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1

Analysis of magnetron ion sources and PIG ion sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetron ion sources and PIG ion sources are sources of intense negative ion beams and multiply-charged positive and negative ion beams. They are composed of two electrodes, a sheath and a plasma. The author has classified them into magnetron (MG), inverse magnetron (IM), planar magnetron and Penning ionization gauge (PIG) ion sources. The PIG includes usual PIG, duoPIGatron and ANIS.

Noboru Tanizuka

1989-01-01

2

Linear ion source with magnetron hollow cathode discharge  

SciTech Connect

A linear ion source with magnetron hollow cathode discharge is described in this paper. The linear ion source is based on an anode layer thruster with closed-drift electrons that move in a closed path in the ExB fields. An open slit configuration is designed at the end of the ion source for the extraction of the linear ion beam produced by the magnetron hollow cathode discharge. The special configurations enable uninterrupted and expanded operation with oxygen as well as other reactive gases because of the absence of an electron source in the ion source. The ion current density and uniformity were experimentally evaluated. Using the ion source, surface modification was conducted on polyethylene terephthalate polymer films to improve the adhesion strength with ZnS coatings.

Tang, D.L.; Pu, S.H.; Wang, L.S.; Qiu, X.M.; Chu, Paul K. [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu, 610041 (China); Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

2005-11-15

3

Linear ion source with magnetron hollow cathode discharge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A linear ion source with magnetron hollow cathode discharge is described in this paper. The linear ion source is based on an anode layer thruster with closed-drift electrons that move in a closed path in the EB fields. An open slit configuration is designed at the end of the ion source for the extraction of the linear ion beam produced by the magnetron hollow cathode discharge. The special configurations enable uninterrupted and expanded operation with oxygen as well as other reactive gases because of the absence of an electron source in the ion source. The ion current density and uniformity were experimentally evaluated. Using the ion source, surface modification was conducted on polyethylene terephthalate polymer films to improve the adhesion strength with ZnS coatings.

Tang, D. L.; Pu, S. H.; Wang, L. S.; Qiu, X. M.; Chu, Paul K.

2005-11-01

4

Improved magnetron cold-cathode ion source  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cold cathode ionization source generates smaller amounts of spurious gases and has a higher sensitivity than commonly used hot-filament ion sources. Photon and X-ray background noise are reduced below detectable levels.

Roehrig, J.; Torney, F.

1970-01-01

5

Hollow target magnetron-sputter-type solid material ion source  

SciTech Connect

A thin-walled aluminum (Al) hollow electrode has been inserted into an ion source to serve as an electrode for a radio frequency magnetron discharge. The produced plasma stabilized by argon (Ar) gas sputters the Al electrode to form a beam of Al{sup +} and Ar{sup +} ions. The total beam current extracted through a 3 mm diameter extraction hole has been 50 {mu}A, with the Al{sup +} ion beam occupying 30% of the total beam current.

Sasaki, D.; Ieki, S.; Kasuya, T. [Graduate School of Engineering, Doshisha University, Kyoto 610-0321 (Japan); Wada, M. [Faculty of Life Medical Sciences, Doshisha University, Kyoto 610-0321 (Japan)

2012-02-15

6

Regular and asymmetric negative ion magnetron sources with grooved cathodes  

SciTech Connect

The performance of the BNL Mk III magnetron source has been improved by geometrically focusing H/sup -/ ions produced at the cathode into the anode emission slit. In addition, an asymmetric configuration, with a large anode to cathode spacing in the back of the source, has allowed operation of the source at lower pressures. The result of these two changes is a gas efficiency of approximately 6% and a power efficiency of 8 kW/A. No isotope effect has been observed. Measurement of the energy of H/sup -/ ions shows that one extracts both slow ions and ions with an energy equal to the cathode voltage. The ratio of electrons to H/sup -/ ions can be as low as 0.5.

Alessi, J; Sluyters, T

1980-01-01

7

Magnetron-Discharge-Based Ion Source for Improvement of an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Device  

Microsoft Academic Search

A magnetron discharge as a built-in ion source have studied both experimentally and numerically for a compact discharge-type fusion neutron source called IECF (Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion). With this magnetron discharge, ions are produced in the vicinity of the vacuum chamber (anode) at negative electric potential. Therefore, produced ions are expected to have nearly full energy corresponding to the applied

Teruhisa Takamatsu; Kai Masuda; Kiyoshi Yoshikawa; Hisayuki Toku; Kazunobu Nagasaki; Toshiyuki Kyunai

2005-01-01

8

Magnetron-Discharge-Based Ion Source for Improvement of an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Device  

SciTech Connect

A magnetron discharge as a built-in ion source have studied both experimentally and numerically for a compact discharge-type fusion neutron source called IECF (Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion). With this magnetron discharge, ions are produced in the vicinity of the vacuum chamber (anode) at negative electric potential. Therefore, produced ions are expected to have nearly full energy corresponding to the applied voltage to the IECF cathode but slightly smaller energy preventing them from hitting the anode of the opposite end, eventually improving both fusion reaction rate and ion recirculation life. Also, the magnetron ion source was found to produce ample ion current for maintenance of the discharge. With the optimization of the configuration of the magnetron discharge, further improvement of the fusion reaction rate is found feasible.

Takamatsu, Teruhisa; Masuda, Kai; Yoshikawa, Kiyoshi; Toku, Hisayuki; Nagasaki, Kazunobu; Kyunai, Toshiyuki [Kyoto University (Japan)

2005-05-15

9

An inverted cylindrical sputter magnetron as metal vapor supply for electron cyclotron resonance ion sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An inverted cylindrical sputter magnetron device has been developed. The magnetron is acting as a metal vapor supply for an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source. FEM simulation of magnetic flux density was used to ensure that there is no critical interaction between both magnetic fields of magnetron and ECR ion source. Spatially resolved double Langmuir probe and optical emission spectroscopy measurements show an increase in electron density by one order of magnitude from 1 1010 cm-3 to 1 1011 cm-3, when the magnetron plasma is exposed to the magnetic mirror field of the ECR ion source. Electron density enhancement is also indicated by magnetron plasma emission photography with a CCD camera. Furthermore, photographs visualize the formation of a localized loss-cone - area, when the magnetron is operated at magnetic mirror field conditions. The inverted cylindrical magnetron supplies a metal atom load rate of R > 1 1018 atoms/s for aluminum, which meets the demand for the production of a milliampere Al+ ion beam.

Weichsel, T.; Hartung, U.; Kopte, T.; Zschornack, G.; Kreller, M.; Silze, A.

2014-05-01

10

An inverted cylindrical sputter magnetron as metal vapor supply for electron cyclotron resonance ion sources.  

PubMed

An inverted cylindrical sputter magnetron device has been developed. The magnetron is acting as a metal vapor supply for an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source. FEM simulation of magnetic flux density was used to ensure that there is no critical interaction between both magnetic fields of magnetron and ECR ion source. Spatially resolved double Langmuir probe and optical emission spectroscopy measurements show an increase in electron density by one order of magnitude from 1 10(10) cm(-3) to 1 10(11) cm(-3), when the magnetron plasma is exposed to the magnetic mirror field of the ECR ion source. Electron density enhancement is also indicated by magnetron plasma emission photography with a CCD camera. Furthermore, photographs visualize the formation of a localized loss-cone-area, when the magnetron is operated at magnetic mirror field conditions. The inverted cylindrical magnetron supplies a metal atom load rate of R > 1 10(18) atoms/s for aluminum, which meets the demand for the production of a milliampere Al(+) ion beam. PMID:24880358

Weichsel, T; Hartung, U; Kopte, T; Zschornack, G; Kreller, M; Silze, A

2014-05-01

11

Inertial electrostatic confinement fusion device with an ion source using a magnetron discharge  

Microsoft Academic Search

An inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) fusion device is studied for a compact fusion neutron\\/proton source using a built-in magnetron ion source. The addition of an ion source to the IEC fusion device enhances fusion reactions by allowing a lower operating gas pressure and by providing a beam-like ion energy distribution. Under lower gas pressures, charge exchange collisions are reduced, resulting

T. Takamatsu; K. Masuda; T. Kyunai; H. Toku; K. Yoshikawa

2006-01-01

12

Hollow metal target magnetron sputter type radio frequency ion source.  

PubMed

A 70 mm diameter 70 mm long compact ion source equipped with a hollow sputtering target has been designed and tested. The hollow sputtering target serves as the radio frequency (RF) plasma excitation electrode at 13.56 MHz. A stable beam of Cu(+) has been extracted when Ar was used as the discharge support gas. In the extracted beam, Cu(+) had occupied more than 85% of the total ion current. Further increase in Cu(+) ions in the beam is anticipated by increasing the RF power and Ar pressure. PMID:24593636

Yamada, N; Kasuya, T; Tsubouchi, N; Wada, M

2014-02-01

13

Boron ion source based on planar magnetron discharge in self-sputtering mode.  

PubMed

An ion source based on a planar magnetron sputtering device with thermally isolated target has been designed and demonstrated. For a boron sputtering target, high target temperature is required because boron has low electrical conductivity at room temperature, increasing with temperature. The target is well-insulated thermally and can be heated by an initial low-current, high-voltage discharge mode. A discharge power of 16 W was adequate to attain the required surface temperature (400 degrees C), followed by transition of the discharge to a high-current, low-voltage mode for which the magnetron enters a self-sputtering operational mode. Beam analysis was performed with a time-of-flight system; the maximum boron ion fraction in the beam is greater than 99%, and the mean boron ion fraction, time-integrated over the whole pulse length, is about 95%. We have plans to make the ion source steady state and test with a bending magnet. This kind of boron ion source could be competitive to conventional boron ion sources that utilize compounds such as BF(3), and could be useful for semiconductor industry application. PMID:20192426

Gushenets, V I; Hershcovitch, A; Kulevoy, T V; Oks, E M; Savkin, K P; Vizir, A V; Yushkov, G Yu

2010-02-01

14

Magnetron sputtering source  

DOEpatents

A magnetron sputtering source for sputtering coating substrates includes a high thermal conductivity electrically insulating ceramic and magnetically attached sputter target which can eliminate vacuum sealing and direct fluid cooling of the cathode assembly. The magnetron sputtering source design results in greater compactness, improved operating characteristics, greater versatility, and low fabrication cost. The design easily retrofits most sputtering apparatuses and provides for safe, easy, and cost effective target replacement, installation, and removal.

Makowiecki, Daniel M. (Livermore, WA); McKernan, Mark A. (Livermore, CA); Grabner, R. Fred (Brentwood, CA); Ramsey, Philip B. (Livermore, CA)

1994-01-01

15

Magnetron sputtering source  

DOEpatents

A magnetron sputtering source for sputtering coating substrates includes a high thermal conductivity electrically insulating ceramic and magnetically attached sputter target which can eliminate vacuum sealing and direct fluid cooling of the cathode assembly. The magnetron sputtering source design results in greater compactness, improved operating characteristics, greater versatility, and low fabrication cost. The design easily retrofits most sputtering apparatuses and provides for safe, easy, and cost effective target replacement, installation, and removal. 12 figs.

Makowiecki, D.M.; McKernan, M.A.; Grabner, R.F.; Ramsey, P.B.

1994-08-02

16

Sub microsecond notching of a negative hydrogen beam at low energy utilizing a magnetron ion source with a split extractor  

SciTech Connect

A technique for sub-microsecond beam notching is being developed at 20 keV utilizing a Magnetron ion source with a slit extraction system and a split extractor. Each half of the extractor is treated as part of a 50 ohm transmission line which can be pulsed at {+-}700 volts creating a 1400 volt gradient. This system along with the associated electronics is electrically floated on top of a pulsed extraction voltage. A beam reduction of 95% has been observed at the end of the Fermilab 400 MeV Linac and 35% notching has recently been achieved in the Booster.

Moehs, Douglas; /Fermilab

2004-12-01

17

Advanced nanocluster ion source based on high-power impulse magnetron sputtering and time-resolved measurements of nanocluster formation.  

PubMed

We developed a new nanocluster (NC) ion source based on the high-power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) technique coupled with a gas flow cell reactor. Silver NC anions (Ag(n)(-)) with a maximum intensity of 5.5 nA (Ag11(-)) are generated with the size ranging from the atomic anion to the 70-mer, which is well-controlled by simply adjusting the peak power and repetition rate of the HiPIMS. By time-resolved density profiles of Ag(n)(-), we find that the ion beam generated by HiPIMS is characterized by individual 100 ms duration "bunches" below a repetition rate of 10 Hz, which is well-thermalized with a group velocity of 5 m/s. The high intensity of the NCs is attributable to the high ionization fraction by this HiPIMS ion source, while the underlying mechanism of the flexible size tuning of the ion source is understood by time-resolved mass spectrometry coupled with the sequential growth mechanism; the increment of the density of the target species in the bunches with the peak power and the overlapping of the bunches with the repetition rate cause the formation of large NCs. PMID:24079920

Zhang, Chuhang; Tsunoyama, Hironori; Akatsuka, Hiroki; Sekiya, Hiroki; Nagase, Tomomi; Nakajima, Atsushi

2013-10-10

18

Cathode grid current dependence of D(d, n)3He reaction rates in an inertial electrostatic confinement device driven by a ring-shaped magnetron ion source  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present D(d, n)3 He reaction rates for a new inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) device which aims to overcome neutralization (charge exchange) of accelerating ions by operating at D2 gas pressures of just 5-10 mPa with the aid of an internal ring-shaped magnetron ion source. Initial experiments with a voltage of -60 kV applied to a central spherical cathode grid

K. Masuda; T. Nakagawa; J. Kipritidis; T. Kajiwara; Y. Yamagaki; H. Zen; K. Yoshikawa; K. Nagasaki

2010-01-01

19

Modeling the time variation of beam-grid fusion reaction rates in an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement device driven by a ring-shaped magnetron ion source  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use the two-dimensional analysis code KUAD2 to simulate D^{+_{2}} trajectories in an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) device driven by a ring-shaped magnetron ion source (RS-MIS). This aims to maximize the path length lambdaCX for ion-gas charge exchange by operating at just units of mPa D2 gas pressures; however, under these conditions simulations reveal a surprisingly small path length for

J. Kipritidis; K. Masuda; T. Kajiwara; Y. Yamagaki; K. Nagasaki

2011-01-01

20

Improved Negative Ion Source.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method and apparatus for providing a negative ion source accelerates electrons away from a hot filament electron emitter into a region of crossed electric and magnetic fields arranged in a magnetron configuration. During a portion of the resulting cyclo...

J. E. Delmore

1984-01-01

21

Deposition and characterization of zirconium nitride (ZrN) thin films by reactive magnetron sputtering with linear gas ion source and bias voltage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zirconium nitride thin films have been prepared on stainless steel substrate (304L grade) by reactive cylindrical magnetron sputtering method with Gas Ion Source (GIS) and bias voltage using optimized coating parameters. The structure and surface morphologies of the ZrN films were characterized using X-ray diffraction, atomic microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The adhesion property of ZrN thin film has been increased due to the GIS. The coating exhibits better adhesion strength up to 10 N whereas the ZrN thin film with bias voltage exhibits adhesion up to 500 mN.

Kavitha, A.; Subramanian, N. Sankara; Loganathan, S.; Kannan, R.

2014-04-01

22

Faceted Magnetron Device Using Discrete Current Sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A faceted magnetron concept has a cathode structure comprised of field emitters instead of the traditional thermionic cathode. The faceted magnetron structure has been modeled using the 3D particle-in-cell codes VORPAL 5.2 and ICEPIC. The two-dimensional particle trajectory simulation Lorentz2E has been used to model the electron injection from gated field emitters in a slit type structure. The sensitivity of the electron injection into the device was studied using Lorentz2E with the variation in the operating voltages in the cathode structure -as well as the location of the pusher electrode. Volume electron charge was considered in the sensitivity analysis. Surface charge was not included. Together with this work a model of a ten cavity rising sun magnetron was developed using VORPAL 5.2. A cylindrical and pentagonal-shaped cathode was modeled to study the variation of results due to the cathode shape. The results of this model are used to compare with results obtained from ICEPIC. Discrete current sources were also modeled to come from each facet of the pentagon-shaped cathode to study its effect on the magnetron operation. It is planned to generate velocity distributions of the electrons for the VORPAL input by using results generated with Lorentz2E.

Fernandez-Gutierrez, Sulmer; Browning, Jim; Smithe, David; Watrous, Jack

2012-10-01

23

Ion source  

DOEpatents

A magnetic filter for an ion source reduces the production of undesired ion species and improves the ion beam quality. High-energy ionizing electrons are confined by the magnetic filter to an ion source region, where the high-energy electrons ionize gas molecules. One embodiment of the magnetic filter uses permanent magnets oriented to establish a magnetic field transverse to the direction of travel of ions from the ion source region to the ion extraction region. In another embodiment, low energy 16 eV electrons are injected into the ion source to dissociate gas molecules and undesired ion species into desired ion species.

Leung, Ka-Ngo (Hercules, CA); Ehlers, Kenneth W. (Alamo, CA)

1984-01-01

24

Phase and Frequency Locked Magnetrons for SRF Sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetrons are low-cost highly-efficient microwave sources, but they have several limitations, primarily centered about the phase and frequency stability of their output. When the stability requirements are low, such as for medical accelerators or kitchen ovens, magnetrons are the very efficient power source of choice. But for high energy accelerators, because of the need for frequency and phase stability -

M. Neubauer; R. P. Johnson; M. Popovic; A. Moretti

2009-01-01

25

H sup minus ion sources  

SciTech Connect

A review is given of H{sup {minus}} ion sources, with the emphasis on sources of use for accelerator applications. A brief description is given of magnetron, multicusp/converter, Penning and volume H{sup {minus}} ion sources. Operating parameters for examples of the various type sources are presented, and then some comparisons among the sources are made. 37 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

Alessi, J.G.

1991-01-01

26

RF amplified magnetron source for efficient titanium nitride deposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amplified magnetron sources are used to increase the ionization ratio of the sputtered metallic species in a way to avoid shadowing effect during thin film deposition on complex substrates. An radio-frequency (RF) power supplied coil achieves the amplification of the magnetron plasma. In this paper, an amplified magnetron discharge in ArN2 mixtures for titanium nitride (TiN) deposition has been studied

S. Konstantinidis; C. Nouvellon; J.-P. Dauchot; M. Wautelet; M. Hecq

2003-01-01

27

H - beam emittance measurements for the Penning and the asymmetric, grooved magnetron surface-plasma sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beam intensity and emittance measurements show that the H? beam from our Penning surface-plasma source (SPS) has twice the intensity and ten times the brightness of the H? beam from an asymmetric, grooved magnetron SPS. H? ion temperatures of 5 eV for the Penning SPS and 22 eV for the asymmetric, grooved magnetron are deduced by using a simple emittance

H. Vernon Smith Jr.; Paul Allison

1982-01-01

28

Phase and Frequency Locked Magnetrons for SRF Sources  

SciTech Connect

Magnetrons are low-cost highly-efficient microwave sources, but they have several limitations, primarily centered about the phase and frequency stability of their output. When the stability requirements are low, such as for medical accelerators or kitchen ovens, magnetrons are the very efficient power source of choice. But for high energy accelerators, because of the need for frequency and phase stability - proton accelerators need 1-2 degrees source phase stability, and electron accelerators need .1-.2 degrees of phase stability - they have rarely been used. We describe a novel variable frequency cavity technique which will be utilized to phase and frequency lock magnetrons.

Neubauer, M.; Johnson, R.P.; /Muons Inc., Batavia; Popovic, M.; Moretti, A.; /Fermilab

2009-05-01

29

Unbalanced magnetron ion-assisted deposition and property modification of thin films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unbalanced magnetron (UM-gun) sputtering sources with the unique characteristic of a high deposition rate and concomitant high ion flux represent an exciting new development in ion-assisted deposition of thin films. We have used a UM-gun capable of producing ion current densities up to 5 mA cm⁻² (ion flux 3 x 10¹⁶ cm⁻² s⁻¹) when operated at a power of 500

N. Savvides

1986-01-01

30

Monte Carlo simulation of ions in a magnetron plasma  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simulation of ion dynamics in a planar magnetron discharge is performed using separate three-dimensional Monte Carlo codes for the electrons and ions. First, to predict the ionization sites, the orbits of energetic electrons are simulated for prescribed DC electric and magnetic fields, subject to collision with neutrals at random intervals. In the second code the predicted sites are used

Matthew J. Goeckner; John A. Goree; Terrence E. Sheridan

1991-01-01

31

Boron ion beam generation using a self-sputtering planar magnetron.  

PubMed

A boron ion source based on planar magnetron discharge with solid boron target has been developed. To obtain a sufficient conductivity of the boron target for high current discharge ignition, the target was heated to the temperature more than 350?C. To reach this temperature, thermally isolated target was heated by low-current high-voltage magnetron DC discharge. Applying a high-current pulse (100?s range) provides a self-sputtering mode of the discharge, which generates the boron plasma. Boron ion beam with current more than 150 mA was extracted from the plasma by applying an accelerating voltage of 20 kV. The boron ion fraction in the beam reached 95%, averaged over the pulse length, and the rest ions were working gas (Kr(+)). It was shown that "keeping alive" DC discharge completely eliminates a time delay of pulsed discharge current onset, and reduces the pulsed discharge minimal working pressure. PMID:24593639

Vizir, Aleksey; Nikolaev, Aleksey; Oks, Efim; Savkin, Konstantin; Shandrikov, Maxim; Yushkov, Georgy

2014-02-01

32

H/sup -/ beam emittance measurements for the penning and the asymmetric, grooved magnetron surface-plasma sources  

SciTech Connect

Beam-intensity and emittance measurements show that the H/sup -/ beam from our Penning surface-plasma source (SPS) has twice the intensity and ten times the brightness of the H/sup -/ beam from an asymmetric, grooved magnetron SPS. We deduce H/sup -/ ion temperatures of 5 eV for the Penning SPS and 22 eV for the asymmetric, grooved magnetron.

Smith, H.V. Jr.; Allison, P.W.

1981-01-01

33

Negative ion source  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for providing a negative ion source accelerates electrons away from a hot filament electron emitter into a region of crossed electric and magnetic fields arranged in a magnetron configuration. During a portion of the resulting cycloidal path, the electron velocity is reduced below its initial value. The electron accelerates as it leaves the surface at a rate of only slightly less than if there were no magnetic field, thereby preventing a charge buildup at the surface of the emitter. As the electron traverses the cycloid, it is decelerated during the second, third, and fourth quadrants, then reeccelerated as it approaches the end of the fourth quadrant to regain its original velocity. The minimum velocity occurs during the fourth quadrant, and corresponds to an electron temperature of 200.degree. to 500.degree. for the electric and magnetic fields commonly encountered in the ion sources of magnetic sector mass spectrometers. An ion source using the above-described thermalized electrons is also disclosed.

Delmore, James E. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1987-01-01

34

Improved negative ion source  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for providing a negative ion source accelerates electrons away from a hot filament electron emitter into a region of crossed electric and magnetic fields arranged in a magnetron configuration. During a portion of the resulting cycloidal path, the electron velocity is reduced below its initial value. The electron accelerates as it leaves the surface at a rate of only slightly less than if there were no magnetic field, thereby preventing a charge buildup at the surface of the emitter. As the electron traverses the cycloid, it is decelerated during the second, third, and fourth quadrants, then reaccelerated as it approaches the end of the fourth quadrant to regain its original velocity. The minimum velocity occurs during the fourth quadrant, and corresponds to an electron temperature of 200 to 500/sup 0/C for the electric and magnetic fields commonly encountered in the ion sources of magnetic sector mass spectrometers. An ion source using the above-described thermalized electrons is also disclosed.

Delmore, J.E.

1984-05-01

35

Modeling the flux of high energy negative ions during reactive magnetron sputtering  

Microsoft Academic Search

The negative ion flux during reactive sputtering from planar and rotating cylindrical magnetrons has been studied. Energy resolved mass spectrometry was used to measure the energy and mass distribution of the negative ions. Also the angular distribution of the high energy ions was characterized for planar as well as for rotating cylindrical magnetrons. Besides these measurements, a binary collision Monte

S. Mahieu; W. P. Leroy; K. Van Aeken; D. Depla

2009-01-01

36

Energy spread and ion current measurements of several ion sources  

SciTech Connect

Energy spread and extracted current measurements are presented for five different types of ion sources: hot cathode, cold cathode, magnetron, microwave, and electron cyclotron resonance (ECR). The measurements were performed with a 45[degree] parallel-plate energy analyzer with a resolution of better than 0.5 eV at 500 eV incident energy. Energy spreads ranged from 0.5 to 4 eV, while total extracted beam currents ranged from 2 to 30 [mu]A. Beam currents due specifically to protons, [sup 3]He[sup ++] ions, and H[sup +][sub 2] ions are also presented. The ECR and magnetron sources gave the best overall performance. These, along with the energy analyzer, are currently being used in experiments to study ion-atom collision physics.

Gaus, A.D.; Htwe, W.T.; Brand, J.A.; Gay, T.J.; Schulz, M. (Physics Department and Laboratory for Atomic and Molecular Research, University of Missouri-Rolla, Rolla, Missouri 65401 (United States))

1994-12-01

37

Effects of ion-induced electron emission on magnetron plasma instabilities  

SciTech Connect

Some magnetron sputtering systems experience rapid oscillations in the current and voltage of the plasma discharge after several hours when equipped with certain targets. These oscillations often lead to the plasma becoming extinguished, a condition known as flame-out.'' This article details the study of two 90% W--10% Ti magnetron targets which differed in density. The higher density targets sometimes experienced flame-out after approximately 3 h of sputtering. The less dense material could be sputtered for the entire 15 h life of the target. Scanning electron microscopy pictures and atomic composition depth profiles were obtained using Auger electron spectroscopy. In addition, a Colutron-based ion source with a high vacuum system was used to measure ion-induced secondary electron emission coefficients as a function of energy, ion specie, and gas coverage. Analysis of the sample from the group that suffers flame-out showed large regions of pure titanium in the interior of the sample and higher levels of oxygen contamination. These oxide regions act as insulators in the material which cause the secondary electron emission to decrease, the plasma current to drop and the voltage to rise. The less dense targets had a surface topography which helped overcome these decreases is electron emission. Experiments showed that an increase in the voltage with respect to the surface significantly increased electron emission, for the less dense targets, counteracting any drops in plasma current.

Hendricks, M.B.; Smith, P.C.; Ruzic, D.N. (University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)); Leybovich, A.; Poole, J.E. (TOSOH SMD, Inc., Grove City, Ohio 43123 (United States))

1994-07-01

38

High-power magnetron transmitter as an RF source for superconducting linear accelerators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A concept of a high-power transmitter utilizing the Continuous Wave (CW) magnetrons, injection-locked by phase-modulated signals, and intended to operate within a wideband control feedback loop in phase and amplitude, is presented. This transmitter is proposed to drive Superconducting RF (SRF) cavities for intensity-frontier GeV-scale proton/ion linacs, such as the projected Fermilab proton linacs or linacs for Accelerator Driven System (ADS). The transmitter consists of two 2-cascade injection-locked magnetrons with outputs combined by a 3-dB hybrid. The transmitter performance was modelled using CW, S-Band, 1 kW magnetrons. A wideband dynamic control of magnetrons, required for the superconducting linacs, was realized using the magnetrons, injection-locked by the phase-modulated signals. The capabilities of the magnetrons injection-locked by the phase-modulated signals and adequateness for feeding of SRF cavities have been verified by measurements of the magnetrons phase performance, by measurements of the transfer function magnitude characteristics of single and 2-cascade magnetrons in the phase modulation domain, and by measurements of spectra of carrier frequency of the magnetron. At the ratio of power of locking signal to output power of ?-13 dB (in 2-cascade scheme per magnetron) a phase modulation bandwidth is over 1.0 MHz for injection-locked CW single magnetrons and a 2-cascade setup. The carrier frequency spectra (width of ~1 Hz at the level of -60 dBc) measured with the magnetron, injection-locked by a phase-modulated signal, did not demonstrate broadening at wide range of magnitude and frequency of the phase modulation. The wideband dynamic management of output power of the transmitter model has been first experimentally demonstrated using combined in power magnetrons, injection-locked by the phase-modulated signals. Experiments with the injection-locked magnetrons adequately emulated the wideband dynamic control with a feedback control system, which will allow to suppress all known parasitic modulation of the accelerating field in the SRF cavities. The magnetron transmitter concept, tests of the transmitter models and injection-locking of magnetrons by phase-modulated signals are discussed in this work.

Kazakevich, Grigory; Johnson, Rolland; Flanagan, Gene; Marhauser, Frank; Yakovlev, Vyacheslav; Chase, Brian; Lebedev, Valeri; Nagaitsev, Sergei; Pasquinelli, Ralph; Solyak, Nikolay; Quinn, Kenneth; Wolff, Daniel; Pavlov, Viatcheslav

2014-10-01

39

Negative ion source with hollow cathode discharge plasma  

DOEpatents

A negative ion source of the type where negative ions are formed by bombarding a low-work-function surface with positive ions and neutral particles from a plasma, wherein a highly ionized plasma is injected into an anode space containing the low-work-function surface is described. The plasma is formed by hollow cathode discharge and injected into the anode space along the magnetic field lines. Preferably, the negative ion source is of the magnetron type.

Hershcovitch, A.; Prelec, K.

1980-12-12

40

Energy spread and ion current measurements of several ion sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy spread and extracted current measurements are presented for five different types of ion sources: hot cathode, cold cathode, magnetron, microwave, and electron cyclotron resonance (ECR). The measurements were performed with a 45[degree] parallel-plate energy analyzer with a resolution of better than 0.5 eV at 500 eV incident energy. Energy spreads ranged from 0.5 to 4 eV, while total extracted

A. D. Gaus; W. T. Htwe; J. A. Brand; T. J. Gay; M. Schulz

1994-01-01

41

Energy spread and ion current measurements of several ion sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy spread and extracted current measurements are presented for five different types of ion sources: hot cathode, cold cathode, magnetron, microwave, and electron cyclotron resonance (ECR). The measurements were performed with a 45 parallel-plate energy analyzer with a resolution of better than 0.5 eV at 500 eV incident energy. Energy spreads ranged from 0.5 to 4 eV, while total extracted

A. D. Gaus; W. T. Htwe; J. A. Brand; T. J. Gay; M. Schulz

1994-01-01

42

PENNING ION SOURCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design, construction, and operating characteristics of a Penning ; ion source which is used in the CERN synchrocyclotron are described. Other ; possible applications of a Penning ion source are discussed. (j.S.R.);

1958-01-01

43

Peristaltic ion source.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Conventional ion sources generate energetic ion beams by accelerating the plasma-produced ions through a voltage drop at the extractor, and since it is usual that the ion beam is to propagate in a space which is at ground potential, the plasma source is b...

I. G. Brown A. Anders S. Anders M. R. Dickinson R. A. MacGill

1995-01-01

44

A self-sputtering ion source: a new approach to quiescent metal ion beams.  

PubMed

A new metal ion source is presented based on sustained self-sputtering plasma in a magnetron discharge. Metals exhibiting high self-sputtering yield such as Cu, Ag, Zn, and Bi can be used in a high-power impulse magnetron sputtering discharge such that the plasma almost exclusively contains singly charged metal ions of the target material. The plasma and extracted ion beam are quiescent. The ion beams consist mostly of singly charged ions with a space-charge limited current density which reached about 10 mA/cm(2) at an extraction voltage of 45 kV and a first gap spacing of 12 mm. PMID:20192429

Oks, Efim; Anders, Andr

2010-02-01

45

The influence of ion implantation on the properties of titanium nitride layer deposited by magnetron sputtering  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new deposition method, by combining standard magnetron sputtering and ion implantation, has been developed. Some characteristics of the layers produced by this method have been investigated in comparison with the standard TiN coating obtained by conventional magnetron sputtering. The new coatings have a hardness of ?5000 HV0.04, a thickness up 15 ?m and a structure close to Ti2N. The

C Ruset; E Grigore

2002-01-01

46

Industrial ion source technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 30 cm electron bombardment ion source was designed and fabricated for micromachining and sputtering applications. This source has a multipole magnetic field that employs permanent magnets between permeable pole pieces. An average ion current density of 1 ma/sq cm with 500 eV argon ions was selected as a design operating condition. The ion beam at this operating condition was uniform and well collimated, with an average variation of plus or minus 5 percent over the center 20 cm of the beam at distances up to 30 cm from the ion source. A variety of sputtering applications were undertaken with a small 10 cm ion source to better understand the ion source requirements in these applications. The results of these experimental studies are also included.

Kaufman, H. R.

1976-01-01

47

Nanocluster ion source by plasma-gas aggregation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are constructing and developing a new type cluster ion source and a detection system. The new cluster ion source consists of a large area plasma source and gas aggregation cell instead of present cluster ion source configuration (magnetron ion source and gas aggregation cell). In new type cluster ion source we adopted a pulsed high-power microwave type plasma source for production of ions and neutral particles. This source can produce dense and stable plasma independent of shape or properties of the sample, and additionally it can produce large sizes of plasma, so that whole area of the sample is sputtered. This feature allows us to produce an intense beam of cluster ions stably compared to the present ion source.

Imanaka, Masashi; Katayama, Takeshi; Ohshiro, Yukimitsu; Watanabe, Shin-Ichi; Arai, Hideyuki; Nakagawa, Takahide

2004-05-01

48

Comparative analysis of continuous-wave surface-plasma negative ion sources with various discharge geometry.  

PubMed

Negative ion extraction from continuous-wave (CW) magnetron and semiplanotron discharges was studied and it was compared with that for the source with Penning electrode geometry. The CW negative ion beam up current to 13 mA was extracted from the magnetron source with emission aperture of 3.5 mm in diameter, while the beam with current up to 8 mA was obtained from the semiplanotron source modification. Characteristics of CW magnetron and semiplanotron sources are presented and analyzed. PMID:24593556

Belchenko, Yu; Sanin, A; Sotnikov, O

2014-02-01

49

Modeling the flux of high energy negative ions during reactive magnetron sputtering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The negative ion flux during reactive sputtering from planar and rotating cylindrical magnetrons has been studied. Energy resolved mass spectrometry was used to measure the energy and mass distribution of the negative ions. Also the angular distribution of the high energy ions was characterized for planar as well as for rotating cylindrical magnetrons. Besides these measurements, a binary collision Monte Carlo simulation code, SiMTRA, was adapted in order to simulate the energy, mass, and angular distribution of the high energy negative ions. All simulated distributions, for both planar and rotating cylindrical magnetrons, were in excellent correspondence with the experimental observations. Also a model for the amount of high energy negative O- ions was proposed. Indeed, the logarithm of the amount of high energy negative O- ions is shown to be related to the secondary electron emission yield of the oxide target, and these two parameters are known to be related to the work function. The SiMTRA simulations, in combination with knowledge of the work function or secondary electron emission yield of the target, allow modeling the flux of high energy negative ions during reactive magnetron sputtering.

Mahieu, S.; Leroy, W. P.; van Aeken, K.; Depla, D.

2009-11-01

50

Modeling the flux of high energy negative ions during reactive magnetron sputtering  

SciTech Connect

The negative ion flux during reactive sputtering from planar and rotating cylindrical magnetrons has been studied. Energy resolved mass spectrometry was used to measure the energy and mass distribution of the negative ions. Also the angular distribution of the high energy ions was characterized for planar as well as for rotating cylindrical magnetrons. Besides these measurements, a binary collision Monte Carlo simulation code, SiMTRA, was adapted in order to simulate the energy, mass, and angular distribution of the high energy negative ions. All simulated distributions, for both planar and rotating cylindrical magnetrons, were in excellent correspondence with the experimental observations. Also a model for the amount of high energy negative O{sup -} ions was proposed. Indeed, the logarithm of the amount of high energy negative O{sup -} ions is shown to be related to the secondary electron emission yield of the oxide target, and these two parameters are known to be related to the work function. The SiMTRA simulations, in combination with knowledge of the work function or secondary electron emission yield of the target, allow modeling the flux of high energy negative ions during reactive magnetron sputtering.

Mahieu, S.; Leroy, W. P.; Van Aeken, K.; Depla, D. [Department for Solid State Sciences, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281 (S1) 9000 Ghent (Belgium)

2009-11-01

51

High current ion sources  

SciTech Connect

The concept of high current ion source is both relative and evolutionary. Within the domain of one particular kind of ion source technology a current of microamperers might be high', while in another area a current of 10 Amperes could low'. Even within the domain of a single ion source type, what is considered high current performance today is routinely eclipsed by better performance and higher current output within a short period of time. Within their fields of application, there is a large number of kinds of ion sources that can justifiably be called high current. Thus, as a very limited example only, PIGs, Freemen sources, ECR sources, duoplasmatrons, field emission sources, and a great many more all have their high current variants. High current ion beams of gaseous and metallic species can be generated in a number of different ways. Ion sources of the kind developed at various laboratories around the world for the production of intense neutral beams for controlled fusion experiments are used to form large area proton deuteron beams of may tens of Amperes, and this technology can be used for other applications also. There has been significant progress in recent years in the use of microwave ion sources for high current ion beam generation, and this method is likely to find wide application in various different field application. Finally, high current beams of metal ions can be produced using metal vapor vacuum arc ion source technology. After a brief consideration of high current ion source design concepts, these three particular methods are reviewed in this paper.

Brown, I.G.

1989-06-01

52

Negative Ion Sources.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The status of research on hydrogen negative ion and heavy element sources is examined in this survey. The ranges of application and methods of producing negative ions are examined. Data on the production and annihilation cross sections of negative ions as...

M. A. Abroyan V. P. Golubev V. L. Komarov G. V. Chemyakin

1974-01-01

53

Industrial ion source technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plasma probe surveys were conducted in a 30-cm source to verify that the uniformity in the ion beam is the result of a corresponding uniformity in the discharge-chamber plasma. A 15 cm permanent magnet multipole ion source was designed, fabricated, and demonstrated. Procedures were investigated for texturing a variety of seed and surface materials for controlling secondary electron emission, increasing

H. R. Kaufman

1977-01-01

54

Industrial Ion Source Technology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Plasma probe surveys were conducted in a 30-cm source to verify that the uniformity in the ion beam is the result of a corresponding uniformity in the discharge-chamber plasma. A 15 cm permanent magnet multipole ion source was designed, fabricated, and de...

H. R. Kaufman

1977-01-01

55

Metal Ion Sources for Ion Beam Implantation  

SciTech Connect

In this paper a theme touched upon the progress of metal ion sources devoted to metal ion beam implantation (MIBI) will be reviewed. A special emphasis will be given to some kinds of ion sources such as ECR, MEVVA and Cluster ion sources. A novel dual hollow cathode metal ion source named DUHOCAMIS will be introduced and discussed.

Zhao, W. J.; Zhao, Z. Q.; Ren, X. T. [Institute of Heavy Ion Physics and State Key Labarotary in Nuclear Physics and Nuclear Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

2008-11-03

56

Ion distribution measurements to probe target and plasma processes in electronegative magnetron discharges. II. Positive ions  

SciTech Connect

Spectra of the ion mass and energy distributions of positive ions in reactive (Ar/O{sub 2}) and nonreactive (Ar) dc magnetron sputtering discharges have been investigated by energy-resolved mass spectrometry. The results of three sputter target materials, i.e., Cu, In, and W are compared to each other. Besides the main gas constituents, mass spectra reveal a variety of molecular ions which are dependent on the target material. In reactive mode, ArO{sup +} is always observed in Ar/O{sub 2} but molecules containing Ar and the metal were exclusively found for the Cu target. The occurrence of the different ions is explained in the context of their bond strengths obtained from density functional theory calculations. The energy spectra generally contain the known low-energy peak corresponding to the plasma potential. Differently extended high-energy tails due to sputtered material were observed for the different targets. Besides these, high-energetic ions were detected with up to several 100 eV. Their energies are significantly different for Ar{sup +} and O{sup +} with Ar{sup +} strongly depending on the target material. The spectra are discussed together with results from transport of ions in matter (TRIM) calculation to elucidate the origin of these energetic ions.

Welzel, Th.; Ellmer, K. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie, Institut Solare Brennstoffe, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, D-14109 Berlin (Germany); Naumov, S. [Leibniz-Institut fuer Oberflaechenmodifizierung e.V., Permoserstrasse 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany)

2011-04-01

57

Spatial and temporal evolution of ion energies in high power impulse magnetron sputtering plasma discharge  

SciTech Connect

High power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) is a novel deposition technology successfully implemented on full scale industrial machines. HIPIMS utilizes short pulses of high power delivered to the target in order to generate high amount of metal ions. The life-span of ions between the pulses and their energy distribution could strongly influence the properties and characteristics of the deposited coating. In modern industrial coating machines the sample rotates on a substrate holder and changes its position and distance with regard to the magnetron. Time resolved measurements of the ion energy distribution function (IEDF) at different distances from the magnetron have been performed to investigate the temporal evolution of ions at various distances from target. The measurements were performed using two pressures, 1 and 3 Pa to investigate the influence of working gas pressure on IEDF. Plasma sampling energy-resolved mass spectroscopy was used to measure the IEDF of Ti{sup 1+}, Ti{sup 2+}, Ar{sup 1+}, and Ar{sup 2+} ions in HIPIMS plasma discharge with titanium (Ti) target in Ar atmosphere. The measurements were done over a full pulse period and the distance between the magnetron and the orifice of the mass spectrometer was changed from 25 to 215 mm.

Hecimovic, A.; Ehiasarian, A. P. [Nanotechnology Centre for PVD Research, Materials and Engineering Research Centre, Sheffield Hallam University, S1 1WB Sheffield (United Kingdom)

2010-09-15

58

Magnetron Discharge Characteristics for Improvement of an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Neutron\\/Proton Source  

Microsoft Academic Search

A magnetron discharge was adopted in the inertial-electrostatic confinement (IEC) fusion device for drastic improvement of fusion reaction rate. With this discharge in the vicinity of the vacuum chamber, a substantial number of ions produced there are expected to have almost full energy corresponding to the applied voltage to the transparent IEC cathode under relatively low pressures compared with the

K. Yoshikawa; H. Toku; K. Masuda; T. Mizutani; A. Nagafuchi; M. Imoto; T. Takamatsu; K. Nagasaki

2003-01-01

59

Pulsed ion beam source  

DOEpatents

An improved pulsed ion beam source having a new biasing circuit for the fast magnetic field. This circuit provides for an initial negative bias for the field created by the fast coils in the ion beam source which pre-ionize the gas in the source, ionize the gas and deliver the gas to the proper position in the accelerating gap between the anode and cathode assemblies in the ion beam source. The initial negative bias improves the interaction between the location of the nulls in the composite magnetic field in the ion beam source and the position of the gas for pre-ionization and ionization into the plasma as well as final positioning of the plasma in the accelerating gap. Improvements to the construction of the flux excluders in the anode assembly are also accomplished by fabricating them as layered structures with a high melting point, low conductivity material on the outsides with a high conductivity material in the center.

Greenly, John B. (Lansing, NY)

1997-01-01

60

Pulsed ion beam source  

DOEpatents

An improved magnetically-confined anode plasma pulsed ion beam source. Beam rotation effects and power efficiency are improved by a magnetic design which places the separatrix between the fast field flux structure and the slow field structure near the anode of the ion beam source, by a gas port design which localizes the gas delivery into the gap between the fast coil and the anode, by a pre-ionizer ringing circuit connected to the fast coil, and by a bias field means which optimally adjusts the plasma formation position in the ion beam source.

Greenly, John B. (Lansing, NY)

1996-01-01

61

Magnetron Discharge Characteristics for Improvement of an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Neutron/Proton Source  

SciTech Connect

A magnetron discharge was adopted in the inertial-electrostatic confinement (IEC) fusion device for drastic improvement of fusion reaction rate. With this discharge in the vicinity of the vacuum chamber, a substantial number of ions produced there are expected to have almost full energy corresponding to the applied voltage to the transparent IEC cathode under relatively low pressures compared with the conventional glow discharge. The magnetron discharge is found to occur even for the pressure of 0.07 mTorr (H{sub 2}) in the present configuration of the experiment, compared with 5 mTorr in the glow discharge.

Yoshikawa, K.; Toku, H.; Masuda, K.; Mizutani, T.; Nagafuchi, A.; Imoto, M.; Takamatsu, T.; Nagasaki, K. [Kyoto University (Japan)

2003-09-15

62

Selective ion source  

DOEpatents

A ion source is described wherein selected ions maybe extracted to the exclusion of unwanted ion species of higher ionization potential. Also described is a method of producing selected ions from a compound, such as P.sup.+ from PH.sub.3. The invention comprises a plasma chamber, an electron source, a means for introducing a gas to be ionized by electrons from the electron source, means for limiting electron energy from the electron source to a value between the ionization energy of the selected ion species and the greater ionization energy of an unwanted ion specie, and means for extracting the target ion specie from the plasma chamber. In one embodiment, the electrons are generated in a plasma cathode chamber immediately adjacent to the plasma chamber. A small extractor draws the electrons from the plasma cathode chamber into the relatively positive plasma chamber. The energy of the electrons extracted in this manner is easily controlled. The invention is particularly useful for doping silicon with P.sup.+, AS.sup.+, and B.sup.+ without the problematic presence of hydrogen, helium, water, or carbon oxide ions. Doped silicon is important for manufacture of semiconductors and semiconductor devices.

Leung, Ka-Ngo (Hercules, CA)

1996-01-01

63

Plasma source of ions  

SciTech Connect

The plasma source is generated by a Penning discharge in a system with a hollow cathode and provides an ion current of up to 20 mA at an extracting voltage of 20 kV. A discharge current of 200 mA is produced. The ion source, as described by the author, is provided with a replaceable hollow cathode and an exchangeable torus-shaped insert in the emitter cathode.

Semenov, A.P.

1985-03-01

64

BERNAS ION SOURCE DISCHARGE SIMULATION  

SciTech Connect

The joint research and development program is continued to develop steady-state ion source of decaborane beam for ion implantation industry. Bemas ion source is the wide used ion source for ion implantation industry. The new simulation code was developed for the Bemas ion source discharge simulation. We present first results of the simulation for several materials interested in semiconductors. As well the comparison of results obtained with experimental data obtained at the ITEP ion source test-bench is presented.

RUDSKOY,I.; KULEVOY, T.V.; PETRENKO, S.V.; KUIBEDA, R.P.; SELEZNEV, D.N.; PERSHIN, V.I.; HERSHCOVITCH, A.; JOHNSON, B.M.; GUSHENETS, V.I.; OKS, E.M.; POOLE, H.J.

2007-08-26

65

Lithium ion sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 10.9 cm diameter lithium alumino-silicate ion source has been chosen as a source of 100mA lithium ion current for the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX-II) at LBNL. Research and development was carried out on lithium alumino-silicate ion sources prior to NDCX-II source fabrication. Space-charge-limited emission with the current density exceeding 1 mA/cm2 was measured with 0.64 cm diameter lithium alumino-silicate ion sources at 1275 C. The beam current density is less for the first 10.9 cm diameter NDCX-II source, and it may be due to an issue of surface coverage. The lifetime of a thin coated (on a tungsten substrate) source is varied, roughly 40-50 h, when pulsed at 0.05 Hz and with pulse length of 6?s each, i.e., a duty factor of 310-7, at an operating temperature of 1250-1275 C. The 10.9 cm diameter source lifetime is likely the same as of a 0.64 cm source, but the lifetime of a source with a 2 mm diameter (without a tungsten substrate) is 10-15 h with a duty factor of 1 (DC extraction). The lifetime variation is dependent on the amount of deposition of ?-eucryptite mass, and the surface temperature. The amount of mass deposition does not significantly alter the current density. More ion source work is needed to improve the large source performance.

Roy, Prabir K.; Greenway, Wayne G.; Grote, Dave P.; Kwan, Joe W.; Lidia, Steven M.; Seidl, Peter A.; Waldron, William L.

2014-01-01

66

Negative hydrogen ion sources for accelerators  

SciTech Connect

A variety of H{sup -} ion sources are in use at accelerator laboratories around the world. A list of these ion sources includes surface plasma sources with magnetron, Penning and surface converter geometries as well as magnetic-multipole volume sources with and without cesium. Just as varied is the means of igniting and maintaining magnetically confined plasmas. Hot and cold cathodes, radio frequency, and microwave power are all in use, as well as electron tandem source ignition. The extraction systems of accelerator H{sup -} ion sources are highly specialized utilizing magnetic and electric fields in their low energy beam transport systems to produce direct current, as well as pulsed and/or chopped beams with a variety of time structures. Within this paper, specific ion sources utilized at accelerator laboratories shall be reviewed along with the physics of surface and volume H{sup -} production in regard to source emittance. Current research trends including aperture modeling, thermal modeling, surface conditioning, and laser diagnostics will also be discussed.

Moehs, D.P.; /Fermilab; Peters, J.; /DESY; Sherman, J.; /Los Alamos

2005-08-01

67

Industrial ion source technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In reactive ion etching of Si, varying amounts of O2 were added to the CF4 background. The experimental results indicated an etch rate less than that for Ar up to an O2 partial pressure of about .00006 Torr. Above this O2 pressure, the etch rate with CF4 exceeded that with Ar alone. For comparison the random arrival rate of O2 was approximately equal to the ion arrival rate at a partial pressure of about .00002 Torr. There were also ion source and ion pressure gauge maintenance problems as a result of the use of CF4. Large scale (4 sq cm) texturing of Si was accomplished using both Cu and stainless steel seed. The most effective seeding method for this texturing was to surround the sample with large inclined planes. Designing, fabricating, and testing a 200 sq cm rectangular beam ion source was emphasized. The design current density was 6 mA/sq cm with 500 eV argon ions, although power supply limitations permitted operation to only 2 mA/sq cm. The use of multiple rectangular beam ion sources for continuous processing of wider areas than would be possible with a single source was also studied. In all cases investigated, the most uniform coverage was obtained with 0 to 2 cm beam overlay. The maximum departure from uniform processing at optimum beam overlap was found to be +15%.

Kaufman, H. R.; Robinson, R. S.

1979-01-01

68

Advantageous possibilities, design aspects and technical use of double-ring magnetron sputter sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the principle of the double-ring source, some problems with stationary deposition by magnetron sputtering can be solved so that several possibilities of process control are achieved. The first is the homogeneous deposition of one material on large substrates up to 300 mm in diameter. This problem can also be solved for coating distances in the range below 100

P. Frach; K. Goedicke; T. Winkler; Chr. Gottfried; H. Walde; W. Hentsch

1995-01-01

69

Activated Ion Electron Capture Dissociation (AI ECD) of Proteins: Synchronization of Infrared and Electron Irradiation with Ion Magnetron Motion  

PubMed Central

Here, we show that to perform activated ion electron capture dissociation (AI-ECD) in a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometer equipped with a CO2 laser, it is necessary to synchronize both infrared irradiation and electron capture dissociation with ion magnetron motion. This requirement is essential for instruments in which the infrared laser is angled off-axis, such as the Thermo Finnigan LTQ FT. Generally, the electron irradiation time required for proteins is much shorter (ms) than that required for peptides (tens of ms), and the modulation of ECD, AI ECD, and infrared multiphoton dissociation (IRMPD) with ion magnetron motion is more pronounced. We have optimized AI ECD for ubiquitin, cytochrome c, and myoglobin; however the results can be extended to other proteins. We demonstrate that pre-ECD and post-ECD activation are physically different and display different kinetics. We also demonstrate how, by use of appropriate AI ECD time sequences and normalization, the kinetics of protein gas-phase refolding can be deconvoluted from the diffusion of the ion cloud and measured on the time scale longer than the period of ion magnetron motion.

Mikhailov, Victor A.; Cooper, Helen J.

2009-01-01

70

Investigation of ISIS and Brookhaven National Laboratory ion source electrodes after extended operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Linac4 accelerator of Centre Europeen de Recherches Nucleaires is under construction and a RF-driven H⁻ ion source is being developed. The beam current requirement for Linac4 is very challenging: 80 mA must be provided. Cesiated plasma discharge ion sources such as Penning or magnetron sources are also potential candidates. Accelerator ion sources must achieve typical reliability figures of 95% and

Lettry J; Alessi J; D. Faircloth; A. Gerardin; T. Kalvas; H. Pereira; S. Sgobba

2012-01-01

71

Ion beam source  

SciTech Connect

An ion beam source characterized in that a needle-like tip is comprised of a carbide, a nitride, or a diboride of at least one element selected from the group consisting of Ti, Zr, Hf, V, Nb, and Ta, a hexaboride of at least one element of rare earth metal elements of atomic numbers 57-70, or carbon. Stable ion beam emission of high brightness and long life can be obtained by using the needle-like tip of the said material.

Futamoto, M.; Kawabe, U.; Yuito, I.

1984-08-21

72

Extraction of aluminum ions from a plasma-sputter-type ion source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Positive ions of aluminum (Al+) have been extracted from a compact ion source of 8 cm diameter, 9 cm long inside volume. A 7.7 cm diameter 7.5 cm long cylindrical cage made of 1 mm thick Al sheet metal served as an electrode of radio frequency discharge at 13.56 MHz. Magnets attached to the water cooled wall of the ion source created planar and cylindrical magnetron magnetic field geometry at the surface of the cage. The measured DC self-bias voltage of the cage electrode with respect to the ion source wall was more positive than -10 V for source operating pressure above 1.2 Pa with 100 W RF discharge power. Relative amount of Al+ ion current had increased as additional DC bias voltage was applied to the electrode from a separate DC power supply. However, frequent arcing prohibited stable operation of the ion source for DC target bias larger than 100 V.

Wada, M.; Kasuya, T.; Kenmotsu, T.; Miyamoto, N.; Sasaki, D.

2012-11-01

73

Tandem Terminal Ion Source  

SciTech Connect

OAK-B135 Tandem Terminal Ion Source. The terminal ion source (TIS) was used in several experiments during this reporting period, all for the {sup 7}Be({gamma}){sup 8}B experiment. Most of the runs used {sup 1}H{sup +} at terminal voltages from 0.3 MV to 1.5 MV. One of the runs used {sup 2}H{sup +} at terminal voltage of 1.4 MV. The other run used {sup 4}He{sup +} at a terminal voltage of 1.37 MV. The list of experiments run with the TIS to date is given in table 1 below. The tank was opened four times for unscheduled source repairs. On one occasion the tank was opened to replace the einzel lens power supply which had failed. The 10 kV unit was replaced with a 15 kV unit. The second time the tank was opened to repair the extractor supply which was damaged by a tank spark. On the next occasion the tank was opened to replace a source canal which had sputtered away. Finally, the tank was opened to replace the discharge bottle which had been coated with aluminum sputtered from the exit canal.

None

2000-10-23

74

Origin of the energetic ions at the substrate generated during high power pulsed magnetron sputtering of titanium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) plasmas generate energetic metal ions at the substrate as a major difference to conventional direct current magnetron sputtering (dcMS). The origin of these very energetic ions in HiPIMS is still an open issue, which is unravelled using two fast diagnostics: time-resolved mass spectrometry with a temporal resolution of 2 s and phase resolved optical emission spectroscopy with a temporal resolution of 1 s. A power scan from dcMS-like to HiPIMS plasmas was performed, with a 2 inch magnetron and a titanium target as sputter source and argon as working gas. Clear differences in the transport as well as the energetic properties of Ar+, Ar2+, Ti+ and Ti2+ were observed. For discharges with highest peak power densities a high energetic group of Ti+ and Ti2+ could be identified with energies of approximately 25 eV and of 50 eV, respectively. A cold group of ions was always present. It is found that hot ions are observed only when the plasma enters the spokes regime, which can be monitored by oscillations in the IV characteristics in the MHz range that are picked up by the used VI probes. These oscillations are correlated with the spokes phenomenon and are explained as an amplification of the Hall current inside the spokes as hot ionization zones. To explain the presence of energetic ions, we propose a double layer (DL) confining the hot plasma inside a spoke: if an atom becomes ionized inside the spokes region it is accelerated because of the DL to higher energies whereas its energy remains unchanged if it is ionized outside. In applying this DL model to our measurements the observed phenomena as well as several measurements from other groups can be explained. Only if spokes and a DL are present can the confined particles gain enough energy to leave the magnetic trap. We conclude from our findings that the spoke phenomenon represents the essence of HiPIMS plasmas, explaining their good performance for material synthesis applications.

Maszl, C.; Breilmann, W.; Benedikt, J.; von Keudell, A.

2014-06-01

75

Off line ion source terminal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The off-line ion source (OLIS) terminal provides beams from stable isotopes to ISAC (see Fig. 1) experiments as well as for accelerator commissioning and for pilot beams for radioactive beam experiments. The OLIS terminal (see Fig. 2) is equipped with a microwave driven cusp source for single and double charge ions, a surface ion source for low energy spread alkali beams, and a multi-charge ion source.

Jayamanna, K.

2014-01-01

76

Comparison of ion beam and magnetron sputtered vanadium oxide thin films for uncooled IR imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Uncooled Infrared (IR) focal plane arrays are an enabling technology for both military and commercial high sensitivity night vision cameras. IR imaging is accomplished using MEMS microbolometers fabricated on read-out integrated circuits and depends critically on the material used to absorb the incoming IR radiation. Suitable detector materials must exhibit a large temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) and low noise characteristics to efficiently detect IR photons while also maintaining compatibility with standard integrated circuit (IC) processing. The most commonly used material in uncooled infrared imaging detectors is vanadium oxide deposited by reactive ion beam sputtering. Here we present a comparison of vanadium oxide thin films grown via commercial reactive ion beam sputtering to films grown using reactive pulsed DC magnetron sputtering. Films deposited using both methods were optically and structurally characterized using Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and grazing incidence X-ray diffraction. The measured electrical properties of the films were found to be very sensitive to the deposition conditions used. The ion beam sputtered films contained twinned FCC VOx nanocrystals with sub-nanometer twin spacing, in the form of large 10-20 nm wide columnar/conical grains. In contrast, the un-biased magnetron sputtered films consisted of equiax grains of FCC VOx (5-10 nm) encapsulated in an amorphous matrix. However, applying an RF bias to the sample substrate during the magnetron sputtering process, resulted in films that are similar in structure to ion beam deposited VOx. These differences in microstructure and composition were then correlated to the measured resistivities and TCRs of the films.

Cabarcos, Orlando M.; Li, Jing; Gauntt, Bryan D.; Antrazi, Sami; Dickey, Elizabeth C.; Allara, Dave L.; Horn, Mark W.

2011-05-01

77

Quantification of the ion and momentum fluxes toward the substrate during reactive magnetron sputtering  

SciTech Connect

The ion and momentum fluxes toward the growing film during reactive magnetron sputtering of a Ti target in a mixture of Ar and N{sub 2} are determined. For the ion flux and ion energy distribution a retarding field energy analyzer has been employed. The results were confronted with planar and cylindrical probe measurements, two more common used techniques. For the momentum flux, energy resolved mass spectrometry and simulations with the binary collision Monte Carlo code SIMTRA were performed to determine the contribution to this flux by the impact of ions and sputtered and reflected particles. Based on the quantification of both fluxes, it can be concluded that there is a relation between the hardness and elastic modulus of the TiN films and the momentum flux.

Mahieu, S.; Aeken, K. van; Depla, D. [Department for Solid State Sciences, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281 (S1) 9000, Ghent 9000 (Belgium)

2008-12-01

78

Quantification of the ion and momentum fluxes toward the substrate during reactive magnetron sputtering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ion and momentum fluxes toward the growing film during reactive magnetron sputtering of a Ti target in a mixture of Ar and N2 are determined. For the ion flux and ion energy distribution a retarding field energy analyzer has been employed. The results were confronted with planar and cylindrical probe measurements, two more common used techniques. For the momentum flux, energy resolved mass spectrometry and simulations with the binary collision Monte Carlo code SIMTRA were performed to determine the contribution to this flux by the impact of ions and sputtered and reflected particles. Based on the quantification of both fluxes, it can be concluded that there is a relation between the hardness and elastic modulus of the TiN films and the momentum flux.

Mahieu, S.; van Aeken, K.; Depla, D.

2008-12-01

79

Plasmatic ion source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A plasmatic ion source was built in which the hollow cathode above the two discharge chamber cathodes is readily replaced upon depletion after 250 to 300 h. The emission outlet hole is restored to original size by replacement of the cathode insert, while gas is continuously admitted by means of a spring mechanism. The source operates in the Penning discharge mode, with argon as the working gas. The hollow cathode is 36 mm long and has an inside diameter of 4 mm. The other two cathodes serve as pole shoes of a toroidal ferrite magnet which produces a longitudinal magnet field of 0.1 T induction in the discharge chamber. All three cathodes are made of magnetic steel and are insulated from cylindrical copper anode by teflon spacers. Heat is dissipated by oil, which carries it away to a water cooled housing compartment. The source generates an ion emission current of 20 mA with a discharge current of 200 mA at a pull voltage of 20kV.

Semenov, A. P.

1986-02-01

80

Ion assisted magnetron sputtering of tantalum thin film deposition and characterization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of ion bombardment on the crystallographic phases of tantalum films during their deposition by magnetron sputtering process, and to gain understanding of the mechanism of the ion-solid interactions during the thin film growth. Tantalum (Ta) exists in two distinct crystallographic phases: a stable alpha-phase with a body centered cubic (bcc) lattice structure and a metastable beta-phase with a tetragonal lattice structure. The tough and ductile alpha-phase Ta is desired in most industrial applications, such as diffusion barrier layers in integrated circuits, metallic corrosion protective layers, and in biomedical devices. The beta-phase Ta is hard and brittle, and its presence may compromise the film performance. Bulk Ta metal has the alpha-phase structure but the beta-phase appears in thin films, unless special means are used to avoid its growth. In this work a DC magnetron sputtering system was modified for RF operation along with a provision for DC biasing the substrate to accelerate inert gas ions towards the tantalum thin film during its growth process. The experiments demonstrated that the ion bombardment energy, controlled by varying the bias voltages, has a strong effect on the crystallographic phase of tantalum films as well as their surface morphology. High quality bcc (alpha-phase) tantalum thin films were deposited under -150 V substrate bias at an ion current density of approximately 0.4 mA/cm2, both on silicon and aluminum substrates. These ion bombardment conditions for bcc alpha-phase Ta growth are quite different from those previous reported, however, it was found that the total energy delivered by ions per deposited atom in this and in previous work is approximately the same. Ion bombardments by plasma Ar ions accelerated to the biased substrate also sputtered away the deposited Ta during the film growth, resulting in thinner films at higher ion energies, which was measured by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy. The sputtering yield derived from these data was compared with previously published data and theoretical predictions. This ion assisted deposition process was further studied by molecular dynamic simulations and statistical analysis of ion impacts and atom impingements on the film surface. It was concluded that these two events are independent, and that the film crystallographic structure transformation is induced by ion impacts rearranging the deposited atoms after their arrival on the growing film. The results for this work have demonstrated that bcc alpha-phase tantalum thin films can be grown on both silicon and aluminum substrates at room temperature by RF magnetron sputter with ion bombardment conditions very different than those previous reported. The advantage of the new process is that it can be carried out in a standard magnetron deposition system with a provision of substrate biasing to control the ion bombardment. Such a system is easier to scale to industrial operation than those described earlier, which requires a more complex apparatus.

Ren, Hua

81

Synthesis and Characterization of (C, N)Alloyed Stainless Steel Coatings by High Energy Ion Assisted Magnetron Sputtering Deposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, (C, N) alloyed austenitic stainless steel coatings (SSC) (or hybrid S-phase with both carbon and nitrogen) were produced by a magnetron sputtering deposition process combined with ion implantation (CMSII). This technique involves a periodical high energy ion bombardment of the coating during its growth, which has a beneficial effect on the structure and properties of the deposited

E. Grigore; C. Ruset; X. Li; H. Dong

2010-01-01

82

Advances in metal ion sources  

SciTech Connect

Beams of metallic ion species can be produced by the ECR (electron cyclotron resonance) ion source and by the MEVVA (metal vapor vacuum arc) ion source. Although the ECR source is fundamentally a gaseous ion source, metal ion beams can be produced by introducing metallic feed material into the plasma discharge using a number of techniques. The ion charge states can be very high, which is a significant advantage to most applications. The MEVVA ion source, on the other hand, is specifically a metal ion source. It has produced metallic ion beams from virtually all the solid metallic elements at a current of typically hundreds of milliamperes; the ions produced are in general multiply ionized, but not as highly stripped as those generated in the ECR source. Although the MEVVA source at present operates in a pulsed mode with a low duty cycle (less than or equal to 1%), work is in progress to increase the duty cycle significantly. In this paper the operation and performance of the LBL ECR and MEVVA ion sources, with respect to metal ion generation, are described.

Brown, I.G.

1988-05-01

83

Ion source development at GSI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different ion sources are used at GSI to match the requirements for specific tasks at the accelerator. At the standard injector a Penning ionization gauge ion source is used (design ion U10+, m\\/q<24, 1 emA). Further development of this source is mainly aiming at an increase of the extractable currents and an increase of the lifetime of the source. The

P. Spdtke; J. Bossler; H. Emig; K. D. Leible; C. Mhle; H. Reich; H. Schulte; K. Tinschert

1998-01-01

84

Orbital motion of dust particles in an rf magnetron discharge. Ion drag force or neutral atom wind force  

SciTech Connect

Microparticles with sizes up to 130 {mu}m have been confined and the velocity and diameter of particles in a plasma trap of an rf magnetron discharge with an arc magnetic field have been simultaneously measured. The motion of the gas induced by electron and ion cyclotron currents has been numerically simulated using the Navier-Stokes equation. The experimental and numerical results confirm the mechanism of the orbital motion of dust particles in the magnetron discharge plasma that is associated with the orbital motion of the neutral gas accelerated by electron and ion drift flows in crossed electric and magnetic fields.

Pal, A. F.; Ryabinkin, A. N.; Serov, A. O. [Moscow State University, Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics (Russian Federation); Dyatko, N. A.; Starostin, A. N.; Filippov, A. V., E-mail: fav@triniti.ru [Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Fusion Research (Russian Federation)

2012-03-15

85

Emittance Characteristics of High-Brightness H- Ion Sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A survey of emittance characteristics from high-brightness, H- ion sources has been undertaken. Representative examples of each important type of H- source for accelerator application are investigated: A magnetron surface plasma source (BNL) a multi-cusp-surface-conversion source (LANL) a Penning source (RAL-ISIS) and a multi-cusp-volume source (LBNL). Presently, comparisons between published emittance values from different ion sources are difficult largely because of different definitions used in reported emittances and the use of different data reduction techniques in analyzing data. Although seldom discussed in the literature, rms-emittance values often depend strongly on the method employed to separate real beam from background. In this work, the problem of data reduction along with software developed for emittance analysis is discussed. Raw emittance data, obtained from the above laboratories, is analyzed using a single technique and normalized rms and 90% area-emittance values are determined along with characteristic emittance versus beam fraction curves.

Welton, R. F.; Stockli, M. P.; Keller, R.; Thomae, R. W.; Thomason, J.; Sherman, J.; Alessi, J.

2002-11-01

86

Ion sources for ion implantation technology (invited).  

PubMed

Ion sources for ion implantation are introduced. The technique is applied not only to large scale integration (LSI) devices but also to flat panel display. For LSI fabrication, ion source scheduled maintenance cycle is most important. For CMOS image sensor devices, metal contamination at implanted wafer is most important. On the other hand, to fabricate miniaturized devices, cluster ion implantation has been proposed to make shallow PN junction. While for power devices such as silicon carbide, aluminum ion is required. For doping processes of LCD fabrication, a large ion source is required. The extraction area is about 150 cm 10 cm, and the beam uniformity is important as well as the total target beam current. PMID:24593650

Sakai, Shigeki; Hamamoto, Nariaki; Inouchi, Yutaka; Umisedo, Sei; Miyamoto, Naoki

2014-02-01

87

Fabrication of size-selected Pd nanoclusters using a magnetron plasma sputtering source  

SciTech Connect

We report on the fabrication of palladium (Pd) nanoclusters using a dc magnetron sputtering source. Plasma sputtering vaporizes the target's material forming nanoclusters by inert gas condensation. The sputtering source produces ionized nanoclusters that enable the study of the nanoclusters' size distribution using a quadrupole mass filter. In this work, the dependence of Pd nanoclusters' size distribution on various source parameters, such as the sputtering discharge power, inert gas flow rate, and aggregation length have been investigated. This work demonstrates the ability of tuning the palladium nanoclusters' size by proper optimization of the source operation conditions. The experimental nanocluster sizes are compared with a theoretical model that reveals the growth of large nanoclusters from 'embryos' by a two-body collision. The model is valid for a specific range of deposition parameters (low inert gas flow rates and aggregation lengths equal or below 70 mm).

Ayesh, A. I.; Qamhieh, N.; Ghamlouche, H.; Thaker, S.; El-Shaer, M. [Department of Physics, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain, P.O. Box 17551 (United Arab Emirates)

2010-02-15

88

Ion sources for cyclotron applications  

SciTech Connect

The use of a multicusp plasma generator as an ion source has many advantages. The development of both positive and negative ion beams based on the multicusp source geometry is presented. It is shown that these sources can be operated at steady state or cw mode. As a result they are very suitable for cyclotron operations.

Leung, K.N.; Bachman, D.A.; McDonald, D.S.; Young, A.T.

1992-07-01

89

Control of ions energy distribution in dual-frequency magnetron sputtering discharges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ion energy distributions (IEDs) in the dual-frequency magnetron sputtering discharges were investigated by retarding field energy analyzer. Increasing power ratio of 2 MHz to 13.56 (27.12 or 60) MHz led to the evolution of IEDs from a uni-modal distribution towards a uni-modal distribution with high-energy peak shoulder and a bi-modal distribution. While increasing power ratio of 13.56 MHz to 27.12 MHz and 27.12 MHz to 60 MHz, led to the increase of peak energy. The evolution of IEDs shape and the increase of peak energy are due to the change of ions responding to the average field of high-frequency period towards the instantaneous sheath potential of low-frequency period.

Ye, Chao; He, Haijie; Huang, Fupei; Liu, Yi; Wang, Xiangying

2014-04-01

90

Optical properties of ITO films obtained by high-frequency magnetron sputtering with accompanying ion treatment  

SciTech Connect

A variation in the properties of indium-tin-oxide (ITO) films obtained by the method of reactive magnetron sputtering with simultaneous ion treatment is reported. The ITO films feature the following parameters in the optical range of 450-1100 nm: a transmission coefficient of 80%, band gap of 3.50-3.60 eV, and a refractive index of 1.97-2.06. All characteristics of the films depend on the ion-treatment current. The latter, during the course of deposition, reduces the resistivity of the ITO films with the smallest value of the resistivity being equal to 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} {Omega} cm. The degradation of films with a high resistivity when kept in air is observed.

Krylov, P. N., E-mail: ftt@uni.udm.ru; Zakirova, R. M.; Fedotova, I. V. [Udmurt State University (Russian Federation)] [Udmurt State University (Russian Federation)

2013-10-15

91

Negative oxygen ion formation in reactive magnetron sputtering processes for transparent conductive oxides  

SciTech Connect

Reactive d.c. magnetron sputtering in Ar/O{sub 2} gas mixtures has been investigated with energy-resolved mass spectrometry. Different metal targets (Mg, Ti, Zn, In, InSn, and Sn), which are of importance for transparent conductive oxide thin film deposition, have been used to study the formation of negative ions, mainly high-energetic O{sup -}, which are supposed to induce radiation damage in thin films. Besides their energy distribution, the ions have been particularly investigated with respect to their intensity in comparison of the different target materials. To realize the comparability, various calibration factors had to be introduced. After their application, major differences in the negative ion production have been observed for the target materials. The intensity, especially of O{sup -}, differs by about two orders of magnitude. It is shown that this difference results almost exclusively from ions that gain their energy in the target sheath. Those may gain additional energy from the sputtering process or reflection at the target. Low-energetic negative ions are, however, less affected by changes of the target material. The results concerning O{sup -} formation are discussed in term of the sputtering rate from the target and are compared to models for negative ion formation.

Welzel, Thomas; Ellmer, Klaus [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie, Institut Solare Brennstoffe, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, D-14109 Berlin (Germany)

2012-11-15

92

Ion implantation technology and ion sources.  

PubMed

Ion implantation (I/I) technology has been developed with a great economic success of industries of VLSI (Very Large-Scale Integrated circuit) devices. Due to its large flexibility and good controllability, the I/I technology has been assuming various challenging requirements of VLSI evolutions, especially in advanced evolutional characteristics of CMOSFET. Here, reviewing the demands of VLSI manufacturing to the I/I technology, required characteristics of ion implanters, and their ion sources are discussed. PMID:24593652

Sugitani, Michiro

2014-02-01

93

Development of multiampere negative ion sources  

SciTech Connect

The Neutral Beam Development Group at BNL is developing H-/D- surface plasma sources as part of a high energy neutral beam injector. Uncooled Penning and magnetron sources have operated at a maximum beam current of 1 A (10 ms pulses, Mk III) and a maximum pulse length of 200 ms (0.3 A, Mk IV). A magnetron source with focusing grooves on the cathode and an asymmetric anode-cathode geometry operates at a power efficiency of 8 kW/A and a 6% gas efficiency. As the next step, a water cooled magnetron, designed to give a steady state beam of 1 to 2 A, has been constructed. Experiments are in progress to test a modification of the magnetron which may significantly improve its performance. By injecting a sheet of plasma, produced by a highly gas efficient hollow cathode discharge, into a magnetron type anode-cathode geometry, we anticipate a reduction of the source operating pressure by at least three orders of magnitude. Initial experiments have given indications of H/sup -/ production. The next plasma injection experiment is designed to give a steady state beam of approx. = 1 A.

Alessi, J.; Hershcovitch, A.; Prelec, K.; Sluyters, T.

1981-01-01

94

Effect of pulse frequency on the ion fluxes during pulsed dc magnetron sputtering  

SciTech Connect

The ion fluxes and energies which impinge on the substrate during the deposition of chromium nitride by asymmetric bipolar pulsed dc reactive magnetron sputtering have been analyzed using energy resolved mass spectrometry. It has been found that there is a remarkable increase in ion flux at higher pulse frequencies and that the peak ion energy is directly related to the positive voltage overshoot of the target voltage. The magnitude of the metal flux depositing on the substrate is consistent with a 'dead time' of {approx}0.7 {mu}s at the start of the on period. The variation of the ion flux with pulse frequency has been explained by a simple model in which the ion density during the on period has a large peak which is slightly delayed from the large negative voltage overshoot which occurs at the start of the on pulse due to increased ionization at that time. This is consistent with the previously observed phenomena in pulsed sputtering.

Rahamathunnisa, M.; Cameron, D. C. [ASTRaL, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Prikaatinkatu 3E, 50100 Mikkeli (Finland)

2009-03-15

95

Ion sources for heavy ion fusion  

SciTech Connect

The development of ion sources for heavy ion fusion will be reported with particular emphasis on a recently built 2 MV injector. The new injector is based on an electrostatic quadrupole configuration, and has produced pulsed K{sup +} ions of 950 mA peak from a 6.7 inch curved alumino silicate source. The ion beam has reached 2.3 MV with an energy flatness of {+-}0.2% over 1 {micro}s. The measured normalized edge emittance of less than 1 {pi} mm-mr is close to the source temperature limit. The design, construction, performance, and comparisons with three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations will be described.

Yu, S.S.; Eylon, S.; Chupp, W. [and others

1995-09-01

96

Investigation of ISIS and Brookhaven National Laboratory ion source electrodes after extended operation.  

PubMed

Linac4 accelerator of Centre Europe?en de Recherches Nucle?aires is under construction and a RF-driven H(-) ion source is being developed. The beam current requirement for Linac4 is very challenging: 80 mA must be provided. Cesiated plasma discharge ion sources such as Penning or magnetron sources are also potential candidates. Accelerator ion sources must achieve typical reliability figures of 95% and above. Investigating and understanding the underlying mechanisms involved with source failure or ageing is critical when selecting the ion source technology. Plasma discharge driven surface ion sources rely on molybdenum cathodes. Deformation of the cathode surfaces is visible after extended operation periods. A metallurgical investigation of an ISIS ion source is presented. The origin of the deformation is twofold: Molybdenum sputtering by cesium ions digs few tenths of mm cavities while a growth of molybdenum is observed in the immediate vicinity. The molybdenum growth under hydrogen atmosphere is hard and loosely bound to the bulk. It is, therefore, likely to peel off and be transported within the plasma volume. The observation of the cathode, anode, and extraction electrodes of the magnetron source operated at BNL for two years are presented. A beam simulation of H(-), electrons, and Cs(-) ions was performed with the IBSimu code package to qualitatively explain the observations. This paper describes the operation conditions of the ion sources and discusses the metallurgical analysis and beam simulation results. PMID:22380237

Lettry, J; Alessi, J; Faircloth, D; Gerardin, A; Kalvas, T; Pereira, H; Sgobba, S

2012-02-01

97

Reversal ion source - A new source of negative ion beams  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new type of ion source utilizing beams of electrons and target molecules, rather than a diffuse, volume plasma, is described. The source utilizes an electrostatic electron 'mirror' which reverses trajectories in an electron beam, producing electrons at their turning point having a distribution of velocities centered at zero velocity. A gas which attaches zero-velocity electrons is introduced at this turning point. Negative ions are produced by an attachment or dissociative attachment process. For many of the thermal electron-attaching molecules the cross sections can be quite large, varying as the inverse square root of the electron energy or just the s-wave threshold law. The efficiency and current density of the ion source for production of Cl(-) through the large, thermal energy attachment process is estimated. It is argued that the source can be used for the production of negative ions through attachment resonances located at higher energies as well.

Orient, O. J.; Chutjian, A.; Alajajian, S. H.

1985-01-01

98

Visualization of Trajectories of Electron Beams Emitted by an IonSource with Closed Electron Drift  

SciTech Connect

Trajectories of electron beams emitted by an ion source with an anode layer and Hall electron closed drift orbits were visualized using light emission from a working gas excited by electrons. Gas discharge of magnetron type, arising in the beam drift region under the influence of an electric field of a target bias potential, was visualized.

Institue of Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine; Brown, Ian G.; Bordenjuk, Ian V.; Panchenko, Oleg A.; Sologub, Sergei V.; Brown, Ian G.

2007-10-01

99

Design of magnet and control of the beam emittance for Penning H- ion source  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design requirement and principle of the deflection magnet for Magnetron and Penning H- ion source are discussed. It is proved that there exists a maximum emittance for the beam that may be transformed by the magnet into a state with equal Twiss parameters of alphar = alphay and betar = betay, which is the requisite condition to get a

Hua-Fu Ouyang; Hua-Shun Zhang

2008-01-01

100

Three chamber negative ion source  

DOEpatents

It is an object of this invention provide a negative ion source which efficiently provides a large flux of negatively ionized particles. This invention provides a volume source of negative ions which has a current density sufficient for magnetic fusion applications and has electrons suppressed from the output. It is still another object of this invention to provide a volume source of negative ions which can be electrostatically accelerated to high energies and subsequently neutralized to form a high energy neutral beam for use with a magnetically confined plasma.

Leung, K.N.; Ehlers, K.W.; Hiskes, J.R.

1983-11-10

101

Negative ion source  

DOEpatents

An ionization vessel is divided into an ionizing zone and an extraction zone by a magnetic filter. The magnetic filter prevents high-energy electrons from crossing from the ionizing zone to the extraction zone. A small positive voltage impressed on a plasma grid, located adjacent an extraction grid, positively biases the plasma in the extraction zone to thereby prevent positive ions from migrating from the ionizing zone to the extraction zone. Low-energy electrons, which would ordinarily be dragged by the positive ions into the extraction zone, are thereby prevented from being present in the extraction zone and being extracted along with negative ions by the extraction grid. Additional electrons are suppressed from the output flux using ExB drift provided by permanent magnets and the extractor grid electrical field.

Leung, K.N.; Ehlers, K.W.

1982-08-06

102

Negative ion source  

DOEpatents

An ionization vessel is divided into an ionizing zone and an extraction zone by a magnetic filter. The magnetic filter prevents high-energy electrons from crossing from the ionizing zone to the extraction zone. A small positive voltage impressed on a plasma grid, located adjacent an extraction grid, positively biases the plasma in the extraction zone to thereby prevent positive ions from migrating from the ionizing zone to the extraction zone. Low-energy electrons, which would ordinarily be dragged by the positive ions into the extraction zone, are thereby prevented from being present in the extraction zone and being extracted along with negative ions by the extraction grid. Additional electrons are suppressed from the output flux using ExB drift provided by permanent magnets and the extractor grid electrical field.

Leung, Ka-Ngo (Hercules, CA); Ehlers, Kenneth W. (Alamo, CA)

1984-01-01

103

Negative ion source  

DOEpatents

An ionization vessel is divided into an ionizing zone and an extraction zone by a magnetic filter. The magnetic filter prevents high-energy electrons from crossing from the ionizing zone to the extraction zone. A small positive voltage impressed on a plasma grid, located adjacent an extraction grid, positively biases the plasma in the extraction zone to thereby prevent positive ions from migrating from the ionizing zone to the extraction zone. Low-energy electrons, which would ordinarily be dragged by the positive ions into the extraction zone, are thereby prevented from being present in the extraction zone and being extracted along with negative ions by the extraction grid. Additional electrons are suppressed from the output flux using ExB drift provided by permanent magnets and the extractor grid electrical field. 14 figs.

Leung, K.N.; Ehlers, K.W.

1984-12-04

104

The Frankfurt PIG ion source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A small sized, versatile PIG ion source with end extraction is described by which positive ion beams of most of the elements can be produced with intensities in the microampere range. The source operates either with gas or with a mixture of gas and metal vapor. In the latter case the supply of the metal atoms to the gas discharge is done by evaporation or sputtering depending on the kind of metal. A characteristic feature of the source is the small power consumption so that cooling of the source housing by air only is sufficient.

Baumann, H.; Bethge, K.

1981-10-01

105

Intense high charge state ion sources (invited)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of Penning ionization gauge (PIG), duoplasmatron (DP), laser-plasma ion source (LPIS), Electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS), and electron beam ion source (EBIS) used for the production of intense and high charge state ion beams is given. The outputs of high charge states of different elements of the Periodic Table from ion sources of these types are compared.

V. B. Kutner

1994-01-01

106

Reducing the impurity incorporation from residual gas by ion bombardment during high vacuum magnetron sputtering  

SciTech Connect

The influence of ion energy on the hydrogen incorporation has been investigated for alumina thin films, deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering in an Ar/O{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O environment. Ar{sup +} with an average kinetic energy of {approx}5 eV was determined to be the dominating species in the plasma. The films were analyzed with x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and elastic recoil detection analysis, demonstrating evidence for amorphous films with stoichiometric O/Al ratio. As the substrate bias potential was increased from -15 V (floating potential) to -100 V, the hydrogen content decreased by {approx}70%, from 9.1 to 2.8 at. %. Based on ab initio calculations, these results may be understood by thermodynamic principles, where a supply of energy enables surface diffusion, H{sub 2} formation, and desorption [Rosen et al., J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 17, L137 (2005)]. These findings are of importance for the understanding of the correlation between ion energy and film composition and also show a pathway to reduce impurity incorporation during film growth in a high vacuum ambient.

Rosen, Johanna; Widenkvist, Erika; Larsson, Karin; Kreissig, Ulrich; Mraz, Stanislav; Martinez, Carlos; Music, Denis; Schneider, J. M. [Materials Chemistry, RWTH Aachen University, D-52056 Aachen (Germany); Department of Materials Chemistry, Angstroem Laboratory, Uppsala University, Box 538, 751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Research Center Rossendorf, P.O. Box 510119, D-01314 Dresden (Germany); Materials Chemistry, RWTH Aachen University, D-52056 Aachen (Germany)

2006-05-08

107

Dependence of ion current on magnetic unbalancing in high power pulsed magnetron glow discharge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high-power pulsed sputtering (HPPS) discharge is able to generate high ionization metallic plasma by applying a negative high voltage pulse-train with low duty ratio and high current capacity to a sputtering target. If HPPS discharge technique is applied to unbalanced magnetron sputtering (UBMS) system which is one of the ionized sputtering, we will get the metallic plasma ionized more. The ion current of direct-current UBMS increases with increase in magnetic un-balancing. However, high-power pulsed UBMS does not necessarily have the same characteristics as dc-UBMS. We investigated a connection between the ion current to a collector electrode and the number of peripheral magnets in the sputter target. The collector current increased with increase in the number of the magnets, but the ratio of the collector current to the target current depended more strongly on average input power than that for dc-UBMS. It was found that the current ratio indicated the maximum of 18.8% at the input power of 400 W in the hpp-UBMS with the peripheral 10-magnets.

Azuma, K.; Inoue, Y.

2014-06-01

108

Low-pressure ion source  

DOEpatents

A low pressure ion source for a neutron source comprises a filament cathode and an anode ring. Approximately 150V is applied between the cathode and the anode. Other electrodes, including a heat shield, a reflector and an aperture plate with a focus electrode, are placed at intermediate potentials. Electrons from the filament drawn out by the plasma and eventually removed by the anode are contained in a magnetic field created by a magnet ring. Ions are formed by electron impact with deuterium or tritium and are extracted at the aperture in the focus electrode. The ion source will typically generate a 200 mA beam through a 1.25 cm/sup 2/ aperture for an arc current of 10A. For deuterium gas, the ion beam is over 50 percent D/sup +/ with less than 1% impurity. The current density profile across the aperture will typically be uniform to within 20%.

Bacon, F.M.; Brainard, J.P.; O'Hagan, J.B.; Walko, R.J.

1982-10-27

109

Development of a hybrid process of obtaining wear-resistant coatings based on ion-plasma arc sputtering and magnetron sputtering  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work is devoted to the development of a new hybrid method of deposition of coatings based on ion-plasma arc sputtering\\u000a and magnetron sputtering. The objects of investigation were samples of coatings of the Ti-Al-N system on the VK-6 hard-alloy\\u000a plates obtained by three different methods, namely, ion-plasma sputtering, magnetron sputtering, and hybrid sputtering. Deposition\\u000a processes were performed under the

I. V. Blinkov; V. N. Anikin; N. A. Sobolev; V. S. Mitin; A. V. Mitin; N. N. Krasnobaev; A. O. Volkhonskii; D. S. Kashin

2010-01-01

110

Negative-ion source applications.  

PubMed

In this paper heavy negative-ion sources which we developed and their applications for materials science are reviewed. Heavy negative ions can be effectively produced by the ejection of a sputtered atom through the optimally cesiated surface of target with a low work function. Then, enough continuous negative-ion currents for materials-science applications can be obtained. We developed several kinds of sputter-type heavy negative-ion sources such as neutral- and ionized-alkaline metal bombardment-type heavy negative-ion source and rf-plasma sputter type. In the case where a negative ion is irradiated on a material surface, surface charging seldom takes place because incoming negative charge of the negative ion is well balanced with outgoing negative charge of the released secondary electron. In the negative-ion implantation into an insulator or insulated conductive material, high precision implantation processing with charge-up free properties can be achieved. Negative-ion implantation technique, therefore, can be applied to the following novel material processing systems: the surface modification of micrometer-sized powders, the nanoparticle formation in an insulator for the quantum devices, and the nerve cell growth manipulation by precise control of the biocompatibility of polymer surface. When a negative ion with low kinetic energy approaches the solid surface, the kinetic energy causes the interatomic bonding (kinetic bonding), and formation of a metastable material is promoted. Carbon films with high constituent of sp(3) bonding, therefore, can be formed by carbon negative-ion beam deposition. PMID:18315249

Ishikawa, J

2008-02-01

111

Silicon and aluminum-nitride films deposited by reactive low-voltage ion plating and reactive dc-magnetron sputtering  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work the properties of Si3N4 and AIN thin films deposited onto unheated substrates by Reactive Low Voltage Ion Plating (RLVIP) and Reactive DC-Magnetron Sputtering (RDCMS) were investigated. In both experimental setups pure silicon and aluminum were used as starting materials. Working and reactive gas were argon and nitrogen respectively. All Si3N4 films showed amorphous structure in X-ray and

G. W. Vogl; K. H. Monz; Q. D. Nguyen; M. Huter; Eduard P. Rille; Hans K. Pulker

1994-01-01

112

Effect of ion bombardment and substrate orientation on structure and properties of titanium nitride films deposited by unbalanced magnetron sputtering  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of substrate orientation and ion bombardment during the growth on the structure and properties of TiN films deposited by reactive unbalanced magnetron sputtering has been reported. Films deposited at a nitrogen partial pressure of 510-5 mbar and a current density of 2.50 mA cm-2 were golden yellow in color, characteristic of stoichiometric TiN. The effect of Si(100) and

S. Guruvenket; G. Mohan Rao

2002-01-01

113

Optimal Position of Ion Source for High Performance of IEC  

SciTech Connect

An inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) fusion device is possibly used for portable neutron sources. R. L. Hirsh reported that D-D the neutrons of 1.8 x 10{sup 8} n/s were produced. Recently, the similar amounts of fusion reactions are observed to occur in IEC devices In the most of IEC devices, since gas pressure is so high that the ions lose their energy by the frequent collisions with the neutral gas. The conditions of the high voltage and the low pressure are preferable because the energy of beam ions is kept very high and used for the fusion reaction more efficiently. It, however, is difficult to produce enough amounts of ions through a glow discharge at the low pressure. One of the solutions is to equip the ion source such as a magnetron near the anode. We have made three-dimensional orbit following code to evaluate the life of the ions produced near the anode surface. The code includes atomic collisions with background neutral gas and indicates the optimal positions to equip ion source which gives longer life of accelerated ions.

Osawa, Hodaka [Kansai University (Japan); Ishibashi, Takayuki [Kansai University (Japan); Ohnishi, Masami [Kansai University (Japan); Yoshikawa, Kiyoshi [Kyoto University (Japan)

2005-05-15

114

Solenoid and monocusp ion source  

DOEpatents

An ion source which generates hydrogen ions having high atomic purity incorporates a solenoidal permanent magnets to increase the electron path length. In a sealed envelope, electrons emitted from a cathode traverse the magnetic field lines of a solenoid and a monocusp magnet between the cathode and a reflector at the monocusp. As electrons collide with gas, the molecular gas forms a plasma. An anode grazes the outer boundary of the plasma. Molecular ions and high energy electrons remain substantially on the cathode side of the cusp, but as the ions and electrons are scattered to the aperture side of the cusp, additional collisions create atomic ions. The increased electron path length allows for smaller diameters and lower operating pressures.

Brainard, John Paul (Albuquerque, NM); Burns, Erskine John Thomas (Albuquerque, NM); Draper, Charles Hadley (Albuquerque, NM)

1997-01-01

115

STATUS OF ITEP DECABORANE ION SOURCE PROGRAM.  

SciTech Connect

The joint research and development program is continued to develop steady-state ion source of decaborane beam for ion implantation industry. Both Freeman and Bemas ion sources for decaborane ion beam generation were investigated. Decaborane negative ion beam as well as positive ion beam were generated and delivered to the output of mass separator. Experimental results obtained in ITEP are presented.

KULEVOY,T.V.; PETRENKO, S.V.; KUIBEDA, R.P.; SELEZNEV, D.N.; KOZLOV, A.V.; STASEVICH, YU.B.; SITNIKOV, A.L.; SHAMAILOV, I.M.; PERSHIN, V.I.; HERSHCOVITCH, A.; JOHNSON, B.M.; GUSHENETS, V.I.; OKS, E.M.; POOLE, H.J.; MASUNOV, E.S.; POLOZOV, S.M.

2007-08-26

116

Oxygen-enhanced IrMn spin valves deposited by ion-beam and magnetron sputtering  

SciTech Connect

Enhancement of giant magnetoresistance properties of single (bottom) and dual IrMn-based spin valves through exposure of part of the CoFe pinned layer to O{sub 2} is reported. Under optimal conditions, a {Delta}R/R of 10.4% [H{sub ua}=460Oe, H{sub f}=5.1Oe, and H{sub c}=4.7Oe for a free and pinned layer thickness (permalloy equivalent) of 50 Aa each] for an ion beam sputtered single spin valve, and a {Delta}R/R of as high as 20.5% for a magnetron sputtered dual spin valve having a 30 Aa thick CoFe free layer are observed, compared to a value of 6.5% and 10.6% for the corresponding spin valve without O{sub 2} exposure, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy results reveal the presence of a thin (10 Aa) crystalline oxygen-containing layer near the IrMn{endash}CoFe pinned layer interface as a result of O{sub 2} exposure. X-ray reflectivity data show smoother interfaces for the spin valves subjected to O{sub 2} exposure, consistent with the lower H{sub f} and smaller sheet resistance observed for these samples. The enhanced {Delta}R/R thus can be attributed to improved growth after O{sub 2} exposure. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

Lee, W. Y.; Carey, M.; Toney, M. F.; Rice, P.; Gurney, B.; Chang, H.-C.; Allen, E.; Mauri, D.

2001-06-01

117

Properties of All-Solid Lithium-Ion Rechargeable Batteries Deposited by RF Magnetron Sputtering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Amorphous V2O5, LiPON and Li2Mn2O4 thin films were fabricated by RF magnetron sputtering methods and the morphology of thin films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Then with these three materials deposited as the anode, solid electrolyte, cathode, and vanadium as current collector, a rocking-chair type of all-solid-state thin-film-type Lithium-ion rechargeable battery was prepared by using the same sputtering parameters on stainless steel substrates. Electrochemical studies show that the thin film battery has a good charge-discharge characteristic in the voltage range of 0.3-3.5 V, and after 30 cycles the cell performance turned to become stabilized with the charge capacity of 9 ?Ah/cm2, and capacity loss of single-cycle of about 0.2%. At the same time, due to electronic conductivity of the electrolyte film, self-discharge may exist, resulting in approximately 96.6% Coulombic efficiency.

Zhu, R. J.; Ren, Y.; Geng, L. Q.; Chen, T.; Li, L. X.; Yuan, C. R.

2013-08-01

118

Ion Source Development For The Proposed FNAL 750 keV Injector Upgrade  

SciTech Connect

Currently there is a Proposed FNAL 750 keV Injector Upgrade for the replacement of the 40 year old Fermi National Laboratory (FNAL) Cockcroft-Walton accelerators with a new ion source and 200 MHz Radio Frequency Quadruple (RFQ). The slit type magnetron being used now will be replaced with a round aperture magnetron similar to the one used at Brookhaven National Lab (BNL). Operational experience from BNL has shown that this type of source is more reliable with a longer lifetime due to better power efficiency. The current source development effort is to produce a reliable source with >60 mA of H{sup -} beam current, 15 Hz rep-rate, 100 {mu}s pulse width, and a duty factor of 0.15%. The source will be based on the BNL design along with development done at FNAL for the High Intensity Neutrino Source (HINS).

Bollinger, D. S. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Box 500, Batavia, IL 60543 (United States)

2011-09-26

119

Broad beam gas ion source with hollow cathode discharge and four-grid accelerator system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A broad beam gas ion source based on low-pressure hollow cathode glow discharge is described. An axial magnetic filed produced by AlNiCo permanent magnets enhances the glow discharge in the ion source as a result of the magnetizing electrons between the hollow cathode and rod anode. The gas plasma is produced by magnetron hollow cathode glow discharge in the hollow cathode and a collimated broad ion beam is extracted by a four-grid accelerator system. A weak magnetic field of several millitesla is enough to ignite the magnetron glow discharge at pressure lower than 0.1 Pa, thereby enabling stable and continuous high-current discharge to form the homogeneous plasma. A four-grid accelerator, which separates the extraction and acceleration of the ion beam, is used in this design to generate the high-energy ion beam from 10 keV to 60 keV at a working pressure of 10 -4 Torr. Although a higher gas pressure is necessary to maintain the low-pressure glow discharge when compared to hot filament discharge, the hollow cathode ion source is operational with reactive gases such as oxygen in the high-voltage continuous mode. A laterally uniform ion beam can be achieved by using the four-grid accelerator system. The effects of the rod anode length on the characteristics of the plasma discharge as well as ion beam extraction from the ion source are discussed.

Tang, Deli; Pu, Shihao; Huang, Qi; Tong, Honghui; Cui, Xirong; Chu, Paul K.

2007-04-01

120

Use of an externally applied axial magnetic field to control ion\\/neutral flux ratios incident at the substrate during magnetron sputter deposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development and characterization of an ultrahigh vacuum unbalanced'' dc magnetron sputter deposition system with a variable external axial magnetic field for controlling the ion-to-neutral flux ratio at the substrate during deposition with low negative substrate biases is reported. The target assembly is a planar-magnetron (PM) with a toroidal magnetic-field electron trap created using a set of permanent magnets. A

I. Petrov; F. Adibi; J. E. Greene; W. D. Sproul; W.-D. Mnz

1992-01-01

121

Relating to monitoring ion sources  

DOEpatents

The apparatus and method provide techniques for monitoring the position on alpha contamination in or on items or locations. The technique is particularly applicable to pipes, conduits and other locations to which access is difficult. The technique uses indirect monitoring of alpha emissions by detecting ions generated by the alpha emissions. The medium containing the ions is moved in a controlled manner frog in proximity with the item or location to the detecting unit and the signals achieved over time are used to generate alpha source position information.

Orr, Christopher Henry (Calderbridge, GB) [Calderbridge, GB; Luff, Craig Janson (Calderbridge, GB) [Calderbridge, GB; Dockray, Thomas (Calderbridge, GB) [Calderbridge, GB; Macarthur, Duncan Whittemore (Los Alamos, NM) [Los Alamos, NM; Bounds, John Alan (Los Alamos, NM) [Los Alamos, NM

2002-01-01

122

A Rotatable Cold Cathode Penning ion Source  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rotatable cold cathode Penning ion source has been designed and is now operating in the Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron (ORIC). Previous sources for positive heavy ions have been severely limited in life-time by cathode sputtering and buildup of sputtered cathode material. The new ion source extends the cathode lifetime by a factor of ~ 6. The source cathodes are

M. L. Mallory; E. D. Hudson

1975-01-01

123

An ion source research facility  

SciTech Connect

As an ion source developer, D-Pace frequently faces the issue of needing access to a research facility to be able to test equipment or to develop our existing technology further. The closest facility to perform such tasks is hundreds of kilometers away, at TRIUMF, and it is not always feasible to make use of it on a timely basis. With a growing demand and a desire to enhance our products, the idea to create an ion source research facility in our region evolved. In this paper, we will discuss the approach that was chosen to reach our goal, the status of the project, the principle layout of the facility, and the different ways this facility could be utilized.

Roeder, M.; Dehnel, M.; Jackle, P.; Stewart, T.; Theroux, J. [D-Pace, Inc., P.O. Box 201, Nelson, British Columbia V1L 5P9 (Canada)

2008-02-15

124

An ion source research facility.  

PubMed

As an ion source developer, D-Pace frequently faces the issue of needing access to a research facility to be able to test equipment or to develop our existing technology further. The closest facility to perform such tasks is hundreds of kilometers away, at TRIUMF, and it is not always feasible to make use of it on a timely basis. With a growing demand and a desire to enhance our products, the idea to create an ion source research facility in our region evolved. In this paper, we will discuss the approach that was chosen to reach our goal, the status of the project, the principle layout of the facility, and the different ways this facility could be utilized. PMID:18315134

Roeder, M; Dehnel, M; Jackle, P; Stewart, T; Theroux, J

2008-02-01

125

Mechanical Properties and Surface Relief of 35HGSA Steel under Active Straining after Magnetron Deposition of Nanocomposite Coating and Ion Implantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface relief formed under active straining of samples after ion implantation and magnetron deposition and subsequent bombard- ment by composite ion beams has been investi- gated. An identification of mesoscale levels of plas- tic deformation and their quantitative character- ristic has been carried out on the basis of fractal analysis of the surface images of deformed samples. Dependencies of an

P. V. Kuznetsov; V. E. Panin; V. P. Sergeev; I. V. Petrakova; A. V. Voronov

126

Transversely accelerated ions: An ionospheric source of hot magnetospheric ions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A source of hot magnetospheric ions has been discovered operating in the auroral topside ionosphere. A part of the cold ionospheric ion distribution is being transversely accelerated within a source region as low as 1000 km. Subsequent to their transverse acceleration the ions are driven upward into the magnetosphere by the gradient B mirror force. These ions are observed by

D. M. Klumpar

1979-01-01

127

125 MeV Si 9+ ion irradiation of calcium phosphate thin film coated by rf-magnetron sputtering technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Titanium substrate was coated with hydroxyapatite by radiofrequency magnetron sputtering (rf-magnetron sputtering) technique and subjected to swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation of 125 MeV with Si 9+ at fluences of 1 10 10, 1 10 11 and 1 10 12 ions/cm 2. The glancing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) analysis confirmed the HAp phase of the irradiated film. There was a considerable decrease in crystallinity and particle size after irradiation. In addition, DRS-UV reflectance spectra revealed a decrease in optical band gap ( Eg) from 5.2 to 4.6 eV. Wettability of biocompatible materials plays an important role in biological cells proliferation for tissue engineering, drug delivery, gene transfer and bone growth. HAp thin films irradiated with 1 10 11 ions/cm 2 fluence showed significant increase in wettability. While the SHI irradiated samples exhibited enhanced bioactivity, there was no significant variation in cell viability. Surface roughness, pores and average particle size were analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM).

Elayaraja, K.; Joshy, M. I. Ahymah; Suganthi, R. V.; Kalkura, S. Narayana; Palanichamy, M.; Ashok, M.; Sivakumar, V. V.; Kulriya, P. K.; Sulania, I.; Kanjilal, D.; Asokan, K.

2011-01-01

128

Optically pumped polarized ion sources  

SciTech Connect

Polarized negative hydrogen ions are produced in an optically pumped polarized ion source (OPPIS) as follows. A proton beam is extracted from an ECR ion source, accelerated to an energy of a few kilovolts, and focused into a parallel beam. The proton beam is passed through an optically pumped electron spin polarized alkali vapor target in a large magnetic field where the proton beam is partially neutralized by the pick-up of a polarized electron. The optically pumped alkali vapor target must be in a magnetic field large enough to decouple L and S in the n=2 level of atomic hydrogen so that the radiative decay to the ground level does not result in the loss of electron spin polarization. The large magnetic field also helps avoid radiation trapping limitations on the alkali density. The resulting fast atomic hydrogen beam passes through zero field where Sona transitions convert the electron spin polarization into nuclear spin polarization. The beam then is partially converted into polarized negative hydrogen ions in a sodium vapor target. At the present time the best dc OPPIS (at TRIUMF) produces 120 {mu}A with a polarization of 0.8. The best pulsed OPPIS (at INR in Moscow) produces 400 {mu}A. The use of OPPIS with deuterium has been pioneered at KEK in Japan. There is current research at TRIUMF on the possibility of using multiple spin/charge exchange collisions to increase the available current into the mA range, and there is current research at Osaka in the use of the technique with heavier ions such as helium.

Anderson, L.W. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

1995-04-01

129

ECRIS as ion source and charge breeder  

Microsoft Academic Search

We will recall the main characteristics of ECR ion sources and their very good property of ionization efficiency. We will start with a review of on line use of ECR ion sources for production of mono or multicharged radioactive ions, and then we will specially focus our attention on charge breeding process for multicharged ion production. Initially developed for the

P. Sortais; J. L. Bouly; N. Chauvin; J. C. Curdy; R. Geller; T. Lamy; P. Sole; J. L. Vieux-Rochaz

2002-01-01

130

A simple ion source for production of negative ions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe modification of the DANFYSIK 911A positive ion source for production of negative ions. The modification is simple and the new source is easy to maintain. For H- a beam current of 10 nA was achieved; this is sufficiently large for application of the ion source in atomic collision experiments.

P Nbrdi; L Sarkadi; F Penent; L Vkor

1999-01-01

131

Liquid metal ion source and alloy  

DOEpatents

A liquid metal ion source and alloy, wherein the species to be emitted from the ion source is contained in a congruently vaporizing alloy. In one embodiment, the liquid metal ion source acts as a source of arsenic, and in a source alloy the arsenic is combined with palladium, preferably in a liquid alloy having a range of compositions from about 24 to about 33 atomic percent arsenic. Such an alloy may be readily prepared by a combustion synthesis technique. Liquid metal ion sources thus prepared produce arsenic ions for implantation, have long lifetimes, and are highly stable in operation.

Clark, Jr., William M. (Thousand Oaks, CA); Utlaut, Mark W. (Saugus, CA); Behrens, Robert G. (Los Alamos, NM); Szklarz, Eugene G. (Los Alamos, NM); Storms, Edmund K. (Los Alamos, NM); Santandrea, Robert P. (Santa Fe, NM); Swanson, Lynwood W. (McMinnville, OR)

1988-10-04

132

Hydrogen hollow cathode ion source  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A source of hydrogen ions is disclosed and includes a chamber having at one end a cathode which provides electrons and through which hydrogen gas flows into the chamber. Screen and accelerator grids are provided at the other end of the chamber. A baffle plate is disposed between the cathode and the grids and a cylindrical baffle is disposed coaxially with the cathode at the one end of the chamber. The cylindrical baffle is of greater diameter than the baffle plate to provide discharge impedance and also to protect the cathode from ion flux. An anode electrode draws the electrons away from the cathode. The hollow cathode includes a tubular insert of tungsten impregnated with a low work function material to provide ample electrons. A heater is provided around the hollow cathode to initiate electron emission from the low work function material.

Mirtich, M. J., Jr.; Sovey, J. S.; Roman, R. F. (inventors)

1980-01-01

133

Ion optics of RHIC electron beam ion source  

SciTech Connect

RHIC electron beam ion source has been commissioned to operate as a versatile ion source on RHIC injection facility supplying ion species from He to Au for Booster. Except for light gaseous elements RHIC EBIS employs ion injection from several external primary ion sources. With electrostatic optics fast switching from one ion species to another can be done on a pulse to pulse mode. The design of an ion optical structure and the results of simulations for different ion species are presented. In the choice of optical elements special attention was paid to spherical aberrations for high-current space charge dominated ion beams. The combination of a gridded lens and a magnet lens in LEBT provides flexibility of optical control for a wide range of ion species to satisfy acceptance parameters of RFQ. The results of ion transmission measurements are presented.

Pikin, A.; Alessi, J.; Beebe, E.; Kponou, A.; Okamura, M.; Raparia, D.; Ritter, J.; Tan, Y. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Kuznetsov, G. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation)

2012-02-15

134

Ion optics of RHIC electron beam ion source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

RHIC electron beam ion source has been commissioned to operate as a versatile ion source on RHIC injection facility supplying ion species from He to Au for Booster. Except for light gaseous elements RHIC EBIS employs ion injection from several external primary ion sources. With electrostatic optics fast switching from one ion species to another can be done on a pulse to pulse mode. The design of an ion optical structure and the results of simulations for different ion species are presented. In the choice of optical elements special attention was paid to spherical aberrations for high-current space charge dominated ion beams. The combination of a gridded lens and a magnet lens in LEBT provides flexibility of optical control for a wide range of ion species to satisfy acceptance parameters of RFQ. The results of ion transmission measurements are presented.

Pikin, A.; Alessi, J.; Beebe, E.; Kponou, A.; Okamura, M.; Raparia, D.; Ritter, J.; Tan, Y.; Kuznetsov, G.

2012-02-01

135

Development of Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source for Synthesis of Endohedral Metallofullerenes  

SciTech Connect

A new electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) has been constructed for synthesis of endohedral metallofullerenes. The main purpose of the ion source is to produce new biological and medical materials. The design is based on ECRIS for production of multicharged ion beams with a traditional minimum-B magnetic field. An 8-10 GHz traveling wave tube (TWT) amplifier and a 2.45 GHz magnetron have been applied as microwave sources. Fullerene and metal vapor are introduced with a filament heating micro-oven and an induction heating oven, respectively. In preliminary ion-extraction test, Ar{sup +} is 54 {mu}A. Many broken fullerenes such as C{sub 58} and C{sub 56} are observed in fullerene ion beams.

Tanaka, K. [Tateyama Machine Co., Ltd., 30 Shimonoban, Toyama, Toyama, 930-1305 (Japan); Bio-Nano Electronics Research centre, Toyo University, 2100 Kujirai, Kawagoe, Saitama 350-0815 (Japan); Muramatsu, M. [Bio-Nano Electronics Research centre, Toyo University, 2100 Kujirai, Kawagoe, Saitama 350-0815 (Japan); National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Uchida, T.; Hanajiri, T.; Yoshida, Y. [Bio-Nano Electronics Research centre, Toyo University, 2100 Kujirai, Kawagoe, Saitama 350-0815 (Japan); Biri, S. [Institute of Nuclear Research (ATOMKI), H-4026 Debrecen, Benter 18/c (Hungary); Asaji, T.; Shima, K. [Tateyama Machine Co., Ltd., 30 Shimonoban, Toyama, Toyama, 930-1305 (Japan); Kitagawa, A. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Kato, Y. [Division of Electrical Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

2008-11-03

136

AES investigation of anode deposits in magnetron-type sputter ion pump  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The composition of thin films deposited on the anode of a magnetron cell was studied by Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). The magnetron cell was constructed from a titanium cathode and a stainless steel anode. The cell was mounted on an UHV system with the ultimate pressure of 1 10 -9 mbar. A stable discharge was established in nitrogen atmosphere at 10 -7 mbar for 25 days. After the experiments, the electrodes were cut to small pieces and analyzed by AES. The results showed that a thin film of TiN slightly oxidized and contaminated by C was formed on the anode surface. The thickness of the film at the center of the anode was about 100 nm and it monotonously decreased towards the edges, indicating a rather uniform erosion of the cathode rod.

Vesel, Alenka; Mozeti?, Miran; Zalar, Anton

2005-06-01

137

Scanning transmission ion microscope with a field ion source.  

PubMed Central

Experiments with a low-resolution scanning transmission ion microscope, using hydrogen ions from a field ionization source, indicate that it will be feasible by this approach to aim at high-resolution ion microscopy. Micrographs of unstained biological specimens have been obtained by critical range absorption of a 55 keV hydrogen ion beam at a resolution of 2000 A. Images

Escovitz, W H; Fox, T R; Levi-Setti, R

1975-01-01

138

A 30-cm diameter argon ion source  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 30 cm diameter argon ion source was evaluated. Ion source beam currents up to 4a were extracted with ion energies ranging from 0.2 to 1.5 KeV. An ion optics scaling relation was developed for predicting ion beam extraction capability as a function of total extraction voltage, gas type, and screen grid open area. Ignition and emission characteristics of several hollow cathode geometries were assessed for purposes of defining discharge chamber and neutralizer cathodes. Also presented are ion beam profile characteristics which exhibit broad beam capability well suited for ion beam sputtering applications.

Sovey, J. S.

1976-01-01

139

Physics of Electron Beam Ion Sources.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

There are 13 Electron Beam Ion Sources in operation which produce highly charged ions, up to Th(sup 80+) and Xe(sup 53+). Most of the sources are used to study these ions under electron impact or when recombining with gaseous or solid targets. That provid...

M. P. Stockli C. L. Cocke

1990-01-01

140

Developments at the CERN laser ion source  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high current, high charge-state ion beam which can be extracted from a laser produced plasma is well suited, after initial acceleration, for injection into synchrotrons. At CERN, the production of a heavy ion beam using a CO2 laser ion source is studied. The latest results of experiments with a tantalum ion beam with charge states up to 23+ and

H. Haseroth; H. Kugler; K. Langbein; N. Lisi; A. Lombardi; H. Magnusson; W. Pirkl; J. C. Schnuriger; R. Scrivens; J. Tambini; E. Tanke; S. Homenko; K. Makarov; V. Roerich; A. Stepanov; Y. Satov; S. Kondrashev; S. Savin; B. Sharkov; A. Shumshurov; J. Krsa; L. Lska; M. Pfeifer; E. Woryna

1998-01-01

141

Modeling evaporation, ion-beam assist, and magnetron sputtering of thin metal films over realistic time scales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A long-time-scale dynamics technique has been used to model the evaporation, ion-beam assist, and magnetron sputtering of thin metal films over realistic time scales. Two fcc metals have been investigated: silver and aluminum. We illustrate how the technique can be used to model growth of these films over experimental time scales, while investigating individual growth mechanisms and surface diffusion events. Long-time dynamics is achieved through an on-the-fly kinetic Monte Carlo method, which determines diffusion pathways and barriers, in parallel, with no prior knowledge of the involved transitions. It was found that Ag has the ability to grow smooth surfaces, using several mechanisms including multiple-atom concerted motion, exchange mechanisms, and damage and repair systems. Ag {111} and {100} grew dense, complete, and crystalline film when sputtering was simulated, whereas evaporation produced incomplete layers. The inclusion of Ar in the ion-beam-assisted evaporation of Ag {111} aided growth by transferring more energy to the surface atoms allowing increased diffusion. Al {111}, however, shows slightly different patterns; growth via evaporation and magnetron sputtering shows only slight differences and the inclusion of the ion-beam assist actually damages the film beyond repair, producing subsurface Ar clusters where Al atoms were displaced creating voids throughout the film. Al {100}, similar to Ag {100}, grows denser and more complete film when grown via sputtering rather than evaporation. Results show that the energy of the deposition method used plays a vital role in the resulting thin film and substrate quality.

Blackwell, S.; Smith, R.; Kenny, S. D.; Walls, J. M.

2012-07-01

142

Performance characteristics of an inertial-electrostatic confinement fusion device with magnetron discharge  

Microsoft Academic Search

A magnetron discharge as a built-in ion source for an inertial-electrostatic confinement fusion (IECF) device was experimentally studied aiming at a drastic improvement of fusion reaction rate. With this discharge in the vicinity of the grounded vacuum chamber, produced ions are expected to have almost full energy corresponding to the voltage applied to the central transparent cathode. Also, the magnetron-glow

Kai Masuda; Kiyoshi Yoshikawa; Toshiyuki Mizutani; Teruhisa Takamatsu; Masaki Imoto; Kazunobu Nagasaki; Hisayuki Toku

2003-01-01

143

The Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS)  

SciTech Connect

Brookhaven National Lab has successfully developed a new pre-injector system, called the Electron Beam Ion Source, for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and NASA Space Radiation Laboratory science programs. The first of several planned improvemen

Brookhaven Lab

2009-06-09

144

The Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS)  

ScienceCinema

Brookhaven National Lab has successfully developed a new pre-injector system, called the Electron Beam Ion Source, for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and NASA Space Radiation Laboratory science programs. The first of several planned improvemen

Brookhaven Lab

2010-01-08

145

High Current Ion Sources and Injectors for Heavy Ion Fusion  

SciTech Connect

Heavy ion beam driven inertial fusion requires short ion beam pulses with high current and high brightness. Depending on the beam current and the number of beams in the driver system, the injector can use a large diameter surface ionization source or merge an array of small beamlets from a plasma source. In this paper, we review the scaling laws that govern the injector design and the various ion source options including the contact ionizer, the aluminosilicate source, the multicusp plasma source, and the MEVVA source.

Kwan, Joe W.

2005-02-15

146

CSNS H- ion source test stand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Penning surface plasma source is adopted as the China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS) H- ion source. The designed energy and beam current of the source are 50 keV and 20 mA, respectively, with a normalized root mean square (norm. rms.) emittance of 0.2 ?mmmrad. The construction of a H- ion source test stand has been completed, and the commissioning of the source is in progress. Stable H- ion beams with energy of 50 keV and current up to 50 mA are attained. Emittance measurement for the H- beam is being prepared.

Wu, Xiao-Bing; Ouyang, Hua-Fu; Chi, Yun-Long; He, Wei; Huang, Tao; Li, Gang; Liu, Ying-Man; Lu, Yan-Hua; Xu, Tao-Guang; Zhang, Jun-Song; Zhang, Hua-Shun; Zhao, Fu-Xiang

2011-07-01

147

The physics of Electron Beam Ion Sources  

SciTech Connect

There are 13 Electron Beam Ion Sources in operation which produce highly charged ions, up to Th[sup 80+] and Xe[sup 53+]. Most of the sources are used to study these ions under electron impact or when recombining with gaseous or solid targets. That provides an insight into the atomic physics of these highly charged ions and into the physics of the plasma in which such ions can be found. This paper reviews the present knowledge of atomic processes, important in the production of such ions with an EBIS.

Stockli, M.P.; Cocke, C.L.

1990-01-01

148

The physics of Electron Beam Ion Sources  

SciTech Connect

There are 13 Electron Beam Ion Sources in operation which produce highly charged ions, up to Th{sup 80+} and Xe{sup 53+}. Most of the sources are used to study these ions under electron impact or when recombining with gaseous or solid targets. That provides an insight into the atomic physics of these highly charged ions and into the physics of the plasma in which such ions can be found. This paper reviews the present knowledge of atomic processes, important in the production of such ions with an EBIS.

Stockli, M.P.; Cocke, C.L.

1990-12-31

149

High-charge-state ion sources  

SciTech Connect

Sources of high charge state positive ions have uses in a variety of research fields. For heavy ion particle accelerators higher charge state particles give greater acceleration per gap and greater bending strength in a magnet. Thus higher energies can be obtained from circular accelerators of a given size, and linear accelerators can be designed with higher energy gain per length using higher charge state ions. In atomic physics the many atomic transitions in highly charged ions supplies a wealth of spectroscopy data. High charge state ion beams are also used for charge exchange and crossed beam experiments. High charge state ion sources are reviewed. (WHK)

Clark, D.J.

1983-06-01

150

Distribution of Fe atom density in a dc magnetron sputtering plasma source measured by laser-induced fluorescence imaging spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetron sputtering discharge is widely used as an efficient method for thin film fabrication. In order to achieve the optimized fabrication, understanding of the kinetics in plasmas is essential. In the present work, we measured the density distribution of sputtered Fe atoms using laser-induced fluorescence imaging spectroscopy. A dc magnetron plasma source with a Fe target was used. An area of 20 2 mm in front of the target was irradiated by a tunable laser beam having a planar shape. The picture of laser-induced fluorescence on the laser beam was taken using an ICCD camera. In this way, we obtained the two-dimensional image of the Fe atom density. As a result, it has been found that the Fe atom density observed at a distance of several centimeters from the target is higher than that adjacent to the target, when the Ar gas pressure was relatively high. It is suggested from this result that some gas-phase production processes of Fe atoms are available in the plasma. This work has been performed under the 21st Century COE Program by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology in Japan.

Shibagaki, K.; Nafarizal, N.; Sasaki, K.; Toyoda, H.; Iwata, S.; Kato, T.; Tsunashima, S.; Sugai, H.

2003-10-01

151

Magnetron sputtering: basic physics and application to cylindrical magnetrons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetron sputtering sources can be defined as diode devices in which magnetic fields are used in concert with the cathode surface to form electron traps which are so configured that the E x B electron-drift currents close on themselves. Coaxial cylindrical magnetron sputtering sources in which post or hollow cathodes are operated in axial magnetic fields have been reported for

John A. Thornton

1978-01-01

152

A hollow cathode hydrogen ion source  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High current density ion sources have been used to heat plasmas in controlled thermonuclear reaction experiments. High beam currents imply relatively high emission currents from cathodes which have generally taken the form of tungsten filaments. A hydrogen ion source is described which was primarily developed to assess the emission current capability and design requirements for hollow cathodes for application in neutral injection devices. The hydrogen source produced ions by electron bombardment via a single hollow cathode. Source design followed mercury ion thruster technology, using a weak magnetic field to enhance ionization efficiency.

Sovey, J. S.; Mirtich, M. J.

1977-01-01

153

Colliding-beams polarized ion source  

SciTech Connect

This ion source was to be purchased from ANAC, Inc., a New Zealand-based supplier of beam optics hardware and atomic beam polarized ion sources in December 1982. Shortly before scheduled delivery ANAC went into receivership. During 1983 little work was done on the project as various steps were taken by us, first to get the ion source completed at ANAC, and then, failing that, to obtain the existing parts. In early 1984 we began work to finish the ion source in Seattle. The project is nearly complete, and this article presents progress to date. 2 refs.

Trainor, T.A.; Douglas, J.G.; Badt, D.; Christiensen, C.; Herron, A.; Leach, D.; Olsen, J.; Osborne, J.L.; Zeps, V.

1985-01-01

154

Comparison of AlN films grown by RF magnetron sputtering and ion-assisted molecular beam epitaxy  

SciTech Connect

Crystalline aluminum nitride (AlN) thin films were formed on various substrates by using RF magnetron sputtering of an A1 target in a nitrogen plasma and also by ion-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (IAMBE). Basal-oriented AlN/(111) Si showed a degradation of crystallinity with increased substrate temperature from 550 to 770 C, while the crystallinity of AlN/(0001) A1{sub 2}O{sub 3} samples improved from 700 to 850 C. The optical absorption characteristics of the AlN/(0001) A1{sub 2}O{sub 3} films as grown by both deposition methods revealed a decrease in subbandgap absorption with increased substrate temperature.

Chan, J.; Fu, T.; Cheung, N.W.; Ross, J.; Newman, N.; Rubin, M.

1993-04-01

155

Upgraded vacuum arc ion source for metal ion implantation.  

PubMed

Vacuum arc ion sources have been made and used by a large number of research groups around the world over the past twenty years. The first generation of vacuum arc ion sources (dubbed "Mevva," for metal vapor vacuum arc) was developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in the 1980s. This paper considers the design, performance parameters, and some applications of a new modified version of this kind of source which we have called Mevva-V.Ru. The source produces broad beams of metal ions at an extraction voltage of up to 60 kV and a time-averaged ion beam current in the milliampere range. Here, we describe the Mevva-V.Ru vacuum arc ion source that we have developed at Tomsk and summarize its beam characteristics along with some of the applications to which we have put it. We also describe the source performance using compound cathodes. PMID:22380197

Nikolaev, A G; Oks, E M; Savkin, K P; Yushkov, G Yu; Brown, I G

2012-02-01

156

Ionization phenomena and sources of negative ions  

SciTech Connect

Negative ion source technology has rapidly advanced during the past several years as a direct consequence of the discovery of Krohn that negative ion yields can be greatly enhanced by sputtering in the presence of Group IA elements. Today, most negative ion sources use this discovery directly or the principles implied to effect negative ion formation through surface ionization. As a consequence, the more traditional direct extraction plasma and charge exchange sources are being used less frequently. However, the charge exchange generation mechanism appears to be as universal, is very competitive in terms of efficiency and has the advantage in terms of metastable ion formation. In this review, an attempt has been made to briefly describe the principal processes involved in negative ion formation and sources which are representative of a particular principle. The reader is referred to the literature for specific details concerning the operational characteristics, emittances, brightnesses, species and intensity capabilities of particular sources. 100 references.

Alton, G.D.

1983-01-01

157

Lithium Ion Source for Satellite Charge Control.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A lithium ion source using thermal emission from mineral beta-eucryptite has been investigated as a possible control device for spacecraft charging. This source can be used for control of positively charged spacecraft potentials in sunlight and differenti...

T. I. Song

1990-01-01

158

Production and ion-ion cooling of highly charged ions in electron string ion source.  

PubMed

The scheme of an internal injection of Au atoms into the working space of the "Krion-2" electron string ion source (ESIS) was applied and tested. In this scheme Au atoms are evaporated from the thin tungsten wire surface in vicinity of the source electron string. Ion beams with charge states up to Au51+ were produced. Ion-ion cooling with use of C and O coolant ions was studied. It allowed increasing of the Au51+ ion yield by a factor of 2. Ions of Kr up to charge state 28+ were also produced in the source. Electron strings were first formed with injection electron energy up to 6 keV. Methods to increase the ESIS ion output are discussed. PMID:19566200

Donets, D E; Donets, E D; Donets, E E; Salnikov, V V; Shutov, V B; Syresin, E M

2009-06-01

159

Production of highly charged ion beams from ECR ion sources  

SciTech Connect

Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion source development has progressed with multiple-frequency plasma heating, higher mirror magnetic fields and better technique to provide extra cold electrons. Such techniques greatly enhance the production of highly charged ions from ECR ion sources. So far at cw mode operation, up to 300 e{mu}A of O{sup 7+} and 1.15 emA of O{sup 6+}, more than 100 e{mu}A of intermediate heavy ions for charge states up to Ar{sup 13+}, Ca{sup 13+}, Fe{sup 13+}, Co{sup 14+} and Kr{sup 18+}, and tens of e{mu}A of heavy ions with charge states to Kr{sup 26+}, Xe{sup 28+}, Au{sup 35+}, Bi{sup 34+} and U{sup 34+} have been produced from ECR ion sources. At an intensity of at least 1 e{mu}A, the maximum charge state available for the heavy ions are Xe{sup 36+}, Au{sup 46+}, Bi{sup 47+} and U{sup 48+}. An order of magnitude enhancement for fully stripped argon ions (I {ge} 60 enA) also has been achieved. This article will review the ECR ion source progress and discuss key requirement for ECR ion sources to produce the highly charged ion beams.

Xie, Z.Q. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Nuclear Science Div.

1997-09-01

160

Shapes of Ion Impulses from a Laser Ion Source.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Different forms of ion impulse were obtained for targets of different material at the slit plates of a laser ion source. The dependence of the structures of the ion impulses on the parameters of the laser microplasma is discussed. These structures were fo...

H. J. Dietze H. Zahn W. Schmidt

1976-01-01

161

Laser ion source for heavy ion synchrotrons (invited)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A status overview of the development of laser ion sources suited to heavy ion synchrotrons is presented. The results of experimental and theoretical studies, recently obtained at a number of laboratories, for laser-produced highly charged heavy ions are summarized for plasmas heated by long wavelength lasers. Design of a powerful repetition rate CO2 laser, target interaction chamber, and extraction system

B. Yu. Sharkov; S. Kondrashev; I. Roudskoy; S. Savin; A. Shumshurov; H. Haseroth; H. Kugler; K. Langbein; N. Lisi; H. Magnusson; R. Scrivens; J. C. Schnuringer; J. Tambini; S. Homenko; K. Makarov; V. Roerich; A. Stepanov; Yu. Satov

1998-01-01

162

Laser ion source for low charge heavy ion beams  

SciTech Connect

For heavy ion inertial fusion application, a combination of a laser ion source and direct plasma injection scheme into an RFQ is proposed. The combination might provide more than 100 mA of singly charged heavy ion beam from a single laser shot. A planned feasibility test with moderate current is also discussed.

Okamura,M.; Pikin, A.; Zajic, V.; Kanesue, T.; Tamura, J.

2008-08-03

163

A Penning Ion Source for Multiply Charged Ions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ion source described in this contribution allows the production of considerable ion beam intensities of highly charged ions. The electron density is increased by an additional electron gun. The decrease-of the ratio of neighbouring charge states is similar to the decrease of the ratio of the ionization cross sections by electron impact from which one event ionization processes are

H. Baumann; E. Heinicke; K. Bethge

1972-01-01

164

Laser ion source torch for highly charged ions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The article describes a laser ion source torch designed on the basis of a CO2 laser at Efremov Institute of Electrophysical Apparatus in collaboration with the Institute for Nuclear Research of the Ukrainian Academy of Science, Kiev. The ion extraction from the laser plasma is done by means of spherical grid electrodes. This permits to improve the efficiency several hundred times compared to the existing ion sources and to increase the ion beam correspondingly, including highly charged ions. The charge composition of the beam, the pulse frequency, and the extracted beam are determined by the operational mode of the laser.

Demyanov, A. V.; Sidorov, S. V.; Avdeev, S. A.; Jatcenko, B. P.

1998-02-01

165

Electron beam ion source and electron beam ion trap (invited).  

PubMed

The electron beam ion source (EBIS) and its trap variant [electron beam ion trap (EBIT)] celebrated their 40th and 20th anniversary, respectively, at the EBIS/T Symposium 2007 in Heidelberg. These technologically challenging sources of highly charged ions have seen a broad development in many countries over the last decades. In contrast to most other ion sources the recipe of improvement was not "sorcery" but a clear understanding of the physical laws and obeying the technological constraints. This review will report important achievements of the past as well as promising developments in the future. PMID:20192368

Becker, Reinard; Kester, Oliver

2010-02-01

166

Electron beam ion source and electron beam ion trap (invited)  

SciTech Connect

The electron beam ion source (EBIS) and its trap variant [electron beam ion trap (EBIT)] celebrated their 40th and 20th anniversary, respectively, at the EBIS/T Symposium 2007 in Heidelberg. These technologically challenging sources of highly charged ions have seen a broad development in many countries over the last decades. In contrast to most other ion sources the recipe of improvement was not ''sorcery'' but a clear understanding of the physical laws and obeying the technological constraints. This review will report important achievements of the past as well as promising developments in the future.

Becker, Reinard [Scientific Software Service, Kapellenweg 2a, D-63571 Gelnhausen (Germany); Kester, Oliver [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States)

2010-02-15

167

Arc-Discharge Ion Sources for Heavy Ion Fusion  

SciTech Connect

A miniature multiple beamlet approach to an injector system was recently proposed in order to reduce the size, cost, and power requirements of the injector. The beamlets of very high current density are needed to meet the brightness requirement. Besides vacuum arc ion sources, cold-cathode gas ion sources are candidates for this application. Vacuum-arc metal ion sources and vacuum-arc-like gas ion sources are discussed. Experiments are presented that focus on the short-pulse plasma composition and ion charge state distribution. Mg and Sr have been identified as the most promising metals leading to mono-species beams when 20 {mu}s arc pulses are used. It is shown that the efficient production of gas ions requires the presence of a magnetic field.

Anders, A.; Kwan, J.W.

2000-03-01

168

Ion-enhanced oxidation of aluminum as a fundamental surface process during target poisoning in reactive magnetron sputtering  

SciTech Connect

Plasma deposition of aluminum oxide by reactive magnetron sputtering (RMS) using an aluminum target and argon and oxygen as working gases is an important technological process. The undesired oxidation of the target itself, however, causes the so-called target poisoning, which leads to strong hysteresis effects during RMS operation. The oxidation occurs by chemisorption of oxygen atoms and molecules with a simultaneous ion bombardment being present. This heterogenous surface reaction is studied in a quantified particle beam experiment employing beams of oxygen molecules and argon ions impinging onto an aluminum-coated quartz microbalance. The oxidation and/or sputtering rates are measured with this microbalance and the resulting oxide layers are analyzed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The sticking coefficient of oxygen molecules is determined to 0.015 in the zero coverage limit. The sputtering yields of pure aluminum by argon ions are determined to 0.4, 0.62, and 0.8 at 200, 300, and 400 eV. The variation in the effective sticking coefficient and sputtering yield during the combined impact of argon ions and oxygen molecules is modeled with a set of rate equations. A good agreement is achieved if one postulates an ion-induced surface activation process, which facilitates oxygen chemisorption. This process may be identified with knock-on implantation of surface-bonded oxygen, with an electric-field-driven in-diffusion of oxygen or with an ion-enhanced surface activation process. Based on these fundamental processes, a robust set of balance equations is proposed to describe target poisoning effects in RMS.

Kuschel, Thomas; Keudell, Achim von [Research Group Reactive Plasmas, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, 44780 Bochum (Germany)

2010-05-15

169

Lithium ion source for satellite charge control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A lithium ion source using thermal emission from mineral beta-eucryptite was investigated as a possible control device for spacecraft charging. This source can be used for control of positively charged spacecraft potentials in sunlight and differentially charged spacecraft surfaces in shadow. The dependence is studied of the emitted ion current on several parameters: source temperature (power input), source bias potentials and potentials applied to simulated spacecraft geometries. Saturation current of about 5.8 micro amp were measured at an extraction potentials of 100 Volts from a source of 0.317 sq cm surface area with a power input of 18 Watts. The lifetime due to ion exhaustion was found to be approx. 200 hours for this compact source. The results indicate that this type of ion source may represent an effective charge control device for spacecraft.

Song, Tae I.

1990-06-01

170

Molecular phosphorus ion source for semiconductor technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents results on the generation of molecular phosphorus ion beams in a hot filament ion source. Solid red phosphorous is evaporated mainly as tetra-atomic molecules up to a temperature of 800C. Thus, one of the main conditions for producing maximum P4+ fraction in the beam is to keep the temperature of the phosphorous oven, the steam line and the discharge chamber walls no greater than 800C. The prior version of our ion source was equipped with a discharge chamber cooling system. The modified source ensured a P4+ ion beam current greater than 30% of the total beam current.

Gushenets, V. I.; Bugaev, A. S.; Oks, E. M.; Hershcovitch, A.; Kulevoy, T. V.

2012-02-01

171

Molecular phosphorus ion source for semiconductor technology.  

PubMed

This paper presents results on the generation of molecular phosphorus ion beams in a hot filament ion source. Solid red phosphorous is evaporated mainly as tetra-atomic molecules up to a temperature of 800C. Thus, one of the main conditions for producing maximum P(4)(+) fraction in the beam is to keep the temperature of the phosphorous oven, the steam line and the discharge chamber walls no greater than 800C. The prior version of our ion source was equipped with a discharge chamber cooling system. The modified source ensured a P(4)(+) ion beam current greater than 30% of the total beam current. PMID:22380290

Gushenets, V I; Bugaev, A S; Oks, E M; Hershcovitch, A; Kulevoy, T V

2012-02-01

172

Molecular phosphorus ion source for semiconductor technology  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents results on the generation of molecular phosphorus ion beams in a hot filament ion source. Solid red phosphorous is evaporated mainly as tetra-atomic molecules up to a temperature of 800 C. Thus, one of the main conditions for producing maximum P{sub 4}{sup +} fraction in the beam is to keep the temperature of the phosphorous oven, the steam line and the discharge chamber walls no greater than 800 C. The prior version of our ion source was equipped with a discharge chamber cooling system. The modified source ensured a P{sub 4}{sup +} ion beam current greater than 30% of the total beam current.

Gushenets V. I.; Hershcovitch A.; Bugaev, A.S.; Oks, E.M.; Kulevoy, T.V.

2012-02-15

173

Sample inlet tube for ion source  

DOEpatents

An improved inlet tube is positioned within an aperture through the device to allow the passage of ions from the ion source, through the improved inlet tube, and into the interior of the device. The inlet tube is designed with a larger end and a smaller end wherein the larger end has a larger interior diameter than the interior diameter of the smaller end. The inlet tube is positioned within the aperture such that the larger end is pointed towards the ion source, to receive ions therefrom, and the smaller end is directed towards the interior of the device, to deliver the ions thereto. Preferably, the ion source utilized in the operation of the present invention is a standard electrospray ionization source. Similarly, the present invention finds particular utility in conjunction with analytical devices such as mass spectrometers.

Prior, David [Hermiston, OR; Price, John [Richland, WA; Bruce, Jim [Oceanside, CA

2002-09-24

174

Investigation of the physical properties of ion assisted ZrN thin films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ion bombardment during thin film growth is known to cause structural and morphological changes in the deposited films, thus affecting their physical properties. In this work zirconium nitride films have been deposited by the ion assisted magnetron sputtering technique. The ion energy is controlled by varying the voltage applied to the substrate in the range 0-25 V. The deposited ZrN films are characterized for their structure, surface roughness, oxygen contamination, optical reflectance and electrical resistivity. With increasing substrate voltage crystallinity of the films is enhanced with a preferential orientation of the ZrN grains having the (1 1 1) axis perpendicular to the substrate surface. At the same time, a decrease in electrical resistivity and oxygen contamination content is observed up to 20 V. A higher substrate voltage (25 V) causes an inversion in the observed experimental trends. The role of oxygen contamination decrease and generation of nitrogen vacancies due to ionic assistance have been considered as a possible explanation for the experimental results.

Signore, M. A.; Valerini, D.; Rizzo, A.; Tapfer, L.; Capodieci, L.; Cappello, A.

2010-06-01

175

Highly Polarized Ion Sources for Electron Ion Colliders (EIC)  

SciTech Connect

The operation of the RHIC facility at BNL and the Electron Ion Colliders (EIC) under development at Jefferson Laboratory and BNL need high brightness ion beams with the highest polarization. Charge exchange injection into a storage ring or synchrotron and Siberian snakes have the potential to handle the needed polarized beam currents, but first the ion sources must create beams with the highest possible polarization to maximize collider productivity, which is proportional to a high power of the polarization. We are developing one universal H-/D- ion source design which will synthesize the most advanced developments in the field of polarized ion sources to provide high current, high brightness, ion beams with greater than 90% polarization, good lifetime, high reliability, and good power efficiency. The new source will be an advanced version of an atomic beam polarized ion source (ABPIS) with resonant charge exchange ionization by negative ions. An integrated ABPIS design will be prepared based on new materials and an optimized magnetic focusing system. Polarized atomic and ion beam formation, extraction, and transport for the new source will be computer simulated.

V.G. Dudnikov, R.P. Johnson, Y.S. Derbenev, Y. Zhang

2010-03-01

176

CERN PS laser ion source development  

Microsoft Academic Search

CERN, together with ITEP and TRINITI (Russia), is developing a CO 2 laser ion source. The key design parameters are: 1.41010 ions of Pb25+ in a pulse of 5.5 ?s, with a 4-RMS emittance of 0.210-6 rad m, working at a repetition rate of 1 Hz. This device is considered as one candidate source for LHC heavy ion operation. The

P. Fournier; G. Gregoire; H. Haseroth; H. Kupler; N. Lisi; A. Lombardi; C. Meyer; P. Ostroumov; W. Pirkl; J.-C. Schnuriger; R. Scrivens; V. Tenishev; F. Varela-Rodriguez; S. Kondrashev; J. Roudskoy; B. Sharkov; A. Shumshurov; S. Khomenko; K. Makarov; V. Roerich; Y. Satov; A. Stepanov

1999-01-01

177

Ion sources for large area processing (invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large area ion sources have been used in ion doping systems in the field of LCD production. In these ion sources good uniformity and wide dynamic range in beam current are both required to achieve the good dose uniformity in wide dose range. A new ion source which uses dc arc discharge with three filaments, each of which is controlled individually, is now in the production lines instead of the conventional rf discharge type. Better than 5% of beam uniformity across 600 mm is achieved by an automated feedback control using beam profile data taken by a built-in beam profiler in less than 10 s from arc ignition. Another emerging requirement is high beam purity, for the ion beams from these ion sources are used without mass analysis. The hydrogen ion fraction was successfully reduced by magnetically retarding the hydrogen ions to less than 5%. A large area ion source having a newly designed mass separating structure is developed. The structure is comprised of a permanent magnet array and a beamlet scanner just after the multiple-slot beam extraction electrode system. All the unwanted ion species in the beam can be eliminated to a good level.

Naito, M.; Ando, Y.; Inouchi, Y.; Tanaka, H.; Miyamoto, N.

2000-02-01

178

Performance of an inverted ion source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Whereas energetic ion beams are conventionally produced by extracting ions (say, positive ions) from a plasma that is held at high (positive) potential, with ion energy determined by the potential drop through which the ions fall in the beam formation electrode system, in the device described here the plasma and its electronics are held at ground potential and the ion beam is formed and injected energetically into a space maintained at high (negative) potential. We refer to this configuration as an ``inverted ion source.'' This approach allows considerable savings both technologically and economically, rendering feasible some ion beam applications, in particular small-scale ion implantation, that might otherwise not be possible for many researchers and laboratories. We have developed a device of this kind utilizing a metal vapor vacuum arc plasma source, and explored its operation and beam characteristics over a range of parameter variation. The downstream beam current has been measured as a function of extraction voltage (5-35 kV), arc current (50-230 A), metal ion species (Ti, Nb, Au), and extractor grid spacing and beamlet aperture size (3, 4, and 5 mm). The downstream ion beam current as measured by a magnetically-suppressed Faraday cup was up to as high as 600 mA, and with parametric variation quite similar to that found for the more conventional metal vapor vacuum arc ion source.

Salvadori, M. C.; Teixeira, F. S.; Sgubin, L. G.; Araujo, W. W. R.; Spirin, R. E.; Oks, E. M.; Brown, I. G.

2013-02-01

179

Performance of an inverted ion source.  

PubMed

Whereas energetic ion beams are conventionally produced by extracting ions (say, positive ions) from a plasma that is held at high (positive) potential, with ion energy determined by the potential drop through which the ions fall in the beam formation electrode system, in the device described here the plasma and its electronics are held at ground potential and the ion beam is formed and injected energetically into a space maintained at high (negative) potential. We refer to this configuration as an "inverted ion source." This approach allows considerable savings both technologically and economically, rendering feasible some ion beam applications, in particular small-scale ion implantation, that might otherwise not be possible for many researchers and laboratories. We have developed a device of this kind utilizing a metal vapor vacuum arc plasma source, and explored its operation and beam characteristics over a range of parameter variation. The downstream beam current has been measured as a function of extraction voltage (5-35 kV), arc current (50-230 A), metal ion species (Ti, Nb, Au), and extractor grid spacing and beamlet aperture size (3, 4, and 5 mm). The downstream ion beam current as measured by a magnetically-suppressed Faraday cup was up to as high as 600 mA, and with parametric variation quite similar to that found for the more conventional metal vapor vacuum arc ion source. PMID:23464210

Salvadori, M C; Teixeira, F S; Sgubin, L G; Araujo, W W R; Spirin, R E; Oks, E M; Brown, I G

2013-02-01

180

Glow plasma trigger for electron cyclotron resonance ion sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRISs) are particularly useful for nuclear, atomic, and high energy physics, as unique high current generators of multicharged ion beams. Plasmas of gas discharges in an open magnetic trap heated by pulsed (100 ?s and longer) high power (100 kW and higher) high-frequency (greater than 37.5 GHz) microwaves of gyrotrons is promising in the field of research in the development of electron cyclotron resonance sources for high charge state ion beams. Reaching high ion charge states requires a decrease in gas pressure in the magnetic trap, but this method leads to increases in time, in which the microwave discharge develops. The gas breakdown and microwave discharge duration becomes greater than or equal to the microwave pulse duration when the pressure is decreased. This makes reaching the critical plasma density initiate an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) discharge during pulse of microwave gyrotron radiation with gas pressure lower than a certain threshold. In order to reduce losses of microwave power, it is necessary to shorten the time of development of the ECR discharge. For fast triggering of ECR discharge under low pressure in an ECRIS, we initially propose to fill the magnetic trap with the plasmas of auxiliary pulsed discharges in crossed ExB fields. The glow plasma trigger of ECR based on a Penning or magnetron discharge has made it possible not only to fill the trap with plasma with density of 1012 cm-3, required for a rapid increase in plasma density and finally for ECR discharge ignition, but also to initially heat the plasma electrons to Te~20 eV.

Vodopianov, A. V.; Golubev, S. V.; Izotov, I. V.; Nikolaev, A. G.; Oks, E. M.; Savkin, K. P.; Yushkov, G. Yu.

2010-02-01

181

Ion sources for ion implantation technology (invited)a)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ion sources for ion implantation are introduced. The technique is applied not only to large scale integration (LSI) devices but also to flat panel display. For LSI fabrication, ion source scheduled maintenance cycle is most important. For CMOS image sensor devices, metal contamination at implanted wafer is most important. On the other hand, to fabricate miniaturized devices, cluster ion implantation has been proposed to make shallow PN junction. While for power devices such as silicon carbide, aluminum ion is required. For doping processes of LCD fabrication, a large ion source is required. The extraction area is about 150 cm 10 cm, and the beam uniformity is important as well as the total target beam current.

Sakai, Shigeki; Hamamoto, Nariaki; Inouchi, Yutaka; Umisedo, Sei; Miyamoto, Naoki

2014-02-01

182

ION SOURCES FOR ENERGY EXTREMES OF ION IMPLANTATION.  

SciTech Connect

For the past four years a joint research and development effort designed to develop steady state, intense ion sources has been in progress with the ultimate goal to develop ion sources and techniques, which meet the two energy extreme range needs of mega-electron-volt and 100's of electron-volt ion implanters. This endeavor has already resulted in record steady state output currents of high charge state of Antimony and Phosphorous ions: P{sup 2+} (8.6 pmA), P{sup 3+} (1.9 pmA), and P{sup 4+} (0.12 pmA) and 16.2, 7.6, 3.3, and 2.2 pmA of Sb{sup 3+} Sb{sup 4+}, Sb{sup 5+}, and Sb{sup 6+} respectively. For low energy ion implantation our efforts involve molecular ions and a novel plasmaless/gasless deceleration method. To date, 1 emA of positive Decaborane ions were extracted at 10 keV and smaller currents of negative Decaborane ions were also extracted. Additionally, Boron current fraction of over 70% was extracted from a Bemas-Calutron ion source, which represents a factor of 3.5 improvement over currently employed ion sources.

HERSCHCOVITCH,A.; JOHNSON, B.M.; BATALIN, V.A.; KROPACHEV, G.N.; KUIBEDA, R.P.; KULEVOY, T.V.; KOLOMIETS, A.A.; PERSHIN, V.I.; PETRENKO, S.V.; RUDSKOY, I.; SELEZNEV, D.N.; BUGAEV, A.S.; GUSHENETS, V.I.; LITOVKO, I.V.; OKS, E.M.; YUSHKOV, G. YU.; MASEUNOV, E.S.; POLOZOV, S.M.; POOLE, H.J.; STOROZHENKO, P.A.; SVAROVSKI, YA.

2007-08-26

183

Pseudo ribbon metal ion beam source.  

PubMed

The paper describes high broad metal ion source based on dc macroparticle filtered vacuum arc plasma generation with the dc ion-beam extraction. The possibility of formation of pseudo ribbon beam of metal ions with the parameters: ion beam length 0.6 m, ion current up to 0.2 A, accelerating voltage 40 kV, and ion energy up to 160 kV has been demonstrated. The pseudo ribbon ion beam is formed from dc vacuum arc plasma. The results of investigation of the vacuum arc evaporator ion-emission properties are presented. The influence of magnetic field strength near the cathode surface on the arc spot movement and ion-emission properties of vacuum-arc discharge for different cathode materials are determined. It was shown that vacuum-arc discharge stability can be reached when the magnetic field strength ranges from 40 to 70 G on the cathode surface. PMID:24593634

Stepanov, Igor B; Ryabchikov, Alexander I; Sivin, Denis O; Verigin, Dan A

2014-02-01

184

Key issues in plasma source ion implantation  

SciTech Connect

Plasma source ion implantation (PSII) is a scaleable, non-line-of-sight method for the surface modification of materials. In this paper, we consider three important issues that should be addressed before wide-scale commercialization of PSII: (1) implant conformality; (2) ion sources; and (3) secondary electron emission. To insure uniform implanted dose over complex shapes, the ion sheath thickness must be kept sufficiently small. This criterion places demands on ion sources and pulsed-power supplies. Another limitation to date is the availability of additional ion species beyond B, C, N, and 0. Possible solutions are the use of metal arc vaporization sources and plasma discharges in high-vapor-pressure organometallic precursors. Finally, secondary electron emission presents a potential efficiency and x-ray hazard issue since for many metallurgic applications, the emission coefficient can be as large as 20. Techniques to suppress secondary electron emission are discussed.

Rej, D.J.; Faehl, R.J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (United States); Matossian, J.N. [Hughes Research Laboratory, Malibu, CA (United States)

1996-09-01

185

ECR ion source with electron gun  

DOEpatents

An Advanced Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source having an electron gun for introducing electrons into the plasma chamber of the ion source is described. The ion source has a injection enclosure and a plasma chamber tank. The plasma chamber is defined by a plurality of longitudinal magnets. The electron gun injects electrons axially into the plasma chamber such that ionization within the plasma chamber occurs in the presence of the additional electrons produced by the electron gun. The electron gun has a cathode for emitting electrons therefrom which is heated by current supplied from an AC power supply while bias potential is provided by a bias power supply. A concentric inner conductor and outer conductor carry heating current to a carbon chuck and carbon pusher which hold the cathode in place and also heat the cathode. In the Advanced Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source, the electron gun replaces the conventional first stage used in prior electron cyclotron resonance ion generators. 5 figures.

Xie, Z.Q.; Lyneis, C.M.

1993-10-26

186

On characterization of an ultracold ion source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ultracold ion source (UCIS) is based on creating very cold ion beams (T < 1 mK) by near-threshold photo-ionization of a laser-cooled and trapped ^85Rb gas. The UCIS has the potential of producing ion beams with a brightness and current comparable to the liquid-metal ion source (LMIS), which is the current state-of-art for focused ion beam (FIB) technology. The brightness characterizes the source and is proportional to the ion current, the source temperature and the energy spread. We have already shown that the UCIS can provide much lower energy spread than LMIS, and may therefore offer a route toward 1-nm ion beam milling. The ultra low temperature of the source permits collimated bunches to be created at a low energy (down to few eV), which allows using time-dependent fields for accelerating and focusing. With this lens, a source temperature of (3 2) mK has been measured. A dynamic model of the source describing its properties under pulsed operation has been developed and experiments have been started in order to validate it. The extracted current is the missing ingredient needed to characterize the brightness of the UCIS.

Debernardi, N.; Engelen, W. J.; van Vliembergen, R. W. L.; Mutsaers, P. H. A.; Vredenbregt, E. J. D.; Luiten, O. J.

2011-06-01

187

Cold atomic beam ion source for focused ion beam applications  

SciTech Connect

We report measurements and modeling of an ion source that is based on ionization of a laser-cooled atomic beam. We show a high brightness and a low energy spread, suitable for use in next-generation, high-resolution focused ion beam systems. Our measurements of total ion current as a function of ionization conditions support an analytical model that also predicts the cross-sectional current density and spatial distribution of ions created in the source. The model predicts a peak brightness of 2 10{sup 7} A m{sup ?2} sr{sup ?1} eV{sup ?1} and an energy spread less than 0.34 eV. The model is also combined with Monte-Carlo simulations of the inter-ion Coulomb forces to show that the source can be operated at several picoamperes with a brightness above 1 10{sup 7} A m{sup ?2} sr{sup ?1} eV{sup ?1}. We estimate that when combined with a conventional ion focusing column, an ion source with these properties could focus a 1 pA beam into a spot smaller than 1 nm. A total current greater than 5 nA was measured in a lower-brightness configuration of the ion source, demonstrating the possibility of a high current mode of operation.

Knuffman, B.; Steele, A. V. [Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States) [Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Maryland Nanocenter, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); zeroK NanoTech, Montgomery Village, Maryland 20886 (United States); McClelland, J. J. [Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States)] [Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States)

2013-07-28

188

Inert gas ion source program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

THe original 12 cm hexagonal magneto-electrostatic containment discharge chamber has been optimized for argon and xenon operation. Argon mass utilization efficiencies of 65 to 77 percent were achieved at keeper-plus-main discharge energy consumptions of 200 to 458 eV/ion, respectively. Xenon performance of 84 to 96 percent mass utilization was realized at 203 to 350 eV/ion. The optimization process and test results are discussed.

Ramsey, W. D.

1978-01-01

189

Three chamber negative ion source  

DOEpatents

A negative ion vessel is divided into an excitation chamber, a negative ionization chamber and an extraction chamber by two magnetic filters. Input means introduces neutral molecules into a first chamber where a first electron discharge means vibrationally excites the molecules which migrate to a second chamber. In the second chamber a second electron discharge means ionizes the molecules, producing negative ions which are extracted into or by a third chamber. A first magnetic filter prevents high energy electrons from entering the negative ionization chamber from the excitation chamber. A second magnetic filter prevents high energy electrons from entering the extraction chamber from the negative ionizing chamber. An extraction grid at the end of the negative ion vessel attracts negative ions into the third chamber and accelerates them. Another grid, located adjacent to the extraction grid, carries a small positive voltage in order to inhibit positive ions from migrating into the extraction chamber and contour the plasma potential. Additional electrons can be suppressed from the output flux using ExB forces provided by magnetic field means and the extractor grid electric potential.

Leung, Ka-Ngo (Hercules, CA); Ehlers, Kenneth W. (Alamo, CA); Hiskes, John R. (Livermore, CA)

1985-01-01

190

Polycrystalline TiN films deposited by reactive bias magnetron sputtering: Effects of ion bombardment on resputtering rates, film composition, and microstructure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transmission electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and Rutherford backscattering have been used to investigate the effects of ion irradiation during growth on the deposition rate, composition, and microstructure of single-phase polycrystalline NaCl-structure TiN{sub {ital x}} films deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering with a negative substrate bias voltage {ital V}{sub {ital s}}. The layers were deposited on thermally oxidized Si(001) substrates in

I. Petrov; L. Hultman; J.-E. Sundgren; J. E. Greene

1992-01-01

191

Coating characteristics and tribological properties of sputter-deposited MoS 2\\/metal composite coatings deposited by closed field unbalanced magnetron sputter ion plating  

Microsoft Academic Search

As previously reported (V.C. Fox, N.M. Renevier, D.G., Teer, J. Hampshire, V. Rigato, Proceedings of the PSE Conference in Garmisch Partenkirchen, 1418 September 1998, Germany, Surf. Coating Technol., in press) the properties of MoS2 coatings deposited by closed field unbalanced magnetron sputter ion plating (CFUBMSIP) can be improved by the co-deposition of a small amount of titanium. These MoS2\\/Ti composite

N. M Renevier; V. C Fox; D. G Teer; J Hampshire

2000-01-01

192

Lithium alumino-silicate ion source development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report experimental progress on Li+ source development in preparation for warm dense matter heating experiments. To uniformly heat targets to electron-volt temperatures for the study of warm dense matter, we are pursuing the use of a low (E < 5 MeV) kinetic energy singly ionized lithium beam and a thin target. Two kinds of lithium (Li+) alumino-silicate ion sources, ?-spodumene and ?-eucryptite, each of area 0.31 cm2, have been fabricated for ion emission measurements. These surface ionization sources are heated to 1200 to 1300 C where they preferentially emit singly ionized alkali ions. Tight process controls were necessary in preparing and sintering the alumino-silicate to the porous tungsten substrate to produce an emitter that gives uniform ion emission, sufficient current density and low beam emittance. Current density limit of the two kinds have been measured, and ion species identification of possible contaminants has been verified with a Wien (E x B) filter.

Roy, Prabir Kumar; Seidl, Peter A.; Kwan, Joe W.; Greenway, Wayne G.; Waldron, William L.; Wu, James K.; Mazaheri, Kavous

2009-11-01

193

High-current pulsed ion source for metallic ions  

SciTech Connect

A new sputter-ion PIG source and magnet system, optimized for intermediate charge states, q/A of 0.02 to 0.03, is described. This source will be used with the new Wideroe-based injector for the SuperHILAC. Pulsed electrical currents of several emA of heavy metal ions have been produced in a normalized emittance area of .05..pi.. cm-mr. The source system is comprised of two electrically separate anode chambers, one in operation and one spare, which can be selected by remote control. The entire source head is small and quickly removable.

Gavin, B.; Abbott, S.; MacGill, R.; Sorensen, R.; Staples, J.; Thatcher, R.

1981-03-01

194

Laser ion sources for radioactive beams (invited).  

PubMed

Resonant ionisation laser ion sources are nowadays extensively used, when available, at many leading on-line facilities. Moreover, new laser ion sources are now under development in most of the recent on-line facility projects under construction worldwide. This success is mainly due to the reliability, the ionization efficiency and the high purity that this type of source can achieve for the production of radioactive species and for a large range of chemical elements. Laser ion sources for radioactive beams gather many different systems such as dye laser or all-solid state titanium:sapphire laser systems, high or low repetition rates, hot cavities or gas cells, additional selectivity by using chemical techniques, or the LIST technique (laser ion source trap). In this paper, the physics of laser ion sources will be described with the current limitations and challenges for the future. An overview of the laser ion source facilities will be given, with an emphasis on the ongoing developments and perspectives on LIS. PMID:22380257

Lecesne, N

2012-02-01

195

Laser ion sources for radioactive beams (invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Resonant ionisation laser ion sources are nowadays extensively used, when available, at many leading on-line facilities. Moreover, new laser ion sources are now under development in most of the recent on-line facility projects under construction worldwide. This success is mainly due to the reliability, the ionization efficiency and the high purity that this type of source can achieve for the production of radioactive species and for a large range of chemical elements. Laser ion sources for radioactive beams gather many different systems such as dye laser or all-solid state titanium:sapphire laser systems, high or low repetition rates, hot cavities or gas cells, additional selectivity by using chemical techniques, or the LIST technique (laser ion source trap). In this paper, the physics of laser ion sources will be described with the current limitations and challenges for the future. An overview of the laser ion source facilities will be given, with an emphasis on the ongoing developments and perspectives on LIS.

Lecesne, N.

2012-02-01

196

Ion current from a Penning-discharge ion source  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments have been carried out to determine the dependences of the ion current on the magnetic field and the anode diameter in an ion source over the pressure range (3.4--7) x10⁻⁵ torr. The most effective sources are those in which the anode diameter is 13--15 mm with anode length l\\/sub a\\/=27 mm and a distance of 2d=30 mm between the

R. P. Babertsyan; E. S. Badalyan; E. I. Ter-Gevorkyan

1979-01-01

197

Enhancing the performances of ECR Ion Sources  

SciTech Connect

The performances of ECR ion sources can be enhanced in the spatial domain by tailoring the central magnetic field so that it is uniformly distributed over a large plasma volume and is of magnitude so as to be in resonance with single frequency microwave radiation. Analogously, the performances of conventional minimum-B ECR ion sources can be enhanced in the frequency domain by injecting multiple discrete frequency or broadband microwave radiation into their plasma volumes. In this report, examples of both the spatial-and frequency-domain techniques will be given. For example, the design aspects of an all permanent-magnet ''volume-type'' (spatial-domain) ECR ion source will be described and the effects of injecting multiple frequencies (frequency-domain) on the charge-state-distributions extracted from a conventional minimum-B ECR ion source will be presented.

Alton, G.D.; Liu, Y.

1999-03-29

198

High brightness ion source: The Penning ringatron  

SciTech Connect

The design of a high brightness penning ion source is discussed. A cylindrical configuration (RINGATRON) is used. This is shown to improve ion extraction across the magnetic field. It also leads to enhanced production density. Comparisons of the ringatron configuration with the duoplasmatron and the planar penning discharge configuration are made. (AIP)

Whealton, J.H.; Stirling, W.L.; Ryan, P.M.; Akerman, M.A.; Becraft, W.R.; Gardner, W.L.; Haselton, H.H.; Rothe, K.E.; Bell, M.A.; Raridon, R.J.; and others

1987-07-30

199

H⁻ ion source with high duty factor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The small-angle source (SAS) and 4X source are Penning surface-plasma sources (SPS) that produce high-brightness H⁻ ion beams for accelerator applications. However, electrode cooling considerations have limited the duty factor for pulsed operation to 1 to 3% and the maximum cw H⁻ beam to 2 to 4 mA. The addition of some active cooling to the 4X source has allowed

H. V. Jr. Smith; N. M. Schnurr; D. H. Whitaker; K. E. Kalash

1987-01-01

200

Fabrication of ion source components by electroforming  

SciTech Connect

Several components of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)/Magnetic Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) ion source have been fabricated utilizing an electroforming process. A procedure has been developed for enclosing coolant passages in copper components by electrodepositing a thick (greater than or equal to 0.75-mm) layer of copper (electroforming) over the top of grooves machined into the copper component base. Details of the procedure to fabricate acceleration grids and other ion source components are presented.

Schechter, D.E.; Sluss, F.

1983-01-01

201

Laser ion source development at Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report describes the efforts made to develop a resonant-ionization laser ion source based on tunable Ti:sapphire lasers for nuclear physics and astrophysics research at Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility. Three Ti:sapphire lasers have been upgraded with individual pump lasers to eliminate laser power losses due to synchronization delays. Ionization schemes for 14 elements have been obtained. Off-line studies show that the overall efficiency of the laser ion source can be as high as 40%. TaC surface coatings have been investigated for minimizing surface and bulk trapping of the atoms of interest.

Liu, Y.; Gottwald, T.; Havener, C. C.; Howe, J. Y.; Kiggans, J.; Mattolat, C.; Vane, C. R.; Wendt, K.; Beene, J. R.

2012-02-01

202

Practical experience in extending the ion source and injection system H--ion source duty cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ion source and injection system H- Penning surface-plasma source is currently being developed on the ion source development rig at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory in order to meet the requirements for the next generation of high-power proton drivers. Finite element modeling has been used previously to study the effect of increasing the duty cycle. The main requirement to allow increased

D. C. Faircloth; M. O. Whitehead; T. Wood

2006-01-01

203

Practical experience in extending the ion source and injection system H?-ion source duty cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ion source and injection system H? Penning surface-plasma source is currently being developed on the ion source development rig at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory in order to meet the requirements for the next generation of high-power proton drivers. Finite element modeling has been used previously to study the effect of increasing the duty cycle. The main requirement to allow increased

D. C. Faircloth; M. O. Whitehead; T. Wood

2006-01-01

204

Review of negative hydrogen ion sources  

SciTech Connect

In the early seventies, significant discoveries for H{sup {minus}} ion sources were made at Novosibirsk. These and many improvements which followed have led to useful accelerator sources. With these sources charge-exchange injection into circular accelerators has become desirable and routine. This paper reviews the major developments leading to practical H{sup {minus}} sources. Different types and variations of these sources with some basic physics and operation will be described. The operating parameters and beam characteristics of these sources will be given. 32 refs., 13 figs.

Schmidt, C.W.

1991-02-01

205

Silicon- and aluminum-nitride films deposited by reactive low-voltage ion plating and reactive dc-magnetron sputtering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work the properties of Si3N4 and AIN thin films deposited onto unheated substrates by Reactive Low Voltage Ion Plating (RLVIP) and Reactive DC-Magnetron Sputtering (RDCMS) were investigated. In both experimental setups pure silicon and aluminum were used as starting materials. Working and reactive gas were argon and nitrogen respectively. All Si3N4 films showed amorphous structure in X-ray and electron diffraction whereas AIN films were found to be polycrystalline and could be indexed to the bulk hexagonal AIN lattice. The values of the film refractive index at 550 nm are 2.08 for RLVIP Si3N4, 2.12 for RLVIP AIN, 2.02 for RDCMS Si3N4, and 1.98 or 2.12 for AIN depending on the total pressure in the range of 8 E - 1 Pa and 1 E - 1 Pa during the process. The high optical transmission region for the Si3N4 films lies between 0.23 and 9.5 micrometers , and for AIN films between 0.2 and 12.5 micrometers . Purity and composition were measured by electron microprobe, infrared transmission, nuclear reactions, elastic recoil detection analysis and Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy. Transmission electron micrographs of Pt-C replicas of fracture cross sections of the films show their different microstructure and surface topography. Environmental tests proved the RLVIP Si3N4 films to be very hard, of high density and of strong adherence to glass.

Vogl, G. W.; Monz, K. H.; Nguyen, Q. D.; Huter, M.; Rille, Eduard P.; Pulker, Hans K.

1994-11-01

206

Ion beam analysis, corrosion resistance and nanomechanical properties of TiAlCN/CNx multilayer grown by reactive magnetron sputtering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel TiAlCN/CNx multilayer coating, consisting of nine TiAlCN/CNx periods with a top layer 0.5 ?m of CNx, was designed to enhance the corrosion resistance of CoCrMo biomedical alloy. The multilayers were deposited by dc and RF reactive magnetron sputtering from Ti0.5Al0.5 and C targets respectively in a N2/Ar plasma. The corrosion resistance and mechanical properties of the multilayer coatings were analyzed and compared to CoCrMo bulk alloy. Ion beam analysis (IBA) and X-ray diffraction tests were used to measure the element composition profiles and crystalline structure of the films. Corrosion resistance was evaluated by means of potentiodynamic polarization measurements using simulated body fluid (SBF) at typical body temperature and the nanomechanical properties of the multilayer evaluated by nanoindentation tests were analyzed and compared to CoCrMo bulk alloy. It was found that the multilayer hardness and the elastic recovery are higher than the substrate of CoCrMo. Furthermore the coated substrate shows a better general corrosion resistance than that of the CoCrMo alloy alone with no observation of pitting corrosion.

Alemn, B.; Flores, M.; Canto, C.; Andrade, E.; de Lucio, O. G.; Rocha, M. F.; Broitman, E.

2014-07-01

207

Laser ion source with solenoid for Brookhaven National Laboratory-electron beam ion source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electron beam ion source (EBIS) preinjector at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is a new heavy ion-preinjector for relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC) and NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL). Laser ion source (LIS) is a primary ion source provider for the BNL-EBIS. LIS with solenoid at the plasma drift section can realize the low peak current (~100 ?A) with high charge (~10 nC) which is the BNL-EBIS requirement. The gap between two solenoids does not cause serious plasma current decay, which helps us to make up the BNL-EBIS beamline.

Kondo, K.; Yamamoto, T.; Sekine, M.; Okamura, M.

2012-02-01

208

Laser ion source with solenoid for Brookhaven National Laboratory-electron beam ion source.  

PubMed

The electron beam ion source (EBIS) preinjector at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is a new heavy ion-preinjector for relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC) and NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL). Laser ion source (LIS) is a primary ion source provider for the BNL-EBIS. LIS with solenoid at the plasma drift section can realize the low peak current (?100 ?A) with high charge (?10 nC) which is the BNL-EBIS requirement. The gap between two solenoids does not cause serious plasma current decay, which helps us to make up the BNL-EBIS beamline. PMID:22380298

Kondo, K; Yamamoto, T; Sekine, M; Okamura, M

2012-02-01

209

Laser ion source with solenoid for Brookhaven National Laboratory-electron beam ion source  

SciTech Connect

The electron beam ion source (EBIS) preinjector at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is a new heavy ion-preinjector for relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC) and NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL). Laser ion source (LIS) is a primary ion source provider for the BNL-EBIS. LIS with solenoid at the plasma drift section can realize the low peak current ({approx}100 {micro}A) with high charge ({approx}10 nC) which is the BNL-EBIS requirement. The gap between two solenoids does not cause serious plasma current decay, which helps us to make up the BNL-EBIS beamline.

Kondo K.; Yamamoto, T.; Sekine, M.; Okamura, M.

2012-02-22

210

Laser ion source with solenoid for Brookhaven National Laboratory-electron beam ion source  

SciTech Connect

The electron beam ion source (EBIS) preinjector at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is a new heavy ion-preinjector for relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC) and NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL). Laser ion source (LIS) is a primary ion source provider for the BNL-EBIS. LIS with solenoid at the plasma drift section can realize the low peak current ({approx}100 {mu}A) with high charge ({approx}10 nC) which is the BNL-EBIS requirement. The gap between two solenoids does not cause serious plasma current decay, which helps us to make up the BNL-EBIS beamline.

Kondo, K.; Okamura, M. [Collider-Accelerator Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, New York (United States); Yamamoto, T. [Cooperative Major in Nuclear Energy, Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan); Sekine, M. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

2012-02-15

211

Molecular phosphorus ion source for semiconductor technology  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents results on the generation of molecular phosphorus ion beams in a hot filament ion source. Solid red phosphorous is evaporated mainly as tetra-atomic molecules up to a temperature of 800 deg. C. Thus, one of the main conditions for producing maximum P{sub 4}{sup +} fraction in the beam is to keep the temperature of the phosphorous oven, the steam line and the discharge chamber walls no greater than 800 deg. C. The prior version of our ion source was equipped with a discharge chamber cooling system. The modified source ensured a P{sub 4}{sup +} ion beam current greater than 30% of the total beam current.

Gushenets, V. I.; Bugaev, A. S.; Oks, E. M. [Institute of High Current Electronics SB RAS, Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation); Hershcovitch, A. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Kulevoy, T. V. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow 117218 (Russian Federation)

2012-02-15

212

Negative-ion source applications (invited)  

SciTech Connect

In this paper heavy negative-ion sources which we developed and their applications for materials science are reviewed. Heavy negative ions can be effectively produced by the ejection of a sputtered atom through the optimally cesiated surface of target with a low work function. Then, enough continuous negative-ion currents for materials-science applications can be obtained. We developed several kinds of sputter-type heavy negative-ion sources such as neutral- and ionized-alkaline metal bombardment-type heavy negative-ion source and rf-plasma sputter type. In the case where a negative ion is irradiated on a material surface, surface charging seldom takes place because incoming negative charge of the negative ion is well balanced with outgoing negative charge of the released secondary electron. In the negative-ion implantation into an insulator or insulated conductive material, high precision implantation processing with charge-up free properties can be achieved. Negative-ion implantation technique, therefore, can be applied to the following novel material processing systems: the surface modification of micrometer-sized powders, the nanoparticle formation in an insulator for the quantum devices, and the nerve cell growth manipulation by precise control of the biocompatibility of polymer surface. When a negative ion with low kinetic energy approaches the solid surface, the kinetic energy causes the interatomic bonding (kinetic bonding), and formation of a metastable material is promoted. Carbon films with high constituent of sp{sup 3} bonding, therefore, can be formed by carbon negative-ion beam deposition.

Ishikawa, J. [Department of Electronic Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyotodaigaku-katsura, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan)

2008-02-15

213

Low temperature ion source for calutrons  

DOEpatents

A new ion source assembly for calutrons has been provided for the efficient separation of elements having high vapor pressures. The strategic location of cooling pads and improved insulation permits operation of the source at lower temperatures. A vapor valve constructed of graphite and located in a constantly increasing temperature gradient provides reliable control of the vapor flow from the charge bottle to the arc chamber. A pronounced saving in calutron operating time and equipment maintenance has been achieved with the use of the present ion source.

Veach, Allen M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Bell, Jr., William A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Howell, Jr., George D. (Clinton, TN)

1981-01-01

214

Microstructure and mechanical properties of CrAlN coatings deposited by modified ion beam enhanced magnetron sputtering on AISI H13 steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

CrAlN coatings were deposited on silicon and AISI H13 steel substrates using a modified ion beam enhanced magnetron sputtering\\u000a system. At the modified ion beam bombardment, the effects of bias voltage and Al\\/(Cr+Al) ratio on microstructure and mechanical\\u000a properties of the coatings were studied. The X-ray diffraction data showed that all CrAlN coatings were crystallized in the\\u000a cubic NaCl B1

Chunyan Yu; Shebin Wang; Linhai Tian; Tianbao Li; Bingshe Xu

2009-01-01

215

The status of the spallation neutron source ion source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ion source for the spallation neutron source (SNS) is a radio-frequency, multicusp source designed to deliver 45 mA of H- to the SNS accelerator with a pulse length of 1 ms and repetition rate of 60 Hz. A total of three ion sources have been fabricated and commissioned at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and subsequently delivered to the SNS at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The ion sources are currently being rotated between operation on the SNS accelerator, where they are involved in ongoing efforts to commission the SNS LINAC, and the hot spare stand (HSS), where high-current tests are in progress. Commissioning work involves operating the source in a low duty-factor mode (pulse width ~200 ?s and repetition rate ~5 Hz) for extended periods of time while the high-current tests involve source operation at full duty-factor of 6% (1 ms/60 Hz). This report discusses routine performance of the source employed in the commissioning role as well as the initial results of high-current tests performed on the HSS.

Welton, R. F.; Stockli, M. P.; Murray, S. N.; Keller, R.

2004-05-01

216

Ion source based on the cathodic arc  

DOEpatents

A cylindrically symmetric arc source to produce a ring of ions which leave the surface of the arc target radially and are reflected by electrostatic fields present in the source to a point of use, such as a part to be coated. An array of electrically isolated rings positioned in the source serves the dual purpose of minimizing bouncing of macroparticles and providing electrical insulation to maximize the electric field gradients within the source. The source also includes a series of baffles which function as a filtering or trapping mechanism for any macroparticles.

Sanders, David M. (Livermore, CA); Falabella, Steven (Livermore, CA)

1994-01-01

217

Ion source based on the cathodic arc  

DOEpatents

A cylindrically symmetric arc source to produce a ring of ions which leave the surface of the arc target radially and are reflected by electrostatic fields present in the source to a point of use, such as a part to be coated, is described. An array of electrically isolated rings positioned in the source serves the dual purpose of minimizing bouncing of macroparticles and providing electrical insulation to maximize the electric field gradients within the source. The source also includes a series of baffles which function as a filtering or trapping mechanism for any macroparticles. 3 figures.

Sanders, D.M.; Falabella, S.

1994-02-01

218

4th Generation ECR Ion Sources  

SciTech Connect

The concepts and technical challenges related to developing a 4th generation ECR ion source with an RF frequency greater than 40 GHz and magnetic confinement fields greater than twice Becr will be explored in this paper. Based on the semi-empirical frequency scaling of ECR plasma density with the square of operating frequency, there should be significant gains in performance over current 3rd generation ECR ion sources, which operate at RF frequencies between 20 and 30 GHz. While the 3rd generation ECR ion sources use NbTi superconducting solenoid and sextupole coils, the new sources will need to use different superconducting materials such as Nb3Sn to reach the required magnetic confinement, which scales linearly with RF frequency. Additional technical challenges include increased bremsstrahlung production, which may increase faster than the plasma density, bremsstrahlung heating of the cold mass and the availability of high power continuous wave microwave sources at these frequencies. With each generation of ECR ion sources, there are new challenges to be mastered, but the potential for higher performance and reduced cost of the associated accelerator continue to make this a promising avenue for development.

Lyneis, Claude M.; Leitner, D.; Todd, D.S.; Sabbi, G.; Prestemon, S.; Caspi, S.; Ferracin, P.

2008-12-01

219

Ion Source Development at the SNS  

SciTech Connect

The US Spallation Neutron Source* (SNS) has recently begun producing neutrons and is currently on track to becoming a world-leading facility for materials science based on neutron scattering. The facility is comprised of an H- ion source, a linear accelerator, an accumulator ring, a liquid-Hg target and a suite of neutron scattering instruments. Over the next several years the average H- current from the ion source will be increased in order to meet the baseline facility requirement of providing 1.4 MW of beam-power to the target and the SNS power upgrade power requirement of 2+ MW on target. Meeting the latter goal will require H- currents of 70-100 mA with an RMS emittance of 0.20-0.35 mm mrad and a ~7% duty-factor. To date, the RF-driven multicusp SNS ion source has only been able to demonstrate sustained operation at 33 mA of beam current at a ~7% duty-factor. This report details our efforts to develop variations of the current ion source which can meet the final requirements: designs and experimental results are presented for source versions featuring helicon plasma generators, high-power external antennas employing Cs, glow-discharge plasma guns supplying supplemental electrons and advanced Cs collars.

Welton, Robert F [ORNL; Stockli, Martin P [ORNL; Murray Jr, S N [ORNL; Carr, Jr, Jerry [ORNL; Carmichael, Justin R [ORNL; Goulding, Richard Howell [ORNL; Baity Jr, F Wallace [ORNL

2006-01-01

220

rf improvements for Spallation Neutron Source H-ion source  

SciTech Connect

The Spallation Neutron Source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is ramping up the accelerated proton beam power to 1.4 MW and just reached 1 MW. The rf-driven multicusp ion source that originates from the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has been delivering 38 mA H beam in the linac at 60 Hz, 0.9 ms. To improve availability, a rf-driven external antenna multicusp ion source with a water-cooled ceramic aluminum nitride AlN plasma chamber is developed. Computer modeling and simulations have been made to analyze and optimize the rf performance of the new ion source. Operational statistics and test runs with up to 56 mA medium energy beam transport beam current identify the 2 MHz rf system as a limiting factor in the system availability and beam production. Plasma ignition system is under development by using a separate 13 MHz system. To improve the availability of the rf power system with easier maintenance, we tested a 70 kV isolation transformer for the 80 kW, 6% duty cycle 2 MHz amplifier to power the ion source from a grounded solid-state amplifier. 2010 American Institute of Physics.

Kang, Yoon W [ORNL; Fuja, Raymond E [ORNL; Goulding, Richard Howell [ORNL; Hardek, Thomas W [ORNL; Lee, Sung-Woo [ORNL; McCarthy, Mike [ORNL; Piller, Chip [ORNL; Shin, Ki [ORNL; Stockli, Martin P [ORNL; Welton, Robert F [ORNL

2010-01-01

221

Pulsed source ion implantation apparatus and method  

DOEpatents

A new pulsed plasma-immersion ion-implantation apparatus that implants ions in large irregularly shaped objects to controllable depth without overheating the target, minimizing voltage breakdown, and using a constant electrical bias applied to the target. Instead of pulsing the voltage applied to the target, the plasma source, for example a tungsten filament or a RF antenna, is pulsed. Both electrically conducting and insulating targets can be implanted. 16 figs.

Leung, K.N.

1996-09-24

222

Pulsed source ion implantation apparatus and method  

DOEpatents

A new pulsed plasma-immersion ion-implantation apparatus that implants ions in large irregularly shaped objects to controllable depth without overheating the target, minimizing voltage breakdown, and using a constant electrical bias applied to the target. Instead of pulsing the voltage applied to the target, the plasma source, for example a tungsten filament or a RF antenna, is pulsed. Both electrically conducting and insulating targets can be implanted.

Leung, Ka-Ngo (Hercules, CA)

1996-01-01

223

Ion sources for fission fragment accelerators  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the Grenoble and Munich high-flux reactors fission fragment accelerators are under design which will deliver beams of very neutron-rich fission products with a final energy between 3 and 6 MeV\\/u. In order to obtain an efficient acceleration in a compact accelerator, charge conversion of the 1+ ion beams from the in-pile ion source to a q\\/A>=0.16 has to take

U. Kster; O. Kester; D. Habs

1998-01-01

224

BETSI, a new test bench for ion sources optimization at CEA SACLAY  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the framework of several International HPPA projects (such as IFMIF, IPHI, and Spiral2) the CEA handles the design and the developments of several electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources. For the IFMIF EVEDA demonstrator, a 140 mA cw extracted deuteron beam will be required for high yield of neutron production. For radioactive ion production in the Spiral2 project, several milliamperes of deuterons will be delivered with a permanent magnet source. The optimization of the beam quality at the entrance of the radio frequency quadropole (RFQ) accelerator system triggered the need of a new test bench for ion source optimization and beam qualification. The BETSI ion source test bench will operate up to 50 kV and ignite cw or pulsed hydrogen plasma with a 2.45 GHz magnetron. Great care has already been taken to design electrostatic optics of the extraction system to minimize the emittance growth. Plasma diagnostics will be inserted in the source chamber and several beam diagnostics (emittance and current measurements, beam species analysis) will also be implemented on the low energy beam line transport (LEBT). These diagnostics allow the simultaneous analysis of the beam quality with the plasma parameters of the source. Regional funding request will also be needed to improve the LEBT for space charge compensation measurements. The design of the present and upgraded test bench will be reported as well as the first extracted beam analysis.

Tuske, O.; Adroit, G.; Delferrire, O.; de Menezes, D.; Gauthier, Y.; Gobin, R.; Harrault, F.

2008-02-01

225

Ion plating with an induction heating source  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Induction heating is introduced as an evaporation heat source in ion plating. A bare induction coil without shielding can be directly used in the glow discharge region with no arcing. The only requirement is to utilize an rf inductive generator with low operating frequency of 75 kHz. Mechanical simplicity of the ion plating apparatus and ease of operation is a great asset for industrial applications; practically any metal such as nickel, iron, and the high temperature refractories can be evaporated and ion plated.

Spalvins, T.; Brainard, W. A.

1976-01-01

226

Focused ion beam source method and apparatus  

DOEpatents

A focused ion beam having a cross section of submicron diameter, a high ion current, and a narrow energy range is generated from a target comprised of particle source material by laser ablation. The method involves directing a laser beam having a cross section of critical diameter onto the target, producing a cloud of laser ablated particles having unique characteristics, and extracting and focusing a charged particle beam from the laser ablated cloud. The method is especially suited for producing focused ion beams for semiconductor device analysis and modification.

Pellin, Michael J. (Naperville, IL); Lykke, Keith R. (Gaithersburg, MD); Lill, Thorsten B. (Sunnyvale, CA)

2000-01-01

227

ECR ion source with electron gun  

DOEpatents

An Advanced Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source (10) having an electron gun (52) for introducing electrons into the plasma chamber (18) of the ion source (10). The ion source (10) has a injection enclosure (12) and a plasma chamber tank (14). The plasma chamber (18) is defined by a plurality of longitudinal magnets (16). The electron gun (52) injects electrons axially into the plasma chamber (18) such that ionization within the plasma chamber (18) occurs in the presence of the additional electrons produced by the electron gun (52). The electron gun (52) has a cathode (116) for emitting electrons therefrom which is heated by current supplied from an AC power supply (96) while bias potential is provided by a bias power supply (118). A concentric inner conductor (60) and Outer conductor (62) carry heating current to a carbon chuck (104) and carbon pusher (114) Which hold the cathode (116) in place and also heat the cathode (16). In the Advanced Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source (10), the electron gun (52) replaces the conventional first stage used in prior art electron cyclotron resonance ion generators.

Xie, Zu Q. (El Cerrito, CA); Lyneis, Claude M. (Berkeley, CA)

1993-01-01

228

Negative ion beam source development in Europe  

SciTech Connect

The development in Europe of negative ion sources and accelerators is carried out principally at Cadarache, France and at Garching, Germany. Other work is in progress at the Ecolc Polytechnique, France, and CIEMAT, Spain. The main thrust of the programme so far has been driven by the requirements for the 1 MeV D{sup 0} injection on ITER. It is now being proposed to develop a new negative ion source and accelerator for use on present and future European fusion experiments. This paper summarises the present and proposed future programmes in Europe.

Hemsworth, R. S.; Bucalossi, J.; Desgranges, C.; Fumelli, M.; Jacquot, C.; Massmann, P.; Simonin, A.; Trainham, R. [Association EURATOM--C. E. A., C. E. A. Cadarache, 13108 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Frank, P.; Heinemann, B.; Krause, W.; Ott, W.; Penningsfeld, H.-P.; Speth, E.; Staebler, A.; Volmer, O. [Max Plank Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching bei Muenchen (Germany); Hodgson, E. R. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Michaut, C.; Riz, D. [L. P. M. I., Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau (France)

1998-08-20

229

Reducing ion beam noise of vacuum arc ion sources  

SciTech Connect

Vacuum arc ion sources are known for delivering high currents of metal ion beams. By Langmuir probe and Faraday cup measurements it is shown that fluctuations of the ion beam current are due to the fluctuations of plasma density which in turn are due to the explosive nature of plasma production at cathode spots. Humphries and co-workers and later Oks and co-workers have shown that beam fluctuations can be reduced by inserting biased meshes in the plasma. Here, the idea of ion extraction at kV-level with post-acceleration is investigated. The high voltage allows us to use coarse, ridged meshes or grids. The combination of an extractor operating in the overdense plasma regime with post-acceleration lead to very reproducible, practically ''noiseless'' ion beams however at the expense of low ion current density. The noise reduction is due to ion optics effects. Although the current setup is not suitable for a heavy ion fusion injector due to the low beam current and the risk of extractor voltage breakdown, further development of the concept may lead to reproducible beam pulses of sufficiently high current and brightness.

Anders, Andre; Hollinger, Ralph

2001-08-29

230

Excellent vacuum tribological properties of Pb/PbS film deposited by RF magnetron sputtering and ion sulfurizing.  

PubMed

Soft metal Pb film of 3 ?m in thickness was deposited on AISI 440C steel by RF magnetron sputtering, and then some of the Pb film samples were treated by low-temperature ion sulfurizing (LTIS) and formed Pb/PbS composite film. Tribological properties of the Pb and Pb/PbS films were tested contrastively in vacuum and air condition using a self-developed tribometer (model of MSTS-1). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were adopted to analyze the microstructure and chemical construction of the films and their worn surfaces. The results show that a mass of Pb was changed to PbS during the process of LTIS. In air condition, owing to the severe oxidation effect, pure Pb film showed relatively high friction coefficients (0.6), and Pb/PbS composite film also lost its friction-reduction property after sliding for a short time. In a vacuum, the average friction coefficients of Pb film were about 0.1, but the friction coefficient curve fluctuated obviously. And the Pb/PbS composite film exhibited excellent tribological properties in vacuum condition. Its friction coefficients keep stable at a low value of about 0.07 for a long time. If takes the value of friction coefficients exceeding 0.2 continuously as a criterion of lubrication failure, the sliding friction life of Pb/PbS film was as long as 3.2 10(5) r, which is 8 times of that of the Pb film. It can be concluded that the Pb/PbS film has excellent vacuum tribological properties and important foreground for applying in space solid lubrication related fields. PMID:24308504

Guozheng, Ma; Binshi, Xu; Haidou, Wang; Shuying, Chen; Zhiguo, Xing

2014-01-01

231

Recent negative ion source activity at JYFL  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A filament-powered multicusp ion source for production of H- has been developed for the Jyvskyl Pelletron accelerator for use in ion beam lithography and particle induced X-ray emission applications. The source can be considered conventional with the exception of the filter field being created with an electric magnet for continuous adjustability. A permanent magnet dipoleantidipole electron dump is integrated in the puller electrode. The source provides 50 ?A H- beam at 10 keV energy with 0.019 mm mrad 95 % normalized rms emittance through a 2 mm aperture. Lower emittance is achievable by changing the plasma electrode insert to a smaller aperture one if application requires. A new commercial MCC30/15 cyclotron has been installed at the Jyvskyl accelerator laboratory providing 30MeV H+ and 15Mev D+ for use in nuclear physics experiments and applications. The ion source delivered with the cyclotron is a a filament-powered multicusp source capable of about 130 h continuous operation at 1 mA H- output between filament changes. The ion source is located in the cyclotron vault and therefore a significant waiting time for the vault cooldown is required before filament change is possible. This kind of operation is not acceptable as 350 h and longer experiments are expected. Therefore a project for developing a CW 13.56 MHz RF ion source has been initiated. A planar RF antenna replacing the filament back plate of the existing TRIUMF-type ion source has been used in the first tests with 240 ?A of H- and 21 mA of electrons measured at 1.5 kW of RF power. Tests with higher RF power levels were prevented by electron beam induced sparking. A new plasma chamber has been built and a new extraction is being designed for the RF ion source. The extraction code IBSimu has recently gone through a major update on how smooth electrode surfaces are implemented in the Poisson solvers. This has made it possible to implement a fast multigrid solver with low memory consumption. Also a method has been made to import 3D CAD geometries into simulations.

Kalvas, T.; Tarvainen, O.; Komppula, J.; Laitinen, M.; Sajavaara, T.; Koivisto, H.; Jokinen, A.; Dehnel, M. P.

2013-02-01

232

Liquid metal alloy ion source based metal ion injection into a room-temperature electron beam ion source  

SciTech Connect

We have carried out a series of measurements demonstrating the feasibility of using the Dresden electron beam ion source (EBIS)-A, a table-top sized, permanent magnet technology based electron beam ion source, as a charge breeder. Low charged gold ions from an AuGe liquid metal alloy ion source were injected into the EBIS and re-extracted as highly charged ions, thereby producing charge states as high as Au{sup 60+}. The setup, the charge breeding technique, breeding efficiencies as well as acceptance and emittance studies are presented.

Thorn, A.; Ritter, E.; Zschornack, G. [Fachrichtung Physik, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Helmholtzstrasse 10, D-01069 Dresden (Germany); Ullmann, F. [DREEBIT GmbH, Zur Wetterwarte 50, D-01109 Dresden (Germany); Pilz, W.; Bischoff, L. [Helmholtzzentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Bautzner Landstrasse 400, D-01328 Dresden (Germany)

2012-02-15

233

Liquid metal alloy ion source based metal ion injection into a room-temperature electron beam ion source.  

PubMed

We have carried out a series of measurements demonstrating the feasibility of using the Dresden electron beam ion source (EBIS)-A, a table-top sized, permanent magnet technology based electron beam ion source, as a charge breeder. Low charged gold ions from an AuGe liquid metal alloy ion source were injected into the EBIS and re-extracted as highly charged ions, thereby producing charge states as high as Au(60 +). The setup, the charge breeding technique, breeding efficiencies as well as acceptance and emittance studies are presented. PMID:22380207

Thorn, A; Ritter, E; Ullmann, F; Pilz, W; Bischoff, L; Zschornack, G

2012-02-01

234

Ionospheric sources for molecular ion outflow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mass-resolved satellite observations have established the presence of molecular ions in the low-altitude magnetosphere, outer magnetosphere, and ring current. Associated molecular outflows originate from the auroral zone F-region ionosphere and, while normally several orders of magnitude less intense than the well-known O+ outflow, are perhaps more closely tied to intense geomagnetic disturbances. Molecular outflow is also fundamentally different from O+ outflow, since molecular ions must first be generated in large quantities in the F-region, and then are subject to very short recombination lifetimes as they escape. Owing to observational difficulties, very little detailed information exists on the generation, energization, and upward transport of molecular ions. Furthermore, the basic geographic and geomagnetic activity dependence of the ionospheric source and higher altitude outflow are only loosely constrained. This research synthesizes both observations and models to gain a better understanding of molecular ion generation and upflow, and the basic characteristics of the ionospheric molecular source during geomagnetic storms. To illustrate ionospheric dynamics associated with published satellite observations of molecular upflow, a 2D ionospheric model is driven by boundary conditions consistent with observed field-aligned currents. These simulations provide detailed information about expected species-dependent ion densities, temperatures, fluxes, and associated transients. Similar model results are also compared against PFISR radar estimates of molecular ions generated by auroral arc activity. A detailed case study of the 24-25 Sept. 1998 geomagnetic storm is presented in which the EISCAT ESR and Tromso radars suggested enhancements in F-region molecular ions and Polar satellite simultaneously observed moleculars in the magnetosphere. Finally, data from Sondrestrom and EISCAT radars during multiple storms are combined in an attempt to build a statistical picture of the latitude and magnetic local time dependence of the ionospheric molecular source. Connections of this source with satellite observations of molecular outflow are also discussed.

Zettergren, M. D.; Peterson, W. K.; Blelly, P. F.; Alcayde, D.; Semeter, J. L.

2012-12-01

235

Negative ion source with low temperature transverse divergence optical system  

DOEpatents

A negative ion source is provided which has extremely low transverse divergence as a result of a unique ion focusing system in which the focal line of an ion beam emanating from an elongated, concave converter surface is outside of the ion exit slit of the source and the path of the exiting ions. The beam source operates with a minimum ion temperature which makes possible a sharply focused (extremely low transverse divergence) ribbon like negative ion beam.

Whealton, J.H.; Stirling, W.L.

1985-03-04

236

Design study of primary ion provider for relativistic heavy ion collider electron beam ion source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Brookhaven National Laboratory has developed the new preinjector system, electron beam ion source (EBIS) for relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration Space Radiation Laboratory. Design of primary ion provider is an essential problem since it is required to supply beams with different ion species to multiple users simultaneously. The laser ion source with a defocused laser can provide a low charge state and low emittance ion beam, and is a candidate for the primary ion source for RHIC-EBIS. We show a suitable design with appropriate drift length and solenoid, which helps to keep sufficient total charge number with longer pulse length. The whole design of primary ion source, as well as optics arrangement, solid targets configuration and heating about target, is presented.

Kondo, K.; Kanesue, T.; Tamura, J.; Okamura, M.

2010-02-01

237

Design study of primary ion provider for relativistic heavy ion collider electron beam ion source.  

PubMed

Brookhaven National Laboratory has developed the new preinjector system, electron beam ion source (EBIS) for relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration Space Radiation Laboratory. Design of primary ion provider is an essential problem since it is required to supply beams with different ion species to multiple users simultaneously. The laser ion source with a defocused laser can provide a low charge state and low emittance ion beam, and is a candidate for the primary ion source for RHIC-EBIS. We show a suitable design with appropriate drift length and solenoid, which helps to keep sufficient total charge number with longer pulse length. The whole design of primary ion source, as well as optics arrangement, solid targets configuration and heating about target, is presented. PMID:20192366

Kondo, K; Kanesue, T; Tamura, J; Okamura, M

2010-02-01

238

A new source of tropospheric aerosols: Ion-ion recombination  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a new source of aerosol particles in the lower atmosphere that is based on the formation, growth, and recombination of ubiquitous cosmogenically-generated ions. This mechanism provides a uniform, continuous fine-particle generator in the presence of precursor vapors, such as sulfuric acid, or certain organic compounds. Thus, for example, aqueous sulfate aerosols can form at sulfuric acid vapor partial

Richard P. Turco; Jing-Xia Zhao; Fangqun Yu

1998-01-01

239

Plasma ion sources and ion beam technology inmicrofabrications  

SciTech Connect

For over decades, focused ion beam (FIB) has been playing a very important role in microscale technology and research, among which, semiconductor microfabrication is one of its biggest application area. As the dimensions of IC devices are scaled down, it has shown the need for new ion beam tools and new approaches to the fabrication of small-scale devices. In the meanwhile, nanotechnology has also deeply involved in material science research and bioresearch in recent years. The conventional FIB systems which utilize liquid gallium ion sources to achieve nanometer scale resolution can no longer meet the various requirements raised from such a wide application area such as low contamination, high throughput and so on. The drive towards controlling materials properties at nanometer length scales relies on the availability of efficient tools. In this thesis, three novel ion beam tools have been developed and investigated as the alternatives for the conventional FIB systems in some particular applications. An integrated focused ion beam (FIB) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) system has been developed for direct doping or surface modification. This new instrument employs a mini-RF driven plasma source to generate focused ion beam with various ion species, a FEI two-lens electron (2LE) column for SEM imaging, and a five-axis manipulator system for sample positioning. An all-electrostatic two-lens column has been designed to focus the ion beam extracted from the source. Based on the Munro ion optics simulation, beam spot sizes as small as 100 nm can be achieved at beam energies between 5 to 35 keV if a 5 {micro}m-diameter extraction aperture is used. Smaller beam spot sizes can be obtained with smaller apertures at sacrifice of some beam current. The FEI 2LE column, which utilizes Schottky emission, electrostatic focusing optics, and stacked-disk column construction, can provide high-resolution (as small as 20 nm) imaging capability, with fairly long working distance (25 mm) at 25 keV beam voltage. Such an integrated FIB/SEM dual-beam system will not only improve the accuracy and reproducibility when performing ion beam sculpting and direct implantation processes, but will also enable researchers to perform cross-sectioning, imaging, and analysis with the same tool. A major advantage of this approach is the ability to produce a wide variety of ion species tailored to the application.

Ji, Lili

2007-09-01

240

Ion source choices - an h- source for the high intensity neutrino source  

SciTech Connect

The High Intensity Neutrino Source (HINS) program at Fermilab (formerly the Proton Driver) aims to develop a multi-mission linear accelerator (LINAC) capable of accelerate H{sup -} ions to 8 GeV. This paper touches on the ion source requirements for the HINS and discusses long pulse length testing of three ion sources which appear to have the capability of meeting these requirements.

Moehs, Douglas P.; /Fermilab; Welton, Robert F.; /SNS Project, Oak Ridge; Stockli, Martin P.; Peters, Jens; /DESY; Alessi, James; /Brookhaven

2006-08-01

241

Performance of the LBL ECR ion source  

SciTech Connect

The LBL Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion source in test operation since January 1984 has produced a wide variety of high charge state ion beams suitable for injection into the 88-Inch Cyclotron. Two recent developments have dramatically improved the capability of the ECR source. The first development was the production of metallic ions. The intensities of aluminum ions produced were 36, 22, 10, and .065 e..mu..A for charge states 6, 7, 8, and 11, respectively. Calcium ion intensities were 36, 31, 4.6, and 0.20 e..mu..A for charge states 8, 9, 12, and 14, respectively. The second development was the replacement of the sextupole magnet used in of all other high charge state ECR sources with an octupole structure. This modification resulted in a dramatic improvement in the intensities of the high charge state beams and a significant upward shift in the charge state distribution (C.S.D.). The ECR-octupole or OCTIGUN has produced 89, 52, 9, and 2.5 e..mu..A of Ar/sup 8,9,11,12+/ and 21, 10, and 0.34 e..mu..A of Kr/sup 10,14,18+/, respectively. For the high charge states of argon and krypton the improvement gained by using the octupole is typically a factor of 5 to 10.

Lyneis, C.M.

1984-10-01

242

A filamentless ion source for materials processing  

SciTech Connect

A dual-stage, multiaperture gas ion source with 5 cm beam diameter has been built and characterized. The first discharge stage is a constricted glow discharge injecting a plasma stream into a discharge cavity supporting a Penning ion gauge discharge in the low pressure mode. Both discharge stages and ion extraction are fed by a single, grounded power supply. This simplifies the electrical setup and reduces costs. Various gases have been tested including nitrogen, oxygen, and argon. The ion beam current density is 250 {mu}A/cm{sup 2}, i.e., the beam current is about 5 mA, at an extraction voltage of 3.0 kV and a discharge current of 59 mA. Measurements of the ion beam current as a function of various parameters such as the discharge voltage and current, gas flow, and magnetic field are presented. The source is compact and can be easily adapted to various materials modification applications in which ion energies of a few keV are required. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

Anders, A.; MacGill, R.A.; Brown, I.G. [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)] [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Vizir, A. [High Current Electronics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk 634055 (Russia)] [High Current Electronics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk 634055 (Russia)

1998-02-01

243

Laser Ion Source Development at IGISOL  

SciTech Connect

A new laser ion source is under development at the IGISOL (Ion Guide Isotope Separator On-Line) mass separator facility in Jyvaeskylae, Finland. Two laser systems have been installed to provide access to as broad a range of elements as possible. One system uses well-known dye laser technology, the other uses solid state pump and titanium sapphire lasers. Several techniques are being pursued to improve both the isobaric purity and efficiency of exotic radioactive beams. One method uses pulsed lasers to ionize atoms after they have flowed out of the gas volume, within a radio-frequency sextupole (SPIG) guide. This is a variation of the so-called Laser Ion Source Trap (LIST) method and will be discussed in these proceedings.

Moore, Iain D.; Eronen, Tommi; Jokinen, Ari; Karvonen, Pasi; Penttilae, Heikki; Rinta-Antila, Sami; Sonoda, Tetsu; Aeysto, Juha [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, P.O. Box 35, 40014 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Billowes, Jon; Campbell, Paul; Marsh, Bruce; Nieminen, Arto; Tordoff, Ben [Schuster Laboratory, University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Geppert, Christopher; Wendt, Klaus [Institut fuer Physik, University of Mainz, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); Kessler, Thomas [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, P.O. Box 35, 40014 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Institut fuer Physik, University of Mainz, D-55099 Mainz (Germany)

2006-04-26

244

Laser Ion Source for a Mass Spectrometer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The design of a mock-up laser ion source intended for the work with ''LIDIA'' high-sensitive mass-spectrometer by the search of superheavy elements is desribed. The solid state optical quantum LTI PCh-5 generator operating in the mode of electro optical m...

G. M. Arzumanyan D. D. Bogdanov Y. A. Bykovskij A. M. Rodin S. M. Sil'nov

1981-01-01

245

Secondary electron ion source neutron generator  

DOEpatents

A neutron generator employing an electron emitter, an ion source bombarded by the electrons from the electron emitter, a plasma containment zone, and a target situated between the plasma containment zone and the electron emitter. The target contains occluded deuterium, tritium, or a mixture thereof

Brainard, John P. (Albuquerque, NM); McCollister, Daryl R. (Albuquerque, NM)

1998-01-01

246

Secondary electron ion source neutron generator  

DOEpatents

A neutron generator employing an electron emitter, an ion source bombarded by the electrons from the electron emitter, a plasma containment zone, and a target situated between the plasma containment zone and the electron emitter is disclosed. The target contains occluded deuterium, tritium, or a mixture thereof. 4 figs.

Brainard, J.P.; McCollister, D.R.

1998-04-28

247

Ion source modeling with LORENTZ2D  

Microsoft Academic Search

LORENTZ-2D is a boundary element package developed and marketed by Integrated Engineering Software, which can be used for a variety of charged particle optical analyses. In this article, the program is used in the analysis of two types of Cs+ sputter ion sources. The results are presented and compared versus some earlier empirical and numerical simulations.

Ali Asi

2002-01-01

248

Improved Bevatron local injector ion source performance  

SciTech Connect

Performance tests of the improved Bevatron Local Injector PIG Ion Source using particles of Si 4/sup +/, Ne 3/sup +/, and He 2/sup +/ are described. Initial measurements of the 8.4 keV/nucleon Si 4/sup +/ beam show an intensity of 100 particle microamperes with a normalized emittance of .06 ..pi.. cm-mrad. A low energy beam transport line provides mass analysis, diagnostics, and matching into a 200 MHz RFQ linac. The RFQ accelerates the beam from 8.4 to 200 keV/nucleon. The injector is unusual in the sense that all ion source power supplies, the ac distribution network, vacuum control equipment, and computer control system are contained in a four bay rack mounted on insulators which is located on a floor immediately above the ion source. The rack, transmission line, and the ion source housing are raised by a dc power supply to 80 kilovolts above earth ground. All power supplies, which are referenced to rack ground, are modular in construction and easily removable for maintenance. AC power is delivered to the rack via a 21 kVA, 3-phase transformer. 2 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Stover, G.; Zajec, E.

1985-05-01

249

Improved Bevatron local injector ion source performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Performance tests of the improved Bevatron Local Injector PIG Ion source using particles of Si 4(+), Ne 3(+), and He 2(+) are described. Initial measurements of the 8.4 keV/nucleon Si 4(+) beam show an intensity of 100 particle microamperes with a normalized emittance of .06 (PI) cm-mrad. A low energy beam transport line provides mass analysis, diagnostics, and matching into a 200 MHz RFQ linac. The RFQ accelerates the beam from 8.4 to 200 keV/nucleon. The injector is unusual in the sense that all ion source power supplies, the ac distribution network, vacuum control equipment, and computer control system are contained in a four bay rack mounted on insulators which is located on a floor immediately above the ion source. The rack, transmission line, and the ion source housing are raised by a dc power supply to 80 kilovolts above the ground. All power supplies, which are referenced to rack ground, are modular in construction and easily removable for maintenance. The ac power is delivered to the rack via a 21 kVThe a, 3-phase transformer.

Stover, G.; Zagec, E.

1985-05-01

250

Survey of ion plating sources. [conferences  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Based on the type of evaporation source, gaseous media and mode of transport, the following is discussed: resistance, electron beam, sputtering, reactive and ion beam evaporation. Ionization efficiencies and ion energies in the glow discharge determine the percentage of atoms which are ionized under typical ion plating conditions. The plating flux consists of a small number of energetic ions and a large number of energetic neutrals. The energy distribution ranges from thermal energies up to a maximum energy of the discharge. The various reaction mechanisms which contribute to the exceptionally strong adherence - formation of a graded sustrate/coating interface are not fully understood, however the controlling factors are evaluated. The influence of process variables on the nucleation and growth characteristics are illustrated in terms of morphological changes which affect the mechanical and tribological properties of the coating.

Spalvins, T.

1979-01-01

251

Ion sources for induction linac driven heavy ion fusion  

SciTech Connect

The use of ion sources in induction linacs for heavy ion fusion is fundamentally different from their use in the rf linac-storage rings approach. Induction linacs require very high current, short pulse extraction usually with large apertures which are dictated by the injector design. One is faced with the problem of extracting beams in a pulsed fashion while maintaining high beam quality during the pulse (low-emittance). Four types of sources have been studied for this application. The vacuum arc and the rf cusp field source are the plasma types and the porous plug and hot alumino-silicate surface source are the thermal types. The hot alumino-silicate potassium source has proved to be the best candidate for the next generation of scaled experiments. The porous plug for potassium is somewhat more difficult to use. The vacuum arc suffers from noise and lifetime problems and the rf cusp field source is difficult to use with very short pulses. Operational experience with all of these types of sources is presented.

Rutkowski, H.L.; Eylon, S.; Chupp, W.W.

1993-08-01

252

SNS Saddle Antenna H- Ion Source Project  

SciTech Connect

In this project we are developing an H- source, which will synthesize the most important developments in the field of negative ion sources to provide high current, high brightness, good lifetime, high reliability, and high power efficiency. We describe two planned modifications to the present SNS external antenna source in order to increase the plasma density near the output aperture: 1) replacing the present 2 MHz plasma-forming solenoid antenna with a 60 MHz saddle-type antenna and 2) replacing the permanent multicusp magnetic system with a weaker electro-magnet.

Dudnikov, Vadim [Muons, Inc.; Johnson, Rolland P. [Muons, Inc.; Dudnikova, Galina [University of Maryland; Stockli, Martin P [ORNL; Welton, Robert F [ORNL

2009-01-01

253

Metal versus rare-gas ion irradiation during Ti{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}N film growth by hybrid high power pulsed magnetron/dc magnetron co-sputtering using synchronized pulsed substrate bias  

SciTech Connect

Metastable NaCl-structure Ti{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}N is employed as a model system to probe the effects of metal versus rare-gas ion irradiation during film growth using reactive high-power pulsed magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) of Al and dc magnetron sputtering of Ti. The alloy film composition is chosen to be x = 0.61, near the kinetic solubility limit at the growth temperature of 500 Degree-Sign C. Three sets of experiments are carried out: a -60 V substrate bias is applied either continuously, in synchronous with the full HIPIMS pulse, or in synchronous only with the metal-rich-plasma portion of the HIPIMS pulse. Alloy films grown under continuous dc bias exhibit a thickness-invariant small-grain, two-phase nanostructure (wurtzite AlN and cubic Ti{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}N) with random orientation, due primarily to intense Ar{sup +} irradiation leading to Ar incorporation (0.2 at. %), high compressive stress (-4.6 GPa), and material loss by resputtering. Synchronizing the bias with the full HIPIMS pulse results in films that exhibit much lower stress levels (-1.8 GPa) with no measureable Ar incorporation, larger grains elongated in the growth direction, a very small volume fraction of wurtzite AlN, and random orientation. By synchronizing the bias with the metal-plasma phase of the HIPIMS pulses, energetic Ar{sup +} ion bombardment is greatly reduced in favor of irradiation predominantly by Al{sup +} ions. The resulting films are single phase with a dense competitive columnar structure, strong 111 orientation, no measureable trapped Ar concentration, and even lower stress (-0.9 GPa). Thus, switching from Ar{sup +} to Al{sup +} bombardment, while maintaining the same integrated incident ion/metal ratio, eliminates phase separation, minimizes renucleation during growth, and reduces the high concentration of residual point defects, which give rise to compressive stress.

Greczynski, Grzegorz; Lu Jun; Jensen, Jens; Petrov, Ivan; Greene, Joseph E.; Bolz, Stephan; Koelker, Werner; Schiffers, Christoph; Lemmer, Oliver; Hultman, Lars [Department of Physics (IFM), Linkoeping University, SE-581 83 Linkoeping (Sweden); Department of Physics (IFM), Linkoeping University, SE-581 83 Linkoeping (Sweden) and Materials Science Department and Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Department of Physics (IFM), Linkoeping University, SE-581 83 Linkoeping (Sweden); Materials Science Department and Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States) and Department of Physics, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); CemeCon AG, Adenauerstr. 20 A4, D-52146 Wurselen (Germany); Department of Physics (IFM), Linkoeping University, SE-581 83 Linkoeping (Sweden)

2012-11-15

254

H^- ion density and temperature in volume negative ion source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We measured various plasma parameters in multicusp H^- ion source Camembert III, equipped with tantalum filaments. Measurements were carried out of electron temperature with a Langmuir probe, of the density and temperature of negative ions with the photodetachment diagnostics. A series of experiments with pure hydrogen and argon-hydrogen mixtures for the pressures ranging from 0.85 to 3 mTorr has been performed. Preliminary results are as follows: the evaporation of tantalum filaments increased the negative ions density; for low pressures one can suspect the existence of two groups of negative ions - with relatively high (1-2 eV) and relatively low (0.1 eV) temperatures. Adding argon influences negative ion density differently, depending on the hydrogen pressure - for low pressures (0.8 - 1 mTorr) the argon increases the density of negative ions and lowers their temperature, it also increases the electron density. As for the high pressures (2-3 mTorr), the temperature of H^- goes down as well as their density. The support of the European Community (Contract HPRI-CT-2001-50021) is gratefully acknowledged.

Ivanov, A.; Bacal, M.; Nishiura, M.

2002-11-01

255

Phase locking of relativistic magnetrons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phase locking of relativistic magnetrons has been achieved at power levels of about 3 GW at 2.8 GHz, exceeding previous phase-locking power levels by 3 orders of magnitude. Two relativistic magnetrons interact directly through a short waveguide of length l about n lambda\\/2 to allow locking. Power-density enhancement due to source coherence is directly measured in the radiation field. Phase

J. Benford; H. Sze; W. Woo; R. R. Smith; B. Harteneck

1989-01-01

256

A high charge state multicusp ion source  

SciTech Connect

Attempts have been made to generate high charge state ion beams by employing a multicusp plasma source. Three experimental investigations have been performed at LBL and at GSI to study the charge state distributions and the emittance of the extracted beam. Results demonstrate that charge state as high as +7 can be obtained with argon or xenon plasmas. The brightness of a 11 mA xenon ion beam is found to be 26 A/({pi}-mm-mrad){sup 2}. 6 refs., 6 figs.

Leung, K.N.; Keller, R.

1989-06-01

257

Ion source development for various applications in Korea (invited) (abstract)  

SciTech Connect

Ion source development in Korea has been related with various applications from accelerator to nanotechnology. Conventional ion sources such as Duoplasmatron and PIG ion sources were developed for high power proton accelerator and small cyclotron accelerators. To improve lifetime of the high current proton ion source, helicon plasma ion sources were developed with external rf antenna and applied for neutron generation in drive-in-target configuration. Negative hydrogen ion sources were also developed for tandem and cyclotron accelerators by using both rf and filament discharges. Large-area high-current ion sources for the KSTAR NBI system were developed and successfully tested for long-pulse operation of up to 300 s. Several broad beam ion sources for industrial applications such as ion implantation and surface treatment were also developed by using arc, rf, and microwave discharges. Recently, ion source applications become diversified to the area of nano- and biotechnologies. For example, C60 ion source was developed for the use of bioapplications in nanometer scale. For focused ion beam as a nanofabrication tool, liquid metal ion sources were improved and a novel plasma ion source was developed by utilizing localized sheath discharges. Research and development activities of these ion sources will be discussed with short description of appropriate applications.

Hwang, Y. S. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, San 56-1, Sillim-dong, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

2008-02-15

258

Extracted current saturation in negative ion sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The extraction of negatively charged particles from a negative ion source is one of the crucial issues in the development of the neutral beam injector system for future experimental reactor ITER. Full 3D electrostatic particle-in-cell Monte Carlo collision code--ONIX [S. Mochalskyy et al., Nucl. Fusion 50, 105011 (2010)]--is used to simulate the hydrogen plasma behaviour and the extracted particle features in the vicinity of the plasma grid, both sides of the aperture. It is found that the contribution to the extracted negative ion current of ions born in the volume is small compared with that of ions created at the plasma grid walls. The parametric study with respect to the rate of negative ions released from the walls shows an optimum rate. Beyond this optimum, a double layer builds-up by the negative ion charge density close to the grid aperture surface reducing thus extraction probability, and therefore the extracted current. The effect of the extraction potential and magnetic field magnitudes on the extraction is also discussed. Results are in good agreement with available experimental data.

Mochalskyy, S.; Lifschitz, A. F.; Minea, T.

2012-06-01

259

Ion source antenna development for the Spallation Neutron Source  

Microsoft Academic Search

The operational lifetime of a radio-frequency (rf) ion source is generally governed by the length of time the insulating structure protecting the antenna survives during exposure to the plasma. Coating the antenna with a thin layer of insulating material is a common means of extending the life of such antennas. When low-power\\/low-duty factor rf excitation is employed, antenna lifetimes of

R. F. Welton; M. P. Stockli; Y. Kang; M. Janney; R. Keller; R. W. Thomae; T. Schenkel; S. Shukla

2002-01-01

260

Note: development of ESS Bilbao's proton ion source: Ion Source Hydrogen positive.  

PubMed

The Ion Source Hydrogen positive is a 2.7 GHz off-resonance microwave discharge ion source. It uses four coils to generate an axial magnetic field in the plasma chamber around 0.1 T that exceeds the ECR resonance field. A new magnetic system was designed as a combination of the four coils and soft iron in order to increase the reliability of the source. The description of the simulations of the magnetic field and the comparison with the magnetic measurements are presented. Moreover, results of the initial commissioning of the source for extraction voltage until 50 kV will be reported. PMID:24593417

Miracoli, R; Feuchtwanger, J; Arredondo, I; Belver, D; Gonzalez, P J; Corres, J; Djekic, S; Echevarria, P; Eguiraun, M; Garmendia, N; Muguira, L

2014-02-01

261

Note: Development of ESS Bilbao's proton ion source: Ion Source Hydrogen Positive  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ion Source Hydrogen positive is a 2.7 GHz off-resonance microwave discharge ion source. It uses four coils to generate an axial magnetic field in the plasma chamber around 0.1 T that exceeds the ECR resonance field. A new magnetic system was designed as a combination of the four coils and soft iron in order to increase the reliability of the source. The description of the simulations of the magnetic field and the comparison with the magnetic measurements are presented. Moreover, results of the initial commissioning of the source for extraction voltage until 50 kV will be reported.

Miracoli, R.; Feuchtwanger, J.; Arredondo, I.; Belver, D.; Gonzalez, P. J.; Corres, J.; Djekic, S.; Echevarria, P.; Eguiraun, M.; Garmendia, N.; Muguira, L.

2014-02-01

262

rf-driven ion sources for industrial applications (invited) (abstract)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Plasma and Ion Source Technology Group at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory have been developing rf-driven ion sources for the last two decades. These sources are being used to generate both positive and negative ion beams. Some of these sources are operating in particle accelerators such as the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge, while others are being employed in various industrial ion beam systems. There are four areas where the rf-driven ion sources are commonly used in industry. (1) In semiconductor manufacturing, rf-driven sources have found important applications in plasma etching, ion beam implantation, and ion beam lithography. (2) In material analysis and surface modification, miniature rf-ion sources can be found in focused ion beam systems. They can provide ion beams of essentially any element in the Periodic Table. The newly developed combined rf ion-electron beam unit improves greatly the performance of the secondary ion mass spectrometry tool. (3) For neutron production, rf ion source is a major component of compact, high flux D-D, D-T, or T-T neutron generators. These neutron sources are now being employed in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) as well as in neutron imaging and material interrogation. (4) Large area rf-driven ion source will be used in an industrial design neutral beam diagnostic system for probing fusion plasmas. Such sources can be easily scaled to provide large ion beam current for future fusion reactor applications.

Leung, Ka-Ngo

2008-02-01

263

rf-driven ion sources for industrial applications (invited) (abstract)  

SciTech Connect

The Plasma and Ion Source Technology Group at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory have been developing rf-driven ion sources for the last two decades. These sources are being used to generate both positive and negative ion beams. Some of these sources are operating in particle accelerators such as the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge, while others are being employed in various industrial ion beam systems. There are four areas where the rf-driven ion sources are commonly used in industry. (1) In semiconductor manufacturing, rf-driven sources have found important applications in plasma etching, ion beam implantation, and ion beam lithography. (2) In material analysis and surface modification, miniature rf-ion sources can be found in focused ion beam systems. They can provide ion beams of essentially any element in the Periodic Table. The newly developed combined rf ion-electron beam unit improves greatly the performance of the secondary ion mass spectrometry tool. (3) For neutron production, rf ion source is a major component of compact, high flux D-D, D-T, or T-T neutron generators. These neutron sources are now being employed in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) as well as in neutron imaging and material interrogation. (4) Large area rf-driven ion source will be used in an industrial design neutral beam diagnostic system for probing fusion plasmas. Such sources can be easily scaled to provide large ion beam current for future fusion reactor applications.

Leung, Ka-Ngo [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and Nuclear Engineering Department, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

2008-02-15

264

Compact microwave ion source for industrial applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 2.45 GHz microwave ion source for ion implanters has many good properties for industrial application, such as easy maintenance and long lifetime, and it should be compact for budget and space. But, it has a dc current supply for the solenoid and a rf generator for plasma generation. Usually, they are located on high voltage platform because they are electrically connected with beam extraction power supply. Using permanent magnet solenoid and multi-layer dc break, high voltage deck and high voltage isolation transformer can be eliminated, and the dose rate on targets can be controlled by pulse duty control with semiconductor high voltage switch. Because the beam optics does not change, beam transfer components, such as focusing elements and beam shutter, can be eliminated. It has shown the good performances in budget and space for industrial applications of ion beams.

Cho, Yong-Sub; Kim, Dae-Il; Kim, Han-Sung; Seol, Kyung-Tae; Kwon, Hyeok-Jung; Hong, In-Seok

2012-02-01

265

Compact microwave ion source for industrial applications  

SciTech Connect

A 2.45 GHz microwave ion source for ion implanters has many good properties for industrial application, such as easy maintenance and long lifetime, and it should be compact for budget and space. But, it has a dc current supply for the solenoid and a rf generator for plasma generation. Usually, they are located on high voltage platform because they are electrically connected with beam extraction power supply. Using permanent magnet solenoid and multi-layer dc break, high voltage deck and high voltage isolation transformer can be eliminated, and the dose rate on targets can be controlled by pulse duty control with semiconductor high voltage switch. Because the beam optics does not change, beam transfer components, such as focusing elements and beam shutter, can be eliminated. It has shown the good performances in budget and space for industrial applications of ion beams.

Cho, Yong-Sub; Kim, Dae-Il; Kim, Han-Sung; Seol, Kyung-Tae; Kwon, Hyeok-Jung; Hong, In-Seok [Proton Engineering Frontier Project, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

2012-02-15

266

Compact microwave ion source for industrial applications.  

PubMed

A 2.45 GHz microwave ion source for ion implanters has many good properties for industrial application, such as easy maintenance and long lifetime, and it should be compact for budget and space. But, it has a dc current supply for the solenoid and a rf generator for plasma generation. Usually, they are located on high voltage platform because they are electrically connected with beam extraction power supply. Using permanent magnet solenoid and multi-layer dc break, high voltage deck and high voltage isolation transformer can be eliminated, and the dose rate on targets can be controlled by pulse duty control with semiconductor high voltage switch. Because the beam optics does not change, beam transfer components, such as focusing elements and beam shutter, can be eliminated. It has shown the good performances in budget and space for industrial applications of ion beams. PMID:22380346

Cho, Yong-Sub; Kim, Dae-Il; Kim, Han-Sung; Seol, Kyung-Tae; Kwon, Hyeok-Jung; Hong, In-Seok

2012-02-01

267

Beam Uniformity Controllable Ion Source with a Long Slit  

SciTech Connect

With scaling up of a substrate of LCD and silicon, an ion source with a longer extraction area than the substrate has been used for an ion implantation system. Wide sheet beam emitted from a long extraction area is effective to decrease space charge effect of a high current ion beam. An ion source which has this structure has been applied for FPD. This ion source controls the source plasma partially. This function is one of the methods to adjust the uniformity of the ion sheet beam. However, there are technical difficulties for this ion source. Therefore, we have developed three types of ion sources which have a longer extracting slit than the substrate and different direction of the source magnetic field. This paper shows the structures and the experimental result of these ion sources.

Ikejiri, T.; Zhao, W.; Tanaka, K.; Igo, T.; Kinoyama, T.; Tamura, S.; Yamashita, T. [Nissin Ion Equipment Co., LTD 575 Kuze-Tonoshiro-Cho, Minami-Ku, Kyoto, 601-8205 (Japan)

2008-11-03

268

Field ion source development for neutron generators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An ion source based on the principles of electrostatic field desorption is being developed to improve the performance of existing compact neutron generators. The ion source is an array of gated metal tips derived from field electron emitter array microfabrication technology. A comprehensive summary of development and experimental activities is presented. Many structural modifications to the arrays have been incorporated to achieve higher tip operating fields, while lowering fields at the gate electrode to prevent gate field electron emission which initiates electrical breakdown in the array. The latest focus of fabrication activities has been on rounding the gate electrode edge and surrounding the gate electrode with dielectric material. Array testing results have indicated a steady progression of increased array tip operating fields with each new design tested. The latest arrays have consistently achieved fields beyond those required for the onset of deuterium desorption (20 V/nm), and have demonstrated the desorption of deuterium at fields up to 36 V/nm. The number of ions desorbed from an array has been quantified, and field desorption of metal tip substrate material from array tips has been observed for the first time. Gas-phase field ionization studies with 10,000 tip arrays have achieved deuterium ion currents of 50 nA. Neutron production by field ionization has yielded 10 2 n/s from 1 mm 2 of array area using the deuterium-deuterium fusion reaction at 90 kV.

Bargsten Johnson, B.; Schwoebel, P. R.; Holland, C. E.; Resnick, P. J.; Hertz, K. L.; Chichester, D. L.

2012-01-01

269

HIGH CURRENT SOURCE OF He IONS  

SciTech Connect

A negative helium ion beam of 70 mA at 10.5 kV has been produced by charge exchange in sodium. The production is studied as a function of sodium line density, beam energy and background helium gas density. The characteristics of this high current He{sup -} source are analyzed to determine the design requirements for He{sup -} beam generation in the range of tens to hundred of milliamperes.

Hooper, Jr., E.B.; Pincosy, P.A.; Poulsen, P.; Burrell, C.F.; Grisham, L.R.; Post, D.E.

1980-03-01

270

Improved Ambient Pressure Pyroelectric Ion Source  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The detection of volatile vapors of unknown species in a complex field environment is required in many different applications. Mass spectroscopic techniques require subsystems including an ionization unit and sample transport mechanism. All of these subsystems must have low mass, small volume, low power, and be rugged. A volatile molecular detector, an ambient pressure pyroelectric ion source (APPIS) that met these requirements, was recently reported by Caltech researchers to be used in in situ environments.

Beegle, Luther W.; Kim, Hugh I.; Kanik, Isik; Ryu, Ernest K.; Beckett, Brett

2011-01-01

271

Structural and electrical properties of half-Heusler La-Pt-Bi thin films grown by 3-source magnetron co-sputtering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Half-Heusler La-Pt-Bi thin films have been deposited on YAlO3(001) substrate by 3-source magnetron co-sputtering. Control of the Bi content was the critical factor to obtain single phase, c-axis-oriented thin films. Generation of secondary phases was effectively prevented by precise control of the deposition rate for separate targets as well as adjustment of the deposition temperature. The realization of single-phase LaPtBi thin films will provide new potential applications to topological insulating devices based on Heusler alloys.

Miyawaki, Tetsuya; Sugimoto, Nozomi; Fukatani, Naoto; Yoshihara, Tatsuhiko; Ueda, Kenji; Tanaka, Nobuo; Asano, Hidefumi

2012-04-01

272

Improvement of four anode rods ion source  

SciTech Connect

In this work, an improved form of a saddle field ion source has been designed and constructed. It consists of four anode rods made from copper and two copper cathode discs. The two cathode discs are placed symmetrically on both sides of the four anode rods. The electrical discharge and output ion beam characteristics were measured at different pressures using argon gas. The optimum distance between each two anode rods was determined. Also the optimum distance between the four anode rods and any cathode disc was obtained. It was found that the optimum distance between each two anode rods equal to 6 mm, while the optimum distance between the four anode rods and any cathode disc equal to 16 mm, where a stable discharge current and maximum output ion beam current can be obtained. The effect of negative extraction voltage applied to both the extractor electrode and Faraday cup on the output ion beam current was studied. The sputter yield of copper and aluminum targets using argon ions of different energies was determined.

Abdel Salam, F. W.; El-Khabeary, H.; Abdel Reheem, A. M. [Accelerators and Ion Sources Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, P. No. 13759 (Egypt); Ahmed, M. M. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Helwan University, Cairo (Egypt)

2011-03-15

273

Improvement of four anode rods ion source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, an improved form of a saddle field ion source has been designed and constructed. It consists of four anode rods made from copper and two copper cathode discs. The two cathode discs are placed symmetrically on both sides of the four anode rods. The electrical discharge and output ion beam characteristics were measured at different pressures using argon gas. The optimum distance between each two anode rods was determined. Also the optimum distance between the four anode rods and any cathode disc was obtained. It was found that the optimum distance between each two anode rods equal to 6 mm, while the optimum distance between the four anode rods and any cathode disc equal to 16 mm, where a stable discharge current and maximum output ion beam current can be obtained. The effect of negative extraction voltage applied to both the extractor electrode and Faraday cup on the output ion beam current was studied. The sputter yield of copper and aluminum targets using argon ions of different energies was determined.

Abdel Salam, F. W.; El-Khabeary, H.; Ahmed, M. M.; Abdel Reheem, A. M.

2011-03-01

274

The self-injection-locked magnetron  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new method of noise reduction in magnetron using self-injection-locking loop. The self-injection-locked magnetron divides into two cases in accordance to filter type: waveguide cavity filter and DR filter. This self-injection-locked magnetron consists of the coupler, high-Q filter (DR filter or waveguide cavity filter), circulator, and a phase-shifter without external source. Experimental results show that the self-injection-locked

Gil Wong Choi; Hae Jin Kim; Hyoung Jong Kim; Jin Joo Choi

2008-01-01

275

Hydriding of Titanium Cones for a Sputter-Ion Source.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A technique for producing negative ions of hydrogen, deuterium, tritium from a sputter-ion source by sputtering hydrided titanium in the source. The hydridation of the titanium is described. (ERA citation 03:038387)

J. C. Gursky B. A. Sherwood

1978-01-01

276

Software architecture considerations for ion source control systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

General characteristics of distributed control system software tools are examined from the perspective of ion source control system requirements. Emphasis is placed on strategies for building extensible, distributed systems in which the ion source element...

J. W. Sinclair

1997-01-01

277

Experimental Evaluation of a Negative Ion Source for a Heavy Ion Fusion Negative Ion Driver  

SciTech Connect

Negative halogen ions have recently been proposed as a possible alternative to positive ions for heavy ion fusion drivers because electron accumulation would not be a problem in the accelerator, and if desired, the beams could be photo-detached to neutrals. To test the ability to make suitable quality beams, an experiment was conducted at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory using chlorine in an RF-driven ion source. Without introducing any cesium (which is required to enhance negative ion production in hydrogen ion sources) a negative chlorine current density of 45 mA/cm{sup 2} was obtained under the same conditions that gave 57 45 mA/cm{sup 2} of positive chlorine, suggesting the presence of nearly as many negative ions as positive ions in the plasma near the extraction plane. The negative ion spectrum was 99.5% atomic chlorine ions, with only 0.5% molecular chlorine, and essentially no impurities. Although this experiment did not incorporate the type of electron suppression technology that i s used in negative hydrogen beam extraction, the ratio of co-extracted electrons to Cl{sup -} was as low as 7 to 1, many times lower than the ratio of their mobilities, suggesting that few electrons are present in the near-extractor plasma. This, along with the near-equivalence of the positive and negative ion currents, suggests that the plasma in this region was mostly an ion-ion plasma. The negative chlorine current density was relatively insensitive to pressure, and scaled linearly with RF power. If this linear scaling continues to hold at higher RF powers, it should permit current densities of 100 45 mA/cm{sup 2}, sufficient for present heavy ion fusion injector concepts. The effective ion temperatures of the positive and negative ions appeared to be similar and relatively low for a plasma source.

L.R. Grisham, S.K. Hahto, S.T. Hahto, J.W. Kwan, and K.N. Leung

2004-06-16

278

A commercial plasma source ion implantation facility  

SciTech Connect

Empire Hard Chrome has recently installed commercial plasma source ion implantation (PSU) equipment built by North Star Research Corporation. Los Alamos National Laboratory has assisted in this commercialization effort via two Cooperative Research and Development Agreements to develop the plasma source for the equipment and to identify low-risk commercial PSII applications. The PSII system consists of a 1 m x 1 m cylindrical vacuum chamber with a rf plasma source. The pulse modulator is capable of delivering pulses kV and peak currents of 300 A at maximum repetition rate of 400 Hz. thyratron tube to switch a pulse forming network which is tailored to match the dynamic PSII load. In this paper we discuss the PSII system, process facility, and early commercial applications to production tooling.

Scheuer, J.T. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Adler, R.A. [North Star Research Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Horne, W.G. [Empire Hard Chrome, Chicago, IL (United States)

1996-10-01

279

Side Extraction duoPIGatron-Type Ion Source.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We have designed and constructed a compact duoPIGatron-type ion source, for possible use in ion implanters, in such the ion can be extracted from side aperture in contrast to conventional duoPIGatron sources with axial ion extraction. The size of the side...

A. Herschcovitch B. M. Johnson E. M. Oks V. I. Gushenets

2007-01-01

280

Extraction physics in volume H--ion sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent hydrogen negative-ion sources (JT60, large helical device (LHD)) operate with a magnetic filter field extending up to the plasma electrode and extraction opening. As shown earlier such a magnetic field has a strong effect upon the value of the extracted negative ion and electron current. Measurements of the negative ion and electron density were performed in the ion source,

M. Bacal; A. Hatayama; T. Matsumiya; M. Hamabe; T. Kuroda; Y. Oka

2006-01-01

281

The design and capability test of miniature Penning ion source  

Microsoft Academic Search

A miniature Penning ion source is designed which anode canister is 10 millimeters; it can meet the need of the small well logging neutron tube that requires ion source miniaturization, high neutron yield and good stabilization. The structure and electromagnetism field is designed reasonably; the ion source has good current stabilization, high neutron yield and good performance. The miniature Penning

Kunxiang Xiao; Minggui Zhou; Xiaohua Tan

2004-01-01

282

A high capacity ion source for AMS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new ion source and sample manipulation system for accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), is being designed and built as a collaboration between IsoTrace and High Voltage Engineering Europa B.V. Since the initial description of this system [W.E. Kieser et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 79 (1993) 613-616.], the vacuum system and the horizontal and vertical sample transport systems have been completed and tested. The latter system has proved to be capable of changing from one sample to another in under one second. Tests of the caesium guns used to generate the primary sputtering beams for this system have shown that the ion source as a whole is capable of generating higher currents than previously thought possible, provided that proper space charge control is used for the primary beam and steering of the secondary beam is adjusted. This work has also led to investigations of a variety of strategies for exploiting the dual primary beam feature of this source, such as the use of neutral primary caesium beams, initially at low energies as a surface passivator for non-conducting samples and later at higher energies and fluxes for sputtering all types of samples.

Kieser, W. E.; Litherland, A. E.; Zhao, X.-L.; Kilius, L. R.; Beukens, R. P.

283

Ion source with improved primary arc collimation  

DOEpatents

An improved negative ion source is provided in which a self-biasing, molybdenum collimator is used to define the primary electron stream arc discharge from a filament operated at a negative potential. The collimator is located between the anode and the filament. It is electrically connected to the anode by means of an appropriate size resistor such that the collimator is biased at essentially the filament voltage during operation. Initially, the full arc voltage appears across the filament to collimator until the arc discharge strikes. Then the collimator biases itself to essentially filament potential due to current flow through the resistor thus defining the primary electron stream without intercepting any appreciable arc power. The collimator aperture is slightly smaller than the anode aperture to shield the anode from the arc power which, in the past, has caused overheating and erosion of the anode collimator during extended time pulsed-beam operation of the source. With the self-biasing collimator of this invention, the ion source may be operated from short pulse periods to steady-state without destroying the anode.

Dagenhart, W.K.

1983-12-16

284

Feasibility study of a laser ion source for primary ion injection into the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider electron beam ion source  

SciTech Connect

Charge state 1+ions are required as a primary ion source for Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider-electron beam ion source (RHIC-EBIS) at BNL and laser ion source (LIS) is a candidate as one of the external ion source since low energy and low charge state ions can be generated by lower power density laser irradiation onto solid target surface. Plasma properties of {sup 27}Al, {sup 56}Fe, and {sup 181}Ta using the second harmonics of Nd:yttrium aluminum garnet laser (0.73 J/5.5 ns and 532 nm wavelength) for low charge state ion generation was measured. Charge state distribution of Ta was optimized for 1+with estimated laser power density of 9.1x10{sup 8} W/cm{sup 2} on the target. It has been shown that the LIS can produce sufficient ion charge with the appropriate pulse structure to satisfy injection requirements of the RHIC EBIS.

Kanesue, Takeshi; Tamura, Jun; Okamura, Masahiro [Department of Applied Quantum Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Department of Energy Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan); Collider-Accelerator Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States)

2008-02-15

285

[Ion sources for surface treatments of materials]. Final report on the Contract 0248U0016-35 between the Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Institute of Electrophysics  

SciTech Connect

Treatment of materials by accelerated ions causes considerable changes in the microstructure and properties of the surface layer of these materials. Results of numerous laboratory studies show that ion beams are highly efficient in surface modification of materials. However, development and commercial use of ion beam technologies is hampered due to the lack of inexpensive, reliable and efficient ion sources. One of the promising directions in development of commercial ion sources is the use of cold-cathode discharges for producing ion emitting plasma. The main objectives of the contract works were as follows: (1) analyze discharge characteristics in the electrode system of the inverted magnetron type, parameter and emission properties of the discharge plasma, and formation of broad beams in an ion optics system; (2) create a laboratory prototype ion source, deliver the prototype ion source to Los Alamos, and perform joint experiments on ion beam surface modification of materials; (3) use results of the investigations and tests of the laboratory ion source as the basis for development of a commercial ion source with the beam up to 1,000 cm{sup 2} in cross-section area. Results of the research are summarized.

NONE

1998-12-01

286

High current short pulse ion sources  

SciTech Connect

High current short pulse ion beams can be generated by using a multicusp source. This is accomplished by switching the arc or the RF induction discharge on and off. An alternative approach is to maintain a continuous plasma discharge and extraction voltage but control the plasma flow into the extraction aperture by a combination of magnetic and electric fields. Short beam pulses can be obtained by using a fast electronic switch and a dc bias power supply. It is also demonstrated that very short beam pulses ({approximately} 10 {micro}s) with high repetition rate can be formed by a laser-driven LaB{sub 6} or barium photo-cathode.

Leung, K.N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Accelerator and Fusion Research Div.

1996-08-01

287

Relativistic Magnetron Priming Experiments and Theory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Microwave/RF priming experiments have been performed on the UM relativistic magnetron. The high power RF priming source (40 kV, non- relativistic magnetron) was obtained on-loan from the Air Force Research Lab. Microwave power output from the AFRL priming...

R. M. Gilgenbach, Y. Y. Lau

2005-01-01

288

Magnetron Studies in Phase and Frequency Locking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our work has centered on researching methods and components required for building a phase locking system for S band CW and pulsed magnetrons. We examine injection and phase locking methods used for controlling magnetrons with external sources. A general system design is discussed, and progress toward practical realization is shown. In particular, a phase lock loop simulation is shown, based

T. G. McVeety; M. C. Abney; E. Schamiloglu

2007-01-01

289

1+-n+ ECR ION SOURCE DEVELOPMENT TEST STAND  

SciTech Connect

A test stand for the investigation of 1+-n+ charge boosting using an ECR ion sources is currently being assembled at the Texas A&M Cyclotron Institute. The ultimate goal is to relate the charge-boosting of ions of stable species to possible charge-boosting of ions of radioactive species extracted from the diverse, low-charge-state ion sources developed for radioactive ion beams.

Donald P. May

2006-04-07

290

Polarized H^- Ion Source Development at TRIUMF  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The TRIUMF Optically Pumped Polarized Ion Source (OPPIS) provides the precision quality beam required for the experiment on parity-non-conservation in proton-proton scattering at 230 MeV beam energy. Results of recent developments and studies aimed at minimizing the contribution to the systematic error energy modulations correlated with spin-reversal at the source will be presented. For the parity experiment the source had to be optimized also for brightness and intensity. This makes the same source, with minor modifications, an ideal candidate as a polarized injector for other high energy accelerators. Potential applications for polarized injectors at RHIC and HERA are discussed. The luminosity of the polarized beams would be comparable with the one presently achieved with unpolarized beams, as demonstrated in the feasibility studies which have been performed in collaboration with INR, Moscow and BINP, Novosibirsk. The TRIUMF OPPIS operates very reliably producing in dc mode 0.55 mA H^- current at 85% polarization, 0.90 mA at 75% and 1.64 mA at 60% polarization within 2.0 ? mm mrad normalized emittance. The current scales linearly with emittance. Polarization drops at the highest dc current due to insufficient cw laser power. In a pulsed mode the feasibility of increasing the polarized H^- current up to 20 mA was demonstrated.

Zelenski, A.; Levy, C. D. P.; Schmor, P. W.; Vanoers, W. T. H.; Wight, G. W.; Dutto, G.

1997-05-01

291

A hollow cathode ion source for production of primary ions for the BNL electron beam ion source.  

PubMed

A hollow cathode ion source, based on one developed at Saclay, has been modified significantly and used for several years to produce all primary 1+ ions injected into the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) at Brookhaven. Currents of tens to hundreds of microamperes have been produced for 1+ ions of He, C, O, Ne, Si, Ar, Ti, Fe, Cu, Kr, Xe, Ta, Au, and U. The source is very simple, relying on a glow discharge using a noble gas, between anode and a solid cathode containing the desired species. Ions of both the working gas and ionized sputtered cathode material are extracted, and then the desired species is selected using an ExB filter before being transported into the EBIS trap for charge breeding. The source operates pulsed with long life and excellent stability for most species. Reliable ignition of the discharge at low gas pressure is facilitated by the use of capacitive coupling from a simple toy plasma globe. The source design, and operating experience for the various species, is presented. PMID:24593637

Alessi, James; Beebe, Edward; Carlson, Charles; McCafferty, Daniel; Pikin, Alexander; Ritter, John

2014-02-01

292

A radioactive target/ion source for material research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A radioactive target/ion source for material research has been developed at China Institute of Atomic Energy, China. With a proton ion beam from the HI-13 tandem as the primary beam, the low intensity radioactive ion beam is generated on line. The first aim of the source is to produce a radioactive ion beam of 62Zn+ which will serve as nuclear probe in material research. The main features and current status of the source are presented in this article.

Cui, B.; Li, L.; Ma, Y.; Wang, R.; Jiang, W.

2004-05-01

293

Source of multiply charged ions with combined magnetic field  

SciTech Connect

The authors describe the results of tests of a Penning multiply charged ion source with a combined magnetic field and axial ion extraction adapted for operation with the injector system of the LUMZI-10 linear heavy-ion accelerator. The source is designed to produce beams of multiply charged ions of various gases (C, N, O, and Ar). A diagram of the source is shown.

Agarkova, L.V.; Kupiyanov, A.N.; Meleshkov, S.I.; Pletnikov, L.B.; Reshetnikov, V.N.

1986-05-01

294

Magnetron theory  

SciTech Connect

A guiding center fluid theory is applied to model steady-state, single mode, high-power magnetron operation. A hub of uniform, prescribed density, feeds the current spokes. The spoke charge follows from the continuity equation and the incompressibility of the guiding center flow. Included are the spoke self-fields (DC and AC), obtained by an expansion around the unperturbed (zero-spoke charge) flow in powers of {nu}/{ital V}{sub 1}, {nu}, and {ital V}{sub 1} being the effective charge density and AC amplitude. The spoke current is obtained as a nonlinear function of the detuning from the synchronous (Buneman{endash}Hartree, BH) voltage {ital V}{sub {ital s}}; the spoke charge is included in the self-consistent definition of {ital V}{sub {ital s}}. It is shown that there is a DC voltage region of width {parallel}{ital V}{minus}{ital V}{sub {ital s}}{parallel}{approximately}{ital V}{sub 1}, where the spoke width is constant and the spoke current is simply proportional to the AC voltage. The magnetron characteristic curves are {open_quotes} flat{close_quotes} in that range, and are approximated by a linear expansion around {ital V}{sub {ital s}}. The derived formulas differ from earlier results [J. F. Hull, in {ital Cross} {ital Field} {ital Microwave} {ital Devices}] in (a) there is no current cutoff at synchronism; the tube operates well below as well above the BH voltage; (b) the characteristics are single valued within the synchronous voltage range; (c) the hub top is not treated as virtual cathode; and (d) the hub density is not equal to the Brillouin density; comparisons with tube measurements show the best agreement for hub density near half the Brillouin density. It is also shown that at low space charge and low power the gain curve is symmetric relative to the voltage (frequency) detuning. While symmetry is broken at high-power/high space charge magnetron operation, the BH voltage remains between the current cutoff voltages. (Abstract Truncated)

Riyopoulos, S. [Science Application International Corporation, McLean, Virginia 22102 (United States)] [Science Application International Corporation, McLean, Virginia 22102 (United States)

1996-03-01

295

Simulation of H- ion source extraction systems for the Spallation Neutron Source with Ion Beam Simulator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A three-dimensional ion optical code IBSimu, which is being developed at the University of Jyvskyl, features positive and negative ion plasma extraction models and self-consistent space charge calculation. The code has been utilized for modeling the existing extraction system of the H- ion source of the Spallation Neutron Source. Simulation results are in good agreement with experimental data. A high-current extraction system with downstream electron dumping at intermediate energy has been designed. According to the simulations it provides lower emittance compared to the baseline system at H- currents exceeding 40 mA. A magnetic low energy beam transport section consisting of two solenoids has been designed to transport the beam from the alternative electrostatic extraction systems to the radio frequency quadrupole.

Kalvas, T.; Welton, R. F.; Tarvainen, O.; Han, B. X.; Stockli, M. P.

2012-02-01

296

Development of vacuum arc ion sources for heavy ion accelerator injectors and ion implantation technology (invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The status of experimental research and ongoing development and upgrade of MEVVA-type ion sources over the last two years since the previous ICIS-95 is reviewed. There are two main application fields for this ion source: heavy ion accelerators and material surface implantation technology. For particle accelerator ion injection to accelerators it is important to enhance the fractions of multiply charged ions in the ion beam as well as controlling the charge state distribution, and to improve of beam current stability (i.e., to minimize the beam noise) and pulse-to-pulse reproducibility. For ion implantation application we need to increase both the implantation dose rate and the source lifetime (between required maintenance downtime) as well as making this kind of source more reliable and of yet low cost. Most of experimental results reported on here have been obtained in a collaborative program between research groups LBNL (Berkeley, USA), GSI (Darmstadt, Germany), HCEI (Tomsk, Russia), and other important contributions have been made by the groups at (BNU, Beijing, China), EDU (Izmir, Turkey), and elsewhere.

Oks, Efim M.

1998-02-01

297

Progress of resonant ionization laser ion source development at GANIL.  

PubMed

SPIRAL2 (Systme de Production d'Ions Radioactifs Acclrs en Ligne) is a research facility under construction at GANIL (Grand Acclrateur National d'Ions Lourds) for the production of radioactive ion beams by isotope separation on-line methods and low-energy in-flight techniques. A resonant ionization laser ion source will be one of the main techniques to produce the radioactive ion beams. GISELE (GANIL Ion Source using Electron Laser Excitation) is a test bench developed to study a fully operational laser ion source available for Day 1 operations at SPIRAL2 Phase 2. The aim of this project is to find the best technical solution which combines high selectivity and ionization efficiency with small ion beam emittance and stable long term operation. Latest results about the new ion source geometry will be presented. PMID:24593619

Henares, J L; Huguet, Y; Kron, T; Lecesne, N; Leroy, R; Osmond, B; Schneider, F; Sjdin, A M; Wendt, K

2014-02-01

298

Study of Compact Penning Ion Source for Material Studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Development of ion sources of various sizes has been carried out since a long back. Gaseous ions of different nature are being used in different field of research as well as industrial applications like surface modification, doping, surface etching, sputtering, production of nano size particles and focused ion beam etc. Out of various geometry and operation regime, due to compactness, ruggedness and long life, penning type ion sources are widely used in different field of research and applications. One such type of ion source was developed in our laboratory. Though this source was meant for neutron generation, using deuterium ions, the effectiveness for other purposes was investigated. The discharge characteristic was studied for different gases like, Deuterium, Helium, Nitrogen, Oxygen and Argon. The source being a self extracted type; the extracted ion current from the extraction aperture was measured using one faraday cup. In this paper we have discussed, the discharge characteristic and the extraction ion current for different type of gases.

Das, B. K.; Das, R.; Shyam, A.

2011-07-01

299

Use of ion sources for nonsemiconductor surface modification (plenary)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At RIKEN, studies have been made on surface modification of metals, ceramics, and polymers using ion implantation in order to improve surface properties of various materials. For fundamental studies of surface modification, about 60 kinds of ions have been used as implanted elements, using rf-type, Nielsen-type, and hollow cathode-type ion sources. The Nielsen-type ion source has been the most useful for obtaining various ion species by modification to the evaporation oven and by selection of the source material. High current beams of some kinds of ions were obtained using Freeman-type or microwave-type ion sources. Ion beam modification with nonmass analyzed ions was investigated for practicable use of ion implantation. In this article, these ion sources are described, and their utilization in a variety of applications is reviewed. The improvement of the lifetime of tools by nitrogen implantation is introduced as a topic in the fields of nonsemiconductor materials, and several points for expansion of the field are emphasized. As a successful example in Japan, the dynamic mixing used in industry is introduced and ion sources are shown to be one of the technologically important factors. Plasma based ion implantation is compared with traditional surface finishing. Finally, the fabrication of small vascular grafts controlling cell adhesion is introduced as the applications of ion beams to biomedical materials.

Iwaki, Masaya

2002-02-01

300

Emission source functions in heavy ion collisions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three-dimensional pion and kaon emission source functions are extracted from hydrokinetic model (HKM) simulations of central Au+Au collisions at the top Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) energy sNN=200 GeV. The model describes well the experimental data, previously obtained by the PHENIX and STAR collaborations using the imaging technique. In particular, the HKM reproduces the non-Gaussian heavy tails of the source function in the pair transverse momentum (out) and beam (long) directions, observed in the pion case and practically absent for kaons. The role of rescatterings and long-lived resonance decays in forming the mentioned long-range tails is investigated. The particle rescattering contribution to the out tail seems to be dominating. The model calculations also show substantial relative emission times between pions (with mean value 13 fm/c in the longitudinally comoving system), including those coming from resonance decays and rescatterings. A prediction is made for the source functions in Large Hadron Collider (LHC) Pb+Pb collisions at sNN=2.76 TeV, which are still not extracted from the measured correlation functions.

Shapoval, V. M.; Sinyukov, Yu. M.; Karpenko, Iu. A.

2013-12-01

301

The negative hydrogen Penning ion gauge ion source for KIRAMS-13 cyclotron  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cold-cathode-type Penning ion gauge (PIG) ion source for the internal ion source of KIRAMS-13 cyclotron has been used for generation of negative hydrogen ions. The dc H-beam current of 650 muA from the PIG ion source with the Dee voltage of 40 kV and arc current of 1.0 A is extrapolated from the measured dc extraction beam currents at

D. H. An; I. S. Jung; J. Kang; H. S. Chang; B. H. Hong; S. Hong; M. Y. Lee; Y. Kim; T. K. Yang; J. S. Chai

2008-01-01

302

A Penning sputter ion source with very low energy spread  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a version of the Frankfurt Penning ion source that produces ion beams with very low energy spreads of 3 eV, while operating in a new discharge mode characterized by very high pressure, low voltage, and high current. The extracted ions also comprise substantial metastable and doubly charged species. Detailed studies of the operating parameters of the source

Z. Nouri; R. Li; R. A. Holt; S. D. Rosner

2010-01-01

303

A Penning sputter ion source with very low energy spread  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a version of the Frankfurt Penning ion source that produces ion beams with very low energy spreads of ?3eV, while operating in a new discharge mode characterized by very high pressure, low voltage, and high current. The extracted ions also comprise substantial metastable and doubly charged species. Detailed studies of the operating parameters of the source showed

Z. Nouri; R. Li; R. A. Holt; S. D. Rosner

2010-01-01

304

Study of Three Different Types of Plasma Ion Sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three types of plasma ion sources designed, manufactured and optimized in the Accelerators and Ion Sources Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority are introduced. Different means were investigated to generate the discharge current and ion beam current extracted from the plasma. The various plasmas described include a DC glow discharge plasma, an arc discharge plasma and a radio frequency discharge plasma.

Abdelrahman, M. M.; El-Khabeary, H.

2009-10-01

305

A broad beam cold cathode Penning ionization gauge ion source for ion-beam-assisted deposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

A broad beam cold cathode Penning ionization gauge ion source is developed for ion-beam-assisted deposition. The ion source is composed of several modules and it is 88 mm in diameter and 80 mm in height without any cooling system. The discharge voltage is 500 V. The multiaperture extracted ion beam diameter at the exit is 35 mm. It can be

Yusheng Rao; Jiannan Wu; Taoguang Xu

1996-01-01

306

Magnetic plasma confinement for laser ion source.  

PubMed

A laser ion source (LIS) can easily provide a high current beam. However, it has been difficult to obtain a longer beam pulse while keeping a high current. On occasion, longer beam pulses are required by certain applications. For example, more than 10 micros of beam pulse is required for injecting highly charged beams to a large sized synchrotron. To extend beam pulse width, a solenoid field was applied at the drift space of the LIS at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The solenoid field suppressed the diverging angle of the expanding plasma and the beam pulse was widened. Also, it was observed that the plasma state was conserved after passing through a few hundred gauss of the 480 mm length solenoid field. PMID:20192365

Okamura, M; Adeyemi, A; Kanesue, T; Tamura, J; Kondo, K; Dabrowski, R

2010-02-01

307

Magnetic plasma confinement for laser ion source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A laser ion source (LIS) can easily provide a high current beam. However, it has been difficult to obtain a longer beam pulse while keeping a high current. On occasion, longer beam pulses are required by certain applications. For example, more than 10 ?s of beam pulse is required for injecting highly charged beams to a large sized synchrotron. To extend beam pulse width, a solenoid field was applied at the drift space of the LIS at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The solenoid field suppressed the diverging angle of the expanding plasma and the beam pulse was widened. Also, it was observed that the plasma state was conserved after passing through a few hundred gauss of the 480 mm length solenoid field.

Okamura, M.; Adeyemi, A.; Kanesue, T.; Tamura, J.; Kondo, K.; Dabrowski, R.

2010-02-01

308

A new magnetron based gas aggregation source of metal nanoclusters coupled to a double time-of-flight mass spectrometer system.  

PubMed

A new magnetron based gas-aggregation source for continuous production of metal nanoclusters has been built and coupled to a double time-of-flight mass spectrometer system. The capability of the source to produce neutral, positive, and negative nanoclusters within one production cycle, particularly under the same optimized experimental conditions, has been tested. The source performs steadily for continuous long operations and has high beam intensity that would be preferable for size selective measurements in gas phase on individual nanoclusters. This paper describes on the instrumentation of the integrated complete experimental setup for gas-phase measurement on nanoclusters including the source. It reports on the production of copper nanoclusters using the source. Mass abundances of neutral and charged clusters have been investigated and the results are discussed with respect to reported results using various other types of sources. The experimental isotopic distributions of (63)Cu versus (65)Cu within individual cluster mass peaks have been derived and compared to corresponding theoretical profiles. PMID:20687762

Momin, Tahzeeb; Bhowmick, Ashok

2010-07-01

309

A new magnetron based gas aggregation source of metal nanoclusters coupled to a double time-of-flight mass spectrometer system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new magnetron based gas-aggregation source for continuous production of metal nanoclusters has been built and coupled to a double time-of-flight mass spectrometer system. The capability of the source to produce neutral, positive, and negative nanoclusters within one production cycle, particularly under the same optimized experimental conditions, has been tested. The source performs steadily for continuous long operations and has high beam intensity that would be preferable for size selective measurements in gas phase on individual nanoclusters. This paper describes on the instrumentation of the integrated complete experimental setup for gas-phase measurement on nanoclusters including the source. It reports on the production of copper nanoclusters using the source. Mass abundances of neutral and charged clusters have been investigated and the results are discussed with respect to reported results using various other types of sources. The experimental isotopic distributions of 63Cu versus 65Cu within individual cluster mass peaks have been derived and compared to corresponding theoretical profiles.

Momin, Tahzeeb; Bhowmick, Ashok

2010-07-01

310

A new magnetron based gas aggregation source of metal nanoclusters coupled to a double time-of-flight mass spectrometer system  

SciTech Connect

A new magnetron based gas-aggregation source for continuous production of metal nanoclusters has been built and coupled to a double time-of-flight mass spectrometer system. The capability of the source to produce neutral, positive, and negative nanoclusters within one production cycle, particularly under the same optimized experimental conditions, has been tested. The source performs steadily for continuous long operations and has high beam intensity that would be preferable for size selective measurements in gas phase on individual nanoclusters. This paper describes on the instrumentation of the integrated complete experimental setup for gas-phase measurement on nanoclusters including the source. It reports on the production of copper nanoclusters using the source. Mass abundances of neutral and charged clusters have been investigated and the results are discussed with respect to reported results using various other types of sources. The experimental isotopic distributions of {sup 63}Cu versus {sup 65}Cu within individual cluster mass peaks have been derived and compared to corresponding theoretical profiles.

Momin, Tahzeeb; Bhowmick, Ashok [Technical Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India)

2010-07-15

311

RF Ion Source-Driven IEC Design and Operation  

SciTech Connect

The next step needed to achieve higher neutron yields and improved neutron production efficiency with Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) sources requires operation with an external ion source so that the reaction chamber pressure is controlled separately for the source pressure. This paper presents recent progress in IEC research at the UIUC using a unique external ion source ILLIBS (Illinois Ion Beam Source). When filled with deuterium, the IEC provides {approx}10{sup 8} 2.5-MeV D-D fusion neutrons/sec at steady-state. The design and operation of a radiofrequency (RF) ion gun designed for this purpose is also discussed.

Miley, G.H.; Yang, Y.; Webber, J.; Shaban, Y.; Momota, H. [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign (United States)

2005-05-15

312

Compact electron beam ion sources/traps: review and prospects.  

PubMed

The Dresden electron beam ion trap (EBIT)/electron beam ion source (EBIS) family are very compact and economically working table-top ion sources. We report on the development of three generations of such ion sources, the so-called Dresden EBIT, Dresden EBIS, and Dresden EBIS-A, respectively. The ion sources are classified by different currents of extractable ions at different charge states and by the x-ray spectra emitted by the ions inside the electron beam. We present examples of x-ray measurements and measured ion currents extracted from the ion sources at certain individual operating conditions. Ion charge states of up to Xe(48+) but also bare nuclei of lighter elements up to nickel have been extracted. The application potential of the ion sources is demonstrated via proof-of-concept applications employing an EBIT in a focused ion beam (FIB) column or using an EBIT for the production of nanostructures by single ion hits. Additionally we give first information about the next generation of the Dresden EBIS series. The so-called Dresden EBIS-SC is a compact and cryogen-free superconducting high-B-field EBIS for high-current operation. PMID:18315151

Zschornack, G; Kreller, M; Ovsyannikov, V P; Grossman, F; Kentsch, U; Schmidt, M; Ullmann, F; Heller, R

2008-02-01

313

DESIGN NOTE: A simple ion source for production of negative ions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe modification of the DANFYSIK 911A positive ion source for production of negative ions. The modification is simple and the new source is easy to maintain. For H- a beam current of 10 nA was achieved; this is sufficiently large for application of the ion source in atomic collision experiments.

P. Nbrdi; L. Sarkadi; F. Penent; L. Vkor

1999-01-01

314

Lithium and Sodium Surface Ionization Ion Source Operation and Efficiency.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An ion source configuration has been developed which uses direct surface ionization from oxygenated tungsten to generate lithium or sodium ions with measured efficiencies > or = 70%. Currents of several hundred microamperes of Li(+) and Na(+) have been ex...

H. L. Daley J. Perel

1971-01-01

315

High-Efficiency Target-Ion sources for RIB Generation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this report, emphasis is placed on issues related to selection and design of high-temperature, ion sources that have demonstrated the high ionization efficiency, species versatility, and operational reliability required at ISOL based radioactive ion be...

G. D. Alton

2001-01-01

316

Differential turbulent heating of different ions in electron cyclotron resonance ion source plasma  

SciTech Connect

The article considers the collisionless ion sound turbulent heating of different ions in an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS). The ion sound arises due to parametric instability of pumping wave propagating along the magnetic field with the frequency close to that of electron cyclotron. Within the framework of turbulent heating model the different ions temperatures are calculated in gas-mixing ECRIS plasma.

Elizarov, L.I.; Ivanov, A.A.; Serebrennikov, K.S.; Vostrikova, E.A. [Russian Research Center 'Kurchatov Institute', 1Kurchatov Square, 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation); Russian Research Center 'Kurchatov Institute', 1 Kurchatov Square, 123182 Moscow, Russia and Peoples Friendship University of Russia, 6 Miklukho-Maklaya Street 117198 Moscow (Russian Federation)

2006-03-15

317

Side extraction duoPIGatron-type ion source.  

PubMed

We have designed and constructed a compact duoPIGatron-type ion source, for possible use in ion implanters, in which ions are extracted from a side aperture in contrast to conventional duoPIGatron sources with axial ion extraction. The size of the side extraction aperture is 1 x 40 mm(2). The ion source was developed to study physical and technological aspects relevant to an industrial ion source. The side extraction duoPIGatron has a stable arc, uniformly bright illumination, and dense plasma. The present work describes some operating parameters of the ion source using argon and BF(3). Total unanalyzed beam currents were 40 mA with Ar at an arc current of 7 A and 13 mA with BF(3) gas at an arc current of 9 A. PMID:18315173

Gushenets, V I; Oks, E M; Hershcovitch, Ady; Johnson, B M

2008-02-01

318

Side extraction duoPIGatron-type ion source.  

SciTech Connect

We have designed and constructed a compact duoPIGatron-type ion source, for possible use in ion implanters, in such the ion can be extracted from side aperture in contrast to conventional duoPIGatron sources with axial ion extraction. The size of the side extraction aperture is 1x40 mm. The ion source was developed to study physical and technological aspects relevant to an industrial ion source. The side extraction duoPIGatron has stable arc, uniformly bright illumination, and dense plasma. The present work describes some of preliminary operating parameters of the ion source using Argon, BF3. The total unanalyzed beam currents are 23 mA using Ar at an arc current 5 A and 13 mA using BF3 gas at an arc current 6 A.

GUSHENETS,V.I.; OKS, E.M.; HERSCHOVITCH, A.; JOHNSON, B.M.

2007-08-26

319

Operating principle of the plasma beam ion source  

Microsoft Academic Search

The plasma beam ion source is a high current ion source of the plasmatron family. It was originally designed for the injection of low energy proton beams into RFQ accelerators. The source consists of a duoplasmatron and one or two adjacent chambers, where the plasma from the primary DP-discharge is guided and compressed by an inhomogeneous solenoidal field. A high

K. Langbein

1990-01-01

320

Positive and negative ion sources for magnetic fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The positive or negative ion sources which form the primary components of neutral beam injection systems used in controlled nuclear fusion using magnetic confinement have to meet simultaneously several demanding requirements. This paper describes the underlying physics of modern positive ion sources, which provide the required high proton fraction (>90%) and high current density (?2 kA\\/m2) at a low source

Ronald Stephen Hemsworth; Takashi Inoue

2005-01-01

321

A Two Magnetron Sputter Deposition Chamber Equipped with an Additional Ion Gun for in situ Observation of Thin Film Growth and Surface Modification by Synchrotron Radiation Scattering  

SciTech Connect

We report the design of a sputter deposition chamber for the in situ study of film growth and modification by synchrotron x-ray diffraction and reflectivity. The chamber is sealed with four Be-windows allowing unhindered scattering access of -2 up to +50 degrees off-plane and -2.9 up to +65 degrees in-plane, respectively. The chamber fits into a standard six-circle diffractometer from HUBER which is relatively widespread in synchrotron laboratories. Two commercial miniature magnetrons with additional gas inlets allow for the deposition of compound films and multilayers. Substrate heating up to 950 deg. C and different substrate bias voltages are possible. An additional ion gun up to 6 keV and 10 {mu}A allows post-deposition ion irradiation with light atoms or energetic ion bombardment during sputter deposition. The performance of the chamber was tested with the deposition of MAX phase Ti2AlN and with the off-sputtering of a thin Pt film.

Schell, Norbert; Borany, Johannes von; Hauser, Jens [Forschungszentrum Rossendorf, P.O. Box 510119, 01314 Dresden (Germany)

2007-01-19

322

Measurements of sputtered neutrals and ions and investigation of their roles on the plasma properties during rf magnetron sputtering of Zn and ZnO targets  

SciTech Connect

Langmuir probe and optical absorption spectroscopy measurements were used to determine the line-integrated electron density, electron temperature, and number density of Ar atoms in metastable {sup 3}P{sub 2} and {sup 3}P{sub 0} levels in a 5 mTorr, rf magnetron sputtering plasmas used for the deposition of ZnO-based thin films. While the average electron energy and density of Ar atoms in {sup 3}P{sub 2} and {sup 3}P{sub 0} excited states were fairly independent of self-bias voltage, the Ar {sup 3}P{sub 2}-to-electron number density ratio decreased by approximately a factor of 5 when going from ?115 V to ?300 V. This decrease was correlated to an increase by about one order of magnitude of the number density of sputtered Zn atoms determined by absolute actinometry measurements on Zn I using either Ar or Xe as the actinometer gas. These results were also found to be in excellent agreement with the predictions of a global model accounting for Penning ionization of sputtered Zn particles. The importance of the latter reactions was further confirmed by plasma sampling mass spectrometry showing a double peak structure for Zn ions: a low-energy component ascribed to thermalized ions created in the gas phase (by direct electron impact and by Penning ionization) and a high-energy tail due to ions ejected from the target and reaching quasi-collisionlessly the substrate surface.

Maaloul, L.; Stafford, L. [Dpartement de Physique, Universit de Montral, Montral, Qubec H3C 3J7 (Canada)] [Dpartement de Physique, Universit de Montral, Montral, Qubec H3C 3J7 (Canada)

2013-11-15

323

Ion source for high-precision mass spectrometry  

DOEpatents

The invention is directed to a method for increasing the precision of positive-ion relative abundance measurements conducted in a sector mass spectrometer having an ion source for directing a beam of positive ions onto a collimating slit. The method comprises incorporating in the source an electrostatic lens assembly for providing a positive-ion beam of circular cross section for collimation by the slit.

Todd, Peter J. (Oak Ridge, TN); McKown, Henry S. (Oak Ridge, TN); Smith, David H. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1984-01-01

324

Fermilab HINS Proton Ion Source Beam Measurements  

SciTech Connect

The proton ion source for the High Intensity Neutrino Source (HINS) Linac front-end at Fermilab has been successfully commissioned. It produces a 50 keV, 3 msec beam pulse with a peak current greater than 20mA at 2.5Hz. The beam is transported to the radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) by a low energy beam transport (LEBT) that consists of two focusing solenoids, four steering dipole magnets and a beam current transformer. To understand beam transmission through the RFQ, it is important to characterize the 50 keV beam before connecting the LEBT to the RFQ. A wire scanner and a Faraday cup are temporarily installed at the exit of the LEBT to study the beam parameters. Beam profile measurements are made for different LEBT settings and results are compared to those from computer simulations. In lieu of direct emittance measurements, solenoid variation method based on profile measurements is used to reconstruct the beam emittance.

Tam, W.M.; Apollinari, G.; Chaurize, S.; Hays, S.; Romanov, G.; Scarpine, V.; Schmidt, C.; Webber, R.; /Fermilab

2009-05-01

325

ECR sources for the production of highly charged ions  

SciTech Connect

Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources (ECRIS) using RF between 5 and 16 GHz have been developed into stable, reliable sources of highly charged ions produced from a wide range of elements. These devices are currently used as ion sources for cyclotrons, synchrotrons, and heavy-ion linacs for nuclear and relativistic heavy-ion physics. They also serve the atomic physics community as a source of low energy multiply-charged ions. In order to improve their performance both with respect to maximum charge state and beam intensity, ECRIS builders are now designing and constructing sources which will operate at frequencies up to 30 GHz. In this paper we review the present status of operating ECRIS, review recent experimental measurements on plasma parameters, and look at the technology and potential of sources operating at frequencies up to 30 GHz. 14 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Lyneis, C.M.; Antaya, T.A (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA); Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (USA))

1989-09-01

326

Fabrication of high-quality VO2 thin films by ion-assisted dual ac magnetron sputtering.  

PubMed

The technique of cathodic ac dual magnetron sputtering along with the high energy ionic bombardment is known to yield high-quality thin films in terms of their uniformity and high density. This technique has been applied for the first time to achieve thermochromic VO2 thin films that show a high optical and electrical contrast between normal and switched states. In this two-step process Vanadium metal films were deposited and subsequently oxidized in optimum conditions to achieve stoichiometric VO2 films. Typical films switched between more than 40 % to less than 5 % transmission in the infrared region while undergoing an electrical sheet resistance change between 1 10(5) and 1 10(2) ?/cm(2). The application potential of such VO2 films in integrated optics is deemed high. PMID:24215606

Ba, Cheikhou; Bah, Souleymane T; D'Auteuil, Marc; Ashrit, P V; Valle, Ral

2013-12-11

327

Phase locking of relativistic magnetrons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phase locking of relativistic magnetrons has been achieved at power levels of about 3 GW at 2.8 GHz, exceeding previous phase-locking power levels by 3 orders of magnitude. Two relativistic magnetrons interact directly through a short waveguide of length l about n lambda/2 to allow locking. Power-density enhancement due to source coherence is directly measured in the radiation field. Phase locking occurs in about 5 ns and is reproducible. Extension to 10-100 GW appears feasible with arrays of oscillators.

Benford, J.; Sze, H.; Woo, W.; Smith, R. R.; Harteneck, B.

1989-02-01

328

The ISIS Penning Ion Source and the Volume Ion Sources from Frankfurt and DESY for H- Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

H- ion source development work at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL), the Institut fr Angewandte Physik (IAP) in Frankfurt and the Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY) will be described, along with future avenues of research. The most recent values of important parameters for each ion source will be presented in the context of next generation particle accelerators, particularly the proposed European Spallation Source

J. W. G. Thomason; H. Klein; J. Peters

2002-01-01

329

High current H - ion production in cesium seeded large ion sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characteristics of a large negative-ion source with external filter is investigated for the neutral-beam injection system in a large helical device. The magnetic cusp field is set up at almost the same strength as that in our well optimized 1\\/3 ion source with rod-type magnetic filter. An H? ion current of 5.2 A is extracted from the ion source

K. Tsumori; A. Ando; Y. Takeiri; O. Kaneko; Y. Oka; T. Okuyama; H. Kojima; Y. Yamashita; T. Kawamoto; R. Akiyama; T. Kuroda

1994-01-01

330

Double-layer ion acceleration triggered by ion magnetization in expanding radiofrequency plasma sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ion energy distribution functions downstream of the source exit in magnetically expanding low-pressure plasmas are experimentally investigated for four source tube diameters ranging from about 5 to 15 cm. The magnetic-field threshold corresponding to a transition from a simple expanding plasma to a double layer-containing plasma is observed to increase with a decrease in the source tube diameter. The results demonstrate that for the four geometries, the double layer and the accelerated ion beam form when the ion Larmour radius in the source becomes smaller than the source tube radius, i.e., when the ions become magnetized in the source tube.

Takahashi, Kazunori; Charles, Christine; Boswell, Rod W.; Fujiwara, Tamiya

2010-10-01

331

Double-layer ion acceleration triggered by ion magnetization in expanding radiofrequency plasma sources  

SciTech Connect

Ion energy distribution functions downstream of the source exit in magnetically expanding low-pressure plasmas are experimentally investigated for four source tube diameters ranging from about 5 to 15 cm. The magnetic-field threshold corresponding to a transition from a simple expanding plasma to a double layer-containing plasma is observed to increase with a decrease in the source tube diameter. The results demonstrate that for the four geometries, the double layer and the accelerated ion beam form when the ion Larmour radius in the source becomes smaller than the source tube radius, i.e., when the ions become magnetized in the source tube.

Takahashi, Kazunori [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Iwate University, Morioka 020-8551 (Japan); Space Plasma, Power and Propulsion Group, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra 0200 (Australia); Charles, Christine; Boswell, Rod W. [Space Plasma, Power and Propulsion Group, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra 0200 (Australia); Fujiwara, Tamiya [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Iwate University, Morioka 020-8551 (Japan)

2010-10-04

332

An ion trap-ion mobility-time of flight mass spectrometer with three ion sources for ion\\/ion reactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This instrument combines the capabilities of ion\\/ion reactions with ion mobility (IM) and time-of-flight (TOF) measurements\\u000a for conformation studies and top-down analysis of large biomolecules. Ubiquitin ions from either of two electrospray ionization\\u000a (ESI) sources are stored in a three dimensional (3D) ion trap (IT) and reacted with negative ions from atmospheric sampling\\u000a glow discharge ionization (ASGDI). The proton transfer

Qin Zhao; Matthew W. Soyk; Gregg M. Schieffer; Katrin Fuhrer; Marc M. Gonin; R. S. Houk; Ethan R. Badman

2009-01-01

333

Negative ion source development for fusion application (invited)  

SciTech Connect

Giant negative ion sources, producing high-current of several tens amps with high energy of several hundreds keV to 1 MeV, are required for a neutral beam injector (NBI) in a fusion device. The giant negative ion sources are cesium-seeded plasma sources, in which the negative ions are produced on the cesium-covered surface. Their characteristic features are discussed with the views of large-volume plasma production, large-area beam acceleration, and high-voltage dc holding. The international thermonuclear experimental reactor NBI employs a 1 MeV-40 A of deuterium negative ion source, and intensive development programs for the rf-driven source plasma production and the multistage electrostatic acceleration are in progress, including the long pulse operation for 3600 s. Present status of the development, as well as the achievements of the giant negative ion sources in the working injectors, is also summarized.

Takeiri, Yasuhiko [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan)

2010-02-15

334

An all permanent magnet electron cyclotron resonance ion source for heavy ion therapya)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high charge state all permanent Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source, Lanzhou All Permanent ECR ion source no. 3-LAPECR3, has been successfully built at IMP in 2012, which will serve as the ion injector of the Heavy Ion Medical Machine (HIMM) project. As a commercial device, LAPECR3 features a compact structure, small size, and low cost. According to HIMM scenario more than 100 e?A of C5+ ion beam should be extracted from the ion source, and the beam emittance better than 75 ?*mm*mrad. In recent commissioning, about 120 e?A of C5+ ion beam was got when work gas was CH4 while about 262 e?A of C5+ ion beam was obtained when work gas was C2H2 gas. The design and construction of the ion source and its low-energy transportation beam line, and the preliminary commissioning results will be presented in detail in this paper.

Cao, Yun; Li, Jia Qing; Sun, Liang Ting; Zhang, Xue Zhen; Feng, Yu Cheng; Wang, Hui; Ma, Bao Hua; Li, Xi Xia

2014-02-01

335

Negative hydrogen ion beam extracted from a Bernas-type ion source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Negative hydrogen (H-) ion beam was produced without cesium seeding by a Bernas-type ion source with a coaxial hot cathode. The amount of H- ion beam current extracted from an original Bernas-type ion source using a hairpin shape filament as a hot cathode was 1 ?A with the 0.4 A arc current, while that 300 eV beam energy. In the other hand, H- ion beam current using the Bernas-type ion source with a coaxial hot cathode reached 4 ?A under the same condition. Production efficiency was enhanced by the focused plasma produced by a coaxial hot cathode.

Miyamoto, N.; Wada, M.

2011-09-01

336

A 30-cm diameter argon ion source. [for ion thrusters and sputtering  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 30-cm diameter argon ion source was evaluated. Ion source beam currents up to 4A were extracted with ion energies ranging from 0.2 to 1.5 KeV. An ion optics scaling relation was developed for predicting ion beam extraction capability as a function of total extraction voltage, gas type and screen grid open area. Ignition and emission characteristics of several hollow cathode geometries were assessed for purposes of defining discharge chamber and neutralizer cathodes. Also presented are ion beam profile characteristics which exhibit broad beam capability well suited for ion beam sputtering applications.

Sovey, J. S.

1976-01-01

337

Laser Ion Source Operation at the TRIUMF Radioactive Ion Beam Facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The TRIUMF Resonant Ionization Laser Ion Source (RILIS) for radioactive ion beam production is presented, with target ion source, laser beam transport, laser system and operation. In this context aspects of titanium sapphire (TiSa) laser based RILIS and facility requirements are discussed and results from the first years of TRILIS RIB delivery are given.

Lassen, J.; Bricault, P.; Dombsky, M.; Lavoie, J. P.; Gillner, M.; Gottwald, T.; Hellbusch, F.; Teigelhfer, A.; Voss, A.; Wendt, K. D. A.

2009-03-01

338

Study of Compact Penning Ion Source for Material Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of ion sources of various sizes has been carried out since a long back. Gaseous ions of different nature are being used in different field of research as well as industrial applications like surface modification, doping, surface etching, sputtering, production of nano size particles and focused ion beam etc. Out of various geometry and operation regime, due to compactness,

B. K. Das; R. Das; A. Shyam

2011-01-01

339

Laser ion source with a double pulse laser system  

Microsoft Academic Search

To extend an ion beam pulse of a laser ion source, multiple laser shots could be used. To check the feasibility of this idea, we tested double laser irradiations on an iron target. When the interval of the two laser shots is longer than 10 μs, the obtained ion current profile was expressed as a sum of two individual expanded

Okamura M; K. Kondo; G. Gish Allouche; T. Yamamoto

2012-01-01

340

Low energy spread ion source with a coaxial magnetic filter  

DOEpatents

Multicusp ion sources are capable of producing ions with low axial energy spread which are necessary in applications such as ion projection lithography (IPL) and radioactive ion beam production. The addition of a radially extending magnetic filter consisting of a pair of permanent magnets to the multicusp source reduces the energy spread considerably due to the improvement in the uniformity of the axial plasma potential distribution in the discharge region. A coaxial multicusp ion source designed to further reduce the energy spread utilizes a cylindrical magnetic filter to achieve a more uniform axial plasma potential distribution. The coaxial magnetic filter divides the source chamber into an outer annular discharge region in which the plasma is produced and a coaxial inner ion extraction region into which the ions radially diffuse but from which ionizing electrons are excluded. The energy spread in the coaxial source has been measured to be 0.6 eV. Unlike other ion sources, the coaxial source has the capability of adjusting the radial plasma potential distribution and therefore the transverse ion temperature (or beam emittance).

Leung, Ka-Ngo (Hercules, CA); Lee, Yung-Hee Yvette (Berkeley, CA)

2000-01-01

341

Downward accelerated ions: Ion source for the potential layer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main purpose of this report is to present a solution to the problem of how the observed quasi-stationary downward flow of ions through a potential difference between the magnetosphere and the ionosphere, ions which originate below the potential difference, can be understood. First, a summary of the observations of downward accelerated ions with keV or sub-keV energies at altitudes

Bengt Hultqvist

2004-01-01

342

Volume- and Caesiated-Volume Negative Ion Sources  

SciTech Connect

H- volume sources and especially caesiated H- volume sources are important ion sources for generating high intensity proton beams, which then in turn generate large quantities of other particles. This paper discusses the physics and technology of the volume production and the caesium enhanced (surface) production of H- ions. Starting with Bacal s discovery of the H- volume production, the paper briefly recounts the development of some H- sources, which capitalized on this process to significantly increase the production of H- beams. Another significant increase was achieved in the 1990s by adding cesiated surfaces to supplement the volume produced ions with surface produced ions as illustrated with other H- sources. Finally the focus turns to some of the experience gained when such a source was successfully ramped up in H- output as well as in duty factor to support the generation of 1 MW proton beams for the Spallation Neutron Source.

Stockli, Martin P [ORNL] [ORNL

2013-01-01

343

Arc plasma simulation of the KAERI large ion source  

SciTech Connect

The KAERI large ion source, developed for the KSTAR NBI system, recently produced ion beams of 100 keV, 50 A levels in the first half campaign of 2007. These results seem to be the best performance of the present ion source at a maximum available input power of 145 kW. A slight improvement in the ion source is certainly necessary to attain the final goal of an 8 MW ion beam. Firstly, the experimental results were analyzed to differentiate the cause and effect for the insufficient beam currents. Secondly, a zero dimensional simulation was carried out on the ion source plasma to identify which factors control the arc plasma and to find out what improvements can be expected.

In, S. R.; Jeong, S. H.; Kim, T. S. [Fusion Engineering Center, KAERI, 305-353 Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2008-02-15

344

Resonant Ionization Laser Ion Source Project at TRIUMF  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Resonant laser excitation and ionisation is one of the most successful tools for the selective production of radioactive ion beams (RIB) at on-line mass separator facilities. TRIUMF plans to augment the current ion sources with a resonant ionisation laser ion source (RILIS), to use the high production yields from the target, as shown by the delivery of 3*104/s 11Li ions from a standard target ion source with surface ionisation. The development and installation of TRIUMF's RILIS (TRILIS) is necessary to provide beams of short lived isotopes that conventional ion sources could not produce in sufficient intensity and purity for nuclear-, and nuclear astrophysics- experiments. A laser system consisting of three tunable titanium sapphire (TiSa) lasers with frequency doubling and tripling was employed to demonstrate first off-line resonance ionisation of Ga, and is being installed for first on-line test and a run on 62Ga in December 2004.

Lassen, J.; Bricault, P.; Dombsky, M.; Lavoie, J. P.; Geppert, Ch.; Wendt, K.

2005-04-01

345

Characterization of an 8-cm Diameter Ion Source System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of tests characterizing an 8-cm diameter ion source are presented. The tests were conducted in three separate vacuum test facilities at the University of Alabama-Huntsville, Colorado State University, and L3 Communications' ETI division. Standard ion optics tests describing electron backstreaming and total-voltage-limited impingement current behavior as a function of beam current were used as guidelines for selecting operating conditions where more detailed ion beam measurements were performed. The ion beam was profiled using an in-vacuum actuating probe system to determine the total ion current density and the ion charge state distribution variation across the face of the ion source. Both current density and ExB probes were utilized. The ion current density data were used to obtain integrated beam current, beam flatness parameters, and general beam profile shapes. The ExB probe data were used to determine the ratio of doubly to singly charged ion current. The ion beam profile tests were performed at over six different operating points that spanned the expected operating range of the DAWN thrusters being developed at L3. The characterization tests described herein reveal that the 8-cm ion source is suitable for use in (a) validating plasma diagnostic equipment, (b) xenon ion sputtering and etching studies of spacecraft materials, (c) plasma physics research, and (d) the study of ion thruster optics at varying conditions.

Li, Zhongmin; Hawk, C. W.; Hawk, Clark W.; Buttweiler, Mark S.; Williams, John D.; Buchholtz, Brett

2005-01-01

346

Ion confinement in electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRIS): importance of nonlinear plasma-wave interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

In electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRIS), ions are produced in a highly ionized microwave heated plasma contained in a minimum-B magnetic trap. Recent experiments have revealed that the absorption of electromagnetic wave energy is accompanied by a weak ion sound turbulence, a signature of a decay instability of the electromagnetic plasma wave excited by the admitted microwave. Ions are

Andrei A. Ivanov; Klaus Wiesemann

2005-01-01

347

Design of the RF ion source for the ITER NBI  

Microsoft Academic Search

A radio frequency (RF) driven negative ion source has been designed for the ITER neutral beam injectors, as an alternative to the traditional arc driven solution.The main advantage of this technology is to avoid the presence of the filaments, that require periodic maintenance and consequently frequent shutdowns.The requirements for the ion source of the ITER NBI are to provide a

D. Marcuzzi; P. Agostinetti; M. Dalla Palma; H. D. Falter; B. Heinemann; R. Riedl

2007-01-01

348

Low background cold cathode ion source for molecular beam detection.  

PubMed

An extractor gauge type electron bombardment ion source using carbon fiber bundles as field electron emitters is described. The cold cathode permits operation of the ionizer within a liquid He cooled cryopump. The high pumping speed for all molecules (except helium) together with its low background pressure make this ion source a very promising detector for crossed molecular beam scattering experiments. PMID:18699122

Faubel, M; Holber, W M; Toennies, J P

1978-04-01

349

Advanced direct current negative-ion source for accelerator use  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Status of direct current hydrogen negative-ion source development for tandem accelerator is described. The electrodes enforcing its water cooling and introducing of the electrons' interception permitted to increase the source discharge power and to obtain regularly the H--ion beam with energy >25 kV and current up to 15 mA.

Belchenko, Yu.; Gusev, I.; Khilchenko, A.; Kvashnin, A.; Rashchenko, V.; Sanin, A.; Savkin, V.; Zubarev, P.

2006-03-01

350

Computer aided control of the bonn penning polarized ion source  

Microsoft Academic Search

A CBM computer system is described which has been set up to control the Bonn Polarized Ion Source. The controlling program, besides setting and logging parameters, performs an optimization of the ion source output. A free definable figure of merit, being composed of the current of the ionizer and its variance, has proven to be an effective means in directing

N. W. He; P. von Rossen; P. D. Eversheim; R. Busch

1984-01-01

351

Computer aided control of the bonn penning polarized ion source  

Microsoft Academic Search

A CBM computer system is described which has been set up to control the Bonn Polarized Ion Source. The controlling program, besides setting and logging parameters, performs an optimization of the ion source output. A free definable figure of merit, being composed of the current of the ionizer and its variance, has proven to be an effective means in directing

N. He; P. von Rossen; P. Eversheim; R. Busch

352

A double hot cathode lateral extraction Penning ion source  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improved Penning ion source has been developed. This ion source has two helical filaments at the two ends of the discharge chamber. The design of the filaments is such that the resultant magnetic field distribution, which is a combination of the external field and those due to the two filaments, focuses the electrons from the filaments to the plasma

M. Ma; K. G. Stephens; B. J. Sealy; J. E. Mynard

1992-01-01

353

Negative ions as a source of low energy neutral beams  

SciTech Connect

Little consideration has been given to the impact of recent developments in negative ion source technology on the design of low energy neutral beam injectors. However, negative ion sources of improved operating efficiency, higher gas efficiency, and smaller beam divergence will lead to neutral deuterium injectors, operating at less than 100 keV, with better operating efficiencies and more compact layouts than can be obtained from positive ion systems.

Fink, J.H.

1980-01-01

354

CW 8X ion source development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the 4X source performance and the Penning SPS scaling laws, we predicted the performance of the 8X source. A pulsed 8X source was then built and tested. After verifying the pulsed 8X source operation, especially the H- beam current, emittance, and power efficiency, we designed and built the CW 8X source. We plan to operate the source arc at

H. Vernon Smith; Paul Allison; Carl Geisik; Stuart D. Orbesen; David R. Schmitt; J. David Schneider; James E. Stelzer; Bruce Abel; Irwin Birnbaum; Ron Heuer; Jim Porter; Joe Sredniawski

1992-01-01

355

Pantechnik new superconducting ion source: PantechniK Indian Superconducting Ion Source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The new ECR ion source PantechniK Indian Superconducting Ion Source (PKISIS) was recently commissioned at Pantechnik. Three superconducting coils generate the axial magnetic field configuration, while the radial magnetic field is done with the multi-layer permanent magnets. Special care was devoted to the design of the hexapolar structure, allowing a maximum magnetic field of 1.32 T at the wall of the 82 mm diameter plasma chamber. The three superconducting coils using low temperature superconducting wires are cooled by a single double stage cryo-cooler (4.2 K). Cryogen-free technology is used, providing reliability and easy maintenance at low cost. The maximum installed RF power (18.0 GHz) is of 2 kW. Metallic beams can be produced with an oven (Tmax = 1400 C) installed with an angle of 5 with respect to the source axis or a sputtering system, mounted on the axis of the source. The beam extraction system is constituted of three electrodes in accel-decel configuration. The new source of Pantechnik is conceived for reaching optimum performances at 18 GHz RF frequencies. PKISIS magnetic fields are 2.1 T axial Binj and 1.32 T radial field in the wall, variable Bmin with an independent coil and a large and opened extraction region. Moreover, PKISIS integrates modern design concepts, like RF direct injection (2 kW availability), dc-bias moving disk, out-of-axis oven and axial sputtering facility for metal beams. Finally, PKISIS is also conceived in order to operate in a high-voltage platform with minor power consumption.

Gaubert, G.; Bieth, C.; Bougy, W.; Brionne, N.; Donzel, X.; Leroy, R.; Sineau, A.; Vallerand, C.; Villari, A. C. C.; Thuillier, T.

2012-02-01

356

Pantechnik new superconducting ion source: PantechniK Indian Superconducting Ion Source.  

PubMed

The new ECR ion source PantechniK Indian Superconducting Ion Source (PKISIS) was recently commissioned at Pantechnik. Three superconducting coils generate the axial magnetic field configuration, while the radial magnetic field is done with the multi-layer permanent magnets. Special care was devoted to the design of the hexapolar structure, allowing a maximum magnetic field of 1.32 T at the wall of the 82 mm diameter plasma chamber. The three superconducting coils using low temperature superconducting wires are cooled by a single double stage cryo-cooler (4.2 K). Cryogen-free technology is used, providing reliability and easy maintenance at low cost. The maximum installed RF power (18.0 GHz) is of 2 kW. Metallic beams can be produced with an oven (T(max) = 1400 C) installed with an angle of 5 with respect to the source axis or a sputtering system, mounted on the axis of the source. The beam extraction system is constituted of three electrodes in accel-decel configuration. The new source of Pantechnik is conceived for reaching optimum performances at 18 GHz RF frequencies. PKISIS magnetic fields are 2.1 T axial B(inj) and 1.32 T radial field in the wall, variable B(min) with an independent coil and a large and opened extraction region. Moreover, PKISIS integrates modern design concepts, like RF direct injection (2 kW availability), dc-bias moving disk, out-of-axis oven and axial sputtering facility for metal beams. Finally, PKISIS is also conceived in order to operate in a high-voltage platform with minor power consumption. PMID:22380191

Gaubert, G; Bieth, C; Bougy, W; Brionne, N; Donzel, X; Leroy, R; Sineau, A; Vallerand, C; Villari, A C C; Thuillier, T

2012-02-01

357

Separation of beam and electrons in the spallation neutron source H(sup -) ion source.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) requires an ion source producing an H(sup (minus)) beam with a peak current of 35mA at a 6.2 percent duty factor. For the design of this ion source, extracted electrons must be transported and dumped without adversely a...

J. H. Whealton R. J. Raridon K. N. Leung

1997-01-01

358

Physics research and technology developments of electron string ion sources.  

PubMed

The most recent experimental information on electron string phenomenon, such as two step transition to electron string state, stability of e-strings in condition of electron energy recuperation, are described. The new technology developments of electron string ion sources (ESIS) include pulse injection of gaseous species in e-string and its efficient conversion to ion beams, slow ion extraction, ion-ion cooling of heavy ions with CH(4) coolant, and a progress in the construction of the new Joint Institute for Nuclear Research ESIS with 6 T solenoid are briefly considered. PMID:22380208

Donets, D E; Donets, E E; Honma, T; Noda, K; Ramzdorf, A Yu; Salnikov, V V; Shutov, V B; Donets, E D

2012-02-01

359

Physics research and technology developments of electron string ion sources  

SciTech Connect

The most recent experimental information on electron string phenomenon, such as two step transition to electron string state, stability of e-strings in condition of electron energy recuperation, are described. The new technology developments of electron string ion sources (ESIS) include pulse injection of gaseous species in e-string and its efficient conversion to ion beams, slow ion extraction, ion-ion cooling of heavy ions with CH{sub 4} coolant, and a progress in the construction of the new Joint Institute for Nuclear Research ESIS with 6 T solenoid are briefly considered.

Donets, D. E.; Donets, E. E.; Ramzdorf, A. Yu.; Salnikov, V. V.; Shutov, V. B.; Donets, E. D. [Veksler and Baldin Laboratory of High Energy Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna 141980 (Russian Federation); Honma, T.; Noda, K. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage, Chiba, 263-8555 (Japan)

2012-02-15

360

Versatile plasma ion source with an internal evaporator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel construction of an ion source with an evaporator placed inside a plasma chamber is presented. The crucible is heated to high temperatures directly by arc discharge, which makes the ion source suitable for substances with high melting points. The compact ion source enables production of intense ion beams for wide spectrum of solid elements with typical separated beam currents of 100-150 ?A for Al +, Mn +, As + (which corresponds to emission current densities of 15-25 mA/cm 2) for the extraction voltage of 25 kV. The ion source works for approximately 50-70 h at 100% duty cycle, which enables high ion dose implantation. The typical power consumption of the ion source is 350-400 W. The paper presents detailed experimental data (e.g. dependences of ion currents and anode voltages on discharge and filament currents and magnetic flux densities) for Cr, Fe, Al, As, Mn and In. The discussion is supported by results of Monte Carlo method based numerical simulation of ionisation in the ion source.

Turek, M.; Prucnal, S.; Drozdziel, A.; Pyszniak, K.

2011-04-01

361

Thermal analysis of the CSNS H- ion source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are two cooling systems to maintain the thermal stability of the CSNS H- ion source during its operation: Air-cooling in the source body of the discharging chamber and water-cooling in the flange on which the discharging chamber is installed. The optimal cooling parameters to ensure the operation of the H- ion source are determined through a thermal analysis. In addition, a transient analysis is also performed to know exactly the transient temperature variation during the whole 40 ms period of the pulsed mode operation of the ion source.

Wu, Xiao-Bing; Ouyang, Hua-Fu

2010-05-01

362

Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources for Highly-Charged Ion Beams  

SciTech Connect

Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion sources are used for several different applications. Primarily they are used for the production of highly-charged ion beams for nuclear physics experiments but they are also used, for example, in medical applications and radiation-hardness tests of space electronics. Strong requests have been made from the nuclear physics community towards obtaining higher beam intensities and new exotic, even radioactive, ion beams. Due to the requirements more powerful ECR ion sources and new methods for the beam production are needed. In order to meet the beam intensity requirements several superconducting ion sources have recently been built or are under construction in Asia, Europe and the USA. The development work towards improvements in ion beam quality and the production of metal ion beams is also playing a crucial role. In this article a general overview concerning the ECR ion sources, their future and beam production will be given.

Koivisto, H. [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, FIN-40014 University of Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

2009-03-10

363

A double-plasma source of continuous bipolar ion-ion beam  

SciTech Connect

A double-plasma source capable of the generation of a continuous bipolar ion-ion beam is described. The quasi-neutral ion-ion flow to an extraction electrode is formed in the system containing primary inductively coupled plasma separated from a secondary plasma by an electrostatic grid-type filter. The total current of each ion species to the 250 mm diameter extraction electrode is about 80 mA; the electron current does not exceed 30% of the ion current. Method of positive/negative ion current ratio control is proposed, allowing the ion currents ratio variation in wide range.

Dudin, S. V. [Department of Physics and Technology, V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University, Kurchatova ave. 31, 61108 Kharkiv (Ukraine) [Department of Physics and Technology, V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University, Kurchatova ave. 31, 61108 Kharkiv (Ukraine); Scientific Center of Physical Technologies, Svobody sq. 6, 61022 Kharkiv (Ukraine); Rafalskyi, D. V. [Laboratoire de Physique des Plasmas, CNRS-Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau CEDEX 91128 (France)] [Laboratoire de Physique des Plasmas, CNRS-Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau CEDEX 91128 (France)

2013-01-21

364

Time Profiles of Ions Produced in a Hot-Cavity Resonant Ionization Laser Ion Source  

SciTech Connect

The time profiles of Cu, Sn and Ni ions extracted from a hot-cavity resonant ionization laser ion source are investigated. The ions are produced in the ion source by three-photon resonant ionization with pulsed Ti:Sapphire lasers. Measurements show that the time spread of these ions generated within laser pulses of about 30 ns could be larger than 100 s when the ions are extracted from the ion source. A one-dimensional ion-transport model using the Monte Carlo method is developed to simulate the time dependence of the ion pulses. The observed ion temporal profiles agree reasonably well with the predictions of the model, which indicates that a substantial fraction of the extracted ions are generated in the vapor-transfer tube rather than the hot cavity and that ion-wall collisions are suppressed inside the ion source by an undetermined ion confinement mechanism. Three-dimensional modeling will be necessary to understand the strong reduction in losses expected from ion-wall collisions which we interpret as evidence for confinement.

Liu, Yuan [ORNL; Baktash, Cyrus [ORNL; Beene, James R [ORNL; Havener, Charles C [ORNL; Krause, Herbert F [ORNL; Schultz, David Robert [ORNL; Stracener, Daniel W [ORNL; Vane, C Randy [ORNL; Geppert, C. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Mainz, Germany; Kessler, T. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Mainz, Germany; Wies, K. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Mainz, Germany; Wendt, K. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Mainz, Germany

2011-01-01

365

Compact hollow cathode ion source with an internal evaporator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel construction of a hollow cathode ion source equipped with an internal crucible is presented. The crucible (also known as the evaporator) containing the feeding substance is heated to a high temperature by a hot cathode filament and an arc discharge to enable production of ions from solids. Another crucial feature of the ion source is the proximity of the arc discharge and an extraction opening that enables the production of an intense ion beam even for very low discharge currents (up to 1.2 A). The ion source provides currents of 80 ?A (In +), 70 ?A (Bi +), 60 ?A (Mn +), 50 ?A (As + and Al +) and 35 ?A (Sb +) for a typical extraction voltage of 25 kV. The ion source is also able to produce beams of molecular and doubly charged ions (e.g. Sb 2+, As 2+, Bi 2+ and As 2+). The time between maintenance breaks is 20-40 h (depending on the feeding substance) making it possible to perform high fluence implantations (10 17 ions per cm 2) with ions of solids within a single work cycle. The detailed description of the ion source as well as its principle of operation is given. Experimental characteristics i.e. dependencies of extracted beam currents and anode voltage on anode and cathode currents are presented and discussed. The influence of magnetic field flux density on ion source's performance is also shown. A model of ionization in the ion source based on Monte Carlo method is describedsome simulation results are shown in order to enrich the discussion.

Turek, M.; Dro?dziel, A.; Pyszniak, K.; Prucnal, S.

2011-10-01

366

Pulsed, Inductively Generated, Streaming Plasma Ion Source for Heavy Ion Fusion Linacs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes a compact, high current density, pulsed ion source, based on electrodeless, inductively driven gas breakdown, developed to meet the requirements on normalized emittance, current density, uniformity and pulse duration for an ion injector in a heavy-ion fusion driver. The plasma source produces >10 s pulse of Argon plasma with ion current densities >100 mA\\/cm2 at 30 cm

Steven C. Glidden; Howard D Sanders; John B. Greenly; Daniel L. Dongwoo

2006-01-01

367

CW 8X ion source development  

SciTech Connect

Using the 4X source performance and the Penning SPS scaling laws, we predicted the performance of the 8X source. A pulsed 8X source was then built and tested. After verifying the pulsed 8X source operation, especially the H[sup [minus

Smith, H.V. Jr.; Allison, P.; Geisik, C.; Orbesen, S.D.; Schmitt, D.R.; Schneider, J.D.; Stelzer, J.E. (University of California, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)); Abel, B.; Birnbaum, I.; Heuer, R.; Porter, J.; Sredniawski, J. (Grumman Corporation, Bethpage, NY 11714 (United States))

1992-10-05

368

ECR (Electron Cyclotron Resonance) ion sources for cyclotrons  

SciTech Connect

In the last decade ECR (Electron Cyclotron Resonance) ion sources have evolved from a single large, power consuming, complex prototype into a variety of compact, simple, reliable, efficient, high performance sources of high charge state ions for accelerators and atomic physics. The coupling of ECR sources to cyclotrons has resulted in significant performance gains in energy, intensity, reliability, and variety of ion species. Seven ECR sources are in regular operation with cyclotrons and numerous other projects are under development or in the planning stag. At least four laboratories have ECR sources dedicated for atomic physics research and other atomic physics programs share ECR sources with cyclotrons. An ECR source is now installed on the injector for the CERN SPS synchrotron to accelerate O/sup 8 +/ to relativistic energies. A project is underway at Argonne to couple an ECR source to a superconducting heavy-ion linac. Although tremendous progress has been made, the field of ECR sources is still a relatively young technology and there is still the potential for further advances both in source development and understanding of the plasma physics. The development of ECR sources is reviewed. The important physics mechanisms which come into play in the operation of ECR Sources are discussed, along with various models for charge state distributions (CSD). The design and performance of several ECR sources are compared. The 88-Inch Cyclotron and the LBL ECR is used as an example of cyclotron+ECR operation. The future of ECR sources is considered.

Lyneis, C.M.

1986-10-01

369

Selection and design of ion sources for use at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility  

SciTech Connect

The Holifield Radioactive Ion beam Facility now under construction at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory will use the 25-MV tandem accelerator for the acceleration of radioactive ion beams to energies appropriate for research in nuclear physics; negative ion beams are, therefore, required for injection into the tandem accelerator. Because charge exchange is an efficient means for converting initially positive ion beams to negative ion beams, both positive and negative ion sources are viable options for use at the facility. The choice of the type of ion source will depend on the overall efficiency for generating the radioactive species of interest. Although direct-extraction negative ion sources are clearly desirable, the ion formation efficiencies are often too low for practical consideration; for this situation, positive ion sources, in combination with charge exchange, are the logical choice. The high-temperature version of the CERN-ISOLDE positive ion source has been selected and a modified version of the source designed and fabricated for initial use at the facility because of its low emittance, relatively high ionization efficiencies and species versatility, and because it has been engineered for remote installation, removal and servicing as required for safe handling in a high-radiation-level ISOL facility. The source will be primarily used to generate ion beams from elements with intermediate to low electron affinities. Prototype plasma-sputter negative ion sources and negative surface-ionization sources are under design consideration for generating radioactive ion beams from high-electron-affinity elements. The design features of these sources and expected efficiencies and beam qualities (emittances) will be described in this report.

Alton, G.D.; Haynes, D.L.; Mills, G.D.; Olsen, D.K.

1993-12-31

370

Development of Laser-Driven Ion Source  

SciTech Connect

We have studied the ion emission from a thin-foil target irradiated by p, s and circularly polarized laser pulses in order to clarify the mechanism of ion acceleration using a Titanium Sapphire laser with a peak irradiance of 3 x 1018 W/cm2. A tape target driver provided a fresh surface of a tantalum foil with the thickness of 3 micro-meters during the measurements. The laser polarization was changed from p to s- and to circular polarization by using the 1/2 and 1/4 wave plates made of mica. To obtain the ion energy spectra and to resolve the ion species, a Thomson parabola ion analyzer was placed behind the target along the target normal direction. The energy spectra close to 1MeV were obtained. Possible explanation of the experimental result is described. Finally, we describe the phase rotation technique to obtain a monochromatic proton beam.

Daido, H.; Nishiuchi, M.; Sagisaka, A.; Ogura, K.; Orimo, S.; Kado, M.; Hayashi, Y.; Mori, M.; Nagashima, A.; Pirozhkov, A.; Bulanov, S.; Esirkepov, T.; Kimura, T.; Tajima, T. [Advanced Photon Research Center, JAEA, Souraku-gun, Kyoto, 619-0215 (Japan); Fukumi, A.; Li, Z. [Advanced Photon Research Center, JAEA, Souraku-gun, Kyoto, 619-0215 (Japan); National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Inage-ku, Chiba, 263-8555 (Japan); Nemoto, K.; Oishi, Y.; Nayuki, T.; Fujii, T. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Yokosuka, 240-0196 (Japan)] (and others)

2006-04-07

371

High brilliance negative ion and neutral beam source  

DOEpatents

A high brilliance mass selected (Z-selected) negative ion and neutral beam source having good energy resolution. The source is based upon laser resonance ionization of atoms or molecules in a small gaseous medium followed by charge exchange through an alkali oven. The source is capable of producing microampere beams of an extremely wide variety of negative ions, and milliampere beams when operated in the pulsed mode.

Compton, Robert N. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1991-01-01

372

Status of the ATLAS PIIECR ion source project  

SciTech Connect

The ATLAS PIIECR ion source is a major component of a project which will result in the replacement of the ATLAS tandem electrostatic injector with a superconducting linac of extremely low velocity profile and an ECR ion source operating in the continuous mode. A compilation of the source parameters adopted is tabulated, and the various issues considered in the design process and decisions made regarding those issues are discussed. (LEW)

Pardo, R.; Minehara, E.; Lynch, F.; Billquist, P.; Evans, W.; Clifft, B.E.; Waterson, M.

1986-01-01

373

Some plasma aspects and plasma diagnostics of ion sources.  

PubMed

We consider plasma properties in the most advanced type of plasma ion sources, electron cyclotron resonance ion sources for highly charged ions. Depending on the operation conditions the plasma in these sources may be highly ionized, which completely changes its transport properties. The most striking difference to weakly ionized plasma is that diffusion will become intrinsically ambipolar. We further discuss means of plasma diagnostics. As noninvasive diagnostic methods we will discuss analysis of the ion beam, optical spectroscopy, and measurement of the x-ray bremsstrahlung continuum. From beam analysis and optical spectroscopy one may deduce ion densities, and electron densities and distribution functions as a mean over the line of sight along the axis (optical spectroscopy) or at the plasma edge (ion beam). From x-ray spectra one obtains information about the population of highly energetic electrons and the energy transfer from the driving electromagnetic waves to the plasma -- basic data for plasma modeling. PMID:18315191

Wiesemann, Klaus

2008-02-01

374

A universal pocket PIG ion source with a permanent magnet  

SciTech Connect

A universal pocket PIG ion source with a permanent magnet has been developed by our institute. Usually the source can produce single and multiple charged ions of gas or metal elements. At 20{endash}30 kV extraction voltage, milliamperes of gas ions, and tens of {mu}A of metal ions can be extracted with less than 50 W of discharge power consumption. And negative ions of some elements with larger electron affinity can be extracted directly from the source. Thus far, using LaB{sub 6} as a cathode, more than 50 {mu}A of H{sup {minus}}, about 1.4 mA of O{sup {minus}}, and 1.8 mA of F{sup {minus}} ions in total beam have been extracted at 15{endash}20 kV extraction voltage. The power consumptions are less than 40, 50, and 100 W, respectively. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

Yu, J.; Ren, X.; Song, Z. [Institute of Heavy Ion Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871, The Peoples Republic of (China)] [Institute of Heavy Ion Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871, The Peoples Republic of (China)

1996-03-01

375

Negative ion extraction characteristics of a large negative ion source with double-magnetic filter configuration  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multi-ampere hydrogen negative ion source with a large extraction area of 25 cm x 25 cm was developed. This negative ion source is a volume-production-type bucket ion source which is operated with double-magnetic filter configuration. In this configuration, the fast electrons, which produce the vibrationally excited molecules, are trapped near the chamber wall by the cusp field, which is

Y. Takeiri; A. Ando; O. Kaneko; Y. Oka; T. Kuroda

1992-01-01

376

Model for the description of ion beam extraction from electron cyclotron resonance ion sources.  

PubMed

The finite difference method trajectory code KOBRA3-INP has been developed now for 25 years to perform the simulation of ion beam extraction in three dimensions. Meanwhile, the code has been validated for different applications: high current ion beam extraction from plasma sources for ion implantation technology, neutral gas heating in fusion devices, or ion thrusters for space propulsion. One major issue of the development of this code was to improve the flexibility of the applied model for the simulation of different types of particle sources. Fixed emitter sources might be simulated with that code as well as laser ion sources, Penning ion sources, electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRISs), or H(-) sources, which require the simulation of negative ions, negative electrons, and positive charges simultaneously. The model which has been developed for ECRIS has now been used to explore the conditions for the ion beam extraction from a still nonexisting ion source, a so called ARC-ECRIS [P. Suominen and F. Wenander, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 02A305 (2008)]. It has to be shown whether the plasma generator has similar properties like regular ECRIS. However, the emittance of the extracted beam seems to be much better compared to an ECRIS equipped with a hexapole. PMID:20192465

Spdtke, P

2010-02-01

377

Model for the description of ion beam extraction from electron cyclotron resonance ion sources  

SciTech Connect

The finite difference method trajectory code KOBRA3-INP has been developed now for 25 years to perform the simulation of ion beam extraction in three dimensions. Meanwhile, the code has been validated for different applications: high current ion beam extraction from plasma sources for ion implantation technology, neutral gas heating in fusion devices, or ion thrusters for space propulsion. One major issue of the development of this code was to improve the flexibility of the applied model for the simulation of different types of particle sources. Fixed emitter sources might be simulated with that code as well as laser ion sources, Penning ion sources, electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRISs), or H{sup -} sources, which require the simulation of negative ions, negative electrons, and positive charges simultaneously. The model which has been developed for ECRIS has now been used to explore the conditions for the ion beam extraction from a still nonexisting ion source, a so called ARC-ECRIS [P. Suominen and F. Wenander, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 02A305 (2008)]. It has to be shown whether the plasma generator has similar properties like regular ECRIS. However, the emittance of the extracted beam seems to be much better compared to an ECRIS equipped with a hexapole.

Spaedtke, P. [GSI Darmstadt, Planckstr. 1, 64221 Darmstadt (Germany)

2010-02-15

378

Model for the description of ion beam extraction from electron cyclotron resonance ion sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The finite difference method trajectory code KOBRA3-INP has been developed now for 25 years to perform the simulation of ion beam extraction in three dimensions. Meanwhile, the code has been validated for different applications: high current ion beam extraction from plasma sources for ion implantation technology, neutral gas heating in fusion devices, or ion thrusters for space propulsion. One major issue of the development of this code was to improve the flexibility of the applied model for the simulation of different types of particle sources. Fixed emitter sources might be simulated with that code as well as laser ion sources, Penning ion sources, electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRISs), or H- sources, which require the simulation of negative ions, negative electrons, and positive charges simultaneously. The model which has been developed for ECRIS has now been used to explore the conditions for the ion beam extraction from a still nonexisting ion source, a so called ARC-ECRIS [P. Suominen and F. Wenander, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 02A305 (2008)]. It has to be shown whether the plasma generator has similar properties like regular ECRIS. However, the emittance of the extracted beam seems to be much better compared to an ECRIS equipped with a hexapole.

Spdtke, P.

2010-02-01

379

Plasma Ion Sources and Ion Beam Technology in Microfabrications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

For over decades, focused ion beam (FIB) has been playing a very important role in microscale technology and research, among which, semiconductor microfabrication is one of its biggest application area. As the dimensions of IC devices are scaled down, it ...

L. Ji

2007-01-01

380

Sheath structure in negative ion sources for fusion (invited)  

SciTech Connect

In fusion negative ion sources, the negative ions are formed on the caesiated plasma grid predominantly by hydrogen atoms from the plasma. The space charge of the negative ions leaving the wall is not fully compensated by incoming positive ions and at high enough emission a virtual cathode is formed. This virtual cathode limits the flux of negative ions transported across the sheath to the plasma. A 1D collisionless model of the sheath is presented taking into account the virtual cathode. The model will be applied to examples of the ion source operation. Extension of the model to the bulk plasma shows good agreement with experimental data. A possible role for fast ions is discussed.

McAdams, R.; King, D. B.; Surrey, E. [EURATOM/CCFE Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Holmes, A. J. T. [Marcham Scientific, Hungerford, Berkshire RG17 0LH (United Kingdom)

2012-02-15

381

The effect of substrate bias voltages on impact resistance of CrAlN coatings deposited by modified ion beam enhanced magnetron sputtering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CrAlN coatings were deposited on silicon and AISI H13 steel substrates using a modified ion beam enhanced magnetron sputtering system. The effect of substrate negative bias voltages on the impact property of the CrAlN coatings was studied. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) data show that all CrAlN coatings were crystallized in the cubic NaCl B1 structure, with the (1 1 1), (2 0 0) (2 2 0) and (2 2 2) diffraction peaks observed. Two-dimensional surface morphologies of CrAlN coatings were investigated by atomic force microscope (AFM). The results show that with increasing substrate bias voltage the coatings became more compact and denser, and the microhardness and fracture toughness of the coatings increased correspondingly. In the dynamic impact resistance tests, the CrAlN coatings displayed better impact resistance with the increase of bias voltage, due to the reduced emergence and propagation of the cracks in coatings with a very dense structure and the increase of hardness and fracture toughness in coatings.

Chunyan, Yu; Linhai, Tian; Yinghui, Wei; Shebin, Wang; Tianbao, Li; Bingshe, Xu

2009-01-01

382

New ion source for KSTAR neutral beam injection system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The neutral beam injection system (NBI-1) of the KSTAR tokamak can accommodate three ion sources; however, it is currently equipped with only one prototype ion source. In the 2010 and 2011 KSTAR campaigns, this ion source supplied deuterium neutral beam power of 0.7-1.6 MW to the KSTAR plasma with a beam energy of 70-100 keV. A new ion source will be prepared for the 2012 KSTAR campaign with a much advanced performance compared with the previous one. The newly designed ion source has a very large transparency (~56%) without deteriorating the beam optics, which is designed to deliver a 2 MW injection power of deuterium beams at 100 keV. The plasma generator of the ion source is of a horizontally cusped bucket type, and the whole inner wall, except the cathode filaments and plasma grid side, functions as an anode. The accelerator assembly consists of four multi-circular aperture grids made of copper and four electrode flanges made of aluminum alloy. The electrodes are insulated using PEEK. The ion source will be completed and tested in 2011.

Kim, Tae-Seong; Jeong, Seung Ho; In, Sang-Ryul

2012-02-01

383

New ion source for KSTAR neutral beam injection system  

SciTech Connect

The neutral beam injection system (NBI-1) of the KSTAR tokamak can accommodate three ion sources; however, it is currently equipped with only one prototype ion source. In the 2010 and 2011 KSTAR campaigns, this ion source supplied deuterium neutral beam power of 0.7-1.6 MW to the KSTAR plasma with a beam energy of 70-100 keV. A new ion source will be prepared for the 2012 KSTAR campaign with a much advanced performance compared with the previous one. The newly designed ion source has a very large transparency ({approx}56%) without deteriorating the beam optics, which is designed to deliver a 2 MW injection power of deuterium beams at 100 keV. The plasma generator of the ion source is of a horizontally cusped bucket type, and the whole inner wall, except the cathode filaments and plasma grid side, functions as an anode. The accelerator assembly consists of four multi-circular aperture grids made of copper and four electrode flanges made of aluminum alloy. The electrodes are insulated using PEEK. The ion source will be completed and tested in 2011.

Kim, Tae-Seong; Jeong, Seung Ho; In, Sang-Ryul [Department of Nuclear Fusion Engineering Development, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

2012-02-15

384

Ion source and injection line for high intensity medical cyclotrona)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 14 MeV high intensity compact cyclotron, CYCIAE-14, was built at China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE). An injection system based on the external H- ion source was used on CYCIAE-14 so as to provide high intensity beam, while most positron emission tomography cyclotrons adopt internal ion source. A beam intensity of 100 ?A/14 MeV was extracted from the cyclotron with a small multi-cusp H- ion source (CIAE-CH-I type) and a short injection line, which the H- ion source of 3 mA/25 keV H- beam with emittance of 0.3? mm mrad and the injection line of with only 1.2 m from the extraction of ion source to the medial plane of the cyclotron. To increase the extracted beam intensity of the cyclotron, a new ion source (CIAE-CH-II type) of 9.1 mA was used, with maximum of 500 ?A was achieved from the cyclotron. The design and test results of the ion source and injection line optimized for high intensity acceleration will be given in this paper.

Jia, XianLu; Guan, Fengping; Yao, Hongjuan; Zhang, TianJue; Yang, Jianjun; Song, Guofang; Ge, Tao; Qin, Jiuchang

2014-02-01

385

Ion source issues for the DAE?ALUS neutrino experiment.  

PubMed

The DAE?ALUS experiment calls for 10 mA of protons at 800 MeV on a neutrino-producing target. To achieve this record-setting current from a cyclotron system, H2 (+) ions will be accelerated. Loosely bound vibrationally excited H2 (+) ions inevitably produced in conventional ion sources will be Lorentz stripped at the highest energies. Presence of these states was confirmed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and strategies were investigated to quench them, leading to a proposed R&D effort towards a suitable ion source for these high-power cyclotrons. PMID:24593432

Alonso, Jose R; Barletta, William A; Toups, Matthew H; Conrad, Janet; Liu, Y; Bannister, Mark E; Havener, C C; Vane, Randy

2014-02-01

386

Neutral Ion Sources in Precision Manufacturing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ion figuring of optical components is a relatively new technology that can alleviate some of the problems associated with traditional contact polishing. Because the technique is non contacting, edge distortions and rib structure print through do not occur...

S. C. Fawcett T. W. Drueding

1994-01-01

387

Charge state distribution analysis of Al and Pb ions from the laser ion source at IMP  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A prototype laser ion source that could demonstrate the possibility of producing intense pulsed high charge state ion beams has been established with a commercial Nd:YAG laser (Emax=3 J, 1064 nm, 8-10 ns) to produce laser plasma for the research of Laser Ion Source (LIS). At the laser ion source test bench, high purity (99.998%) aluminum and lead targets have been tested for laser plasma experiment. An Electrostatic Ion Analyzer (EIA) and Electron Multiply Tube (EMT) detector were used to analyze the charge state and energy distribution of the ions produced by the laser ion source. The maximum charge states of Al12+ and Pb7+ were achieved. The results will be presented and discussed in this paper.

Sha, Shan; Jin, Qian-Yu; Li, Zhang-Min; Guo, Xiao-Hong; Zhou, Lun-Cai; Cai, Guo-Zhu; Sun, Liang-Ting; Zhang, Xue-Zhen; Zhao, Huan-Yu; Chen, Xi-Meng; Zhao, Hong-Wei

2013-11-01

388

Molecular and negative ion production by a standard electron cyclotron resonance ion source.  

PubMed

Molecular and negative ion beams, usually produced in special ion sources, play an increasingly important role in fundamental and applied atomic physics. The ATOMKI-ECRIS is a standard ECR ion source, designed to provide highly charged ion (HCI) plasmas and beams. In the present work, H(-), O(-), OH(-), O(2)(-), C(-), C(60)(-) negative ions and H(2)(+), H(3)(+), OH(+), H(2)O(+), H(3)O(+), O(2)(+) positive molecular ions were generated in this HCI-ECRIS. Without any major modification in the source and without any commonly applied tricks (such as usage of cesium or magnetic filter), negative ion beams of several ?A and positive molecular ion beams in the mA range were successfully obtained. PMID:22380160

Rcz, R; Biri, S; Juhsz, Z; Sulik, B; Plinks, J

2012-02-01

389

Application of compact electron cyclotron resonance ion source  

SciTech Connect

The compact electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source with a permanent magnet configuration (Kei2 source) has been developed at National Institute of Radiological Sciences for a new carbon therapy facility. The Kei2 source was designed for production of C{sup 4+} ions; its performance such as beam intensity and stability has already reached the medical requirements. Therefore, the prototype development of the source for medical use is essentially finished. Recently, we have started a few studies on other applications of the source. One is the production of fullerenes in the ECR plasma and modified fullerenes with various atoms for new materials. A second application is the production of multiply charged ions (not only carbon) for ion implantation. In this paper, some basic experiments for these applications are reported.

Muramatsu, M.; Kitagawa, A.; Iwata, Y.; Ogawa, H.; Hojo, S.; Kubo, T.; Kato, Y.; Biri, S.; Fekete, E.; Yoshida, Y.; Drentje, A. G. [Graduate School of Mechanical Engineering, Toyo University, Tokyo 112-8606, Japan and National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Department of Electrical, Electronic and Information Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Institute of Nuclear Research (ATOMKI), H-4026 Debrecen, Bem ter 18/c (Hungary); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Toyo University, 2100 Kujirai, Kawagoe, Saitama 350-0815 (Japan); National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage, Chiba 263-8555, Japan and K.V.I. University of Groningen, 9747 AA Groningen (Netherlands)

2008-02-15

390

TOPICAL REVIEW: Physics and phenomena in pulsed magnetrons: an overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reviews the contribution made to the observation and understanding of the basic physical processes occurring in an important type of magnetized low-pressure plasma discharge, the pulsed magnetron. In industry, these plasma sources are operated typically in reactive mode where a cathode is sputtered in the presence of both chemically reactive and noble gases typically with the power modulated in the mid-frequency (5-350 kHz) range. In this review, we concentrate mostly, however, on physics-based studies carried out on magnetron systems operated in argon. This simplifies the physical-chemical processes occurring and makes interpretation of the observations somewhat easier. Since their first recorded use in 1993 there have been more than 300 peer-reviewed paper publications concerned with pulsed magnetrons, dealing wholly or in part with fundamental observations and basic studies. The fundamentals of these plasmas and the relationship between the plasma parameters and thin film quality regularly have whole sessions at international conferences devoted to them; however, since many different types of magnetron geometries have been used worldwide with different operating parameters the important results are often difficult to tease out. For example, we find the detailed observations of the plasma parameter (particle density and temperature) evolution from experiment to experiment are at best difficult to compare and at worst contradictory. We review in turn five major areas of studies which are addressed in the literature and try to draw out the major results. These areas are: fast electron generation, bulk plasma heating, short and long-term plasma parameter rise and decay rates, plasma potential modulation and transient phenomena. The influence of these phenomena on the ion energy and ion energy flux at the substrate is discussed. This review, although not exhaustive, will serve as a useful guide for more in-depth investigations using the referenced literature and also hopefully as an inspiration for future studies.

Bradley, J. W.; Welzel, T.

2009-05-01

391

Liquid metal ion source and alloy for ion emission of multiple ionic species  

DOEpatents

A liquid metal ion source and alloy for the simultaneous ion evaporation of arsenic and boron, arsenic and phosphorus, or arsenic, boron and phosphorus. The ionic species to be evaporated are contained in palladium-arsenic-boron and palladium-arsenic-boron-phosphorus alloys. The ion source, including an emitter means such as a needle emitter and a source means such as U-shaped heater element, is preferably constructed of rhenium and tungsten, both of which are readily fabricated. The ion sources emit continuous beams of ions having sufficiently high currents of the desired species to be useful in ion implantation of semiconductor wafers for preparing integrated circuit devices. The sources are stable in operation, experience little corrosion during operation, and have long operating lifetimes.

Clark, Jr., William M. (Thousand Oaks, CA); Utlaut, Mark W. (Saugus, CA); Wysocki, Joseph A. (Oxnard, CA); Storms, Edmund K. (Los Alamos, NM); Szklarz, Eugene G. (Los Alamos, NM); Behrens, Robert G. (Los Alamos, NM); Swanson, Lynwood W. (McMinnville, OR); Bell, Anthony E. (McMinnville, OR)

1987-06-02

392

ECR (electron cyclotron resonance) ion sources and applications with heavy-ion linacs  

SciTech Connect

The electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source has been developed in the last few years into a reliable source of high charge-state heavy ions. The availability of heavy ions with relatively large charge-to-mass ratios (0.1--0.5) has made it possible to contemplate essentially new classes of heavy-ion linear accelerators. In this talk, I shall review the state-of-the-art in ECR source performance and describe some of the implications this performance level has for heavy-ion linear accelerator design. The present linear accelerator projects using ECR ion sources will be noted and the performance requirements of the ECR source for these projects will be reviewed. 30 refs., 3 figs.

Pardo, R.C.

1990-01-01

393

The influence of electrospray ion source design on matrix effects.  

PubMed

This study investigates to which extent the design of electrospray ion sources influences the susceptibility to matrix effects (MEs) in liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). For this purpose, MEs were measured under comparable conditions (identical sample extracts, identical LC column, same chromatographic method and always positive ion mode) on four LC-MS/MS instrument platforms. The instruments were combined with five electrospray ion sources, viz. Turbo Ion Spray, Turbo V(TM) Source, Standard ESI, Jet Stream ESI and Standard Z-Spray Source. The comparison of MEs could be made at all retention times because the method of permanent postcolumn infusion was applied. The MEs ascertained for 45 pesticides showed for each electrospray ion source the same pattern, i.e. the same number of characteristic signal suppressions at equivalent retention times in the chromatogram. The Turbo Ion Spray (off-axis geometry), Turbo V(TM) Source (orthogonal geometry) and the Standard Z-Spray Source (double orthogonal geometry) did not differ much in their susceptibility to MEs. The Jet Stream ESI (orthogonal geometry) reaches a higher sensitivity by an additional heated sheath gas, but suffers at the same time from significantly stronger signal suppressions than the comparable Standard ESI (orthogonal geometry) without sheath gas. No relation between source geometry and extent of signal suppression was found in this study. PMID:22791255

Stahnke, Helen; Kittlaus, Stefan; Kempe, Gnther; Hemmerling, Christlieb; Alder, Lutz

2012-07-01

394

Ion sources for initial use at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility  

SciTech Connect

The Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) now under construction at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory will use the 25-MV tandem accelerator for the acceleration of radioactive ion beams to energies appropriate for research in nuclear physics; negative ion beams are, therefore, required for injection into the tandem accelerator. Because charge exchange is an efficient means for converting initially positive ion beams to negative ion beams, both positive and negative ion sources are viable options for use at the facility; the choice of the type of ion source will depend on the overall efficiency for generating the radioactive species of interest. A high-temperature version of the CERN-ISOLDE positive ion source has been selected and a modified version of the source designed and fabricated for initial use at the HRIBF because of its low emittance, relatively high ionization efficiencies and species versatility, and because it has been engineered for remote installation, removal and servicing as required for safe handling in a high-radiation-level ISOL facility. Prototype plasma-sputter negative ion sources and negative surface-ionization sources are also under design consideration for generating negative radioactive ion beams from high-electron-affinity elements. The design features of these sources and expected efficiencies and beam qualities (emittances) will be described in this report.

Alton, G.D.

1993-12-31

395

Negative ion production with the electrospray ion source  

SciTech Connect

Solution passed through a small capillary tube at several kilovolts relative to its surroundings is electrosprayed into a bath gas at slightly above atmospheric pressure to form a dispersion of ions that expands into vacuum through a small sonic orifice. A portion of the resulting supersonic free jet passes through a skimmer carrying ions into a quadrupole mass spectrometer. Previously reported results were obtained with positive ions formed when the capillary was at a positive potential. The present report concerns operation with the capillary at a negative potential to produce negative ions. As in the case of operation in the positive mode ions with varying degrees of solvation can be obtained from a variety of solute species including complex and nonvolatile organic molecules. No fragmentation of parent species is observed as long as electrical discharge is avoided in the gas phase. The presence of electron scavengers in the bath gas raises the potential at which discharge phenomena begin. Differences and similarities relative to operation in the positive mode are discussed.

Yamashita, M.; Fenn, J.B.

1984-09-27

396

ACCELERATORS Control system for the CSNS ion source test stand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A penning plasma surface H- ion source test stand for the CSNS has just been constructed at the IHEP. In order to achieve a safe and reliable system, nearly all devices of the ion source are designed to have the capability of both local and remote operation function. The control system consists of PLCs and EPICS real-time software tools separately serving device control and monitoring, PLC integration and OPI support. This paper summarizes the hardware and software implementation satisfying the requirements of the ion source control system.

Lu, Yan-Hua; Li, Gang; Ouyang, Hua-Fu

2010-12-01

397

Two approaches for H- ion production with 2.45 GHz ion sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the last few years, the accelerator community requested the development of improved negative hydrogen ion sources. For spallation sources, like SNS or ESS, pulsed high intensity H- ion beams of a few tens of milliamperes, with a duty cycle close to 10%, are required. New facilities like CERN also ask for high performance negative ion beams. Since CEA undertook an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR)-based ion source programme, a European network devoted to high performance negative ion source development has been created. In this group, several laboratories developing 2.45 GHz ECR sources follow different approaches to increase the extracted ion current. At Saclay, with a solenoidal magnetic structure based on coils, close to 3 mA H- ion beam is now extracted in pulsed mode (2 ms/100 ms). A metallic biased grid separates the plasma bulk from the H- ion production zone and significantly improves the H- extracted current. At Ecole Polytechnique, the source Camembert III operates in continuous wave and pulsed modes. Photodetachment measurements in continuous wave mode show considerable H- ion density (109-1010 cm-3), whether the primary electrons are provided by filaments or small ECR modules inserted into the plasma chamber. Similarities and differences between the ECR-driven and the filamented source are discussed. Representative experimental results from the sources of the two laboratories as well as future plans are reported here.

Gobin, R.; Auvray, P.; Bacal, M.; Breton, J.; Delferrire, O.; Harrault, F.; Ivanov, A. A., Jr.; Svarnas, P.; Tuske, O.

2006-06-01

398

Physics basis and future trends for negative ion sources (invited)  

SciTech Connect

The explanation of hydrogen negative ion formation in the hydrogen plasma volume is based on the hypothesis that the precursors of H{sup -} ions are rovibrationally excited molecules. It will be shown that this hypothesis is confirmed by the agreement between predicted and measured H{sup -} densities. The reason for the existence of an optimum pressure for the negative ion density in volume sources is discussed. The role of the magnetic filter in contemporary negative ion sources is analyzed. Experiments indicating the effect of the ion source surfaces (plasma electrode, collar, walls) will be described. It is concluded that vibrationally excited molecules, produced by recombinative desorption from surfaces, play a significant role. It is shown that a high H{sup -} ion emission from a high work function surface is very doubtful at the present state of knowledge. Therefore it is considered that the success of the cesium-free accelerator ion sources operating in the 100 mA/cm{sup 2} range is due to production of vibrationally excited molecules on the plasma electrode or collar surface. In the collar case, the negative ion production is enhanced due to the absence of plasma in the production region; thus mutual neutralization loss is canceled. The physics of surface production of H{sup -} ions and some unexplained features related to it will be discussed.

Bacal, M. [Laboratoire de Physique et Technologie des Plasmas, Ecole Polytechnique, UMR 7648 du CNRS, 91128 Palaiseau (France)

2008-02-15

399

Present Status And Future Prospects Of Polarized Ion Sources  

SciTech Connect

Recent progress in polarized ion sources development is reviewed. New techniques for production of polarized H{sup -} ion (proton), D{sup -} (D{sup +}) and {sup 3}He{sup ++} ion beams are discussed. Feasibility studies of these techniques are in progress at BNL and other laboratories. Polarized deuteron beams will be required for the polarization program at the Dubna Nuclotron and at the deuteron Electric Dipole Moment experiment at BNL. Experiments with polarized {sup 3}He{sup ++} ion beams are a part of the experimental program at the future Electron Ion Collider.

Belov, A. [INR, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Zelenski, A. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)

2009-08-04

400

Possible Source of Intermediate Ions over Marine Environment  

PubMed Central

Measurements of small, intermediate and large ions made onboard ORV Sagarkanya over the Arabian Sea in May-June 2003 during Arabian Sea Monsoon Experiment (ARMEX) are reported here. The daily averaged values of small-, intermediate-, and large-ion concentrations measured for 36 days during this cruise have been used for analysis. The analysis shows a weak positive correlation of 0.14 between intermediate- and large-ion concentrations, which indicates that the sources of these two types of ions are different over ocean surface. The negative correlation is observed between small- and intermediate-ion concentration for entire period of cruise. In addition, it is seen that the intermediate-ion concentration shows a very good (r = 0.58) and significant positive correlation with sea surface pressure. Based on good negative correlation between small- and intermediate-ion concentrations and good positive correlation between intermediate-ion concentration and sea surface pressure, it has been proposed that attachment of small ions to the ultrafine particles transported from upper troposphere to marine boundary layer is the main source of intermediate ions over ocean surface. This study supports the idea that the main source of ultrafine particles over marine boundary layer (MBL) is entrainment of aerosol particles from the free troposphere.

Pawar, Sunil D.; Gopalakrishnan, V.

2012-01-01

401

Possible source of intermediate ions over marine environment.  

PubMed

Measurements of small, intermediate and large ions made onboard ORV Sagarkanya over the Arabian Sea in May-June 2003 during Arabian Sea Monsoon Experiment (ARMEX) are reported here. The daily averaged values of small-, intermediate-, and large-ion concentrations measured for 36 days during this cruise have been used for analysis. The analysis shows a weak positive correlation of 0.14 between intermediate- and large-ion concentrations, which indicates that the sources of these two types of ions are different over ocean surface. The negative correlation is observed between small- and intermediate-ion concentration for entire period of cruise. In addition, it is seen that the intermediate-ion concentration shows a very good (r = 0.58) and significant positive correlation with sea surface pressure. Based on good negative correlation between small- and intermediate-ion concentrations and good positive correlation between intermediate-ion concentration and sea surface pressure, it has been proposed that attachment of small ions to the ultrafine particles transported from upper troposphere to marine boundary layer is the main source of intermediate ions over ocean surface. This study supports the idea that the main source of ultrafine particles over marine boundary layer (MBL) is entrainment of aerosol particles from the free troposphere. PMID:22701357

Pawar, Sunil D; Gopalakrishnan, V

2012-01-01

402

Characteristics of a self-extraction negative ion source  

SciTech Connect

A multi-cusp, self-extraction, negative hydrogen ion source has been designed and constructed. Several diagnostic techniques have been applied to study the operating characteristics of this type of source. Negative H/sup -/ and D/sup -/ ions are produced on a negatively biased converter surface, and are self-extracted from the system. With the addition of cesium, the source has been operated at a neutral pressure of 1 x 10/sup -3/ Torr to generate a steady-state H/sup -/ ion current greater than 400 mA. The generation of impurity negative ions has been investigated, as have methods for reducing the presence of background electrons in the ion exit region. Plans for a larger, next-generation device will be discussed.

Ehlers, K.W.; Leung, K.N.

1980-10-01

403

Neutral ion sources in precision manufacturing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ion figuring of optical components is a relatively new technology that can alleviate some of the problems associated with traditional contact polishing. Because the technique is non contacting, edge distortions and rib structure print through do not occur. This initial investigation was aimed at determining the effect of ion figuring on surface roughness of previously polished or ductile ground ceramic optical samples. This is the first step in research directed toward the combination of a pre-finishing process (ductile grinding or polishing) with ion figuring to produce finished ceramic mirrors. The second phase of the project is focusing on the development of mathematical algorithms that will deconvolve the ion beam profile from the surface figure errors so that these errors can be successfully removed from the optical components. In the initial phase of the project, multiple, chemical vapor deposited silicon carbide (CVD SiC) samples were polished or ductile ground to specular or near-specular roughness. These samples were then characterized to determine topographic surface information. The surface evaluation consisted of stylus profilometry, interferometry, and optical and scanning electron microscopy. The surfaces, were ion machined to depths from 0-5 microns. The finished surfaces were characterized to evaluate the effects of the ion machining process with respect to the previous processing methods and the pre-existing subsurface damage. The development of the control algorithms for figuring optical components has been completed. These algorithms have been validated with simulations and future experiments have been planned to verify the methods. This paper will present the results of the initial surface finish experiments and the control algorithms simulations.

Fawcett, Steven C.; Drueding, Thomas W.

1994-01-01

404

Simulations for the generation and extraction of negative hydrogen ions in RF-driven ion sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

The injection of energetic neutral hydrogen atoms plays an important part for plasma heating in fusion experiments. In order to fulfill the requirements of the ITER neutral beam injection (NBI), a RF-driven ion source based on the generation of negative ions prior to neutralization has been successfully developed at IPP Garching. Negative hydrogen ions are generated on a cesiated converter

R. Gutser; D. Wuenderlich; U. Fantz; P. Franzen; B. Heinemann; R. Nocentini

2009-01-01

405

Low energy components of ions extracted from an RF ion source  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article reports on the origin of the low-energy components of ions extracted from an RF ion source. The study is based on electrostatic and magnetic deflectors under various discharge conditions. Results are presented for: the composition and resolution of the retarding field analyzer, the ionic species energy distribution, the energy variation of extracted ion groups as a function of

Itsuo Ishikawa; Toshiaki Iino; Shinji Suganomata

1978-01-01

406

The Development of a Discharge Heated Penning Ion Source for Multiply-Charged Ions in a K = 500 Superconducting Cyclotron  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the studies made during the design, testing, operation and development of a PIG ion source for the production of multiply-charged ions in the K500 Cyclotron. In Chapter 1 the fundamental properties of Penning (PIG) ion sources and the design of the K500 cyclotron ion source are presented. Pulsed operation of the source, including the power supply operation and

Timothy Allen Antaya

1986-01-01

407

Plasma ion dynamics and beam formation in electron cyclotron resonance ion sources.  

PubMed

In electron cyclotron resonance ion sources it has been demonstrated that plasma heating may be improved by means of different microwave to plasma coupling mechanisms, including the "frequency tuning" and the "two frequency heating." These techniques affect evidently the electron dynamics, but the relationship with the ion dynamics has not been investigated in details up to now. Here we will try to outline these relations: through the study of ion dynamics we may try to understand how to optimize the electron cyclotron resonance ion sources brightness. A simple model of the ion confinement and beam formation will be presented, based on particle-in-cell and single particle simulations. PMID:20192355

Mascali, D; Neri, L; Gammino, S; Celona, L; Ciavola, G; Gambino, N; Miracoli, R; Chikin, S

2010-02-01

408

Ion sources for use in analytical, industrial, and nuclear applications  

SciTech Connect

In this report, reviews will be presented of the principal sources which are presently being utilized or can be potentially used for analytical, industrial, and nuclear applications, with particular emphasis placed on recent improvements to existing sources and new source developments which show promise for such applications. Specifically, status reports will be given on a number of state-of-the-art positive and negative ion sources routinely used for many applications, including implantation, ion beam deposition, isotope separation, modification of surface properties, ion beam lithography, secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS), nuclear reaction analysis (NRA), neutron activation analysis (NAA), and proton-induced x-ray excitation (PIXE).

Alton, G.D.

1992-01-01

409

Ion sources for use in analytical, industrial, and nuclear applications  

SciTech Connect

In this report, reviews will be presented of the principal sources which are presently being utilized or can be potentially used for analytical, industrial, and nuclear applications, with particular emphasis placed on recent improvements to existing sources and new source developments which show promise for such applications. Specifically, status reports will be given on a number of state-of-the-art positive and negative ion sources routinely used for many applications, including implantation, ion beam deposition, isotope separation, modification of surface properties, ion beam lithography, secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS), nuclear reaction analysis (NRA), neutron activation analysis (NAA), and proton-induced x-ray excitation (PIXE).

Alton, G.D.

1992-10-01

410

Offline Ion Source Developments for the BECOLA Facility at NSCL  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Singly-charged beams of the stable isotope(s) of K, Ca, Mn, and Fe have been produced using either a commercial plasma ion source or a home-built electron ionization source for the BEam COoler and LAser spectroscopy (BECOLA) facility at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL) at Michigan State University. For each element, collinear laser spectroscopy was performed to confirm the presence of the respective element. Production of stable ion beams for a given element is necessary to obtain reference hyperfine spectra of species with known electromagnetic moments before such nuclear properties can be deduced from the laser hyperfine-structure measurements of rare isotopes that are planned at NSCL. The results from the commissioning tests of the plasma and electron ionization sources will be presented, and development of a new Penning Ion Gauge (PIG) ion source will be discussed.

Klose, Andrew; Mantica, Paul; Minamisono, Kei

2013-04-01

411

Comparison of graphite materials for targets of laser ion source.  

PubMed

To investigate efficient graphite material for carbon ion production in laser ion source, the plasma properties produced from these materials are measured. Comparing acquired current profile and charge state distribution, the distributions of ions in laser induced plasma from isotropic graphite and single crystal of graphite are different. The produced quantity of C(6+) from isotropic materials is larger than that from single crystal. PMID:24593629

Fuwa, Y; Ikeda, S; Kumaki, M; Sekine, M; Munemoto, N; Cinquegrani, D; Romanelli, M; Kanesue, T; Okamura, M; Iwashita, Y

2014-02-01

412

High-power ion beam sources for industrial application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two sources of high-power ion beams of nanosecond duration are described, a MUK and a TEMP unit They generated ions with energies of up to 150 and 300 keV, respectively, and the pulse duration was 20200 and 50 ns, respectively. For the MUK unit, beam parameters for heavy ion implantation (Aln+, Mgn+, Fen+, Wn+, etc.) were as follows: current density

G. E. Remnev; I. F. Isakov; M. S. Opekounov; G. I. Kotlyarevsky; V. L. Kutuzov; V. S. Lopatin; V. M. Matvienko; M. Yu. Ovsyannikov; A. V. Potyomkin; V. A. Tarbokov

1997-01-01

413

Synchrotron injectors based on high charge state ion sources  

SciTech Connect

The performance of any injector contemplated to replace the electrostatic tandem accelerators some time in the future should evidently match or surpass the characteristics of the tandems. It is a fortunate coincidence that the performance of the BNL tandem satisfies in most respects the requirements of the proposed collider, although originally tandems were not built with this application in mind. Requests for heavy ion beams with parameters suitable for injection into the rings of a heavy ion collider have appeared rather recently, at a stage when the high charge state ion sources, which in principle are capable of producing many ion species, have not yet reached such a level of performance. Therefore, consideration of such sources as part of a future injector replacing the tandem accelerators will have to rely on the extrapolation of results from existing models, developed for a different purpose. At the same time, present and future collider requirements for heavy ion beams should serve as a stimulus for the development of sources producing ions with adequate charge states and intensities. Injectors based on such sources may present a better alternative than the tandem accelerators because a higher charge-to-mass ratio of ions from the source results in a more efficient and less costly accelerator. In this report, two candidates for a high charge state, heavy ion source will be considered: an EBIS and an ECR. Other approaches, e.g. laser ion sources, are much further away in the development of a device to be used in a synchrotron injector. 25 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

Prelec, K.

1990-02-14

414

Production of Molecular Ion Beams Using an Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source  

SciTech Connect

An all-permanent magnet electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source is tuned to create a variety of intense molecular ion beams for basic energy research. Based on simultaneous injection of several gases with spectroscopic high purity or enriched isotope content (e.g., H2, D2, N2, O2, or CO) and lower power microwave heating, the ECR ion source produces diatomic molecular ion beams of H2+, D2+, HD+, HO+, DO+, NH+, ND+, and more complex polyatomic molecular ions such as H3+, D3+, HD2+, H2O+, D2O+, H3O+, D3O+, and NHn+, NDn+ with n=2,3,4 and possibly higher. Molecular ion beams have been produced with very high current intensities compared to other molecular beam sources. The recorded molecular ion beam spectra are discussed.

Draganic, Ilija N [ORNL; Bannister, Mark E [ORNL; Meyer, Fred W [ORNL; Vane, C Randy [ORNL; Havener, C C [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

2011-01-01

415

RF Driven Multicusp H- Ion Source  

Microsoft Academic Search

An rf driven multicusp source capable of generating 1-ms H beam pulses with a repetition rate as high as 150 Hz has been developed. This source can be operated with a filament or other types of starter. There is almost no lifetime limitation and a clean plasma can be maintained for a long period of operation. It is demonstrated that

K. N. Leung; G. J. DeVries; W. F. DiVergilio; R. W. Hamm; C. A. Hauck; W. B. Kunkel; D. S. McDonald; M. D. Williams

1990-01-01

416

rf driven multicusp H? ion source  

Microsoft Academic Search

An rf driven multicusp source capable of generating 1-ms H? beam pulses with a repetition rate as high as 150 Hz has been developed. This source can be operated with a filament or other types of starter. There is almost no lifetime limitation and a clean plasma can be maintained for a long period of operation. It is demonstrated that

K. N. Leung; G. J. DeVries; W. F. DiVergilio; R. W. Hamm; C. A. Hauck; W. B. Kunkel; D. S. McDonald; M. D. Williams

1991-01-01

417

Sources of polarized ions and atoms  

SciTech Connect

In this presentation we discuss methods of producing large quantities of polarized atoms and ions (Stern-Gerlach separation, optical pumping, and spin-exchange) as well as experimental methods of measuring the degree of polarization of atomic systems. The usefulness of polarized atoms in probing the microscopic magnetic surface properties of materials will also be discussed. 39 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

Cornelius, W.D.

1988-01-01

418

The negative hydrogen Penning ion gauge ion source for KIRAMS-13 cyclotron.  

PubMed

The cold-cathode-type Penning ion gauge (PIG) ion source for the internal ion source of KIRAMS-13 cyclotron has been used for generation of negative hydrogen ions. The dc H-beam current of 650 microA from the PIG ion source with the Dee voltage of 40 kV and arc current of 1.0 A is extrapolated from the measured dc extraction beam currents at the low extraction dc voltages. The output optimization of PIG ion source in the cyclotron has been carried out by using various chimneys with different sizes of the expansion gap between the plasma boundary and the chimney wall. This paper presents the results of the dc H-extraction measurement and the expansion gap experiment. PMID:18315141

An, D H; Jung, I S; Kang, J; Chang, H S; Hong, B H; Hong, S; Lee, M Y; Kim, Y; Yang, T K; Chai, J S

2008-02-01

419

High current ion sources and injectors for induction linacs in heavy ion fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heavy ion beam driven inertial fusion requires short ion beam pulses with high current and high brightness. Depending on the beam current and the number of beams in the driver system, the injector can use a large diameter surface ionization source or merge an array of small beamlets from a plasma source. In this paper, we review the scaling laws

Joe W. Kwan

2005-01-01

420

Electrohydrodynamically driven large-area liquid ion sources  

DOEpatents

A large-area liquid ion source comprises means for generating, over a large area of the surface of a liquid, an electric field of a strength sufficient to induce emission of ions from a large area of said liquid. Large areas in this context are those distinct from emitting areas in unidimensional emitters.

Pregenzer, Arian L. (Corrales, NM)

1988-01-01

421

Electron Temperature Effects for an Ion Beam Source.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A hydrogen high temperature plasma up to 200 eV is produced by acceleration of electrons in a hot hollow cathode discharge and is used as an ion beam source. Two characteristics are observed: a rate of the atomic ion number increases above 70 percent; and...

J. Uramoto

1979-01-01

422

LiF ion source performance on PBFA II.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recent LiF ion source experiments have been conducted on Sandia National Laboratories' Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator (PBFA) II. This facility is designed to provide a 30 MV, 100 TW power pulse to an applied B ion diode to investigate the suitability of...

R. W. Stinnett T. A. Green D. J. Johnson T. R. Lockner T. A. Mehlhorn

1991-01-01

423

Ferroelectirc Plasma Source for Heavy Ion Beam Charge Neutralization.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Plasmas are employed as a source of unbound electrons for charge neutralizing heavy ion beams to allow them to focus to a small spot size. Calculations suggest that plasma at a density of 1-100 times the ion beam density and at a length approx. 0.1-1 m wo...

P. C. Efthimion E. P. Gilson L. Grisham R. C. Davidson S. Yu W. Waldron B. G. Logan

2006-01-01

424

Simple Ion Source with High Emission Current Density  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Simple version of ion source for production of the ion beams with high emission current density (up to 0.6 A/cm2) will be discussed. Discharge in Penning cell with permanent ceramic magnets have been used for plasma production. Using of the LaB6 self-heated cathodes have been decreased a discharge voltage up to 80 V, increased an efficiency of ion generation,suppressed a sputtering, increased lifetime. Small holes on the axis of catodes used for gas injection and for ion beam extraction along the magnetic field. Hollow cathode discharge increase a plasma concentration on the source axis and improve a gas efficiency of hydrogen ion production up to 60% and proton content more than 60% with the discharge current 0.8 A. Conditions for long time support of the noisless discharge, optimal for high brightness ion beam production have been found. Efficiency g of high current density ion beam production, determined as emission current density j divided to the full discharge power P for this source is up to 10 A/cm2 kW. For other high efficient ion source g= 0.2-0.05 A/cm2 kW is typical.

Dudnikov, Vadim; Farrell, J. Paul

1998-04-01

425

Simple Penning ion source for laboratory research and development applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple Penning ion generator (PIG) that can be easily fabricated with simple machining skills and standard laboratory accessories is described. The PIG source uses an iron cathode body, samarium cobalt permanent magnet, stainless steel anode, and iron cathode faceplate to generate a plasma discharge that yields a continuous 1 mA beam of positively charged hydrogen ions at 1 mTorr

Joshua L. Rovey; Brandon P. Ruzic; Thomas J. Houlahan

2007-01-01

426

Penning discharge ion source with self-cleaning aperture  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ion source of the Penning discharge type having a self-cleaning aperture is provided by a second dynode (24) with an exit aperture (12) in a position opposite a first dynode 10a, from which the ions are sputtered, two opposing cathodes (14, 16), each with an anode (18, 20) for accelerating electrons emitted from the cathodes into a cylindrical space

Basil F. Gavin; Robert A. MacGill; Raymond K. Thatcher

1982-01-01

427

Investigation of the striking characteristics of a Penning ion source  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work describes a new technique which uses the time spectrum of fast neutrons produced by the extracted ions to study the switching characteristics of a small Penning ion source. It is found that the rise and delay times of the Penning discharge decrease with the pressure and the anode voltage, and are insensitive to the magnetic field provided that

Felix K. Chen

1984-01-01

428

Dual Arc Penning Ion Source Gas Flow Experiments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Support gas, when added directly to an arc or admitted to an auxiliary chamber of a two-arc chamber ion source, increases the beam intensity for multicharged ions such as exp 16 O exp 5+ . To clarify the mechanism of this intensity increase, gas flow rate...

E. D. Hudson R. S. Lord M. L. Mallory T. A. Antaya

1984-01-01

429

Dual arc penning ion source gas flow experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Support gas, when added directly to an arc or admitted to an auxiliary chamber of a two-arc chamber ion source, increases the beam intensity for multicharged ions such as (16)O(5+). To clarify the mechanism of this intensity increase, gas flow rates from the auxiliary chamber to the main chamber were measured by using the ORIC cyclotron as a mass spectrometer.

E. D. Hudson; R. S. Lord; M. L. Mallory; T. A. Antaya

1984-01-01

430

A Penning sputter ion source with very low energy spread  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a version of the Frankfurt Penning ion source that produces ion beams with very low energy spreads of 3 eV, while operating in a new discharge mode characterized by very high pressure, low voltage, and high current. The extracted ions also comprise substantial metastable and doubly charged species. Detailed studies of the operating parameters of the source showed that careful adjustment of the magnetic field and gas pressure is critical to achieving optimum performance. We used a laser-fluorescence method of energy analysis to characterize the properties of the extracted ion beam with a resolving power of 110 4, and to measure the absolute ion beam energy to an accuracy of 4 eV in order to provide some insight into the distribution of plasma potential within the ion source. This characterization method is widely applicable to accelerator beams, though not universal. The low energy spread, coupled with the ability to produce intense ion beams from almost any gas or conducting solid, make this source very useful for high-resolution spectroscopic measurements on fast-ion beams.

Nouri, Z.; Li, R.; Holt, R. A.; Rosner, S. D.

2010-03-01

431

Penning discharge ion source with self-cleaning aperture  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ion source of the Penning discharge type having a self-cleaning aperture is provided by a second dynode with an exit aperture in a position opposite a first dynode, from which the ions are sputtered, two opposing cathodes, each with an anode for accelerating electrons emitted from the cathodes into a cylindrical space defined by the first and second dynode.

B. F. Gavin; R. A. MacGill; R. K. Thatcher

1980-01-01

432

Penning discharge ion source with self-cleaning aperture  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ion source of the penning discharge type having a selfcleaning aperture is provided by a second dynode with an exit aperture in a position opposite a first dynode, from which the ions are sputtered, two opposing cathodes, each with an anode for accelerating electrons emitted from the cathodes into a cylindrical space defined by the first and second dynode.

B. F. Gavin; R. A. Macgill; R. K. Thatcher

1982-01-01

433

Development of a dc, broad beam, Mevva ion source.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We are developing an embodiment of metal vapor vacuum arc (Mevva) ion source which will operate dc and have very large area beam. In preliminary testing, a dc titanium ion beam was formed with a current of approximately 0.6 amperes at an extraction voltag...

I. G. Brown M. R. Dickinson J. E. Galvin R. A. MacGill

1991-01-01

434

High output neutron tube using an occluded gas ion source  

SciTech Connect

A neutron tube capable of generating 10/sup 10/ 14 MeV neutrons in a 1.2 ms pulse has been developed for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission for use in flow measurements using the Pulsed Neutron Activation technique. The tube consists of an occluded deuterium gas ion source, a single gap accelerator and a scandium tritide target. A unique feature of the tube design is its complete demountability, permitting easy replacement or modification of critical components. The ion source is a modified version of a stacked occluded washer source. However, in contrast to previous designs, this source utilizes only a single scandium deuteride washer and needs no independent trigger. Outputs of 1.2 x 10/sup 10/ neutrons per pulse from a 250 mA deuterium ion beam at 125 kV have been obtained for over 1500 consecutive operations with a standard deviation of only +- 5%. The ultimate operational lifetime is believed to be in excess of 3000 shots based on the present knowledge of ion source behavior. Recent experiments using nonmagnetic structural components in the ion source resulted in a 26% increase in output with a simultaneous 35% reduction in the source drive current. This implies that even higher outputs with greater source efficiencies may be achievable.

Walko, R.J.; Rochau, G.E.

1980-01-01

435

Microplasma: a novel ionisation source for ion mobility spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ion mobility spectrometry is an analytical method for identification and quantification of gas-phase analytes in the ppbv-pptv range. Traditional ionisation methods suffer from low sensitivity (UV light), lack of long-term stability (partial discharge),\\u000a or legal restrictions when radioactive sources are used. A miniaturised helium plasma was applied as ionisation source in\\u000a an ion mobility spectrometer (IMS). Experiments were carried out

Wolfgang Vautz; Antje Michels; Joachim Franzke

2008-01-01

436

Emittance characterization of a hot-cavity laser ion source at Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility  

SciTech Connect

The first investigation of the transverse emittance of a hot-cavity laser ion source based on all-solid-state Ti:sapphire lasers is presented. The emittances of {sup 63}Cu ion beams generated by three-photon resonant ionization are measured and compared with that of the {sup 69}Ga and {sup 39}K ion beams resulting from surface ionization in the same ion source. A self-consistent unbiased elliptical exclusion method is adapted for noise reduction and emittance analysis. Typical values of the rms and 90% fractional emittances of the Cu ion beams at 20 keV energy are found to be about 2 and 8 {pi} mm mrad, respectively, for the ion currents of 2-40 nA investigated. The emittances of the laser-produced Cu ion beams are smaller than those of the surface-ionized Ga and K ion beams.

Liu, Y.; Baktash, C.; Beene, J. R.; Havener, C. C.; Krause, H. F.; Schultz, D. R.; Stracener, D. W.; Vane, C. R. [Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Geppert, Ch.; Gottwald, T.; Kessler, T.; Wies, K.; Wendt, K. [Institut fuer Physik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, D-55099 Mainz (Germany)

2009-08-15

437

Ion current detector for high pressure ion sources for monitoring separations  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates generally to any application involving the monitoring of signal arising from ions produced by electrospray or other high pressure (>100 torr) ion sources. The present invention relates specifically to an apparatus and method for the detection of ions emitted from a capillary electrophoresis (CE) system, liquid chromatography, or other small-scale separation methods. And further, the invention provides a very simple diagnostic as to the quality of the separation and the operation of an electrospray source. 7 figs.

Smith, R.D.; Wahl, J.H.; Hofstadler, S.A.

1996-08-13

438

Radio-frequency He/sup -/ source and a source of negative ions by cesium sputtering  

SciTech Connect

Two sources of negative ions are described. An rf source produces up to 14 ..mu..A beams of He/sup -/ by charge exchange in Rb vapor. The other Source of Negative Ions by Cesium Sputtering (SNICS) produces a wide variety of negative ion beams in the ..mu..A range. Two important features of SNICS are its simple, compact construction and its very good beam emittance (2 to 4 ..pi..mm mrad MeV/sup 1/). Both sources have lifetimes >200 hours and they are used extensively on the Wisconsin EN tandem.

Billen, J.H.

1980-01-01

439

Experimental results of a dual-beam ion source for 200 keV ion implanter.  

PubMed

A dual beam ion source for 200 keV ion implanter aimed to produce 200 keV H2 (+) and He(+) beams simultaneously has been developed. Not suitable to use the analyzing magnet, the purity of beam extracted from the source becomes important to the performance of implanter. The performance of ion source was measured. The results of experiments show that the materials of inlet tube of ion source, the time of arc ionization in ion source, and the amount of gas flow have significant influence on the purity of beam. The measures by using copper as inlet tube material, long time of arc ionization, and increasing the inlet of gas flow could effectively reduce the impurity of beam. And the method using the gas mass flow controller to adjust the proportion of H2 (+) and He(+) is feasible. PMID:24593645

Chen, L H; Cui, B Q; Ma, R G; Ma, Y J; Tang, B; Huang, Q H; Jiang, W S; Zheng, Y N

2014-02-01

440

A novel pulsed magnetron sputter technique utilizing very high target power densities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a novel pulsed power supply in combination with a standard circular flat magnetron source, operated with a Cu target, a peak power density of 2800Wcm-2 was achieved. This results in a very intense plasma with peak ion current densities of up to 3.4Acm?2 at the substrate situated 10cm from the target. The ionized fraction of the deposited Cu flux

Vladimir Kouznetsov; Karol Mack; Jochen M. Schneider; Ulf Helmersson; Ivan Petrov

1999-01-01

441

Report on the workshop on ion sources for hadron colliders  

SciTech Connect

A workshop on Ion Sources for Hadron Colliders was held September 4--5, 1997 in Gelnhausen, Germany. This workshop, organized by the WE-Heraeus-Stiftung Foundation, the University of Frankfurt, Brookhaven National Laboratory, and CERN, directly followed the 7th Symposium on Electron Beam Ion Sources and Traps. Various options were reviewed for the development of a high current, intermediate charge state heavy ion source for use on colliders such as RHIC and LHC. In addition to status reports on ECR, EBIS, and laser sources, there was also discussion of issues relevant to the scaling of these sources to intensities as required by RHIC and LHC. The presentations and discussions from this workshop are summarized.

Alessi, J.G.

1997-11-01

442

Operation of the CSNS Penning surface H- ion source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The accelerator complex of the China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS) consists of a H- linear accelerator (linac) and a rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS). The linac contains a Penning surface H- ion source. The designed energy and the beam current of the sour