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Sample records for magnetron ion source

  1. Inverted magnetron ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, B.; Boyarsky, D.

    1985-09-17

    The present invention provides, in a preferred embodiment, a cylindrical stainless steel cathode with end pieces thereon to form a cathode chamber within. In addition, in a preferred embodiment, there is a stainless steel rod which passes axially through the cathode chamber and which is electrically insulated therefrom at the end pieces. The stainless steel cathode has first and second apertures formed therein with the first to be connected to a source of ionizable gas and the second to act as the opening through which there passes a stream of ions to an ion beam target. A magnetic flux source is coupled to the cathode chamber to pass magnetic flux therethrough and a voltage source is connected between the anode and the cathode to provide an electrostatic field therebetween whereby when ionizable gas is fed into the cathode chamber, it is ionized and a stream of ions emanates from the second aperture. In a preferred embodiment there is further provided an electrostatic ion focusing means to focus the ion stream emanating from the second aperture.

  2. Hollow target magnetron-sputter-type solid material ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaki, D.; Ieki, S.; Kasuya, T.; Wada, M.

    2012-02-15

    A thin-walled aluminum (Al) hollow electrode has been inserted into an ion source to serve as an electrode for a radio frequency magnetron discharge. The produced plasma stabilized by argon (Ar) gas sputters the Al electrode to form a beam of Al{sup +} and Ar{sup +} ions. The total beam current extracted through a 3 mm diameter extraction hole has been 50 {mu}A, with the Al{sup +} ion beam occupying 30% of the total beam current.

  3. Unbalance magnetron plasma source for ion mass-separator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paperny, V. L.; Krasov, V. I.; Astrakchantsev, N. V.; Lebedev, N. V.

    2014-11-01

    The report presents the results of the preliminary studies characteristics of an unbalanced magnetron plasma source supplied with the transport system based on a curved magnetic field. The aim of these studies was to recognize if the system is suitable, in principle, for mass-separation of a multi-component plasma flow. The magnetron source has 50 mm diameter cathode manufactured of an alloy composed of Cu (64%), Pb (22.5%) and admixtures, about of 14% (Al, Zn, C). By means of an immersion time-of-flight spectrometer, a spatial distribution of ions of the cathode material was measured through the system output cross-section. Distribution of atom of these elements was measured here by the X-ray fluorescence spectrometry as well. Both methods showed that the ions of the lighter element (Cu) were concentrated in the inner part of the plasma flow deflected by the magnetic field while the distribution of the heavy element (Pb) was shifted toward the outer area of the flow. The similar effect was observed for each couple of the elements. Such a system is promising for use in plasma technology of reprocessing spent nuclear fuel, namely for separation heavy radioactive fission product from nuclear waste.

  4. Magnetron-Discharge-Based Ion Source for Improvement of an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Device

    SciTech Connect

    Takamatsu, Teruhisa; Masuda, Kai; Yoshikawa, Kiyoshi; Toku, Hisayuki; Nagasaki, Kazunobu; Kyunai, Toshiyuki

    2005-05-15

    A magnetron discharge as a built-in ion source have studied both experimentally and numerically for a compact discharge-type fusion neutron source called IECF (Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion). With this magnetron discharge, ions are produced in the vicinity of the vacuum chamber (anode) at negative electric potential. Therefore, produced ions are expected to have nearly full energy corresponding to the applied voltage to the IECF cathode but slightly smaller energy preventing them from hitting the anode of the opposite end, eventually improving both fusion reaction rate and ion recirculation life. Also, the magnetron ion source was found to produce ample ion current for maintenance of the discharge. With the optimization of the configuration of the magnetron discharge, further improvement of the fusion reaction rate is found feasible.

  5. An inverted cylindrical sputter magnetron as metal vapor supply for electron cyclotron resonance ion sources.

    PubMed

    Weichsel, T; Hartung, U; Kopte, T; Zschornack, G; Kreller, M; Silze, A

    2014-05-01

    An inverted cylindrical sputter magnetron device has been developed. The magnetron is acting as a metal vapor supply for an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source. FEM simulation of magnetic flux density was used to ensure that there is no critical interaction between both magnetic fields of magnetron and ECR ion source. Spatially resolved double Langmuir probe and optical emission spectroscopy measurements show an increase in electron density by one order of magnitude from 1 × 10(10) cm(-3) to 1 × 10(11) cm(-3), when the magnetron plasma is exposed to the magnetic mirror field of the ECR ion source. Electron density enhancement is also indicated by magnetron plasma emission photography with a CCD camera. Furthermore, photographs visualize the formation of a localized loss-cone - area, when the magnetron is operated at magnetic mirror field conditions. The inverted cylindrical magnetron supplies a metal atom load rate of R > 1 × 10(18) atoms/s for aluminum, which meets the demand for the production of a milliampere Al(+) ion beam. PMID:24880358

  6. An inverted cylindrical sputter magnetron as metal vapor supply for electron cyclotron resonance ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Weichsel, T. Hartung, U.; Kopte, T.; Zschornack, G.; Kreller, M.; Silze, A.

    2014-05-15

    An inverted cylindrical sputter magnetron device has been developed. The magnetron is acting as a metal vapor supply for an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source. FEM simulation of magnetic flux density was used to ensure that there is no critical interaction between both magnetic fields of magnetron and ECR ion source. Spatially resolved double Langmuir probe and optical emission spectroscopy measurements show an increase in electron density by one order of magnitude from 1 × 10{sup 10} cm{sup −3} to 1 × 10{sup 11} cm{sup −3}, when the magnetron plasma is exposed to the magnetic mirror field of the ECR ion source. Electron density enhancement is also indicated by magnetron plasma emission photography with a CCD camera. Furthermore, photographs visualize the formation of a localized loss-cone - area, when the magnetron is operated at magnetic mirror field conditions. The inverted cylindrical magnetron supplies a metal atom load rate of R > 1 × 10{sup 18} atoms/s for aluminum, which meets the demand for the production of a milliampere Al{sup +} ion beam.

  7. Hollow metal target magnetron sputter type radio frequency ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, N. Kasuya, T.; Wada, M.; Tsubouchi, N.

    2014-02-15

    A 70 mm diameter 70 mm long compact ion source equipped with a hollow sputtering target has been designed and tested. The hollow sputtering target serves as the radio frequency (RF) plasma excitation electrode at 13.56 MHz. A stable beam of Cu{sup +} has been extracted when Ar was used as the discharge support gas. In the extracted beam, Cu{sup +} had occupied more than 85% of the total ion current. Further increase in Cu{sup +} ions in the beam is anticipated by increasing the RF power and Ar pressure.

  8. Magnetron sputtering source

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, D.M.; McKernan, M.A.; Grabner, R.F.; Ramsey, P.B.

    1994-08-02

    A magnetron sputtering source for sputtering coating substrates includes a high thermal conductivity electrically insulating ceramic and magnetically attached sputter target which can eliminate vacuum sealing and direct fluid cooling of the cathode assembly. The magnetron sputtering source design results in greater compactness, improved operating characteristics, greater versatility, and low fabrication cost. The design easily retrofits most sputtering apparatuses and provides for safe, easy, and cost effective target replacement, installation, and removal. 12 figs.

  9. Magnetron sputtering source

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, Daniel M.; McKernan, Mark A.; Grabner, R. Fred; Ramsey, Philip B.

    1994-01-01

    A magnetron sputtering source for sputtering coating substrates includes a high thermal conductivity electrically insulating ceramic and magnetically attached sputter target which can eliminate vacuum sealing and direct fluid cooling of the cathode assembly. The magnetron sputtering source design results in greater compactness, improved operating characteristics, greater versatility, and low fabrication cost. The design easily retrofits most sputtering apparatuses and provides for safe, easy, and cost effective target replacement, installation, and removal.

  10. A new solid state extractor pulser for the FNAL magnetron ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bollinger, D. S.; Lackey, J.; Larson, J.; Triplett, K.

    2016-02-01

    A new solid state extractor pulser has been installed on the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL) magnetron ion source, replacing a vacuum tube style pulser that was used for over 40 years. The required ion source extraction voltage is 35 kV for injection into the radio frequency quadrupole. At this voltage, the old pulser had a rise time of over 150 μs due to the current limit of the vacuum tube. The new solid state pulsers are capable of 50 kV, 100 A peak current pulses and have a rise time of 9 μs when installed in the operational system. This paper will discuss the pulser design and operational experience to date.

  11. A new solid state extractor pulser for the FNAL magnetron ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Bollinger, D. S.; Lackey, J.; Larson, J.; Triplett, K.

    2015-10-05

    A new solid state extractor pulser has been installed on the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL) magnetron ion source, replacing a vacuum tube style pulser that was used for over 40 years. The required ion source extraction voltage is 35 kV for injection into the radio frequency quadrupole. At this voltage, the old pulser had a rise time of over 150 μs due to the current limit of the vacuum tube. The new solid state pulsers are capable of 50 kV, 100 A peak current pulses and have a rise time of 9 μs when installed in the operational system. This paper will discuss the pulser design and operational experience to date.

  12. A hybrid electron cyclotron resonance metal ion source with integrated sputter magnetron for the production of an intense Al+ ion beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weichsel, T.; Hartung, U.; Kopte, T.; Zschornack, G.; Kreller, M.; Philipp, A.

    2015-09-01

    A metal ion source prototype has been developed: a combination of magnetron sputter technology with 2.45 GHz electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source technology—a so called magnetron ECR ion source (MECRIS). An integrated ring-shaped sputter magnetron with an Al target is acting as a powerful metal atom supply in order to produce an intense current of singly charged metal ions. Preliminary experiments show that an Al+ ion current with a density of 167 μA/cm2 is extracted from the source at an acceleration voltage of 27 kV. Spatially resolved double Langmuir probe measurements and optical emission spectroscopy were used to study the plasma states of the ion source: sputter magnetron, ECR, and MECRIS plasma. Electron density and temperature as well as Al atom density were determined as a function of microwave and sputter magnetron power. The effect of ECR heating is strongly pronounced in the center of the source. There the electron density is increased by one order of magnitude from 6 × 109 cm-3 to 6 × 1010 cm-3 and the electron temperature is enhanced from about 5 eV to 12 eV, when the ECR plasma is ignited to the magnetron plasma. Operating the magnetron at constant power, it was observed that its discharge current is raised from 1.8 A to 4.8 A, when the ECR discharge was superimposed with a microwave power of 2 kW. At the same time, the discharge voltage decreased from about 560 V to 210 V, clearly indicating a higher plasma density of the MECRIS mode. The optical emission spectrum of the MECRIS plasma is dominated by lines of excited Al atoms and shows a significant contribution of lines arising from singly ionized Al. Plasma emission photography with a CCD camera was used to prove probe measurements and to identify separated plasma emission zones originating from the ECR and magnetron discharge.

  13. Reduction of beam current noise in the FNAL magnetron ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Bollinger, D. S. Karns, P. R. Tan, C. Y.

    2015-04-08

    The new FNAL Injector Line with a circular dimple magnetron ion source has been operational since December of 2012. Since the new injector came on line there have been variations in the H- beam current flattop observed near the downstream end of the Linac. Several different cathode geometries including a hollow cathode suggested by Dudnikov [1] were tried. Previous studies also showed that different mixtures of hydrogen and nitrogen had an effect on beam current noise [2]. We expanded on those studies by trying mixtures ranging from (0.25% nitrogen, 99.75% hydrogen) to (3% nitrogen, 97% hydrogen). The results of these studies in our test stand will be presented in this paper.

  14. A hybrid electron cyclotron resonance metal ion source with integrated sputter magnetron for the production of an intense Al⁺ ion beam.

    PubMed

    Weichsel, T; Hartung, U; Kopte, T; Zschornack, G; Kreller, M; Philipp, A

    2015-09-01

    A metal ion source prototype has been developed: a combination of magnetron sputter technology with 2.45 GHz electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source technology-a so called magnetron ECR ion source (MECRIS). An integrated ring-shaped sputter magnetron with an Al target is acting as a powerful metal atom supply in order to produce an intense current of singly charged metal ions. Preliminary experiments show that an Al(+) ion current with a density of 167 μA/cm(2) is extracted from the source at an acceleration voltage of 27 kV. Spatially resolved double Langmuir probe measurements and optical emission spectroscopy were used to study the plasma states of the ion source: sputter magnetron, ECR, and MECRIS plasma. Electron density and temperature as well as Al atom density were determined as a function of microwave and sputter magnetron power. The effect of ECR heating is strongly pronounced in the center of the source. There the electron density is increased by one order of magnitude from 6 × 10(9) cm(-3) to 6 × 10(10) cm(-3) and the electron temperature is enhanced from about 5 eV to 12 eV, when the ECR plasma is ignited to the magnetron plasma. Operating the magnetron at constant power, it was observed that its discharge current is raised from 1.8 A to 4.8 A, when the ECR discharge was superimposed with a microwave power of 2 kW. At the same time, the discharge voltage decreased from about 560 V to 210 V, clearly indicating a higher plasma density of the MECRIS mode. The optical emission spectrum of the MECRIS plasma is dominated by lines of excited Al atoms and shows a significant contribution of lines arising from singly ionized Al. Plasma emission photography with a CCD camera was used to prove probe measurements and to identify separated plasma emission zones originating from the ECR and magnetron discharge. PMID:26429434

  15. Sub microsecond notching of a negative hydrogen beam at low energy utilizing a magnetron ion source with a split extractor

    SciTech Connect

    Moehs, Douglas; /Fermilab

    2004-12-01

    A technique for sub-microsecond beam notching is being developed at 20 keV utilizing a Magnetron ion source with a slit extraction system and a split extractor. Each half of the extractor is treated as part of a 50 ohm transmission line which can be pulsed at {+-}700 volts creating a 1400 volt gradient. This system along with the associated electronics is electrically floated on top of a pulsed extraction voltage. A beam reduction of 95% has been observed at the end of the Fermilab 400 MeV Linac and 35% notching has recently been achieved in the Booster.

  16. Advanced nanocluster ion source based on high-power impulse magnetron sputtering and time-resolved measurements of nanocluster formation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chuhang; Tsunoyama, Hironori; Akatsuka, Hiroki; Sekiya, Hiroki; Nagase, Tomomi; Nakajima, Atsushi

    2013-10-10

    We developed a new nanocluster (NC) ion source based on the high-power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) technique coupled with a gas flow cell reactor. Silver NC anions (Ag(n)(-)) with a maximum intensity of 5.5 nA (Ag11(-)) are generated with the size ranging from the atomic anion to the 70-mer, which is well-controlled by simply adjusting the peak power and repetition rate of the HiPIMS. By time-resolved density profiles of Ag(n)(-), we find that the ion beam generated by HiPIMS is characterized by individual 100 ms duration "bunches" below a repetition rate of 10 Hz, which is well-thermalized with a group velocity of 5 m/s. The high intensity of the NCs is attributable to the high ionization fraction by this HiPIMS ion source, while the underlying mechanism of the flexible size tuning of the ion source is understood by time-resolved mass spectrometry coupled with the sequential growth mechanism; the increment of the density of the target species in the bunches with the peak power and the overlapping of the bunches with the repetition rate cause the formation of large NCs. PMID:24079920

  17. High power impulse magnetron sputtering and related discharges: scalable plasma sources for plasma-based ion implantation and deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, Andre

    2009-09-01

    High power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) and related self-sputtering techniques are reviewed from a viewpoint of plasma-based ion implantation and deposition (PBII&D). HIPIMS combines the classical, scalable sputtering technology with pulsed power, which is an elegant way of ionizing the sputtered atoms. Related approaches, such as sustained self-sputtering, are also considered. The resulting intense flux of ions to the substrate consists of a mixture of metal and gas ions when using a process gas, or of metal ions only when using `gasless? or pure self-sputtering. In many respects, processing with HIPIMS plasmas is similar to processing with filtered cathodic arc plasmas, though the former is easier to scale to large areas. Both ion implantation and etching (high bias voltage, without deposition) and thin film deposition (low bias, or bias of low duty cycle) have been demonstrated.

  18. Deposition and characterization of zirconium nitride (ZrN) thin films by reactive magnetron sputtering with linear gas ion source and bias voltage

    SciTech Connect

    Kavitha, A.; Kannan, R.; Subramanian, N. Sankara; Loganathan, S.

    2014-04-24

    Zirconium nitride thin films have been prepared on stainless steel substrate (304L grade) by reactive cylindrical magnetron sputtering method with Gas Ion Source (GIS) and bias voltage using optimized coating parameters. The structure and surface morphologies of the ZrN films were characterized using X-ray diffraction, atomic microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The adhesion property of ZrN thin film has been increased due to the GIS. The coating exhibits better adhesion strength up to 10 N whereas the ZrN thin film with bias voltage exhibits adhesion up to 500 mN.

  19. Magnetron source of accelerated plasma flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veresov, L. P.; Veresov, O. L.

    2016-01-01

    A new source of an accelerated plasma flow intended for depositing high-quality coatings is described. In this source, a magnetron discharge for cathode target sputtering is combined with a high-voltage discharge with longitudinal oscillation of electrons for ionization of the accrued vapor in which the plasma density is distributed uniformly owing to the application of three-phase ionizer.

  20. Ion source

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Ehlers, Kenneth W.

    1984-01-01

    A magnetic filter for an ion source reduces the production of undesired ion species and improves the ion beam quality. High-energy ionizing electrons are confined by the magnetic filter to an ion source region, where the high-energy electrons ionize gas molecules. One embodiment of the magnetic filter uses permanent magnets oriented to establish a magnetic field transverse to the direction of travel of ions from the ion source region to the ion extraction region. In another embodiment, low energy 16 eV electrons are injected into the ion source to dissociate gas molecules and undesired ion species into desired ion species.

  1. Phase and Frequency Locked Magnetrons for SRF Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Neubauer, M.; Johnson, R.P.; Popovic, M.; Moretti, A.; /Fermilab

    2009-05-01

    Magnetrons are low-cost highly-efficient microwave sources, but they have several limitations, primarily centered about the phase and frequency stability of their output. When the stability requirements are low, such as for medical accelerators or kitchen ovens, magnetrons are the very efficient power source of choice. But for high energy accelerators, because of the need for frequency and phase stability - proton accelerators need 1-2 degrees source phase stability, and electron accelerators need .1-.2 degrees of phase stability - they have rarely been used. We describe a novel variable frequency cavity technique which will be utilized to phase and frequency lock magnetrons.

  2. ION SOURCE

    DOEpatents

    Leland, W.T.

    1960-01-01

    The ion source described essentially eliminater the problem of deposits of nonconducting materials forming on parts of the ion source by certain corrosive gases. This problem is met by removing both filament and trap from the ion chamber, spacing them apart and outside the chamber end walls, placing a focusing cylinder about the filament tip to form a thin collimated electron stream, aligning the cylinder, slits in the walls, and trap so that the electron stream does not bombard any part in the source, and heating the trap, which is bombarded by electrons, to a temperature hotter than that in the ion chamber, so that the tendency to build up a deposit caused by electron bombardment is offset by the extra heating supplied only to the trap.

  3. ION SOURCE

    DOEpatents

    Blue, C.W.; Luce, J.S.

    1960-07-19

    An ion source is described and comprises an arc discharge parallel to the direction of and inside of a magnetic field. an accelerating electrode surrounding substantially all of the discharge except for ion exit apertures, and means for establishing an electric field between that electrode and the arc discharge. the electric field being oriented at an acute angle to the magnetic field. Ions are drawn through the exit apertures in the accelrating electrcde in a direction substantially divergent to the direction of the magnetic field and so will travel in a spiral orbit along the magnetic field such that the ions will not strike the source at any point in their orbit within the magnetic field.

  4. ION SOURCE

    DOEpatents

    Bell, W.A. Jr.; Love, L.O.; Prater, W.K.

    1958-01-28

    An ion source is presented capable of producing ions of elements which vaporize only at exceedingly high temperatures, i.e.,--1500 degrees to 3000 deg C. The ion source utilizes beams of electrons focused into a first chamber housing the material to be ionized to heat the material and thereby cause it to vaporize. An adjacent second chamber receives the vaporized material through an interconnecting passage, and ionization of the vaporized material occurs in this chamber. The ionization action is produced by an arc discharge sustained between a second clectron emitting filament and the walls of the chamber which are at different potentials. The resultant ionized material egresses from a passageway in the second chamber. Using this device, materials which in the past could not be processed in mass spectometers may be satisfactorily ionized for such applications.

  5. H/sup -/ beam emittance measurements for the penning and the asymmetric, grooved magnetron surface-plasma sources

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, H.V. Jr.; Allison, P.W.

    1981-01-01

    Beam-intensity and emittance measurements show that the H/sup -/ beam from our Penning surface-plasma source (SPS) has twice the intensity and ten times the brightness of the H/sup -/ beam from an asymmetric, grooved magnetron SPS. We deduce H/sup -/ ion temperatures of 5 eV for the Penning SPS and 22 eV for the asymmetric, grooved magnetron.

  6. Improved negative ion source

    DOEpatents

    Delmore, J.E.

    1984-05-01

    A method and apparatus for providing a negative ion source accelerates electrons away from a hot filament electron emitter into a region of crossed electric and magnetic fields arranged in a magnetron configuration. During a portion of the resulting cycloidal path, the electron velocity is reduced below its initial value. The electron accelerates as it leaves the surface at a rate of only slightly less than if there were no magnetic field, thereby preventing a charge buildup at the surface of the emitter. As the electron traverses the cycloid, it is decelerated during the second, third, and fourth quadrants, then reaccelerated as it approaches the end of the fourth quadrant to regain its original velocity. The minimum velocity occurs during the fourth quadrant, and corresponds to an electron temperature of 200 to 500/sup 0/C for the electric and magnetic fields commonly encountered in the ion sources of magnetic sector mass spectrometers. An ion source using the above-described thermalized electrons is also disclosed.

  7. Negative ion source

    DOEpatents

    Delmore, James E.

    1987-01-01

    A method and apparatus for providing a negative ion source accelerates electrons away from a hot filament electron emitter into a region of crossed electric and magnetic fields arranged in a magnetron configuration. During a portion of the resulting cycloidal path, the electron velocity is reduced below its initial value. The electron accelerates as it leaves the surface at a rate of only slightly less than if there were no magnetic field, thereby preventing a charge buildup at the surface of the emitter. As the electron traverses the cycloid, it is decelerated during the second, third, and fourth quadrants, then reeccelerated as it approaches the end of the fourth quadrant to regain its original velocity. The minimum velocity occurs during the fourth quadrant, and corresponds to an electron temperature of 200.degree. to 500.degree. for the electric and magnetic fields commonly encountered in the ion sources of magnetic sector mass spectrometers. An ion source using the above-described thermalized electrons is also disclosed.

  8. ION SOURCE

    DOEpatents

    Brobeck, W.M.

    1959-04-14

    This patent deals with calutrons and more particularly to an arrangement therein whereby charged bottles in a calutron source unit may be replaced without admitting atmospheric air to the calutron vacuum chamber. As described, an ion unit is disposed within a vacuum tank and has a reservoir open toward a wall of the tank. A spike projects from thc source into the reservoir. When a charge bottle is placed in the reservoir, the spike breaks a frangible seal on the bottle. After the contents of the bottle are expended the bottle may be withdrawn and replaced with another charge bottle by a varuum lock arrangement in conjunction with an arm for manipulating the bottle.

  9. Ion source

    DOEpatents

    Brobeck, W. M.

    1959-04-14

    This patent deals with calutrons and more particularly to an arrangement therein whereby charged bottles in a calutron source unit may be replaced without admitting atmospheric air to the calutron vacuum chamber. As described, an ion unit is disposed within a vacuum tank and has a reservoir open toward a wall of the tank. A spike projects from the source into the reservoir. When a charge bottle is placed in the reservoir, the spike breaks a frangible seal on the bottle. After the contents of the bottle are expended the bottle may be withdrawn and replaced with another charge bottle by a vacuum lock arrangement in conjunction with an arm for manipulating the bottle.

  10. Phase and Frequency Locked Magnetrons for SRF Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Neubauer, Michael; Johnson, Rolland

    2014-09-12

    There is great potential for a magnetron power source that can be controlled both in phase and frequency. Such a power source could revolutionize many particle accelerator systems that require lower capital cost and/or higher power efficiency. Beyond the accelerator community, phase and frequency locked magnetons could improve radar systems around the world and make affordable phased arrays for wireless power transmission for solar powered satellites. This joint project of Muons, Inc., Fermilab, and L-3 CTL was supported by an STTR grant monitored by the Nuclear Physics Office of the DOE Office of Science. The object of the program was to incorporate ferrite materials into the anode of a magnetron and, with appropriate biasing of the ferrites, to maintain frequency lock and to allow for frequency adjustment of the magnetron without mechanical tuners. If successful, this device would have a dual use both as a source for SRF linacs and for military applications where fast tuning of the frequency is a requirement. In order to place the materials in the proper location, several attributes needed to be modeled. First the impact of the magnetron’s magnetic field needed to be shielded from the ferrites so that they were not saturated. And second, the magnetic field required to change the frequency of the magnetron at the ferrites needed to be shielded from the region containing the circulating electrons. ANSYS calculations of the magnetic field were used to optimize both of these parameters. Once the design for these elements was concluded, parts were fabricated and a complete test assembly built to confirm the predictions of the computer models. The ferrite material was also tested to determine its compatibility with magnetron tube processing temperatures. This required a vacuum bake out of the chosen material to determine the cleanliness of the material in terms of outgassing characteristics, and a subsequent room temperature test to verify that the characteristics of the ferrite had not changed. A major problem that remains is to develop a ferrite material with low enough loss that it does not reduce the quality factor of the magnetron to an unacceptable level.

  11. Linac4 H- ion sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lettry, J.; Aguglia, D.; Alessi, J.; Andersson, P.; Bertolo, S.; Briefi, S.; Butterworth, A.; Coutron, Y.; Dallocchio, A.; David, N.; Chaudet, E.; Faircloth, D.; Fantz, U.; Fink, D. A.; Garlasche, M.; Grudiev, A.; Guida, R.; Hansen, J.; Haase, M.; Hatayama, A.; Jones, A.; Koszar, I.; Lallement, J.-B.; Lombardi, A. M.; Machado, C.; Mastrostefano, C.; Mathot, S.; Mattei, S.; Moyret, P.; Nisbet, D.; Nishida, K.; O'Neil, M.; Paoluzzi, M.; Scrivens, R.; Shibata, T.; Steyaert, D.; Thaus, N.; Voulgarakis, G.

    2016-02-01

    CERN's 160 MeV H- linear accelerator (Linac4) is a key constituent of the injector chain upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider that is being installed and commissioned. A cesiated surface ion source prototype is being tested and has delivered a beam intensity of 45 mA within an emittance of 0.3 π ṡ mm ṡ mrad. The optimum ratio of the co-extracted electron- to ion-current is below 1 and the best production efficiency, defined as the ratio of the beam current to the 2 MHz RF-power transmitted to the plasma, reached 1.1 mA/kW. The H- source prototype and the first tests of the new ion source optics, electron-dump, and front end developed to minimize the beam emittance are presented. A temperature regulated magnetron H- source developed by the Brookhaven National Laboratory was built at CERN. The first tests of the magnetron operated at 0.8 Hz repetition rate are described.

  12. Linac4 H(-) ion sources.

    PubMed

    Lettry, J; Aguglia, D; Alessi, J; Andersson, P; Bertolo, S; Briefi, S; Butterworth, A; Coutron, Y; Dallocchio, A; David, N; Chaudet, E; Faircloth, D; Fantz, U; Fink, D A; Garlasche, M; Grudiev, A; Guida, R; Hansen, J; Haase, M; Hatayama, A; Jones, A; Koszar, I; Lallement, J-B; Lombardi, A M; Machado, C; Mastrostefano, C; Mathot, S; Mattei, S; Moyret, P; Nisbet, D; Nishida, K; O'Neil, M; Paoluzzi, M; Scrivens, R; Shibata, T; Steyaert, D; Thaus, N; Voulgarakis, G

    2016-02-01

    CERN's 160 MeV H(-) linear accelerator (Linac4) is a key constituent of the injector chain upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider that is being installed and commissioned. A cesiated surface ion source prototype is being tested and has delivered a beam intensity of 45 mA within an emittance of 0.3 ? ? mm ? mrad. The optimum ratio of the co-extracted electron- to ion-current is below 1 and the best production efficiency, defined as the ratio of the beam current to the 2 MHz RF-power transmitted to the plasma, reached 1.1 mA/kW. The H(-) source prototype and the first tests of the new ion source optics, electron-dump, and front end developed to minimize the beam emittance are presented. A temperature regulated magnetron H(-) source developed by the Brookhaven National Laboratory was built at CERN. The first tests of the magnetron operated at 0.8 Hz repetition rate are described. PMID:26932021

  13. EMI shielding using composite materials with two sources magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziaja, J.; Jaroszewski, M.; Lewandowski, M.

    2016-02-01

    In this study, the preparation composite materials for electromagnetic shields using two sources magnetron sputtering DC-M is presented. A composite material was prepared by coating a nonwoven polypropylene metallic layer in sputtering process of targets Ti (purity 99%) and brass alloy MO58 (58%Cu, 40%Zn, 2%Pb) and ϕ diameter targets = 50 mm, under argon atmosphere. The system with magnetron sputtering sources was powered using switch-mode power supply DPS (Dora Power System) with a maximum power of 16 kW and a maximum voltage of 1.2 kV with group frequency from 50 Hz to 5 kHz. The influence of sputtering time of individual targets on the value of the EM field attenuation SE [dB] was investigated for the following supply conditions: pressure pp = 2x10-3 Torr, sputtering power P = 750 W, the time of applying a layer t = 5 min, group frequency fg = 2 kHz, the frequency of switching between targets fp = 1 Hz.

  14. Improved ion source

    DOEpatents

    Leung, K.N.; Ehlers, K.W.

    1982-05-04

    A magnetic filter for an ion source reduces the production of undesired ion species and improves the ion beam quality. High-energy ionizing electrons are confined by the magnetic filter to an ion source region, where the high-energy electrons ionize gas molecules. One embodiment of the magnetic filter uses permanent magnets oriented to establish a magnetic field transverse to the direction of travel of ions from the ion source region to the ion extraction region. In another embodiment, low energy 16 eV electrons are injected into the ion source to dissociate gas molecules and undesired ion species into desired ion species,

  15. An apparatus for magnetron sputter coating and plasma immersion ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Ensinger, W.; Hartmann, J.; Stritzker, B.; Rauschenbach, B.; Klein, J.; Usedom, P.

    1996-12-31

    A coating apparatus which combines two material modification techniques, sputter coating and plasma immersion ion implantation, is described. The plasma is generated by an electron cyclotron resonance microwave plasma source. In the upper part of the vacuum chamber, the plasma is confined in a magnetic field by means of a solenoid. In the lower part, a magnetron sputter cathode is mounted which is used for depositing thin films on the sample. The sample is clamped onto a water-cooled sample holder which can be moved in vertical direction. It is connected to a semiconductor-based high voltage pulse generator which provides negative voltage pulses. In this apparatus, a substrate can be pre-implanted by plasma immersion ion implantation, then it can be coated by sputtering. Finally, the sputtered film can be modified by another ion implantation step.

  16. Negative ion source with hollow cathode discharge plasma

    DOEpatents

    Hershcovitch, A.; Prelec, K.

    1980-12-12

    A negative ion source of the type where negative ions are formed by bombarding a low-work-function surface with positive ions and neutral particles from a plasma, wherein a highly ionized plasma is injected into an anode space containing the low-work-function surface is described. The plasma is formed by hollow cathode discharge and injected into the anode space along the magnetic field lines. Preferably, the negative ion source is of the magnetron type.

  17. Negative ion source with hollow cathode discharge plasma

    DOEpatents

    Hershcovitch, Ady; Prelec, Krsto

    1983-01-01

    A negative ion source of the type where negative ions are formed by bombarding a low-work-function surface with positive ions and neutral particles from a plasma, wherein a highly ionized plasma is injected into an anode space containing the low-work-function surface. The plasma is formed by hollow cathode discharge and injected into the anode space along the magnetic field lines. Preferably, the negative ion source is of the magnetron type.

  18. High-power magnetron transmitter as an RF source for superconducting linear accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazakevich, Grigory; Johnson, Rolland; Flanagan, Gene; Marhauser, Frank; Yakovlev, Vyacheslav; Chase, Brian; Lebedev, Valeri; Nagaitsev, Sergei; Pasquinelli, Ralph; Solyak, Nikolay; Quinn, Kenneth; Wolff, Daniel; Pavlov, Viatcheslav

    2014-10-01

    A concept of a high-power transmitter utilizing the Continuous Wave (CW) magnetrons, injection-locked by phase-modulated signals, and intended to operate within a wideband control feedback loop in phase and amplitude, is presented. This transmitter is proposed to drive Superconducting RF (SRF) cavities for intensity-frontier GeV-scale proton/ion linacs, such as the projected Fermilab proton linacs or linacs for Accelerator Driven System (ADS). The transmitter consists of two 2-cascade injection-locked magnetrons with outputs combined by a 3-dB hybrid. The transmitter performance was modelled using CW, S-Band, 1 kW magnetrons. A wideband dynamic control of magnetrons, required for the superconducting linacs, was realized using the magnetrons, injection-locked by the phase-modulated signals. The capabilities of the magnetrons injection-locked by the phase-modulated signals and adequateness for feeding of SRF cavities have been verified by measurements of the magnetrons phase performance, by measurements of the transfer function magnitude characteristics of single and 2-cascade magnetrons in the phase modulation domain, and by measurements of spectra of carrier frequency of the magnetron. At the ratio of power of locking signal to output power of ?-13 dB (in 2-cascade scheme per magnetron) a phase modulation bandwidth is over 1.0 MHz for injection-locked CW single magnetrons and a 2-cascade setup. The carrier frequency spectra (width of ~1 Hz at the level of -60 dBc) measured with the magnetron, injection-locked by a phase-modulated signal, did not demonstrate broadening at wide range of magnitude and frequency of the phase modulation. The wideband dynamic management of output power of the transmitter model has been first experimentally demonstrated using combined in power magnetrons, injection-locked by the phase-modulated signals. Experiments with the injection-locked magnetrons adequately emulated the wideband dynamic control with a feedback control system, which will allow to suppress all known parasitic modulation of the accelerating field in the SRF cavities. The magnetron transmitter concept, tests of the transmitter models and injection-locking of magnetrons by phase-modulated signals are discussed in this work.

  19. A self-sputtering ion source: A new approach to quiescent metal ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Oks, Efim M.; Anders, Andre

    2009-09-03

    A new metal ion source is presented based on sustained self-sputtering plasma in a magnetron discharge. Metals exhibiting high self-sputtering yield like Cu, Ag, Zn, and Bi can be used in a high-power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) discharge such that the plasma almost exclusively contains singly charged metal ions of the target material. The plasma and extracted ion beam are quiescent. The ion beams consist mostly of singly charged ions with a space-charge limited current density which reached about 10 mA/cm2 at an extraction voltage of 45 kV and a first gap spacing of 12 mm.

  20. Portable Linac Using a CW Magnetron as a Power Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishin, A. V.; Schonberg, R. G.; Deruyter, H.; Roumbanis, T.; Skowbo, D.; Miller, R.

    1997-05-01

    This study is devoted to a preliminary design of a high power linear accelerator (linac) for various commercial applications, such as sterilization of medical products, electron beam curing, NDT and other commercial and scientific applications which require high power electron beams. Presently, the CW operating mode is mostly used for superconducting systems. The main difficulty for use of a CW source for linac operation is that the peak power is fairly low, which result in low accelerating field amplitude in the linac microwave structure. This makes it difficult and in some cases impossible to bunch and accelerate particles in the low velocity region. Extensive research made in this field has shown that it is possible to substantially improve a linac operation in the region of low particle velocities (0.1c to 0.5c, c- speed of light) and even reduce the injector voltage to 12 kV, in case of electrons. The design of a 1 MeV, 10 mA machine exceeds the prototype characteristics - patent application is pending. This design makes it possible to meet the described specification and to operate in both CW and pulsed mode using a 30 kW CW magnetron or another microwave power source.

  1. Industrial ion source technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, H. R.

    1976-01-01

    A 30 cm electron bombardment ion source was designed and fabricated for micromachining and sputtering applications. This source has a multipole magnetic field that employs permanent magnets between permeable pole pieces. An average ion current density of 1 ma/sq cm with 500 eV argon ions was selected as a design operating condition. The ion beam at this operating condition was uniform and well collimated, with an average variation of plus or minus 5 percent over the center 20 cm of the beam at distances up to 30 cm from the ion source. A variety of sputtering applications were undertaken with a small 10 cm ion source to better understand the ion source requirements in these applications. The results of these experimental studies are also included.

  2. Closed field unbalanced magnetron sputtering ion plating of Ni/Al thin films: influence of the magnetron power.

    PubMed

    Said, R; Ahmed, W; Gracio, J

    2010-04-01

    In this study NiAl thin films have been deposited using closed field unbalanced magnetron sputtering Ion plating (CFUBMSIP). The influence of magnetron power has been investigated using dense and humongous NiAl compound targets onto stainless steel and glass substrates. Potential applications include tribological, electronic media and bond coatings in thermal barrier coatings system. Several techniques has been used to characterise the films including surface stylus profilometry, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDAX), X-Ray diffraction (XRD) Composition analysis of the samples was carried out using VGTOF SIMS (IX23LS) and Atomic force microscopy (AFM). Scratch tester (CSM) combined with acoustic emission singles during loading in order to compare the coating adhesion. The acoustic emission signals emitted during the indentation process were used to determine the critical load, under which the film begins to crack and/or break off the substrate. The average thickness of the films was approximately 1 um. EDAX results of NiAl thin films coating with various magnetron power exhibited the near equal atomic% Ni:Al. The best result being obtained using 300 W and 400 W DC power for Ni and Al targets respectively. XRD revealed the presence of beta NiAl phase for all the films coatings. AFM analysis of the films deposited on glass substrates exhibited quite a smooth surface with surface roughness values in the nanometre range. CSM results indicate that best adhesion was achieved at 300 W for Ni, and 400 W for Al targets compared to sample other power values. SIMS depth profile showed a uniform distribution of the Ni and Al component from the surface of the film to the interface. PMID:20355462

  3. Spatial and temporal evolution of ion energies in high power impulse magnetron sputtering plasma discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hecimovic, A.; Ehiasarian, A. P.

    2010-09-01

    High power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) is a novel deposition technology successfully implemented on full scale industrial machines. HIPIMS utilizes short pulses of high power delivered to the target in order to generate high amount of metal ions. The life-span of ions between the pulses and their energy distribution could strongly influence the properties and characteristics of the deposited coating. In modern industrial coating machines the sample rotates on a substrate holder and changes its position and distance with regard to the magnetron. Time resolved measurements of the ion energy distribution function (IEDF) at different distances from the magnetron have been performed to investigate the temporal evolution of ions at various distances from target. The measurements were performed using two pressures, 1 and 3 Pa to investigate the influence of working gas pressure on IEDF. Plasma sampling energy-resolved mass spectroscopy was used to measure the IEDF of Ti1+, Ti2+, Ar1+, and Ar2+ ions in HIPIMS plasma discharge with titanium (Ti) target in Ar atmosphere. The measurements were done over a full pulse period and the distance between the magnetron and the orifice of the mass spectrometer was changed from 25 to 215 mm.

  4. Spatial and temporal evolution of ion energies in high power impulse magnetron sputtering plasma discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Hecimovic, A.; Ehiasarian, A. P.

    2010-09-15

    High power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) is a novel deposition technology successfully implemented on full scale industrial machines. HIPIMS utilizes short pulses of high power delivered to the target in order to generate high amount of metal ions. The life-span of ions between the pulses and their energy distribution could strongly influence the properties and characteristics of the deposited coating. In modern industrial coating machines the sample rotates on a substrate holder and changes its position and distance with regard to the magnetron. Time resolved measurements of the ion energy distribution function (IEDF) at different distances from the magnetron have been performed to investigate the temporal evolution of ions at various distances from target. The measurements were performed using two pressures, 1 and 3 Pa to investigate the influence of working gas pressure on IEDF. Plasma sampling energy-resolved mass spectroscopy was used to measure the IEDF of Ti{sup 1+}, Ti{sup 2+}, Ar{sup 1+}, and Ar{sup 2+} ions in HIPIMS plasma discharge with titanium (Ti) target in Ar atmosphere. The measurements were done over a full pulse period and the distance between the magnetron and the orifice of the mass spectrometer was changed from 25 to 215 mm.

  5. Metal Ion Sources for Ion Beam Implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, W. J.; Zhao, Z. Q.; Ren, X. T.

    2008-11-03

    In this paper a theme touched upon the progress of metal ion sources devoted to metal ion beam implantation (MIBI) will be reviewed. A special emphasis will be given to some kinds of ion sources such as ECR, MEVVA and Cluster ion sources. A novel dual hollow cathode metal ion source named DUHOCAMIS will be introduced and discussed.

  6. PULSED ION SOURCE

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, C.E.; Ehlers, K.W.

    1958-06-17

    An ion source is described for producing very short high density pulses of ions without bcam scattering. The ions are created by an oscillating electron discharge within a magnetic field. After the ions are drawn from the ionization chamber by an accelerating electrode the ion beam is under the influence of the magnetic field for separation of the ions according to mass and, at the same time, passes between two neutralizing plntes maintained nt equal negative potentials. As the plates are formed of a material having a high ratio of secondary electrons to impinging ions, the ion bombardment of the plntes emits electrons which neutralize the frirge space-charge of the beam and tend to prevent widening of the beam cross section due to the mutual repulsion of the ions.

  7. Substrate heating rates for planar and cylindrical-post magnetron sputtering sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, J. A.; Lamb, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    Results are presented for the substrate heating energy/atom required in the planar magnetron sputtering of Al, Cr, Ni, Cu, Mo, In, Ta, W, and Pt in Ar, as well as Al and Cr in O2. Data are also obtained for cylindrical magnetron sputtering of Nb, Ag, Ta, W, and Pb-Sn in Ar, and Mo sputtered in Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe. Planar and cylindrical magnetron heating rates were comparable. Special experiments were conducted to examine the contributions to substrate heating of plasma species and ion neutralization and reflection at the cathode; the results obtained indicate that charged plasma species do not significantly contribute to the heating, but that neutralized and reflected ions play a significant role in the planar as well as cylindrical cases despite the differences in cathode geometry.

  8. Pulsed ion beam source

    DOEpatents

    Greenly, John B.

    1997-01-01

    An improved pulsed ion beam source having a new biasing circuit for the fast magnetic field. This circuit provides for an initial negative bias for the field created by the fast coils in the ion beam source which pre-ionize the gas in the source, ionize the gas and deliver the gas to the proper position in the accelerating gap between the anode and cathode assemblies in the ion beam source. The initial negative bias improves the interaction between the location of the nulls in the composite magnetic field in the ion beam source and the position of the gas for pre-ionization and ionization into the plasma as well as final positioning of the plasma in the accelerating gap. Improvements to the construction of the flux excluders in the anode assembly are also accomplished by fabricating them as layered structures with a high melting point, low conductivity material on the outsides with a high conductivity material in the center.

  9. Hybrid plasma system for magnetron deposition of coatings with ion assistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vavilin, K. V.; Kralkina, E. A.; Nekludova, P. A.; Petrov, A. K.; Nikonov, A. M.; Pavlov, V. B.; Airapetov, A. A.; Odinokov, V. V.; Pavlov, G. Ya; Sologub, V. A.

    2016-01-01

    The results of the study of the plasma hybrid system based on the combined magnetron discharge and high-frequency inductive discharge located in the external magnetic field is presented. Magnetron discharge provides the generation of atoms and ions of the target materials while the flow of accelerated ions used for the ion assistance is provided by the RF inductive discharge. An external magnetic field is used to optimize the power input to the discharge, to increase the ion current density in the realm of substrate and to enhance the area of uniform plasma. The joint operation of magnetron and RF inductive discharge leads to a substantial increase (not equal to the sum of the parameters obtained under separate operation of two hybrid system channels) of the ion current density and intensity of sputtered material spectral lines radiation. Optimal mode of the hybrid plasma system operation provides uniform ion current density on the diameter of at least 150mm at 0.7PA argon pressure. The optimal values of the magnetic fields in the region of the substrate location lie in the range 2-8 mTl, while in the region of the RF input power unit lie in the range 0.5-25 mTl.

  10. Microwave ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Reijonen, Jani; Thomae, Rainer W.

    2005-07-26

    A compact microwave ion source has a permanent magnet dipole field, a microwave launcher, and an extractor parallel to the source axis. The dipole field is in the form of a ring. The microwaves are launched from the middle of the dipole ring using a coaxial waveguide. Electrons are heated using ECR in the magnetic field. The ions are extracted from the side of the source from the middle of the dipole perpendicular to the source axis. The plasma density can be increased by boosting the microwave ion source by the addition of an RF antenna. Higher charge states can be achieved by increasing the microwave frequency. A xenon source with a magnetic pinch can be used to produce intense EUV radiation.

  11. Selective ion source

    DOEpatents

    Leung, K.N.

    1996-05-14

    A ion source is described wherein selected ions maybe extracted to the exclusion of unwanted ion species of higher ionization potential. Also described is a method of producing selected ions from a compound, such as P{sup +} from PH{sub 3}. The invention comprises a plasma chamber, an electron source, a means for introducing a gas to be ionized by electrons from the electron source, means for limiting electron energy from the electron source to a value between the ionization energy of the selected ion species and the greater ionization energy of an unwanted ion specie, and means for extracting the target ion specie from the plasma chamber. In one embodiment, the electrons are generated in a plasma cathode chamber immediately adjacent to the plasma chamber. A small extractor draws the electrons from the plasma cathode chamber into the relatively positive plasma chamber. The energy of the electrons extracted in this manner is easily controlled. The invention is particularly useful for doping silicon with P{sup +}, As{sup +}, and B{sup +} without the problematic presence of hydrogen, helium, water, or carbon oxide ions. Doped silicon is important for manufacture of semiconductors and semiconductor devices. 6 figs.

  12. Selective ion source

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo

    1996-01-01

    A ion source is described wherein selected ions maybe extracted to the exclusion of unwanted ion species of higher ionization potential. Also described is a method of producing selected ions from a compound, such as P.sup.+ from PH.sub.3. The invention comprises a plasma chamber, an electron source, a means for introducing a gas to be ionized by electrons from the electron source, means for limiting electron energy from the electron source to a value between the ionization energy of the selected ion species and the greater ionization energy of an unwanted ion specie, and means for extracting the target ion specie from the plasma chamber. In one embodiment, the electrons are generated in a plasma cathode chamber immediately adjacent to the plasma chamber. A small extractor draws the electrons from the plasma cathode chamber into the relatively positive plasma chamber. The energy of the electrons extracted in this manner is easily controlled. The invention is particularly useful for doping silicon with P.sup.+, AS.sup.+, and B.sup.+ without the problematic presence of hydrogen, helium, water, or carbon oxide ions. Doped silicon is important for manufacture of semiconductors and semiconductor devices.

  13. A cookbook for building a high-current dimpled H– magnetron source for accelerators

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bollinger, Daniel S.; Karns, Patrick R.; Tan, Cheng -Yang

    2015-10-30

    A high-current (>50 mA) dimpled H– magnetron source has been built at Fermilab for supplying H– beam to the entire accelerator complex. Despite many decades of expertise with slit H– magnetron sources at Fermilab, we were faced with many challenges from the dimpled H– magnetron source, which needed to be overcome in order to make it operational. Dimpled H– sources for high-energy physics are not new: Brookhaven National Laboratory has operated a dimpled H- source for more than two decades. However, the transference of that experience to Fermilab took about two years because a cookbook for building this type ofmore » source did not exist and seemingly innocuous or undocumented choices had a huge impact on the success or failure for this type of source. Moreover, it is the goal of this paper to document the reasons for these choices and to present a cookbook for building and operating dimpled H– magnetron sources.« less

  14. Magnetron Discharge Characteristics for Improvement of an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Neutron/Proton Source

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshikawa, K.; Toku, H.; Masuda, K.; Mizutani, T.; Nagafuchi, A.; Imoto, M.; Takamatsu, T.; Nagasaki, K.

    2003-09-15

    A magnetron discharge was adopted in the inertial-electrostatic confinement (IEC) fusion device for drastic improvement of fusion reaction rate. With this discharge in the vicinity of the vacuum chamber, a substantial number of ions produced there are expected to have almost full energy corresponding to the applied voltage to the transparent IEC cathode under relatively low pressures compared with the conventional glow discharge. The magnetron discharge is found to occur even for the pressure of 0.07 mTorr (H{sub 2}) in the present configuration of the experiment, compared with 5 mTorr in the glow discharge.

  15. Industrial ion source technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, H. R.; Robinson, R. S.

    1979-01-01

    In reactive ion etching of Si, varying amounts of O2 were added to the CF4 background. The experimental results indicated an etch rate less than that for Ar up to an O2 partial pressure of about .00006 Torr. Above this O2 pressure, the etch rate with CF4 exceeded that with Ar alone. For comparison the random arrival rate of O2 was approximately equal to the ion arrival rate at a partial pressure of about .00002 Torr. There were also ion source and ion pressure gauge maintenance problems as a result of the use of CF4. Large scale (4 sq cm) texturing of Si was accomplished using both Cu and stainless steel seed. The most effective seeding method for this texturing was to surround the sample with large inclined planes. Designing, fabricating, and testing a 200 sq cm rectangular beam ion source was emphasized. The design current density was 6 mA/sq cm with 500 eV argon ions, although power supply limitations permitted operation to only 2 mA/sq cm. The use of multiple rectangular beam ion sources for continuous processing of wider areas than would be possible with a single source was also studied. In all cases investigated, the most uniform coverage was obtained with 0 to 2 cm beam overlay. The maximum departure from uniform processing at optimum beam overlap was found to be +15%.

  16. Lithium ion sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Prabir K.; Greenway, Wayne G.; Grote, Dave P.; Kwan, Joe W.; Lidia, Steven M.; Seidl, Peter A.; Waldron, William L.

    2014-01-01

    A 10.9 cm diameter lithium alumino-silicate ion source has been chosen as a source of ˜100mA lithium ion current for the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX-II) at LBNL. Research and development was carried out on lithium alumino-silicate ion sources prior to NDCX-II source fabrication. Space-charge-limited emission with the current density exceeding 1 mA/cm2 was measured with 0.64 cm diameter lithium alumino-silicate ion sources at 1275 °C. The beam current density is less for the first 10.9 cm diameter NDCX-II source, and it may be due to an issue of surface coverage. The lifetime of a thin coated (on a tungsten substrate) source is varied, roughly 40-50 h, when pulsed at 0.05 Hz and with pulse length of 6μs each, i.e., a duty factor of 3×10-7, at an operating temperature of 1250-1275 °C. The 10.9 cm diameter source lifetime is likely the same as of a 0.64 cm source, but the lifetime of a source with a 2 mm diameter (without a tungsten substrate) is 10-15 h with a duty factor of 1 (DC extraction). The lifetime variation is dependent on the amount of deposition of β-eucryptite mass, and the surface temperature. The amount of mass deposition does not significantly alter the current density. More ion source work is needed to improve the large source performance.

  17. COASTING ARC ION SOURCE

    DOEpatents

    Foster, J.S. Jr.

    1957-09-10

    An improved ion source is described and in particular a source in which the ions are efficiently removed. The plasma is generated in a tubular amode structure by the oscillation of electrons in an axial magnetic field, as in the Phillips Ion Gage. The novel aspect of the source is the expansion of the plasma as it leaves the anode structure, so as to reduce the ion density at the axis of the anode and present a uniform area of plasma to an extraction grid. The structure utilized in the present patent to expand the plasma comprises flange members of high permeability at the exitgrid end of the amode to diverge the magnetic field adjacent the exit.

  18. Negative hydrogen ion sources for accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Moehs, D.P.; Peters, J.; Sherman, J.; /Los Alamos

    2005-08-01

    A variety of H{sup -} ion sources are in use at accelerator laboratories around the world. A list of these ion sources includes surface plasma sources with magnetron, Penning and surface converter geometries as well as magnetic-multipole volume sources with and without cesium. Just as varied is the means of igniting and maintaining magnetically confined plasmas. Hot and cold cathodes, radio frequency, and microwave power are all in use, as well as electron tandem source ignition. The extraction systems of accelerator H{sup -} ion sources are highly specialized utilizing magnetic and electric fields in their low energy beam transport systems to produce direct current, as well as pulsed and/or chopped beams with a variety of time structures. Within this paper, specific ion sources utilized at accelerator laboratories shall be reviewed along with the physics of surface and volume H{sup -} production in regard to source emittance. Current research trends including aperture modeling, thermal modeling, surface conditioning, and laser diagnostics will also be discussed.

  19. Argon–oxygen dc magnetron discharge plasma probed with ion acoustic waves

    SciTech Connect

    Saikia, Partha Saikia, Bipul Kumar; Goswami, Kalyan Sindhu; Phukan, Arindam

    2014-05-15

    The precise determination of the relative concentration of negative ions is very important for the optimization of magnetron sputtering processes, especially for those undertaken in a multicomponent background produced by adding electronegative gases, such as oxygen, to the discharge. The temporal behavior of an ion acoustic wave excited from a stainless steel grid inside the plasma chamber is used to determine the relative negative ion concentration in the magnetron discharge plasma. The phase velocity of the ion acoustic wave in the presence of negative ions is found to be faster than in a pure argon plasma, and the phase velocity increases with the oxygen partial pressure. Optical emission spectroscopy further confirms the increase in the oxygen negative ion density, along with a decrease in the argon positive ion density under the same discharge conditions. The relative negative ion concentration values measured by ion acoustic waves are compared with those measured by a single Langmuir probe, and a similarity in the results obtained by both techniques is observed.

  20. CALUTRON ION SOURCE

    DOEpatents

    Lofgren, E.J.

    1959-02-17

    An improvement is described in ion source mechanisms whereby the source structure is better adapted to withstanid the ravages of heat, erosion, and deterioration concomitant with operation of an ion source of the calutron type. A pair of molybdenum plates define the exit opening of the arc chamber and are in thermal contact with the walls of the chamber. These plates are maintained at a reduced temperature by a pair of copper blocks in thermal conducting contact therewith to form subsequent diverging margins for the exit opening.

  1. Boron ion beam generation utilizing lanthanum hexaboride cathodes: Comparison of vacuum arc and planar magnetron glow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolaev, A. G.; Oks, E. M.; Vizir, A. V.; Yushkov, G. Yu.; Frolova, V. P.

    2016-02-01

    Boron ion beams are widely used for semiconductor ion implantation and for surface modification for improving the operating parameters and increasing the lifetime of machine parts and tools. For the latter application, the purity requirements of boron ion beams are not as stringent as for semiconductor technology, and a composite cathode of lanthanum hexaboride may be suitable for the production of boron ions. We have explored the use of two different approaches to boron plasma production: vacuum arc and planar high power impulse magnetron in self-sputtering mode. For the arc discharge, the boron plasma is generated at cathode spots, whereas for the magnetron discharge, the main process is sputtering of cathode material. We present here the results of comparative test experiments for both kinds of discharge, aimed at determining the optimal discharge parameters for maximum yield of boron ions. For both discharges, the extracted ion beam current reaches hundreds of milliamps and the fraction of boron ions in the total extracted ion beam is as high as 80%.

  2. Boron ion beam generation utilizing lanthanum hexaboride cathodes: Comparison of vacuum arc and planar magnetron glow.

    PubMed

    Nikolaev, A G; Oks, E M; Vizir, A V; Yushkov, G Yu; Frolova, V P

    2016-02-01

    Boron ion beams are widely used for semiconductor ion implantation and for surface modification for improving the operating parameters and increasing the lifetime of machine parts and tools. For the latter application, the purity requirements of boron ion beams are not as stringent as for semiconductor technology, and a composite cathode of lanthanum hexaboride may be suitable for the production of boron ions. We have explored the use of two different approaches to boron plasma production: vacuum arc and planar high power impulse magnetron in self-sputtering mode. For the arc discharge, the boron plasma is generated at cathode spots, whereas for the magnetron discharge, the main process is sputtering of cathode material. We present here the results of comparative test experiments for both kinds of discharge, aimed at determining the optimal discharge parameters for maximum yield of boron ions. For both discharges, the extracted ion beam current reaches hundreds of milliamps and the fraction of boron ions in the total extracted ion beam is as high as 80%. PMID:26931963

  3. High current ion source

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Ian G.; MacGill, Robert A.; Galvin, James E.

    1990-01-01

    An ion source utilizing a cathode and anode for producing an electric arc therebetween. The arc is sufficient to vaporize a portion of the cathode to form a plasma. The plasma leaves the generation region and expands through another regon. The density profile of the plasma may be flattened using a magnetic field formed within a vacuum chamber. Ions are extracted from the plasma to produce a high current broad on beam.

  4. Pulsed ion beam source

    DOEpatents

    Greenly, J.B.

    1997-08-12

    An improved pulsed ion beam source is disclosed having a new biasing circuit for the fast magnetic field. This circuit provides for an initial negative bias for the field created by the fast coils in the ion beam source which pre-ionize the gas in the source, ionize the gas and deliver the gas to the proper position in the accelerating gap between the anode and cathode assemblies in the ion beam source. The initial negative bias improves the interaction between the location of the nulls in the composite magnetic field in the ion beam source and the position of the gas for pre-ionization and ionization into the plasma as well as final positioning of the plasma in the accelerating gap. Improvements to the construction of the flux excluders in the anode assembly are also accomplished by fabricating them as layered structures with a high melting point, low conductivity material on the outsides with a high conductivity material in the center. 12 figs.

  5. Ion energies in high power impulse magnetron sputtering with and without localized ionization zones

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Yuchen; Tanaka, Koichi; Liu, Jason; Anders, André

    2015-03-23

    High speed imaging of high power impulse magnetron sputtering discharges has revealed that ionization is localized in moving ionization zones but localization disappears at high currents for high yield targets. This offers an opportunity to study the effect ionization zones have on ion energies. We measure that ions have generally higher energies when ionization zones are present, supporting the concept that these zones are associated with moving potential humps. We propose that the disappearance of ionization zones is caused by an increased supply of atoms from the target which cools electrons and reduces depletion of atoms to be ionized.

  6. Ion sources for high purity ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, Ka-Ngo

    1997-02-01

    It has been demonstrated that the multicusp ion source can provide positive hydrogen ion beams with monatomic ion fraction higher than 90%. The use of A radio-frequency induction discharge provides clean reliable and long-life source operation. The extractable ion current densities from this type of source can meet the injector requirements for accelerator-based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) projects.

  7. Ion beam source

    SciTech Connect

    Futamoto, M.; Kawabe, U.; Yuito, I.

    1984-08-21

    An ion beam source characterized in that a needle-like tip is comprised of a carbide, a nitride, or a diboride of at least one element selected from the group consisting of Ti, Zr, Hf, V, Nb, and Ta, a hexaboride of at least one element of rare earth metal elements of atomic numbers 57-70, or carbon. Stable ion beam emission of high brightness and long life can be obtained by using the needle-like tip of the said material.

  8. Ion composition produced by high power impulse magnetron sputtering discharges near the substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehiasarian, A. P.; Vetushka, A.; Hecimovic, A.; Konstantinidis, S.

    2008-10-01

    Plasma composition near the substrate was investigated in a high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) discharge using Langmuir probe analysis, mass spectroscopy, and atomic absorption spectroscopy. The HIPIMS discharge was operated in nonreactive Ar atmosphere at a pressure of 2.66 Pa and the magnetron cathode was furnished with Ti target. Plasma density, metal ion-to-neutral ratio, and gas ion-to-metal ion ratio were studied as a function of discharge current. At peak discharge current densities of ˜1 A cm-2, the results show that a dense plasma (ne˜1018 m-3) expanded from the target toward the substrate and lasted more than 330 μs after the supplied power was turned off. The shape of the time-averaged ion energy distribution function of sputtered material exhibited a transition from Thompson to Maxwellian distribution, indicating efficient energy transfer in the discharge. The metal content in the plasma monotonically increased with discharge current and the metal ion-to-neutral ratio reached approximately 1:1 in the postdischarge plasma at peak current density of 5 A cm-2.

  9. Ion flux-film structure relationship during magnetron sputtering of WO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemberg, A.; Konstantinidis, S.; Renaux, F.; Dauchot, J. P.; Snyders, R.

    2011-11-01

    In this work, we have investigated the influence of the magnetic field configuration during magnetron sputtering of WO3 in order to establish the ion flux-film structure relationship. An asymmetric bipolar pulsed DC magnetron sputtering (PDMS) was used with two magnetic field configurations: balanced (BM) and unbalanced (UMB) magnetic configurations. Ion Energy Distribution Functions (IEDFs) of the main ion populations (Ar+, O+) were recorded. The IEDFs are broad with, in addition of the thermalized distribution around 2 eV, two peaks with available ion kinetic energy up to 40-100 eV associated with the positive part of the pulse. Comparing the BM and UBM data, we calculated an increase by a factor of 5 of the ionic current while the average energy per ion was kept constant (~44 eV). X-ray diffraction demonstrates the influence of the magnetic configuration on the coating phase constitution. The films are crystallized in the WO3 monoclinic phase with preferential orientations along the c axis using the BM configuration and along the a axis using the UBM one's. On the other hand, it has been demonstrated that the grain size increases with the thickness using the BM configuration (up to 18 nm) while it remains constant using the UBM one's (~7 nm).

  10. Ion sources for light-ion fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, R.A.; Bieg, K.W.; Dreike, P.L.; McKay, P.F.; Pregenzer, A.L.; Tisone, G.C.; Woodworth, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    Light-ion drivers offer a potentially efficient and low-cost method to compress and heat an Inertial-Confinement Fusion (ICF) target. In order to produce a significant thermonuclear burn of the fuel, focused ion-beam intensities of 100 TW/cm/sup 2/ are required. The ion sources for these pulsed-power drivers should produce a single-ion species and should be capable of providing current-density levels up to 5 kA/cm/sup 2/, in pulse widths of 10 ns to 20 ns, at voltages up to several tens of megavolts. Most ion sources used in the past have produced multiple-ion species, including protons and heavier ions, such as carbon and oxygen. In the last few years there has been a substantial research effort to produce single-species sources. The major effort since 1983 has been directed towards developing a pure, high-current Li/sup +/ source for the light-ion fusion accelerator, PBFA II. There are two types of ion sources being used for intense in-beam generation: passive sources, which are produced directly or indirectly by the diode voltage itself, and active sources, in which a preformed plasma is generated before the arrival of the power pulse. A survey of existing ion sources and those under development will be given. Emphasis will be given to the lithium-ion sources being developed at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). 39 refs., 7 figs.

  11. Origin of the energetic ions at the substrate generated during high power pulsed magnetron sputtering of titanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maszl, C.; Breilmann, W.; Benedikt, J.; von Keudell, A.

    2014-06-01

    High power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) plasmas generate energetic metal ions at the substrate as a major difference to conventional direct current magnetron sputtering (dcMS). The origin of these very energetic ions in HiPIMS is still an open issue, which is unravelled using two fast diagnostics: time-resolved mass spectrometry with a temporal resolution of 2 µs and phase resolved optical emission spectroscopy with a temporal resolution of 1 µs. A power scan from dcMS-like to HiPIMS plasmas was performed, with a 2 inch magnetron and a titanium target as sputter source and argon as working gas. Clear differences in the transport as well as the energetic properties of Ar+, Ar2+, Ti+ and Ti2+ were observed. For discharges with highest peak power densities a high energetic group of Ti+ and Ti2+ could be identified with energies of approximately 25 eV and of 50 eV, respectively. A cold group of ions was always present. It is found that hot ions are observed only when the plasma enters the spokes regime, which can be monitored by oscillations in the IV characteristics in the MHz range that are picked up by the used VI probes. These oscillations are correlated with the spokes phenomenon and are explained as an amplification of the Hall current inside the spokes as hot ionization zones. To explain the presence of energetic ions, we propose a double layer (DL) confining the hot plasma inside a spoke: if an atom becomes ionized inside the spokes region it is accelerated because of the DL to higher energies whereas its energy remains unchanged if it is ionized outside. In applying this DL model to our measurements the observed phenomena as well as several measurements from other groups can be explained. Only if spokes and a DL are present can the confined particles gain enough energy to leave the magnetic trap. We conclude from our findings that the spoke phenomenon represents the essence of HiPIMS plasmas, explaining their good performance for material synthesis applications.

  12. Ion source apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Sugawara, T.; Ito, Y.

    1985-03-19

    A gas is introduced into a discharge chamber of an ion source apparatus, and a gas discharge is performed between a thermionic cathode and an anode. Ions are extracted from the plasma formed in this gas discharge by a grid electrode. The thermionic cathode has a hollow cylindrical shape. A cathode chamber is defined by the thermionic cathode and a cylindrical partition wall supporting it. A columnar auxiliary electrode is coaxially inserted in the thermionic cathode. An A.C. voltage from a power source unit is supplied between the thermionic cathode and the auxiliary electrode such that effective power for keeping the thermionic cathode at a positive potential with respect to the auxiliary electrode is higher than that for keeping the auxiliary electrode at a positive potential with respect to the thermionic cathode.

  13. H- ion sources for CERN's Linac4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lettry, J.; Aguglia, D.; Coutron, Y.; Chaudet, E.; Dallocchio, A.; Gil Flores, J.; Hansen, J.; Mahner, E.; Mathot, S.; Mattei, S.; Midttun, O.; Moyret, P.; Nisbet, D.; O'Neil, M.; Paoluzzi, M.; Pasquino, C.; Pereira, H.; Arias, J. Sanchez; Schmitzer, C.; Scrivens, R.; Steyaert, D.

    2013-02-01

    The specifications set to the Linac4 ion source are: H- ion pulses of 0.5 ms duration, 80 mA intensity and 45 keV energy within a normalized emittance of 0.25 mmmrad RMS at a repetition rate of 2 Hz. In 2010, during the commissioning of a prototype based on H- production from the plasma volume, it was observed that the powerful co-extracted electron beam inherent to this type of ion source could destroy its electron beam dump well before reaching nominal parameters. However, the same source was able to provide 80 mA of protons mixed with a small fraction of H2+ and H3+ molecular ions. The commissioning of the radio frequency quadrupole accelerator (RFQ), beam chopper and H- beam diagnostics of the Linac4 are scheduled for 2012 and its final installation in the underground building is to start in 2013. Therefore, a crash program was launched in 2010 and reviewed in 2011 aiming at keeping the original Linac4 schedule with the following deliverables: Design and production of a volume ion source prototype suitable for 20-30 mA H- and 80 mA proton pulses at 45 keV by mid-2012. This first prototype will be dedicated to the commissioning of the low energy components of the Linac4. Design and production of a second prototype suitable for 40-50 mA H- based on an external RF solenoid plasma heating and cesiated-surface production mechanism in 2013 and a third prototype based on BNL's Magnetron aiming at reliable 2 Hz and 80 mA H- operations in 2014. In order to ease the future maintenance and allow operation with Ion sources based on three different production principles, an ion source "front end" providing alignment features, pulsed gas injection, pumping units, beam tuning capabilities and pulsed bipolar high voltage acceleration was designed and is being produced. This paper describes the progress of the Linac4 ion source program, the design of the Front end and first ion source prototype. Preliminary results of the summer 2012 commissioning are presented. The outlook on the future prototype ion sources is sketched.

  14. Distance-dependent plasma composition and ion energy in high power impulse magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehiasarian, Arutiun P.; Andersson, Joakim; Anders, André

    2010-07-01

    The plasma composition of high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) has been studied for titanium and chromium targets using a combined energy analyser and quadrupole mass spectrometer. Measurements were done at distances from 50 to 300 mm from the sputtering target. Ti and Cr are similar in atomic mass but have significantly different sputter yields, which gives interesting clues on the effect of the target on plasma generation and transport of atoms. The Ti and Cr HIPIMS plasmas operated at a peak target current density of ~0.5 A cm-2. The measurements of the argon and metal ion content as well as the ion energy distribution functions showed that (1) singly and doubly charged ions were found for argon as well as for the target metal, (2) the majority of ions were singly charged argon for both metals at all distances investigated, (3) the Cr ion density was maintained to distances further from the target than Ti. Gas rarefaction was identified as a main factor promoting transport of metal ions, with the stronger effect observed for Cr, the material with higher sputter yield. Cr ions were found to displace a significant portion of the gas ions, whereas this was less evident in the Ti case. The observations indicate that the presence of metal vapour promotes charge exchange and reduces the electron temperature and thereby practically prevents the production of Ar2+ ions near the target. The content of higher charge states of metal ions depends on the probability of charge exchange with argon.

  15. Distance-dependent plasma composition and ion energy in high power impulse magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Ehiasarian, Arutiun P; Andersson, Joakim; Anders, André

    2010-04-18

    The plasma composition of high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) has been studied for titanium and chromium targets using a combined energy analyser and quadrupole mass spectrometer. Measurements were done at distances from 50 to 300 mm from the sputtering target. Ti and Cr are similar in atomic mass but have significantly different sputter yields, which gives interesting clues on the effect of the target on plasma generation and transport of atoms. The Ti and Cr HIPIMS plasmas operated at a peak target current density of ~;;0.5 A cm-2. The measurements of the argon and metal ion content as well as the ion energy distribution functions showed that (1) singly and doubly charged ions were found for argon as well as for the target metal, (2) the majority of ions were singly charged argon for both metals at all distances investigated, (3) the Cr ion density was maintained to distances further from the target than Ti. Gas rarefaction was identified as a main factor promoting transport of metal ions, with the stronger effect observed for Cr, the material with higher sputter yield. Cr ions were found to displace a significant portion of the gas ions, whereas this was less evident in the Ti case. The observations indicate that the presence of metal vapour promotes charge exchange and reduces the electron temperature and thereby practically prevents the production of Ar2+ ions near the target. The content of higher charge states of metal ions depends on the probability of charge exchange with argon.

  16. Ion sources for microfabrication (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grotjohn, Timothy A.

    1994-04-01

    Several microfabrication processes benefit from the application of ion sources including the physical, reactive, and chemically assisted sputtering/etching of surfaces, the deposition/growth of materials, and the modification/cleaning/preparation of surfaces. This paper reviews the types, properties, and requirements of ion sources applied to microfabrication processes including etching, epitaxial growth, ion implantation, and nanostructure formation. Particular emphasis is given to the requirements of ion streams for low-damage semiconductor processing. The types of sources covered include broad-beam ion sources; ECR, helicon, helical resonator, and inductively coupled plasma/ion sources; ion implanters; compact MBE-ECR ion/free radical sources; and focused ion beam sources.

  17. Tandem Terminal Ion Source

    SciTech Connect

    2000-10-23

    OAK-B135 Tandem Terminal Ion Source. The terminal ion source (TIS) was used in several experiments during this reporting period, all for the {sup 7}Be({gamma}){sup 8}B experiment. Most of the runs used {sup 1}H{sup +} at terminal voltages from 0.3 MV to 1.5 MV. One of the runs used {sup 2}H{sup +} at terminal voltage of 1.4 MV. The other run used {sup 4}He{sup +} at a terminal voltage of 1.37 MV. The list of experiments run with the TIS to date is given in table 1 below. The tank was opened four times for unscheduled source repairs. On one occasion the tank was opened to replace the einzel lens power supply which had failed. The 10 kV unit was replaced with a 15 kV unit. The second time the tank was opened to repair the extractor supply which was damaged by a tank spark. On the next occasion the tank was opened to replace a source canal which had sputtered away. Finally, the tank was opened to replace the discharge bottle which had been coated with aluminum sputtered from the exit canal.

  18. Ion dynamics in helicon sources.

    SciTech Connect

    Kline, J. L.; Balkey, M. M.; Keiter, P. A.; Scime, Earl E.; Keesee, Anne M.; Sun, X.; Harding R.; Compton, C.; Boivin, R. F.; Zintl, M. W.

    2002-01-01

    Recent experiments have demonstrated that ion dominated phenomena, such as the lower hybrid resonance, can play an important role in helicon source operation. In this work, we review recent ion heating measurements and the role of the slow wave in heating ions at the edge of helicon. sources. We also discuss the relationship between parametrically driven waves and ion heating near the rf antenna in helicon sources. Recent measurements of parallel and rotational ion flows in helicon sources have important implications for particle confinement, instability growth, and helicon source operation. In this work we present new measurements of ion flows and summarize the important features of the flows.

  19. Industrial ion source technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, H. R.; Robinson, R. S.

    1978-01-01

    An analytical model was developed to describe the development of a coned surface texture with ion bombardment and simultaneous deposition of an impurity. A mathematical model of sputter deposition rate from a beveled target was developed in conjuction with the texturing models to provide an important input to that model. The establishment of a general procedure that will allow the treatment of manay different sputtering configurations is outlined. Calculation of cross sections for energetic binary collisions was extened to Ar, Kr.. and Xe with total cross sections for viscosity and diffusion calculated for the interaction energy range from leV to 1000eV. Physical sputtering and reactive ion etching experiments provided experimental data on the operating limits of a broad beam ion source using CF4 as a working gas to produce reactive species in a sputtering beam. Magnetic clustering effects are observed when Al is seeded with Fe and sputtered with Ar(?) ions. Silicon was textured at a micron scale by using a substrate temperature of 600 C.

  20. Heavy ion fusion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Grote, D.P.; Kwan, J.; Westenskow, G.

    2003-02-01

    In Heavy-Fusion and in other applications, there is a need for high brightness sources with both high current and low emittance. The traditional design with a single monolithic source, while very successful, has significant constraints on it when going to higher currents. With the Child-Langmuir current-density limit, geometric aberration limits, and voltage breakdown limits, the area of the source becomes a high power of the current, A {approx} I{sup 8/3}. We are examining a multi-beamlet source, avoiding the constraints by having many beamlets each with low current and small area. The beamlets are created and initially accelerated separately and then merged to form a single beam. This design offers a number of potential advantages over a monolithic source, such as a smaller transverse footprint, more control over the shaping and aiming of the beam, and more flexibility in the choice of ion sources. A potential drawback, however, is the emittance that results from the merging of the beamlets. We have designed injectors using simulation that have acceptably low emittance and are beginning to examine them experimentally.

  1. Charge exchange molecular ion source

    DOEpatents

    Vella, Michael C.

    2003-06-03

    Ions, particularly molecular ions with multiple dopant nucleons per ion, are produced by charge exchange. An ion source contains a minimum of two regions separated by a physical barrier and utilizes charge exchange to enhance production of a desired ion species. The essential elements are a plasma chamber for production of ions of a first species, a physical separator, and a charge transfer chamber where ions of the first species from the plasma chamber undergo charge exchange or transfer with the reactant atom or molecules to produce ions of a second species. Molecular ions may be produced which are useful for ion implantation.

  2. Plasmatic ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenov, A. P.

    1986-02-01

    A plasmatic ion source was built in which the hollow cathode above the two discharge chamber cathodes is readily replaced upon depletion after 250 to 300 h. The emission outlet hole is restored to original size by replacement of the cathode insert, while gas is continuously admitted by means of a spring mechanism. The source operates in the Penning discharge mode, with argon as the working gas. The hollow cathode is 36 mm long and has an inside diameter of 4 mm. The other two cathodes serve as pole shoes of a toroidal ferrite magnet which produces a longitudinal magnet field of 0.1 T induction in the discharge chamber. All three cathodes are made of magnetic steel and are insulated from cylindrical copper anode by teflon spacers. Heat is dissipated by oil, which carries it away to a water cooled housing compartment. The source generates an ion emission current of 20 mA with a discharge current of 200 mA at a pull voltage of 20kV.

  3. Compact ion accelerator source

    DOEpatents

    Schenkel, Thomas; Persaud, Arun; Kapadia, Rehan; Javey, Ali

    2014-04-29

    An ion source includes a conductive substrate, the substrate including a plurality of conductive nanostructures with free-standing tips formed on the substrate. A conductive catalytic coating is formed on the nanostructures and substrate for dissociation of a molecular species into an atomic species, the molecular species being brought in contact with the catalytic coating. A target electrode placed apart from the substrate, the target electrode being biased relative to the substrate with a first bias voltage to ionize the atomic species in proximity to the free-standing tips and attract the ionized atomic species from the substrate in the direction of the target electrode.

  4. Tubular electron beam ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donets, E. D.; Donets, E. E.; Donets, D. E.

    2002-02-01

    Electron beam ion sources (EBISs) provide the highest charge states of ion produced, high pulse ion currents, and a good emittance of an ion beam but an average ion current usually less than that for other sources of highly charged ions, for example, electron cyclotron resonance. The reason for that is an unusually small volume of electron-ion interaction, which is limited by the acceptable length of the source and by the electron beam perveance. To overcome the last limit while conserving all the advantages of the EBIS mentioned, the general idea of a tubular electron beam ion source (TEBIS) with an off-axis ion extraction is proposed. Construction of a TEBIS and its use in the normal or in the reflex mode of operation could increase an EBIS ion output 100-1000 times. The configuration of TEBIS and the current status of its development is described.

  5. Intense negative heavy ion sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Yoshiharu; Takagi, Akira; Ikegami, Kiyoshi; Ueno, Akira; Fukumoto, Sadayoshi

    1990-08-01

    Negative ion sources based on plasma-surface interactions (BLAKE ion source) have been developed at KEK for producing negative heavy ions. The first negative heavy ion source (BLAKE-II) was developed by modifying the ordinary negative hydrogen ion source with converter (BLAKE-I) placed into the plasma. It generates various species of negative heavy ions with intense beam currents. For example, a more than 10 mA Au- ion beam was obtained from the ion source. Recently, the large scaled negative heavy ion source (BLAKE-III) has been developed and in the preliminary test experiment, more than 100 mA Cu- ion beam has been stably obtained with a 10% duty factor in pulsed operation. The BLAKE-II ion source was attached to the BNL 15 MV and Tsukuba University TANDEM accelerators and large current negative heavy ion beams were successfully accelerated in pulsed mode operation. Also, it was found that the space charge effect should be carefully considered for such a large current acceleration in a tandem accelerator, especially at the injection beam line and low energy end. In order to examine the negative ion formation process fundamentally, negative ion production probability related on sputtered particle velocity was measured and the results showed exponential dependence of the production probability on particle velocity as Norskov and Lindquist's theory predicted.

  6. Metal negative ion beam extraction from a radio frequency ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Kanda, S.; Yamada, N.; Kasuya, T.; Romero, C. F. P.; Wada, M.

    2015-04-08

    A metal ion source of magnetron magnetic field geometry has been designed and operated with a Cu hollow target. Radio frequency power at 13.56 MHz is directly supplied to the hollow target to maintain plasma discharge and induce self-bias to the target for sputtering. The extraction of positive and negative Cu ion beams have been tested. The ion beam current ratio of Cu{sup +} to Ar{sup +} has reached up to 140% when Ar was used as the discharge support gas. Cu{sup −} ion beam was observed at 50 W RF discharge power and at a higher Ar gas pressure in the ion source. Improvement of poor RF power matching and suppression of electron current is indispensable for a stable Cu{sup −} ion beam production from the source.

  7. Orbital motion of dust particles in an rf magnetron discharge. Ion drag force or neutral atom wind force

    SciTech Connect

    Pal, A. F.; Ryabinkin, A. N.; Serov, A. O.; Dyatko, N. A.; Starostin, A. N.; Filippov, A. V.

    2012-03-15

    Microparticles with sizes up to 130 {mu}m have been confined and the velocity and diameter of particles in a plasma trap of an rf magnetron discharge with an arc magnetic field have been simultaneously measured. The motion of the gas induced by electron and ion cyclotron currents has been numerically simulated using the Navier-Stokes equation. The experimental and numerical results confirm the mechanism of the orbital motion of dust particles in the magnetron discharge plasma that is associated with the orbital motion of the neutral gas accelerated by electron and ion drift flows in crossed electric and magnetic fields.

  8. Ion sources for ion implantation technology (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Sakai, Shigeki Hamamoto, Nariaki; Inouchi, Yutaka; Umisedo, Sei; Miyamoto, Naoki

    2014-02-15

    Ion sources for ion implantation are introduced. The technique is applied not only to large scale integration (LSI) devices but also to flat panel display. For LSI fabrication, ion source scheduled maintenance cycle is most important. For CMOS image sensor devices, metal contamination at implanted wafer is most important. On the other hand, to fabricate miniaturized devices, cluster ion implantation has been proposed to make shallow PN junction. While for power devices such as silicon carbide, aluminum ion is required. For doping processes of LCD fabrication, a large ion source is required. The extraction area is about 150 cm × 10 cm, and the beam uniformity is important as well as the total target beam current.

  9. Ion sources for ion implantation technology (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, Shigeki; Hamamoto, Nariaki; Inouchi, Yutaka; Umisedo, Sei; Miyamoto, Naoki

    2014-02-01

    Ion sources for ion implantation are introduced. The technique is applied not only to large scale integration (LSI) devices but also to flat panel display. For LSI fabrication, ion source scheduled maintenance cycle is most important. For CMOS image sensor devices, metal contamination at implanted wafer is most important. On the other hand, to fabricate miniaturized devices, cluster ion implantation has been proposed to make shallow PN junction. While for power devices such as silicon carbide, aluminum ion is required. For doping processes of LCD fabrication, a large ion source is required. The extraction area is about 150 cm × 10 cm, and the beam uniformity is important as well as the total target beam current.

  10. Control of ions energy distribution in dual-frequency magnetron sputtering discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, Chao He, Haijie; Huang, Fupei; Liu, Yi; Wang, Xiangying

    2014-04-15

    The ion energy distributions (IEDs) in the dual-frequency magnetron sputtering discharges were investigated by retarding field energy analyzer. Increasing power ratio of 2?MHz to 13.56 (27.12 or 60) MHz led to the evolution of IEDs from a uni-modal distribution towards a uni-modal distribution with high-energy peak shoulder and a bi-modal distribution. While increasing power ratio of 13.56?MHz to 27.12?MHz and 27.12?MHz to 60?MHz, led to the increase of peak energy. The evolution of IEDs shape and the increase of peak energy are due to the change of ions responding to the average field of high-frequency period towards the instantaneous sheath potential of low-frequency period.

  11. Optical properties of ITO films obtained by high-frequency magnetron sputtering with accompanying ion treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Krylov, P. N. Zakirova, R. M.; Fedotova, I. V.

    2013-10-15

    A variation in the properties of indium-tin-oxide (ITO) films obtained by the method of reactive magnetron sputtering with simultaneous ion treatment is reported. The ITO films feature the following parameters in the optical range of 450-1100 nm: a transmission coefficient of 80%, band gap of 3.50-3.60 eV, and a refractive index of 1.97-2.06. All characteristics of the films depend on the ion-treatment current. The latter, during the course of deposition, reduces the resistivity of the ITO films with the smallest value of the resistivity being equal to 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} {Omega} cm. The degradation of films with a high resistivity when kept in air is observed.

  12. Sources of radioactive ions

    SciTech Connect

    Alonso, J.R.

    1985-05-01

    Beams of unstable nuclei can be formed by direct injection of the radioactive atoms into an ion source, or by using the momentum of the primary production beam as the basis for the secondary beam. The effectiveness of this latter mechanism in secondary beam formation, i.e., the quality of the emerging beam (emittance, intensity, energy spread), depends critically on the nuclear reaction kinematics, and on the magnitude of the incident beam energy. When this beam energy significantly exceeds the energies typical of the nuclear reaction process, many of the qualities of the incident beam can be passed on to the secondary beam. Factors affecting secondary beam quality are discussed, along with techniques for isolating and purifying a specific secondary product. The ongoing radioactive beam program at the Bevalac is used as an example, with applications, present performance and plans for improvements.

  13. Negative oxygen ion formation in reactive magnetron sputtering processes for transparent conductive oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Welzel, Thomas; Ellmer, Klaus

    2012-11-15

    Reactive d.c. magnetron sputtering in Ar/O{sub 2} gas mixtures has been investigated with energy-resolved mass spectrometry. Different metal targets (Mg, Ti, Zn, In, InSn, and Sn), which are of importance for transparent conductive oxide thin film deposition, have been used to study the formation of negative ions, mainly high-energetic O{sup -}, which are supposed to induce radiation damage in thin films. Besides their energy distribution, the ions have been particularly investigated with respect to their intensity in comparison of the different target materials. To realize the comparability, various calibration factors had to be introduced. After their application, major differences in the negative ion production have been observed for the target materials. The intensity, especially of O{sup -}, differs by about two orders of magnitude. It is shown that this difference results almost exclusively from ions that gain their energy in the target sheath. Those may gain additional energy from the sputtering process or reflection at the target. Low-energetic negative ions are, however, less affected by changes of the target material. The results concerning O{sup -} formation are discussed in term of the sputtering rate from the target and are compared to models for negative ion formation.

  14. Origins of ion energy distribution function (IEDF) in high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) plasma discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hecimovic, A.; Burcalova, K.; Ehiasarian, A. P.

    2008-05-01

    The ion energy distribution function (IEDF) in high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) discharges was studied by plasma sampling energy-resolved mass spectroscopy. HIPIMS of chromium (Cr), titanium (Ti) and carbon (C) targets in argon (Ar) atmosphere was analysed. Singly and doubly charged ions of both the target and the gas were detected. Time-averaged IEDFs were measured for all detected ions at the substrate position at a distance of 150 mm from the target. The effects of target current and discharge pressure on the IEDF were investigated. Measurements were done at two pressures and for three peak discharge currents. The IEDF of both the target and the gas ions was found to comprise two Maxwellian distributions. Quantitative analysis of target IEDFs at a low pressure showed that the main peak had a lower average energy with an approximate value of EAV = 1 eV which is attributed to collisions with thermalized gas atoms and ions. The higher energy distribution has a tail extending up to 70 eV, which is assumed to originate from a Thompson distribution of sputtered metal atoms which, due to collisions, are thermalized and appear as a Maxwell distribution. The proportion of high energy IEDFs for metal ions increases monotonically as a function of Id. The effective ion temperature kBT, extracted from the main low energy peak, showed a weak dependence on peak current. The effective ion temperature extracted from the high energy tail showed a strong correlation with the change in Id. The IEDF at high pressure shows that a proportion of high energy IEDFs was very low and dominated by a low energy main peak. The gas IEDF at high pressure was completely thermalized. The metal-ion-to-gas-ion ratio was found to increase with Id and with the sputtering yield of the target material.

  15. Effect of ion bombarding energies on photocatalytic TiO{sub 2} films growing in a pulsed dual magnetron discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Novak, Ondrej; Vlcek, Jaroslav

    2011-05-15

    Photocatalytic crystalline TiO{sub 2} films were deposited by a pulsed dc dual magnetron system. The depositions were performed using two unbalanced magnetrons with planar titanium targets of 50 mm diameter in Ar+O{sub 2} gas mixtures at a total pressure of 0.9 Pa with oxygen partial pressures ranging from 0.2 to 0.9 Pa. The maximum substrate surface temperature was 160 deg. C Both magnetrons operated in the same asymmetric bipolar mode at the repetition frequencies of 100 and 350 kHz with a fixed 50% duty cycle and the average target power densities of 52-74 W cm{sup -2} in the negative voltage phase of the pulses, but the magnetron operations were shifted by a half of the period. Time-averaged energy-resolved mass spectroscopy was performed at a substrate position located 100 mm from the targets. The measured structure of the ion energy distributions was correlated with the distinct pulse phases of the magnetron discharges. A decrease in the energy delivered by fast ions (E{>=}10 eV) to the unit volume of the growing films, together with possible effects of plasma-chemical processes, during the depositions at the oxygen partial pressures of 0.5-0.75 Pa and the repetition frequency of 350 kHz resulted in a strong predominance of the highly photoactive crystalline anatase phase in the TiO{sub 2} films.

  16. Thin-film TiPbO3 varistors obtained by two-source magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziaja, J.; Lewandowski, M.

    2016-02-01

    The paper presents the method of obtaining thin films of TiPbO3 by two-source magnetron sputtering DC-M. The films were obtained in a reactive process of sputtering metallic targets of titanium (Ti) and lead (Pb). The research involved the impact of the time of sputtering of the respective targets on voltage-dependent resistance of the obtained films for different power conditions, pressures of process gases and the powers provided on the targets. The obtained nonlinearity coefficients and the current-voltage I(U) characteristics were within the following range.

  17. Fabrication of size-selected Pd nanoclusters using a magnetron plasma sputtering source

    SciTech Connect

    Ayesh, A. I.; Qamhieh, N.; Ghamlouche, H.; Thaker, S.; El-Shaer, M.

    2010-02-15

    We report on the fabrication of palladium (Pd) nanoclusters using a dc magnetron sputtering source. Plasma sputtering vaporizes the target's material forming nanoclusters by inert gas condensation. The sputtering source produces ionized nanoclusters that enable the study of the nanoclusters' size distribution using a quadrupole mass filter. In this work, the dependence of Pd nanoclusters' size distribution on various source parameters, such as the sputtering discharge power, inert gas flow rate, and aggregation length have been investigated. This work demonstrates the ability of tuning the palladium nanoclusters' size by proper optimization of the source operation conditions. The experimental nanocluster sizes are compared with a theoretical model that reveals the growth of large nanoclusters from 'embryos' by a two-body collision. The model is valid for a specific range of deposition parameters (low inert gas flow rates and aggregation lengths equal or below 70 mm).

  18. Development of multiampere negative ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Alessi, J.; Hershcovitch, A.; Prelec, K.; Sluyters, T.

    1981-01-01

    The Neutral Beam Development Group at BNL is developing H-/D- surface plasma sources as part of a high energy neutral beam injector. Uncooled Penning and magnetron sources have operated at a maximum beam current of 1 A (10 ms pulses, Mk III) and a maximum pulse length of 200 ms (0.3 A, Mk IV). A magnetron source with focusing grooves on the cathode and an asymmetric anode-cathode geometry operates at a power efficiency of 8 kW/A and a 6% gas efficiency. As the next step, a water cooled magnetron, designed to give a steady state beam of 1 to 2 A, has been constructed. Experiments are in progress to test a modification of the magnetron which may significantly improve its performance. By injecting a sheet of plasma, produced by a highly gas efficient hollow cathode discharge, into a magnetron type anode-cathode geometry, we anticipate a reduction of the source operating pressure by at least three orders of magnitude. Initial experiments have given indications of H/sup -/ production. The next plasma injection experiment is designed to give a steady state beam of approx. = 1 A.

  19. ULTRA-LOW-ENERGY HIGH-CURRENT ION SOURCE

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, Andre; Yushkov, Georgy Yu.; Baldwin, David A.

    2009-11-20

    The technical objective of the project was to develop an ultra-low-energy, high-intensity ion source (ULEHIIS) for materials processing in high-technology fields including semiconductors, micro-magnetics and optics/opto-electronics. In its primary application, this ion source can be incorporated into the 4Wave thin-film deposition technique called biased target ion-beam deposition (BTIBD), which is a deposition technique based on sputtering (without magnetic field, i.e., not the typical magnetron sputtering). It is a technological challenge because the laws of space charge limited current (Child-Langmuir) set strict limits of how much current can be extracted from a reservoir of ions, such as a suitable discharge plasma. The solution to the problem was an innovative dual-discharge system without the use of extraction grids.

  20. A cookbook for building a high-current dimpled H magnetron source for accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Bollinger, Daniel S.; Karns, Patrick R.; Tan, Cheng -Yang

    2015-10-30

    A high-current (>50 mA) dimpled H magnetron source has been built at Fermilab for supplying H beam to the entire accelerator complex. Despite many decades of expertise with slit H magnetron sources at Fermilab, we were faced with many challenges from the dimpled H magnetron source, which needed to be overcome in order to make it operational. Dimpled H sources for high-energy physics are not new: Brookhaven National Laboratory has operated a dimpled H- source for more than two decades. However, the transference of that experience to Fermilab took about two years because a cookbook for building this type of source did not exist and seemingly innocuous or undocumented choices had a huge impact on the success or failure for this type of source. Moreover, it is the goal of this paper to document the reasons for these choices and to present a cookbook for building and operating dimpled H magnetron sources.

  1. Investigation of ISIS and Brookhaven National Laboratory ion source electrodes after extended operationa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lettry, J.; Alessi, J.; Faircloth, D.; Gerardin, A.; Kalvas, T.; Pereira, H.; Sgobba, S.

    2012-02-01

    Linac4 accelerator of Centre Européen de Recherches Nucléaires is under construction and a RF-driven H- ion source is being developed. The beam current requirement for Linac4 is very challenging: 80 mA must be provided. Cesiated plasma discharge ion sources such as Penning or magnetron sources are also potential candidates. Accelerator ion sources must achieve typical reliability figures of 95% and above. Investigating and understanding the underlying mechanisms involved with source failure or ageing is critical when selecting the ion source technology. Plasma discharge driven surface ion sources rely on molybdenum cathodes. Deformation of the cathode surfaces is visible after extended operation periods. A metallurgical investigation of an ISIS ion source is presented. The origin of the deformation is twofold: Molybdenum sputtering by cesium ions digs few tenths of mm cavities while a growth of molybdenum is observed in the immediate vicinity. The molybdenum growth under hydrogen atmosphere is hard and loosely bound to the bulk. It is, therefore, likely to peel off and be transported within the plasma volume. The observation of the cathode, anode, and extraction electrodes of the magnetron source operated at BNL for two years are presented. A beam simulation of H-, electrons, and Cs- ions was performed with the IBSimu code package to qualitatively explain the observations. This paper describes the operation conditions of the ion sources and discusses the metallurgical analysis and beam simulation results.

  2. Investigation of ISIS and Brookhaven National Laboratory ion source electrodes after extended operation.

    PubMed

    Lettry, J; Alessi, J; Faircloth, D; Gerardin, A; Kalvas, T; Pereira, H; Sgobba, S

    2012-02-01

    Linac4 accelerator of Centre Européen de Recherches Nucléaires is under construction and a RF-driven H(-) ion source is being developed. The beam current requirement for Linac4 is very challenging: 80 mA must be provided. Cesiated plasma discharge ion sources such as Penning or magnetron sources are also potential candidates. Accelerator ion sources must achieve typical reliability figures of 95% and above. Investigating and understanding the underlying mechanisms involved with source failure or ageing is critical when selecting the ion source technology. Plasma discharge driven surface ion sources rely on molybdenum cathodes. Deformation of the cathode surfaces is visible after extended operation periods. A metallurgical investigation of an ISIS ion source is presented. The origin of the deformation is twofold: Molybdenum sputtering by cesium ions digs few tenths of mm cavities while a growth of molybdenum is observed in the immediate vicinity. The molybdenum growth under hydrogen atmosphere is hard and loosely bound to the bulk. It is, therefore, likely to peel off and be transported within the plasma volume. The observation of the cathode, anode, and extraction electrodes of the magnetron source operated at BNL for two years are presented. A beam simulation of H(-), electrons, and Cs(-) ions was performed with the IBSimu code package to qualitatively explain the observations. This paper describes the operation conditions of the ion sources and discusses the metallurgical analysis and beam simulation results. PMID:22380237

  3. Investigation of ISIS and Brookhaven National Laboratory ion source electrodes after extended operation

    SciTech Connect

    Lettry, J.; Gerardin, A.; Pereira, H.; Sgobba, S.; Alessi, J.; Faircloth, D.; Kalvas, T.

    2012-02-15

    Linac4 accelerator of Centre Europeen de Recherches Nucleaires is under construction and a RF-driven H{sup -} ion source is being developed. The beam current requirement for Linac4 is very challenging: 80 mA must be provided. Cesiated plasma discharge ion sources such as Penning or magnetron sources are also potential candidates. Accelerator ion sources must achieve typical reliability figures of 95% and above. Investigating and understanding the underlying mechanisms involved with source failure or ageing is critical when selecting the ion source technology. Plasma discharge driven surface ion sources rely on molybdenum cathodes. Deformation of the cathode surfaces is visible after extended operation periods. A metallurgical investigation of an ISIS ion source is presented. The origin of the deformation is twofold: Molybdenum sputtering by cesium ions digs few tenths of mm cavities while a growth of molybdenum is observed in the immediate vicinity. The molybdenum growth under hydrogen atmosphere is hard and loosely bound to the bulk. It is, therefore, likely to peel off and be transported within the plasma volume. The observation of the cathode, anode, and extraction electrodes of the magnetron source operated at BNL for two years are presented. A beam simulation of H{sup -}, electrons, and Cs{sup -} ions was performed with the IBSimu code package to qualitatively explain the observations. This paper describes the operation conditions of the ion sources and discusses the metallurgical analysis and beam simulation results.

  4. Investigation of ISIS and Brookhaven National Laboratory ion source electrodes after extended operation

    SciTech Connect

    Lettry J.; Alessi J.; Faircloth, D.; Gerardin, A.; Kalvas, T.; Pereira, H.; Sgobba, S.

    2012-02-23

    Linac4 accelerator of Centre Europeen de Recherches Nucleaires is under construction and a RF-driven H{sup -} ion source is being developed. The beam current requirement for Linac4 is very challenging: 80 mA must be provided. Cesiated plasma discharge ion sources such as Penning or magnetron sources are also potential candidates. Accelerator ion sources must achieve typical reliability figures of 95% and above. Investigating and understanding the underlying mechanisms involved with source failure or ageing is critical when selecting the ion source technology. Plasma discharge driven surface ion sources rely on molybdenum cathodes. Deformation of the cathode surfaces is visible after extended operation periods. A metallurgical investigation of an ISIS ion source is presented. The origin of the deformation is twofold: Molybdenum sputtering by cesium ions digs few tenths of mm cavities while a growth of molybdenum is observed in the immediate vicinity. The molybdenum growth under hydrogen atmosphere is hard and loosely bound to the bulk. It is, therefore, likely to peel off and be transported within the plasma volume. The observation of the cathode, anode, and extraction electrodes of the magnetron source operated at BNL for two years are presented. A beam simulation of H{sup -}, electrons, and Cs{sup -} ions was performed with the IBSimu code package to qualitatively explain the observations. This paper describes the operation conditions of the ion sources and discusses the metallurgical analysis and beam simulation results.

  5. Three chamber negative ion source

    DOEpatents

    Leung, K.N.; Ehlers, K.W.; Hiskes, J.R.

    1983-11-10

    It is an object of this invention provide a negative ion source which efficiently provides a large flux of negatively ionized particles. This invention provides a volume source of negative ions which has a current density sufficient for magnetic fusion applications and has electrons suppressed from the output. It is still another object of this invention to provide a volume source of negative ions which can be electrostatically accelerated to high energies and subsequently neutralized to form a high energy neutral beam for use with a magnetically confined plasma.

  6. Negative ion source

    DOEpatents

    Leung, K.N.; Ehlers, K.W.

    1984-12-04

    An ionization vessel is divided into an ionizing zone and an extraction zone by a magnetic filter. The magnetic filter prevents high-energy electrons from crossing from the ionizing zone to the extraction zone. A small positive voltage impressed on a plasma grid, located adjacent an extraction grid, positively biases the plasma in the extraction zone to thereby prevent positive ions from migrating from the ionizing zone to the extraction zone. Low-energy electrons, which would ordinarily be dragged by the positive ions into the extraction zone, are thereby prevented from being present in the extraction zone and being extracted along with negative ions by the extraction grid. Additional electrons are suppressed from the output flux using ExB drift provided by permanent magnets and the extractor grid electrical field. 14 figs.

  7. Negative ion source

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Ehlers, Kenneth W.

    1984-01-01

    An ionization vessel is divided into an ionizing zone and an extraction zone by a magnetic filter. The magnetic filter prevents high-energy electrons from crossing from the ionizing zone to the extraction zone. A small positive voltage impressed on a plasma grid, located adjacent an extraction grid, positively biases the plasma in the extraction zone to thereby prevent positive ions from migrating from the ionizing zone to the extraction zone. Low-energy electrons, which would ordinarily be dragged by the positive ions into the extraction zone, are thereby prevented from being present in the extraction zone and being extracted along with negative ions by the extraction grid. Additional electrons are suppressed from the output flux using ExB drift provided by permanent magnets and the extractor grid electrical field.

  8. Reducing the impurity incorporation from residual gas by ion bombardment during high vacuum magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, Johanna; Widenkvist, Erika; Larsson, Karin; Kreissig, Ulrich; Mraz, Stanislav; Martinez, Carlos; Music, Denis; Schneider, J. M.

    2006-05-08

    The influence of ion energy on the hydrogen incorporation has been investigated for alumina thin films, deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering in an Ar/O{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O environment. Ar{sup +} with an average kinetic energy of {approx}5 eV was determined to be the dominating species in the plasma. The films were analyzed with x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and elastic recoil detection analysis, demonstrating evidence for amorphous films with stoichiometric O/Al ratio. As the substrate bias potential was increased from -15 V (floating potential) to -100 V, the hydrogen content decreased by {approx}70%, from 9.1 to 2.8 at. %. Based on ab initio calculations, these results may be understood by thermodynamic principles, where a supply of energy enables surface diffusion, H{sub 2} formation, and desorption [Rosen et al., J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 17, L137 (2005)]. These findings are of importance for the understanding of the correlation between ion energy and film composition and also show a pathway to reduce impurity incorporation during film growth in a high vacuum ambient.

  9. Ion dynamics in a DC magnetron microdischarge measured with laser-induced fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Christopher; Gascon, Nicolas; Lucca Fabris, Andrea; Ito, Tsuyohito; Cappelli, Mark

    2015-11-01

    We present evidence of coherent rotating azimuthal wave structures in a planar DC magnetron microdischarge operated with argon and xenon. The dominant stable mode structure varies with discharge voltage, and high frame rate camera imaging of plasma emission reveals propagating azimuthal waves in the negative E-> × B-> direction. This negative drift direction is attributed to a local field reversal arising from strong density gradients that drive excess ions towards the anode. Observed mode transitions are shown to be consistent with models of gradient drift-wave dispersion in such a field reversal when the fluid representation includes ambipolar diffusion parallel to the magnetic field direction. Time-averaged and time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence measurements interrogate xenon ion dynamics under the action of the field reversal. Time resolution is obtained by synchronizing with the coherent azimuthal wave frequency at fixed mode number. This work is sponsored by the U.S. Air Force Office of Scientific Research with Dr. Mitat Birkan as program manager. C.Y. acknowledges support from the DOE NNSA Stewardship Science Graduate Fellowship under Contract DE-FC52-08NA28752.

  10. ION SOURCE UNIT FOR CALUTRON

    DOEpatents

    Sloan, D.H.; Yockey, H.P.; Schmidt, F.H.

    1959-04-14

    An improvement in the mounting arrangement for an ion source within the vacuum tank of a calutron device is reported. The cathode and arc block of the source are independently supported from a stem passing through the tank wall. The arc block may be pivoted and moved longitudinally with respect to the stem to thereby align the arc chamber in the biock with the cathode and magnetic field in the tank. With this arrangement the elements of the ion source are capable of precise adjustment with respect to one another, promoting increased source efficiency.

  11. Development of ion sources for ion projection lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y.; Gough, R.A.; Kunkel, W.B.; Leung, K.N.; Perkins, L.T.

    1996-05-01

    Multicusp ion sources are capable of generating ion beams with low axial energy spread as required by the Ion Projection Lithography (IPL). Longitudinal ion energy spread has been studied in two different types of plasma discharge: the filament discharge ion source characterized by its low axial energy spread, and the RF-driven ion source characterized by its long source lifetime. For He{sup +} ions, longitudinal ion energy spreads of 1-2 eV were measured for a filament discharge multicusp ion source which is within the IPL device requirements. Ion beams with larger axial energy spread were observed in the RF-driven source. A double-chamber ion source has been designed which combines the advantages of low axial energy spread of the filament discharge ion source with the long lifetime of the RF-driven source. The energy spread of the double chamber source is lower than that of the RF-driven source.

  12. Cold Strontium Ion Source for Ion Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Jarom; Durfee, Dallin

    2015-05-01

    We are working on a cold source of Sr Ions to be used in an ion interferometer. The beam will be generated from a magneto-optical trap (MOT) of Sr atoms by optically ionizing atoms leaking out a carefully prepared hole in the MOT. A single laser cooling on the resonant transition (461 nm) in Sr should be sufficient for trapping, as we've calculated that losses to the atom beam will outweigh losses to dark states. Another laser (405 nm), together with light from the trapping laser, will drive a two photon transition in the atom beam to an autoionizing state. Supported by NSF Award No. 1205736.

  13. Low-pressure ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Bacon, F.M.; Brainard, J.P.; O'Hagan, J.B.; Walko, R.J.

    1982-10-27

    A low pressure ion source for a neutron source comprises a filament cathode and an anode ring. Approximately 150V is applied between the cathode and the anode. Other electrodes, including a heat shield, a reflector and an aperture plate with a focus electrode, are placed at intermediate potentials. Electrons from the filament drawn out by the plasma and eventually removed by the anode are contained in a magnetic field created by a magnet ring. Ions are formed by electron impact with deuterium or tritium and are extracted at the aperture in the focus electrode. The ion source will typically generate a 200 mA beam through a 1.25 cm/sup 2/ aperture for an arc current of 10A. For deuterium gas, the ion beam is over 50 percent D/sup +/ with less than 1% impurity. The current density profile across the aperture will typically be uniform to within 20%.

  14. Light ion sources for ICF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerber, R. A.; Bieg, K. W.; Burns, E. J. T.; Dreike, P. L.; Maenchen, J.; Mehlhorn, T. A.; Olden, J. N.; Pregenzer, A. L.; Rice, J. K.; Sweeney, M. A.

    PBFA II, Sandia National Laboratories' (SNLA) advanced light-ion acclerator (now under construction), will deliver a 30-MV, 5 MA lithium ion experiments have been performed with proton beams, lithium ions were selected for PBFA II for several reasons. The use of lithium enables a large anode-cathode spacing, resulting in less impedance change during the pulse. Lithium ions have less magnetic deflection in the diode, so they can be focused for a longer period of time. Also, since the ionization potential of Li(+) is low, while that of L(++) is very large, a Li(+) source should be achievable without significant contamination from Li(++). Ions heavier than Li(+) would require operating voltages greater than 30 MV, or the ions would have to be accelerated in a multiple charged state.

  15. Compositionally graded SiCu thin film anode by magnetron sputtering for lithium ion battery

    SciTech Connect

    Polat, B. D.; Eryilmaz, O. L.; Keles, O; Erdemir, A; Amine, Khalil

    2015-10-22

    Compositionally graded and non-graded composite SiCu thin films were deposited by magnetron sputtering technique on Cu disks for investigation of their potentials in lithium ion battery applications. The compositionally graded thin film electrodes with 30 at.% Cu delivered a 1400 mAh g-1 capacity with 80% Coulombic efficiency in the first cycle and still retained its capacity at around 600 mAh g-1 (with 99.9% Coulombic efficiency) even after 100 cycles. On the other hand, the non-graded thin film electrodes with 30 at.% Cu exhibited 1100 mAh g-1 as the first discharge capacity with 78% Coulombic efficiency but the cycle life of this film degraded very quickly, delivering only 250 mAh g-1 capacity after 100th cycles. Not only the Cu content but also the graded film thickness were believed to be the main contributors to the much superior performance of the compositionally graded SiCu films. We also believe that the Cu-rich region of the graded film helped reduce internal stress build-up and thus prevented film delamination during cycling. In particular, the decrease of Cu content from interface region to the top of the coating reduced the possibility of stress build-up across the film during cycling, thus leading to a high electrochemical performance.

  16. The impact of negative oxygen ion bombardment on electronic and structural properties of magnetron sputtered ZnO:Al films

    SciTech Connect

    Bikowski, Andre; Welzel, Thomas; Ellmer, Klaus

    2013-06-17

    In order to study the impact of negative oxygen ion bombardment on the electronic transport properties of ZnO:Al films, a systematic magnetron sputtering study from ceramic targets with excitation frequencies from DC to 27 MHz, accompanied by strongly varying discharge voltages, has been performed. Higher plasma excitation frequencies significantly improve the transport properties of ZnO:Al films. The effect of the bombardment of the films by energetic particles (negative oxygen ions) can be explained by the dynamic equilibrium between the formation of acceptor-like oxygen interstitials compensating the extrinsic donors and the self-annealing of the interstitial defects at higher deposition temperatures.

  17. The impact of negative oxygen ion bombardment on electronic and structural properties of magnetron sputtered ZnO:Al films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bikowski, André; Welzel, Thomas; Ellmer, Klaus

    2013-06-01

    In order to study the impact of negative oxygen ion bombardment on the electronic transport properties of ZnO:Al films, a systematic magnetron sputtering study from ceramic targets with excitation frequencies from DC to 27 MHz, accompanied by strongly varying discharge voltages, has been performed. Higher plasma excitation frequencies significantly improve the transport properties of ZnO:Al films. The effect of the bombardment of the films by energetic particles (negative oxygen ions) can be explained by the dynamic equilibrium between the formation of acceptor-like oxygen interstitials compensating the extrinsic donors and the self-annealing of the interstitial defects at higher deposition temperatures.

  18. Negative hydrogen ion source research and beam parameters for accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Zolkin, Timofey V.; /Fermilab

    2006-09-01

    H{sup -} beams are useful for multi-turn charge-exchange stripping injection into circular accelerators. Studies on a modified ion source for this purpose are presented. This paper includes some theory about a H{sup -} magnetron discharge, ion-electron emission, emittance and problems linked with emittance measurement and calculations. Investigated parameters of the emittance probe for optimal performance give a screen voltage of 150 V and a probe step of about 5 mil. Normalized 90% emittance obtained for this H{sup -} source is 0.22 {pi} mm-mr, for an extraction voltage of 18 kV at a beam energy of 30 keV and a beam current of 11 mA.

  19. Solenoid and monocusp ion source

    DOEpatents

    Brainard, John Paul; Burns, Erskine John Thomas; Draper, Charles Hadley

    1997-01-01

    An ion source which generates hydrogen ions having high atomic purity incorporates a solenoidal permanent magnets to increase the electron path length. In a sealed envelope, electrons emitted from a cathode traverse the magnetic field lines of a solenoid and a monocusp magnet between the cathode and a reflector at the monocusp. As electrons collide with gas, the molecular gas forms a plasma. An anode grazes the outer boundary of the plasma. Molecular ions and high energy electrons remain substantially on the cathode side of the cusp, but as the ions and electrons are scattered to the aperture side of the cusp, additional collisions create atomic ions. The increased electron path length allows for smaller diameters and lower operating pressures.

  20. Solenoid and monocusp ion source

    DOEpatents

    Brainard, J.P.; Burns, E.J.T.; Draper, C.H.

    1997-10-07

    An ion source which generates hydrogen ions having high atomic purity incorporates a solenoidal permanent magnets to increase the electron path length. In a sealed envelope, electrons emitted from a cathode traverse the magnetic field lines of a solenoid and a monocusp magnet between the cathode and a reflector at the monocusp. As electrons collide with gas, the molecular gas forms a plasma. An anode grazes the outer boundary of the plasma. Molecular ions and high energy electrons remain substantially on the cathode side of the cusp, but as the ions and electrons are scattered to the aperture side of the cusp, additional collisions create atomic ions. The increased electron path length allows for smaller diameters and lower operating pressures. 6 figs.

  1. Solenoid and monocusp ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Brainard, J.P.; Burns, E.J.T.; Draper, C.H.

    1995-12-31

    An ion source which generates ions having high atomic purity incorporates a solenoidal magnetic field to increase the electron path length. In a sealed envelope, electrons emitted from a cathode traverse the magnetic field lines of a solenoid and a monocusp magnet between the cathode and a reflector at the monocusp. As electrons collide with gas, the molecular gas forms a plasma. An anode grazes the outer boundary of the plasma. Molecular ions and high energy electrons remain substantially on the cathode side of the cusp, but as the ions and electrons are scattered to the aperture side of the cusp, additional collisions create atomic ions. The increased electron path length allows for smaller diameters and lower operating pressures.

  2. Survey of ion plating sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spalvins, T.

    1979-01-01

    Ion plating is a plasma deposition technique where ions of the gas and the evaporant have a decisive role in the formation of a coating in terms of adherence, coherence, and morphological growth. The range of materials that can be ion plated is predominantly determined by the selection of the evaporation source. Based on the type of evaporation source, gaseous media and mode of transport, the following will be discussed: resistance, electron beam sputtering, reactive and ion beam evaporation. Ionization efficiencies and ion energies in the glow discharge determine the percentage of atoms which are ionized under typical ion plating conditions. The plating flux consists of a small number of energetic ions and a large number of energetic neutrals. The energy distribution ranges from thermal energies up to a maximum energy of the discharge. The various reaction mechanisms which contribute to the exceptionally strong adherence - formation of a graded substrate/coating interface are not fully understood, however the controlling factors are evaluated. The influence of process variables on the nucleation and growth characteristics are illustrated in terms of morphological changes which affect the mechanical and tribological properties of the coating.

  3. Multi-source ion funnel

    DOEpatents

    Tang, Keqi; Belov, Mikhail B.; Tolmachev, Aleksey V.; Udseth, Harold R.; Smith, Richard D.

    2005-12-27

    A method for introducing ions generated in a region of relatively high pressure into a region of relatively low pressure by providing at least two electrospray ion sources, providing at least two capillary inlets configured to direct ions generated by the electrospray sources into and through each of the capillary inlets, providing at least two sets of primary elements having apertures, each set of elements having a receiving end and an emitting end, the primary sets of elements configured to receive a ions from the capillary inlets at the receiving ends, and providing a secondary set of elements having apertures having a receiving end and an emitting end, the secondary set of elements configured to receive said ions from the emitting end of the primary sets of elements and emit said ions from said emitting end of the secondary set of elements. The method may further include the step of providing at least one jet disturber positioned within at least one of the sets of primary elements, providing a voltage, such as a dc voltage, in the jet disturber, thereby adjusting the transmission of ions through at least one of the sets of primary elements.

  4. The DCU laser ion source.

    PubMed

    Yeates, P; Costello, J T; Kennedy, E T

    2010-04-01

    Laser ion sources are used to generate and deliver highly charged ions of various masses and energies. We present details on the design and basic parameters of the DCU laser ion source (LIS). The theoretical aspects of a high voltage (HV) linear LIS are presented and the main issues surrounding laser-plasma formation, ion extraction and modeling of beam transport in relation to the operation of a LIS are detailed. A range of laser power densities (I approximately 10(8)-10(11) W cm(-2)) and fluences (F=0.1-3.9 kJ cm(-2)) from a Q-switched ruby laser (full-width half-maximum pulse duration approximately 35 ns, lambda=694 nm) were used to generate a copper plasma. In "basic operating mode," laser generated plasma ions are electrostatically accelerated using a dc HV bias (5-18 kV). A traditional einzel electrostatic lens system is utilized to transport and collimate the extracted ion beam for detection via a Faraday cup. Peak currents of up to I approximately 600 microA for Cu(+) to Cu(3+) ions were recorded. The maximum collected charge reached 94 pC (Cu(2+)). Hydrodynamic simulations and ion probe diagnostics were used to study the plasma plume within the extraction gap. The system measured performance and electrodynamic simulations indicated that the use of a short field-free (L=48 mm) region results in rapid expansion of the injected ion beam in the drift tube. This severely limits the efficiency of the electrostatic lens system and consequently the sources performance. Simulations of ion beam dynamics in a "continuous einzel array" were performed and experimentally verified to counter the strong space-charge force present in the ion beam which results from plasma extraction close to the target surface. Ion beam acceleration and injection thus occur at "high pressure." In "enhanced operating mode," peak currents of 3.26 mA (Cu(2+)) were recorded. The collected currents of more highly charged ions (Cu(4+)-Cu(6+)) increased considerably in this mode of operation. PMID:20441334

  5. Simulation Study Using an Injection Phase-locked Magnetron as an Alternative Source for SRF Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Haipeng; Plawski, Tomasz E.; Rimmer, Robert A.

    2015-09-01

    As a drop-in replacement for the CEBAF CW klystron system, a 1497 MHz, CW type high efficiency magnetron using injection phase lock and amplitude variation is attractive. Amplitude control using magnetic field trimming and anode voltage modulation has been studied using analytical models and MATLAB/Simulink simulations. Since the 1497 MHz magnetron has not been built yet, previously measured characteristics of a 2.45GHz cooker magnetron are used as reference. The results of linear responses to the amplitude and phase control of a superconducting RF (SRF) cavity, and the expected overall benefit for the current CEBAF and future MEIC RF systems are presented in this paper.

  6. Ion Source Development For The Proposed FNAL 750 keV Injector Upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Bollinger, D. S.

    2011-09-26

    Currently there is a Proposed FNAL 750 keV Injector Upgrade for the replacement of the 40 year old Fermi National Laboratory (FNAL) Cockcroft-Walton accelerators with a new ion source and 200 MHz Radio Frequency Quadruple (RFQ). The slit type magnetron being used now will be replaced with a round aperture magnetron similar to the one used at Brookhaven National Lab (BNL). Operational experience from BNL has shown that this type of source is more reliable with a longer lifetime due to better power efficiency. The current source development effort is to produce a reliable source with >60 mA of H{sup -} beam current, 15 Hz rep-rate, 100 {mu}s pulse width, and a duty factor of 0.15%. The source will be based on the BNL design along with development done at FNAL for the High Intensity Neutrino Source (HINS).

  7. Broad beam gas ion source with hollow cathode discharge and four-grid accelerator system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Deli; Pu, Shihao; Huang, Qi; Tong, Honghui; Cui, Xirong; Chu, Paul K.

    2007-04-01

    A broad beam gas ion source based on low-pressure hollow cathode glow discharge is described. An axial magnetic filed produced by AlNiCo permanent magnets enhances the glow discharge in the ion source as a result of the magnetizing electrons between the hollow cathode and rod anode. The gas plasma is produced by magnetron hollow cathode glow discharge in the hollow cathode and a collimated broad ion beam is extracted by a four-grid accelerator system. A weak magnetic field of several millitesla is enough to ignite the magnetron glow discharge at pressure lower than 0.1 Pa, thereby enabling stable and continuous high-current discharge to form the homogeneous plasma. A four-grid accelerator, which separates the extraction and acceleration of the ion beam, is used in this design to generate the high-energy ion beam from 10 keV to 60 keV at a working pressure of 10-4 Torr. Although a higher gas pressure is necessary to maintain the low-pressure glow discharge when compared to hot filament discharge, the hollow cathode ion source is operational with reactive gases such as oxygen in the high-voltage continuous mode. A laterally uniform ion beam can be achieved by using the four-grid accelerator system. The effects of the rod anode length on the characteristics of the plasma discharge as well as ion beam extraction from the ion source are discussed.

  8. ION SOURCE FOR A CALUTRON

    DOEpatents

    Backus, J.G.

    1957-12-24

    This patent relates to ion sources and more particularly describes an ion source for a calutron which has the advantage of efficient production of an ion beam and long operation time without recharging. The source comprises an arc block provided with an arc chamber connected to a plurality of series-connected charge chambers and means for heating the charge within the chambers. A cathode is disposed at one end of the arc chamber and enclosed hy a vapor tight housing to protect the cathode. The arc discharge is set up between the cathode and the block due to a difference in potentials placed on these parts, and a magnetic field is aligned with the arc discharge. Cooling of the arc block is accomplished by passing coolant through a hollow stem secured at one end to the block and rotatably mounted at the other end through the wall of the calutron. The ions are removed through a slit in the arc chamber by accelerating electrodes.

  9. Relating to monitoring ion sources

    DOEpatents

    Orr, Christopher Henry; Luff, Craig Janson; Dockray, Thomas; Macarthur, Duncan Whittemore; Bounds, John Alan

    2002-01-01

    The apparatus and method provide techniques for monitoring the position on alpha contamination in or on items or locations. The technique is particularly applicable to pipes, conduits and other locations to which access is difficult. The technique uses indirect monitoring of alpha emissions by detecting ions generated by the alpha emissions. The medium containing the ions is moved in a controlled manner frog in proximity with the item or location to the detecting unit and the signals achieved over time are used to generate alpha source position information.

  10. 125 MeV Si 9+ ion irradiation of calcium phosphate thin film coated by rf-magnetron sputtering technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elayaraja, K.; Joshy, M. I. Ahymah; Suganthi, R. V.; Kalkura, S. Narayana; Palanichamy, M.; Ashok, M.; Sivakumar, V. V.; Kulriya, P. K.; Sulania, I.; Kanjilal, D.; Asokan, K.

    2011-01-01

    Titanium substrate was coated with hydroxyapatite by radiofrequency magnetron sputtering (rf-magnetron sputtering) technique and subjected to swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation of 125 MeV with Si 9+ at fluences of 1 × 10 10, 1 × 10 11 and 1 × 10 12 ions/cm 2. The glancing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) analysis confirmed the HAp phase of the irradiated film. There was a considerable decrease in crystallinity and particle size after irradiation. In addition, DRS-UV reflectance spectra revealed a decrease in optical band gap ( Eg) from 5.2 to 4.6 eV. Wettability of biocompatible materials plays an important role in biological cells proliferation for tissue engineering, drug delivery, gene transfer and bone growth. HAp thin films irradiated with 1 × 10 11 ions/cm 2 fluence showed significant increase in wettability. While the SHI irradiated samples exhibited enhanced bioactivity, there was no significant variation in cell viability. Surface roughness, pores and average particle size were analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM).

  11. Design of a new electron cyclotron resonance ion source at Oshima National College of Maritime Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Asaji, T. Hirabara, N.; Izumihara, T.; Nakamizu, T.; Ohba, T.; Nakamura, T.; Furuse, M.; Hitobo, T.; Kato, Y.

    2014-02-15

    A new electron cyclotron resonance ion/plasma source has been designed and will be built at Oshima National College of Maritime Technology by early 2014. We have developed an ion source that allows the control of the plasma parameters over a wide range of electron temperatures for material research. A minimum-B magnetic field composed of axial mirror fields and radial cusp fields was designed using mainly Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets. The axial magnetic field can be varied by three solenoid coils. The apparatus has 2.45 GHz magnetron and 2.5–6.0 GHz solid-state microwave sources.

  12. Silicon oxynitride films deposited by reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering using nitrous oxide as a single-source precursor

    SciTech Connect

    Hänninen, Tuomas Schmidt, Susann; Jensen, Jens; Hultman, Lars; Högberg, Hans

    2015-09-15

    Silicon oxynitride thin films were synthesized by reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering of silicon in argon/nitrous oxide plasmas. Nitrous oxide was employed as a single-source precursor supplying oxygen and nitrogen for the film growth. The films were characterized by elastic recoil detection analysis, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, x-ray reflectivity, scanning electron microscopy, and spectroscopic ellipsometry. Results show that the films are silicon rich, amorphous, and exhibit a random chemical bonding structure. The optical properties with the refractive index and the extinction coefficient correlate with the film elemental composition, showing decreasing values with increasing film oxygen and nitrogen content. The total percentage of oxygen and nitrogen in the films is controlled by adjusting the gas flow ratio in the deposition processes. Furthermore, it is shown that the film oxygen-to-nitrogen ratio can be tailored by the high power impulse magnetron sputtering-specific parameters pulse frequency and energy per pulse.

  13. Miniature high current metal ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, I.G.; Galvin, J.E.; MacGill, R.A.; Wright, R.T.

    1986-04-01

    A small, simple ion source for the production of high brightness beams of metal ions is described. A metal vapor vacuum arc discharge is used to establish the high density plasma from which the ion beam is extracted. The source is finger-sized, and can produce pulsed metal ion beams with current up to the 10 ma range. 9 refs., 6 figs.

  14. Development of ion sources for ion projection lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y.; Gough, R.A.; Kunkel, W.B.; Leung, K.N.; Perkins, L.T.; Pickard, D.S.; Sun, L.; Vujic, J.; Williams, M.D.

    1996-11-01

    Multicusp ion sources are capable of generating ion beams with low axial energy spread as required by the ion projection lithography (IPL). Longitudinal ion energy spread has been studied in two different types of plasma discharge: the filament discharge ion source characterized by its low axial energy spread, and the rf-driven ion source characterized by its long source lifetime. For He{sup +} ions, longitudinal ion energy spreads of 1{endash}2 eV were measured for a filament discharge multicusp ion source which is within the IPL source requirements. Ion beams with larger axial energy spread ({approximately}7 eV) were observed in the rf-driven source. A double-chamber ion source has been designed which combines the advantages of low axial energy spread of the filament discharge ion source with the long lifetime of the rf-driven source. The energy spread of the double chamber source is approximately 2 eV. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Vacuum Society}

  15. Liquid metal ion source and alloy

    DOEpatents

    Clark, Jr., William M.; Utlaut, Mark W.; Behrens, Robert G.; Szklarz, Eugene G.; Storms, Edmund K.; Santandrea, Robert P.; Swanson, Lynwood W.

    1988-10-04

    A liquid metal ion source and alloy, wherein the species to be emitted from the ion source is contained in a congruently vaporizing alloy. In one embodiment, the liquid metal ion source acts as a source of arsenic, and in a source alloy the arsenic is combined with palladium, preferably in a liquid alloy having a range of compositions from about 24 to about 33 atomic percent arsenic. Such an alloy may be readily prepared by a combustion synthesis technique. Liquid metal ion sources thus prepared produce arsenic ions for implantation, have long lifetimes, and are highly stable in operation.

  16. Ion optics of RHIC electron beam ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Pikin, A.; Alessi, J.; Beebe, E.; Kponou, A.; Okamura, M.; Raparia, D.; Ritter, J.; Tan, Y.; Kuznetsov, G.

    2012-02-15

    RHIC electron beam ion source has been commissioned to operate as a versatile ion source on RHIC injection facility supplying ion species from He to Au for Booster. Except for light gaseous elements RHIC EBIS employs ion injection from several external primary ion sources. With electrostatic optics fast switching from one ion species to another can be done on a pulse to pulse mode. The design of an ion optical structure and the results of simulations for different ion species are presented. In the choice of optical elements special attention was paid to spherical aberrations for high-current space charge dominated ion beams. The combination of a gridded lens and a magnet lens in LEBT provides flexibility of optical control for a wide range of ion species to satisfy acceptance parameters of RFQ. The results of ion transmission measurements are presented.

  17. Hydrogen hollow cathode ion source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mirtich, M. J., Jr.; Sovey, J. S.; Roman, R. F. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A source of hydrogen ions is disclosed and includes a chamber having at one end a cathode which provides electrons and through which hydrogen gas flows into the chamber. Screen and accelerator grids are provided at the other end of the chamber. A baffle plate is disposed between the cathode and the grids and a cylindrical baffle is disposed coaxially with the cathode at the one end of the chamber. The cylindrical baffle is of greater diameter than the baffle plate to provide discharge impedance and also to protect the cathode from ion flux. An anode electrode draws the electrons away from the cathode. The hollow cathode includes a tubular insert of tungsten impregnated with a low work function material to provide ample electrons. A heater is provided around the hollow cathode to initiate electron emission from the low work function material.

  18. Liquid metal ion source assembly for external ion injection into an electron string ion source (ESIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segal, M. J.; Bark, R. A.; Thomae, R.; Donets, E. E.; Donets, E. D.; Boytsov, A.; Ponkin, D.; Ramsdorf, A.

    2016-02-01

    An assembly for a commercial Ga+ liquid metal ion source in combination with an ion transportation and focusing system, a pulse high-voltage quadrupole deflector, and a beam diagnostics system has been constructed in the framework of the iThemba LABS (Cape Town, South Africa)—JINR (Dubna, Russia) collaboration. First, results on Ga+ ion beam commissioning will be presented. Outlook of further experiments for measurements of charge breeding efficiency in the electron string ion source with the use of external injection of Ga+ and Au+ ion beams will be reported as well.

  19. Liquid metal ion source assembly for external ion injection into an electron string ion source (ESIS).

    PubMed

    Segal, M J; Bark, R A; Thomae, R; Donets, E E; Donets, E D; Boytsov, A; Ponkin, D; Ramsdorf, A

    2016-02-01

    An assembly for a commercial Ga(+) liquid metal ion source in combination with an ion transportation and focusing system, a pulse high-voltage quadrupole deflector, and a beam diagnostics system has been constructed in the framework of the iThemba LABS (Cape Town, South Africa)-JINR (Dubna, Russia) collaboration. First, results on Ga(+) ion beam commissioning will be presented. Outlook of further experiments for measurements of charge breeding efficiency in the electron string ion source with the use of external injection of Ga(+) and Au(+) ion beams will be reported as well. PMID:26931974

  20. Ion sources for light-ion fusion (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, R.A.; Bieg, K.W.; Dreike, P.L.; McKay, P.F.; Pregenzer, A.L.; Tisone, G.C. )

    1990-01-01

    Light-ion drivers offer a potentially efficient and low-cost method to compress and heat an inertial-confinement fusion (ICF) target. In order to produce a significant thermonuclear burn of the fuel, focused ion-beam intensities of 100 TW/cm{sup 2} are required. The ion sources for these pulsed-power drivers should produce a single-ion species and should be capable of providing current-density levels up to 5 kA/cm{sup 2}, in pulse widths of 10--20 ns, at voltages up to several tens of megavolts. Most ion sources used in the past have produced multiple-ion species, including protons and heavier ions, such as carbon and oxygen. In the last few years there has been a substantial research effort to produce single-species sources. The major effort since 1983 has been directed towards developing a pure, high-current Li{sup +} source for the light-ion fusion accelerator, PBFA II. There are two types of ion sources being used for intense ion-beam generation: (1) passive sources which are produced directly or indirectly by the diode voltage itself; and (2) active sources, in which a preformed plasma is generated before the arrival of the power pulse. A survey of existing ion sources and those under development will be given. Emphasis will be given to the lithium-ion sources being developed at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL).

  1. Laser ion source for isobaric heavy ion collider experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanesue, T.; Kumaki, M.; Ikeda, S.; Okamura, M.

    2016-02-01

    Heavy-ion collider experiment in isobaric system is under investigation at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. For this experiment, ion source is required to maximize the abundance of the intended isotope. The candidate of the experiment is 96Ru + 96Zr. Since the natural abundance of particular isotope is low and composition of isotope from ion source depends on the composites of the target, an isotope enriched material may be needed as a target. We studied the performance of the laser ion source required for the experiment for Zr ions.

  2. Development of Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source for Synthesis of Endohedral Metallofullerenes

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, K.; Muramatsu, M.; Uchida, T.; Hanajiri, T.; Yoshida, Y.; Biri, S.; Kitagawa, A.; Kato, Y.

    2008-11-03

    A new electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) has been constructed for synthesis of endohedral metallofullerenes. The main purpose of the ion source is to produce new biological and medical materials. The design is based on ECRIS for production of multicharged ion beams with a traditional minimum-B magnetic field. An 8-10 GHz traveling wave tube (TWT) amplifier and a 2.45 GHz magnetron have been applied as microwave sources. Fullerene and metal vapor are introduced with a filament heating micro-oven and an induction heating oven, respectively. In preliminary ion-extraction test, Ar{sup +} is 54 {mu}A. Many broken fullerenes such as C{sub 58} and C{sub 56} are observed in fullerene ion beams.

  3. Modeling evaporation, ion-beam assist, and magnetron sputtering of thin metal films over realistic time scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackwell, S.; Smith, R.; Kenny, S. D.; Walls, J. M.

    2012-07-01

    A long-time-scale dynamics technique has been used to model the evaporation, ion-beam assist, and magnetron sputtering of thin metal films over realistic time scales. Two fcc metals have been investigated: silver and aluminum. We illustrate how the technique can be used to model growth of these films over experimental time scales, while investigating individual growth mechanisms and surface diffusion events. Long-time dynamics is achieved through an on-the-fly kinetic Monte Carlo method, which determines diffusion pathways and barriers, in parallel, with no prior knowledge of the involved transitions. It was found that Ag has the ability to grow smooth surfaces, using several mechanisms including multiple-atom concerted motion, exchange mechanisms, and damage and repair systems. Ag {111} and {100} grew dense, complete, and crystalline film when sputtering was simulated, whereas evaporation produced incomplete layers. The inclusion of Ar in the ion-beam-assisted evaporation of Ag {111} aided growth by transferring more energy to the surface atoms allowing increased diffusion. Al {111}, however, shows slightly different patterns; growth via evaporation and magnetron sputtering shows only slight differences and the inclusion of the ion-beam assist actually damages the film beyond repair, producing subsurface Ar clusters where Al atoms were displaced creating voids throughout the film. Al {100}, similar to Ag {100}, grows denser and more complete film when grown via sputtering rather than evaporation. Results show that the energy of the deposition method used plays a vital role in the resulting thin film and substrate quality.

  4. A 30-cm diameter argon ion source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sovey, J. S.

    1976-01-01

    A 30 cm diameter argon ion source was evaluated. Ion source beam currents up to 4a were extracted with ion energies ranging from 0.2 to 1.5 KeV. An ion optics scaling relation was developed for predicting ion beam extraction capability as a function of total extraction voltage, gas type, and screen grid open area. Ignition and emission characteristics of several hollow cathode geometries were assessed for purposes of defining discharge chamber and neutralizer cathodes. Also presented are ion beam profile characteristics which exhibit broad beam capability well suited for ion beam sputtering applications.

  5. Inductively generated streaming plasma ion source

    DOEpatents

    Glidden, Steven C.; Sanders, Howard D.; Greenly, John B.

    2006-07-25

    A novel pulsed, neutralized ion beam source is provided. The source uses pulsed inductive breakdown of neutral gas, and magnetic acceleration and control of the resulting plasma, to form a beam. The beam supplies ions for applications requiring excellent control of ion species, low remittance, high current density, and spatial uniformity.

  6. Compact RF ion source for industrial electrostatic ion accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Hyeok-Jung; Park, Sae-Hoon; Kim, Dae-Il; Cho, Yong-Sub

    2016-02-01

    Korea Multi-purpose Accelerator Complex is developing a single-ended electrostatic ion accelerator to irradiate gaseous ions, such as hydrogen and nitrogen, on materials for industrial applications. ELV type high voltage power supply has been selected. Because of the limited space, electrical power, and robust operation, a 200 MHz RF ion source has been developed. In this paper, the accelerator system, test stand of the ion source, and its test results are described.

  7. Compact RF ion source for industrial electrostatic ion accelerator.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Hyeok-Jung; Park, Sae-Hoon; Kim, Dae-Il; Cho, Yong-Sub

    2016-02-01

    Korea Multi-purpose Accelerator Complex is developing a single-ended electrostatic ion accelerator to irradiate gaseous ions, such as hydrogen and nitrogen, on materials for industrial applications. ELV type high voltage power supply has been selected. Because of the limited space, electrical power, and robust operation, a 200 MHz RF ion source has been developed. In this paper, the accelerator system, test stand of the ion source, and its test results are described. PMID:26932115

  8. Ion source with corner cathode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrero, Federico A. (Inventor); Roman, Patrick A. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    An ion source may include first, second, and third electrodes. The first electrode may be a repeller having a V-shaped groove. The second electrode may be an electron emitter filament disposed adjacent the base of the V-shaped groove. The third electrode may be an anode that defines an enclosed volume with an aperture formed therein adjacent the electron emitter filament. A potential of the first electrode may be less than a potential of the second electrode, and the potential of the second electrode may be less than a potential of the third electrode. A fourth electrode that is disposed between the electron emitter filament and the anode may be used to produce a more collimated electron beam.

  9. High Current Ion Sources and Injectors for Heavy Ion Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Kwan, Joe W.

    2005-02-15

    Heavy ion beam driven inertial fusion requires short ion beam pulses with high current and high brightness. Depending on the beam current and the number of beams in the driver system, the injector can use a large diameter surface ionization source or merge an array of small beamlets from a plasma source. In this paper, we review the scaling laws that govern the injector design and the various ion source options including the contact ionizer, the aluminosilicate source, the multicusp plasma source, and the MEVVA source.

  10. Comparison of AlN films grown by RF magnetron sputtering and ion-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, J.; Fu, T.; Cheung, N.W.; Ross, J.; Newman, N.; Rubin, M.

    1993-04-01

    Crystalline aluminum nitride (AlN) thin films were formed on various substrates by using RF magnetron sputtering of an A1 target in a nitrogen plasma and also by ion-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (IAMBE). Basal-oriented AlN/(111) Si showed a degradation of crystallinity with increased substrate temperature from 550 to 770 C, while the crystallinity of AlN/(0001) A1{sub 2}O{sub 3} samples improved from 700 to 850 C. The optical absorption characteristics of the AlN/(0001) A1{sub 2}O{sub 3} films as grown by both deposition methods revealed a decrease in subbandgap absorption with increased substrate temperature.

  11. Laser ion source with solenoid field

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kanesue, Takeshi; Fuwa, Yasuhiro; Kondo, Kotaro; Okamura, Masahiro

    2014-11-12

    Pulse length extension of highly charged ion beam generated from a laser ion source is experimentally demonstrated. In this study, the laser ion source (LIS) has been recognized as one of the most powerful heavy ion source. However, it was difficult to provide long pulse beams. By applying a solenoid field (90 mT, 1 m) at plasma drifting section, a pulse length of carbon ion beam reached 3.2 μs which was 4.4 times longer than the width from a conventional LIS. The particle number of carbon ions accelerated by a radio frequency quadrupole linear accelerator was 1.2 × 1011, whichmore » was provided by a single 1 J Nd-YAG laser shot. A laser ion source with solenoid field could be used in a next generation heavy ion accelerator.« less

  12. Laser ion source with solenoid field

    SciTech Connect

    Kanesue, Takeshi; Fuwa, Yasuhiro; Kondo, Kotaro; Okamura, Masahiro

    2014-11-12

    Pulse length extension of highly charged ion beam generated from a laser ion source is experimentally demonstrated. In this study, the laser ion source (LIS) has been recognized as one of the most powerful heavy ion source. However, it was difficult to provide long pulse beams. By applying a solenoid field (90 mT, 1 m) at plasma drifting section, a pulse length of carbon ion beam reached 3.2 μs which was 4.4 times longer than the width from a conventional LIS. The particle number of carbon ions accelerated by a radio frequency quadrupole linear accelerator was 1.2 × 1011, which was provided by a single 1 J Nd-YAG laser shot. A laser ion source with solenoid field could be used in a next generation heavy ion accelerator.

  13. The Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS)

    SciTech Connect

    Brookhaven Lab

    2009-06-09

    Brookhaven National Lab has successfully developed a new pre-injector system, called the Electron Beam Ion Source, for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and NASA Space Radiation Laboratory science programs. The first of several planned improvemen

  14. Laser ion source with solenoid field

    SciTech Connect

    Kanesue, Takeshi Okamura, Masahiro; Fuwa, Yasuhiro; Kondo, Kotaro

    2014-11-10

    Pulse length extension of highly charged ion beam generated from a laser ion source is experimentally demonstrated. The laser ion source (LIS) has been recognized as one of the most powerful heavy ion source. However, it was difficult to provide long pulse beams. By applying a solenoid field (90 mT, 1 m) at plasma drifting section, a pulse length of carbon ion beam reached 3.2 μs which was 4.4 times longer than the width from a conventional LIS. The particle number of carbon ions accelerated by a radio frequency quadrupole linear accelerator was 1.2 × 10{sup 11}, which was provided by a single 1 J Nd-YAG laser shot. A laser ion source with solenoid field could be used in a next generation heavy ion accelerator.

  15. Laser ion source with solenoid field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanesue, Takeshi; Fuwa, Yasuhiro; Kondo, Kotaro; Okamura, Masahiro

    2014-11-01

    Pulse length extension of highly charged ion beam generated from a laser ion source is experimentally demonstrated. The laser ion source (LIS) has been recognized as one of the most powerful heavy ion source. However, it was difficult to provide long pulse beams. By applying a solenoid field (90 mT, 1 m) at plasma drifting section, a pulse length of carbon ion beam reached 3.2 μs which was 4.4 times longer than the width from a conventional LIS. The particle number of carbon ions accelerated by a radio frequency quadrupole linear accelerator was 1.2 × 1011, which was provided by a single 1 J Nd-YAG laser shot. A laser ion source with solenoid field could be used in a next generation heavy ion accelerator.

  16. The Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS)

    ScienceCinema

    Brookhaven Lab

    2010-01-08

    Brookhaven National Lab has successfully developed a new pre-injector system, called the Electron Beam Ion Source, for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and NASA Space Radiation Laboratory science programs. The first of several planned improvemen

  17. Production and ion-ion cooling of highly charged ions in electron string ion source.

    PubMed

    Donets, D E; Donets, E D; Donets, E E; Salnikov, V V; Shutov, V B; Syresin, E M

    2009-06-01

    The scheme of an internal injection of Au atoms into the working space of the "Krion-2" electron string ion source (ESIS) was applied and tested. In this scheme Au atoms are evaporated from the thin tungsten wire surface in vicinity of the source electron string. Ion beams with charge states up to Au51+ were produced. Ion-ion cooling with use of C and O coolant ions was studied. It allowed increasing of the Au51+ ion yield by a factor of 2. Ions of Kr up to charge state 28+ were also produced in the source. Electron strings were first formed with injection electron energy up to 6 keV. Methods to increase the ESIS ion output are discussed. PMID:19566200

  18. Summary: Gas Targets and Ion Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Steffens, Erhard

    2008-02-06

    The talks related to gas targets and ion sources are summarized. The main areas of interest were hydrogen and deuterium gas targets for storage rings, fed by atomic beam sources, and pulsed ion sources for injection into synchrotrons, both for the hydrogen isotopes and for fully stripped {sup 3}He. Impressive progress has been achieved in the last few years.

  19. Carbon nitride thin films prepared by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering combined with a nitrogen radical beam source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wentao; Wang, Li; Kojima, Isao

    2003-12-01

    Carbon nitride (CNx) thin films were prepared by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering combined with a nitrogen radical beam source. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and grazing-incidence x-ray reflectivity have been used to analyze the chemical composition and structure of the CNx films. An atomic force microscope equipped with a diamond tip was employed to measure the hardness of the films. The nitrogen concentration, composition, hardness, density, and surface roughness varied with the operating power and gas flow applied to the sputtering target and radical gun in the sample preparation. CNx films were fabricated with a maximum nitrogen concentration of ˜62 at. % on the surface and ˜44 at. % after Ar+ sputtering, as well as a maximum hardness of ˜33.7 GPa. Compared with N2+ and N2, excited molecular and atomic nitrogen were more active in the formation of carbon nitrides. With the combination of magnetron sputtering, the radical beam source enables an obvious increase in the nitrogen concentration but only a slight increase in the film hardness. A relationship between the Raman spectra and hardness was found: CNx films with a higher G peak frequency and lower ID/IG have higher hardness. Our results also suggested that a higher concentration of the sp3 phase produces a harder CNx film.

  20. High-charge-state ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D.J.

    1983-06-01

    Sources of high charge state positive ions have uses in a variety of research fields. For heavy ion particle accelerators higher charge state particles give greater acceleration per gap and greater bending strength in a magnet. Thus higher energies can be obtained from circular accelerators of a given size, and linear accelerators can be designed with higher energy gain per length using higher charge state ions. In atomic physics the many atomic transitions in highly charged ions supplies a wealth of spectroscopy data. High charge state ion beams are also used for charge exchange and crossed beam experiments. High charge state ion sources are reviewed. (WHK)

  1. The physics of Electron Beam Ion Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Stockli, M.P.; Cocke, C.L.

    1990-12-31

    There are 13 Electron Beam Ion Sources in operation which produce highly charged ions, up to Th{sup 80+} and Xe{sup 53+}. Most of the sources are used to study these ions under electron impact or when recombining with gaseous or solid targets. That provides an insight into the atomic physics of these highly charged ions and into the physics of the plasma in which such ions can be found. This paper reviews the present knowledge of atomic processes, important in the production of such ions with an EBIS.

  2. The physics of Electron Beam Ion Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Stockli, M.P.; Cocke, C.L.

    1990-01-01

    There are 13 Electron Beam Ion Sources in operation which produce highly charged ions, up to Th[sup 80+] and Xe[sup 53+]. Most of the sources are used to study these ions under electron impact or when recombining with gaseous or solid targets. That provides an insight into the atomic physics of these highly charged ions and into the physics of the plasma in which such ions can be found. This paper reviews the present knowledge of atomic processes, important in the production of such ions with an EBIS.

  3. Multicusp sources for ion beam projection lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y.; Gough, R.A.; Kunkel, W.B.; Leung, K.N.; Vujic, J.; Williams, M.D.; Wutte, D.; Zahir, N.

    1998-02-01

    Multicusp ion sources are capable of producing positive and negative ions with good beam quality and low energy spread. The ion energy spread of multicusp sources has been measured by three different techniques. The axial ion energy spread has been reduced by introducing a magnetic filter inside the multicusp source chamber which adjusts the plasma potential distribution. The axial energy spread is further reduced by optimizing the source configuration. Values as low as 0.8 eV have been achieved. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  4. A hollow cathode hydrogen ion source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sovey, J. S.; Mirtich, M. J.

    1977-01-01

    High current density ion sources have been used to heat plasmas in controlled thermonuclear reaction experiments. High beam currents imply relatively high emission currents from cathodes which have generally taken the form of tungsten filaments. A hydrogen ion source is described which was primarily developed to assess the emission current capability and design requirements for hollow cathodes for application in neutral injection devices. The hydrogen source produced ions by electron bombardment via a single hollow cathode. Source design followed mercury ion thruster technology, using a weak magnetic field to enhance ionization efficiency.

  5. Laser ion source for low charge heavy ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Okamura,M.; Pikin, A.; Zajic, V.; Kanesue, T.; Tamura, J.

    2008-08-03

    For heavy ion inertial fusion application, a combination of a laser ion source and direct plasma injection scheme into an RFQ is proposed. The combination might provide more than 100 mA of singly charged heavy ion beam from a single laser shot. A planned feasibility test with moderate current is also discussed.

  6. Ion-enhanced oxidation of aluminum as a fundamental surface process during target poisoning in reactive magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Kuschel, Thomas; Keudell, Achim von

    2010-05-15

    Plasma deposition of aluminum oxide by reactive magnetron sputtering (RMS) using an aluminum target and argon and oxygen as working gases is an important technological process. The undesired oxidation of the target itself, however, causes the so-called target poisoning, which leads to strong hysteresis effects during RMS operation. The oxidation occurs by chemisorption of oxygen atoms and molecules with a simultaneous ion bombardment being present. This heterogenous surface reaction is studied in a quantified particle beam experiment employing beams of oxygen molecules and argon ions impinging onto an aluminum-coated quartz microbalance. The oxidation and/or sputtering rates are measured with this microbalance and the resulting oxide layers are analyzed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The sticking coefficient of oxygen molecules is determined to 0.015 in the zero coverage limit. The sputtering yields of pure aluminum by argon ions are determined to 0.4, 0.62, and 0.8 at 200, 300, and 400 eV. The variation in the effective sticking coefficient and sputtering yield during the combined impact of argon ions and oxygen molecules is modeled with a set of rate equations. A good agreement is achieved if one postulates an ion-induced surface activation process, which facilitates oxygen chemisorption. This process may be identified with knock-on implantation of surface-bonded oxygen, with an electric-field-driven in-diffusion of oxygen or with an ion-enhanced surface activation process. Based on these fundamental processes, a robust set of balance equations is proposed to describe target poisoning effects in RMS.

  7. Physics of Plasma-Based Ion Implantation&Deposition (PBIID)and High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering (HIPIMS): A Comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, Andre

    2007-08-28

    The emerging technology of High Power Impulse MagnetronSputtering (HIPIMS) has much in common with the more establishedtechnology of Plasma Based Ion Implantation&Deposition (PBIID):both use pulsed plasmas, the pulsed sheath periodically evolves andcollapses, the plasma-sheath system interacts with the pulse-drivingpower supply, the plasma parameters are affected by the power dissipated,surface atoms are sputtered and secondary electrons are emitted, etc.Therefore, both fields of science and technology could learn from eachother, which has not been fully explored. On the other hand, there aresignificant differences, too. Most importantly, the operation of HIPIMSheavilyrelies on the presence of a strong magnetic field, confiningelectrons and causing their ExB drift, which is closed for typicalmagnetron configurations. Second, at the high peak power levels used forHIPIMS, 1 kW/cm2 or greater averaged over the target area, the sputteredmaterial greatly affects plasma generation. For PBIID, in contrast,plasma generation and ion processing of the surface (ion implantation,etching, and deposition) are considered rela-tively independentprocesses. Third, secondary electron emission is generally considered anuisance for PBIID, especially at high voltages, whereas it is a criticalingredient to the operation of HIPIMS. Fourth, the voltages in PBIID areoften higher than in HIPIMS. For the first three reasons listed above,modelling of PBIID seems to be easier and could give some guidance forfuture HIPIMS models, which, clearly, will be more involved.

  8. Electron beam ion source and electron beam ion trap (invited).

    PubMed

    Becker, Reinard; Kester, Oliver

    2010-02-01

    The electron beam ion source (EBIS) and its trap variant [electron beam ion trap (EBIT)] celebrated their 40th and 20th anniversary, respectively, at the EBIS/T Symposium 2007 in Heidelberg. These technologically challenging sources of highly charged ions have seen a broad development in many countries over the last decades. In contrast to most other ion sources the recipe of improvement was not "sorcery" but a clear understanding of the physical laws and obeying the technological constraints. This review will report important achievements of the past as well as promising developments in the future. PMID:20192368

  9. Ionization phenomena and sources of negative ions

    SciTech Connect

    Alton, G.D.

    1983-01-01

    Negative ion source technology has rapidly advanced during the past several years as a direct consequence of the discovery of Krohn that negative ion yields can be greatly enhanced by sputtering in the presence of Group IA elements. Today, most negative ion sources use this discovery directly or the principles implied to effect negative ion formation through surface ionization. As a consequence, the more traditional direct extraction plasma and charge exchange sources are being used less frequently. However, the charge exchange generation mechanism appears to be as universal, is very competitive in terms of efficiency and has the advantage in terms of metastable ion formation. In this review, an attempt has been made to briefly describe the principal processes involved in negative ion formation and sources which are representative of a particular principle. The reader is referred to the literature for specific details concerning the operational characteristics, emittances, brightnesses, species and intensity capabilities of particular sources. 100 references.

  10. Molecular ion sources for low energy semiconductor ion implantation (invited).

    PubMed

    Hershcovitch, A; Gushenets, V I; Seleznev, D N; Bugaev, A S; Dugin, S; Oks, E M; Kulevoy, T V; Alexeyenko, O; Kozlov, A; Kropachev, G N; Kuibeda, R P; Minaev, S; Vizir, A; Yushkov, G Yu

    2016-02-01

    Smaller semiconductors require shallow, low energy ion implantation, resulting space charge effects, which reduced beam currents and production rates. To increase production rates, molecular ions are used. Boron and phosphorous (or arsenic) implantation is needed for P-type and N-type semiconductors, respectively. Carborane, which is the most stable molecular boron ion leaves unacceptable carbon residue on extraction grids. A self-cleaning carborane acid compound (C4H12B10O4) was synthesized and utilized in the ITEP Bernas ion source resulting in large carborane ion output, without carbon residue. Pure gaseous processes are desired to enable rapid switch among ion species. Molecular phosphorous was generated by introducing phosphine in dissociators via 4PH3 = P4 + 6H2; generated molecular phosphorous in a pure gaseous process was then injected into the HCEI Calutron-Bernas ion source, from which P4 (+) ion beams were extracted. Results from devices and some additional concepts are described. PMID:26932065

  11. Molecular ion sources for low energy semiconductor ion implantation (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hershcovitch, A.; Gushenets, V. I.; Seleznev, D. N.; Bugaev, A. S.; Dugin, S.; Oks, E. M.; Kulevoy, T. V.; Alexeyenko, O.; Kozlov, A.; Kropachev, G. N.; Kuibeda, R. P.; Minaev, S.; Vizir, A.; Yushkov, G. Yu.

    2016-02-01

    Smaller semiconductors require shallow, low energy ion implantation, resulting space charge effects, which reduced beam currents and production rates. To increase production rates, molecular ions are used. Boron and phosphorous (or arsenic) implantation is needed for P-type and N-type semiconductors, respectively. Carborane, which is the most stable molecular boron ion leaves unacceptable carbon residue on extraction grids. A self-cleaning carborane acid compound (C4H12B10O4) was synthesized and utilized in the ITEP Bernas ion source resulting in large carborane ion output, without carbon residue. Pure gaseous processes are desired to enable rapid switch among ion species. Molecular phosphorous was generated by introducing phosphine in dissociators via 4PH3 = P4 + 6H2; generated molecular phosphorous in a pure gaseous process was then injected into the HCEI Calutron-Bernas ion source, from which P4+ ion beams were extracted. Results from devices and some additional concepts are described.

  12. Ion mass spectrometry investigations of the discharge during reactive high power pulsed and direct current magnetron sputtering of carbon in Ar and Ar/N{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, S.; Greczynski, G.; Jensen, J.; Hultman, L.; Czigany, Zs.

    2012-07-01

    Ion mass spectrometry was used to investigate discharges formed during high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) and direct current magnetron sputtering (DCMS) of a graphite target in Ar and Ar/N{sub 2} ambient. Ion energy distribution functions (IEDFs) were recorded in time-averaged and time-resolved mode for Ar{sup +}, C{sup +}, N{sub 2}{sup +}, N{sup +}, and C{sub x}N{sub y}{sup +} ions. An increase of N{sub 2} in the sputter gas (keeping the deposition pressure, pulse width, pulse frequency, and pulse energy constant) results for the HiPIMS discharge in a significant increase in C{sup +}, N{sup +}, and CN{sup +} ion energies. Ar{sup +}, N{sub 2}{sup +}, and C{sub 2}N{sup +} ion energies, in turn, did not considerably vary with the changes in working gas composition. The HiPIMS process showed higher ion energies and fluxes, particularly for C{sup +} ions, compared to DCMS. The time evolution of the plasma species was analyzed for HiPIMS and revealed the sequential arrival of working gas ions, ions ejected from the target, and later during the pulse-on time molecular ions, in particular CN{sup +} and C{sub 2}N{sup +}. The formation of fullerene-like structured CN{sub x} thin films for both modes of magnetron sputtering is explained by ion mass-spectrometry results and demonstrated by transmission electron microscopy as well as diffraction.

  13. PdPt catalyst synthesized using a gas aggregation source and magnetron sputtering for fuel cell electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caillard, A.; Cuynet, S.; Lecas, T.; Andreazza, P.; Mikikian, M.; Thomann, A.-L.; Brault, P.

    2015-12-01

    PdPt catalysts with different morphologies and atomic ratios have been synthesized on native SiO2/Si and on proton exchange membranes. The combination of the gas aggregation source and magnetron sputtering techniques allows the formation of quasi core-shell Pd0.97Pt0.03@Pt nanoclusters. Transmission electron microscopy and grazing incidence wide-angle x-ray scattering measurements of the Pd-rich core reveal a mean diameter of 4 nm and a face-centered cubic structure. The Pt shell around half of the Pd-rich core is formed by magnetron sputtering, and increases the nanocluster diameter (up to 10 nm) and the overall Pt content (up to 85%). Membranes coated by the PdPt core catalyst and PdPt@Pt catalyst (resulting in the formation of catalyst-coated membranes) are incorporated into fuel cells and their electrical characteristics are measured. The association of the two deposition techniques results in the formation of quasi core-shell PdPt@Pt nanoclusters, improving the start-up step of the fuel cell.

  14. Highly Polarized Ion Sources for Electron Ion Colliders (EIC)

    SciTech Connect

    V.G. Dudnikov, R.P. Johnson, Y.S. Derbenev, Y. Zhang

    2010-03-01

    The operation of the RHIC facility at BNL and the Electron Ion Colliders (EIC) under development at Jefferson Laboratory and BNL need high brightness ion beams with the highest polarization. Charge exchange injection into a storage ring or synchrotron and Siberian snakes have the potential to handle the needed polarized beam currents, but first the ion sources must create beams with the highest possible polarization to maximize collider productivity, which is proportional to a high power of the polarization. We are developing one universal H-/D- ion source design which will synthesize the most advanced developments in the field of polarized ion sources to provide high current, high brightness, ion beams with greater than 90% polarization, good lifetime, high reliability, and good power efficiency. The new source will be an advanced version of an atomic beam polarized ion source (ABPIS) with resonant charge exchange ionization by negative ions. An integrated ABPIS design will be prepared based on new materials and an optimized magnetic focusing system. Polarized atomic and ion beam formation, extraction, and transport for the new source will be computer simulated.

  15. Enhanced life ion source for germanium and carbon ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Tseh-Jen; Colvin, Neil; Kondratenko, Serguei

    2012-11-01

    Germanium and carbon ions represent a significant portion of total ion implantation steps in the process flow. Very often ion source materials that used to produce ions are chemically aggressive, especially at higher temperatures, and result in fast ion source performance degradation and a very limited lifetime [B.S. Freer, et. al., 2002 14th Intl. Conf. on Ion Implantation Technology Proc, IEEE Conf. Proc., p. 420 (2003)]. GeF4 and CO2 are commonly used to generate germanium and carbon beams. In the case of GeF4 controlling the tungsten deposition due to the de-composition of WF6 (halogen cycle) is critical to ion source life. With CO2, the materials oxidation and carbon deposition must be controlled as both will affect cathode thermionic emission and anti-cathode (repeller) efficiencies due to the formation of volatile metal oxides. The improved ion source design Extended Life Source 3 (Eterna ELS3) together with its proprietary co-gas material implementation has demonstrated >300 hours of stable continuous operation when using carbon and germanium ion beams. Optimizing cogas chemistries retard the cathode erosion rate for germanium and carbon minimizes the adverse effects of oxygen when reducing gas is introduced for carbon. The proprietary combination of hardware and co-gas has improved source stability and the results of the hardware and co-gas development are discussed.

  16. Enhanced life ion source for germanium and carbon ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Hsieh, Tseh-Jen; Colvin, Neil; Kondratenko, Serguei

    2012-11-06

    Germanium and carbon ions represent a significant portion of total ion implantation steps in the process flow. Very often ion source materials that used to produce ions are chemically aggressive, especially at higher temperatures, and result in fast ion source performance degradation and a very limited lifetime [B.S. Freer, et. al., 2002 14th Intl. Conf. on Ion Implantation Technology Proc, IEEE Conf. Proc., p. 420 (2003)]. GeF{sub 4} and CO{sub 2} are commonly used to generate germanium and carbon beams. In the case of GeF{sub 4} controlling the tungsten deposition due to the de-composition of WF{sub 6} (halogen cycle) is critical to ion source life. With CO{sub 2}, the materials oxidation and carbon deposition must be controlled as both will affect cathode thermionic emission and anti-cathode (repeller) efficiencies due to the formation of volatile metal oxides. The improved ion source design Extended Life Source 3 (Eterna ELS3) together with its proprietary co-gas material implementation has demonstrated >300 hours of stable continuous operation when using carbon and germanium ion beams. Optimizing cogas chemistries retard the cathode erosion rate for germanium and carbon minimizes the adverse effects of oxygen when reducing gas is introduced for carbon. The proprietary combination of hardware and co-gas has improved source stability and the results of the hardware and co-gas development are discussed.

  17. RF synchronized short pulse laser ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuwa, Yasuhiro; Iwashita, Yoshihisa; Tongu, Hiromu; Inoue, Shunsuke; Hashida, Masaki; Sakabe, Shuji; Okamura, Masahiro; Yamazaki, Atsushi

    2016-02-01

    A laser ion source that produces shortly bunched ion beam is proposed. In this ion source, ions are extracted immediately after the generation of laser plasma by an ultra-short pulse laser before its diffusion. The ions can be injected into radio frequency (RF) accelerating bucket of a subsequent accelerator. As a proof-of-principle experiment of the ion source, a RF resonator is prepared and H2 gas was ionized by a short pulse laser in the RF electric field in the resonator. As a result, bunched ions with 1.2 mA peak current and 5 ns pulse length were observed at the exit of RF resonator by a probe.

  18. First results of the 2.45 GHz Oshima electron cyclotron resonance ion source.

    PubMed

    Asaji, T; Nakamura, T; Furuse, M; Hitobo, T; Uchida, T; Muramatsu, M; Kato, Y

    2016-02-01

    A new electron cyclotron resonance ion source has been constructed at Oshima College with a 2.45 GHz magnetron microwave source and permanent magnets employed as the main components. In addition, a solid-state power amplifier with a frequency range of 2.5-6.0 GHz was installed to study two-frequency plasma heating. Three solenoid coils were set up for adjusting the axial magnetic fields. Argon plasma generation and ion beam production have been conducted during the first year of operation. Ion current densities in the ECR plasma were measured using a biased disk. For 2.45 and 4.65 GHz two-frequency plasma heating, the ion density was approximately 1.5 times higher than that of 2.45 GHz single-frequency heating. PMID:26931948

  19. First results of the 2.45 GHz Oshima electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asaji, T.; Nakamura, T.; Furuse, M.; Hitobo, T.; Uchida, T.; Muramatsu, M.; Kato, Y.

    2016-02-01

    A new electron cyclotron resonance ion source has been constructed at Oshima College with a 2.45 GHz magnetron microwave source and permanent magnets employed as the main components. In addition, a solid-state power amplifier with a frequency range of 2.5-6.0 GHz was installed to study two-frequency plasma heating. Three solenoid coils were set up for adjusting the axial magnetic fields. Argon plasma generation and ion beam production have been conducted during the first year of operation. Ion current densities in the ECR plasma were measured using a biased disk. For 2.45 and 4.65 GHz two-frequency plasma heating, the ion density was approximately 1.5 times higher than that of 2.45 GHz single-frequency heating.

  20. Molecular phosphorus ion source for semiconductor technology

    SciTech Connect

    Gushenets V. I.; Hershcovitch A.; Bugaev, A.S.; Oks, E.M.; Kulevoy, T.V.

    2012-02-15

    This paper presents results on the generation of molecular phosphorus ion beams in a hot filament ion source. Solid red phosphorous is evaporated mainly as tetra-atomic molecules up to a temperature of 800 C. Thus, one of the main conditions for producing maximum P{sub 4}{sup +} fraction in the beam is to keep the temperature of the phosphorous oven, the steam line and the discharge chamber walls no greater than 800 C. The prior version of our ion source was equipped with a discharge chamber cooling system. The modified source ensured a P{sub 4}{sup +} ion beam current greater than 30% of the total beam current.

  1. Sample inlet tube for ion source

    DOEpatents

    Prior, David [Hermiston, OR; Price, John [Richland, WA; Bruce, Jim [Oceanside, CA

    2002-09-24

    An improved inlet tube is positioned within an aperture through the device to allow the passage of ions from the ion source, through the improved inlet tube, and into the interior of the device. The inlet tube is designed with a larger end and a smaller end wherein the larger end has a larger interior diameter than the interior diameter of the smaller end. The inlet tube is positioned within the aperture such that the larger end is pointed towards the ion source, to receive ions therefrom, and the smaller end is directed towards the interior of the device, to deliver the ions thereto. Preferably, the ion source utilized in the operation of the present invention is a standard electrospray ionization source. Similarly, the present invention finds particular utility in conjunction with analytical devices such as mass spectrometers.

  2. Beam current controller for laser ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Okamura, Masahiro

    2014-10-28

    The present invention relates to the design and use of an ion source with a rapid beam current controller for experimental and medicinal purposes. More particularly, the present invention relates to the design and use of a laser ion source with a magnetic field applied to confine a plasma flux caused by laser ablation.

  3. An overview of the new test stand for H- ion sources at FNAL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sosa, A.; Bollinger, D. S.; Duel, K.; Karns, P. R.; Pellico, W.; Tan, C. Y.

    2016-02-01

    A new test stand at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL) is being constructed to carry out experiments to develop and upgrade the present magnetron-type sources of H- ions of up to 80 mA at 35 keV in the context of the Proton Improvement Plan. The aim of this plan is to provide high-power proton beams for the experiments at FNAL. The technical details of the construction and layout of this test stand are presented, along with a prospective set of diagnostics to monitor the sources.

  4. Recent advances in vacuum arc ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, I.G.; Anders, A.; Anders, S.; Dickinson, M.R.; MacGill, R.A.; Oks, E.M.

    1995-07-01

    Intense beams of metal ions can be formed from a vacuum arc ion source. Broadbeam extraction is convenient, and the time-averaged ion beam current delivered downstream can readily be in the tens of milliamperes range. The vacuum arc ion source has for these reasons found good application for metallurgical surface modification--it provides relatively simple and inexpensive access to high dose metal ion implantation. Several important source developments have been demonstrated recently, including very broad beam operation, macroparticle removal, charge state enhancement, and formation of gaseous beams. The authors have made a very broad beam source embodiment with beam formation electrodes 50 cm in diameter, producing a beam of width {approximately}35 cm for a nominal beam area of {approximately}1,000 cm{sup 2}, and a pulsed Ti beam current of about 7 A was formed at a mean ion energy of {approximately}100 keV. Separately, they`ve developed high efficiency macroparticle-removing magnetic filters and incorporated such a filter into a vacuum arc ion source so as to form macroparticle-free ion beams. Jointly with researchers at the High Current Electronics Institute at Tomsk, Russia, and the Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung at Darmstadt, Germany, they`ve developed a compact technique for increasing the charge states of ions produced in the vacuum arc plasma and thus providing a simple means of increasing the ion energy at fixed extractor voltage. Finally, operation with mixed metal and gaseous ion species has been demonstrated. Here, they briefly review the operation of vacuum marc ion sources and the typical beam and implantation parameters that can be obtained, and describe these source advances and their bearing on metal ion implantation applications.

  5. ION SOURCES FOR ENERGY EXTREMES OF ION IMPLANTATION.

    SciTech Connect

    HERSCHCOVITCH,A.; JOHNSON, B.M.; BATALIN, V.A.; KROPACHEV, G.N.; KUIBEDA, R.P.; KULEVOY, T.V.; KOLOMIETS, A.A.; PERSHIN, V.I.; PETRENKO, S.V.; RUDSKOY, I.; SELEZNEV, D.N.; BUGAEV, A.S.; GUSHENETS, V.I.; LITOVKO, I.V.; OKS, E.M.; YUSHKOV, G. YU.; MASEUNOV, E.S.; POLOZOV, S.M.; POOLE, H.J.; STOROZHENKO, P.A.; SVAROVSKI, YA.

    2007-08-26

    For the past four years a joint research and development effort designed to develop steady state, intense ion sources has been in progress with the ultimate goal to develop ion sources and techniques, which meet the two energy extreme range needs of mega-electron-volt and 100's of electron-volt ion implanters. This endeavor has already resulted in record steady state output currents of high charge state of Antimony and Phosphorous ions: P{sup 2+} (8.6 pmA), P{sup 3+} (1.9 pmA), and P{sup 4+} (0.12 pmA) and 16.2, 7.6, 3.3, and 2.2 pmA of Sb{sup 3+} Sb{sup 4+}, Sb{sup 5+}, and Sb{sup 6+} respectively. For low energy ion implantation our efforts involve molecular ions and a novel plasmaless/gasless deceleration method. To date, 1 emA of positive Decaborane ions were extracted at 10 keV and smaller currents of negative Decaborane ions were also extracted. Additionally, Boron current fraction of over 70% was extracted from a Bemas-Calutron ion source, which represents a factor of 3.5 improvement over currently employed ion sources.

  6. Radio frequency multicusp ion source development (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, K.N.

    1996-03-01

    The radio-frequency (rf) driven multicusp source was originally developed for use in the Superconducting Super Collider injector. It has been demonstrated that the source can meet the H{sup {minus}} beam current and emittance requirements for this application. By employing a porcelain-coated antenna, a clean plasma discharge with very long-life operation can be achieved. Today, the rf source is used to generate both positive and negative hydrogen ion beams and has been tested in various particle accelerator laboratories throughout the world. Applications of this ion source have been extended to other fields such as ion beam lithography, oil-well logging, ion implantation, accelerator mass spectrometry and medical therapy machines. This paper summarizes the latest rf ion source technology and development at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  7. Performance of an inverted ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Salvadori, M. C.; Teixeira, F. S.; Sgubin, L. G.; Araujo, W. W. R.; Spirin, R. E.; Oks, E. M.; Brown, I. G.

    2013-02-15

    Whereas energetic ion beams are conventionally produced by extracting ions (say, positive ions) from a plasma that is held at high (positive) potential, with ion energy determined by the potential drop through which the ions fall in the beam formation electrode system, in the device described here the plasma and its electronics are held at ground potential and the ion beam is formed and injected energetically into a space maintained at high (negative) potential. We refer to this configuration as an 'inverted ion source.' This approach allows considerable savings both technologically and economically, rendering feasible some ion beam applications, in particular small-scale ion implantation, that might otherwise not be possible for many researchers and laboratories. We have developed a device of this kind utilizing a metal vapor vacuum arc plasma source, and explored its operation and beam characteristics over a range of parameter variation. The downstream beam current has been measured as a function of extraction voltage (5-35 kV), arc current (50-230 A), metal ion species (Ti, Nb, Au), and extractor grid spacing and beamlet aperture size (3, 4, and 5 mm). The downstream ion beam current as measured by a magnetically-suppressed Faraday cup was up to as high as 600 mA, and with parametric variation quite similar to that found for the more conventional metal vapor vacuum arc ion source.

  8. Note: Ion source design for ion trap systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noriega, J. R.; Quevedo, M.; Gnade, B.; Vasselli, J.

    2013-06-01

    A small plasma (glow discharge) based ion source and circuit are described in this work. The ion source works by producing a high voltage pulsed discharge between two electrodes in a pressure range of 50-100 mTorr. A third mesh electrode is used for ion extraction. The electrodes are small stainless steel screws mounted in a MACOR ionization chamber in a linear arrangement. The electrode arrangement is driven by a circuit, design for low power operation. This design is a proof of concept intended for applications on small cylindrical ion traps.

  9. An overview of LINAC ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, Roderich

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses ion sources used in high-duty-factor proton and H{sup -} Linacs as well as in accelerators utilizing multi-charged heavy ions, mostly for nuclear physics applications. The included types are Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) sources as well as filament and rf driven multicusp sources. The paper does not strive to attain encyclopedic character but rather to highlight major lines of development, peak performance parameters and type-specific limitations and problems of these sources. The main technical aspects being discussed are particle feed, plasma generation and ion production by discharges, and plasma confinement.

  10. ION SOURCE WITH SPACE CHARGE NEUTRALIZATION

    DOEpatents

    Flowers, J.W.; Luce, J.S.; Stirling, W.L.

    1963-01-22

    This patent relates to a space charge neutralized ion source in which a refluxing gas-fed arc discharge is provided between a cathode and a gas-fed anode to provide ions. An electron gun directs a controlled, monoenergetic electron beam through the discharge. A space charge neutralization is effected in the ion source and accelerating gap by oscillating low energy electrons, and a space charge neutralization of the source exit beam is effected by the monoenergetic electron beam beyond the source exit end. The neutralized beam may be accelerated to any desired energy at densities well above the limitation imposed by Langmuir-Child' s law. (AEC)

  11. Pseudo ribbon metal ion beam source

    SciTech Connect

    Stepanov, Igor B. Ryabchikov, Alexander I.; Sivin, Denis O.; Verigin, Dan A.

    2014-02-15

    The paper describes high broad metal ion source based on dc macroparticle filtered vacuum arc plasma generation with the dc ion-beam extraction. The possibility of formation of pseudo ribbon beam of metal ions with the parameters: ion beam length 0.6 m, ion current up to 0.2 A, accelerating voltage 40 kV, and ion energy up to 160 kV has been demonstrated. The pseudo ribbon ion beam is formed from dc vacuum arc plasma. The results of investigation of the vacuum arc evaporator ion-emission properties are presented. The influence of magnetic field strength near the cathode surface on the arc spot movement and ion-emission properties of vacuum-arc discharge for different cathode materials are determined. It was shown that vacuum-arc discharge stability can be reached when the magnetic field strength ranges from 40 to 70 G on the cathode surface.

  12. Cold atomic beam ion source for focused ion beam applications

    SciTech Connect

    Knuffman, B.; Steele, A. V.; Maryland Nanocenter, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742; zeroK NanoTech, Montgomery Village, Maryland 20886 ; McClelland, J. J.

    2013-07-28

    We report measurements and modeling of an ion source that is based on ionization of a laser-cooled atomic beam. We show a high brightness and a low energy spread, suitable for use in next-generation, high-resolution focused ion beam systems. Our measurements of total ion current as a function of ionization conditions support an analytical model that also predicts the cross-sectional current density and spatial distribution of ions created in the source. The model predicts a peak brightness of 2 × 10{sup 7} A m{sup −2} sr{sup −1} eV{sup −1} and an energy spread less than 0.34 eV. The model is also combined with Monte-Carlo simulations of the inter-ion Coulomb forces to show that the source can be operated at several picoamperes with a brightness above 1 × 10{sup 7} A m{sup −2} sr{sup −1} eV{sup −1}. We estimate that when combined with a conventional ion focusing column, an ion source with these properties could focus a 1 pA beam into a spot smaller than 1 nm. A total current greater than 5 nA was measured in a lower-brightness configuration of the ion source, demonstrating the possibility of a high current mode of operation.

  13. Electron string ion sources for carbon ion cancer therapy accelerators.

    PubMed

    Boytsov, A Yu; Donets, D E; Donets, E D; Donets, E E; Katagiri, K; Noda, K; Ponkin, D O; Ramzdorf, A Yu; Salnikov, V V; Shutov, V B

    2015-08-01

    The type of the Electron String Ion Sources (ESIS) is considered to be the appropriate one to produce pulsed C(4+) and C(6+) ion beams for cancer therapy accelerators. In fact, the new test ESIS Krion-6T already now provides more than 10(10) C(4+) ions per pulse and about 5 × 10(9) C(6+) ions per pulse. Such ion sources could be suitable to apply at synchrotrons. It has also been found that Krion-6T can provide more than 10(11) C(6+) ions per second at the 100 Hz repetition rate, and the repetition rate can be increased at the same or larger ion output per second. This makes ESIS applicable at cyclotrons as well. ESIS can be also a suitable type of ion source to produce the (11)C radioactive ion beams. A specialized cryogenic cell was experimentally tested at the Krion-2M ESIS for pulse injection of gaseous species into the electron string. It has been shown in experiments with stable methane that the total conversion efficiency of methane molecules to C(4+) ions reached 5%÷10%. For cancer therapy with simultaneous irradiation and precise dose control (positron emission tomography) by means of (11)C, transporting to the tumor with the primary accelerated (11)C(4+) beam, this efficiency is preliminarily considered to be large enough to produce the (11)C(4+) beam from radioactive methane and to inject this beam into synchrotrons. PMID:26329182

  14. Electron string ion sources for carbon ion cancer therapy accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boytsov, A. Yu.; Donets, D. E.; Donets, E. D.; Donets, E. E.; Katagiri, K.; Noda, K.; Ponkin, D. O.; Ramzdorf, A. Yu.; Salnikov, V. V.; Shutov, V. B.

    2015-08-01

    The type of the Electron String Ion Sources (ESIS) is considered to be the appropriate one to produce pulsed C4+ and C6+ ion beams for cancer therapy accelerators. In fact, the new test ESIS Krion-6T already now provides more than 1010 C4+ ions per pulse and about 5 × 109 C6+ ions per pulse. Such ion sources could be suitable to apply at synchrotrons. It has also been found that Krion-6T can provide more than 1011 C6+ ions per second at the 100 Hz repetition rate, and the repetition rate can be increased at the same or larger ion output per second. This makes ESIS applicable at cyclotrons as well. ESIS can be also a suitable type of ion source to produce the 11C radioactive ion beams. A specialized cryogenic cell was experimentally tested at the Krion-2M ESIS for pulse injection of gaseous species into the electron string. It has been shown in experiments with stable methane that the total conversion efficiency of methane molecules to C4+ ions reached 5%÷10%. For cancer therapy with simultaneous irradiation and precise dose control (positron emission tomography) by means of 11C, transporting to the tumor with the primary accelerated 11C4+ beam, this efficiency is preliminarily considered to be large enough to produce the 11C4+ beam from radioactive methane and to inject this beam into synchrotrons.

  15. Polycrystalline CuInSe2 thin films for solar cells by three-source magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakada, Tokio; Migita, Kazuo; Kunioka, Akio

    1993-08-01

    Polycrystalline CuInSe2 films were deposited in a wide range of Cu/In ratios by three-source magnetron sputtering technique onto soda-lime glass and Mo-coated glass substrates at elevated substrate temperatures. Good run-to-run reproductibility was achieved in our sputtering system using melt-grown polycrystalline selenium target. In excess films which are desirable for solar cells were obtained in the temperature range of 400 to 500 C. These films showed a preferential (112) orientation of the chalcopyrite structure and possessed an excellent adhesion property to the substrates. Preliminary solar cells with ZnO:Al/CdS/CuInSe2 structure resulted in a conversion efficiency of 6.3% under AM 1.5 illumination.

  16. Ion sources for MedAustrona)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lettry, J.; Penescu, L.; Wallner, J.; Sargsyan, E.

    2010-02-01

    The MedAustron Ion therapy center will be constructed in Wiener Neustadt (Austria) in the vicinity of Vienna. Its accelerator complex consists of four ion sources, a linear accelerator, a synchrotron, and a beam delivery system to the three medical treatment rooms and to the research irradiation room. The ion sources shall deliver beams of H31+, C4+, and light ions with utmost reliability and stability. This paper describes the features of the ion sources presently planned for the MedAustron facility, such as ion source main parameters, gas injection, temperature control, and cooling systems. A dedicated beam diagnostics technique is proposed in order to characterize electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion beams; in the first drift region after the ion source, a fraction of the mixed beam is selected via moveable aperture. With standard beam diagnostics, we then aim to produce position-dependant observables such as ion-current density, beam energy distribution, and emittance for each charge states to be compared to simulations of ECR e-heating, plasma simulation, beam formation, and transport.

  17. Thirty-centimeter-diameter ion milling source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, R. S.

    1978-01-01

    A 30-cm beam diameter ion source has been designed and fabricated for micromachining and sputtering applications. An argon ion current density of 1 mA/cu cm at 500 eV ion energy was selected as a design operating condition. The completed ion source met the design criteria at this operating condition with a uniform and well-collimated beam having an average variation in current density of + or - 5% over the center of 20 cm of the beam. This ion source has a multipole magnetic field that employs permanent magnets between permeable pole pieces. Langmuir probe surveys of the source plasma support the design concepts of a multipole field and a circumferential cathode to enhance plasma uniformity.

  18. OPERATION OF THE RHIC AU ION SOURCE.

    SciTech Connect

    STESKI,D.B.; ALESSI,J.; BENJAMIN,J.; CARLSON,C.; MANNI,M.; THIEBERGER,P.; WIPLICH,M.

    2001-09-02

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is beginning its second year of operation. A cesium sputter ion source injecting into a tandem Van de Graaff provides the gold ions for RHIC. The ion source is operated in the pulsed beam mode and produces a 500{micro}sec long pulse of Au{sup -} with a peak intensity of 290pA at the entrance of the tandem. After acceleration in the tandem and post stripping, this results in a beam of Au{sup +32} with an intensity of 80e{micro}A and an energy of 182MeV. Over the last several years, a series of improvements have been made to increase the intensity of the pulsed beam from the ion source. Details of the source performance and improvements will be presented. In addition, an effort is under way to provide other beam species for RHIC collisions.

  19. ECR ion source with electron gun

    DOEpatents

    Xie, Z.Q.; Lyneis, C.M.

    1993-10-26

    An Advanced Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source having an electron gun for introducing electrons into the plasma chamber of the ion source is described. The ion source has a injection enclosure and a plasma chamber tank. The plasma chamber is defined by a plurality of longitudinal magnets. The electron gun injects electrons axially into the plasma chamber such that ionization within the plasma chamber occurs in the presence of the additional electrons produced by the electron gun. The electron gun has a cathode for emitting electrons therefrom which is heated by current supplied from an AC power supply while bias potential is provided by a bias power supply. A concentric inner conductor and outer conductor carry heating current to a carbon chuck and carbon pusher which hold the cathode in place and also heat the cathode. In the Advanced Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source, the electron gun replaces the conventional first stage used in prior electron cyclotron resonance ion generators. 5 figures.

  20. Ion source design for industrial applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, H. R.; Robinson, R. S.

    1981-01-01

    The design of broad-beam industrial ion sources is described. The approach used emphasizes refractory metal cathodes and permanent-magnet multipole discharge chambers. Design procedures and sample calculations are given for the discharge chamber, ion optics, cathodes, and magnetic circuit. Hardware designs are included for the isolator, cathode supports, anode supports, pole-piece assembly, and ion-optics supports. There are other ways of designing most ion source components, but the designs presented are representative of current technology and adaptable to a wide range of configurations.

  1. Progress in ISOL target ion source systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köster, U.; Arndt, O.; Bouquerel, E.; Fedoseyev, V. N.; Frånberg, H.; Joinet, A.; Jost, C.; Kerkines, I. S. K.; Kirchner, R.; Targisol Collaboration

    2008-10-01

    The heart of every ISOL (isotope separation on-line) facility is its target and ion source system. Its efficiency, selectivity and rapidity is decisive for the production of intense and pure ion beams of short-lived isotopes. Recent progress in ISOL target and ion source technology is discussed at the examples of radioactive ion beams of exotic zinc and tin isotopes that were purified by isothermal chromatography and molecular sideband separation respectively. An outlook is given to which other elements these purification methods are applicable.

  2. Inert gas ion source program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsey, W. D.

    1978-01-01

    THe original 12 cm hexagonal magneto-electrostatic containment discharge chamber has been optimized for argon and xenon operation. Argon mass utilization efficiencies of 65 to 77 percent were achieved at keeper-plus-main discharge energy consumptions of 200 to 458 eV/ion, respectively. Xenon performance of 84 to 96 percent mass utilization was realized at 203 to 350 eV/ion. The optimization process and test results are discussed.

  3. On characterization of an ultracold ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debernardi, N.; Engelen, W. J.; van Vliembergen, R. W. L.; Mutsaers, P. H. A.; Vredenbregt, E. J. D.; Luiten, O. J.

    2011-05-01

    The ultracold ion source (UCIS) is based on creating very cold ion beams (T < 1 mK) by near-threshold photo-ionization of a laser-cooled and trapped 85Rb gas. The UCIS has the potential of producing ion beams with a brightness and current comparable to the liquid-metal ion source (LMIS), which is the current state-of-art for focused ion beam (FIB) technology. The brightness characterizes the source and is proportional to the ion current, the source temperature and the energy spread. We have already shown that the UCIS can provide much lower energy spread than LMIS, and may therefore offer a route toward 1-nm ion beam milling. The ultra low temperature of the source permits collimated bunches to be created at a low energy (down to few eV), which allows using time-dependent fields for accelerating and focusing. With this lens, a source temperature of (3 +/- 2) mK has been measured. A dynamic model of the source describing its properties under pulsed operation has been developed and experiments have been started in order to validate it. The extracted current is the missing ingredient needed to characterize the brightness of the UCIS.

  4. Intense metal ion beam source for heavy ion fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, I.G.

    1986-05-01

    We have developed an ion source which can produce high current beams of metal ions. The source uses a metal vapor vacuum arc discharge as the plasma medium from which the ions are extracted, so we have called this source the MEVVA ion source. The metal plasma is created simply and efficiently and no carrier gas is required. Beams have been produced from metallic elements spanning the periodic table from lithium through uranium, at extraction voltages from 10 to 60 kV and with beam currents as high as 1.1 Amperes (electrical current in all charge states). A brief description of the source is given and its possible application as an ion source for heavy ion fusion is considered. Beams such as C/sup +/ (greater than or equal to99% of the beam in this species and charge state), Cr/sup 2 +/ (80%), and Ta/sup 3+,4+,5+/ (mixed charge states) have been produced. Beam emittance measurements and ways of increasing the source brightness are discussed.

  5. Magnetron-sputtered Ag surfaces. New evidence for the nature of the ag ions intervening in bacterial inactivation.

    PubMed

    Mejía, M I; Restrepo, G; Marín, J M; Sanjines, R; Pulgarín, C; Mielczarski, E; Mielczarski, J; Kiwi, J

    2010-01-01

    DC-magnetron sputtering with an Ag target on textile surfaces produced Ag particles with sizes approximately 4.7 nm (+/-15%). Sputtering for 15 s led to Ag layers of 15-20 nm. The threshold sputtering time precluding airborne bacterial growth was about 60 s. In this case, the coating was approximately 40-50 nm thick and the cotton Ag loading was 0.0026 wt %. The Ag particle size did not vary significantly with sputtering time between 15 and 600 s. Only coatings above this thickness lead to bacterial inactivation. Ag/Pt targets with sputtering times<60 s did not increase the bactericide performance of the Ag cotton samples with respect to sputtering from an Ag target alone, as expected from the position of Pt respect to Ag in the electrochemical series (Galvanic effect). The Ag cotton deposition led to very thin metallic semitransparent gray color coatings. X-ray of the Ag cotton suggested the presence of amorphous and crystalline Ag species. By X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), it was found that the amount of oxidized silver species on the cotton was similar for sputtering times of 60 and 600 s, but the total amount of Ag deposited was almost two times higher after 600 s sputtering. This suggests that the positive silver-ions were located mainly at the silver interface. The type of silver ions produced using the Ag/Pt sputtering was determined to be very similar at 15, 60, and 600 s with the silver ions produced with the Ag target. This explains the lack of an increased inhibitory effect of Pt during the inactivation of airborne bacteria when present in the Pt/Ag target with respect to the Ag target, because in both cases similar silver ionic species were found. PMID:20356239

  6. Electrospray ion source with reduced analyte electrochemistry

    DOEpatents

    Kertesz, Vilmos [Knoxville, TN; Van Berkel, Gary [Clinton, TN

    2011-08-23

    An electrospray ion (ESI) source and method capable of ionizing an analyte molecule without oxidizing or reducing the analyte of interest. The ESI source can include an emitter having a liquid conduit, a working electrode having a liquid contacting surface, a spray tip, a secondary working electrode, and a charge storage coating covering partially or fully the liquid contacting surface of the working electrode. The liquid conduit, the working electrode and the secondary working electrode can be in liquid communication. The electrospray ion source can also include a counter electrode proximate to, but separated from, said spray tip. The electrospray ion source can also include a power system for applying a voltage difference between the working electrodes and a counter-electrode. The power system can deliver pulsed voltage changes to the working electrodes during operation of said electrospray ion source to minimize the surface potential of the charge storage coating.

  7. Electrospray ion source with reduced analyte electrochemistry

    DOEpatents

    Kertesz, Vilmos; Van Berkel, Gary J

    2013-07-30

    An electrospray ion (ESI) source and method capable of ionizing an analyte molecule without oxidizing or reducing the analyte of interest. The ESI source can include an emitter having a liquid conduit, a working electrode having a liquid contacting surface, a spray tip, a secondary working electrode, and a charge storage coating covering partially or fully the liquid contacting surface of the working electrode. The liquid conduit, the working electrode and the secondary working electrode can be in liquid communication. The electrospray ion source can also include a counter electrode proximate to, but separated from, said spray tip. The electrospray ion source can also include a power system for applying a voltage difference between the working electrodes and a counter-electrode. The power system can deliver pulsed voltage changes to the working electrodes during operation of said electrospray ion source to minimize the surface potential of the charge storage coating.

  8. Ion source with external RF antenna

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Ji, Qing; Wilde, Stephen

    2005-12-13

    A radio frequency (RF) driven plasma ion source has an external RF antenna, i.e. the RF antenna is positioned outside the plasma generating chamber rather than inside. The RF antenna is typically formed of a small diameter metal tube coated with an insulator. An external RF antenna assembly is used to mount the external RF antenna to the ion source. The RF antenna tubing is wound around the external RF antenna assembly to form a coil. The external RF antenna assembly is formed of a material, e.g. quartz, which is essentially transparent to the RF waves. The external RF antenna assembly is attached to and forms a part of the plasma source chamber so that the RF waves emitted by the RF antenna enter into the inside of the plasma chamber and ionize a gas contained therein. The plasma ion source is typically a multi-cusp ion source.

  9. Sources of polyatomic ions of organic liquids.

    PubMed

    Takaoka, G H; Takeuchi, M; Ryuto, H

    2010-02-01

    We have developed two types of liquid ion sources, one of which was a polyatomic ion source using liquid organic materials with a high-vapor pressure. Liquid materials such as octane and ethanol could be heated up to a maximum temperature of 100 degrees C, and the vapors were introduced into an ion source. They were ionized by an electron bombardment method and extracted from the ionizer. The ion current obtained at an extraction voltage of 2 kV was 230 microA for octane and several fragment ions such as alkyl ions were produced. On the other hand, another type of polyatomic ion source using alkyl naphthalene mixed with ionic liquid such as imidazolium dicyanamide has been developed. Instead of the electron bombardment method, a high-electric field method was used for the ion-emission from a sharp tip, because the vapor pressure of the liquid materials was relatively low. The threshold voltage was approximately 4.5 kV and the ion current of approximately 250 nA was obtained at an extraction voltage of 9.5 kV. PMID:20192425

  10. High-current pulsed ion source for metallic ions

    SciTech Connect

    Gavin, B.; Abbott, S.; MacGill, R.; Sorensen, R.; Staples, J.; Thatcher, R.

    1981-03-01

    A new sputter-ion PIG source and magnet system, optimized for intermediate charge states, q/A of 0.02 to 0.03, is described. This source will be used with the new Wideroe-based injector for the SuperHILAC. Pulsed electrical currents of several emA of heavy metal ions have been produced in a normalized emittance area of .05..pi.. cm-mr. The source system is comprised of two electrically separate anode chambers, one in operation and one spare, which can be selected by remote control. The entire source head is small and quickly removable.

  11. Three chamber negative ion source

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Ehlers, Kenneth W.; Hiskes, John R.

    1985-01-01

    A negative ion vessel is divided into an excitation chamber, a negative ionization chamber and an extraction chamber by two magnetic filters. Input means introduces neutral molecules into a first chamber where a first electron discharge means vibrationally excites the molecules which migrate to a second chamber. In the second chamber a second electron discharge means ionizes the molecules, producing negative ions which are extracted into or by a third chamber. A first magnetic filter prevents high energy electrons from entering the negative ionization chamber from the excitation chamber. A second magnetic filter prevents high energy electrons from entering the extraction chamber from the negative ionizing chamber. An extraction grid at the end of the negative ion vessel attracts negative ions into the third chamber and accelerates them. Another grid, located adjacent to the extraction grid, carries a small positive voltage in order to inhibit positive ions from migrating into the extraction chamber and contour the plasma potential. Additional electrons can be suppressed from the output flux using ExB forces provided by magnetic field means and the extractor grid electric potential.

  12. State of the Art ECR Ion Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Z.Q.

    1997-05-01

    Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion source which produces highly-charged ions is used in heavy ion accelerators worldwide. Applications also found in atomic physics research and industry ion implantation. ECR ion source performance continues to improve, especially in the last few years with new techniques, such as multiple-frequency plasma heating and better methods to provide extra cold electrons, combined with higher magnetic mirror fields. So far more than 1 emA of multiply-charged ions such as He{sup 2+} and O{sup 6+}, and 30 e{mu}A of Au{sup 32+}, 1.1 e{mu}A of {sup 238}U{sup 48+}, and epA currents of very high charge states such as {sup 86}Kr{sup 35+} and {sup 238}U{sup 60+} have been produced.

  13. Silicon- and aluminum-nitride films deposited by reactive low-voltage ion plating and reactive dc-magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogl, G. W.; Monz, K. H.; Nguyen, Quang D.; Huter, Michael; Rille, Eduard P.; Pulker, Hans K.

    1994-11-01

    In this work the properties of Si3N4 and AIN thin films deposited onto unheated substrates by Reactive Low Voltage Ion Plating (RLVIP) and Reactive DC-Magnetron Sputtering (RDCMS) were investigated. In both experimental setups pure silicon and aluminum were used as starting materials. Working and reactive gas were argon and nitrogen respectively. All Si3N4 films showed amorphous structure in X-ray and electron diffraction whereas AIN films were found to be polycrystalline and could be indexed to the bulk hexagonal AIN lattice. The values of the film refractive index at 550 nm are 2.08 for RLVIP Si3N4, 2.12 for RLVIP AIN, 2.02 for RDCMS Si3N4, and 1.98 or 2.12 for AIN depending on the total pressure in the range of 8 E - 1 Pa and 1 E - 1 Pa during the process. The high optical transmission region for the Si3N4 films lies between 0.23 and 9.5 micrometers , and for AIN films between 0.2 and 12.5 micrometers . Purity and composition were measured by electron microprobe, infrared transmission, nuclear reactions, elastic recoil detection analysis and Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy. Transmission electron micrographs of Pt-C replicas of fracture cross sections of the films show their different microstructure and surface topography. Environmental tests proved the RLVIP Si3N4 films to be very hard, of high density and of strong adherence to glass.

  14. Development of a microwave ion source for ion implantations.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, N; Murata, H; Kitami, H; Mitsubori, H; Sakuraba, J; Soga, T; Aoki, Y; Katoh, T

    2016-02-01

    A microwave ion source is expected to have a long lifetime, as it has fewer consumables. Thus, we are in the process of developing a microwave ion source for ion implantation applications. In this paper, we report on a newly developed plasma chamber and the extracted P(+) beam currents. The volume of the plasma chamber is optimized by varying the length of a boron nitride block installed within the chamber. The extracted P(+) beam current is more than 30 mA, at a 25 kV acceleration voltage, using PH3 gas. PMID:26932118

  15. Laser ion source development at Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y; Gottwald, T; Havener, C C; Howe, J Y; Kiggans, J; Mattolat, C; Vane, C R; Wendt, K; Beene, J R

    2012-02-01

    This report describes the efforts made to develop a resonant-ionization laser ion source based on tunable Ti:sapphire lasers for nuclear physics and astrophysics research at Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility. Three Ti:sapphire lasers have been upgraded with individual pump lasers to eliminate laser power losses due to synchronization delays. Ionization schemes for 14 elements have been obtained. Off-line studies show that the overall efficiency of the laser ion source can be as high as 40%. TaC surface coatings have been investigated for minimizing surface and bulk trapping of the atoms of interest. PMID:22380245

  16. Laser ion source development at Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Y.; Havener, C. C.; Beene, J. R.; Gottwald, T.; Mattolat, C.; Vane, C. R.; Wendt, K.; Howe, J. Y.; Kiggans, J.

    2012-02-15

    This report describes the efforts made to develop a resonant-ionization laser ion source based on tunable Ti:sapphire lasers for nuclear physics and astrophysics research at Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility. Three Ti:sapphire lasers have been upgraded with individual pump lasers to eliminate laser power losses due to synchronization delays. Ionization schemes for 14 elements have been obtained. Off-line studies show that the overall efficiency of the laser ion source can be as high as 40%. TaC surface coatings have been investigated for minimizing surface and bulk trapping of the atoms of interest.

  17. Development of a microwave ion source for ion implantations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, N.; Murata, H.; Kitami, H.; Mitsubori, H.; Sakuraba, J.; Soga, T.; Aoki, Y.; Katoh, T.

    2016-02-01

    A microwave ion source is expected to have a long lifetime, as it has fewer consumables. Thus, we are in the process of developing a microwave ion source for ion implantation applications. In this paper, we report on a newly developed plasma chamber and the extracted P+ beam currents. The volume of the plasma chamber is optimized by varying the length of a boron nitride block installed within the chamber. The extracted P+ beam current is more than 30 mA, at a 25 kV acceleration voltage, using PH3 gas.

  18. Compact Ion Source for Mass Spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anicich, V. G.; Huntress, W. T. J.

    1982-01-01

    Cyclotron-resonance device uses miniature components and permanent magnet for small size, low weight, and low cost. Gas molecules are ionized by electrons from hot filament. Magnetic field, acting with electrostatic drift field, causes ions to move in circles with a superimposed drift perpendicular to both fields, toward the exit. Compact source can be used for studying ion-molecule reactions by ion cyclotron-resonance methods in conventional mass spectrometer with either magnetic sector or quadrupole sector.

  19. Carbon/Carbon Grids For Ion Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garner, Charles E.

    1995-01-01

    Ion-extraction grids made of carbon/carbon composites used in spacecraft ion engines and industrial ion sources in place of molybdenum grids. In principle, carbon/carbon grids offer greater extraction efficiency and longer life. Grid fabricated by mechanical drilling, laser drilling, or electrical-discharge machining of array of holes in sheet of carbon/carbon. Advantages; better alignment and slower erosion.

  20. ION SOURCE (R.F. INDUCTION TYPE)

    DOEpatents

    Mills, C.B.

    1963-04-01

    A method is given for producing energetic ions by ionizing a gas with an oscillating electric field which is parallel to a confining magnetic field, then reorienting the fields perpendicular to each other to accelerate the ions to higher energies. An ion source is described wherein a secondary coil threads the bottom of a rectangular ionization chamber and induces an oscillating field parallel to a fixed intense magnetic field through the chamber. (AEC)

  1. Hollow cathode and ion accelerator system for current ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Aston, G.

    1981-01-01

    A small self-heating hollow cathode has been designed and tested which uses a novel flowing plasma starting concept to eliminate the need for cathode heating elements and low work function insert materials. In a magnetic field free ion source, this cathode has reliably and repeatedly produced arc currents, using argon, of 100 ampere (the power supply limit) at arc voltages of 22 volts. The cathode operates with a high gas stagnation pressure and plasma density to produce field enhanced thermionic emission from the electron emitting surface, a 0.02mm thick rolled tungsten foil cylinder, without appreciable erosion of this surface. Possible applications of larger versions of this hollow cathode for use in neutral beam injector ion sources are discussed. An ion accelerator system has also been designed and tested which combines a unique arrangement of multiple hole and slit apertures to amplify the extracted ion current density by a factor of four during the ion acceleration process.

  2. Highly Stripped Ion Sources for MeV Ion Implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Hershcovitch, Ady

    2009-06-30

    Original technical objectives of CRADA number PVI C-03-09 between BNL and Poole Ventura, Inc. (PVI) were to develop an intense, high charge state, ion source for MeV ion implanters. Present day high-energy ion implanters utilize low charge state (usually single charge) ion sources in combination with rf accelerators. Usually, a MV LINAC is used for acceleration of a few rnA. It is desirable to have instead an intense, high charge state ion source on a relatively low energy platform (de acceleration) to generate high-energy ion beams for implantation. This de acceleration of ions will be far more efficient (in energy utilization). The resultant implanter will be smaller in size. It will generate higher quality ion beams (with lower emittance) for fabrication of superior semiconductor products. In addition to energy and cost savings, the implanter will operate at a lower level of health risks associated with ion implantation. An additional aim of the project was to producing a product that can lead to long­ term job creation in Russia and/or in the US. R&D was conducted in two Russian Centers (one in Tomsk and Seversk, the other in Moscow) under the guidance ofPVI personnel and the BNL PI. Multiple approaches were pursued, developed, and tested at various locations with the best candidate for commercialization delivered and tested at on an implanter at the PVI client Axcelis. Technical developments were exciting: record output currents of high charge state phosphorus and antimony were achieved; a Calutron-Bemas ion source with a 70% output of boron ion current (compared to 25% in present state-of-the-art). Record steady state output currents of higher charge state phosphorous and antimony and P ions: P{sup 2+} (8.6 pmA), P{sup 3+} (1.9 pmA), and P{sup 4+} (0.12 pmA) and 16.2, 7.6, 3.3, and 2.2 pmA of Sb{sup 3+} Sb {sup 4 +}, Sb{sup 5+}, and Sb{sup 6+} respectively. Ultimate commercialization goals did not succeed (even though a number of the products like high charge state phosphorus and antimony could have resulted in a lower power consumption of 30 kW/implanter) for the following reasons (which were discovered after R&D completion): record output of high charge state phosphorous would have thermally damage wafers; record high charge state of antimony requires tool (ion implanting machine in ion implantation jargon) modification, which did not make economic sense due to the small number of users. Nevertheless, BNL has benefited from advances in high-charge state ion generation, due to high charge state ions need for RHIC preinjection. High fraction boron ion was delivered to PVI client Axcelis for retrofit and implantation testing; the source could have reduced beam preinjector power consumption by a factor of 3.5. But, since the source generated some lithium (though in miniscule amounts); last minute decision was made not to employ the source in implanters. R&D of novel transport and gasless plasmaless deceleration, as well as decaborane molecular ion source to mitigate space charge problems in low energy shallow ion implantation was also conducted though results were not yet ready for commercialization. Future work should be focused on gasless plasmaless transport and deceleration as well as on molecular ions due to their significance to low energy, shallow implantation; which is the last frontier of ion implantation. To summarize the significant accomplishments: 1. Record steady state output currents of high charge state phosphorous, P, ions in particle milli-Ampere: P{sup 2+} (8.6 pmA), P{sup 3+} (1.9 pmA), and P{sup 4+} (0.12 pmA). 2. Record steady state output currents of high charge state antimony, Sb, ions in particle milli-Ampere: Sb{sup 3+} (16.2 pmA), Sb{sup 4+} (7.6 pmA), Sb{sup 5+} (3.3 pmA), and Sb{sup 6+} (2.2 pmA). 3. 70% output of boron ion current (compared to 25% in present state-of-the-art) from a Calutron-Bemas ion source. These accomplishments have the potential of benefiting the semiconductor manufacturing industry by lowering power consumption by as much as 30 kW per ion implanter. Major problem was meeting commercialization goals did not succeed for the following reasons (which were discovered after R&D completion): record output of high charge state phosphorous would have thermally damage wafers; record high charge state of antimony requires tool (ion implanting machine in ion implantation jargon) modification, which did not make economic sense due to the small number of users. High fraction boron ion was delivered to PVI client Axcelis for retrofit and implantation testing; the source could have reduced beam preinjector power consumption by a factor of 3.5. But, since the source generated some lithium (though in miniscule amounts); last minute decision was made not to employ the source in implanters. An additional noteworthy reason for failure to commercialize is the fact that the ion implantation manufacturing industry had been in a very deep bust cycle. BNL, however, has benefited from advances in high-charge state ion generation, due to the need high charge state ions in some RHIC preinjectors. Since the invention of the transistor, the trend has been to miniaturize semiconductor devices. As semiconductors become smaller (and get miniaturized), ion energy needed for implantation decreases, since shallow implantation is desired. But, due to space charge (intra-ion repulsion) effects, forming and transporting ion beams becomes a rather difficult task. A few small manufacturers of low quality semiconductors use plasma immersion to circumvent the problem. However, in plasma immersion undesired plasma impurity ions are also implanted; hence, the quality of those semiconductors is poor. For high quality miniature semiconductor manufacturing, pure, low energy ion beams are utilized. But, low energy ion implanters are characterized by low current (much lower than desirable) and, therefore, low production rates. Consequently, increasing the current of pure low energy ion beams is of paramount importance to the semiconductor industry. Basically, the semiconductor industry needs higher currents and purer ion low energy beams. Therefore R&D of novel transport and gasless plasmaless deceleration, as well as decaborane molecular ion source to mitigate space charge problems in low energy shallow ion implantation was also conducted though results were not yet ready for commercialization. Future work should be focused on gasless plasmaless transport and deceleration as well as cin molecular ions due to their significance to low energy, shallow implantation, which is the last frontier of ion implantation.

  3. A negative ion source test facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melanson, S.; Dehnel, M.; Potkins, D.; Theroux, J.; Hollinger, C.; Martin, J.; Philpott, C.; Stewart, T.; Jackle, P.; Williams, P.; Brown, S.; Jones, T.; Coad, B.; Withington, S.

    2016-02-01

    Progress is being made in the development of an Ion Source Test Facility (ISTF) by D-Pace Inc. in collaboration with Buckley Systems Ltd. in Auckland, NZ. The first phase of the ISTF is to be commissioned in October 2015 with the second phase being commissioned in March 2016. The facility will primarily be used for the development and the commercialization of ion sources. It will also be used to characterize and further develop various D-Pace Inc. beam diagnostic devices.

  4. Fabrication of ion source components by electroforming

    SciTech Connect

    Schechter, D.E.; Sluss, F.

    1983-01-01

    Several components of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)/Magnetic Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) ion source have been fabricated utilizing an electroforming process. A procedure has been developed for enclosing coolant passages in copper components by electrodepositing a thick (greater than or equal to 0.75-mm) layer of copper (electroforming) over the top of grooves machined into the copper component base. Details of the procedure to fabricate acceleration grids and other ion source components are presented.

  5. Negative ion source with external RF antenna

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Hahto, Sami K.; Hahto, Sari T.

    2007-02-13

    A radio frequency (RF) driven plasma ion source has an external RF antenna, i.e. the RF antenna is positioned outside the plasma generating chamber rather than inside. The RF antenna is typically formed of a small diameter metal tube coated with an insulator. An external RF antenna assembly is used to mount the external RF antenna to the ion source. The RF antenna tubing is wound around the external RF antenna assembly to form a coil. The external RF antenna assembly is formed of a material, e.g. quartz, which is essentially transparent to the RF waves. The external RF antenna assembly is attached to and forms a part of the plasma source chamber so that the RF waves emitted by the RF antenna enter into the inside of the plasma chamber and ionize a gas contained therein. The plasma ion source is typically a multi-cusp ion source. A converter can be included in the ion source to produce negative ions.

  6. Design of long pulse/steady state negative hydrogen ion sources for fusion applications

    SciTech Connect

    Prelec, K.

    1980-01-01

    By using parameters of ion sources when operating in a pulsed mode and without cooling (pulse length < 0.1 s), requirements have been determined for a long pulse (several seconds) or steady state operating mode and two sources have been designed and fabricated. First of the two is a penning source, designed for a steady state operation with a cathode power density of 1 kW/cm/sup 2/. For the range of cathode power densities between 0.2 kW/cm/sup 2/ and 1 Kw/cm/sup 2/, nucleated boiling has to be used for heat removal; below 0.2 kW/cm/sup 2/ water flow cooling suffices. Although this source should deliver 0.3 to 0.5 A of H/sup -/ ions in a steady state operation and at full power, the other source, which has a magnetron geometry, is more promising. The latter incorporates two new features compared to first designs, geometrical focusing of fast, primary negative hydrogen ions from the cathode into the extraction slit, and a wider discharge gap in the back of the source. These two changes have resulted in an improvement of the power and gas efficiencies by a factor of 3 to 4 and in a reduction of the cathode power density by an order of magnitude. The source has water cooling for all the electrodes, because maximum power densities will not be higher than 0.2 kW/cm/sup 2/. Very recently a modification of this magnetron source is being considered; it consists of plasma injection into the source from a hollow cathode discharge.

  7. Laser ion source with solenoid for Brookhaven National Laboratory-electron beam ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Kondo K.; Yamamoto, T.; Sekine, M.; Okamura, M.

    2012-02-22

    The electron beam ion source (EBIS) preinjector at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is a new heavy ion-preinjector for relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC) and NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL). Laser ion source (LIS) is a primary ion source provider for the BNL-EBIS. LIS with solenoid at the plasma drift section can realize the low peak current ({approx}100 {micro}A) with high charge ({approx}10 nC) which is the BNL-EBIS requirement. The gap between two solenoids does not cause serious plasma current decay, which helps us to make up the BNL-EBIS beamline.

  8. Laser ion source with solenoid for Brookhaven National Laboratory-electron beam ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Kondo, K.; Okamura, M.; Yamamoto, T.; Sekine, M.

    2012-02-15

    The electron beam ion source (EBIS) preinjector at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is a new heavy ion-preinjector for relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC) and NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL). Laser ion source (LIS) is a primary ion source provider for the BNL-EBIS. LIS with solenoid at the plasma drift section can realize the low peak current ({approx}100 {mu}A) with high charge ({approx}10 nC) which is the BNL-EBIS requirement. The gap between two solenoids does not cause serious plasma current decay, which helps us to make up the BNL-EBIS beamline.

  9. Laser ion source with solenoid for Brookhaven National Laboratory-electron beam ion source.

    PubMed

    Kondo, K; Yamamoto, T; Sekine, M; Okamura, M

    2012-02-01

    The electron beam ion source (EBIS) preinjector at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is a new heavy ion-preinjector for relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC) and NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL). Laser ion source (LIS) is a primary ion source provider for the BNL-EBIS. LIS with solenoid at the plasma drift section can realize the low peak current (∼100 μA) with high charge (∼10 nC) which is the BNL-EBIS requirement. The gap between two solenoids does not cause serious plasma current decay, which helps us to make up the BNL-EBIS beamline. PMID:22380298

  10. Electron string ion sources for carbon ion cancer therapy accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Boytsov, A. Yu.; Donets, D. E.; Donets, E. D.; Donets, E. E.; Ponkin, D. O.; Ramzdorf, A. Yu.; Salnikov, V. V.; Shutov, V. B.; Katagiri, K.; Noda, K.

    2015-08-15

    The type of the Electron String Ion Sources (ESIS) is considered to be the appropriate one to produce pulsed C{sup 4+} and C{sup 6+} ion beams for cancer therapy accelerators. In fact, the new test ESIS Krion-6T already now provides more than 10{sup 10} C{sup 4+} ions per pulse and about 5 × 10{sup 9} C{sup 6+} ions per pulse. Such ion sources could be suitable to apply at synchrotrons. It has also been found that Krion-6T can provide more than 10{sup 11} C{sup 6+} ions per second at the 100 Hz repetition rate, and the repetition rate can be increased at the same or larger ion output per second. This makes ESIS applicable at cyclotrons as well. ESIS can be also a suitable type of ion source to produce the {sup 11}C radioactive ion beams. A specialized cryogenic cell was experimentally tested at the Krion-2M ESIS for pulse injection of gaseous species into the electron string. It has been shown in experiments with stable methane that the total conversion efficiency of methane molecules to C{sup 4+} ions reached 5%÷10%. For cancer therapy with simultaneous irradiation and precise dose control (positron emission tomography) by means of {sup 11}C, transporting to the tumor with the primary accelerated {sup 11}C{sup 4+} beam, this efficiency is preliminarily considered to be large enough to produce the {sup 11}C{sup 4+} beam from radioactive methane and to inject this beam into synchrotrons.

  11. Review of negative hydrogen ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, C.W.

    1991-02-01

    In the early seventies, significant discoveries for H{sup {minus}} ion sources were made at Novosibirsk. These and many improvements which followed have led to useful accelerator sources. With these sources charge-exchange injection into circular accelerators has become desirable and routine. This paper reviews the major developments leading to practical H{sup {minus}} sources. Different types and variations of these sources with some basic physics and operation will be described. The operating parameters and beam characteristics of these sources will be given. 32 refs., 13 figs.

  12. Low temperature ion source for calutrons

    DOEpatents

    Veach, A.M.; Bell, W.A. Jr.; Howell, G.D. Jr.

    1979-10-10

    A new ion source assembly for calutrons has been provided for the efficient separation of elements having high vapor pressures. The strategic location of cooling pads and improved insulation permits operation of the source at lower temperatures. A vapor valve constructed of graphite and located in a constantly increasing temperature gradient provides reliable control of the vapor flow from the charge bottle to the arc chamber. A pronounced saving in calutron operating time and equipment maintenance has been achieved with the use of the present ion source.

  13. Low temperature ion source for calutrons

    DOEpatents

    Veach, Allen M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Bell, Jr., William A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Howell, Jr., George D. (Clinton, TN)

    1981-01-01

    A new ion source assembly for calutrons has been provided for the efficient separation of elements having high vapor pressures. The strategic location of cooling pads and improved insulation permits operation of the source at lower temperatures. A vapor valve constructed of graphite and located in a constantly increasing temperature gradient provides reliable control of the vapor flow from the charge bottle to the arc chamber. A pronounced saving in calutron operating time and equipment maintenance has been achieved with the use of the present ion source.

  14. Saddle antenna radio frequency ion sources.

    PubMed

    Dudnikov, V; Johnson, R; Murray, S; Pennisi, T; Santana, M; Piller, C; Stockli, M; Welton, R; Breitschopf, J; Dudnikova, G

    2016-02-01

    Existing RF ion sources for accelerators have specific efficiencies for H(+) and H(-) ion generation ∼3-5 mA/cm(2) kW, where about 50 kW of RF power is typically needed for 50 mA beam current production. The Saddle Antenna (SA) surface plasma source (SPS) described here was developed to improve H(-) ion production efficiency, reliability, and availability. In SA RF ion source, the efficiency of positive ion generation in the plasma has been improved to 200 mA/cm(2) kW. After cesiation, the current of negative ions to the collector was increased from 1 mA to 10 mA with RF power ∼1.5 kW in the plasma (6 mm diameter emission aperture) and up to 30 mA with ∼4 kW RF. Continuous wave (CW) operation of the SA SPS has been tested on the test stand. The general design of the CW SA SPS is based on the pulsed version. Some modifications were made to improve the cooling and cesiation stability. CW operation with negative ion extraction was tested with RF power up to ∼1.2 kW in the plasma with production up to Ic = 7 mA. A stable long time generation of H(-) beam without degradation was demonstrated in RF discharge with AlN discharge chamber. PMID:26931988

  15. Saddle antenna radio frequency ion sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudnikov, V.; Johnson, R.; Murray, S.; Pennisi, T.; Santana, M.; Piller, C.; Stockli, M.; Welton, R.; Breitschopf, J.; Dudnikova, G.

    2016-02-01

    Existing RF ion sources for accelerators have specific efficiencies for H+ and H- ion generation ˜3-5 mA/cm2 kW, where about 50 kW of RF power is typically needed for 50 mA beam current production. The Saddle Antenna (SA) surface plasma source (SPS) described here was developed to improve H- ion production efficiency, reliability, and availability. In SA RF ion source, the efficiency of positive ion generation in the plasma has been improved to 200 mA/cm2 kW. After cesiation, the current of negative ions to the collector was increased from 1 mA to 10 mA with RF power ˜1.5 kW in the plasma (6 mm diameter emission aperture) and up to 30 mA with ˜4 kW RF. Continuous wave (CW) operation of the SA SPS has been tested on the test stand. The general design of the CW SA SPS is based on the pulsed version. Some modifications were made to improve the cooling and cesiation stability. CW operation with negative ion extraction was tested with RF power up to ˜1.2 kW in the plasma with production up to Ic = 7 mA. A stable long time generation of H- beam without degradation was demonstrated in RF discharge with AlN discharge chamber.

  16. New Cs sputter ion source with polyatomic ion beams for secondary ion mass spectrometry applications

    SciTech Connect

    Belykh, S. F.; Palitsin, V. V.; Veryovkin, I. V.; Kovarsky, A. P.; Chang, R. J. H.; Adriaens, A.; Dowsett, M. G.; Adams, F.

    2007-08-15

    A simple design for a cesium sputter ion source compatible with vacuum and ion-optical systems as well as with electronics of the commercially available Cameca IMS-4f instrument is reported. This ion source has been tested with the cluster primary ions of Si{sub n}{sup -} and Cu{sub n}{sup -}. Our experiments with surface characterization and depth profiling conducted to date demonstrate improvements of the analytical capabilities of the secondary ion mass spectrometry instrument due to the nonadditive enhancement of secondary ion emission and shorter ion ranges of polyatomic projectiles compared to atomic ones with the same impact energy.

  17. New Cs sputter ion source with polyatomic ion beams for secondary ion mass spectrometry applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belykh, S. F.; Palitsin, V. V.; Veryovkin, I. V.; Kovarsky, A. P.; Chang, R. J. H.; Adriaens, A.; Dowsett, M. G.; Adams, F.

    2007-08-01

    A simple design for a cesium sputter ion source compatible with vacuum and ion-optical systems as well as with electronics of the commercially available Cameca IMS-4f instrument is reported. This ion source has been tested with the cluster primary ions of Sin- and Cun-. Our experiments with surface characterization and depth profiling conducted to date demonstrate improvements of the analytical capabilities of the secondary ion mass spectrometry instrument due to the nonadditive enhancement of secondary ion emission and shorter ion ranges of polyatomic projectiles compared to atomic ones with the same impact energy.

  18. Metallic ion implantation by using a MEVVA ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chengzhou, Ji; Tonghe, Zhang; Huixing, Zhang; Jindong, Xie; Anmin, Wang

    1994-06-01

    Metallic ions (Ti, Mo, W, V, Ni, Y, Fe and Al) extracted from a MEVVA source have been implanted up to high doses (>1 ? 1017 cm?2) into Al and H13 steel. Because of beam heating, rather low energy ions could penetrate quite deeper in the substrates than predicted, stable intermetallic compounds appear as fine precipitates in the doped region, and hence the retained concentration of implants even exceeds the sputter-limited maximum. Multiply charged beam, enhanced diffusion and chemical reaction give great influences to the concentration distribution of implants. All these features are strongly dependent on the chosen ion-target combination.

  19. Development of polarized 3He ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, M.; Takahashi, Y.; Shimoda, T.; Yasui, S.; Yosoi, M.; Takahisa, K.; Shimakura, N.

    2007-02-26

    A long history on the polarized 3He ion source developed at RCNP is presented. We started with an 'OPPIS' (Optical Pumping Polarized Ion Source) and later found the fundamental difficulties in the OPPIS. To overcome them an 'EPPIS' (Electron Pumping Polarized Ion Source) was proposed and its validity was experimentally proven. However, a serious technical disadvantage was also found in the EPPIS. To avoid this disadvantage we proposed a new concept, 'SEPIS' (Spin Exchange Polarized Ion Source), which uses an enhanced spin-exchange cross section theoretically expected at low 3He+ incident energies for the 3He+ + Rb system.Next, we describe the present status of the SEPIS development; construction of a bench test device allowing the measurements of not only the spin-exchange cross sections {sigma}se but also the electron capture cross sections {sigma}ec for the 3He+ + Rb system. The latest experimental data on {sigma}ec are presented and compared with other previous experimental data and the theoretical calculations. A design study of the SEPIS for practical use in nuclear (cyclotron) and particle physics (synchrotron) is shortly mentioned.Finally, we mention possibility to polarize ions heavier than 3He as an application of SEPIS. The theoretical calculation showed that {sigma}se comparable to that for the 3He+ + Rb is expected for the Li2+ + Rb system, which suggests that the SEPIS will hopefully be a general tool to polarize any heavy ions.

  20. Ion source based on the cathodic arc

    DOEpatents

    Sanders, David M.; Falabella, Steven

    1994-01-01

    A cylindrically symmetric arc source to produce a ring of ions which leave the surface of the arc target radially and are reflected by electrostatic fields present in the source to a point of use, such as a part to be coated. An array of electrically isolated rings positioned in the source serves the dual purpose of minimizing bouncing of macroparticles and providing electrical insulation to maximize the electric field gradients within the source. The source also includes a series of baffles which function as a filtering or trapping mechanism for any macroparticles.

  1. Ion source based on the cathodic arc

    DOEpatents

    Sanders, D.M.; Falabella, S.

    1994-02-01

    A cylindrically symmetric arc source to produce a ring of ions which leave the surface of the arc target radially and are reflected by electrostatic fields present in the source to a point of use, such as a part to be coated, is described. An array of electrically isolated rings positioned in the source serves the dual purpose of minimizing bouncing of macroparticles and providing electrical insulation to maximize the electric field gradients within the source. The source also includes a series of baffles which function as a filtering or trapping mechanism for any macroparticles. 3 figures.

  2. DUAL HEATED ION SOURCE STRUCTURE HAVING ARC SHIFTING MEANS

    DOEpatents

    Lawrence, E.O.

    1959-04-14

    An ion source is presented for calutrons, particularly an electrode arrangement for the ion generator of a calutron ion source. The ion source arc chamber is heated and an exit opening with thermally conductive plates defines the margins of the opening. These plates are electrically insulated from the body of the ion source and are connected to a suitable source of voltage to serve as electrodes for shaping the ion beam egressing from the arc chamber.

  3. Influence of plasma-generated negative oxygen ion impingement on magnetron sputtered amorphous SiO{sub 2} thin films during growth at low temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Macias-Montero, M.; Garcia-Garcia, F. J.; Alvarez, R.; Gil-Rostra, J.; Gonzalez, J. C.; Gonzalez-Elipe, A. R.; Palmero, A.; Cotrino, J.

    2012-03-01

    Growth of amorphous SiO{sub 2} thin films deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering at low temperatures has been studied under different oxygen partial pressure conditions. Film microstructures varied from coalescent vertical column-like to homogeneous compact microstructures, possessing all similar refractive indexes. A discussion on the process responsible for the different microstructures is carried out focusing on the influence of (i) the surface shadowing mechanism, (ii) the positive ion impingement on the film, and (iii) the negative ion impingement. We conclude that only the trend followed by the latter and, in particular, the impingement of O{sup -} ions with kinetic energies between 20 and 200 eV, agrees with the resulting microstructural changes. Overall, it is also demonstrated that there are two main microstructuring regimes in the growth of amorphous SiO{sub 2} thin films by magnetron sputtering at low temperatures, controlled by the amount of O{sub 2} in the deposition reactor, which stem from the competition between surface shadowing and ion-induced adatom surface mobility.

  4. Low Z impurity ion extraction from TFTR ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Kamperschroer, J.H.; Grisham, L.R.; Newman, R.A.; O`Connor, T.E.; Stevenson, T.N.; von Halle, A.; Williams, M.D.; Wright, K.E.

    1993-04-01

    TFTR deuterium neutral beams have been operated unintentionally with significant quantities of extracted water ions. Water has been observed with an Optical Multichannel Analyzer (OMA) during beam extraction when small water leaks were present within the arc chamber. These leaks were thermally induced with the contamination level increasing linearly with pulse length. 6% of the beam current was attributed to water ions for the worst leak, corresponding to an instantaneous value of 12% at the end of a 1.5 s pulse. A pre-calorimeter collimator was damaged as a result of this operation. A similar contamination is observed during initial operation of ion sources exposed to air. This latter contamination is attributed to the synthesis, from adsorbed air, of either D{sub 2}O or the indistinguishable ND{sub 3}. Initial operation of new ion sources typically produces a contamination level of {approximately}2%. These impurities are reduced to undetectable levels after 50 to 100 beam pulses. Once a water molecule is present in the plasma generator, it is predominantly ionized rather than dissociated, resulting in the extraction of only trace amounts of hydrogenated ions. The addition of water to the extracted beam also reduces the optimum perveance, moving the typical underdense operating point closer to optimum, causing the frequency of grid faults to increase. Close to 90% of the water extracted from ion sources with water leaks was deuterated, implying that the potential exists for the production of tritiated water during TFTR`s forthcoming DT operation. Isotope exchange in the plasma generator takes place rapidly and is believed to be surface catalyzed. The primary concern is with O implanted into beam absorbers recombining with tritium, and the subsequent hold up of T{sub 2}O on cryopanels. Continuous surveillance with the OMA diagnostic during DT operation will ensure that ion sources with detectable water are not operated with tritium.

  5. Low Z impurity ion extraction from TFTR ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Kamperschroer, J.H.; Grisham, L.R.; Newman, R.A.; O'Connor, T.E.; Stevenson, T.N.; von Halle, A.; Williams, M.D.; Wright, K.E.

    1993-04-01

    TFTR deuterium neutral beams have been operated unintentionally with significant quantities of extracted water ions. Water has been observed with an Optical Multichannel Analyzer (OMA) during beam extraction when small water leaks were present within the arc chamber. These leaks were thermally induced with the contamination level increasing linearly with pulse length. 6% of the beam current was attributed to water ions for the worst leak, corresponding to an instantaneous value of 12% at the end of a 1.5 s pulse. A pre-calorimeter collimator was damaged as a result of this operation. A similar contamination is observed during initial operation of ion sources exposed to air. This latter contamination is attributed to the synthesis, from adsorbed air, of either D[sub 2]O or the indistinguishable ND[sub 3]. Initial operation of new ion sources typically produces a contamination level of [approximately]2%. These impurities are reduced to undetectable levels after 50 to 100 beam pulses. Once a water molecule is present in the plasma generator, it is predominantly ionized rather than dissociated, resulting in the extraction of only trace amounts of hydrogenated ions. The addition of water to the extracted beam also reduces the optimum perveance, moving the typical underdense operating point closer to optimum, causing the frequency of grid faults to increase. Close to 90% of the water extracted from ion sources with water leaks was deuterated, implying that the potential exists for the production of tritiated water during TFTR's forthcoming DT operation. Isotope exchange in the plasma generator takes place rapidly and is believed to be surface catalyzed. The primary concern is with O implanted into beam absorbers recombining with tritium, and the subsequent hold up of T[sub 2]O on cryopanels. Continuous surveillance with the OMA diagnostic during DT operation will ensure that ion sources with detectable water are not operated with tritium.

  6. Compact ion source neutron generator

    SciTech Connect

    Schenkel, Thomas; Persaud, Arun; Kapadia, Rehan; Javey, Ali; Chang-Hasnain, Constance; Rangelow, Ivo; Kwan, Joe

    2015-10-13

    A neutron generator includes a conductive substrate comprising a plurality of conductive nanostructures with free-standing tips and a source of an atomic species to introduce the atomic species in proximity to the free-standing tips. A target placed apart from the substrate is voltage biased relative to the substrate to ionize and accelerate the ionized atomic species toward the target. The target includes an element capable of a nuclear fusion reaction with the ionized atomic species to produce a one or more neutrons as a reaction by-product.

  7. Pulsed source ion implantation apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo

    1996-01-01

    A new pulsed plasma-immersion ion-implantation apparatus that implants ions in large irregularly shaped objects to controllable depth without overheating the target, minimizing voltage breakdown, and using a constant electrical bias applied to the target. Instead of pulsing the voltage applied to the target, the plasma source, for example a tungsten filament or a RF antenna, is pulsed. Both electrically conducting and insulating targets can be implanted.

  8. Pulsed source ion implantation apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Leung, K.N.

    1996-09-24

    A new pulsed plasma-immersion ion-implantation apparatus that implants ions in large irregularly shaped objects to controllable depth without overheating the target, minimizing voltage breakdown, and using a constant electrical bias applied to the target. Instead of pulsing the voltage applied to the target, the plasma source, for example a tungsten filament or a RF antenna, is pulsed. Both electrically conducting and insulating targets can be implanted. 16 figs.

  9. 4th Generation ECR Ion Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Lyneis, Claude M.; Leitner, D.; Todd, D.S.; Sabbi, G.; Prestemon, S.; Caspi, S.; Ferracin, P.

    2008-12-01

    The concepts and technical challenges related to developing a 4th generation ECR ion source with an RF frequency greater than 40 GHz and magnetic confinement fields greater than twice Becr will be explored in this paper. Based on the semi-empirical frequency scaling of ECR plasma density with the square of operating frequency, there should be significant gains in performance over current 3rd generation ECR ion sources, which operate at RF frequencies between 20 and 30 GHz. While the 3rd generation ECR ion sources use NbTi superconducting solenoid and sextupole coils, the new sources will need to use different superconducting materials such as Nb3Sn to reach the required magnetic confinement, which scales linearly with RF frequency. Additional technical challenges include increased bremsstrahlung production, which may increase faster than the plasma density, bremsstrahlung heating of the cold mass and the availability of high power continuous wave microwave sources at these frequencies. With each generation of ECR ion sources, there are new challenges to be mastered, but the potential for higher performance and reduced cost of the associated accelerator continue to make this a promising avenue for development.

  10. The RHIC polarized H(-) ion source.

    PubMed

    Zelenski, A; Atoian, G; Raparia, D; Ritter, J; Steski, D

    2016-02-01

    A novel polarization technique had been successfully implemented for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) polarized H(-) ion source upgrade to higher intensity and polarization. In this technique, a proton beam inside the high magnetic field solenoid is produced by ionization of the atomic hydrogen beam (from external source) in the He-gaseous ionizer cell. Further proton polarization is produced in the process of polarized electron capture from the optically pumped Rb vapor. The use of high-brightness primary beam and large cross sections of charge-exchange cross sections resulted in production of high intensity H(-) ion beam of 85% polarization. The source very reliably delivered polarized beam in the RHIC Run-2013 and Run-2015. High beam current, brightness, and polarization resulted in 75% polarization at 23 GeV out of Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) and 60%-65% beam polarization at 100-250 GeV colliding beams in RHIC. PMID:26932068

  11. The RHIC polarized H- ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelenski, A.; Atoian, G.; Raparia, D.; Ritter, J.; Steski, D.

    2016-02-01

    A novel polarization technique had been successfully implemented for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) polarized H- ion source upgrade to higher intensity and polarization. In this technique, a proton beam inside the high magnetic field solenoid is produced by ionization of the atomic hydrogen beam (from external source) in the He-gaseous ionizer cell. Further proton polarization is produced in the process of polarized electron capture from the optically pumped Rb vapor. The use of high-brightness primary beam and large cross sections of charge-exchange cross sections resulted in production of high intensity H- ion beam of 85% polarization. The source very reliably delivered polarized beam in the RHIC Run-2013 and Run-2015. High beam current, brightness, and polarization resulted in 75% polarization at 23 GeV out of Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) and 60%-65% beam polarization at 100-250 GeV colliding beams in RHIC.

  12. Ion source design for industrial applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, H. R.; Robinson, R. S.

    1981-01-01

    The more frequently used design techniques for the components of broad-beam electron bombardment ion sources are discussed. The approach used emphasizes refractory metal cathodes and permanent-magnet multipole discharge chambers. Design procedures and sample calculations are given for the discharge chamber, ion optics, the cathodes, and the magnetic circuit. Hardware designs are included for the isolator, cathode supports, anode supports, pole-piece assembly, and ion-optics supports. A comparison is made between two-grid and three-grid optics. The designs presented are representative of current technology and are adaptable to a wide range of configurations.

  13. Focused ion beam source method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Pellin, Michael J.; Lykke, Keith R.; Lill, Thorsten B.

    2000-01-01

    A focused ion beam having a cross section of submicron diameter, a high ion current, and a narrow energy range is generated from a target comprised of particle source material by laser ablation. The method involves directing a laser beam having a cross section of critical diameter onto the target, producing a cloud of laser ablated particles having unique characteristics, and extracting and focusing a charged particle beam from the laser ablated cloud. The method is especially suited for producing focused ion beams for semiconductor device analysis and modification.

  14. Ion plating with an induction heating source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spalvins, T.; Brainard, W. A.

    1976-01-01

    Induction heating is introduced as an evaporation heat source in ion plating. A bare induction coil without shielding can be directly used in the glow discharge region with no arcing. The only requirement is to utilize an rf inductive generator with low operating frequency of 75 kHz. Mechanical simplicity of the ion plating apparatus and ease of operation is a great asset for industrial applications; practically any metal such as nickel, iron, and the high temperature refractories can be evaporated and ion plated.

  15. ECR ion source with electron gun

    DOEpatents

    Xie, Zu Q.; Lyneis, Claude M.

    1993-01-01

    An Advanced Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source (10) having an electron gun (52) for introducing electrons into the plasma chamber (18) of the ion source (10). The ion source (10) has a injection enclosure (12) and a plasma chamber tank (14). The plasma chamber (18) is defined by a plurality of longitudinal magnets (16). The electron gun (52) injects electrons axially into the plasma chamber (18) such that ionization within the plasma chamber (18) occurs in the presence of the additional electrons produced by the electron gun (52). The electron gun (52) has a cathode (116) for emitting electrons therefrom which is heated by current supplied from an AC power supply (96) while bias potential is provided by a bias power supply (118). A concentric inner conductor (60) and Outer conductor (62) carry heating current to a carbon chuck (104) and carbon pusher (114) Which hold the cathode (116) in place and also heat the cathode (16). In the Advanced Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source (10), the electron gun (52) replaces the conventional first stage used in prior art electron cyclotron resonance ion generators.

  16. Liquid metal alloy ion source based metal ion injection into a room-temperature electron beam ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Thorn, A.; Ritter, E.; Zschornack, G.; Ullmann, F.; Pilz, W.; Bischoff, L.

    2012-02-15

    We have carried out a series of measurements demonstrating the feasibility of using the Dresden electron beam ion source (EBIS)-A, a table-top sized, permanent magnet technology based electron beam ion source, as a charge breeder. Low charged gold ions from an AuGe liquid metal alloy ion source were injected into the EBIS and re-extracted as highly charged ions, thereby producing charge states as high as Au{sup 60+}. The setup, the charge breeding technique, breeding efficiencies as well as acceptance and emittance studies are presented.

  17. Liquid metal alloy ion source based metal ion injection into a room-temperature electron beam ion source.

    PubMed

    Thorn, A; Ritter, E; Ullmann, F; Pilz, W; Bischoff, L; Zschornack, G

    2012-02-01

    We have carried out a series of measurements demonstrating the feasibility of using the Dresden electron beam ion source (EBIS)-A, a table-top sized, permanent magnet technology based electron beam ion source, as a charge breeder. Low charged gold ions from an AuGe liquid metal alloy ion source were injected into the EBIS and re-extracted as highly charged ions, thereby producing charge states as high as Au(60 +). The setup, the charge breeding technique, breeding efficiencies as well as acceptance and emittance studies are presented. PMID:22380207

  18. BETSI, a new test bench for ion sources optimization at CEA SACLAYa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuske, O.; Adroit, G.; Delferrière, O.; De Menezes, D.; Gauthier, Y.; Gobin, R.; Harrault, F.

    2008-02-01

    In the framework of several International HPPA projects (such as IFMIF, IPHI, and Spiral2) the CEA handles the design and the developments of several electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources. For the IFMIF EVEDA demonstrator, a 140mA cw extracted deuteron beam will be required for high yield of neutron production. For radioactive ion production in the Spiral2 project, several milliamperes of deuterons will be delivered with a permanent magnet source. The optimization of the beam quality at the entrance of the radio frequency quadropole (RFQ) accelerator system triggered the need of a new test bench for ion source optimization and beam qualification. The BETSI ion source test bench will operate up to 50kV and ignite cw or pulsed hydrogen plasma with a 2.45GHz magnetron. Great care has already been taken to design electrostatic optics of the extraction system to minimize the emittance growth. Plasma diagnostics will be inserted in the source chamber and several beam diagnostics (emittance and current measurements, beam species analysis) will also be implemented on the low energy beam line transport (LEBT). These diagnostics allow the simultaneous analysis of the beam quality with the plasma parameters of the source. Regional funding request will also be needed to improve the LEBT for space charge compensation measurements. The design of the present and upgraded test bench will be reported as well as the first extracted beam analysis.

  19. Plasma ion sources and ion beam technology inmicrofabrications

    SciTech Connect

    Ji, Lili

    2007-09-01

    For over decades, focused ion beam (FIB) has been playing a very important role in microscale technology and research, among which, semiconductor microfabrication is one of its biggest application area. As the dimensions of IC devices are scaled down, it has shown the need for new ion beam tools and new approaches to the fabrication of small-scale devices. In the meanwhile, nanotechnology has also deeply involved in material science research and bioresearch in recent years. The conventional FIB systems which utilize liquid gallium ion sources to achieve nanometer scale resolution can no longer meet the various requirements raised from such a wide application area such as low contamination, high throughput and so on. The drive towards controlling materials properties at nanometer length scales relies on the availability of efficient tools. In this thesis, three novel ion beam tools have been developed and investigated as the alternatives for the conventional FIB systems in some particular applications. An integrated focused ion beam (FIB) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) system has been developed for direct doping or surface modification. This new instrument employs a mini-RF driven plasma source to generate focused ion beam with various ion species, a FEI two-lens electron (2LE) column for SEM imaging, and a five-axis manipulator system for sample positioning. An all-electrostatic two-lens column has been designed to focus the ion beam extracted from the source. Based on the Munro ion optics simulation, beam spot sizes as small as 100 nm can be achieved at beam energies between 5 to 35 keV if a 5 {micro}m-diameter extraction aperture is used. Smaller beam spot sizes can be obtained with smaller apertures at sacrifice of some beam current. The FEI 2LE column, which utilizes Schottky emission, electrostatic focusing optics, and stacked-disk column construction, can provide high-resolution (as small as 20 nm) imaging capability, with fairly long working distance (25 mm) at 25 keV beam voltage. Such an integrated FIB/SEM dual-beam system will not only improve the accuracy and reproducibility when performing ion beam sculpting and direct implantation processes, but will also enable researchers to perform cross-sectioning, imaging, and analysis with the same tool. A major advantage of this approach is the ability to produce a wide variety of ion species tailored to the application.

  20. Laser Ion Source Development at HRIBF

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yuan; Beene, James R; Havener, Charles C; Howe, Jane Y; Kiggans Jr, James O; Vane, C Randy; Mattolat, C.; Gottwald, T.; Wendt, K.

    2012-01-01

    This report describes the efforts made to develop a resonant-ionization laser ion source based on tunable Ti:Sapphire lasers for nuclear physics and astrophysics research at HRIBF. Three Ti:Sapphire lasers have been upgraded with individual pump lasers to eliminate laser power losses due to synchronization delays. Ionization schemes for 14 elements have been obtained. Off-line studies show that the overall efficiency of the laser ion source can be as high as 40%. TaC surface coatings have been investigated for minimizing surface and bulk trapping of the atoms of interest.

  1. Low energy ion beam dynamics of NANOGAN ECR ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sarvesh; Mandal, A.

    2016-04-01

    A new low energy ion beam facility (LEIBF) has been developed for providing the mass analyzed highly charged intense ion beams of energy ranging from a few tens of keV to a few MeV for atomic, molecular and materials sciences research. The new facility consists of an all permanent magnet 10 GHz electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source (NANOGAN) installed on a high voltage platform (400 kV) which provides large currents of multiply charged ion beams. Higher emittance at low energy of intense ion beam puts a tremendous challenge to the beam optical design of this facility. The beam line consists of mainly the electrostatic quadrupoles, an accelerating section, analyzing cum switching magnet and suitable beam diagnostics including vacuum components. The accelerated ion beam is analyzed for a particular mass to charge (m/q) ratio as well as guided to three different lines along 75°, 90° and 105° using a large acceptance analyzing cum switching magnet. The details of transverse beam optics to all the beam lines with TRANSPORT and GICOSY beam optics codes are being described. Field computation code, OPERA 3D has been utilized to design the magnets and electrostatic quadrupoles. A theoretical estimation of emittance for optimized geometry of ion source is given so as to form the basis of beam optics calculations. The method of quadrupole scan of the beam is used to characterize the emittance of the final beam on the target. The measured beam emittance increases with m/q ratios of various ion beams similar to the trend observed theoretically.

  2. Ion Source Development at the SNS

    SciTech Connect

    Welton, R. F.; Stockli, M. P.; Murray, S. N.; Carr, J.; Carmichael, J.; Goulding, R. H.; Baity, F. W.

    2007-08-10

    The US Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) has recently begun producing neutrons and is currently on track to becoming a world-leading facility for material science based on neutron scattering. The facility is comprised of an H- ion source, a linear accelerator, an accumulator ring, a liquid-Hg target and a suite of neutron scattering instruments. Over the next several years the average H- current from the ion source will be increased in order to meet the baseline facility requirement of providing 1.4 MW of beam-power to the target and the SNS power upgrade power requirement of 2+ MW on target. Meeting the latter goal will require H- currents of 70-100 mA with an RMS emittance of 0.20-0.35 {pi} mm mrad and a {approx}7% duty-factor. To date, the RF-driven-multicusp SNS ion source has only been able to demonstrate sustained operation at 33 mA of beam current at a {approx}7% duty-factor. This report details our efforts to develop variations of the current ion source which can meet these requirements. Designs and experimental results are presented for helicon plasma drivers, high-power external antennas, glow-discharge plasma guns and advanced Cs systems.

  3. Recent negative ion source activity at JYFL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalvas, T.; Tarvainen, O.; Komppula, J.; Laitinen, M.; Sajavaara, T.; Koivisto, H.; Jokinen, A.; Dehnel, M. P.

    2013-02-01

    A filament-powered multicusp ion source for production of H- has been developed for the Jyväskylä Pelletron accelerator for use in ion beam lithography and particle induced X-ray emission applications. The source can be considered conventional with the exception of the filter field being created with an electric magnet for continuous adjustability. A permanent magnet dipoleantidipole electron dump is integrated in the puller electrode. The source provides 50 μA H- beam at 10 keV energy with 0.019 mm mrad 95 % normalized rms emittance through a 2 mm aperture. Lower emittance is achievable by changing the plasma electrode insert to a smaller aperture one if application requires. A new commercial MCC30/15 cyclotron has been installed at the Jyväskylä accelerator laboratory providing 30MeV H+ and 15Mev D+ for use in nuclear physics experiments and applications. The ion source delivered with the cyclotron is a a filament-powered multicusp source capable of about 130 h continuous operation at 1 mA H- output between filament changes. The ion source is located in the cyclotron vault and therefore a significant waiting time for the vault cooldown is required before filament change is possible. This kind of operation is not acceptable as 350 h and longer experiments are expected. Therefore a project for developing a CW 13.56 MHz RF ion source has been initiated. A planar RF antenna replacing the filament back plate of the existing TRIUMF-type ion source has been used in the first tests with 240 μA of H- and 21 mA of electrons measured at 1.5 kW of RF power. Tests with higher RF power levels were prevented by electron beam induced sparking. A new plasma chamber has been built and a new extraction is being designed for the RF ion source. The extraction code IBSimu has recently gone through a major update on how smooth electrode surfaces are implemented in the Poisson solvers. This has made it possible to implement a fast multigrid solver with low memory consumption. Also a method has been made to import 3D CAD geometries into simulations.

  4. Ionospheric sources for molecular ion outflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zettergren, M. D.; Peterson, W. K.; Blelly, P. F.; Alcayde, D.; Semeter, J. L.

    2012-12-01

    Mass-resolved satellite observations have established the presence of molecular ions in the low-altitude magnetosphere, outer magnetosphere, and ring current. Associated molecular outflows originate from the auroral zone F-region ionosphere and, while normally several orders of magnitude less intense than the well-known O+ outflow, are perhaps more closely tied to intense geomagnetic disturbances. Molecular outflow is also fundamentally different from O+ outflow, since molecular ions must first be generated in large quantities in the F-region, and then are subject to very short recombination lifetimes as they escape. Owing to observational difficulties, very little detailed information exists on the generation, energization, and upward transport of molecular ions. Furthermore, the basic geographic and geomagnetic activity dependence of the ionospheric source and higher altitude outflow are only loosely constrained. This research synthesizes both observations and models to gain a better understanding of molecular ion generation and upflow, and the basic characteristics of the ionospheric molecular source during geomagnetic storms. To illustrate ionospheric dynamics associated with published satellite observations of molecular upflow, a 2D ionospheric model is driven by boundary conditions consistent with observed field-aligned currents. These simulations provide detailed information about expected species-dependent ion densities, temperatures, fluxes, and associated transients. Similar model results are also compared against PFISR radar estimates of molecular ions generated by auroral arc activity. A detailed case study of the 24-25 Sept. 1998 geomagnetic storm is presented in which the EISCAT ESR and Tromso radars suggested enhancements in F-region molecular ions and Polar satellite simultaneously observed moleculars in the magnetosphere. Finally, data from Sondrestrom and EISCAT radars during multiple storms are combined in an attempt to build a statistical picture of the latitude and magnetic local time dependence of the ionospheric molecular source. Connections of this source with satellite observations of molecular outflow are also discussed.

  5. Negative ion source with low temperature transverse divergence optical system

    DOEpatents

    Whealton, John H.; Stirling, William L.

    1986-01-01

    A negative ion source is provided which has extremely low transverse divergence as a result of a unique ion focusing system in which the focal line of an ion beam emanating from an elongated, concave converter surface is outside of the ion exit slit of the source and the path of the exiting ions. The beam source operates with a minimum ion temperature which makes possible a sharply focused (extremely low transverse divergence) ribbon like negative ion beam.

  6. Negative ion source with low temperature transverse divergence optical system

    DOEpatents

    Whealton, J.H.; Stirling, W.L.

    1985-03-04

    A negative ion source is provided which has extremely low transverse divergence as a result of a unique ion focusing system in which the focal line of an ion beam emanating from an elongated, concave converter surface is outside of the ion exit slit of the source and the path of the exiting ions. The beam source operates with a minimum ion temperature which makes possible a sharply focused (extremely low transverse divergence) ribbon like negative ion beam.

  7. Electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Jongen, Y.

    1984-05-01

    Starting with the pioneering work of R. Geller and his group in Grenoble (France), at least 14 ECR sources have been built and tested during the last five years. Most of those sources have been extremely successful, providing intense, stable and reliable beams of highly charged ions for cyclotron injection or atomic physics research. However, some of the operational features of those sources disagreed with commonly accepted theories on ECR source operation. To explain the observed behavior of actual sources, it was found necessary to refine some of the crude ideas we had about ECR sources. Some of those new propositions are explained, and used to make some extrapolations on the possible future developments in ECR sources.

  8. New types of negative ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Borisko, V.N.; Lapshin, V.I.

    1995-12-31

    The plasma sources of negative ions which were elaborated in Kharkov State University are considered in this paper. These sources use the mechanism of dissociative stick of electrons with low energies to molecules of a working gas. The effective work of such sources needs a special system of low energy electrons formation. The effect of secondary electron emission used in negative ion sources is considered. The electrode material with a great coefficient of secondary electron emission allows one to obtain a few slow electrons per one bombarding electron. A plasma of Penning discharge is an emitter of initial elections. The electron electromagnetic trap in the secondary electron emission region allows one to enlarge volume of interaction of low energy electrons with the working gas molecules. The lifetime of slow electrons grows in this trap.

  9. Metal versus rare-gas ion irradiation during Ti{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}N film growth by hybrid high power pulsed magnetron/dc magnetron co-sputtering using synchronized pulsed substrate bias

    SciTech Connect

    Greczynski, Grzegorz; Lu Jun; Jensen, Jens; Petrov, Ivan; Greene, Joseph E.; Bolz, Stephan; Koelker, Werner; Schiffers, Christoph; Lemmer, Oliver; Hultman, Lars

    2012-11-15

    Metastable NaCl-structure Ti{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}N is employed as a model system to probe the effects of metal versus rare-gas ion irradiation during film growth using reactive high-power pulsed magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) of Al and dc magnetron sputtering of Ti. The alloy film composition is chosen to be x = 0.61, near the kinetic solubility limit at the growth temperature of 500 Degree-Sign C. Three sets of experiments are carried out: a -60 V substrate bias is applied either continuously, in synchronous with the full HIPIMS pulse, or in synchronous only with the metal-rich-plasma portion of the HIPIMS pulse. Alloy films grown under continuous dc bias exhibit a thickness-invariant small-grain, two-phase nanostructure (wurtzite AlN and cubic Ti{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}N) with random orientation, due primarily to intense Ar{sup +} irradiation leading to Ar incorporation (0.2 at. %), high compressive stress (-4.6 GPa), and material loss by resputtering. Synchronizing the bias with the full HIPIMS pulse results in films that exhibit much lower stress levels (-1.8 GPa) with no measureable Ar incorporation, larger grains elongated in the growth direction, a very small volume fraction of wurtzite AlN, and random orientation. By synchronizing the bias with the metal-plasma phase of the HIPIMS pulses, energetic Ar{sup +} ion bombardment is greatly reduced in favor of irradiation predominantly by Al{sup +} ions. The resulting films are single phase with a dense competitive columnar structure, strong 111 orientation, no measureable trapped Ar concentration, and even lower stress (-0.9 GPa). Thus, switching from Ar{sup +} to Al{sup +} bombardment, while maintaining the same integrated incident ion/metal ratio, eliminates phase separation, minimizes renucleation during growth, and reduces the high concentration of residual point defects, which give rise to compressive stress.

  10. Spark discharge coupled laser multicharged ion source.

    PubMed

    Shaim, Md Haider A; Elsayed-Ali, Hani E

    2015-07-01

    A spark discharge is coupled to a laser multicharged ion source to enhance ion generation. The laser plasma triggers a spark discharge with electrodes located in front of the ablated target. For an aluminum target, the spark discharge results in significant enhancement in the generation of multicharged ions along with higher charge states than observed with the laser source alone. When a Nd:YAG laser pulse (wavelength 1064 nm, pulse width 7.4 ns, pulse energy 72 mJ, laser spot area on target 0.0024 cm(2)) is used, the total multicharged ions detected by a Faraday cup is 1.0 nC with charge state up to Al(3+). When the spark amplification stage is used (0.1 μF capacitor charged to 5.0 kV), the total charge measured increases by a factor of ∼9 with up to Al(6+) charge observed. Using laser pulse energy of 45 mJ, charge amplification by a factor of ∼13 was observed for a capacitor voltage of 4.5 kV. The spark discharge increases the multicharged ion generation without increasing target ablation, which solely results from the laser pulse. This allows for increased multicharged ion generation with relatively low laser energy pulses and less damage to the surface of the target. PMID:26233369

  11. Spark discharge coupled laser multicharged ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaim, Md. Haider A.; Elsayed-Ali, Hani E.

    2015-07-01

    A spark discharge is coupled to a laser multicharged ion source to enhance ion generation. The laser plasma triggers a spark discharge with electrodes located in front of the ablated target. For an aluminum target, the spark discharge results in significant enhancement in the generation of multicharged ions along with higher charge states than observed with the laser source alone. When a Nd:YAG laser pulse (wavelength 1064 nm, pulse width 7.4 ns, pulse energy 72 mJ, laser spot area on target 0.0024 cm2) is used, the total multicharged ions detected by a Faraday cup is 1.0 nC with charge state up to Al3+. When the spark amplification stage is used (0.1 μF capacitor charged to 5.0 kV), the total charge measured increases by a factor of ˜9 with up to Al6+ charge observed. Using laser pulse energy of 45 mJ, charge amplification by a factor of ˜13 was observed for a capacitor voltage of 4.5 kV. The spark discharge increases the multicharged ion generation without increasing target ablation, which solely results from the laser pulse. This allows for increased multicharged ion generation with relatively low laser energy pulses and less damage to the surface of the target.

  12. Development of versatile multiaperture negative ion sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavenago, M.; Serianni, G.; Antoni, V.; Bigi, M.; De Muri, M.; Pasqualotto, R.; Recchia, M.; Veltri, P.; Agostinetti, P.; Barbisan, M.; Baseggio, L.; Cervaro, V.; Cazzador, M.; Degli Agostini, F.; Franchin, L.; Kulevoy, T.; Laterza, B.; Mimo, A.; Minarello, A.; Petrenko, S.; Ravarotto, D.; Rossetto, F.; Sattin, M.; Zaniol, B.; Zucchetti, S.

    2015-04-01

    Enhancement of negative ion sources for production of large ion beams is a very active research field nowadays, driven from demand of plasma heating in nuclear fusion devices and accelerator applications. As a versatile test bench, the ion source NIO1 (Negative Ion Optimization 1) is being commissioned by Consorzio RFX and INFN. The nominal beam current of 135 mA at -60 kV is divided into 9 beamlets, with multiaperture extraction electrodes. The plasma is sustained by a 2 MHz radiofrequency power supply, with a standard matching box. A High Voltage Deck (HVD) placed inside the lead shielding surrounding NIO1 contains the radiofrequency generator, the gas control, electronics and power supplies for the ion source. An autonomous closed circuit water cooling system was installed for the whole system, with a branch towards the HVD, using carefully optimized helical tubing. Insulation transformer is installed in a nearby box. Tests of several magnetic configurations can be performed. Status of experiments, measured spectra and plasma luminosity are described. Upgrades of magnetic filter, beam calorimeter and extraction grid and related theoretical issues are reviewed.

  13. Performance of the LBL ECR ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Lyneis, C.M.

    1984-10-01

    The LBL Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion source in test operation since January 1984 has produced a wide variety of high charge state ion beams suitable for injection into the 88-Inch Cyclotron. Two recent developments have dramatically improved the capability of the ECR source. The first development was the production of metallic ions. The intensities of aluminum ions produced were 36, 22, 10, and .065 e..mu..A for charge states 6, 7, 8, and 11, respectively. Calcium ion intensities were 36, 31, 4.6, and 0.20 e..mu..A for charge states 8, 9, 12, and 14, respectively. The second development was the replacement of the sextupole magnet used in of all other high charge state ECR sources with an octupole structure. This modification resulted in a dramatic improvement in the intensities of the high charge state beams and a significant upward shift in the charge state distribution (C.S.D.). The ECR-octupole or OCTIGUN has produced 89, 52, 9, and 2.5 e..mu..A of Ar/sup 8,9,11,12+/ and 21, 10, and 0.34 e..mu..A of Kr/sup 10,14,18+/, respectively. For the high charge states of argon and krypton the improvement gained by using the octupole is typically a factor of 5 to 10.

  14. Development of versatile multiaperture negative ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Cavenago, M.; Minarello, A.; Sattin, M.; Serianni, G.; Antoni, V.; Bigi, M.; Pasqualotto, R.; Recchia, M.; Veltri, P.; Agostinetti, P.; Barbisan, M.; Baseggio, L.; Cervaro, V.; Degli Agostini, F.; Franchin, L.; Laterza, B.; Ravarotto, D.; Rossetto, F.; Zaniol, B.; Zucchetti, S.; and others

    2015-04-08

    Enhancement of negative ion sources for production of large ion beams is a very active research field nowadays, driven from demand of plasma heating in nuclear fusion devices and accelerator applications. As a versatile test bench, the ion source NIO1 (Negative Ion Optimization 1) is being commissioned by Consorzio RFX and INFN. The nominal beam current of 135 mA at −60 kV is divided into 9 beamlets, with multiaperture extraction electrodes. The plasma is sustained by a 2 MHz radiofrequency power supply, with a standard matching box. A High Voltage Deck (HVD) placed inside the lead shielding surrounding NIO1 contains the radiofrequency generator, the gas control, electronics and power supplies for the ion source. An autonomous closed circuit water cooling system was installed for the whole system, with a branch towards the HVD, using carefully optimized helical tubing. Insulation transformer is installed in a nearby box. Tests of several magnetic configurations can be performed. Status of experiments, measured spectra and plasma luminosity are described. Upgrades of magnetic filter, beam calorimeter and extraction grid and related theoretical issues are reviewed.

  15. Optimization of the beam extraction systems for the Linac4 H{sup −} ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, D. A.; Lettry, J.; Scrivens, R.; Steyaert, D.; Midttun, Ø.; Valerio-Lizarraga, C. A.

    2015-04-08

    The development of the Linac 4 and its integration into CERN’s acceleration complex is part of the foreseen luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The goal is to inject a 160 MeV H{sup −} beam into the CERN PS Booster (PSB) in order to increase the beam brightness by a factor of 2 compared to the 50 MeV proton linac, Linac 2, that is currently in operation. The requirements for the ion source are a 45 keV H{sup −} beam of 80 mA intensity, 2 Hz repetition rate and 0.5 ms pulse length within a normalized rms-emittance of 0.25 mm· mrad. The previously installed beam extraction system has been designed for an H{sup −} ion beam intensity of 20 mA produced by an RF-volume source with an electron to H{sup −} ratio of up to 50. For the required intensity upgrades of the Linac4 ion source, a new beam extraction system is being produced and tested; it is optimized for a cesiated surface RF-source with a nominal beam current of 40 mA and an electron to H{sup −} ratio of 4. The simulations, based on the IBSIMU code, are presented. At the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), a peak beam current of more than 100 mA was demonstrated with a magnetron H{sup −} source at an energy of 35 keV and a repetition rate of 2 Hz. A new extraction system is required to operate at an energy of 45 keV; simulation of a two stage extraction system dedicated to the magnetron is presented.

  16. Optimization of the beam extraction systems for the Linac4 H- ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fink, D. A.; Lettry, J.; Midttun, Ø.; Scrivens, R.; Steyaert, D.; Valerio-Lizarraga, C. A.

    2015-04-01

    The development of the Linac 4 and its integration into CERN's acceleration complex is part of the foreseen luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The goal is to inject a 160 MeV H- beam into the CERN PS Booster (PSB) in order to increase the beam brightness by a factor of 2 compared to the 50 MeV proton linac, Linac 2, that is currently in operation. The requirements for the ion source are a 45 keV H- beam of 80 mA intensity, 2 Hz repetition rate and 0.5 ms pulse length within a normalized rms-emittance of 0.25 mm. mrad. The previously installed beam extraction system has been designed for an H- ion beam intensity of 20 mA produced by an RF-volume source with an electron to H- ratio of up to 50. For the required intensity upgrades of the Linac4 ion source, a new beam extraction system is being produced and tested; it is optimized for a cesiated surface RF-source with a nominal beam current of 40 mA and an electron to H- ratio of 4. The simulations, based on the IBSIMU code, are presented. At the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), a peak beam current of more than 100 mA was demonstrated with a magnetron H- source at an energy of 35 keV and a repetition rate of 2 Hz. A new extraction system is required to operate at an energy of 45 keV; simulation of a two stage extraction system dedicated to the magnetron is presented.

  17. Laser Ion Source Development at IGISOL

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Iain D.; Eronen, Tommi; Jokinen, Ari; Karvonen, Pasi; Penttilae, Heikki; Rinta-Antila, Sami; Sonoda, Tetsu; Aeysto, Juha; Billowes, Jon; Campbell, Paul; Marsh, Bruce; Nieminen, Arto; Tordoff, Ben; Geppert, Christopher; Wendt, Klaus; Kessler, Thomas

    2006-04-26

    A new laser ion source is under development at the IGISOL (Ion Guide Isotope Separator On-Line) mass separator facility in Jyvaeskylae, Finland. Two laser systems have been installed to provide access to as broad a range of elements as possible. One system uses well-known dye laser technology, the other uses solid state pump and titanium sapphire lasers. Several techniques are being pursued to improve both the isobaric purity and efficiency of exotic radioactive beams. One method uses pulsed lasers to ionize atoms after they have flowed out of the gas volume, within a radio-frequency sextupole (SPIG) guide. This is a variation of the so-called Laser Ion Source Trap (LIST) method and will be discussed in these proceedings.

  18. Survey of ion plating sources. [conferences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spalvins, T.

    1979-01-01

    Based on the type of evaporation source, gaseous media and mode of transport, the following is discussed: resistance, electron beam, sputtering, reactive and ion beam evaporation. Ionization efficiencies and ion energies in the glow discharge determine the percentage of atoms which are ionized under typical ion plating conditions. The plating flux consists of a small number of energetic ions and a large number of energetic neutrals. The energy distribution ranges from thermal energies up to a maximum energy of the discharge. The various reaction mechanisms which contribute to the exceptionally strong adherence - formation of a graded sustrate/coating interface are not fully understood, however the controlling factors are evaluated. The influence of process variables on the nucleation and growth characteristics are illustrated in terms of morphological changes which affect the mechanical and tribological properties of the coating.

  19. Secondary electron ion source neutron generator

    DOEpatents

    Brainard, John P.; McCollister, Daryl R.

    1998-01-01

    A neutron generator employing an electron emitter, an ion source bombarded by the electrons from the electron emitter, a plasma containment zone, and a target situated between the plasma containment zone and the electron emitter. The target contains occluded deuterium, tritium, or a mixture thereof

  20. Secondary electron ion source neutron generator

    DOEpatents

    Brainard, J.P.; McCollister, D.R.

    1998-04-28

    A neutron generator employing an electron emitter, an ion source bombarded by the electrons from the electron emitter, a plasma containment zone, and a target situated between the plasma containment zone and the electron emitter is disclosed. The target contains occluded deuterium, tritium, or a mixture thereof. 4 figs.

  1. Ion-energy distributions at a substrate in reactive magnetron sputtering discharges in Ar/H{sub 2}S from copper, indium, and tungsten targets

    SciTech Connect

    Seeger, S.; Harbauer, K.; Ellmer, K.

    2009-03-01

    Ion-energy distributions from copper, indium, and tungsten targets were measured during reactive sputtering in argon-hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) mixtures, since reactive magnetron sputtering of sulfides from metallic targets is of increasing interest, especially for photovoltaic applications (buffer and absorber layers, i.e., CuInS{sub 2}, In{sub 2}S{sub 3}, or WS{sub 2}). The mass spectra of the ions show a wide range of molecules H{sub x}S{sub n} derived from H{sub 2}S by plasma-assisted attachment both for positive (n{<=}9) and for negative (n{<=}6) ions. From the copper and the indium targets metallic ions (Cu{sup +}, In{sup +}) could be detected. While tungsten and indium sulfur compounds were found, copper does not form compounds with sulfur, caused by its lower chemical reactivity. Positive (Ar{sup +}, S{sup +}, W{sup +}, Cu{sup +}, In{sup +}, etc.) as well as negative ions (S{sup -}, InS{sup -}, WS{sub 3}{sup -}) were measured for dc and rf (27 MHz) plasma excitations. The positive ions originate mainly from the plasma in front of the substrate and exhibit energies of about 12 eV for the dc and 18 eV for the rf discharge for the substrate at floating potential. The energy difference is caused by the higher electron temperature in the rf compared to the dc discharge. The ion-energy distributions of negative ions exhibit two distinct peaks. The high-energetic peak can be attributed to ions accelerated in the cathode dark space to a high energy (up to more than 400 eV) corresponding to the cathode (target) voltage. The second peak has its maximum at zero energy decreasing steeply up to energies of about 100 eV. These ions are generated by charge-exchange collisions of energetic species from the target (reflected neutral argon, negative sulfur ions, etc.) on their passage from the target to the substrate caused by the high charge-exchange cross section. rf magnetron sputtering leads to significantly lower energies of negative ions from the target, caused by the lower discharge voltages, which could be advantageous for the deposition of active semiconducting sulfide films.

  2. Automatic control of a negative ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saadatmand, K.; Sredniawski, J.; Solensten, L.

    1989-04-01

    A CAMAC based control architecture is devised for a Berkeley-type H - volume ion source [1]. The architecture employs three 80386 TM PCs. One PC is dedicated to control and monitoring of source operation. The other PC functions with digitizers to provide data acquisition of waveforms. The third PC is used for off-line analysis. Initially, operation of the source was put under remote computer control (supervisory). This was followed by development of an automated startup procedure. Finally, a study of the physics of operation is now underway to establish a data base from which automatic beam optimization can be derived.

  3. Fullerenes in electron cyclotron resonance ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Biri, S.; Fekete, E.; Kitagawa, A.; Muramatsu, M.; Janossy, A.; Palinkas, J.

    2006-03-15

    Fullerene plasmas and beams have been produced in our electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRIS) originally designed for other purposes. The ATOMKI-ECRIS is a traditional ion source with solenoid mirror coils to generate highly charged ions. The variable frequencies NIRS-KEI-1 and NIRS-KEI-2 are ECR ion sources built from permanent magnets and specialized for the production of carbon beams. The paper summarizes the experiments and results obtained by these facilities with fullerenes. Continuous effort has been made to get the highest C{sub 60} beam intensities. Surprisingly, the best result was obtained by moving the C{sub 60} oven deep inside the plasma chamber, very close to the resonance zone. Record intensity singly and doubly charged fullerene beams were obtained (600 and 1600 nA, respectively) at lower C{sub 60} material consumption. Fullerene derivatives were also produced. We mixed fullerenes with other plasmas (N, Fe) with the aim of making new materials. Nitrogen encapsulated fullerenes (mass: 720+14=734) were successfully produced. In the case of iron, two methods (ferrocene, oven) were tested. Molecules with mass of 720+56=776 were detected in the extracted beam spectra.

  4. HIGH CURRENT RADIO FREQUENCY ION SOURCE

    DOEpatents

    Abdelaziz, M.E.

    1963-04-01

    This patent relates to a high current radio frequency ion source. A cylindrical plasma container has a coil disposed around the exterior surface thereof along the longitudinal axis. Means are provided for the injection of an unionized gas into the container and for applying a radio frequency signal to the coil whereby a radio frequency field is generated within the container parallel to the longitudinal axis thereof to ionize the injected gas. Cathode and anode means are provided for extracting transverse to the radio frequency field from an area midway between the ends of the container along the longitudinal axis thereof the ions created by said radio frequency field. (AEC)

  5. Extracted current saturation in negative ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Mochalskyy, S.; Lifschitz, A. F.; Minea, T.

    2012-06-01

    The extraction of negatively charged particles from a negative ion source is one of the crucial issues in the development of the neutral beam injector system for future experimental reactor ITER. Full 3D electrostatic particle-in-cell Monte Carlo collision code - ONIX [S. Mochalskyy et al., Nucl. Fusion 50, 105011 (2010)] - is used to simulate the hydrogen plasma behaviour and the extracted particle features in the vicinity of the plasma grid, both sides of the aperture. It is found that the contribution to the extracted negative ion current of ions born in the volume is small compared with that of ions created at the plasma grid walls. The parametric study with respect to the rate of negative ions released from the walls shows an optimum rate. Beyond this optimum, a double layer builds-up by the negative ion charge density close to the grid aperture surface reducing thus extraction probability, and therefore the extracted current. The effect of the extraction potential and magnetic field magnitudes on the extraction is also discussed. Results are in good agreement with available experimental data.

  6. Main magnetic focus ion source with the radial extraction of ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovsyannikov, V. P.; Nefiodov, A. V.

    2016-01-01

    In the main magnetic focus ion source, atomic ions are produced in the local ion trap created by the rippled electron beam in focusing magnetic field. Here we present the novel modification of the room-temperature hand-size device, which allows the extraction of ions in the radial direction perpendicular to the electron beam across the magnetic field. The detected X-ray emission evidences the production of Ir44+ and Ar16+ ions. The ion source can operate as the ion trap for X-ray spectroscopy, as the ion source for the production of highly charged ions and also as the ion source of high brightness.

  7. rf-driven ion sources for industrial applications (invited) (abstract)

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, Ka-Ngo

    2008-02-15

    The Plasma and Ion Source Technology Group at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory have been developing rf-driven ion sources for the last two decades. These sources are being used to generate both positive and negative ion beams. Some of these sources are operating in particle accelerators such as the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge, while others are being employed in various industrial ion beam systems. There are four areas where the rf-driven ion sources are commonly used in industry. (1) In semiconductor manufacturing, rf-driven sources have found important applications in plasma etching, ion beam implantation, and ion beam lithography. (2) In material analysis and surface modification, miniature rf-ion sources can be found in focused ion beam systems. They can provide ion beams of essentially any element in the Periodic Table. The newly developed combined rf ion-electron beam unit improves greatly the performance of the secondary ion mass spectrometry tool. (3) For neutron production, rf ion source is a major component of compact, high flux D-D, D-T, or T-T neutron generators. These neutron sources are now being employed in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) as well as in neutron imaging and material interrogation. (4) Large area rf-driven ion source will be used in an industrial design neutral beam diagnostic system for probing fusion plasmas. Such sources can be easily scaled to provide large ion beam current for future fusion reactor applications.

  8. Compact microwave ion source for industrial applicationsa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Yong-Sub; Kim, Dae-Il; Kim, Han-Sung; Seol, Kyung-Tae; Kwon, Hyeok-Jung; Hong, In-Seok

    2012-02-01

    A 2.45 GHz microwave ion source for ion implanters has many good properties for industrial application, such as easy maintenance and long lifetime, and it should be compact for budget and space. But, it has a dc current supply for the solenoid and a rf generator for plasma generation. Usually, they are located on high voltage platform because they are electrically connected with beam extraction power supply. Using permanent magnet solenoid and multi-layer dc break, high voltage deck and high voltage isolation transformer can be eliminated, and the dose rate on targets can be controlled by pulse duty control with semiconductor high voltage switch. Because the beam optics does not change, beam transfer components, such as focusing elements and beam shutter, can be eliminated. It has shown the good performances in budget and space for industrial applications of ion beams.

  9. MULTIPLE ELECTRON BEAM ION PUMP AND SOURCE

    DOEpatents

    Ellis, R.E.

    1962-02-27

    A vacuum pump is designed which operates by ionizing incoming air and by withdrawing the ions from the system by means of electrical fields. The apparatus comprises a cylindrical housing communicable with the vessel to be evacuated and having a thin wall section in one end. Suitable coils provide a longitudinal magnetic field within the cylinder. A broad cathode and an anode structure is provided to establish a plurality of adjacent electron beams which are parallel to the cylinder axis. Electron reflector means are provided so that each of the beams constitutes a PIG or reflex discharge. Such structure provides a large region in which incoming gas molecules may be ionized by electron bombardment. A charged electrode assembly accelerates the ions through the thin window, thereby removing the gas from the system. The invention may also be utilized as a highly efficient ion source. (AEC)

  10. Compact microwave ion source for industrial applications.

    PubMed

    Cho, Yong-Sub; Kim, Dae-Il; Kim, Han-Sung; Seol, Kyung-Tae; Kwon, Hyeok-Jung; Hong, In-Seok

    2012-02-01

    A 2.45 GHz microwave ion source for ion implanters has many good properties for industrial application, such as easy maintenance and long lifetime, and it should be compact for budget and space. But, it has a dc current supply for the solenoid and a rf generator for plasma generation. Usually, they are located on high voltage platform because they are electrically connected with beam extraction power supply. Using permanent magnet solenoid and multi-layer dc break, high voltage deck and high voltage isolation transformer can be eliminated, and the dose rate on targets can be controlled by pulse duty control with semiconductor high voltage switch. Because the beam optics does not change, beam transfer components, such as focusing elements and beam shutter, can be eliminated. It has shown the good performances in budget and space for industrial applications of ion beams. PMID:22380346

  11. Measurement of deposition rate and ion energy distribution in a pulsed dc magnetron sputtering system using a retarding field analyzer with embedded quartz crystal microbalance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Shailesh; Gahan, David; Scullin, Paul; Doyle, James; Lennon, Jj; Vijayaraghavan, Rajani K.; Daniels, Stephen; Hopkins, M. B.

    2016-04-01

    A compact retarding field analyzer with embedded quartz crystal microbalance has been developed to measure deposition rate, ionized flux fraction, and ion energy distribution arriving at the substrate location. The sensor can be placed on grounded, electrically floating, or radio frequency (rf) biased electrodes. A calibration method is presented to compensate for temperature effects in the quartz crystal. The metal deposition rate, metal ionization fraction, and energy distribution of the ions arriving at the substrate location are investigated in an asymmetric bipolar pulsed dc magnetron sputtering reactor under grounded, floating, and rf biased conditions. The diagnostic presented in this research work does not suffer from complications caused by water cooling arrangements to maintain constant temperature and is an attractive technique for characterizing a thin film deposition system.

  12. Adhesion and wear properties of TiN films deposited on martensitic stainless steel and Stellite by reactive magnetron sputter ion plating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Min Ku; Kim, Whung Whoe; Kim, Joung Soo; Lee, Won Jong

    1998-03-01

    TiN films were deposited onto the turbine blade materials, AISI 403 martensitic stainless steel and Stellite 6B, using reactive magnetron sputter ion plating. The hardness of the TiN film increases with the residual compressive stress and has a maximum value of 3400 kg/mm 2 at the substrate bias of about -75 V. In the scratch adhesion test, the critical loads for cohesive failure and adhesive failure are sensitively governed by the film hardness. The wear rate decreases with increasing hardness and has a minimum value at about -75 V. The ion plated TiN has a superior wear resistance than the bare Stellite 6B and AISI 403 martensitic stainless steel.

  13. Measurement of deposition rate and ion energy distribution in a pulsed dc magnetron sputtering system using a retarding field analyzer with embedded quartz crystal microbalance.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Shailesh; Gahan, David; Scullin, Paul; Doyle, James; Lennon, Jj; Vijayaraghavan, Rajani K; Daniels, Stephen; Hopkins, M B

    2016-04-01

    A compact retarding field analyzer with embedded quartz crystal microbalance has been developed to measure deposition rate, ionized flux fraction, and ion energy distribution arriving at the substrate location. The sensor can be placed on grounded, electrically floating, or radio frequency (rf) biased electrodes. A calibration method is presented to compensate for temperature effects in the quartz crystal. The metal deposition rate, metal ionization fraction, and energy distribution of the ions arriving at the substrate location are investigated in an asymmetric bipolar pulsed dc magnetron sputtering reactor under grounded, floating, and rf biased conditions. The diagnostic presented in this research work does not suffer from complications caused by water cooling arrangements to maintain constant temperature and is an attractive technique for characterizing a thin film deposition system. PMID:27131678

  14. Field Ion Source Development for Neutron Generators

    SciTech Connect

    B. Bargsten Johnson; P. R. Schwoebel; C. E. Holland; P. J. Resnick; K. L. Hertz; D. L. Chichester

    2012-01-01

    An ion source based on the principles of electrostatic field desorption is being developed to improve the performance of existing compact neutron generators. The ion source is an array of gated metal tips derived from field electron emitter array microfabrication technology. A comprehensive summary of development and experimental activities is presented. Many structural modifications to the arrays have been incorporated to achieve higher tip operating fields, while lowering fields at the gate electrode to prevent gate field electron emission which initiates electrical breakdown in the array. The latest focus of fabrication activities has been on rounding the gate electrode edge and surrounding the gate electrode with dielectric material. Array testing results have indicated a steady progression of increased array tip operating fields with each new design tested. The latest arrays have consistently achieved fields beyond those required for the onset of deuterium desorption ({approx}20 V/nm), and have demonstrated the desorption of deuterium at fields up to 36 V/nm. The number of ions desorbed from an array has been quantified, and field desorption of metal tip substrate material from array tips has been observed for the first time. Gas-phase field ionization studies with {approx}10,000 tip arrays have achieved deuterium ion currents of {approx}50 nA. Neutron production by field ionization has yielded {approx}10{sup 2} n/s from {approx}1 mm{sup 2} of array area using the deuterium-deuterium fusion reaction at 90 kV.

  15. Field ion source development for neutron generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bargsten Johnson, B.; Schwoebel, P. R.; Holland, C. E.; Resnick, P. J.; Hertz, K. L.; Chichester, D. L.

    2012-01-01

    An ion source based on the principles of electrostatic field desorption is being developed to improve the performance of existing compact neutron generators. The ion source is an array of gated metal tips derived from field electron emitter array microfabrication technology. A comprehensive summary of development and experimental activities is presented. Many structural modifications to the arrays have been incorporated to achieve higher tip operating fields, while lowering fields at the gate electrode to prevent gate field electron emission which initiates electrical breakdown in the array. The latest focus of fabrication activities has been on rounding the gate electrode edge and surrounding the gate electrode with dielectric material. Array testing results have indicated a steady progression of increased array tip operating fields with each new design tested. The latest arrays have consistently achieved fields beyond those required for the onset of deuterium desorption (˜20 V/nm), and have demonstrated the desorption of deuterium at fields up to 36 V/nm. The number of ions desorbed from an array has been quantified, and field desorption of metal tip substrate material from array tips has been observed for the first time. Gas-phase field ionization studies with ˜10,000 tip arrays have achieved deuterium ion currents of ˜50 nA. Neutron production by field ionization has yielded ˜10 2 n/s from ˜1 mm 2 of array area using the deuterium-deuterium fusion reaction at 90 kV.

  16. Experimental Evaluation of a Negative Ion Source for a Heavy Ion Fusion Negative Ion Driver

    SciTech Connect

    Grisham, L. R.; Hahto, S. K.; Hahto, S. T.; Kwan, J. W.; Leung, K. N.

    2004-06-16

    Negative halogen ions have recently been proposed as a possible alternative to positive ions for heavy ion fusion drivers because electron accumulation would not be a problem in the accelerator, and if desired, the beams could be photo-detached to neutrals. To test the ability to make suitable quality beams, an experiment was conducted at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory using chlorine in an RF-driven ion source. Without introducing any cesium (which is required to enhance negative ion production in hydrogen ion sources) a negative chlorine current density of 45 mA/cm{sup 2} was obtained under the same conditions that gave 57 45 mA/cm{sup 2} of positive chlorine, suggesting the presence of nearly as many negative ions as positive ions in the plasma near the extraction plane. The negative ion spectrum was 99.5% atomic chlorine ions, with only 0.5% molecular chlorine, and essentially no impurities. Although this experiment did not incorporate the type of electron suppression technology that i s used in negative hydrogen beam extraction, the ratio of co-extracted electrons to Cl{sup -} was as low as 7 to 1, many times lower than the ratio of their mobilities, suggesting that few electrons are present in the near-extractor plasma. This, along with the near-equivalence of the positive and negative ion currents, suggests that the plasma in this region was mostly an ion-ion plasma. The negative chlorine current density was relatively insensitive to pressure, and scaled linearly with RF power. If this linear scaling continues to hold at higher RF powers, it should permit current densities of 100 45 mA/cm{sup 2}, sufficient for present heavy ion fusion injector concepts. The effective ion temperatures of the positive and negative ions appeared to be similar and relatively low for a plasma source.

  17. Improved Ambient Pressure Pyroelectric Ion Source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beegle, Luther W.; Kim, Hugh I.; Kanik, Isik; Ryu, Ernest K.; Beckett, Brett

    2011-01-01

    The detection of volatile vapors of unknown species in a complex field environment is required in many different applications. Mass spectroscopic techniques require subsystems including an ionization unit and sample transport mechanism. All of these subsystems must have low mass, small volume, low power, and be rugged. A volatile molecular detector, an ambient pressure pyroelectric ion source (APPIS) that met these requirements, was recently reported by Caltech researchers to be used in in situ environments.

  18. The new BNL polarized negative ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Hershcovitch, A.I.; Alessi, J.G.; DeVito, B.; Kponou, A.E.

    1991-08-28

    A new ground state source of negative hydrogen ions with polarized nuclei ({rvec H}{sup {minus}}) is being developed at BNL. Extensive developmental research has been aimed at improving each element of ({rvec H}{sup {minus}}) production: cold H{degrees} beam, spin selection and focusing magnets, and ionizer. These elements have recently been integrated into a source. A first test with the accommodator nozzle cooled only to liquid nitrogen temperatures resulted in 5 {mu}A of H{sup {minus}}. Tests at liquid helium temperatures are now beginning. 7 refs., 1 fig.

  19. Proton emission from a laser ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Torrisi, L.; Cavallaro, S.; Gammino, S.; Cutroneo, M.; Margarone, D.

    2012-02-15

    At intensities of the order of 10{sup 10} W/cm{sup 2}, ns pulsed lasers can be employed to ablate solid bulk targets in order to produce high emission of ions at different charge state and kinetic energy. A special interest is devoted to the production of protons with controllable energy and current from a roto-translating target irradiated in repetition rate at 1-10 Hz by a Nd:Yag pulsed laser beam. Different hydrogenated targets based on polymers and hydrates were irradiated in high vacuum. Special nanostrucutres can be embedded in the polymers in order to modify the laser absorption properties and the amount of protons to be accelerated in the plasma. For example, carbon nanotubes may increase the laser absorption and the hydrogen absorption to generate high proton yields from the plasma. Metallic nanostrucutres may increase the electron density of the plasma and the kinetic energy of the accelerated protons. Ion collectors, ion energy analyzer, and mass spectrometers, used in time-of-flight configuration, were employed to characterize the ion beam properties. A comparison with traditional proton ion source is presented and discussed.

  20. Improvement of four anode rods ion source.

    PubMed

    Abdel Salam, F W; el-Khabeary, H; Ahmed, M M; Abdel Reheem, A M

    2011-03-01

    In this work, an improved form of a saddle field ion source has been designed and constructed. It consists of four anode rods made from copper and two copper cathode discs. The two cathode discs are placed symmetrically on both sides of the four anode rods. The electrical discharge and output ion beam characteristics were measured at different pressures using argon gas. The optimum distance between each two anode rods was determined. Also the optimum distance between the four anode rods and any cathode disc was obtained. It was found that the optimum distance between each two anode rods equal to 6 mm, while the optimum distance between the four anode rods and any cathode disc equal to 16 mm, where a stable discharge current and maximum output ion beam current can be obtained. The effect of negative extraction voltage applied to both the extractor electrode and Faraday cup on the output ion beam current was studied. The sputter yield of copper and aluminum targets using argon ions of different energies was determined. PMID:21456729

  1. Improvement of four anode rods ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel Salam, F. W.; El-Khabeary, H.; Ahmed, M. M.; Abdel Reheem, A. M.

    2011-03-01

    In this work, an improved form of a saddle field ion source has been designed and constructed. It consists of four anode rods made from copper and two copper cathode discs. The two cathode discs are placed symmetrically on both sides of the four anode rods. The electrical discharge and output ion beam characteristics were measured at different pressures using argon gas. The optimum distance between each two anode rods was determined. Also the optimum distance between the four anode rods and any cathode disc was obtained. It was found that the optimum distance between each two anode rods equal to 6 mm, while the optimum distance between the four anode rods and any cathode disc equal to 16 mm, where a stable discharge current and maximum output ion beam current can be obtained. The effect of negative extraction voltage applied to both the extractor electrode and Faraday cup on the output ion beam current was studied. The sputter yield of copper and aluminum targets using argon ions of different energies was determined.

  2. The correlation between the radial distribution of high-energetic ions and the structural as well as electrical properties of magnetron sputtered ZnO:Al films

    SciTech Connect

    Bikowski, André; Welzel, Thomas; Ellmer, Klaus

    2013-12-14

    The origin of the pronounced radial distributions of structural and electrical properties of magnetron sputtered ZnO:Al films has been investigated. The film properties were correlated with the radially resolved ion-distribution functions. While the positive ions exhibit low energies and a radial distribution with a maximum intensity opposite the center of the target, the negative ions can have energies up to several hundred eV, depending on the target potential, with a radial distribution with two maxima opposite the erosion tracks. The most prominent positive ion is that of the working gas (Ar{sup +}), while the highest flux of the negative ions is measured for negative oxygen O{sup −}. The radial distribution of the flux of the high-energetic negative ions can clearly be related to the radial variations of the structural (c-axis lattice parameter, crystallite size) and electronic (resistivity) properties for sputtering from the planar target, which points to the decisive role of the high-energetic negative oxygen ions for the film quality. The relation between the negative ion bombardment and the structural as well as electronic properties can be explained by a qualitative model recently developed by us. The same target has also been investigated in the eroded state. In this case, the limited acceptance angle of the mass spectrometer leads to a misinterpretation of the radial distribution of the flux of the high-energetic negative ions. This effect can be explained by a simulation, based on the assumption that the high-energetic negative ions are mainly accelerated in the cathode (target) sheath perpendicular to the uneven substrate surface.

  3. Ion source for radioactive isotopes - IRIS ECR

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, J.T.; Freedman, S.J.; Lyneis, C.M.; Wutte, D.

    2001-01-01

    A compact electron cyclotron resonance ion source for radioactive isotopes (IRIS ECR) has been developed for the {sup 14}O experiment at the 88-Inch Cyclotron. The {sup 14}O experiment is a joint effort between the Nuclear Science Division's Weak Interaction Group and the 88-Inch Cyclotron ECR ion source group. The initial goal of the experimentalists is to measure {sup 14}O half-life and the shape of the beta decay spectrum. The 70 second half-life of {sup 14}O requires producing the isotope on-line at the 88-Inch Cyclotron. The {sup 14}O is generated in the form of {sup 12}C{sup 14}O in a high temperature carbon aerogel target using a 20 MeV {sup 3}He{sup +} beam from the LBNL 88-Inch Cyclotron via the reaction {sup 12}C({sup 3}He,n){sup 14}O. The {sup 14}O atoms are then separated from the other radioactive isotopes produced in the target and then implanted into a thin foil. The implanted target serves to minimize the radiation background and maximize the signal in the beta spectrometer by concentrating the{sup 14}O into a 5mm diameter spot. An 8 meter long stainless steel transfer line connects the target chamber to the IRIS ECR through a turbo molecular pump. The gas coming from the turbo pump is fed into the ion source and ionized, extracted at energies of 20 to 30 keV and mass separated by an analyzing magnet. The ion source started operation in spring 1999 and achieved a beam intensity of 3 x 10{sup 5} {sup 14}O{sup +} ions/second. Extensive developments on the production target were made to increase extraction efficiency of the {sup 14}O. A liquid nitrogen trap was installed between the ECR and the turbo pump to minimize the gas load to the ion source. An improved support gas injection system was installed so that multiple support gases can be introduced. A bias disk is used to stabilize the plasma. A quartz liner in the plasma chamber is used to reduce the hold-up time for oxygen and increase the overall ionization efficiency. The extraction system was also modified to ensure reliable operation at 30 kV. In May 2000 IRIS produced a mass separated beam of {sup 14}O{sup 1+} ions at an average intensity of 2 x 10{sup 7} {sup 14}O{sup 1+} ions per second with a peak intensity of 3 x 10{sup 7} {sup 14}O{sup 1+} ions per second. This is the highest{sup 14}O intensity achieved at any radioactive beam facility to date. The physics program has begun with a measurement of the {sup 14}O lifetime in October 2001 and a test run for the CVC experiment during December 2001.

  4. Influence of ionisation zone motion in high power impulse magnetron sputtering on angular ion flux and NbO x film growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franz, Robert; Clavero, César; Kolbeck, Jonathan; Anders, André

    2016-02-01

    The ion energies and fluxes in the high power impulse magnetron sputtering plasma from a Nb target were analysed angularly resolved along the tangential direction of the racetrack. A reactive oxygen-containing atmosphere was used as such discharge conditions are typically employed for the synthesis of thin films. Asymmetries in the flux distribution of the recorded ions as well as their energies and charge states were noticed when varying the angle between mass-energy analyser and target surface. More positively charged ions with higher count rates in the medium energy range of their distributions were detected in +\\mathbf{E}× \\mathbf{B} than in -\\mathbf{E}× \\mathbf{B} direction, thus confirming the notion that ionisation zones (also known as spokes or plasma bunches) are associated with moving potential humps. The motion of the recorded negatively charged high-energy oxygen ions was unaffected. Nb{{\\text{O}}x} thin films at different angles and positions were synthesised and analysed as to their structure and properties in order to correlate the observed plasma properties to the film growth conditions. The chemical composition and the film thickness varied with changing deposition angle, where the latter, similar to the ion fluxes, was higher in +\\mathbf{E}× \\mathbf{B} than in -\\mathbf{E}× \\mathbf{B} direction.

  5. Ions beams and ferroelectric plasma sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanov, Anton

    Near-perfect space-charge neutralization is required for the transverse compression of high perveance ion beams for ion-beam-driven warm dense matter experiments, such as the Neutralized Drift Compression eXperiment (NDCX). Neutralization can be accomplished by introducing a plasma in the beam path, which provides free electrons that compensate the positive space charge of the ion beam. In this thesis, charge neutralization of a 40 keV, perveance-dominated Ar+ beam by a Ferroelectric Plasma Source (FEPS) is investigated. First, the parameters of the ion beam, such as divergence due to the extraction optics, charge neutralization fraction, and emittance were measured. The ion beam was propagated through the FEPS plasma, and the effects of charge neutralization were inferred from time-resolved measurements of the transverse beam profile. In addition, the dependence of FEPS plasma parameters on the configuration of the driving pulser circuit was studied to optimize pulser design. An ion accelerator was constructed that produced a 30-50 keV Ar + beam with pulse duration <300 mus and dimensionless perveance Q up to 8 x 10-4. Transverse profile measurements 33 cm downstream of the ion source showed that the dependence of beam radius on Q was consistent with space charge expansion. It was concluded that the beam was perveance-dominated with a charge neutralization fraction of approximately zero in the absence of neutralizing plasma. Since beam expansion occurred primarily due to space charge, the decrease in effective perveance due to neutralization by FEPS plasma can be inferred from the reduction in beam radius. Results on propagation of the ion beam through FEPS plasma demonstrate that after the FEPS is triggered, the beam radius decreases to its neutralized value in about 5 mus. The duration of neutralization was about 10 mus at a charging voltage VFEPS = 5.5 kV and 35 mus at VFEPS = 6.5 kV. With VFEPS = 6.5 kV, the transverse current density profile 33 cm downstream of the source had a Gaussian shape with xrms =5 mm, which corresponds to a half-angle divergence of 0.87°. The measurements show that near-perfect charge neutralization with FEPS can be attained. No loss of ion beam current was detected, indicating the absence of a neutral cloud in the region of beam propagation, which would cause beam loss to charge exchange collisions. This provides evidence in favor of using FEPS in a future Heavy Ion Fusion accelerator. The FEPS discharge was investigated based on current-voltage measurements in the pulser circuit. Different values of series resistance and storage capacitance in the pulser circuit were used. The charged particle current emitted by the FEPS into vacuum was measured from the difference in forward and return currents in the driving circuit. It was found that FEPS is an emitter of negative charge, and that electron current emission begins approximately 0.5 mus after the fast-rising high voltage pulse is applied and lasts for tens of mus. The value of the series resistance in the pulser circuit was varied to change the rise time of the voltage pulse; plasma density was expected to decrease with increasing values of resistance. However, the data showed that changing the resistance had no significant effect. The average charge emitted per shot depends strongly on the value of the storage capacitance. Lowering the capacitance from 141 nF to 47 nF resulted in a near-complete shut-off of charge emission, although the amplitude of the applied voltage pulse was as high, and rise time as short, as when high-density plasma was produced. Increasing the capacitance from 141 nF to 235 nF increased the average charge emitted per shot by a factor of 2.

  6. Negative chlorine ions from multicusp radio frequency ion source for heavy ion fusion applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahto, S. K.; Hahto, S. T.; Kwan, J. W.; Leung, K. N.; Grisham, L. R.

    2003-06-01

    Use of high mass atomic neutral beams produced from negative ions as drivers for inertial confinement fusion has been suggested recently. Best candidates for the negative ions would be bromine and iodine with sufficiently high mass and electron affinity. These materials require a heated vapor ion source. Chlorine was selected for initial testing because it has similar electron affinity to those of bromine and iodine, and is available in gaseous form. An experiment was set up by the Plasma and Ion Source Technology Group in Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory to measure achievable current densities and other beam parameters by using a rf driven multicusp ion source [K. N. Leung, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 1165 (1994); Q. Ji et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 822 (2002)]. Current density of 45 mA/cm2 was achieved with 99.5% of the beam as atomic negative chlorine at 2.2 kW of rf power. An electron to negative ion ratio as low as 7 to 1 was observed, while the ratio of positive and negative chlorine ion currents was 1.3. This in addition to the fact that the front plate biasing had almost no effect to the negative chlorine ion and electron currents indicates that a very high percentage of the negative charge in the extraction area of the ion source was in form of Cl- ions. A comparison of positive and negative chlorine ion temperatures was conducted with the pepper pot emittance measurement technique and very similar transverse temperature values were obtained for positive and negative chlorine ions.

  7. [Ion sources for surface treatments of materials]. Final report on the Contract 0248U0016-35 between the Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Institute of Electrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    Treatment of materials by accelerated ions causes considerable changes in the microstructure and properties of the surface layer of these materials. Results of numerous laboratory studies show that ion beams are highly efficient in surface modification of materials. However, development and commercial use of ion beam technologies is hampered due to the lack of inexpensive, reliable and efficient ion sources. One of the promising directions in development of commercial ion sources is the use of cold-cathode discharges for producing ion emitting plasma. The main objectives of the contract works were as follows: (1) analyze discharge characteristics in the electrode system of the inverted magnetron type, parameter and emission properties of the discharge plasma, and formation of broad beams in an ion optics system; (2) create a laboratory prototype ion source, deliver the prototype ion source to Los Alamos, and perform joint experiments on ion beam surface modification of materials; (3) use results of the investigations and tests of the laboratory ion source as the basis for development of a commercial ion source with the beam up to 1,000 cm{sup 2} in cross-section area. Results of the research are summarized.

  8. Ion source with improved primary arc collimation

    DOEpatents

    Dagenhart, William K.

    1985-01-01

    An improved negative ion source is provided in which a self-biasing, molybdenum collimator is used to define the primary electron stream arc discharge from a filament operated at a negative potential. The collimator is located between the anode and the filament. It is electrically connected to the anode by means of an appropriate size resistor such that the collimator is biased at essentially the filament voltage during operation. Initially, the full arc voltage appears across the filament to collimator until the arc discharge strikes. Then the collimator biases itself to essentially filament potential due to current flow through the resistor thus defining the primary electron stream without intercepting any appreciable arc power. The collimator aperture is slightly smaller than the anode aperture to shield the anode from the arc power, thereby preventing the exposure of the anode to the full arc power which, in the past, has caused overheating and erosion of the anode collimator during extended time pulsed-beam operation of the source. With the self-biasing collimator of this invention, the ion source may be operated from short pulse periods to steady-state without destroying the anode.

  9. Ion source with improved primary arc collimation

    DOEpatents

    Dagenhart, W.K.

    1983-12-16

    An improved negative ion source is provided in which a self-biasing, molybdenum collimator is used to define the primary electron stream arc discharge from a filament operated at a negative potential. The collimator is located between the anode and the filament. It is electrically connected to the anode by means of an appropriate size resistor such that the collimator is biased at essentially the filament voltage during operation. Initially, the full arc voltage appears across the filament to collimator until the arc discharge strikes. Then the collimator biases itself to essentially filament potential due to current flow through the resistor thus defining the primary electron stream without intercepting any appreciable arc power. The collimator aperture is slightly smaller than the anode aperture to shield the anode from the arc power which, in the past, has caused overheating and erosion of the anode collimator during extended time pulsed-beam operation of the source. With the self-biasing collimator of this invention, the ion source may be operated from short pulse periods to steady-state without destroying the anode.

  10. Installation and commissioning of the new Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory H- Magnetron

    SciTech Connect

    Bollinger, D. S.

    2014-02-15

    The Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL) 40 year old Cockcroft-Walton 750 keV injectors with slit aperture magnetron ion sources have been replaced with a circular aperture magnetron, Low Energy Beam Transport, Radio Frequency Quadrupole Accelerator, and Medium Energy Beam Transport, as part of the FNAL Proton Improvement Plan. The injector design is based on a similar system at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The installation, commissioning efforts, and source operations to date will be covered in this paper along with plans for additional changes to the original design to improve reliability by reducing extractor spark rates and arc current duty factor.

  11. Recent work on a microwave ion source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asmussen, J.; Root, J.

    1984-01-01

    The performance of a microwave (2.45 GHz) plasma-disk ion source using a cylindrical microwave cavity is described. The operating characteristics in argon and xenon gases with 50-200 W of input power and gas flow rates from 10-80 sccm are presented. In particular, extracted beam current versus accelerating voltage, and specific energy vs. mass utilization efficiency and extracted beam current are presented. Double Langmuir probe measurements indicate that electron densities in excess of 10 to the 12th per cu cm can be readily achieved in the microwave generated plasma.

  12. High current short pulse ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, K.N.

    1996-08-01

    High current short pulse ion beams can be generated by using a multicusp source. This is accomplished by switching the arc or the RF induction discharge on and off. An alternative approach is to maintain a continuous plasma discharge and extraction voltage but control the plasma flow into the extraction aperture by a combination of magnetic and electric fields. Short beam pulses can be obtained by using a fast electronic switch and a dc bias power supply. It is also demonstrated that very short beam pulses ({approximately} 10 {micro}s) with high repetition rate can be formed by a laser-driven LaB{sub 6} or barium photo-cathode.

  13. Application of ECR ion source beams in atomic physics

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, F.W.

    1987-01-01

    The availability of intense, high charge state ion beams from ECR ion sources has had significant impact not only on the upgrading of cyclotron and synchrotron facilities, but also on multicharged ion collision research, as evidenced by the increasing number of ECR source facilities used at least on a part time basis for atomic physics research. In this paper one such facility, located at the ORNL ECR source, and dedicated full time to the study of multicharged ion collisions, is described. Examples of applications of ECR ion source beams are given, based on multicharged ion collision physics studies performed at Oak Ridge over the last few years. 21 refs., 18 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Deposition of boron nitride coatings by reactive RF magnetron sputtering: Correlation between boron and nitrogen contents and the flux of energetic Ar{sup +} ions at the substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Rigato, V.; Spolaore, M.; Della Mea, G.

    1996-12-31

    Thin films BN{sub x}O{sub y} have been deposited by rf Reactive Magnetron Sputtering from a BN target in Ar{sup +} plasma (1 Pa) at different substrate bias conditions. The possibility of obtaining dense and hard BN coatings at a target-to-substrate distance larger than the mean free path of the B and N atoms has been investigated. In order to deduce the plasma potential and the ion density near the substrates, the discharge characteristics have been measured by means of an electrostatic probe of the Langmuir type properly coupled to the glow discharge for avoiding the rf interference. From the probe data both flux and energy of the Ar{sup +} ions have been determined and correlated to the net contents of boron and nitrogen as measured by means of the N(d,p) and {sup 11}B(p,{alpha}) nuclear reactions. The results of this study show that in the investigated experimental conditions the flux of energetic Ar{sup +} ions at the substrates is insufficient for promoting the formation of cubic BN as confirmed by XRD, FT-IR and nanohardness measurements. The reported data agree with recent literature findings and support the need of monitoring both the bombarding rate and energy of the Ar ions in rf discharges if the c-BN deposition is to be attained in a reproducible manner.

  15. Study of ion source emittance of an ELS-PIG source used for ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swenson, D. R.; Saadatmand, K.; Zeinoun, I.

    2000-02-01

    Optimizing transmission of beam in an ion implanter used for the manufacture of semiconductor devices leads to improved source lifetime, better reliability, and reduces contamination. With this goal, we are studying the emittance of the beam produced by the ELS-PIG ion source for beams from a BF3 plasma extracted at 90 kV with currents as high as 50 mA. The four-dimensional emittance is measured using a unique pepper-pot emittance gear. We have studied the effect on emittance of the plasma emission aperture dimensions, the extraction gap length, the extracted current and other parameters.

  16. A hollow cathode ion source for production of primary ions for the BNL electron beam ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Alessi, James Beebe, Edward; Carlson, Charles; McCafferty, Daniel; Pikin, Alexander; Ritter, John

    2014-02-15

    A hollow cathode ion source, based on one developed at Saclay, has been modified significantly and used for several years to produce all primary 1+ ions injected into the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) at Brookhaven. Currents of tens to hundreds of microamperes have been produced for 1+ ions of He, C, O, Ne, Si, Ar, Ti, Fe, Cu, Kr, Xe, Ta, Au, and U. The source is very simple, relying on a glow discharge using a noble gas, between anode and a solid cathode containing the desired species. Ions of both the working gas and ionized sputtered cathode material are extracted, and then the desired species is selected using an ExB filter before being transported into the EBIS trap for charge breeding. The source operates pulsed with long life and excellent stability for most species. Reliable ignition of the discharge at low gas pressure is facilitated by the use of capacitive coupling from a simple toy plasma globe. The source design, and operating experience for the various species, is presented.

  17. A hollow cathode ion source for production of primary ions for the BNL electron beam ion source.

    PubMed

    Alessi, James; Beebe, Edward; Carlson, Charles; McCafferty, Daniel; Pikin, Alexander; Ritter, John

    2014-02-01

    A hollow cathode ion source, based on one developed at Saclay, has been modified significantly and used for several years to produce all primary 1+ ions injected into the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) at Brookhaven. Currents of tens to hundreds of microamperes have been produced for 1+ ions of He, C, O, Ne, Si, Ar, Ti, Fe, Cu, Kr, Xe, Ta, Au, and U. The source is very simple, relying on a glow discharge using a noble gas, between anode and a solid cathode containing the desired species. Ions of both the working gas and ionized sputtered cathode material are extracted, and then the desired species is selected using an ExB filter before being transported into the EBIS trap for charge breeding. The source operates pulsed with long life and excellent stability for most species. Reliable ignition of the discharge at low gas pressure is facilitated by the use of capacitive coupling from a simple toy plasma globe. The source design, and operating experience for the various species, is presented. PMID:24593637

  18. 1+-n+ ECR ION SOURCE DEVELOPMENT TEST STAND

    SciTech Connect

    Donald P. May

    2006-04-07

    A test stand for the investigation of 1+-n+ charge boosting using an ECR ion sources is currently being assembled at the Texas A&M Cyclotron Institute. The ultimate goal is to relate the charge-boosting of ions of stable species to possible charge-boosting of ions of radioactive species extracted from the diverse, low-charge-state ion sources developed for radioactive ion beams.

  19. Development of hollow anode penning ion source for laboratory application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, B. K.; Shyam, A.; Das, R.; Rao, A. D. P.

    2012-03-01

    The research work presented here focuses for the development of miniature penning type ion source. One hollow anode penning type ion source was developed in our laboratory. The size of the ion source is 38 mm diameter and 55 mm length. The ion source consists of two cathodes, a hollow anode and one piece of rare earth permanent magnet. The plasma was created in the plasma region between cathodes and the hollow anode. The J × B force in the region helps for efficient ionization of the gas even in the high vacuum region˜1×10 -5 Torr. The ions were extracted in the axial direction with help of the potential difference between the electrodes and the geometry of the extraction angle. The effect of the extraction electrode geometry for efficient extraction of the ions from the plasma region was examined. This ion source is a self extracted ion source. The self extracted phenomena reduce the cost and the size of the ion source. The extracted ion current was measured by a graphite probe. An ion current of more than 200 μA was observed at the probe placed 70 mm apart from the extraction electrode. In this paper, the structure of the ion source, effect of operating pressure, potential difference and the magnetic field on the extracted ion current is reported.

  20. Progress of resonant ionization laser ion source development at GANIL

    SciTech Connect

    Henares, J. L. Huguet, Y.; Lecesne, N.; Leroy, R.; Osmond, B.; Sjödin, A. M.; Kron, T.; Schneider, F.; Wendt, K.

    2014-02-15

    SPIRAL2 (Système de Production d’Ions Radioactifs Accélérés en Ligne) is a research facility under construction at GANIL (Grand Accélérateur National d’Ions Lourds) for the production of radioactive ion beams by isotope separation on-line methods and low-energy in-flight techniques. A resonant ionization laser ion source will be one of the main techniques to produce the radioactive ion beams. GISELE (GANIL Ion Source using Electron Laser Excitation) is a test bench developed to study a fully operational laser ion source available for Day 1 operations at SPIRAL2 Phase 2. The aim of this project is to find the best technical solution which combines high selectivity and ionization efficiency with small ion beam emittance and stable long term operation. Latest results about the new ion source geometry will be presented.

  1. The emittance and brightness characteristics of negative ion sources suitable for MeV ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Alton, G.D.

    1987-01-01

    This paper provides the description and beam properties of ion sources suitable for use with ion implantation devices. Particular emphasis is placed on the emittance and brightness properties of state-of-the-art, high intensity, negative ion sources based on the cesium ion sputter principle. (WRF)

  2. Numerical model of electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mironov, V.; Bogomolov, S.; Bondarchenko, A.; Efremov, A.; Loginov, V.

    2015-12-01

    Important features of the electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) operation are accurately reproduced with a numerical code. The code uses the particle-in-cell technique to model the dynamics of ions in ECRIS plasma. It is shown that a gas dynamical ion confinement mechanism is sufficient to provide the ion production rates in ECRIS close to the experimentally observed values. Extracted ion currents are calculated and compared to the experiment for a few sources. Changes in the simulated extracted ion currents are obtained with varying the gas flow into the source chamber and the microwave power. Empirical scaling laws for ECRIS design are studied and the underlying physical effects are discussed.

  3. Measurements of sputtered neutrals and ions and investigation of their roles on the plasma properties during rf magnetron sputtering of Zn and ZnO targets

    SciTech Connect

    Maaloul, L.; Stafford, L.

    2013-11-15

    Langmuir probe and optical absorption spectroscopy measurements were used to determine the line-integrated electron density, electron temperature, and number density of Ar atoms in metastable {sup 3}P{sub 2} and {sup 3}P{sub 0} levels in a 5 mTorr, rf magnetron sputtering plasmas used for the deposition of ZnO-based thin films. While the average electron energy and density of Ar atoms in {sup 3}P{sub 2} and {sup 3}P{sub 0} excited states were fairly independent of self-bias voltage, the Ar {sup 3}P{sub 2}-to-electron number density ratio decreased by approximately a factor of 5 when going from −115 V to −300 V. This decrease was correlated to an increase by about one order of magnitude of the number density of sputtered Zn atoms determined by absolute actinometry measurements on Zn I using either Ar or Xe as the actinometer gas. These results were also found to be in excellent agreement with the predictions of a global model accounting for Penning ionization of sputtered Zn particles. The importance of the latter reactions was further confirmed by plasma sampling mass spectrometry showing a double peak structure for Zn ions: a low-energy component ascribed to thermalized ions created in the gas phase (by direct electron impact and by Penning ionization) and a high-energy tail due to ions ejected from the target and reaching quasi-collisionlessly the substrate surface.

  4. The influences of high energetic oxygen negative ions and active oxygen on the microstructure and electrical properties of ZnO:Al films by MF magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Changshan; Xie, Bin; Li, Ming; Wang, Haiqian; Jiang, Yousong; Song, Yizhou

    2012-08-01

    In this paper, ZnO:Al transparent conducting films were prepared on glass substrate by magnetron sputtering from Al doped ZnO ceramic targets. By measuring and analyzing the structure and electrical properties of films in front of targets at different target-to-substrate distance, it was concluded that the bombardment of energetic oxygen negative ions decreased with increasing target-to-substrate distance, dominating variation of resistivity and the microstructure in erosion area, while numbers of active oxygen decrease with increasing target-to-substrate distance, explaining variation of resistivity in non-erosion area. The influence of target-to-substrate distance on electrical and microstructure properties of ZnO:Al films on drum was also investigated in order to confirming our result. The result indicated that both energetic oxygen negative ions and numbers of active oxygen determined the properties of films on drum. While target-to-substrate distance is less than 95 mm, the numbers of energetic oxygen ions are the key factor and vice versa. The optimum resistivity of post-annealed films on drum was 5.1 × 10-4 Ω cm at target-to-substrate distance of 95 mm.

  5. A singly charged ion source for radioactive 11C ion acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katagiri, K.; Noda, A.; Nagatsu, K.; Nakao, M.; Hojo, S.; Muramatsu, M.; Suzuki, K.; Wakui, T.; Noda, K.

    2016-02-01

    A new singly charged ion source using electron impact ionization has been developed to realize an isotope separation on-line system for simultaneous positron emission tomography imaging and heavy-ion cancer therapy using radioactive 11C ion beams. Low-energy electron beams are used in the electron impact ion source to produce singly charged ions. Ionization efficiency was calculated in order to decide the geometric parameters of the ion source and to determine the required electron emission current for obtaining high ionization efficiency. Based on these considerations, the singly charged ion source was designed and fabricated. In testing, the fabricated ion source was found to have favorable performance as a singly charged ion source.

  6. Fabrication of high-quality VO2 thin films by ion-assisted dual ac magnetron sputtering.

    PubMed

    Ba, Cheikhou; Bah, Souleymane T; D'Auteuil, Marc; Ashrit, P V; Vallée, Réal

    2013-12-11

    The technique of cathodic ac dual magnetron sputtering along with the high energy ionic bombardment is known to yield high-quality thin films in terms of their uniformity and high density. This technique has been applied for the first time to achieve thermochromic VO2 thin films that show a high optical and electrical contrast between normal and switched states. In this two-step process Vanadium metal films were deposited and subsequently oxidized in optimum conditions to achieve stoichiometric VO2 films. Typical films switched between more than 40 % to less than 5 % transmission in the infrared region while undergoing an electrical sheet resistance change between 1 × 10(5) and 1 × 10(2) Ω/cm(2). The application potential of such VO2 films in integrated optics is deemed high. PMID:24215606

  7. Electrochemical and microstructural characterization of magnetron-sputtered ATO thin films as Liion storage materials

    SciTech Connect

    Ouyang, Pan; Zhang, Hong; Chen, Wenhao; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Yu; Li, Zhicheng

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: Nano-structured ATO thin films prepared by RF magnetron sputtering at 25 C, 100 C and 200 C, respectively. ATO thin films show a high reversible capacity and high rate performance. Electrochemical reaction mechanism of the ATO thin film was revealed by transmission electron microscopy. - Abstract: Sb-doped SnO{sub 2} (ATO) nanostructured thin films were prepared by using radio frequency magnetron sputtering at the substrate temperatures of 25 C, 100 C and 200 C, respectively. All the ATO thin films have the similar redox characteristics in the cyclic voltammetry measurements. The ATO thin film sputtered at 200 C shows the lowest charge transfer resistance and best electrochemical performance, and has a high reversible capacity of 679 mA h g{sup ?1} at 100 mA g{sup ?1} after 200 chargedischarge cycles and high rate performance of 483 mA h g{sup ?1} at 800 mA g{sup ?1}. The electrochemical mechanisms were investigated by analyzing the phase evolution of the ATO electrodes that had been electrochemically induced at various stages. The results reveal that the ATO underwent reversible lithiation/delithiation processes during the electrochemical cycles, i.e., the SnO{sub 2} reacted with Li{sup +} to produce metallic Sn and followed by the formation of the Li{sub x}Sn alloys during discharge process, and then Li{sub x}Sn alloys de-alloyed, Sn reacted with Li{sub 2}O, and even partially formed SnO{sub 2} during charge process.

  8. Magnetic plasma confinement for laser ion source.

    PubMed

    Okamura, M; Adeyemi, A; Kanesue, T; Tamura, J; Kondo, K; Dabrowski, R

    2010-02-01

    A laser ion source (LIS) can easily provide a high current beam. However, it has been difficult to obtain a longer beam pulse while keeping a high current. On occasion, longer beam pulses are required by certain applications. For example, more than 10 micros of beam pulse is required for injecting highly charged beams to a large sized synchrotron. To extend beam pulse width, a solenoid field was applied at the drift space of the LIS at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The solenoid field suppressed the diverging angle of the expanding plasma and the beam pulse was widened. Also, it was observed that the plasma state was conserved after passing through a few hundred gauss of the 480 mm length solenoid field. PMID:20192365

  9. Magnetic plasma confinement for laser ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Okamura, M.; Adeyemi, A.; Kanesue, T.; Tamura, J.; Kondo, K.; Dabrowski, R.

    2010-02-15

    A laser ion source (LIS) can easily provide a high current beam. However, it has been difficult to obtain a longer beam pulse while keeping a high current. On occasion, longer beam pulses are required by certain applications. For example, more than 10 {mu}s of beam pulse is required for injecting highly charged beams to a large sized synchrotron. To extend beam pulse width, a solenoid field was applied at the drift space of the LIS at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The solenoid field suppressed the diverging angle of the expanding plasma and the beam pulse was widened. Also, it was observed that the plasma state was conserved after passing through a few hundred gauss of the 480 mm length solenoid field.

  10. Magnetic plasma confinement for laser ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Okamura, M.; Adeyemi, A.; Kanesue, T.; Tamura, J.; Kondo, K.; Dabrowski, R.

    2010-02-01

    A laser ion source (LIS) can easily provide a high current beam. However, it has been difficult to obtain a longer beam pulse while keeping a high current. On occasion, longer beam pulses are required by certain applications. For example, more than 10 {micro}s of beam pulse is required for injecting highly charged beams to a large sized synchrotron. To extend beam pulse width, a solenoid field was applied at the drift space of the LIS at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The solenoid field suppressed the diverging angle of the expanding plasma and the beam pulse was widened. Also, it was observed that the plasma state was conserved after passing through a few hundred gauss of the 480 mm length solenoid field.

  11. Compact electron beam ion sources/traps: review and prospects.

    PubMed

    Zschornack, G; Kreller, M; Ovsyannikov, V P; Grossman, F; Kentsch, U; Schmidt, M; Ullmann, F; Heller, R

    2008-02-01

    The Dresden electron beam ion trap (EBIT)/electron beam ion source (EBIS) family are very compact and economically working table-top ion sources. We report on the development of three generations of such ion sources, the so-called Dresden EBIT, Dresden EBIS, and Dresden EBIS-A, respectively. The ion sources are classified by different currents of extractable ions at different charge states and by the x-ray spectra emitted by the ions inside the electron beam. We present examples of x-ray measurements and measured ion currents extracted from the ion sources at certain individual operating conditions. Ion charge states of up to Xe(48+) but also bare nuclei of lighter elements up to nickel have been extracted. The application potential of the ion sources is demonstrated via proof-of-concept applications employing an EBIT in a focused ion beam (FIB) column or using an EBIT for the production of nanostructures by single ion hits. Additionally we give first information about the next generation of the Dresden EBIS series. The so-called Dresden EBIS-SC is a compact and cryogen-free superconducting high-B-field EBIS for high-current operation. PMID:18315151

  12. Mini RF-driven ion source for focused ion beam system

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, X.; Ji, Q.; Chang, A.; Leung, K.N.

    2002-08-02

    Mini RF-driven ion sources with 1.2 cm and 1.5 cm inner chamber diameter have been developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Several gas species have been tested including argon, krypton and hydrogen. These mini ion sources operate in inductively coupled mode and are capable of generating high current density ion beams at tens of watts. Since the plasma potential is relatively low in the plasma chamber, these mini ion sources can function reliably without any perceptible sputtering damage. The mini RF-driven ion sources will be combined with electrostatic focusing columns, and are capable of producing nano focused ion beams for micro machining and semiconductor fabrications.

  13. Side extraction duoPIGatron-type ion source.

    SciTech Connect

    GUSHENETS,V.I.; OKS, E.M.; HERSCHOVITCH, A.; JOHNSON, B.M.

    2007-08-26

    We have designed and constructed a compact duoPIGatron-type ion source, for possible use in ion implanters, in such the ion can be extracted from side aperture in contrast to conventional duoPIGatron sources with axial ion extraction. The size of the side extraction aperture is 1x40 mm. The ion source was developed to study physical and technological aspects relevant to an industrial ion source. The side extraction duoPIGatron has stable arc, uniformly bright illumination, and dense plasma. The present work describes some of preliminary operating parameters of the ion source using Argon, BF3. The total unanalyzed beam currents are 23 mA using Ar at an arc current 5 A and 13 mA using BF3 gas at an arc current 6 A.

  14. Ion source for high-precision mass spectrometry

    DOEpatents

    Todd, Peter J.; McKown, Henry S.; Smith, David H.

    1984-01-01

    The invention is directed to a method for increasing the precision of positive-ion relative abundance measurements conducted in a sector mass spectrometer having an ion source for directing a beam of positive ions onto a collimating slit. The method comprises incorporating in the source an electrostatic lens assembly for providing a positive-ion beam of circular cross section for collimation by the slit.

  15. Ion source for high-precision mass spectrometry

    DOEpatents

    Todd, P.J.; McKown, H.S.; Smith, D.H.

    1982-04-26

    The invention is directed to a method for increasing the precision of positive-ion relative abundance measurements conducted in a sector mass spectrometer having an ion source for directing a beam of positive ions onto a collimating slit. The method comprises incorporating in the source an electrostatic lens assembly for providing a positive-ion beam of circular cross section for collimation by the slit. 2 figures, 3 tables.

  16. Development of a polarized 3He ion source for RHIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxwell, J.; Milner, R.; Epstein, C.

    2014-01-01

    A Polarized 3He Ion Source in under development for use at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The gas will be polarized using metastability exchange optical pumping, then transferred into the Electron Beam Ion Source for ionization. Nuclear polarization of order 70% is expected under optimal conditions, and roughly 1011 doubly-ionized 3He++ ions will be created in each 20 μs pulse.

  17. Performance of positive ion based high power ion source of EAST neutral beam injector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Chundong; Xie, Yahong; Xie, Yuanlai; Liu, Sheng; Xu, Yongjian; Liang, Lizhen; Jiang, Caichao; Li, Jun; Liu, Zhimin

    2016-02-01

    The positive ion based source with a hot cathode based arc chamber and a tetrode accelerator was employed for a neutral beam injector on the experimental advanced superconducting tokamak (EAST). Four ion sources were developed and each ion source has produced 4 MW @ 80 keV hydrogen beam on the test bed. 100 s long pulse operation with modulated beam has also been tested on the test bed. The accelerator was upgraded from circular shaped to diamond shaped in the latest two ion sources. In the latest campaign of EAST experiment, four ion sources injected more than 4 MW deuterium beam with beam energy of 60 keV into EAST.

  18. Production of negative hydrogen and deuterium ions in microwave-driven ion sources.

    SciTech Connect

    Spence, D.

    1998-09-11

    The authors report progress they have made in the production of negative hydrogen and deuterium atomic ions in magnetically-confined microwave-driven (2.45 GHz) ion sources. The influence of source surface material, microwave power, source gas pressure and magnetic field configuration on the resulting ion current is discussed. Results strongly suggest that, at least in the source, vibrationally excited molecular hydrogen, the precursor to atomic negative ion production, is produced via a surface mechanism suggested by Hall et al. rather than via a gas phase reaction as is generally believed to be the case in most ion sources.

  19. Contribution to ion source developments for SPIRAL-2 and EURISOL

    SciTech Connect

    Lau, C.; Cheikh Mhamed, M.; Essabaa, S.; Arianer, J.; Bajeat, O.; Croizet, H.; Ducourtieux, M.; Lefort, H.; Huet-Equilbec, C.; Jardin, P.; Leroy, R.

    2006-03-15

    Next generation facilities such as those designed in SPIRAL-2 and EURISOL projects require dedicated radioactive ion sources. Indeed, the ion source must be capable of operating under the very strong radiation generated by the primary beam in the production target. In the framework of the SPIRAL-2 design study, realistic and efficient solutions have been studied to face these unprecedented irradiation constraints. The considered options will be described and argued. In particular, considering forced electron beam induced are discharge-type ion sources, the reasons to start the development of a new prototype, the ionization by radial electron neat adaptation (IRENA) ion source, will be presented. The IRENA ion source is based on the electron beam generated plasma ion source. The design of the first prototype will be presented and discussed.

  20. ECR sources for the production of highly charged ions

    SciTech Connect

    Lyneis, C.M.; Antaya, T.A; Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI )

    1989-09-01

    Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources (ECRIS) using RF between 5 and 16 GHz have been developed into stable, reliable sources of highly charged ions produced from a wide range of elements. These devices are currently used as ion sources for cyclotrons, synchrotrons, and heavy-ion linacs for nuclear and relativistic heavy-ion physics. They also serve the atomic physics community as a source of low energy multiply-charged ions. In order to improve their performance both with respect to maximum charge state and beam intensity, ECRIS builders are now designing and constructing sources which will operate at frequencies up to 30 GHz. In this paper we review the present status of operating ECRIS, review recent experimental measurements on plasma parameters, and look at the technology and potential of sources operating at frequencies up to 30 GHz. 14 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Vacuum ARC ion sources - activities & developments at LBL

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, I.

    1996-08-01

    The author describes work at LBL on the development and application of vacuum arc ion sources. Work has been done on vacuum spark sources - to produce very high charge states, studies of high charge states in magnetic field, hybrid ion source operation on metal/gas plasma, multipole operation, work on MEVVA V for implantation applications, development of broad beam sources, and removal of particles from the output of the source.

  2. Ion source development for ultratrace detection of uranium and thorium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Batchelder, J. C.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Chu, R.; Fan, S.; Romero-Romero, E.; Stracener, D. W.

    2015-10-01

    Efficient ion sources are needed for detecting ultratrace U and Th impurities in a copper matrix by mass spectrometry techniques such as accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Two positive ion sources, a hot-cavity surface ionization source and a resonant ionization laser ion source, are evaluated in terms of ionization efficiencies for generating ion beams of U and Th. The performances of the ion sources are characterized using uranyl nitrate and thorium nitrate sample materials with sample sizes between 20 and 40 μg of U or Th. For the surface ion source, the dominant ion beams observed are UO+ or ThO+ and ionization efficiencies of 2-4% have been obtained with W and Re cavities. With the laser ion source, three-step resonant photoionization of U atoms has been studied and only atomic U ions are observed. An ionization efficiency of about 9% has been demonstrated. The performances of both ion sources are expected to be further improved.

  3. A new Cs sputter ion source with polyatomic ion beams for SIMS applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Belykh, S. F.; Palitsin, V. V.; Veryovkin, I. V.; Kovarsky, A. P.; Chang, R. J. H.; Adriaens, A.; Dowsett, M. G.; Adams, F.; Materials Science Division; Univ. Warwick; Ioffe Phys.-Tech. Inst.; Ghent Univ.; Univ. Antwerp

    2007-08-02

    A simple design for a cesium sputter ion source compatible with vacuum and ion-optical systems as well as with electronics of the commercially available Cameca IMS-4f instrument is reported. This ion source has been tested with the cluster primary ions of Si{sub n}{sup -} and Cu{sub n}{sup -}. Our experiments with surface characterization and depth profiling conducted to date demonstrate improvements of the analytical capabilities of the secondary ion mass spectrometry instrument due to the nonadditive enhancement of secondary ion emission and shorter ion ranges of polyatomic projectiles compared to atomic ones with the same impact energy.

  4. Ion source for tests of ion behavior in the Karlsruhe tritium neutrino experiment beam line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukic, S.; Bornschein, B.; Drexlin, G.; Glück, F.; Kazachenko, O.; Schöppner, M.; Weinheimer, Ch.; Zoll, M. C. R.

    2011-01-01

    An electron-impact ion source based on photoelectron emission was developed for ionization of gases at pressures below 10-4 mbar in an axial magnetic field in the order of 5 T. The ion source applies only dc fields, which makes it suitable for use in the presence of equipment sensitive to radio-frequency (RF) fields. The ion source was successfully tested under varying conditions regarding pressure, magnetic field, and magnetic-field gradient, and the results were studied with the help of simulations. The processes in the ion source are well understood, and possibilities for further optimization of generated ion currents are clarified.

  5. Ion source for tests of ion behavior in the Karlsruhe tritium neutrino experiment beam line

    SciTech Connect

    Lukic, S.; Bornschein, B.; Drexlin, G.; Glueck, F.; Kazachenko, O.; Zoll, M. C. R.; Schoeppner, M.; Weinheimer, Ch.

    2011-01-15

    An electron-impact ion source based on photoelectron emission was developed for ionization of gases at pressures below 10{sup -4} mbar in an axial magnetic field in the order of 5 T. The ion source applies only dc fields, which makes it suitable for use in the presence of equipment sensitive to radio-frequency (RF) fields. The ion source was successfully tested under varying conditions regarding pressure, magnetic field, and magnetic-field gradient, and the results were studied with the help of simulations. The processes in the ion source are well understood, and possibilities for further optimization of generated ion currents are clarified.

  6. Recent developments and upgrades in ion source technology and ion beam systems at HVE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podaru, Nicolae C.; Mous, Dirk J. W.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper we discuss various ion sources used in particle accelerator systems dedicated to ion beam analysis techniques. Key performance and characteristics of some ion sources are discussed: emittance, brightness, gas consumption, sample consumption efficiency, lifetime, etc. For negative ion sources, we focus on the performance of volume H- ion sources (e.g. HVE model 358), the duoplasmatron negative ion source and the magnetically filtered multicusp volume sources (e.g. HVE model SO-120). The duoplasmatron ion source has been recently upgraded with a Ta filament to deliver up to 150 μA H- ion beams and in conjunction with the Na charge exchange canal up to 20 μA of He-. The available brightness from the duoplasmatron increased from 2 to 6 A m-2 rad-2 eV-1. The ion source has been incorporated in a stand-alone light ion injector, well suited to deliver 20-30 keV negative ion beams of H-, He-, C-, NHx- and O- to accelerate for most ion beam analysis techniques.

  7. Negative ion source development for fusion application (invited).

    PubMed

    Takeiri, Yasuhiko

    2010-02-01

    Giant negative ion sources, producing high-current of several tens amps with high energy of several hundreds keV to 1 MeV, are required for a neutral beam injector (NBI) in a fusion device. The giant negative ion sources are cesium-seeded plasma sources, in which the negative ions are produced on the cesium-covered surface. Their characteristic features are discussed with the views of large-volume plasma production, large-area beam acceleration, and high-voltage dc holding. The international thermonuclear experimental reactor NBI employs a 1 MeV-40 A of deuterium negative ion source, and intensive development programs for the rf-driven source plasma production and the multistage electrostatic acceleration are in progress, including the long pulse operation for 3600 s. Present status of the development, as well as the achievements of the giant negative ion sources in the working injectors, is also summarized. PMID:20192420

  8. High-efficiency target-ion sources for RIB generation

    SciTech Connect

    Alton, G.D.

    1993-12-31

    A brief review is given of high-efficiency ion sources which have been developed or are under development at ISOL facilities which show particular promise for use at existing, future, or radioactive ion beam (RIB) facilities now under construction. Emphasis will be placed on those sources which have demonstrated high ionization efficiency, species versatility, and operational reliability and which have been carefully designed for safe handling in the high level radioactivity radiation fields incumbent at such facilities. Brief discussions will also be made of the fundamental processes which affect the realizable beam intensities in target-ion sources. Among the sources which will be reviewed will be selected examples of state-of-the-art electron-beam plasma-type ion sources, thermal-ionization, surface-ionization, ECR, and selectively chosen ion source concepts which show promise for radioactive ion beam generation. A few advanced, chemically selective target-ion sources will be described, such as sources based on the use of laser-resonance ionization, which, in principle, offer a more satisfactory solution to isobaric contamination problems than conventional electromagnetic techniques. Particular attention will be given to the sources which have been selected for initial or future use at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility now under construction at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  9. Commissioning and operation of the FNAL front end injection line and ion sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karns, Patrick R.

    This thesis documents the efforts made in commissioning and operating the RFQ Injection Line (RIL) as a replacement for the Cockcroft Walton front end. The Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) was assembled and tested with multiwire position and emittance monitor measurements. The Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) commissioning was completed with the same measurements as well as output beam energy measurements that showed it initially accelerated beam only to 700 keV, which was 50 keV lower than the design energy. Working with the manufacturer solutions were found and instituted to continue testing. The Medium Energy Beam Transport (MEBT) was then connected as the RIL was installed as the new front end of Linac. Testing gave way to operation when the new front end was used as the source of all High Energy Physics (HEP) beam for Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL). The magnetron ion source that provides the H- beam for the front end required several changes and eventual upgrades to operate well; such as new source operating points for vacuum pressure and cesium admixture, and new materials for critical source components. Further research was conducted on the cathode geometry and nitrogen doping of the hydrogen gas as well as using solid state switches for the extractor system high voltage.

  10. Commissioning and Operation of the FNAL Front end Injection Line and Ion Sources.

    SciTech Connect

    Karns, Patrick R.

    2015-09-01

    This thesis documents the efforts made in commissioning and operating the RFQ Injection Line (RIL) as a replacement for the Cockcroft Walton front end. The Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) was assembled and tested with multiwire position and emittance monitor measurements. The Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) commissioning was completed with the same measurements as well as output beam energy measurements that showed it initially accelerated beam only to 700 keV, which was 50 keV lower than the design energy. Working with the manufacturer solutions were found and instituted to continue testing. The Medium Energy Beam Transport (MEBT) was then connected as the RIL was installed as the new front end of Linac. Testing gave way to operation when the new front end was used as the source of all High Energy Physics (HEP) beam for Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL). The magnetron ion source that provides the H- beam for the front end required several changes and eventual upgrades to operate well; such as new source operating points for vacuum pressure and cesium admixture, and new materials for critical source components. Further research was conducted on the cathode geometry and nitrogen doping of the hydrogen gas as well as using solid state switches for the extractor system high voltage.

  11. A double-plasma source of continuous bipolar ion-ion beam

    SciTech Connect

    Dudin, S. V.; Scientific Center of Physical Technologies, Svobody sq. 6, 61022 Kharkiv ; Rafalskyi, D. V.

    2013-01-21

    A double-plasma source capable of the generation of a continuous bipolar ion-ion beam is described. The quasi-neutral ion-ion flow to an extraction electrode is formed in the system containing primary inductively coupled plasma separated from a secondary plasma by an electrostatic grid-type filter. The total current of each ion species to the 250 mm diameter extraction electrode is about 80 mA; the electron current does not exceed 30% of the ion current. Method of positive/negative ion current ratio control is proposed, allowing the ion currents ratio variation in wide range.

  12. New tandem type ion source based on electron cyclotron resonance for universal source of synthesized ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, Yushi Kurisu, Yosuke; Nozaki, Dai; Yano, Keisuke; Kimura, Daiju; Kumakura, Sho; Imai, Youta; Nishiokada, Takuya; Sato, Fuminobu; Iida, Toshiyuki

    2014-02-15

    A new tandem type source has been constructed on the basis of electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma for producing synthesized ion beams. We investigate feasibility and hope to realize the device which has wide range operation window in a single device to produce many kinds of ion beams based on ECR ion source (ECRIS). It is considered that ECR plasmas are necessary to be available to individual operations with different plasma parameters. Both of analysis of ion beams and investigation of plasma parameters are conducted on produced plasmas. We describe construction of the new tandem type ion source based on ECRIS with wide operation window for aiming at producing synthesized ion beams as this new source can be a universal source.

  13. Low energy spread ion source with a coaxial magnetic filter

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Lee, Yung-Hee Yvette

    2000-01-01

    Multicusp ion sources are capable of producing ions with low axial energy spread which are necessary in applications such as ion projection lithography (IPL) and radioactive ion beam production. The addition of a radially extending magnetic filter consisting of a pair of permanent magnets to the multicusp source reduces the energy spread considerably due to the improvement in the uniformity of the axial plasma potential distribution in the discharge region. A coaxial multicusp ion source designed to further reduce the energy spread utilizes a cylindrical magnetic filter to achieve a more uniform axial plasma potential distribution. The coaxial magnetic filter divides the source chamber into an outer annular discharge region in which the plasma is produced and a coaxial inner ion extraction region into which the ions radially diffuse but from which ionizing electrons are excluded. The energy spread in the coaxial source has been measured to be 0.6 eV. Unlike other ion sources, the coaxial source has the capability of adjusting the radial plasma potential distribution and therefore the transverse ion temperature (or beam emittance).

  14. Characterization of an 8-cm Diameter Ion Source System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Zhongmin; Hawk, C. W.; Hawk, Clark W.; Buttweiler, Mark S.; Williams, John D.; Buchholtz, Brett

    2005-01-01

    Results of tests characterizing an 8-cm diameter ion source are presented. The tests were conducted in three separate vacuum test facilities at the University of Alabama-Huntsville, Colorado State University, and L3 Communications' ETI division. Standard ion optics tests describing electron backstreaming and total-voltage-limited impingement current behavior as a function of beam current were used as guidelines for selecting operating conditions where more detailed ion beam measurements were performed. The ion beam was profiled using an in-vacuum actuating probe system to determine the total ion current density and the ion charge state distribution variation across the face of the ion source. Both current density and ExB probes were utilized. The ion current density data were used to obtain integrated beam current, beam flatness parameters, and general beam profile shapes. The ExB probe data were used to determine the ratio of doubly to singly charged ion current. The ion beam profile tests were performed at over six different operating points that spanned the expected operating range of the DAWN thrusters being developed at L3. The characterization tests described herein reveal that the 8-cm ion source is suitable for use in (a) validating plasma diagnostic equipment, (b) xenon ion sputtering and etching studies of spacecraft materials, (c) plasma physics research, and (d) the study of ion thruster optics at varying conditions.

  15. Electron energy recovery system for negative ion sources

    DOEpatents

    Dagenhart, W.K.; Stirling, W.L.

    1979-10-25

    An electron energy recovery system for negative ion sources is provided. The system, employing crossed electric and magnetic fields, separates the electrons from the ions as they are extracted from the ion source plasma generator and before the ions are accelerated to their full energy. With the electric and magnetic fields oriented 90/sup 0/ to each other, the electrons remain at approximately the electrical potential at which they were generated. The electromagnetic forces cause the ions to be accelerated to the full accelerating supply voltage energy while being deflected through an angle of less than 90/sup 0/. The electrons precess out of the accelerating field region into an electron recovery region where they are collected at a small fraction of the full accelerating supply energy. It is possible, by this method, to collect > 90% of the electrons extracted along with the negative ions from a negative ion source beam at < 4% of full energy.

  16. Application of a compact microwave ion source to radiocarbon analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, R. J.; Reden, K. F. von; Hayes, J. M.; Wills, J. S. C.

    1999-04-26

    The compact, high current, 2.45 GHz microwave-driven plasma ion source which was built for the Chalk River TASCC facility is presently being adapted for testing as a gas ion source for accelerator mass spectrometry, at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution accelerator mass spectrometer. The special requirements for producing carbon-ion beams from micromole quantities of carbon dioxide produced from environmental samples will be discussed. These samples will be introduced into the ion source by means of argon carrier gas and a silicon capillary injection system. Following the extraction of positive ions from the source, negative ion formation in a charge exchange vapor will effectively remove the argon from the carbon beam. Simultaneous injection of the three carbon isotopes into the accelerator is planned.

  17. Negative ions as a source of low energy neutral beams

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, J.H.

    1980-01-01

    Little consideration has been given to the impact of recent developments in negative ion source technology on the design of low energy neutral beam injectors. However, negative ion sources of improved operating efficiency, higher gas efficiency, and smaller beam divergence will lead to neutral deuterium injectors, operating at less than 100 keV, with better operating efficiencies and more compact layouts than can be obtained from positive ion systems.

  18. Physics research and technology developments of electron string ion sources.

    PubMed

    Donets, D E; Donets, E E; Honma, T; Noda, K; Ramzdorf, A Yu; Salnikov, V V; Shutov, V B; Donets, E D

    2012-02-01

    The most recent experimental information on electron string phenomenon, such as two step transition to electron string state, stability of e-strings in condition of electron energy recuperation, are described. The new technology developments of electron string ion sources (ESIS) include pulse injection of gaseous species in e-string and its efficient conversion to ion beams, slow ion extraction, ion-ion cooling of heavy ions with CH(4) coolant, and a progress in the construction of the new Joint Institute for Nuclear Research ESIS with 6 T solenoid are briefly considered. PMID:22380208

  19. Modelling of magnetron sputtering process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubart, T.; Novák, R.; Valter, J.

    2004-03-01

    Magnetron sputtering is a technique commonly used in modern industry for thin films deposition with an accurate control of the coating parameters. In the magnetron sputtering system the target material is sputtered off by plasma ions. The plasma is sustained by an electrical discharge and magnetically confined in the target vicinity. This results in much higher sputtering rate, lower operating pressure and lower discharge voltage compared to a glow discharge diode sputtering systems. The modelling of magnetron sputtering is essential for the design of new coating systems. It enables efficient, low-cost and time-saving optimisation of the system. In this paper information on modelling of magnetrons at the Department of physics, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering CTU is given. Our work consists of two parts. The magnetic field of a given magnet array is first modelled by the finite element method and the computed field is then used for simulation of the erosion process by a Monte-Carlo model. The results are compared with measured erosion tracks and the accuracy of the model is discussed.

  20. Plasma source for ion and electron beam lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y.; Gough, R.A.; Leung, K.N.; Vujic, J.; Williams, M.D.; Zahir, N.; Fallman, W.; Tockler, M.; Bruenger, W.

    1998-11-01

    A new plasma source configuration, coaxial source, has been developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory suitable for ion and electron beam lithography applications. The axial ion energy spread and electron temperature of the multicusp ion source have been reduced considerably from 2 and 0.3 eV to a record low of 0.6 eV by employing a coaxial source arrangement. Results of ion projection lithographic exposure at the Fraunhofer Institute demonstrate that feature size less than 65 nm can be achieved by using a filter-equipped multicusp ion source. Langmuir probe measurements also show that very low energy spread electron beams can be obtained with the multicusp plasma generator. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Vacuum Society.}

  1. Off-line ion source terminal for ISAC at TRIUMFa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayamanna, K.; Ames, F.; Cojocaru, G.; Baartman, R.; Bricault, P.; Dube, R.; Laxdal, R.; Marchetto, M.; MacDonald, M.; Schmor, P.; Wight, G.; Yuan, D.

    2008-02-01

    The off-line ion source (OLIS) terminal consists of a microwave cusp ion source, either a surface ion source or a hybrid surface-arc discharge ion source and an electrostatic switch that allows selecting any one of the sources without mechanical intervention. These sources provide variety of beams to ISAC experiments, for commissioning the accelerators, for setting up the radioactive experiments, and for tuning the beam lines. The microwave ion source has been operational since 1995 and provides singly and doubly charged beams from various stable isotopes for many ISAC experiments at high and low energy areas. Originally its prime goal was to provide beams from gaseous elements, but later two ovens and a sputtering system were added in order to provide beams from liquids and from solids. The surface ion source installed in 2002 can provide low energy spread beams from alkali and semialkali elements. It also has three separate ovens and an ionizer. Therefore, it can provide three different temperature regions simultaneously to provide different beams to ISAC. It is mainly used for laser spectroscopy experiments and other experiments, which require a finite beam quality. A hybrid surface-arc discharge ion source was also developed and installed in order to meet specific demands from experiments. This source terminal is now automated for start up and for mass selection. It is capable of providing stable beams for months without maintenance and it is also capable of providing negative ion beams if required. To date, over 40 different isotopes including many rear isotopes were delivered to various experiments from the OLIS source terminal. Performances of the ion sources and some of the results are discussed.

  2. Multilayered TiAlN films on Ti6Al4V alloy for biomedical applications by closed field unbalanced magnetron sputter ion plating process.

    PubMed

    Yi, Peiyun; Peng, Linfa; Huang, Jiaqiang

    2016-02-01

    Ti6Al4V alloy has been widely used as a suitable material for surgical implants such as artificial hip joints. In this study, a series of multilayered gradient TiAlN coatings were deposited on Ti6Al4V substrate using closed field unbalanced magnetron sputter ion plating (CFUBMSIP) process. Taguchi design of experiment approach was used to reveal the influence of depositing parameters to the film composition and performance of TiAlN coatings. The phase structure and chemical composition of the TiAlN films were characterized by X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Mechanical properties, including hardness, Young's modulus, friction coefficient, wear rate and adhesion strength were systematically evaluated. Potentiodynamic tests were conducted to evaluate the corrosion resistance of the coated samples in Ringer's solution at 37°C to simulate human body environment. Comprehensive performance of TiAlN films was evaluated by assigning different weight according to the application environment. S8, deposited by Ti target current of 8A, Al target current of 6A, bias voltage of -60V and nitrogen content with OEM (optical emission monitor) value of 45%, was found to achieve best performance in orthogonal experiments. Depositing parameters of S8 might be practically applied for commercialization of surgical implants. PMID:26652421

  3. The effect of substrate bias voltages on impact resistance of CrAlN coatings deposited by modified ion beam enhanced magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chunyan, Yu; Linhai, Tian; Yinghui, Wei; Shebin, Wang; Tianbao, Li; Bingshe, Xu

    2009-01-01

    CrAlN coatings were deposited on silicon and AISI H13 steel substrates using a modified ion beam enhanced magnetron sputtering system. The effect of substrate negative bias voltages on the impact property of the CrAlN coatings was studied. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) data show that all CrAlN coatings were crystallized in the cubic NaCl B1 structure, with the (1 1 1), (2 0 0) (2 2 0) and (2 2 2) diffraction peaks observed. Two-dimensional surface morphologies of CrAlN coatings were investigated by atomic force microscope (AFM). The results show that with increasing substrate bias voltage the coatings became more compact and denser, and the microhardness and fracture toughness of the coatings increased correspondingly. In the dynamic impact resistance tests, the CrAlN coatings displayed better impact resistance with the increase of bias voltage, due to the reduced emergence and propagation of the cracks in coatings with a very dense structure and the increase of hardness and fracture toughness in coatings.

  4. Review on heavy ion radiotherapy facilities and related ion sources (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Kitagawa, A.; Fujita, T.; Muramatsu, M.; Biri, S.

    2010-02-15

    Heavy ion radiotherapy awakens worldwide interest recently. The clinical results obtained by the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences in Japan have clearly demonstrated the advantages of carbon ion radiotherapy. Presently, there are four facilities for heavy ion radiotherapy in operation, and several new facilities are under construction or being planned. The most common requests for ion sources are a long lifetime and good stability and reproducibility. Sufficient intensity has been achieved by electron cyclotron resonance ion sources at the present facilities.

  5. Laser ion source with solenoid for Brookhaven National Laboratory-electron beam ion sourcea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, K.; Yamamoto, T.; Sekine, M.; Okamura, M.

    2012-02-01

    The electron beam ion source (EBIS) preinjector at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is a new heavy ion-preinjector for relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC) and NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL). Laser ion source (LIS) is a primary ion source provider for the BNL-EBIS. LIS with solenoid at the plasma drift section can realize the low peak current (˜100 μA) with high charge (˜10 nC) which is the BNL-EBIS requirement. The gap between two solenoids does not cause serious plasma current decay, which helps us to make up the BNL-EBIS beamline.

  6. Small radio frequency driven multicusp ion source for positive hydrogen ion beam production

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, L.T.; Herz, P.R.; Leung, K.N.; Pickard, D.S. )

    1994-04-01

    A compact, 2.5 cm diam rf-driven multicusp ion source has been developed and tested for H[sup +] ion production in pulse mode operation. The source is optimized for atomic hydrogen ion species and extractable current. It is found that hydrogen ion beam current densities in excess of 650 mA/cm[sup 2] can be achieved with H[sup +] species above 80%. The geometry and position of the porcelain-coated copper antenna were found to be of great significance in relation to the efficiency of the ion source.

  7. Plume characteristics of a multiple ion source thruster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tierney, C. Michael

    1995-01-01

    This report describes ion plume characteristics of a multiple ion source thruster that are important to propulsion subsystem, spacecraft system, and mission design engineers with respect to incorporation of the segmented ion thruster (SIT) within a space mission. These characteristics will address issues related to operational performance, lifetime, thruster interaction with a host spacecraft, multiple ion beam interaction, and repeatability of construction and operation. Information contained within this report can be helpful in evaluating subsystem / mission performance, and resolve possible thruster / spacecraft integration issues.Characteristics of the exhausted ion beam(s) were evaluated through two sets of experiments. The first involved measuring the two-dimensional ion current density distribution at several downstream locations from the thruster with concurrent operation of up to three ion sources. Assessments were made of plume symmetry, plume development as a function of downstream position, interactions between multiple ion beams, and beam divergence angles were calculated for individually operated ion sources. Ion beam asymmetries about the ion source centerline were observed. Construction of multiple ion source current density profiles through superposition of data obtained from operation of individual ions sources was attempted. Charge exchange effects appear to have impacted the analyses and some discrepancies between 'real' and 'constructed' results were observed. Beam divergence angles for R = 0.893 cases ranged from 10° to 18° and from 16° to 22° for R = 0.643 cases.The second set of experiments involved collection of ion charge state data with the use of an ExB mass spectrometer placed downstream of the thruster. Charge state data was collected along the ion source centerline for 3 fixed propellant flow rates and varible beam currents. Data was also collected for a fixed flow rate and beam current at positions located along the horizontal and vertical axes passing through the ion source centerline. Correction factors for thrust and propellant utilization based upon doubly charged ion production, as well as propellant backflow into the discharge chamber were determined. Asymmetries in the radial profiles, as well as inconsistencies between the profiles of singly and doubly charged ions and charge state ratio, were observed.

  8. Model for the description of ion beam extraction from electron cyclotron resonance ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Spaedtke, P.

    2010-02-15

    The finite difference method trajectory code KOBRA3-INP has been developed now for 25 years to perform the simulation of ion beam extraction in three dimensions. Meanwhile, the code has been validated for different applications: high current ion beam extraction from plasma sources for ion implantation technology, neutral gas heating in fusion devices, or ion thrusters for space propulsion. One major issue of the development of this code was to improve the flexibility of the applied model for the simulation of different types of particle sources. Fixed emitter sources might be simulated with that code as well as laser ion sources, Penning ion sources, electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRISs), or H{sup -} sources, which require the simulation of negative ions, negative electrons, and positive charges simultaneously. The model which has been developed for ECRIS has now been used to explore the conditions for the ion beam extraction from a still nonexisting ion source, a so called ARC-ECRIS [P. Suominen and F. Wenander, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 02A305 (2008)]. It has to be shown whether the plasma generator has similar properties like regular ECRIS. However, the emittance of the extracted beam seems to be much better compared to an ECRIS equipped with a hexapole.

  9. Status of ion sources at National Institute of Radiological Sciences

    SciTech Connect

    Kitagawa, A.; Fujita, T.; Goto, A.; Hattori, T.; Hamano, T.; Hojo, S.; Honma, T.; Imaseki, H.; Katagiri, K.; Muramatsu, M.; Sakamoto, Y.; Sekiguchi, M.; Suda, M.; Sugiura, A.; Suya, N.

    2012-02-15

    The National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) maintains various ion accelerators in order to study the effects of radiation of the human body and medical uses of radiation. Two electrostatic tandem accelerators and three cyclotrons delivered by commercial companies have offered various life science tools; these include proton-induced x-ray emission analysis (PIXE), micro beam irradiation, neutron exposure, and radioisotope tracers and probes. A duoplasmatron, a multicusp ion source, a penning ion source (PIG), and an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) are in operation for these purposes. The Heavy-Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) is an accelerator complex for heavy-ion radiotherapy, fully developed by NIRS. HIMAC is utilized not only for daily treatment with the carbon beam but also for fundamental experiments. Several ECRISs and a PIG at HIMAC satisfy various research and clinical requirements.

  10. Molecular and negative ion production by a standard electron cyclotron resonance ion source.

    PubMed

    Rácz, R; Biri, S; Juhász, Z; Sulik, B; Pálinkás, J

    2012-02-01

    Molecular and negative ion beams, usually produced in special ion sources, play an increasingly important role in fundamental and applied atomic physics. The ATOMKI-ECRIS is a standard ECR ion source, designed to provide highly charged ion (HCI) plasmas and beams. In the present work, H(-), O(-), OH(-), O(2)(-), C(-), C(60)(-) negative ions and H(2)(+), H(3)(+), OH(+), H(2)O(+), H(3)O(+), O(2)(+) positive molecular ions were generated in this HCI-ECRIS. Without any major modification in the source and without any commonly applied tricks (such as usage of cesium or magnetic filter), negative ion beams of several μA and positive molecular ion beams in the mA range were successfully obtained. PMID:22380160

  11. Molecular and negative ion production by a standard electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Racz, R.; Biri, S.; Juhasz, Z.; Sulik, B.

    2012-02-15

    Molecular and negative ion beams, usually produced in special ion sources, play an increasingly important role in fundamental and applied atomic physics. The ATOMKI-ECRIS is a standard ECR ion source, designed to provide highly charged ion (HCI) plasmas and beams. In the present work, H{sup -}, O{sup -}, OH{sup -}, O{sub 2}{sup -}, C{sup -}, C{sub 60}{sup -} negative ions and H{sub 2}{sup +}, H{sub 3}{sup +}, OH{sup +}, H{sub 2}O{sup +}, H{sub 3}O{sup +}, O{sub 2}{sup +} positive molecular ions were generated in this HCI-ECRIS. Without any major modification in the source and without any commonly applied tricks (such as usage of cesium or magnetic filter), negative ion beams of several {mu}A and positive molecular ion beams in the mA range were successfully obtained.

  12. Sources and Losses of Ring Current Ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Sheng-Hsien; Fok, Mei-Ching H.; Angeloupoulos, Vassilis

    2010-01-01

    During geomagnetic quiet times, in-situ measurements of ring current energetic ions (few to few tens of keVs) from THEMIS spacecraft often exhibit multiple ion populations at discrete energies that extend from the inner magnetosphere to the magnetopause at dayside or plasma sheet at nightside. During geomagnetic storm times, the levels of fluxes as well as the mean energies of these ions elevated dramatically and the more smooth distributions in energies and distances during quiet times are disrupted into clusters of ion populations with more confined spatial extends. This reveals local plasma heating processes that might have come into play. Several processes have been proposed. Magnetotail dipolarization, sudden enhancement of field-aligned current, local current disruptions, and plasma waves are possible mechanisms to heat the ions locally as well as strong convections of energetic ions directly from the magnetotail due to reconnections. We will examine two geomagnetic storms on October 11, 2008 and July 22, 2009 to reveal possible heating mechanisms. We will analyze in-situ plasma and magnetic field measurements from THEMIS, GOES, and DMSP for the events to study the ion pitch angle distributions and magnetic field perturbations in the auroral ionosphere and inner magnetosphere where the plasma heating processes occur.

  13. Charge state distribution analysis of Al and Pb ions from the laser ion source at IMP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sha, Shan; Jin, Qian-Yu; Li, Zhang-Min; Guo, Xiao-Hong; Zhou, Lun-Cai; Cai, Guo-Zhu; Sun, Liang-Ting; Zhang, Xue-Zhen; Zhao, Huan-Yu; Chen, Xi-Meng; Zhao, Hong-Wei

    2013-11-01

    A prototype laser ion source that could demonstrate the possibility of producing intense pulsed high charge state ion beams has been established with a commercial Nd:YAG laser (Emax=3 J, 1064 nm, 8-10 ns) to produce laser plasma for the research of Laser Ion Source (LIS). At the laser ion source test bench, high purity (99.998%) aluminum and lead targets have been tested for laser plasma experiment. An Electrostatic Ion Analyzer (EIA) and Electron Multiply Tube (EMT) detector were used to analyze the charge state and energy distribution of the ions produced by the laser ion source. The maximum charge states of Al12+ and Pb7+ were achieved. The results will be presented and discussed in this paper.

  14. Liquid metal alloy ion source based metal ion injection into a room-temperature electron beam ion sourcea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorn, A.; Ritter, E.; Ullmann, F.; Pilz, W.; Bischoff, L.; Zschornack, G.

    2012-02-01

    We have carried out a series of measurements demonstrating the feasibility of using the Dresden electron beam ion source (EBIS)-A, a table-top sized, permanent magnet technology based electron beam ion source, as a charge breeder. Low charged gold ions from an AuGe liquid metal alloy ion source were injected into the EBIS and re-extracted as highly charged ions, thereby producing charge states as high as Au60 +. The setup, the charge breeding technique, breeding efficiencies as well as acceptance and emittance studies are presented.

  15. Status of the ATLAS PIIECR ion source project

    SciTech Connect

    Pardo, R.; Minehara, E.; Lynch, F.; Billquist, P.; Evans, W.; Clifft, B.E.; Waterson, M.

    1986-01-01

    The ATLAS PIIECR ion source is a major component of a project which will result in the replacement of the ATLAS tandem electrostatic injector with a superconducting linac of extremely low velocity profile and an ECR ion source operating in the continuous mode. A compilation of the source parameters adopted is tabulated, and the various issues considered in the design process and decisions made regarding those issues are discussed. (LEW)

  16. High brilliance negative ion and neutral beam source

    DOEpatents

    Compton, Robert N. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1991-01-01

    A high brilliance mass selected (Z-selected) negative ion and neutral beam source having good energy resolution. The source is based upon laser resonance ionization of atoms or molecules in a small gaseous medium followed by charge exchange through an alkali oven. The source is capable of producing microampere beams of an extremely wide variety of negative ions, and milliampere beams when operated in the pulsed mode.

  17. ECR (Electron Cyclotron Resonance) ion sources for cyclotrons

    SciTech Connect

    Lyneis, C.M.

    1986-10-01

    In the last decade ECR (Electron Cyclotron Resonance) ion sources have evolved from a single large, power consuming, complex prototype into a variety of compact, simple, reliable, efficient, high performance sources of high charge state ions for accelerators and atomic physics. The coupling of ECR sources to cyclotrons has resulted in significant performance gains in energy, intensity, reliability, and variety of ion species. Seven ECR sources are in regular operation with cyclotrons and numerous other projects are under development or in the planning stag. At least four laboratories have ECR sources dedicated for atomic physics research and other atomic physics programs share ECR sources with cyclotrons. An ECR source is now installed on the injector for the CERN SPS synchrotron to accelerate O/sup 8 +/ to relativistic energies. A project is underway at Argonne to couple an ECR source to a superconducting heavy-ion linac. Although tremendous progress has been made, the field of ECR sources is still a relatively young technology and there is still the potential for further advances both in source development and understanding of the plasma physics. The development of ECR sources is reviewed. The important physics mechanisms which come into play in the operation of ECR Sources are discussed, along with various models for charge state distributions (CSD). The design and performance of several ECR sources are compared. The 88-Inch Cyclotron and the LBL ECR is used as an example of cyclotron+ECR operation. The future of ECR sources is considered.

  18. Caesium sputter ion source compatible with commercial SIMS instruments.

    SciTech Connect

    Belykh, S. F.; Palitsin, V. V.; Veryovkin, I. V.; Kovarsky, A. P.; Chang, R. J. H.; Adriaens, A.; Dowsett, M. G.; Adams, F.; Materials Science Division; Univ. Warwick; Ioffe Physical-Technical Inst.; Ghent Univ.; Univ. Antwerp

    2006-01-01

    A simple design for a caesium sputter cluster ion source compatible with commercially available secondary ion mass spectrometers is reported. This source has been tested with the Cameca IMS 4f instrument using the cluster Si{sub n}{sup -} and Cu{sub n}{sup -} ions, and will shortly be retrofitted to the floating low energy ion gun (FLIG) of the type used on the Cameca 4500/4550 quadruple instruments. Our experiments with surface characterization and depth profiling conducted to date demonstrate improvements of analytical capabilities of the SIMS instrument due to the non-additive enhancement of secondary ion emission and shorter ion ranges of polyatomic projectiles compared to atomic ions with the same impact energy.

  19. Negative hydrogen ion source for TOKAMAK neutral beam injector (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okumura, Y.; Fujiwara, Y.; Kashiwagi, M.; Kitagawa, T.; Miyamoto, K.; Morishita, T.; Hanada, M.; Takayanagi, T.; Taniguchi, M.; Watanabe, K.

    2000-02-01

    Intense negative ion source producing multimegawatt hydrogen/deuterium negative ion beams has been developed for the neutral beam injector (NBI) in TOKAMAK thermonuclear fusion machines. Negative ions are produced in a cesium seeded multi-cusp plasma generator via volume and surface processes, and accelerated with a multistage electrostatic accelerator. The negative ion source for JT-60U has produced 18.5 A/360 keV (6.7 MW) H- and 14.3 A/380 keV (5.4 MW) D- ion beams at average current densities of 11 mA/cm2 (H-) and 8.5 mA/cm2 (D-). A high energy negative ion source has been developed for the next generation TOKAMAK such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). The source has demonstrated to accelerate negative ions up to 1 MeV, the energy required for ITER. Higher negative ion current density of more than 20 mA/cm2 was obtained in the ITER concept sources. It was confirmed that the consumption rate of cesium is small enough to operate the source for a half year in ITER-NBI without maintenance.

  20. Liquid metal ion source and alloy for ion emission of multiple ionic species

    DOEpatents

    Clark, Jr., William M.; Utlaut, Mark W.; Wysocki, Joseph A.; Storms, Edmund K.; Szklarz, Eugene G.; Behrens, Robert G.; Swanson, Lynwood W.; Bell, Anthony E.

    1987-06-02

    A liquid metal ion source and alloy for the simultaneous ion evaporation of arsenic and boron, arsenic and phosphorus, or arsenic, boron and phosphorus. The ionic species to be evaporated are contained in palladium-arsenic-boron and palladium-arsenic-boron-phosphorus alloys. The ion source, including an emitter means such as a needle emitter and a source means such as U-shaped heater element, is preferably constructed of rhenium and tungsten, both of which are readily fabricated. The ion sources emit continuous beams of ions having sufficiently high currents of the desired species to be useful in ion implantation of semiconductor wafers for preparing integrated circuit devices. The sources are stable in operation, experience little corrosion during operation, and have long operating lifetimes.

  1. Miniature cyclotron resonance ion source using small permanent magnet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anicich, V. G.; Huntress, W. T., Jr. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    An ion source using the cyclotron resonance principle is described. A miniaturized ion source device is used in an air gap of a small permanent magnet with a substantially uniform field in the air gap of about 0.5 inch. The device and permanent magnet are placed in an enclosure which is maintained at a high vacuum (typically 10 to the minus 7th power) into which a sample gas can be introduced. The ion beam end of the device is placed very close to an aperture through which an ion beam can exit into the apparatus for an experiment.

  2. Miniature cyclotron resonance ion source using small permanent magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anicich, V. G.; Huntress, W. T., Jr.

    1980-06-01

    An ion source using the cyclotron resonance principle is described. A miniaturized ion source device is used in an air gap of a small permanent magnet with a substantially uniform field in the air gap of about 0.5 inch. The device and permanent magnet are placed in an enclosure which is maintained at a high vacuum (typically 10 to the minus 7th power) into which a sample gas can be introduced. The ion beam end of the device is placed very close to an aperture through which an ion beam can exit into the apparatus for an experiment.

  3. Ion source issues for the DAEδALUS neutrino experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Alonso, Jose R. Barletta, William A.; Toups, Matthew H.; Conrad, Janet; Liu, Y.; Bannister, Mark E.; Havener, C. C.; Vane, Randy

    2014-02-15

    The DAEδALUS experiment calls for 10 mA of protons at 800 MeV on a neutrino-producing target. To achieve this record-setting current from a cyclotron system, H{sub 2}{sup +} ions will be accelerated. Loosely bound vibrationally excited H{sub 2}{sup +} ions inevitably produced in conventional ion sources will be Lorentz stripped at the highest energies. Presence of these states was confirmed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and strategies were investigated to quench them, leading to a proposed R and D effort towards a suitable ion source for these high-power cyclotrons.

  4. Ion source and injection line for high intensity medical cyclotron

    SciTech Connect

    Jia, XianLu Guan, Fengping; Yao, Hongjuan; Zhang, TianJue; Yang, Jianjun; Song, Guofang; Ge, Tao; Qin, Jiuchang

    2014-02-15

    A 14 MeV high intensity compact cyclotron, CYCIAE-14, was built at China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE). An injection system based on the external H− ion source was used on CYCIAE-14 so as to provide high intensity beam, while most positron emission tomography cyclotrons adopt internal ion source. A beam intensity of 100 μA/14 MeV was extracted from the cyclotron with a small multi-cusp H− ion source (CIAE-CH-I type) and a short injection line, which the H− ion source of 3 mA/25 keV H− beam with emittance of 0.3π mm mrad and the injection line of with only 1.2 m from the extraction of ion source to the medial plane of the cyclotron. To increase the extracted beam intensity of the cyclotron, a new ion source (CIAE-CH-II type) of 9.1 mA was used, with maximum of 500 μA was achieved from the cyclotron. The design and test results of the ion source and injection line optimized for high intensity acceleration will be given in this paper.

  5. Ion source and injection line for high intensity medical cyclotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, XianLu; Guan, Fengping; Yao, Hongjuan; Zhang, TianJue; Yang, Jianjun; Song, Guofang; Ge, Tao; Qin, Jiuchang

    2014-02-01

    A 14 MeV high intensity compact cyclotron, CYCIAE-14, was built at China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE). An injection system based on the external H- ion source was used on CYCIAE-14 so as to provide high intensity beam, while most positron emission tomography cyclotrons adopt internal ion source. A beam intensity of 100 μA/14 MeV was extracted from the cyclotron with a small multi-cusp H- ion source (CIAE-CH-I type) and a short injection line, which the H- ion source of 3 mA/25 keV H- beam with emittance of 0.3π mm mrad and the injection line of with only 1.2 m from the extraction of ion source to the medial plane of the cyclotron. To increase the extracted beam intensity of the cyclotron, a new ion source (CIAE-CH-II type) of 9.1 mA was used, with maximum of 500 μA was achieved from the cyclotron. The design and test results of the ion source and injection line optimized for high intensity acceleration will be given in this paper.

  6. Nanoscale Electrospray Ion Sources and a New DNA Sequencing Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maulbetsch, William; Bush, Joseph; Stein, Derek; Stein Lab Team

    2015-03-01

    Electrospray ion sources are used to transfer biochemical samples from solution into a charged gas phase for analysis, especially by mass spectrometry. Traditional ion sources require a background gas and high voltages, and waste most of the sample passed through the source's micrometer-scale tip. However, by scaling down the ion source to the nanoscale, we greatly reduce voltage and sample volume requirements, while eliminating the need for a background gas to desolvate droplets. We report experiments investigating the onset and characteristics of electrospray from glass capillaries whose tips were pulled down to an inner diameter on the order of 100 nanometers. Nanoscale ion sources serve as an integral part of a DNA sequencing technique we will describe, whereby DNA bases are identified by the molecular masses of the nucleotides. This work was supported by NIH grant NHGRI 1R21HG005100-01 and by Oxford Nanopore Technologies, Ltd.

  7. Application of compact electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Muramatsu, M.; Kitagawa, A.; Iwata, Y.; Ogawa, H.; Hojo, S.; Kubo, T.; Kato, Y.; Biri, S.; Fekete, E.; Yoshida, Y.; Drentje, A. G.

    2008-02-15

    The compact electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source with a permanent magnet configuration (Kei2 source) has been developed at National Institute of Radiological Sciences for a new carbon therapy facility. The Kei2 source was designed for production of C{sup 4+} ions; its performance such as beam intensity and stability has already reached the medical requirements. Therefore, the prototype development of the source for medical use is essentially finished. Recently, we have started a few studies on other applications of the source. One is the production of fullerenes in the ECR plasma and modified fullerenes with various atoms for new materials. A second application is the production of multiply charged ions (not only carbon) for ion implantation. In this paper, some basic experiments for these applications are reported.

  8. Vacuum Arc Ion Sources: Recent Developments and Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Ian; Oks, Efim

    2005-05-01

    The vacuum arc ion source has evolved over the past twenty years into a standard laboratory tool for the production of high current beams of metal ions, and is now used in a number of different embodiments at many laboratories around the world. The primary application of this kind of source has evolved to be ion implantation for material surface modification. Another important use is for injection of high current beams of heavy metal ions into the front ends of particle accelerators, and much excellent work has been carried out in recent years in optimizing the source for reliable accelerator application. The source also provides a valuable tool for the investigation of the fundamental plasma physics of vacuum arc plasma discharges. As the use of the source has grown and diversified, at the same time the ion source performance and operational characteristics have been improved in a variety of different ways also. Here we review the growth and status of vacuum arc ion sources around the world, and summarize some of the applications for which the sources have been used.

  9. ACCELERATORS Control system for the CSNS ion source test stand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yan-Hua; Li, Gang; Ouyang, Hua-Fu

    2010-12-01

    A penning plasma surface H- ion source test stand for the CSNS has just been constructed at the IHEP. In order to achieve a safe and reliable system, nearly all devices of the ion source are designed to have the capability of both local and remote operation function. The control system consists of PLCs and EPICS real-time software tools separately serving device control and monitoring, PLC integration and OPI support. This paper summarizes the hardware and software implementation satisfying the requirements of the ion source control system.

  10. Polarized 3He− ion source with hyperfine state selection

    SciTech Connect

    Dudnikov, V.; Morozov, Vasiliy; Dudnikov, A.

    2015-04-01

    High beam polarization is essential to the scientific productivity of a collider. Polarized 3He ions are an essential part of the nuclear physics programs at existing and future ion-ion and electron-ion colliders such as BNL's RHIC and eRHIC and JLab's ELIC. Ion sources with performance exceeding that achieved today are a key requirement for the development of these next generation high-luminosity high-polarization colliders. The development of high-intensity high-brightness arc-discharge ion sources at the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (BINP) has opened up an opportunity for realization of a new type of a polarized 3He− ion source. This report discusses a polarized 3He− ion source based on the large difference of extra-electron auto-detachment lifetimes of the different 3He− ion hyperfine states. The highest momentum state of 5/2 has the largest lifetime of τ ∼ 350 µs while the lower momentum states have lifetimes of τ ~ 10 µs. By producing 3He− ion beam composed of only the |5/2, ±5/2> hyperfine states and then quenching one of the states by an RF resonant field, 3He− beam polarization of 90% can be achieved. Such a method of polarized 3He− production has been considered before; however, due to low intensities of the He+ ion sources existing at that time, it was not possible to produce any interesting intensity of polarized 3He− ions. The high-brightness arc-discharge ion source developed at BINP can produce a high-brightness 3He+ beam with an intensity of up to 2 A allowing for selection of up to ∼1-4 mA of 3He− ions with ∼90% polarization. The high gas efficiency of an arc-discharge source is important due to the high cost of 3He gas. Some features of such a PIS as well as prototype designs are considered. An integrated 3He− ion source design providing high beam polarization could be prepared using existing BNL equipment with incorporation of new designs of the 1) arc discharge plasma generator, 2) extraction system, 3) charge exchange jet, and 4) magnetic separation system.

  11. Polarized 3He- ion source with hyperfine state selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudnikov, V.; Morozov, V.; Dudnikov, A.

    2015-04-01

    High beam polarization is essential to the scientific productivity of a collider. Polarized 3He ions are an essential part of the nuclear physics programs at existing and future ion-ion and electron-ion colliders such as BNL's RHIC and eRHIC and JLab's ELIC. Ion sources with performance exceeding that achieved today are a key requirement for the development of these next generation high-luminosity high-polarization colliders. The development of high-intensity high-brightness arc-discharge ion sources at the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (BINP) has opened up an opportunity for realization of a new type of a polarized 3He- ion source. This report discusses a polarized 3He- ion source based on the large difference of extra-electron auto-detachment lifetimes of the different 3He- ion hyperfine states. The highest momentum state of 5/2 has the largest lifetime of τ ˜ 350 µs while the lower momentum states have lifetimes of τ ~ 10 µs. By producing 3He- ion beam composed of only the |5/2, ±5/2> hyperfine states and then quenching one of the states by an RF resonant field, 3He- beam polarization of 90% can be achieved. Such a method of polarized 3He- production has been considered before; however, due to low intensities of the He+ ion sources existing at that time, it was not possible to produce any interesting intensity of polarized 3He- ions. The high-brightness arc-discharge ion source developed at BINP can produce a high-brightness 3He+ beam with an intensity of up to 2 A allowing for selection of up to ˜1-4 mA of 3He- ions with ˜90% polarization. The high gas efficiency of an arc-discharge source is important due to the high cost of 3He gas. Some features of such a PIS as well as prototype designs are considered. An integrated 3He- ion source design providing high beam polarization could be prepared using existing BNL equipment with incorporation of new designs of the 1) arc discharge plasma generator, 2) extraction system, 3) charge exchange jet, and 4) magnetic separation system.

  12. Possible source of intermediate ions over marine environment.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Sunil D; Gopalakrishnan, V

    2012-01-01

    Measurements of small, intermediate and large ions made onboard ORV Sagarkanya over the Arabian Sea in May-June 2003 during Arabian Sea Monsoon Experiment (ARMEX) are reported here. The daily averaged values of small-, intermediate-, and large-ion concentrations measured for 36 days during this cruise have been used for analysis. The analysis shows a weak positive correlation of 0.14 between intermediate- and large-ion concentrations, which indicates that the sources of these two types of ions are different over ocean surface. The negative correlation is observed between small- and intermediate-ion concentration for entire period of cruise. In addition, it is seen that the intermediate-ion concentration shows a very good (r = 0.58) and significant positive correlation with sea surface pressure. Based on good negative correlation between small- and intermediate-ion concentrations and good positive correlation between intermediate-ion concentration and sea surface pressure, it has been proposed that attachment of small ions to the ultrafine particles transported from upper troposphere to marine boundary layer is the main source of intermediate ions over ocean surface. This study supports the idea that the main source of ultrafine particles over marine boundary layer (MBL) is entrainment of aerosol particles from the free troposphere. PMID:22701357

  13. Possible Source of Intermediate Ions over Marine Environment

    PubMed Central

    Pawar, Sunil D.; Gopalakrishnan, V.

    2012-01-01

    Measurements of small, intermediate and large ions made onboard ORV Sagarkanya over the Arabian Sea in May-June 2003 during Arabian Sea Monsoon Experiment (ARMEX) are reported here. The daily averaged values of small-, intermediate-, and large-ion concentrations measured for 36 days during this cruise have been used for analysis. The analysis shows a weak positive correlation of 0.14 between intermediate- and large-ion concentrations, which indicates that the sources of these two types of ions are different over ocean surface. The negative correlation is observed between small- and intermediate-ion concentration for entire period of cruise. In addition, it is seen that the intermediate-ion concentration shows a very good (r = 0.58) and significant positive correlation with sea surface pressure. Based on good negative correlation between small- and intermediate-ion concentrations and good positive correlation between intermediate-ion concentration and sea surface pressure, it has been proposed that attachment of small ions to the ultrafine particles transported from upper troposphere to marine boundary layer is the main source of intermediate ions over ocean surface. This study supports the idea that the main source of ultrafine particles over marine boundary layer (MBL) is entrainment of aerosol particles from the free troposphere. PMID:22701357

  14. Note: A simple dual polarity dual nanoelectrospray ionization source for ion/ion reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Myer, Matthew J.; Danell, Allison S.; Danell, Ryan M.

    2010-06-15

    A continuously operated dual polarity dual nanoelectrospray ionization source has been constructed and tested. A commercial quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer was modified to accumulate and trap ions of opposite charge. All changes to the commercial three-dimensional quadrupole ion trap have been made external to the instrument outside of the vacuum system. Few hardware modifications were required because the two emitters send ion beams through the same transmission guides. Computer controlled source voltage polarities are switched quickly and efficiently to transmit one of two continuously generated ion beams. With customized software, this design has proved simple to implement and to operate.

  15. Ion beam capture and charge breeding in electron cyclotron resonance ion source plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jin-Soo; Zhao, L.; Cluggish, B. P.; Pardo, Richard

    2007-10-15

    Beam capture of injected ions and charge breeding in electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) charge breeder ion source plasmas has been investigated utilizing an ECR plasma modeling code, the generalized ECR ion source model, and a Monte Carlo beam capture code. Beam capturing dynamics, charge breeding in the plasma, and the extracted charged ion states are described. Optimization of ion beam energy is performed for (1) high beam capture efficiency and (2) high charge state ion beam extractions. A sample case study for ANL-ECR has been performed. Ions entering ECR ion source plasma are slowed down mostly by the background ions. Assuming Maxwellian plasma ions, maximum beam energy loss occurs when the beam velocity is around the background thermal velocity in magnitude. It is also found that beam capture location affects charge state distribution. For instance, with a majority of beam ions captured near the middle of the device higher currents for higher charge states are obtained. The beam ions captured near the entry have a higher probability of backstreaming after they are captured. For this reason, the optimum beam energy of the injected Ar{sup +} beam ions for charge breeding is generally higher than the optimum input beam energy for maximum beam energy loss.

  16. A vacuum spark ion source: High charge state metal ion beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yushkov, G. Yu.; Nikolaev, A. G.; Oks, E. M.; Frolova, V. P.

    2016-02-01

    High ion charge state is often important in ion beam physics, among other reasons for the very practical purpose that it leads to proportionately higher ion beam energy for fixed accelerating voltage. The ion charge state of metal ion beams can be increased by replacing a vacuum arc ion source by a vacuum spark ion source. Since the voltage between anode and cathode remains high in a spark discharge compared to the vacuum arc, higher metal ion charge states are generated which can then be extracted as an ion beam. The use of a spark of pulse duration less than 10 μs and with current up to 10 kA allows the production of ion beams with current of several amperes at a pulse repetition rate of up to 5 pps. We have demonstrated the formation of high charge state heavy ions (bismuth) of up to 15 + and a mean ion charge state of more than 10 +. The physics and techniques of our vacuum spark ion source are described.

  17. A vacuum spark ion source: High charge state metal ion beams.

    PubMed

    Yushkov, G Yu; Nikolaev, A G; Oks, E M; Frolova, V P

    2016-02-01

    High ion charge state is often important in ion beam physics, among other reasons for the very practical purpose that it leads to proportionately higher ion beam energy for fixed accelerating voltage. The ion charge state of metal ion beams can be increased by replacing a vacuum arc ion source by a vacuum spark ion source. Since the voltage between anode and cathode remains high in a spark discharge compared to the vacuum arc, higher metal ion charge states are generated which can then be extracted as an ion beam. The use of a spark of pulse duration less than 10 μs and with current up to 10 kA allows the production of ion beams with current of several amperes at a pulse repetition rate of up to 5 pps. We have demonstrated the formation of high charge state heavy ions (bismuth) of up to 15 + and a mean ion charge state of more than 10 +. The physics and techniques of our vacuum spark ion source are described. PMID:26931966

  18. Development of the Long Pulse Negative Ion Source for ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemsworth, R. S.; Boilson, D.; Fanz, U.; Svensson, L.; de Esch, H. P. L.; Krylov, A.; Massmann, P.; Zaniol, B.

    2005-04-01

    A model of the ion source designed for the neutral beam injectors of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), the KAMABOKO III ion source, is being tested on the MANTIS test stand at the DRFC Cadarache in collaboration with JAERI, Japan, who designed and supplied the ion source. The ion source is attached to a 3 grid 30 keV accelerator (also supplied by JAERI) and the accelerated negative ion current is determined from the energy deposited on a calorimeter located 1.6 m from the source. During experiments on MANTIS three adverse effects of long pulse operation were found: • The negative ion current to the calorimeter is ≈50% of that obtained from short pulse operation • Increasing the plasma grid (PG) temperature results in ⩽40% enhancement in negative ion yield, substantially below that reported for short pulse operation, ⩾100%. • The caesium "consumption" is up to 1500 times that expected. Results presented here indicate that each of these is, at least partially, explained by thermal effects. Additionally presented are the results of a detailed characterisation of the source, which enable the most efficient mode of operation to be identified.

  19. Means for obtaining a metal ion beam from a heavy-ion cyclotron source

    DOEpatents

    Hudson, E.D.; Mallory, M.L.

    1975-08-01

    A description is given of a modification to a cyclotron ion source used in producing a high intensity metal ion beam. A small amount of an inert support gas maintains the usual plasma arc, except that it is necessary for the support gas to have a heavy mass, e.g., xenon or krypton as opposed to neon. A plate, fabricated from the metal (or anything that can be sputtered) to be ionized, is mounted on the back wall of the ion source arc chamber and is bombarded by returning energetic low-charged gas ions that fail to cross the initial accelerating gap between the ion source and the accelerating electrode. Some of the atoms that are dislodged from the plate by the returning gas ions become ionized and are extracted as a useful beam of heavy ions. (auth)

  20. Production of Molecular Ion Beams Using an Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source

    SciTech Connect

    Draganic, Ilija N; Bannister, Mark E; Meyer, Fred W; Vane, C Randy; Havener, C C

    2011-01-01

    An all-permanent magnet electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source is tuned to create a variety of intense molecular ion beams for basic energy research. Based on simultaneous injection of several gases with spectroscopic high purity or enriched isotope content (e.g., H2, D2, N2, O2, or CO) and lower power microwave heating, the ECR ion source produces diatomic molecular ion beams of H2+, D2+, HD+, HO+, DO+, NH+, ND+, and more complex polyatomic molecular ions such as H3+, D3+, HD2+, H2O+, D2O+, H3O+, D3O+, and NHn+, NDn+ with n=2,3,4 and possibly higher. Molecular ion beams have been produced with very high current intensities compared to other molecular beam sources. The recorded molecular ion beam spectra are discussed.

  1. Neutral ion sources in precision manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fawcett, Steven C.; Drueding, Thomas W.

    1994-01-01

    Ion figuring of optical components is a relatively new technology that can alleviate some of the problems associated with traditional contact polishing. Because the technique is non contacting, edge distortions and rib structure print through do not occur. This initial investigation was aimed at determining the effect of ion figuring on surface roughness of previously polished or ductile ground ceramic optical samples. This is the first step in research directed toward the combination of a pre-finishing process (ductile grinding or polishing) with ion figuring to produce finished ceramic mirrors. The second phase of the project is focusing on the development of mathematical algorithms that will deconvolve the ion beam profile from the surface figure errors so that these errors can be successfully removed from the optical components. In the initial phase of the project, multiple, chemical vapor deposited silicon carbide (CVD SiC) samples were polished or ductile ground to specular or near-specular roughness. These samples were then characterized to determine topographic surface information. The surface evaluation consisted of stylus profilometry, interferometry, and optical and scanning electron microscopy. The surfaces, were ion machined to depths from 0-5 microns. The finished surfaces were characterized to evaluate the effects of the ion machining process with respect to the previous processing methods and the pre-existing subsurface damage. The development of the control algorithms for figuring optical components has been completed. These algorithms have been validated with simulations and future experiments have been planned to verify the methods. This paper will present the results of the initial surface finish experiments and the control algorithms simulations.

  2. Ionization efficiency estimations for the SPES surface ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzolaro, M.; Andrighetto, A.; Meneghetti, G.; Rossignoli, M.; Corradetti, S.; Biasetto, L.; Scarpa, D.; Monetti, A.; Carturan, S.; Maggioni, G.

    2013-12-01

    Ion sources play a crucial role in ISOL (Isotope Separation On Line) facilities determining, with the target production system, the ion beam types available for experiments. In the framework of the SPES (Selective Production of Exotic Species) INFN (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare) project, a preliminary study of the alkali metal isotopes ionization process was performed, by means of a surface ion source prototype. In particular, taking into consideration the specific SPES in-target isotope production, Cs and Rb ion beams were produced, using a dedicated test bench at LNL (Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro). In this work the ionization efficiency test results for the SPES Ta surface ion source prototype are presented and discussed.

  3. An ion guide laser ion source for isobar-suppressed rare isotope beams

    SciTech Connect

    Raeder, Sebastian Ames, Friedhelm; Bishop, Daryl; Bricault, Pierre; Kunz, Peter; Mjøs, Anders; Heggen, Henning; Institute of Applied Physics, TU Darmstadt, Schlossgartenstr. 7, 64289 Darmstadt ; Lassen, Jens Teigelhöfer, Andrea; Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2

    2014-03-15

    Modern experiments at isotope separator on-line (ISOL) facilities like ISAC at TRIUMF often depend critically on the purity of the delivered rare isotope beams. Therefore, highly selective ion sources are essential. This article presents the development and successful on-line operation of an ion guide laser ion source (IG-LIS) for the production of ion beams free of isobaric contamination. Thermionic ions from the hot ISOL target are suppressed by an electrostatic potential barrier, while neutral radio nuclides effusing out are resonantly ionized by laser radiation within a quadrupole ion guide behind this barrier. The IG-LIS was developed through detailed thermal and ion optics simulation studies and off-line tests with stable isotopes. In a first on-line run with a SiC target a suppression of surface-ionized Na contaminants in the ion beam of up to six orders of magnitude was demonstrated.

  4. A review of ion sources for medical accelerators (invited).

    PubMed

    Muramatsu, M; Kitagawa, A

    2012-02-01

    There are two major medical applications of ion accelerators. One is a production of short-lived isotopes for radionuclide imaging with positron emission tomography and single photon emission computer tomography. Generally, a combination of a source for negative ions (usually H- and/or D-) and a cyclotron is used; this system is well established and distributed over the world. Other important medical application is charged-particle radiotherapy, where the accelerated ion beam itself is being used for patient treatment. Two distinctly different methods are being applied: either with protons or with heavy-ions (mostly carbon ions). Proton radiotherapy for deep-seated tumors has become widespread since the 1990s. The energy and intensity are typically over 200 MeV and several 10(10) pps, respectively. Cyclotrons as well as synchrotrons are utilized. The ion source for the cyclotron is generally similar to the type for production of radioisotopes. For a synchrotron, one applies a positive ion source in combination with an injector linac. Carbon ion radiotherapy awakens a worldwide interest. About 6000 cancer patients have already been treated with carbon beams from the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences in Japan. These clinical results have clearly verified the advantages of carbon ions. Heidelberg Ion Therapy Center and Gunma University Heavy Ion Medical Center have been successfully launched. Several new facilities are under commissioning or construction. The beam energy is adjusted to the depth of tumors. It is usually between 140 and 430 MeV∕u. Although the beam intensity depends on the irradiation method, it is typically several 10(8) or 10(9) pps. Synchrotrons are only utilized for carbon ion radiotherapy. An ECR ion source supplies multi-charged carbon ions for this requirement. Some other medical applications with ion beams attract developer's interests. For example, the several types of accelerators are under development for the boron neutron capture therapy. This treatment is conventionally demonstrated by a nuclear reactor, but it is strongly expected to replace the reactor by the accelerator. We report status of ion source for medical application and such scope for further developments. PMID:22380341

  5. A review of ion sources for medical accelerators (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Muramatsu, M.; Kitagawa, A.

    2012-02-15

    There are two major medical applications of ion accelerators. One is a production of short-lived isotopes for radionuclide imaging with positron emission tomography and single photon emission computer tomography. Generally, a combination of a source for negative ions (usually H- and/or D-) and a cyclotron is used; this system is well established and distributed over the world. Other important medical application is charged-particle radiotherapy, where the accelerated ion beam itself is being used for patient treatment. Two distinctly different methods are being applied: either with protons or with heavy-ions (mostly carbon ions). Proton radiotherapy for deep-seated tumors has become widespread since the 1990s. The energy and intensity are typically over 200 MeV and several 10{sup 10} pps, respectively. Cyclotrons as well as synchrotrons are utilized. The ion source for the cyclotron is generally similar to the type for production of radioisotopes. For a synchrotron, one applies a positive ion source in combination with an injector linac. Carbon ion radiotherapy awakens a worldwide interest. About 6000 cancer patients have already been treated with carbon beams from the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences in Japan. These clinical results have clearly verified the advantages of carbon ions. Heidelberg Ion Therapy Center and Gunma University Heavy Ion Medical Center have been successfully launched. Several new facilities are under commissioning or construction. The beam energy is adjusted to the depth of tumors. It is usually between 140 and 430 MeV/u. Although the beam intensity depends on the irradiation method, it is typically several 10{sup 8} or 10{sup 9} pps. Synchrotrons are only utilized for carbon ion radiotherapy. An ECR ion source supplies multi-charged carbon ions for this requirement. Some other medical applications with ion beams attract developer's interests. For example, the several types of accelerators are under development for the boron neutron capture therapy. This treatment is conventionally demonstrated by a nuclear reactor, but it is strongly expected to replace the reactor by the accelerator. We report status of ion source for medical application and such scope for further developments.

  6. Ion current detector for high pressure ion sources for monitoring separations

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Richard D.; Wahl, Jon H.; Hofstadler, Steven A.

    1996-01-01

    The present invention relates generally to any application involving the monitoring of signal arising from ions produced by electrospray or other high pressure (>100 torr) ion sources. The present invention relates specifically to an apparatus and method for the detection of ions emitted from a capillary electrophoresis (CE) system, liquid chromatography, or other small-scale separation methods. And further, the invention provides a very simple diagnostic as to the quality of the separation and the operation of an electrospray source.

  7. Ion current detector for high pressure ion sources for monitoring separations

    DOEpatents

    Smith, R.D.; Wahl, J.H.; Hofstadler, S.A.

    1996-08-13

    The present invention relates generally to any application involving the monitoring of signal arising from ions produced by electrospray or other high pressure (>100 torr) ion sources. The present invention relates specifically to an apparatus and method for the detection of ions emitted from a capillary electrophoresis (CE) system, liquid chromatography, or other small-scale separation methods. And further, the invention provides a very simple diagnostic as to the quality of the separation and the operation of an electrospray source. 7 figs.

  8. Effect of resonant microwave power on a PIG ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, I.G.; Galvin, J.E.; Gavin, B.F.; MacGill, R.A.

    1984-08-01

    We have investigated the effect of applying microwave power at the electron cyclotron frequency on the characteristics of the ion beam extracted from a hot-cathode PIG ion source. No change was seen in the ion charge state distribution. A small but significant reduction in the beam noise level was seen, and it is possible that the technique may find application in situations where beam quiescence is important. 29 references, 2 figures.

  9. Fragment ions produced from hexamethyldisilane in a Freeman-type ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimura, Satoru; Kiuchi, Masato

    2015-10-01

    Fragment ions produced from hexamethyldisilane (HMDS) in a Freeman-type ion source with a hot tungsten wire were studied using a low-energy mass analyzed ion beam system. Dominant fragment ions from HMDS were identified to be H+, H2+, C+, CH3+, Si+, SiCH4+, SiC2H6+, and SiC3H9+. The rates of ion fragment production strongly depended on the tungsten temperature. We conclude that the irradiation of the mass-selected SiCH4+ ions obtained from HMDS to Si substrates is useful for the secure epitaxial growth of SiC.

  10. Performance of positive ion based high power ion source of EAST neutral beam injector.

    PubMed

    Hu, Chundong; Xie, Yahong; Xie, Yuanlai; Liu, Sheng; Xu, Yongjian; Liang, Lizhen; Jiang, Caichao; Li, Jun; Liu, Zhimin

    2016-02-01

    The positive ion based source with a hot cathode based arc chamber and a tetrode accelerator was employed for a neutral beam injector on the experimental advanced superconducting tokamak (EAST). Four ion sources were developed and each ion source has produced 4 MW @ 80 keV hydrogen beam on the test bed. 100 s long pulse operation with modulated beam has also been tested on the test bed. The accelerator was upgraded from circular shaped to diamond shaped in the latest two ion sources. In the latest campaign of EAST experiment, four ion sources injected more than 4 MW deuterium beam with beam energy of 60 keV into EAST. PMID:26932029

  11. Power Transmission From The ITER Model Negative Ion Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boilson, D.; de Esch, H. P. L.; Grand, C.; Hemsworth, R. S.; Krylov, A.

    2007-08-01

    In Cadarache development on negative ion sources is being carried out on the KAMABOKO III ion source on the MANTIS test bed. This is a model of the ion source designed for the neutral beam injectors of ITER. This ion source has been developed in collaboration with JAERI, Japan, who also designed and supplied the ion source. Its target performance is to accelerate a D- beam, with a current density of 200 A/m2 and <1 electron extracted per accelerated D- ion, at a source filling pressure of 0.3 Pa. For ITER a continuous ion beam must be assured for pulse lengths of 1000 s, but beams of up to 3,600 s are also envisaged. The ion source is attached to a 3 grid 30 keV accelerator (also supplied by JAERI) and the accelerated negative ion current is determined from the energy deposited on a calorimeter. During long pulse operation (⩽1000 s) it was found that the current density of both D- and H- beams, measured at the calorimeter was lower than expected and that a large discrepancy existed between the accelerated currents measured electrically and those transmitted to the calorimeter. The possibility that this discrepancy arose because the accelerated current included electrons (which would not be able to reach the calorimeter) was investigated and subsequently eliminated. Further studies have shown that the fraction of the electrical current reaching the calorimeter varies with the pulse length, which led to the suggestion that one or more of the accelerator grids were distorting due to the incident power during operation, leading to a progressive deterioration in the beam quality.. New extraction and acceleration grids have been designed and installed, which should have a better tolerance to thermal loads than those previously used. This paper describes the measurements of the power transmission and distribution using these grids.

  12. Development of double cylindrical dielectric barrier discharge ion source.

    PubMed

    Hiraoka, Kenzo; Ninomiya, Satoshi; Chen, Lee Chuin; Iwama, Takashi; Mandal, Mridul Kanti; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Ariyada, Osamu; Furuya, Hiroko; Takekawa, Kenichi

    2011-03-21

    This paper deals with the dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) ion source composed of the outer cylindrical dielectric tube and the inner grounded metallic tube electrode. The sample gas is supplied through the inner ceramic tube. In this ion source, the DBD plasma is localized in the DBD tube so that the sample gases can be ionized just outside of the ceramic tube by the DBD excited helium gas without being exposed in the plasma jet. Besides, ambient air does not take part in the ionization of the sample vapor because ionization takes place inside the DBD ion source. Thus, this method is totally free from contaminants in ambient air. It was found that this ion source is capable of soft, high-sensitivity, and reproducible ionization. Application of this technique to the analysis of methamphetamine, carbaryl and basil leaf was given. PMID:21240423

  13. Electrohydrodynamically driven large-area liquid ion sources

    DOEpatents

    Pregenzer, Arian L.

    1988-01-01

    A large-area liquid ion source comprises means for generating, over a large area of the surface of a liquid, an electric field of a strength sufficient to induce emission of ions from a large area of said liquid. Large areas in this context are those distinct from emitting areas in unidimensional emitters.

  14. Laser-driven ion sources for metal ion implantation for the reduction of dry friction

    SciTech Connect

    Boody, F. P.; Juha, L.; Kralikova, B.; Krasa, J.; Laska, L.; Masek, K.; Pfeifer, M.; Rohlena, K.; Skala, J.; Straka, P.; Perina, V.; Woryna, E.; Giersch, D.; Hoepfl, R.; Kelly, J. C.; Hora, H.

    1997-04-15

    The anomalously high ion currents and very high ionization levels of laser-produced plasmas give laser-driven ion sources significant advantages over conventional ion sources. In particular, laser-driven ion sources should provide higher currents of metal ions at lower cost, for implantation into solids in order to improve their material properties such as friction. The energy and charge distributions for Pb and Sn ions produced by ablation of solid targets with {approx}25 J, {approx}300 ps iodine laser pulses, resulting in up to 48-times ionized MeV ions, as well as the optimization of focus position, are presented. Implantation of these ions into Ck-45 steel, without electrostatic acceleration, produced profiles with two regions. Almost all of the ions were implanted in a near surface region a few nm deep. However, a small but significant number of ions were implanted as deep as could be measured with Rutherford backscattering (RBS), here 150 nm for Sn and 250 nm for Pb. For the implanted ion densities and profiles achieved, no change in the coefficient of friction was measured for either ion.

  15. Pulsed, Inductively Generated, Streaming Plasma Ion Source for Heavy Ion Fusion Linacs

    SciTech Connect

    Steven C. Glidden; Howard D Sanders; John B. Greenly; Daniel L. Dongwoo

    2006-04-28

    This report describes a compact, high current density, pulsed ion source, based on electrodeless, inductively driven gas breakdown, developed to meet the requirements on normalized emittance, current density, uniformity and pulse duration for an ion injector in a heavy-ion fusion driver. The plasma source produces >10 μs pulse of Argon plasma with ion current densities >100 mA/cm2 at 30 cm from the source and with strongly axially directed ion energy of about 80 eV, and sub-eV transverse temperature. The source has good reproducibility and spatial uniformity. Control of the current density during the pulse has been demonstrated with a novel modulator coil method which allows attenuation of the ion current density without significantly affecting the beam quality. This project was carried out in two phases. Phase 1 used source configurations adapted from light ion sources to demonstrate the feasibility of the concept. In Phase 2 the performance of the source was enhanced and quantified in greater detail, a modulator for controlling the pulse shape was developed, and experiments were conducted with the ions accelerated to >40 kV.

  16. An ion trap-ion mobility-time of flight mass spectrometer with three ion sources for ion/ion reactions.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qin; Soyk, Matthew W; Schieffer, Gregg M; Fuhrer, Katrin; Gonin, Marc M; Houk, R S; Badman, Ethan R

    2009-08-01

    This instrument combines the capabilities of ion/ion reactions with ion mobility (IM) and time-of-flight (TOF) measurements for conformation studies and top-down analysis of large biomolecules. Ubiquitin ions from either of two electrospray ionization (ESI) sources are stored in a three dimensional (3D) ion trap (IT) and reacted with negative ions from atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization (ASGDI). The proton transfer reaction products are then separated by IM and analyzed via a TOF mass analyzer. In this way, ubiquitin +7 ions are converted to lower charge states down to +1; the ions in lower charge states tend to be in compact conformations with cross sections down to approximately 880 A(2). The duration and magnitude of the ion ejection pulse on the IT exit and the entrance voltage on the IM drift tube can affect the measured distribution of conformers for ubiquitin +7 and +6. Alternatively, protein ions are fragmented by collision-induced dissociation (CID) in the IT, followed by ion/ion reactions to reduce the charge states of the CID product ions, thus simplifying assignment of charge states and fragments using the mobility-resolved tandem mass spectrum. Instrument characteristics and the use of a new ion trap controller and software modifications to control the entire instrument are described. PMID:19493684

  17. Multiple species beam production on laser ion source for electron beam ion source in Brookhaven National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Sekine, M.; Ikeda, S.; Department of Energy Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama, Kanagawa ; Hayashizaki, N.; Kanesue, T.; Okamura, M.

    2014-02-15

    Extracted ion beams from the test laser ion source (LIS) were transported through a test beam transport line which is almost identical to the actual primary beam transport in the current electron beam ion source apparatus. The tested species were C, Al, Si, Cr, Fe, Cu, Ag, Ta, and Au. The all measured beam currents fulfilled the requirements. However, in the case of light mass ions, the recorded emittance shapes have larger aberrations and the RMS values are higher than 0.06 π mm mrad, which is the design goal. Since we have margin to enhance the beam current, if we then allow some beam losses at the injection point, the number of the single charged ions within the acceptance can be supplied. For heaver ions like Ag, Ta, and Au, the LIS showed very good performance.

  18. Recent developments of the LBL ECR ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Lyneis, C.M.

    1986-05-01

    The performance of the LBL ECR has improved significantly since January 85 when the last ECR Ion Source Workshop was held in Berkeley. The 88-Inch Cyclotron began regular operation with the ECR source just prior to the workshop. Since then about 80% of the cyclotron operating schedule has been with the ECR source. The light-ion filament source is used only for runs two or more shifts in length using proton, /sup 3/He, or alpha beams. Occasionally the polarized ion source is used. The heavy-ion PIG sources are not longer used. The operating experience with the Cyclotron+ECR has been highly successful in terms of reliability, stability, production of high charge state currents, and in the range of ions which can be produced. For example, a 32.5 MeV/u /sup 16/O/sup 8 +/ beam was developed and successfully used for a nuclear structure experiment. The 60 nA beam available from the cyclotron was more intense than the experiment could use. A 1.08 GeV /sup 36/Ar/sup 18 +/ beam was used to test the response of various scintillator materials to intermediate energy heavy ions. Three aspects of the LBL ECR source development are discussed. First, the installation of a new first stage cavity has resulted in improved source performance. Second, a number of metal ion beams have been developed and are used regularly for nuclear science experiments with the cyclotron. Third, the source performance has been compared to charge state distribution (CSD) calculations using a computer code.

  19. Preparation of diamond-like carbon films using reactive Ar/CH4 high power impulse magnetron sputtering system with negative pulse voltage source for substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Takashi; Kamata, Hikaru

    2016-04-01

    Diamond-like carbon films were prepared using a reactive Ar/CH4 high-power impulse magnetron sputtering system with a negative pulse voltage source for the substrate, changing the CH4 fraction up to 15% in the total pressure range from 0.3 to 2 Pa. The magnitude of the negative pulse voltage for the substrate was also varied up to about 500 V. The hardness of films monotonically increased with increasing magnitude of the negative pulse voltage. The films with hardnesses between 16.5 and 23 GPa were prepared at total pressures less than 0.5 Pa and CH4 fractions less than 10% by applying an appropriate negative pulse voltage of 300-400 V. In X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, the area ratio C-C sp3/(C-C sp2 + C-C sp3) in the C 1s core level was higher than 30% at pressures less than 0.5 Pa and CH4 fractions less than 15%. On the other hand, the films with hardnesses between 5 and 10 GPa were prepared with a relatively high growth rate at the partial pressures of CH4 higher than 0.1 Pa. However, the observation of the photoluminescence background in Raman spectroscopy indicated a relatively high hydrogen content.

  20. Mo layer thickness requirement on the ion source back plate for the HNB and DNB ion sources in ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, M. J.; Hemsworth, R.; Boilson, D.; De Esch, H. P. L.

    2015-04-08

    All the inner surfaces of the ion sources and the upstream surface of the plasma grid of the ITER neutral beam ion sources are proposed to be coated with molybdenum. This is done to avoid sputtering of the base material (Cu or CuCrZr) by the ions in the source plasma (D{sup +}, D{sub 2}{sup +}, D{sub 3}{sup +} or H{sup +}, H{sub 2}{sup +}, H{sub 3}{sup +}). The sputtering of Mo by the ions in the source plasma is low compared to that from Cu, and the threshold energy for sputtering ∼80 eV) is high compared to the energy of the ions in the source. However the D{sub 2}{sup +}, H{sub 2}{sup +} and D{sup +}, H{sup +} ions backstreaming from the accelerators will have energies that substantially exceed that threshold and it is important that the Mo layer is not eroded such that the base material is exposed to the source plasma. In the case of the HNB, the backstreaming ion power is calculated to be in the order of ∼1 MW, and the average energy of the backstreaming ions is calculated to be ∼300 keV. The ion sources in the HNB beam lines, 40 A 1 MeV D and 46 A 870 keV H beams, are supposed to operate for a period of 2 x 10{sup 7} s. For the DNB, 60 A 100 keV H beams, the corresponding number is 1.4 × 10{sup 6} s considering a beam duty cycle of 3s ON/20s OFF with 5 Hz modulation. The Mo layer on the ion source back plate should be thick enough to survive this operational time. Thickness estimation has been carried out taking into account the sputtering yields (atoms/ion), the energy spectrum of the backstreaming ions and the estimated profiles on the ion source back plate.

  1. Terminal ion source for an FN tandem

    SciTech Connect

    Harper, G.C.

    1995-09-01

    An RF discharge source assembly has been developed for use in the terminal of the FN tandem van de Graaff accelerator at the Nuclear Physics Laboratory of the University of Washington. The primary motivation for developing the source was to provide a high intensity beam of {sup 3}He{sup +} to produce {sup 8}B from the reaction {sub 6}Li({sup 3}He,n){sup 8}B. The design of the optics and the performance of the source are described here.

  2. Experimental evaluation of a negative ion source for a heavy ionfusion negative ion driver

    SciTech Connect

    Grisham, L.R.; Hahto, S.K.; Hahto, S.T.; Kwan, J.W.; Leung, K.N.

    2005-01-18

    Negative halogen ions have recently been proposed as a possible alternative to positive ions for heavy ion fusion drivers because electron accumulation would not be a problem in the accelerator, and if desired, the beams could be photodetached to neutrals [1,2,3]. To test the ability to make suitable quality beams, an experiment was conducted at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory using chlorine in an RF-driven ion source. Without introducing any cesium (which is required to enhance negative ion production in hydrogen ion sources) a negative chlorine current density of 45 mA/cm{sup 2} was obtained under the same conditions that gave 57 mA/cm{sup 2} of positive chlorine, suggesting the presence of nearly as many negative ions as positive ions in the plasma near the extraction plane. The negative ion spectrum was 99.5% atomic chlorine ions, with only 0.5% molecular chlorine, and essentially no impurities. Although this experiment did not incorporate the type of electron suppression technology that is used in negative hydrogen beam extraction, the ratio of co-extracted electrons to Cl{sup -} was as low as 7 to 1, many times lower than the ratio of their mobilities, suggesting that few electrons are present in the near-extractor plasma. This, along with the near-equivalence of the positive and negative ion currents, suggests that the plasma in this region was mostly an ion-ion plasma. The negative chlorine current density was relatively insensitive to pressure, and scaled linearly with RF power. If this linear scaling continues to hold at higher RF powers, it should permit current densities of 100 mA/cm{sup 2}, sufficient for present heavy ion fusion injector concepts. The effective ion temperatures of the positive and negative ions appeared to be similar and relatively low for a plasma source.

  3. An ECR ion source-based low-energy ion accelerator: development and performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agnihotri, A. N.; Kelkar, A. H.; Kasthurirangan, S.; Thulasiram, K. V.; Desai, C. A.; Fernandez, W. A.; Tribedi, L. C.

    2011-06-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources produce low-energy, highly charged ions. A new 14.5 GHz ECR-based low-energy ion accelerator facility has been developed. The ion source involves a plasma chamber ('supernanogan') surrounded by permanent magnets that provide a suitable magnetic field. The entire assembly including the ion source and the analyzing magnet is mounted on a 400 kV deck. A LabVIEW-based command and control system has been developed for the beamline. In addition, wireless communication has been installed to operate the machine in high voltage. The charge state distribution of several ions (He, N2, O2, Ne, Ar and Xe) has been measured. For Ar and Xe, the maximum charge states measured were 16+ and 29+, respectively. A direct x-ray measurement for plasma diagnostics was also initiated.

  4. Ion current density profile control of a scalable linear ion source and its application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholze, F.; Neumann, H.; Tartz, M.; Dienelt, J.; Schlemm, H.

    2006-03-01

    We present a modular microwave excited electron cyclotron resonance type linear ion source concept that allows the adaptation of the ion beam dimensions to the requirements of the particular application. The ion beam current density profile is controlled by dividing the middle grid of a triple-grid system into segments of 2cm width. Each segment is separately switched between the negative accelerator grid voltage and a positive blocking voltage. By adjusting the pulse-to-pause ratio of each segment, the current density profile can be controlled from a homogeneous profile up to nearly arbitrary profiles. This ion source enables an in situ adaptation of ion beam profile. The application of a 2m linear ion source for hardening of stainless steel tools and the homogenization of the beam profile by segmented grids are demonstrated.

  5. Efficient cesiation in RF driven surface plasma negative ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belchenko, Yu.; Ivanov, A.; Konstantinov, S.; Sanin, A.; Sotnikov, O.

    2016-02-01

    Experiments on hydrogen negative ions production in the large radio-frequency negative ion source with cesium seed are described. The system of directed cesium deposition to the plasma grid periphery was used. The small cesium seed (˜0.5 G) provides an enhanced H- production during a 2 month long experimental cycle. The gradual increase of negative ion yield during the long-term source runs was observed after cesium addition to the source. The degraded H- production was recorded after air filling to the source or after the cesium washing away from the driver and plasma chamber walls. The following source conditioning by beam shots produces the gradual recovery of H- yield to the high value. The effect of H- yield recovery after cesium coverage passivation by air fill was studied. The concept of cesium coverage replenishment and of H- yield recovery due to sputtering of cesium from the deteriorated layers is discussed.

  6. DUHOCAMIS: a dual hollow cathode ion source for metal ion beams.

    PubMed

    Zhao, W J; Müller, M W O; Janik, J; Liu, K X; Ren, X T

    2008-02-01

    In this paper we describe a novel ion source named DUHOCAMIS for multiply charged metal ion beams. This ion source is derived from the hot cathode Penning ion gauge ion source (JINR, Dubna, 1957). A notable characteristic is the modified Penning geometry in the form of a hollow sputter electrode, coaxially positioned in a compact bottle-magnetic field along the central magnetic line of force. The interaction of the discharge geometry with the inhomogeneous but symmetrical magnetic field enables this device to be operated as hollow cathode discharge and Penning discharge as well. The main features of the ion source are the very high metal ion efficiency (up to 25%), good operational reproducibility, flexible and efficient operations for low charged as well as highly charged ions, compact setup, and easy maintenance. For light ions, e.g., up to titanium, well-collimated beams in the range of several tens of milliamperes of pulsed ion current (1 ms, 10/s) have been reliably performed in long time runs. PMID:18315181

  7. Software architecture considerations for ion source control systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, J.W.

    1997-09-01

    General characteristics of distributed control system software tools are examined from the perspective of ion source control system requirements. Emphasis is placed on strategies for building extensible, distributed systems in which the ion source element is one component of a larger system. Vsystem, a commercial software tool kit from Vista Control Systems was utilized extensively in the control system upgrade of the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility. Part of the control system is described and the characteristics of Vsystem are examined and compared with those of EPICS, the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System.

  8. Development of ion sources: Towards high brightness for proton beam writing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Nannan; Santhana Raman, P.; Xu, Xinxin; Tan, Huei Ming; Khursheed, Anjam; van Kan, Jeroen A.

    2015-04-01

    An Ion Source Test Bench (ISTB) has been designed and commissioned to facilitate the measurement of ion beam reduced brightness (Br) obtained from different ion sources. Preliminary Br measurements were carried out, with RF ion source, in the ISTB for He ions. Meanwhile we have also fabricated and tested a novel ion source called electron impact gas ion source, whose reduced brightness is expected to reach up to 107 pA/μm2 mrad2 MeV. Initial ion-current measurements from such electron impact gas ion source (tested inside an environmental SEM) has yielded about 300 pA of Ar ions. The areal ion current density from this electron impact gas ion source is found to be at least 380 times higher than the existing RF ion source. This novel ion source is promising for application in proton beam writing lithography with feature sizes smaller than 10 nm.

  9. The gas field ion source for finely focused ion beam systems

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, W.; Armstrong, A.; Etchin, S.; Percival, R.; Saxonis, A.

    1996-12-31

    The Gas Field Ion Source, GFIS, promises a 10{sup 9} A/(cm{sup 2} str) brightness, small beam sizes, and inert gas ion species. If this performance could be demonstrated on a commercial system, the GFIS might replace the liquid metal ion source as the standard source for FIB applications. Recent work at the Max-Planck-Institute fuer Kernphysik (MPI-K) in Heidelberg, Germany has shown that a GFIS with a Super Tipped emitter can be reliably fabricated and can be run with stable helium beam current for more than 200 hours. However, this GFIS source must operate in a bakable UHV chamber, at cryogenic temperatures, and at high voltages with low vibration. A GFIS is now being integrated with high resolution ion optics and a vacuum chamber designed for studying GFIS image quality and ion induced chemistry.

  10. A hollow cathode hydrogen ion source. [for controlled fusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sovey, J. S.; Mirtich, M. J.

    1977-01-01

    High current density ion sources have been used to heat plasmas in controlled thermonuclear reaction experiments. High beam currents imply relatively high emission currents from cathodes which have generally taken the form of tungsten filaments. This paper describes a hydrogen ion source which was primarily developed to assess the emission current capability and design requirements for hollow cathodes for application in neutral injection devices. The hydrogen source produced ions by electron bombardment via a single hollow cathode. Source design followed mercury ion thruster technology, using a weak magnetic field to enhance ionization efficiency. A 1.3-cm-diam hollow cathode using a low work function material dispenser performed satisfactorily over a discharge current range of 10-90 A. Cylindrical probe measurements taken without ion extraction indicate maximum ion number densities on the order of 10 trillion/cu cm. Discharge durations ranged from 30 sec to continuous operation. Tests with beam extraction at 2.5 keV and 30 A discharge current yield average ion beam current densities of 0.1 A/sq cm over a 5-cm extraction diameter. Results of this study can be used to supply the baseline information needed to scale hollow cathodes for operation at discharge currents of hundreds of amperes using distributed cathodes.

  11. Linear ion source with closed drift and extended acceleration region

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Dong-Hee; Kim, Ji-Hwan; Ermakov, Yury; Choi, Won-Kook

    2008-02-15

    Ion source with closed drift, which is caused by ExB field, and extended acceleration region is discussed. Though conventional circular-type closed drift ion source has advantages of high efficiency of gas ionization and low ion beam energy, there is a limitation in enlarging the beam size. Linear ion source with horse-track shape with 270 mm ceramic channel width is newly designed and tested. Inert gas (Ar) and reactive gas (O{sub 2}) are discharged. Discharge is ignited with voltage of 90 V. Discharge current is proportional to discharge voltage and increases up to 16.3 A in argon and 15.6 A in oxygen at discharge voltage of 320 V. Extracted ion beam current is also proportional to discharge voltage and is saturated after 280 V for both gases. It is measured up to 0.78 mA/cm{sup 2} in argon beam and 0.73 mA/cm{sup 2} in oxygen beam at a distance of 100 mm from the ion source. Argon ion beam shows better space uniformity than oxygen across the beam extraction region.

  12. Multicharged iron ions produced by using induction heating vapor source

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, Yushi; Kubo, Takashi; Muramatsu, Masayuki; Tanaka, Kiyokatsu; Kitagawa, Atsushi; Yoshida, Yoshikazu; Asaji, Toyohisa; Sato, Fuminobu; Iida, Toshiyuki

    2008-02-15

    Multiply charged Fe ions are produced from solid pure material in an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source. We develop an evaporator by using induction heating with an induction coil which is made of bare molybdenum wire partially covered by ceramic beads in vacuum and surrounding and heating directly the pure Fe rod. Heated material has no contact with insulators, so that outgas is minimized. The evaporator is installed around the mirror end plate outside of the ECR plasma with its hole grazing the ECR zone. Helium or argon gas is usually chosen for supporting gas. The multicharged Fe ions up to Fe{sup 13+} are extracted from the opposite side of mirror and against the evaporator, and then multicharged Fe ion beam is formed. We compare production of multicharged iron ions by using this new source with our previous methods.

  13. Advanced light ion source extraction system for a new electron cyclotron resonance ion source geometry at Saclaya)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delferrière, O.; Gobin, R.; Harrault, F.; Nyckees, S.; Sauce, Y.; Tuske, O.

    2012-02-01

    One of the main goal of intense light ion injector projects such as IPHI, IFMIF, or SPIRAL2, is to produce high current beams while keeping transverse emittance as low as possible. To prevent emittance growth induced in a dual solenoid low energy transfer line, its length has to be minimized. This can be performed with the advanced light ion source extraction system concept that we are developing: a new ECR 2.45 GHz type ion source based on the use of an additional low energy beam transport (LEBT) short length solenoid close to the extraction aperture to create the resonance in the plasma chamber. The geometry of the source has been considerably modified to allow easy maintenance of each component and to save space in front of the extraction. The source aims to be very flexible and to be able to extract high current ion beams at energy up to 100 kV. A specific experimental setup for this source is under installation on the BETSI test bench, to compare its performances with sources developed up to now in the laboratory, such as SILHI, IFMIF, or SPIRAL2 ECR sources. This original extraction source concept is presented, as well as electromagnetic simulations with OPERA-2D code. Ion beam extraction in space charge compensation regime with AXCEL, and beam dynamics simulation with SOLMAXP codes show the beam quality improvement at the end of the LEBT.

  14. Advanced light ion source extraction system for a new electron cyclotron resonance ion source geometry at Saclay

    SciTech Connect

    Delferriere, O.; Gobin, R.; Harrault, F.; Nyckees, S.; Sauce, Y.; Tuske, O.

    2012-02-15

    One of the main goal of intense light ion injector projects such as IPHI, IFMIF, or SPIRAL2, is to produce high current beams while keeping transverse emittance as low as possible. To prevent emittance growth induced in a dual solenoid low energy transfer line, its length has to be minimized. This can be performed with the advanced light ion source extraction system concept that we are developing: a new ECR 2.45 GHz type ion source based on the use of an additional low energy beam transport (LEBT) short length solenoid close to the extraction aperture to create the resonance in the plasma chamber. The geometry of the source has been considerably modified to allow easy maintenance of each component and to save space in front of the extraction. The source aims to be very flexible and to be able to extract high current ion beams at energy up to 100 kV. A specific experimental setup for this source is under installation on the BETSI test bench, to compare its performances with sources developed up to now in the laboratory, such as SILHI, IFMIF, or SPIRAL2 ECR sources. This original extraction source concept is presented, as well as electromagnetic simulations with OPERA-2D code. Ion beam extraction in space charge compensation regime with AXCEL, and beam dynamics simulation with SOLMAXP codes show the beam quality improvement at the end of the LEBT.

  15. Advanced light ion source extraction system for a new electron cyclotron resonance ion source geometry at Saclay.

    PubMed

    Delferrière, O; Gobin, R; Harrault, F; Nyckees, S; Sauce, Y; Tuske, O

    2012-02-01

    One of the main goal of intense light ion injector projects such as IPHI, IFMIF, or SPIRAL2, is to produce high current beams while keeping transverse emittance as low as possible. To prevent emittance growth induced in a dual solenoid low energy transfer line, its length has to be minimized. This can be performed with the advanced light ion source extraction system concept that we are developing: a new ECR 2.45 GHz type ion source based on the use of an additional low energy beam transport (LEBT) short length solenoid close to the extraction aperture to create the resonance in the plasma chamber. The geometry of the source has been considerably modified to allow easy maintenance of each component and to save space in front of the extraction. The source aims to be very flexible and to be able to extract high current ion beams at energy up to 100 kV. A specific experimental setup for this source is under installation on the BETSI test bench, to compare its performances with sources developed up to now in the laboratory, such as SILHI, IFMIF, or SPIRAL2 ECR sources. This original extraction source concept is presented, as well as electromagnetic simulations with OPERA-2D code. Ion beam extraction in space charge compensation regime with AXCEL, and beam dynamics simulation with SOLMAXP codes show the beam quality improvement at the end of the LEBT. PMID:22380154

  16. Feasibility study of a laser ion source for primary ion injection into the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider electron beam ion sourcea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanesue, Takeshi; Tamura, Jun; Okamura, Masahiro

    2008-02-01

    Charge state 1+ions are required as a primary ion source for Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider-electron beam ion source (RHIC-EBIS) at BNL and laser ion source (LIS) is a candidate as one of the external ion source since low energy and low charge state ions can be generated by lower power density laser irradiation onto solid target surface. Plasma properties of Al27, Fe56, and Ta181 using the second harmonics of Nd:yttrium aluminum garnet laser (0.73J/5.5ns and 532nm wavelength) for low charge state ion generation was measured. Charge state distribution of Ta was optimized for 1+with estimated laser power density of 9.1×108W/cm2 on the target. It has been shown that the LIS can produce sufficient ion charge with the appropriate pulse structure to satisfy injection requirements of the RHIC EBIS.

  17. Transverse coupling property of beam from ECR ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Y.; Yuan, Y. J.; Sun, L. T.; Feng, Y. C.; Fang, X.; Cao, Y.; Lu, W.; Zhang, X. Z.; Zhao, H. W.

    2014-11-15

    Experimental evidence of the property of transverse coupling of beam from Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion source is presented. It is especially of interest for an ECR ion source, where the cross section of extracted beam is not round along transport path due to the magnetic confinement configuration. When the ions are extracted and accelerated through the descending axial magnetic field at the extraction region, the horizontal and vertical phase space strongly coupled. In this study, the coupling configuration between the transverse phase spaces of the beam from ECR ion source is achieved by beam back-tracking simulation based on the measurements. The reasonability of this coupling configuration has been proven by a series of subsequent simulations.

  18. Sources of polarized negative ions: progress and prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Haeberli, W.

    1980-01-01

    A summary of recent progress in the art of producing beams of polarized ions is given. In all sources of polarized ions, one first produces (or selects) neutral atoms which are polarized in electron spin. Those types of sources which use a beam of thermal polarized hydrogen atoms are discussed. Progress made in the preparation of the atomic beam and the methods used to convert the neutral atoms to polarized ions is summarized. The second type of source discussed is based on fast (keV) polarized hydrogen atoms. Conversion to negative ions is very simple because one only needs to pass the fast atoms through a suitable charge exchange medium (gas or vapor). However, the production of the polarized atoms is more difficult in this case. The proposal to employ polarized alkali vapor to form a beam of polarized fast H atoms, where the polarized alkali atoms are produced either by an atomic beam apparatus or by optical pumping is discussed. (WHK)

  19. Erosion of Extraction Electrodes of Ion Sources due to Sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Kenmotsu, Takahiro; Wada, Motoi; Miyamoto, Naoki

    2011-01-07

    The effects upon erosion due to implanted atoms in extraction electrodes of an ion source have been investigated through calculating the sputtering yields with a Monte Carlo simulation code, ACAT. The results obtained with ACAT have indicated that the sputtering yields of extraction electrodes are substantially affected by the retention of implanted atoms depending upon the mass ratio of electrode materials and extracted ions from the source plasma. The enhanced erosion takes place as the heavier ion beam species like phosphor is implanted into lighter electrode material like carbon. Additional mixing of materials arising from ion source operation, such as hot cathode materials evaporation onto a carbon extraction electrode, can shorten the lifetime of the extraction electrodes.

  20. Simple Penning ion source for laboratory research and development applications.

    PubMed

    Rovey, Joshua L; Ruzic, Brandon P; Houlahan, Thomas J

    2007-10-01

    A simple Penning ion generator (PIG) that can be easily fabricated with simple machining skills and standard laboratory accessories is described. The PIG source uses an iron cathode body, samarium cobalt permanent magnet, stainless steel anode, and iron cathode faceplate to generate a plasma discharge that yields a continuous 1 mA beam of positively charged hydrogen ions at 1 mTorr of pressure. This operating condition requires 5.4 kV and 32.4 W of power. Operation with helium is similar to hydrogen. The ion source is being designed and investigated for use in a sealed-tube neutron generator; however, this ion source is thoroughly described so that it can be easily implemented by other researchers for other laboratory research and development applications. PMID:17979457

  1. Preliminary result of rapid solenoid for controlling heavy-ion beam parameters of laser ion source

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Okamura, M.; Sekine, M.; Ikeda, S.; Kanesue, T.; Kumaki, M.; Fuwa, Y.

    2015-03-13

    To realize a heavy ion inertial fusion driver, we have studied a possibility of laser ion source (LIS). A LIS can provide high current high brightness heavy ion beams, however it was difficult to manipulate the beam parameters. To overcome the issue, we employed a pulsed solenoid in the plasma drift section and investigated the effect of the solenoid field on singly charged iron beams. The rapid ramping magnetic field could enhance limited time slice of the current and simultaneously the beam emittance changed accordingly. This approach may also useful to realize an ion source for HIF power plant.

  2. An electron cyclotron resonance ion source based low energy ion beam platform.

    PubMed

    Sun, L T; Shang, Y; Ma, B H; Zhang, X Z; Feng, Y C; Li, X X; Wang, H; Guo, X H; Song, M T; Zhao, H Y; Zhang, Z M; Zhao, H W; Xie, D Z

    2008-02-01

    To satisfy the requirements of surface and atomic physics study in the field of low energy multiple charge state ion incident experiments, a low energy (10 eV/q-20 keV/q) ion beam platform is under design at IMP. A simple test bench has been set up to test the ion beam deceleration systems. Considering virtues such as structure simplicity, easy handling, compactness, cost saving, etc., an all-permanent magnet ECRIS LAPECR1 [Lanzhou all-permanent magnet electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source No. 1] working at 14.5 GHz has been adopted to produce intense medium and low charge state ion beams. LAPECR1 source has already been ignited. Some intense low charge state ion beams have been produced on it, but the first test also reveals that many problems are existing on the ion beam transmission line. The ion beam transmission mismatches result in the depressed performance of LAPECR1, which will be discussed in this paper. To obtain ultralow energy ion beam, after being analyzed by a double-focusing analyzer magnet, the selected ion beam will be further decelerated by two afocal deceleration lens systems, which is still under design. This design has taken into consideration both ions slowing down and also ion beam focusing. In this paper, the conceptual design of deceleration system will be discussed. PMID:18315202

  3. A compact source for bunches of singly charged atomic ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murböck, T.; Schmidt, S.; Andelkovic, Z.; Birkl, G.; Nörtershäuser, W.; Vogel, M.

    2016-04-01

    We have built, operated, and characterized a compact ion source for low-energy bunches of singly charged atomic ions in a vacuum beam line. It is based on atomic evaporation from an electrically heated oven and ionization by electron impact from a heated filament inside a grid-based ionization volume. An adjacent electrode arrangement is used for ion extraction and focusing by applying positive high-voltage pulses to the grid. The method is particularly suited for experimental environments which require low electromagnetic noise. It has proven simple yet reliable and has been used to produce μs-bunches of up to 106 Mg+ ions at a repetition rate of 1 Hz. We present the concept, setup and characterizing measurements. The instrument has been operated in the framework of the SpecTrap experiment at the HITRAP facility at GSI/FAIR to provide Mg+ ions for sympathetic cooling of highly charged ions by laser-cooled 24Mg+.

  4. Extraction characteristics of a high current metal ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inouchi, Yutaka; Yamashita, Takatoshi; Fujiwara, Shuichi; Matsuda, Yasuhiro; Inami, Hiroshi; Matsunaga, Kouzi; Matsuda, Koji

    1992-04-01

    A metal ion source has been developed for extracting high current ion beams of high melting point metals. In the discharge chamber, metal vapor was confined in high-temperature shields, and the pure metal plasma was produced by the arc discharge. In order to prevent the vapor deposits, the extraction electrodes were also required to be high temperature. Thus, multislit electrodes were improved to maintain fine beam optics even if they were heated. To investigate the metal ion extraction characteristics, Al ion beams were extracted and compared with Ar ion beams. Furthermore, high current Al, Cr, Si, and Ti ion beams were extracted, and the extracted current ≳100 mA was obtained for each metal.

  5. Electron source for a mini ion trap mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Dietrich, D.D.; Keville, R.F.

    1995-12-19

    An ion trap is described which operates in the regime between research ion traps which can detect ions with a mass resolution of better than 1:10{sup 9} and commercial mass spectrometers requiring 10{sup 4} ions with resolutions of a few hundred. The power consumption is kept to a minimum by the use of permanent magnets and a novel electron gun design. By Fourier analyzing the ion cyclotron resonance signals induced in the trap electrodes, a complete mass spectra in a single combined structure can be detected. An attribute of the ion trap mass spectrometer is that overall system size is drastically reduced due to combining a unique electron source and mass analyzer/detector in a single device. This enables portable low power mass spectrometers for the detection of environmental pollutants or illicit substances, as well as sensors for on board diagnostics to monitor engine performance or for active feedback in any process involving exhausting waste products. 10 figs.

  6. Electron source for a mini ion trap mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Dietrich, Daniel D.; Keville, Robert F.

    1995-01-01

    An ion trap which operates in the regime between research ion traps which can detect ions with a mass resolution of better than 1:10.sup.9 and commercial mass spectrometers requiring 10.sup.4 ions with resolutions of a few hundred. The power consumption is kept to a minimum by the use of permanent magnets and a novel electron gun design. By Fourier analyzing the ion cyclotron resonance signals induced in the trap electrodes, a complete mass spectra in a single combined structure can be detected. An attribute of the ion trap mass spectrometer is that overall system size is drastically reduced due to combining a unique electron source and mass analyzer/detector in a single device. This enables portable low power mass spectrometers for the detection of environmental pollutants or illicit substances, as well as sensors for on board diagnostics to monitor engine performance or for active feedback in any process involving exhausting waste products.

  7. RF Driven Multicusp H- Ion Source

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, K.N.; DeVries, G.J.; DiVergilio, W.F.; Hamm, R.W.; Hauck, C.A.; Kunkel, W.B.; McDonald, D.S.; Williams, M.D.

    1990-06-01

    An rf driven multicusp source capable of generating 1-ms H{sup -} beam pulses with a repetition rate as high as 150 Hz has been developed. This source can be operated with a filament or other types of starter. There is almost no lifetime limitation and a clean plasma can be maintained for a long period of operation. It is demonstrated that rf power as high as 25 kW could be coupled inductively to the plasma via a glass-coated copper-coil antenna. The extracted H{sup -} current density achieved is about 200 mA/cm{sup 2}.

  8. Calcium and lithium ion production for laser ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamura, M.; Palm, K.; Stifler, C.; Steski, D.; Ikeda, S.; Kumaki, M.; Kanesue, T.

    2016-02-01

    Calcium and lithium ion beams are required by NASA Space Radiation Laboratory at Brookhaven National Laboratory to simulate the effects of cosmic radiation. To identify the difficulties in providing such highly reactive materials as laser targets, both species were experimentally tested. Plate shaped lithium and calcium targets were fabricated to create ablation plasmas with a 6 ns 1064 nm neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser. We found significant oxygen contamination in both the Ca and Li high charge state beams due to the rapid oxidation of the surfaces. A large spot size, low power density laser was used to create low charge state beams without scanning the targets. The low charge state Ca beam did not have any apparent oxygen contamination, showing the potential to clean the target entirely of oxide with a low power beam once in the chamber. The Li target was clearly still oxidizing in the chamber after each low power shot. To measure the rate of oxidation, we shot the low power laser at the target repeatedly at 10 s, 30 s, 60 s, and 120 s interval lengths, showing a linear relation between the interval time and the amount of oxygen in the beam.

  9. Calcium and lithium ion production for laser ion source.

    PubMed

    Okamura, M; Palm, K; Stifler, C; Steski, D; Ikeda, S; Kumaki, M; Kanesue, T

    2016-02-01

    Calcium and lithium ion beams are required by NASA Space Radiation Laboratory at Brookhaven National Laboratory to simulate the effects of cosmic radiation. To identify the difficulties in providing such highly reactive materials as laser targets, both species were experimentally tested. Plate shaped lithium and calcium targets were fabricated to create ablation plasmas with a 6 ns 1064 nm neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser. We found significant oxygen contamination in both the Ca and Li high charge state beams due to the rapid oxidation of the surfaces. A large spot size, low power density laser was used to create low charge state beams without scanning the targets. The low charge state Ca beam did not have any apparent oxygen contamination, showing the potential to clean the target entirely of oxide with a low power beam once in the chamber. The Li target was clearly still oxidizing in the chamber after each low power shot. To measure the rate of oxidation, we shot the low power laser at the target repeatedly at 10 s, 30 s, 60 s, and 120 s interval lengths, showing a linear relation between the interval time and the amount of oxygen in the beam. PMID:26931962

  10. RF Negative Ion Source Development at IPP Garching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraus, W.; McNeely, P.; Berger, M.; Christ-Koch, S.; Falter, H. D.; Fantz, U.; Franzen, P.; Fröschle, M.; Heinemann, B.; Leyer, S.; Riedl, R.; Speth, E.; Wünderlich, D.

    2007-08-01

    IPP Garching is heavily involved in the development of an ion source for Neutral Beam Heating of the ITER Tokamak. RF driven ion sources have been successfully developed and are in operation on the ASDEX-Upgrade Tokamak for positive ion based NBH by the NB Heating group at IPP Garching. Building on this experience a RF driven H- ion source has been under development at IPP Garching as an alternative to the ITER reference design ion source. The number of test beds devoted to source development for ITER has increased from one (BATMAN) by the addition of two test beds (MANITU, RADI). This paper contains descriptions of the three test beds. Results on diagnostic development using laser photodetachment and cavity ringdown spectroscopy are given for BATMAN. The latest results for long pulse development on MANITU are presented including the to date longest pulse (600 s). As well, details of source modifications necessitated for pulses in excess of 100 s are given. The newest test bed RADI is still being commissioned and only technical details of the test bed are included in this paper. The final topic of the paper is an investigation into the effects of biasing the plasma grid.

  11. Operation Status of the J-PARC Ion Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oguri, Hidetomo; Ohkoshi, Kiyonori; Ikegami, Kiyoshi; Yamazaki, Saishun; Takagi, Akira; Koizumi, Isao; Ueno, Akira

    A cesium-free negative hydrogen ion source driven with a LaB6 filament is being operated for J-PARC. The ion source has been providing a beam for approximately eight years without any serious troubles. The ion source consists of a cylindrical plasma chamber, a beam extractor and a large vacuum chamber with 2 turbo molecular pumps of 1500 l/s for differential pumping. The source plasma is produced by an arc discharge and confined by a multi-cusp magnetic field produced by permanent magnets surrounding the chamber wall. The 50 keV negative hydrogen beam is extracted by applying about -50 kV to the beam extractor. The basic structure of the ion source has not been changed since the operation was started. The ion source has been operated in two different modes such as low current mode of 20 mA and high current mode of 32 mA. Continuous operation for about 1,000 h and about 500 h was achieved in low and high current mode, respectively. After the operation, we replace the filament by a brand-new one to prevent the filament from failing during the operation. The required time for the replacement including the filament degassing process, the vacuuming and the conditioning operation is about 15 h.

  12. Volume production of negative ions in the reflex type ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Jimbo, K.

    1982-01-01

    The production of negative hydrogen ions is investigated in the reflex-type negative ion source. The extracted negative hydrogen currents of 9.7 mA (100 mA/cm/sup 2/) for H/sup -/ and of 4.1 mA (42 mA/cm/sup 2/) for D/sup -/ are obtained continuously. The impurity is less then 1%. An isotope effect of negative ion production is observed. When anomalous diffusion in the positive column was found by Lehnert and Hoh (1960), it was pointed out that the large particle loss produced by anomalous diffusion is compensated by the large particle production inside the plasma, i.e., the plasma tries to maintain itself. The self-sustaining property of the plasma is applied to the reflex-type negative ion source. Anomalous diffusion was artificially encouraged by changing the radial electric field inside the reflex discharge. The apparent encouragement of negative ion diffusion by the increase of density fluctuation amplitude is observed. Twice as much negative ion current was obtained with the artificial encouragement as without. It is found from the quasilinear theory that the inwardly directed radial electric field destabilizes the plasma in the reflex-type ion source. The nonlinear theory based on Yoshikawa method (1962) is extended, and the anomalous diffusion coefficient in a weakly ionized plasma is obtained. The electrostatic sheath trap, which increases the confinement of negative ions in the reflex-type ion source, is also discussed.

  13. An all permanent magnet electron cyclotron resonance ion source for heavy ion therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yun; Li, Jia Qing; Sun, Liang Ting; Zhang, Xue Zhen; Feng, Yu Cheng; Wang, Hui; Ma, Bao Hua; Li, Xi Xia

    2014-02-01

    A high charge state all permanent Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source, Lanzhou All Permanent ECR ion source no. 3-LAPECR3, has been successfully built at IMP in 2012, which will serve as the ion injector of the Heavy Ion Medical Machine (HIMM) project. As a commercial device, LAPECR3 features a compact structure, small size, and low cost. According to HIMM scenario more than 100 eμA of C5+ ion beam should be extracted from the ion source, and the beam emittance better than 75 π*mm*mrad. In recent commissioning, about 120 eμA of C5+ ion beam was got when work gas was CH4 while about 262 eμA of C5+ ion beam was obtained when work gas was C2H2 gas. The design and construction of the ion source and its low-energy transportation beam line, and the preliminary commissioning results will be presented in detail in this paper.

  14. An all permanent magnet electron cyclotron resonance ion source for heavy ion therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Yun Li, Jia Qing; Sun, Liang Ting; Zhang, Xue Zhen; Feng, Yu Cheng; Wang, Hui; Ma, Bao Hua; Li, Xi Xia

    2014-02-15

    A high charge state all permanent Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source, Lanzhou All Permanent ECR ion source no. 3-LAPECR3, has been successfully built at IMP in 2012, which will serve as the ion injector of the Heavy Ion Medical Machine (HIMM) project. As a commercial device, LAPECR3 features a compact structure, small size, and low cost. According to HIMM scenario more than 100 eμA of C{sup 5+} ion beam should be extracted from the ion source, and the beam emittance better than 75 π*mm*mrad. In recent commissioning, about 120 eμA of C{sup 5+} ion beam was got when work gas was CH{sub 4} while about 262 eμA of C{sup 5+} ion beam was obtained when work gas was C{sub 2}H{sub 2} gas. The design and construction of the ion source and its low-energy transportation beam line, and the preliminary commissioning results will be presented in detail in this paper.

  15. Comment on "Effects of Magnetic Field Gradient on Ion Beam Current in Cylindrical Hall Ion Source

    SciTech Connect

    Raitses, Y.; Smirnov A.; Fisch, N.J.

    2008-08-29

    It is argued that the key difference of the cylindrical Hall thruster (CHT) as compared to the end-Hall ion source cannot be exclusively attributed to the magnetic field topology [Tang et al. J. Appl. Phys., 102, 123305 (2007)]. With a similar mirror-type topology, the CHT configuration provides the electric field with nearly equipotential magnetic field surfaces and a better suppression of the electron cross-field transport, as compared to both the end-Hall ion source and the cylindrical Hall ion source of Tang et al.

  16. Development of ion beams for space effects testing using an ECR ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benitez, Janilee; Hodgkinson, Adrian; Johnson, Mike; Loew, Tim; Lyneis, Claude; Phair, Larry

    2013-04-01

    At LBNL's 88-Inch Cyclotron and Berkeley Accelerator Space Effects (BASE) Facility, a range of ion beams at energies from 1 to 55 MeV/nucleon are used for radiation space effects testing. By bombarding a component with ion beams the radiation component of the space environment can be simulated and single event effects (SEEs) determined. The performance of electronic components used in space flight and high altitude aircraft can then be evaluated. The 88- Inch Cyclotron is coupled to the three electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECR, AECR-U, VENUS). These ion sources provide a variety of ion species, ranging from protons to heavy ions such as bismuth, for these tests. In particular the ion sources have been developed to provide "cocktails", a mixture of ions of similar mass-to-charge ratio, which can be simultaneously injected into the cyclotron, but selectively extracted from it. The ions differ in both their linear energy transfer (LET) deposited to the part and in their penetration depth into the tested part. The current heavy ion cocktails available are the 4.5, 10, 16, and 30 MeV per nucleon.

  17. Development of ion beams for space effects testing using an ECR ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Benitez, Janilee; Hodgkinson, Adrian; Johnson, Mike; Loew, Tim; Lyneis, Claude; Phair, Larry

    2013-04-19

    At LBNL's 88-Inch Cyclotron and Berkeley Accelerator Space Effects (BASE) Facility, a range of ion beams at energies from 1 to 55 MeV/nucleon are used for radiation space effects testing. By bombarding a component with ion beams the radiation component of the space environment can be simulated and single event effects (SEEs) determined. The performance of electronic components used in space flight and high altitude aircraft can then be evaluated. The 88- Inch Cyclotron is coupled to the three electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECR, AECR-U, VENUS). These ion sources provide a variety of ion species, ranging from protons to heavy ions such as bismuth, for these tests. In particular the ion sources have been developed to provide {sup c}ocktails{sup ,} a mixture of ions of similar mass-to-charge ratio, which can be simultaneously injected into the cyclotron, but selectively extracted from it. The ions differ in both their linear energy transfer (LET) deposited to the part and in their penetration depth into the tested part. The current heavy ion cocktails available are the 4.5, 10, 16, and 30 MeV per nucleon.

  18. Progress on the LBL ECR heavy ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D.J.; Jongen, Y.; Lyneis, C.M.

    1984-04-01

    The LBL ECR ion source, which began test operation in January 1984, has already produced a variety of high charge state heavy ion beams of sufficient intensity for cyclotron operation, although actual use must wait for completion of the beam transport system. The source has produced 40 ..mu..A of O/sup 6 +/, 2 ..mu..A of O/sup 7 +/, 40 ..mu..A of Ar/sup 8 +/, and 0.20 ..mu..A of Ar/sup 12 +/. The source development has centered on optimizing source performance with modifications and parameter tuning. Future plans include construction of an SmCo/sub 5/ octupole structure, and testing of solid feed techniques. The construction of the beam transport line and calculations on center region geometry for heavy ion axial injection into the 88-Inch Cyclotron are also underway.

  19. Spectroscopic characterization of LEVIS active ion source on PBFA 2

    SciTech Connect

    Filuk, A.B.; Bailey, J.E.; Bieg, K.W.; Carlson, A.L.; Renk, T.J.; Tisone, G.C. ); Maron, Y. )

    1992-01-01

    The laser-initiated LEVIS source is intended to provide an active source in the PBFA II ion diode by generation of a performed lithium anode plasma. Visible spectra recorded with a streaked spectrograph are used to help evaluate the source performance. The absence of Stark shifting of the Li I 2p-3d and 2s-2p light confirms that a plasma is created over the anode surface. At lower LEVIS laser intensities this plasma erodes back toward the anode as the ion beam current grows. Considerable improvements in anode is heated for several hours. The LEVIS source microdivergence estimated from the carbon ion transverse energy is less than 14 mrad, meeting the near term requirements for PBFA II target experiments.

  20. Spectroscopic characterization of LEVIS active ion source on PBFA 2

    SciTech Connect

    Filuk, A.B.; Bailey, J.E.; Bieg, K.W.; Carlson, A.L.; Renk, T.J.; Tisone, G.C.; Maron, Y.

    1992-07-01

    The laser-initiated LEVIS source is intended to provide an active source in the PBFA II ion diode by generation of a performed lithium anode plasma. Visible spectra recorded with a streaked spectrograph are used to help evaluate the source performance. The absence of Stark shifting of the Li I 2p-3d and 2s-2p light confirms that a plasma is created over the anode surface. At lower LEVIS laser intensities this plasma erodes back toward the anode as the ion beam current grows. Considerable improvements in anode is heated for several hours. The LEVIS source microdivergence estimated from the carbon ion transverse energy is less than 14 mrad, meeting the near term requirements for PBFA II target experiments.

  1. Recent advances in high current vacuum arc ion sources for heavy ion fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Niansheng; Schein, Jochen; Prasad, Rahul R.; Krishnan, Mahadevan; Anders, Andre; Kwan, Joe; Brown, Ian

    2001-05-01

    For a heavy ion fusion induction linac driver, a source of heavy ions with charge states 1+-3+, ≈0.5 A current beams, ≈20 μs pulse widths and ˜10 Hz repetition rates is required. Thermionic sources have been the workhorse for the Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) program to date, but suffer from heating problems for large areas and contamination. They are limited to low (contact) ionization potential elements and offer relatively low ion fluxes with a charge state limited to 1+. Gas injection sources suffer from partial ionization and deleterious neutral gas effects. The above shortcomings of the thermionic ion sources can be overcome by a vacuum arc ion source. The vacuum arc ion source is a good candidate for HIF applications. It is capable of providing ions of various elements and different charge states in short and long pulse bursts and high beam current density. Under a Phase-I STTR from DOE, the feasibility of the vacuum arc ion source for the HIF applications was investigated. We have modified an existing vacuum arc ion source at LBNL to produce a gadolinium ( A≈158) ion beam with >0.5 A beam current, 120 keV beam energy, ≈6 cm diameter extraction aperture and ≈20 μs pulse width. The average beam current density at the extraction grids was ≈17 mA/cm 2. We have measured that >85% Gd ions were in the 3+ charge state, the beam current fluctuation level (rms) was ≈3%, pulse-to-pulse variation of the beam (rms) was about 3%, the uniformity of the beam density over its 6 cm diameter was ⩾98% and the ion longitudinal energy spread was ⩽1%. Additional measurements were made to improve charge state purity by using other materials and employing an axial magnetic field close to the cathode. Yttrium ( A≈89), lead ( A≈207), and Ba ( A≈137) were tested at similar current parameters with Ba delivering nearly a pure charge state with >95% being in 2+ state. The results of the experiments indicate that the vacuum arc ion source is a good candidate for HIF applications.

  2. Technology and applications of broad-beam ion sources used in sputtering. Part I. Ion source technology

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufman, H.R.; Cuomo, J.J.; Harper, J.M.E.

    1982-09-01

    The technology of broad-beam ion sources used in sputtering applications is reviewed. The most frequently used discharge chambers are described, together with procedures for predicting performance. A new, compact ion source is described. Ion acceleration is reviewed, with particular emphasis on recent low-energy techniques. Some of these techniques include three-grid, small-hole two-grid, and one-grid ion optics. A new material for fabrication of high-precision ion optics is silicon. Because no stresses are introduced with the etching techniques used, the finished grid can be held to very close tolerances. A recent innovation for sputtering applications is the use of Hall-current acceleration. This technique uses a magnetic field interacting with an electron current to provide the accelerating electric field, thereby avoiding the usual space-charge limit on ion current density that is associated with gridded optics. Electron emission is also reviewed, with new hollow cathodes promising improved lifetimes. The overall picture is one of greatly improved ion source capability, with particularly large improvements in low-energy ion current densities.

  3. Injected 1+ ion beam as a diagnostics tool of charge breeder ECR ion source plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarvainen, O.; Lamy, T.; Angot, J.; Thuillier, T.; Delahaye, P.; Maunoury, L.; Choinski, J.; Standylo, L.; Galatà, A.; Patti, G.; Koivisto, H.

    2015-06-01

    Charge breeder electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (CB-ECRIS) are used as 1+  →n+  charge multiplication devices of post-accelerated radioactive ion beams. The charge breeding process involves thermalization of the injected 1+  ions with the plasma ions in ion-ion collisions, subsequent ionization by electron impact and extraction of the n+  ions. Charge breeding experiments of 85Rb and 133Cs ion beams with the 14.5 GHz PHOENIX CB-ECRIS operating with oxygen gas demonstrate the plasma diagnostics capabilities of the 1+  injection method. Two populations can be distinguished in the m/q-spectrum of the extracted ion beams, the low (1+  and 2+) charge states representing the uncaptured fraction of the incident 1+  ion beam and the high charge states that have been captured in ion-ion collisions and subsequently charge bred through electron impact ionization. Identification of the uncaptured fraction of the 1+  ions allows estimating the lower limit of ion-ion collision frequency of various charge states in the ECRIS plasma. The collision frequencies of highly charged ions (˜107 Hz) are shown to exceed their gyrofrequencies (˜106 Hz) at least by an order of magnitude, which implies that the dynamics of high charge state ions are dictated by magnetically confined electrons and ambipolar diffusion and only low charge state ions can be considered magnetized. Furthermore, it is concluded that the plasma density of the ECRIS charge breeder is most likely on the order of 1011 cm-3 i.e. well below the critical density for 14.5 GHz microwaves.

  4. Extraction physics in volume H{sup -}-ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Bacal, M.; Hatayama, A.; Matsumiya, T.; Hamabe, M.; Kuroda, T.; Oka, Y.

    2006-03-15

    Recent hydrogen negative-ion sources (JT60, large helical device (LHD)) operate with a magnetic filter field extending up to the plasma electrode and extraction opening. As shown earlier such a magnetic field has a strong effect upon the value of the extracted negative ion and electron current. Measurements of the negative ion and electron density were performed in the ion source, both in the magnetic-field-free region and in the region near the plasma electrode. This work presents the experimental value of the ratio between the extracted negative ion and electron current in different sources. It is shown that the measured current ratio is considerably higher than what can be predicted from a simple thermal flux model based on the density ratio in the bulk of the plasma. We also calculated the ratio between the extracted negative ion and electron currents based on the measured ratio between the negative ion and electron density near the extraction opening using the different theoretical models for electron flux: (1) thermal flux model (I{sup -}/I{sub e}){sub thermal} and (2) collisional flux model (I{sup -}/I{sub e}){sub coll}. The comparisons show that (I{sup -}/I{sub e}){sub thermal} is considerably smaller, while (I{sup -}/I{sub e}){sub coll} tends to be larger than the experimental value. The underlying physics of this discrepancy is discussed.

  5. Overview of ion source characterization diagnostics in INTF.

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyay, M; Sudhir, Dass; Bhuyan, M; Soni, J; Tyagi, H; Joshi, J; Yadav, A; Rotti, C; Parmar, Deepak; Patel, H; Pillai, S; Chakraborty, A

    2016-02-01

    INdian Test Facility (INTF) is envisaged to characterize ITER diagnostic neutral beam system and to establish the functionality of its eight inductively coupled RF plasma driver based negative hydrogen ion source and its beamline components. The beam quality mainly depends on the ion source performance and therefore, its diagnostics plays an important role for its safe and optimized operation. A number of diagnostics are planned in INTF to characterize the ion source performance. Negative ions and its cesium contents in the source will be monitored by optical emission spectroscopy (OES) and cavity ring down spectroscopy. Plasma near the extraction region will be studied using standard electrostatic probes. The beam divergence and negative ion stripping losses are planned to be measured using Doppler shift spectroscopy. During initial phase of ion beam characterization, carbon fiber composite based infrared imaging diagnostics will be used. Safe operation of the beam will be ensured by using standard thermocouples and electrical voltage-current measurement sensors. A novel concept, based on plasma density dependent plasma impedance measurement using RF electrical impedance matching parameters to characterize the RF driver plasma, will be tested in INTF and will be validated with OES data. The paper will discuss about the overview of the complete INTF diagnostics including its present status of procurement, experimentation, interface with mechanical systems in INTF, and integration with INTF data acquisition and control systems. PMID:26932078

  6. Overview of ion source characterization diagnostics in INTF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandyopadhyay, M.; Sudhir, Dass; Bhuyan, M.; Soni, J.; Tyagi, H.; Joshi, J.; Yadav, A.; Rotti, C.; Parmar, Deepak; Patel, H.; Pillai, S.; Chakraborty, A.

    2016-02-01

    INdian Test Facility (INTF) is envisaged to characterize ITER diagnostic neutral beam system and to establish the functionality of its eight inductively coupled RF plasma driver based negative hydrogen ion source and its beamline components. The beam quality mainly depends on the ion source performance and therefore, its diagnostics plays an important role for its safe and optimized operation. A number of diagnostics are planned in INTF to characterize the ion source performance. Negative ions and its cesium contents in the source will be monitored by optical emission spectroscopy (OES) and cavity ring down spectroscopy. Plasma near the extraction region will be studied using standard electrostatic probes. The beam divergence and negative ion stripping losses are planned to be measured using Doppler shift spectroscopy. During initial phase of ion beam characterization, carbon fiber composite based infrared imaging diagnostics will be used. Safe operation of the beam will be ensured by using standard thermocouples and electrical voltage-current measurement sensors. A novel concept, based on plasma density dependent plasma impedance measurement using RF electrical impedance matching parameters to characterize the RF driver plasma, will be tested in INTF and will be validated with OES data. The paper will discuss about the overview of the complete INTF diagnostics including its present status of procurement, experimentation, interface with mechanical systems in INTF, and integration with INTF data acquisition and control systems.

  7. Electron energy recovery system for negative ion sources

    DOEpatents

    Dagenhart, William K.; Stirling, William L.

    1982-01-01

    An electron energy recovery system for negative ion sources is provided. The system, employs crossed electric and magnetic fields to separate the electrons from ions as they are extracted from a negative ion source plasma generator and before the ions are accelerated to their full kinetic energy. With the electric and magnetic fields oriented 90.degree. to each other, the electrons are separated from the plasma and remain at approximately the electrical potential of the generator in which they were generated. The electrons migrate from the ion beam path in a precessing motion out of the ion accelerating field region into an electron recovery region provided by a specially designed electron collector electrode. The electron collector electrode is uniformly spaced from a surface of the ion generator which is transverse to the direction of migration of the electrons and the two surfaces are contoured in a matching relationship which departs from a planar configuration to provide an electric field component in the recovery region which is parallel to the magnetic field thereby forcing the electrons to be directed into and collected by the electron collector electrode. The collector electrode is maintained at a potential slightly positive with respect to the ion generator so that the electrons are collected at a small fraction of the full accelerating supply voltage energy.

  8. Measurement of ion beam from laser ion source for RHIC EBIS.

    SciTech Connect

    Kanesue,T.; Tamura, J.; Okamura, M.

    2008-06-23

    Laser ion source (LIS) is a candidate of the primary ion source for the RHIC EBIS. LIS will provide intense charge state 1+ ions to the EBIS for further ionization. We measured plasma properties of a variety of atomic species from C to Au using the second harmonics of Nd:YAG laser (532 nm wave length, up to 0.5 J/6 ns). Since properties of laser produced plasma is different from different species, laser power density for singly charged ion production should be verified experimentally for each atomic species. After plasma analysis experiments, Au ions was extracted from plasma and emittance of the ion beam was measured using a pepper pot type emittance monitor.

  9. Singularity and Bohm criterion in hot positive ion species in the electronegative ion sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aslaninejad, Morteza; Yasserian, Kiomars

    2016-05-01

    The structure of the discharge for a magnetized electronegative ion source with two species of positive ions is investigated. The thermal motion of hot positive ions and the singularities involved with it are taken into account. By analytical solution of the neutral region, the location of the singular point and also the values of the plasma parameter such as electric potential and ion density at the singular point are obtained. A generalized Bohm criterion is recovered and discussed. In addition, for the non-neutral solution, the numerical method is used. In contrast with cold ion plasma, qualitative changes are observed. The parameter space region within which oscillations in the density and potential can be observed has been scanned and discussed. The space charge behavior in the vicinity of edge of the ion sources has also been discussed in detail.

  10. Ion source for studying ion distribution with respect to initial kinetic energy

    SciTech Connect

    Tantsyrev, G.D.; Saranov, Y.F.

    1985-12-01

    This paper describes an ion source with separate regions of ion formation and extraction. This separation allows the initial kinetic energies of the ions to be measured by their stopping. The source ensures a measurement accuracy of at least 0.1 eV for any space distribution of ion velocity, which allows it to be used to study inelastic collisions of accelerated atomic particles with gas molecules. As an example, I(eU) curve for N/sub 2/+ ions produced in ionization of N/sub 2/ by Ar atoms with an energy of 2.5 keV is presented. The proposed method allows ion IKE in this range to be measured with an accuracy of + or - 0.1 eV regardless of the space distribution of their initial velocities.

  11. Use of predissociation to enhance the atomic hydrogen ion fraction in ion sources

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Jinchoon

    1979-01-01

    A duopigatron ion source is modified by replacing the normal oxide-coated wire filament cathode of the ion source with a hot tungsten oven through which hydrogen gas is fed into the arc chamber. The hydrogen gas is predissociated in the hot oven prior to the arc discharge, and the recombination rate is minimized by hot walls inside of the arc chamber. With the use of the above modifications, the atomic H.sub.1.sup.+ ion fraction output can be increased from the normal 50% to greater than 70% with a corresponding decrease in the H.sub.2.sup.+ and H.sub.3.sup.+ molecular ion fraction outputs from the ion source.

  12. Development of C(6+) laser ion source and RFQ linac for carbon ion radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Sako, T; Yamaguchi, A; Sato, K; Goto, A; Iwai, T; Nayuki, T; Nemoto, K; Kayama, T; Takeuchi, T

    2016-02-01

    A prototype C(6+) injector using a laser ion source has been developed for a compact synchrotron dedicated to carbon ion radiotherapy. The injector consists of a laser ion source and a 4-vane radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linac. Ion beams are extracted from plasma and directly injected into the RFQ. A solenoid guides the low-energy beams into the RFQ. The RFQ is designed to accelerate high-intensity pulsed beams. A structure of monolithic vanes and cavities is adopted to reduce its power consumption. In beam acceleration tests, a solenoidal magnetic field set between the laser ion source and the RFQ helped increase both the peak currents before and after the RFQ by a factor of 4. PMID:26932119

  13. Negative hydrogen ion beam extraction from an AC heated cathode driven Bernas-type ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Okano, Y.; Miyamoto, N.; Kasuya, T.; Wada, M.

    2015-04-08

    A plasma grid structure was installed to a Bernas-type ion source used for ion implantation equipment. A negative hydrogen (H{sup −}) ion beam was extracted by an AC driven ion source by adjusting the bias to the plasma grid. The extracted electron current was reduced by positively biasing the plasma grid, while an optimum plasma grid bias voltage for negative ion beam extraction was found to be positive 3 V with respect to the arc chamber. Source operations with AC cathode heating show extraction characteristics almost identical to that with DC cathode heating, except a minute increase in H{sup −} current at higher frequency of cathode heating current.

  14. Development of C6+ laser ion source and RFQ linac for carbon ion radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sako, T.; Yamaguchi, A.; Sato, K.; Goto, A.; Iwai, T.; Nayuki, T.; Nemoto, K.; Kayama, T.; Takeuchi, T.

    2016-02-01

    A prototype C6+ injector using a laser ion source has been developed for a compact synchrotron dedicated to carbon ion radiotherapy. The injector consists of a laser ion source and a 4-vane radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linac. Ion beams are extracted from plasma and directly injected into the RFQ. A solenoid guides the low-energy beams into the RFQ. The RFQ is designed to accelerate high-intensity pulsed beams. A structure of monolithic vanes and cavities is adopted to reduce its power consumption. In beam acceleration tests, a solenoidal magnetic field set between the laser ion source and the RFQ helped increase both the peak currents before and after the RFQ by a factor of 4.

  15. An ion source based on the cathodic arc

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, D.M.; Falabella, S.

    1992-12-31

    This invention is comprised of a cylindrically symmetric arc source to produce a ring of ions which leave the surface of the arc target radially and are reflected by electrostatic fields present in the source to a point of use, such as a part to be coated. An array of electrically isolated rings positioned in the source serves the duel purpose of minimizing bouncing of macroparticles and providing electrical insulation to maximize the electric field gradients within the source. The source also includes a series of baffles which function as a filtering or trapping mechanism for any macroparticles.

  16. A Test Stand for Ion Sources of Ultimate Reliability

    SciTech Connect

    Enparantza, R.; Uriarte, L.; Romano, P.; Alonso, J.; Ariz, I.; Egiraun, M.; Bermejo, F. J.; Etxebarria, V.; Lucas, J.; Del Rio, J. M.; Letchford, A.; Faircloth, D.; Stockli, M.

    2009-03-12

    The rationale behind the ITUR project is to perform a comparison between different kinds of H{sup -} ion sources using the same beam diagnostics setup. In particular, a direct comparison will be made in terms of the emittance characteristics of Penning Type sources such as those currently in use in the injector for the ISIS (UK) Pulsed Neutron Source and those of volumetric type such as that driving the injector for the ORNL Spallation Neutron Source (TN, U.S.A.). The endeavour here pursued is thus to build an Ion Source Test Stand where virtually any type of source can be tested and its features measured and, thus compared to the results of other sources under the same gauge. It would be possible then to establish a common ground for effectively comparing different ion sources. The long term objectives are thus to contribute towards building compact sources of minimum emittance, maximum performance, high reliability-availability, high percentage of desired particle production, stability and high brightness. The project consortium is lead by Tekniker-IK4 research centre and partners are companies Elytt Energy and Jema Group. The technical viability is guaranteed by the collaboration between the project consortium and several scientific institutions, such the CSIC (Spain), the University of the Basque Country (Spain), ISIS (STFC-UK), SNS (ORNL-USA) and CEA in Saclay (France)

  17. Development of Li+ alumino-silicate ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, P.K.; Seidl, P.A.; Waldron, W.; Greenway, W.; Lidia, S.; Anders, A.; Kwan, J.

    2009-04-21

    To uniformly heat targets to electron-volt temperatures for the study of warm dense matter, one strategy is to deposit most of the ion energy at the peak of energy loss (dE/dx) with a low (E< 5 MeV) kinetic energy beam and a thin target[1]. Lower mass ions have a peak dE/dx at a lower kinetic energy. To this end, a small lithium (Li+) alumino-silicate source has been fabricated, and its emission limit has been measured. These surface ionization sources are heated to 1000-1150 C where they preferentially emit singly ionized alkali ions. Alumino-silicates sources of K+ and Cs+ have been used extensively in beam experiments, but there are additional challenges for the preparation of high-quality Li+ sources: There are tighter tolerances in preparing and sintering the alumino-silicate to the substrate to produce an emitter that gives uniform ion emission, sufficient current density and low beam emittance. We report on recent measurements ofhigh ( up to 35 mA/cm2) current density from a Li+ source. Ion species identification of possible contaminants is being verified with a Wien (E x B) filter, and via time-of-flight.

  18. LEVIS ion source and beam characterization on PBFA-II

    SciTech Connect

    Renk, T.J.; Tisone, G.C.; Adams, R.G.; Bailey, J.E.; Filuk, A.B.; Johnson, D.J.; Pointon, T.D.

    1993-12-31

    We report on the continuing development of the LEVIS (Laser Evaporation Ion Source) lithium active ion source for the 15-cm radial focussing ion diode on PBFA-11. We found previously that DC-heating of the anode surface to 150{degrees}C maximum for 5 hours resulted in a pure lithium beam. This paper discusses the characterization of LEVIS source uniformity by Faraday cup arrays and multiple lines of sight for visible light spectroscopy. These diagnostics give some evidence of nonuniformity in both A-K gap electric fields and ion current density. Despite this, however, the measured focal spot size appears smaller than with a passive LiF source operated in the same magnetic field topology. Experiments using a curved anode for vertical beam focussing show reduced ion beam turn-on delay by 5 ns by altering the magnetic field topology as well as anode curvature. Another 3--5 ns reduction was achieved by switching from a passive LiF to the active LEVIS source.

  19. Volume production of negative ions in the reflex-type ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Jimbo, K.

    1982-06-01

    The production of negative hydrogen ions is investigated in the reflex-type negative ion source. The extracted negative hydrogen currents of 9.7 mA (100 mA/cm/sup 2/) for H/sup -/ and of 4.1 mA(42 mA/cm/sup 2/) for D/sup -/ are obtained continuously. The impurity is less than 1%. An isotope effect of negative ion production is observed.

  20. A 2.45 GHz ECR ion source for production of medium charge states ions

    SciTech Connect

    Wutte, D.C.; Leitner, M.A.; Williams, M.D.; Leung, K.N.; Gough, R.A.; Saadatmand, K.; Benveniste, V.

    1998-02-01

    At the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory we are constructing an ECR ion source test facility for nuclear science as well as industrial applications experiments. For these purposes, a single-stage 2.45 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source has been designed and constructed. It features an axial magnetic field with a mirror ratio of up to six and a hexapole field produced by a simple Nd{endash}Fe{endash}B permanent magnet assembly. In order to enhance the ion confinement time, the source plasma volume has been enlarged as much as possible while still maintaining a high mirror ratio. This paper describes the design of the ion source, the extraction system and the test stand. First, operational experience and experimental results with an argon discharge are presented. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  1. Low fragment polyatomic molecular ion source by using permanent magnets.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Mitsuaki; Hayashi, Kyouhei; Imanaka, Kousuke; Ryuto, Hiromichi; Takaoka, Gikan H

    2014-02-01

    Electron-ionization-type polyatomic molecular ion source with low fragment was developed by using a pair of ring-shaped Sm-Co magnets. The magnets were placed forward and backward side of ionization part to confine electrons extracted from a thermionic cathode. Calculated electron trajectory of the developed ion source was 20 times longer than that of an ordinary outer filament configuration that has no magnetic confinement. Mass spectra of the molecular ions generated from n-tetradecane (C14H30) gas exhibited 4 times larger intensity than that of the ordinary configuration in a range of mass/charge from 93 to 210 u. This indicates that suppression of fragment ion was obtained by increase of low energy electrons resulted from the electron confinement. PMID:24593425

  2. Low fragment polyatomic molecular ion source by using permanent magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, Mitsuaki; Hayashi, Kyouhei; Imanaka, Kousuke; Ryuto, Hiromichi; Takaoka, Gikan H.

    2014-02-01

    Electron-ionization-type polyatomic molecular ion source with low fragment was developed by using a pair of ring-shaped Sm-Co magnets. The magnets were placed forward and backward side of ionization part to confine electrons extracted from a thermionic cathode. Calculated electron trajectory of the developed ion source was 20 times longer than that of an ordinary outer filament configuration that has no magnetic confinement. Mass spectra of the molecular ions generated from n-tetradecane (C14H30) gas exhibited 4 times larger intensity than that of the ordinary configuration in a range of mass/charge from 93 to 210 u. This indicates that suppression of fragment ion was obtained by increase of low energy electrons resulted from the electron confinement.

  3. Development of a compact ECR ion source for various ion production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muramatsu, M.; Hojo, S.; Iwata, Y.; Katagiri, K.; Sakamoto, Y.; Takahashi, N.; Sasaki, N.; Fukushima, K.; Takahashi, K.; Suzuki, T.; Sasano, T.; Uchida, T.; Yoshida, Y.; Hagino, S.; Nishiokada, T.; Kato, Y.; Kitagawa, A.

    2016-02-01

    There is a desire that a carbon-ion radiotherapy facility will produce various ion species for fundamental research. Although the present Kei2-type ion sources are dedicated for the carbon-ion production, a future ion source is expected that could provide: (1) carbon-ion production for medical use, (2) various ions with a charge-to-mass ratio of 1/3 for the existing Linac injector, and (3) low cost for modification. A prototype compact electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source, named Kei3, based on the Kei series has been developed to correspond to the Kei2 type and to produce these various ions at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS). The Kei3 has an outer diameter of 280 mm and a length of 1120 mm. The magnetic field is formed by the same permanent magnet as Kei2. The movable extraction electrode has been installed in order to optimize the beam extraction with various current densities. The gas-injection side of the vacuum chamber has enough space for an oven system. We measured dependence of microwave frequency, extraction voltage, and puller position. Charge state distributions of helium, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and neon were also measured.

  4. Intense polarized /sup 3/He ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Slobodrian, R.J.; Bertrand, R.; Grioux, J.; Labrie, R.; Lapainte, R.; Meunier, J.F.; Pigeon, G.; Pouliot, L.; Rioux, C.; Roy, R.

    1985-10-01

    This source is based on the atomic polarization of the 2/sup 3/S/sub 1/ metastable state of the neutral atom. A version suitable for operation on the high voltage terminal of a CN Van de Graaff has been constructed, bench tested and installed in the terminal of a 7.5 MV machine. The polarization of the atomic beam is higher than 90%. It is now fully operational and a current of /sup 3/He/sup +/ of 300 nA has been measured after acceleration.

  5. Observation of multiple charge states and high ion energies in high-power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) and burst HiPIMS using a LaB6 target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franz, Robert; Clavero, César; Bolat, Rustem; Mendelsberg, Rueben; Anders, André

    2014-06-01

    The charge-state-resolved ion energies of high-power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) discharges were measured, using a LaB6 target, as a function of charging voltage, pulse length, pulse frequency and ‘on/off’ time ratio within applied HiPIMS bursts. The highest charge states can reach ‘+2’ and ‘+3’ for boron and lanthanum ions, respectively. At high discharge powers, the B/La ion ratio can exceed the respective atom ratio in the target producing B-rich plasma with up to 98% boron ions. In the case of two-segmented bursts with high ‘on/off’ time ratios, La3+ is the dominating lanthanum ion species and the ion energy distribution of B+ shows a pronounced high-energy tail extending up to 750 eV. The measured plasma compositions, ion charge states and ion energies are discussed within the established framework of HiPIMS discharges and the recent postulation that potential humps are associated with drifting ionization zones. The recorded high B/La ion ratios are a result of complex effects related to particle fluxes in the HiPIMS plasma of compound targets, as explained with the help of an expanded schematic representation of self-sputtering and gas atom recycling. The high energies of the B+ ions are based on a combination of the self-sputtering of boron, backscattering of incident boron ions on lanthanum atoms in the target and acceleration by the potential hump. Further evidence for potential humps is provided by the observed charge-state dependence of ion energies and features between the thermal peak and high-energy tail of the ion energy distribution functions.

  6. Effect of Coulomb collision on the negative ion extraction mechanism in negative ion sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, I.; Miyamoto, K.; Nishioka, S.; Mattei, S.; Lettry, J.; Abe, S.; Hatayama, A.

    2016-02-01

    To improve the H- ion beam optics, it is necessary to understand the energy relaxation process of surface produced H- ions in the extraction region of Cs seeded H- ion sources. Coulomb collisions of charged particles have been introduced to the 2D3V-PIC (two dimension in real space and three dimension in velocity space particle-in-cell) model for the H- extraction by using the binary collision model. Due to Coulomb collision, the lower energy part of the ion energy distribution function of H- ions has been greatly increased. The mean kinetic energy of the surface produced H- ions has been reduced to 0.65 eV from 1.5 eV. It has been suggested that the beam optics of the extracted H- ion beam is strongly affected by the energy relaxation process due to Coulomb collision.

  7. Single-ring magnetic cusp low gas pressure ion source

    DOEpatents

    Bacon, Frank M. (Albuquerque, NM); Brainard, John P. (Albuquerque, NM); O'Hagan, James B. (Albuquerque, NM); Walko, Robert J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1985-01-01

    A single-ring magnetic cusp low gas pressure ion source designed for use in a sealed, nonpumped neutron generator utilizes a cathode and an anode, three electrically floating electrodes (a reflector behind the cathode, a heat shield around the anode, and an aperture plate), together with a single ring-cusp magnetic field, to establish and energy-filtering mechanism for producing atomic-hydrogen ions.

  8. Status and special features of the Atomki ECR ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Biri, S.; Palinkas, J.

    2012-02-15

    The ECR ion source has been operating in ATOMKI (Debrecen) since 1996. During the past 15 years lots of minor and numerous major technical modifications have been carried out on the ECRIS. Many of these changes aimed the increasing of beams charge, intensity, and the widening of the ion choice. Another group of the modifications were performed to develop special, non-standard operation modes or to produce peculiar plasmas and beams.

  9. ECR plasma source for heavy ion beam charge neutralization

    SciTech Connect

    Efthimion, P.C.; Gilson, E.; Grisham, L.; Kolchin, P.; Davidson, E.C.; Yu, S.S.; Logan, B.G.

    2002-05-01

    Highly ionized plasmas are being considered as a medium for charge neutralizing heavy ion beams in order to focus beyond the space-charge limit. Calculations suggest that plasma at a density of 1-100 times the ion beam density and at a length {approx} 0.1-2 m would be suitable for achieving a high level of charge neutralization. An ECR source has been built at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) to support a joint Neutralized Transport Experiment (NTX) at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) to study ion beam neutralization with plasma. The ECR source operates at 13.6 MHz and with solenoid magnetic fields of 1-10 gauss. The goal is to operate the source at pressures {approx} 10{sup -6} Torr at full ionization. The initial operation of the source has been at pressures of 10{sup -4}-10{sup -1} Torr. Electron densities in the range of 10{sup 8}-10{sup 11} cm{sup -3} have been achieved. Low-pressure operation is important to reduce ion beam ionization. A cusp magnetic field has been installed to improve radial confinement and reduce the field strength on the beam axis. In addition, axial confinement is believed to be important to achieve lower-pressure operation. To further improve breakdown at low pressure, a weak electron source will be placed near the end of the ECR source.

  10. Sources of polar plume ion escape on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curry, S.; Liemohn, M.; Ma, Y.; Fang, X.

    2011-10-01

    The Mars pick-up ion transport model has been developed to study the relative role of kinetic processes on ion transport through near-Mars space. Mars does not have a strong, intrinsic dipole magnetic field and consequently the solar wind directly interacts with the dayside upper atmosphere causing particles to be stripped away from the atmosphere. The Mars Pickup Ion Model calculates the detailed ion velocity space distribution (VSD) through a background magnetic and electric field model at specific locations. The main objective of this work is to robustly probe the sources of polar plume ion escape relative to loss down the central tail. Because the VSDs are non-Maxwellian and reveal asymmetric, non-gyrotropic features, our simulation can investigate the role of kinetics in polar plume loss without using the Maxwellian assumptions of current MHD models.

  11. Planar flow-by electrode capacitive electrospray ion source

    DOEpatents

    Van Berkel, Gary J.

    2004-01-13

    An electrospray ion source includes a chamber including a channel region therein, the channel including at least one inlet for directing a solution into the channel and at least a first and a second outlet for transmitting the solution or derivatives therefrom out from channel. Structure for separating ions in the solution is provided from separating the solution into at least a first and a second flow stream portion. The first flow stream portion is enriched in negative ions and the second flow stream portion is enriched in positive ions. The first flow stream portion is adapted to exit the chamber through the first outlet while the second flow stream portion is adapted to exit the chamber through the second outlet. A method of charge separation can include the step of simultaneously providing at least two gas phase ion stream portions having opposite polarity.

  12. Alternative modeling methods for plasma-based Rf ion sources.

    PubMed

    Veitzer, Seth A; Kundrapu, Madhusudhan; Stoltz, Peter H; Beckwith, Kristian R C

    2016-02-01

    Rf-driven ion sources for accelerators and many industrial applications benefit from detailed numerical modeling and simulation of plasma characteristics. For instance, modeling of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) internal antenna H(-) source has indicated that a large plasma velocity is induced near bends in the antenna where structural failures are often observed. This could lead to improved designs and ion source performance based on simulation and modeling. However, there are significant separations of time and spatial scales inherent to Rf-driven plasma ion sources, which makes it difficult to model ion sources with explicit, kinetic Particle-In-Cell (PIC) simulation codes. In particular, if both electron and ion motions are to be explicitly modeled, then the simulation time step must be very small, and total simulation times must be large enough to capture the evolution of the plasma ions, as well as extending over many Rf periods. Additional physics processes such as plasma chemistry and surface effects such as secondary electron emission increase the computational requirements in such a way that even fully parallel explicit PIC models cannot be used. One alternative method is to develop fluid-based codes coupled with electromagnetics in order to model ion sources. Time-domain fluid models can simulate plasma evolution, plasma chemistry, and surface physics models with reasonable computational resources by not explicitly resolving electron motions, which thereby leads to an increase in the time step. This is achieved by solving fluid motions coupled with electromagnetics using reduced-physics models, such as single-temperature magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), extended, gas dynamic, and Hall MHD, and two-fluid MHD models. We show recent results on modeling the internal antenna H(-) ion source for the SNS at Oak Ridge National Laboratory using the fluid plasma modeling code USim. We compare demonstrate plasma temperature equilibration in two-temperature MHD models for the SNS source and present simulation results demonstrating plasma evolution over many Rf periods for different plasma temperatures. We perform the calculations in parallel, on unstructured meshes, using finite-volume solvers in order to obtain results in reasonable time. PMID:26932024

  13. Alternative modeling methods for plasma-based Rf ion sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veitzer, Seth A.; Kundrapu, Madhusudhan; Stoltz, Peter H.; Beckwith, Kristian R. C.

    2016-02-01

    Rf-driven ion sources for accelerators and many industrial applications benefit from detailed numerical modeling and simulation of plasma characteristics. For instance, modeling of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) internal antenna H- source has indicated that a large plasma velocity is induced near bends in the antenna where structural failures are often observed. This could lead to improved designs and ion source performance based on simulation and modeling. However, there are significant separations of time and spatial scales inherent to Rf-driven plasma ion sources, which makes it difficult to model ion sources with explicit, kinetic Particle-In-Cell (PIC) simulation codes. In particular, if both electron and ion motions are to be explicitly modeled, then the simulation time step must be very small, and total simulation times must be large enough to capture the evolution of the plasma ions, as well as extending over many Rf periods. Additional physics processes such as plasma chemistry and surface effects such as secondary electron emission increase the computational requirements in such a way that even fully parallel explicit PIC models cannot be used. One alternative method is to develop fluid-based codes coupled with electromagnetics in order to model ion sources. Time-domain fluid models can simulate plasma evolution, plasma chemistry, and surface physics models with reasonable computational resources by not explicitly resolving electron motions, which thereby leads to an increase in the time step. This is achieved by solving fluid motions coupled with electromagnetics using reduced-physics models, such as single-temperature magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), extended, gas dynamic, and Hall MHD, and two-fluid MHD models. We show recent results on modeling the internal antenna H- ion source for the SNS at Oak Ridge National Laboratory using the fluid plasma modeling code USim. We compare demonstrate plasma temperature equilibration in two-temperature MHD models for the SNS source and present simulation results demonstrating plasma evolution over many Rf periods for different plasma temperatures. We perform the calculations in parallel, on unstructured meshes, using finite-volume solvers in order to obtain results in reasonable time.

  14. Ferroelectric Plasma Source for Heavy Ion Beam ChargeNeutralization

    SciTech Connect

    Efthimion, Philip C.; Gilson, Erik P.; Grisham, Larry; Davidson,Ronald C.; Yu, Simon; Waldron, William; Logan, B. Grant

    2005-10-01

    Plasmas are employed as a source of unbound electrons for charge neutralizing heavy ion beams to allow them to focus to a small spot size. Calculations suggest that plasma at a density of 1-100 times the ion beam density and at a length {approx} 0.1-1 m would be suitable. To produce one-meter plasma, large-volume plasma sources based upon ferroelectric ceramics are being developed. These sources have the advantage of being able to increase the length of the plasma and operate at low neutral pressures. The source utilizes the ferroelectric ceramic BaTiO{sub 3} to form metal plasma. The drift tube inner surface of the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX) will be covered with ceramic, and high voltage ({approx} 1-5 kV) applied between the drift tube and the front surface of the ceramic by placing a wire grid on the front surface. A prototype ferroelectric source 20 cm long has produced plasma densities of 5 x 10{sup 11} cm{sup -3}. The source was integrated into the previous Neutralized Transport Experiment (NTX), and successfully charge neutralized the K{sup +} ion beam. Presently, the one-meter source is being fabricated. The source is being characterized and will be integrated into NDCX for charge neutralization experiments.

  15. Plasma and Ion Sources in Large Area Coatings: A Review

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, Andre

    2005-02-28

    Efficient deposition of high-quality coatings often requires controlled application of excited or ionized particles. These particles are either condensing (film-forming) or assisting by providing energy and momentum to the film growth process, resulting in densification, sputtering/etching, modification of stress, roughness, texture, etc. In this review, the technical means are surveyed enabling large area application of ions and plasmas, with ion energies ranging from a few eV to a few keV. Both semiconductortype large area (single wafer or batch processing with {approx} 1000 cm{sup 2}) and in-line web and glass-coating-type large area (> 10{sup 7} m{sup 2} annually) are considered. Characteristics and differences between plasma and ion sources are explained. The latter include gridded and gridless sources. Many examples are given, including sources based on DC, RF, and microwave discharges, some with special geometries like hollow cathodes and E x B configurations.

  16. Design and development of the CSNS ion source control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yan-Hua; Li, Gang; Ouyang, Hua-Fu

    2013-07-01

    Now that the CSNS ion source test stand has been stably working for years, an online control system for the CSNS ion source which aims to be more stable and reliable is now under development. F3RP61-2L, a new PLC CPU module running an embedded Linux system, is introduced to the system as an IOC, to function together with the I/O modules of FA-M3 PLC on the PLC-bus. The adoption of the new IOC not only simplifies the architecture of the control system, but also improves the data transmission speed. In this paper, the design and development of the supervisory and control system for the CSNS ion source are described.

  17. Shunting arc plasma source for pure carbon ion beama)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koguchi, H.; Sakakita, H.; Kiyama, S.; Shimada, T.; Sato, Y.; Hirano, Y.

    2012-02-01

    A plasma source is developed using a coaxial shunting arc plasma gun to extract a pure carbon ion beam. The pure carbon ion beam is a new type of deposition system for diamond and other carbon materials. Our plasma device generates pure carbon plasma from solid-state carbon material without using a hydrocarbon gas such as methane gas, and the plasma does not contain any hydrogen. The ion saturation current of the discharge measured by a double probe is about 0.2 mA/mm2 at the peak of the pulse.

  18. Shunting arc plasma source for pure carbon ion beam.

    PubMed

    Koguchi, H; Sakakita, H; Kiyama, S; Shimada, T; Sato, Y; Hirano, Y

    2012-02-01

    A plasma source is developed using a coaxial shunting arc plasma gun to extract a pure carbon ion beam. The pure carbon ion beam is a new type of deposition system for diamond and other carbon materials. Our plasma device generates pure carbon plasma from solid-state carbon material without using a hydrocarbon gas such as methane gas, and the plasma does not contain any hydrogen. The ion saturation current of the discharge measured by a double probe is about 0.2 mA∕mm(2) at the peak of the pulse. PMID:22380206

  19. Modified calutron negative ion source operation and future plans

    SciTech Connect

    Dagenhart, W.K.; Stirling, W.L.; Haselton, H.H.; Kelley, G.G.; Kim, J.; Tsai, C.C.; Whealton, J.H.

    1980-01-01

    Negative ion generation has advanced rapidly by employing the concept of surface ionization. The modified calutron has proven to be a successful tool to explore these concepts and provide solutions to the many problems which must be evaluated. Many features of the SITEX (Surface Ionization with Transverse Extraction) ion source are ideally suited to this exploration. Some of these features are; a ribbon-like plasma, electron control by transverse magnetic fields and the ability to separate the Cs oven parameters from those which control the positive ion generation.

  20. The ATLAS PII-ECR ion source project

    SciTech Connect

    Pardo, R.C.; Billquist, P.J.; Dey, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    The Argonne PII-ECR ion source has been operating for ten months. Beam development has proceeded well and has included the first beams from solid materials as well as gases. High voltage operation has been accomplished and beams to an atomic physics program have been provided for a total of four months. Problems with the high voltage transformer has limited run time at high voltage. A test of ion cyclotron resonance heating has occurred, demonstrating the possibility of selectively enhancing certain charge states in the extracted beam distributions. First beam from the Phase I Positive Ion Injector (PII) project is scheduled for February, 1989. 7 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.