbody of the Orion MPCV during Orion's first flight test, Exploration Flight Test 1 (EFT-1). These jet plumes interact with the wake of the crew capsule and cause an increase in the convective heating environment. Not only is there widespread influence from the jet banks, there may also be very localized effects. The firing history during EFT-1 will be summarized to assess which jet bank interaction was measured during flight. Heating augmentation factors derived from the reconstructed flight data will be presented. Furthermore, flight instrumentation across the afterbody provides the highest spatial resolution of the region of influence of the individual jet banks of any spacecraft yet flown. This distribution of heating augmentation across the afterbody will be derived from the flight data. Additionally, trends with possible correlating parameters will be investigated to assist future designs and ground testing programs. Finally, the challenges of measuring JI, applying this data to future flights and lessons learned will be discussed.

  16. Experimental characterization of a transition from collisionless to collisional interaction between head-on-merging supersonic plasma jets

    SciTech Connect

    Moser, Auna L. Hsu, Scott C.

    2015-05-15

    We present results from experiments on the head-on merging of two supersonic plasma jets in an initially collisionless regime for the counter-streaming ions. The plasma jets are of either an argon/impurity or hydrogen/impurity mixture and are produced by pulsed-power-driven railguns. Based on time- and space-resolved fast-imaging, multi-chord interferometry, and survey-spectroscopy measurements of the overlapping region between the merging jets, we observe that the jets initially interpenetrate, consistent with calculated inter-jet ion collision lengths, which are long. As the jets interpenetrate, a rising mean-charge state causes a rapid decrease in the inter-jet ion collision length. Finally, the interaction becomes collisional and the jets stagnate, eventually producing structures consistent with collisional shocks. These experimental observations can aid in the validation of plasma collisionality and ionization models for plasmas with complex equations of state.

  17. Jets, bulk matter, and their interaction in heavy ion collisions at several TeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, K.; Karpenko, Iu.; Bleicher, M.; Pierog, T.; Porteboeuf-Houssais, S.

    2012-06-01

    We discuss a theoretical scheme that accounts for bulk matter, jets, and the interaction between the two. The aim is a complete description of particle production at all transverse momentum (pt) scales. In this picture, the hard initial scatterings result in mainly longitudinal flux tubes, with transversely moving pieces carrying the pt of the partons from hard scatterings. These flux tubes constitute eventually both bulk matter (which thermalizes and flows) and jets. We introduce a criterion based on parton energy loss to decide whether a given string segment contributes to the bulk or leaves the matter to end up as a jet of hadrons. Essentially low pt segments from inside the volume will constitute the bulk, high pt segments (or segments very close to the surface) contribute to the jets. The latter ones appear after the usual flux tube breaking via q-qbar production (Schwinger mechanism). Interesting is the transition region: Intermediate pt segments produced inside the matter close to the surface but having enough energy to escape, are supposed to pick up q-qbar pairs from the thermal matter rather than creating them via the Schwinger mechanism. This represents a communication between jets and the flowing bulk matter (fluid-jet interaction). Also very important is the interaction between jet hadrons and the soft hadrons from the fluid freeze-out. We employ this picture to investigate Pb-Pb collisions at 2.76 TeV. We discuss the centrality and pt dependence of particle production and long-range dihadron correlations at small and large pt.

  18. Ion Acceleration by Laser Plasma Interaction from Cryogenic Micro Jets - Oral Presentation

    SciTech Connect

    Propp, Adrienne

    2015-08-25

    Processes that occur in extreme conditions, such as in the center of stars and large planets, can be simulated in the laboratory using facilities such as SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and the Jupiter Laser Facility (JLF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). These facilities allow scientists to investigate the properties of matter by observing their interactions with high power lasers. Ion acceleration from laser plasma interaction is gaining greater attention today due to its widespread potential applications, including proton beam cancer therapy and fast ignition for energy production. Typically, ion acceleration is achieved by focusing a high power laser on thin foil targets through a mechanism called Target Normal Sheath Acceleration. Based on research and recent experiments, we hypothesized that a pure liquid cryogenic jet would be an ideal target for this type of interaction, capable of producing the highest proton energies possible with today’s laser technologies. Furthermore, it would provide a continuous, pure target, unlike metal foils which are consumed in the interaction and easily contaminated. In an effort to test this hypothesis and investigate new, potentially more efficient mechanisms of ion acceleration, we used the 527 nm split beam, frequency-doubled TITAN laser at JLF. Data from the cryogenic jets was limited due to the flow of current up the jet into the nozzle during the interaction, heating the jet and damaging the orifice. However, we acheived a pure proton beam with an indiciation of a monoenergetic feature. Furthermore, data from gold and carbon wires showed surprising and interesting results. Preliminary analysis of data from two ion emission diagnostics, Thomson parabola spectrometers (TPs) and radio chromic films (RCFs), suggests that shockwave acceleration occurred rather than target normal sheath acceleration, the standard mechanism of ion acceleration. Upon completion of the experiment at TITAN, I researched the

  19. Interactions Between Small Arrays of Atmospheric Pressure Micro-Plasma Jets: Gas Dynamic, Radiation and Electrostatic Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babaeva, Natalia

    2013-09-01

    Atmospheric pressure plasma jets are widely used devices for biomedical applications. A typical plasma jet consists of a tube through which noble gas or its mixture with a molecular gas flows. The noble gas creates a channel into the ambient air which is eventually dispersed by interdiffusion with the air. Plasma plumes are formed by the propagation of ionization waves (IWs) through the tubes and then through the noble gas phase channel. The IW typically propagates until the mole fraction of the ambient air in the channel increases above a critical values which requires a larger E/N to propagate the IW. By grouping several jets together to form an array of jets, one can in principle increase the area treated by the plume. If the jets are sufficiently far apart, the IWs and resulting plasma plumes are independent. As the spacing between the jets decreases, the plasma jets begin to mutually interact. In this talk, we discuss results from a computational investigation of small arrays of He/O2 micro-plasma jets propagating into ambient air. The model used in this work, nonPDPSIM, is a plasma hydrodynamics model in which continuity, momentum and energy equations are solved for charged and neutral species with solution of Poisson's equation for the electric potential. Navier-Stokes equations are solved for the gas dynamics and radiation transport is addressed using a propagator method. We found that as the spacing between the jets decreases, the He channels from the individual jets tend to merge. The IWs from each channel also merge into regions having the highest He mole fraction and so lowest E/N to sustain the IW. The proximity of the IWs enable other forms of interaction. If the IWs are of the same polarity, electrostatic forces can warp the paths of the IWs. If in sufficient proximity, the photoionization from one IW can influence its neighbors. The synchronization of the voltage pulses of adjacent IWs can also influence its neighbors. With synchronized pulses

  20. The Interaction of a Vortex Generator Jet with a Turbulent Boundary Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rixon, Gregory S.; Johari, Hamid

    2000-11-01

    The interaction between a steady vortex generator jet and a turbulent boundary layer has been experimentally investigated using the Digital Particle Image Velocimetry technique. Experiments were conducted over a flat plate in a re-circulating water tunnel. The jet velocity vector had a fixed pitch angle of 45° with respect to the flat plate surface, and a fixed skew angle of 90° with respect to the streamwise direction. Nominal jet-to-freestream velocity ratios of 1, 2, and 3 were examined at four different locations, 5, 10, 20, and 30 d downstream of the jet exit, corresponding to 0.7, 1.4, 2.8, and 4.2 δ. Peak vorticity, circulation, and vortex core trajectory were found to vary linearly with the jet velocity. Peak vorticity and circulation decay exponentially with distance along the plate. This decay rate was found to be much higher than that of solid vortex generators. In the near field, however, the peak vorticity of the high velocity jet was comparable to that of a solid vortex generator.

  1. Numerical Investigation of the Interaction of Counterflowing Jets and Supersonic Capsule Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkatachari, Balaji Shankar; Ito, Yasushi; Cheng, Gary; Chang, Chau-Lyan

    2011-01-01

    Use of counterflowing jets ejected into supersonic freestreams as a flow control concept to modify the external flowfield has gained renewed interest with regards to potential retropropulsion applications pertinent to entry, descent, and landing investigations. This study describes numerical computations of such a concept for a scaled wind-tunnel capsule model by employing the space-time conservation element solution element viscous flow solver with unstructured meshes. Both steady-state and time-accurate computations are performed for several configurations with different counterflowing jet Mach numbers. Axisymmetric computations exploring the effect of the jet flow rate and jet Mach number on the flow stability, jet interaction with the bow shock and its subsequent impact on the aerodynamic and aerothermal loads on the capsule body are carried out. Similar to previous experimental findings, both long and short penetration modes exist at a windtunnel Mach number of 3.48. It was found that both modes exhibit non-stationary behavior and the former is much more unstable than the latter. It was also found that the unstable long penetration mode only exists in a relatively small range of the jet mass flow rate. Solution-based mesh refinement procedures are used to improve solution accuracy and provide guidelines for a more effective mesh generation procedure for parametric studies. Details of the computed flowfields also serve as a means to broaden the knowledge base for future retropropulsion design studies.

  2. The interaction of an asymmetrical localised synthetic jet on a side-supported sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Findanis, N.; Ahmed, N. A.

    2008-10-01

    A localised synthetic jet offers promise of an optimum and cost-effective practical method of delaying separation and promoting reattachment in fluids with solid body interactions. The asymmetric flow that may result from its use may also be beneficial in improving the aerodynamic performance of a lifting body. There are insufficient studies of synthetic jets, particularly on three-dimensional bluff bodies that are more representative of complex flows in real situations. A comprehensive study on an 80 mm diameter sphere designed with localised synthetic jet orifices was, therefore, conducted in an 18 in×18 in open circuit closed test-section wind tunnel at a Reynolds number of 5×104. The coefficient of pressure distribution was measured by continuously varying the location of the synthetic jet and compared with the no synthetic jet condition. The three-dimensional effects on the flow over the sphere body are particularly made apparent through the growth and the effects of the boundary layer and the deviation from potential flow. Overall, the synthetic jet had the effect of delaying the separation point and extending it further downstream on the sphere surface concomitantly producing a significant reduction in drag, providing solid support to the viability of strategically located synthetic jet when higher lift or lower drag is desired. A surprising discovery was the ability of the synthetic jet to improve the flow at the junction of the sting support and sphere. This has promising implications in devising methods to reduce interference drag that are common in many practical applications such as near junctions between wing and the fuselage.

  3. Wind-jet interaction in high-mass X-ray binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zdziarski, Andrzej

    2016-07-01

    Jets in high-mass X-ray binaries can strongly interact with the stellar wind from the donor. The interaction leads, in particular, to formation of recollimation shocks. The shocks can then accelerate electrons in the jet and lead to enhanced emission, observable in the radio and gamma-ray bands. DooSoo, Zdziarski & Heinz (2016) have formulated a condition on the maximum jet power (as a function of the jet velocity and wind rate and velocity) at which such shocks form. This criterion can explain the large difference in the radio and gamma-ray loudness between Cyg X-1 and Cyg X-3. The orbital modulation of radio emission observed in Cyg X-1 and Cyg X-3 allows a measurement of the location of the height along the jet where the bulk of emission at a given frequency occurs. Strong absorption of X-rays in the wind of Cyg X-3 is required to account for properties of the correlation of the radio emission with soft and hard X-rays. That absorption can also account for the unusual spectral and timing X-ray properties of this source.

  4. Turbulent Deflagrated Flame Interaction with a Fluidic Jet Flow for Deflagration-to-Detonation Flame Acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambers, Jessica; McGarry, Joseph; Ahmed, Kareem

    2015-11-01

    Detonation is a high energetic mode of pressure gain combustion. Detonation combustion exploits the pressure rise to augment high flow momentum and thermodynamic cycle efficiencies. The driving mechanism of deflagrated flame acceleration to detonation is turbulence generation and induction. A fluidic jet is an innovative method for the production of turbulence intensities and flame acceleration. Compared to traditional obstacles, the jet reduces the pressure losses and heat soak effects while providing turbulence generation control. The investigation characterizes the turbulent flame-flow interactions. The focus of the study is on classifying the turbulent flame dynamics and the temporal evolution of turbulent flame regime. The turbulent flame-flow interactions are experimentally studied using a LEGO Detonation facility. Advanced high-speed laser diagnostics, particle image velocimetry (PIV), planar laser induced florescence (PLIF), and Schlieren imaging are used in analyzing the physics of the interaction and flame acceleration. Higher turbulence induction is observed within the turbulent flame after contact with the jet, leading to increased flame burning rates. The interaction with the fluidic jet results in turbulent flame transition from the thin reaction zones to the broken reaction regime.

  5. Aerodynamic Interactions of Propulsive Deceleration and Reaction Control System Jets on Mars-Entry Aeroshells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alkandry, Hicham

    Future missions to Mars, including sample-return and human-exploration missions, may require alternative entry, descent, and landing technologies in order to perform pinpoint landing of heavy vehicles. Two such alternatives are propulsive deceleration (PD) and reaction control systems (RCS). PD can slow the vehicle during Mars atmospheric descent by directing thrusters into the incoming freestream. RCS can provide vehicle control and steering by inducing moments using thrusters on the hack of the entry capsule. The use of these PD and RCS jets, however, involves complex flow interactions that are still not well understood. The fluid interactions induced by PD and RCS jets for Mars-entry vehicles in hypersonic freestream conditions are investigated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The effects of central and peripheral PD configurations using both sonic and supersonic jets at various thrust conditions are examined in this dissertation. The RCS jet is directed either parallel or transverse to the freestream flow at different thrust conditions in order to examine the effects of the thruster orientation with respect to the center of gravity of the aeroshell. The physical accuracy of the computational method is also assessed by comparing the numerical results with available experimental data. The central PD configuration decreases the drag force acting on the entry capsule due to a shielding effect that prevents mass and momentum in the hypersonic freestream from reaching the aeroshell. The peripheral PD configuration also decreases the drag force by obstructing the flow around the aeroshell and creating low surface pressure regions downstream of the PD nozzles. The Mach number of the PD jets, however, does not have a significant effect on the induced fluid interactions. The reaction control system also alters the flowfield, surface, and aerodynamic properties of the aeroshell, while the jet orientation can have a significant effect on the control effectiveness

  6. Including Finite Surface Span Effects in Empirical Jet-Surface Interaction Noise Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Clifford A.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of finite span on the jet-surface interaction noise source and the jet mixing noise shielding and reflection effects is considered using recently acquired experimental data. First, the experimental setup and resulting data are presented with particular attention to the role of surface span on far-field noise. These effects are then included in existing empirical models that have previously assumed that all surfaces are semi-infinite. This extended abstract briefly describes the experimental setup and data leaving the empirical modeling aspects for the final paper.

  7. Development and characterization of very dense submillimetric gas jets for laser-plasma interaction.

    PubMed

    Sylla, F; Veltcheva, M; Kahaly, S; Flacco, A; Malka, V

    2012-03-01

    We report on the characterization of recently developed submillimetric He gas jets with peak density higher than 10(21) atoms/cm(3) from cylindrical and slightly conical nozzles of throat diameter of less than 400 μm. Helium gas at pressure 300-400 bar has been developed for this purpose to compensate the nozzle throat diameter reduction that affects the output mass flow rate. The fast-switching electro-valve enables to operate the jet safely for multi-stage vacuum pump assembly. Such gaseous thin targets are particularly suitable for laser-plasma interaction studies in the unexplored near-critical regime. PMID:22462922

  8. Development and characterization of very dense submillimetric gas jets for laser-plasma interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Sylla, F.; Kahaly, S.; Flacco, A.; Malka, V.; Veltcheva, M.

    2012-03-15

    We report on the characterization of recently developed submillimetric He gas jets with peak density higher than 10{sup 21} atoms/cm{sup 3} from cylindrical and slightly conical nozzles of throat diameter of less than 400 {mu}m. Helium gas at pressure 300-400 bar has been developed for this purpose to compensate the nozzle throat diameter reduction that affects the output mass flow rate. The fast-switching electro-valve enables to operate the jet safely for multi-stage vacuum pump assembly. Such gaseous thin targets are particularly suitable for laser-plasma interaction studies in the unexplored near-critical regime.

  9. Prediction of nearfield jet entrainment by an interactive mixing/afterburning model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dash, S. M.; Pergament, H. S.; Wilmoth, R. G.

    1978-01-01

    The development of a computational model (BOAT) for calculating nearfield jet entrainment, and its application to the prediction of nozzle boattail pressures, is discussed. BOAT accounts for the detailed turbulence and thermochemical processes occurring in the nearfield shear layers of jet engine (and rocket) exhaust plumes while interfacing with the inviscid exhaust and external flowfield regions in an overlaid, interactive manner. The ability of the model to analyze simple free shear flows is assessed by detailed comparisons with fundamental laboratory data. The overlaid methodology and the entrainment correction employed to yield the effective plume boundary conditions are assessed via application of BOAT in conjunction with the codes comprising the NASA/LRC patched viscous/inviscid model for determining nozzle boattail drag for subsonic/transonic external flows. Comparisons between the predictions and data on underexpanded laboratory cold air jets are presented.

  10. Numerical Study of Rarefied Hypersonic Flow Interacting with a Continuum Jet. Degree awarded by Pennsylvania State Univ., Aug. 1999

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, Christopher E.

    2000-01-01

    An uncoupled Computational Fluid Dynamics-Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (CFD-DSMC) technique is developed and applied to provide solutions for continuum jets interacting with rarefied external flows. The technique is based on a correlation of the appropriate Bird breakdown parameter for a transitional-rarefied condition that defines a surface within which the continuum solution is unaffected by the external flow-jet interaction. The method is applied to two problems to assess and demonstrate its validity; one of a jet interaction in the transitional-rarefied flow regime and the other in the moderately rarefied regime. Results show that the appropriate Bird breakdown surface for uncoupling the continuum and non-continuum solutions is a function of a non-dimensional parameter relating the momentum flux and collisionality between the two interacting flows. The correlation is exploited for the simulation of a jet interaction modeled for an experimental condition in the transitional-rarefied flow regime and the validity of the correlation is demonstrated. The uncoupled technique is also applied to an aerobraking flight condition for the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with attitude control system jet interaction. Aerodynamic yawing moment coefficients for cases without and with jet interaction at various angles-of-attack were predicted, and results from the present method compare well with values published previously. The flow field and surface properties are analyzed in some detail to describe the mechanism by which the jet interaction affects the aerodynamics.

  11. Investigating the Feedback Path in a Jet-Surface Resonant Interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaman, K. B. M. Q.; Fagan, A. F.; Bridges, J. E.; Brown, C. A.

    2015-01-01

    A resonant interaction between an 8:1 aspect ratio rectangular jet and flat-plates, placed parallel to the jet, is studied experimentally. For certain locations of the plate relative to the jet, the resonance takes place with a loud accompanying tone. The sound pressure level spectra are often marked by multiple peaks. The frequencies of the spectral peaks are studied as a function of the streamwise length of the plate, its relative location to the jet as well as the jet Mach number. It is demonstrated that the tones are not due to a simple feedback between the plate's trailing edge and the nozzle's exit; the leading edge of the plate also comes into play in the frequency selection. With parametric variation, it is found that there is an order in the most energetic spectral peaks; their frequencies cluster in distinct bands. The 'fundamental', i.e., the lowest frequency band is explained by an acoustic feedback involving diffraction at the plate's leading edge.

  12. Effect of Pulsed Plasma Jets on the Recovering Boundary Layer Downstream of a Reflected Shock Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greene, Benton; Clemens, Noel; Magari, Patrick; Micka, Daniel; Ueckermann, Mattheus

    2015-11-01

    Shock-induced turbulent boundary layer separation can have many detrimental effects in supersonic inlets including flow distortion and instability, structural fatigue, poor pressure recovery, and unstart. The current study investigates the effect of pulsed plasma jets on the recovering boundary layer downstream of a reflected shock wave-boundary layer interaction. The effects of pitch and skew angle of the jet as well as the heating parameter and discharge time scale are tested using several pulsing frequencies. In addition, the effect of the plasma jets on the undisturbed boundary layer at 6 mm and 11 mm downstream of the jets is measured. A pitot-static pressure probe is used to measure the velocity profile of the boundary layer 35 mm downstream of the plasma jets, and the degree of boundary layer distortion is compared between the different models and run conditions. Additionally, the effect of each actuator configuration on the shape of the mean separated region is investigated using surface oil flow visualization. Previous studies with lower energy showed a weak effect on the downstream boundary layer. The current investigation will attempt to increase this effect using a higher-energy discharge. Funded by AFRL through and SBIR in collaboration with Creare, LLC.

  13. Star-Jet Interactions and Gamma-Ray Outbursts from 3C454.3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khangulyan, D. V.; Barkov, M. V.; Bosch-Ramon, V.; Aharonian, F. A.; Dorodnitsyn, A. V.

    2013-09-01

    We propose a model to explain the ultra-bright GeV gamma-ray flares observed from the blazar 3C454.3. The model is based on the concept of a relativistic jet interacting with compact gas condensations produced when a star (a red giant) crosses the jet close to the central black hole. The study includes an analytical treatment of the evolution of the envelope lost by the star within the jet, and calculations of the related high-energy radiation. The model readily explains the day-long that varies on timescales of hours, GeV gamma-ray flare from 3C454.3, observed during 2010 November on top of a plateau lasting weeks. In the proposed scenario, the plateau state is caused by a strong wind generated by the heating of the stellar atmosphere due to nonthermal particles accelerated at the jet-star interaction region. The flare itself could be produced by a few clouds of matter lost by the red giant after the initial impact of the jet. In the framework of the proposed scenario, the observations constrain the key model parameters of the source, including the mass of the central black hole: M BH ~= 109 M ⊙, the total jet power: L j ~= 1048 erg s-1, and the Doppler factor of the gamma-ray emitting clouds: δ ~= 20. Whereas we do not specify the particle acceleration mechanisms, the potential gamma-ray production processes are discussed and compared in the context of the proposed model. We argue that synchrotron radiation of protons has certain advantages compared to other radiation channels of directlyaccelerated electrons. An injected proton distribution vpropE -1 or harder below the relevant energies would be favored to alleviate the tight energetic constraints and to avoid the violation of the observational low-energy constraints.

  14. Wedge Shock and Nozzle Exhaust Plume Interaction in a Supersonic Jet Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castner, Raymond; Zaman, Khairul; Fagan, Amy; Heath, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Fundamental research for sonic boom reduction is needed to quantify the interaction of shock waves generated from the aircraft wing or tail surfaces with the nozzle exhaust plume. Aft body shock waves that interact with the exhaust plume contribute to the near-field pressure signature of a vehicle. The plume and shock interaction was studied using computational fluid dynamics and compared with experimental data from a coaxial convergent-divergent nozzle flow in an open jet facility. A simple diamond-shaped wedge was used to generate the shock in the outer flow to study its impact on the inner jet flow. Results show that the compression from the wedge deflects the nozzle plume and shocks form on the opposite plume boundary. The sonic boom pressure signature of the nozzle exhaust plume was modified by the presence of the wedge. Both the experimental results and computational predictions show changes in plume deflection.

  15. Three-dimensional interaction of a finite-span synthetic jet in a crossflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Buren, Tyler; Beyar, Michael; Leong, Chia Min; Amitay, Michael

    2016-03-01

    The formation and evolution of flow structures due to the interaction of a finite-span synthetic jet with a zero-pressure gradient laminar boundary layer were experimentally investigated using stereoscopic particle image velocimetry. A synthetic jet with three orifice aspect ratios of AR = 6, 12, and 18 was issued into a free-stream velocity of U∞ = 10 m/s (Reδ = 2000) at blowing ratios of Cb = 0.5-1.5. The interaction was found to be associated with two sets of flow structures: (1) a recirculation region downstream of the orifice due to virtual blockage, and (2) a steady streamwise vortex pair farther downstream. These two flow structures were characterized in detail. Tube-like velocity deficits in the free-stream were evident, as well as regions of increased velocity within the boundary layer. Reducing the aspect ratio of the orifice decreased the spacing of the edgewise vortices (generated due to the finite span of the orifice) as well as reducing the virtual blockage of the jet. A control volume analysis of the fluid streamwise momentum indicates that there is a momentum deficit just downstream of the jet orifice and the change in streamwise momentum is proportionally similar for all cases.

  16. Interaction of a finite-span synthetic jet near the tip of a sweptback wing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasile, Joseph D.; Amitay, Michael

    2015-06-01

    An experimental investigation was performed to study the three-dimensional flow interaction of a finite-span (aspect ratio of 18) synthetic jet located near the tip of a sweptback wing (cross-sectional profile of NACA 4421, aspect ratio of 4, and sweep angle of 30°) at a Reynolds number of 105 and at three angles of attack of 0°, 9°, and 15.5° (covering the range of attached to separated flow in the vicinity of the synthetic jet). Three blowing ratios were considered as 0.8, 1.2, and 2. Stereoscopic particle image velocimetry data were collected at multiple 2-D planes in the vicinity of the jet's orifice, which were then used to reconstruct the flow volume, and the effect of the jet's blowing ratio was analyzed using time-averaged and phase-averaged statistics. The study showed that the flow field in the vicinity of the synthetic jet orifice becomes highly three-dimensional and is governed by the streamwise structures that are associated with the finite span of the orifice (edge vortices). Furthermore, it was demonstrated that the baseline flow field that develops over a swept-back configuration (characterized by spanwise and streamwise vorticity components) is responsible for the immediate breakdown of the coherent structures that are introduced by the synthetic jet orifice and for the formation of the secondary flow structures that were seen in the time-averaged flow field. Moreover, the presence of a tip vortex results in the development of a non-uniform (in the spanwise direction) spanwise boundary layer that becomes more pronounced with increasing angle of attack. Consequently, the development of the flow structures is altered. Finally, the present work suggests that the location of the synthetic jet along the span is not as important (as the angle of attack and the blowing ratio) in the overall formation and evolution of the flow structures issued from the jet. However, the size and strength of these structures are affected by the jet's spanwise location.

  17. The Dynamics of Shock Dispersion and Interactions in Supersonic Freestreams with Counterflowing Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daso, Endwell O.; Pritchett, Victor E.; Wang, Ten-See; Ota, Dale K.; Blankson, Isaiah M.; Auslender, Aaron H.

    2007-01-01

    An active flow control concept using counterflowing jets to significantly modify the external flowfields and strongly weaken or disperse the shock-waves of supersonic and hypersonic vehicles to reduce the aerothermal loads and wave drag was investigated. Experiments were conducted in a trisonic blow-down wind-tunnel, complemented by pre-test computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of a 2.6% scale model of Apollo capsule, with and without counterflowing jets, in Mach 3.48 and 4.0 freestreams, to assess the potential aerothermal and aerodynamic benefits of this concept. The model was instrumented with heat flux gauges, thermocouples and pressure taps, and employed five counterflowing jet nozzles (three sonic and other two supersonic with design Mach numbers of 2.44 and 2.94) and nozzle exit diameters ranging from 0.25 to 0.5 inch. Schlieren data show that at low jet flow rates of 0.05 and 0.1lb(sub m)/sec, the interactions result in a long penetration mode (LPM) jet, while the short penetration mode (SPM) jet is observed at flow rates greater than 0.1 lb(sub m)/sec., consistent with the pre-test CFD predictions. For the LPM, the jet appears to be nearly fully-expanded, resulting in a very unsteady and oscillatory flow structure in which the bow shock becomes highly dispersed such that it is no longer discernable. Higher speed camera Schlieren data reveal the shock to be dispersed into striations of compression waves, which suddenly coalesce to a weaker bow shock with a larger standoff distance as the flow rate reached a critical value. The pronounced shock dispersion could significantly impact the aerodynamic performance (L/D) and heat flux reduction of spacecraft in atmospheric entry and re-entry, and could also attenuate the entropy layer in hypersonic blunt body flows. For heat transfer, the results show significant reduction in heat flux, even giving negative heat flux for some of the SPM interactions, indicating that the flow wetting the model is cooling

  18. Innovative Measurement Diagnostics for Analysis of Jet Interactions in Rotating Flowfields

    SciTech Connect

    AMATUCCI, VINCENT A.; BERESH, STEVEN J.; HENFLING, JOHN F.; ERVEN, ROCKY J.; BOURDON, CHRIS J.

    2002-01-01

    The present document summarizes the experimental efforts of a three-year study funded under the Laboratory Directed Research and Development program of Sandia National Laboratories. The Innovative Diagnostics LDRD project was designed to develop new measurement capabilities to examine the interaction of a propulsive spin jet in a transonic freestream for a model in a wind tunnel. The project motivation was the type of jet/fin interactions commonly occurring during deployment of weapon systems. In particular, the two phenomena of interest were the interaction of the propulsive spin jet with the freestream in the vicinity of the nozzle and the impact of the spin rocket plume and its vortices on the downstream fins. The main thrust of the technical developments was to incorporate small-size, Lagrangian sensors for pressure and roll-rate on a scale model and include data acquisition, transmission, and power circuitry onboard. FY01 was the final year of the three-year LDRD project and the team accomplished much of the project goals including use of micron-scale pressure sensors, an onboard telemetry system for data acquisition and transfer, onboard jet exhaust, and roll-rate measurements. A new wind tunnel model was designed, fabricated, and tested for the program which incorporated the ability to house multiple MEMS-based pressure sensors, interchangeable vehicle fins with pressure instrumentation, an onboard multiple-channel telemetry data package, and a high-pressure jet exhaust simulating a spin rocket motor plume. Experiments were conducted for a variety of MEMS-based pressure sensors to determine performance and sensitivity in order to select pressure transducers for use. The data acquisition and analysis path was most successful by using multiple, 16-channel data processors with telemetry capability to a receiver outside the wind tunnel. The development of the various instrumentation paths led to the fabrication and installation of a new wind tunnel model for

  19. Analysis of jet-airfoil interaction noise sources by using a microphone array technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleury, Vincent; Davy, Renaud

    2016-03-01

    The paper is concerned with the characterization of jet noise sources and jet-airfoil interaction sources by using microphone array data. The measurements were carried-out in the anechoic open test section wind tunnel of Onera, Cepra19. The microphone array technique relies on the convected, Lighthill's and Ffowcs-Williams and Hawkings' acoustic analogy equation. The cross-spectrum of the source term of the analogy equation is sought. It is defined as the optimal solution to a minimal error equation using the measured microphone cross-spectra as reference. This inverse problem is ill-posed yet. A penalty term based on a localization operator is therefore added to improve the recovery of jet noise sources. The analysis of isolated jet noise data in subsonic regime shows the contribution of the conventional mixing noise source in the low frequency range, as expected, and of uniformly distributed, uncorrelated noise sources in the jet flow at higher frequencies. In underexpanded supersonic regime, a shock-associated noise source is clearly identified, too. An additional source is detected in the vicinity of the nozzle exit both in supersonic and subsonic regimes. In the presence of the airfoil, the distribution of the noise sources is deeply modified. In particular, a strong noise source is localized on the flap. For high Strouhal numbers, higher than about 2 (based on the jet mixing velocity and diameter), a significant contribution from the shear-layer near the flap is observed, too. Indications of acoustic reflections on the airfoil are also discerned.

  20. RCS jet-flow field interaction effects on the aerodynamics of the space shuttle orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rausch, J. R.; Roberge, A. M.

    1973-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the external effects caused by operation of the reaction control system during entry of the space shuttle orbiter. The effects of jet plume-external flow interactions were emphasized. Force data were obtained for the basic airframe characteristics plus induced effects when the reaction control system is operating. Resulting control amplification and/or coupling were derived and their effects on the aerodynamic stability and control of the orbiter and the reaction control system thrust were determined.

  1. Interaction of a Rectangular Jet with a Flat-Plate Placed Parallel to the Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaman, K. B. M. Q.; Brown, C. A.; Bridges, J. A.

    2013-01-01

    An experimental study is carried out addressing the flowfield and radiated noise from the interaction of a large aspect ratio rectangular jet with a flat plate placed parallel to but away from the direct path of the jet. Sound pressure level spectra exhibit an increase in the noise levels for both the 'reflected' and 'shielded' sides of the plate relative to the free-jet case. Detailed cross-sectional distributions of flowfield properties obtained by hot-wire anemometry are documented for a low subsonic condition. Corresponding mean Mach number distributions obtained by Pitot-probe surveys are presented for high subsonic conditions. In the latter flow regime and for certain relative locations of the plate, a flow resonance accompanied by audible tones is encountered. Under the resonant condition the jet cross-section experiences an 'axis-switching' and flow visualization indicates the presence of an organized 'vortex street'. The trends of the resonant frequency variation with flow parameters exhibit some similarities to, but also marked differences with, corresponding trends of the well-known edgetone phenomenon.

  2. Wind Tunnel Model Design for Sonic Boom Studies of Nozzle Jet Flows with Shock Interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cliff, Susan E.; Denison, Marie; Moini-Yekta, Shayan; Morr, Donald E.; Durston, Donald A.

    2016-01-01

    NASA and the U.S. aerospace industry are performing studies of supersonic aircraft concepts with low sonic boom pressure signatures. The computational analyses of modern aircraft designs have matured to the point where there is confidence in the prediction of the pressure signature from the front of the vehicle, but uncertainty remains in the aft signatures due to boundary layer and nozzle exhaust jet effects. Wind tunnel testing without inlet and nozzle exhaust jet effects at lower Reynolds numbers than in-flight make it difficult to accurately assess the computational solutions of flight vehicles. A wind tunnel test in the NASA Ames 9- by 7-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel is planned for February 2016 to address the nozzle jet effects on sonic boom. The experiment will provide pressure signatures of test articles that replicate waveforms from aircraft wings, tails, and aft fuselage (deck) components after passing through cold nozzle jet plumes. The data will provide a variety of nozzle plume and shock interactions for comparison with computational results. A large number of high-fidelity numerical simulations of a variety of shock generators were evaluated to define a reduced collection of suitable test models. The computational results of the candidate wind tunnel test models as they evolved are summarized, and pre-test computations of the final designs are provided.

  3. Analysis of some aerodynamic characteristics due to wing-jet interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fillman, G. L.; Lan, C. E.

    1979-01-01

    The results of two separate theoretical investigations are presented. A program was used which is capable of predicting the aerodynamic characteristics of both upper-surface blowing (USB) and over-wing blowing (OWB) configurations. A theoretical analysis of the effects of over-wing blowing jets on the induced drag of a 50 deg sweep back wing was developed. Experiments showed net drag reductions associated with the well known lift enhancement due to over-wing blowing. The mechanisms through which this drag reduction is brought about are presented. Both jet entrainment and the so called wing-jet interaction play important roles in this process. The effects of a rectangular upper-surface blowing jet were examined for a wide variety of planforms. The isolated effects of wing taper, sweep, and aspect ratio variations on the incremental lift due to blowing are presented. The effects of wing taper ratio and sweep angle were found to be especially important parameters when considering the relative levels of incremental lift produced by an upper-surface blowing configuration.

  4. Atmospheric pressure plasma jets interacting with liquid covered tissue: touching and not-touching the liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norberg, Seth A.; Tian, Wei; Johnsen, Eric; Kushner, Mark J.

    2014-11-01

    In the use of atmospheric pressure plasma jets in biological applications, the plasma-produced charged and neutral species in the plume of the jet often interact with a thin layer of liquid covering the tissue being treated. The plasma-produced reactivity must then penetrate through the liquid layer to reach the tissue. In this computational investigation, a plasma jet created by a single discharge pulse at three different voltages was directed onto a 200 µm water layer covering tissue followed by a 10 s afterglow. The magnitude of the voltage and its pulse length determined if the ionization wave producing the plasma plume reached the surface of the liquid. When the ionization wave touches the surface, significantly more charged species were created in the water layer with H3O+aq, O3-aq, and O2-aq being the dominant terminal species. More aqueous OHaq, H2O2aq, and O3aq were also formed when the plasma plume touches the surface. The single pulse examined here corresponds to a low repetition rate plasma jet where reactive species would be blown out of the volume between pulses and there is not recirculation of flow or turbulence. For these conditions, NxOy species do not accumulate in the volume. As a result, aqueous nitrites, nitrates, and peroxynitrite, and the HNO3aq and HOONOaq, which trace their origin to solvated NxOy, have low densities.

  5. A Self-Consistent Numerical Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Model of Helmet Streamer and Flux-Rope Interactions: Initiation and Propagation of Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, S. T.; Guo, W. P.

    1997-01-01

    We present results for an investigation of the interaction of a helmet streamer arcade and a helical flux-rope emerging from the sub-photosphere. These results are obtained by using a three-dimensional axisymmetric, time-dependent ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model. Because of the physical nature of the flux-rope, we investigate two types of flux-ropes; (1) high density flux-rope (i.e. flux-rope without cavity), and (2) low density flux rope (i.e. flux-rope with cavity). When the streamer is disrupted by the flux-rope, it will evolve into a configuration resembling the typical observed loop-like Coronal Mass Ejection (CMES) for both cases. The streamer-flux rope system with cavity is easier to be disrupted and the propagation speed of the CME is faster than the streamer-flux rope system without cavity. Our results demonstrate that magnetic buoyancy force plays an important role in disrupting the streamer.

  6. A Model for Jet-Surface Interaction Noise Using Physically Realizable Upstream Turbulence Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Afsar, Mohammed Z.; Leib, Stewart J.; Bozak, Richard F.

    2016-01-01

    This paper is a continuation of previous work in which a generalized Rapid Distortion Theory (RDT) formulation was used to model low-frequency trailing-edge noise. The research was motivated by proposed next-generation aircraft configurations where the exhaust system is tightly integrated with the airframe. Data from recent experiments at NASA on the interaction between high-Reynolds-number subsonic jet flows and an external flat plate showed that the power spectral density (PSD) of the far-field pressure underwent considerable amplification at low frequencies. For example, at the 90deg observation angle, the low-frequency noise could be as much as 10 dB greater than the jet noise itself. In this paper, we present predictions of the noise generated by the interaction of a rectangular jet with the trailing edge of a semi-infinite flat plate. The calculations are based on a formula for the acoustic spectrum of this noise source derived from an exact formal solution of the linearized Euler equations involving (in this case) one arbitrary convected scalar quantity and a Rayleigh equation Green's function. A low-frequency asymptotic approximation for the Green's function based on a two-dimensional mean flow is used in the calculations along with a physically realizable upstream turbulence spectrum, which includes a finite decorrelation region. Numerical predictions of the sound field, based on three-dimensional RANS solutions to determine the mean flow, turbulent kinetic energy and turbulence length and time scales, for a range of subsonic acoustic Mach number jets and nozzle aspect ratios are compared with experimental data. Comparisons of the RANS results with flow data are also presented for selected cases. We find that a finite decorrelation region in the turbulence spectrum increases the low-frequency algebraic decay (the low frequency "roll-off") of the acoustic spectrum with angular frequency thereby producing much closer agreement with noise data for Strouhal

  7. A Model for Jet-Surface Interaction Noise Using Physically Realizable Upstream Turbulence Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Afsar, Mohammed Z.; Leib, Stewart J.; Bozak, Richard F.

    2015-01-01

    This paper is a continuation of previous work in which a generalized Rapid Distortion Theory (RDT) formulation was used to model low-frequency trailing-edge noise. The research was motivated by proposed next-generation aircraft configurations where the exhaust system is tightly integrated with the airframe. Data from recent experiments at NASA on the interaction between high-Reynolds-number subsonic jet flows and an external flat plate showed that the power spectral density (PSD) of the far-field pressure underwent considerable amplification at low frequencies. For example, at the 900 observation angle, the low-frequency noise could be as much as 10dB greater than the jet noise itself. In this paper, we present predictions of the noise generated by the interaction of a rectangular jet with the trailing edge of a semi-infinite flat plate. The calculations are based on a formula for the acoustic spectrum of this noise source derived from an exact formal solution of the linearized Euler equations involving (in this case) one arbitrary convected scalar quantity and a Rayleigh equation Green's function. A low-frequency asymptotic approximation for the Green's function based on a two-dimensional mean flow is used in the calculations along with a physically realizable upstream turbulence spectrum, which includes a finite de-correlation region. Numerical predictions, based on three-dimensional RANS solutions for a range of subsonic acoustic Mach number jets and nozzle aspect ratios are compared with experimental data. Comparisons of the RANS results with flow data are also presented for selected cases. We find that a finite decorrelation region increases the low-frequency algebraic decay (the low frequency "rolloff") of the acoustic spectrum with angular frequency thereby producing much closer agreement with noise data for Strouhal numbers less than 0.1. Secondly, the large-aspectratio theory is able to predict the low-frequency amplification due to the jet

  8. Multiscale analyses of inland tropical cylcone--midlatitude jet interactions: Camille (1969) and Danny (1997)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potter, Matthew S.

    TC Camille (1969) and TC Danny (1997) both interacted with the equatorward entrance region of an upper-tropospheric jet as they traversed the Appalachian Mountains; however, their societal impacts differed. During the 12-h period starting 0000 UTC 20 August 1969, 690 mm of rain fell over Massies Mill, Virginia, as TC Camille traversed the central Appalachian Mountains. On 24 July 1997, TC Danny underwent inland reintensification while moving across the Carolinas. TC Danny's minimum central mean sea level pressure decreased from 1012 hPa to 1000 hPa and its maximum sustained wind speed increased from 20 kt to 40 kt during the 18-h period starting 0000 UTC 24 July. The main objectives of this thesis are to document the synoptic-scale environments and underlying mesoscale processes responsible for each TC--jet interaction, and to document important mechanisms and processes that lead to inland flooding associated with TC--jet interactions and inland reintensifying TCs that interact with midlatitude jets. Multiscale analyses are conducted using ERA-40 and the NCEP CFSR (Climate Forecast System Reanalysis) global gridded datasets, available at 1.125° and 0.5° resolution, for the TC Camille and TC Danny cases. Surface analyses are employed to identify and document the surface environment and significant mesoscale features associated with both storms. Radar data are used to supplement the mesoscale analysis of each case, and a potential vorticity (PV) perspective is employed to facilitate the interpretation of the multiscale analyses. The multiscale analyses reveal that unlike the TC Camille case, synoptic-scale ascent arising from implied positive PV advection and minimized effects of vertical wind shear associated with an upper-tropospheric positive PV anomaly enabled TC Danny to intensify inland. Frontogenetically forced ascent along a lower-tropospheric baroclinic zone and orographic enhancement of rainfall, induced by moist, upslope flow across the Blue Ridge

  9. Numerical investigation of gas-particle interaction in polydisperse volcanic jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carcano, Susanna; Esposti Ongaro, Tomaso; Bonaventura, Luca; Neri, Augusto

    2014-05-01

    We investigate the problem of underexpanded jet decompression when the injected fluid is a mixture of a gaseous phase and different classes of solid particles. The underexpanded multiphase jet problem is representative of phenomena that can be observed in the first stages of explosive volcanic eruptions. Whereas the case of homogeneous jets has been studied deeply in the literature, both experimentally, theoretically and numerically, the case of multiphase gas--particle jets still presents some open issues. It has been proven theoretically and experimentally that vents with supersonic or sonic velocity and gas pressure greater than the atmospheric one result in a rapid expansion and acceleration of the fluid to high Mach number. A series of expansion waves form and are reflected as compression waves at the flow boundary. The compression waves coealesce to form a standing normal shock wave (Mach disk), across which the fluid is rapidly compressed and decelerated to subsonic speeds. When solid particles are added to the gas flow, new phenomena associated to kinetic and thermal non-equilibrium between gas and particulate phases arise. Such effects are controlled by drag and heat exchange terms in the momentum and energy equations. In the present work we carry out two- and three-dimensional numerical simulations with the multiphase flow model PDAC (Neri et al., J. Geophys. Res, 2003; Carcano et al., Geosci. Mod. Dev., 2013), to identify and quantify non-equilibrium effects related to the interaction between the jet decompression structure and solid particles. We quantify, on a theoretical basis, the expected non-equilibrium effects between the gas and the solid phase in terms of the particle Stokes numer (St), i.e. the ratio between the particle relaxation time and a characteristic time scale of the jet (taken as the formation time of the Mach disk shock), for two sample grain-size distributions of natural events (Mount St. Helens, 1980; Vesuvius, aD 79). The Stokes

  10. D0 results on diphoton direct production and double parton interactions in photon + 3 jet events

    SciTech Connect

    Sawyer, Lee; /Louisiana Tech. U.

    2010-01-01

    We report the measurement of differential diphoton direct production cross sections and a study of photon + 3-jet events with double parton (DP) interactions, based on data taken with the D0 experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron proton-antiproton collider. We measure single differential cross sections as a function of the diphoton mass, the transverse momentum of the diphoton system, the azimuthal angle between the photons, and the polar scattering angle of the photons. In addition, we measure double differential cross sections considering the last three kinematic variables in three diphoton mass bins. The results are compared with different perturbative QCD predictions and event generators. We have used a sample of photon + 3-jet events collected by the D0 experiment with an integrated luminosity of about 1 fb{sup -1} to determine the fraction of events with double parton scattering (f{sub DP}) in a single p{bar p} collision at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV. The DP fraction and effective cross section ({sigma}{sub eff}), a process-independent scale parameter related to the parton density inside the nucleon, are measured in three intervals of the second (ordered in p{sub T}) jet transverse momentum p{sub T}{sup jet2} within the range 15 < p{sub T}{sup jet} < 30 GeV. In this range, f{sub DP} varies between 0.23 < f{sub DP} < 0.47, while {sigma}{sub eff} has the average value {sigma}{sub eff}{sup ave} = 16.4 {+-} 0.3(stat) {+-} 2.3(syst) mb.

  11. Mapping the Interactions between Shocks and Mixing Layers in a 3-Stream Supersonic Jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewalle, Jacques; Ruscher, Christopher; Kan, Pinqing; Tenney, Andrew; Gogineni, Sivaram; Kiel, Barry

    2015-11-01

    Pressure is obtained from an LES calculation of the supersonic jet (Ma1 = 1 . 6) issuing from a rectangular nozzle in a low-subsonic co-flow; a tertiary flow, also rectangular with Ma3 = 1 insulates the primary jet from an aft-deck plate. The developing jet exhibits complex three-dimensional interactions between oblique shocks, multiple mixing layers and corner vortices, which collectively act as a skeleton for the flow. Our study is based on several plane sections through the pressure field, with short signals (0.1 s duration at 80 kHz sampling rate). Using wavelet-based band-pass filtering and cross-correlations, we map the directions of propagation of information among the various ``bones'' in the skeleton. In particular, we identify upstream propagation in some frequency bands, 3-dimensional interactions between the various shear layers, and several key bones from which the pressure signals, when taken as reference, provide dramatic phase-locking for parts of the skeleton. We acknowledge the support of AFRL through an SBIR grant.

  12. Interaction of co-propagating jets in the presence of an external magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, Michael; Doyle, Hugo; Brambrink, Erik; Crowston, Robert; Drake, R. Paul; Kuranz, Carolyn; Lamb, Don; Koenig, Michel; Kozlowski, Pawel; Marques, Jean-Raphael; Meinecke, Jena; Pelka, Alexander; Ravasio, Alessandra; Reville, Brian; Tzeferacos, Petros; Woosley, Nigel; Gregori, Gianluca; Acsel Collaboration

    2013-10-01

    We observed the interaction of two co-propagating jets in 1 mbar of argon gas in the presence of an external magnetic field at the LULI laser facility. The jets were created by irradiating a 100 μm aluminum foil with two 1.5 ns laser pulses separated by 5 mm, each containing 500 J of 527 nm light. Optical interferometry and schlieren imaging were used to observe the flow of the interacting jets. Additionally, an induction coil was fielded to measure the magnetic field 3 cm from the initiation of the flows. Measurements were made with and without a 0.5 T external magnetic field. Preliminary results and analysis will be presented. The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Research Council under the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) / ERC grant agreement no. 256973. and by the NNSA-DS and SC-OFES Joint Program in High-Energy-Density Laboratory Plasmas, grant number DE-NA0001840.

  13. Characteristics of the Jet Impact during the Interaction Between a Bubble and a Wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shuai; Wang, Shi-Ping; Zhang, A.-Man

    2016-06-01

    The dynamics of a toroidal bubble splitting near a rigid wall in an inviscid incompressible fluid is studied in this paper. The boundary integral method is adopted to simulate the bubble motion. After the jet impact, the vortex ring model is used to handle the discontinued potential of the toroidal bubble. When the toroidal bubble is splitting, topology changes are made tear the bubble apart. Then, the vortex ring model is extended to multiple vortex rings to simulate the interaction between two toroidal bubbles. A typical case is discussed in this study. Besides, the velocity fields and pressure contours surrounding the bubble are used to illustrate the numerical results. An annular high pressure region is generated at the splitting location, and the maximum pressure may be much higher than the jet impact. More splits may happen after the first split.

  14. New observables for multiple-parton interactions measurements using Z +jets processes at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, R.; Bansal, M.; Bansal, S.; Singh, J. B.

    2016-03-01

    Multiple-parton interactions (MPI) play a vital role in hadron-hadron collisions. This paper presents a study of the MPIs with simulated Z +jets events in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV. The events are simulated with powheg, followed by hadronization and parton showering using pythia8. The events with dimuon invariant mass in the range of 60 - 120 GeV /c2 are selected for the analysis. The charged particle jets having a minimum transverse momentum of 5 GeV /c and an absolute pseudorapidity less than 2 are used to construct the observables for measurements of the MPIs. The proposed observables and phase-space region presented in this paper are found to have enhanced sensitivity to MPIs. The increased sensitivity to MPIs will lead to precise constraints on the parameters of the MPI models.

  15. Gamma-ray burst jet dynamics and their interaction with the progenitor star.

    PubMed

    Lazzati, Davide; Morsony, Brian J; Begelman, Mitchell C

    2007-05-15

    The association of at least some long gamma-ray bursts with type Ic supernova explosions has been established beyond reasonable doubt. Theoretically, the challenge is to explain the presence of a light hyper-relativistic flow propagating through a massive stellar core without losing those properties. We discuss the role of the jet-star interaction in shaping the properties of the outflow emerging on the surface of the star. We show that the nature of the inner engine is hidden from the observer for most of the evolution, well beyond the time of the jet breakout on the stellar surface. The discussion is based on analytical considerations as well as high resolution numerical simulations. Finally, the observational consequences of the scenario are addressed in light of the present capabilities. PMID:17293331

  16. Star-jet Interactions and Gamma-ray Outbursts from 3C454.3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khangulyan, D. V.; Barkov, M. V.; Bosch-Romon, V.; Aharonian, F. A.; Dorodnitsyn, A. V.

    2013-01-01

    We propose a model to explain the ultra-bright GeV gamma-ray flares observed from the blazar 3C454.3. The model is based on the concept of a relativistic jet interacting with compact gas condensations produced when a star (a red giant) crosses the jet close to the central black hole. The study includes an analytical treatment of the evolution of the envelope lost by the star within the jet, and calculations of the related high-energy radiation. The model readily explains the day-long that varies on timescales of hours, GeV gamma-ray flare from 3C454.3, observed during 2010 November on top of a plateau lasting weeks. In the proposed scenario, the plateau state is caused by a strong wind generated by the heating of the stellar atmosphere due to nonthermal particles accelerated at the jet-star interaction region. The flare itself could be produced by a few clouds of matter lost by the red giant after the initial impact of the jet. In the framework of the proposed scenario, the observations constrain the key model parameters of the source, including the mass of the central black hole: Blackhole Mass is approx. equal to 10(exp 9) Solar Mass, the total jet power: L(j) is approx. equal to 10(exp 48) erg s(exp -1), and the Doppler factor of the gamma-ray emitting clouds: Delta is approx. equal to 20. Whereas we do not specify the particle acceleration mechanisms, the potential gamma-ray production processes are discussed and compared in the context of the proposed model.We argue that synchrotron radiation of protons has certain advantages compared to other radiation channels of directlyaccelerated electrons. An injected proton distribution varies as E(exp -1) or harder below the relevant energies would be favored to alleviate the tight energetic constraints and to avoid the violation of the observational low-energy constraints.

  17. Non-thermal emission from standing relativistic shocks: an application to red giant winds interacting with AGN jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosch-Ramon, V.

    2015-03-01

    Context. Galactic and extragalactic relativistic jets are surrounded by rich environments that are full of moving objects, such as stars and dense medium inhomogeneities. These objects can enter into the jets and generate shocks and non-thermal emission. Aims: We characterize the emitting properties of the downstream region of a standing shock formed due to the interaction of a relativistic jet with an obstacle. We focus on the case of red giants interacting with an extragalactic jet. Methods: We perform relativistic axisymmetric hydrodynamical simulations of a relativistic jet meeting an obstacle of very large inertia. The results are interpreted in the framework of a red giant whose dense and slow wind interacts with the jet of an active galactic nucleus. Assuming that particles are accelerated in the standing shock generated in the jet as it impacts the red giant wind, we compute the non-thermal particle distribution, the Doppler boosting enhancement, and the non-thermal luminosity in gamma rays. Results: The available non-thermal energy from jet-obstacle interactions is potentially enhanced by a factor of ~100 when accounting for the whole surface of the shock induced by the obstacle, instead of just the obstacle section. The observer gamma-ray luminosity, including the effective obstacle size, the flow velocity and Doppler boosting effects, can be ~300 (γj/10)2 times higher than when the emitting flow is assumed at rest and only the obstacle section is considered, where γj is the jet Lorentz factor. For a whole population of red giants inside the jet of an active galactic nucleus, the predicted persistent gamma-ray luminosities may be potentially detectable for a jet pointing approximately to the observer. Conclusions: Obstacles interacting with relativistic outflows, for instance clouds and populations of stars for extragalactic jets, or stellar wind inhomogeneities in microquasar jets and in winds of pulsars in binaries, should be taken into account when

  18. Gyroscopic analog for magnetohydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Holm, D.D.

    1981-01-01

    The gross features of plasma equilibrium and dynamics in the ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) model can be understood in terms of a dynamical system which closely resembles the equations for a deformable gyroscope.

  19. Magnetohydrodynamic power generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Power Generation is a concise summary of MHD theory, history, and future trends. Results of the major international MHD research projects are discussed. Data from MHD research is included. Economics of initial and operating costs are considered.

  20. Experiments in Magnetohydrodynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rayner, J. P.

    1970-01-01

    Describes three student experiments in magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). In these experiments, it was found that the electrical conductivity of the local water supply was sufficient to demonstrate effectively some of the features of MHD flowmeters, generators, and pumps. (LC)

  1. Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations of the Formation of Molecular Columns Found toward the Double Helix Nebulae in the Galactic Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asahina, Yuta; Matsumoto, Ryoji; Ogawa, Takayuki

    NANTEN2 observations of the galactic molecular gas revealed that molecular columns surround the double helix nebulae at our Galactic center (Enokiya et al. 2014). In order to study the formation mechanism of the double helix nebulae and molecular columns, we carried out magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of the interaction of a magnetic tower jet ejected from the galactic center with interstellar neutral hydrogen (HI) gas taking into account the interstellar cooling. The HI gas compressed by the bow shock ahead of the jet is cooled down by cooling instability triggered by the density enhancement. As a result, cold, dense region is formed around the helical magnetic tower jet. These molecular columns can be the evidences of the past activity near the galactic center black hole.

  2. Magnetohydrodynamic fluidic system

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Abraham P.; Bachman, Mark G.

    2004-08-24

    A magnetohydrodynamic fluidic system includes a reagent source containing a reagent fluid and a sample source containing a sample fluid that includes a constituent. A reactor is operatively connected to the supply reagent source and the sample source. MHD pumps utilize a magnetohydrodynamic drive to move the reagent fluid and the sample fluid in a flow such that the reagent fluid and the sample fluid form an interface causing the constituent to be separated from the sample fluid.

  3. Fuzzy jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackey, Lester; Nachman, Benjamin; Schwartzman, Ariel; Stansbury, Conrad

    2016-06-01

    Collimated streams of particles produced in high energy physics experiments are organized using clustering algorithms to form jets. To construct jets, the experimental collaborations based at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) primarily use agglomerative hierarchical clustering schemes known as sequential recombination. We propose a new class of algorithms for clustering jets that use infrared and collinear safe mixture models. These new algorithms, known as fuzzy jets, are clustered using maximum likelihood techniques and can dynamically determine various properties of jets like their size. We show that the fuzzy jet size adds additional information to conventional jet tagging variables in boosted topologies. Furthermore, we study the impact of pileup and show that with some slight modifications to the algorithm, fuzzy jets can be stable up to high pileup interaction multiplicities.

  4. Fuzzy jets

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Mackey, Lester; Nachman, Benjamin; Schwartzman, Ariel; Stansbury, Conrad

    2016-06-01

    Here, collimated streams of particles produced in high energy physics experiments are organized using clustering algorithms to form jets . To construct jets, the experimental collaborations based at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) primarily use agglomerative hierarchical clustering schemes known as sequential recombination. We propose a new class of algorithms for clustering jets that use infrared and collinear safe mixture models. These new algorithms, known as fuzzy jets , are clustered using maximum likelihood techniques and can dynamically determine various properties of jets like their size. We show that the fuzzy jet size adds additional information to conventional jet taggingmore » variables in boosted topologies. Furthermore, we study the impact of pileup and show that with some slight modifications to the algorithm, fuzzy jets can be stable up to high pileup interaction multiplicities.« less

  5. Study on the influences of interaction behaviors between multiple combustion-gas jets on expansion characteristics of Taylor cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Xiaochun; Yu, Yonggang; Zhang, Qi

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate means of controlling the interior ballistic stability of a bulk-loaded propellant gun (BLPG). Experiments on the interaction of twin combustion gas jets and liquid medium in a cylindrical stepped-wall combustion chamber are conducted in detail to obtain time series processes of jet expansion, and a numerical simulation under the same working conditions is also conducted to verify the reliability of the numerical method by comparing numerical results and experimental results. From this, numerical simulations on mutual interference and expansion characteristics of multiple combustion gas jets (four, six, and eight jets) in liquid medium are carried out, and the distribution characteristic of pressure, velocity, temperature, and evolutionary processes of Taylor cavities and streamlines of jet flow field are obtained in detail. The results of numerical simulations show that when different numbers of combustion gas jets expand in liquid medium, there are two different types of vortices in the jet flow field, including corner vortices of liquid phase near the step and backflow vortices of gas phase within Taylor cavities. Because of these two types of vortices, the radial expansion characteristic of the jets is increased, while changing numbers of combustion gas jets can restrain Kelvin-Helmholtz instability to a certain degree in jet expansion processes, which can at last realize the goal of controlling the interior ballistic stability of a BLPG. The optimum method for both suppressing Kelvin-Helmholtz instability and promoting radial expansion of Taylor cavities can be determined by analyzing the change of characteristic parameters in a jet flow field.

  6. Impact of orifice orientation on a finite-span synthetic jet interaction with a crossflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Buren, Tyler; Leong, Chia Min; Whalen, Edward; Amitay, Michael

    2016-03-01

    The formation and evolution of flow structures associated with a finite-span synthetic jet issued into a zero-pressure gradient boundary layer were investigated experimentally using stereoscopic particle image velocimetry. A synthetic jet with an aspect ratio of AR = 18 was mounted on a flat plate and its interaction with a free stream, having a velocity of U∞ = 10 m/s (Reδ = 2000) at momentum coefficients of Cμ = 0.08, 0.33, and 0.75, was studied. The effect of the orifice pitch (α = 20∘-90∘) and skew (β = 0∘-90∘) angles on vortex formation as well as the global impact of the synthetic jet on the flow field was explored in detail. It was found that the orifice orientation had a significant impact on the steady and unsteady flow structures. Different orifice skew and pitch angles could result in several types of vortical structures downstream, including: no coherent vortex structure, a single (positive or negative) strong vortex, or a symmetric vortex pair. In all cases, the velocity near the wall was increased; however, cases with higher blockage (i.e., more wall-normal, transverse orifice) resulted in a strong velocity deficit in the free stream where orifices with lower pitch angles yielded in an increase in velocity throughout. The analysis is concluded with a summary of quantitative metrics that allude to flow control effectiveness.

  7. Spectroscopic Analysis of High Intensity Laser Beam Jets Interaction Experiments on the Leopard Laser at UNR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petkov, E. E.; Weller, M. E.; Kantsyrev, V. L.; Safronova, A. S.; Moschella, J. J.; Shrestha, I.; Shlyapsteva, V. V.; Stafford, A.; Keim, S. F.; University of Nevada Reno Team

    2013-10-01

    Results of Ar gas-puff experiments performed on the high power Leopard laser at UNR are presented. Flux density of laser radiation in focal spot was up to 2 × 1016 W/cm2 (pulse duration was 0.8 ns and laser wavelength was 1.057 μm). Specifically, spectroscopic analysis of K-shell Ar spectra are investigated and compared as functions of the orientation of the laser beam to linear gas jet. The laser beam axis was positioned either along the jet plane or orthogonal to it at a distance of 1 mm from the nozzle output. The diagnostics used included a time-integrated x-ray spectrometer along with a set of filtered Si diodes with various cutoff energies. In order to identify lines, a non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE) kinetic model was utilized and was also used to determine plasma parameters such as electron temperature and density. The importance of the spectroscopic study of high intensity laser beam-jets interaction experiments is discussed. This work was supported by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency, Basic Research Award # HDTRA1-13-1-0033, to University of Nevada, Reno, and in part by the DOE/NNSA Cooperative agreements DE-NA0001984 and DE-FC52-06NA27616.

  8. Aerodynamic Testing of the Orion Launch Abort Tower Separation with Jettison Motor Jet Interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhode, Matthew N.; Chan, David T.; Niskey, Charles J.; Wilson, Thomas M.

    2011-01-01

    The aerodynamic database for the Orion Launch Abort System (LAS) was developed largely from wind tunnel tests involving powered jet simulations of the rocket exhaust plumes, supported by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. The LAS contains three solid rocket motors used in various phases of an abort to provide propulsion, steering, and Launch Abort Tower (LAT) jettison from the Crew Module (CM). This paper describes a pair of wind tunnel experiments performed at transonic and supersonic speeds to determine the aerodynamic effects due to proximity and jet interactions during LAT jettison from the CM at the end of an abort. The tests were run using two different scale models at angles of attack from 150deg to 200deg , sideslip angles from -10deg to +10deg , and a range of powered thrust levels from the jettison motors to match various jet simulation parameters with flight values. Separation movements between the CM and LAT included axial and vertical translations as well as relative pitch angle between the two bodies. The paper details aspects of the model design, nozzle scaling methodology, instrumentation, testing procedures, and data reduction. Sample data are shown to highlight trends seen in the results.

  9. Symmetry transforms for ideal magnetohydrodynamics equilibria.

    PubMed

    Bogoyavlenskij, Oleg I

    2002-11-01

    A method for constructing ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) equilibria is introduced. The method consists of the application of symmetry transforms to any known MHD equilibrium [ O. I. Bogoyavlenskij, Phys. Rev. E. 62, 8616, (2000)]. The transforms break the geometrical symmetries of the field-aligned solutions and produce continuous families of the nonsymmetric MHD equilibria. The method of symmetry transforms also allows to obtain MHD equilibria with current sheets and exact solutions with noncollinear vector fields B and V. A model of the nonsymmetric astrophysical jets outside of their accretion disks is developed. The total magnetic and kinetic energy of the jet is finite in any layer c(1)jet possesses current sheets and is highly collimated in view of a rapid decrease of the magnetic field B in the transverse direction. The method gives also the MHD equilibria that model ball lightning with dynamics of plasma inside the fireball. PMID:12513610

  10. General Relativistic Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations of Collapsars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mizuno, Yosuke; Yamada, S.; Koider, S.; Shipata, K.

    2005-01-01

    We have performed 2.5-dimensional general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of collapsars including a rotating black hole. Initially, we assume that the core collapse has failed in this star. A rotating black hole of a few solar masses is inserted by hand into the calculation. The simulation results show the formation of a disklike structure and the generation of a jetlike outflow near the central black hole. The jetlike outflow propagates and accelerated mainly by the magnetic field. The total jet velocity is approximately 0.3c. When the rotation of the black hole is faster, the magnetic field is twisted strongly owing to the frame-dragging effect. The magnetic energy stored by the twisting magnetic field is directly converted to kinetic energy of the jet rather than propagating as an Alfven wave. Thus, as the rotation of the black hole becomes faster, the poloidal velocity of the jet becomes faster.

  11. THERMODYNAMIC INTERACTION OF THE PRIMARY PROTON BEAM WITH A MERCURY JET TARGET AT A NEUTRINO FACTORY SOURCE.

    SciTech Connect

    SIMOS,N.; LUDEWIG,H.; KIRK,H.; THIEBERGER,P.; MCDONALD,K.

    2001-06-18

    This paper addresses the thermodynamic interaction of an intense proton beam with the proposed mercury jet target at a neutrino factory or muon collider source, and the consequences of the generated pressure waves on the target integrity. Specifically, a 24 GeV proton beam with approximately 1.6e13 protons per pulse and a pulse length of 2 nanosec will interact with a 1 cm diameter mercury jet within a 20 Tesla magnetic field. In one option, a train of six such proton pulses is to be delivered on target within 2 microsec, in which case the state of the mercury jet following the interaction with each pulse is critical. Using the equation of state for mercury from the SESAME library, in combination with the energy deposition rates calculated the by the hadron interaction code MARS, the induced 3-D pressure field in the target is estimated. The consequent pressure wave propagation and attenuation in the mercury jet is calculated using an ANSYS code transient analysis, and the state of the mercury jet at the time of arrival of the subsequent pulse is assessed. The amplitude of the pressure wave reaching the nozzle that ejects the mercury jet into the magnetic field is estimated and the potential for mechanical damage is addressed.

  12. Nonlinear interactions in mixing layers and compressible heated round jets. Ph.D. Thesis Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jarrah, Yousef Mohd

    1989-01-01

    The nonlinear interactions between a fundamental instability mode and both its harmonics and the changing mean flow are studied using the weakly nonlinear stability theory of Stuart and Watson, and numerical solutions of coupled nonlinear partial differential equations. The first part focuses on incompressible cold (or isothermal; constant temperature throughout) mixing layers, and for these, the first and second Landau constants are calculated as functions of wavenumber and Reynolds number. It is found that the dominant contribution to the Landau constants arises from the mean flow changes and not from the higher harmonics. In order to establish the range of validity of the weakly nonlinear theory, the weakly nonlinear and numerical solutions are compared and the limitation of each is discussed. At small amplitudes and at low-to-moderate Reynolds numbers, the two results compare well in describing the saturation of the fundamental, the distortion of the mean flow, and the initial stages of vorticity roll-up. At larger amplitudes, the interaction between the fundamental, second harmonic, and the mean flow is strongly nonlinear and the numerical solution predicts flow oscillations, whereas the weakly nonlinear theory yields saturation. In the second part, the weakly nonlinear theory is extended to heated (or nonisothermal; mean temperature distribution) subsonic round jets where quadratic and cubic nonlinear interactions are present, and the Landau constants also depend on jet temperature ratio, Mach number and azimuthal mode number. Under exponential growth and nonlinear saturation, it is found that heating and compressibility suppress the growth of instability waves, that the first azimuthal mode is the dominant instability mode, and that the weakly nonlinear solution describes the early stages of the roll-up of an axisymmetric shear layer. The receptivity of a typical jet flow to pulse type input disturbance is also studied by solving the initial value problem

  13. Space shuttle orbiter rear mounted reaction control system jet interaction study. [hypersonic wind tunnel tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rausch, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    The effect of interaction between the reaction control system (RCS) jets and the flow over the space shuttle orbiter in the atmosphere was investigated in the NASA Langley 31-inch continuous flow hypersonic tunnel at a nominal Mach number of 10.3 and in the AEDC continuous flow hypersonic tunnel B at a nominal Mach number of 6, using 0.01 and .0125 scale force models with aft RCS nozzles mounted both on the model and on the sting of the force model balance. The data show that RCS nozzle exit momentum ratio is the primary correlating parameter for effects where the plume impinges on an adjacent surface and mass flow ratio is the parameter when the plume interaction is primarily with the external stream. An analytic model of aft mounted RCS units was developed in which the total reaction control moments are the sum of thrust, impingement, interaction, and cross-coupling terms.

  14. Parabolized Stability Equations analysis of nonlinear interactions with forced eigenmodes to control subsonic jet instabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Itasse, Maxime Brazier, Jean-Philippe Léon, Olivier Casalis, Grégoire

    2015-08-15

    Nonlinear evolution of disturbances in an axisymmetric, high subsonic, high Reynolds number hot jet with forced eigenmodes is studied using the Parabolized Stability Equations (PSE) approach to understand how modes interact with one another. Both frequency and azimuthal harmonic interactions are analyzed by setting up one or two modes at higher initial amplitudes and various phases. While single mode excitation leads to harmonic growth and jet noise amplification, controlling the evolution of a specific mode has been made possible by forcing two modes (m{sub 1}, n{sub 1}), (m{sub 2}, n{sub 2}), such that the difference in azimuth and in frequency matches the desired “target” mode (m{sub 1} − m{sub 2}, n{sub 1} − n{sub 2}). A careful setup of the initial amplitudes and phases of the forced modes, defined as the “killer” modes, has allowed the minimizing of the initially dominant instability in the near pressure field, as well as its estimated radiated noise with a 15 dB loss. Although an increase of the overall sound pressure has been found in the range of azimuth and frequency analyzed, the present paper reveals the possibility to make the initially dominant instability ineffective acoustically using nonlinear interactions with forced eigenmodes.

  15. Measurement Of Ultrafast Ionisation From Intense Laser Interactions With Gas-Jets

    SciTech Connect

    Gizzi, Leonida A.; Galimberti, Marco; Giulietti, Antonio; Giulietti, Danilo; Koester, Petra; Labate, Luca; Tomassini, Paolo; Martin, Philippe; Ceccotti, Tiberio; De Oliveira, Pascal; Monot, Pascal

    2006-04-07

    Interaction of an intense, ultrashort laser pulse with a gas-jet target is investigated through femtosecond optical interferometry to study the dynamics of ionization of the gas. Experimental results are presented in which the propagation of the pulse in the gas and the consequent plasma formation is followed step by step with high temporal and spatial resolution. We demonstrate that, combining the phase shift with the measurable depletion of fringe visibility associated with the transient change of refractive index in the ionizing region and taking into account probe travel time can provide direct information on gas ionization dynamics.

  16. Experimental investigation of the interaction of a thrust reverser jet with an external subsonic flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charbonnier, J.-M.; Deckers, K.; Wens, G.

    1993-11-01

    An experimental modelization of a door-type thrust reverser is conducted in a subsonic wind tunnel. The geometry of the model is defined in order to simulate both the internal and external flow of a real thrust reverser. Different door configurations are studied for a selected value of the mass flux injection ratio of three. Visualizations illustrate qualitatively the jet interaction, and extensive mean velocity and pressure measurements are conducted in sections perpendicular to the upstream flow direction with a five hole probe. The total pressure losses and the drag force produced by the thrust reverser are deduced from the measurements. As a result, it shows that the smaller opening angle of the door (56 deg), with a becquet deflection of 15 deg gives the larger drag force. In addition to the classical pair of counter rotating vortices observed in jet in cross flow interactions, a second pair of counter rotating vortices below the main pair is found. The vorticity field is described with good agreement by a simple vortex model simulating the two pairs of vortices.

  17. Non-thermal emission from the interaction of extragalactic jets with stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieyro, Florencia; Bosch-Ramon, Valenti; Torres-Albà, Núria

    2016-07-01

    The central regions of galaxies are rich environments, often full with stars and medium inhomogeneities. For galaxies hosting active galactic nuclei, the interaction of a relativistic jet with these objects can lead to the formation of shocks, where particles can be accelerated up to relativistic energies. Recent numerical simulations show that the effective surface of the shock induced by the obstacle is higher than the obstacle section, increasing the available non-thermal energy. In this work, we analyze the non-thermal processes in these shocks. First, we make a detailed characterization of the stellar population in the central region of the galaxy, taking into account the evolution of stars with different masses. This allows us to obtain good estimates of the non-thermal energy. Then, we study the transport of relativistic electron accelerated in the shocks, and compute the gamma-ray emission. The interaction of relativistic jets with ambient objects, such as stars and clouds, can contribute significantly to the non-thermal emission from these sources.

  18. INTERACTION OF A 24 GEV PROTON BEAM IWHT A MUON COLLIDER MERCURY JET TARGET EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS AND THERMODYNAMIC ASSESSMENT.

    SciTech Connect

    SIMOS,N.; KIRK,H.; FINFROCK,C.; GREENE,G.; LUDEWIG,H.; MCDONALD,K.; MOKHOV,N.

    2001-11-11

    A muon collider or a neutrino factory based on a muon storage ring require intense beams of muons that can be generated by a 1-4 MW proton beam incident on a moving target inside a 20-T solenoid magnet, with a mercury jet as a preferred example. This paper addresses the thermodynamic interaction of the intense proton beam with the proposed mercury jet target, and the consequences of the generated pressure waves on the target integrity. Specifically, a 24 GeV proton beam with approximately 16 TP (1 TP = 10{sup 12} protons) per pulse and a pulse length of 2 ns will interact with a 1 cm diameter mercury jet within the 20-Tesla magnetic field. In one option, a train of six such proton pulses is to be delivered on target within 2 {micro}s, in which case the state of the mercury jet following the interaction with each pulse is critical. Using the equation of state for mercury from the SESAME library, in combination with the energy deposition rates calculated the by the hadron interaction code MARS, the induced 3-D pressure field in the target is estimated. The consequent pressure wave propagation and attenuation in the mercury jet is calculated using a transient analysis based on finite element modeling, and the state of the mercury jet at the time of arrival of the subsequent pulse is assessed. Issues associated with the use of a liquid metal jet as a target candidate are addressed. Lastly, some experimental results from the BNL E951 experiment are presented and discussed.

  19. Pulse Detonation Rocket Magnetohydrodynamic Power Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litchford, R. J.; Jones, J. E.; Dobson, C. C.; Cole, J. W.; Thompson, B. R.; Plemmons, D. H.; Turner, M. W.

    2003-01-01

    The production of onboard electrical power by pulse detonation engines is problematic in that they generate no shaft power; however, pulse detonation driven magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power generation represents one intriguing possibility for attaining self-sustained engine operation and generating large quantities of burst power for onboard electrical systems. To examine this possibility further, a simple heat-sink apparatus was developed for experimentally investigating pulse detonation driven MHD generator concepts. The hydrogen oxygen fired driver was a 90 cm long stainless steel tube having a 4.5 cm square internal cross section and a short Schelkin spiral near the head end to promote rapid formation of a detonation wave. The tube was intermittently filled to atmospheric pressure and seeded with a CsOH/methanol prior to ignition by electrical spark. The driver exhausted through an aluminum nozzle having an area contraction ratio of A*/A(sub zeta) = 1/10 and an area expansion ratio of A(sub zeta)/A* = 3.2 (as limited by available magnet bore size). The nozzle exhausted through a 24-electrode segmented Faraday channel (30.5 cm active length), which was inserted into a 0.6 T permanent magnet assembly. Initial experiments verified proper drive operation with and without the nozzle attachment, and head end pressure and time resolved thrust measurements were acquired. The exhaust jet from the nozzle was interrogated using a polychromatic microwave interferometer yielding an electron number density on the order of 10(exp 12)/cm at the generator entrance. In this case, MHD power generation experiments suffered from severe near-electrode voltage drops and low MHD interaction; i.e., low flow velocity, due to an inherent physical constraint on expansion with the available magnet. Increased scaling, improved seeding techniques, higher magnetic fields, and higher expansion ratios are expected to greatly improve performance.

  20. Nonlinear magnetohydrodynamic stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, F.; Betancourt, O.; Garabedian, P.

    1981-01-01

    The computer code developed by Bauer et al. (1978) for the study of the magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium and stability of a plasma in toroidal geometry is extended so that the growth rates of instabilities may be estimated more accurately. The original code, which is based on the variational principle of ideal magnetohydrodynamics, is upgraded by the introduction of a nonlinear formula for the growth rate of an unstable mode which acts as a quantitative measure of instability that is important in estimating numerical errors. The revised code has been applied to the determination of the nonlinear saturation, ballooning modes and beta limits for tokamaks, stellarators and torsatrons.

  1. Cosmic jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rees, M. J.

    1986-01-01

    The evidence that active galactic nuclei produce collimated plasma jets is summarised. The strongest radio galaxies are probably energised by relativistic plasma jets generated by spinning black holes interacting with magnetic fields attached to infalling matter. Such objects can produce e(+)-e(-) plasma, and may be relevant to the acceleration of the highest-energy cosmic ray primaries. Small-scale counterparts of the jet phenomenon within our own galaxy are briefly reviewed.

  2. Acoustic interactions between an altitude test facility and jet engine plumes: Theory and experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahuja, K. K.; Jones, R. R., III; Tam, C. K.; Massey, K. C.; Fleming, A. J.

    1992-01-01

    The overall objective of the described effort was to develop an understanding of the physical mechanisms involved in the flow/acoustic interactions experienced in full-scale altitude engine test facilities. This is done by conducting subscale experiments and through development of a theoretical model. Model cold jet experiments with an axisymmetric convergent nozzle are performed in a test setup that stimulates a supersonic jet exhausting into a cylindrical diffuser. The measured data consist of detailed flow visualization data and acoustic spectra for a free and a ducted plume. It is shown that duct resonance is most likely responsible by theoretical calculations. Theoretical calculations also indicate that the higher discrete tones observed in the measurements are related to the screech phenomena. Limited experiments on the sensitivity of a free 2-D, C-D nozzle to externally imposed sound are also presented. It is shown that a 2-D, C-D nozzle with a cutback is less excitable than a 2-D C-D nozzle with no cutback. At a pressure ratio of 1.5 unsteady separation from the diverging walls of the nozzle is noticed. This separation switches from one wall to the opposite wall thus providing an unsteady deflection of the plume. It is shown that this phenomenon is related to the venting provided by the cutback section.

  3. Flaperon Modification Effect on Jet-Flap Interaction Noise Reduction for Chevron Nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Russell H.; Mengle, Vinod G.; Stoker, Robert W.; Brusniak, Leon; Elkoby, Ronen

    2007-01-01

    Jet-flap interaction (JFI) noise can become an important component of far field noise when a flap is immersed in the engine propulsive stream or is in its entrained region, as in approach conditions for under-the-wing engine configurations. We experimentally study the effect of modifying the flaperon, which is a high speed aileron between the inboard and outboard flaps, at both approach and take-off conditions using scaled models in a free jet. The flaperon modifications were of two types: sawtooth trailing edge and mini vortex generators (vg s). Parametric variations of these two concepts were tested with a round coaxial nozzle and an advanced chevron nozzle, with azimuthally varying fan chevrons, using both far field microphone arrays and phased microphone arrays for source diagnostics purposes. In general, the phased array results corroborated the far field results in the upstream quadrant pointing to JFI near the flaperon trailing edge as the origin of the far field noise changes. Specific sawtooth trailing edges in conjunction with the round nozzle gave marginal reduction in JFI noise at approach, and parallel co-rotating mini-vg s were somewhat more beneficial over a wider range of angles, but both concepts were noisier at take-off conditions. These two concepts had generally an adverse JFI effect when used in conjunction with the advanced chevron nozzle at both approach and take-off conditions.

  4. Numerical simulation of the interaction between a flowfield and chemical reaction on premixed pulsed jet combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hishida, Manabu; Hayashi, A. Koichi

    1992-12-01

    Pulsed Jet Combustion (PJC) is numerically simulated using time-dependent, axisymmetric, full Navier-Stokes equations with the mass, momentum, energy, and species conservation equations for a hydrogen-air mixture. A hydrogen-air reaction mechanism is modeled by nine species and nineteen elementary forward and backward reactions to evaluate the effect of the chemical reactions accurately. A point implicit method with the Harten and Yee's non-MUSCL (Monotone Upstream-centerd Schemes for Conservation Laws) modified-flux type TVD (Total Variation Diminishing) scheme is applied to deal with the stiff partial differential equations. Furthermore, a zonal method making use of the Fortified Solution Algorithm (FSA) is applied to simulate the phenomena in the complicated shape of the sub-chamber. The numerical result shows that flames propagating in the sub-chamber interact with pressure waves and are deformed to be wrinkled like a 'tulip' flame and a jet passed through the orifice changes its mass flux quasi-periodically.

  5. Incident Shock-Transverse Jet Interactions at Mach 1.9: Effect of Shock Impingement Location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zare-Behtash, H.; Lo, K. H.; Erdem, E.; Kontis, K.; Lin, J.; Ukai, T.; Obayashi, S.

    The scramjet engine is an efficient design for high-speed propulsion, requiring injection of fuel into a supersonic flow in a short amount of time. Due to the nature of the flow numerous shock waves exist within the combustor of a scramjet, significantly altering the flow characteristics and performance of the engine as the flow Mach number or attitude is changed. According to Mai et al. [1] the location of impingement of the incident shock, relative to the fuel injection location, has significant impact on the mixing and flame-holding properties. This emphasises the importance of understanding and hence the need for controlling the dynamic interactions that are created. Of course another fertile area where transverse jet injections are studied for their application is the creation of forces and moments for pitch and attitude control [2, 3].

  6. The role of the interaction between polar and subtropical jet in a case of depression rejuvenation over the Eastern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prezerakos, N. G.; Flocas, H. A.; Brikas, D.

    2006-02-01

    In this paper, an attempt is made to investigate the synoptic-scale atmospheric conditions and dynamic processes leading to the rejuvenation of depressions or cyclogenesis over the Eastern Mediterranean during the cold period of the year. A case study analysis is carried out when the Polar Front Jet (PFJ) is positioned to the south of its normal seasonal position and interacts with the Subtropical Jet Stream (SJS), which is positioned to the north of its normal seasonal position. It was found that the vigorous rejuvenation of a northeastwards moving Atlas mountains depression on 15 March 1998 over Cyprus region is associated with an increase of the hydrodynamic instability due to the juxtaposition of a polar front jet streak to the subtropical jet stream. Furthermore, the rejuvenation is related to the combined effect of the direct and indirect cross vertical circulations appearing on the right side of the entrance of a polar jet streak and the left side of a subtropical jet streak exit, respectively.

  7. Modelling the kinked jet of the Crab nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mignone, A.; Striani, E.; Tavani, M.; Ferrari, A.

    2013-12-01

    We investigate the dynamical propagation of the South-East jet from the Crab pulsar interacting with supernova ejecta by means of three-dimensional relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) numerical simulations with the PLUTO code. The initial jet structure is set up from the inner regions of the Crab nebula. We study the evolution of hot, relativistic hollow outflows initially carrying a purely azimuthal magnetic field. Our jet models are characterized by different choices of the outflow magnetization (σ parameter) and the bulk Lorentz factor (γj). We show that the jet is heavily affected by the growth of current-driven kink instabilities causing considerable deflection throughout its propagation length. This behaviour is partially stabilized by the combined action of larger flow velocities and/or reduced magnetic field strengths. We find that our best jet models are characterized by relatively large values of σ (≳1) and small values of γj ≃ 2. Our results are in good agreement with the recent X-ray (Chandra) data of the Crab nebula South-East jet indicating that the jet changes direction of propagation on a time-scale of the order of few years. The 3D models presented here may have important implications in the investigation of particle acceleration in relativistic outflows.

  8. An infrared jet in Centaurus A (NGC 5128): Evidence for interaction between the active nucleus and the interstellar medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joy, Marshall; Harvey, P. M.; Tollestrup, E. V.; Mcgregor, P. J.; Hyland, A. R.

    1990-01-01

    In the present study, higher resolution near infrared images of the visually-obscured central region of Centaurus A were obtained in order to investigate the effects of the active nucleus on the surrounding galaxy. Researchers present J(1.25 microns), H(1.65 microns), and K(2.2 microns) images of the central 40 seconds of the galaxy, taken with the Univ. of Texas InSb array camera on the Anglo Australian 3.9 meter telescope. These images reveal a jet extending approx. 10 arcseconds to the northeast of the nucleus at the same position angle as the x ray and radio jets. The infrared jet is most prominent at the shortest wavelength (1.25 microns), where its brightness surpasses that of the nucleus. The blue appearance of the infrared jet is remarkable considering the heavy obscuration that is evident at visual wavelengths. The amount of reddening in the vicinity of the jet is determined from the measured colors of the stellar core of the galaxy, and this value is used to generate an extinction-corrected energy distribution. In contrast to previously studied optical and infrared jets in active nuclei, the short-wavelength prominence of the Cen A jet indicates that it cannot be attributed to synchrotron emission from a beam of relativistic electrons. The remaining viable mechanisms involve an interaction between the interstellar medium and the active nucleus: the infrared radiation from the jet may be due to emission from interstellar gas that has been entrained and heated by the flow of relativistic particles from the nucleus; alternatively, luminous blue stars may have been created by compression of interstellar material by the relativistic plasma. To investigate these proposed mechanisms, near-infrared spectroscopic studies of Cen A are in progress to look for collisionally excited molecular hydrogen emission lines and recombination lines from ionized gas.

  9. THE HIGHEST RESOLUTION CHANDRA VIEW OF PHOTOIONIZATION AND JET-CLOUD INTERACTION IN THE NUCLEAR REGION OF NGC 4151

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Junfeng; Fabbiano, G.; Karovska, M.; Elvis, M.; Risaliti, G.; Zezas, A.; Mundell, C. G. E-mail: gfabbiano@cfa.harvard.ed E-mail: elvis@cfa.harvard.ed E-mail: azezas@cfa.harvard.ed

    2009-10-20

    We report high resolution imaging of the nucleus of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 4151 obtained with a 50 ks Chandra High Resolution Camera (HRC) observation. The HRC image resolves the emission on spatial scales of 0.''5, approx30 pc, showing an extended X-ray morphology overall consistent with the narrow-line region (NLR) seen in optical line emission. Removal of the bright point-like nuclear source and image deconvolution techniques both reveal X-ray enhancements that closely match the substructures seen in the Hubble Space Telescope [O III] image and prominent knots in the radio jet. We find that most of the NLR clouds in NGC 4151 have [O III]/soft X-ray ratio approx10, despite the distance of the clouds from the nucleus. This ratio is consistent with the values observed in NLRs of some Seyfert 2 galaxies, which indicates a uniform ionization parameter even at large radii and a density decreasing as r {sup -2} as expected for a nuclear wind scenario. The [O III]/X-ray ratios at the location of radio knots show an excess of X-ray emission, suggesting shock heating in addition to photoionization. We examine various mechanisms for the X-ray emission and find that, in contrast to jet-related X-ray emission in more powerful active galactic nucleus, the observed jet parameters in NGC 4151 are inconsistent with synchrotron emission, synchrotron self-Compton, inverse Compton of cosmic microwave background photons or galaxy optical light. Instead, our results favor thermal emission from the interaction between radio outflow and NLR gas clouds as the origin for the X-ray emission associated with the jet. This supports previous claims that frequent jet-interstellar medium interaction may explain why jets in Seyfert galaxies appear small, slow, and thermally dominated, distinct from those kpc-scale jets in the radio galaxies.

  10. Measurement of the inclusive cross section of jets in γγ interactions at TRISTAN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashii, H.; Miyamoto, A.; Iwasaki, M.; Noguchi, S.; Fujiwara, N.; Abe, T.; Abe, K.; Adachi, I.; Aoki, M.; Awa, S.; Belusevic, R.; Emi, K.; Enomoto, R.; Fujii, H.; Fujii, K.; Fujii, T.; Fujimoto, J.; Fujita, K.; Howell, B.; Iida, N.; Ikeda, H.; Itoh, R.; Iwasaki, H.; Kajikawa, R.; Kato, S.; Kawabata, S.; Kichimi, H.; Kobayashi, M.; Koltick, D.; Levine, I.; Miyabayashi, K.; Muramatsu, K.; Nagai, K.; Nagira, T.; Nakano, E.; Nakabayashi, K.; Nitoh, O.; Ochiai, F.; Ohnishi, Y.; Okuno, H.; Okusawa, T.; Shimozawa, K.; Shinohara, T.; Sugiyama, A.; Sugiyama, N.; Suzuki, S.; Takahashi, K.; Takahashi, T.; Takemoto, M.; Tanimori, T.; Tauchi, T.; Teramae, F.; Teramoto, Y.; Toomi, N.; Toyama, T.; Tsukamoto, T.; Uno, S.; Watanabe, Y.; Yamaguchi, A.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamauchi, M.; Topaz Collaboration

    1993-09-01

    We have investigated the properties of jet production in almost real γγ collisions at √ s=58 GeV with the TOPAZ detector at the TRISTAN e+e- collider. The data were analyzed with a jet-clustering method based on a cone algorithm. The jet rate shows evidence for a hard scattering effect of the hadronic constituents of a photon (resolved photon processes). We have also observed a substantial energy flow in the small-angle region, which is additional evidence for resolved photon processes. We present the transverse momentum dependence of the inclusive jet and two-jet cross sections and compare them with different model predictions.