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1

Hollow target magnetron-sputter-type solid material ion source  

SciTech Connect

A thin-walled aluminum (Al) hollow electrode has been inserted into an ion source to serve as an electrode for a radio frequency magnetron discharge. The produced plasma stabilized by argon (Ar) gas sputters the Al electrode to form a beam of Al{sup +} and Ar{sup +} ions. The total beam current extracted through a 3 mm diameter extraction hole has been 50 {mu}A, with the Al{sup +} ion beam occupying 30% of the total beam current.

Sasaki, D.; Ieki, S.; Kasuya, T. [Graduate School of Engineering, Doshisha University, Kyoto 610-0321 (Japan); Wada, M. [Faculty of Life Medical Sciences, Doshisha University, Kyoto 610-0321 (Japan)

2012-02-15

2

Magnetron-Discharge-Based Ion Source for Improvement of an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Device  

Microsoft Academic Search

A magnetron discharge as a built-in ion source have studied both experimentally and numerically for a compact discharge-type fusion neutron source called IECF (Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion). With this magnetron discharge, ions are produced in the vicinity of the vacuum chamber (anode) at negative electric potential. Therefore, produced ions are expected to have nearly full energy corresponding to the applied

Teruhisa Takamatsu; Kai Masuda; Kiyoshi Yoshikawa; Hisayuki Toku; Kazunobu Nagasaki; Toshiyuki Kyunai

2005-01-01

3

Magnetron-Discharge-Based Ion Source for Improvement of an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Device  

SciTech Connect

A magnetron discharge as a built-in ion source have studied both experimentally and numerically for a compact discharge-type fusion neutron source called IECF (Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion). With this magnetron discharge, ions are produced in the vicinity of the vacuum chamber (anode) at negative electric potential. Therefore, produced ions are expected to have nearly full energy corresponding to the applied voltage to the IECF cathode but slightly smaller energy preventing them from hitting the anode of the opposite end, eventually improving both fusion reaction rate and ion recirculation life. Also, the magnetron ion source was found to produce ample ion current for maintenance of the discharge. With the optimization of the configuration of the magnetron discharge, further improvement of the fusion reaction rate is found feasible.

Takamatsu, Teruhisa; Masuda, Kai; Yoshikawa, Kiyoshi; Toku, Hisayuki; Nagasaki, Kazunobu; Kyunai, Toshiyuki [Kyoto University (Japan)

2005-05-15

4

Estimation of sputtering damages on a magnetron H- ion source induced by Cs+ and H+ ions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An H- ion source is being developed for CERN's Linac4 accelerator. A beam current requirement of 80 mA and a reliability above 99 % during 1 year with 3 month uninterrupted operation periods are mandatory. To design a low-maintenance long life-time source, it is important to investigate and understand the wear mechanisms. A cesiated plasma discharge ion source, such as the BNL magnetron source, is a good candidate for the Linac4 ion source. However, in the magnetron source operated at BNL, the removal of material from the molybdenum cathode and the stainless steel anode cover plate surfaces is visible after extended operation periods. The observed sputtering traces are shown to result from cesium vapors and hydrogen gas ionized in the extraction region and subsequently accelerated by the extraction field. This paper presents a quantitative estimate of the ionization of cesium and hydrogen by the electron and H- beams in the extraction region of BNL's magnetron ion source. The respective contributions of Cs+ and H+ ions to the sputtering process are estimated.

Pereira, H.; Lettry, J.; Alessi, J.; Kalvas, T.

2013-02-01

5

Inertial electrostatic confinement fusion device with an ion source using a magnetron discharge  

Microsoft Academic Search

An inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) fusion device is studied for a compact fusion neutron\\/proton source using a built-in magnetron ion source. The addition of an ion source to the IEC fusion device enhances fusion reactions by allowing a lower operating gas pressure and by providing a beam-like ion energy distribution. Under lower gas pressures, charge exchange collisions are reduced, resulting

T. Takamatsu; K. Masuda; T. Kyunai; H. Toku; K. Yoshikawa

2006-01-01

6

Magnetron sputtering source  

DOEpatents

A magnetron sputtering source for sputtering coating substrates includes a high thermal conductivity electrically insulating ceramic and magnetically attached sputter target which can eliminate vacuum sealing and direct fluid cooling of the cathode assembly. The magnetron sputtering source design results in greater compactness, improved operating characteristics, greater versatility, and low fabrication cost. The design easily retrofits most sputtering apparatuses and provides for safe, easy, and cost effective target replacement, installation, and removal. 12 figs.

Makowiecki, D.M.; McKernan, M.A.; Grabner, R.F.; Ramsey, P.B.

1994-08-02

7

Development of metal nanocluster ion source based on dc magnetron plasma sputtering at room temperature  

SciTech Connect

A simple and cost effective nanocluster ion source for the deposition of size selected metal nanocluster has been developed based on the dc magnetron discharge (including pulsed dc discharge). The most important and interesting feature of this cluster source is that it is working at room temperature, cooled by chilled water during the experiment. There is no extraction unit in this device and the cluster streams flow only due to the pressure gradient from source chamber to substrate via quadrupole mass filter. It has provision of multiple substrate holders in the deposition chamber, which can be controlled manually. The facility consists of quadrupole mass filter (QMF 200), which can select masses in the range of 2-125 000 atoms depending on the target materials, with a constant mass resolution (M/{Delta}M{approx}25). The dc magnetron discharge at a power of about 130 W with Ar as feed/buffer gas was used to produce the Cu nanocluster in an aggregation tube and deposited on Si (100) wafer temperature.

Majumdar, Abhijit; Koepp, Daniel; Ganeva, Marina; Hippler, Rainer [Institut fuer Physik, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universitaet Greifswald, Felix-Hausdorff-Str. 6, 17489 Greifswald (Germany); Datta, Debasish; Bhattacharyya, Satyaranjan [Surface Physics Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700 064 (India)

2009-09-15

8

Ion Source of Pure Single Charged Boron Based on Planar Magnetron Discharge in Self-Sputtering Mode  

SciTech Connect

A planar magnetron sputtering device with thermally isolated sintered boron target has been designed and demonstrated. The magnetron is intended to use for generation of boron ion beams, as well as in plasma immersion implantation. For a boron target, high target temperature is required because boron has low electrical conductivity at room temperature, which increases with temperature. The target is well insulated thermally and can be heated by an initial low-current, high-voltage DC discharge mode. A discharge power of 16 W was adequate to reach the required surface temperature, after that a transition of the discharge to a high-current, low-voltage mode is observed. Applying high current pulses over the DC heating discharge results in a self-sputtering operational mode of the magnetron discharge. Ion beam was extracted from the discharge plasma. Beam analysis was performed with a time-of-flight system. All the boron ions are single charged. The maximum boron ion fraction in the beam is greater than 99%, and the mean boron ion fraction, time-integrated over the whole pulse length, is about 95%. This kind of boron ion source could be competitive to conventional boron ion sources that utilize compounds such as BF{sub 3}, and could be useful for semiconductor industry application.

Vizir, A. V.; Gushenets, V. I.; Oks, E. M.; Yushkov, G. Yu. [High Current Electronics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation); Hershcovitch, A. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Kulevoy, T. V. [ITEP, 117218, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2011-01-07

9

Ion Source of Pure Single Charged Boron Based on Planar Magnetron Discharge in Self-Sputtering Mode  

Microsoft Academic Search

A planar magnetron sputtering device with thermally isolated sintered boron target has been designed and demonstrated. The magnetron is intended to use for generation of boron ion beams, as well as in plasma immersion implantation. For a boron target, high target temperature is required because boron has low electrical conductivity at room temperature, which increases with temperature. The target is

A. V. Vizir; V. I. Gushenets; A. Hershcovitch; T. V. Kulevoy; E. M. Oks; G. Yu. Yushkov

2011-01-01

10

Advanced nanocluster ion source based on high-power impulse magnetron sputtering and time-resolved measurements of nanocluster formation.  

PubMed

We developed a new nanocluster (NC) ion source based on the high-power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) technique coupled with a gas flow cell reactor. Silver NC anions (Agn(-)) with a maximum intensity of 5.5 nA (Ag11(-)) are generated with the size ranging from the atomic anion to the 70-mer, which is well-controlled by simply adjusting the peak power and repetition rate of the HiPIMS. By time-resolved density profiles of Agn(-), we find that the ion beam generated by HiPIMS is characterized by individual 100 ms duration "bunches" below a repetition rate of 10 Hz, which is well-thermalized with a group velocity of 5 m/s. The high intensity of the NCs is attributable to the high ionization fraction by this HiPIMS ion source, while the underlying mechanism of the flexible size tuning of the ion source is understood by time-resolved mass spectrometry coupled with the sequential growth mechanism; the increment of the density of the target species in the bunches with the peak power and the overlapping of the bunches with the repetition rate cause the formation of large NCs. PMID:24079920

Zhang, Chuhang; Tsunoyama, Hironori; Akatsuka, Hiroki; Sekiya, Hiroki; Nagase, Tomomi; Nakajima, Atsushi

2013-09-30

11

An optimized H/sup -/magnetron ion source/lebt system  

SciTech Connect

Availability and usefulness of accelerators is greatly dependent on machine efficiency. Research must focus on less expensive, more compact accelerators with brighter beams. To achieve this goal for H/sup /minus// ion sources, TAC has optimized the present Brookhaven AGS source for use with their REQ program. The TAC source incorporates an extraction system with a circular aperture which provides an azimuthally symmetric beam. The complete system has been simplified including removal of the gradient bending magnet found in conventional sources of this type. This source will soon be combined with an electrostatic low energy beam transport. This will create a simpler and more compact H/sup /minus// ion source and beam transport system than is presently available. 7 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Tompkins, P.A.; Huson, F.R.; Raparia, D.

1989-01-01

12

Cathode grid current dependence of D(d, n)3He reaction rates in an inertial electrostatic confinement device driven by a ring-shaped magnetron ion source  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present D(d, n)3 He reaction rates for a new inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) device which aims to overcome neutralization (charge exchange) of accelerating ions by operating at D2 gas pressures of just 5-10 mPa with the aid of an internal ring-shaped magnetron ion source. Initial experiments with a voltage of -60 kV applied to a central spherical cathode grid

K. Masuda; T. Nakagawa; J. Kipritidis; T. Kajiwara; Y. Yamagaki; H. Zen; K. Yoshikawa; K. Nagasaki

2010-01-01

13

Modeling the time variation of beam-grid fusion reaction rates in an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement device driven by a ring-shaped magnetron ion source  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use the two-dimensional analysis code KUAD2 to simulate D^{+_{2}} trajectories in an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) device driven by a ring-shaped magnetron ion source (RS-MIS). This aims to maximize the path length lambdaCX for ion-gas charge exchange by operating at just units of mPa D2 gas pressures; however, under these conditions simulations reveal a surprisingly small path length for

J. Kipritidis; K. Masuda; T. Kajiwara; Y. Yamagaki; K. Nagasaki

2011-01-01

14

High power impulse magnetron sputtering and related discharges: scalable plasma sources for plasma-based ion implantation and deposition  

SciTech Connect

High power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) and related self-sputtering techniques are reviewed from a viewpoint of plasma-based ion implantation and deposition (PBII&D). HIPIMS combines the classical, scalable sputtering technology with pulsed power, which is an elegant way of ionizing the sputtered atoms. Related approaches, such as sustained self-sputtering, are also considered. The resulting intense flux of ions to the substrate consists of a mixture of metal and gas ions when using a process gas, or of metal ions only when using `gasless? or pure self-sputtering. In many respects, processing with HIPIMS plasmas is similar to processing with filtered cathodic arc plasmas, though the former is easier to scale to large areas. Both ion implantation and etching (high bias voltage, without deposition) and thin film deposition (low bias, or bias of low duty cycle) have been demonstrated.

Anders, Andre

2009-09-01

15

An electrostatic LEBT for a low-emittance injector: transport and focusing of a high-brightness H- beam from a magnetron ion source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the context of developing an efficient low-energy beam transport (LEBT) system for a low-emittance injector the problem of transport and matching of a 30 mA, 35 kV H- beam from a magnetron-type ion source is studied; the analysis is done incorporating important experimental constraints. A 30 cm-long LEBT, consisting of six electrostatic quadrupole lenses and a short einzel lens, is designed. Its control parameters are optimized to achieve a solution which matches with the acceptance of a small-aperture radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator. The results of beam dynamics calculations are discussed, and the key issues for emittance growth and its control are acknowledged.

Guharay, S. K.; Reiser, M.

16

Ion source  

DOEpatents

A magnetic filter for an ion source reduces the production of undesired ion species and improves the ion beam quality. High-energy ionizing electrons are confined by the magnetic filter to an ion source region, where the high-energy electrons ionize gas molecules. One embodiment of the magnetic filter uses permanent magnets oriented to establish a magnetic field transverse to the direction of travel of ions from the ion source region to the ion extraction region. In another embodiment, low energy 16 eV electrons are injected into the ion source to dissociate gas molecules and undesired ion species into desired ion species.

Leung, Ka-Ngo (Hercules, CA); Ehlers, Kenneth W. (Alamo, CA)

1984-01-01

17

H sup minus ion sources  

SciTech Connect

A review is given of H{sup {minus}} ion sources, with the emphasis on sources of use for accelerator applications. A brief description is given of magnetron, multicusp/converter, Penning and volume H{sup {minus}} ion sources. Operating parameters for examples of the various type sources are presented, and then some comparisons among the sources are made. 37 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

Alessi, J.G.

1991-01-01

18

Phase and Frequency Locked Magnetrons for SRF Sources  

SciTech Connect

Magnetrons are low-cost highly-efficient microwave sources, but they have several limitations, primarily centered about the phase and frequency stability of their output. When the stability requirements are low, such as for medical accelerators or kitchen ovens, magnetrons are the very efficient power source of choice. But for high energy accelerators, because of the need for frequency and phase stability - proton accelerators need 1-2 degrees source phase stability, and electron accelerators need .1-.2 degrees of phase stability - they have rarely been used. We describe a novel variable frequency cavity technique which will be utilized to phase and frequency lock magnetrons.

Neubauer, M.; Johnson, R.P.; /Muons Inc., Batavia; Popovic, M.; Moretti, A.; /Fermilab

2009-05-01

19

ION SOURCE  

DOEpatents

An ion source is described and comprises an arc discharge parallel to the direction of and inside of a magnetic field. an accelerating electrode surrounding substantially all of the discharge except for ion exit apertures, and means for establishing an electric field between that electrode and the arc discharge. the electric field being oriented at an acute angle to the magnetic field. Ions are drawn through the exit apertures in the accelrating electrcde in a direction substantially divergent to the direction of the magnetic field and so will travel in a spiral orbit along the magnetic field such that the ions will not strike the source at any point in their orbit within the magnetic field.

Blue, C.W.; Luce, J.S.

1960-07-19

20

Operational experience with the BNL magnetron H/sup -/ source  

SciTech Connect

A magnetron H/sup -/ source with a grooved cathode has been in operation at the BNL Linac for over 18 months. The source has run at 5 pps with a 600 ..mu..sec pulse width for periods as long as 5 months. Its development and performance will be discussed.

Witkover, R.L.

1983-01-01

21

ION SOURCE  

DOEpatents

An ion source is presented capable of producing ions of elements which vaporize only at exceedingly high temperatures, i.e.,--1500 degrees to 3000 deg C. The ion source utilizes beams of electrons focused into a first chamber housing the material to be ionized to heat the material and thereby cause it to vaporize. An adjacent second chamber receives the vaporized material through an interconnecting passage, and ionization of the vaporized material occurs in this chamber. The ionization action is produced by an arc discharge sustained between a second clectron emitting filament and the walls of the chamber which are at different potentials. The resultant ionized material egresses from a passageway in the second chamber. Using this device, materials which in the past could not be processed in mass spectometers may be satisfactorily ionized for such applications.

Bell, W.A. Jr.; Love, L.O.; Prater, W.K.

1958-01-28

22

Improvement of Gas Efficiency of Negative Ion Sources.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A modification of the currently operating Calutron, magnetron, and modified duoPIGatron negative ion source is proposed. The modification should improve gas efficiency by more than an order of magnitude in the Calutron, by a factor of 5 in the magnetron, ...

J. H. Whealton

1981-01-01

23

Improvement of gas efficiency of negative ion sources  

SciTech Connect

A modification of the currently operating Calutron, magnetron, and modified duoPIGatron negative ion source is proposed. The modification should improve gas efficiency by more than an order of magnitude in the Calutron, by a factor of 5 in the magnetron, and by a factor of 2 in the duoPIGatron.

Whealton, J.H.

1981-08-01

24

Cesium in hydrogen negative-ion sources  

SciTech Connect

Experimental data on the dynamics of cesium particles in the pulsed magnetron and Penning surface-plasma ion sources are presented. Cesium escape from the source emission apertures and the cesium ion current to discharge electrodes was measured. The low value of cesium flux from the source was detected. An intense cesium ion current to the cathode (up to 0.8 A/cm{sup 2}) was measured. The high value of cesium ion current to surface-plasma source cathode confirms the cesium circulation near the cathode.

Belchenko, Yu.I.; Davydenko, V.I. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk 639090 (Russian Federation)

2006-03-15

25

Rotating dust ring in an RF discharge coupled with a dc-magnetron sputter source. Experiment and simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During an experiment involving coating of dust grains trapped in an RF discharge using a sputtering dc-magnetron source, a rotating dust ring was observed and investigated. After the magnetron was switched on, the dust cloud levitating above the RF electrode formed a ring rotating as a rigid body. Langmuir probe diagnostics were used for the measurement of plasma density and potential. It was discovered that the coupling of the dc-magnetron source to the RF discharge causes steep radial gradients in electron density and plasma potential. The rotation of the dust ring is attributed to the azimuthal component of the ion drag force, which appears due to the azimuthal drift of the ions caused by crossed radial electric and axial magnetic fields. In order to get more insight into the mechanism of dust ring rotation, a Particle-in-Cell simulation of a rotating dust cloud was performed. The results of the experiment and simulation are presented and discussed.

Matyash, K.; Fröhlich, M.; Kersten, H.; Thieme, G.; Schneider, R.; Hannemann, M.; Hippler, R.

2004-10-01

26

Multicusp ion sources (invited)  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last decade, different types of multicusp ion sources, such as high current, high concentration H+, H+2, or N+ ion sources, negative ion sources, radio-frequency-driven sources, and high charge state ion sources have been developed at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. This article reviews the history of the research and development of these ion sources and their applications.

K. N. Leung

1994-01-01

27

Multicusp ion sources (invited)  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last decade, different types of multicusp ion sources, such as high current, high concentration H[sup +], H[sup +][sub 2], or N[sup +] ion sources, negative ion sources, radio-frequency-driven sources, and high charge state ion sources have been developed at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. This article reviews the history of the research and development of these ion sources and

K. N. Leung

1994-01-01

28

Improved ion source  

DOEpatents

A magnetic filter for an ion source reduces the production of undesired ion species and improves the ion beam quality. High-energy ionizing electrons are confined by the magnetic filter to an ion source region, where the high-energy electrons ionize gas molecules. One embodiment of the magnetic filter uses permanent magnets oriented to establish a magnetic field transverse to the direction of travel of ions from the ion source region to the ion extraction region. In another embodiment, low energy 16 eV electrons are injected into the ion source to dissociate gas molecules and undesired ion species into desired ion species,

Leung, K.N.; Ehlers, K.W.

1982-05-04

29

Negative ion source with hollow cathode discharge plasma  

DOEpatents

A negative ion source of the type where negative ions are formed by bombarding a low-work-function surface with positive ions and neutral particles from a plasma, wherein a highly ionized plasma is injected into an anode space containing the low-work-function surface. The plasma is formed by hollow cathode discharge and injected into the anode space along the magnetic field lines. Preferably, the negative ion source is of the magnetron type.

Hershcovitch, Ady (Mt. Sinai, NY); Prelec, Krsto (Setauket, NY)

1983-01-01

30

High current ion sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of high current ion source is both relative and evolutionary. Within the domain of one particular kind of ion source technology a current of microamperers might be high', while in another area a current of 10 Amperes could low'. Even within the domain of a single ion source type, what is considered high current performance today is routinely

1989-01-01

31

Ion distribution measurements to probe target and plasma processes in electronegative magnetron discharges. I. Negative ions  

SciTech Connect

Mass and energy spectra of negative ions in magnetron sputtering discharges have been investigated with an energy-dispersive mass spectrometer. The dc magnetrons have been operated in the same reactive Ar/O{sub 2} atmosphere but with three different target materials: Cu, In, and W. Besides negative ions of the working gas, a variety of target metal containing negative molecular ions were found in the discharge. Their occurrence is strongly dependent on the target material. It has been correlated to the electron affinity and the bond strength of the molecules which has been calculated by density functional theory. Energy spectra of the negative ions exhibit three contributions that are clearly distinguishable. Their different origin is discussed as electron attachment in the gas phase and at the target surface, and molecule fragmentation during transport from target to substrate. The latter two contributions again significantly deviate for different target material. The high-energy part of the spectra has been analyzed with respect to the energy the particles gain upon release from the surface. It suggests that bigger molecules formed on the surface are released by ion-assisted desorption.

Welzel, Th.; Ellmer, K. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie, Institut Solare Brennstoffe, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, D-14109 Berlin (Germany); Naumov, S. [Leibniz-Institut fuer Oberflaechenmodifizierung e.V., Permoserstrasse 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany)

2011-04-01

32

Vacuum arc ion sources with gaseous plasma trigger systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Triggering systems for vacuum arc plasma sources and ion sources have been developed that make use of a gaseous trigger discharge in a strong magnetic field. Two kinds of trigger discharge configurations have been explored, a Penning discharge and a magnetron discharge. The approach works reliably for low gas pressure in the vacuum arc environment and for long periods of

A. G. Nikolaev; G. Y. Yushkov; E. M. Oks; I. G. Brown; R. A. MacGill; M. R. Dickinson

1996-01-01

33

Nanocluster ion source by plasma-gas aggregation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are constructing and developing a new type cluster ion source and a detection system. The new cluster ion source consists of a large area plasma source and gas aggregation cell instead of present cluster ion source configuration (magnetron ion source and gas aggregation cell). In new type cluster ion source we adopted a pulsed high-power microwave type plasma source for production of ions and neutral particles. This source can produce dense and stable plasma independent of shape or properties of the sample, and additionally it can produce large sizes of plasma, so that whole area of the sample is sputtered. This feature allows us to produce an intense beam of cluster ions stably compared to the present ion source.

Imanaka, Masashi; Katayama, Takeshi; Ohshiro, Yukimitsu; Watanabe, Shin-Ichi; Arai, Hideyuki; Nakagawa, Takahide

2004-05-01

34

Observation of Ti{sup 4+} ions in a high power impulse magnetron sputtering plasma  

SciTech Connect

Multiply charged titanium ions including Ti{sup 4+} were observed in high power impulse magnetron sputtering discharges. Mass/charge spectrometry was used to identify metal ion species. Quadruply charged titanium ions were identified by isotope-induced broadening at mass/charge 12. Due to their high potential energy, Ti{sup 4+} ions give a high yield of secondary electrons, which in turn are likely to be responsible for the generation of multiply charged states.

Andersson, Joakim; Anders, Andre [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Ehiasarian, Arutiun P. [Materials and Engineering Research Institute, Sheffield Hallam University, Howard St., Sheffield S1 1WB (United Kingdom)

2008-08-18

35

CALUTRON ION SOURCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ion source is described wherein a portion of the filament serving as ; a cathode for the arc is protected from the effects of non-ionized particles ; escaping from the ionizing mechanism. In the described ion source, the source ; block has a gas chamber and a gas passage extending from said gas chamber to two ; adjacent faces

Brobeck

1959-01-01

36

ION SOURCE FOR CALUTRONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improvement is presented in ion sources of the type employed in ; calutron devices. The described ion source has for its inventive contribution ; the incorporation of a plate-like cathode having the general configuration of a ; polygon including a given number of apices. When a polyphase source of current ; has a phase connected to each of the

Tolmie

1958-01-01

37

CALUTRON ION SOURCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improvement is described in ion source mechanisms whereby the source ; structure is better adapted to withstanid the ravages of heat, erosion, and ; deterioration concomitant with operation of an ion source of the calutron type. ; A pair of molybdenum plates define the exit opening of the arc chamber and are in ; thermal contact with the walls

Lofgren

1959-01-01

38

Modeling the flux of high energy negative ions during reactive magnetron sputtering  

SciTech Connect

The negative ion flux during reactive sputtering from planar and rotating cylindrical magnetrons has been studied. Energy resolved mass spectrometry was used to measure the energy and mass distribution of the negative ions. Also the angular distribution of the high energy ions was characterized for planar as well as for rotating cylindrical magnetrons. Besides these measurements, a binary collision Monte Carlo simulation code, SiMTRA, was adapted in order to simulate the energy, mass, and angular distribution of the high energy negative ions. All simulated distributions, for both planar and rotating cylindrical magnetrons, were in excellent correspondence with the experimental observations. Also a model for the amount of high energy negative O{sup -} ions was proposed. Indeed, the logarithm of the amount of high energy negative O{sup -} ions is shown to be related to the secondary electron emission yield of the oxide target, and these two parameters are known to be related to the work function. The SiMTRA simulations, in combination with knowledge of the work function or secondary electron emission yield of the target, allow modeling the flux of high energy negative ions during reactive magnetron sputtering.

Mahieu, S.; Leroy, W. P.; Van Aeken, K.; Depla, D. [Department for Solid State Sciences, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281 (S1) 9000 Ghent (Belgium)

2009-11-01

39

Multiaperture negative ion source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The long-pulse multiaperture surface-plasma source with negative ion production on a cesiated grid is under construction at Budker Institute. The ion source includes RF plasma driver, an expansion chamber with multicusp magnetic filed, an external magnetic filter and a four-electrode ion-optical system for beam extraction and acceleration. The projected parameters of the ion source are: beam current 1.5 A, beam energy 120 keV, pulse duration 100 s, RF power in plasma 40 kW, hydrogen filling pressure < 0.5 Pa, e/H- ratio 1:1, H- ions emission current density 30 mA/cm2.

Belchenko, Yu. I.; Gorbovsky, A. I.; Ivanov, A. A.; Konstantinov, S. G.; Sanin, A. L.; Shikhovtsev, I. V.; Tiunov, M. A.

2013-02-01

40

PULSED ION SOURCE  

DOEpatents

An ion source is described adapted for pulsed operation and producing copious quantities of ions with a particular ion egress geometry. The particular source construction comprises a conical member having a conducting surface formed of a metal with a gas occladed therein and narrow non-conducting portions hereon dividing the conducting surface. A high voltage pulse is applied across the conducting surface or producing a discharge across the surface. After the gas ions have been produced by the discharge, the ions are drawn from the source in a diverging conical beam by a specially constructed accelerating electrode.

Ford, F.C.; Ruff, J.W.; Zizzo, S.G.; Cook, B.

1958-11-11

41

Metal Ion Sources for Ion Beam Implantation  

SciTech Connect

In this paper a theme touched upon the progress of metal ion sources devoted to metal ion beam implantation (MIBI) will be reviewed. A special emphasis will be given to some kinds of ion sources such as ECR, MEVVA and Cluster ion sources. A novel dual hollow cathode metal ion source named DUHOCAMIS will be introduced and discussed.

Zhao, W. J.; Zhao, Z. Q.; Ren, X. T. [Institute of Heavy Ion Physics and State Key Labarotary in Nuclear Physics and Nuclear Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

2008-11-03

42

Peristaltic ion source  

SciTech Connect

Conventional ion sources generate energetic ion beams by accelerating the plasma-produced ions through a voltage drop at the extractor, and since it is usual that the ion beam is to propagate in a space which is at ground potential, the plasma source is biased at extractor voltage. For high ion beam energy the plasma source and electrical systems need to be raised to high voltage, a task that adds considerable complexity and expense to the total ion source system. The authors have developed a system which though forming energetic ion beams at ground potential as usual, operates with the plasma source and electronics at ground potential also. Plasma produced by a nearby source streams into a grided chamber that is repetitively pulsed from ground to high positive potential, sequentially accepting plasma into its interior region and ejecting it energetically. They call the device a peristaltic ion source. In preliminary tests they`ve produced nitrogen and titanium ion beams at energies from 1 to 40 keV. Here they describe the philosophy behind the approach, the test embodiment that they have made, and some preliminary results.

Brown, I.G.; Anders, A.; Anders, S.; Dickinson, M.R.; MacGill, R.A.

1995-08-01

43

Ion distribution measurements to probe target and plasma processes in electronegative magnetron discharges. II. Positive ions  

SciTech Connect

Spectra of the ion mass and energy distributions of positive ions in reactive (Ar/O{sub 2}) and nonreactive (Ar) dc magnetron sputtering discharges have been investigated by energy-resolved mass spectrometry. The results of three sputter target materials, i.e., Cu, In, and W are compared to each other. Besides the main gas constituents, mass spectra reveal a variety of molecular ions which are dependent on the target material. In reactive mode, ArO{sup +} is always observed in Ar/O{sub 2} but molecules containing Ar and the metal were exclusively found for the Cu target. The occurrence of the different ions is explained in the context of their bond strengths obtained from density functional theory calculations. The energy spectra generally contain the known low-energy peak corresponding to the plasma potential. Differently extended high-energy tails due to sputtered material were observed for the different targets. Besides these, high-energetic ions were detected with up to several 100 eV. Their energies are significantly different for Ar{sup +} and O{sup +} with Ar{sup +} strongly depending on the target material. The spectra are discussed together with results from transport of ions in matter (TRIM) calculation to elucidate the origin of these energetic ions.

Welzel, Th.; Ellmer, K. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie, Institut Solare Brennstoffe, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, D-14109 Berlin (Germany); Naumov, S. [Leibniz-Institut fuer Oberflaechenmodifizierung e.V., Permoserstrasse 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany)

2011-04-01

44

Spatial and temporal evolution of ion energies in high power impulse magnetron sputtering plasma discharge  

SciTech Connect

High power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) is a novel deposition technology successfully implemented on full scale industrial machines. HIPIMS utilizes short pulses of high power delivered to the target in order to generate high amount of metal ions. The life-span of ions between the pulses and their energy distribution could strongly influence the properties and characteristics of the deposited coating. In modern industrial coating machines the sample rotates on a substrate holder and changes its position and distance with regard to the magnetron. Time resolved measurements of the ion energy distribution function (IEDF) at different distances from the magnetron have been performed to investigate the temporal evolution of ions at various distances from target. The measurements were performed using two pressures, 1 and 3 Pa to investigate the influence of working gas pressure on IEDF. Plasma sampling energy-resolved mass spectroscopy was used to measure the IEDF of Ti{sup 1+}, Ti{sup 2+}, Ar{sup 1+}, and Ar{sup 2+} ions in HIPIMS plasma discharge with titanium (Ti) target in Ar atmosphere. The measurements were done over a full pulse period and the distance between the magnetron and the orifice of the mass spectrometer was changed from 25 to 215 mm.

Hecimovic, A.; Ehiasarian, A. P. [Nanotechnology Centre for PVD Research, Materials and Engineering Research Centre, Sheffield Hallam University, S1 1WB Sheffield (United Kingdom)

2010-09-15

45

ION SOURCE FOR CALUTRONS  

DOEpatents

An improvement is presented in ion sources of the type employed in calutron devices. The described ion source has for its inventive contribution the incorporation of a plate-like cathode having the general configuration of a polygon including a given number of apices. When a polyphase source of current has a phase connected to each of the apices, the cathode is heated and rendered electron emissive. This particular cathode configuration is of sturdy construction and provides unuform emission over a considerable area.

Tolmie, J.R.

1958-09-16

46

Low-energy ion bombardment effects in reactive rf magnetron sputtering of carbon nitride films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variable unbalanced rf magnetron sputtering of graphite in pure nitrogen and a mixture of nitrogen and helium has been used to prepare carbon nitride films in a wide range of ion bombardment conditions analyzed as to their fluxes and kinetic energies by energy-resolved mass spectrometry and probe measurements. These data were related to the chemical composition, bonding structure, density and

R. Kaltofen; T Sebald; G Weise

1997-01-01

47

Magnetron Discharge Characteristics for Improvement of an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Neutron\\/Proton Source  

Microsoft Academic Search

A magnetron discharge was adopted in the inertial-electrostatic confinement (IEC) fusion device for drastic improvement of fusion reaction rate. With this discharge in the vicinity of the vacuum chamber, a substantial number of ions produced there are expected to have almost full energy corresponding to the applied voltage to the transparent IEC cathode under relatively low pressures compared with the

K. Yoshikawa; H. Toku; K. Masuda; T. Mizutani; A. Nagafuchi; M. Imoto; T. Takamatsu; K. Nagasaki

2003-01-01

48

Pulsed ion beam source  

DOEpatents

An improved magnetically-confined anode plasma pulsed ion beam source. Beam rotation effects and power efficiency are improved by a magnetic design which places the separatrix between the fast field flux structure and the slow field structure near the anode of the ion beam source, by a gas port design which localizes the gas delivery into the gap between the fast coil and the anode, by a pre-ionizer ringing circuit connected to the fast coil, and by a bias field means which optimally adjusts the plasma formation position in the ion beam source.

Greenly, John B. (Lansing, NY)

1996-01-01

49

Magnetron Discharge Characteristics for Improvement of an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Neutron/Proton Source  

SciTech Connect

A magnetron discharge was adopted in the inertial-electrostatic confinement (IEC) fusion device for drastic improvement of fusion reaction rate. With this discharge in the vicinity of the vacuum chamber, a substantial number of ions produced there are expected to have almost full energy corresponding to the applied voltage to the transparent IEC cathode under relatively low pressures compared with the conventional glow discharge. The magnetron discharge is found to occur even for the pressure of 0.07 mTorr (H{sub 2}) in the present configuration of the experiment, compared with 5 mTorr in the glow discharge.

Yoshikawa, K.; Toku, H.; Masuda, K.; Mizutani, T.; Nagafuchi, A.; Imoto, M.; Takamatsu, T.; Nagasaki, K. [Kyoto University (Japan)

2003-09-15

50

Selective ion source  

DOEpatents

A ion source is described wherein selected ions maybe extracted to the exclusion of unwanted ion species of higher ionization potential. Also described is a method of producing selected ions from a compound, such as P{sup +} from PH{sub 3}. The invention comprises a plasma chamber, an electron source, a means for introducing a gas to be ionized by electrons from the electron source, means for limiting electron energy from the electron source to a value between the ionization energy of the selected ion species and the greater ionization energy of an unwanted ion specie, and means for extracting the target ion specie from the plasma chamber. In one embodiment, the electrons are generated in a plasma cathode chamber immediately adjacent to the plasma chamber. A small extractor draws the electrons from the plasma cathode chamber into the relatively positive plasma chamber. The energy of the electrons extracted in this manner is easily controlled. The invention is particularly useful for doping silicon with P{sup +}, As{sup +}, and B{sup +} without the problematic presence of hydrogen, helium, water, or carbon oxide ions. Doped silicon is important for manufacture of semiconductors and semiconductor devices. 6 figs.

Leung, K.N.

1996-05-14

51

Selective ion source  

DOEpatents

A ion source is described wherein selected ions maybe extracted to the exclusion of unwanted ion species of higher ionization potential. Also described is a method of producing selected ions from a compound, such as P.sup.+ from PH.sub.3. The invention comprises a plasma chamber, an electron source, a means for introducing a gas to be ionized by electrons from the electron source, means for limiting electron energy from the electron source to a value between the ionization energy of the selected ion species and the greater ionization energy of an unwanted ion specie, and means for extracting the target ion specie from the plasma chamber. In one embodiment, the electrons are generated in a plasma cathode chamber immediately adjacent to the plasma chamber. A small extractor draws the electrons from the plasma cathode chamber into the relatively positive plasma chamber. The energy of the electrons extracted in this manner is easily controlled. The invention is particularly useful for doping silicon with P.sup.+, AS.sup.+, and B.sup.+ without the problematic presence of hydrogen, helium, water, or carbon oxide ions. Doped silicon is important for manufacture of semiconductors and semiconductor devices.

Leung, Ka-Ngo (Hercules, CA)

1996-01-01

52

BERNAS ION SOURCE DISCHARGE SIMULATION  

SciTech Connect

The joint research and development program is continued to develop steady-state ion source of decaborane beam for ion implantation industry. Bemas ion source is the wide used ion source for ion implantation industry. The new simulation code was developed for the Bemas ion source discharge simulation. We present first results of the simulation for several materials interested in semiconductors. As well the comparison of results obtained with experimental data obtained at the ITEP ion source test-bench is presented.

RUDSKOY,I.; KULEVOY, T.V.; PETRENKO, S.V.; KUIBEDA, R.P.; SELEZNEV, D.N.; PERSHIN, V.I.; HERSHCOVITCH, A.; JOHNSON, B.M.; GUSHENETS, V.I.; OKS, E.M.; POOLE, H.J.

2007-08-26

53

HIGH VOLTAGE ION SOURCE  

DOEpatents

A device is described for providing a source of molecular ions having a large output current and with an accelerated energy of the order of 600 kv. Ions are produced in an ion source which is provided with a water-cooled source grid of metal to effect maximum recombination of atomic ions to molecular ions. A very high accelerating voltage is applied to withdraw and accelerate the molecular ions from the source, and means are provided for dumping the excess electrons at the lowest possible potentials. An accelerating grid is placed adjacent to the source grid and a slotted, grounded accelerating electrode is placed adjacent to the accelerating grid. A potential of about 35 kv is maintained between the source grid and accelerating grid, and a potential of about 600 kv is maintained between the accelerating grid and accelerating electrode. In order to keep at a minimum the large number of oscillating electrons which are created when such high voltages are employed in the vicinity of a strong magnetic field, a plurality of high voltage cascaded shields are employed with a conventional electron dumping system being employed between each shield so as to dump the electrons at the lowest possible potential rather than at 600 kv.

Luce, J.S.

1960-04-19

54

Negative hydrogen ion sources for accelerators  

SciTech Connect

A variety of H{sup -} ion sources are in use at accelerator laboratories around the world. A list of these ion sources includes surface plasma sources with magnetron, Penning and surface converter geometries as well as magnetic-multipole volume sources with and without cesium. Just as varied is the means of igniting and maintaining magnetically confined plasmas. Hot and cold cathodes, radio frequency, and microwave power are all in use, as well as electron tandem source ignition. The extraction systems of accelerator H{sup -} ion sources are highly specialized utilizing magnetic and electric fields in their low energy beam transport systems to produce direct current, as well as pulsed and/or chopped beams with a variety of time structures. Within this paper, specific ion sources utilized at accelerator laboratories shall be reviewed along with the physics of surface and volume H{sup -} production in regard to source emittance. Current research trends including aperture modeling, thermal modeling, surface conditioning, and laser diagnostics will also be discussed.

Moehs, D.P.; /Fermilab; Peters, J.; /DESY; Sherman, J.; /Los Alamos

2005-08-01

55

CALUTRON ION SOURCE  

DOEpatents

An improvement is described in ion source mechanisms whereby the source structure is better adapted to withstanid the ravages of heat, erosion, and deterioration concomitant with operation of an ion source of the calutron type. A pair of molybdenum plates define the exit opening of the arc chamber and are in thermal contact with the walls of the chamber. These plates are maintained at a reduced temperature by a pair of copper blocks in thermal conducting contact therewith to form subsequent diverging margins for the exit opening.

Lofgren, E.J.

1959-02-17

56

Activated Ion Electron Capture Dissociation (AI ECD) of Proteins: Synchronization of Infrared and Electron Irradiation with Ion Magnetron Motion  

PubMed Central

Here, we show that to perform activated ion electron capture dissociation (AI-ECD) in a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometer equipped with a CO2 laser, it is necessary to synchronize both infrared irradiation and electron capture dissociation with ion magnetron motion. This requirement is essential for instruments in which the infrared laser is angled off-axis, such as the Thermo Finnigan LTQ FT. Generally, the electron irradiation time required for proteins is much shorter (ms) than that required for peptides (tens of ms), and the modulation of ECD, AI ECD, and infrared multiphoton dissociation (IRMPD) with ion magnetron motion is more pronounced. We have optimized AI ECD for ubiquitin, cytochrome c, and myoglobin; however the results can be extended to other proteins. We demonstrate that pre-ECD and post-ECD activation are physically different and display different kinetics. We also demonstrate how, by use of appropriate AI ECD time sequences and normalization, the kinetics of protein gas-phase refolding can be deconvoluted from the diffusion of the ion cloud and measured on the time scale longer than the period of ion magnetron motion.

Mikhailov, Victor A.; Cooper, Helen J.

2009-01-01

57

Rotating dust ring in an RF discharge coupled with a dc-magnetron sputter source. Experiment and simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

During an experiment involving coating of dust grains trapped in an RF discharge using a sputtering dc-magnetron source, a rotating dust ring was observed and investigated. After the magnetron was switched on, the dust cloud levitating above the RF electrode formed a ring rotating as a rigid body. Langmuir probe diagnostics were used for the measurement of plasma density and

K. Matyash; M. Fröhlich; H. Kersten; G. Thieme; R. Schneider; M. Hannemann; R. Hippler

2004-01-01

58

Pulsed ion beam source  

DOEpatents

An improved pulsed ion beam source is disclosed having a new biasing circuit for the fast magnetic field. This circuit provides for an initial negative bias for the field created by the fast coils in the ion beam source which pre-ionize the gas in the source, ionize the gas and deliver the gas to the proper position in the accelerating gap between the anode and cathode assemblies in the ion beam source. The initial negative bias improves the interaction between the location of the nulls in the composite magnetic field in the ion beam source and the position of the gas for pre-ionization and ionization into the plasma as well as final positioning of the plasma in the accelerating gap. Improvements to the construction of the flux excluders in the anode assembly are also accomplished by fabricating them as layered structures with a high melting point, low conductivity material on the outsides with a high conductivity material in the center. 12 figs.

Greenly, J.B.

1997-08-12

59

AFM observation of ITO thin films deposited on polycarbonate substrates by sputter type negative metal ion source  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early stages of indium tin oxide (ITO) thin film deposition on room temperature polycarbonate (PC) substrates using d.c. magnetron sputter type negative metal ion source (SNMIS) were investigated by comparing them with those ITO films prepared at same PC substrate by conventional magnetron sputter deposition. The optical and electrical properties were also investigated as they grew from 12 to 150

Daeil Kim; Sungjin Kim

2003-01-01

60

Electrical and optical study of ITO films on glass and polymer substrates prepared by DC magnetron sputtering type negative metal ion beam deposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transparent, conducting indium tin oxide (ITO) films were deposited without intentional substrate heating on glass and polyethersulfone (PES) substrates by a magnetron sputter type negative metal ion source (MSNIS). The effect of substrate type on optical transmittance, electrical resistivity, surface morphology and roughness of the ITO film was analyzed.ITO\\/glass substrates show a higher optical transmittance (89%) and lower resistivity (4×10?4?cm)

Y. Z. You; Y. S. Kim; D. H. Choi; H. S. Jang; J. H. Lee; Daeil Kim

2008-01-01

61

Ion sources for high purity ions  

SciTech Connect

It has been demonstrated that the multicusp ion source can provide positive hydrogen ion beams with monatomic ion fraction higher than 90{percent}. The use of A radio-frequency induction discharge provides clean reliable and long-life source operation. The extractable ion current densities from this type of source can meet the injector requirements for accelerator-based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) projects. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

Leung, K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

1997-02-01

62

Extraction of aluminum ions from a plasma-sputter-type ion source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Positive ions of aluminum (Al+) have been extracted from a compact ion source of 8 cm diameter, 9 cm long inside volume. A 7.7 cm diameter 7.5 cm long cylindrical cage made of 1 mm thick Al sheet metal served as an electrode of radio frequency discharge at 13.56 MHz. Magnets attached to the water cooled wall of the ion source created planar and cylindrical magnetron magnetic field geometry at the surface of the cage. The measured DC self-bias voltage of the cage electrode with respect to the ion source wall was more positive than -10 V for source operating pressure above 1.2 Pa with 100 W RF discharge power. Relative amount of Al+ ion current had increased as additional DC bias voltage was applied to the electrode from a separate DC power supply. However, frequent arcing prohibited stable operation of the ion source for DC target bias larger than 100 V.

Wada, M.; Kasuya, T.; Kenmotsu, T.; Miyamoto, N.; Sasaki, D.

2012-11-01

63

Ion sources for commercial ion implanter applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors review some of the history as well as recent developments in the implanter ion source field. It is noted that ion sources for implantation have changed considerably since implantation was first used commercially. Dramatic increases in beam output have been sustained with each new generation of ion implanters. In addition to the drive for improved beam currents, the

S. R. Walther; B. O. Pedersen; C. M. McKenna

1991-01-01

64

CALUTRON ION SOURCE  

DOEpatents

The construction of an ion source is descrtbed wherein a uniform and elongated arc is established for employment in a calutron. The novel features of the . source include the positioning of a cathode at one end of an elongated extt slit of an arc chamber. and anode electrodes defintng the longitudinal margins of the exit opening. When the exit slit is orientated in a parallel relation to a magnetic field, the arc extends in the direction of the magnetic field along and between the anode electrodes, which are held at a positsve potential with respect to the cathode.

Oppenheimer, F.

1958-08-19

65

The morphology of mass selected ruthenium nanoparticles from a magnetron-sputter gas-aggregation source  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have investigated the morphology of mass selected ruthenium nanoparticles produced with a magnetron-sputter gas-aggregation\\u000a source. The nanoparticles are mass selected using a quadrupole mass filter, resulting in narrow size distributions and average\\u000a diameters between 2 and 15 nm. The particles are imaged in situ by scanning electron microscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy\\u000a (STM) as well as ex-situ using transmission electron

R. M. Nielsen; S. Murphy; C. Strebel; M. Johansson; I. Chorkendorff; J. H. Nielsen

2010-01-01

66

Source of Negative Hydrogen Ions with Hot Cathode  

SciTech Connect

In the report an H- ion source with following parameters is described. Ion energy is up to 30 keV, current is up to 5 mA, pulse duration varies from 1 to tens microseconds. H- ions are produced in magnetron discharge near a hot cathode surface made of LaB6 or IrCe alloy, which is 6 mm in diameter. H- ions are extracted through 0.8x7 mm slot. An electromagnetic valve was used for pulsed gas feed. Ion current depends on discharge current that in turn is defined by cathode temperature, discharge voltage, and hydrogen pressure. Two permanent magnets fixed on iron yoke generate magnetic field for magnetron discharge. There are a magnetic and electrostatic corrections of trajectories of extracted H- ions. The H- ion source has been used as an injector for tandem accelerator with the following proton beam parameters: energy is 1.4 MeV, current is 3mA, and pulse duration is 2 microseconds. Simulation of ion beam trajectories in the source, transport channel, and tandem accelerator shows good correlation with experiments.

Kuznetsov, G.I.; Batazova, M.A. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation)

2005-04-06

67

Ion dynamics in helicon sources.  

SciTech Connect

Recent experiments have demonstrated that ion dominated phenomena, such as the lower hybrid resonance, can play an important role in helicon source operation. In this work, we review recent ion heating measurements and the role of the slow wave in heating ions at the edge of helicon. sources. We also discuss the relationship between parametrically driven waves and ion heating near the rf antenna in helicon sources. Recent measurements of parallel and rotational ion flows in helicon sources have important implications for particle confinement, instability growth, and helicon source operation. In this work we present new measurements of ion flows and summarize the important features of the flows.

Kline, J. L. (John L.); Balkey, M. M. (Matthew M.); Keiter, P. A. (Paul A.); Scime, Earl E.; Keesee, Anne M.; Sun, X.; Harding R.; Compton, C.; Boivin, R. F.; Zintl, M. W.

2002-01-01

68

Comparison of ion beam and magnetron sputtered vanadium oxide thin films for uncooled IR imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Uncooled Infrared (IR) focal plane arrays are an enabling technology for both military and commercial high sensitivity night vision cameras. IR imaging is accomplished using MEMS microbolometers fabricated on read-out integrated circuits and depends critically on the material used to absorb the incoming IR radiation. Suitable detector materials must exhibit a large temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) and low noise characteristics to efficiently detect IR photons while also maintaining compatibility with standard integrated circuit (IC) processing. The most commonly used material in uncooled infrared imaging detectors is vanadium oxide deposited by reactive ion beam sputtering. Here we present a comparison of vanadium oxide thin films grown via commercial reactive ion beam sputtering to films grown using reactive pulsed DC magnetron sputtering. Films deposited using both methods were optically and structurally characterized using Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and grazing incidence X-ray diffraction. The measured electrical properties of the films were found to be very sensitive to the deposition conditions used. The ion beam sputtered films contained twinned FCC VOx nanocrystals with sub-nanometer twin spacing, in the form of large 10-20 nm wide columnar/conical grains. In contrast, the un-biased magnetron sputtered films consisted of equiax grains of FCC VOx (5-10 nm) encapsulated in an amorphous matrix. However, applying an RF bias to the sample substrate during the magnetron sputtering process, resulted in films that are similar in structure to ion beam deposited VOx. These differences in microstructure and composition were then correlated to the measured resistivities and TCRs of the films.

Cabarcos, Orlando M.; Li, Jing; Gauntt, Bryan D.; Antrazi, Sami; Dickey, Elizabeth C.; Allara, Dave L.; Horn, Mark W.

2011-05-01

69

Tandem Terminal Ion Source  

SciTech Connect

OAK-B135 Tandem Terminal Ion Source. The terminal ion source (TIS) was used in several experiments during this reporting period, all for the {sup 7}Be({gamma}){sup 8}B experiment. Most of the runs used {sup 1}H{sup +} at terminal voltages from 0.3 MV to 1.5 MV. One of the runs used {sup 2}H{sup +} at terminal voltage of 1.4 MV. The other run used {sup 4}He{sup +} at a terminal voltage of 1.37 MV. The list of experiments run with the TIS to date is given in table 1 below. The tank was opened four times for unscheduled source repairs. On one occasion the tank was opened to replace the einzel lens power supply which had failed. The 10 kV unit was replaced with a 15 kV unit. The second time the tank was opened to repair the extractor supply which was damaged by a tank spark. On the next occasion the tank was opened to replace a source canal which had sputtered away. Finally, the tank was opened to replace the discharge bottle which had been coated with aluminum sputtered from the exit canal.

None

2000-10-23

70

The DCU laser ion source  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laser ion sources are used to generate and deliver highly charged ions of various masses and energies. We present details on the design and basic parameters of the DCU laser ion source (LIS). The theoretical aspects of a high voltage (HV) linear LIS are presented and the main issues surrounding laser-plasma formation, ion extraction and modeling of beam transport in

P. Yeates; J. T. Costello; E. T. Kennedy

2010-01-01

71

Off line ion source terminal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The off-line ion source (OLIS) terminal provides beams from stable isotopes to ISAC (see Fig. 1) experiments as well as for accelerator commissioning and for pilot beams for radioactive beam experiments. The OLIS terminal (see Fig. 2) is equipped with a microwave driven cusp source for single and double charge ions, a surface ion source for low energy spread alkali beams, and a multi-charge ion source.

Jayamanna, K.

2013-10-01

72

Advances in metal ion sources  

SciTech Connect

Beams of metallic ion species can be produced by the ECR (electron cyclotron resonance) ion source and by the MEVVA (metal vapor vacuum arc) ion source. Although the ECR source is fundamentally a gaseous ion source, metal ion beams can be produced by introducing metallic feed material into the plasma discharge using a number of techniques. The ion charge states can be very high, which is a significant advantage to most applications. The MEVVA ion source, on the other hand, is specifically a metal ion source. It has produced metallic ion beams from virtually all the solid metallic elements at a current of typically hundreds of milliamperes; the ions produced are in general multiply ionized, but not as highly stripped as those generated in the ECR source. Although the MEVVA source at present operates in a pulsed mode with a low duty cycle (less than or equal to 1%), work is in progress to increase the duty cycle significantly. In this paper the operation and performance of the LBL ECR and MEVVA ion sources, with respect to metal ion generation, are described.

Brown, I.G.

1988-05-01

73

Ion source development at GSI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different ion sources are used at GSI to match the requirements for specific tasks at the accelerator. At the standard injector a Penning ionization gauge ion source is used (design ion U10+, m\\/q<24, 1 emA). Further development of this source is mainly aiming at an increase of the extractable currents and an increase of the lifetime of the source. The

P. Spädtke; J. Bossler; H. Emig; K. D. Leible; C. Mühle; H. Reich; H. Schulte; K. Tinschert

1998-01-01

74

Orbital motion of dust particles in an rf magnetron discharge. Ion drag force or neutral atom wind force  

SciTech Connect

Microparticles with sizes up to 130 {mu}m have been confined and the velocity and diameter of particles in a plasma trap of an rf magnetron discharge with an arc magnetic field have been simultaneously measured. The motion of the gas induced by electron and ion cyclotron currents has been numerically simulated using the Navier-Stokes equation. The experimental and numerical results confirm the mechanism of the orbital motion of dust particles in the magnetron discharge plasma that is associated with the orbital motion of the neutral gas accelerated by electron and ion drift flows in crossed electric and magnetic fields.

Pal, A. F.; Ryabinkin, A. N.; Serov, A. O. [Moscow State University, Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics (Russian Federation); Dyatko, N. A.; Starostin, A. N.; Filippov, A. V., E-mail: fav@triniti.ru [Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Fusion Research (Russian Federation)

2012-03-15

75

Ion sources for cyclotron applications  

SciTech Connect

The use of a multicusp plasma generator as an ion source has many advantages. The development of both positive and negative ion beams based on the multicusp source geometry is presented. It is shown that these sources can be operated at steady state or cw mode. As a result they are very suitable for cyclotron operations.

Leung, K.N.; Bachman, D.A.; McDonald, D.S.; Young, A.T.

1992-07-01

76

C/CrC nanocomposite coating deposited by magnetron sputtering at high ion irradiation conditions  

SciTech Connect

CrC with the fcc NaCl (B1) structure is a metastable phase that can be obtained under the non-equilibrium conditions of high ion irradiation. A nano-composite coating consisting of amorphous carbon embedded in a CrC matrix was prepared via the unbalanced magnetron sputtering of graphite and Cr metal targets in Ar gas with a high ionized flux (ion-to-neutral ratio Ji/Jn = 6). The nanoscale amorphous carbon clusters self-assembled into layers alternated by CrC, giving the composite a multilayer structure. The phase, microstructure, and composition of the coating were characterized using x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy coupled with electron energy loss spectroscopy. The interpretation of the true coating structure, in particular the carbide type, is discussed.

Zhou, Z.; Rainforth, W. M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Gass, M. H.; Bleloch, A. [SuperSTEM at Daresbury Laboratory, Daresbury, Cheshire, WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Ehiassarian, A. P.; Hovsepian, P. Eh. [Materials Engineering Research Institute, Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield, S1 1WB (United Kingdom)

2011-10-01

77

Fabrication of size-selected Pd nanoclusters using a magnetron plasma sputtering source  

SciTech Connect

We report on the fabrication of palladium (Pd) nanoclusters using a dc magnetron sputtering source. Plasma sputtering vaporizes the target's material forming nanoclusters by inert gas condensation. The sputtering source produces ionized nanoclusters that enable the study of the nanoclusters' size distribution using a quadrupole mass filter. In this work, the dependence of Pd nanoclusters' size distribution on various source parameters, such as the sputtering discharge power, inert gas flow rate, and aggregation length have been investigated. This work demonstrates the ability of tuning the palladium nanoclusters' size by proper optimization of the source operation conditions. The experimental nanocluster sizes are compared with a theoretical model that reveals the growth of large nanoclusters from 'embryos' by a two-body collision. The model is valid for a specific range of deposition parameters (low inert gas flow rates and aggregation lengths equal or below 70 mm).

Ayesh, A. I.; Qamhieh, N.; Ghamlouche, H.; Thaker, S.; El-Shaer, M. [Department of Physics, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain, P.O. Box 17551 (United Arab Emirates)

2010-02-15

78

Primary ion sources for EBIS  

SciTech Connect

This paper gives an introduction into the topic of primary ion sources that can be used to feed ions of normally solid elements into EBIS devices. Starting with a set of typical requirements for primary ion sources, some major types of ion generators are discussed first, with emphasis on their working principles rather than trying to give a fully representative listing of used and proposed generators. Beam-transport issues between primary ion source and EBIS are then examined, and generic characteristics of suitable beam-formation and transport systems are explained.

Keller, R.

2001-03-21

79

Negative oxygen ion formation in reactive magnetron sputtering processes for transparent conductive oxides  

SciTech Connect

Reactive d.c. magnetron sputtering in Ar/O{sub 2} gas mixtures has been investigated with energy-resolved mass spectrometry. Different metal targets (Mg, Ti, Zn, In, InSn, and Sn), which are of importance for transparent conductive oxide thin film deposition, have been used to study the formation of negative ions, mainly high-energetic O{sup -}, which are supposed to induce radiation damage in thin films. Besides their energy distribution, the ions have been particularly investigated with respect to their intensity in comparison of the different target materials. To realize the comparability, various calibration factors had to be introduced. After their application, major differences in the negative ion production have been observed for the target materials. The intensity, especially of O{sup -}, differs by about two orders of magnitude. It is shown that this difference results almost exclusively from ions that gain their energy in the target sheath. Those may gain additional energy from the sputtering process or reflection at the target. Low-energetic negative ions are, however, less affected by changes of the target material. The results concerning O{sup -} formation are discussed in term of the sputtering rate from the target and are compared to models for negative ion formation.

Welzel, Thomas; Ellmer, Klaus [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie, Institut Solare Brennstoffe, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, D-14109 Berlin (Germany)

2012-11-15

80

Design and characterization of 2.45 GHz electron cyclotron resonance plasma source with magnetron magnetic field configuration for high flux of hyperthermal neutral beam  

SciTech Connect

A 2.45 GHz electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) source with a magnetron magnetic field configuration was developed to meet the demand of a hyperthermal neutral beam (HNB) flux on a substrate of more than 1x10{sup 15} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} for industrial applications. The parameters of the operating pressure, ion density, electron temperature, and distance between the neutralization plate and the substrate for the HNB source are specified in a theoretical analysis. The electron temperature and the ion density are measured to characterize the ECR HNB source using a Langmuir probe and optical emission spectroscopy. The parameters of the ECR HNB source are in good agreement with the theoretically specified parameters.

Kim, Seong Bong [Department of Physics, Pohang University of Science and Technology, San 31, Hyoja-dong, Nam-gu, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Convergence Plasma Research Center, National Fusion Research Institute, Gwahangno 113, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dae Chul; Yoo, Suk Jae [Convergence Plasma Research Center, National Fusion Research Institute, Gwahangno 113, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Namkung, Won; Cho, Moohyun [Department of Physics, Pohang University of Science and Technology, San 31, Hyoja-dong, Nam-gu, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)

2010-08-15

81

Design and characterization of 2.45 GHz electron cyclotron resonance plasma source with magnetron magnetic field configuration for high flux of hyperthermal neutral beam.  

PubMed

A 2.45 GHz electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) source with a magnetron magnetic field configuration was developed to meet the demand of a hyperthermal neutral beam (HNB) flux on a substrate of more than 1x10(15) cm(-2) s(-1) for industrial applications. The parameters of the operating pressure, ion density, electron temperature, and distance between the neutralization plate and the substrate for the HNB source are specified in a theoretical analysis. The electron temperature and the ion density are measured to characterize the ECR HNB source using a Langmuir probe and optical emission spectroscopy. The parameters of the ECR HNB source are in good agreement with the theoretically specified parameters. PMID:20815600

Kim, Seong Bong; Kim, Dae Chul; Namkung, Won; Cho, Moohyun; Yoo, Suk Jae

2010-08-01

82

Effect of pulse frequency on the ion fluxes during pulsed dc magnetron sputtering  

SciTech Connect

The ion fluxes and energies which impinge on the substrate during the deposition of chromium nitride by asymmetric bipolar pulsed dc reactive magnetron sputtering have been analyzed using energy resolved mass spectrometry. It has been found that there is a remarkable increase in ion flux at higher pulse frequencies and that the peak ion energy is directly related to the positive voltage overshoot of the target voltage. The magnitude of the metal flux depositing on the substrate is consistent with a 'dead time' of {approx}0.7 {mu}s at the start of the on period. The variation of the ion flux with pulse frequency has been explained by a simple model in which the ion density during the on period has a large peak which is slightly delayed from the large negative voltage overshoot which occurs at the start of the on pulse due to increased ionization at that time. This is consistent with the previously observed phenomena in pulsed sputtering.

Rahamathunnisa, M.; Cameron, D. C. [ASTRaL, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Prikaatinkatu 3E, 50100 Mikkeli (Finland)

2009-03-15

83

Development of multiampere negative ion sources  

SciTech Connect

The Neutral Beam Development Group at BNL is developing H-/D- surface plasma sources as part of a high energy neutral beam injector. Uncooled Penning and magnetron sources have operated at a maximum beam current of 1 A (10 ms pulses, Mk III) and a maximum pulse length of 200 ms (0.3 A, Mk IV). A magnetron source with focusing grooves on the cathode and an asymmetric anode-cathode geometry operates at a power efficiency of 8 kW/A and a 6% gas efficiency. As the next step, a water cooled magnetron, designed to give a steady state beam of 1 to 2 A, has been constructed. Experiments are in progress to test a modification of the magnetron which may significantly improve its performance. By injecting a sheet of plasma, produced by a highly gas efficient hollow cathode discharge, into a magnetron type anode-cathode geometry, we anticipate a reduction of the source operating pressure by at least three orders of magnitude. Initial experiments have given indications of H/sup -/ production. The next plasma injection experiment is designed to give a steady state beam of approx. = 1 A.

Alessi, J.; Hershcovitch, A.; Prelec, K.; Sluyters, T.

1981-01-01

84

Refurbishing tritium contaminated ion sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extended tritium experimentation on TFTR has necessitated refurbishing Neutral Beam Long Pulse Ion Sources (LPIS) which developed operational difficulties, both in the TFTR Test Cell and later, in the NE Source Refurbishment Shop. Shipping contaminated sources off-site for repair was not permissible from a transport and safety perspective. Therefore, the NE source repair facility was upgraded by relocating fixtures, tooling,

K. E. Wright; R. H. Carnevale; B. E. McCormack; T. Stevenson; A. von Halle

1995-01-01

85

Ion sources for heavy ion fusion  

SciTech Connect

The development of ion sources for heavy ion fusion will be reported with particular emphasis on a recently built 2 MV injector. The new injector is based on an electrostatic quadrupole configuration, and has produced pulsed K{sup +} ions of 950 mA peak from a 6.7 inch curved alumino silicate source. The ion beam has reached 2.3 MV with an energy flatness of {+-}0.2% over 1 {micro}s. The measured normalized edge emittance of less than 1 {pi} mm-mr is close to the source temperature limit. The design, construction, performance, and comparisons with three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations will be described.

Yu, S.S.; Eylon, S.; Chupp, W. [and others

1995-09-01

86

Increase of Ar+ ion density in argon RF magnetron discharges caused by the addition of a small amount of oxygen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Particle-in-cell\\/Monte Carlo (PIC\\/MC) simulations were performed for radio frequency (RF) planar magnetron discharges of pure argon gas and an O2-Ar gas mixture. The number densities of Ar+ and O- ions drastically increased when oxygen was added to the Ar discharge gas. Moreover, the spatial distributions of positive ions, Ar+, O2+, and O+, had two peaks in the O2\\/Ar mixture discharge.

Shigeru Yonemura; Kenichi Nanbu

2005-01-01

87

Investigation of ISIS and Brookhaven National Laboratory ion source electrodes after extended operation  

SciTech Connect

Linac4 accelerator of Centre Europeen de Recherches Nucleaires is under construction and a RF-driven H{sup -} ion source is being developed. The beam current requirement for Linac4 is very challenging: 80 mA must be provided. Cesiated plasma discharge ion sources such as Penning or magnetron sources are also potential candidates. Accelerator ion sources must achieve typical reliability figures of 95% and above. Investigating and understanding the underlying mechanisms involved with source failure or ageing is critical when selecting the ion source technology. Plasma discharge driven surface ion sources rely on molybdenum cathodes. Deformation of the cathode surfaces is visible after extended operation periods. A metallurgical investigation of an ISIS ion source is presented. The origin of the deformation is twofold: Molybdenum sputtering by cesium ions digs few tenths of mm cavities while a growth of molybdenum is observed in the immediate vicinity. The molybdenum growth under hydrogen atmosphere is hard and loosely bound to the bulk. It is, therefore, likely to peel off and be transported within the plasma volume. The observation of the cathode, anode, and extraction electrodes of the magnetron source operated at BNL for two years are presented. A beam simulation of H{sup -}, electrons, and Cs{sup -} ions was performed with the IBSimu code package to qualitatively explain the observations. This paper describes the operation conditions of the ion sources and discusses the metallurgical analysis and beam simulation results.

Lettry J.; Alessi J.; Faircloth, D.; Gerardin, A.; Kalvas, T.; Pereira, H.; Sgobba, S.

2012-02-23

88

Investigation of ISIS and Brookhaven National Laboratory ion source electrodes after extended operation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Linac4 accelerator of Centre Européen de Recherches Nucléaires is under construction and a RF-driven H- ion source is being developed. The beam current requirement for Linac4 is very challenging: 80 mA must be provided. Cesiated plasma discharge ion sources such as Penning or magnetron sources are also potential candidates. Accelerator ion sources must achieve typical reliability figures of 95% and above. Investigating and understanding the underlying mechanisms involved with source failure or ageing is critical when selecting the ion source technology. Plasma discharge driven surface ion sources rely on molybdenum cathodes. Deformation of the cathode surfaces is visible after extended operation periods. A metallurgical investigation of an ISIS ion source is presented. The origin of the deformation is twofold: Molybdenum sputtering by cesium ions digs few tenths of mm cavities while a growth of molybdenum is observed in the immediate vicinity. The molybdenum growth under hydrogen atmosphere is hard and loosely bound to the bulk. It is, therefore, likely to peel off and be transported within the plasma volume. The observation of the cathode, anode, and extraction electrodes of the magnetron source operated at BNL for two years are presented. A beam simulation of H-, electrons, and Cs- ions was performed with the IBSimu code package to qualitatively explain the observations. This paper describes the operation conditions of the ion sources and discusses the metallurgical analysis and beam simulation results.

Lettry, J.; Alessi, J.; Faircloth, D.; Gerardin, A.; Kalvas, T.; Pereira, H.; Sgobba, S.

2012-02-01

89

Development of ion sources for ion projection lithography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multicusp ion sources are capable of generating ion beams with low axial energy spread as required by the Ion Projection Lithography (IPL). Longitudinal ion energy spread has been studied in two different types of plasma discharge: the filament discharge ion source characterized by its low axial energy spread, and the RF-driven ion source characterized by its long source lifetime. For

Y. Lee; R. A. Gough; W. B. Kunkel; K. N. Leung; L. T. Perkins; D. S. Pickard; L Z Sun; J L Vujic; M. D. Williams

1996-01-01

90

Visualization of Trajectories of Electron Beams Emitted by an IonSource with Closed Electron Drift  

SciTech Connect

Trajectories of electron beams emitted by an ion source with an anode layer and Hall electron closed drift orbits were visualized using light emission from a working gas excited by electrons. Gas discharge of magnetron type, arising in the beam drift region under the influence of an electric field of a target bias potential, was visualized.

Institue of Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine; Brown, Ian G.; Bordenjuk, Ian V.; Panchenko, Oleg A.; Sologub, Sergei V.; Brown, Ian G.

2007-10-01

91

Ion sources for medical accelerators  

SciTech Connect

Advanced injector systems for proton synchrotrons and accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy systems are being developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Multicusp ion sources, particularly those driven by radio frequency, have been tested for these applications. The use of a radio frequency induction discharge provides clean, reliable, and long-life source operation. It has been demonstrated that the multicusp ion source can provide good-quality positive hydrogen ion beams with a monatomic ion fraction higher than 90{percent}. The extractable ion current densities from this type of source can meet the injector requirements for both proton synchrotron and accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy projects. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

Barletta, W.A.; Chu, W.T.; Leung, K.N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California94720 (United States)

1998-02-01

92

Industrial Ion Source Technology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An analytical model was developed to describe the development of a coned surface texture with ion bombardment and simultaneous deposition of an impurity. A mathematical model of sputter deposition rate from a beveled target was developed in conjuction wit...

H. R. Kaufman R. S. Robinson

1978-01-01

93

Three chamber negative ion source  

DOEpatents

It is an object of this invention provide a negative ion source which efficiently provides a large flux of negatively ionized particles. This invention provides a volume source of negative ions which has a current density sufficient for magnetic fusion applications and has electrons suppressed from the output. It is still another object of this invention to provide a volume source of negative ions which can be electrostatically accelerated to high energies and subsequently neutralized to form a high energy neutral beam for use with a magnetically confined plasma.

Leung, K.N.; Ehlers, K.W.; Hiskes, J.R.

1983-11-10

94

Negative ion source  

DOEpatents

An ionization vessel is divided into an ionizing zone and an extraction zone by a magnetic filter. The magnetic filter prevents high-energy electrons from crossing from the ionizing zone to the extraction zone. A small positive voltage impressed on a plasma grid, located adjacent an extraction grid, positively biases the plasma in the extraction zone to thereby prevent positive ions from migrating from the ionizing zone to the extraction zone. Low-energy electrons, which would ordinarily be dragged by the positive ions into the extraction zone, are thereby prevented from being present in the extraction zone and being extracted along with negative ions by the extraction grid. Additional electrons are suppressed from the output flux using ExB drift provided by permanent magnets and the extractor grid electrical field.

Leung, K.N.; Ehlers, K.W.

1982-08-06

95

Negative ion source  

DOEpatents

An ionization vessel is divided into an ionizing zone and an extraction zone by a magnetic filter. The magnetic filter prevents high-energy electrons from crossing from the ionizing zone to the extraction zone. A small positive voltage impressed on a plasma grid, located adjacent an extraction grid, positively biases the plasma in the extraction zone to thereby prevent positive ions from migrating from the ionizing zone to the extraction zone. Low-energy electrons, which would ordinarily be dragged by the positive ions into the extraction zone, are thereby prevented from being present in the extraction zone and being extracted along with negative ions by the extraction grid. Additional electrons are suppressed from the output flux using ExB drift provided by permanent magnets and the extractor grid electrical field. 14 figs.

Leung, K.N.; Ehlers, K.W.

1984-12-04

96

Negative ion source  

DOEpatents

An ionization vessel is divided into an ionizing zone and an extraction zone by a magnetic filter. The magnetic filter prevents high-energy electrons from crossing from the ionizing zone to the extraction zone. A small positive voltage impressed on a plasma grid, located adjacent an extraction grid, positively biases the plasma in the extraction zone to thereby prevent positive ions from migrating from the ionizing zone to the extraction zone. Low-energy electrons, which would ordinarily be dragged by the positive ions into the extraction zone, are thereby prevented from being present in the extraction zone and being extracted along with negative ions by the extraction grid. Additional electrons are suppressed from the output flux using ExB drift provided by permanent magnets and the extractor grid electrical field.

Leung, Ka-Ngo (Hercules, CA); Ehlers, Kenneth W. (Alamo, CA)

1984-01-01

97

ION SOURCE FOR A CALUTRON  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patcnt relates to calutron devices and deals particularly with the ; mechanism used to produce the beam of ions wherein a charge material which is a ; vapor at room temperature is used. A charge container located outside the tank ; is connected through several conduits to various points along the arc chamber of ; the ion source. In

Lofgren

1959-01-01

98

ION SOURCE UNIT FOR CALUTRON  

DOEpatents

An improvement in the mounting arrangement for an ion source within the vacuum tank of a calutron device is reported. The cathode and arc block of the source are independently supported from a stem passing through the tank wall. The arc block may be pivoted and moved longitudinally with respect to the stem to thereby align the arc chamber in the biock with the cathode and magnetic field in the tank. With this arrangement the elements of the ion source are capable of precise adjustment with respect to one another, promoting increased source efficiency.

Sloan, D.H.; Yockey, H.P.; Schmidt, F.H.

1959-04-14

99

The Tac - Ion Source and Low-Energy Beam Transport  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Availability and usefulness of accelerators is greatly dependent on machine reliability, brightness and size. Research must focus on less expensive, more compact accelerators with brighter beams. This thesis experiment has incorporated an optimized version of the present Brookhaven H^ - ion source (1) with a helical electrostatic quadrupole (HESQ), low energy beam transport (LEBT). The ion source incorporates a computer optimized circular extraction system which provides an azimuthally symmetric beam. The source design has been simplified including removal of the gradient bending magnet found in conventional systems of this type. Immediately following the extraction cone of the ion source, is a set of beam optics (LEBT) designed after the theory developed by Raparia (2). This unique transport system incorporates strong electrostatic focusing yet requires voltages which are a fraction of the beam voltage. The HESQ LEBT allows the beam to experience focusing as soon as possible. This immediacy greatly impedes degradation of the beam quality due to self repulsion of the charged particles. Combining the cylindrically symmetric source with an electrostatic LEBT is a useful step in the development of the magnetron H^ - ion source. This has created a simpler and more compact H^ - ion source and beam transport system than any presently available. The ion source portion of the TAC H^ - Ion Source/LEBT or THISL experiment has been chosen to be the initial ion source for the Superconducting Supercollider (SSC) project. However, the LEBT portion of the THISL experiment still needs a great deal of research and development in order for it to be completely ready for use in a production linear accelerator (linac).

Tompkins, Perry Alan

100

Development of ion sources for ion projection lithography  

SciTech Connect

Multicusp ion sources are capable of generating ion beams with low axial energy spread as required by the Ion Projection Lithography (IPL). Longitudinal ion energy spread has been studied in two different types of plasma discharge: the filament discharge ion source characterized by its low axial energy spread, and the RF-driven ion source characterized by its long source lifetime. For He{sup +} ions, longitudinal ion energy spreads of 1-2 eV were measured for a filament discharge multicusp ion source which is within the IPL device requirements. Ion beams with larger axial energy spread were observed in the RF-driven source. A double-chamber ion source has been designed which combines the advantages of low axial energy spread of the filament discharge ion source with the long lifetime of the RF-driven source. The energy spread of the double chamber source is lower than that of the RF-driven source.

Lee, Y.; Gough, R.A.; Kunkel, W.B.; Leung, K.N.; Perkins, L.T. [and others

1996-05-01

101

Recent ion source development in China (invited)  

SciTech Connect

The recent development of various types of ion sources and their application in China is reviewed. Emphasis is given to new improvements of the electron cyclotron resonance ion source, MEVVA ion source, electron beam evaporation metal ion source, compact multicusp ion source, as well as compact negative ion sources with permanent magnets. Some of the new proposals are also presented. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

Chen, C.; Zhao, W. [Institute of Heavy Ion Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

1996-03-01

102

ION SOURCE UNIT FOR CALUTRON  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improvement in the mounting arrangement for an ion source within the ; vacuum tank of a calutron device is reported. The cathode and arc block of the ; source are independently supported from a stem passing through the tank wall. ; The arc block may be pivoted and moved longitudinally with respect to the stem to ; thereby align

D. H. Sloan; H. P. Yockey; F. H. Schmidt

1959-01-01

103

The characteristics of a new negative metal ion beam source and its applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerous efforts at energetic thin film deposition processes using ion beams have been made to meet the demands of today's thin film industry. As one of these efforts, a new Magnetron Sputter Negative Ion Source (MSNIS) was developed. In this study, the development and the characterization of the MSNIS were investigated. Amorphous carbon films were used as a sample coating medium to evaluate the ion beam energy effect. A review of energetic Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) techniques is presented in Chapter 1. The energetic PVD methods can be classified into two major categories: the indirect ion beam method Ion Beam Assisted Deposition (IBAD), and the direct ion beam method-Direct Ion Beam Deposition (DIBD). In this chapter, currently available DIBD processes such as Cathodic Arc, Laser Ablation, Ionized Physical Vapor Deposition (I-PVD) and Magnetron Sputter Negative Ion Source (MSNIS) are individually reviewed. The design and construction of the MSNIS is presented in chapter 2. The MSNIS is a hybrid of the conventional magnetron sputter configuration and the cesium surface ionizer. The negative sputtered ions are produced directly from the sputter target by surface ionization. In chapter 3, the ion beam and plasma characteristics of an 8? diameter MSNIS are investigated using a retarding field analyzer and a cylindrical Langmuir Probe. The measured electron temperature is approximately 2-5 eV, while the plasma density and plasma potential were of the order of 10 11-1012 cm3 and 5-20 V, respectively, depending on the pressure and power. In chapter 4, in order to evaluate the effect of the ion beam on the resultant films, amorphous carbon films were deposited under various conditions. The structure of carbon films was investigated using Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The result suggests the fraction of spa bonding is more than 70% in some samples prepared by MSNIS while magnetron sputtered samples showed less than 30%. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Paik, Namwoong

2001-10-01

104

Optimal Position of Ion Source for High Performance of IEC  

SciTech Connect

An inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) fusion device is possibly used for portable neutron sources. R. L. Hirsh reported that D-D the neutrons of 1.8 x 10{sup 8} n/s were produced. Recently, the similar amounts of fusion reactions are observed to occur in IEC devices In the most of IEC devices, since gas pressure is so high that the ions lose their energy by the frequent collisions with the neutral gas. The conditions of the high voltage and the low pressure are preferable because the energy of beam ions is kept very high and used for the fusion reaction more efficiently. It, however, is difficult to produce enough amounts of ions through a glow discharge at the low pressure. One of the solutions is to equip the ion source such as a magnetron near the anode. We have made three-dimensional orbit following code to evaluate the life of the ions produced near the anode surface. The code includes atomic collisions with background neutral gas and indicates the optimal positions to equip ion source which gives longer life of accelerated ions.

Osawa, Hodaka [Kansai University (Japan); Ishibashi, Takayuki [Kansai University (Japan); Ohnishi, Masami [Kansai University (Japan); Yoshikawa, Kiyoshi [Kyoto University (Japan)

2005-05-15

105

A multicusp ion source for radioactive ion beams  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to produce a radioactive ion beam of 14O+ , a 10 cm-diameter, 13.56 MHz radio frequency (RF) driven multicusp ion source is now being developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. In this paper we describe the ion source performance with respect to its capability as an ion source for radioactive ion beam (RIB) production using Ar, Xe and

D. C. Wutte; Y. Lee; M. A. Leitner; M. D. Williams; K. N. Leung; R. A. Gough; S. J. Freedman; Z. Q. Xie; C. M. Lyneis

1997-01-01

106

Negative hydrogen ion source research and beam parameters for accelerators  

SciTech Connect

H{sup -} beams are useful for multi-turn charge-exchange stripping injection into circular accelerators. Studies on a modified ion source for this purpose are presented. This paper includes some theory about a H{sup -} magnetron discharge, ion-electron emission, emittance and problems linked with emittance measurement and calculations. Investigated parameters of the emittance probe for optimal performance give a screen voltage of 150 V and a probe step of about 5 mil. Normalized 90% emittance obtained for this H{sup -} source is 0.22 {pi} mm-mr, for an extraction voltage of 18 kV at a beam energy of 30 keV and a beam current of 11 mA.

Zolkin, Timofey V.; /Fermilab

2006-09-01

107

Properties of All-Solid Lithium-Ion Rechargeable Batteries Deposited by RF Magnetron Sputtering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Amorphous V2O5, LiPON and Li2Mn2O4 thin films were fabricated by RF magnetron sputtering methods and the morphology of thin films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Then with these three materials deposited as the anode, solid electrolyte, cathode, and vanadium as current collector, a rocking-chair type of all-solid-state thin-film-type Lithium-ion rechargeable battery was prepared by using the same sputtering parameters on stainless steel substrates. Electrochemical studies show that the thin film battery has a good charge-discharge characteristic in the voltage range of 0.3-3.5 V, and after 30 cycles the cell performance turned to become stabilized with the charge capacity of 9 ?Ah/cm2, and capacity loss of single-cycle of about 0.2%. At the same time, due to electronic conductivity of the electrolyte film, self-discharge may exist, resulting in approximately 96.6% Coulombic efficiency.

Zhu, R. J.; Ren, Y.; Geng, L. Q.; Chen, T.; Li, L. X.; Yuan, C. R.

2013-08-01

108

Oxygen-enhanced IrMn spin valves deposited by ion-beam and magnetron sputtering  

SciTech Connect

Enhancement of giant magnetoresistance properties of single (bottom) and dual IrMn-based spin valves through exposure of part of the CoFe pinned layer to O{sub 2} is reported. Under optimal conditions, a {Delta}R/R of 10.4% [H{sub ua}=460Oe, H{sub f}=5.1Oe, and H{sub c}=4.7Oe for a free and pinned layer thickness (permalloy equivalent) of 50 Aa each] for an ion beam sputtered single spin valve, and a {Delta}R/R of as high as 20.5% for a magnetron sputtered dual spin valve having a 30 Aa thick CoFe free layer are observed, compared to a value of 6.5% and 10.6% for the corresponding spin valve without O{sub 2} exposure, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy results reveal the presence of a thin (10 Aa) crystalline oxygen-containing layer near the IrMn{endash}CoFe pinned layer interface as a result of O{sub 2} exposure. X-ray reflectivity data show smoother interfaces for the spin valves subjected to O{sub 2} exposure, consistent with the lower H{sub f} and smaller sheet resistance observed for these samples. The enhanced {Delta}R/R thus can be attributed to improved growth after O{sub 2} exposure. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

Lee, W. Y.; Carey, M.; Toney, M. F.; Rice, P.; Gurney, B.; Chang, H.-C.; Allen, E.; Mauri, D.

2001-06-01

109

STATUS OF ITEP DECABORANE ION SOURCE PROGRAM.  

SciTech Connect

The joint research and development program is continued to develop steady-state ion source of decaborane beam for ion implantation industry. Both Freeman and Bemas ion sources for decaborane ion beam generation were investigated. Decaborane negative ion beam as well as positive ion beam were generated and delivered to the output of mass separator. Experimental results obtained in ITEP are presented.

KULEVOY,T.V.; PETRENKO, S.V.; KUIBEDA, R.P.; SELEZNEV, D.N.; KOZLOV, A.V.; STASEVICH, YU.B.; SITNIKOV, A.L.; SHAMAILOV, I.M.; PERSHIN, V.I.; HERSHCOVITCH, A.; JOHNSON, B.M.; GUSHENETS, V.I.; OKS, E.M.; POOLE, H.J.; MASUNOV, E.S.; POLOZOV, S.M.

2007-08-26

110

Development of ion sources for ion projection lithography.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Multicusp ion sources are capable of generating ion beams with low axial energy spread as required by the Ion Projection Lithography (IPL). Longitudinal ion energy spread has been studied in two different types of plasma discharge: the filament discharge ...

Y. Lee R. A. Gough W. B. Kunkel K. N. Leung L. T. Perkins

1996-01-01

111

The DCU laser ion source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser ion sources are used to generate and deliver highly charged ions of various masses and energies. We present details on the design and basic parameters of the DCU laser ion source (LIS). The theoretical aspects of a high voltage (HV) linear LIS are presented and the main issues surrounding laser-plasma formation, ion extraction and modeling of beam transport in relation to the operation of a LIS are detailed. A range of laser power densities (I~108-1011 W cm-2) and fluences (F=0.1-3.9 kJ cm-2) from a Q-switched ruby laser (full-width half-maximum pulse duration ~35 ns, ?=694 nm) were used to generate a copper plasma. In ``basic operating mode,'' laser generated plasma ions are electrostatically accelerated using a dc HV bias (5-18 kV). A traditional einzel electrostatic lens system is utilized to transport and collimate the extracted ion beam for detection via a Faraday cup. Peak currents of up to I~600 ?A for Cu+ to Cu3+ ions were recorded. The maximum collected charge reached 94 pC (Cu2+). Hydrodynamic simulations and ion probe diagnostics were used to study the plasma plume within the extraction gap. The system measured performance and electrodynamic simulations indicated that the use of a short field-free (L=48 mm) region results in rapid expansion of the injected ion beam in the drift tube. This severely limits the efficiency of the electrostatic lens system and consequently the sources performance. Simulations of ion beam dynamics in a ``continuous einzel array'' were performed and experimentally verified to counter the strong space-charge force present in the ion beam which results from plasma extraction close to the target surface. Ion beam acceleration and injection thus occur at ``high pressure.'' In ``enhanced operating mode,'' peak currents of 3.26 mA (Cu2+) were recorded. The collected currents of more highly charged ions (Cu4+-Cu6+) increased considerably in this mode of operation.

Yeates, P.; Costello, J. T.; Kennedy, E. T.

2010-04-01

112

The DCU laser ion source  

SciTech Connect

Laser ion sources are used to generate and deliver highly charged ions of various masses and energies. We present details on the design and basic parameters of the DCU laser ion source (LIS). The theoretical aspects of a high voltage (HV) linear LIS are presented and the main issues surrounding laser-plasma formation, ion extraction and modeling of beam transport in relation to the operation of a LIS are detailed. A range of laser power densities (I{approx}10{sup 8}-10{sup 11} W cm{sup -2}) and fluences (F=0.1-3.9 kJ cm{sup -2}) from a Q-switched ruby laser (full-width half-maximum pulse duration {approx}35 ns, {lambda}=694 nm) were used to generate a copper plasma. In ''basic operating mode,'' laser generated plasma ions are electrostatically accelerated using a dc HV bias (5-18 kV). A traditional einzel electrostatic lens system is utilized to transport and collimate the extracted ion beam for detection via a Faraday cup. Peak currents of up to I{approx}600 {mu}A for Cu{sup +} to Cu{sup 3+} ions were recorded. The maximum collected charge reached 94 pC (Cu{sup 2+}). Hydrodynamic simulations and ion probe diagnostics were used to study the plasma plume within the extraction gap. The system measured performance and electrodynamic simulations indicated that the use of a short field-free (L=48 mm) region results in rapid expansion of the injected ion beam in the drift tube. This severely limits the efficiency of the electrostatic lens system and consequently the sources performance. Simulations of ion beam dynamics in a ''continuous einzel array'' were performed and experimentally verified to counter the strong space-charge force present in the ion beam which results from plasma extraction close to the target surface. Ion beam acceleration and injection thus occur at ''high pressure.'' In ''enhanced operating mode,'' peak currents of 3.26 mA (Cu{sup 2+}) were recorded. The collected currents of more highly charged ions (Cu{sup 4+}-Cu{sup 6+}) increased considerably in this mode of operation.

Yeates, P. [National Centre for Plasma Science and Technology (NCPST), Dublin (Ireland); Costello, J. T.; Kennedy, E. T. [National Centre for Plasma Science and Technology (NCPST), Dublin (Ireland); School of Physical Sciences, Dublin City University (DCU), Glasnevin (Ireland)

2010-04-15

113

Side Extraction Duopigatron-Type Ion Source  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. We have designed and constructed a compact duoPIGatron-type ion source, for possible use in ion implanters. In our ion source ions are extracted from side aperture in contrast to conventional duoPIGatron sources with axial ion extraction. The size of the side extraction aperture is 1times40 mm. The ion source was developed to study physical and technological

V. I. Gushenets; E. M. Oks; A. Hershcovitch; B. M. Johnson

2007-01-01

114

Ion Source Development For The Proposed FNAL 750 keV Injector Upgrade  

SciTech Connect

Currently there is a Proposed FNAL 750 keV Injector Upgrade for the replacement of the 40 year old Fermi National Laboratory (FNAL) Cockcroft-Walton accelerators with a new ion source and 200 MHz Radio Frequency Quadruple (RFQ). The slit type magnetron being used now will be replaced with a round aperture magnetron similar to the one used at Brookhaven National Lab (BNL). Operational experience from BNL has shown that this type of source is more reliable with a longer lifetime due to better power efficiency. The current source development effort is to produce a reliable source with >60 mA of H{sup -} beam current, 15 Hz rep-rate, 100 {mu}s pulse width, and a duty factor of 0.15%. The source will be based on the BNL design along with development done at FNAL for the High Intensity Neutrino Source (HINS).

Bollinger, D. S. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Box 500, Batavia, IL 60543 (United States)

2011-09-26

115

Broad beam gas ion source with hollow cathode discharge and four-grid accelerator system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A broad beam gas ion source based on low-pressure hollow cathode glow discharge is described. An axial magnetic filed produced by AlNiCo permanent magnets enhances the glow discharge in the ion source as a result of the magnetizing electrons between the hollow cathode and rod anode. The gas plasma is produced by magnetron hollow cathode glow discharge in the hollow cathode and a collimated broad ion beam is extracted by a four-grid accelerator system. A weak magnetic field of several millitesla is enough to ignite the magnetron glow discharge at pressure lower than 0.1 Pa, thereby enabling stable and continuous high-current discharge to form the homogeneous plasma. A four-grid accelerator, which separates the extraction and acceleration of the ion beam, is used in this design to generate the high-energy ion beam from 10 keV to 60 keV at a working pressure of 10-4 Torr. Although a higher gas pressure is necessary to maintain the low-pressure glow discharge when compared to hot filament discharge, the hollow cathode ion source is operational with reactive gases such as oxygen in the high-voltage continuous mode. A laterally uniform ion beam can be achieved by using the four-grid accelerator system. The effects of the rod anode length on the characteristics of the plasma discharge as well as ion beam extraction from the ion source are discussed.

Tang, Deli; Pu, Shihao; Huang, Qi; Tong, Honghui; Cui, Xirong; Chu, Paul K.

2007-04-01

116

Use of an externally applied axial magnetic field to control ion\\/neutral flux ratios incident at the substrate during magnetron sputter deposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development and characterization of an ultrahigh vacuum unbalanced'' dc magnetron sputter deposition system with a variable external axial magnetic field for controlling the ion-to-neutral flux ratio at the substrate during deposition with low negative substrate biases is reported. The target assembly is a planar-magnetron (PM) with a toroidal magnetic-field electron trap created using a set of permanent magnets. A

I. Petrov; F. Adibi; J. E. Greene; W. D. Sproul; W.-D. Münz

1992-01-01

117

Structural and tribological properties of CrTiAlN coatings on Mg alloy by closed-field unbalanced magnetron sputtering ion plating  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a series of multi-layer hard coating system of CrTiAlN has been prepared by closed-field unbalanced magnetron sputtering ion plating (CFUBMSIP) technique in a gas mixture of Ar+N2. The coatings were deposited onto AZ31 Mg alloy substrates. During deposition step, technological temperature and metallic atom concentration of coatings were controlled by adjusting the currents of different metal magnetron

Yongjing Shi; Siyuan Long; Shicai Yang; Fusheng Pan

2008-01-01

118

Development of high current negative ion source  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of high current negative ion sources has been intensively continued for application to fusion research, especially neutral beam injection. Recently, the research and development of hydrogen negative ion sources has made rapid progress. Negative ion beam current has been remarkably enhanced by seeding cesium in a magnetically filtered multicusp plasma source. As a result, a negative ion beam

T Kuroda

1997-01-01

119

ION SOURCE FOR A CALUTRON  

DOEpatents

This patent relates to ion sources and more particularly describes an ion source for a calutron which has the advantage of efficient production of an ion beam and long operation time without recharging. The source comprises an arc block provided with an arc chamber connected to a plurality of series-connected charge chambers and means for heating the charge within the chambers. A cathode is disposed at one end of the arc chamber and enclosed hy a vapor tight housing to protect the cathode. The arc discharge is set up between the cathode and the block due to a difference in potentials placed on these parts, and a magnetic field is aligned with the arc discharge. Cooling of the arc block is accomplished by passing coolant through a hollow stem secured at one end to the block and rotatably mounted at the other end through the wall of the calutron. The ions are removed through a slit in the arc chamber by accelerating electrodes.

Backus, J.G.

1957-12-24

120

Nanobeam production with the multicusp ion source  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 1.8-cm-diam multicusp ion source to be used for focused ion beam applications has been tested for Xe, He, Ne, Ar, and Kr ions. The extractable ion and electron currents were measured. The extractable ion current is similar for all these ion species except for Ne+, but the extractable electron current behaves quite differently. The multicusp ion source will be

Y. Lee; Q. Ji; K. N. Leung; N. Zahir

2000-01-01

121

A gas ion source for radiocarbon dating  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ion source for operation with carbon dioxide gas has been designed and built. We report on the operation of this source on an ion source test bench at Oxford. The ion source is capable of giving C- currents of up to 24 muA at an efficiency of approximately 10% by sputtering the gas adsorbed on to a titanium surface.

C. R. Bronk; R. E. M. Hedges

1987-01-01

122

An ion source research facility.  

PubMed

As an ion source developer, D-Pace frequently faces the issue of needing access to a research facility to be able to test equipment or to develop our existing technology further. The closest facility to perform such tasks is hundreds of kilometers away, at TRIUMF, and it is not always feasible to make use of it on a timely basis. With a growing demand and a desire to enhance our products, the idea to create an ion source research facility in our region evolved. In this paper, we will discuss the approach that was chosen to reach our goal, the status of the project, the principle layout of the facility, and the different ways this facility could be utilized. PMID:18315134

Roeder, M; Dehnel, M; Jackle, P; Stewart, T; Theroux, J

2008-02-01

123

An ion source research facility  

SciTech Connect

As an ion source developer, D-Pace frequently faces the issue of needing access to a research facility to be able to test equipment or to develop our existing technology further. The closest facility to perform such tasks is hundreds of kilometers away, at TRIUMF, and it is not always feasible to make use of it on a timely basis. With a growing demand and a desire to enhance our products, the idea to create an ion source research facility in our region evolved. In this paper, we will discuss the approach that was chosen to reach our goal, the status of the project, the principle layout of the facility, and the different ways this facility could be utilized.

Roeder, M.; Dehnel, M.; Jackle, P.; Stewart, T.; Theroux, J. [D-Pace, Inc., P.O. Box 201, Nelson, British Columbia V1L 5P9 (Canada)

2008-02-15

124

Preparation of polycrystalline Ti-Al-O films by magnetron sputtering ion plating: constitution, structure and morphology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ti-Al-O layers were deposited on Si- wafers at 500?°C by means of reactive magnetron sputtering ion plating (R-MSIP).\\u000a An Al-target was sputtered in rf-mode and a Ti-target in dc-mode simultaneously by an oxygen\\/argon plasma. The influence of\\u000a the Al- and Ti-sputter powers on composition, structure, and morphology of the Ti-Al-O layers and the binding states of the\\u000a components were investigated.

A. v. Richthofen; Rainer Cremer; Ralph Domnick; Dieter Neuschütz

1997-01-01

125

Transversely accelerated ions: An ionospheric source of hot magnetospheric ions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A source of hot magnetospheric ions has been discovered operating in the auroral topside ionosphere. A part of the cold ionospheric ion distribution is being transversely accelerated within a source region as low as 1000 km. Subsequent to their transverse acceleration the ions are driven upward into the magnetosphere by the gradient B mirror force. These ions are observed by

D. M. Klumpar

1979-01-01

126

Ion flux characteristics and efficiency of the deposition processes in high power impulse magnetron sputtering of zirconium  

SciTech Connect

High power impulse magnetron sputtering of zirconium was investigated at the average target power density of up to 2.22 kW cm{sup -2} in a pulse. The depositions were performed using a strongly unbalanced magnetron with a planar zirconium target of 100 mm diameter at the argon pressure of 1 Pa. The repetition frequency was 500 Hz at duty cycles ranging from 4% to 10%. Time-averaged mass spectroscopy was carried out at the substrate positions of 100 and 200 mm from the target. The increase in the average target power density from 0.97 kW cm{sup -2} to 2.22 kW cm{sup -2} in shortened voltage pulses (from 200 to 80 {mu}s) at an average target power density of 100 W cm{sup -2} in a period led to high fractions (21%-32%) of doubly charged zirconium ions in total ion fluxes onto the substrate located 100 mm from the target. However, the respective fractions of singly charged zirconium ions decreased from 23% to 3%. It was observed that ion energy distributions were extended to high energies (up to 100 eV relative to the ground potential) under these conditions. The increased target power densities during the shortened voltage pulses resulted in a reduced deposition rate of films from 590 to 440 nm/min and in a weakly decreasing ionized fraction (from 55% to 49%) of the sputtered zirconium atoms in the flux onto the substrate. The doubly charged zirconium ions became strongly predominant (up to 63%) in the total ion flux onto the substrate at the distance of 200 mm from the target. Model calculations were carried out to explain the complicated deposition processes.

Lazar, J.; Vlcek, J.; Rezek, J. [Department of Physics, University of West Bohemia, Univerzitni 22, 30614 Plzen (Czech Republic)

2010-09-15

127

Beam emittance measurements on multicusp ion sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multicusp ion sources are used for various applications. Presently, the implementation of this type of ion source is planned for the development of an ion beam lithography machine, which will be used for the projection of sub-0.2 ?m patterns onto a wafer substrate. Since, for this application, a very good beam quality and a small ion energy spread are required,

M. Sarstedt; Y. Lee; K. N. Leung; L. T. Perkins; D. S. Pickard; M. Weber; M. D. Williams

1996-01-01

128

Recent advances in vacuum arc ion sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intense beams of metal ions can be formed from a vacuum arc ion source. Broadbeam extraction is convenient, and the time-averaged ion beam current delivered downstream can readily be in the tens of milliamperes range. The vacuum arc ion source has for these reasons found good application for metallurgical surface modification--it provides relatively simple and inexpensive access to high dose

I. G. Brown; A. Anders; S. Anders; M. R. Dickinson; R. A. MacGill; E. M. Oks

1995-01-01

129

Recent advances in vacuum arc ion sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intense beams of metal ions can be formed from a vacuum arc ion source. This kind of source works well for most of the solid metals of the Periodic Table, and because the ions are, in general, multiply stripped with charge states as high as 4+ to 6+ , the mean energy of the ion beam produced can be 100–200

I. G. Brown; A. Anders; S. Anders; M. R. Dickinson; R. A. MacGill; E. M. Oks

1996-01-01

130

Miniature high current metal ion source  

SciTech Connect

A small, simple ion source for the production of high brightness beams of metal ions is described. A metal vapor vacuum arc discharge is used to establish the high density plasma from which the ion beam is extracted. The source is finger-sized, and can produce pulsed metal ion beams with current up to the 10 ma range. 9 refs., 6 figs.

Brown, I.G.; Galvin, J.E.; MacGill, R.A.; Wright, R.T.

1986-04-01

131

Liquid metal ion source and alloy  

DOEpatents

A liquid metal ion source and alloy, wherein the species to be emitted from the ion source is contained in a congruently vaporizing alloy. In one embodiment, the liquid metal ion source acts as a source of arsenic, and in a source alloy the arsenic is combined with palladium, preferably in a liquid alloy having a range of compositions from about 24 to about 33 atomic percent arsenic. Such an alloy may be readily prepared by a combustion synthesis technique. Liquid metal ion sources thus prepared produce arsenic ions for implantation, have long lifetimes, and are highly stable in operation.

Clark, Jr., William M. (Thousand Oaks, CA); Utlaut, Mark W. (Saugus, CA); Behrens, Robert G. (Los Alamos, NM); Szklarz, Eugene G. (Los Alamos, NM); Storms, Edmund K. (Los Alamos, NM); Santandrea, Robert P. (Santa Fe, NM); Swanson, Lynwood W. (McMinnville, OR)

1988-10-04

132

Sources of Cusp Energetic Ions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cusp Energetic particles (CEPs) observed by the Polar spacecraft provide new insight into the particle acceleration and transport processes within the geospace. Three sources have been proposed: bow shock diffuse ions, shocked solar wind ions locally accelerated in the cusp, and energetic particles injected from the magnetotail. The bow shock model suggests that solar wind ions undergo first order Fermi acceleration at the quasi-parallel bow shock and are subsequently transported into the cusp. Therefore, it is expected to see CEPs controlled by upstream parameters. The tail injection model predicts CEPs are closely associated with the substorm activity. We perform a statistical study of CEP events identified in the Polar data for a number of parameters (IMF components, shock geometry, solar wind velocity, Mach number, AE index) to determine the relative contributions from the bow shock and magnetotail. Because the mechanism for the local acceleration remains unknown, features unique to this model but not the other two models are difficult to identify. Thus those CEP events that cannot be explained by the bow shock and magnetotail injection models provide the upper limit for CEP events of local acceleration. Preliminary results of the statistical study will be presented. Other possible sources for CEPs will also be discussed.

Chang, S.; Fennell, J. F.; Spence, H. B.; Lepping, R. P.

2002-12-01

133

Development of ion sources for ion projection lithography  

SciTech Connect

Multicusp ion sources are capable of generating ion beams with low axial energy spread as required by the ion projection lithography (IPL). Longitudinal ion energy spread has been studied in two different types of plasma discharge: the filament discharge ion source characterized by its low axial energy spread, and the rf-driven ion source characterized by its long source lifetime. For He{sup +} ions, longitudinal ion energy spreads of 1{endash}2 eV were measured for a filament discharge multicusp ion source which is within the IPL source requirements. Ion beams with larger axial energy spread ({approximately}7 eV) were observed in the rf-driven source. A double-chamber ion source has been designed which combines the advantages of low axial energy spread of the filament discharge ion source with the long lifetime of the rf-driven source. The energy spread of the double chamber source is approximately 2 eV. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Vacuum Society}

Lee, Y.; Gough, R.A.; Kunkel, W.B.; Leung, K.N.; Perkins, L.T.; Pickard, D.S.; Sun, L.; Vujic, J.; Williams, M.D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

1996-11-01

134

Characterization of an RF plasma ion source for ion implantation  

SciTech Connect

A novel inductively coupled RF plasma ion source has been developed for use in a beamline ion implanter. Ion density data have been taken with an array of four Langmuir probes spaced equally at the source extraction arc slit. These provide ion density uniformity information as a function of source pressure, RF power and gas mixture composition. In addition, total extracted ion beam current data are presented for the same conditions. The comparative advantages of the RF source in terms of higher beam current, reduced maintenance and overall productivity improvement compared to a hot cathode source are discussed.

Kopalidis, Peter M.; Wan Zhimin [Advanced Ion Beam Technology Inc., 47370 Fremont Blvd., Fremont, CA 94538 (United States)

2012-11-06

135

Synchronization of Pulsed Magnetrons.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As a non-coherent pulse oscillator, a magnetron has limited application in modern radar equipment by comparison with other microwave sources. Synchronization by means of an externally applied sinusoidal signal with low power leads to increases in the freq...

B. Jokanovic

1984-01-01

136

Ion optics of RHIC electron beam ion source  

SciTech Connect

RHIC electron beam ion source has been commissioned to operate as a versatile ion source on RHIC injection facility supplying ion species from He to Au for Booster. Except for light gaseous elements RHIC EBIS employs ion injection from several external primary ion sources. With electrostatic optics fast switching from one ion species to another can be done on a pulse to pulse mode. The design of an ion optical structure and the results of simulations for different ion species are presented. In the choice of optical elements special attention was paid to spherical aberrations for high-current space charge dominated ion beams. The combination of a gridded lens and a magnet lens in LEBT provides flexibility of optical control for a wide range of ion species to satisfy acceptance parameters of RFQ. The results of ion transmission measurements are presented.

Pikin, A.; Alessi, J.; Beebe, E.; Kponou, A.; Okamura, M.; Raparia, D.; Ritter, J.; Tan, Y. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Kuznetsov, G. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation)

2012-02-15

137

Ion optics of RHIC electron beam ion source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

RHIC electron beam ion source has been commissioned to operate as a versatile ion source on RHIC injection facility supplying ion species from He to Au for Booster. Except for light gaseous elements RHIC EBIS employs ion injection from several external primary ion sources. With electrostatic optics fast switching from one ion species to another can be done on a pulse to pulse mode. The design of an ion optical structure and the results of simulations for different ion species are presented. In the choice of optical elements special attention was paid to spherical aberrations for high-current space charge dominated ion beams. The combination of a gridded lens and a magnet lens in LEBT provides flexibility of optical control for a wide range of ion species to satisfy acceptance parameters of RFQ. The results of ion transmission measurements are presented.

Pikin, A.; Alessi, J.; Beebe, E.; Kponou, A.; Okamura, M.; Raparia, D.; Ritter, J.; Tan, Y.; Kuznetsov, G.

2012-02-01

138

Ion optics of RHIC electron beam ion source.  

PubMed

RHIC electron beam ion source has been commissioned to operate as a versatile ion source on RHIC injection facility supplying ion species from He to Au for Booster. Except for light gaseous elements RHIC EBIS employs ion injection from several external primary ion sources. With electrostatic optics fast switching from one ion species to another can be done on a pulse to pulse mode. The design of an ion optical structure and the results of simulations for different ion species are presented. In the choice of optical elements special attention was paid to spherical aberrations for high-current space charge dominated ion beams. The combination of a gridded lens and a magnet lens in LEBT provides flexibility of optical control for a wide range of ion species to satisfy acceptance parameters of RFQ. The results of ion transmission measurements are presented. PMID:22380200

Pikin, A; Alessi, J; Beebe, E; Kponou, A; Okamura, M; Raparia, D; Ritter, J; Tan, Y; Kuznetsov, G

2012-02-01

139

PRODUCTION OF SLOW ION BEAMS FROM A LASER ION SOURCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (LNS) we have designed a hybrid ion source, consisting of a Laser Ion Source (LIS) as first stage, which gives intense currents of electrons and of multiply charged ions (q\\/m=1\\/10 or lower), followed by an ECR ion source as a second stage, which acts as a charge state multiplier. Preliminary experiments for the ECLISSE

S. Gammino; G. Ciavola; L. Torrisi; L. Andò; L. Celona; J. Krasa; J. Wolowski; E. Woryna; P. Parys; Poland G. D. Shirkov

2000-01-01

140

Development of Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source for Synthesis of Endohedral Metallofullerenes  

SciTech Connect

A new electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) has been constructed for synthesis of endohedral metallofullerenes. The main purpose of the ion source is to produce new biological and medical materials. The design is based on ECRIS for production of multicharged ion beams with a traditional minimum-B magnetic field. An 8-10 GHz traveling wave tube (TWT) amplifier and a 2.45 GHz magnetron have been applied as microwave sources. Fullerene and metal vapor are introduced with a filament heating micro-oven and an induction heating oven, respectively. In preliminary ion-extraction test, Ar{sup +} is 54 {mu}A. Many broken fullerenes such as C{sub 58} and C{sub 56} are observed in fullerene ion beams.

Tanaka, K. [Tateyama Machine Co., Ltd., 30 Shimonoban, Toyama, Toyama, 930-1305 (Japan); Bio-Nano Electronics Research centre, Toyo University, 2100 Kujirai, Kawagoe, Saitama 350-0815 (Japan); Muramatsu, M. [Bio-Nano Electronics Research centre, Toyo University, 2100 Kujirai, Kawagoe, Saitama 350-0815 (Japan); National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Uchida, T.; Hanajiri, T.; Yoshida, Y. [Bio-Nano Electronics Research centre, Toyo University, 2100 Kujirai, Kawagoe, Saitama 350-0815 (Japan); Biri, S. [Institute of Nuclear Research (ATOMKI), H-4026 Debrecen, Benter 18/c (Hungary); Asaji, T.; Shima, K. [Tateyama Machine Co., Ltd., 30 Shimonoban, Toyama, Toyama, 930-1305 (Japan); Kitagawa, A. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Kato, Y. [Division of Electrical Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

2008-11-03

141

Commisioning of the Superconducting ECR Ion Source VENUS (Versatile ECR Ion Source for NUclear Science).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

VENUS (Versatile ECR ion source for NUclear Science) is a next generation superconducting ECR ion source, designed to produce high current, high charge state ions for the 88-Inch Cyclotron at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. VENUS also serves as...

D. Leitner S. R. Abbott R. D. Dwinell M. Leitner C. M. Taylor

2003-01-01

142

Tailored stoichiometries of silicon carbonitride thin films prepared by combined radio frequency magnetron sputtering and ion beam synthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Homogenous Si-C-N films of 120 nm thickness have been successfully fabricated by means of rf magnetron sputtering combined with ion implantation. These means are capable of producing various tailored stoichiometries of so far unequaled nitrogen concentration and high purity (O<0.2 at. %, H<0.5 at. %). The achieved compounds Si2CN4,SiCN2, and SiC2N2.2 consist of SiN4 tetrahedron layers interconnected by carbodiimid bridges. Stoichiometry, chemical binding states, and homogeneity of these layers as well as the reproducibility have been investigated by means of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared, non-Rutherford back scattering spectroscopy, and resonant nuclear reaction analyses. Furthermore, sputter induced effects on the Si-C-N system during surface analytical characterization using Ar+ ions at 250 and 3250 eV for sputter cleaning have been studied carefully.

Bruns, M.; Geckle, U.; Trouillet, V.; Rudolphi, M.; Baumann, H.

2005-07-01

143

Vacuum arc ion source for heavy ion fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heavy ion fusion is one approach to the problem of controlled thermonuclear power production, in which a small DT target is bombarded by an intense flux of heavy ions and compressed to fusion temperatures. There is a need in present HIF research and development for a reliable ion source for the production of heavy ion beams with low emittance, low

F. Liu; N. Qi; S. Gensler; R. R. Prasad; M. Krishnan; I. G. Brown

1998-01-01

144

Beam emittance measurements on multicusp ion sources.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Multicusp ion sources are used for various applications. Presently, the implementation of this type of ion source planned for the development of an ion beam lithography machine, which will be used for the projection of sub-0.2 (mu)m patterns onto a wafer ...

M. Sarstedt Y. Lee K. N. Leung

1995-01-01

145

Electron Beam Ion Sources for Accelerator Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electron beam ion sources (EBIS) are capable of producing highly charged ions of any element which can be injected into its trap region. In addition to its use as a source for low energy atomic physics experiments, EBIS has been used to provide highly charged ions to accelerators and storage rings at Dubna, Saclay, and Stockholm. An EBIS is well

Edward N. Beebe

1996-01-01

146

Light ion helicon plasma sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Helicon plasma sources are capable of producing high density plasma using steady state solenoid or mirror-like magnetic fields with a wide variety of gases. Power to produce the plasma is supplied by various antenna configurations driven at frequencies typically ranging from 1 to 50 MHz. The ability to obtain high plasma densities with high fractional ionization using readily available, low-cost components makes the helicon an attractive plasma source for many applications including plasma rocket propulsion, fusion component testing, and materials processing. However, their operation can be a sensitive function of the magnetic field strength and geometry as well as the driving frequency, especially when using light feedstock gases such as hydrogen or helium. This sensitivity can make it difficult to design a helicon source with the characteristics required for a specific application. This paper gives an overview of various helicon configurations, experimental observations, and modeling results with an emphasis on high density operation using light ion species. Axial variations in the plasma parameters are also shown to play an important role in understanding the behavior of the Mini-RFTF device at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. .

Carter, M. D.; Baity, F. W.; Goulding, R. H.; Jaeger, E. F.; Chang-Díaz, F. R.; Squire, J. P.

2001-10-01

147

Reactive magnetron sputtering of highly (001)-textured WS2-x films: Influence of Ne+, Ar+ and Xe+ ion bombardment on the film growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Layer-type van der Waals semiconductor WS2-x films were grown by radio frequency reactive magnetron sputtering from a metallic tungsten target onto oxidized silicon substrates. The sputtering atmosphere consisted of 75% hydrogen sulfide and 25% neon, argon or xenon. The substrate voltage and hence the energy of the ions bombarding the growing film, was varied from about 20 V (floating potential)

K. Ellmer; S. Seeger; I. Sieber; W. Bohne; J. Röhrich; E. Strub; R. Mientus

2006-01-01

148

Performance characteristics of an inertial-electrostatic confinement fusion device with magnetron discharge  

Microsoft Academic Search

A magnetron discharge as a built-in ion source for an inertial-electrostatic confinement fusion (IECF) device was experimentally studied aiming at a drastic improvement of fusion reaction rate. With this discharge in the vicinity of the grounded vacuum chamber, produced ions are expected to have almost full energy corresponding to the voltage applied to the central transparent cathode. Also, the magnetron-glow

Kai Masuda; Kiyoshi Yoshikawa; Toshiyuki Mizutani; Teruhisa Takamatsu; Masaki Imoto; Kazunobu Nagasaki; Hisayuki Toku

2003-01-01

149

Multicusp sources for ion beam lithography applications  

SciTech Connect

Application of the multicusp source for ion projection lithography is described. It is shown that the longitudinal energy spread of the positive ions at the extraction aperture can be reduced by employing a magnetic filter. The advantages of using volume-produced H{sup {minus}} ions for ion beam lithography are also discussed. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Vacuum} {ital Society}

Leung, K.N.; Herz, P.; Kunkel, W.B.; Lee, Y.; Perkins, L.; Pickard, D.; Sarstedt, M.; Weber, M.; Williams, M.D. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

1995-11-01

150

Multicusp sources for ion beam lithography applications  

SciTech Connect

Application of the multicusp source for Ion Projection Lithography is described. It is shown that the longitudinal energy spread of the positive ions at the extraction aperture can be reduced by employing a magnetic filter. The advantages of using volume-produced H{sup {minus}} ions for ion beam lithography is also discussed.

Leung, K.N.; Herz, P.; Kunkel, W.B.; Lee, Y.; Perkins, L.; Pickard, D.; Sarstedt, M.; Weber, M.; Williams, M.D.

1995-05-01

151

Multicusp ion source for ion projection lithography  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need to extend to smaller and smaller features (sub-100 nm) in integrated circuits has created the necessity to investigate new technologies beyond optical lithography. Ion projection lithography (IPL) is an advanced lithographic concept that can provide the solution for the high volume fabrication of sub-100 nm integrated circuits, The IPL system requires low axial energy spread ions in order

Y. Lee; K. N. Leung; M. D. Williams; W. H. Bruenger; W. Fallmann; H. Loschner; G. Stengl

1999-01-01

152

Resonant Ionization Laser Ion Source for Radioactive Ion Beams  

SciTech Connect

A resonant ionization laser ion source based on all-solid-state, tunable Ti:Sapphire lasers is being developed for the production of pure radioactive ion beams. It consists of a hot-cavity ion source and three pulsed Ti:Sapphire lasers operating at a 10 kHz pulse repetition rate. Spectroscopic studies are being conducted to develop ionization schemes that lead to ionizing an excited atom through an auto-ionization or a Rydberg state for numerous elements of interest. Three-photon resonant ionization of 12 elements has been recently demonstrated. The overall efficiency of the laser ion source measured for some of these elements ranges from 1 to 40%. The results indicate that Ti:Sapphire lasers could be well suited for laser ion source applications. The time structures of the ions produced by the pulsed lasers are investigated. The information may help to improve the laser ion source performance.

Liu, Yuan [ORNL; Beene, James R [ORNL; Havener, Charles C [ORNL; Vane, C Randy [ORNL; Gottwald, T. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Mainz, Germany; Wendt, K. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Mainz, Germany; Mattolat, C. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Mainz, Germany; Lassen, J. [TRIUMF, Canada

2009-01-01

153

MEVVA ion source for high current metal ion implantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The MEVVA (Metal Vapor Vacuum Arc) ion source is a new kind of source which can produce high current beams of metal ions. Beams of a wide range of elements have been produced, spanning the periodic table from lithium up to and including uranium. The source extraction voltage is up to 60 kV, and we are increasing this up to

I. Brown; J. Washburn

1986-01-01

154

Negative Ion Confinement in the Multicusp Ion Source  

Microsoft Academic Search

To optimize the negative ion source and generate intense beams of negative ions, understanding of transport properties of\\u000a both electrons and negative ions is indispensable. Transport process of negative hydrogen ions (H?) in a multicusp H? source, has been simulated by three-dimensional Femlab simulation software. Multipolar plasma confinement is known to result\\u000a in enhanced plasma density, homogeneous plasma of a

Fatemeh Khodadadi Azadboni; Mahmood Sedaghatizade

2010-01-01

155

Microwave ion sources for material processing (invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microwave ion sources were developed and used for material processing in industrial manufacture. Major applications of them were concentrated on semiconductor device fabrication, especially on modifying electrical properties of semiconductor material by ion implantation, as well as on processing submicron structures of semiconductor devices by so-called plasma etching. Most ion implanters for manufacturing silicon on insulator wafers exclusively adopt microwave ion sources because the sources work very stably for oxygen ions. Recently, the application of ion beams is extending to nonsemiconductor fields. Thus, ions are applied to surface modification of nonsemiconductor materials and to thin-film formation by ion beam deposition which is carried out with low energy of several tens of eV. The characteristics of films are very dependent on the beam energy values which are strictly determined by sum of the source bias voltage and the plasma potential with respect to the chamber. Microwave ion sources are very suitable to such applications of low-energy ion beams because the ions extracted from them have a very small energy dispersion. In this article, the features of microwave ion sources are specified and a variety of the sources are reviewed with respect to their applications.

Sakudo, N.

1998-02-01

156

Ion Source Design for Industrial Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The design of broad-beam industrial ion sources is described. The approach used emphasizes refractory metal cathodes and permanent-magnet multipole discharge chambers. Design procedures and sample calculations are given for the discharge chamber, ion opti...

H. R. Kaufman R. S. Robinson

1981-01-01

157

Plasma sources for electrons and ion beams  

SciTech Connect

Plasma devices are commonly used for the production of ion beams. It has been demonstrated that the multicusp generator can produce very low energy ion beams for ion projection lithography applications. The multicusp source has also found important applications in focused ion beam systems. With its high and uniform plasma density, attempts have been made to extract high brightness electron beams from this type of plasma source, making it also useful for electron beam lithography applications. (c) 1999 American Vacuum Society.

Leung, Ka-Ngo [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

1999-11-01

158

Beam emittance measurements on multicusp ion sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multicusp ion sources are used for various applications. Presently, the implementation of this type of ion source planned for the development of an ion beam lithography machine, which will be used for the projection of sub-0.2 μm patterns onto a wafer substrate. Since, for this application, a very good beam quality and a small ion energy spread are required, emittance

M. Sarstedt; Y. Lee; K. N. Leung; L. T. Perkins; D. S. Pickard; M. Weber; M. D. Williams

1995-01-01

159

CSNS H- ion source test stand  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Penning surface plasma source is adopted as the China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS) H- ion source. The designed energy and beam current of the source are 50 keV and 20 mA, respectively, with a normalized root mean square (norm. rms.) emittance of 0.2 pimm·mrad. The construction of a H- ion source test stand has been completed, and the commissioning

Xiao-Bing Wu; Hua-Fu Ouyang; Yun-Long Chi; Wei He; Tao Huang; Gang Li; Ying-Man Liu; Yan-Hua Lu; Tao-Guang Xu; Jun-Song Zhang; Hua-Shun Zhang; Fu-Xiang Zhao

2011-01-01

160

The physics of Electron Beam Ion Sources  

SciTech Connect

There are 13 Electron Beam Ion Sources in operation which produce highly charged ions, up to Th{sup 80+} and Xe{sup 53+}. Most of the sources are used to study these ions under electron impact or when recombining with gaseous or solid targets. That provides an insight into the atomic physics of these highly charged ions and into the physics of the plasma in which such ions can be found. This paper reviews the present knowledge of atomic processes, important in the production of such ions with an EBIS.

Stockli, M.P.; Cocke, C.L.

1990-12-31

161

The physics of Electron Beam Ion Sources  

SciTech Connect

There are 13 Electron Beam Ion Sources in operation which produce highly charged ions, up to Th[sup 80+] and Xe[sup 53+]. Most of the sources are used to study these ions under electron impact or when recombining with gaseous or solid targets. That provides an insight into the atomic physics of these highly charged ions and into the physics of the plasma in which such ions can be found. This paper reviews the present knowledge of atomic processes, important in the production of such ions with an EBIS.

Stockli, M.P.; Cocke, C.L.

1990-01-01

162

High-intensity sources for light ions  

SciTech Connect

The use of the multicusp plasma generator as a source of light ions is described. By employing radio-frequency induction discharge, the performance of the multicusp source is greatly improved, both in lifetime and in high brightness H{sup +} and H{sup {minus}} beam production. A new technique for generating multiply-charged ions in this type of ion source is also presented.

Leung, K.N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Accelerator and Fusion Research Div.

1995-10-01

163

Anomalous Energy Broadening in a Compact High - Microwave Ion Source  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last decade, the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources have become the de facto ion source to use in various fields. The ECR ion sources are attractive because they can generate high currents and are inherently more reliable than other types of ion sources. We designed a microwave ion source that is similar to an ECR ion source.

Futeh Kao

1994-01-01

164

Multicusp sources for ion beam projection lithography  

SciTech Connect

Multicusp ion sources are capable of producing positive and negative ions with good beam quality and low energy spread. The ion energy spread of multicusp sources has been measured by three different techniques. The axial ion energy spread has been reduced by introducing a magnetic filter inside the multicusp source chamber which adjusts the plasma potential distribution. The axial energy spread is further reduced by optimizing the source configuration. Values as low as 0.8 eV have been achieved. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

Lee, Y.; Gough, R.A.; Kunkel, W.B.; Leung, K.N.; Vujic, J.; Williams, M.D.; Wutte, D.; Zahir, N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

1998-02-01

165

Laterally resolved ion-distribution functions at the substrate position during magnetron sputtering of indium-tin oxide films  

SciTech Connect

During the magnetron sputtering from an indium-tin oxide (ITO) target (76 mm diameter) we measured the ion-distribution functions (IDFs) of energetic ions (argon, indium, and oxygen ions) at the substrate surface using a combination of a quadrupole mass spectrometer and an electrostatic energy analyzer. We obtained the IDFs for argon sputtering pressures in the range from 0.08 to 2 Pa and for dc as well as rf (13.56 MHz) plasma excitation with powers from 10 to 100 W. The IDF measurements were performed both over the target center at a target-to-substrate distance of 65 mm and at different positions along the target radius in order to scan the erosion track of the target. The mean kinetic energies of argon ions calculated from the IDFs in the dc plasma decreased from about 30 to 15 eV, when the argon pressure increased from 0.08 to 2 Pa, which is caused by a decrease of the electron temperature also by a factor of 2. Indium atoms exhibit higher mean energies due to their additional energy from the sputtering process. The total metal ion flux turns out to be proportional to the discharge power and the pressure, the latter dependence being due to Penning ionization of the metal atoms (In and Sn). From the scans across the target surface the lateral distributions of metal, oxygen, and argon ions were derived. In the dc discharge the position of the erosion track is reproduced by increased ion intensities, while it is not the case for the rf excited plasma. The lateral variations of the observed species do not influence the lateral resistivity distributions of the deposited ITO films.

Plagemann, A.; Ellmer, K.; Wiesemann, K. [Department Solare Energetik, Hahn-Meitner-Institut, Glienicker Strasse 100, D-14109 Berlin (Germany); Department Allgemeine Elektrotechnik und Plasmatechnik, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany)

2007-09-15

166

Upgraded vacuum arc ion source for metal ion implantation  

SciTech Connect

Vacuum arc ion sources have been made and used by a large number of research groups around the world over the past twenty years. The first generation of vacuum arc ion sources (dubbed ''Mevva,'' for metal vapor vacuum arc) was developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in the 1980s. This paper considers the design, performance parameters, and some applications of a new modified version of this kind of source which we have called Mevva-V.Ru. The source produces broad beams of metal ions at an extraction voltage of up to 60 kV and a time-averaged ion beam current in the milliampere range. Here, we describe the Mevva-V.Ru vacuum arc ion source that we have developed at Tomsk and summarize its beam characteristics along with some of the applications to which we have put it. We also describe the source performance using compound cathodes.

Nikolaev, A. G.; Oks, E. M.; Savkin, K. P.; Yushkov, G. Yu. [High Current Electronics Institute, Siberian Division of the Russian Academy of Science, Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation); Brown, I. G. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

2012-02-15

167

Upgraded vacuum arc ion source for metal ion implantation.  

PubMed

Vacuum arc ion sources have been made and used by a large number of research groups around the world over the past twenty years. The first generation of vacuum arc ion sources (dubbed "Mevva," for metal vapor vacuum arc) was developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in the 1980s. This paper considers the design, performance parameters, and some applications of a new modified version of this kind of source which we have called Mevva-V.Ru. The source produces broad beams of metal ions at an extraction voltage of up to 60 kV and a time-averaged ion beam current in the milliampere range. Here, we describe the Mevva-V.Ru vacuum arc ion source that we have developed at Tomsk and summarize its beam characteristics along with some of the applications to which we have put it. We also describe the source performance using compound cathodes. PMID:22380197

Nikolaev, A G; Oks, E M; Savkin, K P; Yushkov, G Yu; Brown, I G

2012-02-01

168

Ionization phenomena and sources of negative ions  

SciTech Connect

Negative ion source technology has rapidly advanced during the past several years as a direct consequence of the discovery of Krohn that negative ion yields can be greatly enhanced by sputtering in the presence of Group IA elements. Today, most negative ion sources use this discovery directly or the principles implied to effect negative ion formation through surface ionization. As a consequence, the more traditional direct extraction plasma and charge exchange sources are being used less frequently. However, the charge exchange generation mechanism appears to be as universal, is very competitive in terms of efficiency and has the advantage in terms of metastable ion formation. In this review, an attempt has been made to briefly describe the principal processes involved in negative ion formation and sources which are representative of a particular principle. The reader is referred to the literature for specific details concerning the operational characteristics, emittances, brightnesses, species and intensity capabilities of particular sources. 100 references.

Alton, G.D.

1983-01-01

169

Production of highly charged ion beams from ECR ion sources  

SciTech Connect

Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion source development has progressed with multiple-frequency plasma heating, higher mirror magnetic fields and better technique to provide extra cold electrons. Such techniques greatly enhance the production of highly charged ions from ECR ion sources. So far at cw mode operation, up to 300 e{mu}A of O{sup 7+} and 1.15 emA of O{sup 6+}, more than 100 e{mu}A of intermediate heavy ions for charge states up to Ar{sup 13+}, Ca{sup 13+}, Fe{sup 13+}, Co{sup 14+} and Kr{sup 18+}, and tens of e{mu}A of heavy ions with charge states to Kr{sup 26+}, Xe{sup 28+}, Au{sup 35+}, Bi{sup 34+} and U{sup 34+} have been produced from ECR ion sources. At an intensity of at least 1 e{mu}A, the maximum charge state available for the heavy ions are Xe{sup 36+}, Au{sup 46+}, Bi{sup 47+} and U{sup 48+}. An order of magnitude enhancement for fully stripped argon ions (I {ge} 60 enA) also has been achieved. This article will review the ECR ion source progress and discuss key requirement for ECR ion sources to produce the highly charged ion beams.

Xie, Z.Q. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Nuclear Science Div.

1997-09-01

170

Nanobeam production with the multicusp ion source  

SciTech Connect

A 1.8-cm-diam multicusp ion source to be used for focused ion beam applications has been tested for Xe, He, Ne, Ar, and Kr ions. The extractable ion and electron currents were measured. The extractable ion current is similar for all these ion species except for Ne{sup +}, but the extractable electron current behaves quite differently. The multicusp ion source will be used with a combined extractor-collimator electrode system that can provide a few hundred nA of Xe{sup +} or Kr{sup +} ions. Ion optics computation indicates that these beams can be further focused with an electrostatic column to a beam spot size of {approx}100 nm. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

Lee, Y. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Ji, Q. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Leung, K. N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Zahir, N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

2000-02-01

171

Laser ion source for low charge heavy ion beams  

SciTech Connect

For heavy ion inertial fusion application, a combination of a laser ion source and direct plasma injection scheme into an RFQ is proposed. The combination might provide more than 100 mA of singly charged heavy ion beam from a single laser shot. A planned feasibility test with moderate current is also discussed.

Okamura,M.; Pikin, A.; Zajic, V.; Kanesue, T.; Tamura, J.

2008-08-03

172

Low Temperature Ion Source for Calutrons.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A new ion source assembly for calutrons has been provided for the efficient separation of elements having high vapor pressures. The strategic location of cooling pads and improved insulation permits operation of the source at lower temperatures. A vapor v...

A. M. Veach W. A. Bell G. D. Howell

1979-01-01

173

Laser ion source with solenoid for Brookhaven National Laboratory-electron beam ion source  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electron beam ion source (EBIS) preinjector at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is a new heavy ion-preinjector for relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC) and NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL). Laser ion source (LIS) is a primary ion source provider for the BNL-EBIS. LIS with solenoid at the plasma drift section can realize the low peak current (â100 μA) with high

Kondo K; T. Yamamoto; M. Sekine; M. Okamura

2012-01-01

174

High current vacuum arc ion source for heavy ion fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) is one of the approaches for the controlled thermonuclear power production. A source of heavy ions with charge states 1+ to 2+, in ≈0.5 A current beams with 20 ?s pulse widths and ~10 Hz repetition rates are required. Thermionic sources have been the workhorse for the HIF program to date, but

N. Qi; J. Schein; S. Gensler; R. R. Prasad; M. Krishnan; I. Brown

1999-01-01

175

New ion source design for ion propulsion application  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new broad beam ion source to be used as an ion thruster for small satellites in orbit maneuvering applications has been developed at the LABEN Proel Tecnologie Division. The source uses an rf electromagnetic field with frequency in the VHF range to generate and sustain the discharge. Preliminary theoretical investigations seem to indicate that the excitation of an e-m

M. Capacci; G. Noci

1998-01-01

176

Ion-enhanced oxidation of aluminum as a fundamental surface process during target poisoning in reactive magnetron sputtering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plasma deposition of aluminum oxide by reactive magnetron sputtering (RMS) using an aluminum target and argon and oxygen as working gases is an important technological process. The undesired oxidation of the target itself, however, causes the so-called target poisoning, which leads to strong hysteresis effects during RMS operation. The oxidation occurs by chemisorption of oxygen atoms and molecules with a simultaneous ion bombardment being present. This heterogenous surface reaction is studied in a quantified particle beam experiment employing beams of oxygen molecules and argon ions impinging onto an aluminum-coated quartz microbalance. The oxidation and/or sputtering rates are measured with this microbalance and the resulting oxide layers are analyzed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The sticking coefficient of oxygen molecules is determined to 0.015 in the zero coverage limit. The sputtering yields of pure aluminum by argon ions are determined to 0.4, 0.62, and 0.8 at 200, 300, and 400 eV. The variation in the effective sticking coefficient and sputtering yield during the combined impact of argon ions and oxygen molecules is modeled with a set of rate equations. A good agreement is achieved if one postulates an ion-induced surface activation process, which facilitates oxygen chemisorption. This process may be identified with knock-on implantation of surface-bonded oxygen, with an electric-field-driven in-diffusion of oxygen or with an ion-enhanced surface activation process. Based on these fundamental processes, a robust set of balance equations is proposed to describe target poisoning effects in RMS.

Kuschel, Thomas; von Keudell, Achim

2010-05-01

177

Ion-enhanced oxidation of aluminum as a fundamental surface process during target poisoning in reactive magnetron sputtering  

SciTech Connect

Plasma deposition of aluminum oxide by reactive magnetron sputtering (RMS) using an aluminum target and argon and oxygen as working gases is an important technological process. The undesired oxidation of the target itself, however, causes the so-called target poisoning, which leads to strong hysteresis effects during RMS operation. The oxidation occurs by chemisorption of oxygen atoms and molecules with a simultaneous ion bombardment being present. This heterogenous surface reaction is studied in a quantified particle beam experiment employing beams of oxygen molecules and argon ions impinging onto an aluminum-coated quartz microbalance. The oxidation and/or sputtering rates are measured with this microbalance and the resulting oxide layers are analyzed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The sticking coefficient of oxygen molecules is determined to 0.015 in the zero coverage limit. The sputtering yields of pure aluminum by argon ions are determined to 0.4, 0.62, and 0.8 at 200, 300, and 400 eV. The variation in the effective sticking coefficient and sputtering yield during the combined impact of argon ions and oxygen molecules is modeled with a set of rate equations. A good agreement is achieved if one postulates an ion-induced surface activation process, which facilitates oxygen chemisorption. This process may be identified with knock-on implantation of surface-bonded oxygen, with an electric-field-driven in-diffusion of oxygen or with an ion-enhanced surface activation process. Based on these fundamental processes, a robust set of balance equations is proposed to describe target poisoning effects in RMS.

Kuschel, Thomas; Keudell, Achim von [Research Group Reactive Plasmas, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, 44780 Bochum (Germany)

2010-05-15

178

Multicusp ion source for production of negative lithium ions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A beam of negative lithium ions (Li?) with a current density as high as 3×10?5 A\\/cm2 was extracted from a 5 cm diam, 7 cm long multicusp ion source. The extracted Li? current was correlated to the plasma temperature and density measured with Langmuir probes heated to avoid Li condensation. The neutral lithium flux from the ion source was measured

M. Wada; H. Tsuda; M. Sasao

1992-01-01

179

Mass spectrometry in a multicusp ion source  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mass spectrometry has been used for the detection of positive and negative ions in a multicusp ion source operating with both hydrogen and deuterium gas. The mass spectrometer operation has been optimized and it is shown that applying ion extraction voltages can disturb the discharge. Using this technique combined with a Langmuir probe technique we are able to study the

A. A. Mullan; W. G. Graham

1990-01-01

180

Ion mass spectrometry investigations of the discharge during reactive high power pulsed and direct current magnetron sputtering of carbon in Ar and Ar/N{sub 2}  

SciTech Connect

Ion mass spectrometry was used to investigate discharges formed during high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) and direct current magnetron sputtering (DCMS) of a graphite target in Ar and Ar/N{sub 2} ambient. Ion energy distribution functions (IEDFs) were recorded in time-averaged and time-resolved mode for Ar{sup +}, C{sup +}, N{sub 2}{sup +}, N{sup +}, and C{sub x}N{sub y}{sup +} ions. An increase of N{sub 2} in the sputter gas (keeping the deposition pressure, pulse width, pulse frequency, and pulse energy constant) results for the HiPIMS discharge in a significant increase in C{sup +}, N{sup +}, and CN{sup +} ion energies. Ar{sup +}, N{sub 2}{sup +}, and C{sub 2}N{sup +} ion energies, in turn, did not considerably vary with the changes in working gas composition. The HiPIMS process showed higher ion energies and fluxes, particularly for C{sup +} ions, compared to DCMS. The time evolution of the plasma species was analyzed for HiPIMS and revealed the sequential arrival of working gas ions, ions ejected from the target, and later during the pulse-on time molecular ions, in particular CN{sup +} and C{sub 2}N{sup +}. The formation of fullerene-like structured CN{sub x} thin films for both modes of magnetron sputtering is explained by ion mass-spectrometry results and demonstrated by transmission electron microscopy as well as diffraction.

Schmidt, S.; Greczynski, G.; Jensen, J.; Hultman, L. [Thin Film Physics Div., Department of Physics (IFM), Linkoeping University, SE-581 83 (Sweden); Czigany, Zs. [Institute of Technical Physics and Materials Science, Research Centre for Natural Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Konkoly Thege Miklos ut 29-33. H-1121 Budapest (Hungary)

2012-07-01

181

Enhanced life ion source for germanium and carbon ion implantation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Germanium and carbon ions represent a significant portion of total ion implantation steps in the process flow. Very often ion source materials that used to produce ions are chemically aggressive, especially at higher temperatures, and result in fast ion source performance degradation and a very limited lifetime [B.S. Freer, et. al., 2002 14th Intl. Conf. on Ion Implantation Technology Proc, IEEE Conf. Proc., p. 420 (2003)]. GeF4 and CO2 are commonly used to generate germanium and carbon beams. In the case of GeF4 controlling the tungsten deposition due to the de-composition of WF6 (halogen cycle) is critical to ion source life. With CO2, the materials oxidation and carbon deposition must be controlled as both will affect cathode thermionic emission and anti-cathode (repeller) efficiencies due to the formation of volatile metal oxides. The improved ion source design Extended Life Source 3 (Eterna ELS3) together with its proprietary co-gas material implementation has demonstrated >300 hours of stable continuous operation when using carbon and germanium ion beams. Optimizing cogas chemistries retard the cathode erosion rate for germanium and carbon minimizes the adverse effects of oxygen when reducing gas is introduced for carbon. The proprietary combination of hardware and co-gas has improved source stability and the results of the hardware and co-gas development are discussed.

Hsieh, Tseh-Jen; Colvin, Neil; Kondratenko, Serguei

2012-11-01

182

Enhanced life ion source for germanium and carbon ion implantation  

SciTech Connect

Germanium and carbon ions represent a significant portion of total ion implantation steps in the process flow. Very often ion source materials that used to produce ions are chemically aggressive, especially at higher temperatures, and result in fast ion source performance degradation and a very limited lifetime [B.S. Freer, et. al., 2002 14th Intl. Conf. on Ion Implantation Technology Proc, IEEE Conf. Proc., p. 420 (2003)]. GeF{sub 4} and CO{sub 2} are commonly used to generate germanium and carbon beams. In the case of GeF{sub 4} controlling the tungsten deposition due to the de-composition of WF{sub 6} (halogen cycle) is critical to ion source life. With CO{sub 2}, the materials oxidation and carbon deposition must be controlled as both will affect cathode thermionic emission and anti-cathode (repeller) efficiencies due to the formation of volatile metal oxides. The improved ion source design Extended Life Source 3 (Eterna ELS3) together with its proprietary co-gas material implementation has demonstrated >300 hours of stable continuous operation when using carbon and germanium ion beams. Optimizing cogas chemistries retard the cathode erosion rate for germanium and carbon minimizes the adverse effects of oxygen when reducing gas is introduced for carbon. The proprietary combination of hardware and co-gas has improved source stability and the results of the hardware and co-gas development are discussed.

Hsieh, Tseh-Jen; Colvin, Neil; Kondratenko, Serguei [Axcelis Technologies, Inc. 108 Cherry Hill Drive, Beverly, MA 01915 (United States)

2012-11-06

183

Highly Polarized Ion Sources for Electron Ion Colliders (EIC)  

SciTech Connect

The operation of the RHIC facility at BNL and the Electron Ion Colliders (EIC) under development at Jefferson Laboratory and BNL need high brightness ion beams with the highest polarization. Charge exchange injection into a storage ring or synchrotron and Siberian snakes have the potential to handle the needed polarized beam currents, but first the ion sources must create beams with the highest possible polarization to maximize collider productivity, which is proportional to a high power of the polarization. We are developing one universal H-/D- ion source design which will synthesize the most advanced developments in the field of polarized ion sources to provide high current, high brightness, ion beams with greater than 90% polarization, good lifetime, high reliability, and good power efficiency. The new source will be an advanced version of an atomic beam polarized ion source (ABPIS) with resonant charge exchange ionization by negative ions. An integrated ABPIS design will be prepared based on new materials and an optimized magnetic focusing system. Polarized atomic and ion beam formation, extraction, and transport for the new source will be computer simulated.

V.G. Dudnikov, R.P. Johnson, Y.S. Derbenev, Y. Zhang

2010-03-01

184

Molecular phosphorus ion source for semiconductor technology.  

PubMed

This paper presents results on the generation of molecular phosphorus ion beams in a hot filament ion source. Solid red phosphorous is evaporated mainly as tetra-atomic molecules up to a temperature of 800°C. Thus, one of the main conditions for producing maximum P(4)(+) fraction in the beam is to keep the temperature of the phosphorous oven, the steam line and the discharge chamber walls no greater than 800°C. The prior version of our ion source was equipped with a discharge chamber cooling system. The modified source ensured a P(4)(+) ion beam current greater than 30% of the total beam current. PMID:22380290

Gushenets, V I; Bugaev, A S; Oks, E M; Hershcovitch, A; Kulevoy, T V

2012-02-01

185

Molecular phosphorus ion source for semiconductor technology  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents results on the generation of molecular phosphorus ion beams in a hot filament ion source. Solid red phosphorous is evaporated mainly as tetra-atomic molecules up to a temperature of 800 C. Thus, one of the main conditions for producing maximum P{sub 4}{sup +} fraction in the beam is to keep the temperature of the phosphorous oven, the steam line and the discharge chamber walls no greater than 800 C. The prior version of our ion source was equipped with a discharge chamber cooling system. The modified source ensured a P{sub 4}{sup +} ion beam current greater than 30% of the total beam current.

Gushenets V. I.; Hershcovitch A.; Bugaev, A.S.; Oks, E.M.; Kulevoy, T.V.

2012-02-15

186

Laser Ion Source Project at IGISOL  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application of laser ionisation is being developed for the IGISOL mass separator facility in Jyväskylä, Finland. The conceived laser ion source will have two independent pulsed laser systems based on all solid-state lasers and dye lasers for maximal coverage of ionisation schemes throughout the periodic table. A laser ion source trap, LIST, method will be pursued for optimal selectivity.

Nieminen, A.; Moore, I. D.; Billowes, J.; Campbell, P.; Flanagan, K. T.; Geppert, Ch.; Huikari, J.; Jokinen, A.; Kessler, T.; Marsh, B.; Penttilä, H.; Rinta-Antila, S.; Tordoff, B.; Wendt, K. D. A.; Äystö, J.

2005-04-01

187

Electron-cyclotron-resonance ion sources (review)  

SciTech Connect

The physical principles are described and a brief survey of the present state is given of ion sources based on electron-cyclotron heating of plasma in a mirror trap. The characteristics of ECR sources of positive and negative ions used chiefly in accelerator technology are presented. 20 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

Golovanivskii, K.S.; Dougar-Jabon, V.D. [People`s Friendship Univ., Moscow (Russian Federation)

1992-01-01

188

High Charge State Heavy Ion Sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review is given of existing sources of highly charged heavy ions. The performance of the sources, predominantly of the P.I.G. type, are summarized and compared. Some mechanisms for the production of high charge states are described. There is a brief description of new developments, particularly of devices using ion trapping.

J. R. J. Bennett

1971-01-01

189

The polarized ion source for COSY  

SciTech Connect

The polarized ion source for the cooler synchrotron COSY-Juelich has been set in operation. The source produces pulsed {rvec H}{sup {minus}} or {rvec D}{sup {minus}} beams in a charge-exchange process. The working scheme of this colliding-beam source, its maser equations, which control the performance of the source, and first results are discussed.

Eversheim, P.D.; Gebel, R.; Altmeier, M.; Felden, O.; Heimann, C.; Kammermann, M. [Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik, Universitaet Bonn, D-53115 Bonn (Germany); Kretschmer, W.; Weidmann, R.; Muemmler, K.; Aumueller, B.; Glombik, A. [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Erlangen, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Paetz gen. Schieck, H.; Lemaitre, S.; Reckenfelderbaeumer, R.; Eggert, M.; Suttorp, O. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet Koeln, D-50937 Koeln (Germany)

1995-07-15

190

Multicusp ion source for induction linac applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

At LBNL we are investigating the use of gaseous ion sources for induction linac applications such as heavy ion inertial fusion. Typical requirements for the ion source is to produce 20 ?s pulses with a rise-time of 2 ?s. The current density should be greater than 100 mA\\/cm2 at a duty cycle of 10 Hz. Noble gases such as krypton,

J. Reijonen; M. Eardley; R. Keller; J. Kwan; K. N. Leung; D. Pickard; R. Thomae; M. D. Williams

1999-01-01

191

Single-ring magnetic cusp ion source  

SciTech Connect

A low pressure ion source was developed at Sandia National Laboratories which retains the high-performance qualities of the duoplasmatron and duopigatron ion sources but operates in a tube with a gas pressure of 0.25 Pascal. At this pressure, the Sandia source produces a deuterium ion beam of 200 mA through a 1.25 cm/sup 2/ aperture with an arc voltage of 165V and an arc current of 13.5A. The D+ fraction is more than 50% and the ion impurity level is less than 0.5%. This new source is the culmination of an effort to find a low pressure substitute for the duopigatron ion source that would enable the cancer therapy D-T neutron generator being developed at Sandia to be built as a non-pumped, low pressure tube.

Brainard, J.P.; O'Hagan, J.B.

1982-01-01

192

Radio frequency multicusp ion source development (invited)  

SciTech Connect

The radio-frequency (rf) driven multicusp source was originally developed for use in the Superconducting Super Collider injector. It has been demonstrated that the source can meet the H{sup {minus}} beam current and emittance requirements for this application. By employing a porcelain-coated antenna, a clean plasma discharge with very long-life operation can be achieved. Today, the rf source is used to generate both positive and negative hydrogen ion beams and has been tested in various particle accelerator laboratories throughout the world. Applications of this ion source have been extended to other fields such as ion beam lithography, oil-well logging, ion implantation, accelerator mass spectrometry and medical therapy machines. This paper summarizes the latest rf ion source technology and development at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

Leung, K.N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

1996-03-01

193

Mass spectrometry in a multicusp ion source  

SciTech Connect

Mass spectrometry has been used for the detection of positive and negative ions in a multicusp ion source operating with both hydrogen and deuterium gas. The mass spectrometer operation has been optimized and it is shown that applying ion extraction voltages can disturb the discharge. Using this technique combined with a Langmuir probe technique we are able to study the positive ionic fractions present when operating with both gases (and the negative ion densities.)

Mullan, A.A. (Applied Physical Science, University of Ulster, Coleraine (Northern Ireland)); Graham, W.G. (Physics Department, Queen's University, Belfast, (Northern Ireland))

1990-08-05

194

Peltier Refrigerators for Molecular Ion Sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Molecular ion sources have been considered for various applications. In particular, there is considerable effort to develop decaborane and octadecaborane ion sources for the semiconductor industry. Since the invention of the transistor, the trend has been to miniaturize semiconductor devices. As semiconductors become smaller (and get miniaturized), ion energy needed for implantation decreases, since shallow implantation is desired. But, due to space charge (intra-ion repulsion) effects, forming and transporting ion beams becomes a rather difficult task. These problems associated with lower energy ion beams limit implanter ion currents, thus leading to low production rates. One way to tackle the space charge problem is to use singly charged molecular ions. A crucial aspect in generating large molecular ion beam currents is ion source temperature control. Peltier coolers, which have in the past successfully utilized in BaF2 and CSI gamma ray detectors, may be ideal for this application. Clogging prevention of molecular ion sources is also a hurdle, which was overcome with special slots. Both topics are to be presented.

Hershcovitch, Ady

2008-11-01

195

Source for doubly charged ions  

Microsoft Academic Search

High energy ions are required for implantation of p- and n-wells in C-MOS and also for bipolar ICs, e.g. direct implantation of buried layers, in particular for modern shallow structures. For this purpose ion energies above 1 MeV are required. It is of course more economical to make use of doubly or even higher-charged ions, than of expensive high voltage

H. F. Le Roux; A. G. K. Lutsch; B. M. Lacquet

1985-01-01

196

ION SOURCE WITH SPACE CHARGE NEUTRALIZATION  

DOEpatents

This patent relates to a space charge neutralized ion source in which a refluxing gas-fed arc discharge is provided between a cathode and a gas-fed anode to provide ions. An electron gun directs a controlled, monoenergetic electron beam through the discharge. A space charge neutralization is effected in the ion source and accelerating gap by oscillating low energy electrons, and a space charge neutralization of the source exit beam is effected by the monoenergetic electron beam beyond the source exit end. The neutralized beam may be accelerated to any desired energy at densities well above the limitation imposed by Langmuir-Child' s law. (AEC)

Flowers, J.W.; Luce, J.S.; Stirling, W.L.

1963-01-22

197

An overview of LINAC ion sources  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses ion sources used in high-duty-factor proton and H{sup -} Linacs as well as in accelerators utilizing multi-charged heavy ions, mostly for nuclear physics applications. The included types are Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) sources as well as filament and rf driven multicusp sources. The paper does not strive to attain encyclopedic character but rather to highlight major lines of development, peak performance parameters and type-specific limitations and problems of these sources. The main technical aspects being discussed are particle feed, plasma generation and ion production by discharges, and plasma confinement.

Keller, Roderich [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01

198

Negative Ion Confinement in the Multicusp Ion Source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To optimize the negative ion source and generate intense beams of negative ions, understanding of transport properties of both electrons and negative ions is indispensable. Transport process of negative hydrogen ions (H-) in a multicusp H- source, has been simulated by three-dimensional Femlab simulation software. Multipolar plasma confinement is known to result in enhanced plasma density, homogeneous plasma of a large volume, and quiescent plasmas. The effect of plasma confinement by applying multi-polar magnetic field was investigated. Results are obtained for ten different configurations of permanent magnet and discussed. Full line cusps are found to give optimum plasma density. Negative ions created on the sidewall hardly can reach the center of the source due to trapping by the multicusp magnetic field. As a result, H- ions created on the sidewall do not have a significant effect on the H- current.

Khodadadi Azadboni, Fatemeh; Sedaghatizade, Mahmood

2010-04-01

199

Ion sources for energy extremes of ion implantation (invited)  

SciTech Connect

For the past four years a joint research and development effort designed to develop steady state, intense ion sources has been in progress with the ultimate goal to develop ion sources and techniques that meet the two energy extreme range needs of meV and hundreads of eV ion implanters. This endeavor has already resulted in record steady state output currents of high charge state of antimony and phosphorus ions: P{sup 2+} [8.6 pmA (particle milliampere)], P{sup 3+} (1.9 pmA), and P{sup 4+} (0.12 pmA) and 16.2, 7.6, 3.3, and 2.2 pmA of Sb{sup 3+}Sb{sup 4+}, Sb{sup 5+}, and Sb{sup 6+} respectively. For low energy ion implantation, our efforts involve molecular ions and a novel plasmaless/gasless deceleration method. To date, 1 emA (electrical milliampere) of positive decaborane ions was extracted at 10 keV and smaller currents of negative decaborane ions were also extracted. Additionally, boron current fraction of over 70% was extracted from a Bernas-Calutron ion source, which represents a factor of 3.5 improvement over currently employed ion sources.

Hershcovitch, A.; Johnson, B. M.; Batalin, V. A.; Kropachev, G. N.; Kuibeda, R. P.; Kulevoy, T. V.; Kolomiets, A. A.; Pershin, V. I.; Petrenko, S. V.; Rudskoy, I.; Seleznev, D. N.; Bugaev, A. S.; Gushenets, V. I.; Litovko, I. V.; Oks, E. M.; Yushkov, G. Yu.; Masunov, E. S.; Polozov, S. M.; Poole, H. J; Storozhenko, P. A. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); High Current Electronics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation); Moscow Engineering Physics Institute, sh. Kashirskoe 31, Moscow 115409 (Russian Federation); PVI, Oxnard, California 93031-5023 (United States); State Research Institute for Chemistry and Technology of Organoelement Compounds, sh. Entuziastov 38, Moscow 111123 (Russian Federation); Siberian Divisions of Russian National Research Center, 'A.A. Bochvara Scientific Research Institute for Inorganic Materials', Seversk 636070 (Russian Federation)] (and others)

2008-02-15

200

ION SOURCES FOR ENERGY EXTREMES OF ION IMPLANTATION.  

SciTech Connect

For the past four years a joint research and development effort designed to develop steady state, intense ion sources has been in progress with the ultimate goal to develop ion sources and techniques, which meet the two energy extreme range needs of mega-electron-volt and 100's of electron-volt ion implanters. This endeavor has already resulted in record steady state output currents of high charge state of Antimony and Phosphorous ions: P{sup 2+} (8.6 pmA), P{sup 3+} (1.9 pmA), and P{sup 4+} (0.12 pmA) and 16.2, 7.6, 3.3, and 2.2 pmA of Sb{sup 3+} Sb{sup 4+}, Sb{sup 5+}, and Sb{sup 6+} respectively. For low energy ion implantation our efforts involve molecular ions and a novel plasmaless/gasless deceleration method. To date, 1 emA of positive Decaborane ions were extracted at 10 keV and smaller currents of negative Decaborane ions were also extracted. Additionally, Boron current fraction of over 70% was extracted from a Bemas-Calutron ion source, which represents a factor of 3.5 improvement over currently employed ion sources.

HERSCHCOVITCH,A.; JOHNSON, B.M.; BATALIN, V.A.; KROPACHEV, G.N.; KUIBEDA, R.P.; KULEVOY, T.V.; KOLOMIETS, A.A.; PERSHIN, V.I.; PETRENKO, S.V.; RUDSKOY, I.; SELEZNEV, D.N.; BUGAEV, A.S.; GUSHENETS, V.I.; LITOVKO, I.V.; OKS, E.M.; YUSHKOV, G. YU.; MASEUNOV, E.S.; POLOZOV, S.M.; POOLE, H.J.; STOROZHENKO, P.A.; SVAROVSKI, YA.

2007-08-26

201

Performance of an inverted ion source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Whereas energetic ion beams are conventionally produced by extracting ions (say, positive ions) from a plasma that is held at high (positive) potential, with ion energy determined by the potential drop through which the ions fall in the beam formation electrode system, in the device described here the plasma and its electronics are held at ground potential and the ion beam is formed and injected energetically into a space maintained at high (negative) potential. We refer to this configuration as an ``inverted ion source.'' This approach allows considerable savings both technologically and economically, rendering feasible some ion beam applications, in particular small-scale ion implantation, that might otherwise not be possible for many researchers and laboratories. We have developed a device of this kind utilizing a metal vapor vacuum arc plasma source, and explored its operation and beam characteristics over a range of parameter variation. The downstream beam current has been measured as a function of extraction voltage (5-35 kV), arc current (50-230 A), metal ion species (Ti, Nb, Au), and extractor grid spacing and beamlet aperture size (3, 4, and 5 mm). The downstream ion beam current as measured by a magnetically-suppressed Faraday cup was up to as high as 600 mA, and with parametric variation quite similar to that found for the more conventional metal vapor vacuum arc ion source.

Salvadori, M. C.; Teixeira, F. S.; Sgubin, L. G.; Araujo, W. W. R.; Spirin, R. E.; Oks, E. M.; Brown, I. G.

2013-02-01

202

Ion sources for sealed neutron tubes  

SciTech Connect

Fast and thermal neutron activation analysis with sealed neutron generators has been used to detect oil (oil logging), hazardous waste, fissile material, explosives, and contraband (drugs). Sealed neutron generators, used in the above applications, must be small and portable, have good electrical efficiency and long life. The ion sources used in the sealed neutron tubes require high gas utilization efficiencies or low pressure operation with high ionization efficiencies. In this paper, the authors compare a number of gas ion sources that can be used in sealed neutron tubes. The characteristics of the most popular ion source, the axial Penning discharge will be discussed as part of the zetatron neutron generator. Other sources to be discussed include the SAMIS source and RF ion source.

Burns, E.J.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Neutron Tube Dept.; Bischoff, G.C. [Lockheed Martin Specialty Components, Largo, FL (United States)

1996-11-01

203

Microwave ion sources for industrial applications (invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microwave ion sources for industrial use are usually driven by 2.45 GHz microwaves and operated in a very wide range of magnetic field from zero to over the electron cyclotron resonance magnetic field. They are used mostly under off-resonant conditions. For ion implantation into usual semiconductor devices, the weak points of the microwave ion source against the conventional implanter sources, the Freeman and the Bernas, had been the lower B+ ion current and the slightly narrower dynamic range of the current. However, the optimization of the discharge-chamber shape and volume resolved the problems. Consequently, the microwave sources exceed the conventional sources in most principal performances for implantation into semiconductor devices. For the sophisticated separation by implanted oxygen devices, the microwave ion source is very suitable for stable production of high-current O+ ion beams. 100 mA class O+ ion implanters dedicated to silicon on insulator technology were developed. On the other hand, for application to surface modification of materials, mass separation is completely eliminated in some cases. Recently, a new ion source for the purpose was developed, in which 2.45 GHz microwaves are absorbed by 13.56 MHz inductively coupled plasma without static magnetic field. The alternate magnetic field induced by 13.56 MHz rf power is considered to help microwaves penetrate into the plasma. Since the volume of the source is not restricted by solenoids as a usual microwave source, it can be applied to three dimensional implantation or plasma source ion implantation.

Sakudo, N.

2000-02-01

204

Beam emittance measurements on multicusp ion sources  

SciTech Connect

Multicusp ion sources are used for various applications. Presently, the implementation of this type of ion source is planned for the development of an ion beam lithography machine, which will be used for the projection of sub-0.2 {mu}m patterns onto a wafer substrate. Since, for this application, a very good beam quality and a small ion energy spread are required, emittance measurements have been performed on a multicusp ion source for various source conditions. It is shown that the installation of proper capacitors between the extraction electrodes is necessary to avoid rf pickup, which otherwise leads to a distortion of the beam emittance. The influence of the magnetic filter field on the beam emittance has been investigated, and the beam emittance of a dc filament-discharge plasma has also been compared to that of a rf-generated plasma. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

Sarstedt, M.; Lee, Y.; Leung, K.N.; Perkins, L.T.; Pickard, D.S.; Weber, M.; Williams, M.D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

1996-03-01

205

Beam emittance measurements on multicusp ion sources  

SciTech Connect

Multicusp ion sources are used for various applications. Presently, the implementation of this type of ion source planned for the development of an ion beam lithography machine, which will be used for the projection of sub-0.2 {mu}m patterns onto a wafer substrate. Since, for this application, a very good beam quality and a small ion energy spread are required, emittance measurements have been performed on a multicusp ion source for various source conditions. It is shown that the installation of proper capacitors between the extraction electrodes is necessary to avoid rf-pickup, which otherwise leads to a distortion of the beam emittance. The influence of the magnetic filter field on the beam emittance has been investigated, and the beam emittance of a dc filament-discharge plasma has also been compared to that of an rf-generated plasma.

Sarstedt, M.; Lee, Y.; Leung, K.N. [and others

1995-08-01

206

Beam emittance measurements on multicusp ion sources  

SciTech Connect

Multicusp ion sources are used for various applications. Presently, the implementation of this type of ion source is planned for the development of an ion beam lithography machine, which will be used for the projection of sub-0.2 micron patterns onto a wafer substrate. Since, for this application, a very good beam quality and a small ion energy spread are required, emittance measurements have been performed on a multicusp ion source for various source conditions. It is shown that the installation of proper capacitors between the extraction electrodes is necessary to avoid rf-pickup, which otherwise leads to a distortion of the beam emittance. The influence of the magnetic filter field on the beam emittance has been investigated, and the beam emittance of a dc filament-discharge plasma has also been compared to that of an rf-generated plasma.

Sarstedt, M.; Lee, Y.; Leung, K.N.; Perkins, L.T.; Pickard, D.S.; Weber, M.; Williams, M.D.

1995-08-01

207

Key issues in plasma source ion implantation  

SciTech Connect

Plasma source ion implantation (PSII) is a scaleable, non-line-of-sight method for the surface modification of materials. In this paper, we consider three important issues that should be addressed before wide-scale commercialization of PSII: (1) implant conformality; (2) ion sources; and (3) secondary electron emission. To insure uniform implanted dose over complex shapes, the ion sheath thickness must be kept sufficiently small. This criterion places demands on ion sources and pulsed-power supplies. Another limitation to date is the availability of additional ion species beyond B, C, N, and 0. Possible solutions are the use of metal arc vaporization sources and plasma discharges in high-vapor-pressure organometallic precursors. Finally, secondary electron emission presents a potential efficiency and x-ray hazard issue since for many metallurgic applications, the emission coefficient can be as large as 20. Techniques to suppress secondary electron emission are discussed.

Rej, D.J.; Faehl, R.J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (United States); Matossian, J.N. [Hughes Research Laboratory, Malibu, CA (United States)

1996-09-01

208

2.45 GHz ECR ion source and expected performance for polarized heavy ion source  

Microsoft Academic Search

A single stage 2.45 GHz ECR (electron cyclotron resonance) ion source has been constructed as the first section of a polarized heavy ion source based on spin and charge exchange collisions. Performance of the ECR ion source measured for ionization of a 3He gas has revealed a sizable difference in the behavior of yields for 3He2+ and 3He+ ions taken

M. Tanaka; T. Ohshima; K. Katori; M. Fujiwara; T. Itahashi; H. Ogata; M. Kondo; L. W. Anderson

1991-01-01

209

DESIGN OF HIGH CURRENT RF ION SOURCE FOR MICROMACHINING APPLICATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquid Metal Ion Source (LMIS) and Gas Field Emission Ion Source (GFEIS) are the major ones in micromachining applications so far. They have limitations of contaminations and low throughput. Plasma based ion sources can produce heavier ions for higher throughput, lighter ions for fabrication of higher resolution structures, ions for doping, ion assisted direct writing of metallic, oxide, nitride and

P. Y. Nabhiraj; Ranjini Menon; C. Mallik; R. K. Bhandari

210

Cold atomic beam ion source for focused ion beam applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report measurements and modeling of an ion source that is based on ionization of a laser-cooled atomic beam. We show a high brightness and a low energy spread, suitable for use in next-generation, high-resolution focused ion beam systems. Our measurements of total ion current as a function of ionization conditions support an analytical model that also predicts the cross-sectional current density and spatial distribution of ions created in the source. The model predicts a peak brightness of 2 × 107 A m-2 sr-1 eV-1 and an energy spread less than 0.34 eV. The model is also combined with Monte-Carlo simulations of the inter-ion Coulomb forces to show that the source can be operated at several picoamperes with a brightness above 1 × 107 A m-2 sr-1 eV-1. We estimate that when combined with a conventional ion focusing column, an ion source with these properties could focus a 1 pA beam into a spot smaller than 1 nm. A total current greater than 5 nA was measured in a lower-brightness configuration of the ion source, demonstrating the possibility of a high current mode of operation.

Knuffman, B.; Steele, A. V.; McClelland, J. J.

2013-07-01

211

On characterization of an ultracold ion source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ultracold ion source (UCIS) is based on creating very cold ion beams (T < 1 mK) by near-threshold photo-ionization of a laser-cooled and trapped ^85Rb gas. The UCIS has the potential of producing ion beams with a brightness and current comparable to the liquid-metal ion source (LMIS), which is the current state-of-art for focused ion beam (FIB) technology. The brightness characterizes the source and is proportional to the ion current, the source temperature and the energy spread. We have already shown that the UCIS can provide much lower energy spread than LMIS, and may therefore offer a route toward 1-nm ion beam milling. The ultra low temperature of the source permits collimated bunches to be created at a low energy (down to few eV), which allows using time-dependent fields for accelerating and focusing. With this lens, a source temperature of (3 ± 2) mK has been measured. A dynamic model of the source describing its properties under pulsed operation has been developed and experiments have been started in order to validate it. The extracted current is the missing ingredient needed to characterize the brightness of the UCIS.

Debernardi, N.; Engelen, W. J.; van Vliembergen, R. W. L.; Mutsaers, P. H. A.; Vredenbregt, E. J. D.; Luiten, O. J.

2011-06-01

212

MEVVA ion source for high current metal ion implantation  

SciTech Connect

The MEVVA (Metal Vapor Vacuum Arc) ion source is a new kind of source which can produce high current beams of metal ions. Beams of a wide range of elements have been produced, spanning the periodic table from lithium up to and including uranium. The source extraction voltage is up to 60 kV, and we are increasing this up to 120 kV. A total ion beam current of over 1 Ampere has been extracted from the present embodiment of the concept, and this is not an inherent limit. The ion charge state distribution varies with cathode material and arc current, and beams like Li/sup +/, Co/sup +,2+,3+/ and U/sup 3+,4+,5+,6+/ for example, are typical; thus the implantation energy can be up to several hundred kilovolts without additional acceleration. The ion source has potential applications for ion implantation and ion beam mixing for achievement of improved corrosion resistance or wear resistance in metals or surface modification of ceramic materials and semiconductors. Here we outline the source and its performance, and describe some very preliminary implantation work using this source.

Brown, I.; Washburn, J.

1986-07-01

213

Prototype negative ion sources for RIB generation  

SciTech Connect

Radioactive ion beams (RIBs) of {sup 17}F and {sup 18}F are of interest for investigation of astrophysical phenomena such as the hot CNO cycle and the rp stellar nuclear synthesis processes. In order to generate useful beam intensities of atomic F{sup {minus}}, the species must be efficiently and expediently released from the target material, thermally dissociated from fluoride release products during transport to the ionization chamber of the ion source, and efficiently ionized in the source upon arrival. The authors have conceived and evaluated two prototype negative ion sources for potential use for RIB generation: (1) a direct extraction source and (2) a kinetic ejection source. Both sources utilize Cs vapor to enhance F{sup {minus}} formation. The mechanical design features, operational parameters, ionization efficiencies for forming atomic F{sup {minus}} and delay times for transport of F and fluoride compounds for the respective sources are presented. The efficiency {eta} for formation and extraction of F{sup {minus}} for the direct extraction negative ion source is found to be {eta} {approximately} 1.0% while the characteristic delay time {tau} for transport of F and fluorides through the source is typically, {eta} {approximately} 120s; the analogous efficiencies and delay times for the kinetic ejection negative ion source are, respectively: {eta} = {approximately}3.2% and {tau} = {approximately}70s.

Alton, G.D.; Murray, S.N. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Welton, R.F.; Williams, C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)]|[Oak Ridge Inst. of Science and Engineering, TN (United States); Cui, B. [China Inst. of Atomic Energy, Beijing (China)

1997-12-01

214

Ion source design criteria for AMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The requirements for AMS solid sample ion sources: high stable currents, high efficiency, low memory effect, rapid sample switching and isobar separation are reviewed and the application of a variety of sources, using negative and neutral primary sputtering beams and thermal ionization, in addition to the traditionally used Cs+ sputter source, is described. Discussion follows on the use of charge

L. R. Kilius; W. E. Kieser; A. E. Litherland; X.-L. Zhao; J. C. Rucklidge; R. P. Beukens

1997-01-01

215

Negative-hydrogen-ion sources  

SciTech Connect

There are two main areas of negative hydrogen ion applications: injection into high energy accelerators and production of beams of energetic hydrogen atoms for fusion devices. In both cases, the ease with which the charge state of negative ions can be changed by either single or double electron stripping is the reason that made their application attractive. In tandem accelerators, the final energy of H/sup +/ ions is twice as high as it would correspond to the terminal voltage, in circular accelerators (synchrotrons, storage rings) injection of H/sup +/ ions by full stripping of H/sup -/ ions in a foil inside the ring is not limited by the Liouville's theorem and results in a higher phase space density than achieved by direct H/sup +/ injection. Finally, beams of hydrogen atoms at energies above 100 keV, which will be required for plasma heating and current drive in future fusion devices, can efficiently be produced only by acceleration of negative ions and their subsequent neutralization.

Prelec, K.

1983-01-01

216

Power Transmission From The ITER Model Negative Ion Source  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Cadarache development on negative ion sources is being carried out on the KAMABOKO III ion source on the MANTIS test bed. This is a model of the ion source designed for the neutral beam injectors of ITER. This ion source has been developed in collaboration with JAERI, Japan, who also designed and supplied the ion source. Its target performance

D. Boilson; H. P. L. de Esch; C. Grand; R. S. Hemsworth; A. Krylov

2007-01-01

217

Mitigating the geometrical limitations of conventional sputtering by controlling the ion-to-neutral ratio during high power pulsed magnetron sputtering  

Microsoft Academic Search

High power pulsed magnetron sputtering has been used to grow thin chromium layers on substrates facing and orthogonal to the target. It is demonstrated that at low peak target current density, jT0.6A\\/cm2 corresponding to a low ion-to-neutral flux ratio, films grown on substrates facing the target exhibit in-plane alignment. This is due to the rectangular shape of the target that

G. Greczynski; J. Jensen; L. Hultman

2011-01-01

218

The effect of substrate bias voltages on impact resistance of CrAlN coatings deposited by modified ion beam enhanced magnetron sputtering  

Microsoft Academic Search

CrAlN coatings were deposited on silicon and AISI H13 steel substrates using a modified ion beam enhanced magnetron sputtering system. The effect of substrate negative bias voltages on the impact property of the CrAlN coatings was studied. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) data show that all CrAlN coatings were crystallized in the cubic NaCl B1 structure, with the (111), (200) (220)

Yu Chunyan; Tian Linhai; Wei Yinghui; Wang Shebin; Li Tianbao; Xu Bingshe

2009-01-01

219

Adhesion and wear properties of TiN films deposited on martensitic stainless steel and Stellite by reactive magnetron sputter ion plating  

Microsoft Academic Search

TiN films were deposited onto the turbine blade materials, AISI 403 martensitic stainless steel and Stellite 6B, using reactive magnetron sputter ion plating. The hardness of the TiN film increases with the residual compressive stress and has a maximum value of 3400 kg\\/mm2 at the substrate bias of about ?75 V. In the scratch adhesion test, the critical loads for

Min Ku Lee; Whung Whoe Kim; Joung Soo Kim; Won Jong Lee

1998-01-01

220

Coating characteristics and tribological properties of sputter-deposited MoS 2\\/metal composite coatings deposited by closed field unbalanced magnetron sputter ion plating  

Microsoft Academic Search

As previously reported (V.C. Fox, N.M. Renevier, D.G., Teer, J. Hampshire, V. Rigato, Proceedings of the PSE Conference in Garmisch Partenkirchen, 14–18 September 1998, Germany, Surf. Coating Technol., in press) the properties of MoS2 coatings deposited by closed field unbalanced magnetron sputter ion plating (CFUBMSIP) can be improved by the co-deposition of a small amount of titanium. These MoS2\\/Ti composite

N. M Renevier; V. C Fox; D. G Teer; J Hampshire

2000-01-01

221

Review of polarized ion sources (invited)  

SciTech Connect

Recent progress in polarized ion sources development is reviewed. New techniques for production of polarized H{sup -} ion (proton), D{sup -} (D{sup +}), and {sup 3}He{sup ++} ion beams are discussed. Feasibility studies of these techniques are in progress at BNL and other laboratories. Polarized deuteron beams will be required for the polarization program at the Dubna Nuclotron and at the deuteron electric dipole moment experiment at BNL. Experiments with polarized {sup 3}He{sup ++} ion beams are a part of the experimental program at the future electron ion collider.

Zelenski, A. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States)

2010-02-15

222

Heavy-ion sources for radiation therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The usefulness of particle beams for radiation therapy has been well and widely recognized. For the cure of cancer patients, many accelerator facilities have already been utilized, and some new facilities are now being put into operation, or are under construction. Considering the medical and biological requirements, light heavy ions with an energy of several hundred MeV/nucleon are regarded as being the most suitable species. A reasonable choice to this end is an accelerator complex, for an example, one comprising an ion source, an injector linac, and a synchrotron. The ion source is of great importance, since its characteristics strongly affect the overall performance of the accelerator system. A pulsed Penning source (PIGIS) has been successfully used at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Recently, at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences a low-duty pulsed PIGIS for the heavy-ion medical accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) has been developed; it has both a long lifetime and a high peak intensity. As other types of ion sources, an electron-beam ion source (EBIS) and an electron-cyclotron-resonance ion source (ECRIS) are being developed at several laboratories. An EBIS is basically a pulsed source, and is being successfully used at Saclay. By using an after-glow mode, two ECRISs have made remarkable progress at Grenoble and the Grand Accelerateur National d'Ions Lourds; similar tests are proceeding for the Schwer-Ionen Synchrotron at the Gesellschaft for Schwer-Ionenforschung, the booster at Centre d'Europeen de Recherche Nucleaire, and the HIMAC. These different types of heavy-ion sources are discussed from the viewpoint of their application to radiation therapy.

Sato, Y.; Kitagawa, A.; Ogawa, H.; Yamada, S.

1994-10-01

223

Studies of reactive ion etching using Colutron hot filament dc plasma ion sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a study of reactive ion etching of silicon, Colutron hot filament de plasma ion sources were used for halocarbon ion production. Mass spectrometric analyses of ions extracted from such sources showed that the ion population was very sensitive to the ion source materials. When CF4 was admitted to a regular Colutron ion source in which the hot filament dc

I. Bello; W. H. Chang; X. H. Feng; W. M. Lau

1993-01-01

224

ECR ion sources and microwave discharge ion sources at LNS: present status and perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most important developments in the field of ion sources at INFN-LNS, Catania, have been based on the generation of warm plasmas by means of microwaves at different frequencies. Indeed, we have built three different 2.45 GHz microwave discharge ion sources for different purposes, ranging from high efficiency ionization of light ions to high current proton beams production. A fourth

G. Ciavola; S. Gammino; L. Celona; L. Torrisi; L. Ando; M. Presti; S. Manciagli

2003-01-01

225

Design and simulation of ion optics for ion sources for production of singly charged ions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last 2 years different types of the singly charged ion sources were developed for FLNR (JINR) new projects such as Dubna radioactive ion beams, (Phase I and Phase II), the production of the tritium ion beam and the MASHA mass separator. The ion optics simulations for 2.45 GHz electron cyclotron resonance source, rf source, and the plasma ion source were performed. In this article the design and simulation results of the optics of new ion sources are presented. The results of simulation are compared with measurements obtained during the experiments.

Zelenak, A.; Bogomolov, S. L.

2004-05-01

226

Three chamber negative ion source  

DOEpatents

A negative ion vessel is divided into an excitation chamber, a negative ionization chamber and an extraction chamber by two magnetic filters. Input means introduces neutral molecules into a first chamber where a first electron discharge means vibrationally excites the molecules which migrate to a second chamber. In the second chamber a second electron discharge means ionizes the molecules, producing negative ions which are extracted into or by a third chamber. A first magnetic filter prevents high energy electrons from entering the negative ionization chamber from the excitation chamber. A second magnetic filter prevents high energy electrons from entering the extraction chamber from the negative ionizing chamber. An extraction grid at the end of the negative ion vessel attracts negative ions into the third chamber and accelerates them. Another grid, located adjacent to the extraction grid, carries a small positive voltage in order to inhibit positive ions from migrating into the extraction chamber and contour the plasma potential. Additional electrons can be suppressed from the output flux using ExB forces provided by magnetic field means and the extractor grid electric potential.

Leung, Ka-Ngo (Hercules, CA); Ehlers, Kenneth W. (Alamo, CA); Hiskes, John R. (Livermore, CA)

1985-01-01

227

H(-) ion source developments at the SNS.  

PubMed

The U.S. Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) will require substantially higher average and pulse H(-) beam currents than can be produced from conventional ion sources such as the base line SNS source. H(-) currents of 40-50 mA (SNS operations) and 70-100 mA (power upgrade project) with a rms emittance of 0.20-0.35pi mm mrad and a approximately 7% duty factor will be needed. We are therefore investigating several advanced ion source concepts based on rf plasma excitation. First, the performance characteristics of an external antenna source based on an Al(2)O(3) plasma chamber combined with an external multicusp magnetic configuration, an elemental Cs system, and plasma gun will be discussed. Second, the first plasma measurements of a helicon-driven H(-) ion source will also be presented. PMID:18315274

Welton, R F; Stockli, M P; Murray, S N; Pennisi, T R; Han, B; Kang, Y; Goulding, R H; Crisp, D W; Sparks, D O; Luciano, N P; Carmichael, J R; Carr, J

2008-02-01

228

H- ion source developments at the SNS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U.S. Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) will require substantially higher average and pulse H- beam currents than can be produced from conventional ion sources such as the base line SNS source. H- currents of 40-50 mA (SNS operations) and 70-100 mA (power upgrade project) with a rms emittance of 0.20-0.35? mm mrad and a ~7% duty factor will be needed. We are therefore investigating several advanced ion source concepts based on rf plasma excitation. First, the performance characteristics of an external antenna source based on an Al2O3 plasma chamber combined with an external multicusp magnetic configuration, an elemental Cs system, and plasma gun will be discussed. Second, the first plasma measurements of a helicon-driven H- ion source will also be presented.

Welton, R. F.; Stockli, M. P.; Murray, S. N.; Pennisi, T. R.; Han, B.; Kang, Y.; Goulding, R. H.; Crisp, D. W.; Sparks, D. O.; Luciano, N. P.; Carmichael, J. R.; Carr, J.

2008-02-01

229

H- ion source developments at the SNS  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) will require substantially higher average and pulse H- beam currents than can be produced from conventional ion sources such as the base line SNS source. H- currents of 40-50 mA (SNS operations) and 70-100 mA (power upgrade project) with an rms emittance of 0.20-0.35 Pi mm mrad and a ~7% duty factor will be needed. We are therefore investigating several advanced ion source concepts based on RF excitation. First, the performance characteristics of an external antenna source based on an Al2O3 plasma chamber combined with an external multicusp magnetic configuration, an elemental Cs system, and plasma gun will be discussed. Second, the first plasma measurements of a helicon-driven H- ion source will also be presented.

Welton, Robert F [ORNL; Stockli, Martin P [ORNL; Murray Jr, S N [ORNL; Pennisi, Terry R [ORNL; Han, Baoxi [ORNL; Kang, Yoon W [ORNL; Goulding, Richard Howell [ORNL; Crisp, Danny W [ORNL; Sparks, Dennis O [ORNL; Luciano, Nicholas P [ORNL; Carmichael, Justin R [ORNL; Carr, Jr, Jerry [ORNL

2008-01-01

230

Lithium alumino-silicate ion source development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report experimental progress on Li+ source development in preparation for warm dense matter heating experiments. To uniformly heat targets to electron-volt temperatures for the study of warm dense matter, we are pursuing the use of a low (E < 5 MeV) kinetic energy singly ionized lithium beam and a thin target. Two kinds of lithium (Li+) alumino-silicate ion sources, ?-spodumene and ?-eucryptite, each of area 0.31 cm2, have been fabricated for ion emission measurements. These surface ionization sources are heated to 1200 to 1300 C where they preferentially emit singly ionized alkali ions. Tight process controls were necessary in preparing and sintering the alumino-silicate to the porous tungsten substrate to produce an emitter that gives uniform ion emission, sufficient current density and low beam emittance. Current density limit of the two kinds have been measured, and ion species identification of possible contaminants has been verified with a Wien (E x B) filter.

Roy, Prabir Kumar; Seidl, Peter A.; Kwan, Joe W.; Greenway, Wayne G.; Waldron, William L.; Wu, James K.; Mazaheri, Kavous

2009-11-01

231

Laser ion sources for radioactive beams (invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Resonant ionisation laser ion sources are nowadays extensively used, when available, at many leading on-line facilities. Moreover, new laser ion sources are now under development in most of the recent on-line facility projects under construction worldwide. This success is mainly due to the reliability, the ionization efficiency and the high purity that this type of source can achieve for the production of radioactive species and for a large range of chemical elements. Laser ion sources for radioactive beams gather many different systems such as dye laser or all-solid state titanium:sapphire laser systems, high or low repetition rates, hot cavities or gas cells, additional selectivity by using chemical techniques, or the LIST technique (laser ion source trap). In this paper, the physics of laser ion sources will be described with the current limitations and challenges for the future. An overview of the laser ion source facilities will be given, with an emphasis on the ongoing developments and perspectives on LIS.

Lecesne, N.

2012-02-01

232

Glow-discharge-driven bucket ion source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A two-stage source of broad beams of gaseous ions employing a glow-discharge plasma cathode and an anode chamber with a peripheral multicusp magnetic field has been studied. A grid, whose potential approached the potential of the screen grid of the ion source, separated the cathode and anode stages. The effect of the energy (0-300 eV), the current of injected electrons (0.2-0.8 A), and the gas pressure (argon) on the plasma parameters and the efficiency of ions extraction from the plasma have been analyzed. The current density of the ions extracted from the magnetic-field-free plasma had a nearly homogeneous distribution (~10%). The beam of 3 keV argon ions was generated using a two-electrode ion optical system with the area of ~50 cm2. The beam current was 60 mA at the electron current of the plasma cathode equal to 0.2 A.

Gavrilov, N. V.; Kamenetskikh, A. S.

2004-05-01

233

State of the Art ECR Ion Sources  

SciTech Connect

Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion source which produces highly-charged ions is used in heavy ion accelerators worldwide. Applications also found in atomic physics research and industry ion implantation. ECR ion source performance continues to improve, especially in the last few years with new techniques, such as multiple-frequency plasma heating and better methods to provide extra cold electrons, combined with higher magnetic mirror fields. So far more than 1 emA of multiply-charged ions such as He{sup 2+} and O{sup 6+}, and 30 e{mu}A of Au{sup 32+}, 1.1 e{mu}A of {sup 238}U{sup 48+}, and epA currents of very high charge states such as {sup 86}Kr{sup 35+} and {sup 238}U{sup 60+} have been produced.

Xie, Z.Q.

1997-05-01

234

Magnetron-sputtered Ag surfaces. New evidence for the nature of the ag ions intervening in bacterial inactivation.  

PubMed

DC-magnetron sputtering with an Ag target on textile surfaces produced Ag particles with sizes approximately 4.7 nm (+/-15%). Sputtering for 15 s led to Ag layers of 15-20 nm. The threshold sputtering time precluding airborne bacterial growth was about 60 s. In this case, the coating was approximately 40-50 nm thick and the cotton Ag loading was 0.0026 wt %. The Ag particle size did not vary significantly with sputtering time between 15 and 600 s. Only coatings above this thickness lead to bacterial inactivation. Ag/Pt targets with sputtering times<60 s did not increase the bactericide performance of the Ag cotton samples with respect to sputtering from an Ag target alone, as expected from the position of Pt respect to Ag in the electrochemical series (Galvanic effect). The Ag cotton deposition led to very thin metallic semitransparent gray color coatings. X-ray of the Ag cotton suggested the presence of amorphous and crystalline Ag species. By X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), it was found that the amount of oxidized silver species on the cotton was similar for sputtering times of 60 and 600 s, but the total amount of Ag deposited was almost two times higher after 600 s sputtering. This suggests that the positive silver-ions were located mainly at the silver interface. The type of silver ions produced using the Ag/Pt sputtering was determined to be very similar at 15, 60, and 600 s with the silver ions produced with the Ag target. This explains the lack of an increased inhibitory effect of Pt during the inactivation of airborne bacteria when present in the Pt/Ag target with respect to the Ag target, because in both cases similar silver ionic species were found. PMID:20356239

Mejía, M I; Restrepo, G; Marín, J M; Sanjines, R; Pulgarín, C; Mielczarski, E; Mielczarski, J; Kiwi, J

2010-01-01

235

Ion source design for industrial applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design of broad-beam industrial ion sources is described. The approach used emphasizes refractory metal cathodes and permanent-magnet multipole discharge chambers. Design procedures and sample calculations are given for the discharge chamber, ion optics, cathodes, and magnetic circuit. Hardware designs are included for the isolator, cathode supports, anode supports, pole-piece assembly, and ion-optics supports. There are other ways of designing

H. R. Kaufman; R. S. Robinson

1981-01-01

236

MEVVA source of multiply charged heavy ions  

SciTech Connect

The metal-vapor vacuum-arc (MEVVA) ion source was fabricated and tested at the Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics. pulsed ion currents of from 200 to 400 mA with a pulse duration of 0.1 msec are produced. The charge-multiplicity distributions are measured for ions of seven elements (Be, C, Al, Fe, Cu, Zr, and W). 7 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

Kats, M.M.; Kondrat`ev, L.N.; Pomelov, N.N.; Rogal`, A.D. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

1992-03-01

237

University of Washington Polarized Ion Source.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A brief description is given of an ion source, including the duoplasmatron, cesium cell, vacuum enclosure, electrostatic lens elements, Wein precessor, and acceleration tube. Present operation is stable and reproducible. (ERA citation 02:001388)

T. A. Trainor W. B. Ingalls

1976-01-01

238

Enhancing the performances of ECR Ion Sources  

SciTech Connect

The performances of ECR ion sources can be enhanced in the spatial domain by tailoring the central magnetic field so that it is uniformly distributed over a large plasma volume and is of magnitude so as to be in resonance with single frequency microwave radiation. Analogously, the performances of conventional minimum-B ECR ion sources can be enhanced in the frequency domain by injecting multiple discrete frequency or broadband microwave radiation into their plasma volumes. In this report, examples of both the spatial-and frequency-domain techniques will be given. For example, the design aspects of an all permanent-magnet ''volume-type'' (spatial-domain) ECR ion source will be described and the effects of injecting multiple frequencies (frequency-domain) on the charge-state-distributions extracted from a conventional minimum-B ECR ion source will be presented.

Alton, G.D.; Liu, Y.

1999-03-29

239

Plasma source of negative hydrogen ions  

SciTech Connect

Theoretical and numerical investigations are reported concerning the physical processes within a plasma source of negative hydrogen ions; the source described was developed at the Physical Institute of the National Academy of Sciences, Ukraine. The source consists of a heated-cathode reflective discharge with extraction of the H{sup {minus}} ions across the magnetic field direction. The theoretical part of the work includes the calculation of gas-discharge plasma parameters for given values of near-cathode electron energy and current, gas pressure, and discharge gap geometry. The plasma parameters, including the H{sup {minus}} ion concentration, were determined by numerically solving the Boltzmann equation, taking account of the main collision processes in the plasma volume, as well as at the surface of the discharge chamber. The main theoretical and experimental results are as follows: (1) Efficient source operation can be ensured provided the H{sup {minus}} ions are not extracted from the discharge column, but rather from the drift plasma with an electron temperature of no more than 1 eV. (2) Increase in the specific power deposition W to the discharge volume up to 500 W/cm{sup 3} resulted in a H{sup {minus}} ion emission current growth. Further increase in the specific power deposition W leads to current saturation due to the H{sup {minus}} ion losses in collisions with both hydrogen atoms and plasma electrons. (3) Cesium vapor doping resulted in an order of magnitude increase in the gaseous efficiency of the source. This phenomenon was not related to a growth of the H{sup {minus}} ion production efficiency in plasma. In fact, it could be accounted for by a considerable enhancement of the flow of H{sup {minus}} ions produced at the discharge anode cesium-activated surface due to charge exchange of fast positive ions and atoms. (4) Using a pulse repetitive source operation mode instead of the CW mode increased the plasma source efficiency.

Goretskii, V.P., Ryabtsev, A.V., Soloshenko, I.A. [Physical Institute (Ukraine)] [and others

1994-09-01

240

Design of long pulse/steady state negative hydrogen ion sources for fusion applications  

SciTech Connect

By using parameters of ion sources when operating in a pulsed mode and without cooling (pulse length < 0.1 s), requirements have been determined for a long pulse (several seconds) or steady state operating mode and two sources have been designed and fabricated. First of the two is a penning source, designed for a steady state operation with a cathode power density of 1 kW/cm/sup 2/. For the range of cathode power densities between 0.2 kW/cm/sup 2/ and 1 Kw/cm/sup 2/, nucleated boiling has to be used for heat removal; below 0.2 kW/cm/sup 2/ water flow cooling suffices. Although this source should deliver 0.3 to 0.5 A of H/sup -/ ions in a steady state operation and at full power, the other source, which has a magnetron geometry, is more promising. The latter incorporates two new features compared to first designs, geometrical focusing of fast, primary negative hydrogen ions from the cathode into the extraction slit, and a wider discharge gap in the back of the source. These two changes have resulted in an improvement of the power and gas efficiencies by a factor of 3 to 4 and in a reduction of the cathode power density by an order of magnitude. The source has water cooling for all the electrodes, because maximum power densities will not be higher than 0.2 kW/cm/sup 2/. Very recently a modification of this magnetron source is being considered; it consists of plasma injection into the source from a hollow cathode discharge.

Prelec, K.

1980-01-01

241

Beam investigations at a multicusp ion source  

Microsoft Academic Search

In cooperation with the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, a multicusp ion source has been investigated. The goal of these investigations is to generate a nearly pure atomic nitrogen (N+) ion beam. To achieve this, the discharge chamber is divided into two parts of different plasma parameters by means of a filter magnetic field. As beam diagnostics, a bending magnet and a

K. Volk; H. Klein; K. N. Leung

1992-01-01

242

Very Large Scale Plasma Source Ion Implantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plasma Source Ion Implantation (PSII) is a technology in the process of being commercialized for the surface enhancement of industrial components.( Plasma-Based Processing of Materials for Motor Vehicle Components and Manufacturing Applications, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Advanced Technology Program, Focused Program 95-02) The process is based on the utilization of plasma sheath characteristics to accelerate and implant ions

Carter P. Munson

1997-01-01

243

ION SOURCE UNIT FOR A CALUTRON  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improvement in the ion-producing mechanism for use in a calutron is ; described. In its broad aspects the improvement comprises the addition of shieid ; plates between the electron emitting filannent of the ion source and the ; ionization chamber. An aperture in one of the shields provides a path for ; electrons from the filament to enter the

Brobeck

1958-01-01

244

Design of ion source for LANSCE upgrade  

Microsoft Academic Search

The upgrade of the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) Facility will require high intensity H- beams. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has been contracted by Los Alamos to develop an H- ion generator that will meet the LANSCE upgrade requirements. H- current is to be increased from the present 18 mA to 40 mA. The current LANSCE ion source

M. Williams; R. Gough; K. Leung; R. Low; C. Matuk; R. Thomae; S. Wilde

1999-01-01

245

Ionization Phenomena and Sources of Negative Ions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Negative ion source technology has rapidly advanced during the past several years as a direct consequence of the discovery of Krohn that negative ion yields can be greatly enhanced by sputtering in the presence of Group IA elements. Today, most negative i...

G. D. Alton

1983-01-01

246

Design of magnet and control of the beam emittance for Penning H- ion source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design requirement and principle of the deflection magnet for Magnetron and Penning H- ion source are discussed. It is proved that there exists a maximum emittance for the beam that may be transformed by the magnet into a state with equal Twiss parameters of ?r = ?y and ?r = ?y, which is the requisite condition to get a minimum emittance at the entrance of RFQ after transporting by a LEBT with solenoids. For this maximum emittance, the corresponding magnetic field gradient index is 1.

Ouyang, Hua-Fu; Zhang, Hua-Shun

2008-08-01

247

Simulation and analysis of solenoidal ion sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a detailed analysis and simulation of solenoidal, magnetically confined electron bombardment ion sources, aimed at molecular beam detection. The aim is to achieve high efficiency for singly ionized species while minimizing multiple ionization. Electron space charge plays a major role and we apply combined ray tracing and finite element simulations to determine the properties of a realistic geometry. The factors controlling electron injection and ion extraction are discussed. The results from simulations are benchmarked against experimental measurements on a prototype source.

Alderwick, A. R.; Jardine, A. P.; Hedgeland, H.; MacLaren, D. A.; Allison, W.; Ellis, J.

2008-12-01

248

Characteristics of the Berkeley multicusp ion source  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of a cubical permanent magnet generated line-cusp ion source has been investigated for use with neutral beam injectors. This source has been operated with discharge currents greater than 500 A and ion current densities higher than 400 mA\\/cm2 at the extraction grid. The uniformity of the density profile across the extraction area is found to be dependent on

K. W. Ehlers; K. N. Leung

1979-01-01

249

Fabrication of ion source components by electroforming  

SciTech Connect

Several components of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)/Magnetic Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) ion source have been fabricated utilizing an electroforming process. A procedure has been developed for enclosing coolant passages in copper components by electrodepositing a thick (greater than or equal to 0.75-mm) layer of copper (electroforming) over the top of grooves machined into the copper component base. Details of the procedure to fabricate acceleration grids and other ion source components are presented.

Schechter, D.E.; Sluss, F.

1983-01-01

250

ITER DNB ion source movement mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 100kV negative hydrogen ion source based Diagnostic Neutral Beam (DNB) injector, a part of Indian (IN) Procurement Package for ITER. DNB is expected to deliver 18–20A of hydrogen neutral beam to the ITER plasma through a narrow blanket aperture of size 0.40(H)×0.45(V)m2, at a distance ?20.67m from the ion source position. Due to long transport length, a small misalignment

M. Bandyopadhyay; Irfan Ahmed; G. Roopesh; M. J. Singh; C. Rotti; S. Shah; A. Phukan; R. K. Yadav; A. K. Chakraborty

2011-01-01

251

Laser ion source development at Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report describes the efforts made to develop a resonant-ionization laser ion source based on tunable Ti:sapphire lasers for nuclear physics and astrophysics research at Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility. Three Ti:sapphire lasers have been upgraded with individual pump lasers to eliminate laser power losses due to synchronization delays. Ionization schemes for 14 elements have been obtained. Off-line studies show that the overall efficiency of the laser ion source can be as high as 40%. TaC surface coatings have been investigated for minimizing surface and bulk trapping of the atoms of interest.

Liu, Y.; Gottwald, T.; Havener, C. C.; Howe, J. Y.; Kiggans, J.; Mattolat, C.; Vane, C. R.; Wendt, K.; Beene, J. R.

2012-02-01

252

Laser ion source development at Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the efforts made to develop a resonant-ionization laser ion source based on tunable Ti:sapphire lasers for nuclear physics and astrophysics research at Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility. Three Ti:sapphire lasers have been upgraded with individual pump lasers to eliminate laser power losses due to synchronization delays. Ionization schemes for 14 elements have been obtained. Off-line studies show that the overall efficiency of the laser ion source can be as high as 40%. TaC surface coatings have been investigated for minimizing surface and bulk trapping of the atoms of interest.

Liu, Y.; Havener, C. C.; Beene, J. R. [Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Gottwald, T.; Mattolat, C.; Vane, C. R.; Wendt, K. [Institute of Physics, University of Mainz, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); Howe, J. Y.; Kiggans, J. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

2012-02-15

253

Ion production from solid state laser ion sources  

SciTech Connect

Laser ion sources based on resonant excitation and ionization of atoms are well-established tools for selective and efficient production of radioactive ion beams. Recent developments are focused on the use of the state-of-the-art all solid-state laser systems. To date, 35 elements of the periodic table are available from laser ion sources based on tunable Ti:sapphire lasers. Recent progress in this field regarding the establishment of suitable optical excitation schemes for Ti:sapphire lasers are reported.

Gottwald, T.; Mattolat, C.; Raeder, S.; Wendt, K. [Institute for Physics, University of Mainz, Staudinger Weg 7, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Havener, C.; Liu, Y. [Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Lassen, J. [TRIUMF-ISAC Division, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 2A3 (Canada); Rothe, S. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneve 23 (Switzerland)

2010-02-15

254

Ion production from solid state laser ion sources  

SciTech Connect

Laser ion sources based on resonant excitation and ionization of atoms are well-established tools for selective and efficient production of radioactive ion beams. Recent developments are focused on the use of the state-of-the-art all solid-state laser systems. To date, 35 elements of the periodic table are available from laser ion sources based on tunable Ti:sapphire lasers. Recent progress in this field regarding the establishment of suitable optical excitation schemes for Ti:sapphire lasers are reported.

Gottwald, T. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Mainz, Germany; Havener, Charles C [ORNL; Lassen, J. [TRIUMF, Canada; Liu, Yuan [ORNL; Mattolat, C. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Mainz, Germany; Raeder, S. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Mainz, Germany; Rothe, S. [CERN, Geneva, Switzerland; Wendt, K. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Mainz, Germany

2010-01-01

255

Ion production from solid state laser ion sources.  

PubMed

Laser ion sources based on resonant excitation and ionization of atoms are well-established tools for selective and efficient production of radioactive ion beams. Recent developments are focused on the use of the state-of-the-art all solid-state laser systems. To date, 35 elements of the periodic table are available from laser ion sources based on tunable Ti:sapphire lasers. Recent progress in this field regarding the establishment of suitable optical excitation schemes for Ti:sapphire lasers are reported. PMID:20192369

Gottwald, T; Havener, C; Lassen, J; Liu, Y; Mattolat, C; Raeder, S; Rothe, S; Wendt, K

2010-02-01

256

Ion Heating in Pulsed Helicon Sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous measurements demonstrated a strong correlation between ion temperature and the ratio of the antenna frequency to the local lower hybrid frequency. When strong ion heating occurs, the ion temperature profile in steady-state helicon sources is flat or peaked at the edge; suggesting an edge localized ion heating mechanism. The same parameters that yield the largest ion temperatures are also predicted to have the strongest damping of slow waves in the edge. Here we present observations that further support the conclusion that short wavelength slow waves parametrically decay into electrostatic modes and also directly heat ions. Collective Thomson scattering measurements indicate significant wave power at frequencies of f ˜ 100 kHz and perpendicular wave numbers of ˜ 89 rad/cm. The waves are localized to the same region as lower frequency ion acoustic waves are observed with probes. By pulsing the helicon source and observing the time evolution of the ion temperature profile, we find that the ion temperature profile flattens out and then becomes hollow at the same time the parametrically driven ion acoustic waves appear.

Scime, Earl; Magee, Richard; Carr, Jerry, Jr.; Galante, Matthew; Lusk, Greg; McCarren, Dustin; Reynolds, Eric; Sears, Stephanie; Vandervort, Robert; Hardin, Robert

2011-11-01

257

Tungsten Transport in an Ion Source  

SciTech Connect

We present a study that gives a deeper insight into the failure mechanism of tungsten ion sources used for ion implantation in the semiconductor industry. Our experimental data, corroborated by literature thermodynamics reports, indicates that tungsten migration is the primary cause of failure for processes utilizing fluorine-containing feed gases. It is shown that tungsten is the predominant constituent of most deposits, and that volatile tungsten fluorides are the transport species responsible for metal redistribution in ion sources. It was also demonstrated that AutoClean, a new product of ATMI, can be used for filament growth control.

Byl, O.; Yedave, S.; Sergi, S.; Sweeney, J.; Bishop, S.; Kaim, R.; Eldridge, D. [ATMI, 7 Commerce Drive, Danbury, Connecticut (United States)

2008-11-03

258

Laser ion source with solenoid for Brookhaven National Laboratory-electron beam ion source  

SciTech Connect

The electron beam ion source (EBIS) preinjector at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is a new heavy ion-preinjector for relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC) and NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL). Laser ion source (LIS) is a primary ion source provider for the BNL-EBIS. LIS with solenoid at the plasma drift section can realize the low peak current ({approx}100 {mu}A) with high charge ({approx}10 nC) which is the BNL-EBIS requirement. The gap between two solenoids does not cause serious plasma current decay, which helps us to make up the BNL-EBIS beamline.

Kondo, K.; Okamura, M. [Collider-Accelerator Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, New York (United States); Yamamoto, T. [Cooperative Major in Nuclear Energy, Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan); Sekine, M. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

2012-02-15

259

Laser ion source with solenoid for Brookhaven National Laboratory-electron beam ion source.  

PubMed

The electron beam ion source (EBIS) preinjector at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is a new heavy ion-preinjector for relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC) and NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL). Laser ion source (LIS) is a primary ion source provider for the BNL-EBIS. LIS with solenoid at the plasma drift section can realize the low peak current (?100 ?A) with high charge (?10 nC) which is the BNL-EBIS requirement. The gap between two solenoids does not cause serious plasma current decay, which helps us to make up the BNL-EBIS beamline. PMID:22380298

Kondo, K; Yamamoto, T; Sekine, M; Okamura, M

2012-02-01

260

Laser ion source with solenoid for Brookhaven National Laboratory-electron beam ion source  

SciTech Connect

The electron beam ion source (EBIS) preinjector at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is a new heavy ion-preinjector for relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC) and NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL). Laser ion source (LIS) is a primary ion source provider for the BNL-EBIS. LIS with solenoid at the plasma drift section can realize the low peak current ({approx}100 {micro}A) with high charge ({approx}10 nC) which is the BNL-EBIS requirement. The gap between two solenoids does not cause serious plasma current decay, which helps us to make up the BNL-EBIS beamline.

Kondo K.; Yamamoto, T.; Sekine, M.; Okamura, M.

2012-02-22

261

H- Ion Source Development for the National Spallation Neutron Source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ion source for the 1 MW National Spallation Neutron Source (NSNS) is required to provide 35 mA of H- beam current (1 ms pulses at 60 Hz) at 65 keV with a normalized rms emittance of less than 0.2 #185# mm mrad. The same ion source should be able to produce 70 mA of H- at 6% duty factor when the NSNS is upgraded to 2 MW of power. For this application, a radio-frequency driven, magnetically filtered multicusp source is now being developed at LBNL. In preliminary experiments with an existing ion source developed for the Superconducting Super Collider, 16 mA of H- ions were extracted at an accelerated voltage of 10 kV and an RF output power of 20 kW without cesium. The design of a new source equipped with a cesium dispenser-collar, a fast ion beam pre-chopper (rise times < 100 ns) and a strong permanent-magnet insert for electron deflection will be presented. [This research is sponsored by the Division of Materials Sciences, DOE, under contract DE-AC05-96OR22464 with Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corp.

Leitner, M.; Gough, R.; Leung, K. N.; Rickard, M.; Wengrow, A. B.; Williams, M. D.; Wutte, D.

1997-05-01

262

Microstructure and mechanical properties of CrAlN coatings deposited by modified ion beam enhanced magnetron sputtering on AISI H13 steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

CrAlN coatings were deposited on silicon and AISI H13 steel substrates using a modified ion beam enhanced magnetron sputtering\\u000a system. At the modified ion beam bombardment, the effects of bias voltage and Al\\/(Cr + Al) ratio on microstructure and mechanical\\u000a properties of the coatings were studied. The X-ray diffraction data showed that all CrAlN coatings were crystallized in the\\u000a cubic NaCl B1

Chunyan Yu; Shebin Wang; Linhai Tian; Tianbao Li; Bingshe Xu

2009-01-01

263

Molecular phosphorus ion source for semiconductor technology  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents results on the generation of molecular phosphorus ion beams in a hot filament ion source. Solid red phosphorous is evaporated mainly as tetra-atomic molecules up to a temperature of 800 deg. C. Thus, one of the main conditions for producing maximum P{sub 4}{sup +} fraction in the beam is to keep the temperature of the phosphorous oven, the steam line and the discharge chamber walls no greater than 800 deg. C. The prior version of our ion source was equipped with a discharge chamber cooling system. The modified source ensured a P{sub 4}{sup +} ion beam current greater than 30% of the total beam current.

Gushenets, V. I.; Bugaev, A. S.; Oks, E. M. [Institute of High Current Electronics SB RAS, Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation); Hershcovitch, A. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Kulevoy, T. V. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow 117218 (Russian Federation)

2012-02-15

264

Characterization of a metastable lithium ion source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent developments have been made in the atomic theory of the two electron system. Precision measurements of the fine and hyperfine structure splittings of Li+ present a rigorous test of the theory. In particular, the examination of the 1s2s 3S 1 ? 1s2p 3P transition is facilitated with readily available dye lasers. Using a metastable lithium ion source offers an ideal approach to preparing ions in the 1s2s 3S1 state. In this experiment, the characterization of such a source is presented. The ion source energy distribution responsible for the optimization of the ion beam is discussed. In addition, the effect of these ion source energy distributions on the laser induced fluorescence was examined. An electron beam, created by heating a tungsten filament, was focussed by a magnetic field onto a neutral lithium beam. The Li ions were extracted by applying a high voltage between the ion source and an extractor element. A photon counter recorded the fluorescence induced from a counterpropagating 548.5 nm dye laser. Ion beam currents of 1.5 muA and fluorescence peak linewidths of 150 MHz were acheived. These were obtained for a current of 16 A put through the electron filament, an electron acceleration voltage of 550 V, a magnetic field of 250 Gauss, a Li oven temperature of 650 °C and an ion acceleration voltage of 4.5 keV. The recorded fluorescence peak linewidths compared very well with other work and in certain cases were an order of magnitude narrower.

Chemali, Ephrem

265

Low temperature ion source for calutrons  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new ion source assembly for calutrons has been provided for the efficient separation of elements having high vapor pressures. The strategic location of cooling pads and improved insulation permits operation of the source at lower temperatures. A vapor valve constructed of graphite and located in a constantly increasing temperature gradient provides reliable control of the vapor flow from the

W. A. Bell; G. D. Howell; A. M. Veach

1981-01-01

266

Low temperature ion source for calutrons  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new ion source assembly for calutrons has been provided for the efficient separation of elements having high vapor pressures. The strategic location of cooling pads and improved insulation permits operation of the source at lower temperatures. A vapor valve constructed of graphite and located in a constantly increasing temperature gradient provides reliable control of the vapor flow from the

A. M. Veach; W. A. Jr. Bell; G. D. Jr. Howell

1979-01-01

267

Energy spread of ion beams generated in multicusp ion sources  

SciTech Connect

For the production of future microelectronics devices, various alternate methods are currently being considered to replace the presently used method of lithography with ion beam lithography. One of these methods is the Ion Projection Lithography (IPL), which aims at the possibility of projecting sub-0.25 {mu}m patterns of a stencil mask onto a wafer substrate. In order to keep the chromatic aberrations below 25 nm, an ion source which delivers a beam with energy spread of less than 3 eV is desired. For this application, multicusp ion sources are being considered. We measure the longitudinal energy spread of the plasma ions by using a two-grid electrostatic energy analyzer. The energy spread of the extracted beam is measured by a high-voltage retarding-field energy analyzer. In order to obtain the transverse ion temperature, a parallel-plate scanner is being set up to study the beam emittance. In this paper, comparisons are made for different ion source configurations.

Sarstedt, M.; Herz, P.; Kunkel, W.B. [and others

1995-04-01

268

Investigation of MEVVA ion source for metal ion injection into accelerators at GSI  

Microsoft Academic Search

High current metal ion production is a challenging task for ion source designers. The MEVVA ion source has proven to be a useful tool for accelerator injection and for ion implantation. We have investigated the MEVVA ion source in connection with the GSI heavy ion accelerators. At the Unilac accelerator as injector for the heavy ion Synchrotron SIS (1 Hz

B. H. Wolf; H. Emig

1994-01-01

269

Low temperature ion source for calutrons  

SciTech Connect

A new ion source assembly for calutrons has been provided for the efficient separation of elements having high vapor pressures. The strategic location of cooling pads and improved insulation permits operation of the source at lower temperatures. A vapor valve constructed of graphite and located in a constantly increasing temperature gradient provides reliable control of the vapor flow from the charge bottle to the arc chamber. A pronounced saving in calutron operating time and equipment maintenance has been achieved with the use of the present ion source.

Bell, W. A.; Howell, G. D.; Veach, A. M.

1981-02-24

270

Low temperature ion source for calutrons  

DOEpatents

A new ion source assembly for calutrons has been provided for the efficient separation of elements having high vapor pressures. The strategic location of cooling pads and improved insulation permits operation of the source at lower temperatures. A vapor valve constructed of graphite and located in a constantly increasing temperature gradient provides reliable control of the vapor flow from the charge bottle to the arc chamber. A pronounced saving in calutron operating time and equipment maintenance has been achieved with the use of the present ion source.

Veach, Allen M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Bell, Jr., William A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Howell, Jr., George D. (Clinton, TN)

1981-01-01

271

A pulsed triple ionization source for sequential ion\\/ion reactions in an electrodynamic ion trap  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pulsed triple ionization source, using a common atmosphere\\/vacuum interface and ion path, has been developed to generate\\u000a different types of ions for sequential ion\\/ion reaction experiments in a linear ion trap-based tandem mass spectrometer. The\\u000a triple ionization source typically consists of a nano-electrospray emitter for analyte formation and two other emitters, an\\u000a electrospray emitter and an atmospheric pressure chemical

Xiaorong Liang; Hongling Han; Yu Xia; Scott A. McLuckey

2007-01-01

272

Preliminary tests for the electron cyclotron resonance ion source coupled to a laser ion source for charge state enhancement experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the Laboratori Nazionali del Sud we have designed a hybrid ion source, consisting of a laser ion source as first stage, which gives intense currents of electrons and of multiply charged ions, followed by an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source as a second stage, which should act as a charge state multiplier. The ECR ion source coupled to

S. Gammino; G. Ciavola; L. Torrisi; L. Celona; J. Wolowski; E. Woryna; P. Parys; L. Làska; J. Kràsa; G. D. Shirkov

2000-01-01

273

CALUTRON ION SOURCE SLIT CLEANER  

Microsoft Academic Search

An apparatus is described for removing deposits from the beam forming ; slits of the source without affecting the vacuum. A scraper element having a ; configuration conforming to the cross section of the slit is posttioned therein, ; and linkage is provided for moving the scraper along the slit and for retracting ; the scraper to one end during

Starr

1959-01-01

274

Light ion helicon plasma sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Helicon plasma sources are capable of producing high density plasma using steady state solenoid or mirror-like magnetic fields with a wide variety of gases. Power to produce the plasma is supplied by various antenna configurations driven at frequencies typically ranging from 1 to 50 MHz. The ability to obtain high plasma densities with high fractional ionization using readily available, low-cost

M. D. Carter; F. W. Baity; R. H. Goulding; E. F. Jaeger; F. R. Chang-Díaz; J. P. Squire

2001-01-01

275

Ion Source Development at the SNS  

SciTech Connect

The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) now routinely operates near 1 MW of beam power on target with a highly-persistent {approx}38 mA peak current in the linac and an availability of {approx}90%. The {approx}1 ms-long, 60 Hz, {approx}50 mA H{sup -} beam pulses are extracted from a Cs-enhanced, multi-cusp, RF-driven, internal-antenna ion source. An electrostatic LEBT (Low Energy Beam Transport) focuses the 65 kV beam into the RFQ accelerator. The ion source and LEBT have normally a combined availability of {approx}99%. Although much progress has been made over the last years to achieve this level of availability further improvements are desirable. Failures of the internal antenna and occasionally impaired electron dump insulators require several source replacements per year. An attempt to overcome the antenna issues with an AlN external antenna source early in 2009 had to be terminated due to availability issues. This report provides a comprehensive review of the design, experimental history, status, and description of recently updated components and future plans for this ion source. The mechanical design for improved electron dump vacuum feedthroughs is also presented, which is compatible with the baseline and both external antenna ion sources.

Welton, R. F.; Han, B. X.; Kenik, E. A.; Murray, S. N.; Pennisi, T. R.; Potter, K. G.; Lang, B. R.; Santana, M.; Stockli, M. P. [Spallation Neutron Source, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN, 37830-647 (United States); Desai, N. J. [Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Worcester, MA, 01609 (United States)

2011-09-26

276

Ion Source Development at the SNS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) now routinely operates near 1 MW of beam power on target with a highly-persistent ~38 mA peak current in the linac and an availability of ~90%. The ~1 ms-long, 60 Hz, ~50 mA H- beam pulses are extracted from a Cs-enhanced, multi-cusp, RF-driven, internal-antenna ion source. An electrostatic LEBT (Low Energy Beam Transport) focuses the 65 kV beam into the RFQ accelerator. The ion source and LEBT have normally a combined availability of ~99%. Although much progress has been made over the last years to achieve this level of availability further improvements are desirable. Failures of the internal antenna and occasionally impaired electron dump insulators require several source replacements per year. An attempt to overcome the antenna issues with an AlN external antenna source early in 2009 had to be terminated due to availability issues. This report provides a comprehensive review of the design, experimental history, status, and description of recently updated components and future plans for this ion source. The mechanical design for improved electron dump vacuum feedthroughs is also presented, which is compatible with the baseline and both external antenna ion sources.

Welton, R. F.; Desai, N. J.; Han, B. X.; Kenik, E. A.; Murray, S. N.; Pennisi, T. R.; Potter, K. G.; Lang, B. R.; Santana, M.; Stockli, M. P.

2011-09-01

277

Ion source based on the cathodic arc  

DOEpatents

A cylindrically symmetric arc source to produce a ring of ions which leave the surface of the arc target radially and are reflected by electrostatic fields present in the source to a point of use, such as a part to be coated, is described. An array of electrically isolated rings positioned in the source serves the dual purpose of minimizing bouncing of macroparticles and providing electrical insulation to maximize the electric field gradients within the source. The source also includes a series of baffles which function as a filtering or trapping mechanism for any macroparticles. 3 figures.

Sanders, D.M.; Falabella, S.

1994-02-01

278

DUAL HEATED ION SOURCE STRUCTURE HAVING ARC SHIFTING MEANS  

DOEpatents

An ion source is presented for calutrons, particularly an electrode arrangement for the ion generator of a calutron ion source. The ion source arc chamber is heated and an exit opening with thermally conductive plates defines the margins of the opening. These plates are electrically insulated from the body of the ion source and are connected to a suitable source of voltage to serve as electrodes for shaping the ion beam egressing from the arc chamber.

Lawrence, E.O.

1959-04-14

279

The status of the spallation neutron source ion source  

SciTech Connect

The ion source for the spallation neutron source (SNS) is a radio-frequency, multicusp source designed to deliver 45 mA of H2 to the SNS accelerator with a pulse length of 1 ms and repetition rate of 60 Hz. A total of three ion sources have been fabricated and commissioned at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and subsequently delivered to the SNS at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The ion sources are currently being rotated between operation on the SNS accelerator, where they are involved in ongoing efforts to commission the SNS LINAC, and the hot spare stand (HSS), where high-current tests are in progress. Commissioning work involves operating the source in a low duty-factor mode (pulse width {approx}200 ms and repetition rate {approx}5 Hz) for extended periods of time while the high-current tests involve source operation at full duty-factor of 6 percent (1 ms/60 Hz). This report discusses routine performance of the source employed in the commissioning role as well as the initial results o f high-current tests performed on the HSS.

Welton, R.F.; Stockli, M.P.; Murray, S.N.; Keller, R.

2003-09-11

280

The status of the spallation neutron source ion source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ion source for the spallation neutron source (SNS) is a radio-frequency, multicusp source designed to deliver 45 mA of H- to the SNS accelerator with a pulse length of 1 ms and repetition rate of 60 Hz. A total of three ion sources have been fabricated and commissioned at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and subsequently delivered to the SNS at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The ion sources are currently being rotated between operation on the SNS accelerator, where they are involved in ongoing efforts to commission the SNS LINAC, and the hot spare stand (HSS), where high-current tests are in progress. Commissioning work involves operating the source in a low duty-factor mode (pulse width ~200 ?s and repetition rate ~5 Hz) for extended periods of time while the high-current tests involve source operation at full duty-factor of 6% (1 ms/60 Hz). This report discusses routine performance of the source employed in the commissioning role as well as the initial results of high-current tests performed on the HSS.

Welton, R. F.; Stockli, M. P.; Murray, S. N.; Keller, R.

2004-05-01

281

Single-ring magnetic cusp ion source  

SciTech Connect

The single-ring cusp ion source discussed in this paper was developed to provide a dc ion beam in a nonpumped D--T neutron generator. The source operates at 0.25 Pa and produces a uniform-density beam through an aperture of 1.3-cm diameter. At the standard operating voltage of 150 V and arc current of 10 A, the atomic ion content of the 200-mA deuterium ion beam is about 60%, and the ion impurity level is less than 0.5%. The ion output of the source was examined at arc currents of up to 40 A and found to be a linear function; in addition, very high D/sup +/ yields were realized. With the aid of a shielded Langmuir probe, we have determined such plasma properties as electron energy, plasma potential, floating potential, and current density throughout the volume of the source. It was observed that the plasma is effectively confined by the magnetic field and there is evidence of an electron energy filtering mechanism similar to that found in multicusp ion sources. Electron energy on the filament side of the cusp has been determined to be about 75 eV and on the aperture side about 12 eV. Since the electron impact cross section for ionizing diatomic deuterium is maximum at 75 eV and the cross section for dissociating D/sup +//sub 2/ to D/sup +/ is greatest near 12 eV, we believe that a very effective two-step ionization process accounts for the high D/sup +/ yield of the single-ring magnetic cusp source. Plasma potentials measured have values close to the voltage of the anode, and the floating potentials are seen to be directly related to electron energy values. The floating potential is near cathode voltage where electron energies are high, and close to anode voltage where electron energies are low.

Brainard, J.P.; O'Hagan, J.B.

1983-11-01

282

Ion Source Development at the SNS  

SciTech Connect

The US Spallation Neutron Source* (SNS) has recently begun producing neutrons and is currently on track to becoming a world-leading facility for materials science based on neutron scattering. The facility is comprised of an H- ion source, a linear accelerator, an accumulator ring, a liquid-Hg target and a suite of neutron scattering instruments. Over the next several years the average H- current from the ion source will be increased in order to meet the baseline facility requirement of providing 1.4 MW of beam-power to the target and the SNS power upgrade power requirement of 2+ MW on target. Meeting the latter goal will require H- currents of 70-100 mA with an RMS emittance of 0.20-0.35 mm mrad and a ~7% duty-factor. To date, the RF-driven multicusp SNS ion source has only been able to demonstrate sustained operation at 33 mA of beam current at a ~7% duty-factor. This report details our efforts to develop variations of the current ion source which can meet the final requirements: designs and experimental results are presented for source versions featuring helicon plasma generators, high-power external antennas employing Cs, glow-discharge plasma guns supplying supplemental electrons and advanced Cs collars.

Welton, Robert F [ORNL; Stockli, Martin P [ORNL; Murray Jr, S N [ORNL; Carr, Jr, Jerry [ORNL; Carmichael, Justin R [ORNL; Goulding, Richard Howell [ORNL; Baity Jr, F Wallace [ORNL

2006-01-01

283

Spallation neutron source saddle antenna H- ion source project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this project we are developing an H- source which will synthesize the most important developments in the field of negative ion sources to provide high current, high brightness, good lifetime, high reliability, and high power efficiency. We describe two planned modifications to the present spallation neutron source external antenna source in order to increase the plasma density near the output aperture: (1) replacing the present 2 MHz plasma-forming solenoid antenna with a 13 MHz saddle-type antenna and (2) replacing the permanent multicusp magnetic system with a weaker electromagnet.

Dudnikov, Vadim; Johnson, Rolland P.; Dudnikova, Galina; Stockli, Martin; Welton, Robert

2010-02-01

284

Spallation neutron source saddle antenna H- ion source project.  

PubMed

In this project we are developing an H(-) source which will synthesize the most important developments in the field of negative ion sources to provide high current, high brightness, good lifetime, high reliability, and high power efficiency. We describe two planned modifications to the present spallation neutron source external antenna source in order to increase the plasma density near the output aperture: (1) replacing the present 2 MHz plasma-forming solenoid antenna with a 13 MHz saddle-type antenna and (2) replacing the permanent multicusp magnetic system with a weaker electromagnet. PMID:20192379

Dudnikov, Vadim; Johnson, Rolland P; Dudnikova, Galina; Stockli, Martin; Welton, Robert

2010-02-01

285

Development of a high-current microwave ion source for Korean Multipurposed Accelerator (abstract)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high-current, proton linear accelerator, named as Korean multipurposed accelerator (KOMAC), is being proposed mainly for accelerator-driven transmutation technology (ADTT) by Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). High-current, low emittance continuous power (cw) linear accelerators favor electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) microwave ion sources as an injector (Ref. 1). Recently, these microwave sources are developed and constructed by several institutes especially for high-current cw linear accelerators. A high-density microwave ion source has been designed and constructed as a prototype ion source for the proposed KOMAC linear accelerator. The design of microwave power injection system is similar to that of the 75 keV proton injector at Los Alamos National Laboratory (Ref. 2). A 2.45 GHz, 1.5 kW magnetron source is introduced into the stainless steel plasma chamber with 10 cm diam and 20 cm length through a tapered, double-ridged waveguide and a quartz window. The microwave power supply is separated from the plasma chamber by a high-voltage waveguide break. Axial magnetic fields up to 1 kG can be provided by two sets of water-cooled solenoid coils. A single-hole extraction system is designed for extraction current up to 50 mA at 50 kV extraction voltage. The design and initial operations of the ion source in ECR regimes will be presented.

Hwang, Y. S.; Hong, I. S.; Kim, H. J.; Eom, G. S.; Cho, Y. S.; Choi, B. H.

1998-02-01

286

Ion sources for fission fragment accelerators  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the Grenoble and Munich high-flux reactors fission fragment accelerators are under design which will deliver beams of very neutron-rich fission products with a final energy between 3 and 6 MeV\\/u. In order to obtain an efficient acceleration in a compact accelerator, charge conversion of the 1+ ion beams from the in-pile ion source to a q\\/A>=0.16 has to take

U. Köster; O. Kester; D. Habs

1998-01-01

287

Pulsed source ion implantation apparatus and method  

DOEpatents

A new pulsed plasma-immersion ion-implantation apparatus that implants ions in large irregularly shaped objects to controllable depth without overheating the target, minimizing voltage breakdown, and using a constant electrical bias applied to the target. Instead of pulsing the voltage applied to the target, the plasma source, for example a tungsten filament or a RF antenna, is pulsed. Both electrically conducting and insulating targets can be implanted. 16 figs.

Leung, K.N.

1996-09-24

288

Study of a liquid metal ion source for external ion injection into electron-beam ion source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A liquid metal ion source (LMIS) has several attractive features as an external injector of primary ions (mostly metallic ions) into electron-beam ion source (EBIS). It does not use a buffer gas and therefore it provides only a very small gas load to the system; its control and operation are simple, power consumption does not exceed 10 W, and beam pulses are very stable. A gold-silicon LMIS was supplied by FEI Company (http://www.feibeamtech.com/pages/liquid.html) and tested in a pulsed regime with an ion pulse width of 2 ms and frequency up to 5 Hz. Total extracted ion current reached 50 ?A and the normalized emittance of the total ion beam was 0.05? mm mrad. The results of this test, as well as results of experiments in which this ion source is used for injection of Au ions into EBIS, are presented.

Pikin, A.; Alessi, J. G.; Beebe, E. N.; Kponou, A.; Prelec, K.

2006-03-01

289

The legnaro ECR ion source platform  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Legnaro ECR ion source is installed on high voltage platform, capable of operating up to 350 kV and to be powered by an externally located insulation transformer. The test of the prototype of the high voltage cable termination is described, together with design of the full size cable termination. Tests of other high voltage parts are described. In the extraction beamline from the platform a triplet was added after the acceleration column, so that injection in the following U-bend is simplified. Using empirical fitting formula for prediction of einzel lens cardinal data and perturbative expansion for triplets, understanding of beam lines was considerably improved and optimization for arbitrary ions were possible. A comparison of the performance of the several plasma chambers that were used in this ECR ion source is given, discussing also the effect of a low voltage sputter probe. A comprehensive software program, centralizing remote control of most platform and source regulation, was successfully tested.

Cavenago, M.; Kulevoy, T.; Abrioni, G.; Canella, S.; Cervellera, F.

1999-04-01

290

Laser ion source for nuclear spectroscopic studies  

SciTech Connect

An element selective laser ion source has been used to produce beams of exotic radioactive nuclei and to study their decay properties. The operational principle of the ion source is based on selective resonant laser ionization of nuclear reaction products thermalized and neutralized in a noble gas at high pressure. The ion source has been installed at the mass separator (LISOL) which is coupled on line to the cyclotron accelerator at Louvain-la-Neuve. Exotic nickel and cobalt nuclei were produced in proton-induced fission of {sup 238}U. The {beta} decay of {sup 68-74}Ni and {sup 67-70}Co isotopes has been studied by means of {beta}-{gamma} and {gamma}-{gamma} spectroscopy.

Kudryavtsev, Yuri; Andreyev, Andrej; Bruyneel, Bart; Franchoo, Serge; Gentens, Johnny; Huyse, Mark; Kruglov, Kirill; Mueller, Wilhelm; Raabe, Riccardo; Reusen, Ils; Bergh, Paul van den; Duppen, Piet van; Roosbroeck, Jan van; Vermeeren, Ludo; Weissman, Leonid [Instituut voor Kern-en Stralingsfysika, K. U. Leuven Celestijnenlaan 2000 D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)

1998-12-16

291

rf improvements for Spallation Neutron Source H- ion source.  

PubMed

The Spallation Neutron Source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is ramping up the accelerated proton beam power to 1.4 MW and just reached 1 MW. The rf-driven multicusp ion source that originates from the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has been delivering approximately 38 mA H(-) beam in the linac at 60 Hz, 0.9 ms. To improve availability, a rf-driven external antenna multicusp ion source with a water-cooled ceramic aluminum nitride (AlN) plasma chamber is developed. Computer modeling and simulations have been made to analyze and optimize the rf performance of the new ion source. Operational statistics and test runs with up to 56 mA medium energy beam transport beam current identify the 2 MHz rf system as a limiting factor in the system availability and beam production. Plasma ignition system is under development by using a separate 13 MHz system. To improve the availability of the rf power system with easier maintenance, we tested a 70 kV isolation transformer for the 80 kW, 6% duty cycle 2 MHz amplifier to power the ion source from a grounded solid-state amplifier. PMID:20192394

Kang, Y W; Fuja, R; Goulding, R H; Hardek, T; Lee, S-W; McCarthy, M P; Piller, M C; Shin, K; Stockli, M P; Welton, R F

2010-02-01

292

rf improvements for Spallation Neutron Source H- ion source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Spallation Neutron Source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is ramping up the accelerated proton beam power to 1.4 MW and just reached 1 MW. The rf-driven multicusp ion source that originates from the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has been delivering ~38 mA H- beam in the linac at 60 Hz, 0.9 ms. To improve availability, a rf-driven external antenna multicusp ion source with a water-cooled ceramic aluminum nitride (AlN) plasma chamber is developed. Computer modeling and simulations have been made to analyze and optimize the rf performance of the new ion source. Operational statistics and test runs with up to 56 mA medium energy beam transport beam current identify the 2 MHz rf system as a limiting factor in the system availability and beam production. Plasma ignition system is under development by using a separate 13 MHz system. To improve the availability of the rf power system with easier maintenance, we tested a 70 kV isolation transformer for the 80 kW, 6% duty cycle 2 MHz amplifier to power the ion source from a grounded solid-state amplifier.

Kang, Y. W.; Fuja, R.; Goulding, R. H.; Hardek, T.; Lee, S.-W.; McCarthy, M. P.; Piller, M. C.; Shin, K.; Stockli, M. P.; Welton, R. F.

2010-02-01

293

Computer analysis, design and construction of the BNL Mk V magnetron  

SciTech Connect

As part of a program to develop a high energy neutral beam injector for fusion reactor applications, the BNL Neutral Beam Group is studying, among other options, a surface plasma source of the magnetron type. This source has been developed to the point at which a large compact model, known as the Mk V magnetron, has been designed and constructed. The source is designed to operate in the steady state mode and to produce 1-2A of H/sup -/(D/sup -/) ions at 25 kV. Under these conditions, 18 KW of heat are removed from the source by the cooling system.

McKenzie-Wilson, R.B.; Kovarik, V.J.

1981-01-01

294

Focused ion beam source method and apparatus  

DOEpatents

A focused ion beam having a cross section of submicron diameter, a high ion current, and a narrow energy range is generated from a target comprised of particle source material by laser ablation. The method involves directing a laser beam having a cross section of critical diameter onto the target, producing a cloud of laser ablated particles having unique characteristics, and extracting and focusing a charged particle beam from the laser ablated cloud. The method is especially suited for producing focused ion beams for semiconductor device analysis and modification.

Pellin, Michael J. (Naperville, IL); Lykke, Keith R. (Gaithersburg, MD); Lill, Thorsten B. (Sunnyvale, CA)

2000-01-01

295

Beam investigations at a multicusp ion source  

SciTech Connect

In cooperation with the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, a multicusp ion source has been investigated. The goal of these investigations is to generate a nearly pure atomic nitrogen (N{sup +}) ion beam. To achieve this, the discharge chamber is divided into two parts of different plasma parameters by means of a filter magnetic field. As beam diagnostics, a bending magnet and a faraday cup have been used. Measurements of the beam current density and the ion composition for a wide range of discharge conditions have been performed. By using a Langmuir probe, we have performed measurements of electron temperature and electron density.

Volk, K.; Klein, H. (Institut fuer Angewandte Physik der Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universitaet, Robert-Mayer-Strasse 2-4, D-6000 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)); Leung, K.N. (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States))

1992-04-01

296

Influence of plasma-generated negative oxygen ion impingement on magnetron sputtered amorphous SiO2 thin films during growth at low temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Growth of amorphous SiO2 thin films deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering at low temperatures has been studied under different oxygen partial pressure conditions. Film microstructures varied from coalescent vertical column-like to homogeneous compact microstructures, possessing all similar refractive indexes. A discussion on the process responsible for the different microstructures is carried out focusing on the influence of (i) the surface shadowing mechanism, (ii) the positive ion impingement on the film, and (iii) the negative ion impingement. We conclude that only the trend followed by the latter and, in particular, the impingement of O- ions with kinetic energies between 20 and 200 eV, agrees with the resulting microstructural changes. Overall, it is also demonstrated that there are two main microstructuring regimes in the growth of amorphous SiO2 thin films by magnetron sputtering at low temperatures, controlled by the amount of O2 in the deposition reactor, which stem from the competition between surface shadowing and ion-induced adatom surface mobility.

Macias-Montero, M.; Garcia-Garcia, F. J.; Álvarez, R.; Gil-Rostra, J.; González, J. C.; Cotrino, J.; Gonzalez-Elipe, A. R.; Palmero, A.

2012-03-01

297

Influence of plasma-generated negative oxygen ion impingement on magnetron sputtered amorphous SiO{sub 2} thin films during growth at low temperatures  

SciTech Connect

Growth of amorphous SiO{sub 2} thin films deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering at low temperatures has been studied under different oxygen partial pressure conditions. Film microstructures varied from coalescent vertical column-like to homogeneous compact microstructures, possessing all similar refractive indexes. A discussion on the process responsible for the different microstructures is carried out focusing on the influence of (i) the surface shadowing mechanism, (ii) the positive ion impingement on the film, and (iii) the negative ion impingement. We conclude that only the trend followed by the latter and, in particular, the impingement of O{sup -} ions with kinetic energies between 20 and 200 eV, agrees with the resulting microstructural changes. Overall, it is also demonstrated that there are two main microstructuring regimes in the growth of amorphous SiO{sub 2} thin films by magnetron sputtering at low temperatures, controlled by the amount of O{sub 2} in the deposition reactor, which stem from the competition between surface shadowing and ion-induced adatom surface mobility.

Macias-Montero, M.; Garcia-Garcia, F. J.; Alvarez, R.; Gil-Rostra, J.; Gonzalez, J. C.; Gonzalez-Elipe, A. R.; Palmero, A. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla (CSIC-US), Americo Vespucio 49, 41092 Seville (Spain); Cotrino, J. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla (CSIC-US), Americo Vespucio 49, 41092 Seville (Spain); Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Sevilla, Avda. Reina Mercedes, s/n, 42022 Seville (Spain)

2012-03-01

298

Negative ion beam source development in Europe  

SciTech Connect

The development in Europe of negative ion sources and accelerators is carried out principally at Cadarache, France and at Garching, Germany. Other work is in progress at the Ecolc Polytechnique, France, and CIEMAT, Spain. The main thrust of the programme so far has been driven by the requirements for the 1 MeV D{sup 0} injection on ITER. It is now being proposed to develop a new negative ion source and accelerator for use on present and future European fusion experiments. This paper summarises the present and proposed future programmes in Europe.

Hemsworth, R. S.; Bucalossi, J.; Desgranges, C.; Fumelli, M.; Jacquot, C.; Massmann, P.; Simonin, A.; Trainham, R. [Association EURATOM--C. E. A., C. E. A. Cadarache, 13108 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Frank, P.; Heinemann, B.; Krause, W.; Ott, W.; Penningsfeld, H.-P.; Speth, E.; Staebler, A.; Volmer, O. [Max Plank Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching bei Muenchen (Germany); Hodgson, E. R. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Michaut, C.; Riz, D. [L. P. M. I., Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau (France)

1998-08-20

299

Negative ion beam source development in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development in Europe of negative ion sources and accelerators is carried out principally at Cadarache, France and at Garching, Germany. Other work is in progress at the Ecolc Polytechnique, France, and CIEMAT, Spain. The main thrust of the programme so far has been driven by the requirements for the 1 MeV D0 injection on ITER. It is now being proposed to develop a new negative ion source and accelerator for use on present and future European fusion experiments. This paper summarises the present and proposed future programmes in Europe.

Hemsworth, R. S.; Bucalossi, J.; Desgranges, C.; Frank, P.; Fumelli, M.; Heinemann, B.; Hodgson, E. R.; Jacquot, C.; Krause, W.; Massmann, P.; Michaut, C.; Ott, W.; Penningsfeld, H.-P.; Riz, D.; Simonin, A.; Speth, E.; Stäbler, A.; Trainham, R.; Volmer, O.

1998-08-01

300

A laser ion source for trace detection  

SciTech Connect

Trace analysis of long-lived isotopes of technetium and plutonium requires a very sensitive and selective detection method. A laser ion source (LIS) based on resonance ionization spectroscopy with subsequent mass analysis (RIMS) offers these properties. Measurements with an ion source made of extremely pure pyrolytically coated graphite are discussed. Photoionization of {sup 99}Tc has been measured with a LIS efficiency of 4x10{sup -3} leading to an extrapolated detection limit of 5x10{sup 6} atoms. The elements selectivity depends on the working temperature of the cavity and varies from 1x10{sup 4} (1860 K) to 8x10{sup -2} (2130 K)

Hasse, H.-U.; Albus, F.; Deibenberger, R.; Erdmann, N.; Herrmann, G.; Huber, G.; Kluge, H.-J.; Passler, G.; Trautmann, N. [Institut fuer Physik Universitaet Mainz, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); Institut fuer Kernchemie, Universitaet Mainz, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); Institut fuer Physik University Mainz, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); Institut fuer Kernchemie, Universitaet Mainz, D-55099 Mainz (Germany)

1995-04-01

301

Laser Ion Source Development at HRIBF  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the efforts made to develop a resonant-ionization laser ion source based on tunable Ti:Sapphire lasers for nuclear physics and astrophysics research at HRIBF. Three Ti:Sapphire lasers have been upgraded with individual pump lasers to eliminate laser power losses due to synchronization delays. Ionization schemes for 14 elements have been obtained. Off-line studies show that the overall efficiency of the laser ion source can be as high as 40%. TaC surface coatings have been investigated for minimizing surface and bulk trapping of the atoms of interest.

Liu, Yuan [ORNL; Beene, James R [ORNL; Havener, Charles C [ORNL; Howe, Jane Y [ORNL; Kiggans, Jim [ORNL; Vane, C Randy [ORNL; Mattolat, C. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Mainz, Germany; Gottwald, T. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Mainz, Germany; Wendt, K. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Mainz, Germany

2012-01-01

302

Liquid metal alloy ion source based metal ion injection into a room-temperature electron beam ion source  

SciTech Connect

We have carried out a series of measurements demonstrating the feasibility of using the Dresden electron beam ion source (EBIS)-A, a table-top sized, permanent magnet technology based electron beam ion source, as a charge breeder. Low charged gold ions from an AuGe liquid metal alloy ion source were injected into the EBIS and re-extracted as highly charged ions, thereby producing charge states as high as Au{sup 60+}. The setup, the charge breeding technique, breeding efficiencies as well as acceptance and emittance studies are presented.

Thorn, A.; Ritter, E.; Zschornack, G. [Fachrichtung Physik, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Helmholtzstrasse 10, D-01069 Dresden (Germany); Ullmann, F. [DREEBIT GmbH, Zur Wetterwarte 50, D-01109 Dresden (Germany); Pilz, W.; Bischoff, L. [Helmholtzzentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Bautzner Landstrasse 400, D-01328 Dresden (Germany)

2012-02-15

303

Focused ion-probe system using a gaseous field ion source  

Microsoft Academic Search

An Hâ\\/sup +\\/ focused ion probe system using a gaseous field ionization source was developed as a prototype for a focused ion beam lithography instrument. The probe system was used for ion optical measurements and resist exposures to demonstrate the feasibility of using a gaseous field ion source in a focused ion beam lithography system. The gaseous field ion source

Blackwell; R. J. Jr

1985-01-01

304

Design study of primary ion provider for relativistic heavy ion collider electron beam ion source  

SciTech Connect

Brookhaven National Laboratory has developed the new preinjector system, electron beam ion source (EBIS) for relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration Space Radiation Laboratory. Design of primary ion provider is an essential problem since it is required to supply beams with different ion species to multiple users simultaneously. The laser ion source with a defocused laser can provide a low charge state and low emittance ion beam, and is a candidate for the primary ion source for RHIC-EBIS. We show a suitable design with appropriate drift length and solenoid, which helps to keep sufficient total charge number with longer pulse length. The whole design of primary ion source, as well as optics arrangement, solid targets configuration and heating about target, is presented.

Kondo, K. [Department of Energy Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan); Radiation Laboratory, RIKEN, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Collider-Accelerator Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Kanesue, T. [Department of Applied Quantum Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Tamura, J. [Department of Energy Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan); Okamura, M. [Collider-Accelerator Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States)

2010-02-15

305

Design study of primary ion provider for relativistic heavy ion collider electron beam ion source.  

PubMed

Brookhaven National Laboratory has developed the new preinjector system, electron beam ion source (EBIS) for relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration Space Radiation Laboratory. Design of primary ion provider is an essential problem since it is required to supply beams with different ion species to multiple users simultaneously. The laser ion source with a defocused laser can provide a low charge state and low emittance ion beam, and is a candidate for the primary ion source for RHIC-EBIS. We show a suitable design with appropriate drift length and solenoid, which helps to keep sufficient total charge number with longer pulse length. The whole design of primary ion source, as well as optics arrangement, solid targets configuration and heating about target, is presented. PMID:20192366

Kondo, K; Kanesue, T; Tamura, J; Okamura, M

2010-02-01

306

Ion Source Development at the SNS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The US Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) has recently begun producing neutrons and is currently on track to becoming a world-leading facility for material science based on neutron scattering. The facility is comprised of an H- ion source, a linear accelerator, an accumulator ring, a liquid-Hg target and a suite of neutron scattering instruments. Over the next several years the average H- current from the ion source will be increased in order to meet the baseline facility requirement of providing 1.4 MW of beam-power to the target and the SNS power upgrade power requirement of 2+ MW on target. Meeting the latter goal will require H- currents of 70-100 mA with an RMS emittance of 0.20-0.35 ? mm mrad and a ~7% duty-factor. To date, the RF-driven-multicusp SNS ion source has only been able to demonstrate sustained operation at 33 mA of beam current at a ~7% duty-factor. This report details our efforts to develop variations of the current ion source which can meet these requirements. Designs and experimental results are presented for helicon plasma drivers, high-power external antennas, glow-discharge plasma guns and advanced Cs systems.

Welton, R. F.; Stockli, M. P.; Murray, S. N.; Carr, J.; Carmichael, J.; Goulding, R. H.; Baity, F. W.

2007-08-01

307

Vacuum arc ion sources - micro to macro  

SciTech Connect

Vacuum arc ion sources provide a convenient tool for the production of intense beams of metal ions. The sources are relatively easy to construct and they can produce beams from all of the solid metals as well as of compounds, alloys and mixtures. We have made a number of different kinds of such sources over the course of our development work at LBL in the past decade, from very small {open_quote}thumb-size{close_quote} versions to a very large one with 50-cm diameter extractor. Beam current ranges from a few milliamperes up to almost 10 amperes and extraction voltage from about 1 kV to 100 kV. Multicathode versions have been made so that one can switch between metal ion species simply and quickly. Most of the sources have been operated in a repetitively pulsed mode, and we`ve tested a dc version also. Here we outline some construction features of the array of vacuum arc ion sources that we`ve developed and used, and describe their performance and limitations.

MacGill, R.A.; Dickinson, M.R.; Brown, I.G.

1995-08-01

308

Negative ion source with low temperature transverse divergence optical system  

DOEpatents

A negative ion source is provided which has extremely low transverse divergence as a result of a unique ion focusing system in which the focal line of an ion beam emanating from an elongated, concave converter surface is outside of the ion exit slit of the source and the path of the exiting ions. The beam source operates with a minimum ion temperature which makes possible a sharply focused (extremely low transverse divergence) ribbon like negative ion beam.

Whealton, J.H.; Stirling, W.L.

1985-03-04

309

Negative ion source with low temperature transverse divergence optical system  

DOEpatents

A negative ion source is provided which has extremely low transverse divergence as a result of a unique ion focusing system in which the focal line of an ion beam emanating from an elongated, concave converter surface is outside of the ion exit slit of the source and the path of the exiting ions. The beam source operates with a minimum ion temperature which makes possible a sharply focused (extremely low transverse divergence) ribbon like negative ion beam.

Whealton, John H. (Oak Ridge, TN); Stirling, William L. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1986-01-01

310

Plasma ion sources and ion beam technology inmicrofabrications  

SciTech Connect

For over decades, focused ion beam (FIB) has been playing a very important role in microscale technology and research, among which, semiconductor microfabrication is one of its biggest application area. As the dimensions of IC devices are scaled down, it has shown the need for new ion beam tools and new approaches to the fabrication of small-scale devices. In the meanwhile, nanotechnology has also deeply involved in material science research and bioresearch in recent years. The conventional FIB systems which utilize liquid gallium ion sources to achieve nanometer scale resolution can no longer meet the various requirements raised from such a wide application area such as low contamination, high throughput and so on. The drive towards controlling materials properties at nanometer length scales relies on the availability of efficient tools. In this thesis, three novel ion beam tools have been developed and investigated as the alternatives for the conventional FIB systems in some particular applications. An integrated focused ion beam (FIB) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) system has been developed for direct doping or surface modification. This new instrument employs a mini-RF driven plasma source to generate focused ion beam with various ion species, a FEI two-lens electron (2LE) column for SEM imaging, and a five-axis manipulator system for sample positioning. An all-electrostatic two-lens column has been designed to focus the ion beam extracted from the source. Based on the Munro ion optics simulation, beam spot sizes as small as 100 nm can be achieved at beam energies between 5 to 35 keV if a 5 {micro}m-diameter extraction aperture is used. Smaller beam spot sizes can be obtained with smaller apertures at sacrifice of some beam current. The FEI 2LE column, which utilizes Schottky emission, electrostatic focusing optics, and stacked-disk column construction, can provide high-resolution (as small as 20 nm) imaging capability, with fairly long working distance (25 mm) at 25 keV beam voltage. Such an integrated FIB/SEM dual-beam system will not only improve the accuracy and reproducibility when performing ion beam sculpting and direct implantation processes, but will also enable researchers to perform cross-sectioning, imaging, and analysis with the same tool. A major advantage of this approach is the ability to produce a wide variety of ion species tailored to the application.

Ji, Lili

2007-09-01

311

Single-Ion Two-Photon Source  

SciTech Connect

A single trapped ion is converted into a pseudo-two-photon source by splitting its resonance fluorescence, delaying part of it and by recombining both parts on a beam splitter. A destructive two-photon interference is observed with a contrast reaching 83(5)%. The spectral brightness of our two-photon source is quantified and shown to be comparable to parametric down-conversion devices.

Dubin, F.; Rotter, D.; Mukherjee, M.; Gerber, S. [Institute for Experimental Physics, University of Innsbruck, Technikerstrasse 25, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Blatt, R. [Institute for Experimental Physics, University of Innsbruck, Technikerstrasse 25, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Institute for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, Innsbruck (Austria)

2007-11-02

312

Ion source choices - an h- source for the high intensity neutrino source  

SciTech Connect

The High Intensity Neutrino Source (HINS) program at Fermilab (formerly the Proton Driver) aims to develop a multi-mission linear accelerator (LINAC) capable of accelerate H{sup -} ions to 8 GeV. This paper touches on the ion source requirements for the HINS and discusses long pulse length testing of three ion sources which appear to have the capability of meeting these requirements.

Moehs, Douglas P.; /Fermilab; Welton, Robert F.; /SNS Project, Oak Ridge; Stockli, Martin P.; Peters, Jens; /DESY; Alessi, James; /Brookhaven

2006-08-01

313

Laser Ion Source Development at IGISOL  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new laser ion source is under development at the IGISOL (Ion Guide Isotope Separator On-Line) mass separator facility in Jyväskylä, Finland. Two laser systems have been installed to provide access to as broad a range of elements as possible. One system uses well-known dye laser technology, the other uses solid state pump and titanium sapphire lasers. Several techniques are being pursued to improve both the isobaric purity and efficiency of exotic radioactive beams. One method uses pulsed lasers to ionize atoms after they have flowed out of the gas volume, within a radio-frequency sextupole (SPIG) guide. This is a variation of the so-called Laser Ion Source Trap (LIST) method and will be discussed in these proceedings.

Moore, Iain D.; Billowes, Jon; Campbell, Paul; Eronen, Tommi; Geppert, Christopher; Jokinen, Ari; Karvonen, Pasi; Kessler, Thomas; Marsh, Bruce; Nieminen, Arto; Penttilä, Heikki; Rinta-Antila, Sami; Sonoda, Tetsu; Tordoff, Ben; Wendt, Klaus; Äysto, Juha

2006-04-01

314

Upgrade of CW negative hydrogen ion source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The CW surface-plasma source of H- ions was upgraded for increase the source lifetime and the high voltage holding. Basic improvements include the modification of magnetic system, the placement of anode collar between the dense discharge plasma region and the H- emission area, the increase of emission and ion-optical system aperture diameters and enforcing the power supplies to sustain the higher currents. Several long term runs with duration ~1 hour each and negative ion beam current of 25 mA were performed. Direct measurements of H- beam profile and emittance were carried out by an electric sweep scanner. No saturation of the CW H- beam current with the discharge current increase was recorded.

Belchenko, Yu. I.; Gorbovsky, A. I.; Ivanov, A. A.; Sanin, A. L.; Savkin, V. Y.; Tiunov, M. A.

2013-02-01

315

rf-driven ion sources for industrial applications (invited) (abstract)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Plasma and Ion Source Technology Group at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory have been developing rf-driven ion sources for the last two decades. These sources are being used to generate both positive and negative ion beams. Some of these sources are operating in particle accelerators such as the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge, while others are being

Ka-Ngo Leung; Ka-Ngo

2008-01-01

316

Li-ion diffusion kinetics in LiCoPO 4 thin films deposited on NASICON-type glass ceramic electrolytes by magnetron sputtering  

Microsoft Academic Search

LiCoPO4 thin films were deposited on Li1+x+yAlxTi2?xSiyP3?yO12 (LATSP) solid electrolyte by radio frequency magnetron sputtering and were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope. The films show a (111) preferred orientation upon annealing and are chemically stable with LATSP up to 600°C in air. An all-solid-state Li\\/PEO18-Li(CF3SO2)2N\\/LATSP\\/LiCoPO4\\/Au cell was fabricated to investigate the electrochemical performance and Li-ion chemical diffusion

J. Xie; N. Imanishi; T. Zhang; A. Hirano; Y. Takeda; O. Yamamoto

2009-01-01

317

Laser micro-structuring of magnetron-sputtered SnO x thin films as anode material for lithium ion batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

SnOx electrode thin films for lithium ion batteries were deposited by reactive and non-reactive rf magnetron sputtering of a SnO2 target in an argon–oxygen atmosphere. Amorphous and nano-crystalline SnOx films could be synthesized, with regard to the O2:Ar volume ratio in the sputter gas which was adjusted to 0, 3.5 or 10%. Laser micro-structuring using a KrF excimer laser\\u000a operating

R. Kohler; H. Besser; M. Hagen; J. Ye; C. Ziebert; S. Ulrich; J. Proell; W. Pfleging

2011-01-01

318

High Charge State Multicusp Ion Source.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Attempts have been made to generate high charge state ion beams by employing a multicusp plasma source. Three experimental investigations have been performed at LBL and at GSI to study the charge state distributions and the emittance of the extracted beam...

K. N. Leung R. Keller

1989-01-01

319

Improved Bevatron local injector ion source performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Performance tests of the improved Bevatron Local Injector PIG Ion source using particles of Si 4(+), Ne 3(+), and He 2(+) are described. Initial measurements of the 8.4 keV/nucleon Si 4(+) beam show an intensity of 100 particle microamperes with a normalized emittance of .06 (PI) cm-mrad. A low energy beam transport line provides mass analysis, diagnostics, and matching into a 200 MHz RFQ linac. The RFQ accelerates the beam from 8.4 to 200 keV/nucleon. The injector is unusual in the sense that all ion source power supplies, the ac distribution network, vacuum control equipment, and computer control system are contained in a four bay rack mounted on insulators which is located on a floor immediately above the ion source. The rack, transmission line, and the ion source housing are raised by a dc power supply to 80 kilovolts above the ground. All power supplies, which are referenced to rack ground, are modular in construction and easily removable for maintenance. The ac power is delivered to the rack via a 21 kVThe a, 3-phase transformer.

Stover, G.; Zagec, E.

1985-05-01

320

Improved Bevatron local injector ion source performance  

SciTech Connect

Performance tests of the improved Bevatron Local Injector PIG Ion Source using particles of Si 4/sup +/, Ne 3/sup +/, and He 2/sup +/ are described. Initial measurements of the 8.4 keV/nucleon Si 4/sup +/ beam show an intensity of 100 particle microamperes with a normalized emittance of .06 ..pi.. cm-mrad. A low energy beam transport line provides mass analysis, diagnostics, and matching into a 200 MHz RFQ linac. The RFQ accelerates the beam from 8.4 to 200 keV/nucleon. The injector is unusual in the sense that all ion source power supplies, the ac distribution network, vacuum control equipment, and computer control system are contained in a four bay rack mounted on insulators which is located on a floor immediately above the ion source. The rack, transmission line, and the ion source housing are raised by a dc power supply to 80 kilovolts above earth ground. All power supplies, which are referenced to rack ground, are modular in construction and easily removable for maintenance. AC power is delivered to the rack via a 21 kVA, 3-phase transformer. 2 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Stover, G.; Zajec, E.

1985-05-01

321

Miniature induction oven for ion sources optimisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The space and power limitation frequently arising when inserting ovens into ion sources lead us to explore alternatives to the direct current ohmic heating. An induction oven has the following advantages over a resistance one: a) the current in the induction coil is lower; b) heating may be concentrated on the sample surface by choosing the right value of the

M. Cavenago; M. F Moisio

1996-01-01

322

Thyratron modulators in plasma source ion implantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plasma source ion implantation (PSII) is an emerging technology which can be used to harden metal surfaces in a conformal manner. North Star Research Corp. (NSRC) is building a unique implanter system for Empire Hard Chrome which will be the first truly commercial implanter of this type. The choice of pulsed power technology for this application is important from the

R. J. Adler; J. Scheuer; W. Horne

1995-01-01

323

A Universal Negative or Positive Ion Source  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes a multipurpose negative or positive ion source which can be used in a variety of low energy or high energy research applications. Conversion from negative\\/positive modes of operation can be accomplished by simply reversing the polarities of pertinent extraction and beam transport power supplies. Preliminary results obtained from recent evaluative studies along with design details and negative

G. D. Alton

1979-01-01

324

Ion source requirements for pulsed spallation neutron sources  

SciTech Connect

The neutron scattering community has endorsed the need for a high- power (1 to 5 MW) accelerator-driven source of neutrons for materials research. Properly configured, the accelerator could produce very short (sub-microsecond) bursts of cold neutrons, said time structure offering advantages over the continuous flux from a reactor for a large class of experiments. The recent cancellation of the ANS reactor project has increased the urgency to develop a comprehensive strategy based on the best technological scenarios. Studies to date have built on the experience from ISIS (the 160 KW source in the UK), and call for a high-current (approx. 100 mA peak) H{sup {minus}} source-linac combination injecting into one or more accumulator rings in which beam may be further accelerated. The 1 to 5 GeV proton beam is extracted in a single turn and brought to the target-moderator stations. The high current, high duty-factor, high brightness and high reliability required of the ion source present a very large challenge to the ion source community. A workshop held in Berkeley in October 1994, analyzed in detail the source requirements for proposed accelerator scenarios, the present performance capabilities of different H{sup {minus}} source technologies, and identified necessary R&D efforts to bridge the gap.

Alonso, J.R.

1995-10-01

325

Reactive magnetron sputtering of highly (001)-textured WS2-x films: Influence of Ne+, Ar+ and Xe+ ion bombardment on the film growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tungsten disulfide WS2 is a layer-type semi-conductor with an energy band gap and an absorption coefficient making it suitable as an absorber for thin film solar cells. In the article [1] WS2-x films were pre-pared by reactive magnetron sputtering from a metallic tungsten target in Ar-H2S atmospheres.The cover figure shows in situ energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction patterns for films deposited at different substrate potentials, i.e. for deposition conditions with ion assistance at different ion energies. These spectra and the corresponding SEM photographs of the film morphology show the strong influence of the ion energy on the film growth. The crystallographic struc-ture of WS2-x is shown between the two SEM pictures.The first author, Klaus Ellmer, is working at the Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin, Dept. of Solar Energy Research. His research fields are thin film deposition by reactive magnetron sputtering for solar cells, plasma characterization, in situ energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction and electronic transport in transpar-ent conductive oxides.

Ellmer, K.; Seeger, S.; Sieber, I.; Bohne, W.; Röhrich, J.; Strub, E.; Mientus, R.

2006-02-01

326

SNS Saddle Antenna H- Ion Source Project  

SciTech Connect

In this project we are developing an H- source, which will synthesize the most important developments in the field of negative ion sources to provide high current, high brightness, good lifetime, high reliability, and high power efficiency. We describe two planned modifications to the present SNS external antenna source in order to increase the plasma density near the output aperture: 1) replacing the present 2 MHz plasma-forming solenoid antenna with a 60 MHz saddle-type antenna and 2) replacing the permanent multicusp magnetic system with a weaker electro-magnet.

Dudnikov, Vadim [Muons, Inc.; Johnson, Rolland P. [Muons, Inc.; Dudnikova, Galina [University of Maryland; Stockli, Martin P [ORNL; Welton, Robert F [ORNL

2009-01-01

327

Negative ion beam production by a microwave ion source equipped with a magnetically separated double plasma cell system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Filamentless negative ion beam production was investigated with a compact microwave ion source (2.45 GHz). One of the key points for negative ion production is the magnetic configuration. A magnetic filter field to lower electron temperature was generated in a negative ion production cell, which was shielded magnetically from a discharge cell with a magnetic field to couple microwave to plasma. Production of H- beam was studied with this source. H- was extracted through a grid slit (2×16 mm2) from plasma and accelerated to 20-40 keV. H- beam current was measured with a Faraday cup after magnetic mass separation. Continuous H- beam current of 73 ?A (0.23 mA/cm2) was obtained with a magnetron power of 700 W. H- beam current was increased around 1.4 times by adding Xe gas to the H2 gas. Other negative ion species, which have a potential for applications to industrial ion beam processing with little charge-up problem, were also investigated. Carbon and hydrocarbon negative ion beams were produced using boron alkoxide (B(OCH3)3) and methane. C2H2- beams (22 ?A) were obtained with the alkoxide. C2-(1.6 ?A), C2H-(2.3 ?A), C2H2-(0.6 ?A), and H-(6.9 ?A) beams were produced with methane. SiF4 and BF3 were used to generate F-, Si-, SiF3- and B- beams. Beam currents of these ion species were 17, 0.25, 1.5, and 0.03 ?A, respectively.

Tanaka, M.; Amemiya, K.

2000-02-01

328

Operational characteristics of a metal vapor vacuum arc ion source  

Microsoft Academic Search

The MEVVA ion source can produce high current pulsed beams of metallic ions using a metal vapor vacuum arc discharge as the plasma medium from which the ions are extracted. In this study, the operational characteristics of the MEVVA IV ion sources are summarized. Results are presented of measurements of the ion beam current as a function of arc current

Hiroshi Shiraishi; Ian G. Brown

1990-01-01

329

Development of ECR ion sources in China (invited)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent development of electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources in China is reviewed. Emphasis is put on high charge state ECR ion sources which have been mainly developed in China by Institute of Modern Physics (IMP). Presently two ECR ion sources built by IMP for highly charged ion beams are put into operation for cyclotrons and atomic physics research. The

H. W. Zhao; B. W. Wei; Z. W. Liu; Y. F. Wang; W. J. Zhao

2000-01-01

330

Phase locking of relativistic magnetrons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phase locking of relativistic magnetrons has been achieved at power levels of about 3 GW at 2.8 GHz, exceeding previous phase-locking power levels by 3 orders of magnitude. Two relativistic magnetrons interact directly through a short waveguide of length l about n lambda\\/2 to allow locking. Power-density enhancement due to source coherence is directly measured in the radiation field. Phase

J. Benford; H. Sze; W. Woo; R. R. Smith; B. Harteneck

1989-01-01

331

Fullerenes in electron cyclotron resonance ion sources  

SciTech Connect

Fullerene plasmas and beams have been produced in our electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRIS) originally designed for other purposes. The ATOMKI-ECRIS is a traditional ion source with solenoid mirror coils to generate highly charged ions. The variable frequencies NIRS-KEI-1 and NIRS-KEI-2 are ECR ion sources built from permanent magnets and specialized for the production of carbon beams. The paper summarizes the experiments and results obtained by these facilities with fullerenes. Continuous effort has been made to get the highest C{sub 60} beam intensities. Surprisingly, the best result was obtained by moving the C{sub 60} oven deep inside the plasma chamber, very close to the resonance zone. Record intensity singly and doubly charged fullerene beams were obtained (600 and 1600 nA, respectively) at lower C{sub 60} material consumption. Fullerene derivatives were also produced. We mixed fullerenes with other plasmas (N, Fe) with the aim of making new materials. Nitrogen encapsulated fullerenes (mass: 720+14=734) were successfully produced. In the case of iron, two methods (ferrocene, oven) were tested. Molecules with mass of 720+56=776 were detected in the extracted beam spectra.

Biri, S.; Fekete, E.; Kitagawa, A.; Muramatsu, M.; Janossy, A.; Palinkas, J. [Institute of Nuclear Research (ATOMKI), H-4026 Debrecen, Bem ter 18/C (Hungary); National Institute for Radiological Sciences (NIRS), 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Department of Experimental Physics, Technical University of Budapest, H-1521 Budapest, P.O. Box 91 (Hungary); Department of Experimental Physics, University of Debrecen, H-4026 Debrecen, Bem ter 18/A (Hungary)

2006-03-15

332

Ion source development for various applications in Korea (invited) (abstract)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ion source development in Korea has been related with various applications from accelerator to nanotechnology. Conventional ion sources such as Duoplasmatron and PIG ion sources were developed for high power proton accelerator and small cyclotron accelerators. To improve lifetime of the high current proton ion source, helicon plasma ion sources were developed with external rf antenna and applied for neutron generation in drive-in-target configuration. Negative hydrogen ion sources were also developed for tandem and cyclotron accelerators by using both rf and filament discharges. Large-area high-current ion sources for the KSTAR NBI system were developed and successfully tested for long-pulse operation of up to 300 s. Several broad beam ion sources for industrial applications such as ion implantation and surface treatment were also developed by using arc, rf, and microwave discharges. Recently, ion source applications become diversified to the area of nano- and biotechnologies. For example, C60 ion source was developed for the use of bioapplications in nanometer scale. For focused ion beam as a nanofabrication tool, liquid metal ion sources were improved and a novel plasma ion source was developed by utilizing localized sheath discharges. Research and development activities of these ion sources will be discussed with short description of appropriate applications.

Hwang, Y. S.

2008-02-01

333

A high charge state multicusp ion source  

SciTech Connect

Attempts have been made to generate high charge state ion beams by employing a multicusp plasma source. Three experimental investigations have been performed at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) and at Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (GSI) to study the charge state distributions and the emittance of the extracted beam. Results demonstrate that charge state as high as +7 can be obtained with argon or xenon plasmas. The brightness of a 11-mA xenon ion beam is found to be 26 A/({pi} mm mrad){sup 2}.

Leung, K.N.; Keller, R. (Accelerator and Fusion Research Division, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, California 94720 (US))

1990-01-01

334

A high charge state multicusp ion source  

SciTech Connect

Attempts have been made to generate high charge state ion beams by employing a multicusp plasma source. Three experimental investigations have been performed at LBL and at GSI to study the charge state distributions and the emittance of the extracted beam. Results demonstrate that charge state as high as +7 can be obtained with argon or xenon plasmas. The brightness of a 11 mA xenon ion beam is found to be 26 A/({pi}-mm-mrad){sup 2}. 6 refs., 6 figs.

Leung, K.N.; Keller, R.

1989-06-01

335

Development of ion sources for fusion research at SWIP  

Microsoft Academic Search

To meet the requirement of fusion research for neutral beam injection, Southwestern Institute of Physics began the development of high current ion sources in the late seventies. A 7 cm duoPIGatron ion source, a 7×35 cm multifilament field free ion source, and an 8.5 cm multicusp ion source have successively been designed, built, and tested. The 7 cm duoPIGatron ion

S. F. Jiang; G. J. Wang

1994-01-01

336

Negative chlorine ions from multicusp radio frequency ion source for heavy ion fusion applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Use of high mass atomic neutral beams produced from negative ions as drivers for inertial confinement fusion has been suggested recently. Best candidates for the negative ions would be bromine and iodine with sufficiently high mass and electron affinity. These materials require a heated vapor ion source. Chlorine was selected for initial testing because it has similar electron affinity to

S. K. Hahto; S. T. Hahto; J. W. Kwan; K. N. Leung; L. R. Grisham

2003-01-01

337

Improvement of highly charged ion production in the ECR source of heavy ions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some physical limitations of the highly charged ion production in the ECR source are analyzed in this report. A few possible ways to improve the output of highly charged ions from the ECR source for heavy ions are proposed. A new library of computer codes for the numerical simulation of heavy ion production in the ECR ion source is used

G. D. Shirkov

1996-01-01

338

Towards liquid metal ion source chips: Indium liquid metal ion source with glass microcapillaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A liquid-metal-ion-source with indium propellant using an uncoated fused quartz glass microcapillary was manufactured and tested. The extremely thin capillary enabled a very low ignition voltage of 1000 V and a high electrical impedance ideal for clustering. However, low bonding forces between indium and glass resulted in a rather short lifetime of little more than 10 min. The use of pure glass as emitter material may enable liquid ion source chips with high current densities in the future.

Tajmar, M.; Plesescu, F.

2013-01-01

339

rf-driven ion sources for industrial applications (invited) (abstract)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Plasma and Ion Source Technology Group at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory have been developing rf-driven ion sources for the last two decades. These sources are being used to generate both positive and negative ion beams. Some of these sources are operating in particle accelerators such as the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge, while others are being employed in various industrial ion beam systems. There are four areas where the rf-driven ion sources are commonly used in industry. (1) In semiconductor manufacturing, rf-driven sources have found important applications in plasma etching, ion beam implantation, and ion beam lithography. (2) In material analysis and surface modification, miniature rf-ion sources can be found in focused ion beam systems. They can provide ion beams of essentially any element in the Periodic Table. The newly developed combined rf ion-electron beam unit improves greatly the performance of the secondary ion mass spectrometry tool. (3) For neutron production, rf ion source is a major component of compact, high flux D-D, D-T, or T-T neutron generators. These neutron sources are now being employed in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) as well as in neutron imaging and material interrogation. (4) Large area rf-driven ion source will be used in an industrial design neutral beam diagnostic system for probing fusion plasmas. Such sources can be easily scaled to provide large ion beam current for future fusion reactor applications.

Leung, Ka-Ngo

2008-02-01

340

rf-driven ion sources for industrial applications (invited) (abstract)  

SciTech Connect

The Plasma and Ion Source Technology Group at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory have been developing rf-driven ion sources for the last two decades. These sources are being used to generate both positive and negative ion beams. Some of these sources are operating in particle accelerators such as the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge, while others are being employed in various industrial ion beam systems. There are four areas where the rf-driven ion sources are commonly used in industry. (1) In semiconductor manufacturing, rf-driven sources have found important applications in plasma etching, ion beam implantation, and ion beam lithography. (2) In material analysis and surface modification, miniature rf-ion sources can be found in focused ion beam systems. They can provide ion beams of essentially any element in the Periodic Table. The newly developed combined rf ion-electron beam unit improves greatly the performance of the secondary ion mass spectrometry tool. (3) For neutron production, rf ion source is a major component of compact, high flux D-D, D-T, or T-T neutron generators. These neutron sources are now being employed in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) as well as in neutron imaging and material interrogation. (4) Large area rf-driven ion source will be used in an industrial design neutral beam diagnostic system for probing fusion plasmas. Such sources can be easily scaled to provide large ion beam current for future fusion reactor applications.

Leung, Ka-Ngo [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and Nuclear Engineering Department, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

2008-02-15

341

RF Ion Source-Driven IEC Design and Operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The next step needed to achieve higher neutron yields and improved neutron production efficiency with Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) sources requires operation with an external ion source so that the reaction chamber pressure is controlled separately for the source pressure. This paper presents recent progress in IEC research at the UIUC using a unique external ion source ILLIBS (Illinois Ion

G. H. Miley; Y. Yang; J. Webber; Y. Shaban; H. Momota

2005-01-01

342

Compact microwave ion source for industrial applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 2.45 GHz microwave ion source for ion implanters has many good properties for industrial application, such as easy maintenance and long lifetime, and it should be compact for budget and space. But, it has a dc current supply for the solenoid and a rf generator for plasma generation. Usually, they are located on high voltage platform because they are electrically connected with beam extraction power supply. Using permanent magnet solenoid and multi-layer dc break, high voltage deck and high voltage isolation transformer can be eliminated, and the dose rate on targets can be controlled by pulse duty control with semiconductor high voltage switch. Because the beam optics does not change, beam transfer components, such as focusing elements and beam shutter, can be eliminated. It has shown the good performances in budget and space for industrial applications of ion beams.

Cho, Yong-Sub; Kim, Dae-Il; Kim, Han-Sung; Seol, Kyung-Tae; Kwon, Hyeok-Jung; Hong, In-Seok

2012-02-01

343

Beam Uniformity Controllable Ion Source with a Long Slit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With scaling up of a substrate of LCD and silicon, an ion source with a longer extraction area than the substrate has been used for an ion implantation system. Wide sheet beam emitted from a long extraction area is effective to decrease space charge effect of a high current ion beam. An ion source which has this structure has been applied for FPD. This ion source controls the source plasma partially. This function is one of the methods to adjust the uniformity of the ion sheet beam. However, there are technical difficulties for this ion source. Therefore, we have developed three types of ion sources which have a longer extracting slit than the substrate and different direction of the source magnetic field. This paper shows the structures and the experimental result of these ion sources.

Ikejiri, T.; Zhao, W.; Tanaka, K.; Igo, T.; Kinoyama, T.; Tamura, S.; Yamashita, T.

2008-11-01

344

Quest for high brightness, monochromatic noble gas ion sources  

SciTech Connect

Focused ion beam (FIB) machines are key tools for state-of-the art sample preparation in electron microscopy, for characterization and repair in material sciences, for the semiconductor industry and for nanotechnology in general. Liquid-metal ion sources (LMIS) are widely used in FIB machines because they meet the minimum ion source requirements such as source brightness and reliability. However, in FIB machines, noble gas ion sources are favorable for sputtering, beam-induced etching and deposition, because the implanted ions do not change the electrical behavior of the substrate significantly. There are several efforts by various researchers to develop noble gas ion sources that can be used in FIB machines instead of LMIS. The gas ion sources could not meet the minimum ion source requirements. Therefore, LMIS are still a popular choice among FIB machine users. This review article takes a critical look at the reported efforts in the literature to develop noble gas ion sources for FIB machines.

Tondare, V.N. [Delft University of Technology, Lorentzweg 1, 2628 CJ, Delft (Netherlands)

2005-11-15

345

Beam Uniformity Controllable Ion Source with a Long Slit  

SciTech Connect

With scaling up of a substrate of LCD and silicon, an ion source with a longer extraction area than the substrate has been used for an ion implantation system. Wide sheet beam emitted from a long extraction area is effective to decrease space charge effect of a high current ion beam. An ion source which has this structure has been applied for FPD. This ion source controls the source plasma partially. This function is one of the methods to adjust the uniformity of the ion sheet beam. However, there are technical difficulties for this ion source. Therefore, we have developed three types of ion sources which have a longer extracting slit than the substrate and different direction of the source magnetic field. This paper shows the structures and the experimental result of these ion sources.

Ikejiri, T.; Zhao, W.; Tanaka, K.; Igo, T.; Kinoyama, T.; Tamura, S.; Yamashita, T. [Nissin Ion Equipment Co., LTD 575 Kuze-Tonoshiro-Cho, Minami-Ku, Kyoto, 601-8205 (Japan)

2008-11-03

346

Miniature induction oven for ion sources optimisation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The space and power limitation frequently arising when inserting ovens into ion sources lead us to explore alternatives to the direct current ohmic heating. An induction oven has the following advantages over a resistance one: a) the current in the induction coil is lower; b) heating may be concentrated on the sample surface by choosing the right value of the frequency and the total power is limited; c) there is no contact between the heating coil and the heated sample; in fact a boron nitride crucible separates the sample from the coil. A tantalum enclosure minimizes EMI and coupling to the plasma. The technological and optimisation problems due to the limited size are discussed. In perspective, these devices may heat a broad range of elements up to 2000 K extending application of any ion volume sources.

Cavenago, M.; Moisio, M. F.

1996-02-01

347

Proton emission from a laser ion source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At intensities of the order of 1010 W/cm2, ns pulsed lasers can be employed to ablate solid bulk targets in order to produce high emission of ions at different charge state and kinetic energy. A special interest is devoted to the production of protons with controllable energy and current from a roto-translating target irradiated in repetition rate at 1-10 Hz by a Nd:Yag pulsed laser beam. Different hydrogenated targets based on polymers and hydrates were irradiated in high vacuum. Special nanostrucutres can be embedded in the polymers in order to modify the laser absorption properties and the amount of protons to be accelerated in the plasma. For example, carbon nanotubes may increase the laser absorption and the hydrogen absorption to generate high proton yields from the plasma. Metallic nanostrucutres may increase the electron density of the plasma and the kinetic energy of the accelerated protons. Ion collectors, ion energy analyzer, and mass spectrometers, used in time-of-flight configuration, were employed to characterize the ion beam properties. A comparison with traditional proton ion source is presented and discussed.

Torrisi, L.; Cavallaro, S.; Cutroneo, M.; Margarone, D.; Gammino, S.

2012-02-01

348

Proton emission from a laser ion source  

SciTech Connect

At intensities of the order of 10{sup 10} W/cm{sup 2}, ns pulsed lasers can be employed to ablate solid bulk targets in order to produce high emission of ions at different charge state and kinetic energy. A special interest is devoted to the production of protons with controllable energy and current from a roto-translating target irradiated in repetition rate at 1-10 Hz by a Nd:Yag pulsed laser beam. Different hydrogenated targets based on polymers and hydrates were irradiated in high vacuum. Special nanostrucutres can be embedded in the polymers in order to modify the laser absorption properties and the amount of protons to be accelerated in the plasma. For example, carbon nanotubes may increase the laser absorption and the hydrogen absorption to generate high proton yields from the plasma. Metallic nanostrucutres may increase the electron density of the plasma and the kinetic energy of the accelerated protons. Ion collectors, ion energy analyzer, and mass spectrometers, used in time-of-flight configuration, were employed to characterize the ion beam properties. A comparison with traditional proton ion source is presented and discussed.

Torrisi, L. [INFN-LNS Via S. Sofia 44, 95123 Catania (Italy); Dip.to di Fisica, Universita di Messina, V.le F.S. D'Alcontres 31, 98166 S. Agata, Messina (Italy); Cavallaro, S.; Gammino, S. [INFN-LNS Via S. Sofia 44, 95123 Catania (Italy); Cutroneo, M. [Dip.to di Fisica, Universita di Messina, V.le F.S. D'Alcontres 31, 98166 S. Agata, Messina (Italy); Margarone, D. [Institute of Physics, ASCR, v.v.i., 182 21 Prague 8 (Czech Republic)

2012-02-15

349

Experimental Evaluation of a Negative Ion Source for a Heavy Ion Fusion Negative Ion Driver  

SciTech Connect

Negative halogen ions have recently been proposed as a possible alternative to positive ions for heavy ion fusion drivers because electron accumulation would not be a problem in the accelerator, and if desired, the beams could be photo-detached to neutrals. To test the ability to make suitable quality beams, an experiment was conducted at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory using chlorine in an RF-driven ion source. Without introducing any cesium (which is required to enhance negative ion production in hydrogen ion sources) a negative chlorine current density of 45 mA/cm{sup 2} was obtained under the same conditions that gave 57 45 mA/cm{sup 2} of positive chlorine, suggesting the presence of nearly as many negative ions as positive ions in the plasma near the extraction plane. The negative ion spectrum was 99.5% atomic chlorine ions, with only 0.5% molecular chlorine, and essentially no impurities. Although this experiment did not incorporate the type of electron suppression technology that i s used in negative hydrogen beam extraction, the ratio of co-extracted electrons to Cl{sup -} was as low as 7 to 1, many times lower than the ratio of their mobilities, suggesting that few electrons are present in the near-extractor plasma. This, along with the near-equivalence of the positive and negative ion currents, suggests that the plasma in this region was mostly an ion-ion plasma. The negative chlorine current density was relatively insensitive to pressure, and scaled linearly with RF power. If this linear scaling continues to hold at higher RF powers, it should permit current densities of 100 45 mA/cm{sup 2}, sufficient for present heavy ion fusion injector concepts. The effective ion temperatures of the positive and negative ions appeared to be similar and relatively low for a plasma source.

L.R. Grisham, S.K. Hahto, S.T. Hahto, J.W. Kwan, and K.N. Leung

2004-06-16

350

HIGH-INTENSITY, HIGH CHARGE-STATE HEAVY ION SOURCES  

SciTech Connect

There are many accelerator applications for high intensity heavy ion sources, with recent needs including dc beams for RIA, and pulsed beams for injection into synchrotrons such as RHIC and LHC. The present status of sources producing high currents of high charge state heavy ions is reviewed. These sources include ECR, EBIS, and Laser ion sources. Benefits and limitations for these type sources are described. Possible future improvements in these sources are also mentioned.

ALESSI,J.G.

2004-08-16

351

H- ion source development for the FNAL 750keV injector upgrade  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The new FNAL 750keV injector upgrade for the replacement of the 40 year old Fermi National Laboratory (FNAL) Cockcroft-Walton accelerators with a new ion source and 200MHz Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ), Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) and Medium Energy Beam Transport (MEBT) [1], has been built and is now being tested prior to installation during the 2012 shutdown. The new H- ion source is a round aperture magnetron which was developed at Brookhaven National Lab (BNL) by Jim Alessi[2]. Operational experience from BNL has shown that this type of source is more reliable with a longer lifetime (on the order of 6 to 9 months) due to better power efficiency. With a similar duty factor to BNL, we expect to have a comparable lifetime between source changes. The new source design reliably produces 90mA of H- beam current at 15Hz rep-rate, 250?s pulse width, and a duty factor of 0.38%. The measured emittances at the end of the LEBT are horizontally ?H = 0.21? mm* mrad and vertically ?V = 0.17? mm* mrad. With 35kV extraction the power efficiency is 60mA/kW. The source design, along with data from a test stand and the LEBT, will be presented in this paper.

Bollinger, D. S.

2013-02-01

352

Software architecture considerations for ion source control systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

General characteristics of distributed control system software tools are examined from the perspective of ion source control system requirements. Emphasis is placed on strategies for building extensible, distributed systems in which the ion source element...

J. W. Sinclair

1997-01-01

353

Large source test stand for H/sup -/(D/sup -/) ion source  

SciTech Connect

The Brookhaven National Laboratory Neutral Beam Group has constructed a large source test stand for testing of the various source modules under development. The first objective of the BNL program is to develop a source module capable of delivering 10A of H/sup -/(D/sup -/) at 25 kV operating in the steady state mode with satisfactory gas and power efficiency. The large source test stand contains gas supply and vacuum pumping systems, source cooling systems, magnet power supplies and magnet cooling systems, two arc power supplies rated at 25 kW and 50 kW, a large battery driven power supply and an extractor electrode power supply. Figure 1 is a front view of the vacuum vessel showing the control racks with the 36'' vacuum valves and refrigerated baffles mounted behind. Figure 2 shows the rear view of the vessel with a BNL Mk V magnetron source mounted in the source aperture and also shows the cooled magnet coils. Currently two types of sources are under test: a large magnetron source and a hollow cathode discharge source.

Larson, R.; McKenzie-Wilson, R.

1981-01-01

354

Optimization of a two-stages electrostatic reflex ion source  

Microsoft Academic Search

In our argon, oxygen, or nitrogen broad beam ion source, 80 mm in diameter, which is either an electrostatic reflex ion source, or a magnetic and electrostatic reflex ion source, the hot filament has been replaced by a carefully optimized microwave plasma (MP) cathode under the electron cyclotron resonance condition. Different geometries of antennae in which the microwave transverse electric

A. Farchi; L. Wartski; F. Boukari; V. Roy; Ph. Coste; J. Aubert

1994-01-01

355

Investigation and application of hollow anode glow discharge ion source  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present work, a new shape of a glow discharge ion source has been designed, fabricated and constructed at Accelerators and Ion Sources Department, Nuclear Research Center, Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority, Egypt. The discharge and output beam characteristics of the ion source at different operating gas pressures have been measured at the optimum distance between the anode and the

F. W. Abdelsalam; A. G. Helal; Y. B. Saddeek; M. M. Abdelrahman; B. A. Soliman

2010-01-01

356

Development of high power ion sources for fusion (invited)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent progress and development activities regarding high power ion sources for fusion researches are reviewed. High power positive ion sources, which have progressed in the 1980s, played important roles in fusion research. Most of the ion sources developed for major neutral beam injection (NBI) systems are a large area magnetic multipole type with tungsten cathode, and produce tens of amperes

Y. Ohara

1998-01-01

357

Ion source with improved primary arc collimation  

SciTech Connect

An improved negative ion source is provided in which a self-biasing, molybdenum collimator is used to define the primary electron stream arc discharge from a filament operated at a negative potential. The collimator is located between the anode and the filament. It is electrically connected to the anode by means of an appropriate size resistor such that the collimator is biased at essentially the filament voltage during operation. Initially, the full arc voltage appears across the filament to collimator until the arc discharge strikes. Then the collimator biases itself to essentially filament potential due to current flow through the resistor thus defining the primary electron stream without intercepting any appreciable arc power. The collimator aperture is slightly smaller than the anode aperture to shield the anode from the arc power, thereby preventing the exposure of the anode to the full arc power which, in the past, has caused overheating and erosion of the anode collimator during extended time pulsed-beam operation of the source. With the self-biasing collimator of this invention, the ion source may be operated from short pulse periods to steady-state without destroying the anode.

Dagenhart, W. K.

1985-07-23

358

The laser ion source and trap (LIST) – A highly selective ion source  

Microsoft Academic Search

A combined structure consisting of a laser ion source and a linear Paul trap (LIST) has been designed to produce radioactive ion beams of high purity and optimal temporal and spacial brilliance at on-line isotope separator (ISOL) facilities. The functionality of the LIST was experimentally demonstrated in off-line tests using the RISIKO off-line mass separator together with an all solid

Fabio Schwellnus; Klaus Blaum; Christopher Geppert; Tina Gottwald; Hans-Jürgen Kluge; Christoph Mattolat; Wilfried Nörtershäuser; Katja Wies; Klaus Wendt

2008-01-01

359

Performance characterization of rf-driven multicusp ion sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radio-frequency (rf)-driven multicusp ion sources have been developed extensively at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) for many applications, each requiring specific source designs. These uses have ranged from large ion sources for neutral-beam injectorsâseveral tens of centimeters in sizeâto small sources for oil-well logging neutron tubesâa few centimeters in diameter. The advantages associated with internal antenna, rf-driven ion sources include

L. T. Perkins; G. J. de Vries; P. R. Herz; W. B. Kunkel; K. N. Leung; D. S. Pickard; A. Wengrow; M. D. Williams

1996-01-01

360

Performance characterization of rf-driven multicusp ion sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radio-frequency (rf)-driven multicusp ion sources have been developed extensively at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) for many applications, each requiring specific source designs. These uses have ranged from large ion sources for neutral-beam injectors—several tens of centimeters in size—to small sources for oil-well logging neutron tubes—a few centimeters in diameter. The advantages associated with internal antenna, rf-driven ion sources include

L. T. Perkins; G. J. De Vries; P. R. Herz; W. B. Kunkel; K. N. Leung; D. S. Pickard; A. Wengrow; M. D. Williams

1996-01-01

361

Enhancement of high-charge-state ions in vacuum arc ion sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vacuum arc ion sources are used to generate high current broad beams of metal ions. The attraction of increasing the mean ion charge state in the beam is because of the possibility of thereby increasing the ion beam energy without applying higher extraction voltage. This is important both for heavy ion accelerator injectors and for ion implantation technologies. We have

A. Bugaev; V. Gushenets; E. Oks; G. Yushkov; A. Anders; I. G. Brown

2001-01-01

362

Negative chlorine ions from multicusp radio frequency ion source for heavy ion fusion applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Use of high mass atomic neutral beams produced from negative ions as drivers for inertial confinement fusion has been suggested recently. Best candidates for the negative ions would be bromine and iodine with sufficiently high mass and electron affinity. These materials require a heated vapor ion source. Chlorine was selected for initial testing because it has similar electron affinity to those of bromine and iodine, and is available in gaseous form. An experiment was set up by the Plasma and Ion Source Technology Group in Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory to measure achievable current densities and other beam parameters by using a rf driven multicusp ion source [K. N. Leung, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 1165 (1994); Q. Ji et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 822 (2002)]. Current density of 45 mA/cm2 was achieved with 99.5% of the beam as atomic negative chlorine at 2.2 kW of rf power. An electron to negative ion ratio as low as 7 to 1 was observed, while the ratio of positive and negative chlorine ion currents was 1.3. This in addition to the fact that the front plate biasing had almost no effect to the negative chlorine ion and electron currents indicates that a very high percentage of the negative charge in the extraction area of the ion source was in form of Cl- ions. A comparison of positive and negative chlorine ion temperatures was conducted with the pepper pot emittance measurement technique and very similar transverse temperature values were obtained for positive and negative chlorine ions.

Hahto, S. K.; Hahto, S. T.; Kwan, J. W.; Leung, K. N.; Grisham, L. R.

2003-06-01

363

Ion species measurement of high current metal ion beams extracted from a multicusp ion source  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ion charge state and impurities extracted from a multicusp ion source have been studied with the use of a magnetic momentum mass analyzer. Impurities contained in high current metal ion beams are crucible materials (such as Al2O3, BN, Y2O3, C) and high melting point materials (such as Mo, Ta, W). To reduce these impurities, the dependence of the impurity on

Yasuhiro Matsuda; Hiroshi Inami; Takatoshi Yamashita; Shuichi Fujiwara; Yutaka Inouchi; Kouzi Matsunaga; Koji Matsuda

1992-01-01

364

Production of atomic or molecular nitrogen ion beams using a multicusp and a microwave ion source  

SciTech Connect

Two small ion sources have been used to generate positive nitrogen ion beams. One is a multicusp ion source, the other is a compact microwave ion source which needs no magnetic field for operation. Both sources are operated with and without a magnetic filter to control the energetic electron population near the extraction region. Results for both ion sources, including current densities and ionic species mix are presented. The multicusp ion source can produce beams of nitrogen ions with greater than 90% of the ion species either N/sup +/ or N/sup +//sub 2/ with current densities of approx.8 and 2.5 mA/cm/sup 2/, respectively. The microwave ion source can generate nitrogen ion beams composed of more than 85% N/sup +//sub 2/ with current densities of approx.30 mA/cm/sup 2/.

Walther, S.R.; Leung, K.N.; Kunkel, W.B.

1988-06-15

365

Relativistic Magnetron Priming Experiments and Theory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Microwave/RF priming experiments have been performed on the UM relativistic magnetron. The high power RF priming source (40 kV, non- relativistic magnetron) was obtained on-loan from the Air Force Research Lab. Microwave power output from the AFRL priming...

R. M. Gilgenbach Y. Y. Lau

2005-01-01

366

Large source test stand for H/sup -/(D/sup -/) ion source  

SciTech Connect

The Brookhaven National Laboratory Neutral Beam Group has constructed a Large Source Test Stand for testing of the various source modules under development. The first objective of the BNL program is to develop a source module capable of delivering 10A of H-(D-) at 25 kV operating in the steady state mode with satisfactory gas and power efficiency. The large source test stand contains gas supply and vacuum pumping systems, source cooling systems, magnet power supplies and magnet cooling systems, two arc power supplies rated at 25 kW and 50 kW, a Large battery driven power supply and an extractor electrode power supply. Currently two types of sources are under test: a large magnetron source and a hollow cathode discharge source.

Larson, R.; McKenzie-Wilson, R.

1981-01-01

367

1+-n+ ECR ION SOURCE DEVELOPMENT TEST STAND  

SciTech Connect

A test stand for the investigation of 1+-n+ charge boosting using an ECR ion sources is currently being assembled at the Texas A&M Cyclotron Institute. The ultimate goal is to relate the charge-boosting of ions of stable species to possible charge-boosting of ions of radioactive species extracted from the diverse, low-charge-state ion sources developed for radioactive ion beams.

Donald P. May

2006-04-07

368

Characteristics of the Berkeley multicusp ion source.  

PubMed

The performance of a cubical permanent magnet generated line-cusp ion source has been investigated for use with neutral beam injectors. This source has been operated with discharge currents greater than 500 A and ion current densities higher than 400 mA/cm2 at the extraction grid. The uniformity of the density profile across the extraction area is found to be dependent on the gas pressure. By using a fast Langmuir probe sweeping circuit, the electron temperature and the plasma density and potential have been analyzed for different discharge powers and gas pressures. The heat load on the plasma grid when it is electrically floating or connected to the negative cathode has been compared calorimetrically. The use of lanthanum hexaboride and impregnated oxide cathodes have been investigated for the purpose of long pulse operation. The phenomenon of mode flipping is found to occur quite frequently during a discharge with these magnetic-field-free cathodes. Species composition as a function of discharge power and chamber length is measured by a mass spectrometer. PMID:18699390

Ehlers, K W; Leung, K N

1979-11-01

369

Microstructure and mechanical properties of CrN films fabricated by high power pulsed magnetron discharge plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CrN films with strong adhesion with the substrate have been fabricated on Ti6Al4V alloy using novel plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (PIII&D) based on high power pulsed magnetron sputtering (HPPMS). A macro-particle free chromium plasma is generated by HPPMS while the samples are subjected to high voltage pulses to conduct PIII&D. The CrN coatings have a dense columnar structure and low surface roughness. The grains in the films have the face-center cubic (fcc) structure with the (2 0 0) preferred orientation. An excellent adhesion is achieved with a critical load up to 74.7 N. An implantation voltage of 18 kV yields a hardness of 18 GPa and better wear resistance and a low friction coefficient of 0.48 are achieved.

Wu, Zhongzhen; Tian, Xiubo; Wang, Zeming; Gong, Chunzhi; Yang, Shiqin; Tan, Cher Ming; Chu, Paul K.

2011-10-01

370

Development of hollow anode penning ion source for laboratory application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The research work presented here focuses for the development of miniature penning type ion source. One hollow anode penning type ion source was developed in our laboratory. The size of the ion source is 38 mm diameter and 55 mm length. The ion source consists of two cathodes, a hollow anode and one piece of rare earth permanent magnet. The plasma was created in the plasma region between cathodes and the hollow anode. The J × B force in the region helps for efficient ionization of the gas even in the high vacuum region˜1×10-5 Torr. The ions were extracted in the axial direction with help of the potential difference between the electrodes and the geometry of the extraction angle. The effect of the extraction electrode geometry for efficient extraction of the ions from the plasma region was examined. This ion source is a self extracted ion source. The self extracted phenomena reduce the cost and the size of the ion source. The extracted ion current was measured by a graphite probe. An ion current of more than 200 ?A was observed at the probe placed 70 mm apart from the extraction electrode. In this paper, the structure of the ion source, effect of operating pressure, potential difference and the magnetic field on the extracted ion current is reported.

Das, B. K.; Shyam, A.; Das, R.; Rao, A. D. P.

2012-03-01

371

Study of Compact Penning Ion Source for Material Studies  

SciTech Connect

Development of ion sources of various sizes has been carried out since a long back. Gaseous ions of different nature are being used in different field of research as well as industrial applications like surface modification, doping, surface etching, sputtering, production of nano size particles and focused ion beam etc. Out of various geometry and operation regime, due to compactness, ruggedness and long life, penning type ion sources are widely used in different field of research and applications. One such type of ion source was developed in our laboratory. Though this source was meant for neutron generation, using deuterium ions, the effectiveness for other purposes was investigated. The discharge characteristic was studied for different gases like, Deuterium, Helium, Nitrogen, Oxygen and Argon. The source being a self extracted type; the extracted ion current from the extraction aperture was measured using one faraday cup. In this paper we have discussed, the discharge characteristic and the extraction ion current for different type of gases.

Das, B. K.; Das, R.; Shyam, A. [Energetics and Electromagnetics Division, Facility for Electro-Magnetic Systems, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Autonagar, Visakhapatnam, A.P-530012 (India)

2011-07-15

372

The laser ion source and trap (LIST) A highly selective ion source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A combined structure consisting of a laser ion source and a linear Paul trap (LIST) has been designed to produce radioactive ion beams of high purity and optimal temporal and spacial brilliance at on-line isotope separator (ISOL) facilities. The functionality of the LIST was experimentally demonstrated in off-line tests using the RISIKO off-line mass separator together with an all solid state Ti:sapphire laser system at the University of Mainz. Two different ion trap designs were tested extracting the performance of these devices regarding ionization efficiency and selectivity as well as time structure and transverse emittance of the produced ion beam. The results of these measurements are presented together with an outlook on the next steps towards the first on-line application of the LIST.

Schwellnus, Fabio; Blaum, Klaus; Geppert, Christopher; Gottwald, Tina; Kluge, Hans-Jürgen; Mattolat, Christoph; Nörtershäuser, Wilfried; Wies, Katja; Wendt, Klaus

2008-10-01

373

A compact filament-driven multicusp ion source  

Microsoft Academic Search

A compact filament-driven multicusp ion source has been studied using both hydrogen and helium. Three aspects of the source have been investigated: hydrogen ion species, axial energy spread and extractable current. An atomic ion fraction (H+) of approximately 30% could be obtained with a discharge power of 80 V and 3 A. A magnetic analyzer was used to determine the

Y. Lee; R. A. Gough; W. B. Kunkel; K. N. Leung; L. T. Perkins; D. S. Pickard; L. Sun; J. Vujic; M. D. Williams; D. Wutte

1996-01-01

374

Increasing the efficiency of a multicusp ion source  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characteristics of a multicusp ion source are compared for two types of permanent magnets. A technique for reducing the ion loss to the regions between the line cusps is described. The effect of this magneto-electrostatic containment scheme is shown to increase the overall efficiency of the ion source.

K. W. Ehlers; K. N. Leung

1982-01-01

375

On a New Source of Highly Stripped Heavy Ions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A new source of highly stripped heavy ions is suggested based on the principles of the HIPAC (Heavy Ion Plasma Accelerator). The mode of operation and estimated performance of the ion source are discussed and a brief description of relevant experiments is...

J. D. Daugherty L. Grodzins G. S. Jones R. H. Levy

1968-01-01

376

Vacuum arc ion sources: recent developments and applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vacuum arc ion source has evolved over the past 20 years into a standard laboratory tool for the production of high current beams of metal ions, and is now used in a number of different embodiments at many laboratories around the world. The primary application of this kind of source has evolved to be ion implantation for material surface

Ian Brown; Efim Oks

2005-01-01

377

INVESTIGATION OF ION SOURCES AND INJECTOR USED IN RFQ ACCELERATOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two kinds of PIG ion source with permanent magnet used for RFQ are developed, mA of O+ and O- beams can be extracted from them and O - and O + ion ratio is 70-80%, respectively. The injector built for RFQ consists of ion sources, einzel lenses, steerer and funnel magnet et al. and the beam lines of the injector

Yu Jinxiang; Chen Jiaer; Ren Xiaotang; Song Zhizhong; Wang Zhongyi; Zhang Zhengfang; Lu Yuanrong; Li Weiguo; Fang Jiaxun

378

Development of a hybrid PIG-ECR ion source  

Microsoft Academic Search

A combined ion source with 20 cm beam diameter, utilizing both a cold-cathode Philips or Penning ionization gauge (PIG) discharge and an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) discharge, has been built and tested. The ion source has been designed to study what effects, if any, might be induced by superimposing microwave power at the ECR condition onto a cold-cathode PIG ion

S. N. Abolmasov; M. Shindo; M. V. Buttlar; H. Muta; A. A. Bizyukov; Y. Kawai

2003-01-01

379

Improved ion beam deposition system with RF sputter-type ion source  

Microsoft Academic Search

A newly developed RF sputter-type ion source has been introduced into our ion beam deposition (IBD) system for high purity Fe film formation. Vacuum environment during deposition has been much improved compared with our previous IBD system, in which a conventional CCl4 method was employed to produce Fe+ ions in a microwave ion source. With no use of CCl4 gas,

Kiyoshi Miyake

1997-01-01

380

Development of a lithium liquid metal ion source for MeV ion beam analysis  

SciTech Connect

Lithium liquid metal ion sources are an attractive complement to the existing gaseous ion sources that are extensively used for ion beam analysis. This is due in part to the high brightness of the liquid metal ion source and in part to the availability of a lithium ion beam. High brightness is of particular importance to MeV ion microprobes which are now approaching current density limitations on targets determined by the ion source. The availability of a lithium beam provides increased capabilities for hydrogen profiling and high resolution Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. This paper describes the design and performance of a lithium liquid metal ion source suitable for use on a 5MV Laddertron accelerator. Operational experience with the source and some of its uses for ion beam analysis are discussed. 8 refs., 2 figs.

Read, P.M.; Maskrey, J.T.; Alton, G.D.

1988-01-01

381

RF Ion Source-Driven IEC Design and Operation  

SciTech Connect

The next step needed to achieve higher neutron yields and improved neutron production efficiency with Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) sources requires operation with an external ion source so that the reaction chamber pressure is controlled separately for the source pressure. This paper presents recent progress in IEC research at the UIUC using a unique external ion source ILLIBS (Illinois Ion Beam Source). When filled with deuterium, the IEC provides {approx}10{sup 8} 2.5-MeV D-D fusion neutrons/sec at steady-state. The design and operation of a radiofrequency (RF) ion gun designed for this purpose is also discussed.

Miley, G.H.; Yang, Y.; Webber, J.; Shaban, Y.; Momota, H. [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign (United States)

2005-05-15

382

Differential turbulent heating of different ions in electron cyclotron resonance ion source plasma  

SciTech Connect

The article considers the collisionless ion sound turbulent heating of different ions in an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS). The ion sound arises due to parametric instability of pumping wave propagating along the magnetic field with the frequency close to that of electron cyclotron. Within the framework of turbulent heating model the different ions temperatures are calculated in gas-mixing ECRIS plasma.

Elizarov, L.I.; Ivanov, A.A.; Serebrennikov, K.S.; Vostrikova, E.A. [Russian Research Center 'Kurchatov Institute', 1Kurchatov Square, 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation); Russian Research Center 'Kurchatov Institute', 1 Kurchatov Square, 123182 Moscow, Russia and Peoples Friendship University of Russia, 6 Miklukho-Maklaya Street 117198 Moscow (Russian Federation)

2006-03-15

383

Magnetic plasma confinement for laser ion source.  

PubMed

A laser ion source (LIS) can easily provide a high current beam. However, it has been difficult to obtain a longer beam pulse while keeping a high current. On occasion, longer beam pulses are required by certain applications. For example, more than 10 micros of beam pulse is required for injecting highly charged beams to a large sized synchrotron. To extend beam pulse width, a solenoid field was applied at the drift space of the LIS at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The solenoid field suppressed the diverging angle of the expanding plasma and the beam pulse was widened. Also, it was observed that the plasma state was conserved after passing through a few hundred gauss of the 480 mm length solenoid field. PMID:20192365

Okamura, M; Adeyemi, A; Kanesue, T; Tamura, J; Kondo, K; Dabrowski, R

2010-02-01

384

Magnetic plasma confinement for laser ion source  

SciTech Connect

A laser ion source (LIS) can easily provide a high current beam. However, it has been difficult to obtain a longer beam pulse while keeping a high current. On occasion, longer beam pulses are required by certain applications. For example, more than 10 {micro}s of beam pulse is required for injecting highly charged beams to a large sized synchrotron. To extend beam pulse width, a solenoid field was applied at the drift space of the LIS at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The solenoid field suppressed the diverging angle of the expanding plasma and the beam pulse was widened. Also, it was observed that the plasma state was conserved after passing through a few hundred gauss of the 480 mm length solenoid field.

Okamura, M.; Adeyemi, A.; Kanesue, T.; Tamura, J.; Kondo, K.; Dabrowski, R.

2010-02-01

385

Magnetic plasma confinement for laser ion source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A laser ion source (LIS) can easily provide a high current beam. However, it has been difficult to obtain a longer beam pulse while keeping a high current. On occasion, longer beam pulses are required by certain applications. For example, more than 10 ?s of beam pulse is required for injecting highly charged beams to a large sized synchrotron. To extend beam pulse width, a solenoid field was applied at the drift space of the LIS at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The solenoid field suppressed the diverging angle of the expanding plasma and the beam pulse was widened. Also, it was observed that the plasma state was conserved after passing through a few hundred gauss of the 480 mm length solenoid field.

Okamura, M.; Adeyemi, A.; Kanesue, T.; Tamura, J.; Kondo, K.; Dabrowski, R.

2010-02-01

386

High current short pulse ion sources  

SciTech Connect

High current short pulse ion beams can be generated by using a multicusp source. This is accomplished by switching the arc or the RF induction discharge on and off. An alternative approach is to maintain a continuous plasma discharge and extraction voltage but control the plasma flow into the extraction aperture by a combination of magnetic and electric fields. Short beam pulses can be obtained by using a fast electronic switch and a dc bias power supply. It is also demonstrated that very short beam pulses ({approximately}10{mu}s) with high repetition rate can be formed by a laser-driven LaB{sub 6} or barium photo-cathode. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

Leung, K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

1997-02-01

387

The influences of high energetic oxygen negative ions and active oxygen on the microstructure and electrical properties of ZnO:Al films by MF magnetron sputtering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, ZnO:Al transparent conducting films were prepared on glass substrate by magnetron sputtering from Al doped ZnO ceramic targets. By measuring and analyzing the structure and electrical properties of films in front of targets at different target-to-substrate distance, it was concluded that the bombardment of energetic oxygen negative ions decreased with increasing target-to-substrate distance, dominating variation of resistivity and the microstructure in erosion area, while numbers of active oxygen decrease with increasing target-to-substrate distance, explaining variation of resistivity in non-erosion area. The influence of target-to-substrate distance on electrical and microstructure properties of ZnO:Al films on drum was also investigated in order to confirming our result. The result indicated that both energetic oxygen negative ions and numbers of active oxygen determined the properties of films on drum. While target-to-substrate distance is less than 95 mm, the numbers of energetic oxygen ions are the key factor and vice versa. The optimum resistivity of post-annealed films on drum was 5.1 × 10-4 ? cm at target-to-substrate distance of 95 mm.

Hao, Changshan; Xie, Bin; Li, Ming; Wang, Haiqian; Jiang, Yousong; Song, Yizhou

2012-08-01

388

Adhesion improvement of TiN film on tool steel by a hybrid process of unbalanced magnetron sputtering and plasma-based ion implantation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An interfacial mixing layer and a titanium (Ti) layer between the titanium-nitride (TiN) film and the substrate material was produced to improve the adhesion of TiN film on tool substrates by a hybrid process of unbalanced magnetron sputtering (UBM) and plasma-based ion implantation (PBII). Before TiN deposition by UBM, the negative high-voltage pulse and DC-bias were applied to the substrate immersed in the Ti plasma, resulting in implantation as well as deposition of Ti ions to the substrate. As a result, a Ti layer and a graded mixing layer of Ti and substrate materials was produced to work as a buffer interface between substrate and TiN film. The adhesion strength of TiN film with the interfacial treatment on tool steel substrates was evaluated by scratch and indentation tests, showing the considerable improvement of adhesion by the formation of the Ti and the interfacial mixing layers. The suitable ion implantation energy for the improvement of adhesion strength was found.

Ono, T.; Uemura, M.; Yatsuzuka, M.

2007-04-01

389

A Two Magnetron Sputter Deposition Chamber Equipped with an Additional Ion Gun for in situ Observation of Thin Film Growth and Surface Modification by Synchrotron Radiation Scattering  

SciTech Connect

We report the design of a sputter deposition chamber for the in situ study of film growth and modification by synchrotron x-ray diffraction and reflectivity. The chamber is sealed with four Be-windows allowing unhindered scattering access of -2 up to +50 degrees off-plane and -2.9 up to +65 degrees in-plane, respectively. The chamber fits into a standard six-circle diffractometer from HUBER which is relatively widespread in synchrotron laboratories. Two commercial miniature magnetrons with additional gas inlets allow for the deposition of compound films and multilayers. Substrate heating up to 950 deg. C and different substrate bias voltages are possible. An additional ion gun up to 6 keV and 10 {mu}A allows post-deposition ion irradiation with light atoms or energetic ion bombardment during sputter deposition. The performance of the chamber was tested with the deposition of MAX phase Ti2AlN and with the off-sputtering of a thin Pt film.

Schell, Norbert; Borany, Johannes von; Hauser, Jens [Forschungszentrum Rossendorf, P.O. Box 510119, 01314 Dresden (Germany)

2007-01-19

390

Experimental Examination of Diode Features in a High-Power Magnetron with a Transparent Cathode  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Magnetron is a high efficiency microwave source, although the energy conversion efficiency of a pulsed- power magnetron with a relativistic electron beam is less than that of a non-relativistic magnetron. We studied the possibility of increasing the energy conversion efficiency of a high-power magnetron using a transparent cathode. The conversion efficiency is controlled by the resonance efficiency between the

Hoshiyuki Yamazaki; Weihua Jiang

2008-01-01

391

Compact electron beam ion sources/traps: review and prospects.  

PubMed

The Dresden electron beam ion trap (EBIT)/electron beam ion source (EBIS) family are very compact and economically working table-top ion sources. We report on the development of three generations of such ion sources, the so-called Dresden EBIT, Dresden EBIS, and Dresden EBIS-A, respectively. The ion sources are classified by different currents of extractable ions at different charge states and by the x-ray spectra emitted by the ions inside the electron beam. We present examples of x-ray measurements and measured ion currents extracted from the ion sources at certain individual operating conditions. Ion charge states of up to Xe(48+) but also bare nuclei of lighter elements up to nickel have been extracted. The application potential of the ion sources is demonstrated via proof-of-concept applications employing an EBIT in a focused ion beam (FIB) column or using an EBIT for the production of nanostructures by single ion hits. Additionally we give first information about the next generation of the Dresden EBIS series. The so-called Dresden EBIS-SC is a compact and cryogen-free superconducting high-B-field EBIS for high-current operation. PMID:18315151

Zschornack, G; Kreller, M; Ovsyannikov, V P; Grossman, F; Kentsch, U; Schmidt, M; Ullmann, F; Heller, R

2008-02-01

392

Ion Source Specific Power Limitations Connected with Cooled Electrode Deformation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Considered are specific power limitations related to the deformation of water-cooled electrodes in the ion-optical system (IOS) of power ion sources for producing fast atoms and for injecting them into thermonuclear machines. Calculated was dependence of ...

N. N. Flerov

1979-01-01

393

Operational characteristics of a metal vapor vacuum arc ion source  

SciTech Connect

The MEVVA ion source can produce high current pulsed beams of metallic ions using a metal vapor vacuum arc discharge as the plasma medium from which the ions are extracted. In this study, the operational characteristics of the MEVVA IV ion source are summarized. Results are presented of measurements of the ion beam current as a function of arc current over a range of extraction voltage. Ti, Ta and Pb were examined as the cathode materials. The arc current ranged from 50A to 250A and the extraction voltage from 10kV to 80kV. The ion beam current was measured at two different distances from the ion source using Faraday cups, so as to investigate the beam divergence. Additionally, the cathode erosion rates were measured. Optimum operating conditions of the MEVVA ion source were determined. 10 refs., 6 figs.

Shiraishi, Hiroshi; Brown, I.G. (Nippon Steel Corp., Kitakyushu (Japan); Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA))

1989-06-01

394

Applications of the MEVVA high current metal ion source  

SciTech Connect

A new kind of ion source has been developed in which a metal vapor vacuum arc (MEVVA) is used to produce the plasma from which the ion beam is extracted. The novel and exciting feature of this source is the very high metal ion beam current attainable. A total ion beam current of over 1 Ampere has been extracted from the embodiment of the concept that we're presently using, and this is not a limit of the method. The source was developed to upgrade the uranium ion beam intensity of the Bevatron, LBL's heavy ion synchrotron, for basic nuclear physics research. Other important applications include its use within the Heavy Ion Fusion research effort; for ion implantation; and for other basic research uses. In this paper the source is described briefly, its performance outlined, and its poential and limitations for a variety of applications is discussed.

Brown, I.G.

1986-08-01

395

Side extraction duoPIGatron-type ion source.  

SciTech Connect

We have designed and constructed a compact duoPIGatron-type ion source, for possible use in ion implanters, in such the ion can be extracted from side aperture in contrast to conventional duoPIGatron sources with axial ion extraction. The size of the side extraction aperture is 1x40 mm. The ion source was developed to study physical and technological aspects relevant to an industrial ion source. The side extraction duoPIGatron has stable arc, uniformly bright illumination, and dense plasma. The present work describes some of preliminary operating parameters of the ion source using Argon, BF3. The total unanalyzed beam currents are 23 mA using Ar at an arc current 5 A and 13 mA using BF3 gas at an arc current 6 A.

GUSHENETS,V.I.; OKS, E.M.; HERSCHOVITCH, A.; JOHNSON, B.M.

2007-08-26

396

A novel scheme for a highly selective laser ion source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new type of resonance ionization laser ion source, which shall combine the advantages of a laser ion source with those of an ion trap, is proposed. The primary purpose of such a laser ion source trap, which is based on a gas-filled linear radio-frequency quadrupole ion trap system, is the decoupling of evaporation and ionization processes. Furthermore optimum temporal control on the generated ion bunch is obtained. Both effects will lead to a significantly increased isobaric selectivity and ion beams of low emittance. A large variety of operational modes, ranging from quasi-dc to microseconds-bunched radioactive ion beams with variable pulse width and repetition rate, can be chosen freely and beam energies can easily be altered. The principles and the layout of LIST will be discussed on the basis of atom and ion trajectory simulations and resulting performance parameters.

Blaum, K.; Geppert, C.; Kluge, H.-J.; Mukherjee, M.; Schwarz, S.; Wendt, K.

2003-05-01

397

Thermal analysis of the CSNS H- ion source  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are two cooling systems to maintain the thermal stability of the CSNS H- ion source during its operation: Air-cooling in the source body of the discharging chamber and water-cooling in the flange on which the discharging chamber is installed. The optimal cooling parameters to ensure the operation of the H- ion source are determined through a thermal analysis. In

Xiao-Bing Wu; Hua-Fu Ouyang

2010-01-01

398

Measurement of negative ion density in a pulsed multicusp negative ion source  

SciTech Connect

The production of negative ion beams for use in neutral beam injection heating has become an important area of research in recent years. This paper discusses the negative ion densities measured in a pulsed multicusp volume ion source using photodetachment diagnostic technique. A pulse modulated negative ion source is being used as an alternative to the tandem source and an increase in negative ion extracted current has previously been observed by Hopkins and Mellon. Work with photodetachment quoted in this paper shows an increase in negative ion density during the post discharge similar to previous results obtained using an accelerator to extract the negative ions.

Coonan, B.; Mellon, K.N.; Hopkins, M.B. (Dublin City University, Dublin (Ireland))

1992-10-05

399

Electrohydrodynamically driven large-area liquid ion sources  

DOEpatents

It is an object of this invention to provide a large area, two dimensional, liquid source of ions (e.g., cations such as metal ions), as well as a method of achieving large area liquid ion currents. It is a further object of this invention to provide such a source which satisfies the stringent conditions for a light ion-beam driver for inertial confinement fusion.

Pregenzer, A.L.

1986-05-27

400

Performance of a modified Calutron-Bernas ion source  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Calutron-Bernas ion source has been modified for high-dose ion implantation (<10¹⁶ ions\\/cm²). The modified ion source has stable arc, uniformly bright illumination, and dense plasma. It consists of a hairpin-shaped tungsten (W) filament as a hot cathode at one end, and a disk-type graphite anode at the other end about 8 cm away; both the electrodes are fitted in

R. Pratap; K. B. Lal; V. P. Salvi

1990-01-01

401

Performance of a modified Calutron-Bernas ion source  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Calutron-Bernas ion source has been modified for high-dose ion implantation (>1016 ions\\/cm2). The modified ion source has stable arc, uniformly bright illumination, and dense plasma. It consists of a hairpin-shaped tungsten (W) filament as a hot cathode at one end, and a disk-type graphite anode at the other end about 8 cm away; both the electrodes are fitted in

R. Pratap; K. B. Lal; V. P. Salvi

1990-01-01

402

Mini RF-driven ion source for focused ion beam system  

SciTech Connect

Mini RF-driven ion sources with 1.2 cm and 1.5 cm inner chamber diameter have been developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Several gas species have been tested including argon, krypton and hydrogen. These mini ion sources operate in inductively coupled mode and are capable of generating high current density ion beams at tens of watts. Since the plasma potential is relatively low in the plasma chamber, these mini ion sources can function reliably without any perceptible sputtering damage. The mini RF-driven ion sources will be combined with electrostatic focusing columns, and are capable of producing nano focused ion beams for micro machining and semiconductor fabrications.

Jiang, X.; Ji, Q.; Chang, A.; Leung, K.N.

2002-08-02

403

Production of ions from solids using chemically assisted sputtering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Boron ions are universally used as a {ital p}-type dopant for ion implantation of silicon wafers. In today's technology, ions are produced from gases in a hot filament magnetron plasma, known as the Freeman ion source, using BFâ as a feedstock. Two problems are that the hot filament corrodes in the fluoride environment and the BFâ is quite toxic. In

S. S. Rosenblum; K. J. Doniger; J. C. Helmer

1990-01-01

404

Broad beam low-energy ion source for ion-beam assisted deposition and material processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The double-anode ion source has been developed for high-current ion-beam application. Ion generating process results in a circulating of electron current in crossing E×H fields in the annular acceleration region. Volt–ampere and discharge characteristics at different configurations of magnetic field directions in the discharge region were investigated. The ion source generates an ion beam, with the energy in the range

D. A. Kotov

2004-01-01

405

Broad beam low-energy ion source for ion-beam assisted deposition and material processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The double-anode ion source has been developed for high-current ion-beam application. Ion generating process results in a circulating of electron current in crossing E×H fields in the annular acceleration region. Volt-ampere and discharge characteristics at different configurations of magnetic field directions in the discharge region were investigated. The ion source generates an ion beam, with the energy in the range

D. A. Kotov

2004-01-01

406

Generation of a boron ion beam in a modified ion source for semiconductor applications  

SciTech Connect

Presented here are results of experimental studies on the production of intense beams of boron ions using a modified Bernas-Calutron ion source. Instead of using the conventional boron-trifluoride gas, a solid lithium-boron-tetrafluoride compound was heated to release boron-trifluoride. For optimum ion source parameters the measured 25-41 mA of total ion beam current was composed of 70% singly charged and about 1% doubly charged boron ions.

Gushenets, V.I.; Bugaev, A.S.; Oks, E.M.; Yushkov, G.Yu.; Hershcovitch, Ady; Johnson, B.M.; Kulevoy, T.V.; Poole, H.J.; Swarovsky, A.Ya. [High Current Electronics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York (United States); Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); PVI, Oxnard, California (United States); A.A. Bochvara Scientific Research Institute for Inorganic Materials, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation)

2006-03-15

407

Technology and applications of broad-beam ion sources used in sputtering. Part I. Ion source technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The technology of broad-beam ion sources used in sputtering applications is reviewed. The most frequently used discharge chambers are described, together with procedures for predicting performance. A new, compact ion source is described. Ion acceleration is reviewed, with particular emphasis on recent low-energy techniques. Some of these techniques include three-grid, small-hole two-grid, and one-grid ion optics. A new material for

H. R. Kaufman; J. J. Cuomo; J. M. E. Harper

1982-01-01

408

Double-layer ion acceleration triggered by ion magnetization in expanding radiofrequency plasma sources  

SciTech Connect

Ion energy distribution functions downstream of the source exit in magnetically expanding low-pressure plasmas are experimentally investigated for four source tube diameters ranging from about 5 to 15 cm. The magnetic-field threshold corresponding to a transition from a simple expanding plasma to a double layer-containing plasma is observed to increase with a decrease in the source tube diameter. The results demonstrate that for the four geometries, the double layer and the accelerated ion beam form when the ion Larmour radius in the source becomes smaller than the source tube radius, i.e., when the ions become magnetized in the source tube.

Takahashi, Kazunori [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Iwate University, Morioka 020-8551 (Japan); Space Plasma, Power and Propulsion Group, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra 0200 (Australia); Charles, Christine; Boswell, Rod W. [Space Plasma, Power and Propulsion Group, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra 0200 (Australia); Fujiwara, Tamiya [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Iwate University, Morioka 020-8551 (Japan)

2010-10-04

409

Ion temperature effects on ion charge-state distributions of an electron cyclotron resonant ion source  

SciTech Connect

A method is described for determining ion cyclotron resonance (ICR) heating effects on multiply charged-ion energy distributions using a Monte Carlo fit to experimental time-of-flight spectrometer data. The method is general but is used here specifically to separate the effects of plasma ambipolar potential spread and ion temperature in an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) heated magnetic mirror ion source (MIMI) (Phys. Fluids {bold 28}, 3116 (1985)). A steady-state equilibrium model is also developed that models the relevant atomic processes occurring in MIMI plasmas. This model and the Monte Carlo analysis are used to relate the effect of midplane ICR heating on end loss ion charge state distributions to its effect on the confined ion distributions. The model allows for collisional, moderately collisional, and collisionless confinement, specific to each charge state in the distribution. Both experiment and modeling show that increased ion temperature causes a shift to lower-{ital Z} ion populations in both the confined and end loss charge-state distributions.

Whaley, D.R. (Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (USA)); Getty, W.D. (Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (USA))

1990-06-01

410

Ion beam source for soft-landing deposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

``Soft-landing'' deposition of molecular ions on various surfaces is important in making exotic radicals, modeling electrochemical double layers, and studying aqueous ion interactions. We have built a new mass-selected ion beam source for soft-landing deposition, designed to produce either positive or negative ions, including ions that depend on ion-neutral reactions (e.g., H3O+ and NH4+). The ionizer is a free jet crossed by an electron beam, producing a wide variety of positive and negative ions. The simple, short-length, planar ion deceleration minimizes defocusing and space charge effects. It currently delivers mass-selected ions with energies down to about 1 eV and currents of about 10 nA. The design allows easy maintenance. The performance of the ion beam compares favorably with previous low-energy positive ion systems.

Biesecker, J. P.; Ellison, G. B.; Wang, H.; Iedema, M. J.; Tsekouras, A. A.; Cowin, J. P.

1998-02-01

411

Comparing a 2D fluid model of the DC planar magnetron cathode to experiments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Planar magnetron cathodes have arching magnetic field lines which concentrate plasma density near the electrode surface. This enhances the ion bombardment of the surface and the yield of sputtered atoms. Magnetron cathodes are used in the Plasma Electrode...

M. Garcia

1996-01-01

412

Reactive magnetron sputtering of highly (001)-textured WS2-x films: Influence of Ne+, Ar+ and Xe+ ion bombardment on the film growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Layer-type van der Waals semiconductor WS2-x films were grown by radio frequency reactive magnetron sputtering from a metallic tungsten target onto oxidized silicon substrates. The sputtering atmosphere consisted of 75% hydrogen sulfide and 25% neon, argon or xenon. The substrate voltage and hence the energy of the ions bombarding the growing film, was varied from about 20 V (floating potential) to -80 V. By in situ energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction the growth of the films was monitored and by elastic recoil detection analysis the film composition was measured. It was found that with xenon in the sputtering atmosphere a substrate voltage of -20 V is sufficient to suppress the crystalline film growth, while for argon as the sputtering rare gas this occurs only at -80 V. The disturbed film growth is accompanied by a sulfur loss of the growing WS2-x films down to x = 1.1 for sputtering in Ar + H2S at a substrate potential of -60 V. The results are tentatively explained by the different momentum transfers to sulfur atoms, which is highest for argon ions. It has also to be taken into account that the low-energy xenon bombardment is a many-body cascade process with a much higher local energy density compared to argon and neon bombardment and leading to a higher defect density and a supression of the crystalline growth.

Ellmer, K.; Seeger, S.; Sieber, I.; Bohne, W.; Röhrich, J.; Strub, E.; Mientus, R.

2006-02-01

413

Resonance hairpin and Langmuir probe-assisted laser photodetachment measurements of the negative ion density in a pulsed dc magnetron discharge  

SciTech Connect

The time-resolved negative oxygen ion density n{sub -} close to the center line in a reactive pulsed dc magnetron discharge (10 kHz and 50% duty cycle) has been determined for the first time using a combination of laser photodetachment and resonance hairpin probing. The discharge was operated at a power of 50 W in 70% argon and 30% oxygen gas mixtures at 1.3 Pa pressure. The results show that the O{sup -} density remains pretty constant during the driven phase of the discharge at values typically below 5x10{sup 14} m{sup -3}; however, in the off-time, the O{sup -} density grows reaching values several times those in the on-time. This leads to the negative ion fraction (or degree of electronegativity) {alpha}=n{sub -}/n{sub e} being higher in the off phase (maximum value {alpha}{approx}1) than in the on phase ({alpha}=0.05-0.3). The authors also see higher values of {alpha} at positions close to the magnetic null than in the more magnetized region of the plasma. This fractional increase in negative ion density during the off-phase is attributed to the enhanced dissociative electron attachment of highly excited oxygen molecules in the cooling plasma. The results show that close to the magnetic null the photodetached electron density decays quickly after the laser pulse, followed by a slow decay over a few microseconds governed by the negative ion temperature. However, in the magnetized regions of the plasma, this decay is more gradual. This is attributed to the different cross-field transport rates for electrons in these two regions. The resonance hairpin probe measurements of the photoelectron densities are compared directly to photoelectron currents obtained using a conventional Langmuir probe. There is good agreement in the general trends, particularly in the off-time.

Bradley, James W.; Dodd, Robert; You, S.-D.; Sirse, Nishant; Karkari, Shantanu Kumar [Department of Electrical Engineering and Electronics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool (United Kingdom); National Centre for Plasma Science and Technology, Dublin City University, Dublin 9, Republic of Ireland (Ireland); National Centre for Plasma Science and Technology, Dublin City University, Dublin 9, Republic of Ireland and Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat Gandhinagar, Gujarat (India)

2011-05-15

414

Diagnostics and Modeling of H (-) Ion Sources.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The negative ion temperature has been measured in hydrogen and deuterium, using the laser photodetachment technique. The negative ion temperature is strongly dependent on the neutral gas pressure, the discharge current and the electron temperature. It was...

M. Bacal

1992-01-01

415

ECR Ion Source Developments at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

New techniques for enhancing the performances of electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources are being investigated at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. We have utilized the multiple discrete frequency technique to improve the charge state distributions extracted from conventional magnetic field geometry ECR source by injecting three frequencies into the source. A new flat central magnetic field concept, has been incorporated in the designs of a compact all-permanent-magnet source for high charge-state ion beam generation and a compact electromagnetic source for singly ionized radioactive ion beam generation for use in the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) research program. A review of the three frequency injection experiments and descriptions of the design aspects of the "volume-type" ECR ion sources will be given in this report.

Alton, G.D.; Liu, Y.; Meyer, F.W.

1998-10-05

416

Negative ion source development for fusion application (invited)  

SciTech Connect

Giant negative ion sources, producing high-current of several tens amps with high energy of several hundreds keV to 1 MeV, are required for a neutral beam injector (NBI) in a fusion device. The giant negative ion sources are cesium-seeded plasma sources, in which the negative ions are produced on the cesium-covered surface. Their characteristic features are discussed with the views of large-volume plasma production, large-area beam acceleration, and high-voltage dc holding. The international thermonuclear experimental reactor NBI employs a 1 MeV-40 A of deuterium negative ion source, and intensive development programs for the rf-driven source plasma production and the multistage electrostatic acceleration are in progress, including the long pulse operation for 3600 s. Present status of the development, as well as the achievements of the giant negative ion sources in the working injectors, is also summarized.

Takeiri, Yasuhiko [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan)

2010-02-15

417

Development and status of the SNS ion source  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ion source for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is a radio-frequency, multicusp source designed to deliver 45 mA of H - with a normalized rms emittance of less than 0.2 ? mm mrad to the SNS accelerator. The ion source— designed, constructed, and commissioned at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)—satisfies the basic requirements of commissioning and early operation of

R. F. Welton; M. P. Stockli; S. N. Murray; R. Keller

2003-01-01

418

RF-Plasma Coupling Schemes for the SNS Ion Source  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ion source for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is a radio-frequency, multicusp source designed to deliver beams of 45 mA of H- with a normalized rms emittance of 0.2 pi mm mrad to the SNS accelerator. RF power with a frequency of 2 MHz is delivered to the ion source by an 80-kW pulsed power supply generating nominal pulses

R. F. Welton; M. P. Stockli; S. Shukla; Y. Kang; R. Keller; J. Staples

2003-01-01

419

Three-dimensional simulations of ion dynamics in an Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source.  

PubMed

We present a three-dimensional simulation of the ion dynamics in an electron cyclotron resonance ion source. Ion trajectories in the min-B field of the source are calculated taking ion-ion and electron-ion collisions into account. The electrons are not tracked but considered as a neutralizing background with a Maxwell-Boltzmann velocity distribution. Some applications of the code are discussed, e.g., the calculated charge-state and phase-space distributions of extracted ion beams and the ionization dynamics in the plasma. PMID:20192328

Beijers, J P M; Mironov, V

2010-02-01

420

Investigation of Multi-Charged Heavy Ion Production in AN Electron Beam Ion Source  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of multi-charged heavy ions produced in an Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) were carried out with a test model ion source 20 cm in length. This test model utilized an electron gun placed external to the bore of the focusing solenoid in order to achieve electrostatically focussed electron beams and isolation of the vacuum surrounding the electron gun from

Robert Wray Hamm

1977-01-01

421

Highly charged ion production in ECRH plasma sources for heavy-ion accelerators and other applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design and status of three ECRH ion sources under development at NSCL are briefly discussed. The RT-ECR ion source, with two minimum B plasma stages and ECRH heating at 6.4 GHz, produces useable intensities of fully stripped light ions up to oxygen; for heavier species, charges such as Argon 14+, Krypton 20+, Iodine 25+ and Tantalum 29+ have been

T. A. Antaya

1987-01-01

422

A design of large current ion gun employing liquid metal ion source  

Microsoft Academic Search

A lens system for a large current liquid metal ion source has been designed by a numerical computer simulation method. As a computed result, the lens system can focus an ion beam having an emission angle of 60° to a beam having a radius of 1.8 mm at 1 m from the ion source. Following the simulated result, the lens

Yuzo Mori; Hui Wang; Katsuyoshi Endo; Kazuto Yamauchi; Takashi Ide

1990-01-01

423

Effect of argon seeding on the negative ion yield of the Kamaboko III ion source  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been previously reported that the addition of argon to a hydrogen plasma in an RF driven ion source can substantially increase (up to a factor 4) the extracted and accelerated negative ion (H?) current (W. Kraus et al., Development of large radio frequency negative-ion sources for nuclear fusion, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73(2) (2002)). Realizing such an increase in

D. Boilson; H. P. L. de Esch; R. Hemsworth; A. Krylov; P. Massmann; M. Rada; L. Svensson

2003-01-01

424

Further study on a magnetically filtered multicusp ion source  

Microsoft Academic Search

An optimized permanent magnet filter geometry has been determined for a multicusp ion source operated with hydrogen gas. By applying a negative bias potential to the plasma grid, energetic secondary electrons are produced which can generate molecular hydrogen ions in the extraction chamber and thus reduce the H\\/sup +\\/ ion fraction in the extracted beam. Both the atomic species percentage

K. W. Ehlers; K. N. Leung

1982-01-01

425

Further study on a magnetically filtered multicusp ion source  

Microsoft Academic Search

An optimized permanent magnet filter geometry has been determined for a multicusp ion source operated with hydrogen gas. By applying a negative bias potential to the plasma grid, energetic secondary electrons are produced which can generate molecular hydrogen ions in the extraction chamber and thus reduce the H+ ion fraction in the extracted beam. Both the atomic species percentage and

K. W. Ehlers; K. N. Leung

1982-01-01

426

Methods for improving characteristics of laser source of ions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work we discuss three methods to improve characteristics of laser source of ions, namely: (i) effect of the angle of interaction of laser radiation with targets on the plasma ions characteristics, (ii) the effect of target composition on the plasma ions, and (iii) influence of the repetition rate of laser pulses on plasma parameters. Our study will be

R. T. Khaydarov; V. B. Terent'ev; T. V. Akramov; F. M. Tojinazarov

2009-01-01

427

Power supply system for negative ion source at IPR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first step in the Indian program on negative ion beams is the setting up of Negative ion Experimental Assembly - RF based, where 100 kW of RF power shall be coupled to a plasma source producing plasma of density ~5 × 1012 cm-3, from which ~ 10 A of negative ion beam shall be produced and accelerated to 35

Agrajit Gahlaut; Jashwant Sonara; K. G. Parmar; Jignesh Soni; M. Bandyopadhyay; Mahendrajit Singh; Gourab Bansal; Kaushal Pandya; Arun Chakraborty

2010-01-01

428

Emittance considerations in ion source design and operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In any ion beam system relevant to high current ion implantation, the ion source itself is the single most important component in that it determines the minimum emittance of the beam and hence the feasibility of obtaining a specified beam current, physical size and angular spread at the wafer position. The effects of emittance are fundamental and cannot be overcome

S. Povall; C. E. A. Cook; R. D. Goldberg; A. J. T. Holmes; D. Arnold

2000-01-01

429

Effect of a magnetic filter on hydrogen ion species in a multicusp ion source  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrogen ion species and discharge characteristics have been compared for two different magnet geometries in a multicusp ion source. One magnet configuration indicated that the Hâ\\/sup +\\/ ion percentage in the extracted beam could be reduced by eliminating the high energy ionizing electrons near the ion extraction region. To accomplish this and maintain the desired features of both magnet geometries,

K. W. Ehlers; K. N. Leung

1981-01-01

430

Effect of a magnetic filter on hydrogen ion species in a multicusp ion source  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrogen ion species and discharge characteristics have been compared for two different magnet geometries in a multicusp ion source. One magnet configuration indicated that the H2+ ion percentage in the extracted beam could be reduced by eliminating the high energy ionizing electrons near the ion extraction region. To accomplish this and maintain the desired features of both magnet geometries, a

K. W. Ehlers; K. N. Leung

1981-01-01

431

Low energy spread ion source with a coaxial magnetic filter  

SciTech Connect

Multicusp ion sources are capable of producing ions with low axial energy spread which are necessary in applications such as ion projection lithography (IPL) and radioactive ion beam production. The addition of a radially extending magnetic filter consisting of a pair of permanent magnets to the multicusp source reduces the energy spread considerably due to the improvement in the uniformity of the axial plasma potential distribution in the discharge region. A coaxial multicusp ion source designed to further reduce the energy spread utilizes a cylindrical magnetic filter to achieve a more uniform axial plasma potential distribution. The coaxial magnetic filter divides the source chamber into an outer annular discharge region in which the plasma is produced and a coaxial inner ion extraction region into which the ions radially diffuse but from which ionizing electrons are excluded. The energy spread in the coaxial source has been measured to be 0.6 eV. Unlike other ion sources, the coaxial source has the capability of adjusting the radial plasma potential distribution and therefore the transverse ion temperature (or beam emittance).

Leung, K.N.; Lee, Y.H.Y.

2000-07-25

432

Low energy spread ion source with a coaxial magnetic filter  

DOEpatents

Multicusp ion sources are capable of producing ions with low axial energy spread which are necessary in applications such as ion projection lithography (IPL) and radioactive ion beam production. The addition of a radially extending magnetic filter consisting of a pair of permanent magnets to the multicusp source reduces the energy spread considerably due to the improvement in the uniformity of the axial plasma potential distribution in the discharge region. A coaxial multicusp ion source designed to further reduce the energy spread utilizes a cylindrical magnetic filter to achieve a more uniform axial plasma potential distribution. The coaxial magnetic filter divides the source chamber into an outer annular discharge region in which the plasma is produced and a coaxial inner ion extraction region into which the ions radially diffuse but from which ionizing electrons are excluded. The energy spread in the coaxial source has been measured to be 0.6 eV. Unlike other ion sources, the coaxial source has the capability of adjusting the radial plasma potential distribution and therefore the transverse ion temperature (or beam emittance).

Leung, Ka-Ngo (Hercules, CA); Lee, Yung-Hee Yvette (Berkeley, CA)

2000-01-01

433

Electron energy recovery system for negative ion sources  

DOEpatents

An electron energy recovery system for negative ion sources is provided. The system, employing crossed electric and magnetic fields, separates the electrons from the ions as they are extracted from the ion source plasma generator and before the ions are accelerated to their full energy. With the electric and magnetic fields oriented 90/sup 0/ to each other, the electrons remain at approximately the electrical potential at which they were generated. The electromagnetic forces cause the ions to be accelerated to the full accelerating supply voltage energy while being deflected through an angle of less than 90/sup 0/. The electrons precess out of the accelerating field region into an electron recovery region where they are collected at a small fraction of the full accelerating supply energy. It is possible, by this method, to collect > 90% of the electrons extracted along with the negative ions from a negative ion source beam at < 4% of full energy.

Dagenhart, W.K.; Stirling, W.L.

1979-10-25

434

Arc plasma simulation of the KAERI large ion source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The KAERI large ion source, developed for the KSTAR NBI system, recently produced ion beams of 100 keV, 50 A levels in the first half campaign of 2007. These results seem to be the best performance of the present ion source at a maximum available input power of 145 kW. A slight improvement in the ion source is certainly necessary to attain the final goal of an 8 MW ion beam. Firstly, the experimental results were analyzed to differentiate the cause and effect for the insufficient beam currents. Secondly, a zero dimensional simulation was carried out on the ion source plasma to identify which factors control the arc plasma and to find out what improvements can be expected.

in, S. R.; Jeong, S. H.; Kim, T. S.

2008-02-01

435

Advanced direct current negative-ion source for accelerator use  

SciTech Connect

Status of direct current hydrogen negative-ion source development for tandem accelerator is described. The electrodes enforcing its water cooling and introducing of the electrons' interception permitted to increase the source discharge power and to obtain regularly the H{sup -}-ion beam with energy >25 kV and current up to 15 mA.

Belchenko, Yu.; Gusev, I.; Khilchenko, A.; Kvashnin, A.; Rashchenko, V.; Sanin, A.; Savkin, V.; Zubarev, P. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, 63090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

2006-03-15

436

Sources of Polarized Negative Ions: Progress and Prospects.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A summary of recent progress in the art of producing beams of polarized ions is given. In all sources of polarized ions, one first produces (or selects) neutral atoms which are polarized in electron spin. Those types of sources which use a beam of thermal...

W. Haeberli

1980-01-01

437

Low background cold cathode ion source for molecular beam detection.  

PubMed

An extractor gauge type electron bombardment ion source using carbon fiber bundles as field electron emitters is described. The cold cathode permits operation of the ionizer within a liquid He cooled cryopump. The high pumping speed for all molecules (except helium) together with its low background pressure make this ion source a very promising detector for crossed molecular beam scattering experiments. PMID:18699122

Faubel, M; Holber, W M; Toennies, J P

1978-04-01

438

The Tac - Ion Source and Low-Energy Beam Transport  

Microsoft Academic Search

Availability and usefulness of accelerators is greatly dependent on machine reliability, brightness and size. Research must focus on less expensive, more compact accelerators with brighter beams. This thesis experiment has incorporated an optimized version of the present Brookhaven H^ - ion source (1) with a helical electrostatic quadrupole (HESQ), low energy beam transport (LEBT). The ion source incorporates a computer

Perry Alan Tompkins

1990-01-01

439

An external source 7 T Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer with electrostatic ion guide.  

PubMed

An external source 7 T Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) mass spectrometer offers three main novel features. First, a 9-way ion-source cross allows for mounting of up to three ionization sources simultaneously, thereby minimizing 'downtime' for changing ion sources. Second, an electrostatic (wire-in-cylinder) ion guide transports the ions approximately 1.5 m from the ion source to the ion trap for mass analysis, through a large magnetic field gradient. Third, the system operates from a modular data system described elsewhere in this issue. Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) FTICR positive-ion mass spectra exhibit signal-to-noise ratio greater than 1000:1 and mass resolving power, m/delta m 50% > 100,000. Laser-induced fragmentation of bradykinin demonstrates the ability of the ion guide to transmit both molecular and fragment ions simultaneously. Ultra-high resolution (average resolving power approximately 400,000) was achieved for poly(ethylene glycol) of specified number-average molecular weight, Mn approximately 3400. Future installation of an electrospray source to the ion-source cross should allow for better characterization of the performance of the ion guide. PMID:8953787

White, F M; Marto, J A; Marshall, A G

1996-01-01

440

Broad-beam ion sources: Present status and future directions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Operational problems are believed to constitute the major obstacle to the more widespread use of broad-beam ion sources, particularly in production applications. In the category of problems that are primarily the responsibility of ion-source operators: an excessive discharge voltage is undesirable because it causes excessive damage depth and contamination at the target; an excessive ion-beam current is undesirable because it

Harold R. Kaufman

1986-01-01

441

Plasma source for ion and electron beam lithography  

SciTech Connect

A new plasma source configuration, coaxial source, has been developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory suitable for ion and electron beam lithography applications. The axial ion energy spread and electron temperature of the multicusp ion source have been reduced considerably from 2 and 0.3 eV to a record low of 0.6 eV by employing a coaxial source arrangement. Results of ion projection lithographic exposure at the Fraunhofer Institute demonstrate that feature size less than 65 nm can be achieved by using a filter-equipped multicusp ion source. Langmuir probe measurements also show that very low energy spread electron beams can be obtained with the multicusp plasma generator. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Vacuum Society.}

Lee, Y.; Gough, R.A.; Leung, K.N.; Vujic, J.; Williams, M.D.; Zahir, N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California (United States); Fallman, W. [Technical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Tockler, M.; Bruenger, W. [Fraunhofer Institute, Berlin (Germany)

1998-11-01

442

Off-line ion source terminal for ISAC at TRIUMF.  

PubMed

The off-line ion source (OLIS) terminal consists of a microwave cusp ion source, either a surface ion source or a hybrid surface-arc discharge ion source and an electrostatic switch that allows selecting any one of the sources without mechanical intervention. These sources provide variety of beams to ISAC experiments, for commissioning the accelerators, for setting up the radioactive experiments, and for tuning the beam lines. The microwave ion source has been operational since 1995 and provides singly and doubly charged beams from various stable isotopes for many ISAC experiments at high and low energy areas. Originally its prime goal was to provide beams from gaseous elements, but later two ovens and a sputtering system were added in order to provide beams from liquids and from solids. The surface ion source installed in 2002 can provide low energy spread beams from alkali and semialkali elements. It also has three separate ovens and an ionizer. Therefore, it can provide three different temperature regions simultaneously to provide different beams to ISAC. It is mainly used for laser spectroscopy experiments and other experiments, which require a finite beam quality. A hybrid surface-arc discharge ion source was also developed and installed in order to meet specific demands from experiments. This source terminal is now automated for start up and for mass selection. It is capable of providing stable beams for months without maintenance and it is also capable of providing negative ion beams if required. To date, over 40 different isotopes including many rear isotopes were delivered to various experiments from the OLIS source terminal. Performances of the ion sources and some of the results are discussed. PMID:18315264

Jayamanna, K; Ames, F; Cojocaru, G; Baartman, R; Bricault, P; Dube, R; Laxdal, R; Marchetto, M; MacDonald, M; Schmor, P; Wight, G; Yuan, D

2008-02-01

443

Off-line ion source terminal for ISAC at TRIUMF  

SciTech Connect

The off-line ion source (OLIS) terminal consists of a microwave cusp ion source, either a surface ion source or a hybrid surface-arc discharge ion source and an electrostatic switch that allows selecting any one of the sources without mechanical intervention. These sources provide variety of beams to ISAC experiments, for commissioning the accelerators, for setting up the radioactive experiments, and for tuning the beam lines. The microwave ion source has been operational since 1995 and provides singly and doubly charged beams from various stable isotopes for many ISAC experiments at high and low energy areas. Originally its prime goal was to provide beams from gaseous elements, but later two ovens and a sputtering system were added in order to provide beams from liquids and from solids. The surface ion source installed in 2002 can provide low energy spread beams from alkali and semialkali elements. It also has three separate ovens and an ionizer. Therefore, it can provide three different temperature regions simultaneously to provide different beams to ISAC. It is mainly used for laser spectroscopy experiments and other experiments, which require a finite beam quality. A hybrid surface-arc discharge ion source was also developed and installed in order to meet specific demands from experiments. This source terminal is now automated for start up and for mass selection. It is capable of providing stable beams for months without maintenance and it is also capable of providing negative ion beams if required. To date, over 40 different isotopes including many rear isotopes were delivered to various experiments from the OLIS source terminal. Performances of the ion sources and some of the results are discussed.

Jayamanna, K.; Ames, F.; Cojocaru, G.; Baartman, R.; Bricault, P.; Dube, R.; Laxdal, R.; Marchetto, M.; MacDonald, M.; Schmor, P.; Wight, G.; Yuan, D. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver BC V6T 2A3 (Canada)

2008-02-15

444

Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources for Highly-Charged Ion Beams  

SciTech Connect

Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion sources are used for several different applications. Primarily they are used for the production of highly-charged ion beams for nuclear physics experiments but they are also used, for example, in medical applications and radiation-hardness tests of space electronics. Strong requests have been made from the nuclear physics community towards obtaining higher beam intensities and new exotic, even radioactive, ion beams. Due to the requirements more powerful ECR ion sources and new methods for the beam production are needed. In order to meet the beam intensity requirements several superconducting ion sources have recently been built or are under construction in Asia, Europe and the USA. The development work towards improvements in ion beam quality and the production of metal ion beams is also playing a crucial role. In this article a general overview concerning the ECR ion sources, their future and beam production will be given.

Koivisto, H. [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, FIN-40014 University of Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

2009-03-10

445

Energy spread of ion beams generated in multicusp ion sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the production of future microelectronics devices, various alternate methods are currently being considered to replace the presently used method of lithography with ion beam lithography. One of these methods is Ion Projection Lithography (IPL), which aims at the possibility of projecting sub-0.25 ?m patterns of a stencil mask onto a wafer substrate. In order to keep the chromatic aberrations

M. Sarstedt; P. Herz; W. B. Kunkel; Y. Lee; K. N. Leung; L. Perkins; D S Pickard; M. Weber; M. D. Williams; E. Hammel

1995-01-01

446

Plasma ion sources and ion beam technology inmicrofabrications  

Microsoft Academic Search

For over decades, focused ion beam (FIB) has been playing a very important role in microscale technology and research, among which, semiconductor microfabrication is one of its biggest application area. As the dimensions of IC devices are scaled down, it has shown the need for new ion beam tools and new approaches to the fabrication of small-scale devices. In the

Lili

2007-01-01

447

Time Profiles of Ions Produced in a Hot-Cavity Resonant Ionization Laser Ion Source  

SciTech Connect

The time profiles of Cu, Sn and Ni ions extracted from a hot-cavity resonant ionization laser ion source are investigated. The ions are produced in the ion source by three-photon resonant ionization with pulsed Ti:Sapphire lasers. Measurements show that the time spread of these ions generated within laser pulses of about 30 ns could be larger than 100 s when the ions are extracted from the ion source. A one-dimensional ion-transport model using the Monte Carlo method is developed to simulate the time dependence of the ion pulses. The observed ion temporal profiles agree reasonably well with the predictions of the model, which indicates that a substantial fraction of the extracted ions are generated in the vapor-transfer tube rather than the hot cavity and that ion-wall collisions are suppressed inside the ion source by an undetermined ion confinement mechanism. Three-dimensional modeling will be necessary to understand the strong reduction in losses expected from ion-wall collisions which we interpret as evidence for confinement.

Liu, Yuan [ORNL; Baktash, Cyrus [ORNL; Beene, James R [ORNL; Havener, Charles C [ORNL; Krause, Herbert F [ORNL; Schultz, David Robert [ORNL; Stracener, Daniel W [ORNL; Vane, C Randy [ORNL; Geppert, C. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Mainz, Germany; Kessler, T. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Mainz, Germany; Wies, K. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Mainz, Germany; Wendt, K. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Mainz, Germany

2011-01-01

448

The Neutral Lunar Exosphere as a Source for Pickup Ions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The composition and structure of neutral constituents in the lunar exosphere can be determined through measurements of phase space distributions of pickup ions borne from the exosphere. Much lower neutral exosphere densities can be derived from ion mass spectrometer measurements of pickup ions than can be determined by conventional neutral mass spectrometers or remote sensing instruments. One approach for deriving properties of neutral exospheric source gasses is to first compare observed ion spectra with pickup ion model phase space distributions. Neutral exosphere properties are then inferred by adjusting exosphere model parameters to obtain the best fit between the resulting model pickup ion distributions and the observed ion spectra. Adopting this path, we can obtain ion distributions from a new general pickup ion model, an extension of a simpler analytic description obtained from the Vlasov equation with an ion source. In turn, the ion source is formed from a three-dimensional exospheric density distribution. The initial stage of this approach used the Moon’s known neutral He and Na exospheres to derive He+ and Na+ pickup ion exospheres, including their phase space distributions, densities and fluxes. We have extended this by producing three dimensional neutral exosphere models for species known to be in the lunar exosphere, Na and K, as well as those expected to be in the lunar exosphere such as Ca, Mg, Al, Fe, and S. The pickup ion model can then use the neutral model to estimate the exosphere sources of recently observed pickup ions on KAGUYA. Future missions carrying ion spectrometers (e.g., ARTEMIS) will be able to study the lunar neutral exosphere with great sensitivity, yielding the necessary ion velocity spectra needed to further analysis of parent neutral exosphere properties. Neutral exosphere models will be presented as a first step toward this goal.

Killen, R. M.; Sarantos, M.; Halekas, J. S.; Hartle, R. E.; Hurley, D. M.; Dream

2010-12-01

449

Ion heating in the HELIX helicon plasma source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ion heating sources have been developed for many plasma experiments including Tokamaks and Q-machines. These ion heating systems typically create electric fields that resonate with the gyro-motion of the ions to supply energy. However, for a helicon source the ratio of the collision frequency to the gyro frequency is much greater that one. For Tokamaks and Q-machines this ratio is much less than one. Thus, the ions in a helicon source only complete a fraction of the gyro orbit before colliding with another ion. We will present observations of efficient, anisotropic ion heating in a steady-state helicon plasma source for two external loop antennae driven at frequencies just above the ion cyclotron frequency. The ion velocity space distribution is measured by laser induced fluorescence in an argon plasma. The measured bulk ion heating is highly anisotropic (the perpendicular temperature increase is ten times the parallel temperature increase) even though the plasma is moderately collisional. Comparison of laser induced fluorescence measurements of the perturbed distribution function with theoretical calculations for electrostatic ion cyclotron waves indicate that electrostatic ion cyclotron waves are launched into the plasma. This work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under grant DE-FG02-97ER54420 and the National Science Foundation under grant ATM-9616467.

Kline, John; Balkey, Mattew; Boivin, Robert; Keiter, Paul; Scime, Earl

1999-10-01

450

Versatile plasma ion source with an internal evaporator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel construction of an ion source with an evaporator placed inside a plasma chamber is presented. The crucible is heated to high temperatures directly by arc discharge, which makes the ion source suitable for substances with high melting points. The compact ion source enables production of intense ion beams for wide spectrum of solid elements with typical separated beam currents of ˜100-150 ?A for Al+, Mn+, As+ (which corresponds to emission current densities of 15-25 mA/cm2) for the extraction voltage of 25 kV. The ion source works for approximately 50-70 h at 100% duty cycle, which enables high ion dose implantation. The typical power consumption of the ion source is 350-400 W. The paper presents detailed experimental data (e.g. dependences of ion currents and anode voltages on discharge and filament currents and magnetic flux densities) for Cr, Fe, Al, As, Mn and In. The discussion is supported by results of Monte Carlo method based numerical simulation of ionisation in the ion source.

Turek, M.; Prucnal, S.; Drozdziel, A.; Pyszniak, K.

2011-04-01