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Magnetohydrodynamic power generation

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Power Generation is a concise summary of MHD theory, history, and future trends. Results of the major international MHD research projects are discussed. Data from MHD research is included. Economics of initial and operating costs are considered.

Smith, J. L.

1984-01-01

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NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The reference conceptual design of the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Engineering Test Facility (ETF), a prototype 200 MWe coal-fired electric generating plant designed to demonstrate the commercial feasibility of open cycle MHD, is summarized. Main elements of the design, systems, and plant facilities are illustrated. System design descriptions are included for closed cycle cooling water, industrial gas systems, fuel oil, boiler flue gas, coal management, seed management, slag management, plant industrial waste, fire service water, oxidant supply, MHD power ventilating

1981-01-01

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Parametric analysis of closed cycle magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power plants

A parametric analysis of closed cycle MHD power plants was performed which studied the technical feasibility, associated capital cost, and cost of electricity for the direct combustion of coal or coal derived fuel. Three reference plants, differing primarily in the method of coal conversion utilized, were defined. Reference Plant 1 used direct coal fired combustion while Reference Plants 2 and

W. Owens; R. Berg; R. Murthy; J. Patten

1981-01-01

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Parametric analysis of closed cycle magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power plants

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A parametric analysis of closed cycle MHD power plants was performed which studied the technical feasibility, associated capital cost, and cost of electricity for the direct combustion of coal or coal derived fuel. Three reference plants, differing primarily in the method of coal conversion utilized, were defined. Reference Plant 1 used direct coal fired combustion while Reference Plants 2 and 3 employed on site integrated gasifiers. Reference Plant 2 used a pressurized gasifier while Reference Plant 3 used a ""state of the art' atmospheric gasifier. Thirty plant configurations were considered by using parametric variations from the Reference Plants. Parametric variations include the type of coal (Montana Rosebud or Illinois No. 6), clean up systems (hot or cold gas clean up), on or two stage atmospheric or pressurized direct fired coal combustors, and six different gasifier systems. Plant sizes ranged from 100 to 1000 MWe. Overall plant performance was calculated using two methodologies. In one task, the channel performance was assumed and the MHD topping cycle efficiencies were based on the assumed values. A second task involved rigorous calculations of channel performance (enthalpy extraction, isentropic efficiency and generator output) that verified the original (task one) assumptions. Closed cycle MHD capital costs were estimated for the task one plants; task two cost estimates were made for the channel and magnet only.

Owens, W.; Berg, R.; Murthy, R.; Patten, J.

1981-09-01

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This report discusses the effects of the late-time high-altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP) on electrical transmission and distribution (T&D) systems. This environment, known as the magnetohydrodynamic electromagnetic pulse (MHD-EMP), is a very slowly varying electric field induced in the earth`s surface, similar to the field induced by a geomagnetic storm. It can result in the flow of a quasi-dc current in grounded power lines and in the subsequent magnetic saturation of transformers. This saturation, in turn, causes 6-Hz harmonic distortion and an increase in the reactive power required by generation facilities. This report analyzes and discusses these phenomena. The MHD-EMP environment is briefly discussed, and a simplified form of the earth-induced electric field is developed for use in a parametric study of transmission line responses. Various field coupling models are described, and calculated results for the responses of both transmission- and distribution-class power lines are presented. These calculated responses are compared with measurements of transformer operation under dc excitation to infer the MHD-EMP response of these power system components. It is found that the MHD-EMP environment would have a marked effect on a power system by inducing up to several hundreds of amperes of quasi-dc current on power lines. These currents will cause transformers to saturate which could result in excessive harmonic generation, voltage swings, and voltage suppression. The design of critical facilities which are required to operate during and after MHD-EMP events will have to be modified in order to mitigate the effects of these abnormal power system conditions.

Tesche, F.M. [Tesche (F.M.), Dallas, TX (United States); Barnes, P.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Meliopoulos, A.P.S. [Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

1992-02-01

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This report discusses the effects of the late-time high-altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP) on electrical transmission and distribution (T D) systems. This environment, known as the magnetohydrodynamic electromagnetic pulse (MHD-EMP), is a very slowly varying electric field induced in the earth's surface, similar to the field induced by a geomagnetic storm. It can result in the flow of a quasi-dc current in grounded power lines and in the subsequent magnetic saturation of transformers. This saturation, in turn, causes 6-Hz harmonic distortion and an increase in the reactive power required by generation facilities. This report analyzes and discusses these phenomena. The MHD-EMP environment is briefly discussed, and a simplified form of the earth-induced electric field is developed for use in a parametric study of transmission line responses. Various field coupling models are described, and calculated results for the responses of both transmission- and distribution-class power lines are presented. These calculated responses are compared with measurements of transformer operation under dc excitation to infer the MHD-EMP response of these power system components. It is found that the MHD-EMP environment would have a marked effect on a power system by inducing up to several hundreds of amperes of quasi-dc current on power lines. These currents will cause transformers to saturate which could result in excessive harmonic generation, voltage swings, and voltage suppression. The design of critical facilities which are required to operate during and after MHD-EMP events will have to be modified in order to mitigate the effects of these abnormal power system conditions.

Tesche, F.M. (Tesche (F.M.), Dallas, TX (United States)); Barnes, P.R. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Meliopoulos, A.P.S. (Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering)

1992-02-01

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NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report discusses the effects of the late-time high-altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP) on electrical transmission and distribution (T&D) systems. This environment, known as the magnetohydrodynamic electromagnetic pulse (MHD-EMP), is a very slowly varying electric field induced in the earth's surface, similar to the field induced by a geomagnetic storm. It can result in the flow of a quasi-dc current in grounded power lines and in the subsequent magnetic saturation of transformers. This saturation, in turn, causes 6-Hz harmonic distortion and an increase in the reactive power required by generation facilities. This report analyzes and discusses these phenomena. The MHD-EMP environment is briefly discussed, and a simplified form of the earth-induced electric field is developed for use in a parametric study of transmission line responses. Various field coupling models are described, and calculated results for the responses of both transmission- and distribution-class power lines are presented. These calculated responses are compared with measurements of transformer operation under dc excitation to infer the MHD-EMP response of these power system components. It is found that the MHD-EMP environment would have a marked effect on a power system by inducing up to several hundreds of amperes of quasi-dc current on power lines. These currents will cause transformers to saturate which could result in excessive harmonic generation, voltage swings, and voltage suppression. The design of critical facilities which are required to operate during and after MHD-EMP events will have to be modified in order to mitigate the effects of these abnormal power system conditions.

Tesche, F. M.; Barnes, P. R.; Meliopoulos, A. P. S.

1992-02-01

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Synopsis of Magnetohydrodynamic Power Generation

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Concise summary of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theory, history, and future trends presented in report. Worldwide research on MHD covered, and selected data from key research projects included. Magnetohydrodynamic generator produces electric current by passing fluid at high speed through strong magnetic field. Fluid ionized gas, plasma, or liquid metal. Magnetohydrodynamic generators offer potential for high efficiency, low power cost, and cleaner emissions.

Smith, J. L.

1986-01-01

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Application of Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) and Recent Research Trend

As the applications of Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) energy conversion, research and development for high-efficiency and low emission electric power generation system, MHD accelerations and\\/or MHD thrusters, and flow control around hypersonic and re-entry vehicles are introduced. For closed cycle MHD power generation, high-efficiency MHD single system is the most hopeful system and space power system using mixed inert gas (MIG) working

Nobuhiro Harada

2007-01-01

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Application of Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) and Recent Research Trend

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the applications of Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) energy conversion, research and development for high-efficiency and low emission electric power generation system, MHD accelerations and/or MHD thrusters, and flow control around hypersonic and re-entry vehicles are introduced. For closed cycle MHD power generation, high-efficiency MHD single system is the most hopeful system and space power system using mixed inert gas (MIG) working medium is proposed. For open cycle MHD, high-efficiency coal fired MHD system with CO2 recovery has been proposed. As inverse process of MHD power generation, MHD accelerators/thrusters are expected as the next generation propulsion system. Heat flux reduction to protect re-entry vehicles is expected by an MHD process for safety return from space missions.

Harada, Nobuhiro

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NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A description and the design requirements for the 200 MWe (nominal) net output MHD Engineering Test Facility (ETF) Conceptual Design, are presented. Performance requirements for the plant are identified and process conditions are indicated at interface stations between the major systems comprising the plant. Also included are the description, functions, interfaces and requirements for each of these major systems. The lastest information (1980-1981) from the MHD technology program are integrated with elements of a conventional steam electric power generating plant.

Rigo, H. S.; Bercaw, R. W.; Burkhart, J. A.; Mroz, T. S.; Bents, D. J.; Hatch, A. M.

1981-01-01

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NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The reference conceptual design of the Magnetohydrodynamic Engineering Test Facility (ETF), a prototype 200 MWe coal-fired electric generating plant designed to demonstrate the commercial feasibility of open cycle MHD is summarized. Main elements of the design are identified and explained, and the rationale behind them is reviewed. Major systems and plant facilities are listed and discussed. Construction cost and schedule estimates, and identification of engineering issues that should be reexamined are also given. The latest (1980-1981) information from the MHD technology program are integrated with the elements of a conventional steam power electric generating plant. Supplementary Engineering Data (Issues, Background, Performance Assurance Plan, Design Details, System Design Descriptions and Related Drawings) is presented.

1981-01-01

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An innovative demonstration of high power density in a compact MHD (magnetohydrodynamic) generator

The present program was conducted by the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI). It was by its nature a high risk experimental program to demonstrate the feasibility of high power density operation in a laboratory scale combustion driven MHD generator. Maximization of specific energy was not a consideration for the present program, but the results have implications in this regard by virtue of high energy fuel used. The power density is the ratio of the electrical energy output to the internal volume of the generator channel. The MHD process is a volumetric process and the power density is therefore a direct measure of the compactness of the system. Specific energy, is the ratio of the electrical energy output to consumable energy used for its production. The two parameters are conceptually interrelated. To achieve high power density and implied commensurate low system volume and weight, it was necessary to use an energetic fuel. The high energy fuel of choice was a mixture of powdered aluminum and carbon seeded with potassium carbonate and burned with gaseous oxygen. The solid fuel was burned in a hybrid combustion scheme wherein the fuel was cast within a cylindrical combustor in analogy with a solid propellant rocket motor. Experimental data is limited to gross channel output current and voltage, magnetic field strength, fuel and oxidizer flow rates, flow train external temperatures and combustor pressure. Similarly, while instantaneous oxidizer flow rates were measured, only average fuel consumption based on pre and post test component weights and dimensions was possible. 4 refs., 60 figs., 9 tabs.

Schmidt, H.J.; Lineberry, J.T.; Chapman, J.N.

1990-06-01

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Diagnostic development and support of MHD (magnetohydrodynamics) test facilities

Mississippi State University (MSU) is developing diagnostic instruments for Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) power train data acquisition and for support of MHD component development test facilities. Microprocessor-controlled optical instruments, initially developed for HRSR support, are being refined, and new systems to measure temperatures and gas-seed-slag stream characteristics are being developed. To further data acquisition and analysis capabilities, the diagnostic systems are being interfaced with MHD Energy Center computers. Technical support for the diagnostic needs of the national MHD research effort is being provided. MSU personnel will also cooperate with government agencies and private industries to improve the transformation of research and development results into processes, products and services applicable to their needs.

Not Available

1989-07-01

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In a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generator an electrically conducting gas replaces the rotating copper coil of the currently used electric generator. This substitution involves a principle which was recognized 150 years ago by Faraday. Development of the MHD process as an industrial method of generating electricity, however, had to wait until a better understanding of the dynamics and handling of hot

F. A. Hals; D. B. Stickler; R. Kessler; R. E. Gannon

1978-01-01

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Microfluidic Channels under Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Convection

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) effects have been widely known since many years. MHD effects are used to propel, stir, and pump fluids in various fluid applications especially in the field of microfluidics and Lab On a Chip (LOC) technology. Orthogonally aligned electric flux density and magnetic flux density were applied to straight and torroidal micro-channels both aligned perpendicular to the desired direction of fluid flow. Microfluidic MHD channels in straight and torroidal shapes were fabricated from a thin brass sheet sandwiched between two polycarbonate sheets patterned with two platinum electrodes in the channel walls from inside. When a potential difference of low magnitude ( 1 mV) is applied across the electrodes, a current density J transmitted through the electrolyte solution results. In the presence of a magnetic field B, the orthogonal interaction between the resulting current density J and the magnetic field B induces Lorentz forces F (=JxB) which induce and drive fluid motion in the channel. This effect was applied to propel and pump the fluid in presence of a current carrying species both in a straight and torroidal micro-channels. Flow velocities were obtained linearly increasing with the higher magnetic flux densities. A drop of dye was placed into the solution to trace the path of moving fluid under MHD convection.

Panta, Yogendra M.; Kim, Hyun W.; Qian, Shizhi

2009-03-01

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NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Main elements of the design are identified and explained, and the rationale behind them was reviewed. Major systems and plant facilities are listed and discussed. Construction cost and schedule estimates are presented, and the engineering issues that should be reexamined are identified. The latest (1980-1981) information from the MHD technology program is integrated with the elements of a conventional steam power electric generating plant.

1981-01-01

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Mesofluidic magnetohydrodynamic power generation

Much of the previous research into magnetohydrodynamics has involved large-scale systems. This thesis explores the miniaturization and use of devices to convert the power dissipated within an expanding gas flow into ...

Fucetola, Jay J

2012-01-01

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A magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model is applied to the problem of the stability of magnetically confined ther monuclear plasmas of interest in the pursuit of fusion power. Previous studies limited to two-dimensional con figurations are here generalized to three-dimensional toroidal plasmas. Using finite Fourier representations in the angle coordinates and finite hybrid elements in the radial direction, we solve the discretized

D. V. Anderson; W. A. Cooper; R. Gruber; S. Merazzi; U. Schwenn

1990-01-01

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MHD (Magnetohydrodynamics) Program Plan, FY 1989

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The essential elements of the current program, which is a continuation of the program outlined in the FY 1988 MHD Program Plan, are to: develop technical and environmental data for the integrated MHD topping cycle system through long-term (1000 hours) proof of concept (POC) testing; develop technical and environmental data for the integrated MHD bottoming cycle subsystem through long-term (4000 hours) POC testing; design and construct a seed regeneration system capable of independent operation, using spent seed materials from the MHD process; prepare a conceptual design for an MHD retrofit plant; and continue system studies and supporting research necessary for system testing. Results of the topping cycle POC tests at the Component Development and Integration Facility (CDIF), coupled with the bottoming cycle POC test results obtained at the Coal Fired Flow Facility (CFFF), and the seed regeneration POC effort will provide the critical engineering data base for the private sector's final decision on proceeding with the design, construction, and operation of an MHD retrofit. The development schedule, decision points, and resource requirements are discussed. As part of the MHD program, international activities of several nations are monitored and evaluated through contact with the international MHD scientific and technical community.

1989-05-01

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MHD I: Demonstrate Magnetohydrodynamic Propulsion in a Minute

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Remember the silent caterpillar drive from the movie The Hunt for Red October? The caterpillar drive was a fictional magnetohydrodynamic propulsion system. Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) propulsion is a means of using electrical current, instead of a noisy propeller, to push a ship through the water. Surprisingly enough, a working example of this futuristic drive system is quite easy to build. Assuming that you've got the materials handy, you can build one in about a minute. This is a great student project or a good demonstration.

2008-10-24

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Low pellet gain and high efficiency icf power plant model by MHD power generation

We propose a low pellet gain and high efficiency inertial confinement fusion (ICF) power generation system using a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power generation, and employ analytical comparative studies for power generation system options. When the thermal output at high temperature (about 20002400K) can be extracted from a fusion reactor, only an MHD generator can be used and can convert efficiently ICF

Takashi Kikuchi; Nob. Harada

2000-01-01

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NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A closed-cycle MHD system for an electric power plant was studied. It consists of 3 interlocking loops, an external heating loop, a closed-cycle cesium seeded argon nonequilibrium ionization MHD loop, and a steam bottomer. A MHD duct maximum temperature of 2366 K (3800 F), a pressure of 0.939 MPa (9.27 atm) and a Mach number of 0.9 are found to give a topping cycle efficiency of 59.3%; however when combined with an integrated gasifier and optimistic steam bottomer the coal to bus bar efficiency drops to 45.5%. A 1978 K (3100 F) cycle has an efficiency of 55.1% and a power plant efficiency of 42.2%. The high cost of the external heating loop components results in a cost of electricity of 21.41 mills/MJ (77.07 mills/kWh) for the high temperature system and 19.0 mills/MJ (68.5 mills/kWh) for the lower temperature system. It is, therefore, thought that this cycle may be more applicable to internally heated systems such as some futuristic high temperature gas cooled reactor.

Tsu, T. C.

1976-01-01

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NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electric power plant costs and efficiencies are presented for three basic open-cycle MHD systems: (1) direct coal fired system, (2) a system with a separately fired air heater, and (3) a system burning low-Btu gas from an integrated gasifier. Power plant designs were developed corresponding to the basic cases with variation of major parameters for which major system components were sized and costed. Flow diagrams describing each design are presented. A discussion of the limitations of each design is made within the framework of the assumptions made.

Hoover, D. Q.

1976-01-01

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Pulse Detonation Rocket Magnetohydrodynamic Power Experiment

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The production of onboard electrical power by pulse detonation engines is problematic in that they generate no shaft power; however, pulse detonation driven magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power generation represents one intriguing possibility for attaining self-sustained engine operation and generating large quantities of burst power for onboard electrical systems. To examine this possibility further, a simple heat-sink apparatus was developed for experimentally investigating pulse detonation driven MHD generator concepts. The hydrogen oxygen fired driver was a 90 cm long stainless steel tube having a 4.5 cm square internal cross section and a short Schelkin spiral near the head end to promote rapid formation of a detonation wave. The tube was intermittently filled to atmospheric pressure and seeded with a CsOH/methanol prior to ignition by electrical spark. The driver exhausted through an aluminum nozzle having an area contraction ratio of A*/A(sub zeta) = 1/10 and an area expansion ratio of A(sub zeta)/A* = 3.2 (as limited by available magnet bore size). The nozzle exhausted through a 24-electrode segmented Faraday channel (30.5 cm active length), which was inserted into a 0.6 T permanent magnet assembly. Initial experiments verified proper drive operation with and without the nozzle attachment, and head end pressure and time resolved thrust measurements were acquired. The exhaust jet from the nozzle was interrogated using a polychromatic microwave interferometer yielding an electron number density on the order of 10(exp 12)/cm at the generator entrance. In this case, MHD power generation experiments suffered from severe near-electrode voltage drops and low MHD interaction; i.e., low flow velocity, due to an inherent physical constraint on expansion with the available magnet. Increased scaling, improved seeding techniques, higher magnetic fields, and higher expansion ratios are expected to greatly improve performance.

Litchford, R. J.; Jones, J. E.; Dobson, C. C.; Cole, J. W.; Thompson, B. R.; Plemmons, D. H.; Turner, M. W.

2003-01-01

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Characteristics of a magnetohydrodynamic electrical power generator using convexly divergent channel

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) electrical power generator equipped with a convexly divergent channel, as determined through shock-tunnel-based experiments. The slight enhancement in a MHD channel divergence upstream provides boundary layer relief in a MHD flow decelerated by a retarding Lorentz force. Despite the present approach being simple and requiring a relatively minor modification of the MHD channel profile, the quality of MHD power-generating plasma and the energy conversion efficiency are improved compared to those from a previous linearly divergent channel; an excessive increase in static pressure is suppressed and a Hall field is enhanced, whereby notably high isentropic efficiency is achieved.

Murakami, Tomoyuki; Okuno, Yoshihiro

2010-03-01

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MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMICS Vol. 00 (1964), No. 00, pp. 1?? Numerical simulation of unsteady MHD flows and

MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMICS Vol. 00 (1964), No. 00, pp. 1Â?? Numerical simulation of unsteady MHD flows- dimensional unsteady MHD model. The constraint Âˇ B = 0 is enforced by the use a Generalized Lagrange-order accurate at the converged state. To show the efficiency of our method, we will then comment some 2D results

Paris-Sud XI, UniversitĂŠ de

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The optimization air separation plants for combined cycle MHD-power plant applications

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Some of the design approaches being employed during a current supported study directed at developing an improved air separation process for the production of oxygen enriched air for magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) combustion are outlined. The ultimate objective is to arrive at conceptual designs of air separation plants, optimized for minimum specific power consumption and capital investment costs, for integration with MHD combined cycle power plants.

Juhasz, A. J.; Springmann, H.; Greenberg, R.

1980-01-01

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Laser-powered MHD generators for space application

Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) energy conversion systems of the pulsed laser-supported detonation (LSD) wave, plasma MHD, and liquid-metal MHD (LMMHD) types are assessed for their potential as space-based laser-to-electrical power converters. These systems offer several advantages as energy converters relative to the present chemical, nuclear, and solar devices, including high conversion efficiency, simple design, high-temperature operation, high power density, and high reliability. Of these systems, the Brayton cycle liquid-metal MHD system appears to be the most attractive. The LMMHD technology base is well established for terrestrial applications, particularly with regard to the generator, mixer, and other system components. However, further research is required to extend this technology base to space applications and to establish the technology required to couple the laser energy into the system most efficiently. Continued research on each of the three system types is recommended.

Jalufka, N.W.

1986-10-01

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Magnetohydrodynamic Power Generation in the Laboratory Simulated Martian Entry Plasma

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper addresses the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) conversion of the energy released during the planetary entry phase of an interplanetary vehicle trajectory. The effect of MHD conversion is multi-fold. It reduces and redirects heat transferred to the vehicle, and regenerates the dissipated energy in reusable and transportable form. A vehicle on an interplanetary mission carries about 10,000 kWh of kinetic energy per ton of its mass. This energy is dissipated into heat during the planetary atmospheric entry phase. For instance, the kinetic energy of Mars Pathfinder was about 4220 kWh. Based on the loss in velocity, Mars Pathfinder lost about 92.5% of that energy during the plasma-sustaining entry phase that is approximately 3900 kWh. An ideal MHD generator, distributed over the probe surface of Mars Pathfinder could convert more than 2000 kWh of this energy loss into electrical energy, which correspond to more than 50% of the kinetic energy loss. That means that the heat transferred to the probe surface can be reduced by at least 50% if the converted energy is adequately stored, or re-radiated, or directly used. Therefore, MHD conversion could act not only as the power generating, but also as the cooling process. In this paper we describe results of preliminary experiments with light and microwave emitters powered by model magnetohydrodynamic generators and discuss method for direct use of converted energy.

Vuskovic, L.; Popovic, S.; Drake, J.; Moses, R. W.

2005-01-01

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Integrated Pulse Detonation Propulsion and Magnetohydrodynamic Power

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The prospects for realizing an integrated pulse detonation propulsion and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power system are examined. First, energy requirements for direct detonation initiation of various fuel-oxygen and fuel-air mixtures are deduced from available experimental data and theoretical models. Second, the pumping power requirements for effective chamber scavenging are examined through the introduction of a scavenging ratio parameter and a scavenging efficiency parameter. A series of laboratory experiments were carried out to investigate the basic engineering performance characteristics of a pulse detonation-driven MHD electric power generator. In these experiments, stoichiometric oxy-acetylene mixtures seeded with a cesium hydroxide/methanol spray were detonated at atmospheric pressure in a 1-m-long tube having an i.d. of 2.54 cm. Experiments with a plasma diagnostic channel attached to the end of the tube confirmed the attainment of detonation conditions (p(sub 2)/p(sub 1) approx. 34 and D approx. 2,400 m/sec) and enabled the direct measurement of current density and electrical conductivity (=6 S/m) behind the detonation wave front. In a second set of experiments, a 30-cm-long continuous electrode Faraday channel, having a height of 2.54 cm and a width of 2 cm, was attached to the end of the tube using an area transition duct. The Faraday channel was inserted in applied magnetic fields of 0.6 and 0.95 T. and the electrodes were connected to an active loading circuit to characterize power extraction dependence on load impedance while also simulating higher effective magnetic induction. The experiments indicated peak power extraction at a load impedance between 5 and 10 Ohm. The measured power density was in reasonable agreement with a simple electrodynamic model incorporating a correction for near-electrode potential losses. The time-resolved thrust characteristics of the system were also measured, and it was found that the MHD interaction exerted a negligible influence on system thrust and that the measured I(sub sp) of the system (200 sec) exceeded that computed for an equivalent nozzleless rocket (120 sec).

Litchford, R. J.; Lyles, Garry M. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

32

Investigations for biogas operated MHD power generators

Biogas is produced from the anaerobic fermentation of the organic matter containing cellulose, such as agricultural wastes, human wastes, animal wastes, etc. It contains methane (50-70%), carbon dioxide (30-50%), and very small amounts of hydrogen and hydrogen sulphide. Adequate quantities of raw material to generate biogas are normally available in rural areas, and therefore, there is a possibility that almost all the energy requirements of the rural sector may be fulfilled by biogas. Presently in the rural sector, biogas is used mainly to provide thermal energy (for cooking, etc.), and up to a limited extent, to meet the electrical energy requirements by running electrical generators with engines powered by a mixture of oil and biogas. In this paper, the authors propose a scheme in which biogas can be used to generate electricity more efficiently by using magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power generators. Investigations have been carried out to make feasibility studies for biogas-operated open cycle MHD power generators. Composition, temperature and electrical conductivity of the seeded (with potassium) combustion products of biogas-air/oxygen systems have been analytically investigated for different percentages of CO/sub 2/ in biogas and at various combustor pressures for a seeding ratio of 1 percent by weight. The effect of preheating and enrichment of air on temperature and electrical conductivity of the seeded combustion plasmas has also been studied.

Dahiya, R.P.; Chand, A.; Sharma, S.C.

1983-12-01

33

An alternate approach to the application of MHD power generation technology in a utility environment

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power generation technology offers an attractive generation potential to the electric utilities. This paper presents an alternate approach to accelerate the commercial deployment of this new technology. By retrofitting an existing generating station, the MHD system concept can be demonstrated in a utility environment as early as 1986. It is shown that this approach may be technically feasible. This accelerated approach could supplement the current national MHD program which places emphasis on large-scale, base-load applications.

Fung, T. K.; Griswold, J. W.; Moyer, J. W.

1980-06-01

34

Integrated Pulse Detonation Propulsion and Magnetohydrodynamic Power

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The prospects for realizing an integrated pulse detonation propulsion and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power system are examined. First, energy requirements for direct detonation initiation of various fuel-oxygen and fuel-air mixtures are deduced from available experimental data and theoretical models. Second, the pumping power requirements for effective chamber scavenging are examined through the introduction of a scavenging ratio parameter and a scavenging efficiency parameter. A series of laboratory experiments were carried out to investigate the basic engineering performance characteristics of a pulse detonation-driven MHD electric power generator. In these experiments, stoichiometric oxy-acetylene mixtures seeded with a cesium hydroxide/methanol spray were detonated at atmospheric pressure in a 1-m-long tube having an i.d. of 2.54 cm. Experiments with a plasma diagnostic channel attached to the end of the tube confirmed the attainment of detonation conditions (p2/p1 approximately 34 and D approximately 2,400 m/sec) and enabled the direct measurement of current density and electrical conductivity (approximately = 6 S/m) behind the detonation wave front, In a second set of experiments, a 30-cm-long continuous electrode Faraday channel, having a height of 2.54 cm and a width of 2 cm, was attached to the end of the tube using an area transition duct. The Faraday channel was inserted in applied magnetic fields of 0.6 and 0.95 T, and the electrodes were connected to an active loading circuit to characterize power extraction dependence on load impedance while also simulating higher effective magnetic induction. The experiments indicated peak power extraction at a load impedance between 5 and 10 Omega. The measured power density was in reasonable agreement with a simple electrodynamic model incorporating a correction for near-electrode potential losses. The time-resolved thrust characteristics of the system were also measured, and it was found that the NM interaction exerted a negligible influence on system thrust and that the measured I(sub sp) of the system (200 see) exceeded that computed for an equivalent nozzleless rocket (120 see).

Litchford, Ron J.

2001-01-01

35

This report presents a study of the nuclear weapons magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) effects on submarine communications cables. The study consisted of the analysis and interpretation of currently available data on submarine cable systems TAT-4, TAT-6, and TAT-7. The primary result of the study is that decrease of the effective resistivity with frequency over the available experimental range, coupled with the model results, leads to quite small effective resistivities at the MHD characteristic frequencies, and hence small earth potential differences. Thus, it appears that submarine cable systems are less susceptible to an MHD threat than their land-based counter-parts.

Not Available

1987-06-01

36

Gas Core Reactor-MHD Power System with Cascading Power Cycle

The US Department of Energy initiative Gen-IV aim is to produce an entire nuclear energy production system with next generation features for certification before 2030. A Generation 4 capable system must have superior sustainability, safety and reliability, and economic cost advantages in comparison with third generation light water reactors. A gas core reactor (GCR) with magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power converter and

Blair M. Smith; Samim Anghaie; Travis W. Knight

2002-01-01

37

Development of materials for open-cycle magnetohydrodynamics (MHD): ceramic electrode. Final report

Pacific Northwest Laboratory, supported by the US Department of Energy, developed advanced materials for use in open-cycle, closed cycle magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) power generation, an advanced energy conversion system in which the flow of electrically conducting fluid interacts with an electric field to convert the energy directly into electricity. The purpose of the PNL work was to develop electrodes for the MHD channel. Such electrodes must have: (1) electrical conductivity above 0.01 (ohm-cm)/sup -1/ from near room temperature to 1900/sup 0/K, (2) resistance to both electrochemical and chemical corrosion by both slag and potassium seed, (3) resistance to erosion by high-velocity gases and particles, (4) resistance to thermal shock, (5) adequate thermal conductivity, (6) compatibility with other channel components, particularly the electrical insulators, (7) oxidation-reduction stability, and (8) adequate thermionic emission. This report describes the concept and development of high-temperature, graded ceramic composite electrode materials and their electrical and structural properties. 47 refs., 16 figs., 13 tabs.

Bates, J.L.; Marchant, D.D.

1986-09-01

38

A gas core nuclear reactor (GCR)\\/disk magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generator direct closed Rankine space power system concept is described. The GCR\\/disk MHD generator marriage facilitates efficient high electric power density system performance at relatively high operating temperatures. The aystem concept promises high specific power levels, on the order of 1 kWe\\/kg. An overview of the disk MHD generator component magnetofluiddynamic and

Gerard E. Welch; Edward T. Dugan; W. E. Lear; J. G. Appelbaum

1990-01-01

39

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electric Power Plant costs and efficiencies are presented for two basic liquid-metal cycles corresponding to 922 and 1089 K (1200 and 1500 F) for a commercial applications using direct coal firing. Sixteen plant designs are considered for which major component equipment were sized and costed. The design basis for each major component is discussed. Also described is the overall systems computer model that was developed to analyze the thermodynamics of the various cycle configurations that were considered.

Holman, R. R.; Lippert, T. E.

1976-01-01

40

Ionospheric power consumption in global MHD Simulation predicted from solar wind measurements

Ionospheric power consumption in a global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation is investigated. The sum of Joule heating and precipitation power integrated over both hemispheres is calculated in four simulation runs. The simulation results of the total ionospheric dissipation are correlated with solar wind density, velocity, and magnetic field using a linear multi-variable fit and a power law. The fitting procedure yields

Minna Palmroth; Hannu E. J. Koskinen; Tuija I. Pulkkinen; Pekka Janhunen

2004-01-01

41

Ultrahigh temperature vapor core nuclear reactor\\/MHD generator Rankine cycle space power system

Studies are being conducted on an innovative space power system that combines a uranium tetrafluoride (UF4) ultrahigh-temperature vapor core reactor (UTVR) and a disk magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generator to obtain closed-cycle burst-mode operation (hundreds of MWe power level for a few thousand seconds). Use of UF4 as the vapor fuel and metal fluorides as the working fluid in the UTVR\\/MHD generator

Edward T. Dugan; Gerard E. Welch; Samer Kahook

1989-01-01

42

Gas Core Reactor with Magnetohydrodynamic Power System and Cascading Power Cycle

The U.S. Department of Energy initiative Generation IV aim is to produce an entire nuclear energy production system with next-generation features for certification before 2030. A Generation IV-capable system must have superior sustainability, safety and reliability, and economic cost advantages in comparison with third generation light water reactors (LWRs). A gas core reactor (GCR) with magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power converter and

Blair M. Smith; Samim Anghaie

2004-01-01

43

MHD channel performance for potential early commercial MHD power plants

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The commercial viability of full and part load early commercial MHD power plants is examined. The load conditions comprise a mass flow of 472 kg/sec in the channel, Rosebud coal, 34% by volume oxygen in the oxidizer preheated to 922 K, and a one percent by mass seeding with K. The full load condition is discussed in terms of a combined cycle plant with optimized electrical output by the MHD channel. Various electrical load parameters, pressure ratios, and magnetic field profiles are considered for a baseload MHD generator, with a finding that a decelerating flow rate yields slightly higher electrical output than a constant flow rate. Nominal and part load conditions are explored, with a reduced gas mass flow rate and an enriched oxygen content. An enthalpy extraction of 24.6% and an isentropic efficiency of 74.2% is predicted for nominal operation of a 526 MWe MHD generator, with higher efficiencies for part load operation.

Swallom, D. W.

1981-01-01

44

Pulse Detonation Rocket MHD Power Experiment

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A pulse detonation research engine (MSFC (Marshall Space Flight Center) Model PDRE (Pulse Detonation Rocket Engine) G-2) has been developed for the purpose of examining integrated propulsion and magnetohydrodynamic power generation applications. The engine is based on a rectangular cross-section tube coupled to a converging-diverging nozzle, which is in turn attached to a segmented Faraday channel. As part of the shakedown testing activity, the pressure wave was interrogated along the length of the engine while running on hydrogen/oxygen propellants. Rapid transition to detonation wave propagation was insured through the use of a short Schelkin spiral near the head of the engine. The measured detonation wave velocities were in excess of 2500 m/s in agreement with the theoretical C-J velocity. The engine was first tested in a straight tube configuration without a nozzle, and the time resolved thrust was measured simultaneously with the head-end pressure. Similar measurements were made with the converging-diverging nozzle attached. The time correlation of the thrust and head-end pressure data was found to be excellent. The major purpose of the converging-diverging nozzle was to configure the engine for driving an MHD generator for the direct production of electrical power. Additional tests were therefore necessary in which seed (cesium-hydroxide dissolved in methanol) was directly injected into the engine as a spray. The exhaust plume was then interrogated with a microwave interferometer in an attempt to characterize the plasma conditions, and emission spectroscopy measurements were also acquired. Data reduction efforts indicate that the plasma exhaust is very highly ionized, although there is some uncertainty at this time as to the relative abundance of negative OH ions. The emission spectroscopy data provided some indication of the species in the exhaust as well as a measurement of temperature. A 24-electrode-pair segmented Faraday channel and 0.6 Tesla permanent magnet assembly were then installed on Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) rectangular channel pulse detonation research engine. Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) electrical power extraction experiments were carried out for a range of load impedances in which cesium hydroxide seed (dissolved in methanol) was sprayed into the gaseous oxygen/hydrogen propellants. Positive power extraction was obtained, but preliminary analysis of the data indicated that the plasma electrical conductivity is lower than anticipated and the near-electrode voltage drop is not negligible. It is believed that the electrical conductivity is reduced due to a large population of negative OH ions. This occurs because OH has a strong affinity for capturing free electrons. The effect of near-electrode voltage drop is associated with the high surface-to-volume ratio of the channel (1-inch by 1-inch cross-section) where surface effects play a dominant role. As usual for MHD devices, higher performance will require larger scale devices. Overall, the gathered data is extremely valuable from the standpoint of understanding plasma behavior and for developing empirical scaling laws.

Litchford, Ron J.; Cook, Stephen (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

45

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the preliminary results of a thermodynamic cycle analysis of a supersonic turbojet engine with a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) energy bypass system that explores a wide range of MHD enthalpy extraction parameters. Through the analysis described here, it is shown that applying a magnetic field to a flow path in the Mach 2.0 to 3.5 range can increase the specific thrust of the turbojet engine up to as much as 420 N/(kg/s) provided that the magnitude of the magnetic field is in the range of 1 to 5 Tesla. The MHD energy bypass can also increase the operating Mach number range for a supersonic turbojet engine into the hypersonic flight regime. In this case, the Mach number range is shown to be extended to Mach 7.0.

Benyo, Theresa L.

2010-01-01

46

WhiskyMHD: Numerical Code for General Relativistic Magnetohydrodynamics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Whisky is a code to evolve the equations of general relativistic hydrodynamics (GRHD) and magnetohydrodynamics (GRMHD) in 3D Cartesian coordinates on a curved dynamical background. It was originally developed by and for members of the EU Network on Sources of Gravitational Radiation and is based on the Cactus Computational Toolkit. Whisky can also implement adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) if compiled together with Carpet. Whisky has grown from earlier codes such as GR3D and GRAstro_Hydro, but has been rewritten to take advantage of some of the latest research performed here in the EU. The motivation behind Whisky is to compute gravitational radiation waveforms for systems that involve matter. Examples would include the merger of a binary system containing a neutron star, which are expected to be reasonably common in the universe and expected to produce substantial amounts of radiation. Other possible sources are given in the projects list.

Baiotti, Luca; Giacomazzo, Bruno; Hawke, Ian; et al.

2010-10-01

47

The theoretical analysis of a partially-ionized hydrogen gas flow (gas temperatures of approximately 10,000 to 20,000 K) through a particular class of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generators and the preliminary design of these MHD generators as open cycle, electric power supplies are performed. Analysis of the gas flow through these ultra-high temperature MHD generators requires a coupled gas dynamics\\/radiative heat transfer solution.

Jeffrey P. Moder

1990-01-01

48

Open cycle gas fired MHD power plants

In this paper, the main objectives for the present development of gas fired MHD power generation are considered. The state of the world-wide natural gas consumption and its utilization for electricity production is analyzed. The experimental efforts in gas-fired MHD studies are briefly described. The essential features of the two major world gas-fired MHD project - the Ryazan MHDES-580 (U-500)

S. A. Medin; F. Negrini

1991-01-01

49

Coal-gasification/MHD/steam-turbine combined-cycle (GMS) power generation

The coal-gasification/MHD/steam-turbine combined cycle (GMS) refers to magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) systems in which coal gasification is used to supply a clean fuel (free of mineral matter and sulfur) for combustion in an MHD electrical power plant. Advantages of a clean-fuel system include the elimination of mineral matter or slag from all components other than the coal gasifier and gas cleanup system; reduced wear and corrosion on components; and increased seed recovery resulting from reduced exposure of seed to mineral matter or slag. Efficiencies in some specific GMS power plants are shown to be higher than for a comparably sized coal-burning MHD power plant. The use of energy from the MHD exhaust gas to gasify coal (rather than the typical approach of burning part of the coal) results in these higher efficiencies.

Lytle, J.M.; Marchant, D.D.

1980-11-01

50

Rapporteur report: MHD electric power plants

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Five US papers from the Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on MHD Electrical Power Generation at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology are summarized. Results of the initial parametric phase of the US effort on the study of potential early commercial MHD plants are reported and aspects of the smaller commercial prototype plant termed the Engineering Test Facility are discussed. The alternative of using a disk geometry generator rather than a linear generator in baseload MHD plants is examined. Closed-cycle as well as open-cycle MHD plants are considered.

Seikel, G. R.

1980-01-01

51

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Program accomplishments in a continuing effort to demonstrate the feasibility of direct coal-fired, closed-cycle magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power generation are reported. A user's manual for a two-dimensional MHD generator code and performance estimates for a nominal 30 MW argon segmented heater are given. The feedwater cooled Brayton cycle is discussed as well as the application of closed cycle MHD in an industrial cogeneration environment. Preliminary design for shell and tube primary heat exchanger and plant efficiency as a function of output power for open and closed cycle MHD power plants are also discussed.

1981-11-01

52

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article, an exponential high-order compact (EHOC) difference scheme on the nine-point stencil is developed for the solution of the coupled equations representing the steady incompressible, viscous magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow through a straight channel of rectangular section. A key property of the EHOC scheme is that it has excellent stability and higher accuracy so that the high gradients near the boundary layer areas can be effectively resolved without refining the mesh. Numerical experiments are carried out to validate the performance of the currently proposed scheme. Computation results of the MHD flow in the 2D square-channel problems with different wall conductivities are presented for Hartmann numbers ranging from 10 to 106. The numerical solutions obtained with the newly developed EHOC scheme are also compared with analytic solutions and numerical results by other available methods in the literature.

Li, Yan; Tian, Zhen F.

2012-06-01

53

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves in the solar wind and magnetosphere are propagated in a medium whose velocity is comparable to or greater than the wave velocity and which varies in both space and time. In the approximation where the scales of the time and space variation are long compared with the period and wavelength, the ray-tracing equations can be generalized and then include an additional first-order differential equation that determines the variation of frequency. In such circumstances the wave can exchange energy with the background: wave energy is not conserved. In such processes the wave action theorem shows that the wave action, defined as the ratio of the wave energy to the frequency in the local rest frame, is conserved. In this paper we discuss ray-tracing techniques and the energy exchange relation for MHD waves. We then provide a unified account of how to deal with energy transport by MHD waves in non-uniform media. The wave action theorem is derived directly from the basic MHD equations for sound waves, transverse Alfvén waves, and the fast and slow magnetosonic waves. The techniques described are applied to a number of illustrative cases. These include a sound wave in a medium undergoing a uniform compression, an isotropic Alfvén wave in a steady-state shear layer, and a transverse Alfvén wave in a simple model of the magnetotail undergoing compression. In each case the nature and magnitude of the energy exchange between wave and background is found.

Walker, A. D. M.

2014-12-01

54

We describe quasi-three-dimensional numerical simulations of a high-performance nonequilibrium-plasma magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) electrical power generator using a slightly divergent configuration. The slightly divergent generator provides greater isentropic efficiency (IE) than a highly divergent generator when an identical enthalpy extraction ratio (EER) is obtained. The inherent feature of a small divergent geometry is clarified; MHD energy conversion is accompanied by less entropy

Tomoyuki Murakami; Yoshihiro Okuno

2008-01-01

55

Gas Core Reactor-MHD Power System with Cascading Power Cycle

The US Department of Energy initiative Gen-IV aim is to produce an entire nuclear energy production system with next generation features for certification before 2030. A Generation 4 capable system must have superior sustainability, safety and reliability, and economic cost advantages in comparison with third generation light water reactors. A gas core reactor (GCR) with magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power converter and cascading power cycle forms the basis for a Generation IV concept that is expected to set the upper performance limits in sustainability and power conversion efficiency among all existing and proposed fission powered systems. A gaseous core reactor delivering 1000's MW fission power acts as the heat source for a high temperature magnetohydrodynamic power converter. A uranium tetrafluoride fuel mix, with {approx}95% mole fraction helium gas, provides a stable working fluid for the primary MHD-Brayton cycle. A helium Brayton cycle extracts waste heat from the MHD generator with about 20% energy efficiency, but the low temperature side is still hot enough ({approx}1600 K) to drive a second conventional helium Brayton cycle with about 35% efficiency. There is enough heat at the low temperature side of the He-Brayton cycle to generate steam, and so another heat recovery cycle can be added, this time a Rankine steam cycle with up to 40% efficiency. The proof of concept does not require a tremendously efficient (first law) MHD cycle, the high temperature direct energy conversion capability of an MHD dynamo, combined with already sophisticated steam powered turbine industry knowledge base allows the cascading cycle design to achieve break-through first law energy efficiencies previously unheard of in the nuclear power industry. Although simple in concept, the gas core reactor design has not achieved the state of technological maturity that, say, molten salt or high-temperature gas-cooled reactors have pioneered. However, even on paper the GCR-MHD concept holds considerable promise, for example, like molten salt reactors the fuel is continuously cycled, allowing high-burnup, and continuous burning of actinides, and hence greatly improved fuel utilization. The fuel inventory is two orders of magnitude lower than LWR's of comparable power output and fissile plutonium production is likewise lower than in spent LWR fuel. Besides these features this paper discusses specific GCR-MHD design challenges such as fission enhanced gas conductivity in the MHD channel, GCR safety issues and related engineering problems. (authors)

Smith, Blair M.; Anghaie, Samim; Knight, Travis W. [Innovative Nuclear Space Power and Propulsion Institute, University of Florida, PO Box 116502, Gainesville, FL, 32611 (United States)

2002-07-01

56

Analysis and Design of AN UltraHigh Hydrogen-Fueled MHD Generator as AN Open Cycle Power Supply

The theoretical analysis of a partially-ionized hydrogen gas flow (gas temperatures ~10,000 -20,000 K) through a particular class of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generators and the preliminary design of these MHD generators as open cycle, electric power supplies are performed. Such potentially lightweight, compact and efficient power supplies may enable supersonic and hypersonic flight speeds for several beamed-energy airbreathing propulsion concepts. Analysis

Jeffrey P. Moder

1990-01-01

57

The performance of several small, seawater magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) thrusters was studied in a closed loop environment. Three different thrusters were designed, constructed, and evaluated. For the first time, videographic and photographic recordings of flow through an MHD thrusters were obtained. The MHD induced flowrate, thrust, and mechanical efficiency was measured\\/calculated for each thruster at different combinations of electric current and

T. F. Lin; D. L. Aumiller; J. B. Gilbert; M. J. Coslo

1993-01-01

58

Lithium-sulfur hexafluoride magnetohydrodynamic power system

A method is described to operate a two-phase flow magnetohydrodynamic electric power generation system with liquid lithium and gaseous sulfur-hexafluoride flowing through a diverging channel, with side electrodes to remove the electric current generated in the flowing liquid lithium, across the applied magnetic field that is perpendicular to both the flow velocity and electrodes. Sulfur-hexafluoride is dispersed in the form of small bubbles and reacts with liquid lithium that forms a continuous phase to conduct the current between the electrodes so as to produce a near isothermal two-phase flow mixture and provides for an expansion of lithium across the magnetic field in the generator.

Dobran, F.

1987-02-24

59

Tungsten and tungsten-copper for coal-fired MHD power generation

This paper reports that magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) can improve the thermal efficiency and reduce levels of SO{sub x} and NO emissions of existing coal-fired power generation plants. Although the thermal and electrochemical environments for a coal-fired MHD channel challenge the materials used, platinum, tungsten, and tungsten-copper have been found to be suitable choices. Evaluations indicate these materials perform adequately as electrodes and other gas-side surfaces in the coal-fired MHD channel. Analysis of test elements has resulted in the identification of wear mechanisms. Testing of a prototypical coal-fired MHD channel incorporating these materials is under way and will be completed in 1993.

Farrar, L.C. (Montec Associates, Inc., Butte, MT (United States)); Shields, J.A. Jr. (Climax Speciality Metals, Cleveland, OH (US))

1992-08-01

60

The present status of commercial large-scale MHD electrical power generation is reviewed in the light of information presented at the Third International Symposium on MHD Electrical Power Generation (Salzburg, 1966) and of subsequent developments. Research and development activities, and the state of evaluation of engineering and economic factors are assessed in respect of open-cycle MHD power plant, closed-cycle MHD power

B. C. Lindley

1967-01-01

61

A technical and economic analysis of H2-O2Cs MHD peak power production of electricity

In magnetohydrodynamic power generation, a high velocity, electrically conducting fluid is magnetically decelerated to produce electricity directly without need of turbine or generator. The most convenient working fluids are high temperature combustion products. High thermal efficiencies can be expected from a hydrogen-oxygen combustion MHD unit in which the exhaust is condensed in a closed system, creating a low pressure at

P. C. Stangeby

1974-01-01

62

Power generator design for the billings MHD demonstration project

The proposed design of the MHD Power generator for the Billings MHD Demonstration Project is presented. The Billings MHD Demonstration Project, proposed by the MHD Development Corporation (MDC) for the U.S. Department of Energy`s Clean Coal Technology V Program, will demonstrate the significant environmental advantages and efficiency potential of MHD electric power generation. A diagonally-loaded, supersonic MHD generator channel is proposed. The generator channel has a thermal input of 250 MW, is 11 meters long and produces 28.5 MW gross power output at the nominal design operating condition. The gasdynamic, gas-side, and mechanical designs of the proposed generator are derived from the design of the 50 MW{sub t} proof-of-concept MHD generator, currently undergoing long duration testing at the CDIF test facility. The design and operation of the proposed generator will be typical of those anticipated in future commercial MHD generator channels.

Pian, C.C.P.; Kessler, R.; Schmitt, E.W.; Morrison, D.J. [Textron Defense Systems/Subsidiary of Textron, Inc., Everett, MA (United States)

1993-12-31

63

Closed cycle MHD power plant and retrofit optimization application

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of two independent studies of closed-cycle MHD power systems are presented. A combined cycle consisting of an MHD closed-cycle topping unit retrofitted to an existing steam bottoming plant is considered. Preliminary results of an ongoing parametric study of an MHD closed-cycle system utilizing an integrated pressurized coal gasifier are discussed.

Cutting, J. C.; Owens, W. R.; Sheth, P. R.; Griswold, J.; Wehrey, M.

1980-06-01

64

This report covers application of Argonne National Laboratory`s (ANL`s) computer codes to simulation and analysis of components of the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power train system at the Component Development and Integration Facility (CDIF). Major components of the system include a 50-MWt coal-fired, two-stage combustor and an MHD channel. The combustor, designed and built by TRW, includes a deswirl section between the first and the second-stage combustor and a converging nozzle following the second-stage combustor, which connects to the MHD channel. ANL used computer codes to simulate and analyze flow characteristics in various components of the MHD system. The first-stage swirl combustor was deemed a mature technology and, therefore, was not included in the computer simulation. Several versions of the ICOMFLO computer code were used for the deswirl section and second-stage combustor. The MGMHD code, upgraded with a slag current leakage submodel, was used for the MHD channel. Whenever possible data from the test facilities were used to aid in calibrating parameters in the computer code, to validate the computer code, or to set base-case operating conditions for computations with the computer code. Extensive sensitivity and parametric studies were done on cold-flow mixing in the second-stage combustor, reacting flow in the second-stage combustor and converging nozzle, and particle-laden flow in the deswirl zone of the first-stage combustor, the second-stage combustor, and the converging nozzle. These simulations with subsequent analysis were able to show clearly in flow patterns and various computable measures of performance a number of sensitive and problematical areas in the design of the power train. The simulations of upstream components also provided inlet parameter profiles for simulation of the MHD power generating channel. 86 figs., 18 tabs.

Chang, S.L.; Lottes, S.A.; Bouillard, J.X.; Petrick, M.

1997-11-01

65

This paper explores a method by which the energy of a high speed flowing gas can efficiently be converted into DC electric power by a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generator. A nonequilibrium state may be created in the working fluid during the ionization process using an arc discharge. This nonequilibrium state may possibly be sustained in the fluid using the waste heat

Charles J. Finley

1994-01-01

66

WhiskyMHD: a new numerical code for general relativistic magnetohydrodynamics

The accurate modelling of astrophysical scenarios involving compact objects and magnetic fields, such as the collapse of rotating magnetized stars to black holes or the phenomenology of gamma-ray bursts, requires the solution of the Einstein equations together with those of general-relativistic magnetohydrodynamics. We present a new numerical code developed to solve the full set of general-relativistic magnetohydrodynamics equations in a

Bruno Giacomazzo; Luciano Rezzolla

2007-01-01

67

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A situation wherein a bipolar magnetic field embedded in a stratified solar atmosphere undergoes symmetrical shear motion at the footpoints is investigated via a 2D (nonplanar) MHD simulation. It was found that the vertical plasma flow velocities grow exponentially, leading to a new type of global MHD instability. The growth rate increases almost linearly until it reaches the same order of magnitude as the Alfven speed. Then a nonlinear MHD instability occurs beyond this point. It was found that the central loops are pinched by opposing Lorentz forces, and the outer closed loops stretch upward with the vertically-rising mass flow. The nonlinear dynamical shearing instability is illustrated by a numerical example that is given for three different values of the plasma beta that span several orders of magnitude.

Wu, S. T.; Song, M. T.; Martens, P. C. H.; Dryer, M.

1991-01-01

68

An assessment of microwave-generated plasmas for use in magnetohydrodynamic accelerators

The initial mass of a spacecraft in low earth orbit may be reduced by over 50% when conventional chemical upperstages are replaced by a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) system. In order for these gains to be realized, both low specific mass power plants and high efficiency MHD accelerators are required. This dissertation focuses on the latter requirement: high efficiency MHD accelerators. To

Jonathan E. Jones

2000-01-01

69

Multi-MW Closed Cycle MHD Nuclear Space Power Via Nonequilibrium He/Xe Working Plasma

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Prospects for a low specific mass multi-megawatt nuclear space power plant were examined assuming closed cycle coupling of a high-temperature fission reactor with magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) energy conversion and utilization of a nonequilibrium helium/xenon frozen inert plasma (FIP). Critical evaluation of performance attributes and specific mass characteristics was based on a comprehensive systems analysis assuming a reactor operating temperature of 1800 K for a range of subsystem mass properties. Total plant efficiency was expected to be 55.2% including plasma pre-ionization power, and the effects of compressor stage number, regenerator efficiency and radiation cooler temperature on plant efficiency were assessed. Optimal specific mass characteristics were found to be dependent on overall power plant scale with 3 kg/kWe being potentially achievable at a net electrical power output of 1-MWe. This figure drops to less than 2 kg/kWe when power output exceeds 3 MWe. Key technical issues include identification of effective methods for non-equilibrium pre-ionization and achievement of frozen inert plasma conditions within the MHD generator channel. A three-phase research and development strategy is proposed encompassing Phase-I Proof of Principle Experiments, a Phase-II Subscale Power Generation Experiment, and a Phase-III Closed-Loop Prototypical Laboratory Demonstration Test.

Litchford, Ron J.; Harada, Nobuhiro

2011-01-01

70

A magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power generating system in which ionized combustion gases with slag and seed are discharged from an MHD combustor and pressurized high temperature inlet air is introduced into the combustor for supporting fuel combustion at high temperatures necessary to ionize the combustion gases, and including a heat exchanger in the form of a continuous loop with a circulating heat transfer liquid such as copper oxide. The heat exchanger has an upper horizontal channel for providing direct contact between the heat transfer liquid and the combustion gases to cool the gases and condense the slag which thereupon floats on the heat transfer liquid and can be removed from the channel, and a lower horizontal channel for providing direct contact between the heat transfer liquid and pressurized air for preheating the inlet air. The system further includes a seed separator downstream of the heat exchanger.

Berry, Gregory F. (Naperville, IL); Minkov, Vladimir (Skokie, IL); Petrick, Michael (Joliet, IL)

1988-01-01

71

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The time-dependent, 2˝-dimensional, axisymmetric, magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) solver MACH2 has been upgraded to include the effects of non-equilibrium air chemistry using the well-established reaction model developed by Park. Several validation cases are presented based on comparisons to the experimentally deduced shock stand-off distance of nitrogen flow over spheres, the shock stand-off distance of spheres fired into air in a ballistic test facility, and the electron number density on the surface of the Ram-C re-entry experiment. In addition, the magnetic induction equation has been upgraded with new verified models that compute the effects of the Hall and ion slip terms. The upgraded code is utilized to model an annular, Hall-type MHD generator that can be employed upstream of a turbojet engine for freestream conditions corresponding to Mach 5 flight at an altitude of 20km. The simulations demonstrate the feasibility of convening inlet kinetic power to storable electric power. Using ionization provided by electron-beam guns and a radial magnetic field B=3T, the generator is shown to produce a maximum of 4.8MW of electric power while reducing the total kinetic power of the flow by 31%. Optimizing the loading parameter, K*Load, across the electrodes demonstrates that the generator could produce 1.54MW of excess electric power that can be stored and used for on-board power requirements. Further, the reduction in flow kinetic power results in an increase in static pressure of 30% and a reduction in stagnation temperature of 3% at the turbojet's compressor inlet that aids the subsequent process of combustion.

Lorzel, Heath

72

Experimental determination of the MHD-EMP effects on power distribution transformers

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is a well-established fact that geomagnetic storms influence electrical power transmission and distribution systems. Previous cases of such storms in the northern latitudes have resulted in occasional power disruptions, and in some cases, damage to transformers. These effects are caused by a time variation of the earth's magnetic field creating an induced electric field along the surface of the earth. This E-field acts as a voltage source along long power transmission or distribution lines, and if the line is connected to the earth at both ends, a quasi-dc current can flow. This current can cause unwanted saturation in the magnetic cores of transformers in the power system, and this, in turn produces harmonic distortion and transformer heating. This can lead to system upset (shutdown) and possibly transformer burn-out. The detonation of a high altitude nuclear explosion is also known to affect the magnetosphere, producing late-time variations of the earth's magnetic field for several hundreds of seconds. Known as the magnetohydrodynamic electromagnetic pulse (MHD-EMP), or E(sub 3), this environment is of particular concern to electrical power systems in the event of a nuclear attack. Although the MHD-EMP induced currents can be significantly larger in magnitude, they last for a shorter period of time than do those from a geomagnetic storm. The effect of this environment compounds the adverse effects of the early-time high altitude EMP (HEMP) environment, posing a potentially serious threat to the electrical system. The present paper documents an experimental program designed to better understand the behavior of distribution-class transformers subjected to quasi-dc current excitation. Given the knowledge of the MHD-EMP-induced current flowing in a long power line, and the transformer response characteristics obtained in this program, it will be possible to make more accurate assessments of the behavior of the overall power system to EMP.

McConnell, B. W.; Barnes, Paul R.; Tesche, Frederick M.

73

Experimental determination of the MHD-EMP effects on power distribution transformers

It is a well-established fact that geomagnetic storms influence electrical power transmission and distribution systems. Previous cases of such storms in the northern latitudes have resulted in occasional power disruptions, and in some cases, damage to transformers. These effects are caused by a time variation of the earth's magnetic field creating an induced electric field along the surface of the earth. This E-field acts as a voltage source along long power transmission or distribution lines, and if the line is connected to the earth at both ends, a quasi-dc current can flow. This current can cause unwanted saturation in the magnetic cores of transformers in the power system, and this, in turn produces harmonic distortion and transformer heating. This can lead to system upset (shutdown) and possibly transformer burn-out. The detonation of a high altitude nuclear explosion is also known to affect the magnetosphere, producing late-time variations of the earth's magnetic field for several hundreds of seconds. Known as the magnetohydrodynamic electromagnetic pulse (MHD-EMP), or E{sub 3}, this environment is of particular concern to electrical power systems in the event of a nuclear attack. Although the MHD-EMP induced currents can be significantly larger in magnitude, they last for a shorter period of time than do those from a geomagnetic storm. The effect of this environment compounds the adverse effects of the early-time high altitude EMP (HEMP) environment, posing a potentially serious threat to the electrical system. The present paper documents an experimental program designed to better understand the behavior of distribution-class transformers subjected to quasi-dc current excitation. Given the knowledge of the MHD-EMP-induced current flowing in a long power line, and the transformer response characteristics obtained in this program, it will be possible to make more accurate assessments of the behavior of the overall power system to EMP. 7 refs., 5 figs.

McConnell, B.W.; Barnes, P.R. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Tesche, F.M. (Tesche (F.M.), Dallas, TX (United States))

1991-01-01

74

Design study of superconducting magnets for a combustion magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generator

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Design trade off studies for 13 different superconducting magnet systems were carried out. Based on these results, preliminary design characteristics were prepared for several superconducting magnet systems suitable for use with a combustion driven MHD generator. Each magnet generates a field level of 8 T in a volume 1.524 m (60 in.) long with a cross section 0.254 m x 0.254 m (10 in. x 10 in.) at the inlet and 0.406 m x .406 m (16 in. x 16 in.) at the outlet. The first design involves a racetrack coil geometry intended for operation at 4.2 K; the second design uses a racetrack geometry at 2.0 K; and the third design utilizes a rectangular saddle geometry at 4.2 K. Each case was oriented differently in terms of MHD channel axis and main field direction relative to gravity in order to evaluate fabrication ease. All cases were designed such that the system could be disassembled to allow for alteration of field gradient in the MHD channel by changing the angle between coils. Preliminary design characteristics and assembly drawings were generated for each case.

Thome, R. J.; Ayers, J. W.

1977-01-01

75

The performance of several small, seawater magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) thrusters was studied in a closed loop environment. Three different thrusters were designed, constructed, and evaluated. For the first time, videographic and photographic recordings of flow through an MHD thrusters were obtained. The MHD induced flowrate, thrust, and mechanical efficiency was measured/calculated for each thruster at different combinations of electric current and magnetic field strength. Direct determination of thrust, and subsequently of efficiency were not possible. Therefore, the hydraulic resistance of each different thruster was correlated with flowrate. This information was used in conjunction with the measured MHD induced flowrate to calculate the thrust and efficiency of each thruster. Experimental results were repeatable. A theoretical model was developed to predict the performance of each thruster. The results of this model are presented for one thruster at several magnetic field strengths at various electric currents. These predictions corresponded well with the measured/calculated values of MHD induced flowrate and mechanical efficiency. Finally, several MHD thrusters with radically different configurations are proposed.

Lin, T.F.; Aumiller, D.L.; Gilbert, J.B.; Coslo, M.J.

1993-02-01

76

Compact high-power MHD electric station on natural gas

The results of preliminary study of the compact combined electric power station (CPS) of high-power, composed from 4 autonomous identical power units, are presented. Each power unit includes the closed cycle disk MHD generator on non-equilibrium plasma with gas turbine and gas turbine power plant (GTPP) of open cycle. The power station is intended for conversion of the chemical energy of natural gas into electric power immediately on a field with the subsequent transmission of it to the existing power system. The proposed electric power of CPS amounts to {approx}16 GWe ({approx}28 GWt) at consumption of a natural gas mass flow rate 590 kg/s. The power of one unit is {approx}4 GWe. A binary combined Brayton cycle on a ground of GTPP with firing of natural gas and MHD generator on inert gas (Ar) of high-pressure (2.5 MPa) is reviewed. It provides CPS efficiency {approx}58%. Conceptual system of power unit include the 3 identical open loops with GTPP and closed loop with high power disk MHD generator. The transformation and transmission systems of electric power from ac generator and dc MHD generator, a direct current with 500 kV voltage by cable to distances up to 600 km, are calculated and designed. The CPS structural block-scheme, multiple-unit scheme of cycles, main components, both parameters and features of power unit, layout and general view of CPS are presented. The minimization of mass and volume of units and CPS as a whole at reasonable meaning of efficiency is fulfilled. The executed designs have shown that the proposed CPS can be accommodated in bulk 140 x 140 x 50 m{sup 3}, thus its complete mass will make {approx}60,000 tons.

Velikhov, E.P.; Bykov, V.P.; Kuznetsov, V.P.; Lavkovsky, S.A.; Topelberg, V.V.; Osipov, M.I.; Panchenko, V.P.

1998-07-01

77

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A similarity solution of the steady magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) mixed convection boundary layer flow due to a stretching vertical heated sheet in a power law nanofluid with thermal radiation effect is theoretically studied. The governing system of partial differential equations is first transformed into a system of ordinary differential equations. The transformed equations are solved numerically using the shooting method. The influence of pertinent parameters such as the nanoparticle volume fraction parameter, the magnetic parameter, the buoyancy or mixed convection parameter and the radiation parameter on the flow and heat transfer characteristics is discussed. Comparisons with published results are also presented.

Aini Mat, Nor Azian; Arifin, Norihan Md.; Nazar, Roslinda; Ismail, Fudziah; Bachok, Norfifah

2013-09-01

78

MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC WAVES AND CORONAL HEATING: UNIFYING EMPIRICAL AND MHD TURBULENCE MODELS

We present a new global model of the solar corona, including the low corona, the transition region, and the top of the chromosphere. The realistic three-dimensional magnetic field is simulated using the data from the photospheric magnetic field measurements. The distinctive feature of the new model is incorporating MHD Alfven wave turbulence. We assume this turbulence and its nonlinear dissipation to be the only momentum and energy source for heating the coronal plasma and driving the solar wind. The difference between the turbulence dissipation efficiency in coronal holes and that in closed field regions is because the nonlinear cascade rate degrades in strongly anisotropic (imbalanced) turbulence in coronal holes (no inward propagating wave), thus resulting in colder coronal holes, from which the fast solar wind originates. The detailed presentation of the theoretical model is illustrated with the synthetic images for multi-wavelength EUV emission compared with the observations from SDO AIA and STEREO EUVI instruments for the Carrington rotation 2107.

Sokolov, Igor V.; Van der Holst, Bart; Oran, Rona; Jin, Meng; Manchester, Ward B. IV; Gombosi, Tamas I. [Department of AOSS, University of Michigan, 2455 Hayward Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)] [Department of AOSS, University of Michigan, 2455 Hayward Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Downs, Cooper [Predictive Science Inc., 9990 Mesa Rim Road, Suite 170, San Diego, CA 92121 (United States)] [Predictive Science Inc., 9990 Mesa Rim Road, Suite 170, San Diego, CA 92121 (United States); Roussev, Ilia I. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)] [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Evans, Rebekah M., E-mail: igorsok@umich.edu [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Space Weather Lab, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

2013-02-10

79

H2-O2 combustion powered steam-MHD central power systems

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Estimates are made for both the performance and the power costs of H2-O2 combustion powered steam-MHD central power systems. Hydrogen gas is assumed to be transmitted by pipe from a remote coal gasifier into the city and converted to electricity in a steam MHD plant having an integral gaseous oxygen plant. These steam MHD systems appear to offer an attractive alternative to both in-city clean fueled conventional steam power plants and to remote coal fired power plants with underground electric transmission into the city.

Seikel, G. R.; Smith, J. M.; Nichols, L. D.

1974-01-01

80

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe quasi-three-dimensional numerical simulations of a high-performance nonequilibrium-plasma magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) electrical power generator using a slightly divergent configuration. The slightly divergent generator provides greater isentropic efficiency (IE) than a highly divergent generator when an identical enthalpy extraction ratio (EER) is obtained. The inherent feature of a small divergent geometry is clarified; MHD energy conversion is accompanied by less entropy production as well as less gas expansion. The orientation of the performance improvement on an IE-EER map is consistent with the theoretically predicted orientation, which is formulated using an algebraic method based on classical thermodynamic results for supersonic compressible fluid dynamics. The power-generating performance indicators, IE and EER, are clearly determined by modified magnetic flux density, that is, the square of magnetic flux density divided by total inflow pressure. A virtual operating condition for a practical closed-cycle MHD system is proposed considering the relationships between the applied magnetic flux density, the total inflow pressure and the total pressure gradient throughout the generator. This paper is the first part of a duology.

Murakami, Tomoyuki; Okuno, Yoshihiro

2008-06-01

81

Design study of superconducting magnets for a combustion magnetohydrodynamic /MHD/ generator

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results are presented for a trade-off and preliminary design study on concepts of a superconducting magnet system for a combustion MHD generator test facility. The main objective is to gain insight into the magnitude of the project in terms of physical characteristics and cost. The net result of a first-phase evaluation of attractive design alternatives is to concentrate subsequent efforts on (1) a racetrack coil geometry with an operating temperature of 4.2 K, (2) a racetrack coil geometry with an operating temperature of 2.0 K, and (3) a rectangular saddle coil geometry with an operating temperature of 4.2 K. All three systems are to produce 8 T, and use NbTi superconductor and iron for field enhancement. Design characteristics of the three systems are described. It is shown that the racetrack and rectangular saddle coil geometries seem most suitable for this application, the former because of its simplicity and the latter because of its efficient use of material. Advantages of the rectangular saddle over the two other systems are stressed.

Thome, R. J.; Ayers, J. W.; Hrycaj, T. M.; Burkhart, J. A.

1978-01-01

82

Pamir-3U pulsed portable MHD power system

The results of the development of a portable, pulsed MHD power system, called the Pamir-3U, are presented. The maximum operating parameters of the Pamir-3U MHD power system are a net power output of 15 MW and a maximum duration of the electrical pulse at the load of 10 seconds. The work is being performed by the {open_quotes}IVTAN - Association{close_quotes} of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Russia) and Textron Defense Systems (USA). Major subcontractors also participating in this effort are Nizhny Novgorod Machine Building Plant (Russia), Lubertsy Scientific and Production Association (Russia) and Aerojet Corporation (USA). Textron Defense Systems is the prime contractor with overall management and systems integration of the project. Aerojet Corporation will provide the test site and perform the acceptance test program. The Russian subcontract team is led by IVTAN, who is responsible for the overall design and integration of the Pamir-3U System and the electrical control and data acquisition. The two subcontractors working for IVTAN are responsible for the magnets, channels, and electrical equipment (Nizhny Novgorod) and the plasma generators (Lubertsy). The Pamir-3U MHD system is a portable power system that can be transported to various operational locations. The power system is self-contained and does not require extensive support equipment to generate the design power.

Zeigarnik, V.A. [IVTAN-Association of Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Swallom, D.W.; Gibbs, J.S. [Textron Defense Systems, Everett, MA (United States)

1994-12-31

83

The MHD\\/steam combined cycle power plant; A technology update

The MHD\\/steam combined cycle power plant concept involves burning fossil fuel at high temperatures (âź5000 F), generating power with an MHD generator from the high temperature exhaust products and using a steam plant for conversion of the remaining thermal energy to electricity. The MHD portion is called the topping cycle and the steam plant is called the bottoming cycle. Conversion

N. R. Johanson; R. C. Attig; J. N. Champman

1990-01-01

84

The MHD\\/steam combined cycle power plant: A technology update

The MHD\\/steam combined cycle power plant concept involves burning fossil fuel at high temperatures (âź5000 F), generating power with an MHD generator from the high temperature exhaust products and using a steam plant for conversion of the remaining thermal energy to electricity. The MHD portion is called the topping cycle and the steam plant is called the bottoming cycle. The

N. R. Johanson; R. C. Attig; J. N. Chapman

1990-01-01

85

Performance calculations for 1000 MWe MHD/steam power plants

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of MHD generator operating conditions and constraints on the performance of MHD/steam power plants are investigated. Power plants using high temperature combustion air preheat (2500 F) and plants using intermediate temperature preheat (1100 F) with oxygen enrichment are considered. Variations of these two types of power plants are compared on the basis of fixed total electrical output (1000 MWe). Results are presented to show the effects of generator plant length and level of oxygen enrichment on the plant thermodynamic efficiency and on the required generator mass flow rate. Factors affecting the optimum levels of oxygen enrichment are analyzed. It is shown that oxygen enrichment can reduce magnet stored energy requirement.

Pian, C. C. P.

1981-01-01

86

Energy analysis of MHD-steam and MHD-gas-steam power plants integrated with coal gasification

The paper presents energy analysis of combined two media (MHD-steam) and three media (MHD-gas-steam) power plants of high efficiency of conversion of chemical energy of fuel into electric energy integrated with coal gasification. The goal of this paper is to show the possibility of obtaining the high efficiency (about 60%) of the conversion of chemical energy of coal into electric energy in combined power plants with the open cycle MHD generators. The base of performed energy analysis are the elaborated mathematical models: of gas generator, of combustion chamber of MHD generator, of MHD channel, of high-temperature heater of oxygen, nitrogen and air, of steam generator and the cycle of steam turbine and of the cycle of gas turbine, and also the computer programmes, elaborated on the base of these models for numerical simulation of the processes of energy conversion in these elements. The elaborated mathematical model of the process of coal gasification for MHD-steam power plants allows to calculate: composition, physical properties and energy parameters of gas produced in the process of coal gasification, the consumption and temperature of gasifying medium and both the chemical and energy efficiency of coal gasification. Gas produced in the process of coal gasification is directed to combustion chamber of MHD generator after desulphurization. The mathematical model of physical, chemical and energy processes in combustion chamber of MHD generator allows to determine the temperature of oxidizer and its enrichment in oxygen necessary to obtain the plasma parameters desired for optimum process of energy conversion in MHD channel. The mathematical model of energy conversion in open cycle MHD channel was presented in paper. This model allows to perform numerical simulation of energy conversion process and to determine optimum parameters of plasma at the inlet to the channel necessary to obtain maximum efficiency of energy conversion.

Zaporowski, B.; Roszkiewicz, J.; Sroka, K. [Poznan Univ. of Technology (Poland)

1995-12-31

87

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper explores a method by which the energy of a high speed flowing gas can efficiently be converted into DC electric power by a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generator. A nonequilibrium state may be created in the working fluid during the ionization process using an arc discharge. This nonequilibrium state may possibly be sustained in the fluid using the waste heat byproduct of the natural operation of the generator, if certain characteristics of the fluid/MHD system are maintained. The improved efficiency of the resulting nonequilibrium MHD generator not only allows the system to deliver increased power to the load, but reduces the amount of energy to be expelled from the closed fluid cycle by a radiator.

Finley, Charles J.

1994-07-01

88

Magnetohydrodynamic Origin of Jets from Accretion Disks

A review is made of recent magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theory and simulations of origin of jets from accretion disks. Many compact astrophysical objects emit powerful, highly-collimated, oppositely directed jets. Included are the extra galactic radio jets of active galaxies and quasars, and old compact stars in binaries, and emission line jets in young stellar objects. It is widely thought that these

Richard V. E. Lovelace; G. V. Ustyugova; A. V. Koldoba

1999-01-01

89

Impinging jet separators for liquid metal magnetohydrodynamic power cycles

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In many liquid metal MHD power, cycles, it is necessary to separate the phases of a high-speed liquid-gas flow. The usual method is to impinge the jet at a glancing angle against a solid surface. These surface separators achieve good separation of the two phases at a cost of a large velocity loss due to friction at the separator surface. This report deals with attempts to greatly reduce the friction loss by impinging two jets against each other. In the crude impinging jet separators tested to date, friction losses were greatly reduced, but the separation of the two phases was found to be much poorer than that achievable with surface separators. Analyses are presented which show many lines of attack (mainly changes in separator geometry) which should yield much better separation for impinging jet separators).

Bogdanoff, D. W.

1973-01-01

90

Plasma plume MHD power generator and method

A method is described of generating power at a situs exposed to the solar wind which comprises creating at separate sources at the situs discrete plasma plumes extending in opposed directions, providing electrical communication between the plumes at their source and interposing a desired electrical load in the said electrical communication between the plumes.

Hammer, J.H.

1993-08-10

91

Experiments on H2-O2MHD power generation

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Magnetohydrodynamic power generation experiments utilizing a cesium-seeded H2-O2 working fluid were carried out using a diverging area Hall duct having an entrance Mach number of 2. The experiments were conducted in a high-field strength cryomagnet facility at field strengths up to 5 tesla. The effects of power takeoff location, axial duct location within the magnetic field, generator loading, B-field strength, and electrode breakdown voltage were investigated. For the operating conditions of these experiments, it is found that the power output increases with the square of the B-field and can be limited by choking of the channel or interelectrode voltage breakdown which occurs at Hall fields greater than 50 volts/insulator. Peak power densities of greater than 100 MW/cu M were achieved.

Smith, J. M.

1980-01-01

92

Magnetohydrodynamic energy conversion by using convexly divergent channel

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) electrical power generator equipped with a convexly divergent channel, as determined through shock-tunnel-based experiments. The quality of MHD power-generating plasma and the energy conversion efficiency in the convexly divergent channel are compared with those from previous linearly divergent channel. The divergence enhancement in the channel upstream is effective for suppressing an excessive increase in static pressure, whereby notably high isentropic efficiency is achieved.

Murakami, Tomoyuki; Okuno, Yoshihiro

2009-12-01

93

A nuclear driven magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generator system is proposed for the space nuclear applications of few hundreds of megawatts. The MHD generator is coupled to a vapor-droplet core reactor that delivers partially ionized fissioning plasma at temperatures in range of 3,000 to 4,000 K. A detailed MHD model is developed to analyze the basic electrodynamics phenomena and to perform the design analysis of the nuclear driven MHD generator. An incompressible quasi one dimensional model is also developed to perform parametric analyses.

Anghaie, S.; Saraph, G.

1995-12-31

94

Gyroscopic analog for magnetohydrodynamics

The gross features of plasma equilibrium and dynamics in the ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) model can be understood in terms of a dynamical system which closely resembles the equations for a deformable gyroscope.

Holm, D.D.

1981-01-01

95

Gyroscopic analog for magnetohydrodynamics

The gross features of plasma equilibrium and dynamics in the ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) model can be understood in terms of a dynamical system which closely resembles the equations for a deformable gyroscope.

Holm, D.D.

1982-07-20

96

A leaky waveguide model for MHD wave driven winds from coronal holes

Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves, driven by the large scale convective motions of the photosphere are suggested as a possible source of additional acceleration for the stellar wind. Most of the turbulent power in a coronal hole is carried by MHD waves with periods of a few hundred seconds or longer. This is evident from direct observations of turbulence in the solar

J. M. Davila

1985-01-01

97

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The performance of the MHD energy bypass air-breathing engine for high-speed propulsion is analyzed in this investigation. This engine is a specific type of the general class of inverse cycle engines. In this paper, the general relationship between engine performance (specific impulse and specific thrust) and the overall total pressure ratio through an engine (from inlet plane to exit plane) is first developed and illustrated. Engines with large total pressure decreases, regardless of cause or source, are seen to have exponentially decreasing performance. The ideal inverse cycle engine (of which the MHD engine is a sub-set) is then demonstrated to have a significant total pressure decrease across the engine; this total pressure decrease is cycle-driven, degrades rapidly with energy bypass ratio, and is independent of any irreversibility. The ideal MHD engine (inverse cycle engine with no irreversibility other than that inherent in the MHD work interaction processes) is next examined and is seen to have an additional large total pressure decrease due to MHD-generated irreversibility in the decelerator and the accelerator. This irreversibility mainly occurs in the deceleration process. Both inherent total pressure losses (inverse cycle and MHD irreversibility) result in a significant narrowing of the performance capability of the MHD bypass engine. The fundamental characteristics of MHD flow acceleration and flow deceleration from the standpoint of irreversibility and second-law constraints are next examined in order to clarify issues regarding flow losses and parameter selection in the MM modules. Severe constraints are seen to exist in the decelerator in terms of allowable deceleration Mach numbers and volumetric (length) required for meaningful energy bypass (work interaction). Considerable difficulties are also encountered and discussed due to thermal/work choking phenomena associated with the deceleration process. Lastly, full engine simulations utilizing inlet shock systems, finite-rate chemistry, wall cooling with thermally balanced engine (fuel heat sink), fuel injection and mixing, friction, etc. are shown and discussed for both the MHD engine and the conventional scramjet. The MHD bypass engine has significantly lower performance in all categories across the Mach number range (8 to 12.2). The lower performance is attributed to the combined effects of 1) additional irreversibility and cooling requirements associated with the MHD components and 2) the total pressure decrease associated with the inverse cycle itself.

Riggins, David W.

2002-01-01

98

Engineering support for magnetohydrodynamic power plant analysis and design studies

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The major factors which influence the economic engineering selection of stack inlet temperatures in combined cycle MHD powerplants are identified and the range of suitable stack inlet temperatures under typical operating conditions is indicated. Engineering data and cost estimates are provided for four separately fired high temperature air heater (HTAH) system designs for HTAH system thermal capacity levels of 100, 250, 500 and 1000 MWt. An engineering survey of coal drying and pulverizing equipment for MHD powerplant application is presented as well as capital and operating cost estimates for varying degrees of coal pulverization.

Carlson, A. W.; Chait, I. L.; Marchmont, G.; Rogali, R.; Shikar, D.

1980-01-01

99

Acoustical gas core reactor with MHD power generation for burst power in a bimodal system

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research is being conducted on gas core reactors for space nuclear power to establish the scientific feasibility and engineering validation of a reactor and energy conversion system that can significantly improve specific power, dynamic performance and system efficiency. Rapid achievement of burst mode (GWe) operation at core power densities of 1 kW/mL and reactor masses of a kg/MWt are research objectives; coupled with MHD conversion, system efficiencies of 40 percent for open cycle operation and heat rejection temperatures of 1500 K or higher for closed cycle operation are anticipated. The design of the gas core reactor/MHD generator configuration to directly produce pulsed electrical power, thereby alleviating external power conditioning requirements, is also a research objective.

Dugan, E. T.; Jacobs, A. M.; Oliver, C. C.; Lear, W. E., Jr.

100

A summary of the ECAS MHD power plant results

The performance and the cost of electricity (COE) for MHD systems utilizing coal or coal derived fuels are summarized along with a conceptual open cycle MHD plant design. The results show that open cycle coal fired recuperatively preheated MHD systems have potentially one of the highest coal-pile-to-bus bar efficiencies (48.3%) and also one of the lowest COE of the systems

G. R. Seikel; L. P. Harris

1976-01-01

101

System studies of coal fired-closed cycle MHD for central station power plants

This paper presents a discussion of the closed cycle MHD results obtained in a recent study of various advanced energy conversion (ECAS) power systems. The study was part of the first phase of this ECAS study. Since this was the first opportunity to evaluate the coal fired closed cycle MHD system, a number of iterations were required to partially optimize

B. Zauderer

1976-01-01

102

A new closed cycle energy conversion system in which an MHD generator operates on hydrogen and oxygen produced from water by means of multi-step thermochemical decomposition processes is proposed. It is shown that the MHD generator and the thermochemical decomposer can be combined effectively in the power generation process and that the conversion of nuclear heat available from already existing

T. Nakamura; W. Riedmueller

1975-01-01

103

Specific Mass Estimates for A Vapor Core Reactor With MHD

This study investigated the development of a system concept for space power generation and nuclear electric propulsion based on a vapor core reactor (VCR) with magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power conversion system, coupled to a magnetoplasma-dynamic (MPD) thruster. The VCR is a liquid-vapor core reactor concept operating with metallic uranium or uranium tetrafluoride (UFâ) vapor as the fissioning fuel and alkali metals

Travis Knight; Blair Smith; Samim Anghaie

2002-01-01

104

MHD Energy Bypass Scramjet Engine

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Revolutionary rather than evolutionary changes in propulsion systems are most likely to decrease cost of space transportation and to provide a global range capability. Hypersonic air-breathing propulsion is a revolutionary propulsion system. The performance of scramjet engines can be improved by the AJAX energy management concept. A magneto-hydro-dynamics (MHD) generator controls the flow and extracts flow energy in the engine inlet and a MHD accelerator downstream of the combustor accelerates the nozzle flow. A progress report toward developing the MHD technology is presented herein. Recent theoretical efforts are reviewed and ongoing experimental efforts are discussed. The latter efforts also include an ongoing collaboration between NASA, the US Air Force Research Laboratory, US industry, and Russian scientific organizations. Two of the critical technologies, the ionization of the air and the MHD accelerator, are briefly discussed. Examples of limiting the combustor entrance Mach number to a low supersonic value with a MHD energy bypass scheme are presented, demonstrating an improvement in scramjet performance. The results for a simplified design of an aerospace plane show that the specific impulse of the MHD-bypass system is better than the non-MHD system and typical rocket over a narrow region of flight speeds and design parameters. Equilibrium ionization and non-equilibrium ionization are discussed. The thermodynamic condition of air at the entrance of the engine inlet determines the method of ionization. The required external power for non-equilibrium ionization is computed. There have been many experiments in which electrical power generation has successfully been achieved by magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) means. However, relatively few experiments have been made to date for the reverse case of achieving gas acceleration by the MHD means. An experiment in a shock tunnel is described in which MHD acceleration is investigated experimentally. MHD has several potential aerospace applications. The first is to improve the performance of hypersonic air-breathing engines for space launch and cruise vehicles. The second is to improve the performance of a high enthalpy wind tunnel. The third is to control a hypersonic vehicle. With such applications in mind, theoretical and experiments are being conducted at the NASA Ames Research Center to develop the MHD technology.

Mehta, Unmeel B.; Bogdanoff, David W.; Park, Chul; Arnold, Jim (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

105

System studies of coal fired-closed cycle MHD for central station power plants

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents a discussion of the closed cycle MHD results obtained in a recent study of various advanced energy conversion (ECAS) power systems. The study was part of the first phase of this ECAS study. Since this was the first opportunity to evaluate the coal fired closed cycle MHD system, a number of iterations were required to partially optimize the system. The present paper deals with the latter part of the study in which the direct coal fired, MHD topping-steam bottoming cycle was established as the current choice for central station power generation. The emphasis of the paper is on the background assumptions and the conclusions that can be drawn from the closed cycle MHD analysis. The author concludes that closed cycle MHD has efficiencies comparable to that of open cycle MHD and that both systems are considerably more efficient than the other system studies in Phase 1 of the GE ECAS. Its cost will possibly be slightly higher than that of the open cycle MHD system. Also, with reasonable fuel escalation assumptions, both systems can produce lower cost electricity than conventional steam power plants. Suggestions for further work in closed cycle MHD components and systems is made.

Zauderer, B.

1976-01-01

106

Overview of IVTAN`s activity in the field of pulsed MHD power generation

This overview presents the investigation results performed by the Scientific Association IVTAN on improvement of the pulsed propellant fueled MHD facilities, and IVTAN`s activity on development of experimentally justified concepts of the pulsed MHD power systems of new generation with higher specific energetic parameters, operational and economical indexes. The investigations are performed in the following directions: (1) service life increasing of the propellant fueled MHD facility through application of the advanced construction materials and designs; (2) increasing of combustion efficiency for plasma generating propellant with purpose of realization of the rated power parameters; (3) development of alternative working fluid sources for the pulsed MHD facilities; (4) development of the experimental disk MHD generator on the powder-like metallized fuel compositions.

Aitov, N.L.; Zeigarnik, V.A.; Novikov, V.A.; Okunev, V.I.; Rikman, V.Ju. [Scientific Association IVTAN of Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

1994-12-31

107

Studies of cycles for liquid-metal magnetohydrodynamic generation of power

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Studies of liquid-metal magnetohydrodynamic power cycles indicate that the overall efficiency of a binary cycle, employing a liquid-metal topping cycle and a bottoming steam cycle, may reach 60 percent. Details of analyses and data on cycles are presented, and the commercial potential of the binary cycle is discussed.

Lee, K.; Petrick, M.

1969-01-01

108

Parametric study of potential early commercial power plants Task 3-A MHD cost analysis

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of costs for an MHD Power Plant and the comparison of these costs to a conventional coal fired power plant are reported. The program is divided into three activities: (1) code of accounts review; (2) MHD pulverized coal power plant cost comparison; (3) operating and maintenance cost estimates. The scope of each NASA code of account item was defined to assure that the recently completed Task 3 capital cost estimates are consistent with the code of account scope. Improvement confidence in MHD plant capital cost estimates by identifying comparability with conventional pulverized coal fired (PCF) power plant systems is undertaken. The basis for estimating the MHD plant operating and maintenance costs of electricity is verified.

1983-01-01

109

A summary of the ECAS MHD power plant results

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The performance and the cost of electricity (COE) for MHD systems utilizing coal or coal derived fuels are summarized along with a conceptual open cycle MHD plant design. The results show that open cycle coal fired recuperatively preheated MHD systems have potentially one of the highest coal-pile-to-bus bar efficiencies (48.3%) and also one of the lowest COE of the systems studied. Closed cycle, inert gas systems do not appear to have the potential of exceeding the efficiency of or competing with the COE of advanced steam plants.

Seikel, G. R.; Harris, L. P.

1976-01-01

110

Results from the Pamir-3U pulsed portable MHD power system program

The Pamir-3U MHD Power System Acceptance Test Program was successfully performed in the United States in 1995. The Pamir-3U MHD system is a portable power system that can be transported to various operational locations. The power system is self-contained and does not require extensive support equipment to generate the design power. The work was performed by the IVTAN-Association of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Russia) and Textron Systems Division (US). Major subcontractors that participated in this effort are Nizhny Novgorod Machine Building Plant (Russia), Federal Center of Dual Technologies Soyuz (Russia) and Aerojet Corporation (US). A preliminary acceptance test program, consisting of five power tests and several preliminary tests, was conducted during August 1994 at Geodesiya Research and Development Institute, Krasnoarmejsk, Russia. During this test program, power levels as high as 15 MW(e) were obtained. Operation of the facility in various operating modes was demonstrated, and several tests were conducted where the resistance was varied during the hot-fire test run. For the final Pamir-3U MHD Power System Acceptance Test Program, eight hot-fire tests were performed. The performance levels of the Pamir-3U MHD Power System were confirmed during these tests. As a result of the experiments performed, the operational ability of the Pamir-3U MHD power system to operate in a variety of performance modes and under a variety of operating conditions was confirmed.

Swallom, D.W.; Goldfarb, V.M.; Gibbs, J.S. [Textron Systems Division, Wilmington, MA (United States)] [and others

1996-12-31

111

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A nuclear detonation at altitudes several hundred kilometers above the earth will severely distort the earth's magnetic field and result in a strong magnetohydrodynamic electromagnetic pulse (MHD-EMP). The geomagnetic disturbance interacts with the soil to induce current and horizontal electric gradients. MHD-EMP, also called E3 since it is the third component of the high-altitude EMP (HEMP), lasts over 100 s after an exoatmospheric burst. MHD-EMP is similar to solar geomagnetic storms in it's global and low frequency (less than 1 Hz) nature except that E3 can be much more intense with a far shorter duration. When the MHD-EMP gradients are integrated over great distances by power lines, communication cables, or other long conductors, the induced voltages are significant. (The horizontal gradients in the soil are too small to induce major responses by local interactions with facilities.) The long pulse waveform for MHD-EMP-induced currents on long lines has a peak current of 200 A and a time-to-half-peak of 100 s. If this current flows through transformer windings, it can saturate the magnetic circuit and cause 60 Hz harmonic production. To mitigate the effects of MHD-EMP on a facility, long conductors must be isolated from the building and the commercial power harmonics and voltage swings must be addressed. The transfer switch would be expected to respond to the voltage fluctuations as long as the harmonics have not interfered with the switch control circuitry. The major sources of MHD-EMP induced currents are the commercial power lines and neutral; neutral current indirect coupling to the facility power or ground system via the metal fence, powered gate, parking lights, etc; metal water pipes; phone lines; and other long conductors that enter or come near the facility. The major source of harmonics is the commercial power system.

Barnes, P. R.; Vance, E. F.

112

Ultrahigh temperature vapor core reactor-MHD system for space nuclear electric power

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The conceptual design of a nuclear space power system based on the ultrahigh temperature vapor core reactor with MHD energy conversion is presented. This UF4 fueled gas core cavity reactor operates at 4000 K maximum core temperature and 40 atm. Materials experiments, conducted with UF4 up to 2200 K, demonstrate acceptable compatibility with tungsten-molybdenum-, and carbon-based materials. The supporting nuclear, heat transfer, fluid flow and MHD analysis, and fissioning plasma physics experiments are also discussed.

Maya, Isaac; Anghaie, Samim; Diaz, Nils J.; Dugan, Edward T.

1991-01-01

113

Double-duct liquid metal magnetohydrodynamic engine

An internal combustion, liquid metal (LM) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) engine and an alternating current (AC) magnetohydrodynamic generator, are used in combination to provide useful AC electric energy output. The engine design has four pistons and a double duct configuration, with each duct containing sodium potassium liquid metal confined between free pistons located at either end of the duct. The liquid metal is forced to flow back and forth in the duct by the movement of the pistons, which are alternatively driven by an internal combustion process. In the MHD generator, the two LM-MHD ducts pass in close proximity through a Hartmann duct with output transformer. AC power is produced by operating the engine with the liquid metal in the two generator ducts always flowing in counter directions. The amount of liquid metal maintained in the ducts may be varied. This provides a variable stroke length for the pistons. The engine/generator provides variable AC power at variable frequencies that correspond to the power demands of the vehicular propulsion. Also the engine should maintain nearly constant efficiency throughout the range of power usage. Automobiles and trucks could be powered by the invention, with no transmission or power converter devices being required.

Haaland, Carsten M. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1997-01-01

114

Double-duct liquid metal magnetohydrodynamic engine

An internal combustion, liquid metal (LM) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) engine and an alternating current (AC) magnetohydrodynamic generator, are used in combination to provide useful AC electric energy output. The engine design has-four pistons and a double duct configuration, with each duct containing sodium potassium liquid metal confined between free pistons located at either end of the duct. The liquid metal is forced to flow back and forth in the duct by the movement of the pistons, which are alternatively driven by an internal combustion process. In the MHD generator, the two LM-MHD ducts pass in close proximity through a Hartmann duct with output transformer. AC power is produced by operating the engine with the liquid metal in the two generator ducts always flowing in counter directions. The amount of liquid metal maintained in the ducts may be varied. This provides a variable stroke length for the pistons. The engine/generator provides variable AC power at variable frequencies that correspond to the power demands of the vehicular propulsion. Also the engine should maintain nearly constant efficiency throughout the range of power usage. Automobiles and trucks could be powered by the invention, with no transmission or power converter devices being required.

Haaland, Carsten M. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1995-01-01

115

The first experiments with Pamir-3U pulsed portable MHD power system

The results of the first experiments with a portable, pulsed MHD Power System, called the Pamir-3U, performed in Russia in 1994 are presented and discussed. The Pamir-3U MHD system is a portable power system that can be transported to various operational locations. The power system is self-contained and does not require extensive support equipment to generate the design power. The work is being performed by the IVTAN-Association of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Russia) and Textron Defense Systems (USA). Major subcontractors also participating in this effort are Nizhny Novgorod Machine Building Plant (Russia), Lubertsy Scientific and Production Association Soyuz (Russia) and Aerojet Corporation (USA). Five hot-fire tests were performed for the adjustment of the components of the Pamir-3U MHD Power System and for the demonstration of the Pamir-3U MM Power System operating parameters. Correspondence of the operating performance to the requirements of the technical assignment document was also demonstrated. The following output parameters of the Pamir-3U MHD power system were obtained during the hot-fire tests: (1) nominal output power - 10-15 MW{sub e}; (2) maximal output power - 15.1 MW{sub e}; and (3) maximal current pulse duration in the load - 7.15 s. The performance output of the Pamir-3U Power System satisfied the primary requirements of the technical assignment document.

Zeigarnik, V.A.; Aitov, N.A.; Okunev, V.I. [IVTAN-Association of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)] [and others

1995-12-31

116

If power is required in space for more than a large fraction of a day, steady state power sources (such as solar and nuclear) will have the lightest system weight. If megawatts of power are needed, closed cycle MHD systems (if successfully developed) have the potential of being very light and highly efficient. Such MHD generators are uniquely capable of

G. R. Seikel; B. Zauderer

1982-01-01

117

Nuclear-electric magnetohydrodynamic propulsion for submarine. Master's thesis

The thesis analyzes the superconducting technology for a shipboard magnetohydrodynamic propulsion system. Based on the the principles of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), the concept of open-water efficiency was used to optimize the preliminary design of the MHD thruster. After the baseline submarine hull modeled after the Los Angeles class submarine was selected, propulsive efficiency and the top speed for four variant MHD

Bednarczyk

1989-01-01

118

MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMICS MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMICS (or MHD for short) is

and 30 km in the solar corona. The magnetic #12;eld has several physical e#11;ects: (i) it exerts a force, and mention brie y the possible wave modes and instabilities. Magnetic Flux Tubes A MAGNETIC FIELD LINE of a magnetic con#12;guration, but they must not be thought of as independent isolated structures. The STRENGTH

Priest, Eric

119

Power Density and Electrical Efficiency in Closed Cycle MHD Generator with Fully Ionized Seed

Effects of a reduced seed concentration on performances of a nonequilibrium MHD generator are investigated by calculating power densities and electrical efficiencies for both Faraday and Hall generators.It is shown that high electrical efficiencies and high power densities are obtained simultaneously by suppressing the ionization instability with reduced seed fractions (10 ?10) when values of the effective electrical conductivity and

Hiroyuki YAMASAKI; Susumu SHIODA

1978-01-01

120

ECONOMIC COMPARISON OF MHD EQUILIBRIUM OPTIONS FOR ADVANCED STEADY STATE TOKAMAK POWER PLANTS

electric power generation from fusion is fraught with innumerable options and dif- ficult choices. OurECONOMIC COMPARISON OF MHD EQUILIBRIUM OPTIONS FOR ADVANCED STEADY STATE TOKAMAK POWER PLANTS D at San Diego, Fusion Energy Research Program, San Diego, California United States of America ABSTRACT

Najmabadi, Farrokh

121

Closed cycle MHD power generation system driven by nuclear reactor for space exploration

For deep space explorations, we have to develop high-efficiency, high-reliability and high-performance electric power generation system. In this paper, a closed cycle magnetohydrodynamic (CCMHD) power generation system directly driven by a nuclear fission reactor (NFR) was proposed and investigated. Output electric power level is multi-MWe. Particularly, influence of the number of compressor stages, the regenerator efficiency and the radiator temperature

N. Harada; C. Buttapeng

2004-01-01

122

Nuclear-electric magnetohydrodynamic propulsion for submarine. Master's thesis

The thesis analyzes the superconducting technology for a shipboard magnetohydrodynamic propulsion system. Based on the the principles of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), the concept of open-water efficiency was used to optimize the preliminary design of the MHD thruster. After the baseline submarine hull modeled after the Los Angeles class submarine was selected, propulsive efficiency and the top speed for four variant MHD submarines were evaluated. The design criteria were set at a 100-MWt nuclear reactor power upper limit and a requirement of 30 knots for the top speed. This required advanced reactor plants and advanced energy conversion systems. The selection of High Temperature Gas Reactor (HTGR) and Liquid-Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) was based on the combined merits of safety, environmental impact, high source temperature and maximum-volume power density (KW/L). With the reactor outlet temperatures of 2000 K, direct-cycle energy conversion-systems gave the best results in terms of thermal efficiency and propulsion plant power density. Two energy conversion systems selected were closed-cycle gas turbine geared to a superconducting generator, and closed-cycle liquid-metal MHD generator. Based on submarine reliability and safety, the option of using an intermediate heat exchanger was also considered. Finally, non-nuclear support systems affected by the advanced power plant and MHD propulsion, stressing submarine safety, are proposed.

Bednarczyk, A.A.

1989-05-01

123

Magnetohydrodynamic Augmented Propulsion Experiment

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A fundamental obstacle to routine space access is the specific energy limitations associated with chemical fuels. In the case of vertical take-off, the high thrust needed for vertical liftoff and acceleration to orbit translates into power levels in the 10 GW range. Furthermore, useful payload mass fractions are possible only if the exhaust particle energy (i.e., exhaust velocity) is much greater than that available with traditional chemical propulsion. The electronic binding energy released by the best chemical reactions (e.g., LOX/LH2 for example, is less than 2 eV per product molecule (approx. 1.8 eV per H2O molecule), which translates into particle velocities less than 5 km/s. Useful payload fractions, however, will require exhaust velocities exceeding 15 km/s (i.e., particle energies greater than 20 eV). As an added challenge, the envisioned hypothetical RLV (reusable launch vehicle) should accomplish these amazing performance feats while providing relatively low acceleration levels to orbit (2-3g maximum). From such fundamental considerations, it is painfully obvious that planned and current RLV solutions based on chemical fuels alone represent only a temporary solution and can only result in minor gains, at best. What is truly needed is a revolutionary approach that will dramatically reduce the amount of fuel and size of the launch vehicle. This implies the need for new compact high-power energy sources as well as advanced accelerator technologies for increasing engine exhaust velocity. Electromagnetic acceleration techniques are of immense interest since they can be used to circumvent the thermal limits associated with conventional propulsion systems. This paper describes the Magnetohydrodynamic Augmented Propulsion Experiment (MAPX) being undertaken at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). In this experiment, a 1-MW arc heater is being used as a feeder for a 1-MW magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) accelerator. The purpose of the experiment is to demonstrate that an MHD accelerator can be an effective augmentation system for increasing engine exhaust velocity. More specifically, the experiment is intended to show that electromagnetic effects are effective at producing flow acceleration whereas electrothermal effects do not cause unacceptable heating of the working fluid. The MHD accelerator was designed as an externally diagonalized segmented Faraday channel, which will be inserted into an existing 2-tesla electromagnet. This allows the external power to be connected through two terminals thereby minimizing the complexity and cost associated with powering each segment independently. The design of the accelerator and other components in the flow path has been completed and fabrication activities are underway. This paper provides a full description of MAPX including performance analysis, design, and test plans, and current status.

Litchford, Ron J.; Cole, John; Lineberry, John; Chapman, Jim; Schmidt, Harold; Cook, Stephen (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

124

Closed Cycle Magnetohydrodynamic Nuclear Space Power Generation Using Helium/Xenon Working Plasma

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A multimegawatt-class nuclear fission powered closed cycle magnetohydrodynamic space power plant using a helium/xenon working gas has been studied, to include a comprehensive system analysis. Total plant efficiency was expected to be 55.2 percent including pre-ionization power. The effects of compressor stage number, regenerator efficiency, and radiation cooler temperature on plant efficiency were investigated. The specific mass of the power generation plant was also examined. System specific mass was estimated to be 3 kg/kWe for a net electrical output power of 1 MWe, 2-3 kg/kWe at 2 MWe, and approx.2 kg/KWe at >3 MWe. Three phases of research and development plan were proposed: (1) Phase I-proof of principle, (2) Phase II-demonstration of power generation, and (3) Phase III-prototypical closed loop test.

Litchford, R. J.; Harada, N.

2005-01-01

125

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work is motivated by the lack of fully coupled computational tool that solves successfully the turbulent chemically reacting Navier-Stokes equation, the electron energy conservation equation and the electric current Poisson equation. In the present work, the abovementioned equations are solved in a fully coupled manner using fully implicit parallel GMRES methods. The system of Navier-Stokes equations are solved using a GMRES method with combined Schwarz and ILU(0) preconditioners. The electron energy equation and the electric current Poisson equation are solved using a GMRES method with combined SOR and Jacobi preconditioners. The fully coupled method has also been implemented successfully in an unstructured solver, US3D, and convergence test results were presented. This new method is shown two to five times faster than the original DPLR method. The Poisson solver is validated with analytic test problems. Then, four problems are selected; two of them are computed to explore the possibility of onboard MHD control and power generation, and the other two are simulation of experiments. First, the possibility of onboard reentry shock control by a magnetic field is explored. As part of a previous project, MHD power generation onboard a re-entry vehicle is also simulated. Then, the MHD acceleration experiments conducted at NASA Ames research center are simulated. Lastly, the MHD power generation experiments known as the HVEPS project are simulated. For code validation, the scramjet experiments at University of Queensland are simulated first. The generator section of the HVEPS test facility is computed then. The main conclusion is that the computational tool is accurate for different types of problems and flow conditions, and its accuracy and efficiency are necessary when the flow complexity increases.

Wan, Tian

126

Program accomplishments in a continuing effort to demonstrate the feasibility of direct coal fired, closed cycle, magnetohydrodynamic power generation are detailed. These accomplishments relate to all system aspects of a CCMHD power generation system including coal combustion, heat transfer to the MHD working fluid, MHD power generation, heat and cesium seed recovery and overall systems analysis. Direct coal firing of the combined cycle has been under laboratory development in the form of a high slag rejection, regeneratively air cooled cyclone coal combustor concept, originated within this program. A hot bottom ceramic regenerative heat exchanger system was assembled and test fired with coal for the purposes of evaluating the catalytic effect of alumina on NO/sub x/ emission reduction and operability of the refractory dome support system. Design, procurement, fabrication and partial installation of a heat and seed recovery flow apparatus was accomplished and was based on a stream tube model of the full scale system using full scale temperatures, tube sizes, rates of temperature change and tube geometry. Systems analysis capability was substantially upgraded by the incorporation of a revised systems code, with emphasis on ease of operator interaction as well as separability of component subroutines. The updated code was used in the development of a new plant configuration, the Feedwater Cooled (FCB) Brayton Cycle, which is superior to the CCMHD/Steam cycle both in performance and cost. (WHK)

Not Available

1981-11-01

127

Closed cycle MHD power generation system without alkali-metal seed

In this paper, the authors examine the possibility of a closed-cycle MHD power generation system without using alkali-metal seed. Based on the important role of seed, they propose the use of xenon as the seed material. Consideration by solving the Saha equation shows that helium must be used to obtain a notable enhancement of the electron number density from xenon

N. Harada

1996-01-01

128

Power and Transport Systems for Space Applications, Utilizing the MHD Method of Energy Conversion

The possibility of developing power and transport systems for space applications is examined. It is suggested to use an MHD generator utilizing inhomogeneous gas-plasma flows of inert gas as the source of electric energy in such systems. The plasma of the current layers may be in the state of frozen ionization, when the degree of ionization exceeds the equilibrium level

V. S. Slavin; V. V. Danilov; I. A. Kuzovatov; K. A. Finnikov; A. A. Gavrilov; K. Yu. Litvintsev; T. A. Milovidova

2002-01-01

129

An innovative demonstration of high power density in a compact MDH (magnetohydrodynamic) generator

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present program was conducted by the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI). It was by its nature a high risk experimental program to demonstrate the feasibility of high power density operation in a laboratory scale combustion driven MHD generator. Maximization of specific energy was not a consideration for the present program, but the results have implications in this regard by virtue of high energy fuel used. The power density is the ratio of the electrical energy output to the internal volume of the generator channel. The MHD process is a volumetric process and the power density is therefore a direct measure of the compactness of the system. Specific energy, is the ratio of the electrical energy output to consumable energy used for its production. The two parameters are conceptually interrelated. To achieve high power density and implied commensurate low system volume and weight, it was necessary to use an energetic fuel. The high energy fuel of choice was a mixture of powdered aluminum and carbon seeded with potassium carbonate and burned with gaseous oxygen. The solid fuel was burned in a hybrid combustion scheme wherein the fuel was cast within a cylindrical combustor in analogy with a solid propellant rocket motor. Experimental data is limited to gross channel output current and voltage, magnetic field strength, fuel and oxidizer flow rates, flow train external temperatures and combustor pressure. Similarly, while instantaneous oxidizer flow rates were measured, only average fuel consumption based on pre and post test component weights and dimensions was possible.

Schmidt, H. J.; Lineberry, J. T.; Chapman, J. N.

1990-06-01

130

Turbulent Magnetohydrodynamic Jet Collimation and Thermal Driving

We have argued that magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence in an accretion disk naturally produces hoop-stresses, and that in a geometrically-thick flow these stresses could both drive and collimate an outflow. We based this argument on an analogy of turbulent MHD fluids to viscoelastic fluids, in which azimuthal shear flow creates hoop-stresses that cause a variety of flow phenomena, including the Weissenberg effect in which a fluid climbs a spinning rod. One of the more important differences between the Weissenberg effect and astrophysical jets is the source of power. In our previous analysis, we only considered the power due to the spin-down torque on the central object, and thus found that we could only drive an outflow if the central object were maximally rotating. Here we take into account the energy that is liberated by the accreting matter, and describe a scenario in which this energy couples to the outflow to create a thermodynamic engine.

Peter T. Williams

2003-12-21

131

Performance calculations for 200-1000 MWe MHD/steam power plants

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of MHD generator length, level of oxygen enrichment, and oxygen production power on the performance of MHD/steam power plants ranging from 200 to 1000 MW in electrical output are investigated. The plants considered use oxygen enriched combustion air preheated to 1100 F. Both plants in which the MHD generator is cooled with low temperature and pressure boiler feedwater and plants in which the generator is cooled with high temperature and pressure boiler feedwater are considered. For plants using low temperature boiler feedwater for generator cooling the maximum thermodynamic efficiency is obtained with shorter generators and a lower level of oxygen enrichment compared to plants using high temperature boiler feedwater for generator cooling. The generator length at which the maximum plant efficiency occurs increases with power plant size for plants with a generator cooled by low temperature feedwater. Also shown is the relationship of the magnet stored energy requirement of the generator length and the power plant performance. Possible cost/performance tradeoffs between magnet cost and plant performance are indicated.

Staiger, P. J.

1981-01-01

132

Thermodynamic Cycle Analysis of Magnetohydrodynamic-Bypass Hypersonic Airbreathing Engines

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The prospects for realizing a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) bypass hypersonic airbreathing engine are examined from the standpoint of fundamental thermodynamic feasibility. The MHD-bypass engine, first proposed as part of the Russian AJAX vehicle concept, is based on the idea of redistributing energy between various stages of the propulsion system flow train. The system uses an MHD generator to extract a portion of the aerodynamic heating energy from the inlet and an MHD accelerator to reintroduce this power as kinetic energy in the exhaust stream. In this way, the combustor entrance Mach number can be limited to a specified value even as the flight Mach number increases. Thus, the fuel and air can be efficiently mixed and burned within a practical combustor length, and the flight Mach number operating envelope can be extended. In this paper, we quantitatively assess the performance potential and scientific feasibility of MHD-bypass engines using a simplified thermodynamic analysis. This cycle analysis, based on a thermally and calorically perfect gas, incorporates a coupled MHD generator-accelerator system and accounts for aerodynamic losses and thermodynamic process efficiencies in the various engin components. It is found that the flight Mach number range can be significantly extended; however, overall performance is hampered by non-isentropic losses in the MHD devices.

Litchford, R. J.; Cole, J. W.; Bityurin, V. A.; Lineberry, J. T.

2000-01-01

133

Optimization of the oxidant supply system for combined cycle MHD power plants

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An in-depth study was conducted to determine what, if any, improvements could be made on the oxidant supply system for combined cycle MHD power plants which could be reflected in higher thermal efficiency and a reduction in the cost of electricity, COE. A systematic analysis of air separation process varitions which showed that the specific energy consumption could be minimized when the product stream oxygen concentration is about 70 mole percent was conducted. The use of advanced air compressors, having variable speed and guide vane position control, results in additional power savings. The study also led to the conceptual design of a new air separation process, sized for a 500 MW sub e MHD plant, referred to a internal compression is discussed. In addition to its lower overall energy consumption, potential capital cost savings were identified for air separation plants using this process when constructed in a single large air separation train rather than multiple parallel trains, typical of conventional practice.

Juhasz, A. J.

1982-01-01

134

Results from conceptual design study of potential early commercial MHD/steam power plants

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents conceptual design information for a potential early MHD power plant developed in the second phase of a joint study of such plants. Conceptual designs of plant components and equipment with performance, operational characteristics and costs are reported on. Plant economics and overall performance including full and part load operation are reviewed. Environmental aspects and the methods incorporated in plant design for emission control of sulfur and nitrogen oxides are reviewed. Results from reliability/availability analysis conducted are also included.

Hals, F.; Kessler, R.; Swallom, D.; Westra, L.; Zar, J.; Morgan, W.; Bozzuto, C.

1981-01-01

135

On the similarity solutions of magnetohydrodynamic flows of power-law fluids over a stretching sheet

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A rigorous mathematical analysis is given for a magnetohydrodynamics boundary layer problem, which arises in the two-dimensional steady laminar boundary layer flow for an incompressible electrically conducting power-law fluid along a stretching flat sheet in the presence of an exterior magnetic field orthogonal to the flow. In the self-similar case, the problem is transformed into a third-order nonlinear ordinary differential equation with certain boundary conditions, which is proved to be equivalent to a singular initial value problem for an integro-differential equation of first order. With the aid of the singular initial value problem, the uniqueness and existence results for (generalized) normal solutions are established and some properties of these solutions are explored.

Zhang, Zhongxin; Wang, Junyu

2007-06-01

136

Hypersonic MHD Propulsion System Integration for the Mercury Lightcraft

Introduced herein are the design, systems integration, and performance analysis of an exotic magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) slipstream accelerator engine for a single-occupant Mercury lightcraft. This ultra-energetic, laser-boosted vehicle is designed to ride a tractor beam into space, transmitted from a future orbital network of satellite solar power stations. The lightcrafts airbreathing combined-cycle engine employs a rotary pulsed detonation thruster mode for

L. N. Myrabo; R. J. Rosa

2004-01-01

137

Hypersonic MHD Propulsion System Integration for the Mercury Lightcraft

Introduced herein are the design, systems integration, and performance analysis of an exotic magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) slipstream accelerator engine for a single-occupant ``Mercury'' lightcraft. This ultra-energetic, laser-boosted vehicle is designed to ride a `tractor beam' into space, transmitted from a future orbital network of satellite solar power stations. The lightcraft's airbreathing combined-cycle engine employs a rotary pulsed detonation thruster mode for

L. N. Myrabo; R. J. Rosa

2004-01-01

138

An MHD (magnetohydrodynamic) electric generator is provided which is of high efficiency and which can operate in a closed cycle with minimal moving parts for unattended applications. The generator includes a porous tungsten element heated by a heat source and a system for passing primarily pure cesium vapor into the porous element, to produce contact ionization of the cesium with

1982-01-01

139

Methods of reducing energy consumption of the oxidant supply system for MHD/steam power plants

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An in-depth study was conducted to identify possible improvements to the oxidant supply system for combined cycle MHD power plants which would lead to higher thermal efficiency and reduction in the cost of electricity, COE. Results showed that the oxidant system energy consumption could be minimized when the process was designed to deliver a product O2 concentration of 70 mole percent. The study also led to the development of a new air separation process, referred to as 'liquid pumping and internal compression'. MHD system performance calculations show that the new process would permit an increase in plant thermal efficiency of 0.6 percent while allowing more favorable tradeoffs between magnetic energy and oxidant system capacity requirements.

Juhasz, A. J.

1983-01-01

140

Methods of reducing energy consumption of the oxidant supply system for MHD/steam power plants

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An in-depth study was conducted to identify possible improvements to the oxidant supply system for combined cycle MHD power plants which would lead to higher thermal efficiency and reduction in the cost of electricity, COE. Results showed that the oxidant system energy consumption could be minimized when the process was designed to deliver a product O2 concentration of 70 mole percent. The study also led to the development of a new air separation process, referred to as liquid pumping and internal compression. MHD system performance calculations show that the new process would permit an increase in plant thermal efficiency of 0.6 percent while allowing more favorable tradeoffs between magnetic energy and oxidant system capacity requirements.

Juhasz, A. J.

1983-01-01

141

Advanced fusion MHD power conversion using the CFAR (compact fusion advanced Rankine) cycle concept

The CFAR (compact fusion advanced Rankine) cycle concept for a tokamak reactor involves the use of a high-temperature Rankine cycle in combination with microwave superheaters and nonequilibrium MHD disk generators to obtain a compact, low-capital-cost power conversion system which fits almost entirely within the reactor vault. The significant savings in the balance-of-plant costs are expected to result in much lower costs of electricity than previous concepts. This paper describes the unique features of the CFAR cycle and a high- temperature blanket designed to take advantage of it as well as the predicted performance of the MHD disk generators using mercury seeded with cesium. 40 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

Hoffman, M.A.; Campbell, R.; Logan, B.G. (California Univ., Davis, CA (USA); Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA))

1988-10-01

142

Three-Dimensional Numerical Modeling of Magnetohydrodynamic Augmented Propulsion Experiment

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Over the past several years, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center has engaged in the design and development of an experimental research facility to investigate the use of diagonalized crossed-field magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) accelerators as a possible thrust augmentation device for thermal propulsion systems. In support of this effort, a three-dimensional numerical MHD model has been developed for the purpose of analyzing and optimizing accelerator performance and to aid in understanding critical underlying physical processes and nonideal effects. This Technical Memorandum fully summarizes model development efforts and presents the results of pretest performance optimization analyses. These results indicate that the MHD accelerator should utilize a 45deg diagonalization angle with the applied current evenly distributed over the first five inlet electrode pairs. When powered at 100 A, this configuration is expected to yield a 50% global efficiency with an 80% increase in axial velocity and a 50% increase in centerline total pressure.

Turner, M. W.; Hawk, C. W.; Litchford, R. J.

2009-01-01

143

Multi-region relaxed magnetohydrodynamics with flow

We present an extension of the multi-region relaxed magnetohydrodynamics (MRxMHD) equilibrium model that includes plasma flow. This new model is a generalization of Woltjer's model of relaxed magnetohydrodynamics equilibria with flow. We prove that as the number of plasma regions becomes infinite, our extension of MRxMHD reduces to ideal MHD with flow. We also prove that some solutions to MRxMHD with flow are not time-independent in the laboratory frame, and instead have 3D structure which rotates in the toroidal direction with fixed angular velocity. This capability gives MRxMHD potential application to describing rotating 3D MHD structures such as 'snakes' and long-lived modes.

Dennis, G. R., E-mail: graham.dennis@anu.edu.au; Dewar, R. L.; Hole, M. J. [Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, ACT 0200 (Australia)] [Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, ACT 0200 (Australia); Hudson, S. R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, PO Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)] [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, PO Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

2014-04-15

144

Multi-region relaxed magnetohydrodynamics with flow

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an extension of the multi-region relaxed magnetohydrodynamics (MRxMHD) equilibrium model that includes plasma flow. This new model is a generalization of Woltjer's model of relaxed magnetohydrodynamics equilibria with flow. We prove that as the number of plasma regions becomes infinite, our extension of MRxMHD reduces to ideal MHD with flow. We also prove that some solutions to MRxMHD with flow are not time-independent in the laboratory frame, and instead have 3D structure which rotates in the toroidal direction with fixed angular velocity. This capability gives MRxMHD potential application to describing rotating 3D MHD structures such as "snakes" and long-lived modes.

Dennis, G. R.; Hudson, S. R.; Dewar, R. L.; Hole, M. J.

2014-04-01

145

We introduce a new paradigm for understanding the jet in M87: a collimated relativistic flow in which strong magnetic fields play a dominant dynamical role. Here we focus on the flow downstream of HST-1 - an essentially stationary flaring feature that ejects trails of superluminal components. We propose that these components are quad relativistic MHD shock fronts (forward fast\\/slow and

Masanori Nakamura; D. A. Garofalo; D. L. Meier

2010-01-01

146

Potential Vorticity in Magnetohydrodynamics

A version of Noether's second theorem using Lagrange multipliers is used to investigate fluid relabelling symmetries conservation laws in magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). We obtain a new generalized potential vorticity type conservation equation for MHD which takes into account entropy gradients and the ${\\bf J}\\times{\\bf B}$ force on the plasma due to the current ${\\bf J}$ and magnetic induction ${\\bf B}$. This new conservation law for MHD is derived by using Noether's second theorem in conjunction with a class of fluid relabelling symmetries in which the symmetry generator for the Lagrange label transformations is non-parallel to the magnetic field induction in Lagrange label space. This is associated with an Abelian Lie pseudo algebra and a foliated phase space in Lagrange label space. It contains as a special case Ertel's theorem in ideal fluid mechanics. An independent derivation shows that the new conservation law is also valid for more general physical situations.

G. M. Webb; R. L. Mace

2014-03-12

147

Potential vorticity in magnetohydrodynamics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

abstract-type="normal"> A version of Noether's second theorem using Lagrange multipliers is used to investigate fluid relabelling symmetries conservation laws in magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). We obtain a new generalized potential vorticity type conservation equation for MHD which takes into account entropy gradients and the J × B force on the plasma due to the current J and magnetic induction B. This new conservation law for MHD is derived by using Noether's second theorem in conjunction with a class of fluid relabelling symmetries in which the symmetry generator for the Lagrange label transformations is non-parallel to the magnetic field induction in Lagrange label space. This is associated with an Abelian Lie pseudo algebra and a foliated phase space in Lagrange label space. It contains as a special case Ertel's theorem in ideal fluid mechanics. An independent derivation shows that the new conservation law is also valid for more general physical situations.

Webb, G. M.; Mace, R. L.

2015-01-01

148

Magneto-Hydrodynamics Based Microfluidics.

In microfluidic devices, it is necessary to propel samples and reagents from one part of the device to another, stir fluids, and detect the presence of chemical and biological targets. Given the small size of these devices, the above tasks are far from trivial. Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) offers an elegant means to control fluid flow in microdevices without a need for mechanical components. In this paper, we review the theory of MHD for low conductivity fluids and describe various applications of MHD such as fluid pumping, flow control in fluidic networks, fluid stirring and mixing, circular liquid chromatography, thermal reactors, and microcoolers. PMID:20046890

Qian, Shizhi; Bau, Haim H

2009-01-01

149

Semirelativistic Magnetohydrodynamics and Physics-Based Convergence Acceleration

We derive a system of equations for semirelativistic magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) in which the bulk speed and the sound speed of the plasma are nonrelativistic, but the Alfvén speed can be relativistic. The characteristic wave speeds of the modified equation set are determined and compared to the wave speeds in classical (MHD). The stability conditions of the semirelativistic MHD equations are

Tamas I. Gombosi; Gábor Tóth; Darren L. De Zeeuw; Kenneth C. Hansen; Konstantin Kabin; Kenneth G. Powell

2002-01-01

150

The recent developments of power generation experiments and numerical simulations for closed cycle MHD power generation performed at Tokyo Institute of Technology are explained and discussed. The FUJI-1 experiments realize 18.4% of enthalpy extraction, and the 38.1 and 30.1% of enthalpy extraction are obtained by shock tunnel facility for He/Cs and Ar/Cs working gases, respectively. The author can succeed with the 3-dimensional calculations of two temperature model equation for nonequilibrium plasma in a disk generator. The experimental and numerical results promise a high efficiency MHD power generation system, and a typical system which realizes the total efficiency of 60% is proposed.

Kabashima, S.

1998-07-01

151

Parabolized Navier-Stokes Code for Computing Magneto-Hydrodynamic Flowfields

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report consists of two published papers, 'Computation of Magnetohydrodynamic Flows Using an Iterative PNS Algorithm' and 'Numerical Simulation of Turbulent MHD Flows Using an Iterative PNS Algorithm'.

Mehta, Unmeel B. (Technical Monitor); Tannehill, J. C.

2003-01-01

152

Prospects for energy recovery from plastic waste gasifiers by means of MHD topping cycle

In this paper the authors present a feasibility study of a combined MagnetoHydroDynamic (MHD) and steam turbine plant in which the working gas is made of burnt plastic waste. The possibility of MHD retrofit of existing plant, especially fed by fossil fuel, is well known, and has been studied both for its economical and environmental benefits. The environmental impact and the elimination of pollution agents has become a prime necessity in waste digestion. Furthermore, plants in which the production of electrical power by means of burnt gases produced in the digestion process have been designed and built. In this field an MHD integration plant could be very attractive. This feasibility study has been developed by simulating an ideal plant with a plastic incinerator, an MHD device and conventional steam turbines. As a result, the simulations have indicated economic and environmental advantages with notable efficiency improvements in the generation of electrical power.

Geri, A.; Verdone, N.; Salvini, A.

1999-12-01

153

GasKinetic Theory Based Flux Splitting Method for Ideal Magnetohydrodynamics

to the MHD equations has not been fully addressed. The search for robust, accurate and efficient MHD flow Abstract A gasÂkinetic flux splitting method is developed for the ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) equaÂ tions. The new scheme is based on the direct splitting of the flux function of the MHD equations

Xu, Kun

154

Study of multi-phase flow characteristics in an MHD power train

Computer simulation was used to predict two-phase flow processes in the CDIF MHD power train system. The predictions were used to evaluate the effects of operating and design parameters on the performance of the system and a parametric evaluation provides information to enhance the performance of the system. Major components of the system under investigation are the two-stage combustor, the converging/diverging nozzle, the supersonic MHD channel, and the diffuser. Flow in each component was simulated using a computer code. Integrating the computer codes, the two-phase flow processes in the system was calculated. Recently, the computer codes were used to investigate problems of nozzle erosion and the non-uniform iron oxide coverage on the cathode wall in the channel. A limited parametric study was conducted. The results indicated that (1) among the three nozzle geometries under investigation a {number_sign}5 nozzle has the smoothest flow development in the nozzle and has the lowest droplet deposition on wall and (2) smaller particle size and lower injection velocity tend to disperse the iron oxide particles more uniformly in the nozzle.

Chang, S.L.; Lottes, S.A.; Bouillard, J.X.; Petrick, M.

1993-08-01

155

Temporal Intermittency of Energy Dissipation in Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence

Energy dissipation in magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence is known to be highly intermittent in space, being concentrated in sheet-like coherent structures. Much less is known about intermittency in time, another fundamental aspect of turbulence which has great importance for observations of solar flares and other space/astrophysical phenomena. In this Letter, we investigate the temporal intermittency of energy dissipation in numerical simulations of MHD turbulence. We consider four-dimensional spatiotemporal structures, "flare events", responsible for a large fraction of the energy dissipation. We find that although the flare events are often highly complex, they exhibit robust power-law distributions and scaling relations. We find that the probability distribution of dissipated energy has a power law index close to -1.75, similar to observations of solar flares, indicating that intense dissipative events dominate the heating of the system. We also discuss the temporal asymmetry of flare events as a signatu...

Zhdankin, Vladimir; Boldyrev, Stanislav

2015-01-01

156

Results of closed cycle MHD power generation tests with a helium-cesium working fluid

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The cross-sectional dimensions of the MHD channel in the NASA Lewis closed loop facility have been reduced to 3.8 x 11.4 cm. Tests were run in this channel using a helium-cesium working fluid at stagnation pressures of 1.6 x 10 to the 5th N/sq m, stagnation temperatures of 2000-2060 K and an entrance Mach number of 0.36. In these tests Faraday open circuit voltages of 200 V were measured which correspond to a Faraday field of 1750 V/m. Power generation tests were run for different groups of electrode configurations and channel lengths. Hall fields up to 1450 V/m were generated. Power extraction per electrode of 183 W and power densities of 1.7 MW/cu m have been obtained. A total power output of 2 kW was generated for tests with 14 electrodes. The power densities obtained in this channel represent a factor of 3 improvement over those reported for the m = 0.2 channel at the last EAM Symposium.

Sovie, R. J.

1977-01-01

157

Helically forced MHD flows in confined cylindrical geometries

to control MHD flows more efficiently. In this paper we explore the behaviour of a conducting fluidHelically forced MHD flows in confined cylindrical geometries Malcolm Roberts1 , Matthieu Leroy1 the resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations. A helical magnetic field is imposed via boundary conditions

Boyer, Edmond

158

Immersed boundary method for the MHD flows of liquid metals

Wall-bounded magnetohydrodynamic (MHD hereafter) flows are of great theoretical and practical interest. Even for laminar cases, MHD simulations are associated with very high computational cost due to the resolution requirements for the Hartmann and side layers developing in the presence of solid obstacles. In the presence of turbulence, these difficulties are further compounded. Thus, MHD simulations in complex geometries are

D. G. E. Grigoriadis; S. C. Kassinos; E. V. Votyakov

2009-01-01

159

Improvement of Scramjet Performance-Experimental Demonstration of MHD Acceleration

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the critical technologies of MHD (Magnetohydrodynamics) bypass scramjet propulsion for space launch and cruise vehicles is MHD acceleration. An experiment in a shock tunnel is described in which MHD acceleration is investigated experimentally. The objectives, the methods used and the preliminary results are described in this paper.

Bogdanoff, David W.; Park, Chul; Mehta, Unmeel B.; Arnold, James (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

160

A new concept of direct coal-firing closed cycle MHD power generation

This paper presents a new direct coal-firing closed cycle MHD (CCMHD) power generation system. This system combines CCMHD and gas turbines only and excludes steam turbines, which enables the authors to achieve plant efficiency as high as 55% with low environmental impact. The outstanding feature of this system is an innovative concept of coal combustion system with almost 100% slag removal efficiency. The center of this concept is introduction of a pebble bed filter. Performance evaluation of this pebble bed filter was done by cold model experiments, whose results show that a relatively compact pebble bed filter can remove almost all the molten slag carried over from a cycle coal combustor. Finally, conceptual designing of main components are presented.

Yoshikawa, K.; Shioda, S. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama (Japan); Yugami, H.; Arai, Y.; Kaneuji, T. [Electric Power Development Company, Tokyo (Japan)

1993-12-31

161

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The conceptual design study of a potential early commercial MHD power plant (CSPEC) is described and the results are summarized. Each of two contractors did a conceptual design of an approximtely 1000 MWe open-cycle MHD/steam plant with oxygen enriched combustion air preheated to an intermediate temperatue in a metallic heat exchanger. The contractors were close in their overall plant efficiency estimates but differed in their capital cost and cost of electricity estimates, primarily because of differences in balance-of-plant material, contingency, and operating and maintenance cost estimates. One contractor concluded that its MHD plant design compared favorably in cost of electricity with conventional coal-fired steam plants. The other contractor is making such a comparison as part of a follow-on study. Each contractor did a preliminary investigation of part-load performance and plant availability. The results of NASA studies investigating the effect of plant size and oxidizer preheat temperature on the performance of CSPEC-type MHD plants are also described. The efficiency of a 1000 MWe plant is about three points higher than of a 200 MWe plant. Preheating to 1600 F gives an efficiency about one and one-half points higher than preheating to 800 F for all plant sizes. For each plant size and preheat temperature there is an oxidizer enrichment level and MHD generator length that gives the highest plant efficiency.

Staiger, P. J.; Penko, P. F.

1982-01-01

162

Multi-region relaxed magnetohydrodynamics with anisotropy and flow

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an extension of the multi-region relaxed magnetohydrodynamics (MRxMHD) equilibrium model that includes pressure anisotropy and general plasma flows. This anisotropic extension to our previous isotropic model is motivated by Sun and Finn's model of relaxed anisotropic magnetohydrodynamic equilibria. We prove that as the number of plasma regions becomes infinite, our anisotropic extension of MRxMHD reduces to anisotropic ideal MHD with flow. The continuously nested flux surface limit of our MRxMHD model is the first variational principle for anisotropic plasma equilibria with general flow fields.

Dennis, G. R.; Hudson, S. R.; Dewar, R. L.; Hole, M. J.

2014-07-01

163

Multi-region relaxed magnetohydrodynamics with anisotropy and flow

We present an extension of the multi-region relaxed magnetohydrodynamics (MRxMHD) equilibrium model that includes pressure anisotropy and general plasma flows. This anisotropic extension to our previous isotropic model is motivated by Sun and Finn's model of relaxed anisotropic magnetohydrodynamic equilibria. We prove that as the number of plasma regions becomes infinite, our anisotropic extension of MRxMHD reduces to anisotropic ideal MHD with flow. The continuously nested flux surface limit of our MRxMHD model is the first variational principle for anisotropic plasma equilibria with general flow fields.

Dennis, G. R., E-mail: graham.dennis@anu.edu.au; Dewar, R. L.; Hole, M. J. [Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory 0200 (Australia); Hudson, S. R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, PO Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

2014-07-15

164

Plasma relaxation and topological aspects in Hall magnetohydrodynamics

Parker's formulation of isotopological plasma relaxation process in magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) is extended to Hall MHD. The torsion coefficient {alpha} in the Hall MHD Beltrami condition turns out now to be proportional to the potential vorticity. The Hall MHD Beltrami condition becomes equivalent to the potential vorticity conservation equation in two-dimensional (2D) hydrodynamics if the Hall MHD Lagrange multiplier {beta} is taken to be proportional to the potential vorticity as well. The winding pattern of the magnetic field lines in Hall MHD then appears to evolve in the same way as potential vorticity lines in 2D hydrodynamics.

Shivamoggi, B. K. [University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32816-1364 (United States)

2012-07-15

165

Channel-wall limitations in the magnetohydrodynamic induction generator

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Discussion of magnetohydrodynamic induction generator examines the machine in detail and materials problems influencing its design. The higher upper-temperature limit of the MHD system promises to be more efficient than present turbine systems for generating electricity.

Jackson, W. D.; Pierson, E. S.

1969-01-01

166

Introduction to solar system MHD

Most of the solar systems are in the plasma state and its subtle non-linear interaction with the magnetic field is described for many purposes adequately by the equations of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). These equations are also applicable to the electrically conducting liquid cores of planets, such as our Earth, where magnetic fields are being generated by dynamo action. Indeed, this realisation

E. R. Priest

1991-01-01

167

Isogeometric analysis in reduced magnetohydrodynamics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Isogeometric analysis (IGA) consists of using computer-aided design (CAD) models defining the geometry of the computational domain using both B-splines and non-uniform rational B-splines (NURBS) to represent the unknowns that are the solution of a partial differential equation using a finite element principle. In this paper, we review the main ideas of IGA and apply it to a reduced magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model that is used in tokamak simulations. This is a first step towards arbitrary high-order and smooth approximations of reduced MHD generalizing the Bézier splines approach of Czarny and Huysmans (2008 J. Comput. Phys. 227 7423-45).

Ratnani, A.; Sonnendrücker, E.

2012-01-01

168

Method for manufacturing magnetohydrodynamic electrodes

A method of manufacturing electrodes for use in a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generator is described comprising the steps of preparing a billet having a core of a first metal, a tubular sleeve of a second metal, and an outer sheath of an extrusile metal; evacuating the space between the parts of the assembled billet; extruding the billet; and removing the outer jacket. The extruded bar may be made into electrodes by cutting and bending to the shape required for an MHD channel frame. The method forms a bond between the first metal of the core and the second metal of the sleeve strong enough to withstand a hot and corrosive environment.

Killpatrick, D.H.; Thresh, H.R.

1980-06-24

169

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce a new paradigm for understanding the jet in M87: a collimated relativistic flow in which strong magnetic fields play a dominant dynamical role. Here we focus on the flow downstream of HST-1 - an essentially stationary flaring feature that ejects trails of superluminal components. We propose that these components are quad relativistic MHD shock fronts (forward fast/slow and reverse slow/fast modes) in a narrow jet with a helically twisted magnetic structure. And we demonstrate the properties of such shocks with simple one-dimensional numerical simulations. Quasi-periodic ejections of similar component trails may be responsible for the M87 jet substructures observed further downstream on kpc scales. This new paradigm requires the assimilation of some new concepts into the astrophysical jet community, particularly the behavior of slow/fast-mode waves/shocks and of current-driven helical kink instabilities. However, the prospects of these ideas applying to a large number of other jet systems may make this worth the effort. M.N. greatly acknowledges support from the Allan C. Davis fellowship jointly awarded by the Department of Physics and Astronomy at Johns Hopkins University and the Space Telescope Science Institute. Part of this research described was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

Nakamura, Masanori; Garofalo, D. A.; Meier, D. L.

2010-01-01

170

Program accomplishments in a continuing effort to demonstrate the feasibility of direct coal-fired, closed-cycle MHD power generation are reported. This volume contains the following appendices: (A) user's manual for 2-dimensional MHD generator code (2DEM); (B) performance estimates for a nominal 30 MW argon segmented heater; (C) the feedwater cooled Brayton cycle; (D) application of CCMHD in an industrial cogeneration environment; (E) preliminary design for shell and tube primary heat exchanger; and (F) plant efficiency as a function of output power for open and closed cycle MHD power plants. (WHK)

Not Available

1981-11-01

171

Nuclear design of the burst power ultrahigh temperature UF4 vapor core reactor system

Static and dynamic neutronic analyses are being performed, as part of an integrated series of studies, on an innovative burst power UF4 Ultrahigh Temperature Vapor Core Reactor (UTVR)\\/Disk Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generator for space nuclear power applications. This novel reactor concept operates on a direct, closed Rankine cycle in the burst power mode (hundreds of MWe for thousands of seconds). The

Samer D. Kahook; Edward T. Dugan

1991-01-01

172

Nuclear design of the burst power ultrahigh temperature UF sub 4 vapor core reactor system

Static and dynamic neutronic analyses are being performed, as part of an integrated series of studies, on an innovative burst power UFâ Ultrahigh Temperature Vapor Core Reactor (UTVR)\\/Disk Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generator for space nuclear power applications. This novel reactor concept operates on a direct, closed Rankine cycle in the burst power mode (hundreds of MW{sub e} for thousands of seconds).

S. D. Kahook; E. T. Dugan

1991-01-01

173

Single channel double-duct liquid metal electrical generator using a magnetohydrodynamic device

A single channel double-duct liquid metal electrical generator using a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) device. The single channel device provides useful output AC electric energy. The generator includes a two-cylinder linear-piston engine which drives liquid metal in a single channel looped around one side of the MHD device to form a double-duct contra-flowing liquid metal MHD generator. A flow conduit network and drive mechanism are provided for moving liquid metal with an oscillating flow through a static magnetic field to produce useful AC electric energy at practical voltages and currents. Variable stroke is obtained by controlling the quantity of liquid metal in the channel. High efficiency is obtained over a wide range of frequency and power output. 5 figs.

Haaland, C.M.; Deeds, W.E.

1999-07-13

174

Single channel double-duct liquid metal electrical generator using a magnetohydrodynamic device

A single channel double-duct liquid metal electrical generator using a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) device. The single channel device provides useful output AC electric energy. The generator includes a two-cylinder linear-piston engine which drives liquid metal in a single channel looped around one side of the MHD device to form a double-duct contra-flowing liquid metal MHD generator. A flow conduit network and drive mechanism are provided for moving liquid metal with an oscillating flow through a static magnetic field to produce useful AC electric energy at practical voltages and currents. Variable stroke is obtained by controlling the quantity of liquid metal in the channel. High efficiency is obtained over a wide range of frequency and power output.

Haaland, Carsten M. (Dadeville, AL); Deeds, W. Edward (Knoxville, TN)

1999-01-01

175

Closed cycle MHD power generation system without alkali-metal seed

In this paper, the authors examined the possibility of closed cycle MHD power generation system without using alkali-metal seed. Based on the important role of seed, they proposed to use xenon as seed material. Consideration by solving Saha equation showed that helium must be used to obtain notable enhancement of electron number density from xenon and higher electron temperature of 8,000--9,000K must be kept to achieve same electron number density level as that for potassium seed case. Performance prediction by means of 1-dimensional numerical simulation has been carried out. If they use the same disk generator and the same conditions as cesium seed, performance using He/Xe was much less than that of He/Cs. Increase of inlet electron temperature which means requirement of preionization and increase of load resistance must be necessary to obtain reasonable output performance. Next, the authors designed the suitable disk generator for xenon seed and to do performance prediction with the designed channel. They succeeded to design the disk generator for xenon seed which can provide over 40% enthalpy extraction. In order to study plasma stability and discharge structure, two-dimensional numerical simulation was just started and preliminary results were presented. However, how to increase initial conductivity, plasma stability and its effects on plasma parameter and efficiency were left to be studied.

Harada, N. [Nagaoka Univ. of Technology (Japan). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

1996-12-31

176

Energetic particles and magnetohydrodynamic activity in the Swarthmore Spheromak Experiment

Energetic particles and magnetohydrodynamic activity in the Swarthmore Spheromak Experiment G. Qina are integrated using MHD data from SSX simulations to further understand the energetic particle fluxes complementary information concerning the interplay be- tween MHD motions and energetic particles that may

Brown, Michael R.

177

Magnetohydrodynamic generators using two-phase liquid-metal flows

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two-phase flow generator cycle of a magnetohydrodynamic /MHD/ generator uses a working fluid which is compressible and treated as an expanding gas. The two-phase mixture passes from the heat source through the MHD generator, where the expansion process takes place and the electrical energy is extracted.

Petrick, M.

1969-01-01

178

Propulsive efficiencies of magnetohydrodynamic submerged vehicular propulsors. Final report

Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) ship propulsion is the process of propelling a vehicular structure by a seawater electromagnetic pump. This propulsion system can be applied to a surface ship or a submerged vehicle; however, in this work only submerged vehicles at depths where wave effects can be neglected were considered. Although a number of different arrangements for a MHD propulsion system are

S. H. Brown; J. S. Walker; N. A. Sondergaard; P. J. Reilly; D. E. Bagley

1990-01-01

179

Open-cycle magnetohydrodynamic power plant with CO.sub.2 recycling

A method of converting the chemical energy of fossil fuel to electrical and mechanical energy with a MHD generator. The fossil fuel is mixed with preheated oxygen and carbon dioxide and a conducting seed of potassium carbonate to form a combustive and electrically conductive mixture which is burned in a combustion chamber. The burned combustion mixture is passed through a MHD generator to generate electrical energy. The burned combustion mixture is passed through a diffuser to restore the mixture approximately to atmospheric pressure, leaving a spent combustion mixture which is used to heat oxygen from an air separation plant and recycled carbon dioxide for combustion in a high temperature oxygen preheater and for heating water/steam for producing superheated steam. Relatively pure carbon dioxide is separated from the spent combustion mixture for further purification or for exhaust, while the remainder of the carbon dioxide is recycled from the spent combustion mixture to a carbon dioxide purification plant for removal of water and any nitrous oxides present, leaving a greater than 98% pure carbon dioxide. A portion of the greater then 98% pure carbon dioxide stream is recovered and the remainder is recycled to combine with the oxygen for preheating and combination with the fossil fuel to form a combustion mixture.

Berry, Gregory F. (Naperville, IL)

1991-01-01

180

Divergence-Free Adaptive Mesh Refinement for Magnetohydrodynamics

Several physical systems, such as nonrelativistic and relativistic magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), radiation MHD, electromagnetics, and incompressible hydrodynamics, satisfy Stoke's law type equations for the divergence-free evolution of vector fields. In this paper we present a full-fledged scheme for the second-order accurate, divergence-free evolution of vector fields on an adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) hierarchy. We focus here on adaptive mesh MHD. However,

Dinshaw S. Balsara

2001-01-01

181

The Acceleration Mechanism of Resistive Magnetohydrodynamic Jets Launched from Accretion Disks

We analyzed the results of nonlinear resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of jet formation to study the acceleration mechanism of axisymmetric, resistive MHD jets. The initial state is a constant angular momentum, polytropic torus threaded by weak uniform vertical magnetic fields. The time evolution of the torus is simulated by applying the CIP-MOCCT scheme extended for resistive MHD equations. We carried

Takuhito Kuwabara; Kazunari Shibata; Takahiro Kudoh; Ryoji Matsumoto

2005-01-01

182

Magnetohydrodynamic Augmentation of Pulse Detonation Engines

Pulse detonation engines (PDEs) are the focus of increasing attention due to their potentially superior performance over constant pressure engines. Yet due to its unsteady chamber pressure, the PDE system will either be over- or under-expanded for the majority of the cycle, with energy being used without maximum gain. Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) augmentation offers the opportunity to extract energy and apply

Christopher Zeineh; Lord Cole; Ann Karagozian

2010-01-01

183

Fundamentals of numerical magnetohydrodynamics

Magnetohydrodynamics is a fluid model for the motion of an ionized gas in a magnetic field. In its ideal, non-dissipative form, the Lundquist equations, it has the same mathematical character as the model for gas dynamics. It gives, in the same way, a self-consistent description of the fluid dynamics, including the exchange of momentum and energy between the field and the fluid. However, because of the greater complexity of the physics which they describe, some aspects of the solutions are quite different. The magnetic field introduces a strong anisotropic character to the medium which causes wave propagation to depend on the direction of propagation with respect of the magnetic field. In addition, there are several distinct speeds so that, in general, the responses to disturbances are quite complex. To capture the principal features of the solutions in numerical calculations, several problems must be addressed. Some of these problems are unique to MHD: for example, preserving the solenoidality of the magnetic field. Others are similar to ordinary gas dynamics, such as energy conservation, numerical stability, and computational diffusion, but are more complex or have different consequences for MHD than for ordinary fluid flow. These fundamental problems in the numerical solution of the MHD equations are discussed as four topics: the dispersion of the Lundquist equations and the dispersion and stability of finite difference approximations; the conservation laws of MHD and the achievement of conservation in the numerical solutions; a discussion of convective transport and its role in computational diffusion; and finally, a method for preserving the solenoidality of the magnetic field.

Brackbill, J.U.

1987-01-01

184

The Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory (DIAL) at Mississippi State University (MSU) is developing diagnostic instruments for magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power train data acquisition and for support of MHD component development test facilities. Microprocessor-controlled optical instruments, initially developed for Heat Recovery/Seed Recovery (HRSR) support, are being refined, and new systems to measure temperatures and gas-seed-slag stream characteristics are being developed. To further data acquisition and analysis capabilities, the diagnostic systems are being interfaced with DIAL`s computers. Technical support for the diagnostic needs of the national MHD research effort is being provided. DIAL personnel also cooperate with government agencies and private industries to improve the transformation of research and development results into processes, products and services applicable to their needs.

Not Available

1994-07-01

185

An MHD (magnetohydrodynamic) electric generator is provided which is of high efficiency and which can operate in a closed cycle with minimal moving parts for unattended applications. The generator includes a porous tungsten element heated by a heat source and a system for passing primarily pure cesium vapor into the porous element, to produce contact ionization of the cesium with a higher percentage of ions than can be sustained. The highly ionized cesium vapor, and corresponding numbers of electrons from the tungsten element, recombine to produce a much higher temperature as the cesium flows through a tube past an MHD converter that generates electricity, and into a cool end of the tube where the cesium is cooled to a liquid temperature. The liquid can be recirculated by passing it through capillary passages extending towards the location where cesium vapor enters the porous tungsten element.

Fitzgerald, D.J.

1982-02-01

186

Liquid metal MHD research and development in Israel

The study and development of liquid-metal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) in Israel, from 1973 to the present, are reviewed. Following extensive research and evaluation, it was established that the most promising concept for a relatively short development time was the gravitational system, using lead or lead alloys as the magnetohydrodynamic fluid and steam or gases as the working fluid. The Etgar Program,

H. Branover

1991-01-01

187

Promising applications of the liquid metal MHD energy conversion technology

Applications of the liquid-metal MHD (magnetohydrodynamic) energy conversion technology that could benefit from its unique features are reviewed with emphasis on applications that might be realized in the relatively near future and on the OMACON (optimized magnetohydrodynamic conversion) concept. Included among the promising applications are cogeneration, energy recovery from industrial processes involving the use of molten metals, energy conversion from

H. Branover; A. El-Boher; E. Greenspan; A. Barak

1989-01-01

188

Plants with a nominal output of 200 and 500 MWe and conforming to the same design configuration as the Task II plant were investigated. This information is intended to permit an assessment of the competitiveness of first generation MHD\\/steam plants with conventional steam plants over the range of 200 to 1000 MWe. The results show that net plant efficiency of

F. A. Hals

1981-01-01

189

Application of a hot air turbine for efficiency improvement in MHD\\/steam power plants

It is possible to gain 2 percent to 3 percent efficiency points in the MHD\\/steam combined cycle by application of a hot air turbocompressor. This gain is accomplished without any increase of air preheat temperature. Moreover, the size of the steam boiler and turbines in the bottom plant is reduced in the arrangement here proposed, all the compressed and preheated

1979-01-01

190

A parametric study of 1000 MWe combined closed cycle MHD\\/system electrical power generating plants

A parametric study was carried out for different closed noble gas MHD cycles coupled to a direct coal-fired combustion system (and in most cases to a steam bottoming plant). For the description of the components, black-box models were used. The influence of the choice of the most important design parameters on the total system efficiency was quantified, and the performance

A. J. Geutjes; DJ Kleyn

1978-01-01

191

The basic relation between plasma and electromagnetic field is defined. ; The electrical conductivity of plasma is most important, and is really the basis ; of magnetohydrodynamics. As a conductor, plasma is acted on by the magnetic ; field. Other basic comments made are: waves in plasma, are analogous to sound ; waves, they carry electric charges, and can move

Kleczek

1960-01-01

192

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetohydrodynamic waves are found in a wide variety of astrophysical plasmas. They have been measured in plasma fusion devices and detected in the MAGNETOSPHERE OF EARTH, the SOLAR WIND and a number of magnetic structures seen in the Sun's atmosphere. In space plasmas their detection is often indirect, by matching measured properties (such as propagation speed or pressure variation) with theore...

Roberts, B.; Murdin, P.

2000-11-01

193

Open-cycle coal-fired liquid-metal MHD

An open-cycle, coal fired, liquid magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) concept is described and compared with the open-cycle plasma MHD cycle, and it is shown that, in the former, temperatures are much lower and the air preheater and radiant boiler are eliminated. The constraints on the electrodynamic working fluid and the choice of copper are discussed. Recent experiments with liquid copper and coal

E. S. Pierson; M. Petrick; F. Schreiner; D. Cohen

1979-01-01

194

Magnetohydrodynamic Shearing Waves

I consider the nonaxisymmetric linear theory of a rotating, isothermal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) shear flow. The analysis is performed in the shearing box, a local model of a thin disk, using a decomposition in terms of shearing waves, i.e., plane waves in a frame comoving with the shear. These waves do not have a definite frequency as in a normal mode decomposition, and numerical integration of a coupled set of amplitude equations is required to characterize their time dependence. Their generic time dependence, however, is oscillatory with slowly-varying frequency and amplitude, and one can construct accurate analytical solutions by applying the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin method to the full set of amplitude equations. The solutions have the following properties: 1) Their accuracy increases with wavenumber, so that most perturbations that fit within the disk are well-approximated as modes with time-dependent frequencies and amplitudes. 2) They can be broadly classed as incompressive and compressive perturbations, the former including the nonaxisymmetric extension of magnetorotationally unstable modes, and the latter being the extension of fast and slow modes to a differentially-rotating medium. 3) Wave action is conserved, implying that their energy varies with frequency. 4) Their shear stress is proportional to the slope of their frequency, so that they transport angular momentum outward (inward) when their frequency increases (decreases). The complete set of solutions constitutes a comprehensive linear test suite for numerical MHD algorithms that incorporate a background shear flow. I conclude with a brief discussion of possible astrophysical applications.

Bryan M. Johnson

2007-02-12

195

Magneto-hydrodynamics simulation study of deflagration mode in co-axial plasma accelerators

Experimental studies by Poehlmann et al. [Phys. Plasmas 17(12), 123508 (2010)] on a coaxial electrode magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) plasma accelerator have revealed two modes of operation. A deflagration or stationary mode is observed for lower power settings, while higher input power leads to a detonation or snowplow mode. A numerical modeling study of a coaxial plasma accelerator using the non-ideal MHD equations is presented. The effect of plasma conductivity on the axial distribution of radial current is studied and found to agree well with experiments. Lower conductivities lead to the formation of a high current density, stationary region close to the inlet/breech, which is a characteristic of the deflagration mode, while a propagating current sheet like feature is observed at higher conductivities, similar to the detonation mode. Results confirm that plasma resistivity, which determines magnetic field diffusion effects, is fundamentally responsible for the two modes.

Sitaraman, Hariswaran; Raja, Laxminarayan L. [Department of Aerospace Engineering and Engineering Mechanics, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)] [Department of Aerospace Engineering and Engineering Mechanics, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

2014-01-15

196

Self-organisation of helically forced MHD flows in confined cylindrical geometries

and can help to control MHD flows more efficiently. In this paper we explore the behaviour of a conductingSelf-organisation of helically forced MHD flows in confined cylindrical geometries Malcolm Roberts1 to solve the resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations. A helical magnetic field is imposed via

Roberts, Malcolm

197

Magnetohydrodynamic Augmented Propulsion Experiment

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Over the past several years, efforts have been under way to design and develop an operationally flexible research facility for investigating the use of cross-field MHD accelerators as a potential thrust augmentation device for thermal propulsion systems. The baseline configuration for this high-power experimental facility utilizes a 1.5-MWe multi-gas arc-heater as a thermal driver for a 2-MWe MHD accelerator, which resides in a large-bore 2-tesla electromagnet. A preliminary design study using NaK seeded nitrogen as the working fluid led to an externally diagonalized segmented MHD channel configuration based on an expendable heat-sink design concept. The current status report includes a review of engineering/design work and performance optimization analyses and summarizes component hardware fabrication and development efforts, preliminary testing results, and recent progress toward full-up assembly and testing

Litchford, Ron J.

2008-01-01

198

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two parallel contracted studies were conducted. Each contractor investigated three base cases and parametric variations about these base cases. Each contractor concluded that two of the base cases (a plant using separate firing of an advanced high temperature regenerative air heater with fuel from an advanced coal gasifier and a plant using an intermediate temperature metallic recuperative heat exchanger to heat oxygen enriched combustion air) were comparable in both performance and cost of electricity. The contractors differed in the level of their cost estimates with the capital cost estimates for the MHD topping cycle and the magnet subsystem in particular accounting for a significant part of the difference. The impact of the study on the decision to pursue a course which leads to an oxygen enriched plant as the first commercial MHD plant is described.

Staigner, P. J.; Abbott, J. M.

1980-01-01

199

Magnetohydrodynamic Augmented Propulsion Experiment: I. Performance Analysis and Design

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The performance of conventional thermal propulsion systems is fundamentally constrained by the specific energy limitations associated with chemical fuels and the thermal limits of available materials. Electromagnetic thrust augmentation represents one intriguing possibility for improving the fuel composition of thermal propulsion systems, thereby increasing overall specific energy characteristics; however, realization of such a system requires an extremely high-energy-density electrical power source as well as an efficient plasma acceleration device. This Technical Publication describes the development of an experimental research facility for investigating the use of cross-field magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) accelerators as a possible thrust augmentation device for thermal propulsion systems. In this experiment,a 1.5-MW(sub e) Aerotherm arc heater is used to drive a 2-MW(sub e) MHD accelerator. The heatsink MHD accelerator is configured as an externally diagonalized, segmented channel, which is inserted into a large-bore, 2-T electromagnet. The performance analysis and engineering design of the flow path are described as well as the parameter measurements and flow diagnostics planned for the initial series of test runs.

Litchford, R. J.; Cole, J. W.; Lineberry, J. T.; Chapman, J. N.; Schmidt, H. J.; Lineberry, C. W.

2003-01-01

200

Lower hybrid current drive efficiency and power deposition profile during MHD activity in tore supra

When the magnetic shear vanishes over a wide spatial region close to the q=2 surface, a strong MHD activity ascribed to a global tearing mode m\\/n=2\\/1 is observed, corresponding to a 15% reduction of the current drive efficiency, and a significant flattening of the HXR profile localized in the vicinity of the island. Calculations of the HXR bremsstrahlung and the

Y. Peysson; R. Dumont; G. Giruzzi; G. Huysmans; F. Imbeaux; M. Ju; X. Litaudon; G. Martin; R. Mitteau; F. Rimini; M. Zabiego; T. Aniel; V. Basiuk; P. Bibet; C. Bourdelle; A. Ekedahl; X. Garbet; B. Schunke

2001-01-01

201

MESSENGER Observations of Magnetohydrodynamic Waves in the Solar Corona from Faraday Rotation

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the declining phase of the longest solar minimum in a century, the arrival of the MESSENGER spacecraft at superior conjunction allowed the measurement of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves in the solar corona with its 8 GHz radio frequency signal. MHD waves crossing the line of sight were measured via Faraday rotation fluctuations (FRFs) in the plane of polarization (PP) of MESSENGER's signal. FRFs in previous observations of the solar corona (at greater offset distances) consisted of a turbulent spectrum that decreased in power with increasing frequency and distance from the Sun. Occasionally a spectral line, a distinct peak in the power spectral density spectrum around 4 to 8 mHz, was also observed in these early data sets at offset distances of about 5 to 10 solar radii. The MESSENGER FRF data set shows a spectral line at an offset distance between 1.55 to 1.85 solar radii with a frequency of 0.6ą0.2 mHz. Other possible spectral lines may be at 1.2, 1.7, and 4.5 mHz; MHD waves with these same frequencies have been observed in X-ray data traveling along closed coronal loops at lower offset distances. An initial analysis of the MESSENGER spectral line(s) shows behavior similar to turbulent spectra: decreasing power with increasing frequency and distance from the Sun. Here we detail the steps taken to process the MESSENGER change in PP data set for the MHD wave investigation.

Jensen, E. A.; Nolan, M.; Bisi, M. M.; Chashei, I.; Vilas, F.

2013-07-01

202

Alfven Wave Tomography for Cold MHD Plasmas

Alfven waves propagation in slightly nonuniform cold plasmas is studied by means of ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) nonlinear equations. The evolution of the MHD spectrum is shown to be governed by a matrix linear differential equation with constant coefficients determined by the spectrum of quasi-static plasma density perturbations. The Alfven waves are shown not to affect the plasma density inhomogeneities, as they scatter off of them. The application of the MHD spectrum evolution equation to the inverse scattering problem allows tomographic measurements of the plasma density profile by scanning the plasma volume with Alfven radiation.

I.Y. Dodin; N.J. Fisch

2001-09-07

203

Stability and instability criteria for magnetohydrodynamics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The motion of an electrically conducting ideal fluid is governed by the equations of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) which reduce to the Euler equations in the absence of a magnetic field. Arnold's treatment for the stability of the Euler equations has been extended to the augmented system for ideal MHD by Holm et al (1985) and Friedlander and Vishik (1990). In contrast with the purely hydrodynamic problem, it is possible for MHD to obtain 3-dimensional examples in which the second variation of the energy is in fact definite. We note, however, that it is still a difficult task to check the remaining conditions associated with nonlinear stability concerning convexity and regularity. In this paper, we examine restrictions on the class of examples of MHD equilibria for which the second variation of the energy is definite. We follow the approach of Sadun and Vishik (1993) and consider the Arnold functional corresponding to localized high frequency disturbances.

Friedlander, S.; Vishik, M. M.

1993-08-01

204

Micromachined magnetohydrodynamic actuators and sensors

A magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) micropump and microsensor which utilizes micromachining to integrate the electrodes with microchannels and includes a magnet for producing magnetic fields perpendicular to both the electrical current direction and the fluid flow direction. The magnet can also be micromachined and integrated with the micropump using existing technology. The MHD micropump, for example, can generate continuous, reversible flow, with readily controllable flow rates. The flow can be reversed by either reversing the electrical current flow or reversing the magnetic field. By mismatching the electrodes, a swirling vortex flow can be generated for potential mixing applications. No moving parts are necessary and the dead volume is minimal. The micropumps can be placed at any position in a fluidic circuit and a combination of micropumps can generate fluidic plugs and valves.

Lee, Abraham P. (Walnut Creek, CA); Lemoff, Asuncion V. (Union City, CA)

2000-01-01

205

Multiscaling in Hall-magnetohydrodynamic turbulence: insights from a shell model.

We show that a shell-model version of the three-dimensional Hall-magnetohydrodynamic (3D Hall-MHD) equations provides a natural theoretical model for investigating the multiscaling behaviors of velocity and magnetic structure functions. We carry out extensive numerical studies of this shell model, obtain the scaling exponents for its structure functions, in both the low-k and high-k power-law ranges of three-dimensional Hall-magnetohydrodynamic, and find that the extended-self-similarity procedure is helpful in extracting the multiscaling nature of structure functions in the high-k regime, which otherwise appears to display simple scaling. Our results shed light on intriguing solar-wind measurements. PMID:24206495

Banerjee, Debarghya; Ray, Samriddhi Sankar; Sahoo, Ganapati; Pandit, Rahul

2013-10-25

206

Multiscaling in Hall-Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence: Insights from a Shell Model

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that a shell-model version of the three-dimensional Hall-magnetohydrodynamic (3D Hall-MHD) equations provides a natural theoretical model for investigating the multiscaling behaviors of velocity and magnetic structure functions. We carry out extensive numerical studies of this shell model, obtain the scaling exponents for its structure functions, in both the low-k and high-k power-law ranges of three-dimensional Hall-magnetohydrodynamic, and find that the extended-self-similarity procedure is helpful in extracting the multiscaling nature of structure functions in the high-k regime, which otherwise appears to display simple scaling. Our results shed light on intriguing solar-wind measurements.

Banerjee, Debarghya; Ray, Samriddhi Sankar; Sahoo, Ganapati; Pandit, Rahul

2013-10-01

207

Magnetohydrodynamic Origin of Astrophysical Jets

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A review is made of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theory, simulations, and observations of the origin of outflows from accretion disks. Stationary magnetohydrodynamic outflows from a rotating accretion disk have recently been found and studied by time-dependent axisymmetric simulations.(G.V. Ustyugova, A.V. Koldoba, M.M. Romanova, V.M. Chechetkin, and R.V.E. Lovelace, Magneto-Centrifugally Driven Winds: Comparison of MHD Simulations with Theory), Astrophysical Journal, 1998, submitted. The accretion disk is treated as a perfectly conducting, constant density boundary [?(r)] with Keplerian rotation. The outflow velocity from this surface is not specified but rather is determined self-consistently from the MHD equations. The temperature of the matter outflowing from the disk is small in the region where the magnetic field is inclined away from the symmetry axis (c_s^2 << v_K^2), but relatively high (c_s^2 buildrel < \\over ~ v_K^2) at small radii in the disk where the magnetic field is not inclined away from the axis (where cs is the sound speed and vK is the rotation velocity of the disk). We have found a large class of stationary MHD winds which go super-fast-magnetosonic and exceed the escape speed. The outflows are approximately radial with only small collimation within the simulation region. Close to the disk the outflow is driven by the centrifugal force while at all larger distances the flows are driven by the magnetic force J × B/c. We show that care in the treatment of the outer boundary conditions is required to avoid artificial collimation of the outflows.

v. E. Lovelace, Richard

1998-11-01

208

Robust and Efficient Riemann Solvers for MHD

Robust and efficient approximate Riemann solvers for magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) are constructed. Particularly, a family of positively conservative Harten-Lax-van Leer (HLL)-type Riemann solvers, the so-called HLLD (`D' denotes Discontinuities), HLLR (`R' denotes Rotational), HLLC (`C' denotes Contact), and HLL solvers, is systematically considered.

T. Miyoshi; K. Kusano

2008-01-01

209

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The performance and cost of moderate technology coal-fired open cycle MHD/steam power plant designs which can be expected to require a shorter development time and have a lower development cost than previously considered mature OCMHD/steam plants were determined. Three base cases were considered: an indirectly-fired high temperature air heater (HTAH) subsystem delivering air at 2700 F, fired by a state of the art atmospheric pressure gasifier, and the HTAH subsystem was deleted and oxygen enrichment was used to obtain requisite MHD combustion temperature. Coal pile to bus bar efficiencies in ease case 1 ranged from 41.4% to 42.9%, and cost of electricity (COE) was highest of the three base cases. For base case 2 the efficiency range was 42.0% to 45.6%, and COE was lowest. For base case 3 the efficiency range was 42.9% to 44.4%, and COE was intermediate. The best parametric cases in bases cases 2 and 3 are recommended for conceptual design. Eventual choice between these approaches is dependent on further evaluation of the tradeoffs among HTAH development risk, O2 plant integration, and further refinements of comparative costs.

Marston, C. H.; Alyea, F. N.; Bender, D. J.; Davis, L. K.; Dellinger, T. C.; Hnat, J. G.; Komito, E. H.; Peterson, C. A.; Rogers, D. A.; Roman, A. J.

1980-01-01

210

Magnetohydrodynamic instability

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There have been major advances in the theory of magnetic reconnection and of magnetic instability, with important implications for the observations, as follows: (1) Fast and slow magnetic shock waves are produced by the magnetohydrodynamics of reconnection and are potential particle accelerators. (2) The impulsive bursty regime of reconnection gives a rapid release of magnetic energy in a series of bursts. (3) The radiative tearing mode creates cool filamentary structures in the reconnection process. (4) The stability analyses imply that an arcade can become unstable when either its height or twist of plasma pressure become too great.

Priest, E. R.; Cargill, P.; Forbes, T. G.; Hood, A. W.; Steinolfson, R. S.

1986-01-01

211

Coal-fired, closed cycle MHD power generation offers the potential of achieving plant efficiencies approaching 50% versus current new conventional steam plants which have efficiencies in the range of 30 to 35%. The activities of the General Electric Space Sciences Laboratory in support of the national CCMHD program are described. The contract was composed of the four distinct task elements. Task

C. S. Cook; C. H. Marston; T. Dellinger

1979-01-01

212

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Terminal voltage measurements with various cathodes and anodes in a high power, quasi-steady magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) are discussed. The magnitude of the current at the onset of voltage fluctuations is shown to be an increasing function of cathode area and a weaker decreasing function of anode area. Tests with a fluted cathode indicated that the fluctuations originate in the plasma adjacent to the cathode rather than at the cathode surface. Measurements of radiative output from an optical cavity aligned to examine the current-carrying portion of a two-dimensional, 56 kA magnetoplasmadynamic discharge reveal no lasing in that region, consistent with calculations of electron excitation and resonance radiation trapping. A voltage-swept double probe technique allows single-shot determination of electron temperature and electron number density in the recombining MPD exhaust flow. Current distributions within the cavity of MPD hollow cathodes for various static prefills with no injected mass flow are examined.

Jahn, R. G.; Vonjaskowsky, W. F.; Clark, K. E.

1975-01-01

213

Smoothed Particle Magnetohydrodynamics (some shocking results...)

There have been some issues in the past in attempts to simulate magnetic fields using the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method. SPH is well suited to star formation problems because of its Lagrangian nature. We present new, stable and conservative methods for magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) in SPH and present numerical tests on both waves and shocks in one dimension to show that it gives robust and accurate results.

D. J. Price; J. J. Monaghan

2003-06-18

214

A Solution-Adaptive Upwind Scheme for Ideal Magnetohydrodynamics

This paper presents a computational scheme for compressible magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). The scheme is based on the same elements that make up many modern compressible gas dynamics codes: a high-resolution upwinding based on an approximate Riemann solver for MHD and limited reconstruction; an optimally smoothing multi-stage time-stepping scheme; and solution-adaptive refinement and coarsening. In addition, a method for increasing the accuracy

Kenneth G. Powell; Philip L. Roe; Timur J. Linde; Tamas I. Gombosi; Darren L. De Zeeuw

1999-01-01

215

Multimegawatt nuclear electric propulsion with gaseous and vapor core reactors with MHD

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigated the development of a system concept for space power generation and nuclear electric propulsion based on a fissioning plasma core reactor (FPCR) with magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power conversion system, coupled to a magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thruster. The FPCR is a liquid-vapor core reactor concept operating with metallic uranium or uranium tetrafluoride (UF4) vapor as the fissioning fuel and alkali metals or their fluorides as working fluid in a closed Rankine cycle with MHD energy conversion. Candidate working fluids include K, Li, Na, KF, LiF, NaF, etc. The system features core outlet temperatures of 3000 to 4000 K at pressures of about 1 to 10 MPa, MHD temperatures of 2000 to 3000 K, and radiator temperatures of 1200 to 2000 K. This combination of parameters offers the potential for low total system specific mass in the range of 0.4 to 0.6 kg/kWe. The MHD output could be coupled with minimal power conditioning to the variable specific impulse magnetoplasma rocket (VASIMR), MPD thrusters or other types of thruster for producing thrust at very high specific impulse (Isp=1500 to 10,000 s). .

Knight, Travis; Anghaie, Samim; Smith, Blair; Houts, Michael

2001-02-01

216

The performance of several small, seawater magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) thrusters was studied in a closed loop environment. Three different thrusters were designed, constructed, and evaluated. For the first time, videographic and photographic recordings of flow through MHD thrusters were obtained. The MHD induced flowrate, thrust, and mechanical efficiency was measured\\/calculated for each thruster at different combinations of electric current and magnetic

T. F. Lin; D. L. Aumiller; J. B. Gilbert; M. J. Coslo

1993-01-01

217

Slip effects on the peristaltic transport of MHD fluid with variable viscosity

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This Letter concerns with the peristaltic analysis of MHD viscous fluid in a two-dimensional channel with variable viscosity under the effect of slip condition. A long wavelength and low Reynolds number assumption is used in the problem formulation. An exact solution is presented for the case of hydrodynamic fluid while for magnetohydrodynamic fluid a series solution is obtained in the small power of viscosity parameter. The salient features of pumping and trapping phenomena are discussed in detail through the numerical integration. It is noted that an increase in the slip parameter decreases the peristaltic pumping region. Moreover, the size of trapped bolus decreases by increasing the slip parameter.

Ali, N.; Hussain, Q.; Hayat, T.; Asghar, S.

2008-02-01

218

Possible signatures of nonlinear MHD waves in the solar wind: UVCS observations and models

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent ultraviolet coronagraph spectrometer (UVCS) white light channel observations are discussed. These data indicated quasi-periodic variations in the polarized brightness in the polar coronal holes. The Fourier power spectrum analysis showed significant peaks at about six minutes and possible fluctuations on longer time scales. The observations are consistent with the predictions of the nonlinear solitary-like wave model. The purpose of a planned study on plume and inter-plume regions of coronal holes, motivated by the result of a 2.5 magnetohydrodynamic model (MHD), is explained.

Ofman, L.; Romoli, M.; Davila, J. M.; Poletto, G.; Kohl, J.; Noci, G.

1997-01-01

219

Reflection Properties of Gravito-MHD Waves in an Inhomogeneous Horizontal Magnetic Field

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We derive the dispersion equation for gravito-magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) waves in an isothermal, gravitationally stratified plasma with a horizontal inhomogeneous magnetic field. Sound and Alfvén speeds are constant. Under these conditions, it is possible to derive analytically the equations for gravito-MHD waves. The high values of the viscous and magnetic Reynolds numbers in the solar atmosphere imply that the dissipative terms in the MHD equations are negligible, except in layers around the positions where the frequency of the MHD wave equals the local Alfvén or slow wave frequency. Outside these layers the MHD waves are accurately described by the equations of ideal MHD.

Jovanovi?, G.

2014-11-01

220

Numerical Study of Compressible Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence in Two Dimensions

We have studied forced turbulence of compressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flows through two-dimensional simulations with different numerical resolutions. First, hydrodynamic turbulence with Mach number $_{\\rm init} \\equiv _{\\rm rms}/ c_s = 1$ and density compression ${}_{\\rm rms} \\simeq 0.45$ was generated by enforcing a random force. Then, initial, uniform magnetic fields of various strengths were added with Alfv\\'enic Mach number $_{\\rm init} \\equiv _{\\rm rms} / c_{A, {\\rm init}} \\gg 1$. An isothermal equation of state was employed, and no explicit dissipation was included. After the MHD turbulence is saturated, the resulting flows are categorized as very weak field (VWF), weak field (WF), and strong field (SF) classes, which have $ \\equiv _{\\rm rms} / _{\\rm rms} \\gg 1$, $ > 1$, and $ \\sim 1$, respectively. Not only in the SF regime but also in the WF regime, turbulent transport is suppressed by the magnetic field. In the SF cases, the energy power spectra in the inertial range, although no longer power-l...

Lee, H; Kim, J; Jones, T W; Balsara, D; Lee, Hyesook; Ryu, Dongsu; Kim, Jongsoo; Balsara, Dinshaw

2003-01-01

221

A Modern Code for Solving Magneto-hydrodynamic or Hydrodynamic Equations1

ABSTRACT We have developed a modern code to solve the magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) or hydrodynamic (HD) equations. The code consists of several ap- proaches for solving the MHD (or HD) by high-resolution schemes to improve the parallel efficiency. Our code is designed in a way that existing codes for a single grid can

Kurien, Susan

222

Global magnetohydrodynamic simulations on multiple GPUs

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) models play the major role in investigating the solar wind-magnetosphere interaction. However, the huge computation requirement in global MHD simulations is also the main problem that needs to be solved. With the recent development of modern graphics processing units (GPUs) and the Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA), it is possible to perform global MHD simulations in a more efficient manner. In this paper, we present a global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulator on multiple GPUs using CUDA 4.0 with GPUDirect 2.0. Our implementation is based on the modified leapfrog scheme, which is a combination of the leapfrog scheme and the two-step Lax-Wendroff scheme. GPUDirect 2.0 is used in our implementation to drive multiple GPUs. All data transferring and kernel processing are managed with CUDA 4.0 API instead of using MPI or OpenMP. Performance measurements are made on a multi-GPU system with eight NVIDIA Tesla M2050 (Fermi architecture) graphics cards. These measurements show that our multi-GPU implementation achieves a peak performance of 97.36 GFLOPS in double precision.

Wong, Un-Hong; Wong, Hon-Cheng; Ma, Yonghui

2014-01-01

223

Steady-state axisymmetric nonlinear magnetohydrodynamic solutions with various boundary conditions

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Axisymmetric magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) can be invoked for describing astrophysical magnetized flows and formulated to model stellar magnetospheres including main-sequence stars (e.g. the Sun), compact stellar objects [e.g. magnetic white dwarfs (MWDs), radio pulsars, anomalous X-ray pulsars, magnetars, isolated neutron stars, etc.] and planets as a major step forward towards a full three-dimensional model construction. Using powerful and reliable numerical solvers based on two distinct finite-difference method and finite-element method schemes of algorithm, we examine axisymmetric steady-state or stationary MHD models in Throumoulopoulos & Tasso, finding that their separable semi-analytic non-linear solutions are actually not unique given their specific selection of several free functionals and chosen boundary conditions. Similar situations of multiple non-linear solutions with the same boundary conditions actually also happen to force-free magnetic field models of Low & Lou. The multiplicity of non-linear steady MHD solutions gives rise to differences in the total energies contained in the magnetic fields and flow velocity fields as well as in the asymptotic behaviours approaching infinity, which may in turn explain why numerical solvers tend to converge to a non-linear solution with a lower energy than the corresponding separable semi-analytic one. By properly adjusting model parameters, we invoke semi-analytic and numerical solutions to describe different kinds of scenarios, including nearly parallel case and the situation in which the misalignment between the plasma flow and magnetic field is considerable. We propose that these MHD models are capable of describing the magnetospheres of MWDs as examples of applications with moderate conditions (including magnetic field) where the typical values of several important parameters are consistent with observations. Physical parameters can also be estimated based on such MHD models directly. We discuss the challenges of developing numerical extrapolation MHD codes in view of the non-linear degeneracy.

Wang, Lile; Lou, Yu-Qing

2014-04-01

224

Action principles for extended magnetohydrodynamic models

The general, non-dissipative, two-fluid model in plasma physics is Hamiltonian, but this property is sometimes lost or obscured in the process of deriving simplified (or reduced) two-fluid or one-fluid models from the two-fluid equations of motion. To ensure that the reduced models are Hamiltonian, we start with the general two-fluid action functional, and make all the approximations, changes of variables, and expansions directly within the action context. The resulting equations are then mapped to the Eulerian fluid variables using a novel nonlocal Lagrange-Euler map. Using this method, we recover Lüst's general two-fluid model, extended magnetohydrodynamic (MHD), Hall MHD, and electron MHD from a unified framework. The variational formulation allows us to use Noether's theorem to derive conserved quantities for each symmetry of the action.

Keramidas Charidakos, I.; Lingam, M.; Morrison, P. J.; White, R. L. [Institute for Fusion Studies and Department of Physics, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Wurm, A. [Department of Physical and Biological Sciences, Western New England University, Springfield, Massachusetts 01119 (United States)

2014-09-15

225

Action principles for extended magnetohydrodynamic models

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The general, non-dissipative, two-fluid model in plasma physics is Hamiltonian, but this property is sometimes lost or obscured in the process of deriving simplified (or reduced) two-fluid or one-fluid models from the two-fluid equations of motion. To ensure that the reduced models are Hamiltonian, we start with the general two-fluid action functional, and make all the approximations, changes of variables, and expansions directly within the action context. The resulting equations are then mapped to the Eulerian fluid variables using a novel nonlocal Lagrange-Euler map. Using this method, we recover Lüst's general two-fluid model, extended magnetohydrodynamic (MHD), Hall MHD, and electron MHD from a unified framework. The variational formulation allows us to use Noether's theorem to derive conserved quantities for each symmetry of the action.

Keramidas Charidakos, I.; Lingam, M.; Morrison, P. J.; White, R. L.; Wurm, A.

2014-09-01

226

Computation of multi-region relaxed magnetohydrodynamic equilibria

We describe the construction of stepped-pressure equilibria as extrema of a multi-region, relaxed magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) energy functional that combines elements of ideal MHD and Taylor relaxation, and which we call MRXMHD. The model is compatible with Hamiltonian chaos theory and allows the three-dimensional MHD equilibrium problem to be formulated in a well-posed manner suitable for computation. The energy-functional is discretized using a mixed finite-element, Fourier representation for the magnetic vector potential and the equilibrium geometry; and numerical solutions are constructed using the stepped-pressure equilibrium code, SPEC. Convergence studies with respect to radial and Fourier resolution are presented.

Hudson, S. R.; Lazerson, S. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Dewar, R. L.; Dennis, G.; Hole, M. J.; McGann, M.; Nessi, G. von [Plasma Research Laboratory, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)

2012-11-15

227

Computation of Multi-region Relaxed Magnetohydrodynamic Equilibria

We describe the construction of stepped-pressure equilibria as extrema of a multi-region, relaxed magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) energy functional that combines elements of ideal MHD and Taylor relaxation, and which we call MRXMHD. The model is compatible with Hamiltonian chaos theory and allows the three-dimensional MHD equilibrium problem to be formulated in a well-posed manner suitable for computation. The energy-functional is discretized using a mixed finite-element, Fourier representation for the magnetic vector potential and the equilibrium geometry; and numerical solutions are constructed using the stepped-pressure equilibrium code, SPEC. Convergence studies with respect to radial and Fourier resolution are presented.

S.R. Hudson, R.L. Dewar, G. Dennis, M.J. Hole, M. McGann, G. von Nessi and S. Lazerson

2013-03-29

228

Energy principles for linear dissipative systems with application to resistive MHD stability

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A formalism for the construction of energy principles for dissipative systems is presented. It is shown that dissipative systems satisfy a conservation law for the bilinear Hamiltonian provided the Lagrangian is time invariant. The energy on the other hand, differs from the Hamiltonian by being quadratic and by having a negative definite time derivative (positive power dissipation). The energy is a Lyapunov functional whose definiteness yields necessary and sufficient stability criteria. The stability problem of resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) is addressed: the energy principle for ideal MHD is generalized and the stability criterion by Tasso [Phys. Lett. 147, 28 (1990)] is shown to be necessary in addition to sufficient for real growth rates. An energy principle is found for the inner layer equations that yields the resistive stability criterion DR<0 in the incompressible limit, whereas the tearing mode criterion ?'<0 is shown to result from the conservation law of the bilinear concomitant in the resistive layer.

Pletzer, A.

1997-09-01

229

Gas Core Reactor Numerical Simulation Using a Coupled MHD-MCNP Model

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analysis is provided in this report of using two head-on magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) shocks to achieve supercritical nuclear fission in an axially elongated cylinder filled with UF4 gas as an energy source for deep space missions. The motivation for each aspect of the design is explained and supported by theory and numerical simulations. A subsequent report will provide detail on relevant experimental work to validate the concept. Here the focus is on the theory of and simulations for the proposed gas core reactor conceptual design from the onset of shock generations to the supercritical state achieved when the shocks collide. The MHD model is coupled to a standard nuclear code (MCNP) to observe the neutron flux and fission power attributed to the supercritical state brought about by the shock collisions. Throughout the modeling, realistic parameters are used for the initial ambient gaseous state and currents to ensure a resulting supercritical state upon shock collisions.

Kazeminezhad, F.; Anghaie, S.

2008-01-01

230

Benchmark solutions for MHD solver development

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A benchmark solution is of great importance in validating algorithms and codes for magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flows. Hunt and Shercliff's solutions are usually employed as benchmarks for MHD flows in a duct with insulated walls or with thin conductive walls, in which wall effects on MHD are represented by the wall conductance ratio. With wall thickness resolved, it is stressed that the solution of Sloan and Smith's and the solution of Butler's can be used to check the error of the thin wall approximation condition used for Hunt's solutions. It is noted that Tao and Ni's solutions can be used as a benchmark for MHD flows in a duct with wall symmetrical or unsymmetrical, thick or thin. When the walls are symmetrical, Tao and Ni's solutions are reduced to Sloan and Smith's solution and Butler's solution, respectively.

Tao, Zhen; Ni, MingJiu

2013-02-01

231

Subgrid-scale modeling of compressible magnetohydrodynamic turbulence in heat-conducting plasma

A large-eddy simulation (LES) approach for compressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence in heat-conducting plasma is developed for the first time. Subgrid-scale models for new terms appearing due to the presence of magnetic field are suggested. Results of modeling for decaying compressible MHD turbulence are presented. Comparison and testing with results obtained by direct numerical simulation are made. The efficiency of the developed LES technique for compressible MHD turbulence in heat-conducting plasma is shown.

Chernyshov, A. A.; Karelsky, K. V.; Petrosyan, A. S. [Theoretical Section, Space Research Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Profsoyuznaya 84/32, 117997 Moscow (Russian Federation)

2006-10-15

232

Magnetohydrodynamic 3-D Models of the Solar Convection Zone

We discuss recent progresses made in modelling the complex magnetohydrodynamics of the Sun using our anelastic spherical harmonics (ASH) code on massively parallel computers. We have conducted 3--D MHD simulations of compressible convection in spherical shells to study the coupling between convection rotation and magnetic field in seeking to understand how the solar differential rotation is established and maintained. The

Allan Sacha Brun

2005-01-01

233

Entropy-fix upwind schemes for the ideal magnetohydrodynamic equations

The ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations form a non-strictly hyperbolic system of conservation laws. This system of equations has been widely studied from dierent analytical and numerical methodologies ((1, 2, 3, 6, 9, 13)). The standard approach is based on the study of the wave structure of the equations ((5, 3)) and its numerical treatment ((3, 6, 9, 13)). The complexity

Susana Serna

234

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While a microscopic system is usually governed by canonical Hamiltonian mechanics, that of a macroscopic system is often noncanonical, reflecting a degenerate Poisson structure underlying the coarse-grained phase space. Probing into symplectic leaves (local structures in a foliated phase space), we may be able to elucidate the order of transition from micro to macro. The Lagrangian guides our analysis. We formulate canonized Hamiltonian systems of Hall magnetohydrodynamics (HMHD) which have a hierarchized set of canonical variables; the simplest system is the subclass in which the ion vorticity and magnetic field have integral surfaces. Renormalizing the singularity scaled by the reciprocal Hall parameter (as the ion vorticity surfaces and the magnetic surfaces are set to merge), we delineate the singular limit to ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). The formulated canonical equations will be useful in the study of ordered structures and dynamics (with integrable vortex lines) in HMHD and their singular limit to MHD, such as magnetic confinement systems, shocks or vortical dynamics.

Yoshida, Z.; Hameiri, E.

2013-08-01

235

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Directly-fired, separately-fired, and oxygen-augmented MHD power plants incorporating a disk geometry for the MHD generator were studied. The base parameters defined for four near-optimum-performance MHD steam power systems of various types are presented. The finally selected systems consisted of (1) two directly fired cases, one at 1920 K (2996F) preheat and the other at 1650 K (2500 F) preheat, (2) a separately-fired case where the air is preheated to the same level as the higher temperature directly-fired cases, and (3) an oxygen augmented case with the same generator inlet temperature of 2839 (4650F) as the high temperature directly-fired and separately-fired cases. Supersonic Mach numbers at the generator inlet, gas inlet swirl, and constant Hall field operation were specified based on disk generator optimization. System pressures were based on optimization of MHD net power. Supercritical reheat stream plants were used in all cases. Open and closed cycle component costs are summarized and compared.

Retallick, F. D.

1980-01-01

236

Experimental determination of the MHD-EMP effects on power distribution transformers

It is a well-established fact that geomagnetic storms influence electrical power transmission and distribution systems. Previous cases of such storms in the northern latitudes have resulted in occasional power disruptions, and in some cases, damage to transformers. These effects are caused by a time variation of the earth's magnetic field creating an induced electric field along the surface of the

B. W. McConnell; Paul R. Barnes; Frederick M. Tesche

1991-01-01

237

Advanced Coal-Based Power Generations

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Advanced power-generation systems using coal-derived fuels are evaluated in two-volume report. Report considers fuel cells, combined gas- and steam-turbine cycles, and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) energy conversion. Presents technological status of each type of system and analyzes performance of each operating on medium-Btu fuel gas, either delivered via pipeline to powerplant or generated by coal-gasification process at plantsite.

Robson, F. L.

1982-01-01

238

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In most of the processes, a portion of the potassium seed material is converted to a compound not containing sulfur. The potassium in this form can, when injected upstream of the MHD channel, capture the sulfur released during the combustion of coal and eliminate the need for flue gas desulfurization equipment. Criteria considered in the evaluation included cost, state of development, seed loss, power requirements, availability, durability, key component risk, environmental impact, safety, controllability, and impurities buildup.

1980-07-01

239

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work introduces an inductive energy storage (IES) scheme which aims pulsed-power conditioning at multi- MJ energies. The key element of the scheme represents an additional plasma volume, where a magnetically accelerated wire array is used for inductive current switching. This plasma acceleration volume is connected in parallel to a microsecond capacitor bank and to a 100-ns current ruse-time useful load. Simple estimates suggest that optimized scheme parameters could be reachable even when operating at ultra-high currents. We describe first proof-of-principle experiments carried out on GIT12 generator [1] at the wire-array current level of 2 MA. The obtained confirmation of the concept consists in generation of a 200 kV voltage directly at an inductive load. This load voltage value can be already sufficient to transfer the available magnetic energy into kinetic energy of a liner at this current level. Two-dimensional modeling with the radiational MHD numerical tool Marple [2] confirms the development of inductive voltage in the system. However, the average voltage increase is accompanied by short-duration voltage drops due to interception of the current by the low-density upstream plasma. Upon our viewpoint, this instability of the current distribution represents the main physical limitation to the scheme performance.

Chuvatin, Alexandre S.; Rudakov, Leonid I.; Kokshenev, Vladimir A.; Aranchuk, Leonid E.; Huet, Dominique; Gasilov, Vladimir A.; Krukovskii, Alexandre Yu.; Kurmaev, Nikolai E.; Fursov, Fiodor I.

2002-12-01

240

Magnetohydrodynamics Accelerator Research into Advanced Hypersonics (MARIAH). Part 2

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report documents the activities, results, conclusions and recommendations of the Magnetohydrodynamics Accelerator Research Into Advanced Hypersonics (MARIAH) Project in which the use of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) technology is investigated for its applicability to augment hypersonic wind tunnels. The long range objective of this investigation is to advance the development of ground test facilities to support the development of hypervelocity flight vehicles. The MHD accelerator adds kinetic energy directly to the wind tunnel working fluid, thereby increasing its Mach number to hypervelocity levels. Several techniques for MHD augmentation, as well as other physical characteristics of the process are studied to enhance the overall performance of hypersonic wind tunnel design. Specific recommendations are presented to improve the effectiveness of ground test facilities. The work contained herein builds on nearly four decades of research and experimentation by the aeronautics ground test and evaluation community, both foreign and domestic.

Baughman, Jack A.; Micheletti, David A.; Nelson, Gordon L.; Simmons, Gloyd A.

1997-01-01

241

Magnetohydrodynamics Accelerator Research Into Advanced Hypersonics (MARIAH). Part 1

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report documents the activities, results, conclusions and recommendations of the Magnetohydrodynamics Accelerator Research Into Advanced Hypersonics (MARIAH) Project in which the use of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) technology is investigated for its applicability to augment hypersonic wind tunnels. The long range objective of this investigation is to advance the development of ground test facilities to support the development of hypervelocity flight vehicles. The MHD accelerator adds kinetic energy directly to the wind tunnel working fluid, thereby increasing its Mach number to hypervelocity levels. Several techniques for MHD augmentation, as well as other physical characteristics of the process are studied to enhance the overall performance of hypersonic wind tunnel design. Specific recommendations are presented to improve the effectiveness of ground test facilities. The work contained herein builds on nearly four decades of research and experimentation by the aeronautics ground test and evaluation community, both foreign and domestic.

Micheletti, David A.; Baughman, Jack A.; Nelson, Gordon L.; Simmons, Gloyd A.

1997-01-01

242

An adaptive MHD method for global space weather simulations

A 3D parallel adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) scheme is described for solving the partial-differential equations governing ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flows. This new algorithm adopts a cell-centered upwind finite-volume discretization procedure and uses limited solution reconstruction, approximate Riemann solvers, and explicit multi-stage time stepping to solve the MHD equations in divergence form, providing a combination of high solution accuracy and computational

Darren L. De Zeeuw; Tamas I. Gombosi; Clinto P. T. Groth; Kenneth G. Powell; Quentin F. Stout

2000-01-01

243

MHD simulations of the collapsar model for GRBs

We present results from axisymmetric, time-dependent magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of the collapsar model for gamma-ray bursts. Our main conclusion is that, within the collapsar model, MHD effects alone are able to launch, accelerate and sustain a strong polar outflow. We also find that the outflow is Poynting flux-dominated, and note that this provides favorable initial conditions for the subsequent production of a baryon-poor fireball.

D. Proga; A. I. MacFadyen; P. J. Armitage; M. C. Begelman

2003-12-11

244

Renormalization group in magnetohydrodynamic turbulence

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The renormalization group (RNG) theory is applied to magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations written in Elsaesser variables, as done by Yakhot and Orszag for Navier-Stokes equations. As a result, a system of coupled nonlinear differential equations for the 'effective' or turbulent 'viscosities' is obtained. Without solving this system, it is possible to prove their exponential behavior at the 'fixed point' and also determine the effective viscosity and resistivity. Strictly speaking, the results do not allow negative effective viscosity or resistivity, but in certain cases the effective resistivity can be continued to negative values, but not the effective viscosity. In other cases, the system tends to zero effective viscosity or resistivity. The range of possible values of the turbulent Prandtl number is also determined; the system tends to different values of this number, depending on the initial values of the viscosity and resistivity and the way the system is excited.

Camargo, S. J.; Tasso, H.

1992-05-01

245

Coherent Eigenmodes in Homogeneous MHD Turbulence

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The statistical mechanics of Fourier models of ideal, homogeneous, incompressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence is discussed, along with their relevance for dissipative magnetofluids. Although statistical theory predicts that Fourier coefficients of fluid velocity and magnetic field are zero-mean random variables, numerical simulations clearly show that certain coefficients have a non-zero mean value that can be very large compared to the associated standard deviation, i.e., we have coherent structure. We use eigenanalysis of the modal covariance matrices in the probability density function to explain this phenomena in terms of `broken ergodicity', which is defined to occur when dynamical behavior does not match ensemble predictions on very long time-scales. We provide examples from 2-D and 3-D magnetohydrodynamic simulations of homogeneous turbulence, and show new results from long-time simulations of MHD turbulence with and without a mean magnetic field

Shebalin, John V.

2010-01-01

246

Analysis of Magnetohydrodynamic Flow in Microfluidics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the last three decades, numerical and experimental fluid dynamic studies have been well documented for optimization of device performance in general fluid dynamics, prediction and analysis of physiological flows, fluid-structure interactions in biological systems, and effectiveness of drug delivery systems in lab on chip devices. Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) is a proven and a routinely used technology not only in various industries to heat, pump, stir and levitate fluids but also an innovative potential for making remarkable biosensors. Two typical pilot projects to test, analyze and optimize the MHD effects were designed. Microfluidics channels coupled with MHD in various shapes were fabricated from a thin brass sheet sandwiched between two polycarbonate sheets in which two platinum electrodes were patterned on the channel walls. Ionic solution colored with dye was introduced in the channel to visualize the fluid flow with or without the MHD. The induction and driving of fluid motion in the channel was accomplished by placing magnetic field normal to the applied electric field in order to induce Lorentz forces in the fluid contained in the channel. Experimental data and numerical results were obtained in a good agreement. Flow velocities were obtained linearly increasing with the higher magnetic flux densities. Future work will be focused on the development of MHD biosensors for chemical biology applications.

Panta, Yogendra; Lin, Wei

2009-11-01

247

Perfect magnetohydrodynamics as a field theory

We propose the generally covariant action for the theory of a self-coupled complex scalar field and electromagnetism which by virtue of constraints is equivalent, in the regime of long wavelengths, to perfect magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). We recover from it the Euler equation with Lorentz force, and the thermodynamic relations for a prefect fluid. The equation of state of the latter is related to the scalar field's self potential. We introduce 1+3 notation to elucidate the relation between MHD and field variables. In our approach the requirement that the scalar field be single valued leads to the quantization of a certain circulation in steps of ({Dirac_h}/2{pi}); this feature leads, in the classical limit, to the conservation of that circulation. The circulation is identical to that in Oron's generalization of Kelvin's circulation theorem to perfect MHD; we here characterize the new conserved helicity associated with it. We also demonstrate the existence for MHD of two Bernoulli-like theorems for each spacetime symmetry of the flow and geometry; one of these is pertinent to suitably defined potential flow. We exhibit the conserved quantities explicitly in the case that two symmetries are simultaneously present, and give examples. Also in this case we exhibit a new conserved MHD circulation distinct from Oron's, and provide an example.

Bekenstein, Jacob D.; Betschart, Gerold [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel)

2006-10-15

248

A Numerical Algorithm for MHD of Free Surface Flows at Low Magnetic Reynolds

A Numerical Algorithm for MHD of Free Surface Flows at Low Magnetic Reynolds Numbers Roman Samulyak soft- ware for the study of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) of free surface flows at low magnetic Reynolds for fluid flows and the low magnetic Reynolds number approxima- tion [19] for electromagnetic forces

McDonald, Kirk

249

Collisional and viscous damping of MHD waves in partially ionized plasmas of the solar atmosphere

Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves are widely considered as a possible source of heating for various parts of the outer solar atmosphere. Among the main energy dissipation mechanisms which convert the energy of damped MHD waves into thermal energy are collisional dissipation (resistivity) and viscosity. The presence of neutral atoms in the partially ionized plasmas of the solar photosphere, chromosphere and prominences

M. L. Khodachenko; T. D. Arber; H. O. Rucker; A. Hanslmeier

2004-01-01

250

Three-Dimensional MHD on Cubed-Sphere Grids: Parallel Solution-Adaptive Simulation Framework

Three-Dimensional MHD on Cubed-Sphere Grids: Parallel Solution-Adaptive Simulation Framework L cubed-sphere grid framework is described for simu- lation of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) space and improves convergence efficiency of the iterative method. The Schwarz preconditioning and block-based data

De Sterck, Hans

251

MHD plants: A comparison between two-level and three-level systems

The present paper aims to analyse a way to improve the performance of magnetohydrodynamic systems by introducing a third level in a classic MHD\\/steam plant. The task of this further level is to reduce the energy loss between the MHD outlet (T > 2000 K) and the steam turbine inlet. Two layouts have been considered: the first one with an

S. P. Cicconardi; E. Jannelli; G. Spazzafumo

1997-01-01

252

The Component Development and Integration Facility (CDIF) is one of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) experimental test facilities. The scope of this paper is limited to a brief description of the facility activation and results from the initial MHD testing using an oil fired ash injected combustor (AIC) and a supersonic channel. 1 ref.

G. E. Staats; V. J. DeJong; R. J. Karvinen; R. A. Carrington; L. E. Bauman

1981-01-01

253

Channel design for closed cycle MHD

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

System design studies for medium scale power plants with a closed cycle MHD topping were performed. The studies show a potential for early commercialization of the direct energy conversion technology for coal and natural gas fired utility installations. As a first step towards the large scale application of MHD, this technology can demonstrate an economically high enthalpy extraction on an intermediate scale. The closed cycle MHD power train, and in particular the generator, was studied, and a basic design configuration was defined.

Troost, G. K.; Kemper, C. A. L.; Verbruggen, T. W.; Vanderwijngaart, R. F.; Lindhout, J. P. F.

254

Channel design for closed cycle MHD

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

System design studies for medium scale power plants with a closed cycle MHD topping were performed. The studies show a potential for early commercialization of the direct energy conversion technology for coal and natural gas fired utility installations. As a first step towards the large scale application of MHD, this technology can demonstrate an economically high enthalpy extraction on an intermediate scale. The closed cycle MHD power train, particularly the generator, was studied and a basic design configuration was defined.

Troost, G. K.; Kemper, C. A. L.; Verbruggen, T. W.; Vanderwijngaart, R. F.; Lindhout, J. P. F.; Vanderdraai, R. K.

1984-05-01

255

Power takeoff analysis and comparison with experiments in a coal-fired MHD generator

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The power takeoff region of a diagonal conducting wall generator is examined using a two-dimensional electrodynamic analysis including the axial gradient of the magnetic induction. Good agreement between this analysis and experimental data was found with respect to both voltage and current distributions. A similar comparison using one-dimensional theory was not satisfactory in the end region. The present analysis correctly predicts the large current observed experimentally at the innermost power takeoff electrode (closest to the main load) under off-design current conditions. In this case an unusual current distribution is also calculated. When a parallel ballast resistor scheme was used for power takeoff it was found that the innermost resistors can play a significant role in reducing the overcurrent that occurs at off-design conditions. It is also shown that a current distribution with tapered ends offers advantages over drawing the same current from each electrode when operation is at off-design current levels. The effect of interframe voltage nonuniformities on power takeoff is also investigated.

Wu, Y. C. L.; Scott, M. H.; Ishikawa, M.

1983-10-01

256

Development program for MHD power generation. Quarterly report, April 1976June 1976

Laboratory analyses of the Mark VI channel wall samples after the 100 hour test are discussed and conclusions and recommendations are presented. Experimental operations during the period have concentrated on loading the Mark VI C channel as an ideal Faraday with very favorable results. Twenty-two tests were conducted in the period totaling 71 thermal and 32 power hours. There was

A. Demirjian; R. E. Gannon; V. Hruby; J. E. Klepeis; S. W. Petty; A. Solbes; S. Ubhayakar

1977-01-01

257

Hypersonic MHD Propulsion System Integration for the Mercury Lightcraft

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduced herein are the design, systems integration, and performance analysis of an exotic magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) slipstream accelerator engine for a single-occupant ``Mercury'' lightcraft. This ultra-energetic, laser-boosted vehicle is designed to ride a `tractor beam' into space, transmitted from a future orbital network of satellite solar power stations. The lightcraft's airbreathing combined-cycle engine employs a rotary pulsed detonation thruster mode for lift-off & landing, and an MHD slipstream accelerator mode at hypersonic speeds. The latter engine transforms the transatmospheric acceleration path into a virtual electromagnetic `mass-driver' channel; the hypersonic momentum exchange process (with the atmosphere) enables engine specific impulses in the range of 6000 to 16,000 seconds, and propellant mass fractions as low as 10%. The single-stage-to-orbit, highly reusable lightcraft can accelerate at 3 Gs into low Earth orbit with its throttle just barely beyond `idle' power, or virtually `disappear' at 30 G's and beyond. The objective of this advanced lightcraft design is to lay the technological foundations for a safe, very low cost (e.g., 1000X below chemical rockets) air and space transportation for human life in the mid-21st Century - a system that will be completely `green' and independent of Earth's limited fossil fuel reserves.

Myrabo, L. N.; Rosa, R. J.

2004-03-01

258

Broken Symmetry and Coherent Structure in MHD Turbulence

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Absolute equilibrium ensemble theory for ideal homogeneous magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence is fairly well developed. Theory and Simulation indicate that ideal MHD turbulence non-ergodic and contains coherent structure. The question of applicability real (i.e., dissipative) MHD turbulence is examined. Results from several very long time numerical simulations on a 64(exp 3) grid are presented. It is seen that coherent structure begins to form before decay dominates over nonlinearity. The connection with inverse spectral cascades and selective decay will also be discussed.

Shebalin, John V.

2007-01-01

259

System analysis of high performance MHD systems

This paper presents the results of an investigation on the upper ranges of performance that an MHD power plant using advanced technology assumptions might achieve and a parametric study on the key variables affecting this high performance. To simulate a high performance MHD power plant and conduct a parametric study, the Systems Analysis Language Translator (SALT) code developed at Argonne

S. L. Chang; G. F. Berry; N. Hu

1988-01-01

260

ANALYTIC APPROXIMATE SEISMOLOGY OF PROPAGATING MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC WAVES IN THE SOLAR CORONA

Observations show that propagating magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves are ubiquitous in the solar atmosphere. The technique of MHD seismology uses the wave observations combined with MHD wave theory to indirectly infer physical parameters of the solar atmospheric plasma and magnetic field. Here, we present an analytical seismological inversion scheme for propagating MHD waves. This scheme uses the observational information on wavelengths and damping lengths in a consistent manner, along with observed values of periods or phase velocities, and is based on approximate asymptotic expressions for the theoretical values of wavelengths and damping lengths. The applicability of the inversion scheme is discussed and an example is given.

Goossens, M.; Soler, R. [Centre for Mathematical Plasma Astrophysics, Department of Mathematics, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200B, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Arregui, I. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, Via Lactea s/n, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Terradas, J., E-mail: marcel.goossens@wis.kuleuven.be [Solar Physics Group, Departament de Fisica, Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain)

2012-12-01

261

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Supernova explosions and powerful stellar winds with strong shocks can convert a sizeable part of the kinetic energy release into energetic particles. The starforming regions are argued as a favorable site of energetic particle acceleration and could be efficient sources of nonthermal emission. We present the analytic solution for the time-dependent diffusion-convection equation for the case of two approaching shocks. We also present here time-dependent model of particle acceleration in the vicinity of two closely approaching fast magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) shocks. Such MHD flows are expected to occur in rich young stellar cluster where a supernova is exploding in the vicinity of a strong stellar wind of a nearby massive star. We find that the spectrum of the high energy particles accelerated at the stage of two closely approaching shocks can be harder than that formed at a forward shock of an isolated supernova remnant. The presented method can be applied to model particle acceleration in a variety of systems with colliding MHD flows.

Gladilin, P. E.; Bykov, A. M.; Osipov, S. M.

2013-08-01

262

Cosmic ray transport in MHD turbulence

Recent advances in understanding of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence call for revisions in the picture of cosmic ray transport. In this paper we use recently obtained scaling laws for MHD modes to obtain the scattering frequency for cosmic rays. We account for the turbulence cutoff arising from both collisional and collisionless damping. We obtain the scattering rate and show that fast modes provide the dominant contribution to cosmic ray scattering for the typical interstellar conditions in spite of the fact that fast modes are subjected to damping. We determine how the efficiency of the scattering depends on the characteristics of ionized media, e.g. plasma $\\beta$. We show that streaming instability is suppressed by the ambient MHD turbulence.

Huirong Yan; A. Lazarian

2005-05-28

263

Parallel proton fire hose instability in gyrotropic Hall MHD model

The linear theory and nonlinear evolution of parallel or classical fire hose instability previously studied based on hybrid particle simulations are examined within the framework of a gyrotropic Hall magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model that incorporates the ion inertial effects arising from the Hall current but neglects the electron inertia in the generalized Ohm's law. Both the ion cyclotron and whistler waves

B.-J. Wang; L.-N. Hau

2010-01-01

264

MHD--Developing New Technology to Meet the Energy Crisis

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Magnetohydrodynamics is a technology that could utilize the nation's most abundant fossil fuel and produce electrical energy more efficiently and cleanly than present-day turbines. A national research and development program is ongoing in Butte, Montana at the Montana Energy and MHD Research and Development Institute (MERDI). (Author/RK)

Fitch, Sandra S.

1978-01-01

265

Toward textbook multigrid efficiency for fully implicit resistive magnetohydrodynamics

Multigrid methods can solve some classes of elliptic and parabolic equations to accuracy below the truncation error with a work-cost equivalent to a few residual calculations - so-called 'textbook' multigrid efficiency. We investigate methods to solve the system of equations that arise in time dependent magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations with textbook multigrid efficiency. We apply multigrid techniques such as geometric interpolation, full approximate storage, Gauss-Seidel smoothers, and defect correction for fully implicit, nonlinear, second-order finite volume discretizations of MHD. We apply these methods to a standard resistive MHD benchmark problem, the GEM reconnection problem, and add a strong magnetic guide field, which is a critical characteristic of magnetically confined fusion plasmas. We show that our multigrid methods can achieve near textbook efficiency on fully implicit resistive MHD simulations.

Adams, Mark F. [Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States); Samtaney, Ravi, E-mail: samtaney@pppl.go [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States); Brandt, Achi [Department of Computer Science and Applied Mathematics, The Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot (Israel)

2010-09-01

266

On the question of hysteresis in Hall magnetohydrodynamic reconnection

Controversy has been raised regarding the cause of hysteresis, or bistability, of solutions to the equations that govern the geometry of the reconnection region in Hall magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) systems. This brief communication presents a comparison of the frameworks within which this controversy has arisen and illustrates that the Hall MHD hysteresis originally discovered numerically by Cassak et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 235002 (2005)] is a different phenomenon from that recently reported by Zocco et al. [Phys. Plasmas 16, 110703 (2009)] on the basis of analysis and simulations in electron MHD with finite electron inertia. We demonstrate that the analytic prediction of hysteresis in EMHD does not describe or explain the hysteresis originally reported in Hall MHD, which is shown to persist even in the absence of electron inertia.

Sullivan, Brian P.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Huang Yimin [Center for Integrated Computation and Analysis of Reconnection and Turbulence, University of New Hampshire, Space Science Center, Durham, New Hampshire 03824 (United States)

2010-11-15

267

Numerical Methods for Radiation Magnetohydrodynamics in Astrophysics

We describe numerical methods for solving the equations of radiation magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) for astrophysical fluid flow. Such methods are essential for the investigation of the time-dependent and multidimensional dynamics of a variety of astrophysical systems, although our particular interest is motivated by problems in star formation. Over the past few years, the authors have been members of two parallel code development efforts, and this review reflects that organization. In particular, we discuss numerical methods for MHD as implemented in the Athena code, and numerical methods for radiation hydrodynamics as implemented in the Orion code. We discuss the challenges introduced by the use of adaptive mesh refinement in both codes, as well as the most promising directions for future developments.

Klein, R I; Stone, J M

2007-11-20

268

Magnetohydrodynamic propulsion using on-board sources

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetohydrodynamics is considered to extract power from flow and to inset power into flow at different points in propulsion systems that might be useful for advanced Earth-to-orbit vehicles. No beamed power is considered, and so the power is all generated from on-board sources. An ideal analysis is used as the first step toward deciding which concepts to examine further. The airbreathing engine concept that uses magnetohydrodynamics to replace the rotating machinery in a turbojet engine provides the most attractive results.

Martin, James A.

1998-01-01

269

Laser production and heating of plasma for MHD application

Experiments have been made on the production and heating of plasmas by the absorption of laser radiation. These experiments were performed to ascertain the feasibility of using laser-produced or laser-heated plasmas as the input for a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generator. Such a system would have a broad application as a laser-to-electricity energy converter for space power transmission. Experiments with a 100-J-pulsed CO/sub 2/ laser were conducted to investigate the breakdown of argon gas by a high-intensity laser beam, the parameters (electron density and temperature) of the plasma produced, and the formation and propagation of laser-supported detonation (LSD) waves. Experiments were also carried out using a 1-J-pulsed CO/sub 2/ laser to heat the plasma produced in a shock tube. The shock-tube hydrogen plasma reached electron densities of approximately 10 to the 17th/cu cm and electron temperatures of approximately 1 eV. Absorption of the CO/sub 2/ laser beam by the plasma was measured, and up to approximately 100 percent absorption was observed. Measurements with a small MHD generator showed that the energy extraction efficiency could be very large with values up to 56 percent being measured.

Jalufka, N.W.

1988-03-01

270

Objective of the study was to create conceptual designs of high voltage pulsers capable of simulating two types of electromagnetic pulses (EMPs) caused by a high-altitude nuclear burst; the slow rise time magnetohydrodynamic (MHD-EMP) and the fast rise time high-altitude EMP (HEMP). The pulser design was directed towards facilities capable of performing EMP vulnerability testing of components used in the national electric power system.

Ramrus, A.

1986-02-01

271

Particle Acceleration by MHD Turbulence

Recent advances in understanding of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence call for revisions in the picture of particle acceleration. We make use of the recently established scaling of slow and fast MHD modes in strong and weak MHD turbulence to provide a systematic study of particle acceleration in magnetic pressure (low-$\\beta$) and gaseous pressure (high-$\\beta$) dominated plasmas. We consider the acceleration by large scale compressions in both slow and fast particle diffusion limits. We compare the results with the acceleration rate that arises from resonance scattering and Transit-Time Damping (TTD). We establish that fast modes accelerate particles more efficiently than slow modes. We find that particle acceleration by pitch-angle scattering and TTD dominates acceleration by slow or fast modes when the spatial diffusion rate is small. When the rate of spatial diffusion of particles is high, we establish an enhancement of the efficiency of particle acceleration by slow and fast modes in weak turbulence. We show that highly supersonic turbulence is an efficient agent for particle acceleration. We find that even incompressible turbulence can accelerate particles on the scales comparable with the particle mean free path.

Jungyeon Cho; A. Lazarian

2005-10-21

272

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rocket technology dates back as far as medieval China. Used initially for entertainment and religious practices over time rockets evolved into weapons and finally into means of transportation. Today, we are nearing the top of the rockets' capabilities. Although, for now they are the only way for us to send anything into space we are becoming more and more aware of the limitations of this technology. It is essential that we invent other means of propelling probes and other interplanetary vehicles through space. The authors had performed a series of magnetohydrodynamic simulations using the University of Chicago's Flash package to find out whether the interactions between the Solar Wind and the conducting ring with the electric current would occur. The MHD simulations gave the results similar to the monte-carlo calculations performed by dr Charles Danforth from the University of Colorado. It is the authors' conclusion that the promising results should encourage further study of the phenomenon and the possibility of using it in practice.

Kisiel, T.; Soida, M.

2007-12-01

273

Energy of eigenmodes in magnetohydrodynamic flows of ideal fluids

Energy of eigenmodes in magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flows of ideal fluids is studied analytically. It is shown that the energy of unstable modes is zero, while the energy of stable oscillatory modes (waves) can assume both positive and negative values. Negative energy waves always correspond to eigenmodes with a finite component of the wave-vector along the flow. Coupling of negative and positive energy waves is shown to be a universal mechanism of MHD instabilities in flowing media. As an example, the energy of eigenmodes of magnetorotational instability is calculated.

Khalzov, I. V.; Smolyakov, A. I. [University of Saskatchewan, 116 Science Place, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, S7N5E2 (Canada); Russian Research Center 'Kurchatov Institute', 1 Kurchatov Sq., Moscow, 123182 (Russian Federation); Ilgisonis, V. I. [Russian Research Center 'Kurchatov Institute', 1 Kurchatov Sq., Moscow, 123182 (Russian Federation)

2008-05-15

274

On the range of validity of the semirelativistic magnetohydrodynamic equations

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plasmas with moderate flow velocity and sound speed, but large Alfvén speed have been described by the semirelativistic magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) equations. While these are correct when restricted to their range of validity, they may have the undesirable effect of predicting unphysical accelerations, much faster than the ones of classical MHD. We present a family of planar models on which the Lorentz force acts more forcefully in the semirelativistic approach, yielding a flow velocity which rapidly exceeds the limits within which the equations are valid.

Núńez, Manuel

2014-10-01

275

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a growing concern over possible severe societal consequences related to adverse space weather impacts on man-made technological infrastructure. In the last two decades, significant progress has been made toward the first-principles modeling of space weather events, and three-dimensional (3-D) global magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) models have been at the forefront of this transition, thereby playing a critical role in advancing our understanding of space weather. However, the modeling of extreme space weather events is still a major challenge even for the modern global MHD models. In this study, we introduce a specially adapted University of Michigan 3-D global MHD model for simulating extreme space weather events with a Dst footprint comparable to the Carrington superstorm of September 1859 based on the estimate by Tsurutani et. al. (2003). Results are presented for a simulation run with "very extreme" constructed/idealized solar wind boundary conditions driving the magnetosphere. In particular, we describe the reaction of the magnetosphere-ionosphere system and the associated induced geoelectric field on the ground to such extreme driving conditions. The model setup is further tested using input data for an observed space weather event of Halloween storm October 2003 to verify the MHD model consistence and to draw additional guidance for future work. This extreme space weather MHD model setup is designed specifically for practical application to the modeling of extreme geomagnetically induced electric fields, which can drive large currents in ground-based conductor systems such as power transmission grids. Therefore, our ultimate goal is to explore the level of geoelectric fields that can be induced from an assumed storm of the reported magnitude, i.e., Dst=-1600 nT.

Ngwira, Chigomezyo M.; Pulkkinen, Antti; Kuznetsova, Maria M.; Glocer, Alex

2014-06-01

276

Consequences of magnetohydrodynamic processes for large scale flow in the magnetosheath

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The remarkable success with which gas dynamic models characterize the plasma properties in the magnetosheath has to some degree diverted attention from certain inherently magnetohydrodynamic effects that are expected to introduce important modifications. Three recent aspects of magnetosheath observations: a slow mode structure near the subsolar point, flows at speeds in excess of the solar wind speed, and the shape of the internal boundary, i.e., the magnetopause, provide examples of inherently magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) effects.

Kivelson, M. G.; Chen, S.-H.; Southwood, D. J.

1994-01-01

277

MHD-induced energetic ion loss in neutral-beam-heated H-mode [high-confinement mode] discharges in NSTX [National Spherical Torus Experiment] is discussed. A rich variety of energetic ion behavior resulting from magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) activity is observed in the NSTX using a horizontally scanning Neutral Particle Analyzer (NPA) whose sightline views across the three co-injected neutral beams. For example, onset of an n = 2 mode leads to relatively slow decay of the energetic ion population (E {approx} 10-100 keV) and consequently the neutron yield. The effect of reconnection events, sawteeth, and bounce fishbones differs from that observed for low-n, low-frequency, tearing-type MHD modes. In this case, prompt loss of the energetic ion population occurs on a time scale of less than or equal to 1 ms and a precipitous drop in the neutron yield occurs. This paper focuses on MHD-induced ion loss during H-mode operation in NSTX. After H-mode onset, the NPA charge-exchange spectrum usually exhibits a significant loss of energetic ions only for E > E(sub)b/2 where E(sub)b is the beam injection energy. The magnitude of the energetic ion loss was observed to decrease with increasing tangency radius, R(sub)tan, of the NPA sightline, increasing toroidal field, B(sub)T, and increasing neutral-beam injection energy, E(sub)b. TRANSP modeling suggests that MHD-induced ion loss is enhanced during H-mode operation due to an evolution of the q and beam deposition profiles that feeds both passing and trapped ions into the region of low-n MHD activity. ORBIT code analysis of particle interaction with a model magnetic perturbation supported the energy selectivity of the MHD-induced loss observed in the NPA measurements. Transport analysis with the TRANSP code using a fast-ion diffusion tool to emulate the observed MHD-induced energetic ion loss showed significant modifications of the neutral- beam heating as well as the power balance, thermal diffusivities, energy confinement times, and toroidal beta. A proper accounting of energetic ion loss is therefore important for accurate analysis of power balance and transport in plasmas exhibiting MHD-induced energetic ion loss.

S.S. Medley; N.N. Gorelenkov; R. Andre; R.E. Bell; D.S. Darrow; E.D. Fredrickson; S.M. Kaye; B.P. LeBlanc; A.L. Roquemore; and the NSTX Team

2004-03-15

278

Reconnection events in two-dimensional Hall magnetohydrodynamic turbulence

The statistical study of magnetic reconnection events in two-dimensional turbulence has been performed by comparing numerical simulations of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) and Hall magnetohydrodynamics (HMHD). The analysis reveals that the Hall term plays an important role in turbulence, in which magnetic islands simultaneously reconnect in a complex way. In particular, an increase of the Hall parameter, the ratio of ion skin depth to system size, broadens the distribution of reconnection rates relative to the MHD case. Moreover, in HMHD the local geometry of the reconnection region changes, manifesting bifurcated current sheets and quadrupolar magnetic field structures in analogy to laminar studies, leading locally to faster reconnection processes in this case of reconnection embedded in turbulence. This study supports the idea that the global rate of energy dissipation is controlled by the large scale turbulence, but suggests that the distribution of the reconnection rates within the turbulent system is sensitive to the microphysics at the reconnection sites.

Donato, S.; Servidio, S.; Carbone, V. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita della Calabria, I-87036 Cosenza (Italy); Dmitruk, P. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires and Instituto de Fisica de Buenos Aires, CONICET, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Shay, M. A.; Matthaeus, W. H. [Bartol Research Institute and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States); Cassak, P. A. [Department of Physics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States)

2012-09-15

279

Solar-driven liquid metal magnetohydrodynamic generator

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A solar oven heated by concentrated solar radiation as the heat source of a liquid metal magnetohydrodynamic (LMMHD) power generation system is proposed. The design allows the production of electric power in space, as well as on Earth, at high rates of efficiency. Two types of the solar oven suitable for the system are discussed.

Lee, J. H.; Hohl, F.

1981-01-01

280

Development and validation of a magneto-hydrodynamic solver for blood flow analysis

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this study was to develop a numerical solver to calculate the magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) signal produced by a moving conductive liquid, i.e. blood flow in the great vessels of the heart, in a static magnetic field. We believe that this MHD signal is able to non-invasively characterize cardiac blood flow in order to supplement the present non-invasive techniques for the assessment of heart failure conditions. The MHD signal can be recorded on the electrocardiogram (ECG) while the subject is exposed to a strong static magnetic field. The MHD signal can only be measured indirectly as a combination of the heart's electrical signal and the MHD signal. The MHD signal itself is caused by induced electrical currents in the blood due to the moving of the blood in the magnetic field. To characterize and eventually optimize MHD measurements, we developed a MHD solver based on a finite element code. This code was validated against literature, experimental and analytical data. The validation of the MHD solver shows good agreement with all three reference values. Future studies will include the calculation of the MHD signals for anatomical models. We will vary the orientation of the static magnetic field to determine an optimized location for the measurement of the MHD blood flow signal.

Kainz, W.; Guag, J.; Benkler, S.; Szczerba, D.; Neufeld, E.; Krauthamer, V.; Myklebust, J.; Bassen, H.; Chang, I.; Chavannes, N.; Kim, J. H.; Sarntinoranont, M.; Kuster, N.

2010-12-01

281

Two-dimensional Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations of Relativistic Magnetic Reconnection

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been recognized that the magnetic reconnection process is of great importance in high-energy astrophysics. We develop a new two-dimensional relativistic resistive magnetohydrodynamic (R2MHD) code and carry out numerical simulations of magnetic reconnection. We find that the outflow velocity reaches the Alfvén velocity in the inflow region and that a higher Alfvén velocity provides a higher reconnection rate. We also find that Lorentz contraction plays an important role in enhancement of the reconnection rate.

Watanabe, Naoyuki; Yokoyama, Takaaki

2006-08-01

282

A linear theory for intermediate-frequency [much smaller (larger) than the electron gyrofrequency (dust plasma and dust gyrofrequencies)], long wavelength (in comparison with the ion gyroradius and the electron skin depth) electromagnetic waves in a multicomponent, homogeneous electron-ion-dust magnetoplasma is presented. For this purpose, the generalized Hall-magnetohydrodynamic (GH-MHD) equations are derived for the case with immobile charged dust macroparticles. The GH-MHD

P. K. Shukla; I. Kourakis; L. Stenflo

2005-01-01

283

Time-resolved observation of discrete and continuous MHD dynamo in the reversed-field pinch edge

We report the first experimental verification of the MHD dynamo in the RFP. A burst of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) dynamo electric field is observed during the sawtooth crash, followed by an increase in the local parallel current in the MST RFP edge. By measuring each term, the parallel MHD mean-field Ohm`s law is observed to hold within experimental error bars both between and during sawtooth crashes.

Ji, H.; Almagri, A.F.; Prager, S.C.; Sarff, J.S.

1994-01-06

284

The development of coal-fired magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power can be viewed as consisting of two parts; the topping cycle and the bottoming cycle. The topping cycle consists of the coal combustor, MHD generator and associated components. The bottoming cycle consists of the heat recovery, steam generation, seed recovery/regeneration, emissions control (gas and particulate), ash handling and deposition, and materials evaluation. The report concentrates on the bottoming cycle, for which much of the technology was developed at the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI). Because of the complexity of the required technology, a number of issues required investigation. Of specific concern regarding the bottoming cycle, was the design of the steam cycle components and emissions control. First, the high combustion temperatures and the use of large quantities of potassium in the MHD combustor results in a difference in the composition of the gases entering the bottoming cycle compared to conventional systems. Secondly, a major goal of the UTSI effort was to use a variety of coals in the MHD system, especially the large reserves of high-sulfur coals available in the United States.

Attig, R.C. [ed.

1996-10-09

285

Hall-magnetohydrodynamic small-scale dynamos.

Magnetic field generation by dynamo action is often studied within the theoretical framework of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). However, for sufficiently diffuse media, the Hall effect may become non-negligible. We present results from three-dimensional simulations of the Hall-MHD equations subjected to random nonhelical forcing. We study the role of the Hall effect in the dynamo efficiency for different values of the Hall parameter. For small values of the Hall parameter, the small-scale dynamo is more efficient, displaying faster growth and saturating at larger amplitudes of the magnetic field. For larger values of the Hall parameter, saturation of the magnetic field is reached at smaller amplitudes than in the MHD case. We also study energy transfer rates among spatial scales and show that the Hall effect produces a reduction of the direct energy cascade at scales larger than the Hall scale, therefore leading to smaller energy dissipation rates. Finally, we present results stemming from simulations at large magnetic Prandtl numbers, which is the relevant regime in the hot and diffuse interstellar medium. In the range of magnetic Prandtl numbers considered, the Hall effect moves the peak of the magnetic energy spectrum as well as other relevant magnetic length scales toward the Hall scale. PMID:21230195

Gómez, Daniel O; Mininni, Pablo D; Dmitruk, Pablo

2010-09-01

286

General relativistic magnetohydrodynamic Bondi-Hoyle accretion

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present a fully relativistic study of axisymmetric magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Bondi-Hoyle accretion on to a moving Kerr black hole. The equations of general relativistic MHD are solved using high-resolution shock-capturing methods. In this treatment, we consider the ideal MHD limit. The parameters of interest in this study are the adiabatic constant ?, the asymptotic speed of sound c?s and the plasma ? parameter ?P. We focus the investigation on the parameter regime in which the flow is supersonic or when v??c?s. In some cases, subsonic asymptotic flows are considered for comparison purposes. We study the accretion rates of the total energy and momenta, as well as the hydrodynamic energy and momentum accretion rates. The models presented in this study exhibit a matter density depletion in the downstream region of the black hole which tends to vacuum (?0= 0) in convergence tests. This feature is due to the presence of the magnetic field, more specifically the magnetic pressure, and is not seen in previous purely hydrodynamic studies.

Penner, A. J.

2011-06-01

287

Global invariants in ideal magnetohydrodynamic turbulence

Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence is an important though incompletely understood factor affecting the dynamics of many astrophysical, geophysical, and technological plasmas. As an approximation, viscosity and resistivity may be ignored, and ideal MHD turbulence may be investigated by statistical methods. Incompressibility is also assumed and finite Fourier series are used to represent the turbulent velocity and magnetic field. The resulting model dynamical system consists of a set of independent Fourier coefficients that form a canonical ensemble described by a Gaussian probability density function (PDF). This PDF is similar in form to that of Boltzmann, except that its argument may contain not just the energy multiplied by an inverse temperature, but also two other invariant integrals, the cross helicity and magnetic helicity, each multiplied by its own inverse temperature. However, the cross and magnetic helicities, as usually defined, are not invariant in the presence of overall rotation or a mean magnetic field, respectively. Although the generalized form of the magnetic helicity is known, a generalized cross helicity may also be found, by adding terms that are linear in the mean magnetic field and angular rotation vectors, respectively. These general forms are invariant even in the presence of overall rotation and a mean magnetic field. We derive these general forms, explore their properties, examine how they extend the statistical theory of ideal MHD turbulence, and discuss how our results may be affected by dissipation and forcing.

Shebalin, John V. [Astromaterials Research Office, NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas 77058-3696 (United States)] [Astromaterials Research Office, NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas 77058-3696 (United States)

2013-10-15

288

MHD Integrated Topping Cycle Project

The overall objective of the project is to design and construct prototypical hardware for an integrated MHD topping cycle, and conduct long duration proof-of-concept tests of integrated system at the US DOE Component Development and Integration Facility in Butte, Montana. The results of the long duration tests will augment the existing engineering design data base on MHD power train reliability, availability, maintainability, and performance, and will serve as a basis for scaling up the topping cycle design to the next level of development, an early commercial scale power plant retrofit. The components of the MHD power train to be designed, fabricated, and tested include: A slagging coal combustor with a rated capacity of 50 MW thermal input, capable of operation with an Eastern (Illinois {number sign}6) or Western (Montana Rosebud) coal, a segmented supersonic nozzle, a supersonic MHD channel capable of generating at least 1.5 MW of electrical power, a segmented supersonic diffuser section to interface the channel with existing facility quench and exhaust systems, a complete set of current control circuits for local diagonal current control along the channel, and a set of current consolidation circuits to interface the channel with the existing facility inverter.

Not Available

1992-01-01

289

MCZ 120924 1 Global MHD:! Fusion Theory Needs! M.C. Zarnstorff! PPPL Theory Dept. Retreat! 24 applications! Â Explore the physics and engineering science of plasmas producing fusion power (ITER & beyond! !DIIID, NSTX, JET, MAST, AUG, KSTAR! !Different behavior on different machines!! !Is transport affected

290

Broken Ergodicity in Two-Dimensional Homogeneous Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two-dimensional (2-D) homogeneous magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence has many of the same qualitative features as three-dimensional (3-D) homogeneous MHD turbulence.The se features include several ideal invariants, along with the phenomenon of broken ergodicity. Broken ergodicity appears when certain modes act like random variables with mean values that are large compared to their standard deviations, indicating a coherent structure or dynamo.Recently, the origin of broken ergodicity in 3-D MHD turbulence that is manifest in the lowest wavenumbers was explained. Here, a detailed description of the origins of broken ergodicity in 2-D MHD turbulence is presented. It will be seen that broken ergodicity in ideal 2-D MHD turbulence can be manifest in the lowest wavenumbers of a finite numerical model for certain initial conditions or in the highest wavenumbers for another set of initial conditions.T he origins of broken ergodicity in ideal 2-D homogeneous MHD turbulence are found through an eigen analysis of the covariance matrices of the modal probability density functions.It will also be shown that when the lowest wavenumber magnetic field becomes quasi-stationary, the higher wavenumber modes can propagate as Alfven waves on these almost static large-scale magnetic structures

Shebalin, John V.

2010-01-01

291

The field of High Power Microwaves (HPM) has evolved as a result of advances in the field of pulsed power, which has made pulses of electrical energy available that can drive HPM sources to gigawatt levels. One of the most compact forms of pulsed power involves the storage of chemical energy in the form of explosive charges. Explosive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generators are electrical power sources, which convert the kinetic energy of moving plasma into useful electrical energy through the magnetic portion of the Lorentz force. This report describes research conducted by the Air Force Research Laboratory to test specific designs of explosively driven magnetohydrodynamic generators. The goal of the research was to investigate the use of gigawatt generators in driving reactive loads appropriate to diode, and ultimately HPM applications. Two test series were performed, the first of which consisted of experiments on a low voltage generator and the second of which had the goal of scaling the existing design to higher voltage while retaining the reactive-type load. The complex problem of diagnostics of the plasma in this explosive test was addressed using fast, temporally resolved, plasma measurements, as well as spectroscopic plasma constituent measurements.

Agee, F.J.; Baca, G.; Chama, D.; Lehr, F.M.; Englert, T.

1997-10-01

292

Feasibility of MHD submarine propulsion

This report describes the work performed during Phase 1 and Phase 2 of the collaborative research program established between Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and Newport News Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Company (NNS). Phase I of the program focused on the development of computer models for Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) propulsion. Phase 2 focused on the experimental validation of the thruster performance models and the identification, through testing, of any phenomena which may impact the attractiveness of this propulsion system for shipboard applications. The report discusses in detail the work performed in Phase 2 of the program. In Phase 2, a two Tesla test facility was designed, built, and operated. The facility test loop, its components, and their design are presented. The test matrix and its rationale are discussed. Representative experimental results of the test program are presented, and are compared to computer model predictions. In general, the results of the tests and their comparison with the predictions indicate that thephenomena affecting the performance of MHD seawater thrusters are well understood and can be accurately predicted with the developed thruster computer models.

Doss, E.D. (ed.) (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Sikes, W.C. (ed.) (Newport News Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Co., VA (United States))

1992-09-01

293

On deriving flux freezing in magnetohydrodynamics by direct differentiation

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnetic flux freezing theorem is a basic principle of ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), a commonly used approximation to describe the aspects of astrophysical and laboratory plasmas. The theorem states that the magnetic fluxthe integral of magnetic field penetrating a surfaceis conserved in time as that surface is distorted in time by fluid motions. Pedagogues of MHD commonly derive flux freezing without showing how to take the material derivative of a general flux integral and/or assuming a vanishing field divergence from the outset. Here I avoid these shortcomings and derive flux freezing by direct differentiation, explicitly using a Jacobian to transform between the evolving field-penetrating surface at different times. The approach is instructive for its generality and helps elucidate the role of magnetic monopoles in breaking flux freezing. The paucity of appearances of this derivation in standard MHD texts suggests that its pedagogic value is underappreciated.

Blackman, Eric G.

2013-03-01

294

Relativistic Radiation Magnetohydrodynamics in Dynamical Spacetimes: Numerical Methods and Tests

Many systems of current interest in relativistic astrophysics require a knowledge of radiative transfer in a magnetized gas flowing in a strongly-curved, dynamical spacetime. Such systems include coalescing compact binaries containing neutron stars or white dwarfs, disks around merging black holes, core collapse supernovae, collapsars, and gamma-ray burst sources. To model these phenomena, all of which involve general relativity, radiation (photon and/or neutrino), and magnetohydrodynamics, we have developed a general relativistic code capable of evolving MHD fluids and radiation in dynamical spacetimes. Our code solves the coupled Einstein-Maxwell-MHD-Radiation system of equations both in axisymmetry and in full 3+1 dimensions. We evolve the metric by integrating the BSSN equations, and use a conservative, high-resolution shock-capturing scheme to evolve both the MHD and radiation moment equations. In this paper, we implement our scheme for optically thick gases and grey-body opacities. Our code gives accura...

Farris, Brian D; Liu, Yuk Tung; Shapiro, Stuart L

2008-01-01

295

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The role of involutions in energy stability of the discontinuous Galerkin (DG) discretization of Maxwell and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) systems is examined. Important differences are identified in the symmetrization of the Maxwell and MHD systems that impact the construction of energy stable discretizations using the DG method. Specifically, general sufficient conditions to be imposed on the DG numerical flux and approximation space are given so that energy stability is retained These sufficient conditions reveal the favorable energy consequence of imposing continuity in the normal component of the magnetic induction field at interelement boundaries for MHD discretizations. Counterintuitively, this condition is not required for stability of Maxwell discretizations using the discontinuous Galerkin method.

Barth, Timothy

2005-01-01

296

Magnetism and Dynamics of Prominences: MHD Waves

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quiescent solar prominences are highly dynamic structures which, among other features, display oscillatory motions. The presence of these oscillations has been confirmed by means of ground- and space-based observations, and they have been classified in small and large amplitude oscillations. Since prominences are magnetized structures, the theoretical interpretation of their oscillations has been mostly done in terms of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves. This interpretation has allowed the development of prominence seismology as a tool to determine prominence physical parameters (magnetic field, Alfvén speed, inhomogeneity scale, etc.) which are difficult to measure by direct means.

Ballester, José Luis

297

MHD Equilibria and Triggers for Prominence Eruption

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of the emergence of twisted magnetic flux tubes from the solar interior into the corona are discussed to illustrate how twisted and sheared coronal magnetic structures (with free magnetic energy), capable of driving filament eruptions, can form in the corona in emerging active regions. Several basic mechanisms that can disrupt the quasi-equilibrium coronal structures and trigger the release of the stored free magnetic energy are discussed. These include both ideal processes such as the onset of the helical kink instability and the torus instability of a twisted coronal flux rope structure and the non-ideal process of the onset of fast magnetic reconnections in current sheets. Representative MHD simulations of the non-linear evolution involving these mechanisms are presented.

Fan, Yuhong

298

MHD shocks in coronal mass ejections

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary objective of this research program is the study of the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) shocks and nonlinear simple waves produced as a result of the interaction of ejected lower coronal plasma with the ambient corona. The types of shocks and nonlinear simple waves produced for representative coronal conditions and disturbance velocities were determined. The wave system and the interactions between the ejecta and ambient corona were studied using both analytic theory and numerical solutions of the time-dependent, nonlinear MHD equations. Observations from the SMM coronagraph/polarimeter provided both guidance and motivation and are used extensively in evaluating the results. As a natural consequence of the comparisons with the data, the simulations assisted in better understanding the physical interactions in coronal mass ejections (CME's).

Steinolfson, R. S.

1991-01-01

299

Dissipative effects on finite-Larmor-radius modified magnetohydrodynamic ballooning modes

Finite-ion-Larmor-radius (FLR) effects provide a band of additional stability for values of ..beta..(exactly equal to plasma pressure/magnetic pressure) exceeding the limit predicted for ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) ballooning modes. We examine the effect of particle collisions on the stable modes of the FLR modified ideal theory that exist in this range of ..beta.. values.

Connor, J.W.; Chen, L.; Chance, M.S.

1982-11-01

300

Series solution of a nonlinear ODE arising in magnetohydrodynamic by HPM-Padé technique

In this study, we investigate the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) viscous flow due to a shrinking sheet by employing the homotopy perturbation method (HPM) and Padé approximation. The series solution of the governing nonlinear problem is developed. Generally, the truncated series solution is adequate only in a small region when the exact solution is not reached. We overcame this limitation by using

Behrouz Raftari; Ahmet Yildirim

2011-01-01

301

A generalized linear theory for electromagnetic waves in a homogeneous dusty magnetoplasma is presented. The waves described are characterized by a frequency which is much smaller (larger) than the electron gyrofrequency (dust plasma and dust gyrofrequencies), and a long wavelength (in comparison with the ion gyroradius and the electron skin depth). The generalized Hall-magnetohydrodynamic (GH-MHD) equations are derived by assuming

Padma Kant Shukla; Ioannis Kourakis; Lennart Stenflo

2005-01-01

302

EXTENSION OF THE IMMERSED BOUNDARY METHOD FOR LIQUID-METAL MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMICS

Liquid-metal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD hereafter) are met in a variety of challenging industrial applications (metal heating, pumping, stirring, blankets of fusion reactors) as well as in geophysics whenever a magnetic field interacts with the motion of a conductive fluid. The present study forms the first attempt to simulate these flows using a non- boundary conforming methodology such as the immersed boundary

Dimokratis Grigoriadis; Stavros Kassinos

303

An approximate Riemann solver for relativistic magnetohydrodynamics A. V. Koldoba,1

of Astronomy, Russian Academy of Science, 48 Pyatnitskaya str., Moscow 109017, Russia Accepted 2002 March 4. Received 2002 February 28; in original form 2001 April 11 A B S T R AC T A Godunov-type scheme magnetohydrodynamics (MHD): g-ray bursts (MeÂ´szaÂ´ros & Rees 1992; Rees & MeÂ´szaÂ´ros 1994); relativistic jets from

304

The superconducting MHD-propelled ship YAMATO-1

In 1985 the Ship & Ocean Foundation (SOF) created a committee under the chairmanship of Mr. Yohei Sasakawa, Former President of the Ship & Ocean Foundation, and began researches into superconducting magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) ship propulsion. In 1989 SOF set to construction of a experimental ship on the basis of theoretical and experimental researches pursued until then. The experimental ship named YAMATO-1 became the world`s first superconducting MHD-propelled ship on her trial runs in June 1992. This paper describes the outline of the YAMATO-1 and sea trial test results.

Sasakawa, Yohei; Takezawa, Setsuo; Sugawara, Yoshinori; Kyotani, Yoshihiro

1995-04-01

305

Field topologies in ideal and near ideal magnetohydrodynamics and vortex dynamics

Magnetic field topology frozen in ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) and its breakage in near ideal MHD are reviewed in two parts. The first part gives a physically complete description of the frozen in field topology, taking magnetic flux conservation as fundamental and treating four topics, Eulerian and Lagrangian descriptions of MHD, Chandrasekhar-Kendall and Euler-potential field representations, magnetic helicity, and inviscid vortex dynamics in comparison to ideal MHD. A corollary clarifies the challenge of achieving a high degree of the frozen in condition in numerical MHD. The second part treats field topology breakage centered on the Parker Magnetostatic Theorem on a general incompatibility of a continuous magnetic field with the dual demand of force free equilibrium and an arbitrarily prescribed, 3D field topology. Preserving field topology as a global constraint readily results in formation of tangential magnetic discontinuities, i.e., electric current sheets of zero thickness. A similar incompatibil...

Low, B C

2014-01-01

306

A Comparative Study of Velocity Statistics of Hydrodynamic and Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence

Turbulence in an incompressible fluid with and without a magnetic field as well as moderately compressible MHD turbulence are compared. For the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) models the probability distribution functions of the velocity components perpendicular to the external magnetic field are like the incompressible hydrodynamic (HD) model while those parallel to the field have a smaller range of velocities. The probability distribution functions of the transverse velocity increments for the MHD models decline slower than the incompressible HD model. The similarity of incompressible HD and both incompressible and compressible MHD turbulence persists over high order longitudinal structure function scaling exponents measured in the global reference frame as well as for motions perpendicular to the local mean field. In these two frames the longitudinal scaling exponents of both MHD models seem to follow theoretical incompressible HD dissipation structure predictions while the transverse scaling exponents of the in...

Hall, N; Lazarian, A; Cho, J; Hall, Nicholas; Cho, Jungyeon

2006-01-01

307

We generalize the method of A. M. Polyakov, [ Phys. Rev. E 52 6183 (1995)] for obtaining structure-function relations in turbulence in the stochastically forced Burgers equation, to develop structure-function hierarchies for turbulence in three models for magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). These are the Burgers analogs of MHD in one dimension [ Eur. Phys. J. B 9 725 (1999)], and in three dimensions (3DMHD and 3D Hall MHD). Our study provides a convenient and unified scheme for the development of structure-function hierarchies for turbulence in a variety of coupled hydrodynamical equations. For turbulence in the three sets of MHD equations mentioned above, we obtain exact relations for third-order structure functions and their derivatives; these expressions are the analogs of the von Kármán-Howarth relations for fluid turbulence. We compare our work with earlier studies of such relations in 3DMHD and 3D Hall MHD. PMID:24580182

Basu, Abhik; Naji, Ali; Pandit, Rahul

2014-01-01

308

The acceleration of protons in a dynamically evolving magnetotail is investigated by tracing particles in the fields obtained from a three-dimensional resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation. The MHD simulation, representing plasmoid formation and ejection through a near-Earth reconnection process, leads to cross-tail electric fields of up to approximately 4 mV\\/m with integrated voltages across the tail of up to approximately 200

Joachim Birn; Michael Hesse

1994-01-01

309

NON-OSCILLATORY CENTRAL SCHEMES FOR ONE- AND TWO-DIMENSIONAL MHD EQUATIONS. II: HIGH-ORDER SEMI-oscillatory semi-discrete central schemes for the approximate solution of the ideal Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD the simplicity of fully-discrete central schemes while enhancing efficiency and adding versatility. The semi

310

Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) effects which result from the use of liquid metal coolants in magnetic fusion reactors include increases in the primary loop pressure drop and the hydrostatic pressure at the first wall of the blanket. In the reference fission-suppressed tandem mirror fusion breeder design concept the MHD pressure drop in flowing the liquid lithium coolant through an annular packed bed

T. J. McCarville; D. H. Berwald; C. P. C. Wong

1984-01-01

311

MHD Simulation of Magnetically Driven, HyperVelocity Flyer Plates

The intense magnetic field generated in the 20 MA Z-machine is used to accelerate flyer plates to high velocity for EOS experiments. Velocities up to 20 km\\/s have been achieved for aluminum (Al) flyers. We are using magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) simulation, in conjunction with highly accurate velocity interferometry measurements (error < 1understand flyer dynamics. We present comparisons of simulation results with

R. W. Lemke; M. D. Knudson; C. A. Hall; J. R. Asay; M. P. Desjarlais; T. A. Haill; T. A. Mehlhorn; D. B. Hayes

2001-01-01

312

A Free, Fast, Simple and Efficient TVD MHD Code

We describe a numerical method to solve the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD)\\u000aequations. The fluid variables are updated along each direction using the flux\\u000aconservative, 2nd order, total variation diminishing (TVD), upwind scheme of\\u000aJin and Xin. The magnetic field is updated separately in two-dimensional\\u000aadvection-constraint steps. The electromotive force (EMF) is computed in the\\u000aadvection step using the TVD scheme, and

Ue-Li Pen; Phil Arras; ShingKwong Wong

2003-01-01

313

On the equations of thermally radiative magnetohydrodynamics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An initial-boundary value problem is considered for the viscous compressible thermally radiative magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flows coupled to self-gravitation describing the dynamics of gaseous stars in a bounded domain of R3. The conservative boundary conditions are prescribed. Compared to Ducomet-Feireisl [13] (also see, for instance, Feireisl [18], Feireisl-Novotný [20]), a rather more general constitutive relationship is given in this paper. The analysis allows for the initial density with vacuum. Every transport coefficient admits a certain temperature scaling. The global existence of a variational (weak) solution with any finite energy and finite entropy data is established through a three-level approximation and methods of weak convergence.

Li, Xiaoli; Guo, Boling

2014-11-01

314

Rarefaction wave in relativistic steady magnetohydrodynamic flows

We construct and analyze a model of the relativistic steady-state magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) rarefaction that is induced when a planar symmetric flow (with one ignorable Cartesian coordinate) propagates under a steep drop of the external pressure profile. Using the method of self-similarity we derive a system of ordinary differential equations that describe the flow dynamics. In the specific limit of an initially homogeneous flow we also provide analytical results and accurate scaling laws. We consider that limit as a generalization of the previous Newtonian and hydrodynamic solutions already present in the literature. The model includes magnetic field and bulk flow speed having all components, whose role is explored with a parametric study.

Sapountzis, Konstantinos

2014-01-01

315

Relativistic radiation magnetohydrodynamics in dynamical spacetimes: Numerical methods and tests

Many systems of current interest in relativistic astrophysics require a knowledge of radiative transfer in a magnetized gas flowing in a strongly curved, dynamical spacetime. Such systems include coalescing compact binaries containing neutron stars or white dwarfs, disks around merging black holes, core-collapse supernovae, collapsars, and gamma-ray burst sources. To model these phenomena, all of which involve general relativity, radiation (photon and/or neutrino), and magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), we have developed a general relativistic code capable of evolving MHD fluids and radiation in dynamical spacetimes. Our code solves the coupled Einstein-Maxwell-MHD-radiation system of equations both in axisymmetry and in full 3+1 dimensions. We evolve the metric by integrating the BSSN (Baumgarte-Shapiro-Shibata-Nakamura) equations, and use a conservative, high-resolution shock-capturing scheme to evolve both the MHD and radiation moment equations. In this paper, we implement our scheme for optically thick gases and gray-body opacities. Our code gives accurate results in a suite of tests involving radiating shocks and nonlinear waves propagating in Minkowski spacetime. In addition, to test our code's ability to evolve the relativistic radiation-MHD equations in strong-field dynamical spacetimes, we study 'thermal Oppenheimer-Snyder collapse' to a black hole and find good agreement between analytic and numerical solutions.

Farris, Brian D.; Li, T.K.; Liu, Y.T.; Shapiro, Stuart L. [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

2008-07-15

316

Relativistic radiation magnetohydrodynamics in dynamical spacetimes: Numerical methods and tests

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many systems of current interest in relativistic astrophysics require a knowledge of radiative transfer in a magnetized gas flowing in a strongly curved, dynamical spacetime. Such systems include coalescing compact binaries containing neutron stars or white dwarfs, disks around merging black holes, core-collapse supernovae, collapsars, and gamma-ray burst sources. To model these phenomena, all of which involve general relativity, radiation (photon and/or neutrino), and magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), we have developed a general relativistic code capable of evolving MHD fluids and radiation in dynamical spacetimes. Our code solves the coupled Einstein-Maxwell-MHD-radiation system of equations both in axisymmetry and in full 3+1 dimensions. We evolve the metric by integrating the BSSN (Baumgarte-Shapiro-Shibata-Nakamura) equations, and use a conservative, high-resolution shock-capturing scheme to evolve both the MHD and radiation moment equations. In this paper, we implement our scheme for optically thick gases and gray-body opacities. Our code gives accurate results in a suite of tests involving radiating shocks and nonlinear waves propagating in Minkowski spacetime. In addition, to test our codes ability to evolve the relativistic radiation-MHD equations in strong-field dynamical spacetimes, we study thermal Oppenheimer-Snyder collapse to a black hole and find good agreement between analytic and numerical solutions.

Farris, Brian D.; Li, Tsz Ka; Liu, Yuk Tung; Shapiro, Stuart L.

2008-07-01

317

Relativistic magnetohydrodynamics in dynamical spacetimes: A new AMR implementation

We have written and tested a new general relativistic magnetohydrodynamics (GRMHD) code, capable of evolving MHD fluids in dynamical spacetimes with adaptive-mesh refinement (AMR). Our code solves the Einstein-Maxwell-MHD system of coupled equations in full 3+1 dimensions, evolving the metric via the Baumgarte-Shapiro Shibata-Nakamura (BSSN) formalism and the MHD and magnetic induction equations via a conservative, high-resolution shock-capturing scheme. The induction equations are recast as an evolution equation for the magnetic vector potential, which exists on a grid that is staggered with respect to the hydrodynamic and metric variables. The divergenceless constraint div(B)=0 is enforced by the curl of the vector potential. Our MHD scheme is fully compatible with AMR, so that fluids at AMR refinement boundaries maintain div(B)=0. In simulations with uniform grid spacing, our MHD scheme is numerically equivalent to a commonly used, staggered-mesh constrained-transport scheme. We present code validation test results, both in Minkowski and curved spacetimes. They include magnetized shocks, nonlinear Alfv\\'en waves, cylindrical explosions, cylindrical rotating disks, magnetized Bondi tests, and the collapse of a magnetized rotating star. Some of the more stringent tests involve black holes. We find good agreement between analytic and numerical solutions in these tests, and achieve convergence at the expected order.

Zachariah B. Etienne; Yuk Tung Liu; Stuart L. Shapiro

2010-07-16

318

A Meshless Method for Magnetohydrodynamics and Applications to Protoplanetary Disks

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis presents an algorithm for simulating the equations of ideal magnetohydrodynamics and other systems of differential equations on an unstructured set of points represented by sample particles. Local, third-order, least-squares, polynomial interpolations (Moving Least Squares interpolations) are calculated from the field values of neighboring particles to obtain field values and spatial derivatives at the particle position. Field values and particle positions are advanced in time with a second order predictor-corrector scheme. The particles move with the fluid, so the time step is not limited by the Eulerian Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy condition. Full spatial adaptivity is implemented to ensure the particles fill the computational volume, which gives the algorithm substantial flexibility and power. A target resolution is specified for each point in space, with particles being added and deleted as needed to meet this target. Particle addition and deletion is based on a local void and clump detection algorithm. Dynamic artificial viscosity fields provide stability to the integration. The resulting algorithm provides a robust solution for modeling flows that require Lagrangian or adaptive discretizations to resolve. The code has been parallelized by adapting the framework provided by Gadget-2. A set of standard test problems, including one part in a million amplitude linear MHD waves, magnetized shock tubes, and Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities are presented. Finally we demonstrate good agreement with analytic predictions of linear growth rates for magnetorotational instability in a cylindrical geometry. We provide a rigorous methodology for verifying a numerical method on two dimensional Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. The test problem was run in the Pencil Code, Athena, Enzo, NDSPHMHD, and Phurbas. A strict comparison, judgment, or ranking, between codes is beyond the scope of this work, although this work provides the mathematical framewor! k needed for such a study. Nonetheless, how the test is posed circumvents the issues raised by tests starting from a sharp contact discontinuity yet it still shows the poor performance of Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics. We then comment on the connection between this behavior and the underlying lack of zeroth-order consistency in Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics interpolation. In astrophysical magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) and electrodynamics simulations, numerically enforcing the divergence free constraint on the magnetic field has been difficult. We observe that for point-based discretization, as used in finite-difference type and pseudo-spectral methods, the divergence free constraint can be satisfied entirely by a choice of interpolation used to define the derivatives of the magnetic field. As an example we demonstrate a new class of finite-difference type derivative operators on a regular grid which has the divergence free property. This principle clarifies the nature of magnetic monopole errors. The principles and techniques demonstrated in this chapter are particularly useful for the magnetic field, but can be applied to any vector field. Finally, we examine global zoom-in simulations of turbulent magnetorotationally unstable flow. We extract and analyze the high-current regions produced in the turbulent flow. Basic parameters of these regions are abstracted, and we build one dimensional models including non-ideal MHD, and radiative transfer. For sufficiently high temperatures, an instability resulting from the temperature dependence of the Ohmic resistivity is found. This instability concentrates current sheets, resulting in the possibility of rapid heating from temperatures on the order of 600 Kelvin to 2000 Kelvin in magnetorotationally turbulent regions of protoplanetary disks. This is a possible local mechanism for the melting of chondrules and the formation of other high-temperature materials in protoplanetary disks.

McNally, Colin P.

2012-08-01

319

Electron magnetohydrodynamics: dynamics and turbulence.

We consider dynamics and turbulent interaction of whistler modes within the framework of inertialess electron magnetohydrodynamics (EMHD). We argue that there is no energy principle in EMHD: any stationary closed configuration is neutrally stable. On the other hand, the relaxation principle, the long term evolution of a weakly dissipative system towards Taylor-Beltrami state, remains valid in EMHD. We consider the turbulent cascade of whistler modes. We show that (i) harmonic whistlers are exact nonlinear solutions; (ii) collinear whistlers do not interact (including counterpropagating); (iii) waves with the same value of the wave vector k(1)=k(2) do not interact; (iv) whistler modes have a dispersion that allows a three-wave decay, including into a zero frequency mode; (v) the three-wave interaction effectively couples modes with highly different wave numbers and propagation angles. In addition, linear interaction of a whistler with a single zero mode can lead to spatially divergent structures via parametric instability. All these properties are drastically different from MHD, so that the qualitative properties of the Alfvén turbulence can not be transferred to the EMHD turbulence. We derive the Hamiltonian formulation of EMHD, and using Bogoliubov transformation reduce it to the canonical form; we calculate the matrix elements for the three-wave interaction of whistlers. We solve numerically the kinetic equation and show that, generally, the EMHD cascade develops within a broad range of angles, while transiently it may show anisotropic, nearly two-dimensional structures. Development of a cascade depends on the forcing (nonuniversal) and often fails to reach a steady state. Analytical estimates predict the spectrum of magnetic fluctuations for the quasi-isotropic cascade [proportionality]k(-2). The cascade remains weak (not critically balanced). The cascade is UV local, while the infrared locality is weakly (logarithmically) violated. PMID:24329368

Lyutikov, Maxim

2013-11-01

320

Smoothed Particle Magnetohydrodynamics I. Algorithms and tests in one dimension

In this paper we show how the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) equations for ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) can be written in conservation form with the positivity of the dissipation guaranteed. We call the resulting algorithm Smoothed Particle Magnetohydrodynamics (SPMHD). The equations appear to be accurate, robust and easy to apply and do not suffer from the instabilities known to exist previously in formulations of the SPMHD equations. In addition we formulate our MHD equations such that errors associated with non-zero divergence of the magnetic field are naturally propagated by the flow and should therefore remain small. In this and a companion paper (Price and Monaghan 2003b) we present a wide range of numerical tests in one dimension to show that the algorithm gives very good results for one dimensional flows in both adiabatic and isothermal MHD. For the one dimensional tests the field structure is either two or three dimensional. The algorithm has many astrophysical applications and is particularly suited to star formation problems.

D. J. Price; J. J. Monaghan

2003-10-28

321

Collisionless magnetic reconnection under anisotropic MHD approximation

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the formation of slow-mode shocks in collisionless magnetic reconnection by using one- and two-dimensional collisionless magneto-hydro-dynamic (MHD) simulations based on the double adiabatic approximation, which is an important step to bridge the gap between the Petschek-type MHD reconnection model accompanied by a pair of slow shocks and the observational evidence of the rare occasion of in-situ slow shock observation. According to our results, a pair of slow shocks does form in the reconnection layer. The resultant shock waves, however, are quite weak compared with those in an isotropic MHD from the point of view of the plasma compression and the amount of the magnetic energy released across the shock. Once the slow shock forms, the downstream plasma are heated in highly anisotropic manner and a firehose-sense (P_{||}>P_{?}) pressure anisotropy arises. The maximum anisotropy is limited by the marginal firehose criterion, 1-(P_{||}-P_{?})/B(2) =0. In spite of the weakness of the shocks, the resultant reconnection rate is kept at the same level compared with that in the corresponding ordinary MHD simulations. It is also revealed that the sequential order of propagation of the slow shock and the rotational discontinuity, which appears when the guide field component exists, changes depending on the magnitude of the guide field. Especially, when no guide field exists, the rotational discontinuity degenerates with the contact discontinuity remaining at the position of the initial current sheet, while with the slow shock in the isotropic MHD. Our result implies that the slow shock does not necessarily play an important role in the energy conversion in the reconnection system and is consistent with the satellite observation in the Earth's magnetosphere.

Hirabayashi, Kota; Hoshino, Masahiro

322

Large-Scale Quasi-geostrophic Magnetohydrodynamics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) of a shallow fluid layer on a rapidly rotating planet or star. The presence of a background toroidal magnetic field is assumed, and the "shallow water" beta-plane approximation is used. We derive a single equation for the slow large length scale dynamics. The range of validity of this equation fits the MHD of the lighter fluid at the top of Earth's outer core. The form of this equation is similar to the quasi-geostrophic (Q-G) equation (for usual ocean or atmosphere), but the parameters are essentially different. Our equation also implies the inverse cascade; but contrary to the usual Q-G situation, the energy cascades to smaller length scales, while the enstrophy cascades to the larger scales. We find the Kolmogorov-type spectrum for the inverse cascade. The spectrum indicates the energy accumulation in larger scales. In addition to the energy and enstrophy, the obtained equation possesses an extra (adiabatic-type) invariant. Its presence implies energy accumulation in the 30° sector around zonal direction. With some special energy input, the extra invariant can lead to the accumulation of energy in zonal magnetic field; this happens if the input of the extra invariant is small, while the energy input is considerable.

Balk, Alexander M.

2014-12-01

323

A description of the main results obtained during Tests No. 6 and 7 at the U-25B Facility using the new channel No. 2 is presented. The purpose of these tests was to operate the MHD generator at its design parameters. Described here are new plasma diagnostic devices: a traversing dual electrical probe for determining distribution of electron concentrations, and a traversing probe that includes a pitot tube for measuring total and static pressure, and a light detector for measuring plasma luminescence. Data are presented on heat flux distribution along the channel, the first data of this type obtained for an MHD facility of such size. Results are given of experimental studies of plasma characteristics, gasdynamic, thermal, and electrical MHD channel performance, and temporal and spatial nonuniformities. Typical modes of operation are analyzed by means of local electrical analyses. Computer models are used to obtain predictions for both localized and overall generator characteristics. These theoretical predictions agree closely with the results of the local analyses, as well as with measurements of the overall gasdynamic and electrical characteristics of the generator.

Picologlou, B F; Batenin, V M

1981-01-01

324

Outline of fast analyzer for MHD equilibrium FAME

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The FAME (Fast Analyzer for Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Equilibrium) system has been developed in order to provide more than 100 MHD equilibria in time series which are enough for the non-stationary analysis of the experimental data of JT-60 within about 20 minutes shot interval. The FAME is an MIMD type small scale parallel computer with 20 microprocessors which are connected by a multi-stage switching system. The maximum theoretical speed is 250 MFLOPS. For the software system of FAME, MHD equilibrium analysis code SELENE and its input data production code FBI are tuned up taking the parallel processing into consideration. Consequently, the computational performance of the FAME system becomes more than 7 times faster than the existing general purpose computer FACOM M780-10s. This report summarizes the outline of the FAME system including hardware, soft-ware and peripheral equipments.

Sakata, Shinya; Haginoya, Hirofumi; Tsuruoka, Takuya; Aoyagi, Tetsuo; Saito, Naoyuki; Harada, Hiroo; Tani, Keiji; Watanabe, Hideto

1994-02-01

325

Evaluation of materials for the MHD steam bottoming plant

Test data have been obtained on the corrosion of several commercial ASME-coded alloys and their weldments by exposing internally cooled ring specimens to simulated magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) environments. The specimens, coated with a K/sub 2/SO/sub 4/-rich deposit, were exposed for times up to 2000 h at metal temperatures of 762, 593, and 567/degree/C to simulated MHD conditions for the intermediate-temperature air heater (ITAH), ITAH transition region (transition from a low- to medium-chromium alloy to a high-chromium steel), and secondary superheater (SSH), respectively. This paper discusses, in detail, the observed corrosion scale morphologies of various exposed specimens. Data on scale thickness, depth of intergranular penetration, and metal recession are presented, and the results are used to assess the corrosion behavior of various materials for application in the MHD steam bottoming plant. 6 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

Natesan, K.; Swift, W.M.

1989-05-01

326

Growth of dust rims around chondrules in MHD-turbulent protoplanetary disks

The accretion of dust onto chondrule-sized particles is modeled through magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of a protoplanetary disk. The observed dust rims around chondrules in meteorites, such as CM carbonaceous chondrites, have been suggested to form on the parent body by a combination of compaction and aqueous alteration of a generic enveloping matrix. However, a nebular origin of these rims seems

A. Carballido

2009-01-01

327

3-D ideal MHD stability of super dense core plasma in LHD

The characteristics of confinement properties and magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) stabilities of the super dense core (SDC) plasmas are intensively studied in the Large Helical Device (LHD) experiment. The SDC plasmas are produced in the configuration with outward shifted magnetic axis and rapid fueling into the core region by pellet injection. The SDC plasmas have high electron pressure due to the large

Y. Narushima; K. Y. Watanabe; R. Sakamoto; Y. Suzuki; S. Sakakibara; S. Ohdachi; H. Yamada; W. A. Cooper

2007-01-01

328

Status of Magnetohydrodynamic Augmented Propulsion Experiment

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Over the past several years, efforts have been under way to design and develop an operationally flexible research facility for investigating the use of cross-field MHD accelerators as a potential thrust augmentation device for thermal propulsion systems, The baseline configuration for this high-power experimental facility utilizes a 1,5-MW, multi-gas arc-heater as a thermal driver for a 2-MW, MHD accelerator, which resides in a large-bore 2-tesla electromagnet. A preliminary design study using NaK seeded nitrogen as the working fluid led to an externally diagonalized segmented MHD channel configuration based on an expendable beat-sink design concept. The current status report includes a review of engineering/design work and performance optimization analyses and summarizes component hardware fabrication and development efforts, preliminary testing results, and recent progress toward full-up assembly and testing

Litchford, Ron J.; Lineberry, John T.

2007-01-01

329

Cosmic ray transport in MHD turbulence

Numerical simulations shed light onto earlier not trackable problem of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence. They allowed to test the predictions of different models and choose the correct ones. Inevitably, this progress calls for revisions in the picture of cosmic ray (CR) transport. It also shed light on the problems with the present day numerical modeling of CR. In this paper we focus on the analytical way of describing CR propagation and scattering, which should be used in synergy with the numerical studies. In particular, we use recently established scaling laws for MHD modes to obtain the transport properties for CRs. We include nonlinear effects arising from large scale trapping, to remove the 90 degree divergence. We determine how the efficiency of the scattering and CR mean free path depend on the characteristics of ionized media, e.g. plasma $\\beta$, Coulomb collisional mean free path. Implications for particle transport in interstellar medium and solar corona are discussed. We also examine the perpendicular transport of CRs. Perpendicular transport depends on the comparison of parallel mean free path and the injection scale of the turbulence, as well as the Alfv\\'enic Mach number. Normal turbulence does not allow subdiffusion unless there are slab waves. The critical scale below which subdiffusion applies is provided. These results can be used to compare with the numerical calculations, provided that these calculations use the structure of magnetic field which is consistent with the numerical studies of MHD turbulence.

Huirong Yan; A. Lazarian

2007-12-23

330

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The solar dynamo is known to be associated with several periodicities, with the nearly 11/22 yr cycle being the most pronounced one. Even though these quasiperiodic variations of solar activity have been attributed to the underlying dynamo action in the Sun's interior, a fundamental theoretical description of these cycles is still elusive. Here, we present a new possible direction in understanding the Sun's cycles based on resonant nonlinear interactions among magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Rossby waves. The WKB theory for dispersive waves is applied to magnetohydrodynamic shallow-water equations describing the dynamics of the solar tachocline, and the reduced dynamics of a resonant triad composed of MHD Rossby waves embedded in constant toroidal magnetic field is analyzed. In the conservative case, the wave amplitudes evolve periodically in time, with periods on the order of the dominant solar activity timescale (~11 yr). In addition, the presence of linear forcings representative of either convection or instabilities of meridionally varying background states appears to be crucial in balancing dissipation and thus sustaining the periodic oscillations of wave amplitudes associated with resonant triad interactions. Examination of the linear theory of MHD Rossby waves embedded in a latitudinally varying mean flow demonstrates that MHD Rossby waves propagate toward the equator in a waveguide from -35° to 35° in latitude, showing a remarkable resemblance to the structure of the butterfly diagram of the solar activity. Therefore, we argue that resonant nonlinear magnetohydrodynamic Rossby wave interactions might significantly contribute to the observed cycles of magnetic solar activity.

Raphaldini, Breno; Raupp, Carlos F. M.

2015-01-01

331

The transport of angular momentum by magnetic fields is a crucial physical process in formation and evolution of stars and disks. Because the ionization degree in star forming clouds is extremely low, non-ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) effects such as ambipolar diffusion and Ohmic dissipation work strongly during protostellar collapse. These effects have significant impacts in the early phase of star formation as they redistribute magnetic flux and suppress angular momentum transport by magnetic fields. We perform three-dimensional nested-grid radiation magnetohydrodynamic (RMHD) simulations including Ohmic dissipation and ambipolar diffusion. Without these effects, magnetic fields transport angular momentum so efficiently that no rotationally supported disk is formed even after the second collapse. Ohmic dissipation works only in a relatively high density region within the first core and suppresses angular momentum transport, enabling formation of a very small rotationally supported disk after the second co...

Tomida, Kengo; Machida, Masahiro N

2015-01-01

332

Conservation laws in ideal gas dynamics and magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) associated with fluid relabelling symmetries are derived using Noether's first and second theorems. Lie dragged invariants are discussed in terms of the MHD Casimirs. A nonlocal conservation law for fluid helicity applicable for a non-barotropic fluid involving Clebsch variables is derived using Noether's theorem, in conjunction with a fluid relabelling symmetry and a gauge transformation. A nonlocal cross helicity conservation law involving Clebsch potentials, and the MHD energy conservation law are derived by the same method. An Euler Poincar\\'e variational approach is also used to derive conservation laws associated with fluid relabelling symmetries using Noether's second theorem.

Webb, G M; McKenzie, J F; Hu, Q; Zank, G P

2013-01-01

333

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conservation laws in ideal gas dynamics and magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) associated with fluid relabeling symmetries are derived using Noether's first and second theorems. Lie dragged invariants are discussed in terms of the MHD Casimirs. A nonlocal conservation law for fluid helicity applicable for a non-barotropic fluid involving Clebsch variables is derived using Noether's theorem, in conjunction with a fluid relabeling symmetry and a gauge transformation. A nonlocal cross helicity conservation law involving Clebsch potentials, and the MHD energy conservation law are derived by the same method. An Euler-Poincaré variational approach is also used to derive conservation laws associated with fluid relabeling symmetries using Noether's second theorem.

Webb, G. M.; Dasgupta, B.; McKenzie, J. F.; Hu, Q.; Zank, G. P.

2014-03-01

334

The role of magnetohydrodynamics in heliospheric space plasma physics research

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) is a fairly recent extension of the field of fluid mechanics. While much remains to be done, it has successfully been applied to the contemporary field of heliospheric space plasma research to evaluate the 'macroscopic picture' of some vital topics via the use of conducting fluid equations and numerical modeling and simulations. Some representative examples from solar and interplanetary physics are described to demonstrate that the continuum approach to global problems (while keeping in mind the assumptions and limitations therein) can be very successful in providing insight and large scale interpretations of otherwise intractable problems in space physics.

Dryer, Murray; Smith, Zdenka Kopal; Wu, Shi Tsan

1988-01-01

335

STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF CURRENT SHEETS IN THREE-DIMENSIONAL MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC TURBULENCE

We develop a framework for studying the statistical properties of current sheets in numerical simulations of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence with a strong guide field, as modeled by reduced MHD. We describe an algorithm that identifies current sheets in a simulation snapshot and then determines their geometrical properties (including length, width, and thickness) and intensities (peak current density and total energy dissipation rate). We then apply this procedure to simulations of reduced MHD and perform a statistical analysis on the obtained population of current sheets. We evaluate the role of reconnection by separately studying the populations of current sheets which contain magnetic X-points and those which do not. We find that the statistical properties of the two populations are different in general. We compare the scaling of these properties to phenomenological predictions obtained for the inertial range of MHD turbulence. Finally, we test whether the reconnecting current sheets are consistent with the Sweet-Parker model.

Zhdankin, Vladimir; Boldyrev, Stanislav [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Uzdensky, Dmitri A. [Center for Integrated Plasma Studies, Physics Department, UCB-390, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Perez, Jean C., E-mail: zhdankin@wisc.edu, E-mail: boldyrev@wisc.edu, E-mail: uzdensky@colorado.edu, E-mail: jcperez@wisc.edu [Space Science Center, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 (United States)

2013-07-10

336

The analysis of the resonant spin-flavour (RSF) solutions to the solar neutrino problem in the framework of simplest analytic solutions to the solar magneto-hydrodynamics (MHD) equations is presented. We performed the global fit of the recent solar neutrino data, including event rates as well as day and night recoil electron spectra induced by solar neutrino interactions in SuperKamiokande. We compare quantitatively our simplest MHD-RSF fit with vacuum oscillation (VAC) and MSW--type (SMA, LMA and LOW) solutions to the solar neutrino problem using a common well-calibrated theoretical calculation and fit procedure and find MHD-RSF fit to be somewhat better than those obtained for the favored neutrino oscillation solutions. We made the predictions for future experiments to disentangle the MHD-RSF scenario from other scenarios.

T. I. Rashba; O. G. Miranda; C. Penya-Garay; V. B. Semikoz; J. W. F. Valle

2001-01-18

337

Magnetohydrodynamic Simulation of a Sigmoid Eruption of Active Region 11283

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of the initiation of solar eruptions are still commonly carried out with idealized magnetic field models, whereas the realistic coronal field prior to eruptions can possibly be reconstructed from the observable photospheric field. Using a nonlinear force-free field extrapolation prior to a sigmoid eruption in AR 11283 as the initial condition in an MHD model, we successfully simulate the realistic initiation process of the eruption event, as is confirmed by a remarkable resemblance to the SDO/AIA observations. Analysis of the pre-eruption field reveals that the envelope flux of the sigmoidal core contains a coronal null and furthermore the flux rope is prone to a torus instability. Observations suggest that reconnection at the null cuts overlying tethers and likely triggers the torus instability of the flux rope, which results in the eruption. This kind of simulation demonstrates the capability of modeling the realistic solar eruptions to provide the initiation process.

Jiang, Chaowei; Feng, Xueshang; Wu, S. T.; Hu, Qiang

2013-07-01

338

MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC SIMULATION OF A SIGMOID ERUPTION OF ACTIVE REGION 11283

Current magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of the initiation of solar eruptions are still commonly carried out with idealized magnetic field models, whereas the realistic coronal field prior to eruptions can possibly be reconstructed from the observable photospheric field. Using a nonlinear force-free field extrapolation prior to a sigmoid eruption in AR 11283 as the initial condition in an MHD model, we successfully simulate the realistic initiation process of the eruption event, as is confirmed by a remarkable resemblance to the SDO/AIA observations. Analysis of the pre-eruption field reveals that the envelope flux of the sigmoidal core contains a coronal null and furthermore the flux rope is prone to a torus instability. Observations suggest that reconnection at the null cuts overlying tethers and likely triggers the torus instability of the flux rope, which results in the eruption. This kind of simulation demonstrates the capability of modeling the realistic solar eruptions to provide the initiation process.

Jiang Chaowei; Feng Xueshang [SIGMA Weather Group, State Key Laboratory for Space Weather, Center for Space Science and Applied Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Wu, S. T.; Hu Qiang, E-mail: cwjiang@spaceweather.ac.cn, E-mail: fengx@spaceweather.ac.cn, E-mail: wus@uah.edu, E-mail: qh0001@uah.edu [Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research, The University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States)

2013-07-10

339

Nonlinear closures for scale separation in supersonic magnetohydrodynamic turbulence

Turbulence in compressible plasma plays a key role in many areas of astrophysics and engineering. The extreme plasma parameters in these environments, e.g. high Reynolds numbers, supersonic and super-Alfvenic flows, however, make direct numerical simulations computationally intractable even for the simplest treatment -- magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). To overcome this problem one can use subgrid-scale (SGS) closures -- models for the influence of unresolved, subgrid-scales on the resolved ones. In this work we propose and validate a set of constant coefficient closures for the resolved, compressible, ideal MHD equations. The subgrid-scale energies are modeled by Smagorinsky-like equilibrium closures. The turbulent stresses and the electromotive force (EMF) are described by expressions that are nonlinear in terms of large scale velocity and magnetic field gradients. To verify the closures we conduct a priori tests over 137 simulation snapshots from two different codes with varying ratios of thermal to magnetic pre...

Grete, Philipp; Schmidt, Wolfram; Schleicher, Dominik R G; Federrath, Christoph

2015-01-01

340

Hamiltonian magnetohydrodynamics: Lagrangian, Eulerian, and dynamically accessible stability--Theory

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stability conditions of magnetized plasma flows are obtained by exploiting the Hamiltonian structure of the magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) equations and, in particular, by using three kinds of energy principles. First, the Lagrangian variable energy principle is described and sufficient stability conditions are presented. Next, plasma flows are described in terms of Eulerian variables and the noncanonical Hamiltonian formulation of MHD is exploited. For symmetric equilibria, the energy-Casimir principle is expanded to second order and sufficient conditions for stability to symmetric perturbation are obtained. Then, dynamically accessible variations, i.e., variations that explicitly preserve invariants of the system, are introduced and the respective energy principle is considered. General criteria for stability are obtained, along with comparisons between the three different approaches.

Andreussi, T.; Morrison, P. J.; Pegoraro, F.

2013-09-01

341

Self-heating in kinematically complex magnetohydrodynamic flows

The non-modal self-heating mechanism driven by the velocity shear in kinematically complex magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) plasma flows is considered. The study is based on the full set of MHD equations including dissipative terms. The equations are linearized and unstable modes in the flow are looked for. Two different cases are specified and studied: (a) the instability related to an exponential evolution of the wave vector; and (b) the parametric instability, which takes place when the components of the wave vector evolve in time periodically. By examining the dissipative terms, it is shown that the self-heating rate provided by viscous damping is of the same order of magnitude as that due to the magnetic resistivity. It is found that the heating efficiency of the exponential instability is higher than that of the parametric instability.

Osmanov, Zaza; Poedts, Stefaan

2012-01-01

342

Self-heating in kinematically complex magnetohydrodynamic flows

The non-modal self-heating mechanism driven by the velocity shear in kinematically complex magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) plasma flows is considered. The study is based on the full set of MHD equations including dissipative terms. The equations are linearized and unstable modes in the flow are looked for. Two different cases are specified and studied: (a) the instability related to an exponential evolution of the wave vector and (b) the parametric instability, which takes place when the components of the wave vector evolve in time periodically. By examining the dissipative terms, it is shown that the self-heating rate provided by viscous damping is of the same order of magnitude as that due to the magnetic resistivity. It is found that the heating efficiency of the exponential instability is higher than that of the parametric instability.

Osmanov, Zaza; Rogava, Andria [Centre for Theoretical Astrophysics, ITP, Ilia State University, 0162-Tbilisi (Georgia); Poedts, Stefaan [Centre for Plasma Astrophysics, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200B, Bus 2400 B-3001 (Belgium)

2012-01-15

343

Hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic computations inside a rotating sphere

Numerical solutions of the incompressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations are reported for the interior of a rotating, perfectly-conducting, rigid spherical shell that is insulator-coated on the inside. A previously-reported spectral method is used which relies on a Galerkin expansion in Chandrasekhar-Kendall vector eigenfunctions of the curl. The new ingredient in this set of computations is the rigid rotation of the sphere. After a few purely hydrodynamic examples are sampled (spin down, Ekman pumping, inertial waves), attention is focused on selective decay and the MHD dynamo problem. In dynamo runs, prescribed mechanical forcing excites a persistent velocity field, usually turbulent at modest Reynolds numbers, which in turn amplifies a small seed magnetic field that is introduced. A wide variety of dynamo activity is observed, all at unit magnetic Prandtl number. The code lacks the resolution to probe high Reynolds numbers, but nevertheless interesting dynamo regimes turn out to be plentiful in those ...

Mininni, P D; Turner, L; 10.1088/1367-2630/9/8/303

2009-01-01

344

Hamiltonian magnetohydrodynamics: Lagrangian, Eulerian, and dynamically accessible stabilityTheory

Stability conditions of magnetized plasma flows are obtained by exploiting the Hamiltonian structure of the magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) equations and, in particular, by using three kinds of energy principles. First, the Lagrangian variable energy principle is described and sufficient stability conditions are presented. Next, plasma flows are described in terms of Eulerian variables and the noncanonical Hamiltonian formulation of MHD is exploited. For symmetric equilibria, the energy-Casimir principle is expanded to second order and sufficient conditions for stability to symmetric perturbation are obtained. Then, dynamically accessible variations, i.e., variations that explicitly preserve invariants of the system, are introduced and the respective energy principle is considered. General criteria for stability are obtained, along with comparisons between the three different approaches.

Andreussi, T. [Alta S.p.A., Pisa 56121 (Italy)] [Alta S.p.A., Pisa 56121 (Italy); Morrison, P. J. [Institute for Fusion Studies and Department of Physics, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712-1060 (United States)] [Institute for Fusion Studies and Department of Physics, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712-1060 (United States); Pegoraro, F. [Universitŕ di Pisa, Dipartimento di Fisica E. Fermi, Pisa 56127 (Italy)] [Universitŕ di Pisa, Dipartimento di Fisica E. Fermi, Pisa 56127 (Italy)

2013-09-15

345

Magnetohydrodynamic turbulent cascade of coronal loop magnetic fields.

The Parker model for coronal heating is investigated through a high resolution simulation. An inertial range is resolved where fluctuating magnetic energy EMk[Please see symbol]) [Please see symbol] k[Please see symbol](-2.7) exceeds kinetic energy EK(k[Please see symbol])[Please see symbol]k[Please see symbol](-0.6). Increments scale as ?b? ~/= ?(-0.85) and ?u? ~/= ?(+0.2) with velocity increasing at small scales, indicating that magnetic reconnection plays a prime role in this turbulent system. We show that spectral energy transport is akin to standard magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence even for a system of reconnecting current sheets sustained by the boundary. In this new MHD turbulent cascade, kinetic energy flows are negligible while cross-field flows are enhanced, and through a series of "reflections" between the two fields, cascade more than half of the total spectral energy flow. PMID:21797433

Rappazzo, A F; Velli, M

2011-06-01

346

A pressure-based high resolution numerical method for resistive MHD

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the paper we describe in detail a numerical method for the resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations involving viscous flow and report the results of application to a number of typical MHD test cases. The method is of the finite volume type but mixes aspects of pressure-correction and density based solvers; the algorithm arrangement is patterned on the well-known PISO algorithm, which is a pressure method, while the flux computation makes use of the AUSM-MHD scheme, which originates from density based methods. Five groups of test cases are addressed to verify and validate the method. We start with two resistive MHD cases, namely the Shercliff and Hunt flow problems, which are intended to validate the method for low-speed resistive MHD flows. The remaining three test cases, namely the cloud-shock interaction, the MHD rotor and the MHD blast wave, are standard 2D ideal MHD problems that serve to validate the method under high-speed flow and complex interaction of MHD shocks. Finally, we demonstrate the method with a more complex application problem, and discuss results of simulation for a quasi-bi-dimensional self-field magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thruster, for which we study the effect of cathode length upon the electromagnetic nozzle performance.

Xisto, Carlos M.; Páscoa, José C.; Oliveira, Paulo J.

2014-10-01

347

Complex magnetohydrodynamic bow shock topology in field-aligned low- flow around a perfectly conducting cylinder H. De Stercka) and B. C. Low High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric several novel phenomena in MHD shock formation. The stationary symmetrical flow of a uniform, planar

De Sterck, Hans

348

In this paper we consider the problem of multidisciplinary design and optimization (MDO) of a diffuser for a steady, incompressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow. Given a fixed diffuser shape, the optimizer should find the distribution of the wall magnets that will maximize the static pressure increase from inlet to outlet. This design problem is solved through the use of a genetic

Brian H. Dennis; George S. Dulikravich

2001-01-01

349

Magnetic Discontinuities in Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence and in the Solar Wind

Recent measurements of solar wind turbulence report the presence of intermittent, exponentially distributed angular discontinuities in the magnetic field. In this Letter, we study whether such discontinuities can be produced by magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence. We detect the discontinuities by measuring the fluctuations of the magnetic field direction, Delta theta, across fixed spatial increments Delta x in direct numerical simulations of MHD turbulence with an imposed uniform guide field B_0. A large region of the probability density function (pdf) for Delta theta is found to follow an exponential decay, proportional to exp(-Delta theta/theta_*), with characteristic angle theta_* ~ (14 deg) (b_rms/B_0)^0.65 for a broad range of guide-field strengths. We find that discontinuities observed in the solar wind can be reproduced by MHD turbulence with reasonable ratios of b_rms/B_0. We also observe an excess of small angular discontinuities when Delta x becomes small, possibly indicating an increasing statistical significance of dissipation-scale structures. The structure of the pdf in this case closely resembles the two-population pdf seen in the solar wind. We thus propose that strong discontinuities are associated with inertial-range MHD turbulence, while weak discontinuities emerge from near-dissipation-range turbulence. In addition, we find that the structure functions of the magnetic field direction exhibit anomalous scaling exponents, which indicates the existence of intermittent structures.

Vladimir Zhdankin; Stanislav Boldyrev; Joanne Mason; Jean Carlos Perez

2012-04-19

350

Multidimensional HLLE Riemann solver: Application to Euler and magnetohydrodynamic flows

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work we present a general strategy for constructing multidimensional HLLE Riemann solvers, with particular attention paid to detailing the two-dimensional HLLE Riemann solver. This is accomplished by introducing a constant resolved state between the states being considered, which introduces sufficient dissipation for systems of conservation laws. Closed form expressions for the resolved fluxes are also provided to facilitate numerical implementation. The Riemann solver is proved to be positively conservative for the density variable; the positivity of the pressure variable has been demonstrated for Euler flows when the divergence in the fluid velocities is suitably restricted so as to prevent the formation of cavitation in the flow. We also focus on the construction of multidimensionally upwinded electric fields for divergence-free magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) flows. A robust and efficient second order accurate numerical scheme for two and three-dimensional Euler and MHD flows is presented. The scheme is built on the current multidimensional Riemann solver and has been implemented in the author's RIEMANN code. The number of zones updated per second by this scheme on a modern processor is shown to be cost-competitive with schemes that are based on a one-dimensional Riemann solver. However, the present scheme permits larger timesteps. Accuracy analysis for multidimensional Euler and MHD problems shows that the scheme meets its design accuracy. Several stringent test problems involving Euler and MHD flows are also presented and the scheme is shown to perform robustly on all of them.

Balsara, Dinshaw S.

2010-03-01

351

Thermodynamic Cycle Analysis of Magnetohydrodynamic-Bypass Airbreathing Hypersonic Engines

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Established analyses of conventional ramjet/scramjet performance characteristics indicate that a considerable decrease in efficiency can be expected at off-design flight conditions. This can be explained, in large part, by the deterioration of intake mass flow and limited inlet compression at low flight speeds and by the onset of thrust degradation effects associated with increased burner entry temperature at high flight speeds. In combination, these effects tend to impose lower and upper Mach number limits for practical flight. It has been noted, however, that Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) energy management techniques represent a possible means for extending the flight Mach number envelope of conventional engines. By transferring enthalpy between different stages of the engine cycle, it appears that the onset of thrust degradation may be delayed to higher flight speeds. Obviously, the introduction of additional process inefficiencies is inevitable with this approach, but it is believed that these losses are more than compensated through optimization of the combustion process. The fundamental idea is to use MHD energy conversion processes to extract and bypass a portion of the intake kinetic energy around the burner. We refer to this general class of propulsion system as an MHD-bypass engine. In this paper, we quantitatively assess the performance potential and scientific feasibility of MHD-bypass airbreathing hypersonic engines using ideal gasdynamics and fundamental thermodynamic principles.

Litchford, Ron J.; Bityurin, Valentine A.; Lineberry, John T.

1999-01-01

352

A V-shaped gutter on the nose-cone surface of the heliopause caused by MHD processes

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The global structure of the heliosphere under the interaction between the solar wind plasma and the local interstellar medium is studied by magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) computer simulation. A V-shaped gutter on the nose-cone surface of the heliopause caused by MHD processes is found in this simulation. The V-shaped gutter is also found on the termination shock surface, and both gutters are found to almost touch each other on the ecliptic.

Washimi, H.; Tanaka, T.

353

Statistical Theory of the Ideal MHD Geodynamo

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A statistical theory of geodynamo action is developed, using a mathematical model of the geodynamo as a rotating outer core containing an ideal (i.e., no dissipation), incompressible, turbulent, convecting magnetofluid. On the concentric inner and outer spherical bounding surfaces the normal components of the velocity, magnetic field, vorticity and electric current are zero, as is the temperature fluctuation. This allows the use of a set of Galerkin expansion functions that are common to both velocity and magnetic field, as well as vorticity, current and the temperature fluctuation. The resulting dynamical system, based on the Boussinesq form of the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations, represents MHD turbulence in a spherical domain. These basic equations (minus the temperature equation) and boundary conditions have been used previously in numerical simulations of forced, decaying MHD turbulence inside a sphere [1,2]. Here, the ideal case is studied through statistical analysis and leads to a prediction that an ideal coherent structure will be found in the form of a large-scale quasistationary magnetic field that results from broken ergodicity, an effect that has been previously studied both analytically and numerically for homogeneous MHD turbulence [3,4]. The axial dipole component becomes prominent when there is a relatively large magnetic helicity (proportional to the global correlation of magnetic vector potential and magnetic field) and a stationary, nonzero cross helicity (proportional to the global correlation of velocity and magnetic field). The expected angle of the dipole moment vector with respect to the rotation axis is found to decrease to a minimum as the average cross helicity increases for a fixed value of magnetic helicity and then to increase again when average cross helicity approaches its maximum possible value. Only a relatively small value of cross helicity is needed to produce a dipole moment vector that is aligned at approx.10deg with the rotation axis.

Shebalin, J. V.

2012-01-01

354

NASA-Lewis closed-cycle magnetohydrodynamics plant analysis

A brief review of preliminary analyses of coal fired closed cycle MHD power plants is presented. The performance of three power plants with differing combustion systems were compared. The combustion systems considered were (1) a direct coal-fired combustor, (2) a coal gasifier with in-bed desulfurization and (3) a coal gasifier requiring external fuel gas cleanup. Power plant efficiencies (auxiliary power

P. F. Penko

1979-01-01

355

We have written and tested a new general relativistic magnetohydrodynamics code, capable of evolving magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) fluids in dynamical spacetimes with adaptive-mesh refinement (AMR). Our code solves the Einstein-Maxwell-MHD system of coupled equations in full 3+1 dimensions, evolving the metric via the Baumgarte-Shapiro Shibata-Nakamura formalism and the MHD and magnetic induction equations via a conservative, high-resolution shock-capturing scheme. The induction equations are recast as an evolution equation for the magnetic vector potential, which exists on a grid that is staggered with respect to the hydrodynamic and metric variables. The divergenceless constraint {nabla}{center_dot}B=0 is enforced by the curl of the vector potential. Our MHD scheme is fully compatible with AMR, so that fluids at AMR refinement boundaries maintain {nabla}{center_dot}B=0. In simulations with uniform grid spacing, our MHD scheme is numerically equivalent to a commonly used, staggered-mesh constrained-transport scheme. We present code validation test results, both in Minkowski and curved spacetimes. They include magnetized shocks, nonlinear Alfven waves, cylindrical explosions, cylindrical rotating disks, magnetized Bondi tests, and the collapse of a magnetized rotating star. Some of the more stringent tests involve black holes. We find good agreement between analytic and numerical solutions in these tests, and achieve convergence at the expected order.

Etienne, Zachariah B.; Liu, Yuk Tung [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Shapiro, Stuart L.

2010-10-15

356

Analytical studies of high-pressure MHD accelerators

An analytical study was made of the feasibility of using an MHD-augmented arc as the primary component of a large reentry vehicle test facility. Computer studies of the performance of MHD accelerator channels were made for systems having channel input power of 50 MW to 1,700 MW. It was determined that complete simulation of reentry conditions is not possible in

G. L. Whitehead

1981-01-01

357

MHD generators based on saturated alkali-metal vapors

A scheme is considered for an MHD power station in which the MHD generator works in a closed cycle with a nonideal plasma made of the saturated vapor of cesium or potassium. Use is made of the anomalously high conductivity of such a plasma. The enthalpy transformation coefficient in the cycle is 18--25% with a maximum temperature in the cycle

L. M. Biberman; A. A. Likalter; I. T. Yakubov

1982-01-01

358

In this paper we show how a Lagrangian variational principle can be used to derive the SPMHD (smoothed particle magnetohydrodynamics) equations for ideal MHD. We also consider the effect of a variable smoothing length in the SPH kernels after which we demonstrate by numerical tests that the consistent treatment of terms relating to the gradient of the smoothing length in the SPMHD equations significantly improves the accuracy of the algorithm. Our results complement those obtained in a companion paper (Price and Monaghan 2003a, paper I) for non ideal MHD where artificial dissipative terms were included to handle shocks.

D. J. Price; J. J. Monaghan

2003-10-28

359

Maximal energies of the particles accelerated by the system of converging magnetohydrodynamic flows

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have shown that maximal energies of the charged particles accelerated in the system of converging magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flows can reach ? 1017 eV. The scheme of magnetic field amplification (MFA) applied to the previous non-linear model of particle acceleration in the colliding shocks allowed to make proper estimates for the value of turbulent magnetic field. The efficiency of the particle acceleration on the energy range larger than the "knee" in the cosmic rays spectrum (? 1014 1015 eV) makes the systems of colliding MHD flows important contributors to the overall high-energy cosmic rays population in the Galaxy.

Gladilin, P. E.; Bykov, A. M.; Osipov, S. M.

2014-12-01

360

Variational integration for ideal magnetohydrodynamics with built-in advection equations

Newcomb's Lagrangian for ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) in Lagrangian labeling is discretized using discrete exterior calculus. Variational integrators for ideal MHD are derived thereafter. Besides being symplectic and momentum-preserving, the schemes inherit built-in advection equations from Newcomb's formulation, and therefore avoid solving them and the accompanying error and dissipation. We implement the method in 2D and show that numerical reconnection does not take place when singular current sheets are present. We then apply it to studying the dynamics of the ideal coalescence instability with multiple islands. The relaxed equilibrium state with embedded current sheets is obtained numerically.

Zhou, Yao; Burby, J. W.; Bhattacharjee, A. [Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Qin, Hong [Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

2014-10-15

361

Variational integration for ideal magnetohydrodynamics with built-in advection equations

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Newcomb's Lagrangian for ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) in Lagrangian labeling is discretized using discrete exterior calculus. Variational integrators for ideal MHD are derived thereafter. Besides being symplectic and momentum-preserving, the schemes inherit built-in advection equations from Newcomb's formulation, and therefore avoid solving them and the accompanying error and dissipation. We implement the method in 2D and show that numerical reconnection does not take place when singular current sheets are present. We then apply it to studying the dynamics of the ideal coalescence instability with multiple islands. The relaxed equilibrium state with embedded current sheets is obtained numerically.

Zhou, Yao; Qin, Hong; Burby, J. W.; Bhattacharjee, A.

2014-10-01

362

A two Tesla test facility was designed, built, and operated to investigate the performance of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) seawater thrusters. The results of this investigation are used to validate MHD thruster performance computer models. The facility test loop, its components, and their design are presented in detail. Additionally, the test matrix and its rational are discussed. finally, representative experimental results of the test program are presented, and are compared to pretest computer model predictions. Good agreement between predicted and measured data has served to validate the thruster performance computer models.

Picologlou, B.; Doss, E.; Black, D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Sikes, W.C. [Newport News Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Co., VA (United States)

1992-09-01

363

A two Tesla test facility was designed, built, and operated to investigate the performance of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) seawater thrusters. The results of this investigation are used to validate MHD thruster performance computer models. The facility test loop, its components, and their design are presented in detail. Additionally, the test matrix and its rational are discussed. finally, representative experimental results of the test program are presented, and are compared to pretest computer model predictions. Good agreement between predicted and measured data has served to validate the thruster performance computer models.

Picologlou, B.; Doss, E.; Black, D. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Sikes, W.C. (Newport News Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Co., VA (United States))

1992-01-01

364

MHD normal mode analysis with equilibrium pressure anisotropy

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, we generalise linear magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability theory to include equilibrium pressure anisotropy in the fluid part of the analysis. A novel single-adiabatic (SA) fluid closure is presented which is complementary to the usual double-adiabatic (CGL) model and has the advantage of naturally reproducing exactly the MHD spectrum in the isotropic limit. As with MHD and CGL, the SA model neglects the anisotropic perturbed pressure and thus loses non-local fast-particle stabilisation present in the kinetic approach. Another interesting aspect of this new approach is that the stabilising terms appear naturally as separate viscous corrections leaving the isotropic SA closure unchanged. After verifying the self-consistency of the SA model, we re-derive the projected linear MHD set of equations required for stability analysis of tokamaks in the MISHKA code. The cylindrical wave equation is derived analytically as done previously in the spectral theory of MHD and clear predictions are made for the modification to fast-magnetosonic and slow ion sound speeds due to equilibrium anisotropy.

Fitzgerald, M.; Hole, M. J.; Qu, Z. S.

2015-02-01

365

Design of Closed-Cycle MHD Generator with Nonequilibrium Ionization and System

A closed-cycle MHD generator topping a steam bottoming plant is analyzed. The combined power plant involves three working fluids in three loops. The MHD loop is investigated more thoroughly since it is the least conventional of the three. Equations are developed to determine the geometric and thermodynamic variables throughout the MHD channel for inlet conditions of mass flow, temperature, pressure,

R. E. Voshall; R. J. Wright; R. W. Liebermann

1977-01-01

366

Center for Extended Magnetohydrodynamic Modeling Cooperative Agreement

The Center for Extended Magnetohydrodynamic Modeling (CEMM) is developing computer simulation models for predicting the behavior of magnetically confined plasmas. Over the first phase of support from the Department of Energys Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) initiative, the focus has been on macroscopic dynamics that alter the confinement properties of magnetic field configurations. The ultimate objective is to provide computational capabilities to predict plasma behaviornot unlike computational weather predictionto optimize performance and to increase the reliability of magnetic confinement for fusion energy. Numerical modeling aids theoretical research by solving complicated mathematical models of plasma behavior including strong nonlinear effects and the influences of geometrical shaping of actual experiments. The numerical modeling itself remains an area of active research, due to challenges associated with simulating multiple temporal and spatial scales. The research summarized in this report spans computational and physical topics associated with state of the art simulation of magnetized plasmas. The tasks performed for this grant are categorized according to whether they are primarily computational, algorithmic, or application-oriented in nature. All involve the development and use of the Non-Ideal Magnetohydrodynamics with Rotation, Open Discussion (NIMROD) code, which is described at http://nimrodteam.org. With respect to computation, we have tested and refined methods for solving the large algebraic systems of equations that result from our numerical approximations of the physical model. Collaboration with the Terascale Optimal PDE Solvers (TOPS) SciDAC center led us to the SuperLU_DIST software library [http://crd.lbl.gov/~xiaoye/SuperLU/] for solving large sparse matrices using direct methods on parallel computers. Switching to this solver library boosted NIMRODs performance by a factor of five in typical large nonlinear simulations, which has been publicized as a success story of SciDAC-fostered collaboration. Furthermore, the SuperLU software does not assume any mathematical symmetry, and its generality provides an important capability for extending the physical model beyond magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). With respect to algorithmic and model development, our most significant accomplishment is the development of a new method for solving plasma models that treat electrons as an independent plasma component. These two-fluid models encompass MHD and add temporal and spatial scales that are beyond the response of the ion species. Implementation and testing of a previously published algorithm did not prove successful for NIMROD, and the new algorithm has since been devised, analyzed, and implemented. Two-fluid modeling, an important objective of the original NIMROD project, is now routine in 2D applications. Algorithmic components for 3D modeling are in place and tested; though, further computational work is still needed for efficiency. Other algorithmic work extends the ion-fluid stress tensor to include models for parallel and gyroviscous stresses. In addition, our hot-particle simulation capability received important refinements that permitted completion of a benchmark with the M3D code. A highlight of our applications work is the edge-localized mode (ELM) modeling, which was part of the first-ever computational Performance Target for the DOE Office of Fusion Energy Science, see http://www.science.doe.gov/ofes/performancetargets.shtml. Our efforts allowed MHD simulations to progress late into the nonlinear stage, where energy is conducted to the wall location. They also produced a two-fluid ELM simulation starting from experimental information and demonstrating critical drift effects that are characteristic of two-fluid physics. Another important application is the internal kink mode in a tokamak. Here, the primary purpose of the study has been to benchmark the two main code development lines of CEMM, NIMROD and M3D, on a relevant nonlinear problem. Results from the two

Carl R. Sovinec

2008-02-15

367

Observational Tests of Recent MHD Turbulence Perspectives

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This grant seeks to analyze the Heliospheric Missions data to test current theories on the angular dependence (with respect to mean magnetic field direction) of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence in the solar wind. Solar wind turbulence may be composed of two or more dynamically independent components. Such components include magnetic pressure-balanced structures, velocity shears, quasi-2D turbulence, and slab (Alfven) waves. We use a method, developed during the first two years of this grant, for extracting the individual reduced spectra of up to three separate turbulence components from a single spacecraft time series. The method has been used on ISEE-3 data, Pioneer Venus Orbiter, Ulysses, and Voyager data samples. The correlation of fluctuations as a function of angle between flow direction and magnetic-field direction is the focus of study during the third year.

Ghosh, Sanjoy; Guhathakurta, M. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

368

Drag reduction in turbulent MHD pipe flows

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is a preliminary study devoted to verifying whether or not direct simulations of turbulent Magneto-Hydro-Dynamic (MHD) flows in liquid metals reproduce experimental observations of drag reduction. Two different cases have been simulated by a finite difference scheme which is second order accurate in space and time. In the first case, an external azimuthal magnetic field is imposed. In this case, the magnetic field acts on the mean axial velocity and complete laminarization of the flow at N(sub a) = 30 has been achieved. In the second case, an axial magnetic field is imposed which affects only fluctuating velocities, and thus the action is less efficient. This second case is more practical, but comparison between numerical and experimental results is only qualitative.

Orlandi, P.

1996-01-01

369

Time evolution from linear to nonlinear stages in magnetohydrodynamic parametric instabilities

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The nonlinear evolution of the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) parametric instability of wave fluctuations propagating along an unperturbed magnetic field is investigated. Both a magnetohydrodynamic perturbation-theoretical approach and a nonlinear MHD simulation are used. It is shown that high harmonic waves are rapidly excited by wave-wave coupling, and that the wave spectrum evolves from a state containing a small number of degrees of freedom in k space to one which contains a large number of degrees of freedom. It is found that the spectral evolution prior to nonlinear saturation is well described by the prturbation theory. During this stage, the ratio of the growth rate of the nth harmonic wave to the linear growth rate of the fundamental wave is n. The nonlinear saturation stage is characterized by a frequency shift of the fundamental wave that destroys the wave-wave resonance condition which, in turn, causes the wave amplitude to cease its growth.

Hoshino, M.; Goldstein, M. L.

1989-01-01

370

Spectral Properties of Magnetohydrodynamic Convection With a Horizontal Temperature Gradient

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spectral properties of convective magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence in two and three dimensions are studied by means of direct numerical simulations. The system is set up with a mean horizontal temperature gradient in order to avoid the development of elevator instabilities in a full periodic box. All simulations are performed without mean magnetic field. The applied resolution is 5123 and 20482. The MHD equations are solved using a standard pseudospectral scheme. For removing of aliasing errors a spherical truncation method is employed. Systems are compared with predictions of various existing phenomenological theories for magnetohydrodynamic and convective turbulence. While the three dimensional system most probably operates in a Kolmogorov-like regime where buoyant forces have negligible impact on the turbulence dynamics (relatively low Rayleigh number achieved in the simulation; Ra~106), the two dimensional system exhibits interesting irregular oscillations between a buoyancy dominated Bolgiano-Obukhov-like regime and a Iroshnikov-Kraichnan-like turbulence. The most important parameter determining the regime of 2D magnetoconvection apart from the Rayleigh number seems to be the mutual alignment of velocity and magnetic fields. The non-linear dynamics and the interplay between individual fields are examined with different transfer functions that confirm basic assumptions about directions of energy transfer. Kinetic, magnetic and temperature energy are transported in the turbulent cascade from large to smaller scales.

Skandera, D.; Mueller, W. C.

2006-12-01

371

BOOK REVIEW: Magnetohydrodynamics of Plasma Relaxation

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This monograph on magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) relaxation in plasmas by Ortolani and Schnack occupies a fascinating niche in the plasma physics literature. It is rare in the complex and often technically sophisticated subject of plasma physics to be able to isolate a topic and deal with it comprehensively in a mere 180 pages. Furthermore, it brings a refreshingly original and personal approach to the treatment of plasma relaxation, synthesizing the experiences of the two authors to produce a very readable account of phenomena appearing in such diverse situations as laboratory reversed field pinches (RFPs) and the solar corona. Its novelty lies in that, while it does acknowledge the seminal Taylor theory of relaxation as a general guide, it emphasizes the role of large scale numerical MHD simulations in developing a picture for the relaxation phenomena observed in experiment and nature. Nevertheless, the volume has some minor shortcomings: a tendency to repetitiveness and some omissions that prevent it being entirely self-contained. The monograph is divided into nine chapters, with the first a readable, `chatty', introduction to the physics and phenomena of relaxation discussed in the later chapters. Chapter 2 develops the tools for describing relaxation processes, namely the resistive MHD model, leading to a discussion of resistive instabilities and the stability properties of RFPs. This chapter demonstrates the authors' confessed desire to avoid mathematical detail with a rather simplified discussion of ?' and magnetic islands; it also sets the stage for their own belief, or thesis, that numerical simulation of the non-linear consequences of the MHD model is the best approach to explaining the physics of relaxation. Nevertheless, in Chapter 3 they provide a reasonably good account and critique of one analytic approach that is available, and which is the commonly accepted picture for relaxation in pinches - the Taylor relaxation theory based on the conservation of global magnetic helicity. Some of the shortcomings of the Taylor theory in explaining details of real pinch experiments are used by the authors as a justification for a more phenomenological approach, described in detail in Chapter 4. They construct a `phenomenological model' that utilizes experimental information and linear stability properties; this is described authoritatively, since the authors have been very much involved in this work. The experimental evidence showing the presence of large scale instabilities in RFPs is used to provide support for the main thrust of the monograph, described in Chapter 5, namely that numerical computations of the non-linear evolution of MHD modes is the key to understanding the dynamical processes occurring in relaxation. These MHD processes give rise to a dynamo effect, analogous to that generating magnetic fields in the earth or stars, which overcomes the natural consequences of Spitzer resistivity and produces a reversed toroidal field. Chapter 5 begins with a general discussion of dynamo models and then moves on to the pioneering work of Sykes and Wesson on numerical simulation of relaxation, before launching into an authoritative account of more detailed and advanced simulations in which the authors themselves have played a major part. These calculations capture the basic features of relaxation in pinches and provide a demonstration of Taylor's theory. Chapters 6 and 7 describe some applications to RFPs of relaxation theory: the anomalous loop voltage, improving their performance by helicity injection, as well as sawteeth and thermal transport. The penultimate Chapter 8 proposes applications of this computational approach to relaxation, developed initially for laboratory pinches, to the solar corona. This is a stimulating discussion, drawing analogues between the two very different situations, ideal for broadening the perspectives of the fusion physicist. Specifically, the authors consider modelling of the evolution of active magnetic arcades, associated with sunspots, and coronal heating, both of which result from foot

Connor, J. W.

1998-06-01

372

An open cycle MHD generator burning liquid hydrocarbon fuel with cesium-seeded gaseous oxygen has produced 200 KW at a mass flow rate of 0.6 kg\\/sec. A dc-dc converter operating at 2000 Hz has been developed to convert the 1000 volt generator output to 50,000 volts. From current test results the potential enthalpy extraction efficiency of MHD generators in the 10

J. F. Holt; D. W. Swallom

1974-01-01

373

General Relativistic Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations of Collapsars

We have performed 2.5-dimensional general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of the gravitational collapse of a magnetized rotating massive star as a model of gamma ray bursts (GRBs). The current calculation focuses on general relativistic MHD with simplified microphysics (we ignore neutrino cooling, physical equation of state, and photodisintegration). Initially, we assume that the core collapse has failed in this star. A few $M_{\\odot}$ black hole is inserted by hand into the calculation. The simulations presented in the paper follow the accretion of gas into a black hole that is assumed to have formed before the calculation begins.The simulation results show the formation of a disk-like structure and the generation of a jetlike outflow inside the shock wave launched at the core bounce. We have found that the jet is accelerated by the magnetic pressure and the centrifugal force and is collimated by the pinching force of the toroidal magnetic field amplified by the rotation and the effect of geometry of the poloidal magnetic field. The maximum velocity of the jet is mildly relativistic (0.3c). The velocity of the jet becomes larger as the initial rotational velocity of stellar matter gets faster. On the other hand, the dependence on the initial magnetic field strength is a bit more complicated: the velocity of the jet increases with the initial field strength in the weak field regime, then is saturated at some intermediate field strength, and decreases beyond the critical field strength. These results are related to the stored magnetic energy determined by the balance between the propagation time of the Alfven wave and the rotation time of the disk (or twisting time).

Yosuke Mizuno; Shoichi Yamada; Shinji Koide; Kazunari Shibata

2003-10-01

374

The PIERNIK MHD code - a multi-fluid, non-ideal extension of the relaxing-TVD scheme (II)

We present a new multi-fluid, grid-based magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) code PIERNIK, which is based on the Relaxing Total Variation Diminishing (RTVD) scheme (Jin & Xin 1995). The original scheme (see Trac & Pen 2003 and Pen et al. 2003) has been extended by an addition of dynamically independent, but interacting fluids: dust and a diffusive cosmic ray (CR) gas, described within

Micha? Hanasz; Kacper Kowalik; D. Wóltanski; R. Pawlaszek; Kacper Kornet

2010-01-01

375

This study uses two conjunctions between Cluster and Double Star TC-1 spacecraft together with global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations to investigate the large-scale configuration of magnetic reconnection at the dayside magnetopause. Both events involve southward interplanetary magnetic fields with significant B y components. The first event occurred on 8 May 2004, while both spacecraft were exploring the dawn flank of the

J. Berchem; A. Marchaudon; M. Dunlop; C. P. Escoubet; J. M. Bosqued; H. Reme; I. Dandouras; A. Balogh; E. Lucek; C. Carr; Z. Pu

2008-01-01

376

Corrosion data have been obtained for tub is exposed for 1500--2000 hours in a proof-of-concept magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) power generation test facility to conditions representative of superheater and intermediate temperature air heater (ITAH) components. The tubes, coated with K{sub 2}SO{sub 4}-rich deposits, were corroded more than in most pulverized coal fired superheater service, but much less than the highly aggressive liquid phase attack encountered in conventional plants with certain coals and temperatures. Results indicated that, with parabolic corrosion kinetics, type 310 and 253MA stainless steels should be usable to 1400F at hot end of ITAH. At final superheater temperatures, 2.25 and 5 Cr steels were indicated to have parabolic corrosion rates generally below a 0.5 mm/yr criterion, based on corrosion scale thickness. However, unknown amounts of scale loss from spallation made this determination uncertain. Stainless steels 304H, 316H, and 321H had parabolic rates variably above the criterion, but may be servicable under less cyclic conditions. Corrosion rates derived from scale thickness and intergranular corrosion depth measurements are reported, along with scale morphologies and compositions. Implications of results on commercial MHD utilization of the alloys are discussed, as well as the indicated need for more corrosion resistant alloys or coatings under the most severe exposure conditions.

White, M.K.

1993-11-01

377

Comparison of three artificial models of the magnetohydrodynamic effect on the electrocardiogram.

The electrocardiogram (ECG) is often acquired during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), but its analysis is restricted by the presence of a strong artefact, called magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) effect. MHD effect is induced by the flow of electrically charged particles in the blood perpendicular to the static magnetic field, which creates a potential of the order of magnitude of the ECG and temporally coincident with the repolarisation period. In this study, a new MHD model is proposed by using MRI-based 4D blood flow measurements made across the aortic arch. The model is extended to several cardiac cycles to allow the simulation of a realistic ECG acquisition during MRI examination and the quality assessment of MHD suppression techniques. A comparison of two existing models, based, respectively, on an analytical solution and on a numerical method-based solution of the fluids dynamics problem, is made with the proposed model and with an estimate of the MHD voltage observed during a real MRI scan. Results indicate a moderate agreement between the proposed model and the estimated MHD model for most leads, with an average correlation factor of 0.47. However, the results demonstrate that the proposed model provides a closer approximation to the observed MHD effects and a better depiction of the complexity of the MHD effect compared with the previously published models, with an improved correlation ([Formula: see text]), coefficient of determination ([Formula: see text]) and fraction of energy ([Formula: see text]) compared with the best previous model. The source code will be made freely available under an open source licence to facilitate collaboration and allow more rapid development of more accurate models of the MHD effect. PMID:24761753

Oster, Julien; Llinares, Raul; Payne, Stephen; Tse, Zion Tsz Ho; Schmidt, Ehud Jeruham; Clifford, Gari D

2015-10-01

378

Magnetic control of magnetohydrodynamic instabilities in tokamaks

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Externally applied, non-axisymmetric magnetic fields form the basis of several relatively simple and direct methods to control magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities in a tokamak, and most present and planned tokamaks now include a set of non-axisymmetric control coils for application of fields with low toroidal mode numbers. Non-axisymmetric applied fields are routinely used to compensate small asymmetries ( ?B /B 10-3 to 10-4 ) of the nominally axisymmetric field, which otherwise can lead to instabilities through braking of plasma rotation and through direct stimulus of tearing modes or kink modes. This compensation may be feedback-controlled, based on the magnetic response of the plasma to the external fields. Non-axisymmetric fields are used for direct magnetic stabilization of the resistive wall modea kink instability with a growth rate slow enough that feedback control is practical. Saturated magnetic islands are also manipulated directly with non-axisymmetric fields, in order to unlock them from the wall and spin them to aid stabilization, or position them for suppression by localized current drive. Several recent scientific advances form the foundation of these developments in the control of instabilities. Most fundamental is the understanding that stable kink modes play a crucial role in the coupling of non-axisymmetric fields to the plasma, determining which field configurations couple most strongly, how the coupling depends on plasma conditions, and whether external asymmetries are amplified by the plasma. A major advance for the physics of high-beta plasmas ( ? = plasma pressure/magnetic field pressure) has been the understanding that drift-kinetic resonances can stabilize the resistive wall mode at pressures well above the ideal-MHD stability limit, but also that such discharges can be very sensitive to external asymmetries. The common physics of stable kink modes has brought significant unification to the topics of static error fields at low beta and resistive wall modes at high beta. These and other scientific advances, and their application to control of MHD instabilities, will be reviewed with emphasis on the most recent results and their applicability to ITER.

Strait, E. J.

2015-02-01

379

Stationary accretion disks launching super fast-magnetosonic MHD jets

We present self-similar models of resistive viscous Keplerian disks driving non-relativistic magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) jets becoming super fast-magnetosonic. We show that in order to obtain such solutions, the thermal pressure must be a sizeable fraction of the poloidal magnetic pressure at the Alfven surface. These steady solutions which undergo a recollimation shock causally disconnected from the driving engine, account for structures with a high temperature plasma in the sub-Alfvenic region. We suggest that only unsteady outflows with typical time-scales of several disk dynamical time-scales can be produced if the suitable pressure conditions are not fulfilled.

Jonathan Ferreira; Fabien Casse

2003-12-05

380

Photospheric Logarithmic Velocity Spirals as MHD Wave Generation Mechanisms

High-resolution observations of the solar photosphere have identified a wide variety of spiralling motions in the plasma. These spirals vary in properties, but are observed to be abundant on the solar surface. In this work these spirals are studied for their potential as magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) wave generation mechanisms. The inter-granular lanes, where these spirals are commonly observed, are also regions where the magnetic field strength is higher than average. This combination of magnetic field and spiralling plasma is a recipe for the generation of Alfv\\'en waves and other MHD waves. This work employs numerical simulations of a self-similar magnetic flux tube embedded in a realistic, gravitationally stratified, solar atmosphere to study the effects of a single magnetic flux tube perturbed by a logarithmic velocity spiral driver. The expansion factor of the logarithmic spiral driver is varied, multiple simulations are run for a range of values of the expansion factor centred around observational data. Th...

Mumford, S J

2015-01-01

381

CONSTRAINED-TRANSPORT MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMICS WITH ADAPTIVE MESH REFINEMENT IN CHARM

We present the implementation of a three-dimensional, second-order accurate Godunov-type algorithm for magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) in the adaptive-mesh-refinement (AMR) cosmological code CHARM. The algorithm is based on the full 12-solve spatially unsplit corner-transport-upwind (CTU) scheme. The fluid quantities are cell-centered and are updated using the piecewise-parabolic method (PPM), while the magnetic field variables are face-centered and are evolved through application of the Stokes theorem on cell edges via a constrained-transport (CT) method. The so-called multidimensional MHD source terms required in the predictor step for high-order accuracy are applied in a simplified form which reduces their complexity in three dimensions without loss of accuracy or robustness. The algorithm is implemented on an AMR framework which requires specific synchronization steps across refinement levels. These include face-centered restriction and prolongation operations and a reflux-curl operation, which maintains a solenoidal magnetic field across refinement boundaries. The code is tested against a large suite of test problems, including convergence tests in smooth flows, shock-tube tests, classical two- and three-dimensional MHD tests, a three-dimensional shock-cloud interaction problem, and the formation of a cluster of galaxies in a fully cosmological context. The magnetic field divergence is shown to remain negligible throughout.

Miniati, Francesco [Physics Department, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, ETH-Zuerich, CH-8093 Zuerich (Switzerland); Martin, Daniel F., E-mail: fm@phys.ethz.ch, E-mail: DFMartin@lbl.gov [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

2011-07-01

382

Some topics in the magnetohydrodynamics of accreting magnetic compact objects

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Magnetic compact objects (neutron stars or white dwarfs) are currently thought to be present in many accreting systems that are releasing large amounts of energy. The magnetic field of the compact star may interact strongly with the accretion flow and play an essential role in the physics of these systems. Some magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) problems that are likely to be relevant in building up self-consistent models of the interaction between the accreting plasma and the star's magnetosphere are addressed in this series of lectures. The basic principles of MHD are first introduced and some important MHD mechanisms (Rayleigh-Taylor and Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities; reconnection) are discussed, with particular reference to their role in allowing the infalling matter to penetrate the magnetosphere and mix with the field. The structure of a force-free magnetosphere and the possibility of quasistatic momentum and energy transfer between regions linked by field-aligned currents are then studied in some detail. Finally, the structure of axisymmetric accretion flows onto magnetic compact objects is considered.

Aly, J. J.

1986-01-01

383

Radiation Magnetohydrodynamics In Global Simulations Of Protoplanetary Disks

Our aim is to study the thermal and dynamical evolution of protoplanetary disks in global simulations, including the physics of radiation transfer and magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence caused by the magneto-rotational instability. We develop a radiative transfer method based on the flux-limited diffusion approximation that includes frequency dependent irradiation by the central star. This hybrid scheme is implemented in the PLUTO code. The focus of our implementation is on the performance of the radiative transfer method. Using an optimized Jacobi preconditioned BiCGSTAB solver, the radiative module is three times faster than the MHD step for the disk setup we consider. We obtain weak scaling efficiencies of 70% up to 1024 cores. We present the first global 3D radiation MHD simulations of a stratified protoplanetary disk. The disk model parameters are chosen to approximate those of the system AS 209 in the star-forming region Ophiuchus. Starting the simulation from a disk in radiative and hydrostatic equi...

Flock, M; González, M; Commerçon, B

2013-01-01

384

Density-shear instability in electron magneto-hydrodynamics

We discuss a novel instability in inertia-less electron magneto-hydrodynamics (EMHD), which arises from a combination of electron velocity shear and electron density gradients. The unstable modes have a lengthscale longer than the transverse density scale, and a growth-rate of the order of the inverse Hall timescale. We suggest that this density-shear instability may be of importance in magnetic reconnection regions on scales smaller than the ion skin depth, and in neutron star crusts. We demonstrate that the so-called Hall drift instability, previously argued to be relevant in neutron star crusts, is a resistive tearing instability rather than an instability of the Hall term itself. We argue that the density-shear instability is of greater significance in neutron stars than the tearing instability, because it generally has a faster growth-rate and is less sensitive to geometry and boundary conditions. We prove that, for uniform electron density, EMHD is at least as stable as regular, incompressible MHD, in the sense that any field configuration that is stable in MHD is also stable in EMHD. We present a connection between the density-shear instability in EMHD and the magneto-buoyancy instability in anelastic MHD.

Wood, T. S., E-mail: t.wood@leeds.ac.uk; Hollerbach, R. [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Lyutikov, M. [Department of Physics, Purdue University, 525 Northwestern Avenue, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907-2036 (United States)

2014-05-15

385

RADIATION MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC SIMULATIONS OF PROTOSTELLAR COLLAPSE: PROTOSTELLAR CORE FORMATION

We report the first three-dimensional radiation magnetohydrodynamic (RMHD) simulations of protostellar collapse with and without Ohmic dissipation. We take into account many physical processes required to study star formation processes, including a realistic equation of state. We follow the evolution from molecular cloud cores until protostellar cores are formed with sufficiently high resolutions without introducing a sink particle. The physical processes involved in the simulations and adopted numerical methods are described in detail. We can calculate only about one year after the formation of the protostellar cores with our direct three-dimensional RMHD simulations because of the extremely short timescale in the deep interior of the formed protostellar cores, but successfully describe the early phase of star formation processes. The thermal evolution and the structure of the first and second (protostellar) cores are consistent with previous one-dimensional simulations using full radiation transfer, but differ considerably from preceding multi-dimensional studies with the barotropic approximation. The protostellar cores evolve virtually spherically symmetric in the ideal MHD models because of efficient angular momentum transport by magnetic fields, but Ohmic dissipation enables the formation of the circumstellar disks in the vicinity of the protostellar cores as in previous MHD studies with the barotropic approximation. The formed disks are still small (less than 0.35 AU) because we simulate only the earliest evolution. We also confirm that two different types of outflows are naturally launched by magnetic fields from the first cores and protostellar cores in the resistive MHD models.

Tomida, Kengo [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)] [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Tomisaka, Kohji [Department of Astronomical Science, The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI), Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)] [Department of Astronomical Science, The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI), Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Matsumoto, Tomoaki [Faculty of Humanity and Environment, Hosei University, Fujimi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-8160 (Japan)] [Faculty of Humanity and Environment, Hosei University, Fujimi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-8160 (Japan); Hori, Yasunori; Saigo, Kazuya [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)] [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Okuzumi, Satoshi [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8602 (Japan)] [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8602 (Japan); Machida, Masahiro N., E-mail: tomida@astro.princeton.edu, E-mail: tomisaka@th.nao.ac.jp, E-mail: yasunori.hori@nao.ac.jp, E-mail: saigo.kazuya@nao.ac.jp, E-mail: matsu@hosei.ac.jp, E-mail: okuzumi@nagoya-u.jp, E-mail: machida.masahiro.018@m.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Faculty of Sciences, Kyushu University, Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan)

2013-01-20

386

Constrained-transport Magnetohydrodynamics with Adaptive Mesh Refinement in CHARM

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the implementation of a three-dimensional, second-order accurate Godunov-type algorithm for magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) in the adaptive-mesh-refinement (AMR) cosmological code CHARM. The algorithm is based on the full 12-solve spatially unsplit corner-transport-upwind (CTU) scheme. The fluid quantities are cell-centered and are updated using the piecewise-parabolic method (PPM), while the magnetic field variables are face-centered and are evolved through application of the Stokes theorem on cell edges via a constrained-transport (CT) method. The so-called multidimensional MHD source terms required in the predictor step for high-order accuracy are applied in a simplified form which reduces their complexity in three dimensions without loss of accuracy or robustness. The algorithm is implemented on an AMR framework which requires specific synchronization steps across refinement levels. These include face-centered restriction and prolongation operations and a reflux-curl operation, which maintains a solenoidal magnetic field across refinement boundaries. The code is tested against a large suite of test problems, including convergence tests in smooth flows, shock-tube tests, classical two- and three-dimensional MHD tests, a three-dimensional shock-cloud interaction problem, and the formation of a cluster of galaxies in a fully cosmological context. The magnetic field divergence is shown to remain negligible throughout.

Miniati, Francesco; Martin, Daniel F.

2011-07-01

387

Linear magnetohydrodynamic waves in a finely stratified plasma

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a number of astrophysical systems, the magnetic field, instead of varying over a scale comparable with the ``natural'' scale of the object (e.g., tens of thousands of kilometers in the case of the solar convective zone), varies over lengths that are orders of magnitude less than this (e.g., over distances down to 100 km in the case of the magnetic filaments detected in the upper part of the solar convective zone and probably present in much deeper layers). Therefore, the study of the propagation of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves in plasmas with fine magnetic nonuniformities is of considerable general importance for astrophysics. We have developed a general formalism that allows one to treat the propagation of large-scale MHD waves in a finely stratified medium. We demonstrate that the presence of a fine structure of the plasma may produce considerable modifications of the modes existing in a uniform plasma, with a number of propagation modes that may even increase. We also show that the slow MHD mode may experience a collisionless damping, which causes the wave energy to be converted into the energy of the peristaltic modes of the plasma ``resonant'' layers.

Lazzaro, Enzo; Lontano, Maurizio; Ryutov, Dmitri D.

2000-03-01

388

A numerical matching technique for linear resistive magnetohydrodynamics modes

A new numerical matching technique for linear stability analysis of resistive magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) modes is developed. The solution to the resistive reduced MHD equations in an inner layer with a finite width is matched onto the solution to the inertialess ideal MHD or the Newcomb equation by imposing smooth disappearance of parallel electric field in addition to the continuity of perturbed magnetic field and its spatial gradient. The boundary condition for the parallel electric field is expressed as a boundary condition of the third kind for the stream function of the perturbed velocity field. This technique can be applied for the reversed magnetic shear plasmas of their minimum safety factors being rational numbers, for which the conventional asymptotic matching technique fails. In addition, this technique resolves practical difficulties in applying the conventional asymptotic matching technique, i.e., the sensitivity of the outer-region solution on the accuracy of the local equilibrium as well as the grid arrangements, even in normal magnetic shear plasmas. Successful applications are presented not only for the eigenvalue problem but also for the initial-value problem.

Furukawa, M. [Graduate School of Frontier Science, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa-shi, Chiba 277-8561 (Japan); Tokuda, S. [Research Organization for Information Science and Technology, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki 319-1106 (Japan); Zheng, L.-J. [Institute for Fusion Studies, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

2010-05-15

389

Magnetohydrodynamic Origin of Jets from Accretion Disks

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A review is made of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theory and simulation of outflows from disks for different distributions of magnetic field threading the disk. In one limit of a relatively weak, initially diverging magnetic field, both thermal and magnetic pressure gradients act to drive matter to an outflow, while a toroidal magnetic field develops which strongly collimates the outflow. The collimation greatly reduces the field divergence and the mass outflow rate decreases after an initial peak. In a second limit of a strong magnetic field, the initial field configuration was taken with the field strength on the disk decreasing outwards to small values so that collimation was reduced. As a result, a family of stationary solutions was discovered where matter is driven mainly by the strong magnetic pressure gradient force. The collimation in this case depends on the pressure of an external medium. These flows are qualitatively similar to the analytic solutions for magnetically driven outflows. The problem of the opening of a closed field line configuration linking a magnetized star and an accretion disk is also discussed.

Lovelace, R. V. E.; Romanova, M. M.

1998-01-01

390

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Novel large eddy simulation (LES) models are developed for incompressible magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). These models include the application of the variational multiscale formulation of LES to the equations of incompressible MHD. Additionally, a new residual-based eddy viscosity model is introduced for MHD. A mixed LES model that combines the strengths of both of these models is also derived. The new models result in a consistent numerical method that is relatively simple to implement. The need for a dynamic procedure in determining model coefficients is no longer required. The new LES models are tested on a decaying Taylor-Green vortex generalized to MHD and benchmarked against classical LES turbulence models. The LES simulations are run in a periodic box of size [-?, ?]3 with 32 modes in each direction and are compared to a direct numerical simulation (DNS) with 512 modes in each direction. The new models are able to account for the essential MHD physics which is demonstrated via comparisons of energy spectra. We also compare the performance of our models to a DNS simulation by Pouquet et al. ["The dynamics of unforced turbulence at high Reynolds number for Taylor-Green vortices generalized to MHD," Geophys. Astrophys. Fluid Dyn. 104, 115-134 (2010)], for which the ratio of DNS modes to LES modes is 262:144.

Sondak, David; Oberai, Assad A.

2012-10-01

391

Novel large eddy simulation (LES) models are developed for incompressible magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). These models include the application of the variational multiscale formulation of LES to the equations of incompressible MHD. Additionally, a new residual-based eddy viscosity model is introduced for MHD. A mixed LES model that combines the strengths of both of these models is also derived. The new models result in a consistent numerical method that is relatively simple to implement. The need for a dynamic procedure in determining model coefficients is no longer required. The new LES models are tested on a decaying Taylor-Green vortex generalized to MHD and benchmarked against classical LES turbulence models. The LES simulations are run in a periodic box of size [-{pi}, {pi}]{sup 3} with 32 modes in each direction and are compared to a direct numerical simulation (DNS) with 512 modes in each direction. The new models are able to account for the essential MHD physics which is demonstrated via comparisons of energy spectra. We also compare the performance of our models to a DNS simulation by Pouquet et al.['The dynamics of unforced turbulence at high Reynolds number for Taylor-Green vortices generalized to MHD,' Geophys. Astrophys. Fluid Dyn. 104, 115-134 (2010)], for which the ratio of DNS modes to LES modes is 262:144.

Sondak, David; Oberai, Assad A. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, SCOREC, CII 4225, 110 8th Street, Troy, New York 12180 (United States)

2012-10-15

392

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A linear theory for intermediate-frequency [much smaller (larger) than the electron gyrofrequency (dust plasma and dust gyrofrequencies)], long wavelength (in comparison with the ion gyroradius and the electron skin depth) electromagnetic waves in a multicomponent, homogeneous electron-ion-dust magnetoplasma is presented. For this purpose, the generalized Hall-magnetohydrodynamic (GH-MHD) equations are derived for the case with immobile charged dust macroparticles. The GH-MHD equations in a quasineutral plasma consist of the ion continuity equation, the generalized ion momentum equation, and Faraday's law with the Hall term. The GH-MHD equations are Fourier transformed and combined to obtain a general dispersion relation. The latter is analyzed to understand the influence of immobile charged dust grains on various electromagnetic wave modes in a magnetized dusty plasma.

Shukla, P. K.; Kourakis, I.; Stenflo, L.

2005-02-01

393

New magnetohydrodynamic model for close binary stars: Applicability for moderate magnetic fields

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We compare two numerical models for calculating the 3D flow structure in close binary systems with accreting stars, possessing proper magnetic fields. The first model is based on the strict set of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations and has been developed to simulate systems with relatively weak accretors' magnetic fields (105 G at the surface). The second model is based on the averaged characteristics of plasma flow in the frame of the wave MHD turbulence. We have developed this model to simulate systems where accretors possess very strong magnetic fields (106-108 G at the surface). Analyzing the results of calculations we have made a conclusion that the second model is also applicable to simulate close binary systems with relatively weak magnetic fields, if corresponding parameters (as, in particular, ?w, characterizing the efficiency of the MHD wave turbulence) are properly chosen.

Zhilkin, A. G.; Bisikalo, D. V.; Ustyugov, V. A.

2013-09-01

394

Three-Dimensional Propagation of Magnetohydrodynamic Waves in Solar Coronal Arcades

We numerically investigate the excitation and temporal evolution of oscillations in a two-dimensional coronal arcade by including the three-dimensional propagation of perturbations. The time evolution of impulsively generated perturbations is studied by solving the linear, ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations in the zero-beta approximation. As we neglect gas pressure the slow mode is absent and therefore only coupled MHD fast and Alfv\\'en modes remain. Two types of numerical experiments are performed. First, the resonant wave energy transfer between a fast normal mode of the system and local Alfv\\'en waves is analyzed. It is seen how, because of resonant coupling, the fast wave with global character transfers its energy to Alfv\\'enic oscillations localized around a particular magnetic surface within the arcade, thus producing the damping of the initial fast MHD mode. Second, the time evolution of a localized impulsive excitation, trying to mimic a nearby coronal disturbance, is considered. In this case, ...

Rial, S; Terradas, J; Oliver, R; Ballester, J L

2010-01-01

395

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A positivity-preserving discontinuous Galerkin (DG) scheme [42] is used to solve the Extended Magnetohydrodynamics (XMHD) model, which is a two-fluid model expressed with a center-of-mass formulation. We prove that DG scheme with a positivity-preserving limiter is stable for the system governed by the XMHD model or the resistive MHD model. We use the relaxation system formulation [28] for describing the XMHD model, and solve the equations using a split level implicit-explicit time advance scheme, stepping over the time step constraint imposed by the stiff source terms. The magnetic field is represented in an exact locally divergence-free form of DG [23], which greatly improves the accuracy and stability of MHD simulations. As presently constructed, the method is able to handle a wide range of density variations, solve XMHD model on MHD time scales, and provide greatly improved accuracy over a Finite Volume implementation of the same model.

Zhao, Xuan; Yang, Yang; Seyler, Charles E.

2014-12-01

396

New large eddy simulation (LES) turbulence models for incompressible magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) derived from the variational multiscale (VMS) formulation for finite element simulations are introduced. The new models include the variational multiscale formulation, a residual-based eddy viscosity model, and a mixed model that combines both of these component models. Each model contains terms that are proportional to the residual of the incompressible MHD equations and is therefore numerically consistent. Moreover, each model is also dynamic, in that its effect vanishes when this residual is small. The new models are tested on the decaying MHD Taylor Green vortex at low and high Reynolds numbers. The evaluation of the models is based on comparisons with available data from direct numerical simulations (DNS) of the time evolution of energies as well as energy spectra at various discrete times. A numerical study, on a sequence of meshes, is presented that demonstrates that the large eddy simulation approaches the ...

Sondak, David; Oberai, Assad A; Pawlowski, Roger P; Cyr, Eric C; Smith, Tom M

2014-01-01

397

Slip effects on MHD flow of third order fluid in a planar channel

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the peristaltic flow of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) third order fluid in a planar channel with slip condition is investigated. The solutions are derived under long wavelength and low Reynolds number approximations. Explicit expressions of stream function, longitudinal pressure gradient, longitudinal velocity, temperature and coefficient of heat transfer are given. The pumping and trapping phenomena are analyzed in the presence of MHD and slip effects. The effects of parameters on temperature distribution and heat transfer coefficient are discussed. A comparison is provided with the different existing cases.

Hayat, T.; Mehmood, Obaid Ullah

2011-03-01

398

On MHD jet production in the collapsing and rotating envelope

We present results from axisymmetric, time-dependent hydrodynamical (HD) and magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) simulations of a gaseous envelope collapsing onto a black hole (BH). We consider gas with so small angular momentum that after an initial transient, the flow in the HD case, accretes directly onto a BH without forming a rotationally support torus. However, in the MHD case even with a very weak initial magnetic field, the flow settles into a configuration with four components: (i) an equatorial inflow, (ii) a bipolar outflow, (iii) polar funnel outflow, and (iv) polar funnel inflow. We focus our analysis on the second flow component of the MHD flow which represents a simple yet robust example of a well-organized inflow/outflow solution to the problem of MHD jet formation. The jet is heavy, highly magnetized, and driven by magnetic and centrifugal forces. A significant fraction of the total energy in the jet is carried out by a large scale magnetic field. We review previous simulations, where specific angular momentum was higher than that assumed here, and conclude that our bipolar outflow develops for a wide range of the properties of the flow near the equator and near the poles. Future work on such a simple inflow/outflow solution will help to pinpoint the key elements of real jets/outflows as well as help to interpret much more complex simulations aimed at studying jet formation and collapse of magnetized envelopes.

Daniel Proga

2005-04-21

399

MHD discontinuities in solar flares: continuous transitions and plasma heating

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The conservation laws on a surface of discontinuity in the ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) allow changing a discontinuity type with gradual (continuous) changes in conditions of plasma. Then there are the so-called transition solutions that satisfy simultaneously two types of discontinuities. We obtain all transition solutions on the basis of a complete system of boundary conditions for the MHD equations. We also found an expression describing a jump of internal energy of the plasma flowing through the discontinuity. It allows, firstly, to construct a generalized scheme of possible transitions between MHD discontinuities, and secondly, to examine the dependence of plasma heating by plasma density and configuration of the magnetic field near the surface of the discontinuity (i.e., by the type of the MHD discontinuity). The problem of the heating of "superhot" plasma (with the electron temperature is greater than 10 keV) in solar flares are discussed. It is shown that the best conditions for heating are carried out in the vicinity of the reconnecting current layer near the areas of reverse currents. Bibl.: B.V.Somov. Plasma Astrophysics, Part II: Reconnection and Flares, Second Edition. (New York: Springer SBM, 2013).

Ledentsov, Leonid; Somov, Boris

400

Norm inflation for generalized magneto-hydrodynamic system

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the incompressible magneto-hydrodynamic system with fractional powers of the Laplacian in the three-dimensional case. We discover a wide range of spaces where the norm inflation occurs and hence small initial data results are out of reach. The norm inflation occurs not only in scaling invariant (critical) spaces, but also in supercritical and, surprisingly, subcritical ones.

Cheskidov, Alexey; Dai, Mimi

2015-01-01

401

Magnetohydrodynamic Modeling of the Solar Eruption on 2010 April 8

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structure of the coronal magnetic field prior to eruptive processes and the conditions for the onset of eruption are important issues that can be addressed through studying the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability and evolution of nonlinear force-free field (NLFFF) models. This paper uses data-constrained NLFFF models of a solar active region (AR) that erupted on 2010 April 8 as initial conditions in MHD simulations. These models, constructed with the techniques of flux rope insertion and magnetofrictional relaxation (MFR), include a stable, an approximately marginally stable, and an unstable configuration. The simulations confirm previous related results of MFR runs, particularly that stable flux rope equilibria represent key features of the observed pre-eruption coronal structure very well, and that there is a limiting value of the axial flux in the rope for the existence of stable NLFFF equilibria. The specific limiting value is located within a tighter range, due to the sharper discrimination between stability and instability by the MHD description. The MHD treatment of the eruptive configuration yields a very good agreement with a number of observed features, like the strongly inclined initial rise path and the close temporal association between the coronal mass ejection and the onset of flare reconnection. Minor differences occur in the velocity of flare ribbon expansion and in the further evolution of the inclination; these can be eliminated through refined simulations. We suggest that the slingshot effect of horizontally bent flux in the source region of eruptions can contribute significantly to the inclination of the rise direction. Finally, we demonstrate that the onset criterion, formulated in terms of a threshold value for the axial flux in the rope, corresponds very well to the threshold of the torus instability in the considered AR.

Kliem, B.; Su, Y. N.; van Ballegooijen, A. A.; DeLuca, E. E.

2013-12-01

402

Field topologies in ideal and near-ideal magnetohydrodynamics and vortex dynamics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic field topology frozen in ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) and its breakage in near-ideal MHD are reviewed in two parts, clarifying and expanding basic concepts. The first part gives a physically complete description of the frozen field topology derived from magnetic flux conservation as the fundamental property, treating four conceptually related topics: Eulerian and Lagrangian descriptions of three dimensional (3D) MHD, Chandrasekhar-Kendall and Euler-potential field representations, magnetic helicity, and inviscid vortex dynamics as a fluid system in physical contrast to ideal MHD. A corollary of these developments clarifies the challenge of achieving a high degree of the frozen-in condition in numerical MHD. The second part treats field-topology breakage centered around the Parker Magnetostatic Theorem on a general incompatibility of a continuous magnetic field with the dual demand of force-free equilibrium and an arbitrarily prescribed, 3D field topology. Preserving field topology as a global constraint readily results in formation of tangential magnetic discontinuities, or, equivalently, electric current-sheets of zero thickness. A similar incompatibility is present in the steady force-thermal balance of a heated radiating fluid subject to an anisotropic thermal flux conducted strictly along its frozen-in magnetic field in the low-? limit. In a weakly resistive fluid the thinning of current sheets by these general incompatibilities inevitably results in sheet dissipation, resistive heating and topological changes in the field notwithstanding the small resistivity. Strong Faraday induction drives but also macroscopically limits this mode of energy dissipation, trapping or storing free energy in self-organized ideal-MHD structures. This property of MHD turbulence captured by the Taylor hypothesis is reviewed in relation to the Sun's corona, calling for a basic quantitative description of the breakdown of flux conservation in the low-resistivity limit. A cylindrical initial-boundary value problem provides specificity in the general MHD ideas presented.

Low, B. C.

2014-12-01

403

Field topologies in ideal and near-ideal magnetohydrodynamics and vortex dynamics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic field topology frozen in ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) and its breakage in near-ideal MHD are reviewed in two parts, clarifying and expanding basic concepts. The first part gives a physically complete description of the frozen field topology derived from magnetic flux conservation as the fundamental property, treating four conceptually related topics: Eulerian and Lagrangian descriptions of three dimensional (3D) MHD, Chandrasekhar-Kendall and Euler-potential field representations, magnetic helicity, and inviscid vortex dynamics as a fluid system in physical contrast to ideal MHD. A corollary of these developments clarifies the challenge of achieving a high degree of the frozen-in condition in numerical MHD. The second part treats field-topology breakage centered around the Parker Magnetostatic Theorem on a general incompatibility of a continuous magnetic field with the dual demand of force-free equilibrium and an arbitrarily prescribed, 3D field topology. Preserving field topology as a global constraint readily results in formation of tangential magnetic discontinuities, or, equivalently, electric current-sheets of zero thickness. A similar incompatibility is present in the steady force-thermal balance of a heated radiating fluid subject to an anisotropic thermal flux conducted strictly along its frozen-in magnetic field in the low- ? limit. In a weakly resistive fluid the thinning of current sheets by these general incompatibilities inevitably results in sheet dissipation, resistive heating and topological changes in the field notwithstanding the small resistivity. Strong Faraday induction drives but also macroscopically limits this mode of energy dissipation, trapping or storing free energy in self-organized ideal-MHD structures. This property of MHD turbulence captured by the Taylor hypothesis is reviewed in relation to the Sun's corona, calling for a basic quantitative description of the breakdown of flux conservation in the low-resistivity limit. A cylindrical initial-boundary value problem provides specificity in the general MHD ideas presented.

Low, B. C.

2015-01-01

404

Three-dimensional finite element analysis of MHD duct flow by the penalty function formulation

A numerical scheme based on the Finite Element Method (FEM) is presented to calculate the full solution of a three-dimensional steady magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow with moderately high Hartmann numbers and interaction parameters. An incompressible, viscous and electrically conducting liquid-metal is considered. Assuming a low magnetic Reynolds number, the solution method solves the coupled Navier-Stokes and Maxwell's equations through the use

S. L. L. Verardi; J. R. Cardoso; M. C. Costa

2001-01-01

405

On Computations for Thermal Radiation in MHD Channel Flow with Heat and Mass Transfer

This study examines the simultaneous effects of heat and mass transfer on the three-dimensional boundary layer flow of viscous fluid between two infinite parallel plates. Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) and thermal radiation effects are present. The governing problems are first modeled and then solved by homotopy analysis method (HAM). Influence of several embedded parameters on the velocity, concentration and temperature fields are described. PMID:24497968

Hayat, T.; Awais, M.; Alsaedi, A.; Safdar, Ambreen

2014-01-01

406

The modified differential transform method for solving MHD boundary-layer equations

A new analytical method (DTM-Padé) was developed for solving magnetohydrodynamic boundary-layer equations. It was shown that differential transform method (DTM) solutions are only valid for small values of independent variable. Therefore the DTM is not applicable for solving MHD boundary-layer equations, because in the boundary-layer problem y??. Numerical comparisons between the DTM-Padé and numerical methods (by using a fourth-order RungeKutta

M. M. Rashidi

2009-01-01

407

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The biorthogonal decomposition analysis of signals from an array of Mirnov coils is able to provide the spatial structure and the temporal evolution of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities in a tokamak. Such analysis can be adapted to a data acquisition and elaboration system suitable for fast real time applications such as instability detection and disruption precursory markers computation. This paper deals with the description of this technique as applied to the Frascati Tokamak Upgrade (FTU).

Galperti, C.; Marchetto, C.; Alessi, E.; Minelli, D.; Mosconi, M.; Belli, F.; Boncagni, L.; Botrugno, A.; Buratti, P.; Calabro', G.; Esposito, B.; Garavaglia, S.; Granucci, G.; Grosso, A.; Mellera, V.; Moro, A.; Piergotti, V.; Pucella, G.; Ramogida, G.; Bin, W.; Sozzi, C.

2014-11-01

408

Analysis of applied magnetic field and electrical current in Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) accelerator due to electrical efficiency has been numerically investigated. Studies were carried out using air plasma as a working gas in equilibrium condition. Composition of simulated air-plasma consists of two species, N{2}, and O{2}, with concentration of 1 mol and 0.284 mol, respectively. The working gas is seeded with

Sukarsan; M. Anwari

2009-01-01

409

When MHD-based microfluidics is equivalent to pressure-driven flow

Magneto-hydrodynamics (MHD) provides a convenient, programmable means for propelling liquids and controlling fluid flow in\\u000a microfluidic devices without a need for mechanical pumps and valves. When the magnetic field is uniform and the electric field\\u000a in the electrolyte solution is confined to a plane that is perpendicular to the direction of the magnetic field, the Lorentz\\u000a body force is irrotational

Mian Qin; Haim H. Bau

2011-01-01

410

Influence of Anode-Region Boundary-Layer Separation on Disk MHD-Generator Performance

A time-dependent 2-D large-eddy simulation has been carried out in order to clarify the influence of the wall profile on nonequilibrium plasma-flow behavior and disk magnetohydrodynamic (MHD)-generator performance. The numerical investigation is not limited to the divergent generator channel only, but it also includes the inlet duct. The numerical simulations examined both a straight-disk wall profile and a contoured disk

Alessandro Liberati; Yoshihiro Okuno

2007-01-01

411

Hall effects on MHD flow in a rotating system with heat transfer characteristics

Closed-form solutions are derived for the steady magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) viscous flow in a parallel plate channel system\\u000a with perfectly conducting walls in a rotating frame of reference, in the presence of Hall currents, heat transfer and a transverse\\u000a uniform magnetic field. A mathematical analysis is described to evaluate the velocity, induced magnetic field and mass flow\\u000a rate distributions, for a

S. K. Ghosh; O. Anwar Bég; M. Narahari

2009-01-01

412

Spectral methods based on the least dissipative modes for wall bounded MHD flows

We present a new approach for the Spectral Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of Low-Rm wall-bounded magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flows. The novelty is that instead of using bases similar to the usual Chebyshev polynomials,\\u000a which are easy to implement but incur heavy computational costs to resolve the Hartmann boundary layers that arise along the\\u000a walls, we use a basis made of elements

V. Dymkou; A. Pothérat

2009-01-01

413

A multiwave approximate Riemann solver for ideal MHD based on relaxation. I: theoretical framework

We present a relaxation system for ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) that is an extension of the Suliciu relaxation system\\u000a for the Euler equations of gas dynamics. From it one can derive approximate Riemann solvers with three or seven waves, that\\u000a generalize the HLLC solver for gas dynamics. Under some subcharacteristic conditions, the solvers satisfy discrete entropy\\u000a inequalities, and preserve positivity of

François Bouchut; Christian Klingenberg; Knut Waagan

2007-01-01

414

MHD peristaltic motion of Johnson Segalman fluid in a channel with compliant walls

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A mathematical model for magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow of a Johnson-Segalman fluid in a channel with compliant walls is analyzed. The flow is engendered due to sinusoidal waves on the channel walls. A series solution is developed for the case in which the amplitude ratio is small. Our computations show that the mean axial velocity of a Johnson-Segalman fluid is smaller than that of a viscous fluid. The variations of various interesting dimensionless parameters are graphed and discussed.

Hayat, T.; Javed, Maryiam; Asghar, S.

2008-07-01

415

Code development and validation for analyzing liquid metal MHD flow in rectangular ducts

A code named MTC-H 1.0 which can simulate 3D magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) flow in rectangular ducts has been developed by FDS Team. In this code, a conservative scheme of the current density was employed for calculation of the induced current and the Lorentz force, and the consistent projection method was employed for solving the incompressible NavierStokes equations with the Lorentz force

Tao Zhou; Zhiyi Yang; Mingjiu Ni; Hongli Chen

2010-01-01

416

NASA-Lewis closed-cycle magnetohydrodynamics plant analysis

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A brief review of preliminary analyses of coal fired closed cycle MHD power plants is presented. The performance of three power plants with differing combustion systems were compared. The combustion systems considered were (1) a direct coal-fired combustor, (2) a coal gasifier with in-bed desulfurization and (3) a coal gasifier requiring external fuel gas cleanup. Power plant efficiencies (auxiliary power excluded) were 44.5, 43, and 41 percent for the three plants, respectively.

Penko, P. F.

1979-01-01

417

Magnetohydrodynamic Simulation of Solar Supergranulation

Three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamical large eddy simulations of solar surface convection using realistic model physics is conducted. The effects of magnetic fields on thermal structure of convective motions into radiative layers, the range of convection cell sizes and penetration depths of convection is investigated. We simulate a some portion of the solar photosphere and the upper layers of the convection zone, a region extending 30 x 30 Mm horizontally from 0 Mm down to 18 Mm below the visible surface. We solve equations of the fully compressible radiation magnetohydrodynamics with dynamical viscosity and gravity. For numerical simulation we use: 1)realistic initial model of Sun and equation of state and opacities of stellar matter, 2) high order conservative TVD scheme for solution magnetohydrodynamics, 3) diffusion approximation for solution radiative transfer 4) calculation dynamical viscosity from subgrid scale modelling. Simulations are conducted on horizontal uniform grid of 320 x 320 and with 144 n...

Ustyugov, S

2006-01-01

418

This report describes the work performed during Phase 1 and Phase 2 of the collaborative research program established between Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and Newport News Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Company (NNS). Phase I of the program focused on the development of computer models for Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) propulsion. Phase 2 focused on the experimental validation of the thruster performance models and the identification, through testing, of any phenomena which may impact the attractiveness of this propulsion system for shipboard applications. The report discusses in detail the work performed in Phase 2 of the program. In Phase 2, a two Tesla test facility was designed, built, and operated. The facility test loop, its components, and their design are presented. The test matrix and its rationale are discussed. Representative experimental results of the test program are presented, and are compared to computer model predictions. In general, the results of the tests and their comparison with the predictions indicate that thephenomena affecting the performance of MHD seawater thrusters are well understood and can be accurately predicted with the developed thruster computer models.

Doss, E.D. [ed.] [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Sikes, W.C. [ed.] [Newport News Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Co., VA (United States)

1992-09-01

419

Efficient Low Dissipative High Order Schemes for Multiscale MHD Flows

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Accurate numerical simulations of complex multiscale compressible viscous flows, especially high speed turbulence combustion and acoustics, demand high order schemes with adaptive numerical dissipation controls. Standard high resolution shock-capturing methods are too dissipative to capture the small scales and/or long-time wave propagations without extreme grid refinements and small time steps. An integrated approach for the control of numerical dissipation in high order schemes for the compressible Euler and Navier-Stokes equations has been developed and verified by the authors and collaborators. These schemes are suitable for the problems in question. Basically, the scheme consists of sixth-order or higher non-dissipative spatial difference operators as the base scheme. To control the amount of numerical dissipation, multiresolution wavelets are used as sensors to adaptively limit the amount and to aid the selection and/or blending of the appropriate types of numerical dissipation to be used. Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) waves play a key role in drag reduction in highly maneuverable high speed combat aircraft, in space weather forecasting, and in the understanding of the dynamics of the evolution of our solar system and the main sequence stars. Although there exist a few well-studied second and third-order high-resolution shock-capturing schemes for the MHD in the literature, these schemes are too diffusive and not practical for turbulence/combustion MHD flows. On the other hand, extension of higher than third-order high-resolution schemes to the MHD system of equations is not straightforward. Unlike the hydrodynamic equations, the inviscid MHD system is non-strictly hyperbolic with non-convex fluxes. The wave structures and shock types are different from their hydrodynamic counterparts. Many of the non-traditional hydrodynamic shocks are not fully understood. Consequently, reliable and highly accurate numerical schemes for multiscale MHD equations pose a great challenge to algorithm development. In addition, controlling the numerical error of the divergence free condition of the magnetic fields for high order methods has been a stumbling block. Lower order methods are not practical for the astrophysical problems in question. We propose to extend our hydrodynamics schemes to the MHD equations with several desired properties over commonly used MHD schemes.

Sjoegreen, Bjoern; Yee, Helen C.; Mansour, Nagi (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

420

A Vector Potential implementation for Smoothed Particle Magnetohydrodynamics

The development of smooth particle magnetohydrodynamic (SPMHD) has significantly improved the simulation of complex astrophysical processes. However, the preservation the solenoidality of the magnetic field is still a severe problem for the MHD. A formulation of the induction equation with a vector potential would solve the problem. Unfortunately all previous attempts suffered from instabilities. In the present work, we evolve the vector potential in the Coulomb gauge and smooth the derived magnetic field for usage in the momentum equation. With this implementation we could reproduce classical test cases in a stable way. A simple test case demonstrates the possible failure of widely used direct integration of the magnetic field, even with the usage of a divergence cleaning method.

Stasyszyn, Federico

2014-01-01

421

Implicit Methods for the Magnetohydrodynamic Description of Magnetically Confined Plasmas

Implicit algorithms are essential for predicting the slow growth and saturation of global instabilities in todays magnetically confined fusion plasma experiments. Present day algorithms for obtaining implicit solutions to the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations for highly magnetized plasma have their roots in algorithms used in the 1960s and 1970s. However, todays computers and modern linear and non?linear solver techniques make practical much more comprehensive implicit algorithms than were previously possible. Combining these advanced implicit algorithms with highly accurate spatial representations of the vector fields describing the plasma flow and magnetic fields and with improved methods of calculating anisotropic thermal conduction now makes possible simulations of fusion experiments using realistic values of plasma parameters and actual configuration geometry.

S.C. Jardin

2010-09-28

422

Low-noise particle algorithms for extended magnetohydrodynamic closurea)

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two new low-noise particle closure methods are developed and tested. Closure of a small set of moment equations is accomplished with first or second order moments computed from a delta-f particle in cell (?f PIC) distribution. Conservation laws are developed and in one case apply to the discrete system, showing that squared weights are part of the system energy and therefore bounded for all time. Implicit time differencing and orbit averaging techniques are developed and implemented. Low-order moment constraints are satisfied exactly by a new particle representation. Numerical tests for one dimension, k ?=0, and two dimension, k?=0 show the successful application of both methods to damped waves and of the second order closure method to unstable gravitational modes. The methods described here are a natural and efficient way to close extended magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations to obtain a full kinetic description.

Barnes, D. C.; Cheng, J.; Parker, S. E.

2008-05-01

423

Study of Angular Momentum Transport in Hydrodynamic and Magnetohydrodynamic Experiments

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rapid angular momentum transport has been observed to occur in both laboratory fusion plasmas and astrophysical plasmas, but its physical mechanisms still remain illusive. In this paper, we describe a series of laboratory fluid experiments in order to investigate a variety of the proposed mechanisms either in hydrodynamics or magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). They include (1) hydrodynamic turbulence for Keplerian flows. (2) Magnetocoriolis (MC) waves, (3) Magnetorotational Instability (MRI), (4) Rossby waves, and (5) Magneto-Rossby waves. The first three mechanisms have been or are being investigated on the ongoing Princeton MRI experiment (http://mri.pppl.gov) while the last two mechanisms will be investigated on a newly built experiment, this mini-conference and on a further modified Princeton MRI experiments. Implications of these experimental results for the astrophysical problems will be discussed.

Ji, H.; Edlund, E.; Spence, E.; Roach, A.

2010-11-01

424

A vector potential implementation for smoothed particle magnetohydrodynamics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of smooth particle magnetohydrodynamic (SPMHD) has significantly improved the simulation of complex astrophysical processes. However, the preservation the solenoidality of the magnetic field is still a severe problem for the MHD. A formulation of the induction equation with a vector potential would solve the problem. Unfortunately all previous attempts suffered from instabilities. In the present work, we evolve the vector potential in the Coulomb gauge and smooth the derived magnetic field for usage in the momentum equation. With this implementation we could reproduce classical test cases in a stable way. A simple test case demonstrates the possible failure of widely used direct integration of the magnetic field, even with the usage of a divergence cleaning method.

Stasyszyn, Federico A.; Elstner, Detlef

2015-02-01

425

Combined propellant for pulse MHD generator

The results of the experimental researches and calculations of the pulse MHD generator equilibrium plasma which is the products of the solid pyrotechnical (metal) fuel (PF) combustion in the air (combined propellant - CP) are presented. The optimum fuel composition and the excess air factor have been determined. The magnesium- and aluminium-based PF experimental samples have been calculated, manufactured and tested. The conception has been suggested, the model plasma generator has been designed and manufactured. The dependencies of pressure, temperature, heat losses, electrical conductivity and electron mobility and their pulsations in the small-scale MHD generator channel (m{approx}1.5 kg/s, M{approx}3, p{approx}0.07MPa, T{approx}2800K) upon different factors have been determined experimentally. Under these conditions the electrical conductivity reached 25 S/m. The solid MgO particles spectrum in the supersonic flow has been determined. The MHD conversion with the use of the CP has been demonstrated. The maximum electrical power of the {open_quotes}Pamir-0-KT{close_quotes} small-scale MHD generator was 68 kW with the magnetic field 1.9 T.

Dogadayev, R.V.; Dyogtev, Yu.G.; Gomozov, V.A.; Klyachko, L.A. [Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Fusion Research, Troitsk (Russian Federation)] [and others

1994-12-31

426

Fully Parallel MHD Stability Analysis Tool

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Feasibility study of fully parallelizing plasma stability code MARS is made. MARS calculates eigenmodes in 2D axisymmetric toroidal equilibria in MHD-kinetic plasma models. It is a powerful tool for studying MHD and MHD-kinetic instabilities and it is widely used by fusion community. Parallel version of MARS is intended for simulations on local parallel clusters. It will be an efficient tool for simulation of MHD instabilities with low, intermediate and high toroidal mode numbers within both fluid and kinetic plasma models, already implemented in MARS. Parallelization of the code includes parallelization of the construction of the matrix for the eigenvalue problem and parallelization of the inverse iterations algorithm, implemented in MARS for the solution of the formulated eigenvalue problem. Construction of the matrix is parallelized by distributing the load among processors assigned to different magnetic surfaces. Two approaches of parallelization of the solution of the eigenvalue problem are evaluated: 1) repeat steps of the present MARS algorithm using parallel libraries and procedures; 2) solve linear block-diagonal sets of equations, formulated in the inverse iteration algorithm in MARS, by parallel libraries and procedures. The results of these studies will be reported.

Svidzinski, Vladimir; Galkin, Sergei; Kim, Jin-Soo; Liu, Yueqiang

2012-10-01

427

Magnetohydrodynamic sea water propulsion

An experimental and theoretical investigation of a large scale MHD propulsor has been undertaken whose objectives are to (1) investigate the transient and steady state performance of the thruster over operating parameter ranges that are compatible with achievement of high efficiency, (2) to quantify the principal loss mechanisms within the thruster and (3) to obtain preliminary hydroacoustic data. The performance of the thruster was first investigated theoretically with a 3-D code to quantify the loss mechanisms and identify experimental parameter ranges of interest. The loss mechanisms of interest are ohmic losses within the channel and those resulting from electrical currents at the entrance and exit of the thruster, and enhanced frictional losses. The analysis indicated that the relative importance of the loss mechanisms was a function of the thruster design and operating parameters. The experimental investigation of the large scale propulsor is being conducted on a sea water test facility that was designed to match the capabilities of a large 6-T superconducting magnet. The facility design was such that {approximately}90{degrees} of all losses occurred within the propulsion test train (inlet nozzle, propulsor and diffuser) thus facilitating isolation of the loss mechanisms. The test thruster itself is heavily instrumented to provide local measurements of velocity, pressure, and electric fields. The predicted overall thruster performance and value of the loss mechanisms will be compared with measured values. Comparisons will also be presented of the voltage gradients between electrodes, overall thruster efficiency, axial pressure gradients across the propulsor, change in velocity profiles, axial and vertical current distributions and exit distribution of the electrolytic gases.

Petrick, M.; Thomas, A.; Genens, L.; Libera, J.; Nietert, R.; Bouillard, J.; Pierson, E.; Hill, D.; Picologlou, B.; Ohlsson, O.; Kasprzyk, T.; Berry, G.

1991-12-31

428

Magnetohydrodynamic sea water propulsion

An experimental and theoretical investigation of a large scale MHD propulsor has been undertaken whose objectives are to (1) investigate the transient and steady state performance of the thruster over operating parameter ranges that are compatible with achievement of high efficiency, (2) to quantify the principal loss mechanisms within the thruster and (3) to obtain preliminary hydroacoustic data. The performance of the thruster was first investigated theoretically with a 3-D code to quantify the loss mechanisms and identify experimental parameter ranges of interest. The loss mechanisms of interest are ohmic losses within the channel and those resulting from electrical currents at the entrance and exit of the thruster, and enhanced frictional losses. The analysis indicated that the relative importance of the loss mechanisms was a function of the thruster design and operating parameters. The experimental investigation of the large scale propulsor is being conducted on a sea water test facility that was designed to match the capabilities of a large 6-T superconducting magnet. The facility design was such that {approximately}90{degrees} of all losses occurred within the propulsion test train (inlet nozzle, propulsor and diffuser) thus facilitating isolation of the loss mechanisms. The test thruster itself is heavily instrumented to provide local measurements of velocity, pressure, and electric fields. The predicted overall thruster performance and value of the loss mechanisms will be compared with measured values. Comparisons will also be presented of the voltage gradients between electrodes, overall thruster efficiency, axial pressure gradients across the propulsor, change in velocity profiles, axial and vertical current distributions and exit distribution of the electrolytic gases.

Petrick, M.; Thomas, A.; Genens, L.; Libera, J.; Nietert, R.; Bouillard, J.; Pierson, E.; Hill, D.; Picologlou, B.; Ohlsson, O.; Kasprzyk, T.; Berry, G.

1991-01-01

429

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We generalize the method of A. M. Polyakov, [Phys. Rev. E 52, 6183 (1995), 10.1103/PhysRevE.52.6183] for obtaining structure-function relations in turbulence in the stochastically forced Burgers equation, to develop structure-function hierarchies for turbulence in three models for magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). These are the Burgers analogs of MHD in one dimension [Eur. Phys. J. B 9, 725 (1999), 10.1007/s100510050817], and in three dimensions (3DMHD and 3D Hall MHD). Our study provides a convenient and unified scheme for the development of structure-function hierarchies for turbulence in a variety of coupled hydrodynamical equations. For turbulence in the three sets of MHD equations mentioned above, we obtain exact relations for third-order structure functions and their derivatives; these expressions are the analogs of the von Kármán-Howarth relations for fluid turbulence. We compare our work with earlier studies of such relations in 3DMHD and 3D Hall MHD.

Basu, Abhik; Naji, Ali; Pandit, Rahul

2014-01-01

430

Multifluid magnetohydrodynamics of weakly ionized plasmas

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The process of star formation is an integral part of the new field of astrobiology, which studies the origins of life. Since the gas that collapses to form stars and their resulting protoplanetary disks is known to be weakly ionized and contain magnetic fields, star formation is governed by multifluid magnetohydrodynamics. In this thesis we consider two important problems involved in the process of star formation that may have strongly affected the origins of life, with the goal of determining the thermal effects of these flows and modeling the physical conditions of these environments. We first considered the outstanding problem of how primitive bodies, specifically asteroids, were heated in protoplanetary disks early in their lifetime. Reexamining asteroid heating due to the classic unipolar induction heating mechanism described by Sonett et al. (1970), we find that this mechanism contains a subtle conceptual error. As original conceived, heating due to this mechanism is driven by a uniform, supersonic, fully-ionized, magnetized, T Tauri solar wind, which sweeps past an asteroid and causes the asteroid to experience a motional electric field in its rest frame. We point out that this mechanism ignores the interaction between the body surface and the flow, and thus only correctly describes the electric field far away from the asteroid where the plasma streams freely. In a realistic protoplanetary disk environment, we show that the interaction due to friction between the asteroid surface and the flow causes a shear layer to form close to the body, wherein the motional electric field predicted by Sonett et al. decreases and tends to zero at the asteroid surface. We correct this error by using the equations of multifluid magnetohydrodynamics to explicitly treat the shear layer. We calculate the velocity field in the plasma, and the magnetic and electric fields everywhere for two flows over an idealized infinite asteroid with varying magnetic field orientations. We show that the total electric field in the asteroid may either be of comparable strength to the electric field predicted by Sonett et al. or vanish depending on the magnetic field geometry. We include the effects of dust grains in the gas and calculate the heating rates in the plasma flow due to ion-neutral scattering and viscous dissipation. We term this newly discovered heating mechanism "electrodynamic heating", use measurements of asteroid electrical conductivities to estimate the upper limits of the possible heating rates and amount of thermal energy that can be deposited in the solid body, and compare these to the heating produced by the decay of radioactive nuclei like Al26. For the second problem we modeled molecular line emission from time-dependent multifluid MHD shock waves in star-forming regions. By incorporating realistic radiative cooling by CO and H2 into the numerical method developed by Ciolek & Roberge (2013), we present the only current models of truly time-dependent multifluid MHD shock waves in weakly-ionized plasmas. Using the physical conditions determined by our models, we present predictions of molecular emission in the form of excitation diagrams, which can be compared to observations of protostellar outflows in order to trace the physical conditions of these environments. Current work focuses on creating models for varying initial conditions and shock ages, which are and will be the subject of several in progress studies of observed molecular outflows and will provide further insight into the physics and chemistry of these flows.

Menzel, Raymond

431

Solar wind-magnetosphere energy coupling function fitting: Results from a global MHD simulation

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantitatively estimating the energy input from the solar wind into the magnetosphere on a global scale is still an observational challenge. We perform three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations to derive the energy coupling function. Based on 240 numerical test runs, the energy coupling function is given by Ein=3.78×107nsw0.24Vsw1.47BT0.86[sin2.70(?/2)+0.25]. We study the correlations between the energy coupling function and a wide variety of magnetospheric activity, such as the indices of Dst, Kp, ap, AE, AU, AL, the polar cap index, and the hemispheric auroral power. The results indicate that this energy coupling function gives better correlations than the ? function. This result is also applied to a storm event under northward interplanetary magnetic field conditions. About 13% of the solar wind kinetic energy is transferred into the magnetosphere and about 35% of the input energy is dissipated in the ionosphere, consistent with previous studies.

Wang, C.; Han, J. P.; Li, H.; Peng, Z.; Richardson, J. D.

2014-08-01

432

Magnetosheath dynamics and lobe reconnection as seen from a global beyond-MHD simulation Vlasiator

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations have been successful in describing systems where the important spatial scales are larger than ion gyro radii and the plasma has a well-defined temperature. The weakness of global MHD simulations is their inability to model the multi-temperature, multi-component plasmas in the inner magnetosphere, where most of space-borne technology, including communication and navigation systems reside. We are developing a global Vlasov-hybrid simulation called the Vlasiator, where electrons are massless MHD fluid, but protons are modelled as distribution functions evolved in time using the Vlasov equation. This approach does not include the noise present in kinetic-hybrid simulations, but is computationally extremely challenging requiring petascale computations with thousands of cores. Here, we briefly review the status of the new six-dimensional Vlasiator. We carry out a test particle simulation and propagate the distribution functions using the electromagnetic fields of the GUMICS-4 global MHD simulation. We test and validate Vlasiator in a global setup by comparing the results from the test particle simulation against the standalone GUMICS-4 global MHD simulation. We find that the magnetosheath and magnetopause plasma properties from the test particle simulation are in rough agreement with the results from the GUMICS-4 simulation; however, also important differences arising from the kinetic treatment of plasma are observed. These beyond-MHD effect include the magnetosheath flow pattern changes after a newly established lobe reconnection within one hemisphere.

Palmroth, M.; Honkonen, I.; Kempf, Y.; von Alfthan, S.; Sandroos, A.

2012-04-01

433

Conceptual design of a coal-fired MHD retrofit. Final technical report

Coal-fired magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) technology is ready for its next level of development - an integrated demonstration at a commercial scale. The development and testing of MHD has shown its potential to be the most efficient, least costly, and cleanest way to burn coal. Test results have verified a greater than 99% removal of sulphur with a potential for greater than 60% efficiency. This development and testing, primarily funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), has progressed through the completion of its proof-of-concept (POC) phase at the 50 MWt Component Development and Integration Facility (CDIF) and 28 MWt Coal Fired Flow Facility (CFFF), thereby, providing the basis for demonstration and further commercial development and application of the technology. The conceptual design of a retrofit coal-fired MHD generating plant was originally completed by the MHD Development Corporation (MDC) under this Contract, DE-AC22-87PC79669. Thereafter, this concept was updated and changed to a stand-alone MHD demonstration facility and submitted by MDC to DOE in response to the fifth round of solicitations for Clean Coal Technology. Although not selected, that activity represents the major interest in commercialization by the developing industry and the type of demonstration that would be eventually necessary. This report updates the original executive summary of the conceptual design by incorporating the results of the POC program as well as MDC`s proposed Billings MHD Demonstration Project (BMDP) and outlines the steps necessary for commercialization.

NONE

1994-06-01

434

Two-Fluid 2.5D MHD-Code for Simulations in the Solar Atmosphere

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate magnetic reconnection due to the evolution of magnetic flux tubes in the solar chromosphere. We developed a new numerical two-fluid magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) code which will perform a 2.5D simulation of the dynamics from the upper convection zone up to the transition region. Our code is based on the Total Variation Diminishing Lax-Friedrichs scheme and makes use of an alternating-direction implicit method, in order to accommodate the two spatial dimensions. Since we apply a two-fluid model for our simulations, the effects of ion-neutral collisions, ionization/recombination, thermal/resistive diffusivity and collisional/resistive heating are included in the code. As initial conditions for the code we use analytically constructed vertically open magnetic flux tubes within a realistic stratified atmosphere. Initial MHD tests have already shown good agreement with known results of numerical MHD test problems like e.g. the Orszag-Tang vortex test.

Piantschitsch, I.; Amerstorfer, U.; Thalmann, J.; Utz, D.; Hanslmeier, A.; Bárta, M.; Thonhofer, S.; Lemmerer, B.

435

A review of the possible role of constraints in MHD turbulence

A review of some of the issues that have arisen over the years concerning the energy distribution among scales for magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) turbulence is given here. A variety of tools are employed to that effect, and a central role is played by taking into consideration the ideal (non-dissipative) invariants, namely the total energy, the magnetic helicity and the cross-correlations between the velocity and the magnetic field (concentrating on the three-dimensional case). These concepts, based mostly on theory, models and direct numerical simulations, are briefly put in the context of observations, in particular the solar wind, and some of the remaining open questions are delineated as well. New results on ideal MHD dynamics in three dimensions on equivalent grids of up to $6144^3$ points using the Taylor-Green flow generalized to MHD are also mentioned.

Annick Pouquet

2012-11-04

436

Global Magnetohydrodynamic Modeling of the Solar Corona

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The coronal magnetic field defines the structure of the solar corona, the position of the heliospheric current sheet, the regions of fast and slow solar wind, and the most likely sites of coronal mass ejections. There are few measurements of the magnetic fields in the corona, but the line-of-sight component of the global magnetic fields in the photosphere have been routinely measured for many years (for example, at Stanford's Wilcox Solar Observatory, and at the National Solar Observatory at Kitt Peak). The SOI/MDI instrument is now providing high-resolution full-disk magnetograms several times a day. Understanding the large-scale structure of the solar corona and inner heliosphere requires accurately mapping the measured photospheric magnetic field into the corona and outward. Ideally, a model should not only extrapolate the magnetic field, but should self-consistently reconstruct both the plasma and magnetic fields in the corona and solar wind. Support from our NASA SR&T contract has allowed us to develop three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) computations of the solar corona that incorporate observed photospheric magnetic fields into the boundary conditions. These calculations not only describe the magnetic field in the corona and interplanetary spice, but also predict the plasma properties as well. Our computations thus far have been successful in reproducing many aspects of both coronal and interplanetary data, including the structure of the streamer belt, the location of coronal hole boundaries, and the position and shape of the heliospheric current sheet. The most widely used technique for extrapolating the photospheric magnetic field into the corona and heliosphere are potential field models, such as the potential field source-surface model (PFSS),and the potential field current-sheet (PFCS) model

Linker, Jon A.

1998-01-01

437

The effect of Hall current and heat transfer on the magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) flow of an electrically conducting, incompressible Burgers' fluid between two infinite disks rotating about non-coaxial axes perpendicular to the disks is studied. The flow is due to a pull with constant velocities of eccentric rotating infinite disks and an external uniform magnetic field normal to the disks is

A. M. Siddiqui; M. A. Rana; Naseer Ahmed

2008-01-01

438

The effect of Hall current and heat transfer on the magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) flow of an electrically conducting, incompressible Burgers fluid between two infinite disks rotating about non-coaxial axes perpendicular to the disks is studied. The flow is due to a pull with constant velocities of eccentric rotating infinite disks and an external uniform magnetic field normal to the disks is

A. M. Siddiqui; M. A. Rana; Naseer Ahmed

2008-01-01

439

The wall of reconnection-driven magnetohydrodynamic turbulence in a large solar flare

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

LaRosa and Moore (1993) recently proposed that the bulk dissipation of magnetic field that is required for the electron energization in the explosive phase of solar flares occurs in a 'fat current sheet', a wall of cascading magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence sustained by highly disordered driven reconnection of opposing magnetic fields impacting at a turbulent boundary layer. Here, we use the well-observed great two-ribbon eruptive flare of 1984 April 24/25 to assess the feasibility of both (1) the standard model for the overall three-dimensional form and action of the magnetic field and (2) the turbulent reconnection wall within it. We find (1) that the morphology of this flare closely matched that of the standard model; (2) the preflare sheared core field had enough nonpotential magnetic energy to power the flare; (3) the model turbulent wall required to achieve the flare's peak dissipative power easily fit within the overall span of the flaring magnetic field; (4) this wall was thick enough to have turbulent eddies large enough (diameters approximately 10(exp 8 cm) to produce the approximately ergs energy release fragments typically observed in the explosive phase of flares; (5) the aspect ratio (thickness/vertical extent) of the turbulent reconnection wall was in the 0.1-1 range expected by (Parker 1973). We therefore conclude that the viability of our version of the standard model (i.e., having the magnetic field dissipation occur in our turbulent reconnection wall) is well confirmed by this typical great two-ribbon eruptive flare.

Moore, R. L.; Larosa, T. N.; Orwig, L. E.

1995-01-01

440

A closed-cycle MHD system for an electric power plant was studied. It consists of 3 interlocking loops, an external heating loop, a closed-cycle cesium seeded argon nonequilibrium ionization MHD loop, and a steam bottomer. A MHD duct maximum temperature of 2366 K (3800 F), a pressure of 0.939 MPa (9.27 atm) and a Mach number of 0.9 are found to

Tsu

1976-01-01

441

Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), Westinghouse phase 1. Volume 9: Closed-cycle MHD

A closed-cycle MHD system for an electric power plant was studied. It consists of 3 interlocking loops, an external heating loop, a closed-cycle cesium seeded argon nonequilibrium ionization MHD loop, and a steam bottomer. A MHD duct maximum temperature of 2366 K (3800 F), a pressure of 0.939 MPa (9.27 atm) and a Mach number of 0.9 are found to

T. C. Tsu

1976-01-01

442

SYNCHROTRON RADIATION OF SELF-COLLIMATING RELATIVISTIC MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC JETS

The goal of this paper is to derive signatures of synchrotron radiation from state-of-the-art simulation models of collimating relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) jets featuring a large-scale helical magnetic field. We perform axisymmetric special relativistic MHD simulations of the jet acceleration region using the PLUTO code. The computational domain extends from the slow-magnetosonic launching surface of the disk up to 6000{sup 2} Schwarzschild radii allowing jets to reach highly relativistic Lorentz factors. The Poynting-dominated disk wind develops into a jet with Lorentz factors of {Gamma} {approx_equal} 8 and is collimated to 1{sup 0}. In addition to the disk jet, we evolve a thermally driven spine jet emanating from a hypothetical black hole corona. Solving the linearly polarized synchrotron radiation transport within the jet, we derive very long baseline interferometry radio and (sub-) millimeter diagnostics such as core shift, polarization structure, intensity maps, spectra, and Faraday rotation measure (RM) directly from the Stokes parameters. We also investigate depolarization and the detectability of a {lambda}{sup 2}-law RM depending on beam resolution and observing frequency. We find non-monotonic intrinsic RM profiles that could be detected at a resolution of 100 Schwarzschild radii. In our collimating jet geometry, the strict bimodality in the polarization direction (as predicted by Pariev et al.) can be circumvented. Due to relativistic aberration, asymmetries in the polarization vectors across the jet can hint at the spin direction of the central engine.

Porth, Oliver; Fendt, Christian; Vaidya, Bhargav [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Koenigstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Meliani, Zakaria, E-mail: porth@mpia.de, E-mail: fendt@mpia.de [Centre for Plasma Astrophysics, K. U. Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200B, 3001 Leuven (Belgium)

2011-08-10

443

JET ROTATION DRIVEN BY MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC SHOCKS IN HELICAL MAGNETIC FIELDS

In this paper, we present a detailed numerical investigation of the hypothesis that a rotation of astrophysical jets can be caused by magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) shocks in a helical magnetic field. Shock compression of the helical magnetic field results in a toroidal Lorentz force component that will accelerate the jet material in the toroidal direction. This process transforms magnetic angular momentum (magnetic stress) carried along the jet into kinetic angular momentum (rotation). The mechanism proposed here only works in a helical magnetic field configuration. We demonstrate the feasibility of this mechanism by axisymmetric MHD simulations in 1.5 and 2.5 dimensions using the PLUTO code. In our setup, the jet is injected into the ambient gas with zero kinetic angular momentum (no rotation). We apply different dynamical parameters for jet propagation such as the jet internal Alfven Mach number and fast magnetosonic Mach number, the density contrast of the jet to the ambient medium, and the external sonic Mach number of the jet. The mechanism we suggest should work for a variety of jet applications, e.g., protostellar or extragalactic jets, and internal jet shocks (jet knots) or external shocks between the jet and the ambient gas (entrainment). For typical parameter values for protostellar jets, the numerically derived rotation feature looks consistent with the observations, i.e., rotational velocities of 0.1%-1% of the jet bulk velocity.

Fendt, Christian, E-mail: fendt@mpia.de [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

2011-08-10

444

von Kármán-Howarth relationship for helical magnetohydrodynamic flows.

We derive an exact equation for homogeneous isotropic magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulent flows with nonzero helicity; this result is of the same nature as the classical von Kármán-Howarth (VKH-HM) formulation for the kinetic energy of turbulent fluids. Helical MHD is relevant to the astrophysical flows such as in the solar corona, or the interstellar medium, and in the dynamo problem. The derivation involves the new writing of the general form of tensors for that case, for either vectors or (pseudo)axial vectors. It is shown that, for general third-order tensors, four generating functions are needed when taking into account the nonmirror invariance of helical fluids, instead of two as in the fully isotropic case. The new equation obtained, denoted by VKH-HM, links the dissipation of magnetic helicity to the third-order correlations involving combinations of the components of the velocity, the magnetic field, and the magnetic potential. Finally, in the long-time and nonresistive limit, this relationship leads to a linear scaling with separation of the third-order tensor, correlating the two normal components of the electromotive force and of the magnetic potential. PMID:14525113

Politano, H; Gomez, T; Pouquet, A

2003-08-01

445

Global Asymptotic Solutions for Magnetohydrodynamic Jets and Winds

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a self-consistent and self-explanatory picture of the acceleration/collimation process of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) outflows in the asymptotic domain. With the criticality and current-closure conditions properly taken into account in the global solutions, the most crucial step is the correct usage of the transfield force balance equation, which determines the curvature radius R of poloidal field lines. The sign of R determines the collimation or decollimation of each field streamline, and without referring to the current-closure condition, magnetic self-collimation cannot be discussed-the ``anticollimation theorem.'' The location of the fast magnetosonic points are fixed at the innermost distances of the asymptotic domain, and hence, the asymptotic domain is nothing but the superfast, accelerating domain. The curvature 1/R has so far mistakenly been regarded as negligibly small, leading to the pseudo-force-free state in the far asymptotic domain and thereby producing the wrong concept that full MHD acceleration-meaning the conversion of all the Poynting flux into kinetic energy flux-is implausible. It cannot be stressed enough that this global picture has been reached by combining Sakurai's numerical results with Heyvaerts & Norman's analytic asymptotic formalism.

Okamoto, I.

2003-05-01

446

MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC WAVES IN A PARTIALLY IONIZED FILAMENT THREAD

Oscillations and propagating waves are commonly seen in high-resolution observations of filament threads, i.e., the fine-structures of solar filaments/prominences. Since the temperature of prominences is typically of the order of 10{sup 4} K, the prominence plasma is only partially ionized. In this paper, we study the effect of neutrals on the wave propagation in a filament thread modeled as a partially ionized homogeneous magnetic flux tube embedded in an homogeneous and fully ionized coronal plasma. Ohmic and ambipolar magnetic diffusion are considered in the basic resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations. We numerically compute the eigenfrequencies of kink, slow, and Alfven linear MHD modes and obtain analytical approximations in some cases. We find that the existence of propagating modes is constrained by the presence of critical values of the longitudinal wavenumber. In particular, the lower and upper frequency cutoffs of kink and Alfven waves owe their existence to magnetic diffusion parallel and perpendicular to magnetic field lines, respectively. The slow mode only has a lower frequency cutoff, which is caused by perpendicular magnetic diffusion and is significantly affected by the ionization degree. In addition, ion-neutral collision is the most efficient damping mechanism for short wavelengths, while ohmic diffusion dominates in the long-wavelength regime.

Soler, R.; Oliver, R.; Ballester, J. L. [Departament de FIsica, Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07122, Palma de Mallorca (Spain)], E-mail: roberto.soler@uib.es, E-mail: ramon.ol