Sample records for magnetron ion source

  1. Characteristics of end Hall ion source with magnetron hollow cathode discharge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deli Tang; Lisheng Wang; Shihao Pu; Changming Cheng; Paul K. Chu

    2007-01-01

    An end Hall ion source with magnetron hollow cathode discharge is described. The source is suitable for high current, low energy ion beam applications such as Hall current plasma accelerators. The end Hall ion source is based on an anode layer thruster with closed drift electrons that move in a closed path in the E×B field. Only a simple magnetron

  2. Magnetron-Discharge-Based Ion Source for Improvement of an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Device

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Teruhisa Takamatsu; Kai Masuda; Kiyoshi Yoshikawa; Hisayuki Toku; Kazunobu Nagasaki; Toshiyuki Kyunai

    2005-01-01

    A magnetron discharge as a built-in ion source have studied both experimentally and numerically for a compact discharge-type fusion neutron source called IECF (Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion). With this magnetron discharge, ions are produced in the vicinity of the vacuum chamber (anode) at negative electric potential. Therefore, produced ions are expected to have nearly full energy corresponding to the applied

  3. Magnetron-Discharge-Based Ion Source for Improvement of an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Device

    SciTech Connect

    Takamatsu, Teruhisa; Masuda, Kai; Yoshikawa, Kiyoshi; Toku, Hisayuki; Nagasaki, Kazunobu; Kyunai, Toshiyuki [Kyoto University (Japan)

    2005-05-15

    A magnetron discharge as a built-in ion source have studied both experimentally and numerically for a compact discharge-type fusion neutron source called IECF (Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion). With this magnetron discharge, ions are produced in the vicinity of the vacuum chamber (anode) at negative electric potential. Therefore, produced ions are expected to have nearly full energy corresponding to the applied voltage to the IECF cathode but slightly smaller energy preventing them from hitting the anode of the opposite end, eventually improving both fusion reaction rate and ion recirculation life. Also, the magnetron ion source was found to produce ample ion current for maintenance of the discharge. With the optimization of the configuration of the magnetron discharge, further improvement of the fusion reaction rate is found feasible.

  4. Inertial electrostatic confinement fusion device with an ion source using a magnetron discharge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Takamatsu; K. Masuda; T. Kyunai; H. Toku; K. Yoshikawa

    2006-01-01

    An inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) fusion device is studied for a compact fusion neutron\\/proton source using a built-in magnetron ion source. The addition of an ion source to the IEC fusion device enhances fusion reactions by allowing a lower operating gas pressure and by providing a beam-like ion energy distribution. Under lower gas pressures, charge exchange collisions are reduced, resulting

  5. Characteristics of end Hall ion source with magnetron hollow cathode discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Deli; Wang, Lisheng; Pu, Shihao; Cheng, Changming; Chu, Paul K.

    2007-04-01

    An end Hall ion source with magnetron hollow cathode discharge is described. The source is suitable for high current, low energy ion beam applications such as Hall current plasma accelerators. The end Hall ion source is based on an anode layer thruster with closed drift electrons that move in a closed path in the E × B field. Only a simple magnetron power supply is used in the ion source. The special configuration enables uninterrupted and expanded operation with oxygen as well as other reactive gases because of the absence of an electron source in the ion source. In our evaluation, the ion beam current was measured by a circular electrostatic probe and the energy distribution of the ion beam was measured by a retarding potential analyzer (RPA). An ion beam current density of up to 10 mA/cm 2 was obtained at a mean ion energy of 100-250 eV using Ar or O 2. The ion source can be operated in a stable fashion at a discharge voltage between 200 and 500 V and without additional electron triggering. The discharge power of the ion source can be easily changed by adjusting the gas flow rate and anode voltage. No water cooling is needed for power from 500 W to 2 kW. The simple and rugged ion source is suitable for industrial applications such as deposition of thin films with enhanced adhesion. The operational characteristics of the ion source are experimentally determined and discussed.

  6. Test stand for Magnetron H negative ion source at IPP-Nagoya

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Okamura; T. Kuroda; A. Miyahara

    1981-01-01

    Test facilities for the development of magnetron H(-) ion source consists of the vacuum system, power supplies, diagnostic equipment, and their controlling electronics. Schematics are presented and relevant items described including sequence control, optical links, the charged pulse forming network, the extractor power supply, magnet power supply, temperature control of the cesium feeder, and the pulsed valve driver. Noise problems

  7. Magnetron sputtering source

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, Daniel M. (Livermore, WA); McKernan, Mark A. (Livermore, CA); Grabner, R. Fred (Brentwood, CA); Ramsey, Philip B. (Livermore, CA)

    1994-01-01

    A magnetron sputtering source for sputtering coating substrates includes a high thermal conductivity electrically insulating ceramic and magnetically attached sputter target which can eliminate vacuum sealing and direct fluid cooling of the cathode assembly. The magnetron sputtering source design results in greater compactness, improved operating characteristics, greater versatility, and low fabrication cost. The design easily retrofits most sputtering apparatuses and provides for safe, easy, and cost effective target replacement, installation, and removal.

  8. Raman and XPS studies of DLC films prepared by a magnetron sputter-type negative ion source

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Namwoong Paik

    2005-01-01

    The characteristics of diamond-like carbon (DLC) films deposited on a 4-in. Si (100) substrate using a magnetron sputter-type negative ion source (MSNIS) were investigated using Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) method. In the MSNIS source, a negative ion beam is generated by a cesium-induced sputter-type secondary negative ion emission process. DLC films deposited using this MSNIS technique were

  9. Ion Source of Pure Single Charged Boron Based on Planar Magnetron Discharge in Self-Sputtering Mode

    SciTech Connect

    Vizir, A. V.; Gushenets, V. I.; Oks, E. M.; Yushkov, G. Yu. [High Current Electronics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation); Hershcovitch, A. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Kulevoy, T. V. [ITEP, 117218, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-01-07

    A planar magnetron sputtering device with thermally isolated sintered boron target has been designed and demonstrated. The magnetron is intended to use for generation of boron ion beams, as well as in plasma immersion implantation. For a boron target, high target temperature is required because boron has low electrical conductivity at room temperature, which increases with temperature. The target is well insulated thermally and can be heated by an initial low-current, high-voltage DC discharge mode. A discharge power of 16 W was adequate to reach the required surface temperature, after that a transition of the discharge to a high-current, low-voltage mode is observed. Applying high current pulses over the DC heating discharge results in a self-sputtering operational mode of the magnetron discharge. Ion beam was extracted from the discharge plasma. Beam analysis was performed with a time-of-flight system. All the boron ions are single charged. The maximum boron ion fraction in the beam is greater than 99%, and the mean boron ion fraction, time-integrated over the whole pulse length, is about 95%. This kind of boron ion source could be competitive to conventional boron ion sources that utilize compounds such as BF{sub 3}, and could be useful for semiconductor industry application.

  10. Sub microsecond notching of a negative hydrogen beam at low energy utilizing a magnetron ion source with a split extractor

    SciTech Connect

    Moehs, Douglas; /Fermilab

    2004-12-01

    A technique for sub-microsecond beam notching is being developed at 20 keV utilizing a Magnetron ion source with a slit extraction system and a split extractor. Each half of the extractor is treated as part of a 50 ohm transmission line which can be pulsed at {+-}700 volts creating a 1400 volt gradient. This system along with the associated electronics is electrically floated on top of a pulsed extraction voltage. A beam reduction of 95% has been observed at the end of the Fermilab 400 MeV Linac and 35% notching has recently been achieved in the Booster.

  11. Modeling the time variation of beam-grid fusion reaction rates in an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement device driven by a ring-shaped magnetron ion source

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Kipritidis; K. Masuda; T. Kajiwara; Y. Yamagaki; K. Nagasaki

    2011-01-01

    We use the two-dimensional analysis code KUAD2 to simulate D^{+_{2}} trajectories in an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) device driven by a ring-shaped magnetron ion source (RS-MIS). This aims to maximize the path length lambdaCX for ion-gas charge exchange by operating at just units of mPa D2 gas pressures; however, under these conditions simulations reveal a surprisingly small path length for

  12. Cathode grid current dependence of D(d, n)3He reaction rates in an inertial electrostatic confinement device driven by a ring-shaped magnetron ion source

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Masuda; T. Nakagawa; J. Kipritidis; T. Kajiwara; Y. Yamagaki; H. Zen; K. Yoshikawa; K. Nagasaki

    2010-01-01

    We present D(d, n)3 He reaction rates for a new inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) device which aims to overcome neutralization (charge exchange) of accelerating ions by operating at D2 gas pressures of just 5-10 mPa with the aid of an internal ring-shaped magnetron ion source. Initial experiments with a voltage of -60 kV applied to a central spherical cathode grid

  13. High power impulse magnetron sputtering and related discharges: scalable plasma sources for plasma-based ion implantation and deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, Andre

    2009-09-01

    High power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) and related self-sputtering techniques are reviewed from a viewpoint of plasma-based ion implantation and deposition (PBII&D). HIPIMS combines the classical, scalable sputtering technology with pulsed power, which is an elegant way of ionizing the sputtered atoms. Related approaches, such as sustained self-sputtering, are also considered. The resulting intense flux of ions to the substrate consists of a mixture of metal and gas ions when using a process gas, or of metal ions only when using `gasless? or pure self-sputtering. In many respects, processing with HIPIMS plasmas is similar to processing with filtered cathodic arc plasmas, though the former is easier to scale to large areas. Both ion implantation and etching (high bias voltage, without deposition) and thin film deposition (low bias, or bias of low duty cycle) have been demonstrated.

  14. Deposition and characterization of zirconium nitride (ZrN) thin films by reactive magnetron sputtering with linear gas ion source and bias voltage

    SciTech Connect

    Kavitha, A.; Kannan, R. [Department of Physics, University College of Engineering, Anna University, Dindugal-624622 (India); Subramanian, N. Sankara [Department of Physics, Thiagarajar College of Engineering, Madurai -625015, Tamilnadu (India); Loganathan, S. [Ion Plating, Titan Industries Ltd., Hosur - 635126, Tamilnadu (India)

    2014-04-24

    Zirconium nitride thin films have been prepared on stainless steel substrate (304L grade) by reactive cylindrical magnetron sputtering method with Gas Ion Source (GIS) and bias voltage using optimized coating parameters. The structure and surface morphologies of the ZrN films were characterized using X-ray diffraction, atomic microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The adhesion property of ZrN thin film has been increased due to the GIS. The coating exhibits better adhesion strength up to 10 N whereas the ZrN thin film with bias voltage exhibits adhesion up to 500 mN.

  15. Ion source

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo (Hercules, CA); Ehlers, Kenneth W. (Alamo, CA)

    1984-01-01

    A magnetic filter for an ion source reduces the production of undesired ion species and improves the ion beam quality. High-energy ionizing electrons are confined by the magnetic filter to an ion source region, where the high-energy electrons ionize gas molecules. One embodiment of the magnetic filter uses permanent magnets oriented to establish a magnetic field transverse to the direction of travel of ions from the ion source region to the ion extraction region. In another embodiment, low energy 16 eV electrons are injected into the ion source to dissociate gas molecules and undesired ion species into desired ion species.

  16. Unbalanced magnetron ion-assisted deposition and property modification of thin films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Savvides

    1986-01-01

    Unbalanced magnetron (UM-gun) sputtering sources with the unique characteristic of a high deposition rate and concomitant high ion flux represent an exciting new development in ion-assisted deposition of thin films. We have used a UM-gun capable of producing ion current densities up to 5 mA cm⁻² (ion flux 3 x 10¹⁶ cm⁻² s⁻¹) when operated at a power of 500

  17. H/sup -/ beam emittance measurements for the penning and the asymmetric, grooved magnetron surface-plasma sources

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, H.V. Jr.; Allison, P.W.

    1981-01-01

    Beam-intensity and emittance measurements show that the H/sup -/ beam from our Penning surface-plasma source (SPS) has twice the intensity and ten times the brightness of the H/sup -/ beam from an asymmetric, grooved magnetron SPS. We deduce H/sup -/ ion temperatures of 5 eV for the Penning SPS and 22 eV for the asymmetric, grooved magnetron.

  18. Negative ion source

    DOEpatents

    Delmore, James E. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1987-01-01

    A method and apparatus for providing a negative ion source accelerates electrons away from a hot filament electron emitter into a region of crossed electric and magnetic fields arranged in a magnetron configuration. During a portion of the resulting cycloidal path, the electron velocity is reduced below its initial value. The electron accelerates as it leaves the surface at a rate of only slightly less than if there were no magnetic field, thereby preventing a charge buildup at the surface of the emitter. As the electron traverses the cycloid, it is decelerated during the second, third, and fourth quadrants, then reeccelerated as it approaches the end of the fourth quadrant to regain its original velocity. The minimum velocity occurs during the fourth quadrant, and corresponds to an electron temperature of 200.degree. to 500.degree. for the electric and magnetic fields commonly encountered in the ion sources of magnetic sector mass spectrometers. An ion source using the above-described thermalized electrons is also disclosed.

  19. Improved negative ion source

    DOEpatents

    Delmore, J.E.

    1984-05-01

    A method and apparatus for providing a negative ion source accelerates electrons away from a hot filament electron emitter into a region of crossed electric and magnetic fields arranged in a magnetron configuration. During a portion of the resulting cycloidal path, the electron velocity is reduced below its initial value. The electron accelerates as it leaves the surface at a rate of only slightly less than if there were no magnetic field, thereby preventing a charge buildup at the surface of the emitter. As the electron traverses the cycloid, it is decelerated during the second, third, and fourth quadrants, then reaccelerated as it approaches the end of the fourth quadrant to regain its original velocity. The minimum velocity occurs during the fourth quadrant, and corresponds to an electron temperature of 200 to 500/sup 0/C for the electric and magnetic fields commonly encountered in the ion sources of magnetic sector mass spectrometers. An ion source using the above-described thermalized electrons is also disclosed.

  20. Influence of negative metal ion bombardment on the properties of ITO\\/PET films deposited by dc magnetron sputtering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daeil Kim

    2003-01-01

    Transparent conducting indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films were deposited on a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate at a low substrate temperature by dc magnetron sputtering using a negative metal ion source and an ITO target. During separate deposition runs, the cesium partial pressure was varied from 1×10?3 to 2.2×10-3 Pa to investigate the effect of ion beam bombardment on the

  1. Current source ZCS PFM DC-DC converter for magnetron power supply

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. M. Hasanien; K. F. A. Sayed

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the design of zero current switching ZCS pulse frequency modulation type DC-DC converter for magnetron power supply. A magnetron serving as the microwave source in a microwave oven is driven by a switch mode power supply (SMPS). SMPSs have the advantages of improved efficiency, reduced size and weight, regulation and the ability to operate directly from the

  2. Origin of the energetic ion beams at the substrate generated during high power pulsed magnetron sputtering of titanium

    E-print Network

    Maszl, Christian; Benedikt, Jan; von Keudell, Achim

    2013-01-01

    High power pulsed magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) plasmas generate energetic metal ions at the substrate as a major difference to conventional direct current magnetron sputtering. The origin of these energetic ions in HiPIMS is still an open issue, which is unraveled by using three fast diagnostics: time resolved mass spectrometry with a temporal resolution of 2 $\\mu$s, phase resolved optical emission spectroscopy with 1 $\\mu$s and the rotating shutter experiment with a resolution of 50 $\\mu$s. A power scan from dcMS-like to HiPIMS plasmas was performed, with a 2-inch magnetron and a titanium target as sputter source and argon as working gas. Clear differences in the transport as well in the energetic properties of Ar$^+$, Ar$^{2+}$, Ti$^+$ and Ti$^{2+}$ were observed. For discharges with highest peak power densities a high energetic group of Ti$^{+}$ and Ti$^{2+}$ could be identified. A cold group of ions is always present. It is found that hot ions are observed only, when the plasma enters the spokes regime, ...

  3. Ion distribution measurements to probe target and plasma processes in electronegative magnetron discharges. I. Negative ions

    SciTech Connect

    Welzel, Th.; Ellmer, K. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie, Institut Solare Brennstoffe, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, D-14109 Berlin (Germany); Naumov, S. [Leibniz-Institut fuer Oberflaechenmodifizierung e.V., Permoserstrasse 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany)

    2011-04-01

    Mass and energy spectra of negative ions in magnetron sputtering discharges have been investigated with an energy-dispersive mass spectrometer. The dc magnetrons have been operated in the same reactive Ar/O{sub 2} atmosphere but with three different target materials: Cu, In, and W. Besides negative ions of the working gas, a variety of target metal containing negative molecular ions were found in the discharge. Their occurrence is strongly dependent on the target material. It has been correlated to the electron affinity and the bond strength of the molecules which has been calculated by density functional theory. Energy spectra of the negative ions exhibit three contributions that are clearly distinguishable. Their different origin is discussed as electron attachment in the gas phase and at the target surface, and molecule fragmentation during transport from target to substrate. The latter two contributions again significantly deviate for different target material. The high-energy part of the spectra has been analyzed with respect to the energy the particles gain upon release from the surface. It suggests that bigger molecules formed on the surface are released by ion-assisted desorption.

  4. A self-sputtering ion source: A new approach to quiescent metal ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Oks, Efim M.; Anders, Andre

    2009-09-03

    A new metal ion source is presented based on sustained self-sputtering plasma in a magnetron discharge. Metals exhibiting high self-sputtering yield like Cu, Ag, Zn, and Bi can be used in a high-power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) discharge such that the plasma almost exclusively contains singly charged metal ions of the target material. The plasma and extracted ion beam are quiescent. The ion beams consist mostly of singly charged ions with a space-charge limited current density which reached about 10 mA/cm2 at an extraction voltage of 45 kV and a first gap spacing of 12 mm.

  5. Negative ion source with hollow cathode discharge plasma

    DOEpatents

    Hershcovitch, A.; Prelec, K.

    1980-12-12

    A negative ion source of the type where negative ions are formed by bombarding a low-work-function surface with positive ions and neutral particles from a plasma, wherein a highly ionized plasma is injected into an anode space containing the low-work-function surface is described. The plasma is formed by hollow cathode discharge and injected into the anode space along the magnetic field lines. Preferably, the negative ion source is of the magnetron type.

  6. Negative ion source with hollow cathode discharge plasma

    DOEpatents

    Hershcovitch, Ady (Mt. Sinai, NY); Prelec, Krsto (Setauket, NY)

    1983-01-01

    A negative ion source of the type where negative ions are formed by bombarding a low-work-function surface with positive ions and neutral particles from a plasma, wherein a highly ionized plasma is injected into an anode space containing the low-work-function surface. The plasma is formed by hollow cathode discharge and injected into the anode space along the magnetic field lines. Preferably, the negative ion source is of the magnetron type.

  7. Closed field unbalanced magnetron sputtering ion plating of Ni/Al thin films: influence of the magnetron power.

    PubMed

    Said, R; Ahmed, W; Gracio, J

    2010-04-01

    In this study NiAl thin films have been deposited using closed field unbalanced magnetron sputtering Ion plating (CFUBMSIP). The influence of magnetron power has been investigated using dense and humongous NiAl compound targets onto stainless steel and glass substrates. Potential applications include tribological, electronic media and bond coatings in thermal barrier coatings system. Several techniques has been used to characterise the films including surface stylus profilometry, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDAX), X-Ray diffraction (XRD) Composition analysis of the samples was carried out using VGTOF SIMS (IX23LS) and Atomic force microscopy (AFM). Scratch tester (CSM) combined with acoustic emission singles during loading in order to compare the coating adhesion. The acoustic emission signals emitted during the indentation process were used to determine the critical load, under which the film begins to crack and/or break off the substrate. The average thickness of the films was approximately 1 um. EDAX results of NiAl thin films coating with various magnetron power exhibited the near equal atomic% Ni:Al. The best result being obtained using 300 W and 400 W DC power for Ni and Al targets respectively. XRD revealed the presence of beta NiAl phase for all the films coatings. AFM analysis of the films deposited on glass substrates exhibited quite a smooth surface with surface roughness values in the nanometre range. CSM results indicate that best adhesion was achieved at 300 W for Ni, and 400 W for Al targets compared to sample other power values. SIMS depth profile showed a uniform distribution of the Ni and Al component from the surface of the film to the interface. PMID:20355462

  8. Ion distribution measurements to probe target and plasma processes in electronegative magnetron discharges. II. Positive ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welzel, Th.; Naumov, S.; Ellmer, K.

    2011-04-01

    Spectra of the ion mass and energy distributions of positive ions in reactive (Ar/O2) and nonreactive (Ar) dc magnetron sputtering discharges have been investigated by energy-resolved mass spectrometry. The results of three sputter target materials, i.e., Cu, In, and W are compared to each other. Besides the main gas constituents, mass spectra reveal a variety of molecular ions which are dependent on the target material. In reactive mode, ArO+ is always observed in Ar/O2 but molecules containing Ar and the metal were exclusively found for the Cu target. The occurrence of the different ions is explained in the context of their bond strengths obtained from density functional theory calculations. The energy spectra generally contain the known low-energy peak corresponding to the plasma potential. Differently extended high-energy tails due to sputtered material were observed for the different targets. Besides these, high-energetic ions were detected with up to several 100 eV. Their energies are significantly different for Ar+ and O+ with Ar+ strongly depending on the target material. The spectra are discussed together with results from transport of ions in matter (TRIM) calculation to elucidate the origin of these energetic ions.

  9. Comparative analysis of continuous-wave surface-plasma negative ion sources with various discharge geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Belchenko, Yu, E-mail: belchenko@inp.nsk.su [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)] [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Sanin, A.; Sotnikov, O. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation) [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk, 630090 (Russian Federation)

    2014-02-15

    Negative ion extraction from continuous-wave (CW) magnetron and semiplanotron discharges was studied and it was compared with that for the source with Penning electrode geometry. The CW negative ion beam up current to 13 mA was extracted from the magnetron source with emission aperture of 3.5 mm in diameter, while the beam with current up to 8 mA was obtained from the semiplanotron source modification. Characteristics of CW magnetron and semiplanotron sources are presented and analyzed.

  10. Substrate heating rates for planar and cylindrical-post magnetron sputtering sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, J. A.; Lamb, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    Results are presented for the substrate heating energy/atom required in the planar magnetron sputtering of Al, Cr, Ni, Cu, Mo, In, Ta, W, and Pt in Ar, as well as Al and Cr in O2. Data are also obtained for cylindrical magnetron sputtering of Nb, Ag, Ta, W, and Pb-Sn in Ar, and Mo sputtered in Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe. Planar and cylindrical magnetron heating rates were comparable. Special experiments were conducted to examine the contributions to substrate heating of plasma species and ion neutralization and reflection at the cathode; the results obtained indicate that charged plasma species do not significantly contribute to the heating, but that neutralized and reflected ions play a significant role in the planar as well as cylindrical cases despite the differences in cathode geometry.

  11. Generation processes of super-high-energy atoms and ions in magnetron sputtering plasma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Takagi; Y. Sakashita; H. Toyoda; H. Sugai

    2006-01-01

    Energy distribution function (EDF) of ion species (Ar+, Kr+, Xe+) in a rare gas magnetron plasma is measured at a substrate position, 0.1m away from the target surface, by energy-resolved mass spectrometry. The measured ion EDF contains, besides a bulk low-energy part (<10eV), a tail part of super-high energy on an order of 100eV, depending on the mass ratio of

  12. Magnetron Discharge Characteristics for Improvement of an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Neutron\\/Proton Source

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Yoshikawa; H. Toku; K. Masuda; T. Mizutani; A. Nagafuchi; M. Imoto; T. Takamatsu; K. Nagasaki

    2003-01-01

    A magnetron discharge was adopted in the inertial-electrostatic confinement (IEC) fusion device for drastic improvement of fusion reaction rate. With this discharge in the vicinity of the vacuum chamber, a substantial number of ions produced there are expected to have almost full energy corresponding to the applied voltage to the transparent IEC cathode under relatively low pressures compared with the

  13. Magnetron-based source of neutral metal vapors for photoelectron spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Tchaplyguine, M.; Peredkov, S.; Svensson, H.; Schulz, J.; Oehrwall, G.; Lundwall, M.; Rander, T.; Lindblad, A.; Bergersen, H.; Svensson, S.; Gisselbrecht, M.; Sorensen, S. L.; Gridneva, L.; Maartensson, N.; Bjoerneholm, O. [MAX-Lab, Lund University, Box 118, 22100 Lund (Sweden); Department of Synchrotron Radiation Research, Lund University, Box 118, 22100 Lund (Sweden); MAX-Lab, Lund University, Box 118, 22100 Lund (Sweden); Department of Physics, Uppsala University, Box 530, 75121 Uppsala (Sweden); LIXAM, Batiment 350, Universite Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay (France); Department of Synchrotron Radiation Research, Lund University, Box 118, 22100 Lund (Sweden); MAX-Lab, Lund University, Box 118, 22100 Lund (Sweden); MAX-Lab, Lund University, Box 118, 22100 Lund (Sweden) and Department of Physics, Uppsala University, Box 530, 75121 Uppsala (Sweden); Department of Physics, Uppsala University, Box 530, 75121 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2006-03-15

    The construction of a magnetron-based source for neutral metal vapors is presented. The first photoelectron spectroscopy experiments with the source using synchrotron radiation at MAX-lab, Sweden are described. Photoelectron spectra of atomic copper, silver, and nickel are reported with an 80 meV resolution for Cu and Ag, previously not achieved in experiments using synchrotron light.

  14. Vacuum Arc Ion Sources

    E-print Network

    Brown, I

    2013-01-01

    The vacuum arc ion source has evolved into a more or less standard laboratory tool for the production of high-current beams of metal ions, and is now used in a number of different embodiments at many laboratories around the world. Applications include primarily ion implantation for material surface modification research, and good performance has been obtained for the injection of high-current beams of heavy-metal ions, in particular uranium, into particle accelerators. As the use of the source has grown, so also have the operational characteristics been improved in a variety of different ways. Here we review the principles, design, and performance of vacuum arc ion sources.

  15. Magnetron Discharge Characteristics for Improvement of an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Neutron/Proton Source

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshikawa, K.; Toku, H.; Masuda, K.; Mizutani, T.; Nagafuchi, A.; Imoto, M.; Takamatsu, T.; Nagasaki, K. [Kyoto University (Japan)

    2003-09-15

    A magnetron discharge was adopted in the inertial-electrostatic confinement (IEC) fusion device for drastic improvement of fusion reaction rate. With this discharge in the vicinity of the vacuum chamber, a substantial number of ions produced there are expected to have almost full energy corresponding to the applied voltage to the transparent IEC cathode under relatively low pressures compared with the conventional glow discharge. The magnetron discharge is found to occur even for the pressure of 0.07 mTorr (H{sub 2}) in the present configuration of the experiment, compared with 5 mTorr in the glow discharge.

  16. Argon–oxygen dc magnetron discharge plasma probed with ion acoustic waves

    SciTech Connect

    Saikia, Partha, E-mail: partha.008@gmail.com; Saikia, Bipul Kumar; Goswami, Kalyan Sindhu [Centre of Plasma Physics, Institute for Plasma Research, Nazirakhat, Sonapur, Kamrup, Assam 782 402 (India); Phukan, Arindam [Madhabdev College, Narayanpur, Lakhimpur, Assam 784164 (India)

    2014-05-15

    The precise determination of the relative concentration of negative ions is very important for the optimization of magnetron sputtering processes, especially for those undertaken in a multicomponent background produced by adding electronegative gases, such as oxygen, to the discharge. The temporal behavior of an ion acoustic wave excited from a stainless steel grid inside the plasma chamber is used to determine the relative negative ion concentration in the magnetron discharge plasma. The phase velocity of the ion acoustic wave in the presence of negative ions is found to be faster than in a pure argon plasma, and the phase velocity increases with the oxygen partial pressure. Optical emission spectroscopy further confirms the increase in the oxygen negative ion density, along with a decrease in the argon positive ion density under the same discharge conditions. The relative negative ion concentration values measured by ion acoustic waves are compared with those measured by a single Langmuir probe, and a similarity in the results obtained by both techniques is observed.

  17. Negative hydrogen ion sources for accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Moehs, D.P.; /Fermilab; Peters, J.; /DESY; Sherman, J.; /Los Alamos

    2005-08-01

    A variety of H{sup -} ion sources are in use at accelerator laboratories around the world. A list of these ion sources includes surface plasma sources with magnetron, Penning and surface converter geometries as well as magnetic-multipole volume sources with and without cesium. Just as varied is the means of igniting and maintaining magnetically confined plasmas. Hot and cold cathodes, radio frequency, and microwave power are all in use, as well as electron tandem source ignition. The extraction systems of accelerator H{sup -} ion sources are highly specialized utilizing magnetic and electric fields in their low energy beam transport systems to produce direct current, as well as pulsed and/or chopped beams with a variety of time structures. Within this paper, specific ion sources utilized at accelerator laboratories shall be reviewed along with the physics of surface and volume H{sup -} production in regard to source emittance. Current research trends including aperture modeling, thermal modeling, surface conditioning, and laser diagnostics will also be discussed.

  18. Negative hydrogen ion source research and beam parameters for accelerators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timofey V. Zolkin

    2006-01-01

    H beams are useful for multi-turn charge-exchange stripping injection into circular accelerators. Studies on a modified ion source for this purpose are presented. This paper includes some theory about a H magnetron discharge, ion-electron emission, emittance and problems linked with emittance measurement and calculations. Investigated parameters of the emittance probe for optimal performance give a screen voltage of 150 V

  19. BERNAS ION SOURCE DISCHARGE SIMULATION

    SciTech Connect

    RUDSKOY,I.; KULEVOY, T.V.; PETRENKO, S.V.; KUIBEDA, R.P.; SELEZNEV, D.N.; PERSHIN, V.I.; HERSHCOVITCH, A.; JOHNSON, B.M.; GUSHENETS, V.I.; OKS, E.M.; POOLE, H.J.

    2007-08-26

    The joint research and development program is continued to develop steady-state ion source of decaborane beam for ion implantation industry. Bemas ion source is the wide used ion source for ion implantation industry. The new simulation code was developed for the Bemas ion source discharge simulation. We present first results of the simulation for several materials interested in semiconductors. As well the comparison of results obtained with experimental data obtained at the ITEP ion source test-bench is presented.

  20. Selective ion source

    DOEpatents

    Leung, K.N.

    1996-05-14

    A ion source is described wherein selected ions maybe extracted to the exclusion of unwanted ion species of higher ionization potential. Also described is a method of producing selected ions from a compound, such as P{sup +} from PH{sub 3}. The invention comprises a plasma chamber, an electron source, a means for introducing a gas to be ionized by electrons from the electron source, means for limiting electron energy from the electron source to a value between the ionization energy of the selected ion species and the greater ionization energy of an unwanted ion specie, and means for extracting the target ion specie from the plasma chamber. In one embodiment, the electrons are generated in a plasma cathode chamber immediately adjacent to the plasma chamber. A small extractor draws the electrons from the plasma cathode chamber into the relatively positive plasma chamber. The energy of the electrons extracted in this manner is easily controlled. The invention is particularly useful for doping silicon with P{sup +}, As{sup +}, and B{sup +} without the problematic presence of hydrogen, helium, water, or carbon oxide ions. Doped silicon is important for manufacture of semiconductors and semiconductor devices. 6 figs.

  1. Industrial ion source technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, H. R.; Robinson, R. S.

    1979-01-01

    In reactive ion etching of Si, varying amounts of O2 were added to the CF4 background. The experimental results indicated an etch rate less than that for Ar up to an O2 partial pressure of about .00006 Torr. Above this O2 pressure, the etch rate with CF4 exceeded that with Ar alone. For comparison the random arrival rate of O2 was approximately equal to the ion arrival rate at a partial pressure of about .00002 Torr. There were also ion source and ion pressure gauge maintenance problems as a result of the use of CF4. Large scale (4 sq cm) texturing of Si was accomplished using both Cu and stainless steel seed. The most effective seeding method for this texturing was to surround the sample with large inclined planes. Designing, fabricating, and testing a 200 sq cm rectangular beam ion source was emphasized. The design current density was 6 mA/sq cm with 500 eV argon ions, although power supply limitations permitted operation to only 2 mA/sq cm. The use of multiple rectangular beam ion sources for continuous processing of wider areas than would be possible with a single source was also studied. In all cases investigated, the most uniform coverage was obtained with 0 to 2 cm beam overlay. The maximum departure from uniform processing at optimum beam overlap was found to be +15%.

  2. Low temperature magnetron sputter deposition of polycrystalline silicon thin films using high flux ion bombardment

    SciTech Connect

    Gerbi, Jennifer E.; Abelson, John R. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1304 W. Green Street, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

    2007-03-15

    We demonstrate that the microstructure of polycrystalline silicon thin films depends strongly on the flux of low energy ions that bombard the growth surface during magnetron sputter deposition. The deposition system is equipped with external electromagnetic coils which, through the unbalanced magnetron effect, provide direct control of the ion flux independent of the ion energy. We report the influence of low energy (<27 eV) Ar{sup +} on the low temperature (<450 degree sign C) growth of polycrystalline silicon thin films onto amorphous substrates. We use spectroscopic ellipsometry, Raman scattering, x-ray diffraction, and cross sectional transmission electron microscopy to analyze the film microstructure. We demonstrate that increasing the flux ratio of Ar{sup +} ions to silicon neutrals (J{sup +}/J{sup 0}) during growth by an order of magnitude (from 3 to 30) enables the direct nucleation of polycrystalline Si on glass and SiO{sub 2} coated Si at temperatures below 400 degree sign C. We discuss possible mechanisms for this enhancement of crystalline microstructure, including the roles of enhanced adatom mobility and the formation of shallow, mobile defects.

  3. Distance-dependent plasma composition and ion energy in high power impulse magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Ehiasarian, Arutiun P; Andersson, Joakim; Anders, Andr& #233

    2010-04-18

    The plasma composition of high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) has been studied for titanium and chromium targets using a combined energy analyser and quadrupole mass spectrometer. Measurements were done at distances from 50 to 300 mm from the sputtering target. Ti and Cr are similar in atomic mass but have significantly different sputter yields, which gives interesting clues on the effect of the target on plasma generation and transport of atoms. The Ti and Cr HIPIMS plasmas operated at a peak target current density of ~;;0.5 A cm-2. The measurements of the argon and metal ion content as well as the ion energy distribution functions showed that (1) singly and doubly charged ions were found for argon as well as for the target metal, (2) the majority of ions were singly charged argon for both metals at all distances investigated, (3) the Cr ion density was maintained to distances further from the target than Ti. Gas rarefaction was identified as a main factor promoting transport of metal ions, with the stronger effect observed for Cr, the material with higher sputter yield. Cr ions were found to displace a significant portion of the gas ions, whereas this was less evident in the Ti case. The observations indicate that the presence of metal vapour promotes charge exchange and reduces the electron temperature and thereby practically prevents the production of Ar2+ ions near the target. The content of higher charge states of metal ions depends on the probability of charge exchange with argon.

  4. High current ion source

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Ian G. (1088 Woodside Rd., Berkeley, CA 94708); MacGill, Robert A. (645 Kern St., Richmond, CA 94805); Galvin, James E. (2 Commodore Dr. #276, Emeryville, CA 94608)

    1990-01-01

    An ion source utilizing a cathode and anode for producing an electric arc therebetween. The arc is sufficient to vaporize a portion of the cathode to form a plasma. The plasma leaves the generation region and expands through another regon. The density profile of the plasma may be flattened using a magnetic field formed within a vacuum chamber. Ions are extracted from the plasma to produce a high current broad on beam.

  5. Ion sources for high purity ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, Ka-Ngo

    1997-02-01

    It has been demonstrated that the multicusp ion source can provide positive hydrogen ion beams with monatomic ion fraction higher than 90%. The use of A radio-frequency induction discharge provides clean reliable and long-life source operation. The extractable ion current densities from this type of source can meet the injector requirements for accelerator-based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) projects.

  6. Structural comparisons of ion beam and dc magnetron sputtered spin valves by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William E. Bailey; Nan-Chang Zhu; Robert Sinclair; Shan X. Wang

    1996-01-01

    We have used high-resolution transmission electron microscopy to compare the nanostructures of ion-beam and dc magnetron sputter-deposited giant magnetoresistive (GMR) spin valves and to correlate nanostructure with magnetic properties. Very low coercivities and strong exchange bias (<8 Oe, 125 Oe) were achieved in ion-beam-deposited spin valves of the form NiFe(50)\\/Co(20)\\/Cu(?25)\\/Co(20)\\/NiFe(50)\\/FeMn(150)\\/Ta(30 A?); these were compared with typical dc magnetron deposited structures

  7. Source of Negative Hydrogen Ions with Hot Cathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, G. I.; Batazova, M. A.

    2005-04-01

    In the report an H- ion source with following parameters is described. Ion energy is up to 30 keV, current is up to 5 mA, pulse duration varies from 1 to tens microseconds. H- ions are produced in magnetron discharge near a hot cathode surface made of LaB6 or IrCe alloy, which is 6 mm in diameter. H- ions are extracted through 0.8×7 mm slot. An electromagnetic valve was used for pulsed gas feed. Ion current depends on discharge current that in turn is defined by cathode temperature, discharge voltage, and hydrogen pressure. Two permanent magnets fixed on iron yoke generate magnetic field for magnetron discharge. There are a magnetic and electrostatic corrections of trajectories of extracted H- ions. The H- ion source has been used as an injector for tandem accelerator with the following proton beam parameters: energy is 1.4 MeV, current is 3mA, and pulse duration is 2 microseconds. Simulation of ion beam trajectories in the source, transport channel, and tandem accelerator shows good correlation with experiments.

  8. Source of Negative Hydrogen Ions with Hot Cathode

    SciTech Connect

    Kuznetsov, G.I.; Batazova, M.A. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation)

    2005-04-06

    In the report an H- ion source with following parameters is described. Ion energy is up to 30 keV, current is up to 5 mA, pulse duration varies from 1 to tens microseconds. H- ions are produced in magnetron discharge near a hot cathode surface made of LaB6 or IrCe alloy, which is 6 mm in diameter. H- ions are extracted through 0.8x7 mm slot. An electromagnetic valve was used for pulsed gas feed. Ion current depends on discharge current that in turn is defined by cathode temperature, discharge voltage, and hydrogen pressure. Two permanent magnets fixed on iron yoke generate magnetic field for magnetron discharge. There are a magnetic and electrostatic corrections of trajectories of extracted H- ions. The H- ion source has been used as an injector for tandem accelerator with the following proton beam parameters: energy is 1.4 MeV, current is 3mA, and pulse duration is 2 microseconds. Simulation of ion beam trajectories in the source, transport channel, and tandem accelerator shows good correlation with experiments.

  9. Control of ions energy distribution in dual-frequency magnetron sputtering discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, Chao, E-mail: cye@suda.edu.cn; He, Haijie; Huang, Fupei; Liu, Yi [School of Physics Science and Technology, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Thin Films, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China)] [School of Physics Science and Technology, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Thin Films, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Wang, Xiangying [Medical College of Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China)] [Medical College of Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China)

    2014-04-15

    The ion energy distributions (IEDs) in the dual-frequency magnetron sputtering discharges were investigated by retarding field energy analyzer. Increasing power ratio of 2?MHz to 13.56 (27.12 or 60) MHz led to the evolution of IEDs from a uni-modal distribution towards a uni-modal distribution with high-energy peak shoulder and a bi-modal distribution. While increasing power ratio of 13.56?MHz to 27.12?MHz and 27.12?MHz to 60?MHz, led to the increase of peak energy. The evolution of IEDs shape and the increase of peak energy are due to the change of ions responding to the average field of high-frequency period towards the instantaneous sheath potential of low-frequency period.

  10. Negative oxygen ion formation in reactive magnetron sputtering processes for transparent conductive oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Welzel, Thomas; Ellmer, Klaus [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie, Institut Solare Brennstoffe, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, D-14109 Berlin (Germany)

    2012-11-15

    Reactive d.c. magnetron sputtering in Ar/O{sub 2} gas mixtures has been investigated with energy-resolved mass spectrometry. Different metal targets (Mg, Ti, Zn, In, InSn, and Sn), which are of importance for transparent conductive oxide thin film deposition, have been used to study the formation of negative ions, mainly high-energetic O{sup -}, which are supposed to induce radiation damage in thin films. Besides their energy distribution, the ions have been particularly investigated with respect to their intensity in comparison of the different target materials. To realize the comparability, various calibration factors had to be introduced. After their application, major differences in the negative ion production have been observed for the target materials. The intensity, especially of O{sup -}, differs by about two orders of magnitude. It is shown that this difference results almost exclusively from ions that gain their energy in the target sheath. Those may gain additional energy from the sputtering process or reflection at the target. Low-energetic negative ions are, however, less affected by changes of the target material. The results concerning O{sup -} formation are discussed in term of the sputtering rate from the target and are compared to models for negative ion formation.

  11. Broad beam ion source for ion implantation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Feng Yucai; Tian Feng

    1990-01-01

    A broadbeam ion source for ion implantation has been developed. The features of this source include high current density, large beam spot area, and good beam current density uniformity. It can be equipped with a single or multiaperture ion extraction system and can be operated over energy and current ranges of 3–120 keV and 1–60 mA, respectively. Ion beam current

  12. Effect of ion bombarding energies on photocatalytic TiO{sub 2} films growing in a pulsed dual magnetron discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Novak, Ondrej; Vlcek, Jaroslav [Department of Physics, University of West Bohemia, Univerzitni 22, 306 14 Plzen (Czech Republic)

    2011-05-15

    Photocatalytic crystalline TiO{sub 2} films were deposited by a pulsed dc dual magnetron system. The depositions were performed using two unbalanced magnetrons with planar titanium targets of 50 mm diameter in Ar+O{sub 2} gas mixtures at a total pressure of 0.9 Pa with oxygen partial pressures ranging from 0.2 to 0.9 Pa. The maximum substrate surface temperature was 160 deg. C Both magnetrons operated in the same asymmetric bipolar mode at the repetition frequencies of 100 and 350 kHz with a fixed 50% duty cycle and the average target power densities of 52-74 W cm{sup -2} in the negative voltage phase of the pulses, but the magnetron operations were shifted by a half of the period. Time-averaged energy-resolved mass spectroscopy was performed at a substrate position located 100 mm from the targets. The measured structure of the ion energy distributions was correlated with the distinct pulse phases of the magnetron discharges. A decrease in the energy delivered by fast ions (E{>=}10 eV) to the unit volume of the growing films, together with possible effects of plasma-chemical processes, during the depositions at the oxygen partial pressures of 0.5-0.75 Pa and the repetition frequency of 350 kHz resulted in a strong predominance of the highly photoactive crystalline anatase phase in the TiO{sub 2} films.

  13. Ion dynamics in helicon sources.

    SciTech Connect

    Kline, J. L. (John L.); Balkey, M. M. (Matthew M.); Keiter, P. A. (Paul A.); Scime, Earl E.; Keesee, Anne M.; Sun, X.; Harding R.; Compton, C.; Boivin, R. F.; Zintl, M. W.

    2002-01-01

    Recent experiments have demonstrated that ion dominated phenomena, such as the lower hybrid resonance, can play an important role in helicon source operation. In this work, we review recent ion heating measurements and the role of the slow wave in heating ions at the edge of helicon. sources. We also discuss the relationship between parametrically driven waves and ion heating near the rf antenna in helicon sources. Recent measurements of parallel and rotational ion flows in helicon sources have important implications for particle confinement, instability growth, and helicon source operation. In this work we present new measurements of ion flows and summarize the important features of the flows.

  14. Fabrication of size-selected Pd nanoclusters using a magnetron plasma sputtering source

    SciTech Connect

    Ayesh, A. I.; Qamhieh, N.; Ghamlouche, H.; Thaker, S.; El-Shaer, M. [Department of Physics, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain, P.O. Box 17551 (United Arab Emirates)

    2010-02-15

    We report on the fabrication of palladium (Pd) nanoclusters using a dc magnetron sputtering source. Plasma sputtering vaporizes the target's material forming nanoclusters by inert gas condensation. The sputtering source produces ionized nanoclusters that enable the study of the nanoclusters' size distribution using a quadrupole mass filter. In this work, the dependence of Pd nanoclusters' size distribution on various source parameters, such as the sputtering discharge power, inert gas flow rate, and aggregation length have been investigated. This work demonstrates the ability of tuning the palladium nanoclusters' size by proper optimization of the source operation conditions. The experimental nanocluster sizes are compared with a theoretical model that reveals the growth of large nanoclusters from 'embryos' by a two-body collision. The model is valid for a specific range of deposition parameters (low inert gas flow rates and aggregation lengths equal or below 70 mm).

  15. Size-selected cluster beam source based on radio frequency magnetron plasma sputtering and gas condensation

    SciTech Connect

    Pratontep, S.; Carroll, S.J.; Xirouchaki, C.; Streun, M.; Palmer, R.E. [Nanoscale Physics Research Laboratory, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom)

    2005-04-01

    We report on a source for producing size-selected nanoclusters based on the combination of radio frequency magnetron plasma sputtering and gas condensation. The use of plasma sputtering to vaporize a target is applicable to a large range of materials; Ag, Au, Cu, and Si have been attempted to date. The source, combined with a time-of-flight mass filter, can produce clusters in the size range from 2 up to at least 70 000 atoms, depending on the target material, with a constant mass (M) resolution (M/{delta}M{approx}25) at an intensity that produces atomic monolayer coverage in as little as a few minutes. The source is also attached to an ultrahigh vacuum analysis chamber, which allows in situ surface chemical and structural analysis. Examples of cluster deposition experiments with the source are also presented.

  16. Heavy ion fusion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Grote, D.P.; Kwan, J.; Westenskow, G.

    2003-02-01

    In Heavy-Fusion and in other applications, there is a need for high brightness sources with both high current and low emittance. The traditional design with a single monolithic source, while very successful, has significant constraints on it when going to higher currents. With the Child-Langmuir current-density limit, geometric aberration limits, and voltage breakdown limits, the area of the source becomes a high power of the current, A {approx} I{sup 8/3}. We are examining a multi-beamlet source, avoiding the constraints by having many beamlets each with low current and small area. The beamlets are created and initially accelerated separately and then merged to form a single beam. This design offers a number of potential advantages over a monolithic source, such as a smaller transverse footprint, more control over the shaping and aiming of the beam, and more flexibility in the choice of ion sources. A potential drawback, however, is the emittance that results from the merging of the beamlets. We have designed injectors using simulation that have acceptably low emittance and are beginning to examine them experimentally.

  17. Tandem-Mirror Ion Source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biddle, A.; Stone, N.; Reasoner, D.; Chisholm, W.; Reynolds, J.

    1986-01-01

    Improved ion source produces beam of ions at any kinetic energy from 1 to 1,000 eV, with little spread in energy or angle. Such ion beams useful in studies of surface properties of materials, surface etching, deposition, and development of plasma-diagnostic instrumentation. Tandemmirror ion source uses electrostatic and magnetic fields to keep electrons in ionization chamber and assure uniform output ion beam having low divergence in energy and angle.

  18. Ion sources for radioactive beams

    SciTech Connect

    Kirchner, R. [GSI Darmstadt (Germany)

    1994-05-01

    The ion sources reviewed here, most of them developed for isotope separation on-line (ISOL), are classified according to their ionizing mechanism, utilizing electrons, heat, light, and penetration of matter. Emphasis is put on the beam-optical characteristics, ion current density, energy spread, and emittance on the ISOL-essentials {open_quotes}efficient, fast, and selective,{close_quotes} both for the ion source and the complete target/ion source-system.

  19. Compact ion accelerator source

    DOEpatents

    Schenkel, Thomas; Persaud, Arun; Kapadia, Rehan; Javey, Ali

    2014-04-29

    An ion source includes a conductive substrate, the substrate including a plurality of conductive nanostructures with free-standing tips formed on the substrate. A conductive catalytic coating is formed on the nanostructures and substrate for dissociation of a molecular species into an atomic species, the molecular species being brought in contact with the catalytic coating. A target electrode placed apart from the substrate, the target electrode being biased relative to the substrate with a first bias voltage to ionize the atomic species in proximity to the free-standing tips and attract the ionized atomic species from the substrate in the direction of the target electrode.

  20. Advances in metal ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, I.G.

    1988-05-01

    Beams of metallic ion species can be produced by the ECR (electron cyclotron resonance) ion source and by the MEVVA (metal vapor vacuum arc) ion source. Although the ECR source is fundamentally a gaseous ion source, metal ion beams can be produced by introducing metallic feed material into the plasma discharge using a number of techniques. The ion charge states can be very high, which is a significant advantage to most applications. The MEVVA ion source, on the other hand, is specifically a metal ion source. It has produced metallic ion beams from virtually all the solid metallic elements at a current of typically hundreds of milliamperes; the ions produced are in general multiply ionized, but not as highly stripped as those generated in the ECR source. Although the MEVVA source at present operates in a pulsed mode with a low duty cycle (less than or equal to 1%), work is in progress to increase the duty cycle significantly. In this paper the operation and performance of the LBL ECR and MEVVA ion sources, with respect to metal ion generation, are described.

  1. Ion sources for ion implantation technology (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Sakai, Shigeki, E-mail: sakai-shigeki@nissin.co.jp; Hamamoto, Nariaki; Inouchi, Yutaka; Umisedo, Sei; Miyamoto, Naoki [Nissin Ion Equipment co., ltd, 575 Kuze-Tonoshiro-cho Minami-ku, Kyoto 601-8205 (Japan)] [Nissin Ion Equipment co., ltd, 575 Kuze-Tonoshiro-cho Minami-ku, Kyoto 601-8205 (Japan)

    2014-02-15

    Ion sources for ion implantation are introduced. The technique is applied not only to large scale integration (LSI) devices but also to flat panel display. For LSI fabrication, ion source scheduled maintenance cycle is most important. For CMOS image sensor devices, metal contamination at implanted wafer is most important. On the other hand, to fabricate miniaturized devices, cluster ion implantation has been proposed to make shallow PN junction. While for power devices such as silicon carbide, aluminum ion is required. For doping processes of LCD fabrication, a large ion source is required. The extraction area is about 150 cm × 10 cm, and the beam uniformity is important as well as the total target beam current.

  2. Ion sources for ion implantation technology (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, Shigeki; Hamamoto, Nariaki; Inouchi, Yutaka; Umisedo, Sei; Miyamoto, Naoki

    2014-02-01

    Ion sources for ion implantation are introduced. The technique is applied not only to large scale integration (LSI) devices but also to flat panel display. For LSI fabrication, ion source scheduled maintenance cycle is most important. For CMOS image sensor devices, metal contamination at implanted wafer is most important. On the other hand, to fabricate miniaturized devices, cluster ion implantation has been proposed to make shallow PN junction. While for power devices such as silicon carbide, aluminum ion is required. For doping processes of LCD fabrication, a large ion source is required. The extraction area is about 150 cm × 10 cm, and the beam uniformity is important as well as the total target beam current.

  3. Ion sources for cyclotron applications

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, K.N.; Bachman, D.A.; McDonald, D.S.; Young, A.T.

    1992-07-01

    The use of a multicusp plasma generator as an ion source has many advantages. The development of both positive and negative ion beams based on the multicusp source geometry is presented. It is shown that these sources can be operated at steady state or cw mode. As a result they are very suitable for cyclotron operations.

  4. ULTRA-LOW-ENERGY HIGH-CURRENT ION SOURCE

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, Andre; Yushkov, Georgy Yu.; Baldwin, David A.

    2009-11-20

    The technical objective of the project was to develop an ultra-low-energy, high-intensity ion source (ULEHIIS) for materials processing in high-technology fields including semiconductors, micro-magnetics and optics/opto-electronics. In its primary application, this ion source can be incorporated into the 4Wave thin-film deposition technique called biased target ion-beam deposition (BTIBD), which is a deposition technique based on sputtering (without magnetic field, i.e., not the typical magnetron sputtering). It is a technological challenge because the laws of space charge limited current (Child-Langmuir) set strict limits of how much current can be extracted from a reservoir of ions, such as a suitable discharge plasma. The solution to the problem was an innovative dual-discharge system without the use of extraction grids.

  5. Influence of Ar ion-beam assistance and annealing temperatures on properties of TiO 2 thin films deposited by reactive DC magnetron sputtering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sung-Hwa Kim; Chang Kwon Hwangbo

    2005-01-01

    TiO2 thin films were prepared by using a reactive DC magnetron sputtering method with Ar ion-beam assistance. The effect of the Ar ion-beam current on the structural and optical properties of the reactive magnetron sputtered TiO2 thin films was studied. The as-deposited films were subjected to annealing with the atmospheric environment, and the change of film properties after annealing was

  6. Metal negative ion production by an RF sputter self-extraction ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, N.; Kasuya, T.; Kenmotsu, T.; Vasquez, M. R., Jr.; Wada, M.

    2013-02-01

    An 80 mm diameter 80 mm long RF sputter type self-extraction negative ion source equipped with a metal sputter target has been tested to investigate the performance of producing beams of negative aluminum (Al) ions. An RF power at 13.56 MHz is directly supplied to a 60 mm diameter target containing a cylindrical and ring permanent magnets to form planar magnetron magnetic field geometry. The target is self-biased to a DC potential at about -250 V with respect to the plasma, and negative ions produced at the surface are self-extracted from the target across the sheath to reach the ion beam extraction hole. Injection of cesium into the discharge enhanced the amount of Al- ions but it also enlarged the impurity ion beam current.

  7. Visualization of Trajectories of Electron Beams Emitted by an IonSource with Closed Electron Drift

    SciTech Connect

    Institue of Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine; Brown, Ian G.; Bordenjuk, Ian V.; Panchenko, Oleg A.; Sologub, Sergei V.; Brown, Ian G.

    2007-10-01

    Trajectories of electron beams emitted by an ion source with an anode layer and Hall electron closed drift orbits were visualized using light emission from a working gas excited by electrons. Gas discharge of magnetron type, arising in the beam drift region under the influence of an electric field of a target bias potential, was visualized.

  8. Optical properties of magnetron sputtered Tb3+ ions containing thin dielectric films for thin film solar cells applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Sendova-Vassileva; K. Baumgartner; O. Angelov; B. Holländer; D. Dimova-Malinovska; R. Carius

    2010-01-01

    Results are presented on the deposition and characterization of thin SiO2 and Al2O3 films containing Tb3+ ions developed for application as spectral converters. The films are prepared by RF magnetron co-sputtering. The photoluminescence (PL) is measured at room temperature using the 488 nm line of an Ar laser. The dependence is studied of the PL intensity on the Tb concentration

  9. Holey-plate ion source

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshikazu Yoshida

    2000-01-01

    A low-pressure and high-density microwave ion source, created and sustained by evanescent waves emitted from a holey plate (HP) has been studied. This source is called a HP ion source. Microwave power at 2.45 GHz is supplied from a rectangular waveguide and then converted into an evanescent mode through the use of a HP placed on a H plane located

  10. The impact of negative oxygen ion bombardment on electronic and structural properties of magnetron sputtered ZnO:Al films

    SciTech Connect

    Bikowski, Andre; Welzel, Thomas; Ellmer, Klaus [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie GmbH, Institute for Solar Fuels, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, D-14109 Berlin (Germany)] [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie GmbH, Institute for Solar Fuels, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, D-14109 Berlin (Germany)

    2013-06-17

    In order to study the impact of negative oxygen ion bombardment on the electronic transport properties of ZnO:Al films, a systematic magnetron sputtering study from ceramic targets with excitation frequencies from DC to 27 MHz, accompanied by strongly varying discharge voltages, has been performed. Higher plasma excitation frequencies significantly improve the transport properties of ZnO:Al films. The effect of the bombardment of the films by energetic particles (negative oxygen ions) can be explained by the dynamic equilibrium between the formation of acceptor-like oxygen interstitials compensating the extrinsic donors and the self-annealing of the interstitial defects at higher deposition temperatures.

  11. Change Spectrum Characteristics Modification of Films Deposited by Magnetron Sputtering with the Assistance of Argon Ions Beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umnov, S.; Asainov, O.

    2015-04-01

    Thin aluminum films were prepared using the method of magnetron sputtering with and without argon ion beam assistance. The influence of argon ion beam on the reflectivity in the UV range and the structure of aluminum films was studied. The structure of the films was studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and atomic- force microscope (AFM). The study has shown that the films deposed with the assistance of the argon ion beam have more significant microstresses associated with an increase of crystallites microstructure defects as compared to the films deposed without ion assistance. Comparison of the measured reflectivity of aluminum films deposed without and with the assistance of the ion beam has shown that the films characterized by a higher level of microstructure def ects have increased reflectivity in the UV range. The studies suggest that the defects of thin aluminum films crystal structure influence its optical properties.

  12. Reversal ion source - A new source of negative ion beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orient, O. J.; Chutjian, A.; Alajajian, S. H.

    1985-01-01

    A new type of ion source utilizing beams of electrons and target molecules, rather than a diffuse, volume plasma, is described. The source utilizes an electrostatic electron 'mirror' which reverses trajectories in an electron beam, producing electrons at their turning point having a distribution of velocities centered at zero velocity. A gas which attaches zero-velocity electrons is introduced at this turning point. Negative ions are produced by an attachment or dissociative attachment process. For many of the thermal electron-attaching molecules the cross sections can be quite large, varying as the inverse square root of the electron energy or just the s-wave threshold law. The efficiency and current density of the ion source for production of Cl(-) through the large, thermal energy attachment process is estimated. It is argued that the source can be used for the production of negative ions through attachment resonances located at higher energies as well.

  13. Flexible Laser Ion Sources for Surface Modification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. P. Boody; P. Bickel; J. Kempf; G. Monkman; R. Höpfl; H. Hora; L. Láska; J. Krása; M. Pfeifer; K. Rohlena; L. Juha; J. Wolowski; J. Badziak; P. Parys; L. Ryc; E. Woryna; A. Szydlowski; L. Torrisi; S. Gammino; A. M. Mezzasalma

    2004-01-01

    Laser ion sources have significant advantages over other ion sources for ion implantation. Not only do lasers produce much greater numbers of ions of more types of materials (essentially any solid) than other ion sources, they also produce much higher charge states and a higher fraction of higher charge-state ions (better charge-state distribution). This results in much greater depth of

  14. Transistorized Ion Source Power Supply

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank M. Propst; Harry Tomaschke; Dominic Skaperdas

    1963-01-01

    A d-c power supply is designed for regulating the trap current in an ; electron bombardment ion source. The power supply is based on an ion gage supply ; and incorporates a chopper amplifier for d-c isolation from the filament current ; supply. The operation and performance of the power supply are described. ; (D.L.C.);

  15. Optimal Position of Ion Source for High Performance of IEC

    SciTech Connect

    Osawa, Hodaka [Kansai University (Japan); Ishibashi, Takayuki [Kansai University (Japan); Ohnishi, Masami [Kansai University (Japan); Yoshikawa, Kiyoshi [Kyoto University (Japan)

    2005-05-15

    An inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) fusion device is possibly used for portable neutron sources. R. L. Hirsh reported that D-D the neutrons of 1.8 x 10{sup 8} n/s were produced. Recently, the similar amounts of fusion reactions are observed to occur in IEC devices In the most of IEC devices, since gas pressure is so high that the ions lose their energy by the frequent collisions with the neutral gas. The conditions of the high voltage and the low pressure are preferable because the energy of beam ions is kept very high and used for the fusion reaction more efficiently. It, however, is difficult to produce enough amounts of ions through a glow discharge at the low pressure. One of the solutions is to equip the ion source such as a magnetron near the anode. We have made three-dimensional orbit following code to evaluate the life of the ions produced near the anode surface. The code includes atomic collisions with background neutral gas and indicates the optimal positions to equip ion source which gives longer life of accelerated ions.

  16. Negative ion source

    DOEpatents

    Leung, K.N.; Ehlers, K.W.

    1984-12-04

    An ionization vessel is divided into an ionizing zone and an extraction zone by a magnetic filter. The magnetic filter prevents high-energy electrons from crossing from the ionizing zone to the extraction zone. A small positive voltage impressed on a plasma grid, located adjacent an extraction grid, positively biases the plasma in the extraction zone to thereby prevent positive ions from migrating from the ionizing zone to the extraction zone. Low-energy electrons, which would ordinarily be dragged by the positive ions into the extraction zone, are thereby prevented from being present in the extraction zone and being extracted along with negative ions by the extraction grid. Additional electrons are suppressed from the output flux using ExB drift provided by permanent magnets and the extractor grid electrical field. 14 figs.

  17. Negative ion source

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo (Hercules, CA); Ehlers, Kenneth W. (Alamo, CA)

    1984-01-01

    An ionization vessel is divided into an ionizing zone and an extraction zone by a magnetic filter. The magnetic filter prevents high-energy electrons from crossing from the ionizing zone to the extraction zone. A small positive voltage impressed on a plasma grid, located adjacent an extraction grid, positively biases the plasma in the extraction zone to thereby prevent positive ions from migrating from the ionizing zone to the extraction zone. Low-energy electrons, which would ordinarily be dragged by the positive ions into the extraction zone, are thereby prevented from being present in the extraction zone and being extracted along with negative ions by the extraction grid. Additional electrons are suppressed from the output flux using ExB drift provided by permanent magnets and the extractor grid electrical field.

  18. Low-pressure ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Bacon, F.M.; Brainard, J.P.; O'Hagan, J.B.; Walko, R.J.

    1982-10-27

    A low pressure ion source for a neutron source comprises a filament cathode and an anode ring. Approximately 150V is applied between the cathode and the anode. Other electrodes, including a heat shield, a reflector and an aperture plate with a focus electrode, are placed at intermediate potentials. Electrons from the filament drawn out by the plasma and eventually removed by the anode are contained in a magnetic field created by a magnet ring. Ions are formed by electron impact with deuterium or tritium and are extracted at the aperture in the focus electrode. The ion source will typically generate a 200 mA beam through a 1.25 cm/sup 2/ aperture for an arc current of 10A. For deuterium gas, the ion beam is over 50 percent D/sup +/ with less than 1% impurity. The current density profile across the aperture will typically be uniform to within 20%.

  19. Microwave ion source for low charge state ion production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jani Reijonen; Matthew Eardley; Richard Gough; Ka-Ngo Leung; Rainer Thomae

    2003-01-01

    The Plasma and Ion Source Technology Group at LBNL have developed a microwave ion source. The source consists of a stainless-steel plasma chamber, a permanent-magnet dipole structure and a coaxial microwave feed. Measurements were carried out to characterize the plasma and the ion beam produced in the ion source. These measurements included current density, charge state distribution, gas efficiency and

  20. Industrial ion source technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. R. Kaufman; R. S. Robinson

    1979-01-01

    In reactive ion etching of Si, varying amounts of O2 were added to the CF4 background. The experimental results indicated an etch rate less than that for Ar up to an O2 partial pressure of about .00006 Torr. Above this O2 pressure, the etch rate with CF4 exceeded that with Ar alone. For comparison the random arrival rate of O2

  1. Ion Source Development For The Proposed FNAL 750 keV Injector Upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Bollinger, D. S. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Box 500, Batavia, IL 60543 (United States)

    2011-09-26

    Currently there is a Proposed FNAL 750 keV Injector Upgrade for the replacement of the 40 year old Fermi National Laboratory (FNAL) Cockcroft-Walton accelerators with a new ion source and 200 MHz Radio Frequency Quadruple (RFQ). The slit type magnetron being used now will be replaced with a round aperture magnetron similar to the one used at Brookhaven National Lab (BNL). Operational experience from BNL has shown that this type of source is more reliable with a longer lifetime due to better power efficiency. The current source development effort is to produce a reliable source with >60 mA of H{sup -} beam current, 15 Hz rep-rate, 100 {mu}s pulse width, and a duty factor of 0.15%. The source will be based on the BNL design along with development done at FNAL for the High Intensity Neutrino Source (HINS).

  2. Status of ITEP decaborane ion source programa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulevoy, T. V.; Petrenko, S. V.; Kuibeda, R. P.; Seleznev, D. N.; Koshelev, V. A.; Kozlov, A. V.; Stasevich, Yu. B.; Sitnikov, A. L.; Shamailov, I. M.; Pershin, V. I.; Hershcovitch, A.; Johnson, B. M.; Gushenets, V. I.; Oks, E. M.; Poole, H. P.; Masunov, E. S.; Polozov, S. M.

    2008-02-01

    The joint research and development program is continued to develop steady-state ion source of decaborane beam for ion implantation industry. Both Freeman and Bernas ion sources for decaborane ion beam generation were investigated. Decaborane negative ion beam as well as positive ion beam were generated and delivered to the output of mass separator. Experimental results obtained in ITEP are presented.

  3. Ion flux characteristics and efficiency of the deposition processes in high power impulse magnetron sputtering of zirconium

    SciTech Connect

    Lazar, J.; Vlcek, J.; Rezek, J. [Department of Physics, University of West Bohemia, Univerzitni 22, 30614 Plzen (Czech Republic)

    2010-09-15

    High power impulse magnetron sputtering of zirconium was investigated at the average target power density of up to 2.22 kW cm{sup -2} in a pulse. The depositions were performed using a strongly unbalanced magnetron with a planar zirconium target of 100 mm diameter at the argon pressure of 1 Pa. The repetition frequency was 500 Hz at duty cycles ranging from 4% to 10%. Time-averaged mass spectroscopy was carried out at the substrate positions of 100 and 200 mm from the target. The increase in the average target power density from 0.97 kW cm{sup -2} to 2.22 kW cm{sup -2} in shortened voltage pulses (from 200 to 80 {mu}s) at an average target power density of 100 W cm{sup -2} in a period led to high fractions (21%-32%) of doubly charged zirconium ions in total ion fluxes onto the substrate located 100 mm from the target. However, the respective fractions of singly charged zirconium ions decreased from 23% to 3%. It was observed that ion energy distributions were extended to high energies (up to 100 eV relative to the ground potential) under these conditions. The increased target power densities during the shortened voltage pulses resulted in a reduced deposition rate of films from 590 to 440 nm/min and in a weakly decreasing ionized fraction (from 55% to 49%) of the sputtered zirconium atoms in the flux onto the substrate. The doubly charged zirconium ions became strongly predominant (up to 63%) in the total ion flux onto the substrate at the distance of 200 mm from the target. Model calculations were carried out to explain the complicated deposition processes.

  4. Bernas ion source discharge simulationa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roudskoy, I.; Kulevoy, T. V.; Petrenko, S. V.; Kuibeda, R. P.; Seleznev, D. N.; Pershin, V. I.; Hershcovitch, A.; Johnson, B. M.; Gushenets, V. I.; Oks, E. M.; Poole, H. P.

    2008-02-01

    As the technology and applications continue to grow up, the development of plasma and ion sources with clearly specified characteristic is required. Therefore comprehensive numerical studies at the project stage are the key point for ion implantation source manufacturing (especially for low energy implantation). Recently the most commonly encountered numerical approach is the Monte Carlo particle-in-cell (MCPIC) method also known as particle-in-cell method with Monte Carlo collisions. In ITEP the 2D3V numerical code PICSIS-2D realizing MCPIC method was developed in the framework of the joint research program. We present first results of the simulation for several materials interested in semiconductors. These results are compared with experimental data obtained at the ITEP ion source test bench.

  5. Survey of ion plating sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spalvins, T.

    1979-01-01

    Ion plating is a plasma deposition technique where ions of the gas and the evaporant have a decisive role in the formation of a coating in terms of adherence, coherence, and morphological growth. The range of materials that can be ion plated is predominantly determined by the selection of the evaporation source. Based on the type of evaporation source, gaseous media and mode of transport, the following will be discussed: resistance, electron beam sputtering, reactive and ion beam evaporation. Ionization efficiencies and ion energies in the glow discharge determine the percentage of atoms which are ionized under typical ion plating conditions. The plating flux consists of a small number of energetic ions and a large number of energetic neutrals. The energy distribution ranges from thermal energies up to a maximum energy of the discharge. The various reaction mechanisms which contribute to the exceptionally strong adherence - formation of a graded substrate/coating interface are not fully understood, however the controlling factors are evaluated. The influence of process variables on the nucleation and growth characteristics are illustrated in terms of morphological changes which affect the mechanical and tribological properties of the coating.

  6. The DCU laser ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Yeates, P. [National Centre for Plasma Science and Technology (NCPST), Dublin (Ireland); Costello, J. T.; Kennedy, E. T. [National Centre for Plasma Science and Technology (NCPST), Dublin (Ireland); School of Physical Sciences, Dublin City University (DCU), Glasnevin (Ireland)

    2010-04-15

    Laser ion sources are used to generate and deliver highly charged ions of various masses and energies. We present details on the design and basic parameters of the DCU laser ion source (LIS). The theoretical aspects of a high voltage (HV) linear LIS are presented and the main issues surrounding laser-plasma formation, ion extraction and modeling of beam transport in relation to the operation of a LIS are detailed. A range of laser power densities (I{approx}10{sup 8}-10{sup 11} W cm{sup -2}) and fluences (F=0.1-3.9 kJ cm{sup -2}) from a Q-switched ruby laser (full-width half-maximum pulse duration {approx}35 ns, {lambda}=694 nm) were used to generate a copper plasma. In ''basic operating mode,'' laser generated plasma ions are electrostatically accelerated using a dc HV bias (5-18 kV). A traditional einzel electrostatic lens system is utilized to transport and collimate the extracted ion beam for detection via a Faraday cup. Peak currents of up to I{approx}600 {mu}A for Cu{sup +} to Cu{sup 3+} ions were recorded. The maximum collected charge reached 94 pC (Cu{sup 2+}). Hydrodynamic simulations and ion probe diagnostics were used to study the plasma plume within the extraction gap. The system measured performance and electrodynamic simulations indicated that the use of a short field-free (L=48 mm) region results in rapid expansion of the injected ion beam in the drift tube. This severely limits the efficiency of the electrostatic lens system and consequently the sources performance. Simulations of ion beam dynamics in a ''continuous einzel array'' were performed and experimentally verified to counter the strong space-charge force present in the ion beam which results from plasma extraction close to the target surface. Ion beam acceleration and injection thus occur at ''high pressure.'' In ''enhanced operating mode,'' peak currents of 3.26 mA (Cu{sup 2+}) were recorded. The collected currents of more highly charged ions (Cu{sup 4+}-Cu{sup 6+}) increased considerably in this mode of operation.

  7. Extraction of negative ions with DuoPIGatron ion source

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bum-Sik Park; Jae-Sang Lee; Kye-Ryung Kim; Byung-Ho Choi

    2007-01-01

    A DuoPIGatron ion source, originally designed for positive ion generation, has been modified for H? extraction. To use as high current H? ion source, the extracted high-current electron beams together with the H? ions should be dumped and the H? ion density should be enriched. These problems are solved by a pair of permanent magnet which is located inside the

  8. Design of a new electron cyclotron resonance ion source at Oshima National College of Maritime Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Asaji, T., E-mail: asaji@oshima-k.ac.jp; Hirabara, N.; Izumihara, T.; Nakamizu, T.; Ohba, T.; Nakamura, T.; Furuse, M. [Oshima National College of Maritime Technology (OCMT), 1091-1 Komatsu, Suo-oshima, Yamaguchi 742-2193 (Japan)] [Oshima National College of Maritime Technology (OCMT), 1091-1 Komatsu, Suo-oshima, Yamaguchi 742-2193 (Japan); Hitobo, T. [Tateyama Machine Co., Ltd., 30 Shimonoban, Toyama 930-1305 (Japan)] [Tateyama Machine Co., Ltd., 30 Shimonoban, Toyama 930-1305 (Japan); Kato, Y. [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)] [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2014-02-15

    A new electron cyclotron resonance ion/plasma source has been designed and will be built at Oshima National College of Maritime Technology by early 2014. We have developed an ion source that allows the control of the plasma parameters over a wide range of electron temperatures for material research. A minimum-B magnetic field composed of axial mirror fields and radial cusp fields was designed using mainly Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets. The axial magnetic field can be varied by three solenoid coils. The apparatus has 2.45 GHz magnetron and 2.5–6.0 GHz solid-state microwave sources.

  9. Ion sources for large area processing (invited)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Naito; Y. Ando; Y. Inouchi; H. Tanaka; N. Miyamoto

    2000-01-01

    Large area ion sources have been used in ion doping systems in the field of LCD production. In these ion sources good uniformity and wide dynamic range in beam current are both required to achieve the good dose uniformity in wide dose range. A new ion source which uses dc arc discharge with three filaments, each of which is controlled

  10. Performance characteristics of an inertial-electrostatic confinement fusion device with magnetron discharge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kai Masuda; Kiyoshi Yoshikawa; Toshiyuki Mizutani; Teruhisa Takamatsu; Masaki Imoto; Kazunobu Nagasaki; Hisayuki Toku

    2003-01-01

    A magnetron discharge as a built-in ion source for an inertial-electrostatic confinement fusion (IECF) device was experimentally studied aiming at a drastic improvement of fusion reaction rate. With this discharge in the vicinity of the grounded vacuum chamber, produced ions are expected to have almost full energy corresponding to the voltage applied to the central transparent cathode. Also, the magnetron-glow

  11. Transversely accelerated ions: An ionospheric source of hot magnetospheric ions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. M. Klumpar

    1979-01-01

    A source of hot magnetospheric ions has been discovered operating in the auroral topside ionosphere. A part of the cold ionospheric ion distribution is being transversely accelerated within a source region as low as 1000 km. Subsequent to their transverse acceleration the ions are driven upward into the magnetosphere by the gradient B mirror force. These ions are observed by

  12. Multiple arc ion sources for heavy ion fusion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. L. Rutkowski; R. M. Johnson; W. G. Greenway; M. A. Gross; D. W. Hewett; S. Humphries

    1990-01-01

    Heavy ion fusion requires high current density, low-emittance ion sources that are reliable and long lived. We report experimental and simulation results on the performance of carbon arc ion sources intended for use in a scaled induction linac experiment. These sources use a planar electrostatic plasma switch to prevent plasma from entering the extraction gap before the extraction voltage pulse

  13. Liquid metal ion source and alloy

    DOEpatents

    Clark, Jr., William M. (Thousand Oaks, CA); Utlaut, Mark W. (Saugus, CA); Behrens, Robert G. (Los Alamos, NM); Szklarz, Eugene G. (Los Alamos, NM); Storms, Edmund K. (Los Alamos, NM); Santandrea, Robert P. (Santa Fe, NM); Swanson, Lynwood W. (McMinnville, OR)

    1988-10-04

    A liquid metal ion source and alloy, wherein the species to be emitted from the ion source is contained in a congruently vaporizing alloy. In one embodiment, the liquid metal ion source acts as a source of arsenic, and in a source alloy the arsenic is combined with palladium, preferably in a liquid alloy having a range of compositions from about 24 to about 33 atomic percent arsenic. Such an alloy may be readily prepared by a combustion synthesis technique. Liquid metal ion sources thus prepared produce arsenic ions for implantation, have long lifetimes, and are highly stable in operation.

  14. Metastable ion beam fractions measured for different ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Hofer, W.; Vanek, W.; Varga, P.; Winter, H.

    1983-02-01

    Metastable fractions of singly charged ion beams extracted from different ion sources have been determined by measurement of secondary electron spectra which result from slow ion-induced potential emission from a well-defined solid surface. Data are presented for Ar/sup +/, Kr/sup +/, Xe/sup +/ beams produced by a NIER-type electron impact source, a ''COLUTRON''-type low-pressure arc plasma source, and a ''DUOPLASMATRON''-type magnetically compressed arc plasma source, respectively. The measured metastable fractions are accurate within 25%, and their dependence on various ion source parameters can be well explained with a simple model of metastable ion production and loss kinetics.

  15. Characterization of an RF plasma ion source for ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Kopalidis, Peter M.; Wan Zhimin [Advanced Ion Beam Technology Inc., 47370 Fremont Blvd., Fremont, CA 94538 (United States)

    2012-11-06

    A novel inductively coupled RF plasma ion source has been developed for use in a beamline ion implanter. Ion density data have been taken with an array of four Langmuir probes spaced equally at the source extraction arc slit. These provide ion density uniformity information as a function of source pressure, RF power and gas mixture composition. In addition, total extracted ion beam current data are presented for the same conditions. The comparative advantages of the RF source in terms of higher beam current, reduced maintenance and overall productivity improvement compared to a hot cathode source are discussed.

  16. ECR ion source with electron gun

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. Q. Xie; C. M. Lyneis

    1993-01-01

    An Advanced Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source having an electron gun for introducing electrons into the plasma chamber of the ion source is described. The ion source has a injection enclosure and a plasma chamber tank. The plasma chamber is defined by a plurality of longitudinal magnets. The electron gun injects electrons axially into the plasma chamber such that ionization

  17. ECR ion source with electron gun

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zu Q. Xie; Claude M. Lyneis

    1993-01-01

    An Advanced Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source (10) having an electron gun (52) for introducing electrons into the plasma chamber (18) of the ion source (10). The ion source (10) has a injection enclosure (12) and a plasma chamber tank (14). The plasma chamber (18) is defined by a plurality of longitudinal magnets (16). The electron gun (52) injects electrons

  18. Diagnostic of CHORDIS ion source plasma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. M. Rück; J. Jacoby; H. Emig

    1992-01-01

    Each ion source consists of two principle parts: the plasma source and the extraction system. The characterization of the plasma source of a high current bucket ion source has been investigated. An optical plasma diagnostic method was used. In the following paper a description of the experimental method and the data analysis is given. The results and the limitation of

  19. Resonant Ionization Laser Ion Source for Radioactive Ion Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yuan [ORNL; Beene, James R [ORNL; Havener, Charles C [ORNL; Vane, C Randy [ORNL; Gottwald, T. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Mainz, Germany; Wendt, K. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Mainz, Germany; Mattolat, C. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Mainz, Germany; Lassen, J. [TRIUMF, Canada

    2009-01-01

    A resonant ionization laser ion source based on all-solid-state, tunable Ti:Sapphire lasers is being developed for the production of pure radioactive ion beams. It consists of a hot-cavity ion source and three pulsed Ti:Sapphire lasers operating at a 10 kHz pulse repetition rate. Spectroscopic studies are being conducted to develop ionization schemes that lead to ionizing an excited atom through an auto-ionization or a Rydberg state for numerous elements of interest. Three-photon resonant ionization of 12 elements has been recently demonstrated. The overall efficiency of the laser ion source measured for some of these elements ranges from 1 to 40%. The results indicate that Ti:Sapphire lasers could be well suited for laser ion source applications. The time structures of the ions produced by the pulsed lasers are investigated. The information may help to improve the laser ion source performance.

  20. Inductively generated streaming plasma ion source

    DOEpatents

    Glidden, Steven C.; Sanders, Howard D.; Greenly, John B.

    2006-07-25

    A novel pulsed, neutralized ion beam source is provided. The source uses pulsed inductive breakdown of neutral gas, and magnetic acceleration and control of the resulting plasma, to form a beam. The beam supplies ions for applications requiring excellent control of ion species, low remittance, high current density, and spatial uniformity.

  1. Development of ion sources for materials processing in china

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, W.J.; Ren, X.T.; Zhao, H.W. [Institute of Heavy Ion Physics, Peking University, Key Laboratory of Heavy Ion Physics (Peking University), Ministry of Education, Beijing 100871 (China); Institute of Modern Physics (IMP), Chinese Academy of Science, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2006-03-15

    This article reviews the development of ion sources for materials processing and the progress of commercial product of ion sources in China. The various ion-beam processing and the relative needs to ion sources are mentioned and discussed, such as ion sources with ion implantation, plasma immersion ion implantation, ion-beam-assisted deposition, ion-beam deposition, and so on. The states of progress for different kinds of ion sources specially for electron cyclotron resonance/microwave, metal vapor vacuum arc, radio frequency (rf) ion source, end-Hall ion source, and cluster ion source, are given and discussed.

  2. The Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS)

    SciTech Connect

    Brookhaven Lab

    2009-06-09

    Brookhaven National Lab has successfully developed a new pre-injector system, called the Electron Beam Ion Source, for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and NASA Space Radiation Laboratory science programs. The first of several planned improvemen

  3. Laser ion source with solenoid field

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kanesue, Takeshi; Fuwa, Yasuhiro; Kondo, Kotaro; Okamura, Masahiro

    2014-11-10

    Pulse length extension of highly charged ion beam generated from a laser ion source is experimentally demonstrated. The laser ion source (LIS) has been recognized as one of the most powerful heavy ion source. However, it was difficult to provide long pulse beams. By applying a solenoid field (90 mT, 1 m) at plasma drifting section, a pulse length of carbon ion beam reached 3.2 ?s which was 4.4 times longer than the width from a conventional LIS. The particle number of carbon ions accelerated by a radio frequency quadrupole linear accelerator was 1.2 × 1011, which was provided bymore »a single 1 J Nd-YAG laser shot. A laser ion source with solenoid field could be used in a next generation heavy ion accelerator.« less

  4. The Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS)

    ScienceCinema

    Brookhaven Lab

    2010-01-08

    Brookhaven National Lab has successfully developed a new pre-injector system, called the Electron Beam Ion Source, for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and NASA Space Radiation Laboratory science programs. The first of several planned improvemen

  5. Laser ion source with solenoid field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanesue, Takeshi; Fuwa, Yasuhiro; Kondo, Kotaro; Okamura, Masahiro

    2014-11-01

    Pulse length extension of highly charged ion beam generated from a laser ion source is experimentally demonstrated. The laser ion source (LIS) has been recognized as one of the most powerful heavy ion source. However, it was difficult to provide long pulse beams. By applying a solenoid field (90 mT, 1 m) at plasma drifting section, a pulse length of carbon ion beam reached 3.2 ?s which was 4.4 times longer than the width from a conventional LIS. The particle number of carbon ions accelerated by a radio frequency quadrupole linear accelerator was 1.2 × 1011, which was provided by a single 1 J Nd-YAG laser shot. A laser ion source with solenoid field could be used in a next generation heavy ion accelerator.

  6. Comparison of the optical properties of oxide films deposited by reactive-dc-magnetron sputtering with those of ion-beam-sputtered and electron-beam-evaporated films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bradley J. Pond; Tu C. Du; J. Sobczak; Charles K. Carniglia

    1994-01-01

    Films produced by reactive-dc-magnetron sputtering are generally dense and homogeneous. Thus their optical properties are similar to those of ion-beam-sputtered films and distinct from the properties of the more porous electron-beam evaporated films. In this paper, the measured results of the dispersive refractive index n and extinction coefficient k are presented for single- layer films of SiO2, Al2O3, HfO2, Ta2O5,

  7. The physics of Electron Beam Ion Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Stockli, M.P.; Cocke, C.L.

    1990-01-01

    There are 13 Electron Beam Ion Sources in operation which produce highly charged ions, up to Th[sup 80+] and Xe[sup 53+]. Most of the sources are used to study these ions under electron impact or when recombining with gaseous or solid targets. That provides an insight into the atomic physics of these highly charged ions and into the physics of the plasma in which such ions can be found. This paper reviews the present knowledge of atomic processes, important in the production of such ions with an EBIS.

  8. The physics of Electron Beam Ion Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Stockli, M.P.; Cocke, C.L.

    1990-12-31

    There are 13 Electron Beam Ion Sources in operation which produce highly charged ions, up to Th{sup 80+} and Xe{sup 53+}. Most of the sources are used to study these ions under electron impact or when recombining with gaseous or solid targets. That provides an insight into the atomic physics of these highly charged ions and into the physics of the plasma in which such ions can be found. This paper reviews the present knowledge of atomic processes, important in the production of such ions with an EBIS.

  9. High-charge-state ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D.J.

    1983-06-01

    Sources of high charge state positive ions have uses in a variety of research fields. For heavy ion particle accelerators higher charge state particles give greater acceleration per gap and greater bending strength in a magnet. Thus higher energies can be obtained from circular accelerators of a given size, and linear accelerators can be designed with higher energy gain per length using higher charge state ions. In atomic physics the many atomic transitions in highly charged ions supplies a wealth of spectroscopy data. High charge state ion beams are also used for charge exchange and crossed beam experiments. High charge state ion sources are reviewed. (WHK)

  10. Ion source with corner cathode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrero, Federico A. (Inventor); Roman, Patrick A. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    An ion source may include first, second, and third electrodes. The first electrode may be a repeller having a V-shaped groove. The second electrode may be an electron emitter filament disposed adjacent the base of the V-shaped groove. The third electrode may be an anode that defines an enclosed volume with an aperture formed therein adjacent the electron emitter filament. A potential of the first electrode may be less than a potential of the second electrode, and the potential of the second electrode may be less than a potential of the third electrode. A fourth electrode that is disposed between the electron emitter filament and the anode may be used to produce a more collimated electron beam.

  11. Upgraded vacuum arc ion source for metal ion implantation.

    PubMed

    Nikolaev, A G; Oks, E M; Savkin, K P; Yushkov, G Yu; Brown, I G

    2012-02-01

    Vacuum arc ion sources have been made and used by a large number of research groups around the world over the past twenty years. The first generation of vacuum arc ion sources (dubbed "Mevva," for metal vapor vacuum arc) was developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in the 1980s. This paper considers the design, performance parameters, and some applications of a new modified version of this kind of source which we have called Mevva-V.Ru. The source produces broad beams of metal ions at an extraction voltage of up to 60 kV and a time-averaged ion beam current in the milliampere range. Here, we describe the Mevva-V.Ru vacuum arc ion source that we have developed at Tomsk and summarize its beam characteristics along with some of the applications to which we have put it. We also describe the source performance using compound cathodes. PMID:22380197

  12. Upgraded vacuum arc ion source for metal ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Nikolaev, A. G.; Oks, E. M.; Savkin, K. P.; Yushkov, G. Yu. [High Current Electronics Institute, Siberian Division of the Russian Academy of Science, Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation); Brown, I. G. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2012-02-15

    Vacuum arc ion sources have been made and used by a large number of research groups around the world over the past twenty years. The first generation of vacuum arc ion sources (dubbed ''Mevva,'' for metal vapor vacuum arc) was developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in the 1980s. This paper considers the design, performance parameters, and some applications of a new modified version of this kind of source which we have called Mevva-V.Ru. The source produces broad beams of metal ions at an extraction voltage of up to 60 kV and a time-averaged ion beam current in the milliampere range. Here, we describe the Mevva-V.Ru vacuum arc ion source that we have developed at Tomsk and summarize its beam characteristics along with some of the applications to which we have put it. We also describe the source performance using compound cathodes.

  13. Ion beam analysis, corrosion resistance and nanomechanical properties of TiAlCN/CNx multilayer grown by reactive magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alemón, B.; Flores, M.; Canto, C.; Andrade, E.; de Lucio, O. G.; Rocha, M. F.; Broitman, E.

    2014-07-01

    A novel TiAlCN/CNx multilayer coating, consisting of nine TiAlCN/CNx periods with a top layer 0.5 ?m of CNx, was designed to enhance the corrosion resistance of CoCrMo biomedical alloy. The multilayers were deposited by dc and RF reactive magnetron sputtering from Ti0.5Al0.5 and C targets respectively in a N2/Ar plasma. The corrosion resistance and mechanical properties of the multilayer coatings were analyzed and compared to CoCrMo bulk alloy. Ion beam analysis (IBA) and X-ray diffraction tests were used to measure the element composition profiles and crystalline structure of the films. Corrosion resistance was evaluated by means of potentiodynamic polarization measurements using simulated body fluid (SBF) at typical body temperature and the nanomechanical properties of the multilayer evaluated by nanoindentation tests were analyzed and compared to CoCrMo bulk alloy. It was found that the multilayer hardness and the elastic recovery are higher than the substrate of CoCrMo. Furthermore the coated substrate shows a better general corrosion resistance than that of the CoCrMo alloy alone with no observation of pitting corrosion.

  14. Reduction of ion magnetron motion and space charge using radial electric field modulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nathan K. Kaiser; James E. Bruce

    2007-01-01

    Ions of the same m\\/z must remain in phase with each other during the detection time period used for FTICR-MS signal acquisition for optimal performance. The loss of coherence of the ion cloud during detection leads to faster rates of signal decay which results in a decrease in the achievable resolution and mass measurement accuracy with FTICR-MS technology. As the

  15. High Current Density Ion Sources for Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerators.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwan, J. W.; Eylon, S.

    1997-05-01

    A typical heavy ion fusion driver can have of the order of 100 ESQ channels while each channel requires a beam with an initial line charge density of approx. 0.25 ? C/m. In order to minimize the overall cost, it is essential to develop a multiple-beam injector using high current density ion sources. So far we have achieved more than 14 mA/cm^2 of K^+ ions using a 2-cm diameter Alumino-Silicate surface ionization source. The current density is uniform to within 90 percent. At present, the high voltage pulser for the extraction diode is being upgraded in order to allow higher current density output. We are also considering the use of alkali (Cs, K) vapor hot plate ion sources. A 2-cm diameter front feed vapor source has been designed. Experimental results on testing both types of ion sources will be discussed at the meeting.

  16. Highly Polarized Ion Sources for Electron Ion Colliders (EIC)

    SciTech Connect

    V.G. Dudnikov, R.P. Johnson, Y.S. Derbenev, Y. Zhang

    2010-03-01

    The operation of the RHIC facility at BNL and the Electron Ion Colliders (EIC) under development at Jefferson Laboratory and BNL need high brightness ion beams with the highest polarization. Charge exchange injection into a storage ring or synchrotron and Siberian snakes have the potential to handle the needed polarized beam currents, but first the ion sources must create beams with the highest possible polarization to maximize collider productivity, which is proportional to a high power of the polarization. We are developing one universal H-/D- ion source design which will synthesize the most advanced developments in the field of polarized ion sources to provide high current, high brightness, ion beams with greater than 90% polarization, good lifetime, high reliability, and good power efficiency. The new source will be an advanced version of an atomic beam polarized ion source (ABPIS) with resonant charge exchange ionization by negative ions. An integrated ABPIS design will be prepared based on new materials and an optimized magnetic focusing system. Polarized atomic and ion beam formation, extraction, and transport for the new source will be computer simulated.

  17. Enhanced life ion source for germanium and carbon ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Hsieh, Tseh-Jen; Colvin, Neil; Kondratenko, Serguei [Axcelis Technologies, Inc. 108 Cherry Hill Drive, Beverly, MA 01915 (United States)

    2012-11-06

    Germanium and carbon ions represent a significant portion of total ion implantation steps in the process flow. Very often ion source materials that used to produce ions are chemically aggressive, especially at higher temperatures, and result in fast ion source performance degradation and a very limited lifetime [B.S. Freer, et. al., 2002 14th Intl. Conf. on Ion Implantation Technology Proc, IEEE Conf. Proc., p. 420 (2003)]. GeF{sub 4} and CO{sub 2} are commonly used to generate germanium and carbon beams. In the case of GeF{sub 4} controlling the tungsten deposition due to the de-composition of WF{sub 6} (halogen cycle) is critical to ion source life. With CO{sub 2}, the materials oxidation and carbon deposition must be controlled as both will affect cathode thermionic emission and anti-cathode (repeller) efficiencies due to the formation of volatile metal oxides. The improved ion source design Extended Life Source 3 (Eterna ELS3) together with its proprietary co-gas material implementation has demonstrated >300 hours of stable continuous operation when using carbon and germanium ion beams. Optimizing cogas chemistries retard the cathode erosion rate for germanium and carbon minimizes the adverse effects of oxygen when reducing gas is introduced for carbon. The proprietary combination of hardware and co-gas has improved source stability and the results of the hardware and co-gas development are discussed.

  18. Flexible laser ion sources for surface modification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. P. Boody; J. Kempf; H. Hora; R. Hopfl; L. Laska; J. Krasa; L. Juha; M. Pfeifer; K. Rohlena; J. Wolowski; E. Woryna

    2003-01-01

    Metal plasma ion immersion implantation has enormously increased the available selection by adding all conductive solid materials and the ability to trade off the amount of material added to the surface and the energy of ions adhering that material to the surface. Most metal plasma implantation has used vacuum arc ion sources. A further increase in flexibility can be added

  19. A filamentless ion source for materials processing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andre´ Anders; Robert A. MacGill; Ian G. Brown; Alexey Vizir

    1998-01-01

    A dual-stage, multiaperture gas ion source with 5 cm beam diameter has been built and characterized. The first discharge stage is a constricted glow discharge injecting a plasma stream into a discharge cavity supporting a Penning ion gauge discharge in the low pressure mode. Both discharge stages and ion extraction are fed by a single, grounded power supply. This simplifies

  20. Glow plasma trigger for electron cyclotron resonance ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Vodopianov, A. V.; Golubev, S. V.; Izotov, I. V. [Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Science, Nizhniy Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Nikolaev, A. G.; Oks, E. M.; Savkin, K. P.; Yushkov, G. Yu. [High Current Electronics Institute, Siberian Division, Russian Academy of Science, Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation)

    2010-02-15

    Electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRISs) are particularly useful for nuclear, atomic, and high energy physics, as unique high current generators of multicharged ion beams. Plasmas of gas discharges in an open magnetic trap heated by pulsed (100 {mu}s and longer) high power (100 kW and higher) high-frequency (greater than 37.5 GHz) microwaves of gyrotrons is promising in the field of research in the development of electron cyclotron resonance sources for high charge state ion beams. Reaching high ion charge states requires a decrease in gas pressure in the magnetic trap, but this method leads to increases in time, in which the microwave discharge develops. The gas breakdown and microwave discharge duration becomes greater than or equal to the microwave pulse duration when the pressure is decreased. This makes reaching the critical plasma density initiate an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) discharge during pulse of microwave gyrotron radiation with gas pressure lower than a certain threshold. In order to reduce losses of microwave power, it is necessary to shorten the time of development of the ECR discharge. For fast triggering of ECR discharge under low pressure in an ECRIS, we initially propose to fill the magnetic trap with the plasmas of auxiliary pulsed discharges in crossed ExB fields. The glow plasma trigger of ECR based on a Penning or magnetron discharge has made it possible not only to fill the trap with plasma with density of 10{sup 12} cm{sup -3}, required for a rapid increase in plasma density and finally for ECR discharge ignition, but also to initially heat the plasma electrons to T{sub e}{approx_equal}20 eV.

  1. Glow plasma trigger for electron cyclotron resonance ion sources.

    PubMed

    Vodopianov, A V; Golubev, S V; Izotov, I V; Nikolaev, A G; Oks, E M; Savkin, K P; Yushkov, G Yu

    2010-02-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRISs) are particularly useful for nuclear, atomic, and high energy physics, as unique high current generators of multicharged ion beams. Plasmas of gas discharges in an open magnetic trap heated by pulsed (100 micros and longer) high power (100 kW and higher) high-frequency (greater than 37.5 GHz) microwaves of gyrotrons is promising in the field of research in the development of electron cyclotron resonance sources for high charge state ion beams. Reaching high ion charge states requires a decrease in gas pressure in the magnetic trap, but this method leads to increases in time, in which the microwave discharge develops. The gas breakdown and microwave discharge duration becomes greater than or equal to the microwave pulse duration when the pressure is decreased. This makes reaching the critical plasma density initiate an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) discharge during pulse of microwave gyrotron radiation with gas pressure lower than a certain threshold. In order to reduce losses of microwave power, it is necessary to shorten the time of development of the ECR discharge. For fast triggering of ECR discharge under low pressure in an ECRIS, we initially propose to fill the magnetic trap with the plasmas of auxiliary pulsed discharges in crossed ExB fields. The glow plasma trigger of ECR based on a Penning or magnetron discharge has made it possible not only to fill the trap with plasma with density of 10(12) cm(-3), required for a rapid increase in plasma density and finally for ECR discharge ignition, but also to initially heat the plasma electrons to T(e) approximately = 20 eV. PMID:20192326

  2. Molecular phosphorus ion source for semiconductor technology

    SciTech Connect

    Gushenets V. I.; Hershcovitch A.; Bugaev, A.S.; Oks, E.M.; Kulevoy, T.V.

    2012-02-15

    This paper presents results on the generation of molecular phosphorus ion beams in a hot filament ion source. Solid red phosphorous is evaporated mainly as tetra-atomic molecules up to a temperature of 800 C. Thus, one of the main conditions for producing maximum P{sub 4}{sup +} fraction in the beam is to keep the temperature of the phosphorous oven, the steam line and the discharge chamber walls no greater than 800 C. The prior version of our ion source was equipped with a discharge chamber cooling system. The modified source ensured a P{sub 4}{sup +} ion beam current greater than 30% of the total beam current.

  3. Sample inlet tube for ion source

    DOEpatents

    Prior, David [Hermiston, OR; Price, John [Richland, WA; Bruce, Jim [Oceanside, CA

    2002-09-24

    An improved inlet tube is positioned within an aperture through the device to allow the passage of ions from the ion source, through the improved inlet tube, and into the interior of the device. The inlet tube is designed with a larger end and a smaller end wherein the larger end has a larger interior diameter than the interior diameter of the smaller end. The inlet tube is positioned within the aperture such that the larger end is pointed towards the ion source, to receive ions therefrom, and the smaller end is directed towards the interior of the device, to deliver the ions thereto. Preferably, the ion source utilized in the operation of the present invention is a standard electrospray ionization source. Similarly, the present invention finds particular utility in conjunction with analytical devices such as mass spectrometers.

  4. Beam current controller for laser ion source

    DOEpatents

    Okamura, Masahiro

    2014-10-28

    The present invention relates to the design and use of an ion source with a rapid beam current controller for experimental and medicinal purposes. More particularly, the present invention relates to the design and use of a laser ion source with a magnetic field applied to confine a plasma flux caused by laser ablation.

  5. Recent advances in vacuum arc ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, I.G.; Anders, A.; Anders, S.; Dickinson, M.R.; MacGill, R.A.; Oks, E.M.

    1995-07-01

    Intense beams of metal ions can be formed from a vacuum arc ion source. Broadbeam extraction is convenient, and the time-averaged ion beam current delivered downstream can readily be in the tens of milliamperes range. The vacuum arc ion source has for these reasons found good application for metallurgical surface modification--it provides relatively simple and inexpensive access to high dose metal ion implantation. Several important source developments have been demonstrated recently, including very broad beam operation, macroparticle removal, charge state enhancement, and formation of gaseous beams. The authors have made a very broad beam source embodiment with beam formation electrodes 50 cm in diameter, producing a beam of width {approximately}35 cm for a nominal beam area of {approximately}1,000 cm{sup 2}, and a pulsed Ti beam current of about 7 A was formed at a mean ion energy of {approximately}100 keV. Separately, they`ve developed high efficiency macroparticle-removing magnetic filters and incorporated such a filter into a vacuum arc ion source so as to form macroparticle-free ion beams. Jointly with researchers at the High Current Electronics Institute at Tomsk, Russia, and the Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung at Darmstadt, Germany, they`ve developed a compact technique for increasing the charge states of ions produced in the vacuum arc plasma and thus providing a simple means of increasing the ion energy at fixed extractor voltage. Finally, operation with mixed metal and gaseous ion species has been demonstrated. Here, they briefly review the operation of vacuum marc ion sources and the typical beam and implantation parameters that can be obtained, and describe these source advances and their bearing on metal ion implantation applications.

  6. Performance of an inverted ion source.

    PubMed

    Salvadori, M C; Teixeira, F S; Sgubin, L G; Araujo, W W R; Spirin, R E; Oks, E M; Brown, I G

    2013-02-01

    Whereas energetic ion beams are conventionally produced by extracting ions (say, positive ions) from a plasma that is held at high (positive) potential, with ion energy determined by the potential drop through which the ions fall in the beam formation electrode system, in the device described here the plasma and its electronics are held at ground potential and the ion beam is formed and injected energetically into a space maintained at high (negative) potential. We refer to this configuration as an "inverted ion source." This approach allows considerable savings both technologically and economically, rendering feasible some ion beam applications, in particular small-scale ion implantation, that might otherwise not be possible for many researchers and laboratories. We have developed a device of this kind utilizing a metal vapor vacuum arc plasma source, and explored its operation and beam characteristics over a range of parameter variation. The downstream beam current has been measured as a function of extraction voltage (5-35 kV), arc current (50-230 A), metal ion species (Ti, Nb, Au), and extractor grid spacing and beamlet aperture size (3, 4, and 5 mm). The downstream ion beam current as measured by a magnetically-suppressed Faraday cup was up to as high as 600 mA, and with parametric variation quite similar to that found for the more conventional metal vapor vacuum arc ion source. PMID:23464210

  7. Performance of an inverted ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Salvadori, M. C.; Teixeira, F. S.; Sgubin, L. G.; Araujo, W. W. R.; Spirin, R. E. [Institute of Physics, University of Sao Paulo, C.P. 66318, CEP 05315-970, Sao Paulo S.P. (Brazil); Oks, E. M. [State University of Control Systems and Radioelectronics, Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Brown, I. G. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2013-02-15

    Whereas energetic ion beams are conventionally produced by extracting ions (say, positive ions) from a plasma that is held at high (positive) potential, with ion energy determined by the potential drop through which the ions fall in the beam formation electrode system, in the device described here the plasma and its electronics are held at ground potential and the ion beam is formed and injected energetically into a space maintained at high (negative) potential. We refer to this configuration as an 'inverted ion source.' This approach allows considerable savings both technologically and economically, rendering feasible some ion beam applications, in particular small-scale ion implantation, that might otherwise not be possible for many researchers and laboratories. We have developed a device of this kind utilizing a metal vapor vacuum arc plasma source, and explored its operation and beam characteristics over a range of parameter variation. The downstream beam current has been measured as a function of extraction voltage (5-35 kV), arc current (50-230 A), metal ion species (Ti, Nb, Au), and extractor grid spacing and beamlet aperture size (3, 4, and 5 mm). The downstream ion beam current as measured by a magnetically-suppressed Faraday cup was up to as high as 600 mA, and with parametric variation quite similar to that found for the more conventional metal vapor vacuum arc ion source.

  8. An overview of LINAC ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, Roderich [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses ion sources used in high-duty-factor proton and H{sup -} Linacs as well as in accelerators utilizing multi-charged heavy ions, mostly for nuclear physics applications. The included types are Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) sources as well as filament and rf driven multicusp sources. The paper does not strive to attain encyclopedic character but rather to highlight major lines of development, peak performance parameters and type-specific limitations and problems of these sources. The main technical aspects being discussed are particle feed, plasma generation and ion production by discharges, and plasma confinement.

  9. Pseudo ribbon metal ion beam source

    SciTech Connect

    Stepanov, Igor B., E-mail: stepanovib@tpu.ru; Ryabchikov, Alexander I.; Sivin, Denis O.; Verigin, Dan A. [Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30 Lenina Avenue, Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation)] [Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30 Lenina Avenue, Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2014-02-15

    The paper describes high broad metal ion source based on dc macroparticle filtered vacuum arc plasma generation with the dc ion-beam extraction. The possibility of formation of pseudo ribbon beam of metal ions with the parameters: ion beam length 0.6 m, ion current up to 0.2 A, accelerating voltage 40 kV, and ion energy up to 160 kV has been demonstrated. The pseudo ribbon ion beam is formed from dc vacuum arc plasma. The results of investigation of the vacuum arc evaporator ion-emission properties are presented. The influence of magnetic field strength near the cathode surface on the arc spot movement and ion-emission properties of vacuum-arc discharge for different cathode materials are determined. It was shown that vacuum-arc discharge stability can be reached when the magnetic field strength ranges from 40 to 70 G on the cathode surface.

  10. Pseudo ribbon metal ion beam source.

    PubMed

    Stepanov, Igor B; Ryabchikov, Alexander I; Sivin, Denis O; Verigin, Dan A

    2014-02-01

    The paper describes high broad metal ion source based on dc macroparticle filtered vacuum arc plasma generation with the dc ion-beam extraction. The possibility of formation of pseudo ribbon beam of metal ions with the parameters: ion beam length 0.6 m, ion current up to 0.2 A, accelerating voltage 40 kV, and ion energy up to 160 kV has been demonstrated. The pseudo ribbon ion beam is formed from dc vacuum arc plasma. The results of investigation of the vacuum arc evaporator ion-emission properties are presented. The influence of magnetic field strength near the cathode surface on the arc spot movement and ion-emission properties of vacuum-arc discharge for different cathode materials are determined. It was shown that vacuum-arc discharge stability can be reached when the magnetic field strength ranges from 40 to 70 G on the cathode surface. PMID:24593634

  11. Microwave plasma source for high current ion beam neutralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korzec, D.; Müller, A.; Engemann, J.

    2000-02-01

    A new microwave based plasma source for high current ion beam neutralization is presented. It consists of a tapered WR340 waveguide with a directly coupled 2.45 GHz magnetron and a quartz tube of 40 mm diameter inside the waveguide confined by two graphite electrodes. The upper electrode houses the gas feed, whereas the lower electrode serves as the plasma outlet. Both electrodes can be biased independently. Tuning is done via a magnetically controlled stab inserted into the waveguide. The plasma was characterized by use of the Langmuir probe. The electron concentration of 5×1011cm-3 at 250 W was measured. Typical electron temperature is below 2.5 eV even for pressure as low as 2×10-3 Pa. The extractable electron current is dependent on microwave power and gas flow. A limitation is caused by the ion saturation current to the negatively biased electrodes. The voltage on the electrodes allows an easy control of electron current. Maximum electron current achieved so far is 400 mA for an argon flow of 5 sccm and microwave power of 300 W.

  12. Role of ion energy on growth and optical dispersion of nanocrystalline TiO2 films prepared by magnetron sputtering with ion assistance at the substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarma, Bimal K.; Pal, Arup R.; Bailung, Heremba; Chutia, Joyanti

    2012-05-01

    TiO2 films are deposited by direct current reactive magnetron sputtering with radio frequency substrate bias. Plasma ions are accelerated towards the substrate due to the negative self bias developed at the substrate. X-ray diffraction pattern reveals that the films deposited at the floating potential (-35 V) of the substrate are amorphous, and broad, low intensity rutile peaks of TiO2 are observed for the films deposited with the substrate bias (self bias in the range -40 to -100 V). A gentle ion bombardment of the growing surface improves the crystallinity of the films. The films are nanocrystalline and rutile phase is retained in the self bias range -40 to -100 V. Films are highly transparent to visible and near infrared and ultraviolet light is effectively filtered out. The optical constants are extracted by the Swanepoel method and the optical dispersion parameters are determined by employing the Wemple-DiDomenico single oscillator model. Inherent good adhesion of plasma based deposits, small crystallite size, high level of transmittance in the visible region and colorless appearance may enhance the performance of the films as optical coatings.

  13. Ion sources for MedAustron

    SciTech Connect

    Lettry, J. [AB Department, CERN, CH1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Penescu, L.; Wallner, J.; Sargsyan, E. [EBG MedAustron GmbH, Viktor Kaplan-Strasse 2, A-2700 Wiener Neustadt (Austria)

    2010-02-15

    The MedAustron Ion therapy center will be constructed in Wiener Neustadt (Austria) in the vicinity of Vienna. Its accelerator complex consists of four ion sources, a linear accelerator, a synchrotron, and a beam delivery system to the three medical treatment rooms and to the research irradiation room. The ion sources shall deliver beams of H{sub 3}{sup 1+}, C{sup 4+}, and light ions with utmost reliability and stability. This paper describes the features of the ion sources presently planned for the MedAustron facility, such as ion source main parameters, gas injection, temperature control, and cooling systems. A dedicated beam diagnostics technique is proposed in order to characterize electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion beams; in the first drift region after the ion source, a fraction of the mixed beam is selected via moveable aperture. With standard beam diagnostics, we then aim to produce position-dependant observables such as ion-current density, beam energy distribution, and emittance for each charge states to be compared to simulations of ECR e-heating, plasma simulation, beam formation, and transport.

  14. MEVVA ion source for high current metal ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, I.; Washburn, J.

    1986-07-01

    The MEVVA (Metal Vapor Vacuum Arc) ion source is a new kind of source which can produce high current beams of metal ions. Beams of a wide range of elements have been produced, spanning the periodic table from lithium up to and including uranium. The source extraction voltage is up to 60 kV, and we are increasing this up to 120 kV. A total ion beam current of over 1 Ampere has been extracted from the present embodiment of the concept, and this is not an inherent limit. The ion charge state distribution varies with cathode material and arc current, and beams like Li/sup +/, Co/sup +,2+,3+/ and U/sup 3+,4+,5+,6+/ for example, are typical; thus the implantation energy can be up to several hundred kilovolts without additional acceleration. The ion source has potential applications for ion implantation and ion beam mixing for achievement of improved corrosion resistance or wear resistance in metals or surface modification of ceramic materials and semiconductors. Here we outline the source and its performance, and describe some very preliminary implantation work using this source.

  15. Power Transmission From The ITER Model Negative Ion Source

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Boilson; H. P. L. de Esch; C. Grand; R. S. Hemsworth; A. Krylov

    2007-01-01

    In Cadarache development on negative ion sources is being carried out on the KAMABOKO III ion source on the MANTIS test bed. This is a model of the ion source designed for the neutral beam injectors of ITER. This ion source has been developed in collaboration with JAERI, Japan, who also designed and supplied the ion source. Its target performance

  16. ECR ion source with electron gun

    DOEpatents

    Xie, Z.Q.; Lyneis, C.M.

    1993-10-26

    An Advanced Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source having an electron gun for introducing electrons into the plasma chamber of the ion source is described. The ion source has a injection enclosure and a plasma chamber tank. The plasma chamber is defined by a plurality of longitudinal magnets. The electron gun injects electrons axially into the plasma chamber such that ionization within the plasma chamber occurs in the presence of the additional electrons produced by the electron gun. The electron gun has a cathode for emitting electrons therefrom which is heated by current supplied from an AC power supply while bias potential is provided by a bias power supply. A concentric inner conductor and outer conductor carry heating current to a carbon chuck and carbon pusher which hold the cathode in place and also heat the cathode. In the Advanced Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source, the electron gun replaces the conventional first stage used in prior electron cyclotron resonance ion generators. 5 figures.

  17. Study of a liquid metal ion source for external ion injection into electron-beam ion source

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Pikin; J. G. Alessi; E. N. Beebe; A. Kponou; K. Prelec

    2006-01-01

    A liquid metal ion source (LMIS) has several attractive features as an external injector of primary ions (mostly metallic ions) into electron-beam ion source (EBIS). It does not use a buffer gas and therefore it provides only a very small gas load to the system; its control and operation are simple, power consumption does not exceed 10 W, and beam

  18. Negative Decaborane Ion Beam from ITEP Bernas Ion Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrenko, S. V.; Kuibeda, R. P.; Kulevoy, T. V.; Batalin, V. A.; Pershin, V. I.; Koslov, A. V.; Stasevich, Yu. B.; Koshelev, V. A.; Hershcovitch, A.; Johnson, B. M.; Oks, E. M.; Gushenets, V. I.; Poole, H. J.

    2007-08-01

    A joint research and development effort focusing on the design of steady state, intense ion sources has been in progress for the past two and a half years with a couple of Russian institutions. The ultimate goal of the effort is to meet the two, energy extreme range needs of mega-electron-volt and 100's of electron-volt ion implanters. This endeavor has already resulted in record steady state output currents of higher charge state antimony and phosphorous ions to meet high-energy implantation requirements. For low energy ion implantation, R&D efforts have involved molecular ions and a novel plasmaless/gasless deceleration method. To date, 1 emA of positive decaborane ions were extracted at 10 keV and a smaller current of negative decaborane ions were also extracted. Though of scientific interest, negative decaborane ions did not attract interest from industry, since the semiconductor ion implant industry seems to have solved the wafer-charging problem. This paper describes conditions under which negative decaborane ions are formed and extracted from a Bernas ion source.

  19. Influence of plasma-generated negative oxygen ion impingement on magnetron sputtered amorphous SiO{sub 2} thin films during growth at low temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Macias-Montero, M.; Garcia-Garcia, F. J.; Alvarez, R.; Gil-Rostra, J.; Gonzalez, J. C.; Gonzalez-Elipe, A. R.; Palmero, A. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla (CSIC-US), Americo Vespucio 49, 41092 Seville (Spain); Cotrino, J. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla (CSIC-US), Americo Vespucio 49, 41092 Seville (Spain); Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Sevilla, Avda. Reina Mercedes, s/n, 42022 Seville (Spain)

    2012-03-01

    Growth of amorphous SiO{sub 2} thin films deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering at low temperatures has been studied under different oxygen partial pressure conditions. Film microstructures varied from coalescent vertical column-like to homogeneous compact microstructures, possessing all similar refractive indexes. A discussion on the process responsible for the different microstructures is carried out focusing on the influence of (i) the surface shadowing mechanism, (ii) the positive ion impingement on the film, and (iii) the negative ion impingement. We conclude that only the trend followed by the latter and, in particular, the impingement of O{sup -} ions with kinetic energies between 20 and 200 eV, agrees with the resulting microstructural changes. Overall, it is also demonstrated that there are two main microstructuring regimes in the growth of amorphous SiO{sub 2} thin films by magnetron sputtering at low temperatures, controlled by the amount of O{sub 2} in the deposition reactor, which stem from the competition between surface shadowing and ion-induced adatom surface mobility.

  20. Microwave ion source for low charge state ion production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reijonen, J.; Eardley, M.; Gough, R.; Leung, K.; Thomae, R.

    2003-10-01

    The Plasma and Ion Source Technology Group at LBNL have developed a microwave ion source. The source consists of a stainless-steel plasma chamber, a permanent-magnet dipole structure and a coaxial microwave feed. Measurements were carried out to characterize the plasma and the ion beam produced in the ion source. These measurements included current density, charge state distribution, gas efficiency and accelerated beam emittance measurements. Using a computer controlled data acquisition system a new method of determining the saturation ion current was developed. Current density of 3-6 mA/cm 2 was measured with the source operating in the over dense mode. The highest measured charge-states were Ar 5+, O 3+ and Xe 7+. Gas efficiency was measured using a calibrated argon leak. Depending on the source pressure and discharge power, more than 20% total gas efficiency was achieved. The emittance of the ion beam was measured by using a pepper-pot device. Certain spread was noticed in the beam emittance in the perpendicular direction to the source dipole field. For the parallel direction to the magnetic field, the normalized rr' emittance of 0.032 ?-mm-mrad at 13 kV of acceleration voltage and beam exit aperture of 3-mm-in-diameter was measured. This compares relatively well with the simulated value of 4 rms, normalized emittance value of 0.024 ?-mm-mrad.

  1. Intense metal ion beam source for heavy ion fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, I.G.

    1986-05-01

    We have developed an ion source which can produce high current beams of metal ions. The source uses a metal vapor vacuum arc discharge as the plasma medium from which the ions are extracted, so we have called this source the MEVVA ion source. The metal plasma is created simply and efficiently and no carrier gas is required. Beams have been produced from metallic elements spanning the periodic table from lithium through uranium, at extraction voltages from 10 to 60 kV and with beam currents as high as 1.1 Amperes (electrical current in all charge states). A brief description of the source is given and its possible application as an ion source for heavy ion fusion is considered. Beams such as C/sup +/ (greater than or equal to99% of the beam in this species and charge state), Cr/sup 2 +/ (80%), and Ta/sup 3+,4+,5+/ (mixed charge states) have been produced. Beam emittance measurements and ways of increasing the source brightness are discussed.

  2. Ion source with external RF antenna

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Ji, Qing; Wilde, Stephen

    2005-12-13

    A radio frequency (RF) driven plasma ion source has an external RF antenna, i.e. the RF antenna is positioned outside the plasma generating chamber rather than inside. The RF antenna is typically formed of a small diameter metal tube coated with an insulator. An external RF antenna assembly is used to mount the external RF antenna to the ion source. The RF antenna tubing is wound around the external RF antenna assembly to form a coil. The external RF antenna assembly is formed of a material, e.g. quartz, which is essentially transparent to the RF waves. The external RF antenna assembly is attached to and forms a part of the plasma source chamber so that the RF waves emitted by the RF antenna enter into the inside of the plasma chamber and ionize a gas contained therein. The plasma ion source is typically a multi-cusp ion source.

  3. Inert gas ion source program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsey, W. D.

    1978-01-01

    THe original 12 cm hexagonal magneto-electrostatic containment discharge chamber has been optimized for argon and xenon operation. Argon mass utilization efficiencies of 65 to 77 percent were achieved at keeper-plus-main discharge energy consumptions of 200 to 458 eV/ion, respectively. Xenon performance of 84 to 96 percent mass utilization was realized at 203 to 350 eV/ion. The optimization process and test results are discussed.

  4. Negative-hydrogen-ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Prelec, K.

    1983-01-01

    There are two main areas of negative hydrogen ion applications: injection into high energy accelerators and production of beams of energetic hydrogen atoms for fusion devices. In both cases, the ease with which the charge state of negative ions can be changed by either single or double electron stripping is the reason that made their application attractive. In tandem accelerators, the final energy of H/sup +/ ions is twice as high as it would correspond to the terminal voltage, in circular accelerators (synchrotrons, storage rings) injection of H/sup +/ ions by full stripping of H/sup -/ ions in a foil inside the ring is not limited by the Liouville's theorem and results in a higher phase space density than achieved by direct H/sup +/ injection. Finally, beams of hydrogen atoms at energies above 100 keV, which will be required for plasma heating and current drive in future fusion devices, can efficiently be produced only by acceleration of negative ions and their subsequent neutralization.

  5. Charge state of ions in liquid metal field ion sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kingham, D. R.

    1983-07-01

    The post-ionization model of field evaporation is shown to be consistent with observations of singly and doubly charged ions in liquid metal field ion sources. The model can be used to estimate the field strength at the apex of the Taylor cone which is found to be 1.9 2.0 V/Å for a Ga source. Experiments to test the post-ionization model and to determine the apex field strength more accurately are suggested. A possible method of obtaining ˜?A currents of highly charged ions, e.g. Zr4+, Ta4+, Ga3+, As3+, is proposed.

  6. Metal versus rare-gas ion irradiation during Ti{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}N film growth by hybrid high power pulsed magnetron/dc magnetron co-sputtering using synchronized pulsed substrate bias

    SciTech Connect

    Greczynski, Grzegorz; Lu Jun; Jensen, Jens; Petrov, Ivan; Greene, Joseph E.; Bolz, Stephan; Koelker, Werner; Schiffers, Christoph; Lemmer, Oliver; Hultman, Lars [Department of Physics (IFM), Linkoeping University, SE-581 83 Linkoeping (Sweden); Department of Physics (IFM), Linkoeping University, SE-581 83 Linkoeping (Sweden) and Materials Science Department and Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Department of Physics (IFM), Linkoeping University, SE-581 83 Linkoeping (Sweden); Materials Science Department and Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States) and Department of Physics, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); CemeCon AG, Adenauerstr. 20 A4, D-52146 Wurselen (Germany); Department of Physics (IFM), Linkoeping University, SE-581 83 Linkoeping (Sweden)

    2012-11-15

    Metastable NaCl-structure Ti{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}N is employed as a model system to probe the effects of metal versus rare-gas ion irradiation during film growth using reactive high-power pulsed magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) of Al and dc magnetron sputtering of Ti. The alloy film composition is chosen to be x = 0.61, near the kinetic solubility limit at the growth temperature of 500 Degree-Sign C. Three sets of experiments are carried out: a -60 V substrate bias is applied either continuously, in synchronous with the full HIPIMS pulse, or in synchronous only with the metal-rich-plasma portion of the HIPIMS pulse. Alloy films grown under continuous dc bias exhibit a thickness-invariant small-grain, two-phase nanostructure (wurtzite AlN and cubic Ti{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}N) with random orientation, due primarily to intense Ar{sup +} irradiation leading to Ar incorporation (0.2 at. %), high compressive stress (-4.6 GPa), and material loss by resputtering. Synchronizing the bias with the full HIPIMS pulse results in films that exhibit much lower stress levels (-1.8 GPa) with no measureable Ar incorporation, larger grains elongated in the growth direction, a very small volume fraction of wurtzite AlN, and random orientation. By synchronizing the bias with the metal-plasma phase of the HIPIMS pulses, energetic Ar{sup +} ion bombardment is greatly reduced in favor of irradiation predominantly by Al{sup +} ions. The resulting films are single phase with a dense competitive columnar structure, strong 111 orientation, no measureable trapped Ar concentration, and even lower stress (-0.9 GPa). Thus, switching from Ar{sup +} to Al{sup +} bombardment, while maintaining the same integrated incident ion/metal ratio, eliminates phase separation, minimizes renucleation during growth, and reduces the high concentration of residual point defects, which give rise to compressive stress.

  7. High brightness ion source: The Penning ringatron

    SciTech Connect

    Whealton, J.H.; Stirling, W.L.; Ryan, P.M.; Akerman, M.A.; Becraft, W.R.; Gardner, W.L.; Haselton, H.H.; Rothe, K.E.; Bell, M.A.; Raridon, R.J.; and others

    1987-07-30

    The design of a high brightness penning ion source is discussed. A cylindrical configuration (RINGATRON) is used. This is shown to improve ion extraction across the magnetic field. It also leads to enhanced production density. Comparisons of the ringatron configuration with the duoplasmatron and the planar penning discharge configuration are made. (AIP)

  8. Investigation of helicon ion source extraction systems.

    PubMed

    Mordyk, S; Miroshnichenko, V; Shulha, D; Storizhko, V

    2008-02-01

    Various versions of an extraction system for a helicon ion source have been investigated in high plasma density (>10(12) cm(-3)) modes. The measurements of the plasma density were carried out with a microwave interferometer. Experiments were performed with hydrogen and helium gases. The preliminary results indicate that specially designed extractors are very promising for improving ion beam paraxial brightness. PMID:18315198

  9. Investigation of helicon ion source extraction systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mordyk, S.; Miroshnichenko, V.; Shulha, D.; Storizhko, V. [Institute of Applied Physics (IAP), NAS Ukraine (NASU), Sumy 40030 (Ukraine)

    2008-02-15

    Various versions of an extraction system for a helicon ion source have been investigated in high plasma density (>10{sup 12} cm{sup -3}) modes. The measurements of the plasma density were carried out with a microwave interferometer. Experiments were performed with hydrogen and helium gases. The preliminary results indicate that specially designed extractors are very promising for improving ion beam paraxial brightness.

  10. Slit extraction type compact microwave ion source

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroshi Tsuji; Junzo Ishikawa; Toshinori Takagi

    1989-01-01

    A new compact microwave ion source with three antennas has been constructed; it has a large plasma production chamber (16 × 66 × 5 mm3) for increasing the extraction of ion current by a slit extraction electrode. Even in such a large plasma production chamber, the axial magnetic field (about 900 G) was formed uniformly with a combination of permanent

  11. Fabrication of ion source components by electroforming

    SciTech Connect

    Schechter, D.E.; Sluss, F.

    1983-01-01

    Several components of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)/Magnetic Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) ion source have been fabricated utilizing an electroforming process. A procedure has been developed for enclosing coolant passages in copper components by electrodepositing a thick (greater than or equal to 0.75-mm) layer of copper (electroforming) over the top of grooves machined into the copper component base. Details of the procedure to fabricate acceleration grids and other ion source components are presented.

  12. Three chamber negative ion source

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo (Hercules, CA); Ehlers, Kenneth W. (Alamo, CA); Hiskes, John R. (Livermore, CA)

    1985-01-01

    A negative ion vessel is divided into an excitation chamber, a negative ionization chamber and an extraction chamber by two magnetic filters. Input means introduces neutral molecules into a first chamber where a first electron discharge means vibrationally excites the molecules which migrate to a second chamber. In the second chamber a second electron discharge means ionizes the molecules, producing negative ions which are extracted into or by a third chamber. A first magnetic filter prevents high energy electrons from entering the negative ionization chamber from the excitation chamber. A second magnetic filter prevents high energy electrons from entering the extraction chamber from the negative ionizing chamber. An extraction grid at the end of the negative ion vessel attracts negative ions into the third chamber and accelerates them. Another grid, located adjacent to the extraction grid, carries a small positive voltage in order to inhibit positive ions from migrating into the extraction chamber and contour the plasma potential. Additional electrons can be suppressed from the output flux using ExB forces provided by magnetic field means and the extractor grid electric potential.

  13. Negative ion source with external RF antenna

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Hahto, Sami K.; Hahto, Sari T.

    2007-02-13

    A radio frequency (RF) driven plasma ion source has an external RF antenna, i.e. the RF antenna is positioned outside the plasma generating chamber rather than inside. The RF antenna is typically formed of a small diameter metal tube coated with an insulator. An external RF antenna assembly is used to mount the external RF antenna to the ion source. The RF antenna tubing is wound around the external RF antenna assembly to form a coil. The external RF antenna assembly is formed of a material, e.g. quartz, which is essentially transparent to the RF waves. The external RF antenna assembly is attached to and forms a part of the plasma source chamber so that the RF waves emitted by the RF antenna enter into the inside of the plasma chamber and ionize a gas contained therein. The plasma ion source is typically a multi-cusp ion source. A converter can be included in the ion source to produce negative ions.

  14. Laser ion source with solenoid for Brookhaven National Laboratory-electron beam ion source.

    PubMed

    Kondo, K; Yamamoto, T; Sekine, M; Okamura, M

    2012-02-01

    The electron beam ion source (EBIS) preinjector at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is a new heavy ion-preinjector for relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC) and NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL). Laser ion source (LIS) is a primary ion source provider for the BNL-EBIS. LIS with solenoid at the plasma drift section can realize the low peak current (?100 ?A) with high charge (?10 nC) which is the BNL-EBIS requirement. The gap between two solenoids does not cause serious plasma current decay, which helps us to make up the BNL-EBIS beamline. PMID:22380298

  15. Dual Chamber Laser Ion Source at Lisol

    E-print Network

    Yu. Kudryavtsev; T. E. Cocolios; J. Gentens; M. Huyse; O. Ivanov; D. Pauwels; T. Sonoda; P. Van den Bergh; P. Van Duppen

    2009-04-23

    A new type of the gas cell for the resonance ionization laser ion source at the Leuven Isotope Separator On Line (LISOL) has been developed and tested at off-line and on-line conditions. Two-step selective laser ionization is applied to produce purified beams of radioactive isotopes. The selectivity of the ion source has been increased by more than one order of magnitude by separation of the stopping and laser ionization regions. This allows to use electrical fields for further ion purification.

  16. Model for designing planar magnetron cathodes

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, M.

    1997-09-30

    This report outlines an analytical model of the distribution of plasma in the cathode fall of a planar magnetron cathode. Here I continue commentary on previous work, and introduce an ion sheath model to describe the discharge dark space below the magnetron halo.

  17. A hollow cathode ion source as an electron-beam ion source injector for metallic elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visentin, B.; Harrault, F.; Gobin, R.; Leroy, P. A.

    1994-04-01

    A hollow cathode ion source (HCIS) has been developed in our Laboratory to produce, by cathodic sputtering in a glow discharge, a one charge metallic ion beam. This source is used as an injector for the electron-beam ion source (EBIS) Dioné that produce, after ion stripping, a highly charged heavy-ion beam for acceleration in Mimas-Saturne synchrotrons. Due to the good pulse-to-pulse repeatability of the HCIS, the very long lifetime of the cathode (several months), as well as the very good value of the normalized emittance (?norm=4×10-9 ? mrad), this source appears as an ideal EBIS injector for metallic and gaseous elements. In this paper we report the description of the HCIS and the experimental results achieved, after injection in the EBIS, by the production of heavy-ion beams like Fe20+, Au50+, and U55+ (from 4×107 to 9×106 ions/cycle).

  18. Molecular phosphorus ion source for semiconductor technology

    SciTech Connect

    Gushenets, V. I.; Bugaev, A. S.; Oks, E. M. [Institute of High Current Electronics SB RAS, Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation); Hershcovitch, A. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Kulevoy, T. V. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow 117218 (Russian Federation)

    2012-02-15

    This paper presents results on the generation of molecular phosphorus ion beams in a hot filament ion source. Solid red phosphorous is evaporated mainly as tetra-atomic molecules up to a temperature of 800 deg. C. Thus, one of the main conditions for producing maximum P{sub 4}{sup +} fraction in the beam is to keep the temperature of the phosphorous oven, the steam line and the discharge chamber walls no greater than 800 deg. C. The prior version of our ion source was equipped with a discharge chamber cooling system. The modified source ensured a P{sub 4}{sup +} ion beam current greater than 30% of the total beam current.

  19. Permanent Magnet Helicon Source for Ion Propulsion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francis F. Chen

    2008-01-01

    Helicon sources have been proposed by at least two groups for generating ions for space propulsion: the Helicon Double Layer Thruster (HDLT) concept at the Australian National University and the Variable Specific Impulse Magnetohydrodynamic Rocket (VASIMR) concept at the Johnson Space Center in Houston. These sources normally require a large electromagnet and power supply to produce the magnetic field. At

  20. Status of CSNS H? ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Sheng-Jin; Huang, Tao; Ouyang, Hua-Fu; Zhao, Fu-Xiang; Xiao, Yong-Chuan; Lü, Yong-Jia; Cao, Xiu-Xia; Xue, Kang-Jia; Zhang, Jun-Song; Xu, Tao-Guang; Li, Fang; Lu, Yan-Hua; Li, Gang; Yang, Lei; Li, Yi

    2015-05-01

    A new H? ion source has been installed successfully and will be used to serve the China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS). In this paper, we report various components of the ion source, including the discharge chamber, temperature, cooling system, extraction electrodes, analyzing magnet, remote control system and so on. Compared to the previous experimental ion source, some improvements have been made to make the ion source more compact and convenient. In the present arrangement, the Penning field is generated by a pair of pole tip extensions on the 90° analyzing magnet instead of by a separate circuit. For the remote control system, F3RP61-2L is applied to the accelerator online control system for the first time. In the running of the ion source, a stable pulse H? beam with a current of 50 mA at an energy of 50 keV is produced. The extraction frequency and pulse width is 25 Hz and 500 ?s, respectively. Furthermore, an emittance scanner has been installed and measurements are in progress. Supported by NSFC (91126003)

  1. Characterization of a high output gridless ion source

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Darren Gardner; Wayne Sainty

    The operation and performance of a gridless (end-Hall) ion source is discussed. The ion source has a highly cooled anode and the power supply operates on a novel rectified AC principle. Ion current density studies for argon and oxygen are reported across the range of operation of the ion source. An indicative ion energy relationship is also shown.

  2. Ion Source Development at the SNS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welton, R. F.; Desai, N. J.; Han, B. X.; Kenik, E. A.; Murray, S. N.; Pennisi, T. R.; Potter, K. G.; Lang, B. R.; Santana, M.; Stockli, M. P.

    2011-09-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) now routinely operates near 1 MW of beam power on target with a highly-persistent ˜38 mA peak current in the linac and an availability of ˜90%. The ˜1 ms-long, 60 Hz, ˜50 mA H- beam pulses are extracted from a Cs-enhanced, multi-cusp, RF-driven, internal-antenna ion source. An electrostatic LEBT (Low Energy Beam Transport) focuses the 65 kV beam into the RFQ accelerator. The ion source and LEBT have normally a combined availability of ˜99%. Although much progress has been made over the last years to achieve this level of availability further improvements are desirable. Failures of the internal antenna and occasionally impaired electron dump insulators require several source replacements per year. An attempt to overcome the antenna issues with an AlN external antenna source early in 2009 had to be terminated due to availability issues. This report provides a comprehensive review of the design, experimental history, status, and description of recently updated components and future plans for this ion source. The mechanical design for improved electron dump vacuum feedthroughs is also presented, which is compatible with the baseline and both external antenna ion sources.

  3. Ion source based on the cathodic arc

    DOEpatents

    Sanders, David M. (Livermore, CA); Falabella, Steven (Livermore, CA)

    1994-01-01

    A cylindrically symmetric arc source to produce a ring of ions which leave the surface of the arc target radially and are reflected by electrostatic fields present in the source to a point of use, such as a part to be coated. An array of electrically isolated rings positioned in the source serves the dual purpose of minimizing bouncing of macroparticles and providing electrical insulation to maximize the electric field gradients within the source. The source also includes a series of baffles which function as a filtering or trapping mechanism for any macroparticles.

  4. Highly Stripped Ion Sources for MeV Ion Implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Hershcovitch, Ady

    2009-06-30

    Original technical objectives of CRADA number PVI C-03-09 between BNL and Poole Ventura, Inc. (PVI) were to develop an intense, high charge state, ion source for MeV ion implanters. Present day high-energy ion implanters utilize low charge state (usually single charge) ion sources in combination with rf accelerators. Usually, a MV LINAC is used for acceleration of a few rnA. It is desirable to have instead an intense, high charge state ion source on a relatively low energy platform (de acceleration) to generate high-energy ion beams for implantation. This de acceleration of ions will be far more efficient (in energy utilization). The resultant implanter will be smaller in size. It will generate higher quality ion beams (with lower emittance) for fabrication of superior semiconductor products. In addition to energy and cost savings, the implanter will operate at a lower level of health risks associated with ion implantation. An additional aim of the project was to producing a product that can lead to long­ term job creation in Russia and/or in the US. R&D was conducted in two Russian Centers (one in Tomsk and Seversk, the other in Moscow) under the guidance ofPVI personnel and the BNL PI. Multiple approaches were pursued, developed, and tested at various locations with the best candidate for commercialization delivered and tested at on an implanter at the PVI client Axcelis. Technical developments were exciting: record output currents of high charge state phosphorus and antimony were achieved; a Calutron-Bemas ion source with a 70% output of boron ion current (compared to 25% in present state-of-the-art). Record steady state output currents of higher charge state phosphorous and antimony and P ions: P{sup 2+} (8.6 pmA), P{sup 3+} (1.9 pmA), and P{sup 4+} (0.12 pmA) and 16.2, 7.6, 3.3, and 2.2 pmA of Sb{sup 3+} Sb {sup 4 +}, Sb{sup 5+}, and Sb{sup 6+} respectively. Ultimate commercialization goals did not succeed (even though a number of the products like high charge state phosphorus and antimony could have resulted in a lower power consumption of 30 kW/implanter) for the following reasons (which were discovered after R&D completion): record output of high charge state phosphorous would have thermally damage wafers; record high charge state of antimony requires tool (ion implanting machine in ion implantation jargon) modification, which did not make economic sense due to the small number of users. Nevertheless, BNL has benefited from advances in high-charge state ion generation, due to high charge state ions need for RHIC preinjection. High fraction boron ion was delivered to PVI client Axcelis for retrofit and implantation testing; the source could have reduced beam preinjector power consumption by a factor of 3.5. But, since the source generated some lithium (though in miniscule amounts); last minute decision was made not to employ the source in implanters. R&D of novel transport and gasless plasmaless deceleration, as well as decaborane molecular ion source to mitigate space charge problems in low energy shallow ion implantation was also conducted though results were not yet ready for commercialization. Future work should be focused on gasless plasmaless transport and deceleration as well as on molecular ions due to their significance to low energy, shallow implantation; which is the last frontier of ion implantation. To summarize the significant accomplishments: 1. Record steady state output currents of high charge state phosphorous, P, ions in particle milli-Ampere: P{sup 2+} (8.6 pmA), P{sup 3+} (1.9 pmA), and P{sup 4+} (0.12 pmA). 2. Record steady state output currents of high charge state antimony, Sb, ions in particle milli-Ampere: Sb{sup 3+} (16.2 pmA), Sb{sup 4+} (7.6 pmA), Sb{sup 5+} (3.3 pmA), and Sb{sup 6+} (2.2 pmA). 3. 70% output of boron ion current (compared to 25% in present state-of-the-art) from a Calutron-Bemas ion source. These accomplishments have the potential of benefiting the semiconductor manufacturing industry by lowering power consumption by as much as 30 kW per ion implanter. Major problem w

  5. Design study of primary ion provider for relativistic heavy ion collider electron beam ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Kondo, K. [Department of Energy Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan); Radiation Laboratory, RIKEN, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Collider-Accelerator Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Kanesue, T. [Department of Applied Quantum Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Tamura, J. [Department of Energy Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan); Okamura, M. [Collider-Accelerator Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States)

    2010-02-15

    Brookhaven National Laboratory has developed the new preinjector system, electron beam ion source (EBIS) for relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration Space Radiation Laboratory. Design of primary ion provider is an essential problem since it is required to supply beams with different ion species to multiple users simultaneously. The laser ion source with a defocused laser can provide a low charge state and low emittance ion beam, and is a candidate for the primary ion source for RHIC-EBIS. We show a suitable design with appropriate drift length and solenoid, which helps to keep sufficient total charge number with longer pulse length. The whole design of primary ion source, as well as optics arrangement, solid targets configuration and heating about target, is presented.

  6. Design study of primary ion provider for relativistic heavy ion collider electron beam ion source.

    PubMed

    Kondo, K; Kanesue, T; Tamura, J; Okamura, M

    2010-02-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory has developed the new preinjector system, electron beam ion source (EBIS) for relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration Space Radiation Laboratory. Design of primary ion provider is an essential problem since it is required to supply beams with different ion species to multiple users simultaneously. The laser ion source with a defocused laser can provide a low charge state and low emittance ion beam, and is a candidate for the primary ion source for RHIC-EBIS. We show a suitable design with appropriate drift length and solenoid, which helps to keep sufficient total charge number with longer pulse length. The whole design of primary ion source, as well as optics arrangement, solid targets configuration and heating about target, is presented. PMID:20192366

  7. Reducing ion beam noise of vacuum arc ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, Andre; Hollinger, Ralph

    2001-08-29

    Vacuum arc ion sources are known for delivering high currents of metal ion beams. By Langmuir probe and Faraday cup measurements it is shown that fluctuations of the ion beam current are due to the fluctuations of plasma density which in turn are due to the explosive nature of plasma production at cathode spots. Humphries and co-workers and later Oks and co-workers have shown that beam fluctuations can be reduced by inserting biased meshes in the plasma. Here, the idea of ion extraction at kV-level with post-acceleration is investigated. The high voltage allows us to use coarse, ridged meshes or grids. The combination of an extractor operating in the overdense plasma regime with post-acceleration lead to very reproducible, practically ''noiseless'' ion beams however at the expense of low ion current density. The noise reduction is due to ion optics effects. Although the current setup is not suitable for a heavy ion fusion injector due to the low beam current and the risk of extractor voltage breakdown, further development of the concept may lead to reproducible beam pulses of sufficiently high current and brightness.

  8. Low Z impurity ion extraction from TFTR ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Kamperschroer, J.H.; Grisham, L.R.; Newman, R.A.; O'Connor, T.E.; Stevenson, T.N.; von Halle, A.; Williams, M.D.; Wright, K.E.

    1993-04-01

    TFTR deuterium neutral beams have been operated unintentionally with significant quantities of extracted water ions. Water has been observed with an Optical Multichannel Analyzer (OMA) during beam extraction when small water leaks were present within the arc chamber. These leaks were thermally induced with the contamination level increasing linearly with pulse length. 6% of the beam current was attributed to water ions for the worst leak, corresponding to an instantaneous value of 12% at the end of a 1.5 s pulse. A pre-calorimeter collimator was damaged as a result of this operation. A similar contamination is observed during initial operation of ion sources exposed to air. This latter contamination is attributed to the synthesis, from adsorbed air, of either D[sub 2]O or the indistinguishable ND[sub 3]. Initial operation of new ion sources typically produces a contamination level of [approximately]2%. These impurities are reduced to undetectable levels after 50 to 100 beam pulses. Once a water molecule is present in the plasma generator, it is predominantly ionized rather than dissociated, resulting in the extraction of only trace amounts of hydrogenated ions. The addition of water to the extracted beam also reduces the optimum perveance, moving the typical underdense operating point closer to optimum, causing the frequency of grid faults to increase. Close to 90% of the water extracted from ion sources with water leaks was deuterated, implying that the potential exists for the production of tritiated water during TFTR's forthcoming DT operation. Isotope exchange in the plasma generator takes place rapidly and is believed to be surface catalyzed. The primary concern is with O implanted into beam absorbers recombining with tritium, and the subsequent hold up of T[sub 2]O on cryopanels. Continuous surveillance with the OMA diagnostic during DT operation will ensure that ion sources with detectable water are not operated with tritium.

  9. Low Z impurity ion extraction from TFTR ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Kamperschroer, J.H.; Grisham, L.R.; Newman, R.A.; O`Connor, T.E.; Stevenson, T.N.; von Halle, A.; Williams, M.D.; Wright, K.E.

    1993-04-01

    TFTR deuterium neutral beams have been operated unintentionally with significant quantities of extracted water ions. Water has been observed with an Optical Multichannel Analyzer (OMA) during beam extraction when small water leaks were present within the arc chamber. These leaks were thermally induced with the contamination level increasing linearly with pulse length. 6% of the beam current was attributed to water ions for the worst leak, corresponding to an instantaneous value of 12% at the end of a 1.5 s pulse. A pre-calorimeter collimator was damaged as a result of this operation. A similar contamination is observed during initial operation of ion sources exposed to air. This latter contamination is attributed to the synthesis, from adsorbed air, of either D{sub 2}O or the indistinguishable ND{sub 3}. Initial operation of new ion sources typically produces a contamination level of {approximately}2%. These impurities are reduced to undetectable levels after 50 to 100 beam pulses. Once a water molecule is present in the plasma generator, it is predominantly ionized rather than dissociated, resulting in the extraction of only trace amounts of hydrogenated ions. The addition of water to the extracted beam also reduces the optimum perveance, moving the typical underdense operating point closer to optimum, causing the frequency of grid faults to increase. Close to 90% of the water extracted from ion sources with water leaks was deuterated, implying that the potential exists for the production of tritiated water during TFTR`s forthcoming DT operation. Isotope exchange in the plasma generator takes place rapidly and is believed to be surface catalyzed. The primary concern is with O implanted into beam absorbers recombining with tritium, and the subsequent hold up of T{sub 2}O on cryopanels. Continuous surveillance with the OMA diagnostic during DT operation will ensure that ion sources with detectable water are not operated with tritium.

  10. Application of cryotarget to laser ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Tamura, Jun; Okamura, Masahiro; Kanesue, Takeshi [Department of Energy Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan) and Radiation Laboratory, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Collider-Accelerator Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States) and Radiation Laboratory, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Department of Applied Quantum Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan)

    2008-02-15

    We examined laser-produced argon plasma as part of a future laser ion source. Rare gases, which are in gas state at room temperature, need to be cooled to solid targets for laser irradiation. We generated solid Ar targets in a similar way used for neon. By irradiating the solid Ar with a neodymium doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser, we could generate Ar ions with a charge stage up to 8+ with a good stability. The feature of generated Ar plasma using this method is similar to the Ne case. The ion current density reached about 1.6 mA/cm{sup 2} at 2.3 m from the target. This method would be applicable for a laser ion source.

  11. Liquid metal alloy ion source based metal ion injection into a room-temperature electron beam ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Thorn, A.; Ritter, E.; Zschornack, G. [Fachrichtung Physik, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Helmholtzstrasse 10, D-01069 Dresden (Germany); Ullmann, F. [DREEBIT GmbH, Zur Wetterwarte 50, D-01109 Dresden (Germany); Pilz, W.; Bischoff, L. [Helmholtzzentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Bautzner Landstrasse 400, D-01328 Dresden (Germany)

    2012-02-15

    We have carried out a series of measurements demonstrating the feasibility of using the Dresden electron beam ion source (EBIS)-A, a table-top sized, permanent magnet technology based electron beam ion source, as a charge breeder. Low charged gold ions from an AuGe liquid metal alloy ion source were injected into the EBIS and re-extracted as highly charged ions, thereby producing charge states as high as Au{sup 60+}. The setup, the charge breeding technique, breeding efficiencies as well as acceptance and emittance studies are presented.

  12. Negative ion source with low temperature transverse divergence optical system

    DOEpatents

    Whealton, J.H.; Stirling, W.L.

    1985-03-04

    A negative ion source is provided which has extremely low transverse divergence as a result of a unique ion focusing system in which the focal line of an ion beam emanating from an elongated, concave converter surface is outside of the ion exit slit of the source and the path of the exiting ions. The beam source operates with a minimum ion temperature which makes possible a sharply focused (extremely low transverse divergence) ribbon like negative ion beam.

  13. Negative ion source with low temperature transverse divergence optical system

    DOEpatents

    Whealton, John H. (Oak Ridge, TN); Stirling, William L. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1986-01-01

    A negative ion source is provided which has extremely low transverse divergence as a result of a unique ion focusing system in which the focal line of an ion beam emanating from an elongated, concave converter surface is outside of the ion exit slit of the source and the path of the exiting ions. The beam source operates with a minimum ion temperature which makes possible a sharply focused (extremely low transverse divergence) ribbon like negative ion beam.

  14. Pulsed source ion implantation apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Leung, K.N.

    1996-09-24

    A new pulsed plasma-immersion ion-implantation apparatus that implants ions in large irregularly shaped objects to controllable depth without overheating the target, minimizing voltage breakdown, and using a constant electrical bias applied to the target. Instead of pulsing the voltage applied to the target, the plasma source, for example a tungsten filament or a RF antenna, is pulsed. Both electrically conducting and insulating targets can be implanted. 16 figs.

  15. 4th Generation ECR Ion Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Lyneis, Claude M.; Leitner, D.; Todd, D.S.; Sabbi, G.; Prestemon, S.; Caspi, S.; Ferracin, P.

    2008-12-01

    The concepts and technical challenges related to developing a 4th generation ECR ion source with an RF frequency greater than 40 GHz and magnetic confinement fields greater than twice Becr will be explored in this paper. Based on the semi-empirical frequency scaling of ECR plasma density with the square of operating frequency, there should be significant gains in performance over current 3rd generation ECR ion sources, which operate at RF frequencies between 20 and 30 GHz. While the 3rd generation ECR ion sources use NbTi superconducting solenoid and sextupole coils, the new sources will need to use different superconducting materials such as Nb3Sn to reach the required magnetic confinement, which scales linearly with RF frequency. Additional technical challenges include increased bremsstrahlung production, which may increase faster than the plasma density, bremsstrahlung heating of the cold mass and the availability of high power continuous wave microwave sources at these frequencies. With each generation of ECR ion sources, there are new challenges to be mastered, but the potential for higher performance and reduced cost of the associated accelerator continue to make this a promising avenue for development.

  16. Focused ion beam source method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Pellin, Michael J. (Naperville, IL); Lykke, Keith R. (Gaithersburg, MD); Lill, Thorsten B. (Sunnyvale, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A focused ion beam having a cross section of submicron diameter, a high ion current, and a narrow energy range is generated from a target comprised of particle source material by laser ablation. The method involves directing a laser beam having a cross section of critical diameter onto the target, producing a cloud of laser ablated particles having unique characteristics, and extracting and focusing a charged particle beam from the laser ablated cloud. The method is especially suited for producing focused ion beams for semiconductor device analysis and modification.

  17. Ion plating with an induction heating source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spalvins, T.; Brainard, W. A.

    1976-01-01

    Induction heating is introduced as an evaporation heat source in ion plating. A bare induction coil without shielding can be directly used in the glow discharge region with no arcing. The only requirement is to utilize an rf inductive generator with low operating frequency of 75 kHz. Mechanical simplicity of the ion plating apparatus and ease of operation is a great asset for industrial applications; practically any metal such as nickel, iron, and the high temperature refractories can be evaporated and ion plated.

  18. ECR ion source with electron gun

    DOEpatents

    Xie, Zu Q. (El Cerrito, CA); Lyneis, Claude M. (Berkeley, CA)

    1993-01-01

    An Advanced Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source (10) having an electron gun (52) for introducing electrons into the plasma chamber (18) of the ion source (10). The ion source (10) has a injection enclosure (12) and a plasma chamber tank (14). The plasma chamber (18) is defined by a plurality of longitudinal magnets (16). The electron gun (52) injects electrons axially into the plasma chamber (18) such that ionization within the plasma chamber (18) occurs in the presence of the additional electrons produced by the electron gun (52). The electron gun (52) has a cathode (116) for emitting electrons therefrom which is heated by current supplied from an AC power supply (96) while bias potential is provided by a bias power supply (118). A concentric inner conductor (60) and Outer conductor (62) carry heating current to a carbon chuck (104) and carbon pusher (114) Which hold the cathode (116) in place and also heat the cathode (16). In the Advanced Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source (10), the electron gun (52) replaces the conventional first stage used in prior art electron cyclotron resonance ion generators.

  19. Installation and commissioning of the new Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory H- Magnetron

    SciTech Connect

    Bollinger, D. S., E-mail: bollinger@fnal.gov [Proton Source Department, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States)

    2014-02-15

    The Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL) 40 year old Cockcroft-Walton 750 keV injectors with slit aperture magnetron ion sources have been replaced with a circular aperture magnetron, Low Energy Beam Transport, Radio Frequency Quadrupole Accelerator, and Medium Energy Beam Transport, as part of the FNAL Proton Improvement Plan. The injector design is based on a similar system at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The installation, commissioning efforts, and source operations to date will be covered in this paper along with plans for additional changes to the original design to improve reliability by reducing extractor spark rates and arc current duty factor.

  20. Plasma ion sources and ion beam technology inmicrofabrications

    SciTech Connect

    Ji, Lili

    2007-09-01

    For over decades, focused ion beam (FIB) has been playing a very important role in microscale technology and research, among which, semiconductor microfabrication is one of its biggest application area. As the dimensions of IC devices are scaled down, it has shown the need for new ion beam tools and new approaches to the fabrication of small-scale devices. In the meanwhile, nanotechnology has also deeply involved in material science research and bioresearch in recent years. The conventional FIB systems which utilize liquid gallium ion sources to achieve nanometer scale resolution can no longer meet the various requirements raised from such a wide application area such as low contamination, high throughput and so on. The drive towards controlling materials properties at nanometer length scales relies on the availability of efficient tools. In this thesis, three novel ion beam tools have been developed and investigated as the alternatives for the conventional FIB systems in some particular applications. An integrated focused ion beam (FIB) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) system has been developed for direct doping or surface modification. This new instrument employs a mini-RF driven plasma source to generate focused ion beam with various ion species, a FEI two-lens electron (2LE) column for SEM imaging, and a five-axis manipulator system for sample positioning. An all-electrostatic two-lens column has been designed to focus the ion beam extracted from the source. Based on the Munro ion optics simulation, beam spot sizes as small as 100 nm can be achieved at beam energies between 5 to 35 keV if a 5 {micro}m-diameter extraction aperture is used. Smaller beam spot sizes can be obtained with smaller apertures at sacrifice of some beam current. The FEI 2LE column, which utilizes Schottky emission, electrostatic focusing optics, and stacked-disk column construction, can provide high-resolution (as small as 20 nm) imaging capability, with fairly long working distance (25 mm) at 25 keV beam voltage. Such an integrated FIB/SEM dual-beam system will not only improve the accuracy and reproducibility when performing ion beam sculpting and direct implantation processes, but will also enable researchers to perform cross-sectioning, imaging, and analysis with the same tool. A major advantage of this approach is the ability to produce a wide variety of ion species tailored to the application.

  1. Hollow cathode and ion accelerator system for current ion sources

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aston

    1981-01-01

    A small self-heating hollow cathode has been designed and tested which uses a novel flowing plasma starting concept to eliminate the need for cathode heating elements and low work function insert materials. In a magnetic field free ion source, this cathode has reliably and repeatedly produced arc currents, using argon, of 100 ampere (the power supply limit) at arc voltages

  2. Multiple arc ion sources for heavy ion fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutkowski, H. L.; Johnson, R. M.; Greenway, W. G.; Gross, M. A.; Hewett, D. W.; Humphries, S., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Heavy ion fusion requires high current density, low-emittance ion sources that are reliable and long lived. We report experimental and simulation results on the performance of carbon arc ion sources intended for use in a scaled induction linac experiment. These sources use a planar electrostatic plasma switch to prevent plasma from entering the extraction gap before the extraction voltage pulse is applied. This provides good beam optics for short pulse extraction. Measurements of current density and emittance are presented. Both double-slit and channel plate-pepper pot techniques are used for emittance measurement. Data presented are from a compact three-arc source with plasma coupling of the cathodes. Data on lifetime and multiple arc triggering are also presented. The plasma switch performance has been modeled with a 2D explicit electrostatic particle-in-cell code. Results showing plasma shutoff phenomena and behavior during extraction are presented. A 2D steady-state ion flow model is also used to predict the optimum plasma switch geometry for producing minimum emittance generation at the switch surface.

  3. Influence of ion bombardment on structure and properties of unbalanced magnetron grown CrN x coatings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T Hurkmans; D. B Lewis; H Paritong; J. S Brooks; W. D Münz

    1999-01-01

    The structures and properties of reactive unbalanced magnetron sputtered CrNx can be influenced by variation of the substrate bias voltage and substrate bias current density. At floating potential (Uf=?25V) the lattice parameter coincides with that of the bulk value for CrN and the compressive stress approaches almost 0GPa. Increasing the negative bias voltage to ?200V results in a steep increase

  4. rf improvements for Spallation Neutron Source H- ion source.

    PubMed

    Kang, Y W; Fuja, R; Goulding, R H; Hardek, T; Lee, S-W; McCarthy, M P; Piller, M C; Shin, K; Stockli, M P; Welton, R F

    2010-02-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is ramping up the accelerated proton beam power to 1.4 MW and just reached 1 MW. The rf-driven multicusp ion source that originates from the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has been delivering approximately 38 mA H(-) beam in the linac at 60 Hz, 0.9 ms. To improve availability, a rf-driven external antenna multicusp ion source with a water-cooled ceramic aluminum nitride (AlN) plasma chamber is developed. Computer modeling and simulations have been made to analyze and optimize the rf performance of the new ion source. Operational statistics and test runs with up to 56 mA medium energy beam transport beam current identify the 2 MHz rf system as a limiting factor in the system availability and beam production. Plasma ignition system is under development by using a separate 13 MHz system. To improve the availability of the rf power system with easier maintenance, we tested a 70 kV isolation transformer for the 80 kW, 6% duty cycle 2 MHz amplifier to power the ion source from a grounded solid-state amplifier. PMID:20192394

  5. Recent negative ion source activity at JYFL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalvas, T.; Tarvainen, O.; Komppula, J.; Laitinen, M.; Sajavaara, T.; Koivisto, H.; Jokinen, A.; Dehnel, M. P.

    2013-02-01

    A filament-powered multicusp ion source for production of H- has been developed for the Jyväskylä Pelletron accelerator for use in ion beam lithography and particle induced X-ray emission applications. The source can be considered conventional with the exception of the filter field being created with an electric magnet for continuous adjustability. A permanent magnet dipoleantidipole electron dump is integrated in the puller electrode. The source provides 50 ?A H- beam at 10 keV energy with 0.019 mm mrad 95 % normalized rms emittance through a 2 mm aperture. Lower emittance is achievable by changing the plasma electrode insert to a smaller aperture one if application requires. A new commercial MCC30/15 cyclotron has been installed at the Jyväskylä accelerator laboratory providing 30MeV H+ and 15Mev D+ for use in nuclear physics experiments and applications. The ion source delivered with the cyclotron is a a filament-powered multicusp source capable of about 130 h continuous operation at 1 mA H- output between filament changes. The ion source is located in the cyclotron vault and therefore a significant waiting time for the vault cooldown is required before filament change is possible. This kind of operation is not acceptable as 350 h and longer experiments are expected. Therefore a project for developing a CW 13.56 MHz RF ion source has been initiated. A planar RF antenna replacing the filament back plate of the existing TRIUMF-type ion source has been used in the first tests with 240 ?A of H- and 21 mA of electrons measured at 1.5 kW of RF power. Tests with higher RF power levels were prevented by electron beam induced sparking. A new plasma chamber has been built and a new extraction is being designed for the RF ion source. The extraction code IBSimu has recently gone through a major update on how smooth electrode surfaces are implemented in the Poisson solvers. This has made it possible to implement a fast multigrid solver with low memory consumption. Also a method has been made to import 3D CAD geometries into simulations.

  6. Ionospheric sources for molecular ion outflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zettergren, M. D.; Peterson, W. K.; Blelly, P. F.; Alcayde, D.; Semeter, J. L.

    2012-12-01

    Mass-resolved satellite observations have established the presence of molecular ions in the low-altitude magnetosphere, outer magnetosphere, and ring current. Associated molecular outflows originate from the auroral zone F-region ionosphere and, while normally several orders of magnitude less intense than the well-known O+ outflow, are perhaps more closely tied to intense geomagnetic disturbances. Molecular outflow is also fundamentally different from O+ outflow, since molecular ions must first be generated in large quantities in the F-region, and then are subject to very short recombination lifetimes as they escape. Owing to observational difficulties, very little detailed information exists on the generation, energization, and upward transport of molecular ions. Furthermore, the basic geographic and geomagnetic activity dependence of the ionospheric source and higher altitude outflow are only loosely constrained. This research synthesizes both observations and models to gain a better understanding of molecular ion generation and upflow, and the basic characteristics of the ionospheric molecular source during geomagnetic storms. To illustrate ionospheric dynamics associated with published satellite observations of molecular upflow, a 2D ionospheric model is driven by boundary conditions consistent with observed field-aligned currents. These simulations provide detailed information about expected species-dependent ion densities, temperatures, fluxes, and associated transients. Similar model results are also compared against PFISR radar estimates of molecular ions generated by auroral arc activity. A detailed case study of the 24-25 Sept. 1998 geomagnetic storm is presented in which the EISCAT ESR and Tromso radars suggested enhancements in F-region molecular ions and Polar satellite simultaneously observed moleculars in the magnetosphere. Finally, data from Sondrestrom and EISCAT radars during multiple storms are combined in an attempt to build a statistical picture of the latitude and magnetic local time dependence of the ionospheric molecular source. Connections of this source with satellite observations of molecular outflow are also discussed.

  7. New type of metal ion source: Surface diffusion Li{sup +} ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Medvedev, V.K.; Suchorski, Y.; Block, J.H. [Fritz-Haber-Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Faradayweg 4-6, 14195 Berlin (Germany)] [Fritz-Haber-Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Faradayweg 4-6, 14195 Berlin (Germany)

    1995-03-01

    A surface diffusion metal ion source, a new type of metal ion source, is explored. In this device a field desorption process is used to achieve an almost monoenergetic continuous flux of Li{sup +} ions from a [111]-oriented W field emitter. Earlier difficulties with the continuous supply of adatoms, required to produce measurable desorption rates, were overcome by making use of solid state surface diffusion from the Li multilayer reservoir at the shank of the field emitter. The high density of the ion beam (an ion current of 10{sup {minus}12} A was achieved from a W trimer), the extremely narrow energy distribution (full width at half-maximum of 0.25 eV) and the stable geometric form of the emitter itself during the operation are advantages of the new ion source which may be important in different areas of nanotechnology. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Vacuum} {ital Society}

  8. rf-driven ion sources for industrial applications (invited) (abstract)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ka-Ngo Leung; Ka-Ngo

    2008-01-01

    The Plasma and Ion Source Technology Group at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory have been developing rf-driven ion sources for the last two decades. These sources are being used to generate both positive and negative ion beams. Some of these sources are operating in particle accelerators such as the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge, while others are being

  9. RF H- Ion Source with Saddle Antenna

    SciTech Connect

    Dudnikov, Vadim G [ORNL; Johnson, Rolland P [ORNL; Murray Jr, S N [ORNL; Pennisi, Terry R [ORNL; Santana, Manuel [ORNL; Stockli, Martin P [ORNL; Welton, Robert F [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    In this project we are developing an RF H- surface plasma source (SPS) which will synthesize the most important developments in the field of negative ion sources to provide high pulsed and average current, higher brightness, longer lifetime and higher reliability by improving a power efficiency. Several versions of new plasma generators with different antennas and magnetic field configurations were tested in a small AlN test chamber in the SNS ion source Test Stand. Then a prototype saddle antenna was installed in the Test Stand with a larger, normal-sized SNS AlN chamber that achieved a peak current of 67 mA and an apparent efficiency of 1.6 mA/kW. These values are comparable to those of the present SNS sources and can be expected to be improved when the prototype is developed into an operational version in the next phase of the project.

  10. Development of versatile multiaperture negative ion sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavenago, M.; Serianni, G.; Antoni, V.; Bigi, M.; De Muri, M.; Pasqualotto, R.; Recchia, M.; Veltri, P.; Agostinetti, P.; Barbisan, M.; Baseggio, L.; Cervaro, V.; Cazzador, M.; Degli Agostini, F.; Franchin, L.; Kulevoy, T.; Laterza, B.; Mimo, A.; Minarello, A.; Petrenko, S.; Ravarotto, D.; Rossetto, F.; Sattin, M.; Zaniol, B.; Zucchetti, S.

    2015-04-01

    Enhancement of negative ion sources for production of large ion beams is a very active research field nowadays, driven from demand of plasma heating in nuclear fusion devices and accelerator applications. As a versatile test bench, the ion source NIO1 (Negative Ion Optimization 1) is being commissioned by Consorzio RFX and INFN. The nominal beam current of 135 mA at -60 kV is divided into 9 beamlets, with multiaperture extraction electrodes. The plasma is sustained by a 2 MHz radiofrequency power supply, with a standard matching box. A High Voltage Deck (HVD) placed inside the lead shielding surrounding NIO1 contains the radiofrequency generator, the gas control, electronics and power supplies for the ion source. An autonomous closed circuit water cooling system was installed for the whole system, with a branch towards the HVD, using carefully optimized helical tubing. Insulation transformer is installed in a nearby box. Tests of several magnetic configurations can be performed. Status of experiments, measured spectra and plasma luminosity are described. Upgrades of magnetic filter, beam calorimeter and extraction grid and related theoretical issues are reviewed.

  11. Ion sources for induction linac driven heavy ion fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Rutkowski, H.L.; Eylon, S.; Chupp, W.W.

    1993-08-01

    The use of ion sources in induction linacs for heavy ion fusion is fundamentally different from their use in the rf linac-storage rings approach. Induction linacs require very high current, short pulse extraction usually with large apertures which are dictated by the injector design. One is faced with the problem of extracting beams in a pulsed fashion while maintaining high beam quality during the pulse (low-emittance). Four types of sources have been studied for this application. The vacuum arc and the rf cusp field source are the plasma types and the porous plug and hot alumino-silicate surface source are the thermal types. The hot alumino-silicate potassium source has proved to be the best candidate for the next generation of scaled experiments. The porous plug for potassium is somewhat more difficult to use. The vacuum arc suffers from noise and lifetime problems and the rf cusp field source is difficult to use with very short pulses. Operational experience with all of these types of sources is presented.

  12. Secondary electron ion source neutron generator

    DOEpatents

    Brainard, J.P.; McCollister, D.R.

    1998-04-28

    A neutron generator employing an electron emitter, an ion source bombarded by the electrons from the electron emitter, a plasma containment zone, and a target situated between the plasma containment zone and the electron emitter is disclosed. The target contains occluded deuterium, tritium, or a mixture thereof. 4 figs.

  13. Secondary electron ion source neutron generator

    DOEpatents

    Brainard, John P. (Albuquerque, NM); McCollister, Daryl R. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1998-01-01

    A neutron generator employing an electron emitter, an ion source bombarded by the electrons from the electron emitter, a plasma containment zone, and a target situated between the plasma containment zone and the electron emitter. The target contains occluded deuterium, tritium, or a mixture thereof

  14. Survey of ion plating sources. [conferences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spalvins, T.

    1979-01-01

    Based on the type of evaporation source, gaseous media and mode of transport, the following is discussed: resistance, electron beam, sputtering, reactive and ion beam evaporation. Ionization efficiencies and ion energies in the glow discharge determine the percentage of atoms which are ionized under typical ion plating conditions. The plating flux consists of a small number of energetic ions and a large number of energetic neutrals. The energy distribution ranges from thermal energies up to a maximum energy of the discharge. The various reaction mechanisms which contribute to the exceptionally strong adherence - formation of a graded sustrate/coating interface are not fully understood, however the controlling factors are evaluated. The influence of process variables on the nucleation and growth characteristics are illustrated in terms of morphological changes which affect the mechanical and tribological properties of the coating.

  15. Characterization of an iodine-based ionic liquid ion source and studies on ion fragmentation

    E-print Network

    Fedkiw, Timothy Peter

    2010-01-01

    Electrosprays are a well studied source of charged droplets and ions. A specific subclass is the ionic liquid ion source (ILIS), which produce ion beams from the electrostatically stressed meniscus of ionic liquids. ILIS ...

  16. SNS Saddle Antenna H- Ion Source Project

    SciTech Connect

    Dudnikov, Vadim [Muons, Inc.; Johnson, Rolland P. [Muons, Inc.; Dudnikova, Galina [University of Maryland; Stockli, Martin P [ORNL; Welton, Robert F [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    In this project we are developing an H- source, which will synthesize the most important developments in the field of negative ion sources to provide high current, high brightness, good lifetime, high reliability, and high power efficiency. We describe two planned modifications to the present SNS external antenna source in order to increase the plasma density near the output aperture: 1) replacing the present 2 MHz plasma-forming solenoid antenna with a 60 MHz saddle-type antenna and 2) replacing the permanent multicusp magnetic system with a weaker electro-magnet.

  17. Ion source requirements for pulsed spallation neutron sources

    SciTech Connect

    Alonso, J.R.

    1995-10-01

    The neutron scattering community has endorsed the need for a high- power (1 to 5 MW) accelerator-driven source of neutrons for materials research. Properly configured, the accelerator could produce very short (sub-microsecond) bursts of cold neutrons, said time structure offering advantages over the continuous flux from a reactor for a large class of experiments. The recent cancellation of the ANS reactor project has increased the urgency to develop a comprehensive strategy based on the best technological scenarios. Studies to date have built on the experience from ISIS (the 160 KW source in the UK), and call for a high-current (approx. 100 mA peak) H{sup {minus}} source-linac combination injecting into one or more accumulator rings in which beam may be further accelerated. The 1 to 5 GeV proton beam is extracted in a single turn and brought to the target-moderator stations. The high current, high duty-factor, high brightness and high reliability required of the ion source present a very large challenge to the ion source community. A workshop held in Berkeley in October 1994, analyzed in detail the source requirements for proposed accelerator scenarios, the present performance capabilities of different H{sup {minus}} source technologies, and identified necessary R&D efforts to bridge the gap.

  18. rf-driven ion sources for industrial applications (invited) (abstract)

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, Ka-Ngo [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and Nuclear Engineering Department, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2008-02-15

    The Plasma and Ion Source Technology Group at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory have been developing rf-driven ion sources for the last two decades. These sources are being used to generate both positive and negative ion beams. Some of these sources are operating in particle accelerators such as the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge, while others are being employed in various industrial ion beam systems. There are four areas where the rf-driven ion sources are commonly used in industry. (1) In semiconductor manufacturing, rf-driven sources have found important applications in plasma etching, ion beam implantation, and ion beam lithography. (2) In material analysis and surface modification, miniature rf-ion sources can be found in focused ion beam systems. They can provide ion beams of essentially any element in the Periodic Table. The newly developed combined rf ion-electron beam unit improves greatly the performance of the secondary ion mass spectrometry tool. (3) For neutron production, rf ion source is a major component of compact, high flux D-D, D-T, or T-T neutron generators. These neutron sources are now being employed in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) as well as in neutron imaging and material interrogation. (4) Large area rf-driven ion source will be used in an industrial design neutral beam diagnostic system for probing fusion plasmas. Such sources can be easily scaled to provide large ion beam current for future fusion reactor applications.

  19. Status of ECR ion sources at JAERI

    E-print Network

    Yokota, W; Nara, T; Ishi, Y; Arakawa, K; Ohkoshi, K

    1999-01-01

    At the Takasaki site of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, four ECR ion sources were purchased or developed so far. This paper will report their performance, modification and status. The outlines for each source are as follows; 1. OCTOPUS purchased from IBA s.a. has been in use with a cyclotron since 1990. The gas feed system was modified to change gas species within 10 minutes to avoid impurity ions in the cocktail beam acceleration technique of the cyclotron. 2. ECR-18 with 18-GHz microwave has a solenoid coil between a pair of mirror coils to change mirror ratio in a wide range. A bump between mirror peaks in the original axial field distribution was removed by halving the solenoid length. The performance in generating high charge state ions was significantly improved as a result. 3. HYPERNANOGAN was purchased from PANTECHNIK s.a. and installed in the cyclotron system this year. Test operation was successfully made with generation of Ar, Pb and Ta ions. 4. MINI ECR is a full permanent magnet source wi...

  20. Beam Uniformity Controllable Ion Source with a Long Slit

    SciTech Connect

    Ikejiri, T.; Zhao, W.; Tanaka, K.; Igo, T.; Kinoyama, T.; Tamura, S.; Yamashita, T. [Nissin Ion Equipment Co., LTD 575 Kuze-Tonoshiro-Cho, Minami-Ku, Kyoto, 601-8205 (Japan)

    2008-11-03

    With scaling up of a substrate of LCD and silicon, an ion source with a longer extraction area than the substrate has been used for an ion implantation system. Wide sheet beam emitted from a long extraction area is effective to decrease space charge effect of a high current ion beam. An ion source which has this structure has been applied for FPD. This ion source controls the source plasma partially. This function is one of the methods to adjust the uniformity of the ion sheet beam. However, there are technical difficulties for this ion source. Therefore, we have developed three types of ion sources which have a longer extracting slit than the substrate and different direction of the source magnetic field. This paper shows the structures and the experimental result of these ion sources.

  1. Extracted current saturation in negative ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Mochalskyy, S.; Lifschitz, A. F.; Minea, T. [LPGP, University Paris-Sud 11, bat 210, 15 rue G. Clemenceau-Orsay, F91405 (France)

    2012-06-01

    The extraction of negatively charged particles from a negative ion source is one of the crucial issues in the development of the neutral beam injector system for future experimental reactor ITER. Full 3D electrostatic particle-in-cell Monte Carlo collision code - ONIX [S. Mochalskyy et al., Nucl. Fusion 50, 105011 (2010)] - is used to simulate the hydrogen plasma behaviour and the extracted particle features in the vicinity of the plasma grid, both sides of the aperture. It is found that the contribution to the extracted negative ion current of ions born in the volume is small compared with that of ions created at the plasma grid walls. The parametric study with respect to the rate of negative ions released from the walls shows an optimum rate. Beyond this optimum, a double layer builds-up by the negative ion charge density close to the grid aperture surface reducing thus extraction probability, and therefore the extracted current. The effect of the extraction potential and magnetic field magnitudes on the extraction is also discussed. Results are in good agreement with available experimental data.

  2. Experimental Evaluation of a Negative Ion Source for a Heavy Ion Fusion Negative Ion Driver

    SciTech Connect

    Grisham, L. R.; Hahto, S. K.; Hahto, S. T.; Kwan, J. W.; Leung, K. N.

    2004-06-16

    Negative halogen ions have recently been proposed as a possible alternative to positive ions for heavy ion fusion drivers because electron accumulation would not be a problem in the accelerator, and if desired, the beams could be photo-detached to neutrals. To test the ability to make suitable quality beams, an experiment was conducted at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory using chlorine in an RF-driven ion source. Without introducing any cesium (which is required to enhance negative ion production in hydrogen ion sources) a negative chlorine current density of 45 mA/cm{sup 2} was obtained under the same conditions that gave 57 45 mA/cm{sup 2} of positive chlorine, suggesting the presence of nearly as many negative ions as positive ions in the plasma near the extraction plane. The negative ion spectrum was 99.5% atomic chlorine ions, with only 0.5% molecular chlorine, and essentially no impurities. Although this experiment did not incorporate the type of electron suppression technology that i s used in negative hydrogen beam extraction, the ratio of co-extracted electrons to Cl{sup -} was as low as 7 to 1, many times lower than the ratio of their mobilities, suggesting that few electrons are present in the near-extractor plasma. This, along with the near-equivalence of the positive and negative ion currents, suggests that the plasma in this region was mostly an ion-ion plasma. The negative chlorine current density was relatively insensitive to pressure, and scaled linearly with RF power. If this linear scaling continues to hold at higher RF powers, it should permit current densities of 100 45 mA/cm{sup 2}, sufficient for present heavy ion fusion injector concepts. The effective ion temperatures of the positive and negative ions appeared to be similar and relatively low for a plasma source.

  3. Field Ion Source Development for Neutron Generators

    SciTech Connect

    B. Bargsten Johnson; P. R. Schwoebel; C. E. Holland; P. J. Resnick; K. L. Hertz; D. L. Chichester

    2012-01-01

    An ion source based on the principles of electrostatic field desorption is being developed to improve the performance of existing compact neutron generators. The ion source is an array of gated metal tips derived from field electron emitter array microfabrication technology. A comprehensive summary of development and experimental activities is presented. Many structural modifications to the arrays have been incorporated to achieve higher tip operating fields, while lowering fields at the gate electrode to prevent gate field electron emission which initiates electrical breakdown in the array. The latest focus of fabrication activities has been on rounding the gate electrode edge and surrounding the gate electrode with dielectric material. Array testing results have indicated a steady progression of increased array tip operating fields with each new design tested. The latest arrays have consistently achieved fields beyond those required for the onset of deuterium desorption ({approx}20 V/nm), and have demonstrated the desorption of deuterium at fields up to 36 V/nm. The number of ions desorbed from an array has been quantified, and field desorption of metal tip substrate material from array tips has been observed for the first time. Gas-phase field ionization studies with {approx}10,000 tip arrays have achieved deuterium ion currents of {approx}50 nA. Neutron production by field ionization has yielded {approx}10{sup 2} n/s from {approx}1 mm{sup 2} of array area using the deuterium-deuterium fusion reaction at 90 kV.

  4. Development of the ion source for cluster implantation.

    PubMed

    Kulevoy, T V; Seleznev, D N; Kozlov, A V; Kuibeda, R P; Kropachev, G N; Alexeyenko, O V; Dugin, S N; Oks, E M; Gushenets, V I; Hershcovitch, A; Jonson, B; Poole, H J

    2014-02-01

    Bernas ion source development to meet needs of 100s of electron-volt ion implanters for shallow junction production is in progress in Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics. The ion sources provides high intensity ion beam of boron clusters under self-cleaning operation mode. The last progress with ion source operation is presented. The mechanism of self-cleaning procedure is described. PMID:24593424

  5. Measurements of sputtered neutrals and ions and investigation of their roles on the plasma properties during rf magnetron sputtering of Zn and ZnO targets

    SciTech Connect

    Maaloul, L.; Stafford, L. [Département de Physique, Université de Montréal, Montréal, Québec H3C 3J7 (Canada)] [Département de Physique, Université de Montréal, Montréal, Québec H3C 3J7 (Canada)

    2013-11-15

    Langmuir probe and optical absorption spectroscopy measurements were used to determine the line-integrated electron density, electron temperature, and number density of Ar atoms in metastable {sup 3}P{sub 2} and {sup 3}P{sub 0} levels in a 5 mTorr, rf magnetron sputtering plasmas used for the deposition of ZnO-based thin films. While the average electron energy and density of Ar atoms in {sup 3}P{sub 2} and {sup 3}P{sub 0} excited states were fairly independent of self-bias voltage, the Ar {sup 3}P{sub 2}-to-electron number density ratio decreased by approximately a factor of 5 when going from ?115 V to ?300 V. This decrease was correlated to an increase by about one order of magnitude of the number density of sputtered Zn atoms determined by absolute actinometry measurements on Zn I using either Ar or Xe as the actinometer gas. These results were also found to be in excellent agreement with the predictions of a global model accounting for Penning ionization of sputtered Zn particles. The importance of the latter reactions was further confirmed by plasma sampling mass spectrometry showing a double peak structure for Zn ions: a low-energy component ascribed to thermalized ions created in the gas phase (by direct electron impact and by Penning ionization) and a high-energy tail due to ions ejected from the target and reaching quasi-collisionlessly the substrate surface.

  6. Improved Bevatron Local Injector Ion Source Performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Stover; E. Zajec

    1985-01-01

    Performance tests of the improved Bevatron Local Injector PIG Ion source using particles of Si 4(+), Ne 3(+), and He 2(+) are described. Initial measurements of the 8.4 keV\\/nucleon Si 4(+) beam show an intensity of 100 particle microamperes with a normalized emittance of .06 (PI) cm-mrad. A low energy beam transport line provides mass analysis, diagnostics, and matching into

  7. Bevatron local injector duoplasmatron ion source performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Stover; E. Zajec

    1989-01-01

    Performance tests of the Bevatron local injector duoplasmatron ion source using singly charged particles of helium and deuterium are described. Initial measurements of the 8.4-keV\\/nucleon helium 1+ beam and deuterium 1+ beams indicated intensities of 12 particle mA and 8 particle mA, respectively. The low-energy beam transport line uses a tape-wound solenoid and an x-y dipole for matching into the

  8. Improved Ambient Pressure Pyroelectric Ion Source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beegle, Luther W.; Kim, Hugh I.; Kanik, Isik; Ryu, Ernest K.; Beckett, Brett

    2011-01-01

    The detection of volatile vapors of unknown species in a complex field environment is required in many different applications. Mass spectroscopic techniques require subsystems including an ionization unit and sample transport mechanism. All of these subsystems must have low mass, small volume, low power, and be rugged. A volatile molecular detector, an ambient pressure pyroelectric ion source (APPIS) that met these requirements, was recently reported by Caltech researchers to be used in in situ environments.

  9. Improvement of four anode rods ion source.

    PubMed

    Abdel Salam, F W; el-Khabeary, H; Ahmed, M M; Abdel Reheem, A M

    2011-03-01

    In this work, an improved form of a saddle field ion source has been designed and constructed. It consists of four anode rods made from copper and two copper cathode discs. The two cathode discs are placed symmetrically on both sides of the four anode rods. The electrical discharge and output ion beam characteristics were measured at different pressures using argon gas. The optimum distance between each two anode rods was determined. Also the optimum distance between the four anode rods and any cathode disc was obtained. It was found that the optimum distance between each two anode rods equal to 6 mm, while the optimum distance between the four anode rods and any cathode disc equal to 16 mm, where a stable discharge current and maximum output ion beam current can be obtained. The effect of negative extraction voltage applied to both the extractor electrode and Faraday cup on the output ion beam current was studied. The sputter yield of copper and aluminum targets using argon ions of different energies was determined. PMID:21456729

  10. Improvement of four anode rods ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Abdel Salam, F. W.; El-Khabeary, H.; Abdel Reheem, A. M. [Accelerators and Ion Sources Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, P. No. 13759 (Egypt); Ahmed, M. M. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Helwan University, Cairo (Egypt)

    2011-03-15

    In this work, an improved form of a saddle field ion source has been designed and constructed. It consists of four anode rods made from copper and two copper cathode discs. The two cathode discs are placed symmetrically on both sides of the four anode rods. The electrical discharge and output ion beam characteristics were measured at different pressures using argon gas. The optimum distance between each two anode rods was determined. Also the optimum distance between the four anode rods and any cathode disc was obtained. It was found that the optimum distance between each two anode rods equal to 6 mm, while the optimum distance between the four anode rods and any cathode disc equal to 16 mm, where a stable discharge current and maximum output ion beam current can be obtained. The effect of negative extraction voltage applied to both the extractor electrode and Faraday cup on the output ion beam current was studied. The sputter yield of copper and aluminum targets using argon ions of different energies was determined.

  11. Proton emission from a laser ion source.

    PubMed

    Torrisi, L; Cavallaro, S; Cutroneo, M; Margarone, D; Gammino, S

    2012-02-01

    At intensities of the order of 10(10) W?cm(2), ns pulsed lasers can be employed to ablate solid bulk targets in order to produce high emission of ions at different charge state and kinetic energy. A special interest is devoted to the production of protons with controllable energy and current from a roto-translating target irradiated in repetition rate at 1-10 Hz by a Nd:Yag pulsed laser beam. Different hydrogenated targets based on polymers and hydrates were irradiated in high vacuum. Special nanostrucutres can be embedded in the polymers in order to modify the laser absorption properties and the amount of protons to be accelerated in the plasma. For example, carbon nanotubes may increase the laser absorption and the hydrogen absorption to generate high proton yields from the plasma. Metallic nanostrucutres may increase the electron density of the plasma and the kinetic energy of the accelerated protons. Ion collectors, ion energy analyzer, and mass spectrometers, used in time-of-flight configuration, were employed to characterize the ion beam properties. A comparison with traditional proton ion source is presented and discussed. PMID:22380289

  12. The Power Supply System of Ion Source for NBI

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhimin Liu; Xiaoning Liu; Chundong Hu; Liqun Hu; Sheng Liu; Shihua Song; Jun Li; Xiaopu Han; Yongjun Wang

    2005-01-01

    The power supply system of ion source for the Neutral Beam Injector (NBI) in the HT-7 superconducting tokamak is based on a single injector with one ion source that can deliver 700 kW of neutral beam power. Experiments and a discharges test on the ion source were successfully performed. In this paper, the circuit structures and features of every power

  13. Large source test stand for H/sup -/(D/sup -/) ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, R.; McKenzie-Wilson, R.

    1981-01-01

    The Brookhaven National Laboratory Neutral Beam Group has constructed a large source test stand for testing of the various source modules under development. The first objective of the BNL program is to develop a source module capable of delivering 10A of H/sup -/(D/sup -/) at 25 kV operating in the steady state mode with satisfactory gas and power efficiency. The large source test stand contains gas supply and vacuum pumping systems, source cooling systems, magnet power supplies and magnet cooling systems, two arc power supplies rated at 25 kW and 50 kW, a large battery driven power supply and an extractor electrode power supply. Figure 1 is a front view of the vacuum vessel showing the control racks with the 36'' vacuum valves and refrigerated baffles mounted behind. Figure 2 shows the rear view of the vessel with a BNL Mk V magnetron source mounted in the source aperture and also shows the cooled magnet coils. Currently two types of sources are under test: a large magnetron source and a hollow cathode discharge source.

  14. Negative chlorine ions from multicusp radio frequency ion source for heavy ion fusion applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahto, S. K.; Hahto, S. T.; Kwan, J. W.; Leung, K. N.; Grisham, L. R.

    2003-06-01

    Use of high mass atomic neutral beams produced from negative ions as drivers for inertial confinement fusion has been suggested recently. Best candidates for the negative ions would be bromine and iodine with sufficiently high mass and electron affinity. These materials require a heated vapor ion source. Chlorine was selected for initial testing because it has similar electron affinity to those of bromine and iodine, and is available in gaseous form. An experiment was set up by the Plasma and Ion Source Technology Group in Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory to measure achievable current densities and other beam parameters by using a rf driven multicusp ion source [K. N. Leung, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 1165 (1994); Q. Ji et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 822 (2002)]. Current density of 45 mA/cm2 was achieved with 99.5% of the beam as atomic negative chlorine at 2.2 kW of rf power. An electron to negative ion ratio as low as 7 to 1 was observed, while the ratio of positive and negative chlorine ion currents was 1.3. This in addition to the fact that the front plate biasing had almost no effect to the negative chlorine ion and electron currents indicates that a very high percentage of the negative charge in the extraction area of the ion source was in form of Cl- ions. A comparison of positive and negative chlorine ion temperatures was conducted with the pepper pot emittance measurement technique and very similar transverse temperature values were obtained for positive and negative chlorine ions.

  15. Ions beams and ferroelectric plasma sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanov, Anton

    Near-perfect space-charge neutralization is required for the transverse compression of high perveance ion beams for ion-beam-driven warm dense matter experiments, such as the Neutralized Drift Compression eXperiment (NDCX). Neutralization can be accomplished by introducing a plasma in the beam path, which provides free electrons that compensate the positive space charge of the ion beam. In this thesis, charge neutralization of a 40 keV, perveance-dominated Ar+ beam by a Ferroelectric Plasma Source (FEPS) is investigated. First, the parameters of the ion beam, such as divergence due to the extraction optics, charge neutralization fraction, and emittance were measured. The ion beam was propagated through the FEPS plasma, and the effects of charge neutralization were inferred from time-resolved measurements of the transverse beam profile. In addition, the dependence of FEPS plasma parameters on the configuration of the driving pulser circuit was studied to optimize pulser design. An ion accelerator was constructed that produced a 30-50 keV Ar + beam with pulse duration <300 mus and dimensionless perveance Q up to 8 x 10-4. Transverse profile measurements 33 cm downstream of the ion source showed that the dependence of beam radius on Q was consistent with space charge expansion. It was concluded that the beam was perveance-dominated with a charge neutralization fraction of approximately zero in the absence of neutralizing plasma. Since beam expansion occurred primarily due to space charge, the decrease in effective perveance due to neutralization by FEPS plasma can be inferred from the reduction in beam radius. Results on propagation of the ion beam through FEPS plasma demonstrate that after the FEPS is triggered, the beam radius decreases to its neutralized value in about 5 mus. The duration of neutralization was about 10 mus at a charging voltage VFEPS = 5.5 kV and 35 mus at VFEPS = 6.5 kV. With VFEPS = 6.5 kV, the transverse current density profile 33 cm downstream of the source had a Gaussian shape with xrms =5 mm, which corresponds to a half-angle divergence of 0.87°. The measurements show that near-perfect charge neutralization with FEPS can be attained. No loss of ion beam current was detected, indicating the absence of a neutral cloud in the region of beam propagation, which would cause beam loss to charge exchange collisions. This provides evidence in favor of using FEPS in a future Heavy Ion Fusion accelerator. The FEPS discharge was investigated based on current-voltage measurements in the pulser circuit. Different values of series resistance and storage capacitance in the pulser circuit were used. The charged particle current emitted by the FEPS into vacuum was measured from the difference in forward and return currents in the driving circuit. It was found that FEPS is an emitter of negative charge, and that electron current emission begins approximately 0.5 mus after the fast-rising high voltage pulse is applied and lasts for tens of mus. The value of the series resistance in the pulser circuit was varied to change the rise time of the voltage pulse; plasma density was expected to decrease with increasing values of resistance. However, the data showed that changing the resistance had no significant effect. The average charge emitted per shot depends strongly on the value of the storage capacitance. Lowering the capacitance from 141 nF to 47 nF resulted in a near-complete shut-off of charge emission, although the amplitude of the applied voltage pulse was as high, and rise time as short, as when high-density plasma was produced. Increasing the capacitance from 141 nF to 235 nF increased the average charge emitted per shot by a factor of 2.

  16. Application of ECR ion source beams in atomic physics

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, F.W.

    1987-01-01

    The availability of intense, high charge state ion beams from ECR ion sources has had significant impact not only on the upgrading of cyclotron and synchrotron facilities, but also on multicharged ion collision research, as evidenced by the increasing number of ECR source facilities used at least on a part time basis for atomic physics research. In this paper one such facility, located at the ORNL ECR source, and dedicated full time to the study of multicharged ion collisions, is described. Examples of applications of ECR ion source beams are given, based on multicharged ion collision physics studies performed at Oak Ridge over the last few years. 21 refs., 18 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Ion source with improved primary arc collimation

    DOEpatents

    Dagenhart, William K. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1985-01-01

    An improved negative ion source is provided in which a self-biasing, molybdenum collimator is used to define the primary electron stream arc discharge from a filament operated at a negative potential. The collimator is located between the anode and the filament. It is electrically connected to the anode by means of an appropriate size resistor such that the collimator is biased at essentially the filament voltage during operation. Initially, the full arc voltage appears across the filament to collimator until the arc discharge strikes. Then the collimator biases itself to essentially filament potential due to current flow through the resistor thus defining the primary electron stream without intercepting any appreciable arc power. The collimator aperture is slightly smaller than the anode aperture to shield the anode from the arc power, thereby preventing the exposure of the anode to the full arc power which, in the past, has caused overheating and erosion of the anode collimator during extended time pulsed-beam operation of the source. With the self-biasing collimator of this invention, the ion source may be operated from short pulse periods to steady-state without destroying the anode.

  18. Ion source with improved primary arc collimation

    DOEpatents

    Dagenhart, W.K.

    1983-12-16

    An improved negative ion source is provided in which a self-biasing, molybdenum collimator is used to define the primary electron stream arc discharge from a filament operated at a negative potential. The collimator is located between the anode and the filament. It is electrically connected to the anode by means of an appropriate size resistor such that the collimator is biased at essentially the filament voltage during operation. Initially, the full arc voltage appears across the filament to collimator until the arc discharge strikes. Then the collimator biases itself to essentially filament potential due to current flow through the resistor thus defining the primary electron stream without intercepting any appreciable arc power. The collimator aperture is slightly smaller than the anode aperture to shield the anode from the arc power which, in the past, has caused overheating and erosion of the anode collimator during extended time pulsed-beam operation of the source. With the self-biasing collimator of this invention, the ion source may be operated from short pulse periods to steady-state without destroying the anode.

  19. Resonance hairpin and Langmuir probe-assisted laser photodetachment measurements of the negative ion density in a pulsed dc magnetron discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, James W.; Dodd, Robert; You, S.-D.; Sirse, Nishant; Karkari, Shantanu Kumar [Department of Electrical Engineering and Electronics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool (United Kingdom); National Centre for Plasma Science and Technology, Dublin City University, Dublin 9, Republic of Ireland (Ireland); National Centre for Plasma Science and Technology, Dublin City University, Dublin 9, Republic of Ireland and Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat Gandhinagar, Gujarat (India)

    2011-05-15

    The time-resolved negative oxygen ion density n{sub -} close to the center line in a reactive pulsed dc magnetron discharge (10 kHz and 50% duty cycle) has been determined for the first time using a combination of laser photodetachment and resonance hairpin probing. The discharge was operated at a power of 50 W in 70% argon and 30% oxygen gas mixtures at 1.3 Pa pressure. The results show that the O{sup -} density remains pretty constant during the driven phase of the discharge at values typically below 5x10{sup 14} m{sup -3}; however, in the off-time, the O{sup -} density grows reaching values several times those in the on-time. This leads to the negative ion fraction (or degree of electronegativity) {alpha}=n{sub -}/n{sub e} being higher in the off phase (maximum value {alpha}{approx}1) than in the on phase ({alpha}=0.05-0.3). The authors also see higher values of {alpha} at positions close to the magnetic null than in the more magnetized region of the plasma. This fractional increase in negative ion density during the off-phase is attributed to the enhanced dissociative electron attachment of highly excited oxygen molecules in the cooling plasma. The results show that close to the magnetic null the photodetached electron density decays quickly after the laser pulse, followed by a slow decay over a few microseconds governed by the negative ion temperature. However, in the magnetized regions of the plasma, this decay is more gradual. This is attributed to the different cross-field transport rates for electrons in these two regions. The resonance hairpin probe measurements of the photoelectron densities are compared directly to photoelectron currents obtained using a conventional Langmuir probe. There is good agreement in the general trends, particularly in the off-time.

  20. A hollow cathode ion source for production of primary ions for the BNL electron beam ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Alessi, James, E-mail: alessi@bnl.gov; Beebe, Edward; Carlson, Charles; McCafferty, Daniel; Pikin, Alexander; Ritter, John [Collider-Accelerator Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States)] [Collider-Accelerator Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States)

    2014-02-15

    A hollow cathode ion source, based on one developed at Saclay, has been modified significantly and used for several years to produce all primary 1+ ions injected into the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) at Brookhaven. Currents of tens to hundreds of microamperes have been produced for 1+ ions of He, C, O, Ne, Si, Ar, Ti, Fe, Cu, Kr, Xe, Ta, Au, and U. The source is very simple, relying on a glow discharge using a noble gas, between anode and a solid cathode containing the desired species. Ions of both the working gas and ionized sputtered cathode material are extracted, and then the desired species is selected using an ExB filter before being transported into the EBIS trap for charge breeding. The source operates pulsed with long life and excellent stability for most species. Reliable ignition of the discharge at low gas pressure is facilitated by the use of capacitive coupling from a simple toy plasma globe. The source design, and operating experience for the various species, is presented.

  1. Study of ion source emittance of an ELS-PIG source used for ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swenson, D. R.; Saadatmand, K.; Zeinoun, I.

    2000-02-01

    Optimizing transmission of beam in an ion implanter used for the manufacture of semiconductor devices leads to improved source lifetime, better reliability, and reduces contamination. With this goal, we are studying the emittance of the beam produced by the ELS-PIG ion source for beams from a BF3 plasma extracted at 90 kV with currents as high as 50 mA. The four-dimensional emittance is measured using a unique pepper-pot emittance gear. We have studied the effect on emittance of the plasma emission aperture dimensions, the extraction gap length, the extracted current and other parameters.

  2. Ion Mobility Spectrometry: Ion Source Development and Applications in Physical and Biological Sciences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samar K. Guharay; Prabha Dwivedi; Herbert H. Hilljr

    2008-01-01

    The utility of ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) has been steadily growing, and it cuts across diverse areas in physical and biological sciences. The development of ion sources, particularly in the context of IMS, is described. IMS ion sources operate efficiently in ambient environment and yield ions for a wide range of complex molecules including biological materials. While significant progress has

  3. Nonsputtering impulse magnetron discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Khodachenko, G. V.; Mozgrin, D. V.; Fetisov, I. K.; Stepanova, T. V. [National Research Nuclear University Moscow Engineering Physics Institute (Russian Federation)

    2012-01-15

    Experiments with quasi-steady high-current discharges in crossed E Multiplication-Sign B fields in various gases (Ar, N{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, and SF{sub 6}) and gas mixtures (Ar/SF{sub 6} and Ar/O{sub 2}) at pressures from 10{sup -3} to 5 Torr in discharge systems with different configurations of electric and magnetic fields revealed a specific type of stable low-voltage discharge that does not transform into an arc. This type of discharge came to be known as a high-current diffuse discharge and, later, a nonsputtering impulse magnetron discharge. This paper presents results from experimental studies of the plasma parameters (the electron temperature, the plasma density, and the temperature of ions and atoms of the plasma-forming gas) of a high-current low-pressure diffuse discharge in crossed E Multiplication-Sign B fields.

  4. Study of Compact Penning Ion Source for Material Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Das, B. K.; Das, R.; Shyam, A. [Energetics and Electromagnetics Division, Facility for Electro-Magnetic Systems, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Autonagar, Visakhapatnam, A.P-530012 (India)

    2011-07-15

    Development of ion sources of various sizes has been carried out since a long back. Gaseous ions of different nature are being used in different field of research as well as industrial applications like surface modification, doping, surface etching, sputtering, production of nano size particles and focused ion beam etc. Out of various geometry and operation regime, due to compactness, ruggedness and long life, penning type ion sources are widely used in different field of research and applications. One such type of ion source was developed in our laboratory. Though this source was meant for neutron generation, using deuterium ions, the effectiveness for other purposes was investigated. The discharge characteristic was studied for different gases like, Deuterium, Helium, Nitrogen, Oxygen and Argon. The source being a self extracted type; the extracted ion current from the extraction aperture was measured using one faraday cup. In this paper we have discussed, the discharge characteristic and the extraction ion current for different type of gases.

  5. Use of ion sources for nonsemiconductor surface modification (plenary)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwaki, Masaya

    2002-02-01

    At RIKEN, studies have been made on surface modification of metals, ceramics, and polymers using ion implantation in order to improve surface properties of various materials. For fundamental studies of surface modification, about 60 kinds of ions have been used as implanted elements, using rf-type, Nielsen-type, and hollow cathode-type ion sources. The Nielsen-type ion source has been the most useful for obtaining various ion species by modification to the evaporation oven and by selection of the source material. High current beams of some kinds of ions were obtained using Freeman-type or microwave-type ion sources. Ion beam modification with nonmass analyzed ions was investigated for practicable use of ion implantation. In this article, these ion sources are described, and their utilization in a variety of applications is reviewed. The improvement of the lifetime of tools by nitrogen implantation is introduced as a topic in the fields of nonsemiconductor materials, and several points for expansion of the field are emphasized. As a successful example in Japan, the dynamic mixing used in industry is introduced and ion sources are shown to be one of the technologically important factors. Plasma based ion implantation is compared with traditional surface finishing. Finally, the fabrication of small vascular grafts controlling cell adhesion is introduced as the applications of ion beams to biomedical materials.

  6. THE RFQ TEST STAND ION SOURCE AT RAL

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. W. G. Thomason; P. J. S. Barratt; C. J. Barton; J. C. Kerr; C. R. Lambourne; A. P. Letchford; G. R. Murdoch; M. Perkins; J. Saunders; R. Sidlow; C. P. Viswanathan; M. O. Whitehead

    2002-01-01

    The RFQ test stand at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL) is now being operated with an ion source identical to that used on ISIS. This is a surface plasma ion source of the Penning type, and on ISIS routinely produces 35 mA of H ? ions during a 200 µs pulse at 50 Hz for uninterrupted periods of up to 50

  7. The Brookhaven National Laboratory electron beam ion source for RHIC

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. G. Alessi; D. Barton; E. Beebe; S. Bellavia; O. Gould; A. Kponou; R. Lambiase; R. Lockey; A. McNerney; M. Mapes; Y. Marneris; M. Okamura; D. Phillips; A. I. Pikin; D. Raparia; J. Ritter; L. Snydstrup; C. Theisen; M. Wilinski

    2010-01-01

    As part of a new heavy ion preinjector that will supply beams for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Space Radiation Laboratory, construction of a new electron beam ion source (EBIS) is now being completed. This source, based on the successful prototype Brookhaven National Laboratory Test EBIS, is designed to produce milliampere level currents

  8. Ion source modeling and design at PRIME Lab

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George S Jackson; David Elmore; Marc Caffee; Kenneth A Mueller; Bob De Bonte; Paul Muzikar; Brad Alexander

    2004-01-01

    The design and ion optics of a new high intensity cesium ion source and sample changer being built at PRIME Lab will be discussed. The ion source is based on the Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (CAMS) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory design and the sample changer is based on a sample changer developed at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories in

  9. An ion source with a microwave power supply

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. K. Molchanov; O. Ia. Savchenko

    1982-01-01

    The paper describes a pulsed ion-beam source (H+ and H2+ ions) in which the ion energy is regulated by the power of a microwave field. A maximum ion energy of approximately 30 keV and a maximum current (with an extent of 85 cm) of 3 mA were obtained at a frequency of 1818 MHz.

  10. Optimization of the mVINIS ion source extraction system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šiljegovi?, M.; Dobrosavljevi?, A.; Beli?ev, P.

    2004-05-01

    The ion-optical properties of the single gap extraction system of the mVINIS ion source are investigated. The pepper-pot method was used to measure the effective emittances of the ion beams extracted from the plasma. The emittances have been analyzed as functions of the extraction electrode position for various charge states of the ion species.

  11. Simulation of H- ion source extraction systems for the Spallation Neutron Source with Ion Beam Simulatora)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalvas, T.; Welton, R. F.; Tarvainen, O.; Han, B. X.; Stockli, M. P.

    2012-02-01

    A three-dimensional ion optical code IBSimu, which is being developed at the University of Jyväskylä, features positive and negative ion plasma extraction models and self-consistent space charge calculation. The code has been utilized for modeling the existing extraction system of the H- ion source of the Spallation Neutron Source. Simulation results are in good agreement with experimental data. A high-current extraction system with downstream electron dumping at intermediate energy has been designed. According to the simulations it provides lower emittance compared to the baseline system at H- currents exceeding 40 mA. A magnetic low energy beam transport section consisting of two solenoids has been designed to transport the beam from the alternative electrostatic extraction systems to the radio frequency quadrupole.

  12. RF Ion Source-Driven IEC Design and Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Miley, G.H.; Yang, Y.; Webber, J.; Shaban, Y.; Momota, H. [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign (United States)

    2005-05-15

    The next step needed to achieve higher neutron yields and improved neutron production efficiency with Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) sources requires operation with an external ion source so that the reaction chamber pressure is controlled separately for the source pressure. This paper presents recent progress in IEC research at the UIUC using a unique external ion source ILLIBS (Illinois Ion Beam Source). When filled with deuterium, the IEC provides {approx}10{sup 8} 2.5-MeV D-D fusion neutrons/sec at steady-state. The design and operation of a radiofrequency (RF) ion gun designed for this purpose is also discussed.

  13. Time Profile of Ion Pulses Produced in a Hot-Cavity Laser Ion Source

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yuan [ORNL; Beene, James R [ORNL; Havener, Charles C [ORNL; Vane, C Randy [ORNL; Geppert, C. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Mainz, Germany; Gottwald, T. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Mainz, Germany; Kessler, T. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Mainz, Germany; Wies, K. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Mainz, Germany; Wendt, K. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Mainz, Germany

    2010-01-01

    The time spreads of Mn ions produced by three-photon resonant ionization in a hot-cavity laser ion source are measured. A one-dimensional ion-transport model is developed to simulate the observed ion time structures. Assuming ions are generated with a Maxwellian velocity distribution and are guided by an axial electric field, the predictions of the model agree reasonably well with the experimental data and suggest that the ions are radially confined in the ion source and a substantial fraction of the ions in the transport tube are extracted.

  14. Operational characteristics of a metal vapor vacuum arc ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Shiraishi, Hiroshi; Brown, I.G. (Nippon Steel Corp., Kitakyushu (Japan); Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA))

    1989-06-01

    The MEVVA ion source can produce high current pulsed beams of metallic ions using a metal vapor vacuum arc discharge as the plasma medium from which the ions are extracted. In this study, the operational characteristics of the MEVVA IV ion source are summarized. Results are presented of measurements of the ion beam current as a function of arc current over a range of extraction voltage. Ti, Ta and Pb were examined as the cathode materials. The arc current ranged from 50A to 250A and the extraction voltage from 10kV to 80kV. The ion beam current was measured at two different distances from the ion source using Faraday cups, so as to investigate the beam divergence. Additionally, the cathode erosion rates were measured. Optimum operating conditions of the MEVVA ion source were determined. 10 refs., 6 figs.

  15. An ion trap-ion mobility-time of flight mass spectrometer with three ion sources for ion\\/ion reactions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qin Zhao; Matthew W. Soyk; Gregg M. Schieffer; Katrin Fuhrer; Marc M. Gonin; R. S. Houk; Ethan R. Badman

    2009-01-01

    This instrument combines the capabilities of ion\\/ion reactions with ion mobility (IM) and time-of-flight (TOF) measurements\\u000a for conformation studies and top-down analysis of large biomolecules. Ubiquitin ions from either of two electrospray ionization\\u000a (ESI) sources are stored in a three dimensional (3D) ion trap (IT) and reacted with negative ions from atmospheric sampling\\u000a glow discharge ionization (ASGDI). The proton transfer

  16. Emission source functions in heavy ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapoval, V. M.; Sinyukov, Yu. M.; Karpenko, Iu. A.

    2013-12-01

    Three-dimensional pion and kaon emission source functions are extracted from hydrokinetic model (HKM) simulations of central Au+Au collisions at the top Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) energy sNN=200 GeV. The model describes well the experimental data, previously obtained by the PHENIX and STAR collaborations using the imaging technique. In particular, the HKM reproduces the non-Gaussian heavy tails of the source function in the pair transverse momentum (out) and beam (long) directions, observed in the pion case and practically absent for kaons. The role of rescatterings and long-lived resonance decays in forming the mentioned long-range tails is investigated. The particle rescattering contribution to the out tail seems to be dominating. The model calculations also show substantial relative emission times between pions (with mean value 13 fm/c in the longitudinally comoving system), including those coming from resonance decays and rescatterings. A prediction is made for the source functions in Large Hadron Collider (LHC) Pb+Pb collisions at sNN=2.76 TeV, which are still not extracted from the measured correlation functions.

  17. Ion source for high-precision mass spectrometry

    DOEpatents

    Todd, P.J.; McKown, H.S.; Smith, D.H.

    1982-04-26

    The invention is directed to a method for increasing the precision of positive-ion relative abundance measurements conducted in a sector mass spectrometer having an ion source for directing a beam of positive ions onto a collimating slit. The method comprises incorporating in the source an electrostatic lens assembly for providing a positive-ion beam of circular cross section for collimation by the slit. 2 figures, 3 tables.

  18. Frequency upgrading of the superconducting ECR ion source SERSE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Ciavola; S. Gammino; M. Castro; L. Celona; F. Chines; S. Marletta

    1999-01-01

    The installation of the superconducting ECR ion source SERSE at LNS and its commissioning have been successfully accomplished during last year. The problems related to LHe supply and high voltage insulation have been solved and the source is now fully operational with currents that are equal or greater than any other already operating ECR ion source. Recently the upgrading to

  19. Characterization of a modular broad beam ion source

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Zeuner; Horst Neumann; Frank Scholze; Dieter Flamm; Michael Tartz; Frieder Bigl

    1998-01-01

    We characterize the performance of a modular broad beam ion source by energy resolved mass spectrometry and beam profile measurements. Using the same source housing and grid system, we performed our experiments powering the source with a hot filament or an ECR excitation, respectively. In the ion energy distribution we detect various peak structures reflecting the potential profile across the

  20. Positive and negative ion sources for magnetic fusion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald Stephen Hemsworth; Takashi Inoue

    2005-01-01

    The positive or negative ion sources which form the primary components of neutral beam injection systems used in controlled nuclear fusion using magnetic confinement have to meet simultaneously several demanding requirements. This paper describes the underlying physics of modern positive ion sources, which provide the required high proton fraction (>90%) and high current density (?2 kA\\/m2) at a low source

  1. An Overview of Negative Ion Beams and Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welton, Robert

    2012-10-01

    This report will provide a broad introduction to the field of negative ion beams and sources first by summarizing their use in scientific research and industrial applications ranging from thermonuclear fusion, high energy physics, nuclear physics, neutron production, organic mass spectroscopy, accelerator mass spectroscopy, radioactive ion beam generation and others. Specific examples of important light and heavy ion negative sources will be discussed as well as the physics of negative ion formation. Finally, a summary of the recent 3rd International Symposium on Negative Ions, Beams and Sources in Jyvaskyla, Finland will be presented identifying some of the most important issues currently facing the field.

  2. Carborane beam from ITEP Bernas ion source for semiconductor implantersa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seleznev, D.; Kropachev, G.; Kozlov, A.; Kuibeda, R.; Koshelev, V.; Kulevoy, T.; Hershcovitch, A.; Jonson, B.; Poole, J.; Alexeyenko, O.; Gurkova, E.; Oks, E.; Gushenets, V.; Polozov, S.; Masunov, E.

    2010-02-01

    A joint research and development of steady state intense boron ion sources for hundreds of electron-volt ion implanters has been in progress for the past 5 years. The difficulties of extraction and transportation of low energy boron beams can be solved by implanting clusters of boron atoms. In Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP) the Bernas ion source successfully generated the beam of decaborane ions. The carborane (C2B10H12) ion beam is more attractive material due to its better thermal stability. The results of carborane ion beam generation are presented. The result of the beam implantation into the silicon wafer is presented as well.

  3. Magnetic plasma confinement for laser ion source.

    PubMed

    Okamura, M; Adeyemi, A; Kanesue, T; Tamura, J; Kondo, K; Dabrowski, R

    2010-02-01

    A laser ion source (LIS) can easily provide a high current beam. However, it has been difficult to obtain a longer beam pulse while keeping a high current. On occasion, longer beam pulses are required by certain applications. For example, more than 10 micros of beam pulse is required for injecting highly charged beams to a large sized synchrotron. To extend beam pulse width, a solenoid field was applied at the drift space of the LIS at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The solenoid field suppressed the diverging angle of the expanding plasma and the beam pulse was widened. Also, it was observed that the plasma state was conserved after passing through a few hundred gauss of the 480 mm length solenoid field. PMID:20192365

  4. Optimization of an rf-powered magnetron glow discharge for the trace analysis of glasses and ceramics.

    PubMed

    Saprykin, A I; Becker, J S; Dietze, H J

    1996-07-01

    A radiofrequency (rf) powered planar magnetron glow discharge ion source has been designed and coupled to a double-focusing mass spectrometer. Superposition of the electrical field of the plasma in the cathode dark space and the magnetic field obtained from a ring-shaped magnet located directly behind the sample (cathode) form the electron traps and enhance the sputtering and ionization efficiency of the ion source. In order to establish optimum conditions for the trace analysis of nonconducting materials, mass spectrometric studies have been carried out on the ion signal intensities and energy distributions of analyte and discharge gas ions depending on pressure. PMID:15045274

  5. Polarized ion source for low energy nuclear fusion research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Maehata; H. Arima; T. Hirose; N. Shichida; Y. Wakuta; M. Tanifuji

    1993-01-01

    A compact polarized ion source is under construction at Kyushu University. The ion source is designed to produce the polarized deuteron beam for measurements of the fusion reaction rate up to the deuteron energy of Ed=150 keV. Components of the ion source such as the dissociator, the high field permanent sextupole magnets, the rf-transition units, and the electron bombardment type

  6. An all permanent magnet electron cyclotron resonance ion source for heavy ion therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yun; Li, Jia Qing; Sun, Liang Ting; Zhang, Xue Zhen; Feng, Yu Cheng; Wang, Hui; Ma, Bao Hua; Li, Xi Xia

    2014-02-01

    A high charge state all permanent Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source, Lanzhou All Permanent ECR ion source no. 3-LAPECR3, has been successfully built at IMP in 2012, which will serve as the ion injector of the Heavy Ion Medical Machine (HIMM) project. As a commercial device, LAPECR3 features a compact structure, small size, and low cost. According to HIMM scenario more than 100 e?A of C5+ ion beam should be extracted from the ion source, and the beam emittance better than 75 ?*mm*mrad. In recent commissioning, about 120 e?A of C5+ ion beam was got when work gas was CH4 while about 262 e?A of C5+ ion beam was obtained when work gas was C2H2 gas. The design and construction of the ion source and its low-energy transportation beam line, and the preliminary commissioning results will be presented in detail in this paper.

  7. Fermilab HINS Proton Ion Source Beam Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Tam, W.M.; Apollinari, G.; Chaurize, S.; Hays, S.; Romanov, G.; Scarpine, V.; Schmidt, C.; Webber, R.; /Fermilab

    2009-05-01

    The proton ion source for the High Intensity Neutrino Source (HINS) Linac front-end at Fermilab has been successfully commissioned. It produces a 50 keV, 3 msec beam pulse with a peak current greater than 20mA at 2.5Hz. The beam is transported to the radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) by a low energy beam transport (LEBT) that consists of two focusing solenoids, four steering dipole magnets and a beam current transformer. To understand beam transmission through the RFQ, it is important to characterize the 50 keV beam before connecting the LEBT to the RFQ. A wire scanner and a Faraday cup are temporarily installed at the exit of the LEBT to study the beam parameters. Beam profile measurements are made for different LEBT settings and results are compared to those from computer simulations. In lieu of direct emittance measurements, solenoid variation method based on profile measurements is used to reconstruct the beam emittance.

  8. Design of ion energy distributions by a broad beam ion source

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Zeuner; Jürgen Meichsner; Horst Neumann; Frank Scholze; Frieder Bigl

    1996-01-01

    We characterize the performance of a built-in hot filament broad beam ion source by mass spectrometry, energy analysis, and beam profile measurements. In the ion energy distribution we detect various peak structures which can be explained by the potential across the ion source and different charge transfer processes. Depending on the typical cross sections for these processes, differences between the

  9. ECR Ion Source Developments at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Alton, G.D.; Liu, Y.; Meyer, F.W.

    1998-10-05

    New techniques for enhancing the performances of electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources are being investigated at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. We have utilized the multiple discrete frequency technique to improve the charge state distributions extracted from conventional magnetic field geometry ECR source by injecting three frequencies into the source. A new flat central magnetic field concept, has been incorporated in the designs of a compact all-permanent-magnet source for high charge-state ion beam generation and a compact electromagnetic source for singly ionized radioactive ion beam generation for use in the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) research program. A review of the three frequency injection experiments and descriptions of the design aspects of the "volume-type" ECR ion sources will be given in this report.

  10. RF-Plasma Coupling Schemes for the SNS Ion Source

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. F. Welton; M. P. Stockli; S. Shukla; Y. Kang; R. Keller; J. Staples

    2003-01-01

    The ion source for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is a radio-frequency, multicusp source designed to deliver beams of 45 mA of H- with a normalized rms emittance of 0.2 pi mm mrad to the SNS accelerator. RF power with a frequency of 2 MHz is delivered to the ion source by an 80-kW pulsed power supply generating nominal pulses

  11. Power supply system for negative ion source at IPR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Agrajit Gahlaut; Jashwant Sonara; K. G. Parmar; Jignesh Soni; M. Bandyopadhyay; Mahendrajit Singh; Gourab Bansal; Kaushal Pandya; Arun Chakraborty

    2010-01-01

    The first step in the Indian program on negative ion beams is the setting up of Negative ion Experimental Assembly - RF based, where 100 kW of RF power shall be coupled to a plasma source producing plasma of density ~5 × 1012 cm-3, from which ~ 10 A of negative ion beam shall be produced and accelerated to 35

  12. Low energy spread ion source with a coaxial magnetic filter

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo (Hercules, CA); Lee, Yung-Hee Yvette (Berkeley, CA)

    2000-01-01

    Multicusp ion sources are capable of producing ions with low axial energy spread which are necessary in applications such as ion projection lithography (IPL) and radioactive ion beam production. The addition of a radially extending magnetic filter consisting of a pair of permanent magnets to the multicusp source reduces the energy spread considerably due to the improvement in the uniformity of the axial plasma potential distribution in the discharge region. A coaxial multicusp ion source designed to further reduce the energy spread utilizes a cylindrical magnetic filter to achieve a more uniform axial plasma potential distribution. The coaxial magnetic filter divides the source chamber into an outer annular discharge region in which the plasma is produced and a coaxial inner ion extraction region into which the ions radially diffuse but from which ionizing electrons are excluded. The energy spread in the coaxial source has been measured to be 0.6 eV. Unlike other ion sources, the coaxial source has the capability of adjusting the radial plasma potential distribution and therefore the transverse ion temperature (or beam emittance).

  13. Application of a compact microwave ion source to radiocarbon analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, R. J.; Reden, K. F. von; Hayes, J. M.; Wills, J. S. C. [NOSAMS Facility, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Massachusetts 02543 (United States); AECL Chalk River Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario, K0J 1J0 (Canada)

    1999-04-26

    The compact, high current, 2.45 GHz microwave-driven plasma ion source which was built for the Chalk River TASCC facility is presently being adapted for testing as a gas ion source for accelerator mass spectrometry, at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution accelerator mass spectrometer. The special requirements for producing carbon-ion beams from micromole quantities of carbon dioxide produced from environmental samples will be discussed. These samples will be introduced into the ion source by means of argon carrier gas and a silicon capillary injection system. Following the extraction of positive ions from the source, negative ion formation in a charge exchange vapor will effectively remove the argon from the carbon beam. Simultaneous injection of the three carbon isotopes into the accelerator is planned.

  14. Efficient Plasma Ion Source Modeling With Adaptive Mesh Refinement (Abstract)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. S. Kim; J. L. Vay; A. Friedman; D. P. Grote

    2005-01-01

    Ion beam drivers for high energy density physics and inertial fusion energy research require high brightness beams, so there is little margin of error allowed for aberration at the emitter. Thus, accurate plasma ion source computer modeling is required to model the plasma sheath region and time-dependent effects correctly. A computer plasma source simulation module that can be used with

  15. Efficient Plasma Ion Source Modeling With Adaptive Mesh Refinement (Abstract)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. S. Kim; J. L. Vay; A. Friedman; D. P. Grote

    2005-01-01

    Ion beam drivers for high energy density physics and inertial fusion energy research require high brightness beams, so there is little margin of error allowed for aberration at the emitter. Thus, accurate plasma ion source computer modeling is required to model the plasma sheath region and time-dependent effects correctly.A computer plasma source simulation module that can be used with a

  16. A new plasma potential measurement instrument for plasma ion sources

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Tarvainen; P. Suominen; H. Koivisto

    2004-01-01

    A very efficient and fast instrument to measure the plasma potential of ion sources has been developed at the Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä (JYFL). The operating principle of this novel instrument is to apply a decelerating voltage into a mesh located in the beamline of the ion source. The plasma potential is determined by measuring the current at

  17. Laser-driven ion sources for high-brightness high-purity ion beams

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. B. Filuk; C. H. Ching; M. E. Cuneo; J. E. Bailey; M. A. Bernard; B. F. Clark; W. E. Fowler; P. Lake; J. S. Lash; J. McKenney; P. R. Menge; D. Cohen; P. Wang

    1997-01-01

    Summary form only given. Surface-plasma ion sources are critical to generating high-brightness, high purity ion beams on applied-B ion diodes. The source plasma must meet requirements for species, thickness, purity, degree of conductivity, formation timescale, and feasibility. Laser ionization schemes have been used on high-power ion diodes with encouraging but inconsistent results in diode impedance and beam purity. We are

  18. Enhanced secondary ion emission with a bismuth cluster ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagy, G.; Walker, A. V.

    2007-04-01

    We have investigated the mechanism of secondary ion yield enhancement using Bin+ (n = 1-6) primary ions and three different samples - dl-phenylalanine, Irganox 1010 and polystyrene - adsorbed on Al, Si and Ag substrates. The largest changes in secondary ion yields are observed for Bi2+ and Bi3+ primary ions. Smaller increases in secondary ion yield are found using Bi4+, Bi5+ and Bi6+ projectiles. The secondary ion yield enhancements are generally larger on Si than on Al. Using Bin+ structures obtained from density functional theory (DFT) calculations we demonstrate that the yield enhancements cannot be explained by an increase in the deposited energy density (energy per area) into the substrate. These data show that the mechanism of Bin+ sputtering is very similar to that for Aun+ primary ion beams. When a polyatomic primary ion strikes the substrate, its constituent atoms are likely to remain near to each other, and so a substrate atom can be struck simultaneously by multiple atoms. The action of these multiple concerted impacts leads to efficient energy transfer in the near surface region and an increase in the number of secondary ions ejected from the surface. Such concerted impacts involve one, two or three projectile atoms, which explains well the nonlinear yield enhancements observed going from Bi+ to Bi2+ to Bi3+.

  19. Broad-beam ion sources: Present status and future directions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harold R. Kaufman

    1986-01-01

    Operational problems are believed to constitute the major obstacle to the more widespread use of broad-beam ion sources, particularly in production applications. In the category of problems that are primarily the responsibility of ion-source operators: an excessive discharge voltage is undesirable because it causes excessive damage depth and contamination at the target; an excessive ion-beam current is undesirable because it

  20. Physics research and technology developments of electron string ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Donets, D. E.; Donets, E. E.; Ramzdorf, A. Yu.; Salnikov, V. V.; Shutov, V. B.; Donets, E. D. [Veksler and Baldin Laboratory of High Energy Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna 141980 (Russian Federation); Honma, T.; Noda, K. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage, Chiba, 263-8555 (Japan)

    2012-02-15

    The most recent experimental information on electron string phenomenon, such as two step transition to electron string state, stability of e-strings in condition of electron energy recuperation, are described. The new technology developments of electron string ion sources (ESIS) include pulse injection of gaseous species in e-string and its efficient conversion to ion beams, slow ion extraction, ion-ion cooling of heavy ions with CH{sub 4} coolant, and a progress in the construction of the new Joint Institute for Nuclear Research ESIS with 6 T solenoid are briefly considered.

  1. Laser ion source with solenoid for Brookhaven National Laboratory-electron beam ion sourcea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, K.; Yamamoto, T.; Sekine, M.; Okamura, M.

    2012-02-01

    The electron beam ion source (EBIS) preinjector at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is a new heavy ion-preinjector for relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC) and NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL). Laser ion source (LIS) is a primary ion source provider for the BNL-EBIS. LIS with solenoid at the plasma drift section can realize the low peak current (˜100 ?A) with high charge (˜10 nC) which is the BNL-EBIS requirement. The gap between two solenoids does not cause serious plasma current decay, which helps us to make up the BNL-EBIS beamline.

  2. Negative ion production with the electrospray ion source

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masamichi Yamashita; John B. Fenn

    1984-01-01

    Solution passed through a small capillary tube at several kilovolts relative to its surroundings is electrosprayed into a bath gas at slightly above atmospheric pressure to form a dispersion of ions that expands into vacuum through a small sonic orifice. A portion of the resulting supersonic free jet passes through a skimmer carrying ions into a quadrupole mass spectrometer. Previously

  3. Molecular and negative ion production by a standard electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Racz, R. [Institute of Nuclear Research (ATOMKI), Bem ter 18/c, H-4026 Debrecen (Hungary); University of Debrecen, Egyetem ter 1, H-4010 Debrecen (Hungary); Biri, S.; Juhasz, Z.; Sulik, B. [Institute of Nuclear Research (ATOMKI), Bem ter 18/c, H-4026 Debrecen (Hungary); Palinkas, J. [University of Debrecen, Egyetem ter 1, H-4010 Debrecen (Hungary)

    2012-02-15

    Molecular and negative ion beams, usually produced in special ion sources, play an increasingly important role in fundamental and applied atomic physics. The ATOMKI-ECRIS is a standard ECR ion source, designed to provide highly charged ion (HCI) plasmas and beams. In the present work, H{sup -}, O{sup -}, OH{sup -}, O{sub 2}{sup -}, C{sup -}, C{sub 60}{sup -} negative ions and H{sub 2}{sup +}, H{sub 3}{sup +}, OH{sup +}, H{sub 2}O{sup +}, H{sub 3}O{sup +}, O{sub 2}{sup +} positive molecular ions were generated in this HCI-ECRIS. Without any major modification in the source and without any commonly applied tricks (such as usage of cesium or magnetic filter), negative ion beams of several {mu}A and positive molecular ion beams in the mA range were successfully obtained.

  4. ECR (Electron Cyclotron Resonance) ion sources for cyclotrons

    SciTech Connect

    Lyneis, C.M.

    1986-10-01

    In the last decade ECR (Electron Cyclotron Resonance) ion sources have evolved from a single large, power consuming, complex prototype into a variety of compact, simple, reliable, efficient, high performance sources of high charge state ions for accelerators and atomic physics. The coupling of ECR sources to cyclotrons has resulted in significant performance gains in energy, intensity, reliability, and variety of ion species. Seven ECR sources are in regular operation with cyclotrons and numerous other projects are under development or in the planning stag. At least four laboratories have ECR sources dedicated for atomic physics research and other atomic physics programs share ECR sources with cyclotrons. An ECR source is now installed on the injector for the CERN SPS synchrotron to accelerate O/sup 8 +/ to relativistic energies. A project is underway at Argonne to couple an ECR source to a superconducting heavy-ion linac. Although tremendous progress has been made, the field of ECR sources is still a relatively young technology and there is still the potential for further advances both in source development and understanding of the plasma physics. The development of ECR sources is reviewed. The important physics mechanisms which come into play in the operation of ECR Sources are discussed, along with various models for charge state distributions (CSD). The design and performance of several ECR sources are compared. The 88-Inch Cyclotron and the LBL ECR is used as an example of cyclotron+ECR operation. The future of ECR sources is considered.

  5. Status of ion sources at National Institute of Radiological Sciencesa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitagawa, A.; Fujita, T.; Goto, A.; Hattori, T.; Hamano, T.; Hojo, S.; Honma, T.; Imaseki, H.; Katagiri, K.; Muramatsu, M.; Sakamoto, Y.; Sekiguchi, M.; Suda, M.; Sugiura, A.; Suya, N.

    2012-02-01

    The National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) maintains various ion accelerators in order to study the effects of radiation of the human body and medical uses of radiation. Two electrostatic tandem accelerators and three cyclotrons delivered by commercial companies have offered various life science tools; these include proton-induced x-ray emission analysis (PIXE), micro beam irradiation, neutron exposure, and radioisotope tracers and probes. A duoplasmatron, a multicusp ion source, a penning ion source (PIG), and an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) are in operation for these purposes. The Heavy-Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) is an accelerator complex for heavy-ion radiotherapy, fully developed by NIRS. HIMAC is utilized not only for daily treatment with the carbon beam but also for fundamental experiments. Several ECRISs and a PIG at HIMAC satisfy various research and clinical requirements.

  6. Status of ion sources at National Institute of Radiological Sciences

    SciTech Connect

    Kitagawa, A.; Fujita, T.; Goto, A.; Hattori, T.; Hamano, T.; Hojo, S.; Honma, T.; Imaseki, H.; Katagiri, K.; Muramatsu, M.; Sakamoto, Y.; Sekiguchi, M.; Suda, M.; Sugiura, A.; Suya, N. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan)

    2012-02-15

    The National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) maintains various ion accelerators in order to study the effects of radiation of the human body and medical uses of radiation. Two electrostatic tandem accelerators and three cyclotrons delivered by commercial companies have offered various life science tools; these include proton-induced x-ray emission analysis (PIXE), micro beam irradiation, neutron exposure, and radioisotope tracers and probes. A duoplasmatron, a multicusp ion source, a penning ion source (PIG), and an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) are in operation for these purposes. The Heavy-Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) is an accelerator complex for heavy-ion radiotherapy, fully developed by NIRS. HIMAC is utilized not only for daily treatment with the carbon beam but also for fundamental experiments. Several ECRISs and a PIG at HIMAC satisfy various research and clinical requirements.

  7. Anode tufting, arc faulting and plasma nonuniformity in ion sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, R.

    1983-03-01

    The observation of anode tufting in typical ion sources and the resulting source plasma inhomogeneity is reported. Plasma density and potential profiles across a stationary anode tuft, plasma density profiles in an experimental duopigatron ion source in the presence of a single anode tuft, plasma density profiles in the duopigatron in the absence of tufting, and current flow to the 'anode' and 'wall' of the duopigatron as a function of gas pressure are presented. Anode tufting in other experimental geometries is briefly described.

  8. Liquid metal ion source and alloy for ion emission of multiple ionic species

    DOEpatents

    Clark, Jr., William M. (Thousand Oaks, CA); Utlaut, Mark W. (Saugus, CA); Wysocki, Joseph A. (Oxnard, CA); Storms, Edmund K. (Los Alamos, NM); Szklarz, Eugene G. (Los Alamos, NM); Behrens, Robert G. (Los Alamos, NM); Swanson, Lynwood W. (McMinnville, OR); Bell, Anthony E. (McMinnville, OR)

    1987-06-02

    A liquid metal ion source and alloy for the simultaneous ion evaporation of arsenic and boron, arsenic and phosphorus, or arsenic, boron and phosphorus. The ionic species to be evaporated are contained in palladium-arsenic-boron and palladium-arsenic-boron-phosphorus alloys. The ion source, including an emitter means such as a needle emitter and a source means such as U-shaped heater element, is preferably constructed of rhenium and tungsten, both of which are readily fabricated. The ion sources emit continuous beams of ions having sufficiently high currents of the desired species to be useful in ion implantation of semiconductor wafers for preparing integrated circuit devices. The sources are stable in operation, experience little corrosion during operation, and have long operating lifetimes.

  9. Ion sources for initial use at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Alton, G.D.

    1993-12-31

    The Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) now under construction at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory will use the 25-MV tandem accelerator for the acceleration of radioactive ion beams to energies appropriate for research in nuclear physics; negative ion beams are, therefore, required for injection into the tandem accelerator. Because charge exchange is an efficient means for converting initially positive ion beams to negative ion beams, both positive and negative ion sources are viable options for use at the facility; the choice of the type of ion source will depend on the overall efficiency for generating the radioactive species of interest. A high-temperature version of the CERN-ISOLDE positive ion source has been selected and a modified version of the source designed and fabricated for initial use at the HRIBF because of its low emittance, relatively high ionization efficiencies and species versatility, and because it has been engineered for remote installation, removal and servicing as required for safe handling in a high-radiation-level ISOL facility. Prototype plasma-sputter negative ion sources and negative surface-ionization sources are also under design consideration for generating negative radioactive ion beams from high-electron-affinity elements. The design features of these sources and expected efficiencies and beam qualities (emittances) will be described in this report.

  10. Ion sources for initial use at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Alton, G.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1994-05-01

    The Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) now under construction at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory will use the 25-MV tandem accelerator for the acceleration of radioactive ion beams to energies appropriate for research in nuclear physics; negative ion beams are, therefore, required for injection into the tandem accelerator. Because charge exchange is an efficient means for converting initially positive ion beams to negative ion beams, both positive and negative ion sources are viable options for use at the facility; the choice of the type of ion source will depend on the overall efficiency for generating the radioactive species of interest. A high-temperature version of the CERN-ISOLDE positive ion source has been selected and a modified version of the source designed and fabricated for initial use at the HRIBF because of its low emittance, relatively high ionization efficiencies and species versatility, and because it has been engineered for remote installation, removal and servicing as required for safe handling in a high-radiation-level ISOL facility. Prototype plasma-sputter negative ion sources and negative surface-ionization sources are also under design consideration for generating negative radioactive ion beams from high-electron-affinity elements. The design features of these sources and expected efficiencies and beam qualities (emittances) will be described in this report.

  11. Caesium sputter ion source compatible with commercial SIMS instruments.

    SciTech Connect

    Belykh, S. F.; Palitsin, V. V.; Veryovkin, I. V.; Kovarsky, A. P.; Chang, R. J. H.; Adriaens, A.; Dowsett, M. G.; Adams, F.; Materials Science Division; Univ. Warwick; Ioffe Physical-Technical Inst.; Ghent Univ.; Univ. Antwerp

    2006-01-01

    A simple design for a caesium sputter cluster ion source compatible with commercially available secondary ion mass spectrometers is reported. This source has been tested with the Cameca IMS 4f instrument using the cluster Si{sub n}{sup -} and Cu{sub n}{sup -} ions, and will shortly be retrofitted to the floating low energy ion gun (FLIG) of the type used on the Cameca 4500/4550 quadruple instruments. Our experiments with surface characterization and depth profiling conducted to date demonstrate improvements of analytical capabilities of the SIMS instrument due to the non-additive enhancement of secondary ion emission and shorter ion ranges of polyatomic projectiles compared to atomic ions with the same impact energy.

  12. Sheath structure in negative ion sources for fusion (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    McAdams, R.; King, D. B.; Surrey, E. [EURATOM/CCFE Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Holmes, A. J. T. [Marcham Scientific, Hungerford, Berkshire RG17 0LH (United Kingdom)

    2012-02-15

    In fusion negative ion sources, the negative ions are formed on the caesiated plasma grid predominantly by hydrogen atoms from the plasma. The space charge of the negative ions leaving the wall is not fully compensated by incoming positive ions and at high enough emission a virtual cathode is formed. This virtual cathode limits the flux of negative ions transported across the sheath to the plasma. A 1D collisionless model of the sheath is presented taking into account the virtual cathode. The model will be applied to examples of the ion source operation. Extension of the model to the bulk plasma shows good agreement with experimental data. A possible role for fast ions is discussed.

  13. Expansion Discharge Source for Ion Beam Laser Spectroscopy of Cold Molecular Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porambo, Michael; Pearson, Jessica; Riccardo, Craig; McCall, Benjamin J.

    2013-06-01

    Molecular ions are important in several fields of research, and spectroscopy acts as a key tool in the study of these ions. However, problems such as low ion abundance, ion-neutral confusion, and spectral congestion due to high internal temperatures can hinder effective spectroscopic studies. To circumvent these problems, we are developing a technique called Sensitive, Cooled, Resolved, Ion BEam Spectroscopy (SCRIBES). This ion beam spectrometer will feature a continuous supersonic expansion discharge source to produce cold molecular ions, electrostatic ion optics to focus the ions into an ion beam and bend the beam away from co-produced neutral molecules, an overlap region for cavity enhanced spectroscopy, and a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. When completed, SCRIBES will be an effective tool for the study of large, fluxional, and complex molecular ions that are difficult to study with other means. The ion beam spectrometer has been successfully implemented with a hot ion source. This talk will focus on the work of integrating a supersonic expansion discharge source into the instrument. To better understand how the source would work in the whole ion beam instrument, characterization studies are being performed with spectroscopy of HN_2^+ in a section of the system to ascertain the rotational temperature of the ion expansion. Attempts are also underway to measure the ion current from a beam formed from the expansion. Once the source in this environment is properly understood, we will reintegrate it to the rest of the ion beam system, completing SCRIBES. A. A. Mills, B. M. Siller, M. W. Porambo, M. Perera, H. Kreckel and B. J. McCall J. Chem. Phys., 135, 224201, (2011). K. N. Crabtree, C. A. Kauffman and B. J. McCall Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 086103, (2010).

  14. Compact 2.45 GHz microwave ion/atom source

    SciTech Connect

    Sakamoto, Y.; Kasuya, T.; Wada, M.; Maeno, S. [Graduate School of Engineering, Doshisha University, Kyotanabe, Kyoto 610-0321 (Japan); Novelion Systems, Co., Ltd, Kyotanabe, Kyoto 610-0332 (Japan)

    2008-02-15

    Characteristics of a microwave driven 3.4 cm diameter compact ion/atom source equipped with permanent magnets were tested. The source can be mounted to a standard copper gasket flange, and microwave power is supplied through an N-type microwave connector. The ion source plasma was observed through an ion extraction hole with an optical emission spectrometer. Peak height of an optical line spectrum emission corresponding to atomic nitrogen increased in proportion to the microwave input power. Quadrupole mass spectrometer showed that N{sup +} and N{sub 2}{sup +} were the dominant species in the extracted ion beam. Nitrogen ion current density of 0.23 mA/cm{sup 2} was obtained with only 10 W discharge power and 6x10{sup -3} Pa source surrounding pressure.

  15. Ion Energy Distribution Studies of Ions and Radicals in an Ar/H2 Radio Frequency Magnetron Discharge During a-Si:H Deposition Using Energy-Resolved Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mensah, Samuel; Abu-Safe, Husam; Naseem, Hameed; Gordon, Matt

    2012-02-01

    Ion energy distributions of sputtered Si particles have been measured by an energy-resolved mass spectrometer, and we correlate the results with measured thin film properties. The plasmas have been generated in a conventional magnetron chamber powered at 150W, 13.56MHz at hydrogen flow rates ranging from 0-25sccm. Various Hn^+, SiHn^+, SiHn fragments (with n = 1, 2, 3) together with Ar^+ and ArH^+ species were detected in the discharge. The most important species for the film deposition is SiHn with n = 0,1,2, and H fragments affect the hydrogen content in the material. The flux of Ar^+ decreases and that of ArH^+ increases when the hydrogen flow rate was increased. However both fluxes saturate at hydrogen flow rates above 15sccm. Plasma parameters, such as plasma potential Vp, electron density ne and electron energy Te, are measured with the Langmuir probe. The ion energy distribution (IED) of all prominent species in the plasma is measured with an energy resolved mass analyzer. The plasma parameters decreased with increasing hydrogen flow rate; Vp, ne and Te decreased from 36.5V, 7.2x10^15 m-3, 5.6eV to 32.8, 2.2x10^15m-3 and 3.8eV respectively. The ion energy of the heavy species, Ar, Ar^+, ArH, ArH^+, SiHn and SiHn^+ radicals have ion energies comparable to the plasma potential. Analysis of the IEDs shows an inter-dependence of the species and their contribution to the thin film growth and properties.

  16. The 100-kV gas and metal ion source for high current ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bugaev, S. P.; Nikolaev, A. G.; Oks, E. M.; Schanin, P. M.; Yushkov, G. Yu.

    1992-04-01

    The TITAN ion source is a new kind of source which can produce high current beams of both metal and gas ions simultaneously or separately. Ion beams of the elements Mg, Al, Ti, Ca, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, Sn, Ta, Re, Y, C, He, N, Ar, and Xe have been generated. To obtain metal ions a vacuum arc is used in metal vapors created in ``cathode spots.'' To obtain gas ions a contragated arc discharge in gas current is used. The source extraction voltage is controlled within 10-100 kV. The ion current of both gas and metal was ?1 A. The source operates in a frequency-pulse regime at a pulse-repetition frequency as high as 50 pps. At its normal operation the source provides a dose of 1016 ions/cm2 per minute on a 250-cm2 area surface. The source is constructed according to the program on development of new technologies and is intended for high current surface modification and production of exotic surface alloys. At present, TITAN ion sources are utilized to modify physical-mechanical parameters of different surfaces. Here we outline the ion source and its performance.

  17. New ion source for KSTAR neutral beam injection systema)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Tae-Seong; Jeong, Seung Ho; In, Sang-Ryul

    2012-02-01

    The neutral beam injection system (NBI-1) of the KSTAR tokamak can accommodate three ion sources; however, it is currently equipped with only one prototype ion source. In the 2010 and 2011 KSTAR campaigns, this ion source supplied deuterium neutral beam power of 0.7-1.6 MW to the KSTAR plasma with a beam energy of 70-100 keV. A new ion source will be prepared for the 2012 KSTAR campaign with a much advanced performance compared with the previous one. The newly designed ion source has a very large transparency (˜56%) without deteriorating the beam optics, which is designed to deliver a 2 MW injection power of deuterium beams at 100 keV. The plasma generator of the ion source is of a horizontally cusped bucket type, and the whole inner wall, except the cathode filaments and plasma grid side, functions as an anode. The accelerator assembly consists of four multi-circular aperture grids made of copper and four electrode flanges made of aluminum alloy. The electrodes are insulated using PEEK. The ion source will be completed and tested in 2011.

  18. New ion source for KSTAR neutral beam injection system

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Tae-Seong; Jeong, Seung Ho; In, Sang-Ryul [Department of Nuclear Fusion Engineering Development, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-02-15

    The neutral beam injection system (NBI-1) of the KSTAR tokamak can accommodate three ion sources; however, it is currently equipped with only one prototype ion source. In the 2010 and 2011 KSTAR campaigns, this ion source supplied deuterium neutral beam power of 0.7-1.6 MW to the KSTAR plasma with a beam energy of 70-100 keV. A new ion source will be prepared for the 2012 KSTAR campaign with a much advanced performance compared with the previous one. The newly designed ion source has a very large transparency ({approx}56%) without deteriorating the beam optics, which is designed to deliver a 2 MW injection power of deuterium beams at 100 keV. The plasma generator of the ion source is of a horizontally cusped bucket type, and the whole inner wall, except the cathode filaments and plasma grid side, functions as an anode. The accelerator assembly consists of four multi-circular aperture grids made of copper and four electrode flanges made of aluminum alloy. The electrodes are insulated using PEEK. The ion source will be completed and tested in 2011.

  19. Ion source and injection line for high intensity medical cyclotron

    SciTech Connect

    Jia, XianLu, E-mail: jiaxl@ciae.ac.cn; Guan, Fengping; Yao, Hongjuan; Zhang, TianJue; Yang, Jianjun; Song, Guofang; Ge, Tao; Qin, Jiuchang [China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing (China)] [China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing (China)

    2014-02-15

    A 14 MeV high intensity compact cyclotron, CYCIAE-14, was built at China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE). An injection system based on the external H? ion source was used on CYCIAE-14 so as to provide high intensity beam, while most positron emission tomography cyclotrons adopt internal ion source. A beam intensity of 100 ?A/14 MeV was extracted from the cyclotron with a small multi-cusp H? ion source (CIAE-CH-I type) and a short injection line, which the H? ion source of 3 mA/25 keV H? beam with emittance of 0.3??mm?mrad and the injection line of with only 1.2 m from the extraction of ion source to the medial plane of the cyclotron. To increase the extracted beam intensity of the cyclotron, a new ion source (CIAE-CH-II type) of 9.1 mA was used, with maximum of 500 ?A was achieved from the cyclotron. The design and test results of the ion source and injection line optimized for high intensity acceleration will be given in this paper.

  20. The Development of a Discharge Heated Penning Ion Source for Multiply-Charged Ions in a K = 500 Superconducting Cyclotron

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy Allen Antaya

    1986-01-01

    We present the studies made during the design, testing, operation and development of a PIG ion source for the production of multiply-charged ions in the K500 Cyclotron. In Chapter 1 the fundamental properties of Penning (PIG) ion sources and the design of the K500 cyclotron ion source are presented. Pulsed operation of the source, including the power supply operation and

  1. Ion source issues for the DAE?ALUS neutrino experiment.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Jose R; Barletta, William A; Toups, Matthew H; Conrad, Janet; Liu, Y; Bannister, Mark E; Havener, C C; Vane, Randy

    2014-02-01

    The DAE?ALUS experiment calls for 10 mA of protons at 800 MeV on a neutrino-producing target. To achieve this record-setting current from a cyclotron system, H2 (+) ions will be accelerated. Loosely bound vibrationally excited H2 (+) ions inevitably produced in conventional ion sources will be Lorentz stripped at the highest energies. Presence of these states was confirmed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and strategies were investigated to quench them, leading to a proposed R&D effort towards a suitable ion source for these high-power cyclotrons. PMID:24593432

  2. Power supply for a thermionic ion source

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Reuterswärd

    1952-01-01

    The demands of a thermionic ion emitter with regard to heating power stability are stated considering the Richardson formula. Characteristics and details of a regulated alternating current generator are given by means of which ion currents constant to some tenths of a percent are obtained. The requirements of the electronic equipment in regard to the regulation of h.t. and cathode

  3. Simple radio-frequency power source for ion guides and ion traps Ronald M. Jones

    E-print Network

    Anderson, Scott L.

    Simple radio-frequency power source for ion guides and ion traps Ronald M. Jones Department oscillator circuit, designed to power radio-frequency rf ion guides and traps, is described. The rf circuit by inhomoge- neous radio-frequency rf fields, in some cases with addi- tional inhomogeneous direct current dc

  4. Pure radioactive Ga ion beams provided by new laser ion source for nuclear research at ORNL

    E-print Network

    Pure radioactive Ga ion beams provided by new laser ion source for nuclear research at ORNL pure beams of radioactive nuclei far from stability. · Beams of neutron-rich Ga isotopes were delivered to the Low-energy Radioactive Ion Beam Spectroscopy Station (LeRIBSS) with previously unattainable purity

  5. High intensity metal ion beam production with ECR ion sources atthe Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Wutte; S. Abbott; M. A. Leitner; C. M. Lyneis

    2001-01-01

    The large number of different experiments performed at the 88 Inch Cyclotron requires great variety and flexibility in the production of ion beams. This flexibility is provided by the two high performance electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources, the LBL ECR and the AECR-U, which can produce beams of ions as light as hydrogen and as heavy as uranium. With

  6. High intensity metal ion beam production with ECR ion sources at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Wutte; S. Abbott; M. A. Leitner; C. M. Lyneis

    2002-01-01

    The large number of different experiments performed at the 88 Inch Cyclotron requires great variety and flexibility in the production of ion beams. This flexibility is provided by the two high performance electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources, the LBL ECR and the AECR-U, which can produce beams of ions as light as hydrogen and as heavy as uranium. With

  7. Vacuum Arc Ion Sources: Recent Developments and Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Ian; Oks, Efim

    2005-05-01

    The vacuum arc ion source has evolved over the past twenty years into a standard laboratory tool for the production of high current beams of metal ions, and is now used in a number of different embodiments at many laboratories around the world. The primary application of this kind of source has evolved to be ion implantation for material surface modification. Another important use is for injection of high current beams of heavy metal ions into the front ends of particle accelerators, and much excellent work has been carried out in recent years in optimizing the source for reliable accelerator application. The source also provides a valuable tool for the investigation of the fundamental plasma physics of vacuum arc plasma discharges. As the use of the source has grown and diversified, at the same time the ion source performance and operational characteristics have been improved in a variety of different ways also. Here we review the growth and status of vacuum arc ion sources around the world, and summarize some of the applications for which the sources have been used.

  8. Electric Potential Near The Extraction Region In Negative Ion Sources With Surface Produced Negative Ions

    SciTech Connect

    Fukano, A. [Monozukuri Department, Tokyo Metropolitan College of Industrial Technology, 1-10-40 Higashi-Ohi, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 140-0011 (Japan); Hatayama, A. [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kouhoku-ku, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan)

    2011-09-26

    The potential distribution near the extraction region in negative ion sources for the plasma with the surface produced negative ions is studied analytically. The potential is derived analytically by using a plasma-sheath equation, where negative ions produced on the Plasma Grid (PG) surface are considered in addition to positive ions and electrons. A negative potential peak is formed in the sheath region near the PG surface for the case of strong surface production of negative ions or for low energy negative ions. Negative ions are reflected by the negative potential peak near the PG and returned to the PG surface. This reflection mechanism by the negative potential peak possibly becomes a factor in negative ion extraction. It is also indicated that the potential difference between the plasma region and the wall decreases by the surface produced negative ions. This also has the possibility to contribute to the negative ion extraction.

  9. A novel electron source for negative ion mobility spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mahmoud Tabrizchi; Azra Abedi

    2002-01-01

    The possibility of using negative corona discharge in pure nitrogen as the ionization source for negative ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) has been investigated. The discharge in pure nitrogen produces a huge number of electrons, almost 106 times as much as that produced by the conventional 63Ni ionization source. However, this high intensity electron source cannot be simply used in IMS

  10. Ion beam capture and charge breeding in electron cyclotron resonance ion source plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jin-Soo; Zhao, L.; Cluggish, B. P.; Pardo, Richard [FAR-TECH, Inc., San Diego, California 92121 (United States); Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2007-10-15

    Beam capture of injected ions and charge breeding in electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) charge breeder ion source plasmas has been investigated utilizing an ECR plasma modeling code, the generalized ECR ion source model, and a Monte Carlo beam capture code. Beam capturing dynamics, charge breeding in the plasma, and the extracted charged ion states are described. Optimization of ion beam energy is performed for (1) high beam capture efficiency and (2) high charge state ion beam extractions. A sample case study for ANL-ECR has been performed. Ions entering ECR ion source plasma are slowed down mostly by the background ions. Assuming Maxwellian plasma ions, maximum beam energy loss occurs when the beam velocity is around the background thermal velocity in magnitude. It is also found that beam capture location affects charge state distribution. For instance, with a majority of beam ions captured near the middle of the device higher currents for higher charge states are obtained. The beam ions captured near the entry have a higher probability of backstreaming after they are captured. For this reason, the optimum beam energy of the injected Ar{sup +} beam ions for charge breeding is generally higher than the optimum input beam energy for maximum beam energy loss.

  11. The negative hydrogen Penning ion gauge ion source for KIRAMS-13 cyclotron.

    PubMed

    An, D H; Jung, I S; Kang, J; Chang, H S; Hong, B H; Hong, S; Lee, M Y; Kim, Y; Yang, T K; Chai, J S

    2008-02-01

    The cold-cathode-type Penning ion gauge (PIG) ion source for the internal ion source of KIRAMS-13 cyclotron has been used for generation of negative hydrogen ions. The dc H-beam current of 650 microA from the PIG ion source with the Dee voltage of 40 kV and arc current of 1.0 A is extrapolated from the measured dc extraction beam currents at the low extraction dc voltages. The output optimization of PIG ion source in the cyclotron has been carried out by using various chimneys with different sizes of the expansion gap between the plasma boundary and the chimney wall. This paper presents the results of the dc H-extraction measurement and the expansion gap experiment. PMID:18315141

  12. Development of the Long Pulse Negative Ion Source for ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Hemsworth, R.S.; Svensson, L.; Esch, H.P.L. de; Krylov, A.; Massmann, P. [Association EURATOM-CEA, CEA/DSM/DRFC, CEA-Cadarache, 13108 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Boilson, D. [Association EURATOM-DCU, PRL/NCPST, Glasnevin, Dublin 13 (Ireland); Fanz, U. [Association EURATOM-IPP, Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik D-85748 Garching (Germany); Zaniol, B. [CONSORZIO RFX Association EURATOM-ENEA, Corso Stati Uniti 4, I-35127 Padova (Italy)

    2005-04-06

    A model of the ion source designed for the neutral beam injectors of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), the KAMABOKO III ion source, is being tested on the MANTIS test stand at the DRFC Cadarache in collaboration with JAERI, Japan, who designed and supplied the ion source. The ion source is attached to a 3 grid 30 keV accelerator (also supplied by JAERI) and the accelerated negative ion current is determined from the energy deposited on a calorimeter located 1.6 m from the source.During experiments on MANTIS three adverse effects of long pulse operation were found: The negative ion current to the calorimeter is {approx_equal}50% of that obtained from short pulse operation Increasing the plasma grid (PG) temperature results in {<=}40% enhancement in negative ion yield, substantially below that reported for short pulse operation, {>=}100%. The caesium 'consumption' is up to 1500 times that expected.Results presented here indicate that each of these is, at least partially, explained by thermal effects. Additionally presented are the results of a detailed characterisation of the source, which enable the most efficient mode of operation to be identified.

  13. Ion current detector for high pressure ion sources for monitoring separations

    DOEpatents

    Smith, R.D.; Wahl, J.H.; Hofstadler, S.A.

    1996-08-13

    The present invention relates generally to any application involving the monitoring of signal arising from ions produced by electrospray or other high pressure (>100 torr) ion sources. The present invention relates specifically to an apparatus and method for the detection of ions emitted from a capillary electrophoresis (CE) system, liquid chromatography, or other small-scale separation methods. And further, the invention provides a very simple diagnostic as to the quality of the separation and the operation of an electrospray source. 7 figs.

  14. The Gridless Plasma Ion Source (GIS) for Plasma Ion Assisted Optical Coating

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dawei You; Xiaoqian Li; Yu Wang; Yongchang Lin

    2004-01-01

    High-quality optical coating is a key technology for modern optics. Ion-assisted deposition technology was used to improve the vaporized coating in 1980's. The GIS (gridless ion source), which is an advanced plasma source for producing a high-quality optical coating in large area, can produce a large area uniformity>1000 mm(diameter), a high ion current density-0.5 mA\\/cm2, 20 eV-200 eV energetic plasma

  15. Measurement of ion beam from laser ion source for RHIC EBIS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takeshi Kanesue; Jun Tamura; M. Okamura

    2008-01-01

    Laser ion source (LIS) is a candidate of the primary ion source for the RHIC EBIS. LIS will provide intense charge state 1+ ions to the EBIS for further ionization. We measured plasma properties of a variety of atomic species from C to Au using the second harmonics of Nd:YAG laser (532 nm wave length, up to 0.5 J\\/6 ns).

  16. A review of ion sources for medical accelerators (invited).

    PubMed

    Muramatsu, M; Kitagawa, A

    2012-02-01

    There are two major medical applications of ion accelerators. One is a production of short-lived isotopes for radionuclide imaging with positron emission tomography and single photon emission computer tomography. Generally, a combination of a source for negative ions (usually H- and/or D-) and a cyclotron is used; this system is well established and distributed over the world. Other important medical application is charged-particle radiotherapy, where the accelerated ion beam itself is being used for patient treatment. Two distinctly different methods are being applied: either with protons or with heavy-ions (mostly carbon ions). Proton radiotherapy for deep-seated tumors has become widespread since the 1990s. The energy and intensity are typically over 200 MeV and several 10(10) pps, respectively. Cyclotrons as well as synchrotrons are utilized. The ion source for the cyclotron is generally similar to the type for production of radioisotopes. For a synchrotron, one applies a positive ion source in combination with an injector linac. Carbon ion radiotherapy awakens a worldwide interest. About 6000 cancer patients have already been treated with carbon beams from the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences in Japan. These clinical results have clearly verified the advantages of carbon ions. Heidelberg Ion Therapy Center and Gunma University Heavy Ion Medical Center have been successfully launched. Several new facilities are under commissioning or construction. The beam energy is adjusted to the depth of tumors. It is usually between 140 and 430 MeV?u. Although the beam intensity depends on the irradiation method, it is typically several 10(8) or 10(9) pps. Synchrotrons are only utilized for carbon ion radiotherapy. An ECR ion source supplies multi-charged carbon ions for this requirement. Some other medical applications with ion beams attract developer's interests. For example, the several types of accelerators are under development for the boron neutron capture therapy. This treatment is conventionally demonstrated by a nuclear reactor, but it is strongly expected to replace the reactor by the accelerator. We report status of ion source for medical application and such scope for further developments. PMID:22380341

  17. Comparison of graphite materials for targets of laser ion source.

    PubMed

    Fuwa, Y; Ikeda, S; Kumaki, M; Sekine, M; Munemoto, N; Cinquegrani, D; Romanelli, M; Kanesue, T; Okamura, M; Iwashita, Y

    2014-02-01

    To investigate efficient graphite material for carbon ion production in laser ion source, the plasma properties produced from these materials are measured. Comparing acquired current profile and charge state distribution, the distributions of ions in laser induced plasma from isotropic graphite and single crystal of graphite are different. The produced quantity of C(6+) from isotropic materials is larger than that from single crystal. PMID:24593629

  18. Artificially Structured Boundary for a high purity ion trap or ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacheco, J. L.; Ordonez, C. A.; Weathers, D. L.

    2014-08-01

    A plasma enclosed by an Artificially Structured Boundary (ASB) is proposed here as an alternative to existing ion source assemblies. In accelerator applications, many ion sources can have a limited lifetime or frequent service intervals due to sputtering and eventual degradation of the ion source assembly. Ions are accelerated towards the exit canal of positive ion sources, whereas, due to the biasing scheme, electrons or negative ions are accelerated towards the back of the ion source assembly. This can either adversely affect the experiment in progress due to sputtered contamination or compromise the integrity of the ion source assembly. Charged particle trajectories in the proximity of an ASB experience electromagnetic fields that are designed to hinder ion-surface interactions. Away from the ASB there is an essentially field free region. The field produced by an ASB is considered to consist of a periodic sequence of electrostatically plugged magnetic field cusps. A classical trajectory Monte Carlo simulation is extended to include electrostatic plugging of magnetic field cusps. The conditions necessary for charged particles to be reflected by the ASB are presented and quantified in terms of normalized parameters.

  19. Large source test stand for H⁻(D⁻) ion source

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Larson; R. McKenzie-Wilson

    1981-01-01

    The Brookhaven National Laboratory Neutral Beam Group has constructed a Large Source Test Stand for testing of the various source modules under development. The first objective of the BNL program is to develop a source module capable of delivering 10A of H-(D-) at 25 kV operating in the steady state mode with satisfactory gas and power efficiency. The large source

  20. Large source test stand for H⁻(D⁻) ion source

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Larson; R. McKenzie-Wilson

    1981-01-01

    The Brookhaven National Laboratory Neutral Beam Group has constructed a large source test stand for testing of the various source modules under development. The first objective of the BNL program is to develop a source module capable of delivering 10A of H⁻(D⁻) at 25 kV operating in the steady state mode with satisfactory gas and power efficiency. The large source

  1. Conditioning of ion sources for mass spectrometry of plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Dylla, H.F.; Blanchard, W.R.

    1983-02-01

    Mass spectrometry is a useful diagnostic technique for monitoring plasma species and plasma-surface interactions. In order to maximize the sensitivity of measurements of hydrogen-fueled fusion plasmas or hydrogen-based discharge cleaning and etching plasmas, the ion sources of mass spectrometers are operated at or near the high pressure limit of 10/sup -4/ Torr (10/sup -2/ Pa). Such high ambient pressures of hydrogen give rise to high background levels of residual gases such as H/sub 2/O, CO, and CH/sub 4/, due to surface reactions on the ion source electrodes. For a commonly used ion source configuration, the residual gas production is a linear function of the ambient H/sub 2/ pressure. Hydrogen conditioning can reduce the absolute residual gas levels. Steady-state residual gas production is observed in a conditioned ion source, which is related to a balance of diffusion and sorption on the electrode surfaces.

  2. Physics of electron beam ion traps and sources

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fred Currell; Gerd Fussmann

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the basic physics underlying the operation of electron beam ion traps and sources, with the machine physics underlying their operation being described in some detail. Predictions arising from this description are compared with some diagnostic measurements.

  3. Synchrotron injectors based on high charge state ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Prelec, K.

    1990-02-14

    The performance of any injector contemplated to replace the electrostatic tandem accelerators some time in the future should evidently match or surpass the characteristics of the tandems. It is a fortunate coincidence that the performance of the BNL tandem satisfies in most respects the requirements of the proposed collider, although originally tandems were not built with this application in mind. Requests for heavy ion beams with parameters suitable for injection into the rings of a heavy ion collider have appeared rather recently, at a stage when the high charge state ion sources, which in principle are capable of producing many ion species, have not yet reached such a level of performance. Therefore, consideration of such sources as part of a future injector replacing the tandem accelerators will have to rely on the extrapolation of results from existing models, developed for a different purpose. At the same time, present and future collider requirements for heavy ion beams should serve as a stimulus for the development of sources producing ions with adequate charge states and intensities. Injectors based on such sources may present a better alternative than the tandem accelerators because a higher charge-to-mass ratio of ions from the source results in a more efficient and less costly accelerator. In this report, two candidates for a high charge state, heavy ion source will be considered: an EBIS and an ECR. Other approaches, e.g. laser ion sources, are much further away in the development of a device to be used in a synchrotron injector. 25 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Surface-electrode ion trap with integrated light source

    E-print Network

    Kim, Tony Hyun

    An atomic ion is trapped at the tip of a single-mode optical fiber in a cryogenic (8 K) surface-electrode ion trap. The fiber serves as an integrated source of laser light, which drives the quadrupolequbit transition of ...

  5. Ion sources for radioactive beams and related problems (Review) (invited)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Kirchner; GSI Darmstadt

    1996-01-01

    Ion sources for radioactive beam facilities are integrated systems of production target and ionizer which have to convert the limited number of particles produced in nuclear reactions efficiently and selectively into an ion beam. The figures of merit for such a system are thus its efficiency for a desired isotope and its discrimination against the unwanted elements. The efficiency is

  6. Combinatorial characterization of transparent conductive properties of Ga-doped ZnO films cosputtered from electron cyclotron resonance and rf magnetron plasma sources

    SciTech Connect

    Akazawa, Housei [NTT Microsystem Integration Laboratories, 3-1 Morinosato Wakamiya, Atsugi-shi, Kanagawa 243-0198 (Japan)

    2010-03-15

    The simultaneous sputtering of ZnO and Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} by electron cyclotron resonance and rf magnetron plasma sources produced Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) films with continuously varying Ga concentration over the substrate surface. Combinatorial evaluation of electrical and optical properties of GZO film grown on silica glass substrate without heater annealing enabled identification of minimum resistivity (0.5 m{Omega} cm) at a Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} content of 5.5 wt % with an optical transmittance of 90% in the visible wavelength. The monotonically decreasing mobility that was associated with increasing carrier concentration as Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} content was increased indicated that conduction was governed by ionized impurity scattering. Above the critical Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} content (6 wt %), carrier concentration decreased since excess Ga atoms that were incorporated beyond the solubility limit at Zn sites hindered large crystalline domains from forming. The ZnO (002) x-ray diffraction peak was suppressed and peaks assigned to Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} were observed at high Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} content. The optimum Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} content shifted to 3.5 wt % at a deposition temperature of 200 deg. C and 2.5 wt % at 300 deg. C, and the minimum resistivity was further decreased to 0.28 m{Omega} cm at 200 deg. C. However, the resistivities at these elevated temperatures were incredibly high both at the lower and higher side of the optimum Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} content.

  7. Flow of nanosize cluster-containing plasma in a magnetron discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Smirnov, Boris M. [Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences, Izhorskaya 13/19, Moscow 125412 (Russian Federation); Shyjumon, Ibrahimkutty; Hippler, Rainer [Institut fuer Physik, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universitaet Greifswald, Felix-Hausdorff-Strasse 6, 17489 Greifswald (Germany)

    2007-06-15

    A magnetron source of silver clusters captured by an argon flow with the quadrupole mass filter is used for the analysis of charged clusters after an orifice of the magnetron chamber, and the size distribution function follows from the analysis of clusters deposited on a silicon substrate by an atomic force microscope. Cluster charge near an orifice results from attachment of ions of a secondary plasma that is a tail of a magnetron plasma, and the cluster charge is mostly positive. The character of passage of a buffer gas flow with metal clusters through an orifice is studied both theoretically and experimentally. Assuming the cone shape of the drift chamber near the orifice, we analyze drift of charged clusters in a buffer gas flow towards the orifice if the electric field inside the drift chamber is created by charged rings on the cone surface. Under experimental conditions, when an equilibrium between the buffer gas flow and cluster flux is violated, a typical voltage of rings and parameters of corona discharge for cluster charging are estimated if the electric field does not allow for clusters to reach walls of the drift chamber. The number density of clusters near the orifice is estimated that increases both due to violation of an equilibrium for the cluster flux inside the buffer gas flow and owing to focusing of the cluster by the electric field that is created by electrodes located near walls and due to diffusion motion of clusters. Processes of cluster charging in the magnetron chamber are analyzed.

  8. Study of Direct Current Negative Ion Source for Medicine Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Belchenko, Yu.; Ivanov, I.; Piunov, I. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, 63090, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2005-04-06

    Status of dc H- ion source development for tandem accelerator of boron capture neutron therapy is described. Upgrade and study of the Penning surface-plasma source with hollow cathodes was continued. Results of source optimization, of ion optic computer simulation, and of emittance measurement are presented. The upgraded source delivers dc H- beam with energy 25 kV, current 8 mA, 1rms emittance JukcyX {approx} 0.2 {pi} mm{center_dot}mrad, JukcyY {approx} 0.3 {pi} mm{center_dot}mrad at discharge power {<=} 0.5 kW.

  9. High output neutron tube using an occluded gas ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Walko, R.J.; Rochau, G.E.

    1980-01-01

    A neutron tube capable of generating 10/sup 10/ 14 MeV neutrons in a 1.2 ms pulse has been developed for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission for use in flow measurements using the Pulsed Neutron Activation technique. The tube consists of an occluded deuterium gas ion source, a single gap accelerator and a scandium tritide target. A unique feature of the tube design is its complete demountability, permitting easy replacement or modification of critical components. The ion source is a modified version of a stacked occluded washer source. However, in contrast to previous designs, this source utilizes only a single scandium deuteride washer and needs no independent trigger. Outputs of 1.2 x 10/sup 10/ neutrons per pulse from a 250 mA deuterium ion beam at 125 kV have been obtained for over 1500 consecutive operations with a standard deviation of only +- 5%. The ultimate operational lifetime is believed to be in excess of 3000 shots based on the present knowledge of ion source behavior. Recent experiments using nonmagnetic structural components in the ion source resulted in a 26% increase in output with a simultaneous 35% reduction in the source drive current. This implies that even higher outputs with greater source efficiencies may be achievable.

  10. Low-Power Microwave Electron Source for Ion Engine Neutralizer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ikkoh Funaki; Shin Satori; Hitoshi Kuninaka

    1998-01-01

    Operation of an ion engine in space requires an electron source to maintain the spacecraft's electrical neutrality. To neutralize exhausted ions, a low-power, compact microwave electron source was developed. An 18-mm-diameter noncavity-type discharge chamber consisting of an L-shaped antenna and a magnetic circuit was developed, and electron emission current of 100 mA was obtained at the power level of 10

  11. An ion trap-ion mobility-time of flight mass spectrometer with three ion sources for ion/ion reactions.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qin; Soyk, Matthew W; Schieffer, Gregg M; Fuhrer, Katrin; Gonin, Marc M; Houk, R S; Badman, Ethan R

    2009-08-01

    This instrument combines the capabilities of ion/ion reactions with ion mobility (IM) and time-of-flight (TOF) measurements for conformation studies and top-down analysis of large biomolecules. Ubiquitin ions from either of two electrospray ionization (ESI) sources are stored in a three dimensional (3D) ion trap (IT) and reacted with negative ions from atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization (ASGDI). The proton transfer reaction products are then separated by IM and analyzed via a TOF mass analyzer. In this way, ubiquitin +7 ions are converted to lower charge states down to +1; the ions in lower charge states tend to be in compact conformations with cross sections down to approximately 880 A(2). The duration and magnitude of the ion ejection pulse on the IT exit and the entrance voltage on the IM drift tube can affect the measured distribution of conformers for ubiquitin +7 and +6. Alternatively, protein ions are fragmented by collision-induced dissociation (CID) in the IT, followed by ion/ion reactions to reduce the charge states of the CID product ions, thus simplifying assignment of charge states and fragments using the mobility-resolved tandem mass spectrum. Instrument characteristics and the use of a new ion trap controller and software modifications to control the entire instrument are described. PMID:19493684

  12. Multiple species beam production on laser ion source for electron beam ion source in Brookhaven National Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Sekine, M; Ikeda, S; Hayashizaki, N; Kanesue, T; Okamura, M

    2014-02-01

    Extracted ion beams from the test laser ion source (LIS) were transported through a test beam transport line which is almost identical to the actual primary beam transport in the current electron beam ion source apparatus. The tested species were C, Al, Si, Cr, Fe, Cu, Ag, Ta, and Au. The all measured beam currents fulfilled the requirements. However, in the case of light mass ions, the recorded emittance shapes have larger aberrations and the RMS values are higher than 0.06 ??mm?mrad, which is the design goal. Since we have margin to enhance the beam current, if we then allow some beam losses at the injection point, the number of the single charged ions within the acceptance can be supplied. For heaver ions like Ag, Ta, and Au, the LIS showed very good performance. PMID:24593625

  13. Negative hydrogen ion beam extracted from a Bernas-type ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Miyamoto, N.; Wada, M. [Graduate School of Engineering, Doshisha University, Kyotanabe, Kyoto 610-0321 (Japan)

    2011-09-26

    Negative hydrogen (H{sup -}) ion beam was produced without cesium seeding by a Bernas-type ion source with a coaxial hot cathode. The amount of H{sup -} ion beam current extracted from an original Bernas-type ion source using a hairpin shape filament as a hot cathode was 1 {mu}A with the 0.4 A arc current, while that 300 eV beam energy. In the other hand, H{sup -} ion beam current using the Bernas-type ion source with a coaxial hot cathode reached 4 {mu}A under the same condition. Production efficiency was enhanced by the focused plasma produced by a coaxial hot cathode.

  14. Experimental evaluation of a negative ion source for a heavy ionfusion negative ion driver

    SciTech Connect

    Grisham, L.R.; Hahto, S.K.; Hahto, S.T.; Kwan, J.W.; Leung, K.N.

    2005-01-18

    Negative halogen ions have recently been proposed as a possible alternative to positive ions for heavy ion fusion drivers because electron accumulation would not be a problem in the accelerator, and if desired, the beams could be photodetached to neutrals [1,2,3]. To test the ability to make suitable quality beams, an experiment was conducted at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory using chlorine in an RF-driven ion source. Without introducing any cesium (which is required to enhance negative ion production in hydrogen ion sources) a negative chlorine current density of 45 mA/cm{sup 2} was obtained under the same conditions that gave 57 mA/cm{sup 2} of positive chlorine, suggesting the presence of nearly as many negative ions as positive ions in the plasma near the extraction plane. The negative ion spectrum was 99.5% atomic chlorine ions, with only 0.5% molecular chlorine, and essentially no impurities. Although this experiment did not incorporate the type of electron suppression technology that is used in negative hydrogen beam extraction, the ratio of co-extracted electrons to Cl{sup -} was as low as 7 to 1, many times lower than the ratio of their mobilities, suggesting that few electrons are present in the near-extractor plasma. This, along with the near-equivalence of the positive and negative ion currents, suggests that the plasma in this region was mostly an ion-ion plasma. The negative chlorine current density was relatively insensitive to pressure, and scaled linearly with RF power. If this linear scaling continues to hold at higher RF powers, it should permit current densities of 100 mA/cm{sup 2}, sufficient for present heavy ion fusion injector concepts. The effective ion temperatures of the positive and negative ions appeared to be similar and relatively low for a plasma source.

  15. DUHOCAMIS: a dual hollow cathode ion source for metal ion beams.

    PubMed

    Zhao, W J; Müller, M W O; Janik, J; Liu, K X; Ren, X T

    2008-02-01

    In this paper we describe a novel ion source named DUHOCAMIS for multiply charged metal ion beams. This ion source is derived from the hot cathode Penning ion gauge ion source (JINR, Dubna, 1957). A notable characteristic is the modified Penning geometry in the form of a hollow sputter electrode, coaxially positioned in a compact bottle-magnetic field along the central magnetic line of force. The interaction of the discharge geometry with the inhomogeneous but symmetrical magnetic field enables this device to be operated as hollow cathode discharge and Penning discharge as well. The main features of the ion source are the very high metal ion efficiency (up to 25%), good operational reproducibility, flexible and efficient operations for low charged as well as highly charged ions, compact setup, and easy maintenance. For light ions, e.g., up to titanium, well-collimated beams in the range of several tens of milliamperes of pulsed ion current (1 ms, 10/s) have been reliably performed in long time runs. PMID:18315181

  16. Mevva ion source operated in purely gaseous mode

    SciTech Connect

    Yushkov, G.Y.; MacGill, R.A.; Brown, I. G.

    2003-03-27

    We have operated a vacuum arc ion source in such a way as to form beams of purely gaseous ions. The vacuum arc configuration that is conventionally used to produce intense beams of metal ions was altered so as to form gaseous ion beams, with only minimal changes to the external circuitry and no changes at all internally to the ion source. In our experiments we formed beams from oxygen (O{sup +} and O{sub 2}{sup +}), nitrogen (N{sup +} and N{sub 2}{sup +}), argon (Ar{sup +}) and carbon dioxide (C{sup +}, CO{sub 2}{sup +}, O{sup +} and O{sub 2}{sup +}) at extraction voltage of 2 to 50 kV. We used a pulsed mode of operation, with beam pulses approximately 50 milliseconds long and repetition rate 10 pulses per second, for a duty cycle of about 50%. Downstream ion beam current as measured by a 5 cm diameter Faraday cup was typically 0.5 mA pulse or about 250 {micro}A time averaged. This time averaged beam current is very similar to that obtained for metal ions when the source is operated in the usual vacuum arc mode. Here we describe the modifications made to the source and the results of our investigations.

  17. A Hot Cavity Laser Ion Source at IGISOL

    E-print Network

    M. Reponen; T. Kessler; I. D. Moore; S. Rothe; J. Äystö

    2008-12-08

    A development program is underway at the IGISOL (Ion Guide Isotope Separator On-Line) facility, University of Jyvaskyla, to efficiently and selectively produce low-energy radioactive ion beams of silver isotopes and isomers, with a particular interest in N=Z 94Ag. A hot cavity ion source has been installed, based on the FEBIAD (Forced Electron Beam Induced Arc Discharge) technique, combined with a titanium:sapphire laser system for selective laser ionization. The silver recoils produced via the heavy-ion fusion-evaporation reaction, 40Ca(58Ni, p3n)94Ag, are stopped in a graphite catcher, diffused, extracted and subsequently ionized using a three-step laser ionization scheme. The performance of the different components of the hot cavity laser ion source is discussed and initial results using stable 107,109Ag are presented.

  18. Sources of polarized negative ions: progress and prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Haeberli, W.

    1980-01-01

    A summary of recent progress in the art of producing beams of polarized ions is given. In all sources of polarized ions, one first produces (or selects) neutral atoms which are polarized in electron spin. Those types of sources which use a beam of thermal polarized hydrogen atoms are discussed. Progress made in the preparation of the atomic beam and the methods used to convert the neutral atoms to polarized ions is summarized. The second type of source discussed is based on fast (keV) polarized hydrogen atoms. Conversion to negative ions is very simple because one only needs to pass the fast atoms through a suitable charge exchange medium (gas or vapor). However, the production of the polarized atoms is more difficult in this case. The proposal to employ polarized alkali vapor to form a beam of polarized fast H atoms, where the polarized alkali atoms are produced either by an atomic beam apparatus or by optical pumping is discussed. (WHK)

  19. Erosion of Extraction Electrodes of Ion Sources due to Sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Kenmotsu, Takahiro; Wada, Motoi [Doshisha University Kyotanabe, Kyoto, 610-0394 (Japan); Miyamoto, Naoki [Nissin Ion Equipment Co. Ltd, Minamiku, Kyoto, 610-0332 (Japan)

    2011-01-07

    The effects upon erosion due to implanted atoms in extraction electrodes of an ion source have been investigated through calculating the sputtering yields with a Monte Carlo simulation code, ACAT. The results obtained with ACAT have indicated that the sputtering yields of extraction electrodes are substantially affected by the retention of implanted atoms depending upon the mass ratio of electrode materials and extracted ions from the source plasma. The enhanced erosion takes place as the heavier ion beam species like phosphor is implanted into lighter electrode material like carbon. Additional mixing of materials arising from ion source operation, such as hot cathode materials evaporation onto a carbon extraction electrode, can shorten the lifetime of the extraction electrodes.

  20. Long-pulse ion source for neutral-beam applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, C. C.; Menon, M. M.; Ryan, P. M.; Schechter, D. E.; Stirling, W. L.; Haselton, H. H.

    1982-04-01

    A rectangular ion source is being developed for producing 120-keV/25-A hydrogen ion beams for pulse durations up to 10 s. It consists of a plasma generator with a rectangular arc chamber (25×35 cm cross section) and an ion accelerator with rectangular grids (10×25 cm hole pattern). The plasma generator is a modified duoPIGatron type. It has been operated at 120 V, 1100 A, and 10 s arc durations to produce a dense and uniform plasma sufficient for supplying a 25-A ion beam current. The electron emitter used is either a LaB6 hollow cathode or a LM (molybdenum doped with La2O3) indirectly heated cathode. The ion accelerator having four (or three) rectangular grids with multiple circular apertures has been utilized to form high-energy ion beams above (or below) 80 keV. With substantial improvements in water cooling and mechanical stability, this ion accelerator has been operated reliably to deliver long-pulse ion beams with energies in excess of 100 keV and pulse lengths of many seconds. The results of measurements made on the power transmission efficiency (70%-80%), power density profile at the target (±0.5% HWHM near the focal plane), and grid loadings (?1% for each grid) are elaborated. The important characteristics associated with this long-pulse ion source are also presented and discussed.

  1. The mechanisms of negative oxygen ion formation from Al-doped ZnO target and the improvements in electrical and optical properties of thin films using off-axis dc magnetron sputtering at low temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Huu Chi; Thuy Trinh, Thanh; Le, Tran; Tran, Cao Vinh; Tran, Tuan; Park, Hyeongsik; Dao, Vinh Ai; Yi, Junsin

    2011-10-01

    Transparent conducting aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) films have been prepared on glass substrates by dc magnetron sputtering using ceramic ZnO with 2 wt% Al2O3 target. The mechanism of negative oxygen ion generation on an AZO target surface and its influence on the conductivity of films were discussed. The negative ion generation on an AZO target was contributed by the surface ionization leading to the spot emission from Al atoms adsorbed on the AZO target surface. The contribution of negative ions' current was mainly from the erosion area of the target due to its higher temperature. To reduce the damage caused by negative ion bombardment to film growth, an off-axis sputtering system was proposed, where the substrates were placed perpendicular to the target. The effects of distance (d) on the electrical properties of films were experimentally verified in detail. A low resistivity of 3.7 × 10-4 ? cm, an average transmittance above 85% in the visible range (300-800 nm) and reflectance higher than 85% in the infrared range (2500-4000 nm) were obtained for the films deposited at d = 2.5 cm. The overall analysis revealed that the generation of negative ions on the AZO target has a great influence on film growth, especially in the ultra-low pressure deposition process. Our work demonstrates the feasibility of reducing the negative effects of ion bombardment on the quality of films, which would be of great merit for industrial applications.

  2. Performance of the upgraded LBNL AECR ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Z.Q.; Lyneis, C.M.

    1997-02-01

    The LBNL AECR ion source has been upgraded in July 1996 by increasing its magnetic fields to improve its plasma confinement and thereby enhance the source performance. After a few months of tailoring the magnetic field configuration to match the two-frequency plasma heating (14 and 10 GHz), the upgraded AECR ion source (AECR-U) with its higher magnetic fields and higher magnetic mirror ratios has demonstrated significantly enhanced performance. For heavy ions at intensity of about 1 e{mu}A, the charge state was shifted from 42+ to 48+ for uranium and from 41+ to 46+ for bismuth. An order of magnitude enhancement for fully stripped argon ions (I {ge} 60 enA) also has been achieved. Hydrogen-like krypton ions at intensity of about 10{sup 5} pps were extracted from the source and confirmed by measuring its characteristic x-ray with a SiLi crystal detector. High charge state heavy ion beams of xenon-136 and uranium-238 produced with the AECR-U ion source were accelerated by the 88-Inch Cyclotron. Despite poor transmission for the highly charged heavy ions due to vacuum losses in the cyclotron, 11 MeV/nucleon {sup 136}Xe{sup 41+} at 1 x 10{sup 7} pps, 13 MeV/nucleon {sup 136}Xe{sup 46+} at a few hundred pps, and 7 MeV/nucleon {sup 238}U{sup 55+} at 3 x 10{sup 4} pps and 8 MeV/nucleon {sup 238}U{sup 60+} at a few pps were confirmed with a crystal energy detector after extraction from the cyclotron. The total energy of 1.935 GeV of the extracted {sup 238}U{sup 60+} ions is the highest energy ever produced by the 88-Inch Cyclotron. Detailed optimization of the AECR Upgrade will be presented in this paper.

  3. A trigger power supply for vacuum arc ion sources

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Geoffrey C. Watt; Peter J. Evans

    1993-01-01

    Arc initiation plays a key role in the operation of pulsed metal vapor vacuum arc (MEVVA) ion sources. The favored triggering method in most sources is a surface discharge across an insulator inserted between an auxiliary trigger electrode and the main gap cathode. The trigger power supply must be capable of meeting specific requirements. As part of an ongoing program

  4. Ion source with closed drift anode layer plasma acceleration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Dudnikov; A. Westner

    2002-01-01

    Several versions of ion sources with closed drift anode layer plasma acceleration (ALPA sources) were built and tested. Robust, ``all iron'' design and water cooling permeate an unlimited operation with oxygen and with other high reactive gases. Long time operation of discharges in oxygen, nitrogen, argon, water vapor, propane, acetone, ethyl alcohol vapors, and in different gas cocktails has been

  5. Design optimization of beam extraction system in ion sources

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. E. Abdel-Aziz; A. A. Ghanem

    1992-01-01

    The design charts for the exit canal of the ion source are prepared to give complete characteristics of the extracted beam corresponding to different running conditions of the source. The focusing properties of the beam between the plasma boundary and the canal are analyzed, considering the theory of conical flow of proton beams between spherical surfaces. The dimensions of the

  6. IONIZATION EFFICIENCY MEASUREMENTS WITH THE MICROWAVE DISCHARGE ION SOURCE MIDAS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Celona; S. Gammino; G. Ciavola; F. Chines; S. Marletta; E. Messina

    A microwave discharge ion source (MIDAS) has been designed in order to obtain high efficiencies for positive ionization of the recoils which will be produced with the EXCYT facility at LNS and some experience has been gained from tests with the prototype. In the mid of 1998 the source has been redesigned: the microwave power at a frequency of 2.45

  7. Comment on "Effects of Magnetic Field Gradient on Ion Beam Current in Cylindrical Hall Ion Source

    SciTech Connect

    Raitses, Y.; Smirnov A.; Fisch, N.J.

    2008-08-29

    It is argued that the key difference of the cylindrical Hall thruster (CHT) as compared to the end-Hall ion source cannot be exclusively attributed to the magnetic field topology [Tang et al. J. Appl. Phys., 102, 123305 (2007)]. With a similar mirror-type topology, the CHT configuration provides the electric field with nearly equipotential magnetic field surfaces and a better suppression of the electron cross-field transport, as compared to both the end-Hall ion source and the cylindrical Hall ion source of Tang et al.

  8. An all permanent magnet electron cyclotron resonance ion source for heavy ion therapy.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yun; Li, Jia Qing; Sun, Liang Ting; Zhang, Xue Zhen; Feng, Yu Cheng; Wang, Hui; Ma, Bao Hua; Li, Xi Xia

    2014-02-01

    A high charge state all permanent Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source, Lanzhou All Permanent ECR ion source no. 3-LAPECR3, has been successfully built at IMP in 2012, which will serve as the ion injector of the Heavy Ion Medical Machine (HIMM) project. As a commercial device, LAPECR3 features a compact structure, small size, and low cost. According to HIMM scenario more than 100 e?A of C(5+) ion beam should be extracted from the ion source, and the beam emittance better than 75 ?*mm*mrad. In recent commissioning, about 120 e?A of C(5+) ion beam was got when work gas was CH4 while about 262 e?A of C(5+) ion beam was obtained when work gas was C2H2 gas. The design and construction of the ion source and its low-energy transportation beam line, and the preliminary commissioning results will be presented in detail in this paper. PMID:24593539

  9. Measurement of total ion current from vacuum arc plasma sources

    SciTech Connect

    Oks, E.M.; Savkin, K.P.; Yushkov, G.Yu.; Nikolaev, A.G.; Anders, A.; Brown, I.G. [High Current Electronics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2006-03-15

    The total ion current generated by a vacuum arc plasma source was measured. The discharge system investigated allowed ion collection from the arc plasma streaming through a hemispherical mesh anode with geometric transparency of 72%. A range of different cathode materials was investigated, and the arc current was varied over the range of 50-500 A. We find that the normalized ion current (I{sub ion}/I{sub arc}) depends on the cathode material, with values in the range from 5% to 19% and generally greater for elements of low cohesive energy. The application of a strong axial magnetic field in the cathode and arc region leads to increased normalized ion current, but only by virtue of enhanced ion charge states formed in a strong magnetic field.

  10. Electron source for a mini ion trap mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Dietrich, D.D.; Keville, R.F.

    1995-12-19

    An ion trap is described which operates in the regime between research ion traps which can detect ions with a mass resolution of better than 1:10{sup 9} and commercial mass spectrometers requiring 10{sup 4} ions with resolutions of a few hundred. The power consumption is kept to a minimum by the use of permanent magnets and a novel electron gun design. By Fourier analyzing the ion cyclotron resonance signals induced in the trap electrodes, a complete mass spectra in a single combined structure can be detected. An attribute of the ion trap mass spectrometer is that overall system size is drastically reduced due to combining a unique electron source and mass analyzer/detector in a single device. This enables portable low power mass spectrometers for the detection of environmental pollutants or illicit substances, as well as sensors for on board diagnostics to monitor engine performance or for active feedback in any process involving exhausting waste products. 10 figs.

  11. Electron source for a mini ion trap mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Dietrich, Daniel D. (Livermore, CA); Keville, Robert F. (Valley Springs, CA)

    1995-01-01

    An ion trap which operates in the regime between research ion traps which can detect ions with a mass resolution of better than 1:10.sup.9 and commercial mass spectrometers requiring 10.sup.4 ions with resolutions of a few hundred. The power consumption is kept to a minimum by the use of permanent magnets and a novel electron gun design. By Fourier analyzing the ion cyclotron resonance signals induced in the trap electrodes, a complete mass spectra in a single combined structure can be detected. An attribute of the ion trap mass spectrometer is that overall system size is drastically reduced due to combining a unique electron source and mass analyzer/detector in a single device. This enables portable low power mass spectrometers for the detection of environmental pollutants or illicit substances, as well as sensors for on board diagnostics to monitor engine performance or for active feedback in any process involving exhausting waste products.

  12. Development of ion beams for space effects testing using an ECR ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Benitez, Janilee; Hodgkinson, Adrian; Johnson, Mike; Loew, Tim; Lyneis, Claude; Phair, Larry [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Lab One Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2013-04-19

    At LBNL's 88-Inch Cyclotron and Berkeley Accelerator Space Effects (BASE) Facility, a range of ion beams at energies from 1 to 55 MeV/nucleon are used for radiation space effects testing. By bombarding a component with ion beams the radiation component of the space environment can be simulated and single event effects (SEEs) determined. The performance of electronic components used in space flight and high altitude aircraft can then be evaluated. The 88- Inch Cyclotron is coupled to the three electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECR, AECR-U, VENUS). These ion sources provide a variety of ion species, ranging from protons to heavy ions such as bismuth, for these tests. In particular the ion sources have been developed to provide {sup c}ocktails{sup ,} a mixture of ions of similar mass-to-charge ratio, which can be simultaneously injected into the cyclotron, but selectively extracted from it. The ions differ in both their linear energy transfer (LET) deposited to the part and in their penetration depth into the tested part. The current heavy ion cocktails available are the 4.5, 10, 16, and 30 MeV per nucleon.

  13. Normalized emittance of SITEX negative ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Stirling, W.L.; Dagenhart, W.K.; Whealton, J.H.; Donaghy, J.J.

    1983-01-01

    An emittance measurement employing two techniques are being made on SITEX. To this end, a 2-D calculation was performed to design the accelerator in order to reduce electric field abberations. The calculated normalized emittance is 6 x 10/sup -4/ IIcm mrad for an angular divergence theta/sub RMS/ approx. = 0.28/sup 0/. Status of the experimental findings are presented and a comparison made to the calculated value which will yield the ion sputter energy.

  14. Ion source metal-arc fault current protection circuit

    SciTech Connect

    deVries, G.J.; Lietzke, A.F.; van Os, C.F.A.; Stearns, J.W. (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California (USA))

    1991-12-01

    Ion sources can be damaged by arcs between metallic components of the source if these arcs are permitted to last. The negative-biased low-work-function converter in a surface conversion negative ion source is especially susceptible to metal-arc breakdown damage. Here an electronic circuit for minimizing the damage caused by such an arc is described. The circuit uses a transistor switch and an inductor in series with the converter bias power supply to limit the damage during the metal-arc breakdown.

  15. Injected 1+ ion beam as a diagnostics tool of charge breeder ECR ion source plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarvainen, O.; Lamy, T.; Angot, J.; Thuillier, T.; Delahaye, P.; Maunoury, L.; Choinski, J.; Standylo, L.; Galatà, A.; Patti, G.; Koivisto, H.

    2015-06-01

    Charge breeder electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (CB-ECRIS) are used as 1+???n+??charge multiplication devices of post-accelerated radioactive ion beams. The charge breeding process involves thermalization of the injected 1+??ions with the plasma ions in ion–ion collisions, subsequent ionization by electron impact and extraction of the n+??ions. Charge breeding experiments of 85Rb and 133Cs ion beams with the 14.5 GHz PHOENIX CB-ECRIS operating with oxygen gas demonstrate the plasma diagnostics capabilities of the 1+??injection method. Two populations can be distinguished in the m/q-spectrum of the extracted ion beams, the low (1+??and 2+) charge states representing the uncaptured fraction of the incident 1+??ion beam and the high charge states that have been captured in ion–ion collisions and subsequently charge bred through electron impact ionization. Identification of the uncaptured fraction of the 1+??ions allows estimating the lower limit of ion–ion collision frequency of various charge states in the ECRIS plasma. The collision frequencies of highly charged ions (?107 Hz) are shown to exceed their gyrofrequencies (?106 Hz) at least by an order of magnitude, which implies that the dynamics of high charge state ions are dictated by magnetically confined electrons and ambipolar diffusion and only low charge state ions can be considered magnetized. Furthermore, it is concluded that the plasma density of the ECRIS charge breeder is most likely on the order of 1011 cm?3 i.e. well below the critical density for 14.5 GHz microwaves.

  16. Recent advancements in sputter-type heavy negative ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Alton, G.D.

    1989-01-01

    Significant advancement have been made in sputter-type negative ion sources which utilize direct surface ionization, or a plasma to form the positive ion beam used to effect sputtering of samples containing the material of interest. Typically, such sources can be used to generate usable beam intensities of a few ..mu..A to several mA from all chemically active elements, depending on the particular source and the electron affinity of the element in question. The presentation will include an introduction to the fundamental processes underlying negative ion formation by sputtering from a low work function surface and several sources will be described which reflect the progress made in this technology. 21 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Reactive magnetron sputtering of highly (001)-textured WS2-x films: Influence of Ne+, Ar+ and Xe+ ion bombardment on the film growth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Ellmer; S. Seeger; I. Sieber; W. Bohne; J. Röhrich; E. Strub; R. Mientus

    2006-01-01

    Tungsten disulfide WS2 is a layer-type semi-conductor with an energy band gap and an absorption coefficient making it suitable as an absorber for thin film solar cells. In the article [1] WS2-x films were pre-pared by reactive magnetron sputtering from a metallic tungsten target in Ar-H2S atmospheres.The cover figure shows in situ energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction patterns for films deposited at

  18. Constitution, microstructure, and battery performance of magnetron sputtered Li–Co–O thin film cathodes for lithium-ion batteries as a function of the working gas pressure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Ziebert; B. Ketterer; M. Rinke; C. Adelhelm; S. Ulrich; K.-H. Zum Gahr; S. Indris; T. Schimmel

    2010-01-01

    Li–Co–O thin film cathodes have been deposited onto Si and stainless steel substrates by RF magnetron sputtering from a ceramic LiCoO2 target at various working gas pressures from 0.15 to 25Pa. Composition, crystal structure and thin film morphology were examined and properties such as intrinsic stress, conductivity and film density were determined. As-deposited films at 0.15Pa as well as in

  19. Electrical shielding box measurement of the negative hydrogen beam from Penning ion gauge ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, T.; Yang, Z.; Dong, P.; Long, J. D.; He, X. Z.; Zhang, K. Z.; Zhang, L. W. [Institute of Fluid Physics, CAEP, P.O. Box 919-106, Mianyang 621900 (China); Wang, X. [NUSNNI-Nanocore, National University of Singapore, 117411 Singapore (Singapore); Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 117542 Singapore (Singapore)

    2012-06-15

    The cold-cathode Penning ion gauge (PIG) type ion source has been used for generation of negative hydrogen (H{sup -}) ions as the internal ion source of a compact cyclotron. A novel method called electrical shielding box dc beam measurement is described in this paper, and the beam intensity was measured under dc extraction inside an electrical shielding box. The results of the trajectory simulation and dc H{sup -} beam extraction measurement were presented. The effect of gas flow rate, magnetic field strength, arc current, and extraction voltage were also discussed. In conclusion, the dc H{sup -} beam current of about 4 mA from the PIG ion source with the puller voltage of 40 kV and arc current of 1.31 A was extrapolated from the measurement at low extraction dc voltages.

  20. Measurement of ion beam from laser ion source for RHIC EBIS.

    SciTech Connect

    Kanesue,T.; Tamura, J.; Okamura, M.

    2008-06-23

    Laser ion source (LIS) is a candidate of the primary ion source for the RHIC EBIS. LIS will provide intense charge state 1+ ions to the EBIS for further ionization. We measured plasma properties of a variety of atomic species from C to Au using the second harmonics of Nd:YAG laser (532 nm wave length, up to 0.5 J/6 ns). Since properties of laser produced plasma is different from different species, laser power density for singly charged ion production should be verified experimentally for each atomic species. After plasma analysis experiments, Au ions was extracted from plasma and emittance of the ion beam was measured using a pepper pot type emittance monitor.

  1. Broad-beam multi-ampere metal ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Ian G.; Galvin, James E.; MacGill, Robert A.; Paoloni, Frank J.

    1989-06-01

    An embodiment of the MEVVA (metal vapor vacuum arc) high current metal ion source was developed in which the beam is formed from a 10 cm diameter set of extractor grids and which produces a peak beam current of up to several Amperes. The source, MEVVA V, operates in a pulsed mode with a pulse width at present 0.25 ms and a repetition rate of up to several tens of pulses per second (power supply limited). The multicathode feature that was developed for the prior source version, MEVVA IV, was incorporated here also; one can switch between any of 18 separate cathodes and thus metallic beam species. Maximum beam extraction voltage is over 90 kV, and since the ion charge state typically from Q = 1 to 5, depending on the metal employed, the ion energy in the extracted beam can thus be up to several hundred keV. This source is a new addition to the MEVVA family of metal ion sources, and the operational regimes and the limits to the source performance are being investigated. The source is described and some preliminary results are presented.

  2. Broad-beam multi-ampere metal ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Ian G.; Galvin, James E.; MacGill, Robert A.; Paoloni, Frank J.

    1990-01-01

    An embodiment of the MEVVA (metal vapor vacuum arc) high current metal ion source has been developed in which the beam is formed from a 10-cm-diam set of extractor grids and which produces a peak beam current of up to several amperes. The source, MEVVA V, operates in a pulsed mode with a pulsewidth, at present, of 0.25 ms and a repetition rate of up to several tens of pulses per second (power supply limited). The multi-cathode feature that was developed for the prior source version, MEVVA IV, has been incorporated here also; one can switch among any of 18 separate cathodes and thus metallic beam species. Maximum beam extraction voltage is over 90 kV, and since the ion charge states are typically from Q=1 to 5, depending on the metal employed, the ion energy in the extracted beam can thus be up to several hundred keV. This source is a new addition to the MEVVA family of metal ion sources, and we are at present investigating the operational regimes and the limits to the source performance. In this article we describe the source, and present some preliminary results.

  3. Dependence of proton beam polarization on ion source transition configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allgower, C. E.; Arvieux, J.; Ausset, P.; Ball, J.; Beauvais, P.-Y.; Bedfer, Y.; Bystricky, J.; Chamouard, P.-A.; Demierre, P.; Fontaine, J.-M.; Janout, Z.; Kalinnikov, V. A.; Kasprzyk, T. E.; Khachaturov, B. A.; Kunne, R.; Lagniel, J.-M.; Lehar, F.; de Lesquen, A.; Popov, A. A.; Prokofiev, A. N.; Rapin, D.; Sans, J.-L.; Spinka, H. M.; Teglia, A.; Vikhrov, V. V.; Vuaridel, B.; Zhdanov, A. A.

    1997-02-01

    The polarization of extracted SATURNE II proton beam as a function of different ion source configurations was studied. Two distinct experiments were necessary for this purpose. In the first one, the LEFT-RIGHT instrumental asymmetry of the beam polarimeter was determined using an unpolarized beam. In the second one this correction factor was applied to asymmetries measured with the beam from the polarized ion source in all polarization states. The measurements were carried out at the proton beam kinetic energy 0.80 GeV, where the pp-elastic scattering analyzing power is near its maximum. The results confirmed that the two so-called "unpolarized states" of the source were polarized to several percent, whereas the absolute values of the beam polarizations in the so-called "polarized states" were equal and opposite. It was observed that the hexapole lens of the ion source produced beam polarization in the absence of any transition. The beam polarization as a function of hexapole current, transition field attenuation, and spin rotation solenoid current was measured. It was also shown how to obtain a strictly unpolarized beam using the polarized source only. The results obtained with the SATURNE II ion source HYPERION may also be relevant to similar sources at other accelerators.

  4. Electron energy recovery system for negative ion sources

    DOEpatents

    Dagenhart, William K. (Oak Ridge, TN); Stirling, William L. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1982-01-01

    An electron energy recovery system for negative ion sources is provided. The system, employs crossed electric and magnetic fields to separate the electrons from ions as they are extracted from a negative ion source plasma generator and before the ions are accelerated to their full kinetic energy. With the electric and magnetic fields oriented 90.degree. to each other, the electrons are separated from the plasma and remain at approximately the electrical potential of the generator in which they were generated. The electrons migrate from the ion beam path in a precessing motion out of the ion accelerating field region into an electron recovery region provided by a specially designed electron collector electrode. The electron collector electrode is uniformly spaced from a surface of the ion generator which is transverse to the direction of migration of the electrons and the two surfaces are contoured in a matching relationship which departs from a planar configuration to provide an electric field component in the recovery region which is parallel to the magnetic field thereby forcing the electrons to be directed into and collected by the electron collector electrode. The collector electrode is maintained at a potential slightly positive with respect to the ion generator so that the electrons are collected at a small fraction of the full accelerating supply voltage energy.

  5. Volume production of negative ions in the reflex-type ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Jimbo, K.

    1982-06-01

    The production of negative hydrogen ions is investigated in the reflex-type negative ion source. The extracted negative hydrogen currents of 9.7 mA (100 mA/cm/sup 2/) for H/sup -/ and of 4.1 mA(42 mA/cm/sup 2/) for D/sup -/ are obtained continuously. The impurity is less than 1%. An isotope effect of negative ion production is observed.

  6. Design studies for an advanced ECR ion source for multiply charged ion beam generation

    SciTech Connect

    Alton, G.D.

    1994-10-01

    An innovative technique: for increasing ion source intensity is described which, in principle, could lead to significant advances in ECR ion source technology for multiply charged ion beam formation. The advanced concept design uses a minimum-B magnetic mirror geometry which consists of a multi-cusp, magnetic field, to assist in confining the plasma radially, a flat central field for tuning to the ECR resonant condition, and specially tailored min-or fields in the end zones to confine the plasma in the axial direction. The magnetic field is designed to achieve an axially symmetric plasma ``volume`` with constant mod-B, which extends over the length of the central field region. This design, which strongly contrasts w h the ECR ``surfaces`` characteristic of conventional ECR ion sources, results in dramatic increases in the absorption of RF power, thereby increasing the electron temperature and ``hot`` electron population within the ionization volume of the source.

  7. Bernas ion source modifications for platinum and aluminum ion implantation (abstract)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Medulla; M. Raspagliesi

    1998-01-01

    Technology has a continuous developmental push toward the semiconductor's fabrication to find new solutions to improve its own production. Hence the request to implant platinum and aluminum using commercial ion implanters in scanning tunneling microscopy was born. Starting with a standard Bernas source, we modified the conventional operating mode, as follows, to adapt the requested ion implantation process on our

  8. Rare earth focused ion beam implantation utilizing Er and Pr liquid alloy ion sources

    E-print Network

    Steckl, Andrew J.

    Rare earth focused ion beam implantation utilizing Er and Pr liquid alloy ion sources L. C. Chao, B write implantation. © 1999 American Vacuum Society. S0734-211X 99 08306-7 I. INTRODUCTION Rare earth communication applications.1 Among the rare earths, erbium and praseodymium have drawn the most interest because

  9. THE INSTALLATION OF A SPUTTER CONE ION SOURCE FOR THE PRODUCTION OF TRITIUM ION BEAMS

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    1445 THE INSTALLATION OF A SPUTTER CONE ION SOURCE FOR THE PRODUCTION OF TRITIUM ION BEAMS with ionization chamber air monitoring, glove box handling facilities and a computer-type removable floor operating fan exhausting air through a tall chimney and a reversible air conditioner supplies or extracts 6

  10. Tracking the Magnetron Motion in FT-ICR Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jertz, Roland; Friedrich, Jochen; Kriete, Claudia; Nikolaev, Evgeny N.; Baykut, Gökhan

    2015-05-01

    In Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) the ion magnetron motion is not usually directly measured, yet its contribution to the performance of the FT-ICR cell is important. Its presence is manifested primarily by the appearance of even-numbered harmonics in the spectra. In this work, the relationship between the ion magnetron motion in the ICR cell and the intensities of the second harmonic signal and its sideband peak in the FT-ICR spectrum is studied. Ion motion simulations show that during a cyclotron motion excitation of ions which are offset to the cell axis, a position-dependent radial drift of the cyclotron center takes place. This radial drift can be directed outwards if the ion is initially offset towards one of the detection electrodes, or it can be directed inwards if the ion is initially offset towards one of the excitation electrodes. Consequently, a magnetron orbit diameter can increase or decrease during a resonant cyclotron excitation. A method has been developed to study this behavior of the magnetron motion by acquiring a series of FT-ICR spectra using varied post-capture delay (PCD) time intervals. PCD is the delay time after the capture of the ions in the cell before the cyclotron excitation of the ion is started. Plotting the relative intensity of the second harmonic sideband peak versus the PCD in each mass spectrum leads to an oscillating "PCD curve". The position and height of minima and maxima of this curve can be used to interpret the size and the position of the magnetron orbit. Ion motion simulations show that an off-axis magnetron orbit generates even-numbered harmonic peaks with sidebands at a distance of one magnetron frequency and multiples of it. This magnetron offset is due to a radial offset of the electric field axis versus the geometric cell axis. In this work, we also show how this offset of the radial electric field center can be corrected by applying appropriate DC correction voltages to the mantle electrodes of the ICR cell while observing the signals of the second harmonic peak group. The field correction leads to a definite performance increase in terms of resolving power and mass accuracy, and the mass spectrum contains intensity-minimized even-numbered harmonics. This is very important in the case of high performance cells, particularly the dynamically harmonized cell, since the magnetron motion can severely impair the averaging effect for dynamic harmonization and can therefore reduce the resolving power.

  11. Tracking the Magnetron Motion in FT-ICR Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Jertz, Roland; Friedrich, Jochen; Kriete, Claudia; Nikolaev, Evgeny N; Baykut, Gökhan

    2015-08-01

    In Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) the ion magnetron motion is not usually directly measured, yet its contribution to the performance of the FT-ICR cell is important. Its presence is manifested primarily by the appearance of even-numbered harmonics in the spectra. In this work, the relationship between the ion magnetron motion in the ICR cell and the intensities of the second harmonic signal and its sideband peak in the FT-ICR spectrum is studied. Ion motion simulations show that during a cyclotron motion excitation of ions which are offset to the cell axis, a position-dependent radial drift of the cyclotron center takes place. This radial drift can be directed outwards if the ion is initially offset towards one of the detection electrodes, or it can be directed inwards if the ion is initially offset towards one of the excitation electrodes. Consequently, a magnetron orbit diameter can increase or decrease during a resonant cyclotron excitation. A method has been developed to study this behavior of the magnetron motion by acquiring a series of FT-ICR spectra using varied post-capture delay (PCD) time intervals. PCD is the delay time after the capture of the ions in the cell before the cyclotron excitation of the ion is started. Plotting the relative intensity of the second harmonic sideband peak versus the PCD in each mass spectrum leads to an oscillating "PCD curve". The position and height of minima and maxima of this curve can be used to interpret the size and the position of the magnetron orbit. Ion motion simulations show that an off-axis magnetron orbit generates even-numbered harmonic peaks with sidebands at a distance of one magnetron frequency and multiples of it. This magnetron offset is due to a radial offset of the electric field axis versus the geometric cell axis. In this work, we also show how this offset of the radial electric field center can be corrected by applying appropriate DC correction voltages to the mantle electrodes of the ICR cell while observing the signals of the second harmonic peak group. The field correction leads to a definite performance increase in terms of resolving power and mass accuracy, and the mass spectrum contains intensity-minimized even-numbered harmonics. This is very important in the case of high performance cells, particularly the dynamically harmonized cell, since the magnetron motion can severely impair the averaging effect for dynamic harmonization and can therefore reduce the resolving power. Graphical Abstract ?. PMID:25971670

  12. Extraction induced emittance growth for negative ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Whealton, J.H.; Meszaros, P.S.; Raridon, R.I.; Rothe, K.E.

    1989-01-01

    Nonlinear emittance growth produced by ion extraction is considered by a 3-D analysis in a Vlasov-Poisson-Boltzmann formulation. Phenomena considered include: presheath effects, including electron depletion, electron sheath accumulation (for large transverse magnetic fields), nonlinear sheath fields (obtained by a self-consistent solution with an assumed quasi-equilibrium positive ion distribution and at least one Vlasov distribution), nonlinear fringe fields produced by the accelerator-extractor itself obtained self-consistently with item 3 above, nonlinear space charge of the beam itself, and beam in conjunction with extracted electrons. For specific volume negative ion source configurations, an investigation of the contribution of aberrations caused by an electron trap and electron accumulation in the extraction sheath are studied. Either of these effects can contribute significantly to the beam emittance, possibly dominating the contribution of the negative ion temperature in the source. 2 refs., 10 figs.

  13. Extraction-induced emittance growth for negative-ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Whealton, J.H.; Meszaros, P.S.; Raridon, R.J.; Rothe, K.E. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (US))

    1990-01-01

    Nonlinear emittance growth produced by ion extraction is considered by a 3-D analysis in a Vlasov--Poisson--Boltzmann formulation. Phenomena considered include (1) presheath effects, including electron depletion, (2) electron sheath accumulation (for large transverse magnetic fields), (3) nonlinear sheath fields (obtained by a self-consistent solution with an assumed quasiequilibrium positive-ion distribution and at least one Vlasov distribution), (4) nonlinear fringe fields produced by the accelerator-extractor itself (obtained self-consistently with item (3) above), (5) nonlinear space charge of the beam itself, and (6) beam in conjunction with extracted electrons. For specific volume negative-ion source configurations, an investigation of the contribution of aberrations caused by an electron trap and electron accumulation in the extraction sheath are studied. Either of these effects can contribute significantly to the beam emittance, possibly dominating the contribution of the negative-ion temperature in the source.

  14. Low fragment polyatomic molecular ion source by using permanent magnets.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Mitsuaki; Hayashi, Kyouhei; Imanaka, Kousuke; Ryuto, Hiromichi; Takaoka, Gikan H

    2014-02-01

    Electron-ionization-type polyatomic molecular ion source with low fragment was developed by using a pair of ring-shaped Sm-Co magnets. The magnets were placed forward and backward side of ionization part to confine electrons extracted from a thermionic cathode. Calculated electron trajectory of the developed ion source was 20 times longer than that of an ordinary outer filament configuration that has no magnetic confinement. Mass spectra of the molecular ions generated from n-tetradecane (C14H30) gas exhibited 4 times larger intensity than that of the ordinary configuration in a range of mass/charge from 93 to 210 u. This indicates that suppression of fragment ion was obtained by increase of low energy electrons resulted from the electron confinement. PMID:24593425

  15. Plastic flow in ion-assisted deposition of refractory metals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Sharples; N. Savvides

    1988-01-01

    Ion-assisted deposition of refractory metals (Fe, Mo, Nb, Ta, W, Pt) was studied using an unbalanced magnetron source to provide both the depositing atom flux and the argon ion flux at ion-to-atom flux ratios in the range 2--10. The films were characterized by x-ray diffraction and the measurement of room-temperature electrical resistivity. As the ion bombardment energy was increased, the

  16. Beam dynamics of a liquid-metal ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Whealton, J.H.; Meszaros, P.S.; Rothe, K.E.; Raridon, R.J.; Ryan, P.M. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (US))

    1990-01-01

    rms emittance growth of liquid-metal ion sources is studied. Processes included are nonlinear expansion through extractor and accelerator fringe fields, nonlinear beam space charge, plasma effects near needle, and waves (either ion acoustic or space charge limited as considered by Dudnikov (private communication, 1988)). This investigation consists of 2-D analysis of appropriate Vlasov--Poisson equations in both steady-state and time-dependent formulations. Various geometries will be considered such as some used by Alton of ORNL.

  17. Single-ring magnetic cusp low gas pressure ion source

    DOEpatents

    Bacon, Frank M. (Albuquerque, NM); Brainard, John P. (Albuquerque, NM); O'Hagan, James B. (Albuquerque, NM); Walko, Robert J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1985-01-01

    A single-ring magnetic cusp low gas pressure ion source designed for use in a sealed, nonpumped neutron generator utilizes a cathode and an anode, three electrically floating electrodes (a reflector behind the cathode, a heat shield around the anode, and an aperture plate), together with a single ring-cusp magnetic field, to establish and energy-filtering mechanism for producing atomic-hydrogen ions.

  18. Power Supplies for Cold Cathode Penning Discharge Ion Sources

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. W. Mosko

    1972-01-01

    For the generation of heavy ions at high charge states, the cold-cathode Penning discharge ion source requires a power supply capable of both the high potential essential for striking an arc and the high current for sustaining it. A series-regulated power supply developed at Oak Ridge provides up to 6 kV of striking voltage and up to 12 amperes of

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF THE SNS EXTERNAL ANTENNA H- ION SOURCE

    SciTech Connect

    Welton, Robert F [ORNL] [ORNL; Carmichael, Justin R [ORNL] [ORNL; Crisp, Danny W [ORNL] [ORNL; Han, Baoxi [ORNL] [ORNL; Murray Jr, S N [ORNL] [ORNL; Pennisi, Terry R [ORNL] [ORNL; Santana, Manuel [ORNL] [ORNL; Stockli, Martin P [ORNL] [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is an accelerator-based, pulsed neutron-scattering facility currently in the process of ramping up neutron production. To meet present and future beam current and reliability requirements we are developing an RF-driven, H- ion source based on a ceramic aluminium nitride (AlN) plasma chamber surrounded by an external RF antenna. This report recounts the design of the prototype source, describes the Cs collar variations tested, enumerates recent modifications made to the source to prepare a production version, and summarizes the results of runs on the SNS test stand and Front End (FE) of the SNS accelerator. Up to ~100 mA unanalyzed beam currents (60Hz, 1ms) have been measured on the SNS ion source test stand, and up to 42mA have been successfully accelerated by the RFQ on the SNS front-end at lower RF power.

  20. ECR plasma source for heavy ion beam charge neutralization

    SciTech Connect

    Efthimion, P.C.; Gilson, E.; Grisham, L.; Kolchin, P.; Davidson, E.C.; Yu, S.S.; Logan, B.G.

    2002-05-01

    Highly ionized plasmas are being considered as a medium for charge neutralizing heavy ion beams in order to focus beyond the space-charge limit. Calculations suggest that plasma at a density of 1-100 times the ion beam density and at a length {approx} 0.1-2 m would be suitable for achieving a high level of charge neutralization. An ECR source has been built at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) to support a joint Neutralized Transport Experiment (NTX) at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) to study ion beam neutralization with plasma. The ECR source operates at 13.6 MHz and with solenoid magnetic fields of 1-10 gauss. The goal is to operate the source at pressures {approx} 10{sup -6} Torr at full ionization. The initial operation of the source has been at pressures of 10{sup -4}-10{sup -1} Torr. Electron densities in the range of 10{sup 8}-10{sup 11} cm{sup -3} have been achieved. Low-pressure operation is important to reduce ion beam ionization. A cusp magnetic field has been installed to improve radial confinement and reduce the field strength on the beam axis. In addition, axial confinement is believed to be important to achieve lower-pressure operation. To further improve breakdown at low pressure, a weak electron source will be placed near the end of the ECR source.

  1. Electrode activation in cesium-free negative ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Dudnikov, Vadim; Johnson, Rolland P. [Muons, Inc., Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States)

    2010-02-15

    Features of emission electrode activation leading to enhancement of negative ion emission in cesium-free discharges are discussed. In some ion sources with cesium-free discharges, the emission of negative ions has been increased significantly by emission electrode activation using strong heating of the negative biased electrode by discharge plasma. A simple explanation of this enhancement is that it is due to an accumulation on the emission surface of the plasma electrode of impurities with low ionization potential that decreases in surface work function and increases the secondary emission of negative ions similar to ''Cesiation.'' The negative biasing of emission surface is important for accumulation and trapping the impurities on the emission surface. To effectively control the activation process it is important to directly detect the evolution of the work function and the impurity concentration during electrode activation with enhancement of negative ion emission.

  2. Design and development of the CSNS ion source control system

    E-print Network

    Lu Yan-Hua; Li Gang; Ouyang Hua-Fu

    2013-04-10

    After the CSNS ion source test stand has been stably working for years, an online control system for CSNS ion source aiming to be more stable and reliable is now under development. F3RP61-2L, a new PLC CPU module under Linux system, is introduced to the system as an IOC, to function together with the I/O modules of FA-M3 PLC on the PLC-bus. The adoption of the new IOC not only simplifies the architecture of the control system, but also improves the data transmission speed. In this paper, the design and development of the supervisory and control system for CSNS ion source are described.

  3. Plasma and Ion Sources in Large Area Coatings: A Review

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, Andre

    2005-02-28

    Efficient deposition of high-quality coatings often requires controlled application of excited or ionized particles. These particles are either condensing (film-forming) or assisting by providing energy and momentum to the film growth process, resulting in densification, sputtering/etching, modification of stress, roughness, texture, etc. In this review, the technical means are surveyed enabling large area application of ions and plasmas, with ion energies ranging from a few eV to a few keV. Both semiconductortype large area (single wafer or batch processing with {approx} 1000 cm{sup 2}) and in-line web and glass-coating-type large area (> 10{sup 7} m{sup 2} annually) are considered. Characteristics and differences between plasma and ion sources are explained. The latter include gridded and gridless sources. Many examples are given, including sources based on DC, RF, and microwave discharges, some with special geometries like hollow cathodes and E x B configurations.

  4. Shunting arc plasma source for pure carbon ion beama)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koguchi, H.; Sakakita, H.; Kiyama, S.; Shimada, T.; Sato, Y.; Hirano, Y.

    2012-02-01

    A plasma source is developed using a coaxial shunting arc plasma gun to extract a pure carbon ion beam. The pure carbon ion beam is a new type of deposition system for diamond and other carbon materials. Our plasma device generates pure carbon plasma from solid-state carbon material without using a hydrocarbon gas such as methane gas, and the plasma does not contain any hydrogen. The ion saturation current of the discharge measured by a double probe is about 0.2 mA/mm2 at the peak of the pulse.

  5. Multi-cathode metal vapor arc ion source

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Ian G. (1088 Woodside Rd., Berkeley, CA 94708); MacGill, Robert A. (645 Kern St., Richmond, CA 94805)

    1988-01-01

    An ion generating apparatus utilizing a vacuum chamber, a cathode and an anode in the chamber. A source of electrical power produces an arc or discharge between the cathode and anode. The arc is sufficient to vaporize a portion of the cathode to form a plasma. The plasma is directed to an extractor which separates the electrons from the plasma, and accelerates the ions to produce an ion beam. One embodiment of the appaatus utilizes a multi-cathode arrangement for interaction with the anode.

  6. Shunting arc plasma source for pure carbon ion beam.

    PubMed

    Koguchi, H; Sakakita, H; Kiyama, S; Shimada, T; Sato, Y; Hirano, Y

    2012-02-01

    A plasma source is developed using a coaxial shunting arc plasma gun to extract a pure carbon ion beam. The pure carbon ion beam is a new type of deposition system for diamond and other carbon materials. Our plasma device generates pure carbon plasma from solid-state carbon material without using a hydrocarbon gas such as methane gas, and the plasma does not contain any hydrogen. The ion saturation current of the discharge measured by a double probe is about 0.2 mA?mm(2) at the peak of the pulse. PMID:22380206

  7. Modified calutron negative ion source operation and future plans

    SciTech Connect

    Dagenhart, W.K.; Stirling, W.L.; Haselton, H.H.; Kelley, G.G.; Kim, J.; Tsai, C.C.; Whealton, J.H.

    1980-01-01

    Negative ion generation has advanced rapidly by employing the concept of surface ionization. The modified calutron has proven to be a successful tool to explore these concepts and provide solutions to the many problems which must be evaluated. Many features of the SITEX (Surface Ionization with Transverse Extraction) ion source are ideally suited to this exploration. Some of these features are; a ribbon-like plasma, electron control by transverse magnetic fields and the ability to separate the Cs oven parameters from those which control the positive ion generation.

  8. Pure Material Vapor Source by Induction Heating Evaporator for an Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Matsui; T. Watanabe; T. Satani; M. Muramatsu; K. Tanaka; A. Kitagawa; Y. Yoshida; F. Sato; Y. Kato; T. Iida

    2008-01-01

    Multiply charged iron ions are produced from solid pure material in an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source. We develop an evaporator by using induction heating with the induction coil which is made from bare molybdenum wire and surrounding the pure iron rod. We optimize the shape of induction heating coil and operation of rf power supply. We conduct experiment

  9. A New HRIBF Electron Beam Plasma Ion Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goans, Ronald; Carter, Ken; Griffith, Boyce; Reed, Charles

    2011-04-01

    The particle-surface interactions that dominate the effusion of particles through the target/ion source system (TISS) typically require very high temperatures to reduce the release time, particularly for the less volatile species. This high- temperature environment, however, may not be conducive to the efficient formation and transport of molecular sidebands. To investigate and improve the operating conditions necessary to optimize the molecular-sideband technique at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF), the standard HRIBF Electron Beam Plasma (EBP) ion source design was modified to allow independent and controlled heating of the transfer line and cathode. The modified TISS was built and the modifications have been characterized. While maintaining the cathode temperature necessary for normal operation of the EBP ion source, the transfer line temperature was varied from about 1300°C to 2000°C for a target temperature held at 1900°C. A complete overview of the new target/ion source parameters will be presented. This research is sponsored by the National Nuclear Security Administration under the Stewardship Science Academic Alliances program through DOE Cooperative Agreement # DE-FC03-3NA00143.

  10. Production of a highly charged uranium ion beam with RIKEN superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source.

    PubMed

    Higurashi, Y; Ohnishi, J; Nakagawa, T; Haba, H; Tamura, M; Aihara, T; Fujimaki, M; Komiyama, M; Uchiyama, A; Kamigaito, O

    2012-02-01

    A highly charged uranium (U) ion beam is produced from the RIKEN superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source using 18 and 28 GHz microwaves. The sputtering method is used to produce this U ion beam. The beam intensity is strongly dependent on the rod position and sputtering voltage. We observe that the emittance of U(35+) for 28 GHz microwaves is almost the same as that for 18 GHz microwaves. It seems that the beam intensity of U ions produced using 28 GHz microwaves is higher than that produced using 18 GHz microwaves at the same Radio Frequency (RF) power. PMID:22380180

  11. Plasma emission spectroscopy for operating and developing the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) H- ion sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, B. X.; Welton, R. F.; Murray, S. N.; Pennisi, T. R.; Santana, M.; Stockli, M. P.

    2014-02-01

    A RF-driven, Cs-enhanced H- ion source feeds the SNS accelerator with a high current (typically >50 mA), ˜1.0 ms pulsed beam at 60 Hz. To achieve the persistent high current beam for several weeks long service cycles, each newly installed ion source undergoes a rigorous conditioning and cesiation processes. Plasma conditioning outgases the system and sputter-cleans the ion conversion surfaces. A cesiation process immediately following the plasma conditioning releases Cs to provide coverage on the ion conversion surfaces. The effectiveness of the ion source conditioning and cesiation is monitored with plasma emission spectroscopy using a high-sensitivity optical spectrometer. Plasma emission spectroscopy is also used to provide a means for diagnosing and confirming a failure of the insulating coating of the ion source RF antenna which is immersed in the plasma. Emissions of composition elements of the antenna coating material, Na emission being the most significant, drastically elevate to signal a failure when it happens. Plasma spectra of the developmental ion source with an AlN (aluminum nitrite) chamber and an external RF antenna are also briefly discussed.

  12. Angular distribution of plasma in the vacuum arc ion source.

    PubMed

    Nikolaev, A G; Yushkov, G Yu; Savkin, K P; Oks, E M

    2012-02-01

    This paper presents measurements of the angular distribution of the plasma components and different charge states of metal ions generated by a MEVVA-type ion source and measured by a time-of-flight mass-spectrometer. The experiments were performed for different cathode materials (Al, Cu, and Ti) and for different parameters of the vacuum arc discharge. The results are compared with prior results reported by other authors. The influence of different discharge parameters on the angular distribution in a vacuum arc source is discussed. PMID:22380199

  13. Note: flowing ion population from a resonance cavity source.

    PubMed

    Gayetsky, Lisa E; Lynch, Kristina A

    2011-04-01

    The experimental low energy plasma for hemispherical analyzers nominal testing thermal plasma facility of Dartmouth College uses a microwave plasma source which generates an ionosphere-like plasma through a two-step process. The plasma is initially generated inside a cylindrical, insulated, resonance cavity. This initial plasma must pass through a sheath in order to enter the main experimental region. This process imparts a significant flow velocity to the ions which has been neglected in previous analysis of this plasma source. We predict the flow energy of the ions to be between 12-15 eV depending on conservation laws and show agreement with experimental results. PMID:21529056

  14. Note: Flowing ion population from a resonance cavity source

    SciTech Connect

    Gayetsky, Lisa E.; Lynch, Kristina A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755 (United States)

    2011-04-15

    The experimental low energy plasma for hemispherical analyzers nominal testing thermal plasma facility of Dartmouth College uses a microwave plasma source which generates an ionosphere-like plasma through a two-step process. The plasma is initially generated inside a cylindrical, insulated, resonance cavity. This initial plasma must pass through a sheath in order to enter the main experimental region. This process imparts a significant flow velocity to the ions which has been neglected in previous analysis of this plasma source. We predict the flow energy of the ions to be between 12-15 eV depending on conservation laws and show agreement with experimental results.

  15. Report from Working Group 1 - ion sources & separators

    SciTech Connect

    Wollnik, H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Alonso, J.R. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-05-01

    This Working Group concentrated on issues associated with ion sources and separators, summarizing both the state of the art in these areas as well as needs and requirements for first stages of the ISL post-accelerator. This report is divided into three sections: a summary of presentations made to the Working Group, a comparison of ion source technologies, and a discussion of front-end configuration issues. A concluding section summarizes key design issues novel to the ISL application, and points out areas where technology development is required.

  16. ORNL developments in laser ion sources for radioactive ion beam production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yuan

    2014-06-01

    The development of a resonant ionization laser ion source (RILIS) for the production of isotopically pure radioactive ion beams is reported. The application of the laser ion source calls for high elemental selectivity, high efficiency, and fast release of short-lived isotopes. A hot-cavity ion source and three Ti:sapphire lasers pulsed at a 10 kHz rate are employed for the RILIS. The Ti:sapphire lasers have been upgraded with individual pump lasers to eliminate intracavity Pockels cells and output losses due to synchronization delays. The development of ionization schemes for a wide range of elements is important to the success of Ti:sapphire-laser-based RILIS. In off-line studies with stable isotopes, resonant ionization of 14 elements has been studied, leading to new ionization schemes for ten elements. The absolute ionization efficiency of the hot-cavity RILIS has been measured to range from 0.9 % to 40 % for different elements. The mechanisms for ion transportation and confinement in the hot-cavity ion source have been studied using the temporal profiles of the laser-ionized ions. The hot-cavity RILIS has provided beams of neutron-rich Ga isotopes for beta decay studies and enabled the first measurement of the beta decay of the exotic Ga.

  17. Uniform H- ion beam extraction in a large negative ion source with a tent-shaped magnetic filter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Tobari; M. Hanada; M. Kashiwagi; M. Taniguchi; N. Umeda; K. Watanabe; T. Inoue; K. Sakamoto; N. Takado

    2008-01-01

    Based on previous studies on the spatial uniformity of the negative ion beam, the external magnetic filter was replaced to a novel tent-shaped magnetic filter in the JAEA 10 A negative ion source. The line-cusp field configuration on the source chamber was also changed to form a symmetric magnetic field like many of positive ion sources aiming at high proton

  18. Electron cyclotron resonance microwave ion sources for thin film processing

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, L.A.; Gorbatkin, S.M.

    1990-01-01

    Plasmas created by microwave absorption at the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) are increasingly used for a variety of plasma processes, including both etching and deposition. ECR sources efficiently couple energy to electrons and use magnetic confinement to maximize the probability of an electron creating an ion or free radical in pressure regimes where the mean free path for ionization is comparable to the ECR source dimensions. The general operating principles of ECR sources are discussed with special emphasis on their use for thin film etching. Data on source performance during Cl base etching of Si using an ECR system are presented. 32 refs., 5 figs.

  19. Plasma Sputter-type Ion Source with Wire Electrodes for Low-energy Gallium Ion Extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Vasquez, M. Jr.; Kasuya, T.; Wada, M. [Graduate School of Engineering, Doshisha University, Kyotanabe, Kyoto 610-0321 (Japan); Maeno, S. [Novelion Systems Co. Ltd., Kyotanabe, Kyoto 610-0332 (Japan); Miyamoto, N. [Nissin Ion Equipment Co. Ltd., Minami-ku, Kyoto 601-8205 (Japan)

    2011-01-07

    Low-energy ions of gallium (Ga) and argon (Ar) were extracted from a plasma sputter-type ion source system that utilized a tungsten (W) wire extractor geometry. The 90% transparent W wire extractor configuration had shown that the system was capable of producing an ion beam with the energy as low as 10 eV in a dc filament discharge and 50 eV in a radio frequency (rf) excited system. In the present investigation, Ar plasma was sustained in an ion source chamber through an inductively coupled 13.56 MHz rf power source. Negatively biased liquid Ga target suspended on a W reservoir was sputtered and postionized prior to extraction. Mass spectral analyses revealed a strong dependence of the Ga{sup +} current on the induced target bias.

  20. Temporal development of ion beam mean charge state in pulsed vacuum arc ion sources.

    PubMed

    Oks, E M; Yushkov, G Yu; Anders, A

    2008-02-01

    Vacuum arc ion sources, commonly also known as "Mevva" ion sources, are used to generate intense pulsed metal ion beams. It is known that the mean charge state of the ion beam lies between 1 and 4, depending on cathode material, arc current, arc pulse duration, presence or absence of magnetic field at the cathode, as well as background gas pressure. A characteristic of the vacuum arc ion beam is a significant decrease in ion charge state throughout the pulse. This decrease can be observed up to a few milliseconds, until a "noisy" steady-state value is established. Since the extraction voltage is constant, a decrease in the ion charge state has a proportional impact on the average ion beam energy. This paper presents results of detailed investigations of the influence of arc parameters on the temporal development of the ion beam mean charge state for a wide range of cathode materials. It is shown that for fixed pulse duration, the charge state decrease can be reduced by lower arc current, higher pulse repetition rate, and reduction of the distance between cathode and extraction region. The latter effect may be associated with charge exchange processes in the discharge plasma. PMID:18315167

  1. Temporal development of ion beam mean charge state in pulsed vacuum arc ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Oks, E. M.; Yushkov, G. Yu.; Anders, A. [State University of Control Systems and Radioelectronics, Tomsk 634050, Russia and High Current Electronics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation); High Current Electronics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2008-02-15

    Vacuum arc ion sources, commonly also known as 'Mevva' ion sources, are used to generate intense pulsed metal ion beams. It is known that the mean charge state of the ion beam lies between 1 and 4, depending on cathode material, arc current, arc pulse duration, presence or absence of magnetic field at the cathode, as well as background gas pressure. A characteristic of the vacuum arc ion beam is a significant decrease in ion charge state throughout the pulse. This decrease can be observed up to a few milliseconds, until a ''noisy'' steady-state value is established. Since the extraction voltage is constant, a decrease in the ion charge state has a proportional impact on the average ion beam energy. This paper presents results of detailed investigations of the influence of arc parameters on the temporal development of the ion beam mean charge state for a wide range of cathode materials. It is shown that for fixed pulse duration, the charge state decrease can be reduced by lower arc current, higher pulse repetition rate, and reduction of the distance between cathode and extraction region. The latter effect may be associated with charge exchange processes in the discharge plasma.

  2. Recent progress on the superconducting ion source VENUS.

    PubMed

    Benitez, J Y; Franzen, K Y; Hodgkinson, A; Loew, T; Lyneis, C M; Phair, L; Saba, J; Strohmeier, M; Tarvainen, O

    2012-02-01

    The 28 GHz Ion Source VENUS (versatile ECR for nuclear science) is back in operation after the superconducting sextupole leads were repaired and a fourth cryocooler was added. VENUS serves as an R&D device to explore the limits of electron cyclotron resonance source performance at 28 GHz with its 10 kW gryotron and optimum magnetic fields and as an ion source to increase the capabilities of the 88-Inch Cyclotron both for nuclear physics research and applications. The development and testing of ovens and sputtering techniques cover a wide range of applications. Recent experiments on bismuth demonstrated stable operation at 300 e?A of Bi(31+), which is in the intensity range of interest for high performance heavy-ion drivers such as FRIB (Facility for Rare Isotope Beams). In addition, the space radiation effects testing program at the cyclotron relies on the production of a cocktail beam with many species produced simultaneously in the ion source and this can be done with a combination of gases, sputter probes, and an oven. These capabilities are being developed with VENUS by adding a low temperature oven, sputter probes, as well as studying the RF coupling into the source. PMID:22380158

  3. Recent progress on the superconducting ion source VENUS

    SciTech Connect

    Benitez, J. Y.; Franzen, K. Y.; Hodgkinson, A.; Loew, T.; Lyneis, C. M.; Phair, L.; Saba, J.; Strohmeier, M. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Tarvainen, O. [Accelerator Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, FIN-40014 (Finland)

    2012-02-15

    The 28 GHz Ion Source VENUS (versatile ECR for nuclear science) is back in operation after the superconducting sextupole leads were repaired and a fourth cryocooler was added. VENUS serves as an R and D device to explore the limits of electron cyclotron resonance source performance at 28 GHz with its 10 kW gryotron and optimum magnetic fields and as an ion source to increase the capabilities of the 88-Inch Cyclotron both for nuclear physics research and applications. The development and testing of ovens and sputtering techniques cover a wide range of applications. Recent experiments on bismuth demonstrated stable operation at 300 e{mu}A of Bi{sup 31+}, which is in the intensity range of interest for high performance heavy-ion drivers such as FRIB (Facility for Rare Isotope Beams). In addition, the space radiation effects testing program at the cyclotron relies on the production of a cocktail beam with many species produced simultaneously in the ion source and this can be done with a combination of gases, sputter probes, and an oven. These capabilities are being developed with VENUS by adding a low temperature oven, sputter probes, as well as studying the RF coupling into the source.

  4. RF gas plasma source development for heavy ion fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Ahle, L.E.; Hall, R.P.; Molvik, A.W.

    2002-02-22

    Presently the Heavy Ion Fusion Virtual National Laboratory is researching ion sources and injector concepts to understand how to optimize beam brightness over a range of currents (50-2000 mA argon equivalent). One concept initially accelerates millimeter size, milliamp beamlets to 1 MeV before merging them into centimeter size, ampere beams. Computer simulations have shown the final brightness of the merged beams is dominated by the emittance growth of the merging process, as long as the beamlets ion temperature is below a few eV. Thus, a RF multicusp source capable of high current density can produce beams with better brightness compared to ones extracted from a colder source with a large aperture and lower current density. As such, experiments have begun to develop a RF multicusp source capable of delivering one amp of extracted beam current. It is expected that it will require 10 kW of 13 MHz RF power delivered via a quartz shielded, one and half turn, four inch diameter antenna. Important considerations in the development of the source include the dependence of current density and beam ion temperature on consumed RF power and gas pressure. A fast rise time ({approx}100 ns) for the extracted beam pulse must also be achieved. Progress on these experiments will be presented.

  5. Practical experience in extending the ion source and injection system H{sup -}-ion source duty cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Faircloth, D.C.; Whitehead, M.O.; Wood, T. [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)

    2006-03-15

    The ion source and injection system H{sup -} Penning surface-plasma source is currently being developed on the ion source development rig at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory in order to meet the requirements for the next generation of high-power proton drivers. Finite element modeling has been used previously to study the effect of increasing the duty cycle. The main requirement to allow increased duty cycles is improved cooling. By simply reducing the thickness of a sheet of mica to improve thermal conductance to the cooling system, duty cycles of 1.5 ms at 50 Hz can be achieved. Slight increase in hydrogen flow rate is required as the duty cycle is increased. As the duty cycle is increased the output current reduces, however, there is no change in beam emittance. The source cooling system is described and the heat flows within the source are discussed.

  6. Production of radioactive Ag ion beams with a chemically selective laser ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jading, Y.; Catherall, R.; Jokinen, A.; Jonsson, O. C.; Kugler, E.; Lettry, J.; Ravn, H. L.; Tengblad, O.; Kautzsch, T.; Klöckl, I.; Kratz, K.-L.; Scheerer, F.; Fedoseyev, V. N.; Mishin, V. I.; van Duppen, P.; Wöhr, A.; Walters, W. B.

    1996-04-01

    We have developed a chemically selective laser ion source at the CERN-ISOLDE facility in order to study neutron-rich Ag nuclides. A pulsed laser system with high repetition rate has been used based on high-power copper-vapour pump lasers and dye lasers. With this source significant reductions of the isobaric background has been achieved.

  7. Progress in ion source injector development at the ion beam therapy center (Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Center)

    SciTech Connect

    Winkelmann, T.; Cee, R.; Haberer, T.; Naas, B.; Peters, A. [Heidelberger Ionenstrahl-Therapie Centrum (HIT), D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2010-02-15

    Radiotherapy with heavy ions is an upcoming cancer treatment method with to date unachieved precision. It associates higher control rates particularly for radio-resistant tumor species with reduced adverse effects compared to conventional photon therapy. At Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Center two 14.5 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion sources are routinely used to produce a variety of ion beams from protons up to oxygen. The operating time is 330 days per year; our experience after 3 yr of continuous operation will be presented, with special emphasis on stability and breakdowns of components. In addition, the latest enhancement and the results for the operation will be shown.

  8. The Brookhaven National Laboratory electron beam ion source for RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Alessi, J. G.; Barton, D.; Beebe, E.; Bellavia, S.; Gould, O.; Kponou, A.; Lambiase, R.; Lockey, R.; McNerney, A.; Mapes, M.; Marneris, Y.; Okamura, M.; Phillips, D.; Pikin, A. I.; Raparia, D.; Ritter, J.; Snydstrup, L.; Theisen, C.; Wilinski, M. [Collider-Accelerator Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States)

    2010-02-15

    As part of a new heavy ion preinjector that will supply beams for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Space Radiation Laboratory, construction of a new electron beam ion source (EBIS) is now being completed. This source, based on the successful prototype Brookhaven National Laboratory Test EBIS, is designed to produce milliampere level currents of all ion species, with q/m=(1/6)-(1/2). Among the major components of this source are a 5 T, 2-m-long, 204 mm diameter warm bore superconducting solenoid, an electron gun designed to operate at a nominal current of 10 A, and an electron collector designed to dissipate {approx}300 kW of peak power. Careful attention has been paid to the design of the vacuum system, since a pressure of 10{sup -10} Torr is required in the trap region. The source includes several differential pumping stages, the trap can be baked to 400 C, and there are non-evaporable getter strips in the trap region. Power supplies include a 15 A, 15 kV electron collector power supply, and fast switchable power supplies for most of the 16 electrodes used for varying the trap potential distribution for ion injection, confinement, and extraction. The EBIS source and all EBIS power supplies sit on an isolated platform, which is pulsed up to a maximum of 100 kV during ion extraction. The EBIS is now fully assembled, and operation will be beginning following final vacuum and power supply tests. Details of the EBIS components are presented.

  9. The Brookhaven National Laboratory electron beam ion source for RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Alessi, J.G.; Barton, D.; Beebe, E.; Bellavia, S.; Gould, O.; Kponou, A.; Lambiase, R.; Lockey, R.; McNerney, A.; Mapes, M.; Marneris, I.; Okamura, M.; Phillips, D.; Pikin, A.I.; Raparia, D.; Ritter, J.; Snydstrup, L.; Theisen, C.; Wilinski, M.

    2010-02-22

    As part of a new heavy ion preinjector that will supply beams for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Space Radiation Laboratory, construction of a new electron beam ion source (EBIS) is now being completed. This source, based on the successful prototype Brookhaven National Laboratory Test EBIS, is designed to produce milliampere level currents of all ion species, with q/m = (1/6)-(1/2). Among the major components of this source are a 5 T, 2-m-long, 204 mm diameter warm bore superconducting solenoid, an electron gun designed to operate at a nominal current of 10 A, and an electron collector designed to dissipate {approx} 300 kW of peak power. Careful attention has been paid to the design of the vacuum system, since a pressure of 10{sup -10} Torr is required in the trap region. The source includes several differential pumping stages, the trap can be baked to 400 C, and there are non-evaporable getter strips in the trap region. Power supplies include a 15 A, 15 kV electron collector power supply, and fast switchable power supplies for most of the 16 electrodes used for varying the trap potential distribution for ion injection, confinement, and extraction. The EBIS source and all EBIS power supplies sit on an isolated platform, which is pulsed up to a maximum of 100 kV during ion extraction. The EBIS is now fully assembled, and operation will be beginning following final vacuum and power supply tests. Details of the EBIS components are presented.

  10. Plasma spectroscopy of metal ions for hyper-electron cyclotron resonance ion source.

    PubMed

    Muto, Hideshi; Ohshiro, Yukimitsu; Yamaka, Shoichi; Watanabe, Shin-ichi; Oyaizu, Michihiro; Kubono, Shigeru; Yamaguchi, Hidetoshi; Kase, Masayuki; Hattori, Toshiyuki; Shimoura, Susumu

    2014-02-01

    In this research, the optical line spectra of metal ions from ECR plasma were observed using a grating monochromator with a photomultiplier. The light intensity of line spectrum from the ECR plasma had a strong correlation with ion beam intensity measured by a magnetic mass analyzer. This correlation is a significant information for the beam tuning process, because it allows to conduct the extraction of the desired metal ion species from the ECR plasma. Separation of ion species of the same charge to mass ratio with an electromagnetic mass analyzer is known to be an exceptionally complex process, but this research provides a new approach for its simplification. In this paper the grating monochromator method for metal ion beam tuning such as (40)Ca(12+), (56)Fe(15+), and (85)Rb(20+) of hyper-ECR ion source as an injector for RIKEN Azimuthal Varying Field cyclotron is described. PMID:24593484

  11. A simple radionuclide-driven single-ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Montero Diez, M.; Twelker, K.; Gratta, G.; Barbeau, P. S.; Barry, K.; DeVoe, R.; Dolinski, M. J.; Green, M.; LePort, F.; Mueller, A. R.; Neilson, R.; O'Sullivan, K. [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Fairbank, W. Jr.; Benitez-Medina, C.; Cook, S.; Hall, K.; Mong, B. [Department of Physics, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523 (United States); Ackerman, N.; Breidenbach, M.; Herrin, S. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); and others

    2010-11-15

    We describe a source capable of producing single barium ions through nuclear recoils in radioactive decay. The source is fabricated by electroplating {sup 148}Gd onto a silicon {alpha}-particle detector and vapor depositing a layer of BaF{sub 2} over it. {sup 144}Sm recoils from the alpha decay of {sup 148}Gd are used to dislodge Ba{sup +} ions from the BaF{sub 2} layer and emit them in the surrounding environment. The simultaneous detection of an {alpha} particle in the substrate detector allows for tagging of the nuclear decay and of the Ba{sup +} emission. The source is simple, durable, and can be manipulated and used in different environments. We discuss the fabrication process, which can be easily adapted to emit most other chemical species, and the performance of the source.

  12. Models of radiofrequency coupling for negative ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Cavenago, M.; Petrenko, S. [INFN-LNL, viale dell'Universita n.2, 35020 Legnaro (Italy)

    2012-02-15

    Radiofrequency heating for ICP (inductively coupled plasma) ion sources depends on the source operating pressure, the presence or absence of a Faraday shield, the driver coil geometry, the frequency used, and the magnetic field configuration: in negative ion source a magnetic filter seems necessary for H{sup -} survival. The result of single particle simulations showing the possibility of electron acceleration in the preglow regime and for reasonable driver chamber radius (15 cm) is reported, also as a function of the static external magnetic field. An effective plasma conductivity, depending not only from electron density, temperature, and rf field but also on static magnetic field is here presented and compared to previous models. Use of this conductivity and of multiphysics tools for a plasma transport and heating model is shown and discussed for a small source.

  13. Commissioning of the superconducting ECR ion source VENUS

    SciTech Connect

    Leitner, Daniela; Abbott, Steve R.; Dwinell, Roger D.; Leitner, Matthaeus; Taylor, Clyde; Lyneis, Claude M.

    2003-05-15

    VENUS (Versatile ECR ion source for NUclear Science) is a next generation superconducting ECR ion source, designed to produce high current, high charge state ions for the 88-Inch Cyclotron at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. VENUS also serves as the prototype ion source for the RIA (Rare Isotope Accelerator) front end. The magnetic confinement configuration consists of three superconducting axial coils and six superconducting radial coils in a sextupole configuration. The nominal design fields of the axial magnets are 4T at injection and 3T at extraction; the nominal radial design field strength at the plasma chamber wall is 2T, making VENUS the world most powerful ECR plasma confinement structure. The magnetic field strength has been designed for optimum operation at 28 GHz. The four-year VENUS project has recently achieved two major milestones: The first plasma was ignited in June, the first mass-analyzed high charge state ion beam was extracted in September of 2002. The pa per describes the ongoing commissioning. Initial results including first emittance measurements are presented.

  14. Discrimination of ionic species from broad-beam ion sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. R.

    1993-01-01

    The performance of a broad-beam, three-grid, ion extraction system incorporating radio frequency (RF) mass discrimination was investigated experimentally. This testing demonstrated that the system, based on a modified single-stage Bennett mass spectrometer, can discriminate between ionic species having about a 2-to-1 mass ratio while producing a broad-beam of ions with low kinetic energy (less than 15 eV). Testing was conducted using either argon and krypton ions or atomic and diatomic oxygen ions. A simple one-dimensional model, which ignores magnetic field and space-charge effects, was developed to predict the species separation capabilities as well as the kinetic energies of the extracted ions. The experimental results correlated well with the model predictions. This RF mass discrimination system can be used in applications where both atomic and diatomic ions are produced, but a beam of only one of the species is desired. An example of such an application is a 5 eV atomic oxygen source. This source would produce a beam of atomic oxygen with 5 eV kinetic energy, which would be directed onto a material specimen, to simulate the interaction between the surface of a satellite and the rarefied atmosphere encountered in low-Earth orbit.

  15. Laserspray ionization imaging of multiply charged ions using a commercial vacuum MALDI ion source.

    PubMed

    Inutan, Ellen D; Wager-Miller, James; Mackie, Ken; Trimpin, Sarah

    2012-11-01

    This is the first report of imaging mass spectrometry (MS) from multiply charged ions at vacuum. Laserspray ionization (LSI) was recently extended to applications at vacuum producing electrospray ionization-like multiply charged ions directly from surfaces using a commercial intermediate pressure matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) MS instrument. Here, we developed a strategy to image multiply charged peptide ions. This is achieved by the use of 2-nitrophloroglucinol as matrix for spray deposition onto the tissue section and implementation of "soft" acquisition conditions including lower laser power and ion accelerating voltages similar to electrospray ionization-like conditions. Sufficient ion abundance is generated by the vacuum LSI method to employ IMS separation in imaging multiply charged ions obtained on a commercial mass spectrometer ion source without physical instrument modifications using the laser in the commercially available reflection geometry alignment. IMS gas-phase separation reduces the complexity of the ion signal from the tissue, especially for multiply charged relative to abundant singly charged ions from tissue lipids. We show examples of LSI tissue imaging from charge state +2 of three endogenous peptides consisting of between 1 and 16 amino acid residues from the acetylated N-terminal end of myelin basic protein: mass-to-charge (m/z) 795.81 (+2) molecular weight (MW) 1589.6, m/z 831.35 (+2) MW 1660.7, and m/z 917.40 (+2) MW 1832.8. PMID:23009673

  16. Fast neutral beam ion source coupled to a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, N.C.; Limbach, P.A.; Shomo, R.E. II; Marshall, A.G. (Department of Chemistry, 120 West 18th Avenue, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio (USA)); Appelhans, A.D.; Delmore, J.E. (Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, EG G Idaho, Inc., Box 1625, Idaho Falls, Idaho (USA))

    1991-11-01

    The coupling of an autoneutralizing SF{sup {minus}}{sub 6} fast ion-beam gun to a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT/ICR) mass spectrometer is described. The fast neutral beam provides for secondary-ion-type FT/ICR mass analysis (e.g., production of abundant pseudomolecular (M+H){sup +} ions) of involatile samples without the need for external ion injection, since ions are formed at the entrance to the ICR ion trap. The design, construction, and testing of the hybrid instrument are described. The feasibility of the experiment (for both broadband and high-resolution FT/ICR positive-ion mass spectra) is demonstrated with {ital tetra}-butylammonium bromide and a Tylenol{sup ( )} sample. The ability to analyze high molecular weight polymers with high mass resolution is demonstrated for Teflon{sup ( )}. All of the advantages of the fast neutral beam ion source previously demonstrated with quadrupole mass analysis are preserved, and the additional advantages of FT/ICR mass analysis (e.g., high mass resolving power, ion trapping) are retained.

  17. Fast neutral beam ion source coupled to a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Nicholas C.; Limbach, Patrick A.; Shomo, Ronald E., II; Marshall, Alan G.; Appelhans, Anthony D.; Delmore, James E.

    1991-11-01

    The coupling of an autoneutralizing SF-6 fast ion-beam gun to a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT/ICR) mass spectrometer is described. The fast neutral beam provides for secondary-ion-type FT/ICR mass analysis [e.g., production of abundant pseudomolecular (M+H)+ ions] of involatile samples without the need for external ion injection, since ions are formed at the entrance to the ICR ion trap. The design, construction, and testing of the hybrid instrument are described. The feasibility of the experiment (for both broadband and high-resolution FT/ICR positive-ion mass spectra) is demonstrated with tetra-butylammonium bromide and a Tylenol? sample. The ability to analyze high molecular weight polymers with high mass resolution is demonstrated for Teflon?. All of the advantages of the fast neutral beam ion source previously demonstrated with quadrupole mass analysis are preserved, and the additional advantages of FT/ICR mass analysis (e.g., high mass resolving power, ion trapping) are retained.

  18. High electric field deuterium ion sources for neutron generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichenbach, Birk

    Active interrogation systems for highly enriched uranium require improved fieldable neutron sources. The target technology for deuterium-tritium neutron generators is well understood and the most significant improvement can be achieved by improving the deuterium ion source through increased output and, in some cases, lifetime of the ion source. We are developing a new approach to a deuterium ion sources based upon the field desorption/evaporation of deuterium from the surfaces of metal tips. Electrostatic field desorption (EFD) desorbs previously adsorbed deuterium as ions under the influence of high electric fields (several V/A), without removing tip material. Single etched wire tip experiments have been performed and have shown that this is difficult but can be achieved with molybdenum and tungsten tips. Electrostatic field evaporation (EFE) evaporates ultra thin deuterated titanium films as ions. It has been shown that several 10s of atomic layers can be removed within a few nanoseconds from etched tungsten tips. In the course of these studies titanium deposition and deuteration methods were studied and new detection methods developed. Space charge effects resulting from the large ion currents were identified to be the most likely cause of some unusual ion emission characteristics. In addition, on W < 110 > oriented substrates a surprising body-centered cubic crystal structure of the titanium film was found and studied. The ion currents required for neutron generator applications can be achieved by microfabrication of metal tip arrays. Field desorption studies of microfabricated field emitter tip arrays have been conducted for the first time. Maximum fields of 3 V/A have been applied to the array tip surfaces to date, although fields of ˜ 2 V/A to ˜ 2.5 V/A are more typical. Desorption of atomic deuterium ions has been observed at fields of roughly 2 V/A at room temperature. The desorption of common surface adsorbates, such as hydrogen, carbon, water, and carbon monoxide is observed at fields exceeding ˜1 V/A. In vacuo heating of the arrays to temperatures of the order of 800°C can be effective in removing many of the surface contaminants observed. For both the field desorption and the field evaporation approaches further improvements to array design and fabrication are required if arrays are to provide sufficient deuterium ion currents to produce 109 to 1010 n/cm2 of tip array area for the detection systems.

  19. Beam emittance measurements of ORNL negative ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, C.C.; Akerman, M.A.; Becraft, W.R.; Dagenhart, W.K.; Haselton, H.H.; Schechter, D.E.; Stirling, W.L.; Whealton, J.H.; Donaghy, J.J.

    1989-01-01

    The emittances of hydrogen and deuterium negative ion beams produced by volume ion sources have been measured in a transverse plane normal to the beam trajectory. The extraction voltage was varied from 10 to 40 kV, and the transverse magnetic field in the Penning discharges was varied from 0.1 to 0.2 T. Measurements were made on beams with current densities up to 60 mA/cm/sup 2/ at Oak Ridge National Laboratory with an emittance scanner originally developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The beam profile at the scanner can be used to improve the accuracy of the emittance measurements. Other factors affecting emittance measurements are discussed. This analysis may be applicable to other ion sources. 6 figs.

  20. Fundamental studies on the Cs dynamics under ion source conditions.

    PubMed

    Friedl, R; Fantz, U

    2014-02-01

    The performance of surface conversion based negative hydrogen ion sources is mainly determined by the caesium dynamics. Therefore, fundamental investigations in vacuum and plasma are performed at a flexible laboratory setup with ion source parameters. Studies on the influence of Cs on the plasma parameters of H2 and D2 plasmas showed that ne and Te in the bulk plasma are not affected by relevant amounts of Cs and no isotopic differences could be observed. The coating of the vessel surfaces with Cs, however, leads to a considerable gettering of hydrogen atoms from the plasma volume and to the decrease of ne close to a sample surface due to the formation of negative ions. PMID:24593549

  1. Design of a versatile multiaperture negative ion source.

    PubMed

    Cavenago, M; Kulevoy, T; Petrenko, S; Antoni, V; Bigi, M; Gazza, E; Recchia, M; Serianni, G; Veltri, P

    2010-02-01

    Negative ion sources are a key component of the neutral beam injector to be installed in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor. At present research and development activities address several important issues related to beam extraction, optics, and optimization. Together with the design of real size devices and the accumulation of atomic cross section databases, a relatively small negative ion source [130 mA of H(-) at 60 kV, named Negative Ion Optimization phase 1 (NIO1)] is under construction at Consorzio RFX to contribute to benchmark numerical simulation tools and to test components, such as emittance scanners, beam dumps, and cesium ovens. NIO1 design, magnet configuration, and rf coupling simulations are described. PMID:20192383

  2. Targets on superhydrophobic surfaces for laser ablation ion sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renisch, D.; Beyer, T.; Blaum, K.; Block, M.; Düllmann, Ch. E.; Eberhardt, K.; Eibach, M.; Nagy, Sz.; Neidherr, D.; Nörtershäuser, W.; Smorra, C.

    2012-06-01

    Target preparation techniques for a laser ablation ion source at the Penning-trap mass spectrometer TRIGA-TRAP have been investigated with regard to future experiments with actinides. To be able to perform mass measurements on these nuclides considering their limited availability, an efficient target preparation technique is mandatory. Here, we report on a new approach for target production using backings, which are pretreated in a way that a superhydrophobic surface is formed. This resulted in improved targets with a more homogeneous distribution of the target material compared to standard techniques with unmodified backings. It was demonstrated that the use of these new targets in a laser ablation ion source improved the ion production significantly.

  3. Handling radiation generated during an ion source commissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, H. T.; Zhao, J., E-mail: zj@pku.edu.cn; Peng, S. X.; Lu, P. N.; Zhou, Q. F.; Xu, Y.; Chen, J.; Zhang, T.; Zhang, A. L.; Guo, Z. Y.; Chen, J. E. [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Institute of Heavy Ion Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Institute of Heavy Ion Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2014-02-15

    Radiation is an important issue, which should be carefully treated during the design and commissioning of an ion source. Measurements show that X-rays are generated around the ceramics column of an extraction system when the source is powered up to 30 kV. The X-ray dose increases greatly when a beam is extracted. Inserting the ceramic column into a metal vacuum box is a good way to block X-ray emission for those cases. Moreover, this makes the online test of an intense H{sup +} ion beam with energy up to 100 keV possible. However, for deuteron ion source commissioning, neutron and gamma-ray radiation become a serious topic. In this paper, we will describe the design of the extraction system and the radiation doses of neutrons and gamma-rays measured at different D{sup +} beam energy during our 2.45 GHz deuteron electron cyclotron resonance ion source commissioning for PKUNIFTY (PeKing University Neutron Imaging FaciliTY) project at Peking University.

  4. Handling radiation generated during an ion source commissioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, H. T.; Zhao, J.; Peng, S. X.; Lu, P. N.; Zhou, Q. F.; Xu, Y.; Chen, J.; Zhang, T.; Zhang, A. L.; Guo, Z. Y.; Chen, J. E.

    2014-02-01

    Radiation is an important issue, which should be carefully treated during the design and commissioning of an ion source. Measurements show that X-rays are generated around the ceramics column of an extraction system when the source is powered up to 30 kV. The X-ray dose increases greatly when a beam is extracted. Inserting the ceramic column into a metal vacuum box is a good way to block X-ray emission for those cases. Moreover, this makes the online test of an intense H+ ion beam with energy up to 100 keV possible. However, for deuteron ion source commissioning, neutron and gamma-ray radiation become a serious topic. In this paper, we will describe the design of the extraction system and the radiation doses of neutrons and gamma-rays measured at different D+ beam energy during our 2.45 GHz deuteron electron cyclotron resonance ion source commissioning for PKUNIFTY (PeKing University Neutron Imaging FaciliTY) project at Peking University.

  5. High intensity alkali ion sources for plasma diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondarenko, I. S.; Chmyga, O. O.; Dreval, M. B.; Khrebtov, S. M.; Komarov, O. D.; Kozachok, O. S.; Krupnik, L. I.; Nedzelskiy, I. S.; Schweinzer, J.

    2004-05-01

    The injection systems of heavy ion beam probe (HIBP) and beam emission spectroscopy plasma diagnostics must produce a beam with a high enough intensity to obtain a reliable secondary signal. In particular, it can be achieved by improvements and optimization of the ion sources. Among a variety of them, the sources with solid-state thermoionic emitters have strong advantages in simplicity and very small (0.1-1 eV) initial energy dispersion. High intensity alkali ion sources with solid-state thermoionic emitters of Li+, Na+, K+, Cs+, and Tl+ have been developed and investigated in IPP NSC "KIPT," Kharkov, Ukraine. In a steady mode of operation the current densities up to 6 mA/cm2 are obtained with an emitter capacity up to 9 mA/h. With no significant design modifications, these ion sources are used on currently operating injectors of HIBP diagnostics on the TJ-II stellarator (Spain), tokamaks T-10, TUMAN-3M (Russia), and ISTTOK (Portugal), and the injector of the BES diagnostic on ASDEX-U tokamak (Germany).

  6. A Compact Pulser for Radio Frequency Ion Sources

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nabil N. Hanna

    1972-01-01

    A simple and efficient transistorized pulser for pulsing the r.f. power supplied to ion sources is described. The pulsing transistor is off during tho quiescent period and no pulse transformers are used. Accurately timed r.f. pulses of 600W peak power are obtained and the pulser consumes about W. Pulse durations in the range 1 ¿sec - 10 msec at duty

  7. Cesium Delivery System for Negative Ion Source at IPR

    SciTech Connect

    Bansal, G.; Pandya, K.; Soni, J.; Gahlaut, A.; Parmar, K. G. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat, 382 428 (India); Bandyopadhyay, M.; Chakraborty, A.; Singh, M. J. [ITER- India, Institute for Plasma Research, A-29, Sector 25, GIDC, Gandhinagar, Gujarat (India)

    2011-09-26

    The technique of surface production of negative ions using cesium, Cs, has been efficiently exploited over the years for producing negative ion beams with increased current densities from negative ion sources used on neutral beam lines. Deposition of Cs on the source walls and the plasma grid lowers the work function and therefore enables a higher yield of H{sup -}, when hydrogen particles (H and/or H{sub x}{sup +}) strike these surfaces.A single driver RF based (100 kW, 1 MHz) negative ion source test bed, ROBIN, is being set up at IPR under a technical collaboration between IPR and IPP, Germany. The optimization of the Cs oven design to be used on this facility as well as multidriver sources is underway. The characterization experiments of such a Cs delivery system with a 1 g Cs inventory have been carried out using surface ionization technique. The experiments have been carried by delivering Cs into a vacuum chamber without plasma. The linear motion of the surface ionization detector, SID, attached with a linear motion feedthrough allows measuring the angular distribution of the Cs coming out of the oven. Based on the experimental results, a Cs oven for ROBIN has been proposed. The Cs oven design and experimental results of the prototype Cs oven are reported and discussed in the paper.

  8. Frequency scaling with miniature COmpact MIcrowave and Coaxial ion sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sortais, Pascal; André, Thomas; Angot, Julien; Bouat, Sophie; Jacob, Josua; Lamy, Thierry; Sole, Patrick

    2014-02-01

    We will present recent basic developments about possible extension of the COMIC (for COmpact MIcrowave and Coaxial) devices up to 5.8 GHz in place of the present 2.45 GHz operation [P. Sortais, T. Lamy, J. Médard, J. Angot, L. Latrasse, and T. Thuillier, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 02B314 (2010)]. New applications associating multiple COMIC devices for thin film deposition will be described and we will explain why an increase of the current density delivered by each individual ion source could lead to the increase of the deposition rate. For this purpose, we will present results of about two devices working at 5.8 GHz. The first one is a tiny ion source, the world smallest microwave ion source, exactly similar to COMIC but operating at 5.8 GHz with a quarter wave cavity structure and a few watts microwave power consumption. We will show that the frequency scaling effect is effective inside such small machines. The second one is a more ambitious ion source designed around a three quarter wave structure that works with a few tens of watts at 5.8 GHz.

  9. Blind Source Separation For Ion Mobility Spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Marco, S.; Pomareda, V. [Department of Electronics, University of Barcelona, C/Marti i Franques, no 1, planta 2, 08028, Barcelona (Spain); Artificial Olfaction Lab, Institute of BioEngineering of Catalonia and Institut de Bioenginyeria de Catalunya (IBEC), C/Baldiri Reixac 13, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Pardo, A. [Department of Electronics, University of Barcelona, C/Marti i Franques, no 1, planta 2, 08028, Barcelona (Spain); Kessler, M.; Goebel, J.; Mueller, G. [Department LG-SI 2, EADS Innovation Works, EADS Deutschland GmbH and EADS Innovation Works, Dept. IW-SI-Sensors, Electronics and Systems Integration, 81663 Muenchen (Germany)

    2009-05-23

    Miniaturization is a powerful trend for smart chemical instrumentation in a diversity of applications. It is know that miniaturization in IMS leads to a degradation of the system characteristics. For the present work, we are interested in signal processing solutions to mitigate limitations introduced by limited drift tube length that basically involve a loss of chemical selectivity. While blind source separation techniques (BSS) are popular in other domains, their application for smart chemical instrumentation is limited. However, in some conditions, basically linearity, BSS may fully recover the concentration time evolution and the pure spectra with few underlying hypothesis. This is extremely helpful in conditions where non-expected chemical interferents may appear, or unwanted perturbations may pollute the spectra. SIMPLISMA has been advocated by Harrington et al. in several papers. However, more modern methods of BSS for bilinear decomposition with the restriction of positiveness have appeared in the last decade. In order to explore and compare the performances of those methods a series of experiments were performed.

  10. Note: A pulsed laser ion source for linear induction accelerators.

    PubMed

    Zhang, H; Zhang, K; Shen, Y; Jiang, X; Dong, P; Liu, Y; Wang, Y; Chen, D; Pan, H; Wang, W; Jiang, W; Long, J; Xia, L; Shi, J; Zhang, L; Deng, J

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a high-current laser ion source for induction accelerators. A copper target was irradiated by a frequency-quadrupled Nd:YAG laser (266 nm) with relatively low intensities of 10(8) W/cm(2). The laser-produced plasma supplied a large number of Cu(+) ions (?10(12) ions/pulse) during several microseconds. Emission spectra of the plasma were observed and the calculated electron temperature was about 1 eV. An induction voltage adder extracted high-current ion beams over 0.5 A/cm(2) from a plasma-prefilled gap. The normalized beam emittance measured by a pepper-pot method was smaller than 1 ? mm mrad. PMID:25638131

  11. The 28 GHZ, 10 KW, CW Gyrotron Generator for the VENUS ECR Ion Source at LBNL

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Marks; S. Evans; H. Jory; D. Holstein; R. Rizzo; P. Beck; B. Cisto; D. Leitner; C. M. Lyneis; D. Collins; R. D. Dwinell

    2005-01-01

    The VIA-301 Heatwave™ gyrotron generator was specifically designed to meet the requirements of the Venus ECR Ion Source at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). VENUS (Versatile ECR ion source for NUclear Science) is a next generation superconducting ECR ion source, designed to produce high current, high charge state ions for the 88-Inch Cyclotron at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

  12. Main Magnetic Focus Ion Source: II. The first investigations at 10 keV

    E-print Network

    Ovsyannikov, V P

    2015-01-01

    The basic principles of design for the compact ion source of new generation are presented. The device uses the local ion trap created by the axial electron beam rippled in a thick magnetic lens. In accordance with this feature, the ion source is given the name main magnetic focus ion source. The experimental evidences for the production of Ir$^{59+}$, Xe$^{44+}$, and Ar$^{16+}$ ions are obtained. The control over depth of the local ion trap is shown to be feasible.

  13. Study of a liquid metal ion source for external ion injection into electron-beam ion source

    E-print Network

    . The ion current on a Faraday cup biased to +200 V to suppress the secondary electrons was measured through total ion current on a Faraday cup was 30­50 A. The LMIS was tested in a pulsed mode for a range on a Faraday cup are presented in Fig. 3. This experiment demonstrated very high stability of the extracted ion

  14. Emittance studies of the Spallation Neutron Source external-antenna H{sup -} ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Han, B. X.; Stockli, M. P.; Welton, R. F.; Pennisi, T. R.; Murray, S. N.; Santana, M.; Long, C. D. [Spallation Neutron Source (SNS), Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

    2010-02-15

    A new Allison-type emittance scanner has been built to characterize the ion sources and low energy beam transport systems at Spallation Neutron Source. In this work, the emittance characteristics of the H{sup -} beam produced with the external-antenna rf-driven ion source and transported through the two-lens electrostatic low energy beam transport are studied. The beam emittance dependence on beam intensity, extraction parameters, and the evolution of the emittance and twiss parameters over beam pulse duration are presented.

  15. New Results with the superconducting ECR ion source VENUS

    SciTech Connect

    Lyneis, C.M.; Leitner, D.; Abbott, S.R.; Dwinell, R.D.; Leitner,M.; Silver, C.S.; Taylor, C.

    2004-05-13

    During the last year, the VENUS ECR ion source was commissioned at 18 GHz and preparations for 28 GHz operation, which is set to begin early in 2004, are now underway. The goal of the VENUS ECR ion source project as the RIA R&D injector is the production of 240emA of U30+, a high current medium charge state beam. On the other hand, as an injector ion source for the 88-Inch Cyclotron the design objective is the production of 5emA of U48+, a low current, very high charge state beam. During the commissioning phase with 18 GHz, tests with various gases and recently metals have been performed with up to 2000 W RF power and the performance is very promising. For example, 1100 e mu A of O6+,180 e mu A of Ar12+, 150 emA of Xe20+ and 100 emA of Bi24+ were produced in the early commissioning phase, ranking VENUS among the currently highest performance 18 GHz ECR ion sources. The emittance of the beams produced at 18 GHz was measured with a two axis emittance scanner. In FY04 a 10 kW, 28 GHz gyrotron system will be added, which will enable VENUS to reach full performance. The performance of the VENUS ion source, low energy beam transport (LEBT) and its closed loop cryogenic system are described in the paper. Recently, a new high temperature axial oven has been installed in the source and the first results on metal beams such as bismuth are given. The design of the 28 GHz, 10 kW gyrotron system is also be described. During the last year, the VENUS ECR ion source was commissioned at 18 GHz and preparations for 28 GHz operation, which is set to begin early in 2004, are now underway. The goal of the VENUS ECR+, a high current medium charge state beam. On the other hand, as an injector ion source for the 88-Inch Cyclotron the design objective is the production of 5 emA of U48+, a low current, very high charge state beam. During the commissioning phase with 18 GHz, tests with various gases and recently metals have been performed with up to 2000 W RF power and the performance is very promising. For example, 1100 e mu A of O6+, 180 e muA of Ar12+, 150 emA of Xe20+ and 100 emA of Bi24+ were produced in the early commissioning phase, ranking VENUS among the currently highest performance 18 GHz ECR ion sources. The emittance of the beams produced at 18 GHz was measured with a two axis emittance scanner. In FY04 a 10kW, 28 GHz gyrotron system will be added, which will enable VENUS to reach full performance. The performance of the VENUS ion source, low energy beam transport (LEBT) and its closed loop cryogenic system are described in the paper. Recently, a new high temperature axial oven has been installed in the source and the first results on metal beams such as bismuth are given. The design of the 28 GHz, 10 kW gyrotron system is also be described.

  16. H/sup -/ ion source research at Los Alamos

    SciTech Connect

    Allison, P.; Smith, H.V. Jr.; Sherman, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    Up to 160 mA of H/sup -/ ions has been extracted at 20 kV from a 10 by 0.5-mm/sup 2/ slit in a Penning surface-plasma source. Typically, 70% of the beam can be transported through a bending magnet to a Faraday cup or emittance scanner. Up to 90% transmission has been observed for some neutralizing gases. Average and pulsed cesium flows from the source were measured with a surface-ionization gauge. Operating parameters of the source and measurements of the emittance are reported.

  17. Imaging of Sources in Heavy-Ion Reactions

    E-print Network

    P. Danielewicz; D. A. Brown

    1998-11-13

    We discuss imaging sources from low relative-velocity correlations in heavy-ion reactions. When the correlation is dominated by interference, we can obtain the images by Fourier transforming the correlation function. In the general case, we may use the method of optimized discretization. This method stabilizes the inversion by adapting the resolution of the source to the experimental error and to the measured velocities. The imaged sources contain information on freeze-out density, phase-space density, and resonance decays, among other things.

  18. The Stern–Gerlach polarized ion source for the Munich MP-tandem laboratory, a bright source for unpolarized hydrogen and helium ion beams as well

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Hertenberger; A. Metz; Y. Eisermann; K. El Abiary; A. Ludewig; C. Pertl; S. Trieb; H.-F. Wirth; P. Schiemenz; G. Graw

    2005-01-01

    The design of our source of negatively charged, intense and brilliant DC beams of polarized hydrogen and deuterium ions was motivated by the excellent performance of the HERMES atomic beam source and the successful operation of a polarized ion source at TUNL. Deviating from their 30K atomic beam technology we combine an 80K atomic beam source (ABS) with subsequent ionization

  19. Proceedings of the 10th international workshop on ECR ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, F W; Kirkpatrick, M I [eds.

    1991-01-01

    This report contains papers on the following topics: Recent Developments and Future Projects on ECR Ion Sources; Operation of the New KVI ECR Ion Source at 10 GHz; Operational Experience and Status of the INS SF-ECR Ion Source; Results of the New ECR4'' 14.5 GHz ECRIS; Preliminary Performance of the AECR; Experimental Study of the Parallel and Perpendicular Particle Losses from an ECRIS Plasma; Plasma Instability in Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heated Ion Sources; The Hyperbolic Energy Analyzer; Status of ECR Source Development; The New 10 GHz CAPRICE Source; First Operation of the Texas A M ECR Ion Source; Recent Developments of the RIKEN ECR Ion Sources; The 14 GHz CAPRICE Source; Characteristics and Potential Applications of an ORNL Microwave ECR Multicusp Plasma Ion Source; ECRIPAC: The Production and Acceleration of Multiply Charged Ions Using an ECR Plasma; ECR Source for the HHIRF Tandem Accelerator; Feasibility Studies for an ECR-Generated Plasma Stripper; Production of Ion Beams by using the ECR Plasmas Cathode; A Single Stage ECR Source for Efficient Production of Radioactive Ion Beams; The Single Staged ECR Source at the TRIUMF Isotope Separator TISOL; The Continuous Wave, Optically Pumped H{sup {minus}} Source; The H{sup +} ECR Source for the LAMPF Optically Pumped Polarized Ion Source; Present Status of the Warsaw CUSP ECR Ion Source; An ECR Source for Negative Ion Production; GYRAC-D: A Device for a 200 keV ECR Plasma Production and Accumulation; Status Report of the 14.4 GHZ ECR in Legnaro; Status of JYFL-ECRIS; Report on the Uppsala ECRIS Facility and Its Planned Use for Atomic Physics; A 10 GHz ECR Ion Source for Ion-Electron and Ion-Atom Collision Studies; and Status of the ORNL ECR Source Facility for Multicharged Ion Collision Research.

  20. Power supply system for negative ion source at IPR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gahlaut, Agrajit; Sonara, Jashwant; Parmar, K. G.; Soni, Jignesh; Bandyopadhyay, M.; Singh, Mahendrajit; Bansal, Gourab; Pandya, Kaushal; Chakraborty, Arun

    2010-02-01

    The first step in the Indian program on negative ion beams is the setting up of Negative ion Experimental Assembly - RF based, where 100 kW of RF power shall be coupled to a plasma source producing plasma of density ~5 × 1012 cm-3, from which ~ 10 A of negative ion beam shall be produced and accelerated to 35 kV, through an electrostatic ion accelerator. The experimental system is modelled similar to the RF based negative ion source, BATMAN presently operating at IPP, Garching, Germany. The mechanical system for Negative Ion Source Assembly is close to the IPP source, remaining systems are designed and procured principally from indigenous sources, keeping the IPP configuration as a base line. High voltage (HV) and low voltage (LV) power supplies are two key constituents of the experimental setup. The HV power supplies for extraction and acceleration are rated for high voltage (~15 to 35kV), and high current (~ 15 to 35A). Other attributes are, fast rate of voltage rise (< 5ms), good regulation (< ±1%), low ripple (< ±2%), isolation (~50kV), low energy content (< 10J) and fast cut-off (< 100?s). The low voltage (LV) supplies required for biasing and providing heating power to the Cesium oven and the plasma grids; have attributes of low ripple, high stability, fast and precise regulation, programmability and remote operation. These power supplies are also equipped with over-voltage, over-current and current limit (CC Mode) protections. Fault diagnostics, to distinguish abnormal rise in currents (breakdown faults) with over-currents is enabled using fast response breakdown and over-current protection scheme. To restrict the fault energy deposited on the ion source, specially designed snubbers are implemented in each (extraction and acceleration) high voltage path to swap the surge energy. Moreover, the monitoring status and control signals from these power supplies are required to be electrically (~ 50kV) isolated from the system. The paper shall present the design basis, topology selection, manufacturing, testing, commissioning, integration and control strategy of these HVPS. A complete power interconnection scheme, which includes all protective devices and measuring devices, low & high voltage power supplies, monitoring and control signals etc. shall also be discussed. The paper also discusses the protocols involved in grounding and shielding, particularly in operating the system in RF environment.

  1. High-current metal ion beam extraction from a multicusp ion source

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yutaka Inouchi; Hideki Tanaka; Hiroshi Inami; Fumio Fukumaru; Kouzi Matsunaga

    1990-01-01

    Improvements have been made in a multicusp ion source, which made it possible to produce metal–vapor plasma and extract a high-current metal ion beam. In the discharge chamber, double radiation shields were set and the inner shields were heated to 1860 K. Therefore, it became possible to maintain enough metal–vapor density to produce plasma without the use of support gas.

  2. Multiaperture ion beam extraction from gas-dynamic electron cyclotron resonance source of multicharged ions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Sidorov; M. Dorf; V. Zorin; A. Bokhanov; I. Izotov; S. Razin; V. Skalyga; J. Rossbach; P. Spaedtke; A. Balabaev

    2008-01-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance ion source with quasi-gas-dynamic regime of plasma confinement (ReGIS), constructed at the Institute of Applied Physics, Russia, provides opportunities for extracting intense and high-brightness multicharged ion beams. Despite the short plasma lifetime in a magnetic trap of a ReGIS, the degree of multiple ionization may be significantly enhanced by the increase in power and frequency of the

  3. rf-driven ion sources for industrial applications (invited) (abstract)a)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, Ka-Ngo

    2008-02-01

    The Plasma and Ion Source Technology Group at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory have been developing rf-driven ion sources for the last two decades. These sources are being used to generate both positive and negative ion beams. Some of these sources are operating in particle accelerators such as the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge, while others are being employed in various industrial ion beam systems. There are four areas where the rf-driven ion sources are commonly used in industry. (1) In semiconductor manufacturing, rf-driven sources have found important applications in plasma etching, ion beam implantation, and ion beam lithography. (2) In material analysis and surface modification, miniature rf-ion sources can be found in focused ion beam systems. They can provide ion beams of essentially any element in the Periodic Table. The newly developed combined rf ion-electron beam unit improves greatly the performance of the secondary ion mass spectrometry tool. (3) For neutron production, rf ion source is a major component of compact, high flux D-D, D-T, or T-T neutron generators. These neutron sources are now being employed in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) as well as in neutron imaging and material interrogation. (4) Large area rf-driven ion source will be used in an industrial design neutral beam diagnostic system for probing fusion plasmas. Such sources can be easily scaled to provide large ion beam current for future fusion reactor applications.

  4. Magnetron Driven L Band RF Gun using a Photocathode Emitter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kirk Evans; Amnon Fisher; Moshe Friedman

    1996-01-01

    Magnetron Driven L Band RF Gun using a Photocathode Emitter A tunable 5 megawatt L-Band injection locked magnetron amplifier is used to drive a 1-1\\/2 cell RF cavity gun, to produce a 2.5 megavolt electron beam. A tunable RF source relaxes the precision of the cavity gun construction, and therefore simplifies the design and reduces the overall cost. The design

  5. Proceedings of the workshop on ion source issues relevant to a pulsed spallation neutron source: Part 1: Workshop summary

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, L.; Leung, K.N.; Alonso, J. [eds.

    1994-10-01

    The workshop reviewed the ion-source requirements for high-power accelerator-driven spallation neutron facilities, and the performance of existing ion sources. Proposals for new facilities in the 1- to 5-MW range call for a widely differing set of ion-source requirements. For example, the source peak current requirements vary from 40 mA to 150 mA, while the duty factor ranges from 1% to 9%. Much of the workshop discussion centered on the state-of-the-art of negative hydrogen ion source (H{sup {minus}}) technology and the present experience with Penning and volume sources. In addition, other ion source technologies, for positive ions or CW applications were reviewed. Some of these sources have been operational at existing accelerator complexes and some are in the source-development stage on test stands.

  6. Target life time of laser ion source for low charge state ion production

    SciTech Connect

    Kanesue,T.; Tamura, J.; Okamura, M.

    2008-06-23

    Laser ion source (LIS) produces ions by irradiating pulsed high power laser shots onto the solid state target. For the low charge state ion production, laser spot diameter on the target can be over several millimeters using a high power laser such as Nd:YAG laser. In this case, a damage to the target surface is small while there is a visible crater in case of the best focused laser shot for high charge state ion production (laser spot diameter can be several tens of micrometers). So the need of target displacement after each laser shot to use fresh surface to stabilize plasma is not required for low charge state ion production. We tested target lifetime using Nd:YAG laser with 5 Hz repetition rate. Also target temperature and vacuum condition were recorded during experiment. The feasibility of a long time operation was verified.

  7. Laser ion source for ITEP-TWAC project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balabaev, A.; Kondrashev, S.; Sharkov, B.; Vasiliev, A.

    2005-10-01

    Laser ion source (LIS) is the only type of source capable of generating 10-30 mA beams of highly charged ions for the ITEP-TeraWatt (TWAC) accelerator/accumulator facility [B.Yu. Sharkov et al ., Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 415 20 (1998).]. The assembling stage of the new LIS based on 100 J/1 Hz master oscillator-power amplifier CO2-laser system [Yu. Satov, et al ., J. Russ. Laser Res. 25(3) 205 (2004).] is in progress at ITEP now. In the first phase, the ion beam parameters (charge state distribution, current, pulse length and emittance) will be specified for different elements and target irradiation conditions. According to the planning, the new LIS and the new high-current injector [D. Kashinsky, et al ., Proceedings of the Heavy Ion Fusion Conference, Moskow (2002).] will be used to deliver the beams of highly charged ions for the ITEP-TWAC accelerator/accumulator facility.

  8. Numerical modeling of the SNS H- ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veitzer, Seth A.; Beckwith, Kristian R. C.; Kundrapu, Madhusudhan; Stoltz, Peter H.

    2015-04-01

    Ion source rf antennas that produce H- ions can fail when plasma heating causes ablation of the insulating coating due to small structural defects such as cracks. Reducing antenna failures that reduce the operating capabilities of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) accelerator is one of the top priorities of the SNS H- Source Program at ORNL. Numerical modeling of ion sources can provide techniques for optimizing design in order to reduce antenna failures. There are a number of difficulties in developing accurate models of rf inductive plasmas. First, a large range of spatial and temporal scales must be resolved in order to accurately capture the physics of plasma motion, including the Debye length, rf frequencies on the order of tens of MHz, simulation time scales of many hundreds of rf periods, large device sizes on tens of cm, and ion motions that are thousands of times slower than electrons. This results in large simulation domains with many computational cells for solving plasma and electromagnetic equations, short time steps, and long-duration simulations. In order to reduce the computational requirements, one can develop implicit models for both fields and particle motions (e.g. divergence-preserving ADI methods), various electrostatic models, or magnetohydrodynamic models. We have performed simulations using all three of these methods and have found that fluid models have the greatest potential for giving accurate solutions while still being fast enough to perform long timescale simulations in a reasonable amount of time. We have implemented a number of fluid models with electromagnetics using the simulation tool USim and applied them to modeling the SNS H- ion source. We found that a reduced, single-fluid MHD model with an imposed magnetic field due to the rf antenna current and the confining multi-cusp field generated increased bulk plasma velocities of > 200 m/s in the region of the antenna where ablation is often observed in the SNS source. We report here on comparisons of simulated plasma parameters and code performance using more accurate physical models, such as two-temperature extended MHD models, for both a related benchmark system describing a inductively coupled plasma reactor, and for the SNS ion source. We also present results from scaling studies for mesh generation and solvers in the USim simulation code.

  9. Progress in the development of H/sup -/ ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Prelec, K.

    1986-01-01

    Charge state of an H/sup -/ ion can be changed easily by either single (neutralization) or double (ionization) electron stripping, in a very wide energy range. Development of H/sup -/ ion sources has been stimulated by several areas of application: production of high power beams of hydrogen atoms with energies of several hundred keV for plasma heating and current drive in fusion devices, production of high brightness beams of hydrogen atoms in the energy range around 100 MeV, and for use in some accelerators where H/sup -/ ions facilitate and improve the injection or ejection processes. This paper will put most emphasis on the accelerator application. Two types of sources will be considered, those where H/sup -/ ions are produced in processes on a low work function surface and those where they are produced in collisions occurring in the plasma. After a short outline of theoretical work and experimental studies of relevant processes and phenomena, a review of existing sources designs will be given, describing their performance.

  10. Fluctuation of an ion beam extracted from an AC filament driven Bernas-type ion source.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, N; Okajima, Y; Wada, M

    2014-02-01

    Argon ion beam fluctuation from an AC filament driven Bernas-type ion source is observed. The ion beam was measured by an 8 measurement elements beam profile monitor. The amplitude of the beam current fluctuation stayed in the same level from 100 Hz to 1 kHz of the filament heating frequency. The beam current fluctuation frequency measured by the beam profile monitor was equal to the frequency of the AC filament operation. The fluctuation amplitudes of the beam current by AC operation were less than 7% and were in the same level of the DC operation. PMID:24593448

  11. First plasma analysis of the CEA\\/Saclay ECR hydrogen negative ion source

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Gobin; P.-Y. Beauvais; K. Benmeziane; O. Delferrière; R. Ferdinand; F. Harrault; J.-M. Lagniel; J. Sherman

    2002-01-01

    Reliable high intensity H- ion source development is now part of the CEA\\/Saclay work in the field of high intensity linear accelerators. A 2.45 GHz electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) H- ion source and test bench have been built. This new source has been designed taking into account our experience on the French high intensity ECR proton source. For H- ion

  12. Studies on the Extraction Region of the Type VI RF Driven H- Ion Source

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. McNeely; M. Bandyopadhyay; P. Franzen; B. Heinemann; C. Hu; W. Kraus; R. Riedl; E. Speth; R. Wilhelm

    2002-01-01

    IPP Garching has spent several years developing a RF driven H- ion source intended to be an alternative to the current ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) reference design ion source. A RF driven source offers a number of advantages to ITER in terms of reduced costs and maintenance requirements. Although the RF driven ion source has shown itself to be

  13. Beam dynamics of a liquid metal ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Whealton, J.H.; Meszaros, P.S.; Rothe, K.E.; Raridon, R.J.; Ryan, P.M.

    1989-01-01

    RMS emittance growth of liquid metal ion sources is studied. Processes included are nonlinear expansion through extractor and accelerator fringe fields, nonlinear beam space charge, plasma effects near needle, and waves (either ion-acoustic or space charge limited as considered by V.I. Dudnikov). This investigation consists of 2-D analysis of appropriate Vlasov-Poisson equations in both steady-state and time-dependent formulations. Various geometries will be considered such as some used by G. Alton of ORNL. 2 refs., 7 figs.

  14. Plasma modeling in an electron-cyclotron-resonance ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Pesic, S.; Vukovic, M. (Institute for Research in Physics, Boris Kidric'' Institute, P.O. Box 522, 11001 Beograd (Yugoslavia))

    1990-09-15

    Modeling calculations of an electron-cyclotron-resonance ion source (ECRIS) are presented. The adopted model is described through an analysis of the impact of ECR heating, transport, and atomic-collision processes on the particle balance in an ECRIS. On the basis of the obtained numerical results, general relationships among externally controllable parameters, and plasma and ion-beam characteristics are derived. Comparison with experimental results that use the electron energy as the only fitting parameter supports the applied model. The predicted general trends provide some basis for future experiments.

  15. A low energy ion source for electron capture spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Tusche, C., E-mail: tusche@mpi-halle.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Mikrostrukturphysik, Weinberg 2, 06120 Halle (Germany); Kirschner, J. [Max-Planck-Institut für Mikrostrukturphysik, Weinberg 2, 06120 Halle (Germany); Naturwissenschaftliche Fakultät II, Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg, 06120 Halle (Germany)

    2014-06-15

    We report on the design of an ion source for the production of single and double charged Helium ions with kinetic energies in the range from 300 eV down to 5 eV. The construction is based on a commercial sputter ion gun equipped with a Wien-filter for mass/charge separation. Retardation of the ions from the ionizer potential (2 keV) takes place completely within the lens system of the sputter gun, without modification of original parts. For 15 eV He{sup +} ions, the design allows for beam currents up to 30 nA, limited by the space charge repulsion in the beam. For He{sup 2+} operation, we obtain a beam current of 320?pA at 30 eV, and 46 pA at 5 eV beam energy, respectively. In addition, operating parameters can be optimized for a significant contribution of metastable He*{sup +} (2s) ions.

  16. A low energy ion source for electron capture spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Tusche, C; Kirschner, J

    2014-06-01

    We report on the design of an ion source for the production of single and double charged Helium ions with kinetic energies in the range from 300 eV down to 5 eV. The construction is based on a commercial sputter ion gun equipped with a Wien-filter for mass/charge separation. Retardation of the ions from the ionizer potential (2 keV) takes place completely within the lens system of the sputter gun, without modification of original parts. For 15 eV He(+) ions, the design allows for beam currents up to 30 nA, limited by the space charge repulsion in the beam. For He(2 +) operation, we obtain a beam current of 320 pA at 30 eV, and 46 pA at 5 eV beam energy, respectively. In addition, operating parameters can be optimized for a significant contribution of metastable He*(+) (2s) ions. PMID:24985812

  17. Design of a compact electron cyclotron resonance ion source for medium charge state light ions

    SciTech Connect

    Button, D.; Hotchkis, M. A. C. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization, Sydney, NSW 2234 (Australia); Milford, G. N. [University of New South Wales, Canberra, ACT 2600 (Australia)

    2012-02-15

    At the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization we are developing a new isotope ratio mass spectrometer based on the measurement of multiple charge state ions. We have carried out a review of our existing ECR ion source and identified a number of design flaws. For the new instrument, we are producing a new ECR source and have refined the design, in particular by using 3D simulations to improve the magnetic confinement field and by a combination of simulations and experiments to improve the design of the microwave coupling.

  18. Magnetron sputtered boron films

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, Daniel M. (Livermore, CA); Jankowski, Alan F. (Livermore, CA)

    1998-01-01

    A method is described for the production of thin boron and titanium/boron films by magnetron sputter deposition. The amorphous boron films contain no morphological growth features, unlike those found when thin films are prepared by various physical vapor deposition processes. Magnetron sputter deposition method requires the use of a high density crystalline boron sputter target which is prepared by hot isostatic pressing. Thin boron films prepared by this method are useful for producing hardened surfaces, surfacing machine tools, etc. and for ultra-thin band pass filters as well as the low Z element in low Z/high Z optical components, such as mirrors which enhance reflectivity from grazing to normal incidence.

  19. Magnetron sputtered boron films

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, D.M.; Jankowski, A.F.

    1998-06-16

    A method is described for the production of thin boron and titanium/boron films by magnetron sputter deposition. The amorphous boron films contain no morphological growth features, unlike those found when thin films are prepared by various physical vapor deposition processes. Magnetron sputter deposition method requires the use of a high density crystalline boron sputter target which is prepared by hot isostatic pressing. Thin boron films prepared by this method are useful for producing hardened surfaces, surfacing machine tools, etc. and for ultra-thin band pass filters as well as the low Z element in low Z/high Z optical components, such as mirrors which enhance reflectivity from grazing to normal incidence. 8 figs.

  20. Status and operation of the Linac4 ion source prototypes

    SciTech Connect

    Lettry, J., E-mail: Jacques.lettry@cern.ch; Aguglia, D.; Andersson, P.; Bertolo, S.; Butterworth, A.; Coutron, Y.; Dallocchio, A.; Chaudet, E.; Gil-Flores, J.; Guida, R.; Hansen, J.; Koszar, I.; Mahner, E.; Mastrostefano, C.; Mathot, S.; Mattei, S.; Midttun, Ø.; Moyret, P.; Nisbet, D.; O’Neil, M. [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)] [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); and others

    2014-02-15

    CERN's Linac4 45 kV H{sup ?} ion sources prototypes are installed at a dedicated ion source test stand and in the Linac4 tunnel. The operation of the pulsed hydrogen injection, RF sustained plasma, and pulsed high voltages are described. The first experimental results of two prototypes relying on 2 MHz RF-plasma heating are presented. The plasma is ignited via capacitive coupling, and sustained by inductive coupling. The light emitted from the plasma is collected by viewports pointing to the plasma chamber wall in the middle of the RF solenoid and to the plasma chamber axis. Preliminary measurements of optical emission spectroscopy and photometry of the plasma have been performed. The design of a cesiated ion source is presented. The volume source has produced a 45 keV H{sup ?} beam of 16–22 mA which has successfully been used for the commissioning of the Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT), Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator, and chopper of Linac4.

  1. ILLIBS, a RF-Driven Ion Source for IEC Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaban, Yasser; Miley, George H.

    2001-10-01

    A unique RF-driven ion source ("ILLIBS") is under development for use with the U of Illinois gridded Inertial Confinement Fusion experiment G. H. Miley et al., IEEE Trans. on Plasma Science, 25 (1997), 733. The ILLIBS unit is attached to an IEC vacuum vessel port, using a magnetic entrance nozzle to direct ions through a mechanical restriction that maximizes the differential pressure between the IEC vessel and source volume. The nominal RF input power is 250 Watts at 13.5 MHz, with a reflected power 20 mainly accelerated to fusion energies by the IEC grid structure analogously to normal IEC operation. The injected ion beam ( 3-mm diam.) is focussed at the plasma core region of the IEC. Reflection by the potential structures provides multi-passes through the core. The resulting source-driven plasma discharge differs significantly from prior Paschen-limited discharge operation. Steady-state D-D neutron rates approaching 10*7 n/s are achieved, with a significant reduction of charge-exchange losses, hence improved power efficiency. The ILLIBS source design and parametric studies of IEC operation with it will be presented.

  2. A CW radiofrequency ion source for production of negative hydrogen ion beams for cyclotrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalvas, T.; Tarvainen, O.; Komppula, J.; Koivisto, H.; Tuunanen, J.; Potkins, D.; Stewart, T.; Dehnel, M. P.

    2015-04-01

    A CW 13.56 MHz radiofrequency-driven ion source RADIS for production of H- and D- beams is under development for replacing the filament-driven ion source of the MCC30/15 cyclotron. The RF ion source has a 16-pole multicusp plasma chamber, an electromagnet-based magnetic filter and an external planar spiral RF antenna behind an AlN window. The extraction is a 5-electrode system with an adjustable puller electrode voltage for optimizing the beam formation, a water-cooled electron dump electrode and an accelerating einzel lens. At 2650 W of RF power, the source produces 1 mA of H- (2.6 mA/cm2), which is the intensity needed at injection for production of 200 µA H+ with the filament-driven ion source. A simple pepperpot device has been developed for characterizing the beam emittance. Plans for improving the power efficiency with the use of a new permanent magnet front plate is discussed.

  3. Modeling of the Magnetron Discharge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Annemie Bogaerts; Ivan Kolev; Guy Buyle

    Because of the industrial importance of sputter deposition magnetrons, there is a strong drive to simulate the entire magnetron\\u000a deposition process, to replace trial-and-error experiments. This can lead to serious cost reduction, both for the manufacturers\\u000a and the users of magnetron sputter equipment. The reasons are straightforward. For a typical coating plant, one of the main\\u000a costs is the installation

  4. Concept for a fourth generation electron cyclotron resonance ion source.

    PubMed

    Lyneis, C; Ferracin, P; Caspi, S; Hodgkinson, A; Sabbi, G L

    2012-02-01

    A fourth generation electron cyclotron resonance ion source with an operating frequency between 40 and 56 GHz has the potential to quadruple the heavy-ion beam currents and provide a cost effective upgrade path for heavy ion drivers in use or in the planning stage at radioactive beam facilities. Design studies show it is feasible to produce the required magnetic fields in the plasma chamber, 7 T axially and 4 T in the radial direction with a magnetic structure using commercially available Nb(3)Sn superconducting materials. In this paper we describe the design of such a magnet structure including a 3D analysis of the Lorentz forces generated by the magnetic fields and the necessary clamping structure to stabilize the conductor against these forces. PMID:22380148

  5. Gridded IEC Discharge Physics with an Auxiliary Ion Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miley, George H.

    2001-04-01

    The gridded inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) fusion device is utilized as a portable low-level neutron source for activation analysis.[1] Normal operation involves an unique plasma discharge where ion beams are formed outside of the grid that pass through the grid openings, converging at the center in the spherical device.[2] Due to the transparent grid combined with the novel beam formation process, the plasma discharge follows a modified Paschen break-down law which in effect determines the voltage-pressure-current relation for operation. Recent experiments have employed an auxiliary ion source to allow operation at lower pressures. The modified breakdown/operational relationship observed experimentally and a theoretical model for these unique plasma discharges will be presented. [1] G. H. Miley and J. Sved, Appl. Radiation and Isotopes, 48, 10-12, 1557-1561 (1997). [2] G. H. Miley, et al., IEEE Trans. Plasma Science, 25, 4, 733-739 (1997)

  6. Wall-loss distribution of charge breeding ions in an electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, S. C.; Oyaizu, M.; Imai, N.; Hirayama, Y.; Ishiyama, H.; Miyatake, H.; Niki, K.; Okada, M.; Watanabe, Y. X. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Otokawa, Y.; Osa, A.; Ichikawa, S. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 2-4 Shiragata Shirakane, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)

    2011-03-15

    The ion loss distribution in an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) was investigated to understand the element dependence of the charge breeding efficiency in an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) charge breeder. The radioactive {sup 111}In{sup 1+} and {sup 140}Xe{sup 1+} ions (typical nonvolatile and volatile elements, respectively) were injected into the ECR charge breeder at the Tokai Radioactive Ion Accelerator Complex to breed their charge states. Their respective residual activities on the sidewall of the cylindrical plasma chamber of the source were measured after charge breeding as functions of the azimuthal angle and longitudinal position and two-dimensional distributions of ions lost during charge breeding in the ECRIS were obtained. These distributions had different azimuthal symmetries. The origins of these different azimuthal symmetries are qualitatively discussed by analyzing the differences and similarities in the observed wall-loss patterns. The implications for improving the charge breeding efficiencies of nonvolatile elements in ECR charge breeders are described. The similarities represent universal ion loss characteristics in an ECR charge breeder, which are different from the loss patterns of electrons on the ECRIS wall.

  7. Interesting experimental results in Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex H- ion-source development (invited)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Ueno; H. Oguri; K. Ikegami; Y. Namekawa; K. Ohkoshi

    2010-01-01

    The following interesting experimental results observed in Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) H- ion-source developments are reviewed. It was proven that almost all of H- ions were produced with surface reactions in cesium (Cs)-free J-PARC H- ion-sources. The world's most intense class H- ion current of 38 mA in Cs-free ion sources for a high-energy linac was attained by

  8. Development of LIZ-MEV, a Low Impedance Z-discharge Metal Vapor ion source

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. M. Johnson; A. Hershcovitch; F. J. Wessel; A. Vandrie; F. Patton; N. Rostoker

    1998-01-01

    Existing heavy-ion sources can produce either high beam currents, but low charge states (e.g., the Metal-Vapor Vacuum Arc [MEVVA]) or high charge states, but low beam currents (e.g., the Electron Beam Ion Source [EBIS]). For heavy ion beam injection (e.g., into the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider [RHIC] at BNL) our goal is to develop an ion source that produces both

  9. Spallation neutron source saddle antenna H{sup -} ion source project

    SciTech Connect

    Dudnikov, Vadim; Johnson, Rolland P. [Muons, Inc., Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States); Dudnikova, Galina [University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Stockli, Martin; Welton, Robert [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

    2010-02-15

    In this project we are developing an H{sup -} source which will synthesize the most important developments in the field of negative ion sources to provide high current, high brightness, good lifetime, high reliability, and high power efficiency. We describe two planned modifications to the present spallation neutron source external antenna source in order to increase the plasma density near the output aperture: (1) replacing the present 2 MHz plasma-forming solenoid antenna with a 13 MHz saddle-type antenna and (2) replacing the permanent multicusp magnetic system with a weaker electromagnet.

  10. Plasma source ion implantation of ammonia into electroplated chromium

    SciTech Connect

    Scheuer, J.T.; Walter, K.C.; Rej, D.J.; Nastasi, M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Blanchard, J.P. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    1995-02-01

    Ammonia gas (NH{sub 3}) has been used as a nitrogen source for plasma source ion implantation processing of electroplated chromium. No evidence was found of increased hydrogen concentrations in the bulk material, implying that ammonia can be used without risking hydrogen embrittlement. The retained nitrogen dose of 2.1 {times} 10{sup 17} N-at/cm{sup 2} is sufficient to increase the surface hardness of electroplated Cr by 24% and decrease the wear rate by a factor of 4.

  11. Development of a Polarized 3He Ion Source for RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Milner, Richard

    2013-01-15

    The goal of the project was to design and construct a source of polarized 3He atoms for injection into EBIS. This is the initial step in producing polarized 3He beams in RHIC in collaboration with physicists from Columbia University and Brookhaven National Laboratory. These beams can be used to probe the spin structure of the neutron in the existing RHIC complex as well as to measure precisely the Bjorken Sum Rule at a future eRHIC electron-ion collider.

  12. VUV (vacuum ultraviolet) laser diagnostics of H sup - ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Young, A.T.; Stutzin, G.C.; Leung, K.N.; Kunkel, W.B.

    1989-11-01

    Vacuum ultraviolet laser absorption spectroscopy has been employed to measure the populations and temperatures of ground electronic state H-atoms and vibrationally-excited H{sub 2} molecules in a volume H{sup -} ion source. Measurements of both species have been made under a variety of discharge conditions. Vibrational levels to v{double prime}=8 have been measured, with the vibrational population distribution well described by a temperature of 4150K. 10 refs., 9 figs.

  13. Improvements to the internal and external antenna H(-) ion sources at the Spallation Neutron Source.

    PubMed

    Welton, R F; Dudnikov, V G; Han, B X; Murray, S N; Pennisi, T R; Pillar, C; Santana, M; Stockli, M P; Turvey, M W

    2014-02-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS), a large scale neutron production facility, routinely operates with 30-40 mA peak current in the linac. Recent measurements have shown that our RF-driven internal antenna, Cs-enhanced, multi-cusp ion sources injects ?55 mA of H(-) beam current (?1 ms, 60 Hz) at 65-kV into a Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator through a closely coupled electrostatic Low-Energy Beam Transport system. Over the last several years a decrease in RFQ transmission and issues with internal antennas has stimulated source development at the SNS both for the internal and external antenna ion sources. This report discusses progress in improving internal antenna reliability, H(-) yield improvements which resulted from modifications to the outlet aperture assembly (applicable to both internal and external antenna sources) and studies made of the long standing problem of beam persistence with the external antenna source. The current status of the external antenna ion source will also be presented. PMID:24593575

  14. Improvements to the internal and external antenna H- ion sources at the Spallation Neutron Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welton, R. F.; Dudnikov, V. G.; Han, B. X.; Murray, S. N.; Pennisi, T. R.; Pillar, C.; Santana, M.; Stockli, M. P.; Turvey, M. W.

    2014-02-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS), a large scale neutron production facility, routinely operates with 30-40 mA peak current in the linac. Recent measurements have shown that our RF-driven internal antenna, Cs-enhanced, multi-cusp ion sources injects ˜55 mA of H- beam current (˜1 ms, 60 Hz) at 65-kV into a Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator through a closely coupled electrostatic Low-Energy Beam Transport system. Over the last several years a decrease in RFQ transmission and issues with internal antennas has stimulated source development at the SNS both for the internal and external antenna ion sources. This report discusses progress in improving internal antenna reliability, H- yield improvements which resulted from modifications to the outlet aperture assembly (applicable to both internal and external antenna sources) and studies made of the long standing problem of beam persistence with the external antenna source. The current status of the external antenna ion source will also be presented.

  15. Improving efficiency of negative ion production in ion source with saddle antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudnikov, V.; Johnson, R. P.; Murrey, S.; Pinnisi, T.; Piller, C.; Santana, M.; Stockli, M.; Welton, R.; Johnson, C.; Turvey, M.

    2014-02-01

    Extraction of negative ions from a saddle antenna radio-frequency surface plasma source is considered. Several versions of new plasma generators with different antennas and magnetic field configurations were tested in the smal Oak Ridge National Laboratory Spallation Neutron Source Test Stand. The efficiency of positive ion generation in plasma has been improved to 200 mA/cm2 kW from 2.5 mA/cm2 kW. A small oven was developed for cesiation by cesium compounds and alloy decomposition. After cesiation, a current of negative ions to the collector was increased from 1 mA to 10 mA with 1.5 kW RF power in the plasma and longitudinal magnetic field Bl ˜ 250 G. The specific efficiency of H- production was increased to 20 mA/cm2 kW from 2.5 mA/cm2 kW.

  16. Multiaperture ion beam extraction from gas-dynamic electron cyclotron resonance source of multicharged ions.

    PubMed

    Sidorov, A; Dorf, M; Zorin, V; Bokhanov, A; Izotov, I; Razin, S; Skalyga, V; Rossbach, J; Spädtke, P; Balabaev, A

    2008-02-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance ion source with quasi-gas-dynamic regime of plasma confinement (ReGIS), constructed at the Institute of Applied Physics, Russia, provides opportunities for extracting intense and high-brightness multicharged ion beams. Despite the short plasma lifetime in a magnetic trap of a ReGIS, the degree of multiple ionization may be significantly enhanced by the increase in power and frequency of the applied microwave radiation. The present work is focused on studying the intense beam quality of this source by the pepper-pot method. A single beamlet emittance measured by the pepper-pot method was found to be approximately 70 pi mm mrad, and the total extracted beam current obtained at 14 kV extraction voltage was approximately 25 mA. The results of the numerical simulations of ion beam extraction are found to be in good agreement with experimental data. PMID:18315107

  17. Multiaperture ion beam extraction from gas-dynamic electron cyclotron resonance source of multicharged ions

    SciTech Connect

    Sidorov, A.; Dorf, M.; Zorin, V.; Bokhanov, A.; Izotov, I.; Razin, S.; Skalyga, V.; Rossbach, J.; Spaedtke, P.; Balabaev, A. [Institute of Applied Physics, RAS, 46 Ulyanov St., 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Planckstr. 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, 25 B. Cheremushkinskaya St., 117259 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2008-02-15

    Electron cyclotron resonance ion source with quasi-gas-dynamic regime of plasma confinement (ReGIS), constructed at the Institute of Applied Physics, Russia, provides opportunities for extracting intense and high-brightness multicharged ion beams. Despite the short plasma lifetime in a magnetic trap of a ReGIS, the degree of multiple ionization may be significantly enhanced by the increase in power and frequency of the applied microwave radiation. The present work is focused on studying the intense beam quality of this source by the pepper-pot method. A single beamlet emittance measured by the pepper-pot method was found to be {approx}70 {pi} mm mrad, and the total extracted beam current obtained at 14 kV extraction voltage was {approx}25 mA. The results of the numerical simulations of ion beam extraction are found to be in good agreement with experimental data.

  18. Improvement of JT-60U Negative Ion Source Performance

    SciTech Connect

    L.R. Grisham; M. Kuriyama; M. Kawai; T. Itoh; N. Umeda; JT-60U Team

    2000-11-15

    The negative ion neutral beam system now operating on JT-60U was the first application of negative ion technology to the production of beams of high current and power for conversion to neutral beams, and has successfully demonstrated the feasibility of negative ion beam heating systems for ITER and future tokamak reactors [1, 2]. It also demonstrated significant electron heating[3] and high current drive efficiency in JT-60U[4]. Because this was such a large advance in the state of the art with respect to all system parameters, many new physical processes appeared during the earlier phases of the beam injection experiments. We have explored the physical mechanisms responsible for these processes, and implemented solutions for some of them, in particular excessive beam stripping, the secular dependence of the arc and beam parameters, and nonuniformity of the plasma illuminating the beam extraction grid. This has reduced the percentage of beam heat loading on the downstream grids by roug hly a third, and permitted longer beam pulses at higher powers. Progress is being made in improving the negative ion current density, and in coping with the sensitivity of the cesium in the ion sources to oxidation by tiny air or water leaks, and the cathode operation is being altered.

  19. Separation and matching of ion beams between sources and accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Wollnik, H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1994-05-01

    For radioactive ion beam (RIB) facilities that provide accelerated ions of short lived nuclei it is essential that the produced short-lived nuclei of interest are ionized and delivered most efficiently to the postaccelerator. Equally important is, however, that isotopes of neighboring isobars and of neighboring elements within the same isobar are eliminated as effectively as possible. This is difficult to achieve, especially if the nuclei of interest are produced by spallation or by fission reactions since those reactions are not very specific and usually produce neighboring isobars and elements at intensities that often exceed considerably the produced intensities of the nuclei of interest. For this reason very efficient separation techniques are required. Such techniques make use of differences in chemical properties and ionization probabilities of the atoms in question in the target ion source. Most importantly, however, such ions of different mass-to-charge ratios are accelerated by the same potential difference (perhaps 60 kV) and passed through large magnetic dipole fields that deflect ions differently if they have different momentum-to-charge ratios.

  20. Long Plasma Source for Heavy Ion Beam Charge Neutralization

    SciTech Connect

    Efthimion, P.C.; Gilson, E.P.; Grisham, L.; Davidson, R.C.; Logan, B.G.; Seidl, P.A.; Waldron, W.

    2008-06-01

    Plasmas are a source of unbound electrons for charge neutralizing intense heavy ion beams to focus them to a small spot size and compress their axial length. The plasma source should operate at low neutral pressures and without strong externally-applied fields. To produce long plasma columns, sources based upon ferroelectric ceramics with large dielectric coefficients have been developed. The source utilizes the ferroelectric ceramic BaTiO{sub 3} to form metal plasma. The drift tube inner surface of the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX) is covered with ceramic material. High voltage ({approx} 8 kV) is applied between the drift tube and the front surface of the ceramics. A BaTiO{sub 3} source comprised of five 20-cm-long sources has been tested and characterized, producing relatively uniform plasma in the 5 x 10{sup 10} cm{sup -3} density range. The source was integrated into the NDCX device for charge neutralization and beam compression experiments, and yielded current compression ratios {approx} 120. Present research is developing multi-meter-long and higher density sources to support beam compression experiments for high energy density physics applications.

  1. Observing Non-Gaussian Sources in Heavy-Ion Reactions

    E-print Network

    Brown, D A

    2001-01-01

    We examine the possibility of extracting non-Gaussian sources from two-particle correlations in heavy-ion reactions. Non-Gaussian sources have been predicted in a variety of model calculations and may have been seen in various like-meson pair correlations. As a tool for this investigation, we have developed an improved imaging method that relies on a Basis spline expansion of the source functions with an improved implementation of constraints. We examine under what conditions this improved method can distinguish between Gaussian and non-Gaussian sources. Finally, we investigate pion, kaon, and proton sources from the p-Pb reaction at 450 GeV/nucleon and from the S-Pb reaction at 200 GeV/nucleon studied by the NA44 experiment. Both the pion and kaon sources from the S-Pb correlations seem to exhibit a Gaussian core with an extended, non-Gaussian halo. We also find evidence for a scaling of the source widths with particle mass in the sources from the p-Pb reaction.

  2. Recent advances in Veeco's radio frequency ion sources for ion beam materials processing applications (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, A. V.; Kanarov, V.; Yevtukhov, R.; Williams, K.; Hines, D.; Druz, B.; Hegde, H.

    2002-02-01

    In this article we describe an advanced inductively coupled plasma ion source being developed at Veeco for applications in data storage and active optical device fabrication. The new source design minimizes rf capacitive coupling. Capacitive coupling is responsible for erosion of the quartz discharge chamber and high transverse ion energies. Suppression of capacitive coupling, however, can be problematic for some applications due to the fact that, without it, conductive coatings that shield the transfer of inductive power to the plasma can accumulate inside the source. The authors have developed a simple and unique protective device that when installed on the quartz hardware effectively inhibits rf losses in the deposited films, greatly extending the quartz maintenance cycle and overcoming the above problem. Reduction of capacitive coupling is achieved using a slotted Faraday shield inserted between the low-frequency 1.8 MHz rf antenna and the plasma. It is found that the rf power loss to this shield is extremely low, yet it is very effective, essentially eliminating signs of discharge chamber sputtering. Further advantages of these new design features and application to special controlled etching processes are described. Also, new performance and reliability data for Veeco's recently developed "flangeless" self-aligned ion optics grid assembly, implemented on the RIM-210 focused beam deposition ion source is shown, demonstrating the advantages of this design.

  3. Ion source development for the Los Alamos heavy ion fusion injector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. L. Rutkowski; H. Oona; E. A. Meyer; R. P. Shurter; L. S. Engelhardt; S. Humphries Jr.

    1985-01-01

    A multibeam injector was designed and built for the heavy ion fusion program. Development of an aluminum-spark, pulsed plasma source is carried out. Faraday cup diagnostics are used to study current emission and to map the current profile. An aluminum oxide scintillator with photographic film is used in conjunction with a pepper-pot to obtain time integrated emittance values.

  4. Ion source development for the Los Alamos heavy ion fusion injector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutkowski, H. L.; Oona, H.; Meyer, E. A.; Shurter, R. P.; Engelhardt, L. S.; Humphries, S., Jr.

    1985-05-01

    A multibeam injector was designed and built for the heavy ion fusion program. Development of an aluminum-spark, pulsed plasma source is carried out. Faraday cup diagnostics are used to study current emission and to map the current profile. An aluminum oxide scintillator with photographic film is used in conjunction with a pepper-pot to obtain time integrated emittance values.

  5. Intense metal-ion-beam production using an impregnated-electrode-type liquid-metal ion source

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Junzo Ishikawa; Hiroshi Tsuji; Yuji Aoyama; Toshinori Takagi

    1990-01-01

    The properties of liquid-metal ion sources are very sensitive to their tip structure. Because the impregnated-electrode-type liquid-metal ion source has a porous tip, it generates more than 300-?A ion currents of various metals including relatively high vapor-pressure metals such as Li, Cu, Ga, Ge, Ag, In, and Au, from which ions can be stably extracted. The large beam divergence, a

  6. Design aspects and status of construction of the mVINIS ion source

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Efremov; V. Kutner; S. Bogomolov; A. Lebedev; V. Loginov; N. Yazvitsky; A. Dobrosavljevic; I. Draganic; S. Dekic; T. Stalevski

    1998-01-01

    The mVINIS ion source is a multiply charged heavy ion source based on the electron cyclotron resonance effect. This machine is a part of the Tesla Accelerator Installation, an ion accelerator facility whose construction has been going on at the VINCA Institute of Nuclear Sciences in Belgrade, Yugoslavia. mVINIS is an advanced version of the Dubna electron cyclotron resonance ion

  7. Vacuum-spark metal ion source based on a modified Marx generator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Anders; I. G. Brown; R. A. MacGill; M. R. Dickinson

    1996-01-01

    The plasma generating parts of ion sources including their power supplies are usually floated to high potential (ion extraction voltage), thus requiring great insulation efforts and high costs for high-energy ion beams. A new concept for pulsed ion sources is presented in which a single power supply is used to simultaneously produce the plasma and high extractor voltage via a

  8. Vacuum-spark metal ion source based on a modified Marx generator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andre Anders; Ian G. Brown; Robert A. MacGill; Michael R. Dickinson

    1997-01-01

    The plasma-generating parts of ion sources including their power supplies are usually floated to high potential (ion extraction voltage), thus requiring great insulation efforts and causing high costs for high-energy ion beams. A new concept for pulsed ion sources is presented in which a single power supply is used to simultaneously produce the plasma and high extractor voltage via a

  9. A PULSED SPUTTER NEGATIVE ION SOURCE R. BALZER and F. SPERISEN

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1477 A PULSED SPUTTER NEGATIVE ION SOURCE R. BALZER and F. SPERISEN Laboratorium für Kernphysik of the positive cesium ions should be pulsed so that the sputter target serves as a point source of negative, pulsed ions. Two essentiel advantages have thus been attained : (a) The negative ion beam has

  10. PROGRESS AND PERSPECTIVE FOR HIGH FREQUENCY, HIGH PERFORMANCE SUPERCONDUCTING ECR ION SOURCES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Leitner; J. Y. Benitez; M L Galloway; T. J. Loew; C. M. Lyneis; D. S. Todd; Lawrence Berkeley

    Next-generation heavy ion beam accelerators require a great variety of high charge state ions with an order of magnitude higher beam intensity than is currently routinely available. Driven by this increasing demand for high performance ECR ion sources and enabled by advances in superconducting magnet technology, third generation superconducting (SC) ECR ion sources have been developed world-wide. The superconducting VENUS

  11. Gallium ion extraction from a plasma sputter-type ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Vasquez, M. Jr.; Imakita, S.; Kasuya, T.; Wada, M. [Graduate School of Engineering, Doshisha University, Kyotanabe, Kyoto 610-0321 (Japan); Maeno, S. [Novelion Systems, Co. Ltd., Kyotanabe, Kyoto 610-0332 (Japan)

    2010-02-15

    A broad mixed ion beam containing positive ions of gallium (Ga) was produced with a plasma sputter-type ion source. Liquid Ga was suspended on a tungsten reservoir to be sputtered and postionized in argon (Ar) plasma excited by a radio frequency (rf) power at 13.56 MHz. Optical emission spectra from the plasma near the Ga sputtering target had indicated that the release of Ga into plasma increased with increasing negative bias to the sputtering target. The ratio of Ga{sup +} current to Ar{sup +} current was measured to be about 1% with a quadrupole mass analyzer at 100 V extraction voltage for incident rf power as low as 30 W. Ions in the plasma were extracted through a pair of multiaperture electrodes. The homogeneity of Ga flux was examined by making a Ga deposition pattern on a glass substrate located behind the extractor electrodes.

  12. Comparison between single- and dual-electrode ion source systems for low-energy ion transport

    SciTech Connect

    Vasquez, M. Jr.; Tokumura, S.; Kasuya, T.; Maeno, S.; Wada, M. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Doshisha University, Kyotanabe, Kyoto 610-321 and Nissin Ion Equipment Co., Ltd. 575 Kuze Tonoshiro-cho, Minami-ku, Kyoto 601-8205 (Japan); Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Doshisha University, Kyotanabe, Kyoto 610-321 (Japan); Novelion Systems Co.Ltd., D-Egg, Kyotanabe, Kyoto 610-332 (Japan); Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Doshisha University, Kyotanabe, Kyoto 610-321 (Japan)

    2012-11-06

    Extraction of ions with energies below 100 eV has been demonstrated using a hot-cathode multi-cusp ion source equipped with extraction electrodes made of thin wires. Two electrode geometries, a single-electrode system, and a dual-electrode system were built and tested. The single-electrode configuration showed high ion beam current densities at shorter distances from the electrode but exhibited rapid attenuation as the distance from the electrode increased. Beam angular spread measurements showed similar beam divergence for both electrode configurations at low plasma densities. At high plasma densities and low extraction potentials, the single-electrode system showed the angular spread twice as large as that of the dual-electrode system. Energy distribution analyses showed a broader energy spread for ion beams extracted from a single-electrode set-up.

  13. Temporal Development of Ion Beam Mean Charge State in PulsedVacuum Arc Ion Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Oks, Efim M.; Yushkov, Georgy Yu.; Anders, Andre

    2007-06-21

    Vacuum arc ion sources, commonly also known as "Mevva" ionsources, are used to generate intense pulsed metal ion beams. It is knownthat the mean charge state of the ion beam lies between 1 and 4,depending on cathode material, arc current, arc pulse duration, presenceor absence of magnetic field at the cathode, as well background gaspressure. A characteristic of the vacuum arc ion beam is a significantdecrease in ion charge state throughout the pulse. This decrease can beobserved up to a few milliseconds, until a "noisy" steady-state value isestablished. Since the extraction voltage is constant, a decrease in theion charge state has a proportional impact on the average ion beamenergy. This paper presents results of detailed investigations of theinfluence of arc parameters on the temporal development of the ion beammean charge state for a wide range of cathode materials. It is shown thatfor fixed pulse duration, the charge state decrease can be reduced bylower arc current, higher pulse repetition rate, and reduction of thedistance between cathode and extraction region. The latter effect may beassociated with charge exchange processes in the dischargeplasma.

  14. Investigation of helium ion production in constricted direct current plasma ion source with layered-glows.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yuna; Chung, Kyoung-Jae; Park, Yeong-Shin; Hwang, Y S

    2014-02-01

    Generation of helium ions is experimentally investigated with a constricted direct current (DC) plasma ion source operated at layered-glow mode, in which electrons could be accelerated through multiple potential structures so as to generate helium ions including He(2+) by successive ionization collisions in front of an extraction aperture. The helium discharge is sustained with the formation of a couple of stable layers and the plasma ball with high density is created near the extraction aperture at the operational pressure down to 0.6 Torr with concave cathodes. The ion beam current extracted with an extraction voltage of 5 kV is observed to be proportional to the discharge current and inversely proportional to the operating pressure, showing high current density of 130 mA/cm(2) and power density of 0.52 mA/cm(2)/W. He(2+) ions, which were predicted to be able to exist due to multiple-layer potential structure, are not observed. Simple calculation on production of He(2+) ions inside the plasma ball reveals that reduced operating pressure and increased cathode area will help to generate He(2+) ions with the layered-glow DC discharge. PMID:24593635

  15. Investigation of helium ion production in constricted direct current plasma ion source with layered-glows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yuna; Chung, Kyoung-Jae; Park, Yeong-Shin; Hwang, Y. S.

    2014-02-01

    Generation of helium ions is experimentally investigated with a constricted direct current (DC) plasma ion source operated at layered-glow mode, in which electrons could be accelerated through multiple potential structures so as to generate helium ions including He2+ by successive ionization collisions in front of an extraction aperture. The helium discharge is sustained with the formation of a couple of stable layers and the plasma ball with high density is created near the extraction aperture at the operational pressure down to 0.6 Torr with concave cathodes. The ion beam current extracted with an extraction voltage of 5 kV is observed to be proportional to the discharge current and inversely proportional to the operating pressure, showing high current density of 130 mA/cm2 and power density of 0.52 mA/cm2/W. He2+ ions, which were predicted to be able to exist due to multiple-layer potential structure, are not observed. Simple calculation on production of He2+ ions inside the plasma ball reveals that reduced operating pressure and increased cathode area will help to generate He2+ ions with the layered-glow DC discharge.

  16. A multicharge ion source (Supernanogan) for the OLIS facility at ISAC\\/TRIUMF

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Jayamanna; G. Wight; D. Gallop; R. Dube; V. Jovicic; C. Laforge; M. Marchetto; M. Leross; D. Louie; R. Laplante; R. Laxdal; M. McDonald; G. J. Wiebe; V. Wang; F. Yan

    2010-01-01

    The Off-Line Ion Source (OLIS) [K. Jayamanna, D. Yuan, T. Kuo, M. MacDonald, P. Schmor, and G. Dutto, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 1061 (1996); K. Jayamanna, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 02711 (2008)] facility consists of a high voltage terminal containing a microwave cusp ion source, either a surface ion source or a hybrid surface-arc discharge ion source [K. Jayamanna and

  17. Development of C{sub 60} plasma ion source for time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry applications

    SciTech Connect

    Ji Qing; Chen Ye; Ji Lili; Hahto, Sami; Leung, Ka-Ngo; Lee, Tae Geol; Moon, Dae Won [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Nano-Bio Fusion Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-02-15

    Initial data from a multicusp ion source developed for buckminsterfullerene (C{sub 60}) cluster ion production are reported in this article. A C{sub 60}{sup +} beam current of 425 nA and a C{sub 60}{sup -} beam current of 200 nA are obtainable in continuous mode. Compared to prior work using electron impact ionization, the multicusp ion source provides at least two orders of magnitude increase in the extractable C{sub 60}{sup +} beam current. Mass spectra for both positive and negative bismuth cluster ions generated by the multicusp ion source are also included.

  18. Miniaturized Sources and Traps for Spectroscopy of Multicharged Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Joseph; Guise, Nicholas

    2013-05-01

    Penning traps made extremely compact (<150 cc) with rare-earth (NdFeB) magnets have been used recently to isolate highly charged ions (HCI) for spectroscopy. For example, radiative lifetimes of metastable states are measured by observing the visible fluorescence emitted by isolated Ar XIV (441 nm, 2p 2P3/2 --> 2p 2P1/2) and Kr XVIII (637 nm, 3d 2D3/2 --> 3d 2D1/2) . These measurements use HCIs extracted from an electron beam ion trap (EBIT) at NIST. For planned experiments, a new apparatus is being developed which will incorporate a ``mini-EBIT'' source using similar permanent-magnet structures. It combines a mini-EBIT and a compact Penning trap to facilitate production of multicharged ions including bare nuclei with nuclear charge in the range Z =1 to Z =10, in a cryogen-free setup with multiple ports for laser and atomic beam access to the isolated HCI. One goal is to produce one-electron ions in Rydberg states with transitions accessible to an optical frequency comb. Such engineered atomic systems are sought to enable tests of theory that could illuminate the proton radius puzzle. Penning traps made extremely compact (<150 cc) with rare-earth (NdFeB) magnets have been used recently to isolate highly charged ions (HCI) for spectroscopy. For example, radiative lifetimes of metastable states are measured by observing the visible fluorescence emitted by isolated Ar XIV (441 nm, 2p 2P3/2 --> 2p 2P1/2) and Kr XVIII (637 nm, 3d 2D3/2 --> 3d 2D1/2) . These measurements use HCIs extracted from an electron beam ion trap (EBIT) at NIST. For planned experiments, a new apparatus is being developed which will incorporate a ``mini-EBIT'' source using similar permanent-magnet structures. It combines a mini-EBIT and a compact Penning trap to facilitate production of multicharged ions including bare nuclei with nuclear charge in the range Z =1 to Z =10, in a cryogen-free setup with multiple ports for laser and atomic beam access to the isolated HCI. One goal is to produce one-electron ions in Rydberg states with transitions accessible to an optical frequency comb. Such engineered atomic systems are sought to enable tests of theory that could illuminate the proton radius puzzle. J.N. Tan, S.M. Brewer, and N.D. Guise, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 023103 (2012).

  19. Evolution of texture of CeO 2 thin film buffer layers prepared by ion-assisted deposition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Gnanarajan; N. Savvides

    1999-01-01

    Evolution of texture in CeO2 thin films was studied using biased magnetron sputtering and ion beam assisted magnetron sputtering. Films deposited onto polycrystalline Hastelloy metal substrates by biased magnetron sputtering develop preferential (002) growth as the energy of the ions is increased from zero to above 100 eV. For ion beam assisted magnetron sputtering (magnetron IBAD), with the ion beam

  20. Development and Testing of a Prototype Long Pulse Ion Source for the KSTAR Neutral Beam System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Doo-Hee Chang; Byung-Hoon Oh; Chang-Seog Seo

    A prototype long pulse ion source was developed, and the beam extraction experiments of the ion source were carried out at the Neutral Beam Test Stand (NBTS) of the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR). The ion source consists of a magnetic bucket plasma generator, with multi-pole cusp fields, and a set of tetrode accelerators with circular apertures. Design requirements

  1. Commissioning of the superconducting ECR ion source VENUS at 18 GHz

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniela Leitner; Steven R. Abbott; Roger D. Dwinell; Matthaeus Leitner; Clyde E. Taylor; Claude M. Lyneis

    2004-01-01

    During the last year, the VENUS ECR ion source was commissioned at 18 GHz and preparations for 28 GHz operation are now underway. During the commissioning phase with 18 GHz, tests with various gases and metals have been performed with up to 2000 W RF power. The ion source performance is very promising [1,2]. VENUS (Versatile ECR ion source for

  2. Development and testing of a prototype long pulse ion source for the KSTAR NBI system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. H. Chang; C. S. Seo; S. H. Jeong; B. H. Oh; W. K. Lee; J. Kim

    2004-01-01

    Summary form only given. A prototype long pulse ion source (300 s) has been developed, and beam extraction experiments of the ion source were carried out in the Neutral Beam Test Stand (NBTS) of the KSTAR. The ion source consists of a magnetic bucket plasma generator with multi-pole cusp fields and a set of tetrode accelerator with circular apertures. Arc

  3. Estimates of ion sources in deciduous and coniferous throughfall

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Puckett, L.J.

    1990-01-01

    Estimates of external and internal sources of ions in net throughfall deposition were derived for a deciduous and coniferous canopy by use of multiple regression. The externel source component appears to be dominated by dry deposition of Ca2+, SO2 and NO3- during dormant and growing seasons for the two canopy types. Increases in the leaching rates of K+ and Mg2+ during the growing season reflect the presence of leaves in the deciduous canopy and increased physiological activity in both canopies. Internal leaching rates for SO42- doubled during the growing season presumably caused by increased physiological activity and uptake of SO2 through stomates. Net deposition of SO42- in throughfall during the growing season appears highly dependent on stomatal uptake of SO2. Estimates of SO2 deposition velocities were 0.06 cm s-1 and 0.13 cm s-1 for the deciduous and coniferous canopies, respectively, during the dormant season, and 0.30 cm s-1 and 0.43 cm s-1 for the deciduous and coniferous canopies, respectively, during the growing season. For the ions of major interest with respect to ecosystem effects, namely H+, NO3- and SO42-, precipitation inputs generally outweighed estimates of dry deposition input. However, net throughfall deposition of NO3- and SO42- accounted for 20-47 and 34-50 per cent, respectively, of total deposition of those ions. Error estimates of ion sources were at least 50-100 per cent and the method is subject to several assumptions and limitations.

  4. Development of a low energy ion source for ROSINA ion mode calibration

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, Martin; Altwegg, Kathrin; Jaeckel, Annette; Balsiger, Hans [Physikalisches Institut, University of Bern, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland)

    2006-10-15

    The European Rosetta mission on its way to comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko will remain for more than a year in the close vicinity (1 km) of the comet. The two ROSINA mass spectrometers on board Rosetta are designed to analyze the neutral and ionized volatile components of the cometary coma. However, the relative velocity between the comet and the spacecraft will be minimal and also the velocity of the outgassing particles is below 1 km/s. This combination leads to very low ion energies in the surrounding plasma of the comet, typically below 20 eV. Additionally, the spacecraft may charge up to a few volts in this environment. In order to simulate such plasma and to calibrate the mass spectrometers, a source for ions with very low energies had to be developed for the use in the laboratory together with the different gases expected at the comet. In this paper we present the design of this ion source and we discuss the physical parameters of the ion beam like sensitivity, energy distribution, and beam shape. Finally, we show the first ion measurements that have been performed together with one of the two mass spectrometers.

  5. Enhancement in ion beam current with layered-glows in a constricted dc plasma ion source.

    PubMed

    Park, Yeong-Shin; Hwang, Y S

    2010-02-01

    High current mode has been discovered and investigated in a constricted dc plasma ion source. As discharge currents exceed a certain threshold, voltage to sustain the constricted dc plasma suddenly falls down to almost half of the value. In this sense, constricted dc plasmas can be sustained at much higher current than in conventional mode operation at a fixed discharge voltage. Phenomenally, several discrete layered-glows are created between an anode glow and a cathode glow. The layers are thin and divided by dark spaces where charged particles can be accelerated. In this high current mode, ion beam current density is about 100 times higher than in conventional mode at the same voltage. It is noteworthy that lower gas pressure is desirable to sustain the layered-glow mode, which is also profitable for ion source in terms of differential pumping. Ion current density exceeds 300 mA/cm(2) at low discharge power of 175 W where ion density of plasma ball is estimated to be over 3.7x10(12) cm(-3). PMID:20192432

  6. Phase evolution of magnetron sputtered nanostructured ATO on grid during lithiation-delithiation processes as model electrodes for Li-ion battery.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Pan; Zhang, Hong; Liu, Yulong; Wang, Ying; Li, Zhicheng

    2014-03-21

    Sb-doped SnO2 (ATO) nanostructured thin films were deposited on holey carbon grids by magnetron sputtering at room temperature. Li/electrolyte/ATO cells were assembled by using the deposited ATO grids as test electrodes. The phase component of the ATO electrodes deposited on grids before and after induction at different charge-discharge stages was characterized by using a transmission electron microscope. The results of the investigation show that the nanostructured ATO thin films undergo a reversible lithiation-delithiation process: the decomposition of SnO2 and the occurrence of metallic Sn followed by the formation of an Li-Sn alloy during the discharge process, and then the reversible de-alloying reaction of the Li-Sn alloy and Sn reaction with Li2O, and even partial formation of SnO2 during charge process. The work also shows that the method deposited the active materials directly on the holey carbon grids is a simple and effective way for the investigation of the phase evolution of the electrodes in electrochemical cells. PMID:24488238

  7. Design of the extraction system and beamline of the superconducting ECR ion source VENUS

    SciTech Connect

    Leitner, Matthaeus A.; Wutte, Daniela C.; Lyneis, Claude M.

    2001-05-07

    A new, very high magnetic field superconducting ECR ion source, VENUS, is under construction at the LBNL 88-Inch Cyclotron [1,2]. The paper describes the VENUS extraction system and discusses the ion beam formation in the strong axial magnetic field (3 T) of the ECR ion source. Emittance values as expected from theory, which assumes a uniform plasma density across the plasma outlet hole, are compared with actual measurements from the AECR-U ion source. Results indicate that highly charged heavier ions are concentrated on the source axis. They are extracted from an ''effective'' plasma outlet hole, whose smaller radius must be included in ion optics simulations.

  8. Method for the production of atomic ion species from plasma ion sources

    DOEpatents

    Spence, D.; Lykke, K.

    1998-08-04

    A technique to enhance the yield of atomic ion species (H{sup +}, D{sup +}, O{sup +}, N{sup +}, etc.) from plasma ion sources. The technique involves the addition of catalyzing agents to the ion discharge. Effective catalysts include H{sub 2}O, D{sub 2}O, O{sub 2}, and SF{sub 6}, among others, with the most effective being water (H{sub 2}O) and deuterated water (D{sub 2}O). This technique has been developed at Argonne National Laboratory, where microwave generated plasmas have produced ion beams comprised of close to 100% purity protons (H{sup +}) and close to 100% purity deuterons (D{sup +}). The technique also increases the total yield of protons and deuterons by converting unwanted ion species, namely, H{sub 2}{sup +}, H{sub 3}{sup +} and D{sub 2}{sup +}, D{sub 3}{sup +}, into the desired ion species, H{sup +} and D{sup +}, respectively. 4 figs.

  9. Generation of multicomponent ion beams by a vacuum arc ion source with compound cathode.

    PubMed

    Savkin, K P; Yushkov, Yu G; Nikolaev, A G; Oks, E M; Yushkov, G Yu

    2010-02-01

    This paper presents the results of time-of-flight mass spectrometry studies of the elemental and mass-to-charge state compositions of metal ion beams produced by a vacuum arc ion source with compound cathode (WC-Co(0.5), Cu-Cr(0.25), Ti-Cu(0.1)). We found that the ion beam composition agrees well with the stoichiometric composition of the cathode material from which the beam is derived, and the maximum ion charge state of the different plasma components is determined by the ionization capability of electrons within the cathode spot plasma, which is common to all components. The beam mass-to-charge state spectrum from a compound cathode features a greater fraction of multiply charged ions for those materials with lower electron temperature in the vacuum arc cathode spot, and a smaller fraction for those with higher electron temperature within the spot. We propose a potential diagram method for determination of attainable ion charge states for all components of the compound cathodes. PMID:20192356

  10. Generation of multicomponent ion beams by a vacuum arc ion source with compound cathode

    SciTech Connect

    Savkin, K. P.; Yushkov, Yu. G.; Nikolaev, A. G.; Oks, E. M.; Yushkov, G. Yu. [Institute of High Current Electronics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation)

    2010-02-15

    This paper presents the results of time-of-flight mass spectrometry studies of the elemental and mass-to-charge state compositions of metal ion beams produced by a vacuum arc ion source with compound cathode (WC-Co{sub 0.5}, Cu-Cr{sub 0.25}, Ti-Cu{sub 0.1}). We found that the ion beam composition agrees well with the stoichiometric composition of the cathode material from which the beam is derived, and the maximum ion charge state of the different plasma components is determined by the ionization capability of electrons within the cathode spot plasma, which is common to all components. The beam mass-to-charge state spectrum from a compound cathode features a greater fraction of multiply charged ions for those materials with lower electron temperature in the vacuum arc cathode spot, and a smaller fraction for those with higher electron temperature within the spot. We propose a potential diagram method for determination of attainable ion charge states for all components of the compound cathodes.

  11. Low jitter metal vapor vacuum arc ion source for electron beam ion trap injections

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, Glenn E.; Boyer, Craig N.; Seely, John F.; Tan, J.N.; Pomeroy, J.M.; Gillaspy, J.D. [SFA Inc., 2200 Defense Highway, Suite 405, Crofton, Maryland 21114 (United States); Praxis Inc., 2200 Mill Road, Alexandria, Virginia 22314 (United States); Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States)

    2005-07-15

    We describe a metal vapor vacuum arc (MeVVA) ion source containing eight different cathodes that are individually selectable via the control electronics which does not require moving components in vacuum. Inside the vacuum assembly, the arc plasma is produced by means of a 30 {mu}s pulse (26 kV,125 A) delivering 2.4 mC of charge to the cathode sample material. The trigger jitter is minimized (<200 ns) to improve the capture efficiency of the ions which are injected into an ion trap. During a single discharge, the over-damped pulse produces an ion flux of 8.4x10{sup 9} ions/cm{sup 2}, measured by an unbiased Faraday cup positioned 20 cm from the extractor grid, at discharge rates up to 5 Hz. The electronic triggering of the discharge is via a fiber optic interface. We present the design, fabrication details, and performance of this MeVVA, recently installed on the National Institute of Standards and Technology electron beam ion trap (EBIT)

  12. The Development of a Discharge Heated Penning Ion Source for Multiply-Charged Ions in a K = 500 Superconducting Cyclotron.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antaya, Timothy Allen

    We present the studies made during the design, testing, operation and development of a PIG ion source for the production of multiply-charged ions in the K500 Cyclotron. In Chapter 1 the fundamental properties of Penning (PIG) ion sources and the design of the K500 cyclotron ion source are presented. Pulsed operation of the source, including the power supply operation and modification, the ion source operating characteristics, and the effects on the production of Ne('5+) and Ar('6+) ions, is discussed in Chapter 2. At low duty factors (<30%) the source output of these ions increases five to ten times over dc operation. The instantaneous arc current and voltage are both several times their dc levels, resulting in a large instantaneous arc power that drives the increased ion production. The use of hafnium as a cathode material is discussed in Chapter 3, where analyses of lifetime and output effects are made. Replacement of the normal tantalum cathodes with hafnium resulted in a factor of four increase in source lifetime for nitrogen discharges, due to the formation of a HfN layer having a lower sputtering rate. For dc operation, the ion output is reduced due to a large vapor pressure of Hf inside the source, thereby increasing the loss of ions by charge exchange. An ion source activation hazard, due to the stripping of accelerating ions, is discussed in Chapter 4. We review the model for this process and then show how the addition of tantalum cover plates to the ion source reduces the activation of its copper surfaces. In Chapter 5, the modifications made to the source to produce ions from solids via the back-bombardment sputtering process developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, as well as the successful testing with lithium and boron ions, are reviewed. In Chapter 6, the results of a measurement of the effect of varying the ion source cathode separation on ion production are shown. Outputs of N('4+) and N('5+) ions decrease as the cathode separation increases, and this is best explained as a shift in the arc alignment due to magnetic field curvature off the axis of the cyclotron.

  13. Computer simulations for rf design of a Spallation Neutron Source external antenna H- ion source.

    PubMed

    Lee, S W; Goulding, R H; Kang, Y W; Shin, K; Welton, R F

    2010-02-01

    Electromagnetic modeling of the multicusp external antenna H(-) ion source for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) has been performed in order to optimize high-power performance. During development of the SNS external antenna ion source, antenna failures due to high voltage and multicusp magnet holder rf heating concerns under stressful operating conditions led to rf characteristics analysis. In rf simulations, the plasma was modeled as an equivalent lossy metal by defining conductivity as sigma. Insulation designs along with material selections such as ferrite and Teflon could be included in the computer simulations to compare antenna gap potentials, surface power dissipations, and input impedance at the operating frequencies, 2 and 13.56 MHz. Further modeling and design improvements are outlined in the conclusion. PMID:20192395

  14. Computer simulations for rf design of a Spallation Neutron Source external antenna H ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Sung-Woo [ORNL] [ORNL; Goulding, Richard Howell [ORNL] [ORNL; Kang, Yoon W [ORNL] [ORNL; Shin, Ki [ORNL] [ORNL; Welton, Robert F [ORNL] [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Electromagnetic modeling of the multicusp external antenna H ion source for the Spallation Neutron Source SNS has been performed in order to optimize high-power performance. During development of the SNS external antenna ion source, antenna failures due to high voltage and multicusp magnet holder rf heating concerns under stressful operating conditions led to rf characteristics analysis. In rf simulations, the plasma was modeled as an equivalent lossy metal by defining conductivity as . Insulation designs along with material selections such as ferrite and Teflon could be included in the computer simulations to compare antenna gap potentials, surface power dissipations, and input impedance at the operating frequencies, 2 and 13.56 MHz. Further modeling and design improvements are outlined in the conclusion.

  15. Status of high current ion source operation at the GSI accelerator facility.

    PubMed

    Hollinger, R; Galonska, M; Gutermuth, B; Heymach, F; Krichbaum, H; Leible, K-D; Ochs, K; Schäffer, P; Schäffer, S; Spädtke, P; Stork, M; Wesp, A; Mayr, R

    2008-02-01

    Vacuum arc ion sources, Penning ion sources, and filament driven multicusp ion sources are used for the production of high current ion beams of a variety of metallic and gaseous ions at the GSI accelerator facility. For accelerator operation, the ion sources have to provide a stable beam over a long period of time with an energy of 2.2 keV/u and a maximum mass over charge ratio of 65. The status of beam time operation at the high current injector is presented here giving an outline on important ion source data, such as ion beam current, ion beam spectrum, transversal emittance, life time, duty factor, and transmission along the low energy beam transport section. PMID:18315256

  16. Status of high current ion source operation at the GSI accelerator facility

    SciTech Connect

    Hollinger, R.; Galonska, M.; Gutermuth, B.; Heymach, F.; Krichbaum, H.; Leible, K.-D.; Ochs, K.; Schaeffer, P.; Schaeffer, S.; Spaedtke, P.; Stork, M.; Wesp, A.; Mayr, R. [GSI, Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Ingenieurbuero Mayr, Theodor-Reh-Strasse 65, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2008-02-15

    Vacuum arc ion sources, Penning ion sources, and filament driven multicusp ion sources are used for the production of high current ion beams of a variety of metallic and gaseous ions at the GSI accelerator facility. For accelerator operation, the ion sources have to provide a stable beam over a long period of time with an energy of 2.2 keV/u and a maximum mass over charge ratio of 65. The status of beam time operation at the high current injector is presented here giving an outline on important ion source data, such as ion beam current, ion beam spectrum, transversal emittance, life time, duty factor, and transmission along the low energy beam transport section.

  17. Charge breeding results and future prospects with electron cyclotron resonance ion source and electron beam ion source (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Vondrasek, R.; Levand, A.; Pardo, R.; Savard, G.; Scott, R. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2012-02-15

    The Californium Rare Ion Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) of the Argonne National Laboratory ATLAS facility will provide low-energy and reaccelerated neutron-rich radioactive beams for the nuclear physics program. A 70 mCi {sup 252}Cf source produces fission fragments which are thermalized and collected by a helium gas catcher into a low-energy particle beam with a charge of 1+ or 2+. An electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source functions as a charge breeder in order to raise the ion charge sufficiently for acceleration in the ATLAS linac. The final CARIBU configuration will utilize a 1 Ci {sup 252}Cf source to produce radioactive beams with intensities up to 10{sup 6} ions/s for use in the ATLAS facility. The ECR charge breeder has been tested with stable beam injection and has achieved charge breeding efficiencies of 3.6% for {sup 23}Na{sup 8+}, 15.6% for {sup 84}Kr{sup 17+}, and 13.7% for {sup 85}Rb{sup 19+} with typical breeding times of 10 ms/charge state. For the first radioactive beams, a charge breeding efficiency of 11.7% has been achieved for {sup 143}Cs{sup 27+} and 14.7% for {sup 143}Ba{sup 27+}. The project has been commissioned with a radioactive beam of {sup 143}Ba{sup 27+} accelerated to 6.1 MeV/u. In order to take advantage of its lower residual contamination, an EBIS charge breeder will replace the ECR charge breeder in the next two years. The advantages and disadvantages of the two techniques are compared taking into account the requirements of the next generation radioactive beam facilities.

  18. High-current negative-ion sources for pulsed spallation neutron sources: LBNL workshop, October 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Alonso, J.R.

    1995-09-01

    The neutron scattering community has endorsed the need for a high-power (1 to 5 MW) accelerator-driven source of neutrons for materials research. Properly configured, the accelerator could produce very short (sub-microsecond) bursts of cold neutrons, said time structure offering advantages over the continuous flux from a reactor. The recent cancellation of the ANS reactor project has increased the urgency to develop a comprehensive strategy based on the best technological scenarios. Studies to date have built on the experience from ISIS (the 160 kW source in the UK), and call for a high-current (approx. 100 mA peak) H- source-linac combination injecting into one or more accumulator rings in which beam may be further accelerated. The I to 5 GeV proton beam is extracted in a single turn and brought to the target-moderator stations. The high current, high duty-factor, high brightness and high reliability required of the ion source present a very large challenge to the ion source community. The Workshop reported on here, held in Berkeley in October 1994, analyzed in detail the source requirements for proposed accelerator scenarios, the present performance capabilities of different H- source technologies, and identified necessary R&D efforts to bridge the gap.

  19. Multiplicity Dependence of Pion Source Sizein Heavy Ion Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohnishi, H.; Bearden, I. G.; Bøggild, H. J.; Boissevain; Dodd, J.; Erazmus, B.; Esumi, S.; Fabjan, C. W.; Ferenc, D.; Fields, D. E.; Franz, A.; Gaardhøje, J. J.; Hansen, A. G.; Hansen, O.; Hardtke, D.; van Hecke, H.; Holzer, E. B.; Humanic, T. J.; Hummel, P.; Jacak, B. V.; Jayanti, R.; Kaneta, M.; Kopytine, M.; Leltchouk, M. A. L., Jr.; Lörstad, B.; Maeda, N.; Malina, R.; Medvedev, A.; Murray, M.; Nishimura, S.; Ohnishi, H.; Pai?, G.; Pandey, S. U.; Piuz, F.; Pluta, J.; Polychronakos, V.; Potekhin, M.; Poulard, G.; Reichhold, D.; Sakaguchi, A.; Simon-Gillo, J.; Schmidt-Sørensen, J.; Sondheim, W.; Spegel, M.; Sugitate, T.; Sullivan, J. P.; Sumi, Y.; Willis, W. J.; Wolf, K.; Xu, N.; Zachary, D. S.

    HBT interferometry is a well known technique to study the space-time extent of the particle source in heavy ion collisions. The NA44 experiment measures one and two particle spectra of identified pions, kaons and protons around mid-rapidity produced in heavy ion collision at the CERN SPS. We present the relation between charged multiplicity density and the HBT radius parameters in S + Pb collisions at 200~A~GeV and Pb + Pb collisions at 158~A~GeV. The HBT radius parameter increases as a function of charged multiplicity density in Pb + Pb collisions in a similar way to that found previously in S + Pb collisions. We will discuss what we can learn about the condition at freeze-out using these experimental results.

  20. High-resolution mass spectrometer for liquid metal ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Wortmann, Martin; Ludwig, Arne; Reuter, Dirk; Wieck, Andreas D. [Lehrstuhl für Angewandte Festkörperphysik, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Universitätsstr. 150, 44780 Bochum (Germany)] [Lehrstuhl für Angewandte Festkörperphysik, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Universitätsstr. 150, 44780 Bochum (Germany); Meijer, Jan [Institut für Experimentelle Physik II, Universität Leipzig, Linnestr. 5, 04103 Leipzig (Germany)] [Institut für Experimentelle Physik II, Universität Leipzig, Linnestr. 5, 04103 Leipzig (Germany)

    2013-09-15

    Recently, a mass spectrometer for liquid metal ion sources (LMIS) has been built and set into operation. This device uses an E×B-filter as mass dispersive element and provides sufficient resolution to analyse the emission of clusters from LMIS to much higher mass ranges (>2000 amu) than commercially available mass filters for focused ion beam systems. It has also been shown that for small masses the composition of clusters from different isotopes can be resolved. Furthermore, a rather high fluence of monodisperse clusters in the range of 10{sup 6}–10{sup 7} clusters/s can be achieved with this setup. This makes it a promising tool for the preparation of mass selected clusters. In this contribution, theoretical considerations as well as technical details and the results of first measurements are presented.