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1

Magnetron-Discharge-Based Ion Source for Improvement of an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Device  

Microsoft Academic Search

A magnetron discharge as a built-in ion source have studied both experimentally and numerically for a compact discharge-type fusion neutron source called IECF (Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion). With this magnetron discharge, ions are produced in the vicinity of the vacuum chamber (anode) at negative electric potential. Therefore, produced ions are expected to have nearly full energy corresponding to the applied

Teruhisa Takamatsu; Kai Masuda; Kiyoshi Yoshikawa; Hisayuki Toku; Kazunobu Nagasaki; Toshiyuki Kyunai

2005-01-01

2

Unbalance magnetron plasma source for ion mass-separator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The report presents the results of the preliminary studies characteristics of an unbalanced magnetron plasma source supplied with the transport system based on a curved magnetic field. The aim of these studies was to recognize if the system is suitable, in principle, for mass-separation of a multi-component plasma flow. The magnetron source has 50 mm diameter cathode manufactured of an alloy composed of Cu (64%), Pb (22.5%) and admixtures, about of 14% (Al, Zn, C). By means of an immersion time-of-flight spectrometer, a spatial distribution of ions of the cathode material was measured through the system output cross-section. Distribution of atom of these elements was measured here by the X-ray fluorescence spectrometry as well. Both methods showed that the ions of the lighter element (Cu) were concentrated in the inner part of the plasma flow deflected by the magnetic field while the distribution of the heavy element (Pb) was shifted toward the outer area of the flow. The similar effect was observed for each couple of the elements. Such a system is promising for use in plasma technology of reprocessing spent nuclear fuel, namely for separation heavy radioactive fission product from nuclear waste.

Paperny, V. L.; Krasov, V. I.; Astrakchantsev, N. V.; Lebedev, N. V.

2014-11-01

3

Magnetron-Discharge-Based Ion Source for Improvement of an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Device  

SciTech Connect

A magnetron discharge as a built-in ion source have studied both experimentally and numerically for a compact discharge-type fusion neutron source called IECF (Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion). With this magnetron discharge, ions are produced in the vicinity of the vacuum chamber (anode) at negative electric potential. Therefore, produced ions are expected to have nearly full energy corresponding to the applied voltage to the IECF cathode but slightly smaller energy preventing them from hitting the anode of the opposite end, eventually improving both fusion reaction rate and ion recirculation life. Also, the magnetron ion source was found to produce ample ion current for maintenance of the discharge. With the optimization of the configuration of the magnetron discharge, further improvement of the fusion reaction rate is found feasible.

Takamatsu, Teruhisa; Masuda, Kai; Yoshikawa, Kiyoshi; Toku, Hisayuki; Nagasaki, Kazunobu; Kyunai, Toshiyuki [Kyoto University (Japan)

2005-05-15

4

Estimation of sputtering damages on a magnetron H- ion source induced by Cs+ and H+ ions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An H- ion source is being developed for CERN's Linac4 accelerator. A beam current requirement of 80 mA and a reliability above 99 % during 1 year with 3 month uninterrupted operation periods are mandatory. To design a low-maintenance long life-time source, it is important to investigate and understand the wear mechanisms. A cesiated plasma discharge ion source, such as the BNL magnetron source, is a good candidate for the Linac4 ion source. However, in the magnetron source operated at BNL, the removal of material from the molybdenum cathode and the stainless steel anode cover plate surfaces is visible after extended operation periods. The observed sputtering traces are shown to result from cesium vapors and hydrogen gas ionized in the extraction region and subsequently accelerated by the extraction field. This paper presents a quantitative estimate of the ionization of cesium and hydrogen by the electron and H- beams in the extraction region of BNL's magnetron ion source. The respective contributions of Cs+ and H+ ions to the sputtering process are estimated.

Pereira, H.; Lettry, J.; Alessi, J.; Kalvas, T.

2013-02-01

5

Estimation of Sputtering Damages on a Magnetron H- Ion Source Induced by Cs+ and H+ Ions  

E-print Network

An H? ion source is being developed for CERN’s Linac4 accelerator. A beam current requirement of 80 mA and a reliability above 99% during 1 year with 3 month uninterrupted operation periods are mandatory. To design a low-maintenance long life-time source, it is important to investigate and understand the wear mechanisms. A cesiated plasma discharge ion source, such as the BNL magnetron source, is a good candidate for the Linac4 ion source. However, in the magnetron source operated at BNL, the removal of material from the molybdenum cathode and the stainless steel anode cover plate surfaces is visible after extended operation periods. The observed sputtering traces are shown to result from cesium vapors and hydrogen gas ionized in the extraction region and subsequently accelerated by the extraction field. This paper presents a quantitative estimate of the ionization of cesium and hydrogen by the electron and H? beams in the extraction region of BNL’s magnetron ion source. The respective contributions o...

Pereira, H; Alessi, J; Kalvas, t

2013-01-01

6

An inverted cylindrical sputter magnetron as metal vapor supply for electron cyclotron resonance ion sources  

SciTech Connect

An inverted cylindrical sputter magnetron device has been developed. The magnetron is acting as a metal vapor supply for an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source. FEM simulation of magnetic flux density was used to ensure that there is no critical interaction between both magnetic fields of magnetron and ECR ion source. Spatially resolved double Langmuir probe and optical emission spectroscopy measurements show an increase in electron density by one order of magnitude from 1 × 10{sup 10} cm{sup ?3} to 1 × 10{sup 11} cm{sup ?3}, when the magnetron plasma is exposed to the magnetic mirror field of the ECR ion source. Electron density enhancement is also indicated by magnetron plasma emission photography with a CCD camera. Furthermore, photographs visualize the formation of a localized loss-cone - area, when the magnetron is operated at magnetic mirror field conditions. The inverted cylindrical magnetron supplies a metal atom load rate of R > 1 × 10{sup 18} atoms/s for aluminum, which meets the demand for the production of a milliampere Al{sup +} ion beam.

Weichsel, T., E-mail: tim.weichsel@fep.fraunhofer.de; Hartung, U.; Kopte, T. [Fraunhofer Institute for Electron Beam and Plasma Technology, 01277 Dresden (Germany)] [Fraunhofer Institute for Electron Beam and Plasma Technology, 01277 Dresden (Germany); Zschornack, G. [Institute of Solid State Physics, Dresden University of Technology, 01062 Dresden, Germany and Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Dresden (Germany)] [Institute of Solid State Physics, Dresden University of Technology, 01062 Dresden, Germany and Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Dresden (Germany); Kreller, M.; Silze, A. [DREEBIT GmbH, 01900 Grossroehrsdorf (Germany)] [DREEBIT GmbH, 01900 Grossroehrsdorf (Germany)

2014-05-15

7

Inertial electrostatic confinement fusion device with an ion source using a magnetron discharge  

Microsoft Academic Search

An inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) fusion device is studied for a compact fusion neutron\\/proton source using a built-in magnetron ion source. The addition of an ion source to the IEC fusion device enhances fusion reactions by allowing a lower operating gas pressure and by providing a beam-like ion energy distribution. Under lower gas pressures, charge exchange collisions are reduced, resulting

T. Takamatsu; K. Masuda; T. Kyunai; H. Toku; K. Yoshikawa

2006-01-01

8

Hollow metal target magnetron sputter type radio frequency ion source  

SciTech Connect

A 70 mm diameter 70 mm long compact ion source equipped with a hollow sputtering target has been designed and tested. The hollow sputtering target serves as the radio frequency (RF) plasma excitation electrode at 13.56 MHz. A stable beam of Cu{sup +} has been extracted when Ar was used as the discharge support gas. In the extracted beam, Cu{sup +} had occupied more than 85% of the total ion current. Further increase in Cu{sup +} ions in the beam is anticipated by increasing the RF power and Ar pressure.

Yamada, N., E-mail: mwada@mail.doshisha.ac.jp; Kasuya, T.; Wada, M. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Doshisha University, Kyoto 610–0321 (Japan)] [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Doshisha University, Kyoto 610–0321 (Japan); Tsubouchi, N. [Kansai Institute, Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Osaka 563–8577 (Japan)] [Kansai Institute, Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Osaka 563–8577 (Japan)

2014-02-15

9

Magnetron sputtering source  

DOEpatents

A magnetron sputtering source for sputtering coating substrates includes a high thermal conductivity electrically insulating ceramic and magnetically attached sputter target which can eliminate vacuum sealing and direct fluid cooling of the cathode assembly. The magnetron sputtering source design results in greater compactness, improved operating characteristics, greater versatility, and low fabrication cost. The design easily retrofits most sputtering apparatuses and provides for safe, easy, and cost effective target replacement, installation, and removal. 12 figs.

Makowiecki, D.M.; McKernan, M.A.; Grabner, R.F.; Ramsey, P.B.

1994-08-02

10

Magnetron sputtering source  

DOEpatents

A magnetron sputtering source for sputtering coating substrates includes a high thermal conductivity electrically insulating ceramic and magnetically attached sputter target which can eliminate vacuum sealing and direct fluid cooling of the cathode assembly. The magnetron sputtering source design results in greater compactness, improved operating characteristics, greater versatility, and low fabrication cost. The design easily retrofits most sputtering apparatuses and provides for safe, easy, and cost effective target replacement, installation, and removal.

Makowiecki, Daniel M. (Livermore, WA); McKernan, Mark A. (Livermore, CA); Grabner, R. Fred (Brentwood, CA); Ramsey, Philip B. (Livermore, CA)

1994-01-01

11

Development of metal nanocluster ion source based on dc magnetron plasma sputtering at room temperature  

SciTech Connect

A simple and cost effective nanocluster ion source for the deposition of size selected metal nanocluster has been developed based on the dc magnetron discharge (including pulsed dc discharge). The most important and interesting feature of this cluster source is that it is working at room temperature, cooled by chilled water during the experiment. There is no extraction unit in this device and the cluster streams flow only due to the pressure gradient from source chamber to substrate via quadrupole mass filter. It has provision of multiple substrate holders in the deposition chamber, which can be controlled manually. The facility consists of quadrupole mass filter (QMF 200), which can select masses in the range of 2-125 000 atoms depending on the target materials, with a constant mass resolution (M/{Delta}M{approx}25). The dc magnetron discharge at a power of about 130 W with Ar as feed/buffer gas was used to produce the Cu nanocluster in an aggregation tube and deposited on Si (100) wafer temperature.

Majumdar, Abhijit; Koepp, Daniel; Ganeva, Marina; Hippler, Rainer [Institut fuer Physik, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universitaet Greifswald, Felix-Hausdorff-Str. 6, 17489 Greifswald (Germany); Datta, Debasish; Bhattacharyya, Satyaranjan [Surface Physics Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700 064 (India)

2009-09-15

12

Development of metal nanocluster ion source based on dc magnetron plasma sputtering at room temperature.  

PubMed

A simple and cost effective nanocluster ion source for the deposition of size selected metal nanocluster has been developed based on the dc magnetron discharge (including pulsed dc discharge). The most important and interesting feature of this cluster source is that it is working at room temperature, cooled by chilled water during the experiment. There is no extraction unit in this device and the cluster streams flow only due to the pressure gradient from source chamber to substrate via quadrupole mass filter. It has provision of multiple substrate holders in the deposition chamber, which can be controlled manually. The facility consists of quadrupole mass filter (QMF 200), which can select masses in the range of 2-125 000 atoms depending on the target materials, with a constant mass resolution (M/DeltaM approximately 25). The dc magnetron discharge at a power of about 130 W with Ar as feed/buffer gas was used to produce the Cu nanocluster in an aggregation tube and deposited on Si (100) wafer temperature. PMID:19791960

Majumdar, Abhijit; Köpp, Daniel; Ganeva, Marina; Datta, Debasish; Bhattacharyya, Satyaranjan; Hippler, Rainer

2009-09-01

13

Sub microsecond notching of a negative hydrogen beam at low energy utilizing a magnetron ion source with a split extractor  

SciTech Connect

A technique for sub-microsecond beam notching is being developed at 20 keV utilizing a Magnetron ion source with a slit extraction system and a split extractor. Each half of the extractor is treated as part of a 50 ohm transmission line which can be pulsed at {+-}700 volts creating a 1400 volt gradient. This system along with the associated electronics is electrically floated on top of a pulsed extraction voltage. A beam reduction of 95% has been observed at the end of the Fermilab 400 MeV Linac and 35% notching has recently been achieved in the Booster.

Moehs, Douglas; /Fermilab

2004-12-01

14

Advanced nanocluster ion source based on high-power impulse magnetron sputtering and time-resolved measurements of nanocluster formation.  

PubMed

We developed a new nanocluster (NC) ion source based on the high-power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) technique coupled with a gas flow cell reactor. Silver NC anions (Ag(n)(-)) with a maximum intensity of 5.5 nA (Ag11(-)) are generated with the size ranging from the atomic anion to the 70-mer, which is well-controlled by simply adjusting the peak power and repetition rate of the HiPIMS. By time-resolved density profiles of Ag(n)(-), we find that the ion beam generated by HiPIMS is characterized by individual 100 ms duration "bunches" below a repetition rate of 10 Hz, which is well-thermalized with a group velocity of 5 m/s. The high intensity of the NCs is attributable to the high ionization fraction by this HiPIMS ion source, while the underlying mechanism of the flexible size tuning of the ion source is understood by time-resolved mass spectrometry coupled with the sequential growth mechanism; the increment of the density of the target species in the bunches with the peak power and the overlapping of the bunches with the repetition rate cause the formation of large NCs. PMID:24079920

Zhang, Chuhang; Tsunoyama, Hironori; Akatsuka, Hiroki; Sekiya, Hiroki; Nagase, Tomomi; Nakajima, Atsushi

2013-10-10

15

Modeling the time variation of beam-grid fusion reaction rates in an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement device driven by a ring-shaped magnetron ion source  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use the two-dimensional analysis code KUAD2 to simulate D^{+_{2}} trajectories in an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) device driven by a ring-shaped magnetron ion source (RS-MIS). This aims to maximize the path length lambdaCX for ion-gas charge exchange by operating at just units of mPa D2 gas pressures; however, under these conditions simulations reveal a surprisingly small path length for

J. Kipritidis; K. Masuda; T. Kajiwara; Y. Yamagaki; K. Nagasaki

2011-01-01

16

Cathode grid current dependence of D(d, n)3He reaction rates in an inertial electrostatic confinement device driven by a ring-shaped magnetron ion source  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present D(d, n)3 He reaction rates for a new inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) device which aims to overcome neutralization (charge exchange) of accelerating ions by operating at D2 gas pressures of just 5-10 mPa with the aid of an internal ring-shaped magnetron ion source. Initial experiments with a voltage of -60 kV applied to a central spherical cathode grid

K. Masuda; T. Nakagawa; J. Kipritidis; T. Kajiwara; Y. Yamagaki; H. Zen; K. Yoshikawa; K. Nagasaki

2010-01-01

17

Deposition and characterization of zirconium nitride (ZrN) thin films by reactive magnetron sputtering with linear gas ion source and bias voltage  

SciTech Connect

Zirconium nitride thin films have been prepared on stainless steel substrate (304L grade) by reactive cylindrical magnetron sputtering method with Gas Ion Source (GIS) and bias voltage using optimized coating parameters. The structure and surface morphologies of the ZrN films were characterized using X-ray diffraction, atomic microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The adhesion property of ZrN thin film has been increased due to the GIS. The coating exhibits better adhesion strength up to 10 N whereas the ZrN thin film with bias voltage exhibits adhesion up to 500 mN.

Kavitha, A.; Kannan, R. [Department of Physics, University College of Engineering, Anna University, Dindugal-624622 (India); Subramanian, N. Sankara [Department of Physics, Thiagarajar College of Engineering, Madurai -625015, Tamilnadu (India); Loganathan, S. [Ion Plating, Titan Industries Ltd., Hosur - 635126, Tamilnadu (India)

2014-04-24

18

Cathode grid current dependence of D(d, n)3He reaction rates in an inertial electrostatic confinement device driven by a ring-shaped magnetron ion source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present D(d, n)3 He reaction rates for a new inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) device which aims to overcome neutralization (charge exchange) of accelerating ions by operating at D2 gas pressures of just 5-10 mPa with the aid of an internal ring-shaped magnetron ion source. Initial experiments with a voltage of -60 kV applied to a central spherical cathode grid yield neutron production rates (NPR) proportional to I1.7 for cathode grid current in the range I = 0.1 - 1 mA. This approaches the ideal ~ I2 dependence for a system dominated by energetically preferred, 'beam-beam' reactions between converging nuclei. However, later measurements show NPR ~ I and also indicate changes in the pressure dependence. In fact the I1.7 dependence was recovered by increasing the cathode grid voltage to -80 kV, though this too was only temporary. We suggest that time variation of NPR may be partially explained by a significant contribution of beam-grid reactions and temperature-dependent deuteron absorption by the grid cathode.

Masuda, K.; Nakagawa, T.; Kipritidis, J.; Kajiwara, T.; Yamagaki, Y.; Zen, H.; Yoshikawa, K.; Nagasaki, K.

2010-09-01

19

Ion source  

DOEpatents

A magnetic filter for an ion source reduces the production of undesired ion species and improves the ion beam quality. High-energy ionizing electrons are confined by the magnetic filter to an ion source region, where the high-energy electrons ionize gas molecules. One embodiment of the magnetic filter uses permanent magnets oriented to establish a magnetic field transverse to the direction of travel of ions from the ion source region to the ion extraction region. In another embodiment, low energy 16 eV electrons are injected into the ion source to dissociate gas molecules and undesired ion species into desired ion species.

Leung, Ka-Ngo (Hercules, CA); Ehlers, Kenneth W. (Alamo, CA)

1984-01-01

20

Phase and Frequency Locked Magnetrons for SRF Sources  

SciTech Connect

Magnetrons are low-cost highly-efficient microwave sources, but they have several limitations, primarily centered about the phase and frequency stability of their output. When the stability requirements are low, such as for medical accelerators or kitchen ovens, magnetrons are the very efficient power source of choice. But for high energy accelerators, because of the need for frequency and phase stability - proton accelerators need 1-2 degrees source phase stability, and electron accelerators need .1-.2 degrees of phase stability - they have rarely been used. We describe a novel variable frequency cavity technique which will be utilized to phase and frequency lock magnetrons.

Neubauer, M.; Johnson, R.P.; /Muons Inc., Batavia; Popovic, M.; Moretti, A.; /Fermilab

2009-05-01

21

Phase and Frequency Locked Magnetrons for SRF Sources  

SciTech Connect

There is great potential for a magnetron power source that can be controlled both in phase and frequency. Such a power source could revolutionize many particle accelerator systems that require lower capital cost and/or higher power efficiency. Beyond the accelerator community, phase and frequency locked magnetons could improve radar systems around the world and make affordable phased arrays for wireless power transmission for solar powered satellites. This joint project of Muons, Inc., Fermilab, and L-3 CTL was supported by an STTR grant monitored by the Nuclear Physics Office of the DOE Office of Science. The object of the program was to incorporate ferrite materials into the anode of a magnetron and, with appropriate biasing of the ferrites, to maintain frequency lock and to allow for frequency adjustment of the magnetron without mechanical tuners. If successful, this device would have a dual use both as a source for SRF linacs and for military applications where fast tuning of the frequency is a requirement. In order to place the materials in the proper location, several attributes needed to be modeled. First the impact of the magnetron’s magnetic field needed to be shielded from the ferrites so that they were not saturated. And second, the magnetic field required to change the frequency of the magnetron at the ferrites needed to be shielded from the region containing the circulating electrons. ANSYS calculations of the magnetic field were used to optimize both of these parameters. Once the design for these elements was concluded, parts were fabricated and a complete test assembly built to confirm the predictions of the computer models. The ferrite material was also tested to determine its compatibility with magnetron tube processing temperatures. This required a vacuum bake out of the chosen material to determine the cleanliness of the material in terms of outgassing characteristics, and a subsequent room temperature test to verify that the characteristics of the ferrite had not changed. A major problem that remains is to develop a ferrite material with low enough loss that it does not reduce the quality factor of the magnetron to an unacceptable level.

Neubauer, Michael [Muons, Inc.; Johnson, Rolland

2014-09-12

22

Negative ion source  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for providing a negative ion source accelerates electrons away from a hot filament electron emitter into a region of crossed electric and magnetic fields arranged in a magnetron configuration. During a portion of the resulting cycloidal path, the electron velocity is reduced below its initial value. The electron accelerates as it leaves the surface at a rate of only slightly less than if there were no magnetic field, thereby preventing a charge buildup at the surface of the emitter. As the electron traverses the cycloid, it is decelerated during the second, third, and fourth quadrants, then reeccelerated as it approaches the end of the fourth quadrant to regain its original velocity. The minimum velocity occurs during the fourth quadrant, and corresponds to an electron temperature of 200.degree. to 500.degree. for the electric and magnetic fields commonly encountered in the ion sources of magnetic sector mass spectrometers. An ion source using the above-described thermalized electrons is also disclosed.

Delmore, James E. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1987-01-01

23

Influence of negative metal ion bombardment on the properties of ITO\\/PET films deposited by dc magnetron sputtering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transparent conducting indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films were deposited on a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate at a low substrate temperature by dc magnetron sputtering using a negative metal ion source and an ITO target. During separate deposition runs, the cesium partial pressure was varied from 1×10?3 to 2.2×10-3 Pa to investigate the effect of ion beam bombardment on the

Daeil Kim

2003-01-01

24

High-power magnetron transmitter as an RF source for superconducting linear accelerators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A concept of a high-power transmitter utilizing the Continuous Wave (CW) magnetrons, injection-locked by phase-modulated signals, and intended to operate within a wideband control feedback loop in phase and amplitude, is presented. This transmitter is proposed to drive Superconducting RF (SRF) cavities for intensity-frontier GeV-scale proton/ion linacs, such as the projected Fermilab proton linacs or linacs for Accelerator Driven System (ADS). The transmitter consists of two 2-cascade injection-locked magnetrons with outputs combined by a 3-dB hybrid. The transmitter performance was modelled using CW, S-Band, 1 kW magnetrons. A wideband dynamic control of magnetrons, required for the superconducting linacs, was realized using the magnetrons, injection-locked by the phase-modulated signals. The capabilities of the magnetrons injection-locked by the phase-modulated signals and adequateness for feeding of SRF cavities have been verified by measurements of the magnetrons phase performance, by measurements of the transfer function magnitude characteristics of single and 2-cascade magnetrons in the phase modulation domain, and by measurements of spectra of carrier frequency of the magnetron. At the ratio of power of locking signal to output power of ?-13 dB (in 2-cascade scheme per magnetron) a phase modulation bandwidth is over 1.0 MHz for injection-locked CW single magnetrons and a 2-cascade setup. The carrier frequency spectra (width of ~1 Hz at the level of -60 dBc) measured with the magnetron, injection-locked by a phase-modulated signal, did not demonstrate broadening at wide range of magnitude and frequency of the phase modulation. The wideband dynamic management of output power of the transmitter model has been first experimentally demonstrated using combined in power magnetrons, injection-locked by the phase-modulated signals. Experiments with the injection-locked magnetrons adequately emulated the wideband dynamic control with a feedback control system, which will allow to suppress all known parasitic modulation of the accelerating field in the SRF cavities. The magnetron transmitter concept, tests of the transmitter models and injection-locking of magnetrons by phase-modulated signals are discussed in this work.

Kazakevich, Grigory; Johnson, Rolland; Flanagan, Gene; Marhauser, Frank; Yakovlev, Vyacheslav; Chase, Brian; Lebedev, Valeri; Nagaitsev, Sergei; Pasquinelli, Ralph; Solyak, Nikolay; Quinn, Kenneth; Wolff, Daniel; Pavlov, Viatcheslav

2014-10-01

25

Improved ion source  

DOEpatents

A magnetic filter for an ion source reduces the production of undesired ion species and improves the ion beam quality. High-energy ionizing electrons are confined by the magnetic filter to an ion source region, where the high-energy electrons ionize gas molecules. One embodiment of the magnetic filter uses permanent magnets oriented to establish a magnetic field transverse to the direction of travel of ions from the ion source region to the ion extraction region. In another embodiment, low energy 16 eV electrons are injected into the ion source to dissociate gas molecules and undesired ion species into desired ion species,

Leung, K.N.; Ehlers, K.W.

1982-05-04

26

Negative ion source with hollow cathode discharge plasma  

DOEpatents

A negative ion source of the type where negative ions are formed by bombarding a low-work-function surface with positive ions and neutral particles from a plasma, wherein a highly ionized plasma is injected into an anode space containing the low-work-function surface. The plasma is formed by hollow cathode discharge and injected into the anode space along the magnetic field lines. Preferably, the negative ion source is of the magnetron type.

Hershcovitch, Ady (Mt. Sinai, NY); Prelec, Krsto (Setauket, NY)

1983-01-01

27

Negative ion source with hollow cathode discharge plasma  

DOEpatents

A negative ion source of the type where negative ions are formed by bombarding a low-work-function surface with positive ions and neutral particles from a plasma, wherein a highly ionized plasma is injected into an anode space containing the low-work-function surface is described. The plasma is formed by hollow cathode discharge and injected into the anode space along the magnetic field lines. Preferably, the negative ion source is of the magnetron type.

Hershcovitch, A.; Prelec, K.

1980-12-12

28

Origin of the energetic ion beams at the substrate generated during high power pulsed magnetron sputtering of titanium  

E-print Network

High power pulsed magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) plasmas generate energetic metal ions at the substrate as a major difference to conventional direct current magnetron sputtering. The origin of these energetic ions in HiPIMS is still an open issue, which is unraveled by using three fast diagnostics: time resolved mass spectrometry with a temporal resolution of 2 $\\mu$s, phase resolved optical emission spectroscopy with 1 $\\mu$s and the rotating shutter experiment with a resolution of 50 $\\mu$s. A power scan from dcMS-like to HiPIMS plasmas was performed, with a 2-inch magnetron and a titanium target as sputter source and argon as working gas. Clear differences in the transport as well in the energetic properties of Ar$^+$, Ar$^{2+}$, Ti$^+$ and Ti$^{2+}$ were observed. For discharges with highest peak power densities a high energetic group of Ti$^{+}$ and Ti$^{2+}$ could be identified. A cold group of ions is always present. It is found that hot ions are observed only, when the plasma enters the spokes regime, ...

Maszl, Christian; Benedikt, Jan; von Keudell, Achim

2013-01-01

29

Aperture Ion Source  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The aperture ion source was conceived to eliminate distortion in measurements of angular distributions of neutral atoms and molecules that require electron-impact ion sources. The approach simplifies the coupling between ion source and spectrometer while providing virtually distortion-free angular distributions and improved accuracy in the dimensions of the ionization region. Furthermore, it virtually eliminates the volume occupied by the ion source.

Herrero, Fred

2012-01-01

30

Closed field unbalanced magnetron sputtering ion plating of Ni/Al thin films: influence of the magnetron power.  

PubMed

In this study NiAl thin films have been deposited using closed field unbalanced magnetron sputtering Ion plating (CFUBMSIP). The influence of magnetron power has been investigated using dense and humongous NiAl compound targets onto stainless steel and glass substrates. Potential applications include tribological, electronic media and bond coatings in thermal barrier coatings system. Several techniques has been used to characterise the films including surface stylus profilometry, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDAX), X-Ray diffraction (XRD) Composition analysis of the samples was carried out using VGTOF SIMS (IX23LS) and Atomic force microscopy (AFM). Scratch tester (CSM) combined with acoustic emission singles during loading in order to compare the coating adhesion. The acoustic emission signals emitted during the indentation process were used to determine the critical load, under which the film begins to crack and/or break off the substrate. The average thickness of the films was approximately 1 um. EDAX results of NiAl thin films coating with various magnetron power exhibited the near equal atomic% Ni:Al. The best result being obtained using 300 W and 400 W DC power for Ni and Al targets respectively. XRD revealed the presence of beta NiAl phase for all the films coatings. AFM analysis of the films deposited on glass substrates exhibited quite a smooth surface with surface roughness values in the nanometre range. CSM results indicate that best adhesion was achieved at 300 W for Ni, and 400 W for Al targets compared to sample other power values. SIMS depth profile showed a uniform distribution of the Ni and Al component from the surface of the film to the interface. PMID:20355462

Said, R; Ahmed, W; Gracio, J

2010-04-01

31

Comparative analysis of continuous-wave surface-plasma negative ion sources with various discharge geometry  

SciTech Connect

Negative ion extraction from continuous-wave (CW) magnetron and semiplanotron discharges was studied and it was compared with that for the source with Penning electrode geometry. The CW negative ion beam up current to 13 mA was extracted from the magnetron source with emission aperture of 3.5 mm in diameter, while the beam with current up to 8 mA was obtained from the semiplanotron source modification. Characteristics of CW magnetron and semiplanotron sources are presented and analyzed.

Belchenko, Yu, E-mail: belchenko@inp.nsk.su [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)] [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Sanin, A.; Sotnikov, O. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation) [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk, 630090 (Russian Federation)

2014-02-15

32

Spatial and temporal evolution of ion energies in high power impulse magnetron sputtering plasma discharge  

SciTech Connect

High power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) is a novel deposition technology successfully implemented on full scale industrial machines. HIPIMS utilizes short pulses of high power delivered to the target in order to generate high amount of metal ions. The life-span of ions between the pulses and their energy distribution could strongly influence the properties and characteristics of the deposited coating. In modern industrial coating machines the sample rotates on a substrate holder and changes its position and distance with regard to the magnetron. Time resolved measurements of the ion energy distribution function (IEDF) at different distances from the magnetron have been performed to investigate the temporal evolution of ions at various distances from target. The measurements were performed using two pressures, 1 and 3 Pa to investigate the influence of working gas pressure on IEDF. Plasma sampling energy-resolved mass spectroscopy was used to measure the IEDF of Ti{sup 1+}, Ti{sup 2+}, Ar{sup 1+}, and Ar{sup 2+} ions in HIPIMS plasma discharge with titanium (Ti) target in Ar atmosphere. The measurements were done over a full pulse period and the distance between the magnetron and the orifice of the mass spectrometer was changed from 25 to 215 mm.

Hecimovic, A.; Ehiasarian, A. P. [Nanotechnology Centre for PVD Research, Materials and Engineering Research Centre, Sheffield Hallam University, S1 1WB Sheffield (United Kingdom)

2010-09-15

33

Fabrication of size-selected Pd nanoclusters using a magnetron plasma sputtering source  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on the fabrication of palladium (Pd) nanoclusters using a dc magnetron sputtering source. Plasma sputtering vaporizes the target's material forming nanoclusters by inert gas condensation. The sputtering source produces ionized nanoclusters that enable the study of the nanoclusters' size distribution using a quadrupole mass filter. In this work, the dependence of Pd nanoclusters' size distribution on various source

A. I. Ayesh; N. Qamhieh; H. Ghamlouche; S. Thaker; M. El-Shaer

2010-01-01

34

Substrate heating rates for planar and cylindrical-post magnetron sputtering sources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results are presented for the substrate heating energy/atom required in the planar magnetron sputtering of Al, Cr, Ni, Cu, Mo, In, Ta, W, and Pt in Ar, as well as Al and Cr in O2. Data are also obtained for cylindrical magnetron sputtering of Nb, Ag, Ta, W, and Pb-Sn in Ar, and Mo sputtered in Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe. Planar and cylindrical magnetron heating rates were comparable. Special experiments were conducted to examine the contributions to substrate heating of plasma species and ion neutralization and reflection at the cathode; the results obtained indicate that charged plasma species do not significantly contribute to the heating, but that neutralized and reflected ions play a significant role in the planar as well as cylindrical cases despite the differences in cathode geometry.

Thornton, J. A.; Lamb, J. L.

1984-01-01

35

Industrial ion source technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 30 cm electron bombardment ion source was designed and fabricated for micromachining and sputtering applications. This source has a multipole magnetic field that employs permanent magnets between permeable pole pieces. An average ion current density of 1 ma/sq cm with 500 eV argon ions was selected as a design operating condition. The ion beam at this operating condition was uniform and well collimated, with an average variation of plus or minus 5 percent over the center 20 cm of the beam at distances up to 30 cm from the ion source. A variety of sputtering applications were undertaken with a small 10 cm ion source to better understand the ion source requirements in these applications. The results of these experimental studies are also included.

Kaufman, H. R.

1976-01-01

36

Magnetron Discharge Characteristics for Improvement of an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Neutron\\/Proton Source  

Microsoft Academic Search

A magnetron discharge was adopted in the inertial-electrostatic confinement (IEC) fusion device for drastic improvement of fusion reaction rate. With this discharge in the vicinity of the vacuum chamber, a substantial number of ions produced there are expected to have almost full energy corresponding to the applied voltage to the transparent IEC cathode under relatively low pressures compared with the

K. Yoshikawa; H. Toku; K. Masuda; T. Mizutani; A. Nagafuchi; M. Imoto; T. Takamatsu; K. Nagasaki

2003-01-01

37

Magnetron Discharge Characteristics for Improvement of an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Neutron/Proton Source  

SciTech Connect

A magnetron discharge was adopted in the inertial-electrostatic confinement (IEC) fusion device for drastic improvement of fusion reaction rate. With this discharge in the vicinity of the vacuum chamber, a substantial number of ions produced there are expected to have almost full energy corresponding to the applied voltage to the transparent IEC cathode under relatively low pressures compared with the conventional glow discharge. The magnetron discharge is found to occur even for the pressure of 0.07 mTorr (H{sub 2}) in the present configuration of the experiment, compared with 5 mTorr in the glow discharge.

Yoshikawa, K.; Toku, H.; Masuda, K.; Mizutani, T.; Nagafuchi, A.; Imoto, M.; Takamatsu, T.; Nagasaki, K. [Kyoto University (Japan)

2003-09-15

38

Argon–oxygen dc magnetron discharge plasma probed with ion acoustic waves  

SciTech Connect

The precise determination of the relative concentration of negative ions is very important for the optimization of magnetron sputtering processes, especially for those undertaken in a multicomponent background produced by adding electronegative gases, such as oxygen, to the discharge. The temporal behavior of an ion acoustic wave excited from a stainless steel grid inside the plasma chamber is used to determine the relative negative ion concentration in the magnetron discharge plasma. The phase velocity of the ion acoustic wave in the presence of negative ions is found to be faster than in a pure argon plasma, and the phase velocity increases with the oxygen partial pressure. Optical emission spectroscopy further confirms the increase in the oxygen negative ion density, along with a decrease in the argon positive ion density under the same discharge conditions. The relative negative ion concentration values measured by ion acoustic waves are compared with those measured by a single Langmuir probe, and a similarity in the results obtained by both techniques is observed.

Saikia, Partha, E-mail: partha.008@gmail.com; Saikia, Bipul Kumar; Goswami, Kalyan Sindhu [Centre of Plasma Physics, Institute for Plasma Research, Nazirakhat, Sonapur, Kamrup, Assam 782 402 (India); Phukan, Arindam [Madhabdev College, Narayanpur, Lakhimpur, Assam 784164 (India)

2014-05-15

39

Activated Ion Electron Capture Dissociation (AI ECD) of Proteins: Synchronization of Infrared and Electron Irradiation with Ion Magnetron Motion  

PubMed Central

Here, we show that to perform activated ion electron capture dissociation (AI-ECD) in a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometer equipped with a CO2 laser, it is necessary to synchronize both infrared irradiation and electron capture dissociation with ion magnetron motion. This requirement is essential for instruments in which the infrared laser is angled off-axis, such as the Thermo Finnigan LTQ FT. Generally, the electron irradiation time required for proteins is much shorter (ms) than that required for peptides (tens of ms), and the modulation of ECD, AI ECD, and infrared multiphoton dissociation (IRMPD) with ion magnetron motion is more pronounced. We have optimized AI ECD for ubiquitin, cytochrome c, and myoglobin; however the results can be extended to other proteins. We demonstrate that pre-ECD and post-ECD activation are physically different and display different kinetics. We also demonstrate how, by use of appropriate AI ECD time sequences and normalization, the kinetics of protein gas-phase refolding can be deconvoluted from the diffusion of the ion cloud and measured on the time scale longer than the period of ion magnetron motion. PMID:19200749

Mikhailov, Victor A.; Cooper, Helen J.

2009-01-01

40

Pulsed ion beam source  

DOEpatents

An improved magnetically-confined anode plasma pulsed ion beam source. Beam rotation effects and power efficiency are improved by a magnetic design which places the separatrix between the fast field flux structure and the slow field structure near the anode of the ion beam source, by a gas port design which localizes the gas delivery into the gap between the fast coil and the anode, by a pre-ionizer ringing circuit connected to the fast coil, and by a bias field means which optimally adjusts the plasma formation position in the ion beam source.

Greenly, John B. (Lansing, NY)

1996-01-01

41

Negative hydrogen ion sources for accelerators  

SciTech Connect

A variety of H{sup -} ion sources are in use at accelerator laboratories around the world. A list of these ion sources includes surface plasma sources with magnetron, Penning and surface converter geometries as well as magnetic-multipole volume sources with and without cesium. Just as varied is the means of igniting and maintaining magnetically confined plasmas. Hot and cold cathodes, radio frequency, and microwave power are all in use, as well as electron tandem source ignition. The extraction systems of accelerator H{sup -} ion sources are highly specialized utilizing magnetic and electric fields in their low energy beam transport systems to produce direct current, as well as pulsed and/or chopped beams with a variety of time structures. Within this paper, specific ion sources utilized at accelerator laboratories shall be reviewed along with the physics of surface and volume H{sup -} production in regard to source emittance. Current research trends including aperture modeling, thermal modeling, surface conditioning, and laser diagnostics will also be discussed.

Moehs, D.P.; /Fermilab; Peters, J.; /DESY; Sherman, J.; /Los Alamos

2005-08-01

42

BERNAS ION SOURCE DISCHARGE SIMULATION  

SciTech Connect

The joint research and development program is continued to develop steady-state ion source of decaborane beam for ion implantation industry. Bemas ion source is the wide used ion source for ion implantation industry. The new simulation code was developed for the Bemas ion source discharge simulation. We present first results of the simulation for several materials interested in semiconductors. As well the comparison of results obtained with experimental data obtained at the ITEP ion source test-bench is presented.

RUDSKOY,I.; KULEVOY, T.V.; PETRENKO, S.V.; KUIBEDA, R.P.; SELEZNEV, D.N.; PERSHIN, V.I.; HERSHCOVITCH, A.; JOHNSON, B.M.; GUSHENETS, V.I.; OKS, E.M.; POOLE, H.J.

2007-08-26

43

Cross-field ion transport during high power impulse magnetron sputtering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the effect on thin film growth due to an anomalous electron transport, found in high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS), has been investigated for the case of a planar circular magnetron. An important consequence of this type of transport is that it affects the way ions are being transported in the plasma. It was found that a significant fraction of ions are transported radially outwards in the vicinity of the cathode, across the magnetic field lines, leading to increased deposition rates directly at the side of the cathode (perpendicular to the target surface). Furthermore, this mass transport parallel to the target surface leads to that the fraction of sputtered material reaching a substrate placed directly in front of the target is substantially lower in HiPIMS compared with conventional direct current magnetron sputtering (dcMS). This would help to explain the lower deposition rates generally observed for HiPIMS compared with dcMS. Moreover, time-averaged mass spectrometry measurements of the energy distribution of the cross-field transported ions were carried out. The measured distributions show a direction-dependent high-energy tail, in agreement with predictions of the anomalous transport mechanism.

Lundin, Daniel; Larsson, Petter; Wallin, Erik; Lattemann, Martina; Brenning, Nils; Helmersson, Ulf

2008-08-01

44

Selective ion source  

DOEpatents

A ion source is described wherein selected ions maybe extracted to the exclusion of unwanted ion species of higher ionization potential. Also described is a method of producing selected ions from a compound, such as P.sup.+ from PH.sub.3. The invention comprises a plasma chamber, an electron source, a means for introducing a gas to be ionized by electrons from the electron source, means for limiting electron energy from the electron source to a value between the ionization energy of the selected ion species and the greater ionization energy of an unwanted ion specie, and means for extracting the target ion specie from the plasma chamber. In one embodiment, the electrons are generated in a plasma cathode chamber immediately adjacent to the plasma chamber. A small extractor draws the electrons from the plasma cathode chamber into the relatively positive plasma chamber. The energy of the electrons extracted in this manner is easily controlled. The invention is particularly useful for doping silicon with P.sup.+, AS.sup.+, and B.sup.+ without the problematic presence of hydrogen, helium, water, or carbon oxide ions. Doped silicon is important for manufacture of semiconductors and semiconductor devices.

Leung, Ka-Ngo (Hercules, CA)

1996-01-01

45

Selective ion source  

DOEpatents

A ion source is described wherein selected ions maybe extracted to the exclusion of unwanted ion species of higher ionization potential. Also described is a method of producing selected ions from a compound, such as P{sup +} from PH{sub 3}. The invention comprises a plasma chamber, an electron source, a means for introducing a gas to be ionized by electrons from the electron source, means for limiting electron energy from the electron source to a value between the ionization energy of the selected ion species and the greater ionization energy of an unwanted ion specie, and means for extracting the target ion specie from the plasma chamber. In one embodiment, the electrons are generated in a plasma cathode chamber immediately adjacent to the plasma chamber. A small extractor draws the electrons from the plasma cathode chamber into the relatively positive plasma chamber. The energy of the electrons extracted in this manner is easily controlled. The invention is particularly useful for doping silicon with P{sup +}, As{sup +}, and B{sup +} without the problematic presence of hydrogen, helium, water, or carbon oxide ions. Doped silicon is important for manufacture of semiconductors and semiconductor devices. 6 figs.

Leung, K.N.

1996-05-14

46

Decaborane ion source demonstration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project demonstrated concept and feasibility of a proprietary high current decaborane ion source suitable for ultra shallow doping. This was motivated by the attractive scaling of decaborane ions for space charge dominated extraction and transport. A highly modified Bernas source was mounted on an NV-10\\/80 implanter. Using standard extraction and beamline components, 2.3 mA of boron nucleon current was

M. C. Vella; R. Tysinger; M. Reilly; B. Brown

2000-01-01

47

Negative hydrogen ion source research and beam parameters for accelerators  

Microsoft Academic Search

H beams are useful for multi-turn charge-exchange stripping injection into circular accelerators. Studies on a modified ion source for this purpose are presented. This paper includes some theory about a H magnetron discharge, ion-electron emission, emittance and problems linked with emittance measurement and calculations. Investigated parameters of the emittance probe for optimal performance give a screen voltage of 150 V

Timofey V. Zolkin

2006-01-01

48

Lithium ion sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 10.9 cm diameter lithium alumino-silicate ion source has been chosen as a source of ˜100mA lithium ion current for the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX-II) at LBNL. Research and development was carried out on lithium alumino-silicate ion sources prior to NDCX-II source fabrication. Space-charge-limited emission with the current density exceeding 1 mA/cm2 was measured with 0.64 cm diameter lithium alumino-silicate ion sources at 1275 °C. The beam current density is less for the first 10.9 cm diameter NDCX-II source, and it may be due to an issue of surface coverage. The lifetime of a thin coated (on a tungsten substrate) source is varied, roughly 40-50 h, when pulsed at 0.05 Hz and with pulse length of 6?s each, i.e., a duty factor of 3×10-7, at an operating temperature of 1250-1275 °C. The 10.9 cm diameter source lifetime is likely the same as of a 0.64 cm source, but the lifetime of a source with a 2 mm diameter (without a tungsten substrate) is 10-15 h with a duty factor of 1 (DC extraction). The lifetime variation is dependent on the amount of deposition of ?-eucryptite mass, and the surface temperature. The amount of mass deposition does not significantly alter the current density. More ion source work is needed to improve the large source performance.

Roy, Prabir K.; Greenway, Wayne G.; Grote, Dave P.; Kwan, Joe W.; Lidia, Steven M.; Seidl, Peter A.; Waldron, William L.

2014-01-01

49

Industrial ion source technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In reactive ion etching of Si, varying amounts of O2 were added to the CF4 background. The experimental results indicated an etch rate less than that for Ar up to an O2 partial pressure of about .00006 Torr. Above this O2 pressure, the etch rate with CF4 exceeded that with Ar alone. For comparison the random arrival rate of O2 was approximately equal to the ion arrival rate at a partial pressure of about .00002 Torr. There were also ion source and ion pressure gauge maintenance problems as a result of the use of CF4. Large scale (4 sq cm) texturing of Si was accomplished using both Cu and stainless steel seed. The most effective seeding method for this texturing was to surround the sample with large inclined planes. Designing, fabricating, and testing a 200 sq cm rectangular beam ion source was emphasized. The design current density was 6 mA/sq cm with 500 eV argon ions, although power supply limitations permitted operation to only 2 mA/sq cm. The use of multiple rectangular beam ion sources for continuous processing of wider areas than would be possible with a single source was also studied. In all cases investigated, the most uniform coverage was obtained with 0 to 2 cm beam overlay. The maximum departure from uniform processing at optimum beam overlap was found to be +15%.

Kaufman, H. R.; Robinson, R. S.

1979-01-01

50

Ion flux-film structure relationship during magnetron sputtering of WO3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, we have investigated the influence of the magnetic field configuration during magnetron sputtering of WO3 in order to establish the ion flux-film structure relationship. An asymmetric bipolar pulsed DC magnetron sputtering (PDMS) was used with two magnetic field configurations: balanced (BM) and unbalanced (UMB) magnetic configurations. Ion Energy Distribution Functions (IEDFs) of the main ion populations (Ar+, O+) were recorded. The IEDFs are broad with, in addition of the thermalized distribution around 2 eV, two peaks with available ion kinetic energy up to 40-100 eV associated with the positive part of the pulse. Comparing the BM and UBM data, we calculated an increase by a factor of 5 of the ionic current while the average energy per ion was kept constant (~44 eV). X-ray diffraction demonstrates the influence of the magnetic configuration on the coating phase constitution. The films are crystallized in the WO3 monoclinic phase with preferential orientations along the c axis using the BM configuration and along the a axis using the UBM one's. On the other hand, it has been demonstrated that the grain size increases with the thickness using the BM configuration (up to 18 nm) while it remains constant using the UBM one's (~7 nm).

Hemberg, A.; Konstantinidis, S.; Renaux, F.; Dauchot, J. P.; Snyders, R.

2011-11-01

51

High current ion source  

DOEpatents

An ion source utilizing a cathode and anode for producing an electric arc therebetween. The arc is sufficient to vaporize a portion of the cathode to form a plasma. The plasma leaves the generation region and expands through another regon. The density profile of the plasma may be flattened using a magnetic field formed within a vacuum chamber. Ions are extracted from the plasma to produce a high current broad on beam.

Brown, Ian G. (1088 Woodside Rd., Berkeley, CA 94708); MacGill, Robert A. (645 Kern St., Richmond, CA 94805); Galvin, James E. (2 Commodore Dr. #276, Emeryville, CA 94608)

1990-01-01

52

Origin of the energetic ions at the substrate generated during high power pulsed magnetron sputtering of titanium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) plasmas generate energetic metal ions at the substrate as a major difference to conventional direct current magnetron sputtering (dcMS). The origin of these very energetic ions in HiPIMS is still an open issue, which is unravelled using two fast diagnostics: time-resolved mass spectrometry with a temporal resolution of 2 µs and phase resolved optical emission spectroscopy with a temporal resolution of 1 µs. A power scan from dcMS-like to HiPIMS plasmas was performed, with a 2 inch magnetron and a titanium target as sputter source and argon as working gas. Clear differences in the transport as well as the energetic properties of Ar+, Ar2+, Ti+ and Ti2+ were observed. For discharges with highest peak power densities a high energetic group of Ti+ and Ti2+ could be identified with energies of approximately 25 eV and of 50 eV, respectively. A cold group of ions was always present. It is found that hot ions are observed only when the plasma enters the spokes regime, which can be monitored by oscillations in the IV characteristics in the MHz range that are picked up by the used VI probes. These oscillations are correlated with the spokes phenomenon and are explained as an amplification of the Hall current inside the spokes as hot ionization zones. To explain the presence of energetic ions, we propose a double layer (DL) confining the hot plasma inside a spoke: if an atom becomes ionized inside the spokes region it is accelerated because of the DL to higher energies whereas its energy remains unchanged if it is ionized outside. In applying this DL model to our measurements the observed phenomena as well as several measurements from other groups can be explained. Only if spokes and a DL are present can the confined particles gain enough energy to leave the magnetic trap. We conclude from our findings that the spoke phenomenon represents the essence of HiPIMS plasmas, explaining their good performance for material synthesis applications.

Maszl, C.; Breilmann, W.; Benedikt, J.; von Keudell, A.

2014-06-01

53

Low temperature deposition of ITO on organic films by using negative ion assisted dual magnetron sputtering system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a magnetron sputter type negative metal ion deposition, the influence of positive bias voltage (Vb) on the surface morphology, electrical resistivity, optical transmittance, and microhardness of ITO prepared on organic polycarbonate films has been investigated. In this study, the Vb increased from 0 to 250V to attract secondary negative In and Sn metal ions, which were produced from ITO

Daeil Kim

2006-01-01

54

Extraction of aluminum ions from a plasma-sputter-type ion source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Positive ions of aluminum (Al+) have been extracted from a compact ion source of 8 cm diameter, 9 cm long inside volume. A 7.7 cm diameter 7.5 cm long cylindrical cage made of 1 mm thick Al sheet metal served as an electrode of radio frequency discharge at 13.56 MHz. Magnets attached to the water cooled wall of the ion source created planar and cylindrical magnetron magnetic field geometry at the surface of the cage. The measured DC self-bias voltage of the cage electrode with respect to the ion source wall was more positive than -10 V for source operating pressure above 1.2 Pa with 100 W RF discharge power. Relative amount of Al+ ion current had increased as additional DC bias voltage was applied to the electrode from a separate DC power supply. However, frequent arcing prohibited stable operation of the ion source for DC target bias larger than 100 V.

Wada, M.; Kasuya, T.; Kenmotsu, T.; Miyamoto, N.; Sasaki, D.

2012-11-01

55

H- ion sources for CERN's Linac4  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The specifications set to the Linac4 ion source are: H- ion pulses of 0.5 ms duration, 80 mA intensity and 45 keV energy within a normalized emittance of 0.25 mmmrad RMS at a repetition rate of 2 Hz. In 2010, during the commissioning of a prototype based on H- production from the plasma volume, it was observed that the powerful co-extracted electron beam inherent to this type of ion source could destroy its electron beam dump well before reaching nominal parameters. However, the same source was able to provide 80 mA of protons mixed with a small fraction of H2+ and H3+ molecular ions. The commissioning of the radio frequency quadrupole accelerator (RFQ), beam chopper and H- beam diagnostics of the Linac4 are scheduled for 2012 and its final installation in the underground building is to start in 2013. Therefore, a crash program was launched in 2010 and reviewed in 2011 aiming at keeping the original Linac4 schedule with the following deliverables: Design and production of a volume ion source prototype suitable for 20-30 mA H- and 80 mA proton pulses at 45 keV by mid-2012. This first prototype will be dedicated to the commissioning of the low energy components of the Linac4. Design and production of a second prototype suitable for 40-50 mA H- based on an external RF solenoid plasma heating and cesiated-surface production mechanism in 2013 and a third prototype based on BNL's Magnetron aiming at reliable 2 Hz and 80 mA H- operations in 2014. In order to ease the future maintenance and allow operation with Ion sources based on three different production principles, an ion source "front end" providing alignment features, pulsed gas injection, pumping units, beam tuning capabilities and pulsed bipolar high voltage acceleration was designed and is being produced. This paper describes the progress of the Linac4 ion source program, the design of the Front end and first ion source prototype. Preliminary results of the summer 2012 commissioning are presented. The outlook on the future prototype ion sources is sketched.

Lettry, J.; Aguglia, D.; Coutron, Y.; Chaudet, E.; Dallocchio, A.; Gil Flores, J.; Hansen, J.; Mahner, E.; Mathot, S.; Mattei, S.; Midttun, O.; Moyret, P.; Nisbet, D.; O'Neil, M.; Paoluzzi, M.; Pasquino, C.; Pereira, H.; Arias, J. Sanchez; Schmitzer, C.; Scrivens, R.; Steyaert, D.

2013-02-01

56

Laterally resolved ion-distribution functions at the substrate position during magnetron sputtering of indium-tin oxide films  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the magnetron sputtering from an indium-tin oxide (ITO) target (76 mm diameter) we measured the ion-distribution functions (IDFs) of energetic ions (argon, indium, and oxygen ions) at the substrate surface using a combination of a quadrupole mass spectrometer and an electrostatic energy analyzer. We obtained the IDFs for argon sputtering pressures in the range from 0.08 to 2 Pa

A. Plagemann; K. Ellmer; K. Wiesemann

2007-01-01

57

C/CrC nanocomposite coating deposited by magnetron sputtering at high ion irradiation conditions  

SciTech Connect

CrC with the fcc NaCl (B1) structure is a metastable phase that can be obtained under the non-equilibrium conditions of high ion irradiation. A nano-composite coating consisting of amorphous carbon embedded in a CrC matrix was prepared via the unbalanced magnetron sputtering of graphite and Cr metal targets in Ar gas with a high ionized flux (ion-to-neutral ratio Ji/Jn = 6). The nanoscale amorphous carbon clusters self-assembled into layers alternated by CrC, giving the composite a multilayer structure. The phase, microstructure, and composition of the coating were characterized using x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy coupled with electron energy loss spectroscopy. The interpretation of the true coating structure, in particular the carbide type, is discussed.

Zhou, Z.; Rainforth, W. M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Gass, M. H.; Bleloch, A. [SuperSTEM at Daresbury Laboratory, Daresbury, Cheshire, WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Ehiassarian, A. P.; Hovsepian, P. Eh. [Materials Engineering Research Institute, Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield, S1 1WB (United Kingdom)

2011-10-01

58

Optical properties of ITO films obtained by high-frequency magnetron sputtering with accompanying ion treatment  

SciTech Connect

A variation in the properties of indium-tin-oxide (ITO) films obtained by the method of reactive magnetron sputtering with simultaneous ion treatment is reported. The ITO films feature the following parameters in the optical range of 450-1100 nm: a transmission coefficient of 80%, band gap of 3.50-3.60 eV, and a refractive index of 1.97-2.06. All characteristics of the films depend on the ion-treatment current. The latter, during the course of deposition, reduces the resistivity of the ITO films with the smallest value of the resistivity being equal to 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} {Omega} cm. The degradation of films with a high resistivity when kept in air is observed.

Krylov, P. N., E-mail: ftt@uni.udm.ru; Zakirova, R. M.; Fedotova, I. V. [Udmurt State University (Russian Federation)] [Udmurt State University (Russian Federation)

2013-10-15

59

Control of ions energy distribution in dual-frequency magnetron sputtering discharges  

SciTech Connect

The ion energy distributions (IEDs) in the dual-frequency magnetron sputtering discharges were investigated by retarding field energy analyzer. Increasing power ratio of 2?MHz to 13.56 (27.12 or 60) MHz led to the evolution of IEDs from a uni-modal distribution towards a uni-modal distribution with high-energy peak shoulder and a bi-modal distribution. While increasing power ratio of 13.56?MHz to 27.12?MHz and 27.12?MHz to 60?MHz, led to the increase of peak energy. The evolution of IEDs shape and the increase of peak energy are due to the change of ions responding to the average field of high-frequency period towards the instantaneous sheath potential of low-frequency period.

Ye, Chao, E-mail: cye@suda.edu.cn; He, Haijie; Huang, Fupei; Liu, Yi [School of Physics Science and Technology, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Thin Films, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China)] [School of Physics Science and Technology, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Thin Films, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Wang, Xiangying [Medical College of Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China)] [Medical College of Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China)

2014-04-15

60

Negative oxygen ion formation in reactive magnetron sputtering processes for transparent conductive oxides  

SciTech Connect

Reactive d.c. magnetron sputtering in Ar/O{sub 2} gas mixtures has been investigated with energy-resolved mass spectrometry. Different metal targets (Mg, Ti, Zn, In, InSn, and Sn), which are of importance for transparent conductive oxide thin film deposition, have been used to study the formation of negative ions, mainly high-energetic O{sup -}, which are supposed to induce radiation damage in thin films. Besides their energy distribution, the ions have been particularly investigated with respect to their intensity in comparison of the different target materials. To realize the comparability, various calibration factors had to be introduced. After their application, major differences in the negative ion production have been observed for the target materials. The intensity, especially of O{sup -}, differs by about two orders of magnitude. It is shown that this difference results almost exclusively from ions that gain their energy in the target sheath. Those may gain additional energy from the sputtering process or reflection at the target. Low-energetic negative ions are, however, less affected by changes of the target material. The results concerning O{sup -} formation are discussed in term of the sputtering rate from the target and are compared to models for negative ion formation.

Welzel, Thomas; Ellmer, Klaus [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie, Institut Solare Brennstoffe, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, D-14109 Berlin (Germany)

2012-11-15

61

Industrial ion source technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analytical model was developed to describe the development of a coned surface texture with ion bombardment and simultaneous deposition of an impurity. A mathematical model of sputter deposition rate from a beveled target was developed in conjuction with the texturing models to provide an important input to that model. The establishment of a general procedure that will allow the treatment of manay different sputtering configurations is outlined. Calculation of cross sections for energetic binary collisions was extened to Ar, Kr.. and Xe with total cross sections for viscosity and diffusion calculated for the interaction energy range from leV to 1000eV. Physical sputtering and reactive ion etching experiments provided experimental data on the operating limits of a broad beam ion source using CF4 as a working gas to produce reactive species in a sputtering beam. Magnetic clustering effects are observed when Al is seeded with Fe and sputtered with Ar(?) ions. Silicon was textured at a micron scale by using a substrate temperature of 600 C.

Kaufman, H. R.; Robinson, R. S.

1978-01-01

62

Ion source development at GSI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Different ion sources are used at GSI to match the requirements for specific tasks at the accelerator. At the standard injector a Penning ionization gauge ion source is used (design ion U10+, m/q<24, 1 emA). Further development of this source is mainly aiming at an increase of the extractable currents and an increase of the lifetime of the source. The new injector produces the beam by means of an electron cyclotron resonance source (Caprice-type). Here the design ion is U28+, m/q<8.5, 5 e?A. Clearly, the oven technology is our main development goal. In addition we are trying to improve the extraction flexibility by a moveable accel-decel system. For our high current project ion sources are required which are capable to deliver a beam of several mA even for heavy ions. Design ion here is U4+, m/q<65, 15 emA. For that application two different types of ion source are used: the multicusp ion sources "cold or hot reflex discharge ion source" and "multicusp ion source" for gaseous ions and the MEVVA source for metal beams.

Spädtke, P.; Bossler, J.; Emig, H.; Leible, K. D.; Mühle, C.; Reich, H.; Schulte, H.; Tinschert, K.

1998-02-01

63

Fabrication of size-selected Pd nanoclusters using a magnetron plasma sputtering source  

SciTech Connect

We report on the fabrication of palladium (Pd) nanoclusters using a dc magnetron sputtering source. Plasma sputtering vaporizes the target's material forming nanoclusters by inert gas condensation. The sputtering source produces ionized nanoclusters that enable the study of the nanoclusters' size distribution using a quadrupole mass filter. In this work, the dependence of Pd nanoclusters' size distribution on various source parameters, such as the sputtering discharge power, inert gas flow rate, and aggregation length have been investigated. This work demonstrates the ability of tuning the palladium nanoclusters' size by proper optimization of the source operation conditions. The experimental nanocluster sizes are compared with a theoretical model that reveals the growth of large nanoclusters from 'embryos' by a two-body collision. The model is valid for a specific range of deposition parameters (low inert gas flow rates and aggregation lengths equal or below 70 mm).

Ayesh, A. I.; Qamhieh, N.; Ghamlouche, H.; Thaker, S.; El-Shaer, M. [Department of Physics, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain, P.O. Box 17551 (United Arab Emirates)

2010-02-15

64

Fabrication of size-selected Pd nanoclusters using a magnetron plasma sputtering source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the fabrication of palladium (Pd) nanoclusters using a dc magnetron sputtering source. Plasma sputtering vaporizes the target's material forming nanoclusters by inert gas condensation. The sputtering source produces ionized nanoclusters that enable the study of the nanoclusters' size distribution using a quadrupole mass filter. In this work, the dependence of Pd nanoclusters' size distribution on various source parameters, such as the sputtering discharge power, inert gas flow rate, and aggregation length have been investigated. This work demonstrates the ability of tuning the palladium nanoclusters' size by proper optimization of the source operation conditions. The experimental nanocluster sizes are compared with a theoretical model that reveals the growth of large nanoclusters from "embryos" by a two-body collision. The model is valid for a specific range of deposition parameters (low inert gas flow rates and aggregation lengths equal or below 70 mm).

Ayesh, A. I.; Qamhieh, N.; Ghamlouche, H.; Thaker, S.; El-Shaer, M.

2010-02-01

65

Compact ion accelerator source  

DOEpatents

An ion source includes a conductive substrate, the substrate including a plurality of conductive nanostructures with free-standing tips formed on the substrate. A conductive catalytic coating is formed on the nanostructures and substrate for dissociation of a molecular species into an atomic species, the molecular species being brought in contact with the catalytic coating. A target electrode placed apart from the substrate, the target electrode being biased relative to the substrate with a first bias voltage to ionize the atomic species in proximity to the free-standing tips and attract the ionized atomic species from the substrate in the direction of the target electrode.

Schenkel, Thomas; Persaud, Arun; Kapadia, Rehan; Javey, Ali

2014-04-29

66

Ion sources for radioactive beams  

SciTech Connect

The ion sources reviewed here, most of them developed for isotope separation on-line (ISOL), are classified according to their ionizing mechanism, utilizing electrons, heat, light, and penetration of matter. Emphasis is put on the beam-optical characteristics, ion current density, energy spread, and emittance on the ISOL-essentials {open_quotes}efficient, fast, and selective,{close_quotes} both for the ion source and the complete target/ion source-system.

Kirchner, R. [GSI Darmstadt (Germany)

1994-05-01

67

Operational limit of a planar DC magnetron cluster source due to target erosion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The binary collision-based two dimensional SDTrimSP-2D model has been used to simulate the erosion process of a Cu target and its influence on the operational limit of a planar DC magnetron nanocluster source. The density of free metal atoms in the aggregation region influences the cluster formation and cluster intensity during the target lifetime. The density of the free metal atoms in the aggregation region can only be predicted by taking into account (i) the angular distribution of the sputtered flux from the primary target source and (ii) relative downwards shift of the primary source of sputtered atoms during the erosion process. It is shown that the flux of the sputtered atoms smoothly decreases with the target erosion.

Rai, A.; Mutzke, A.; Bandelow, G.; Schneider, R.; Ganeva, M.; Pipa, A. V.; Hippler, R.

2013-12-01

68

Thermal stability of magnetron and ion beam sputtered top and bottom spin-valve films  

SciTech Connect

The thermal stability of top and bottom IrMn exchange-biased spin-valve films prepared by ion beam deposition (IBD) and magnetron sputtering physical vapor deposition (PVD) is compared. These films exhibit identical temperature dependence for the exchange bias field H{sub ex}, with a blocking temperature of T{sub B}=250{degree}C, that is independent of preparation technique. Isothermal annealing at temperatures below T{sub B} led to a ln(t) dependent degradation in H{sub ex}, suggesting a thermal activation process. The high crystallographic quality of the IBD films leads to a superior stability compared to PVD films. Top spin-valve films are also found to be more stable than bottom spin-valve films. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

Mao, Ming; Cerjan, Charlie; Hung, Stephanie; Miloslavsky, Lena; Chien, Chester; Sant, Sudhi

2001-06-01

69

Ion sources for ion implantation technology (invited)  

SciTech Connect

Ion sources for ion implantation are introduced. The technique is applied not only to large scale integration (LSI) devices but also to flat panel display. For LSI fabrication, ion source scheduled maintenance cycle is most important. For CMOS image sensor devices, metal contamination at implanted wafer is most important. On the other hand, to fabricate miniaturized devices, cluster ion implantation has been proposed to make shallow PN junction. While for power devices such as silicon carbide, aluminum ion is required. For doping processes of LCD fabrication, a large ion source is required. The extraction area is about 150 cm × 10 cm, and the beam uniformity is important as well as the total target beam current.

Sakai, Shigeki, E-mail: sakai-shigeki@nissin.co.jp; Hamamoto, Nariaki; Inouchi, Yutaka; Umisedo, Sei; Miyamoto, Naoki [Nissin Ion Equipment co., ltd, 575 Kuze-Tonoshiro-cho Minami-ku, Kyoto 601-8205 (Japan)] [Nissin Ion Equipment co., ltd, 575 Kuze-Tonoshiro-cho Minami-ku, Kyoto 601-8205 (Japan)

2014-02-15

70

Investigation of ISIS and Brookhaven National Laboratory ion source electrodes after extended operation  

SciTech Connect

Linac4 accelerator of Centre Europeen de Recherches Nucleaires is under construction and a RF-driven H{sup -} ion source is being developed. The beam current requirement for Linac4 is very challenging: 80 mA must be provided. Cesiated plasma discharge ion sources such as Penning or magnetron sources are also potential candidates. Accelerator ion sources must achieve typical reliability figures of 95% and above. Investigating and understanding the underlying mechanisms involved with source failure or ageing is critical when selecting the ion source technology. Plasma discharge driven surface ion sources rely on molybdenum cathodes. Deformation of the cathode surfaces is visible after extended operation periods. A metallurgical investigation of an ISIS ion source is presented. The origin of the deformation is twofold: Molybdenum sputtering by cesium ions digs few tenths of mm cavities while a growth of molybdenum is observed in the immediate vicinity. The molybdenum growth under hydrogen atmosphere is hard and loosely bound to the bulk. It is, therefore, likely to peel off and be transported within the plasma volume. The observation of the cathode, anode, and extraction electrodes of the magnetron source operated at BNL for two years are presented. A beam simulation of H{sup -}, electrons, and Cs{sup -} ions was performed with the IBSimu code package to qualitatively explain the observations. This paper describes the operation conditions of the ion sources and discusses the metallurgical analysis and beam simulation results.

Lettry, J.; Gerardin, A.; Pereira, H.; Sgobba, S. [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Alessi, J. [BNL, P.O. Box 5000, Upton, New York 11973-5000 (United States); Faircloth, D. [RAL, Harwell Oxford, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Kalvas, T. [University of Jyvaskyla, P.O.Box 35, FI-40014 (Finland)

2012-02-15

71

Investigation of ISIS and Brookhaven National Laboratory ion source electrodes after extended operation  

SciTech Connect

Linac4 accelerator of Centre Europeen de Recherches Nucleaires is under construction and a RF-driven H{sup -} ion source is being developed. The beam current requirement for Linac4 is very challenging: 80 mA must be provided. Cesiated plasma discharge ion sources such as Penning or magnetron sources are also potential candidates. Accelerator ion sources must achieve typical reliability figures of 95% and above. Investigating and understanding the underlying mechanisms involved with source failure or ageing is critical when selecting the ion source technology. Plasma discharge driven surface ion sources rely on molybdenum cathodes. Deformation of the cathode surfaces is visible after extended operation periods. A metallurgical investigation of an ISIS ion source is presented. The origin of the deformation is twofold: Molybdenum sputtering by cesium ions digs few tenths of mm cavities while a growth of molybdenum is observed in the immediate vicinity. The molybdenum growth under hydrogen atmosphere is hard and loosely bound to the bulk. It is, therefore, likely to peel off and be transported within the plasma volume. The observation of the cathode, anode, and extraction electrodes of the magnetron source operated at BNL for two years are presented. A beam simulation of H{sup -}, electrons, and Cs{sup -} ions was performed with the IBSimu code package to qualitatively explain the observations. This paper describes the operation conditions of the ion sources and discusses the metallurgical analysis and beam simulation results.

Lettry J.; Alessi J.; Faircloth, D.; Gerardin, A.; Kalvas, T.; Pereira, H.; Sgobba, S.

2012-02-23

72

Investigation of ISIS and Brookhaven National Laboratory ion source electrodes after extended operationa)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Linac4 accelerator of Centre Européen de Recherches Nucléaires is under construction and a RF-driven H- ion source is being developed. The beam current requirement for Linac4 is very challenging: 80 mA must be provided. Cesiated plasma discharge ion sources such as Penning or magnetron sources are also potential candidates. Accelerator ion sources must achieve typical reliability figures of 95% and above. Investigating and understanding the underlying mechanisms involved with source failure or ageing is critical when selecting the ion source technology. Plasma discharge driven surface ion sources rely on molybdenum cathodes. Deformation of the cathode surfaces is visible after extended operation periods. A metallurgical investigation of an ISIS ion source is presented. The origin of the deformation is twofold: Molybdenum sputtering by cesium ions digs few tenths of mm cavities while a growth of molybdenum is observed in the immediate vicinity. The molybdenum growth under hydrogen atmosphere is hard and loosely bound to the bulk. It is, therefore, likely to peel off and be transported within the plasma volume. The observation of the cathode, anode, and extraction electrodes of the magnetron source operated at BNL for two years are presented. A beam simulation of H-, electrons, and Cs- ions was performed with the IBSimu code package to qualitatively explain the observations. This paper describes the operation conditions of the ion sources and discusses the metallurgical analysis and beam simulation results.

Lettry, J.; Alessi, J.; Faircloth, D.; Gerardin, A.; Kalvas, T.; Pereira, H.; Sgobba, S.

2012-02-01

73

Investigation of ISIS and Brookhaven National Laboratory ion source electrodes after extended operation.  

PubMed

Linac4 accelerator of Centre Europe?en de Recherches Nucle?aires is under construction and a RF-driven H(-) ion source is being developed. The beam current requirement for Linac4 is very challenging: 80 mA must be provided. Cesiated plasma discharge ion sources such as Penning or magnetron sources are also potential candidates. Accelerator ion sources must achieve typical reliability figures of 95% and above. Investigating and understanding the underlying mechanisms involved with source failure or ageing is critical when selecting the ion source technology. Plasma discharge driven surface ion sources rely on molybdenum cathodes. Deformation of the cathode surfaces is visible after extended operation periods. A metallurgical investigation of an ISIS ion source is presented. The origin of the deformation is twofold: Molybdenum sputtering by cesium ions digs few tenths of mm cavities while a growth of molybdenum is observed in the immediate vicinity. The molybdenum growth under hydrogen atmosphere is hard and loosely bound to the bulk. It is, therefore, likely to peel off and be transported within the plasma volume. The observation of the cathode, anode, and extraction electrodes of the magnetron source operated at BNL for two years are presented. A beam simulation of H(-), electrons, and Cs(-) ions was performed with the IBSimu code package to qualitatively explain the observations. This paper describes the operation conditions of the ion sources and discusses the metallurgical analysis and beam simulation results. PMID:22380237

Lettry, J; Alessi, J; Faircloth, D; Gerardin, A; Kalvas, T; Pereira, H; Sgobba, S

2012-02-01

74

Metal negative ion production by an RF sputter self-extraction ion source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An 80 mm diameter 80 mm long RF sputter type self-extraction negative ion source equipped with a metal sputter target has been tested to investigate the performance of producing beams of negative aluminum (Al) ions. An RF power at 13.56 MHz is directly supplied to a 60 mm diameter target containing a cylindrical and ring permanent magnets to form planar magnetron magnetic field geometry. The target is self-biased to a DC potential at about -250 V with respect to the plasma, and negative ions produced at the surface are self-extracted from the target across the sheath to reach the ion beam extraction hole. Injection of cesium into the discharge enhanced the amount of Al- ions but it also enlarged the impurity ion beam current.

Yamada, N.; Kasuya, T.; Kenmotsu, T.; Vasquez, M. R., Jr.; Wada, M.

2013-02-01

75

Reducing the impurity incorporation from residual gas by ion bombardment during high vacuum magnetron sputtering  

SciTech Connect

The influence of ion energy on the hydrogen incorporation has been investigated for alumina thin films, deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering in an Ar/O{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O environment. Ar{sup +} with an average kinetic energy of {approx}5 eV was determined to be the dominating species in the plasma. The films were analyzed with x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and elastic recoil detection analysis, demonstrating evidence for amorphous films with stoichiometric O/Al ratio. As the substrate bias potential was increased from -15 V (floating potential) to -100 V, the hydrogen content decreased by {approx}70%, from 9.1 to 2.8 at. %. Based on ab initio calculations, these results may be understood by thermodynamic principles, where a supply of energy enables surface diffusion, H{sub 2} formation, and desorption [Rosen et al., J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 17, L137 (2005)]. These findings are of importance for the understanding of the correlation between ion energy and film composition and also show a pathway to reduce impurity incorporation during film growth in a high vacuum ambient.

Rosen, Johanna; Widenkvist, Erika; Larsson, Karin; Kreissig, Ulrich; Mraz, Stanislav; Martinez, Carlos; Music, Denis; Schneider, J. M. [Materials Chemistry, RWTH Aachen University, D-52056 Aachen (Germany); Department of Materials Chemistry, Angstroem Laboratory, Uppsala University, Box 538, 751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Research Center Rossendorf, P.O. Box 510119, D-01314 Dresden (Germany); Materials Chemistry, RWTH Aachen University, D-52056 Aachen (Germany)

2006-05-08

76

Optical properties of magnetron sputtered Tb3+ ions containing thin dielectric films for thin film solar cells applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results are presented on the deposition and characterization of thin SiO2 and Al2O3 films containing Tb3+ ions developed for application as spectral converters. The films are prepared by RF magnetron co-sputtering. The photoluminescence (PL) is measured at room temperature using the 488 nm line of an Ar laser. The dependence is studied of the PL intensity on the Tb concentration

M. Sendova-Vassileva; K. Baumgartner; O. Angelov; B. Holländer; D. Dimova-Malinovska; R. Carius

2010-01-01

77

Three chamber negative ion source  

DOEpatents

It is an object of this invention provide a negative ion source which efficiently provides a large flux of negatively ionized particles. This invention provides a volume source of negative ions which has a current density sufficient for magnetic fusion applications and has electrons suppressed from the output. It is still another object of this invention to provide a volume source of negative ions which can be electrostatically accelerated to high energies and subsequently neutralized to form a high energy neutral beam for use with a magnetically confined plasma.

Leung, K.N.; Ehlers, K.W.; Hiskes, J.R.

1983-11-10

78

The impact of negative oxygen ion bombardment on electronic and structural properties of magnetron sputtered ZnO:Al films  

SciTech Connect

In order to study the impact of negative oxygen ion bombardment on the electronic transport properties of ZnO:Al films, a systematic magnetron sputtering study from ceramic targets with excitation frequencies from DC to 27 MHz, accompanied by strongly varying discharge voltages, has been performed. Higher plasma excitation frequencies significantly improve the transport properties of ZnO:Al films. The effect of the bombardment of the films by energetic particles (negative oxygen ions) can be explained by the dynamic equilibrium between the formation of acceptor-like oxygen interstitials compensating the extrinsic donors and the self-annealing of the interstitial defects at higher deposition temperatures.

Bikowski, Andre; Welzel, Thomas; Ellmer, Klaus [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie GmbH, Institute for Solar Fuels, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, D-14109 Berlin (Germany)] [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie GmbH, Institute for Solar Fuels, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, D-14109 Berlin (Germany)

2013-06-17

79

Negative ion source  

DOEpatents

An ionization vessel is divided into an ionizing zone and an extraction zone by a magnetic filter. The magnetic filter prevents high-energy electrons from crossing from the ionizing zone to the extraction zone. A small positive voltage impressed on a plasma grid, located adjacent an extraction grid, positively biases the plasma in the extraction zone to thereby prevent positive ions from migrating from the ionizing zone to the extraction zone. Low-energy electrons, which would ordinarily be dragged by the positive ions into the extraction zone, are thereby prevented from being present in the extraction zone and being extracted along with negative ions by the extraction grid. Additional electrons are suppressed from the output flux using ExB drift provided by permanent magnets and the extractor grid electrical field.

Leung, Ka-Ngo (Hercules, CA); Ehlers, Kenneth W. (Alamo, CA)

1984-01-01

80

Negative ion source  

DOEpatents

An ionization vessel is divided into an ionizing zone and an extraction zone by a magnetic filter. The magnetic filter prevents high-energy electrons from crossing from the ionizing zone to the extraction zone. A small positive voltage impressed on a plasma grid, located adjacent an extraction grid, positively biases the plasma in the extraction zone to thereby prevent positive ions from migrating from the ionizing zone to the extraction zone. Low-energy electrons, which would ordinarily be dragged by the positive ions into the extraction zone, are thereby prevented from being present in the extraction zone and being extracted along with negative ions by the extraction grid. Additional electrons are suppressed from the output flux using ExB drift provided by permanent magnets and the extractor grid electrical field.

Leung, K.N.; Ehlers, K.W.

1982-08-06

81

Optimal Position of Ion Source for High Performance of IEC  

SciTech Connect

An inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) fusion device is possibly used for portable neutron sources. R. L. Hirsh reported that D-D the neutrons of 1.8 x 10{sup 8} n/s were produced. Recently, the similar amounts of fusion reactions are observed to occur in IEC devices In the most of IEC devices, since gas pressure is so high that the ions lose their energy by the frequent collisions with the neutral gas. The conditions of the high voltage and the low pressure are preferable because the energy of beam ions is kept very high and used for the fusion reaction more efficiently. It, however, is difficult to produce enough amounts of ions through a glow discharge at the low pressure. One of the solutions is to equip the ion source such as a magnetron near the anode. We have made three-dimensional orbit following code to evaluate the life of the ions produced near the anode surface. The code includes atomic collisions with background neutral gas and indicates the optimal positions to equip ion source which gives longer life of accelerated ions.

Osawa, Hodaka [Kansai University (Japan); Ishibashi, Takayuki [Kansai University (Japan); Ohnishi, Masami [Kansai University (Japan); Yoshikawa, Kiyoshi [Kyoto University (Japan)

2005-05-15

82

Use of an externally applied axial magnetic field to control ion\\/neutral flux ratios incident at the substrate during magnetron sputter deposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development and characterization of an ultrahigh vacuum unbalanced'' dc magnetron sputter deposition system with a variable external axial magnetic field for controlling the ion-to-neutral flux ratio at the substrate during deposition with low negative substrate biases is reported. The target assembly is a planar-magnetron (PM) with a toroidal magnetic-field electron trap created using a set of permanent magnets. A

I. Petrov; F. Adibi; J. E. Greene; W. D. Sproul; W.-D. Münz

1992-01-01

83

Negative-ion source applications.  

PubMed

In this paper heavy negative-ion sources which we developed and their applications for materials science are reviewed. Heavy negative ions can be effectively produced by the ejection of a sputtered atom through the optimally cesiated surface of target with a low work function. Then, enough continuous negative-ion currents for materials-science applications can be obtained. We developed several kinds of sputter-type heavy negative-ion sources such as neutral- and ionized-alkaline metal bombardment-type heavy negative-ion source and rf-plasma sputter type. In the case where a negative ion is irradiated on a material surface, surface charging seldom takes place because incoming negative charge of the negative ion is well balanced with outgoing negative charge of the released secondary electron. In the negative-ion implantation into an insulator or insulated conductive material, high precision implantation processing with charge-up free properties can be achieved. Negative-ion implantation technique, therefore, can be applied to the following novel material processing systems: the surface modification of micrometer-sized powders, the nanoparticle formation in an insulator for the quantum devices, and the nerve cell growth manipulation by precise control of the biocompatibility of polymer surface. When a negative ion with low kinetic energy approaches the solid surface, the kinetic energy causes the interatomic bonding (kinetic bonding), and formation of a metastable material is promoted. Carbon films with high constituent of sp(3) bonding, therefore, can be formed by carbon negative-ion beam deposition. PMID:18315249

Ishikawa, J

2008-02-01

84

Negative hydrogen ion source research and beam parameters for accelerators  

SciTech Connect

H{sup -} beams are useful for multi-turn charge-exchange stripping injection into circular accelerators. Studies on a modified ion source for this purpose are presented. This paper includes some theory about a H{sup -} magnetron discharge, ion-electron emission, emittance and problems linked with emittance measurement and calculations. Investigated parameters of the emittance probe for optimal performance give a screen voltage of 150 V and a probe step of about 5 mil. Normalized 90% emittance obtained for this H{sup -} source is 0.22 {pi} mm-mr, for an extraction voltage of 18 kV at a beam energy of 30 keV and a beam current of 11 mA.

Zolkin, Timofey V.; /Fermilab

2006-09-01

85

Status of ITEP decaborane ion source program  

SciTech Connect

The joint research and development program is continued to develop steady-state ion source of decaborane beam for ion implantation industry. Both Freeman and Bernas ion sources for decaborane ion beam generation were investigated. Decaborane negative ion beam as well as positive ion beam were generated and delivered to the output of mass separator. Experimental results obtained in ITEP are presented.

Kulevoy, T. V.; Petrenko, S. V.; Kuibeda, R. P.; Seleznev, D. N.; Koshelev, V. A.; Kozlov, A. V.; Stasevich, Yu. B.; Sitnikov, A. L.; Shamailov, I. M.; Pershin, V. I.; Hershcovitch, A.; Johnson, B. M.; Gushenets, V. I.; Oks, E. M.; Poole, H. P.; Masunov, E. S.; Polozov, S. M. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow 117218 (Russian Federation); Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); High Current Electronics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation); PVI, Oxnard, California 93031-5023 (United States); Moscow Engineering Physics Institute (University), Moscow 115409 (Russian Federation)

2008-02-15

86

Status of ITEP decaborane ion source program.  

PubMed

The joint research and development program is continued to develop steady-state ion source of decaborane beam for ion implantation industry. Both Freeman and Bernas ion sources for decaborane ion beam generation were investigated. Decaborane negative ion beam as well as positive ion beam were generated and delivered to the output of mass separator. Experimental results obtained in ITEP are presented. PMID:18315244

Kulevoy, T V; Petrenko, S V; Kuibeda, R P; Seleznev, D N; Koshelev, V A; Kozlov, A V; Stasevich, Yu B; Sitnikov, A L; Shamailov, I M; Pershin, V I; Hershcovitch, A; Johnson, B M; Gushenets, V I; Oks, E M; Poole, H P; Masunov, E S; Polozov, S M

2008-02-01

87

STATUS OF ITEP DECABORANE ION SOURCE PROGRAM.  

SciTech Connect

The joint research and development program is continued to develop steady-state ion source of decaborane beam for ion implantation industry. Both Freeman and Bemas ion sources for decaborane ion beam generation were investigated. Decaborane negative ion beam as well as positive ion beam were generated and delivered to the output of mass separator. Experimental results obtained in ITEP are presented.

KULEVOY,T.V.; PETRENKO, S.V.; KUIBEDA, R.P.; SELEZNEV, D.N.; KOZLOV, A.V.; STASEVICH, YU.B.; SITNIKOV, A.L.; SHAMAILOV, I.M.; PERSHIN, V.I.; HERSHCOVITCH, A.; JOHNSON, B.M.; GUSHENETS, V.I.; OKS, E.M.; POOLE, H.J.; MASUNOV, E.S.; POLOZOV, S.M.

2007-08-26

88

Status of ITEP decaborane ion source programa)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The joint research and development program is continued to develop steady-state ion source of decaborane beam for ion implantation industry. Both Freeman and Bernas ion sources for decaborane ion beam generation were investigated. Decaborane negative ion beam as well as positive ion beam were generated and delivered to the output of mass separator. Experimental results obtained in ITEP are presented.

Kulevoy, T. V.; Petrenko, S. V.; Kuibeda, R. P.; Seleznev, D. N.; Koshelev, V. A.; Kozlov, A. V.; Stasevich, Yu. B.; Sitnikov, A. L.; Shamailov, I. M.; Pershin, V. I.; Hershcovitch, A.; Johnson, B. M.; Gushenets, V. I.; Oks, E. M.; Poole, H. P.; Masunov, E. S.; Polozov, S. M.

2008-02-01

89

Solenoid and monocusp ion source  

DOEpatents

An ion source which generates hydrogen ions having high atomic purity incorporates a solenoidal permanent magnets to increase the electron path length. In a sealed envelope, electrons emitted from a cathode traverse the magnetic field lines of a solenoid and a monocusp magnet between the cathode and a reflector at the monocusp. As electrons collide with gas, the molecular gas forms a plasma. An anode grazes the outer boundary of the plasma. Molecular ions and high energy electrons remain substantially on the cathode side of the cusp, but as the ions and electrons are scattered to the aperture side of the cusp, additional collisions create atomic ions. The increased electron path length allows for smaller diameters and lower operating pressures.

Brainard, John Paul (Albuquerque, NM); Burns, Erskine John Thomas (Albuquerque, NM); Draper, Charles Hadley (Albuquerque, NM)

1997-01-01

90

Contamination and damage of silicon surfaces during magnetron-enhanced reactive ion etching in a single-wafer system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Compred with multi-wafer batch systems single wafer processing holds the potential for lower yield losses in the presence of process instability. However contamination and damage considerations can serve to offset this advantage. We report the results of preliminary experiments designed to assess the impact of particle generation metal contamination structural and electrical degradation of silicon as a results of dielectric and multi-layer resist (MLR) etching in a single wafer magnetron enhanced reactive ion etching (MERlE) system. In this work SIMS AUGER ESCA RBS MOS-CV and Schottky barrier diode results are presented. Also included are data on foreign material (FM) particulate levels.

Tan, Swie-In; Colavito, D. B.

1991-03-01

91

The DCU laser ion source.  

PubMed

Laser ion sources are used to generate and deliver highly charged ions of various masses and energies. We present details on the design and basic parameters of the DCU laser ion source (LIS). The theoretical aspects of a high voltage (HV) linear LIS are presented and the main issues surrounding laser-plasma formation, ion extraction and modeling of beam transport in relation to the operation of a LIS are detailed. A range of laser power densities (I approximately 10(8)-10(11) W cm(-2)) and fluences (F=0.1-3.9 kJ cm(-2)) from a Q-switched ruby laser (full-width half-maximum pulse duration approximately 35 ns, lambda=694 nm) were used to generate a copper plasma. In "basic operating mode," laser generated plasma ions are electrostatically accelerated using a dc HV bias (5-18 kV). A traditional einzel electrostatic lens system is utilized to transport and collimate the extracted ion beam for detection via a Faraday cup. Peak currents of up to I approximately 600 microA for Cu(+) to Cu(3+) ions were recorded. The maximum collected charge reached 94 pC (Cu(2+)). Hydrodynamic simulations and ion probe diagnostics were used to study the plasma plume within the extraction gap. The system measured performance and electrodynamic simulations indicated that the use of a short field-free (L=48 mm) region results in rapid expansion of the injected ion beam in the drift tube. This severely limits the efficiency of the electrostatic lens system and consequently the sources performance. Simulations of ion beam dynamics in a "continuous einzel array" were performed and experimentally verified to counter the strong space-charge force present in the ion beam which results from plasma extraction close to the target surface. Ion beam acceleration and injection thus occur at "high pressure." In "enhanced operating mode," peak currents of 3.26 mA (Cu(2+)) were recorded. The collected currents of more highly charged ions (Cu(4+)-Cu(6+)) increased considerably in this mode of operation. PMID:20441334

Yeates, P; Costello, J T; Kennedy, E T

2010-04-01

92

The DCU laser ion source  

SciTech Connect

Laser ion sources are used to generate and deliver highly charged ions of various masses and energies. We present details on the design and basic parameters of the DCU laser ion source (LIS). The theoretical aspects of a high voltage (HV) linear LIS are presented and the main issues surrounding laser-plasma formation, ion extraction and modeling of beam transport in relation to the operation of a LIS are detailed. A range of laser power densities (I{approx}10{sup 8}-10{sup 11} W cm{sup -2}) and fluences (F=0.1-3.9 kJ cm{sup -2}) from a Q-switched ruby laser (full-width half-maximum pulse duration {approx}35 ns, {lambda}=694 nm) were used to generate a copper plasma. In ''basic operating mode,'' laser generated plasma ions are electrostatically accelerated using a dc HV bias (5-18 kV). A traditional einzel electrostatic lens system is utilized to transport and collimate the extracted ion beam for detection via a Faraday cup. Peak currents of up to I{approx}600 {mu}A for Cu{sup +} to Cu{sup 3+} ions were recorded. The maximum collected charge reached 94 pC (Cu{sup 2+}). Hydrodynamic simulations and ion probe diagnostics were used to study the plasma plume within the extraction gap. The system measured performance and electrodynamic simulations indicated that the use of a short field-free (L=48 mm) region results in rapid expansion of the injected ion beam in the drift tube. This severely limits the efficiency of the electrostatic lens system and consequently the sources performance. Simulations of ion beam dynamics in a ''continuous einzel array'' were performed and experimentally verified to counter the strong space-charge force present in the ion beam which results from plasma extraction close to the target surface. Ion beam acceleration and injection thus occur at ''high pressure.'' In ''enhanced operating mode,'' peak currents of 3.26 mA (Cu{sup 2+}) were recorded. The collected currents of more highly charged ions (Cu{sup 4+}-Cu{sup 6+}) increased considerably in this mode of operation.

Yeates, P. [National Centre for Plasma Science and Technology (NCPST), Dublin (Ireland); Costello, J. T.; Kennedy, E. T. [National Centre for Plasma Science and Technology (NCPST), Dublin (Ireland); School of Physical Sciences, Dublin City University (DCU), Glasnevin (Ireland)

2010-04-15

93

The DCU laser ion source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser ion sources are used to generate and deliver highly charged ions of various masses and energies. We present details on the design and basic parameters of the DCU laser ion source (LIS). The theoretical aspects of a high voltage (HV) linear LIS are presented and the main issues surrounding laser-plasma formation, ion extraction and modeling of beam transport in relation to the operation of a LIS are detailed. A range of laser power densities (I ˜108-1011 W cm-2) and fluences (F =0.1-3.9 kJ cm-2) from a Q-switched ruby laser (full-width half-maximum pulse duration ˜35 ns, ? =694 nm) were used to generate a copper plasma. In "basic operating mode," laser generated plasma ions are electrostatically accelerated using a dc HV bias (5-18 kV). A traditional einzel electrostatic lens system is utilized to transport and collimate the extracted ion beam for detection via a Faraday cup. Peak currents of up to I ˜600 ?A for Cu+ to Cu3+ ions were recorded. The maximum collected charge reached 94 pC (Cu2+). Hydrodynamic simulations and ion probe diagnostics were used to study the plasma plume within the extraction gap. The system measured performance and electrodynamic simulations indicated that the use of a short field-free (L =48 mm) region results in rapid expansion of the injected ion beam in the drift tube. This severely limits the efficiency of the electrostatic lens system and consequently the sources performance. Simulations of ion beam dynamics in a "continuous einzel array" were performed and experimentally verified to counter the strong space-charge force present in the ion beam which results from plasma extraction close to the target surface. Ion beam acceleration and injection thus occur at "high pressure." In "enhanced operating mode," peak currents of 3.26 mA (Cu2+) were recorded. The collected currents of more highly charged ions (Cu4+-Cu6+) increased considerably in this mode of operation.

Yeates, P.; Costello, J. T.; Kennedy, E. T.

2010-04-01

94

Characterization of ISOLDE ion source and ion source chemistry  

E-print Network

This report presents results of measurements made with the ISOLDE OFF-LINE mass separator [1]. The first part shows measurements of the ionization characteristics of noble gases in a VADIS ion source. The goal of the measurements was to determine the dependency of the extractable current of first and second noble gases ions with the electron energy. In the second part, investigation on in-target chemistry are presented. Here, the effect of injected sulfur hexafluoride ($SF_6$) on the release of oxygen from aluminium oxide ($Al_2 O_3$) was studied.

Barbeau, Marion

2014-01-01

95

Design of a new electron cyclotron resonance ion source at Oshima National College of Maritime Technology  

SciTech Connect

A new electron cyclotron resonance ion/plasma source has been designed and will be built at Oshima National College of Maritime Technology by early 2014. We have developed an ion source that allows the control of the plasma parameters over a wide range of electron temperatures for material research. A minimum-B magnetic field composed of axial mirror fields and radial cusp fields was designed using mainly Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets. The axial magnetic field can be varied by three solenoid coils. The apparatus has 2.45 GHz magnetron and 2.5–6.0 GHz solid-state microwave sources.

Asaji, T., E-mail: asaji@oshima-k.ac.jp; Hirabara, N.; Izumihara, T.; Nakamizu, T.; Ohba, T.; Nakamura, T.; Furuse, M. [Oshima National College of Maritime Technology (OCMT), 1091-1 Komatsu, Suo-oshima, Yamaguchi 742-2193 (Japan)] [Oshima National College of Maritime Technology (OCMT), 1091-1 Komatsu, Suo-oshima, Yamaguchi 742-2193 (Japan); Hitobo, T. [Tateyama Machine Co., Ltd., 30 Shimonoban, Toyama 930-1305 (Japan)] [Tateyama Machine Co., Ltd., 30 Shimonoban, Toyama 930-1305 (Japan); Kato, Y. [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)] [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

2014-02-15

96

Design of a new electron cyclotron resonance ion source at Oshima National College of Maritime Technology.  

PubMed

A new electron cyclotron resonance ion/plasma source has been designed and will be built at Oshima National College of Maritime Technology by early 2014. We have developed an ion source that allows the control of the plasma parameters over a wide range of electron temperatures for material research. A minimum-B magnetic field composed of axial mirror fields and radial cusp fields was designed using mainly Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets. The axial magnetic field can be varied by three solenoid coils. The apparatus has 2.45 GHz magnetron and 2.5-6.0 GHz solid-state microwave sources. PMID:24593519

Asaji, T; Hirabara, N; Izumihara, T; Hitobo, T; Nakamizu, T; Ohba, T; Nakamura, T; Furuse, M; Kato, Y

2014-02-01

97

Design of a new electron cyclotron resonance ion source at Oshima National College of Maritime Technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new electron cyclotron resonance ion/plasma source has been designed and will be built at Oshima National College of Maritime Technology by early 2014. We have developed an ion source that allows the control of the plasma parameters over a wide range of electron temperatures for material research. A minimum-B magnetic field composed of axial mirror fields and radial cusp fields was designed using mainly Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets. The axial magnetic field can be varied by three solenoid coils. The apparatus has 2.45 GHz magnetron and 2.5-6.0 GHz solid-state microwave sources.

Asaji, T.; Hirabara, N.; Izumihara, T.; Hitobo, T.; Nakamizu, T.; Ohba, T.; Nakamura, T.; Furuse, M.; Kato, Y.

2014-02-01

98

Relating to monitoring ion sources  

SciTech Connect

The apparatus and method provide techniques for monitoring the position on alpha contamination in or on items or locations. The technique is particularly applicable to pipes, conduits and other locations to which access is difficult. The technique uses indirect monitoring of alpha emissions by detecting ions generated by the alpha emissions. The medium containing the ions is moved in a controlled manner frog in proximity with the item or location to the detecting unit and the signals achieved over time are used to generate alpha source position information.

Orr, Christopher Henry (Calderbridge, GB); Luff, Craig Janson (Calderbridge, GB); Dockray, Thomas (Calderbridge, GB); Macarthur, Duncan Whittemore (Los Alamos, NM); Bounds, John Alan (Los Alamos, NM)

2002-01-01

99

Performance characteristics of an inertial-electrostatic confinement fusion device with magnetron discharge  

Microsoft Academic Search

A magnetron discharge as a built-in ion source for an inertial-electrostatic confinement fusion (IECF) device was experimentally studied aiming at a drastic improvement of fusion reaction rate. With this discharge in the vicinity of the grounded vacuum chamber, produced ions are expected to have almost full energy corresponding to the voltage applied to the central transparent cathode. Also, the magnetron-glow

Kai Masuda; Kiyoshi Yoshikawa; Toshiyuki Mizutani; Teruhisa Takamatsu; Masaki Imoto; Kazunobu Nagasaki; Hisayuki Toku

2003-01-01

100

Ion sources for MedAustron  

Microsoft Academic Search

The MedAustron Ion therapy center will be constructed in Wiener Neustadt (Austria) in the vicinity of Vienna. Its accelerator complex consists of four ion sources, a linear accelerator, a synchrotron, and a beam delivery system to the three medical treatment rooms and to the research irradiation room. The ion sources shall deliver beams of H31+, C4+, and light ions with

J. Lettry; L. Penescu; J. Wallner; E. Sargsyan

2010-01-01

101

Ion Sources for MedAustron  

Microsoft Academic Search

The MedAustron Ion therapy center will be constructed in Wiener Neustadt (Austria) in the vicinity of Vienna. Its accelerator complex consists of four ion sources, a linear accelerator, a synchrotron and a beam delivery system to the three medical treatment rooms and to the research irradiation room. The ion sources shall deliver beams of H31+, C4+ and light ions with

J Lettry; L Penescu; J Wallner; E Sargsyan

2009-01-01

102

Liquid metal ion source and alloy  

DOEpatents

A liquid metal ion source and alloy, wherein the species to be emitted from the ion source is contained in a congruently vaporizing alloy. In one embodiment, the liquid metal ion source acts as a source of arsenic, and in a source alloy the arsenic is combined with palladium, preferably in a liquid alloy having a range of compositions from about 24 to about 33 atomic percent arsenic. Such an alloy may be readily prepared by a combustion synthesis technique. Liquid metal ion sources thus prepared produce arsenic ions for implantation, have long lifetimes, and are highly stable in operation.

Clark, Jr., William M. (Thousand Oaks, CA); Utlaut, Mark W. (Saugus, CA); Behrens, Robert G. (Los Alamos, NM); Szklarz, Eugene G. (Los Alamos, NM); Storms, Edmund K. (Los Alamos, NM); Santandrea, Robert P. (Santa Fe, NM); Swanson, Lynwood W. (McMinnville, OR)

1988-10-04

103

Development of Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source for Synthesis of Endohedral Metallofullerenes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) has been constructed for synthesis of endohedral metallofullerenes. The main purpose of the ion source is to produce new biological and medical materials. The design is based on ECRIS for production of multicharged ion beams with a traditional minimum-B magnetic field. An 8-10 GHz traveling wave tube (TWT) amplifier and a 2.45 GHz magnetron have been applied as microwave sources. Fullerene and metal vapor are introduced with a filament heating micro-oven and an induction heating oven, respectively. In preliminary ion-extraction test, Ar+ is 54 ?A. Many broken fullerenes such as C58 and C56 are observed in fullerene ion beams.

Tanaka, K.; Muramatsu, M.; Uchida, T.; Biri, S.; Asaji, T.; Shima, K.; Hanajiri, T.; Kitagawa, A.; Kato, Y.; Yoshida, Y.

2008-11-01

104

Development of Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source for Synthesis of Endohedral Metallofullerenes  

SciTech Connect

A new electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) has been constructed for synthesis of endohedral metallofullerenes. The main purpose of the ion source is to produce new biological and medical materials. The design is based on ECRIS for production of multicharged ion beams with a traditional minimum-B magnetic field. An 8-10 GHz traveling wave tube (TWT) amplifier and a 2.45 GHz magnetron have been applied as microwave sources. Fullerene and metal vapor are introduced with a filament heating micro-oven and an induction heating oven, respectively. In preliminary ion-extraction test, Ar{sup +} is 54 {mu}A. Many broken fullerenes such as C{sub 58} and C{sub 56} are observed in fullerene ion beams.

Tanaka, K. [Tateyama Machine Co., Ltd., 30 Shimonoban, Toyama, Toyama, 930-1305 (Japan); Bio-Nano Electronics Research centre, Toyo University, 2100 Kujirai, Kawagoe, Saitama 350-0815 (Japan); Muramatsu, M. [Bio-Nano Electronics Research centre, Toyo University, 2100 Kujirai, Kawagoe, Saitama 350-0815 (Japan); National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Uchida, T.; Hanajiri, T.; Yoshida, Y. [Bio-Nano Electronics Research centre, Toyo University, 2100 Kujirai, Kawagoe, Saitama 350-0815 (Japan); Biri, S. [Institute of Nuclear Research (ATOMKI), H-4026 Debrecen, Benter 18/c (Hungary); Asaji, T.; Shima, K. [Tateyama Machine Co., Ltd., 30 Shimonoban, Toyama, Toyama, 930-1305 (Japan); Kitagawa, A. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Kato, Y. [Division of Electrical Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

2008-11-03

105

Magnetron sputtering: basic physics and application to cylindrical magnetrons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetron sputtering sources can be defined as diode devices in which magnetic fields are used in concert with the cathode surface to form electron traps which are so configured that the E x B electron-drift currents close on themselves. Coaxial cylindrical magnetron sputtering sources in which post or hollow cathodes are operated in axial magnetic fields have been reported for

John A. Thornton

1978-01-01

106

Ion optics of RHIC electron beam ion source  

SciTech Connect

RHIC electron beam ion source has been commissioned to operate as a versatile ion source on RHIC injection facility supplying ion species from He to Au for Booster. Except for light gaseous elements RHIC EBIS employs ion injection from several external primary ion sources. With electrostatic optics fast switching from one ion species to another can be done on a pulse to pulse mode. The design of an ion optical structure and the results of simulations for different ion species are presented. In the choice of optical elements special attention was paid to spherical aberrations for high-current space charge dominated ion beams. The combination of a gridded lens and a magnet lens in LEBT provides flexibility of optical control for a wide range of ion species to satisfy acceptance parameters of RFQ. The results of ion transmission measurements are presented.

Pikin, A.; Alessi, J.; Beebe, E.; Kponou, A.; Okamura, M.; Raparia, D.; Ritter, J.; Tan, Y. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Kuznetsov, G. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation)

2012-02-15

107

High-rate deposition of copper thin films using newly designed high-power magnetron sputtering source  

E-print Network

High-rate deposition of copper thin films using newly designed high-power magnetron sputtering range between 573 and 753 K using a pulsed DC magnetron sputtering method. Based on the magnetic field simulation, we have designed and constructed a high-power (120Ã?10-4 W/m2 ) unbalanced magnetron sputtering

Boo, Jin-Hyo

108

Study of a liquid metal ion source for external ion injection into electron-beam ion source  

E-print Network

Study of a liquid metal ion source for external ion injection into electron-beam ion source A York 11973 Presented on 13 September 2005; published online 22 March 2006 A liquid metal ion source LMIS has several attractive features as an external injector of primary ions mostly metallic ions

109

Laterally resolved ion-distribution functions at the substrate position during magnetron sputtering of indium-tin oxide films  

SciTech Connect

During the magnetron sputtering from an indium-tin oxide (ITO) target (76 mm diameter) we measured the ion-distribution functions (IDFs) of energetic ions (argon, indium, and oxygen ions) at the substrate surface using a combination of a quadrupole mass spectrometer and an electrostatic energy analyzer. We obtained the IDFs for argon sputtering pressures in the range from 0.08 to 2 Pa and for dc as well as rf (13.56 MHz) plasma excitation with powers from 10 to 100 W. The IDF measurements were performed both over the target center at a target-to-substrate distance of 65 mm and at different positions along the target radius in order to scan the erosion track of the target. The mean kinetic energies of argon ions calculated from the IDFs in the dc plasma decreased from about 30 to 15 eV, when the argon pressure increased from 0.08 to 2 Pa, which is caused by a decrease of the electron temperature also by a factor of 2. Indium atoms exhibit higher mean energies due to their additional energy from the sputtering process. The total metal ion flux turns out to be proportional to the discharge power and the pressure, the latter dependence being due to Penning ionization of the metal atoms (In and Sn). From the scans across the target surface the lateral distributions of metal, oxygen, and argon ions were derived. In the dc discharge the position of the erosion track is reproduced by increased ion intensities, while it is not the case for the rf excited plasma. The lateral variations of the observed species do not influence the lateral resistivity distributions of the deposited ITO films.

Plagemann, A.; Ellmer, K.; Wiesemann, K. [Department Solare Energetik, Hahn-Meitner-Institut, Glienicker Strasse 100, D-14109 Berlin (Germany); Department Allgemeine Elektrotechnik und Plasmatechnik, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany)

2007-09-15

110

Inductive Plasma Ion Source for Heavy Ion Accelerators  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pulsed inductive gas breakdown plasma source is being developed as an ion source for heavy ion accelerators. A fast pulse gas valve introduces a localized Argon puff in the region in front of a pulsed coil, which induces a voltage breaking down the gas and driving the plasma. This results in highly directed streaming plasma of ion flux density

Howard D. Sanders; Steven C. Glidden; Daniel L. Dongwoo; John B. Greenly

2003-01-01

111

Ion-enhanced oxidation of aluminum as a fundamental surface process during target poisoning in reactive magnetron sputtering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plasma deposition of aluminum oxide by reactive magnetron sputtering (RMS) using an aluminum target and argon and oxygen as working gases is an important technological process. The undesired oxidation of the target itself, however, causes the so-called target poisoning, which leads to strong hysteresis effects during RMS operation. The oxidation occurs by chemisorption of oxygen atoms and molecules with a simultaneous ion bombardment being present. This heterogenous surface reaction is studied in a quantified particle beam experiment employing beams of oxygen molecules and argon ions impinging onto an aluminum-coated quartz microbalance. The oxidation and/or sputtering rates are measured with this microbalance and the resulting oxide layers are analyzed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The sticking coefficient of oxygen molecules is determined to 0.015 in the zero coverage limit. The sputtering yields of pure aluminum by argon ions are determined to 0.4, 0.62, and 0.8 at 200, 300, and 400 eV. The variation in the effective sticking coefficient and sputtering yield during the combined impact of argon ions and oxygen molecules is modeled with a set of rate equations. A good agreement is achieved if one postulates an ion-induced surface activation process, which facilitates oxygen chemisorption. This process may be identified with knock-on implantation of surface-bonded oxygen, with an electric-field-driven in-diffusion of oxygen or with an ion-enhanced surface activation process. Based on these fundamental processes, a robust set of balance equations is proposed to describe target poisoning effects in RMS.

Kuschel, Thomas; von Keudell, Achim

2010-05-01

112

A 30-cm diameter argon ion source  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 30 cm diameter argon ion source was evaluated. Ion source beam currents up to 4a were extracted with ion energies ranging from 0.2 to 1.5 KeV. An ion optics scaling relation was developed for predicting ion beam extraction capability as a function of total extraction voltage, gas type, and screen grid open area. Ignition and emission characteristics of several hollow cathode geometries were assessed for purposes of defining discharge chamber and neutralizer cathodes. Also presented are ion beam profile characteristics which exhibit broad beam capability well suited for ion beam sputtering applications.

Sovey, J. S.

1976-01-01

113

Resonant Ionization Laser Ion Source for Radioactive Ion Beams  

SciTech Connect

A resonant ionization laser ion source based on all-solid-state, tunable Ti:Sapphire lasers is being developed for the production of pure radioactive ion beams. It consists of a hot-cavity ion source and three pulsed Ti:Sapphire lasers operating at a 10 kHz pulse repetition rate. Spectroscopic studies are being conducted to develop ionization schemes that lead to ionizing an excited atom through an auto-ionization or a Rydberg state for numerous elements of interest. Three-photon resonant ionization of 12 elements has been recently demonstrated. The overall efficiency of the laser ion source measured for some of these elements ranges from 1 to 40%. The results indicate that Ti:Sapphire lasers could be well suited for laser ion source applications. The time structures of the ions produced by the pulsed lasers are investigated. The information may help to improve the laser ion source performance.

Liu, Yuan [ORNL; Beene, James R [ORNL; Havener, Charles C [ORNL; Vane, C Randy [ORNL; Gottwald, T. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Mainz, Germany; Wendt, K. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Mainz, Germany; Mattolat, C. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Mainz, Germany; Lassen, J. [TRIUMF, Canada

2009-01-01

114

The Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS)  

ScienceCinema

Brookhaven National Lab has successfully developed a new pre-injector system, called the Electron Beam Ion Source, for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and NASA Space Radiation Laboratory science programs. The first of several planned improvemen

Brookhaven Lab

2010-01-08

115

The Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS)  

SciTech Connect

Brookhaven National Lab has successfully developed a new pre-injector system, called the Electron Beam Ion Source, for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and NASA Space Radiation Laboratory science programs. The first of several planned improvemen

Brookhaven Lab

2009-06-09

116

Research of spectral description films of amorphous hydrogenated silicon received by a magnetron method with the use of an ionic source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spectral characteristics films of amorphous hydrogenated silicon received by a magnetron method with use of an ionic source are investigated. As results of researches of temperature dependences on a condition of hydrogen in argon-hydrogen plasma are resulted and a number of laws influencing on electric and optical properties amorphous films is revealed.

Slipchenko, Nicolay I.; Bykov, Mikhail A.; Mazinov, Alim S.

2008-05-01

117

Ion source with corner cathode  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An ion source may include first, second, and third electrodes. The first electrode may be a repeller having a V-shaped groove. The second electrode may be an electron emitter filament disposed adjacent the base of the V-shaped groove. The third electrode may be an anode that defines an enclosed volume with an aperture formed therein adjacent the electron emitter filament. A potential of the first electrode may be less than a potential of the second electrode, and the potential of the second electrode may be less than a potential of the third electrode. A fourth electrode that is disposed between the electron emitter filament and the anode may be used to produce a more collimated electron beam.

Herrero, Federico A. (Inventor); Roman, Patrick A. (Inventor)

2012-01-01

118

Plasma sources for electrons and ion beams  

SciTech Connect

Plasma devices are commonly used for the production of ion beams. It has been demonstrated that the multicusp generator can produce very low energy ion beams for ion projection lithography applications. The multicusp source has also found important applications in focused ion beam systems. With its high and uniform plasma density, attempts have been made to extract high brightness electron beams from this type of plasma source, making it also useful for electron beam lithography applications. (c) 1999 American Vacuum Society.

Leung, Ka-Ngo [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)] [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

1999-11-01

119

The physics of Electron Beam Ion Sources  

SciTech Connect

There are 13 Electron Beam Ion Sources in operation which produce highly charged ions, up to Th{sup 80+} and Xe{sup 53+}. Most of the sources are used to study these ions under electron impact or when recombining with gaseous or solid targets. That provides an insight into the atomic physics of these highly charged ions and into the physics of the plasma in which such ions can be found. This paper reviews the present knowledge of atomic processes, important in the production of such ions with an EBIS.

Stockli, M.P.; Cocke, C.L.

1990-12-31

120

The physics of Electron Beam Ion Sources  

SciTech Connect

There are 13 Electron Beam Ion Sources in operation which produce highly charged ions, up to Th[sup 80+] and Xe[sup 53+]. Most of the sources are used to study these ions under electron impact or when recombining with gaseous or solid targets. That provides an insight into the atomic physics of these highly charged ions and into the physics of the plasma in which such ions can be found. This paper reviews the present knowledge of atomic processes, important in the production of such ions with an EBIS.

Stockli, M.P.; Cocke, C.L.

1990-01-01

121

A hollow cathode hydrogen ion source  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High current density ion sources have been used to heat plasmas in controlled thermonuclear reaction experiments. High beam currents imply relatively high emission currents from cathodes which have generally taken the form of tungsten filaments. A hydrogen ion source is described which was primarily developed to assess the emission current capability and design requirements for hollow cathodes for application in neutral injection devices. The hydrogen source produced ions by electron bombardment via a single hollow cathode. Source design followed mercury ion thruster technology, using a weak magnetic field to enhance ionization efficiency.

Sovey, J. S.; Mirtich, M. J.

1977-01-01

122

Production of highly charged ion beams from ECR ion sources  

SciTech Connect

Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion source development has progressed with multiple-frequency plasma heating, higher mirror magnetic fields and better technique to provide extra cold electrons. Such techniques greatly enhance the production of highly charged ions from ECR ion sources. So far at cw mode operation, up to 300 e{mu}A of O{sup 7+} and 1.15 emA of O{sup 6+}, more than 100 e{mu}A of intermediate heavy ions for charge states up to Ar{sup 13+}, Ca{sup 13+}, Fe{sup 13+}, Co{sup 14+} and Kr{sup 18+}, and tens of e{mu}A of heavy ions with charge states to Kr{sup 26+}, Xe{sup 28+}, Au{sup 35+}, Bi{sup 34+} and U{sup 34+} have been produced from ECR ion sources. At an intensity of at least 1 e{mu}A, the maximum charge state available for the heavy ions are Xe{sup 36+}, Au{sup 46+}, Bi{sup 47+} and U{sup 48+}. An order of magnitude enhancement for fully stripped argon ions (I {ge} 60 enA) also has been achieved. This article will review the ECR ion source progress and discuss key requirement for ECR ion sources to produce the highly charged ion beams.

Xie, Z.Q. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Nuclear Science Div.

1997-09-01

123

Laser ion source for low charge heavy ion beams  

SciTech Connect

For heavy ion inertial fusion application, a combination of a laser ion source and direct plasma injection scheme into an RFQ is proposed. The combination might provide more than 100 mA of singly charged heavy ion beam from a single laser shot. A planned feasibility test with moderate current is also discussed.

Okamura,M.; Pikin, A.; Zajic, V.; Kanesue, T.; Tamura, J.

2008-08-03

124

Effects of Processing Variables on Tantalum Nitride by Reactive-Ion-Assisted Magnetron Sputtering Deposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The binary compound tantalum nitride (TaN) and ternary compounds tantalum tungsten nitrides (Ta1-xWxNy) exhibit interesting properties such as high melting point, high hardness, and chemical inertness. Such nitrides were deposited on a tungsten carbide (WC) die and silicon wafers by ion-beam-sputter evaporation of the respective metal under nitrogen ion-assisted deposition (IAD). The effects of N2\\/Ar flux ratio, post annealing, ion-assisted

Chao-Tsang Wei; Han-Ping D. Shieh

2006-01-01

125

Multi-layer compound coating on cast iron piston ring by multi-arc and magnetron sputtering ion compound plating technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ti–TiN multi-layer compound coating on a cast iron piston ring utilizing the authors’ improved ‘multi-arc and magnetron sputtering ion compound plating device’ has been investigated by measuring the total thickness, fractography morphology, phases, micro-Vickers hardness, critical load, internal stress and wear resistance. The experimental results show that a Ti–TiN multi-layer compound coating thicker than 4 ?m can be obtained

Sun Zhuo; Zhang Peijun; Zhai Leheng; Xu Xinfu; Han Aimin; Zhang Wenquan

2000-01-01

126

Polycrystalline TiN films deposited by reactive bias magnetron sputtering: Effects of ion bombardment on resputtering rates, film composition, and microstructure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transmission electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and Rutherford backscattering have been used to investigate the effects of ion irradiation during growth on the deposition rate, composition, and microstructure of single-phase polycrystalline NaCl-structure TiN{sub {ital x}} films deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering with a negative substrate bias voltage {ital V}{sub {ital s}}. The layers were deposited on thermally oxidized Si(001) substrates in

I. Petrov; L. Hultman; J.-E. Sundgren; J. E. Greene

1992-01-01

127

Coating characteristics and tribological properties of sputter-deposited MoS 2\\/metal composite coatings deposited by closed field unbalanced magnetron sputter ion plating  

Microsoft Academic Search

As previously reported (V.C. Fox, N.M. Renevier, D.G., Teer, J. Hampshire, V. Rigato, Proceedings of the PSE Conference in Garmisch Partenkirchen, 14–18 September 1998, Germany, Surf. Coating Technol., in press) the properties of MoS2 coatings deposited by closed field unbalanced magnetron sputter ion plating (CFUBMSIP) can be improved by the co-deposition of a small amount of titanium. These MoS2\\/Ti composite

N. M Renevier; V. C Fox; D. G Teer; J Hampshire

2000-01-01

128

Arc-Discharge Ion Sources for Heavy Ion Fusion  

SciTech Connect

A miniature multiple beamlet approach to an injector system was recently proposed in order to reduce the size, cost, and power requirements of the injector. The beamlets of very high current density are needed to meet the brightness requirement. Besides vacuum arc ion sources, cold-cathode gas ion sources are candidates for this application. Vacuum-arc metal ion sources and vacuum-arc-like gas ion sources are discussed. Experiments are presented that focus on the short-pulse plasma composition and ion charge state distribution. Mg and Sr have been identified as the most promising metals leading to mono-species beams when 20 {mu}s arc pulses are used. It is shown that the efficient production of gas ions requires the presence of a magnetic field.

Anders, A.; Kwan, J.W.

2000-03-01

129

Highly Polarized Ion Sources for Electron Ion Colliders (EIC)  

SciTech Connect

The operation of the RHIC facility at BNL and the Electron Ion Colliders (EIC) under development at Jefferson Laboratory and BNL need high brightness ion beams with the highest polarization. Charge exchange injection into a storage ring or synchrotron and Siberian snakes have the potential to handle the needed polarized beam currents, but first the ion sources must create beams with the highest possible polarization to maximize collider productivity, which is proportional to a high power of the polarization. We are developing one universal H-/D- ion source design which will synthesize the most advanced developments in the field of polarized ion sources to provide high current, high brightness, ion beams with greater than 90% polarization, good lifetime, high reliability, and good power efficiency. The new source will be an advanced version of an atomic beam polarized ion source (ABPIS) with resonant charge exchange ionization by negative ions. An integrated ABPIS design will be prepared based on new materials and an optimized magnetic focusing system. Polarized atomic and ion beam formation, extraction, and transport for the new source will be computer simulated.

V.G. Dudnikov, R.P. Johnson, Y.S. Derbenev, Y. Zhang

2010-03-01

130

Enhanced life ion source for germanium and carbon ion implantation  

SciTech Connect

Germanium and carbon ions represent a significant portion of total ion implantation steps in the process flow. Very often ion source materials that used to produce ions are chemically aggressive, especially at higher temperatures, and result in fast ion source performance degradation and a very limited lifetime [B.S. Freer, et. al., 2002 14th Intl. Conf. on Ion Implantation Technology Proc, IEEE Conf. Proc., p. 420 (2003)]. GeF{sub 4} and CO{sub 2} are commonly used to generate germanium and carbon beams. In the case of GeF{sub 4} controlling the tungsten deposition due to the de-composition of WF{sub 6} (halogen cycle) is critical to ion source life. With CO{sub 2}, the materials oxidation and carbon deposition must be controlled as both will affect cathode thermionic emission and anti-cathode (repeller) efficiencies due to the formation of volatile metal oxides. The improved ion source design Extended Life Source 3 (Eterna ELS3) together with its proprietary co-gas material implementation has demonstrated >300 hours of stable continuous operation when using carbon and germanium ion beams. Optimizing cogas chemistries retard the cathode erosion rate for germanium and carbon minimizes the adverse effects of oxygen when reducing gas is introduced for carbon. The proprietary combination of hardware and co-gas has improved source stability and the results of the hardware and co-gas development are discussed.

Hsieh, Tseh-Jen; Colvin, Neil; Kondratenko, Serguei [Axcelis Technologies, Inc. 108 Cherry Hill Drive, Beverly, MA 01915 (United States)

2012-11-06

131

A filamentless ion source for materials processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dual-stage, multiaperture gas ion source with 5 cm beam diameter has been built and characterized. The first discharge stage is a constricted glow discharge injecting a plasma stream into a discharge cavity supporting a Penning ion gauge discharge in the low pressure mode. Both discharge stages and ion extraction are fed by a single, grounded power supply. This simplifies

Andre´ Anders; Robert A. MacGill; Ian G. Brown; Alexey Vizir

1998-01-01

132

Molecular phosphorus ion source for semiconductor technology  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents results on the generation of molecular phosphorus ion beams in a hot filament ion source. Solid red phosphorous is evaporated mainly as tetra-atomic molecules up to a temperature of 800 C. Thus, one of the main conditions for producing maximum P{sub 4}{sup +} fraction in the beam is to keep the temperature of the phosphorous oven, the steam line and the discharge chamber walls no greater than 800 C. The prior version of our ion source was equipped with a discharge chamber cooling system. The modified source ensured a P{sub 4}{sup +} ion beam current greater than 30% of the total beam current.

Gushenets V. I.; Hershcovitch A.; Bugaev, A.S.; Oks, E.M.; Kulevoy, T.V.

2012-02-15

133

Beam current controller for laser ion source  

SciTech Connect

The present invention relates to the design and use of an ion source with a rapid beam current controller for experimental and medicinal purposes. More particularly, the present invention relates to the design and use of a laser ion source with a magnetic field applied to confine a plasma flux caused by laser ablation.

Okamura, Masahiro

2014-10-28

134

Recent advances in vacuum arc ion sources  

SciTech Connect

Intense beams of metal ions can be formed from a vacuum arc ion source. Broadbeam extraction is convenient, and the time-averaged ion beam current delivered downstream can readily be in the tens of milliamperes range. The vacuum arc ion source has for these reasons found good application for metallurgical surface modification--it provides relatively simple and inexpensive access to high dose metal ion implantation. Several important source developments have been demonstrated recently, including very broad beam operation, macroparticle removal, charge state enhancement, and formation of gaseous beams. The authors have made a very broad beam source embodiment with beam formation electrodes 50 cm in diameter, producing a beam of width {approximately}35 cm for a nominal beam area of {approximately}1,000 cm{sup 2}, and a pulsed Ti beam current of about 7 A was formed at a mean ion energy of {approximately}100 keV. Separately, they`ve developed high efficiency macroparticle-removing magnetic filters and incorporated such a filter into a vacuum arc ion source so as to form macroparticle-free ion beams. Jointly with researchers at the High Current Electronics Institute at Tomsk, Russia, and the Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung at Darmstadt, Germany, they`ve developed a compact technique for increasing the charge states of ions produced in the vacuum arc plasma and thus providing a simple means of increasing the ion energy at fixed extractor voltage. Finally, operation with mixed metal and gaseous ion species has been demonstrated. Here, they briefly review the operation of vacuum marc ion sources and the typical beam and implantation parameters that can be obtained, and describe these source advances and their bearing on metal ion implantation applications.

Brown, I.G.; Anders, A.; Anders, S.; Dickinson, M.R.; MacGill, R.A.; Oks, E.M.

1995-07-01

135

Peltier Refrigerators for Molecular Ion Sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Molecular ion sources have been considered for various applications. In particular, there is considerable effort to develop decaborane and octadecaborane ion sources for the semiconductor industry. Since the invention of the transistor, the trend has been to miniaturize semiconductor devices. As semiconductors become smaller (and get miniaturized), ion energy needed for implantation decreases, since shallow implantation is desired. But, due to space charge (intra-ion repulsion) effects, forming and transporting ion beams becomes a rather difficult task. These problems associated with lower energy ion beams limit implanter ion currents, thus leading to low production rates. One way to tackle the space charge problem is to use singly charged molecular ions. A crucial aspect in generating large molecular ion beam currents is ion source temperature control. Peltier coolers, which have in the past successfully utilized in BaF2 and CSI gamma ray detectors, may be ideal for this application. Clogging prevention of molecular ion sources is also a hurdle, which was overcome with special slots. Both topics are to be presented.

Hershcovitch, Ady

2008-11-01

136

ION SOURCES FOR ENERGY EXTREMES OF ION IMPLANTATION.  

SciTech Connect

For the past four years a joint research and development effort designed to develop steady state, intense ion sources has been in progress with the ultimate goal to develop ion sources and techniques, which meet the two energy extreme range needs of mega-electron-volt and 100's of electron-volt ion implanters. This endeavor has already resulted in record steady state output currents of high charge state of Antimony and Phosphorous ions: P{sup 2+} (8.6 pmA), P{sup 3+} (1.9 pmA), and P{sup 4+} (0.12 pmA) and 16.2, 7.6, 3.3, and 2.2 pmA of Sb{sup 3+} Sb{sup 4+}, Sb{sup 5+}, and Sb{sup 6+} respectively. For low energy ion implantation our efforts involve molecular ions and a novel plasmaless/gasless deceleration method. To date, 1 emA of positive Decaborane ions were extracted at 10 keV and smaller currents of negative Decaborane ions were also extracted. Additionally, Boron current fraction of over 70% was extracted from a Bemas-Calutron ion source, which represents a factor of 3.5 improvement over currently employed ion sources.

HERSCHCOVITCH,A.; JOHNSON, B.M.; BATALIN, V.A.; KROPACHEV, G.N.; KUIBEDA, R.P.; KULEVOY, T.V.; KOLOMIETS, A.A.; PERSHIN, V.I.; PETRENKO, S.V.; RUDSKOY, I.; SELEZNEV, D.N.; BUGAEV, A.S.; GUSHENETS, V.I.; LITOVKO, I.V.; OKS, E.M.; YUSHKOV, G. YU.; MASEUNOV, E.S.; POLOZOV, S.M.; POOLE, H.J.; STOROZHENKO, P.A.; SVAROVSKI, YA.

2007-08-26

137

Ion sources for energy extremes of ion implantation.  

PubMed

For the past four years a joint research and development effort designed to develop steady state, intense ion sources has been in progress with the ultimate goal to develop ion sources and techniques that meet the two energy extreme range needs of meV and hundreads of eV ion implanters. This endeavor has already resulted in record steady state output currents of high charge state of antimony and phosphorus ions: P(2+) [8.6 pmA (particle milliampere)], P(3+) (1.9 pmA), and P(4+) (0.12 pmA) and 16.2, 7.6, 3.3, and 2.2 pmA of Sb(3+)Sb(4+), Sb(5+), and Sb(6+) respectively. For low energy ion implantation, our efforts involve molecular ions and a novel plasmaless/gasless deceleration method. To date, 1 emA (electrical milliampere) of positive decaborane ions was extracted at 10 keV and smaller currents of negative decaborane ions were also extracted. Additionally, boron current fraction of over 70% was extracted from a Bernas-Calutron ion source, which represents a factor of 3.5 improvement over currently employed ion sources. PMID:18315250

Hershcovitch, A; Johnson, B M; Batalin, V A; Kropachev, G N; Kuibeda, R P; Kulevoy, T V; Kolomiets, A A; Pershin, V I; Petrenko, S V; Rudskoy, I; Seleznev, D N; Bugaev, A S; Gushenets, V I; Litovko, I V; Oks, E M; Yushkov, G Yu; Masunov, E S; Polozov, S M; Poole, H J; Storozhenko, P A; Svarovski, A Ya

2008-02-01

138

Ion sources for energy extremes of ion implantation (invited)  

SciTech Connect

For the past four years a joint research and development effort designed to develop steady state, intense ion sources has been in progress with the ultimate goal to develop ion sources and techniques that meet the two energy extreme range needs of meV and hundreads of eV ion implanters. This endeavor has already resulted in record steady state output currents of high charge state of antimony and phosphorus ions: P{sup 2+} [8.6 pmA (particle milliampere)], P{sup 3+} (1.9 pmA), and P{sup 4+} (0.12 pmA) and 16.2, 7.6, 3.3, and 2.2 pmA of Sb{sup 3+}Sb{sup 4+}, Sb{sup 5+}, and Sb{sup 6+} respectively. For low energy ion implantation, our efforts involve molecular ions and a novel plasmaless/gasless deceleration method. To date, 1 emA (electrical milliampere) of positive decaborane ions was extracted at 10 keV and smaller currents of negative decaborane ions were also extracted. Additionally, boron current fraction of over 70% was extracted from a Bernas-Calutron ion source, which represents a factor of 3.5 improvement over currently employed ion sources.

Hershcovitch, A.; Johnson, B. M.; Batalin, V. A.; Kropachev, G. N.; Kuibeda, R. P.; Kulevoy, T. V.; Kolomiets, A. A.; Pershin, V. I.; Petrenko, S. V.; Rudskoy, I.; Seleznev, D. N.; Bugaev, A. S.; Gushenets, V. I.; Litovko, I. V.; Oks, E. M.; Yushkov, G. Yu.; Masunov, E. S.; Polozov, S. M.; Poole, H. J; Storozhenko, P. A. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); High Current Electronics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation); Moscow Engineering Physics Institute, sh. Kashirskoe 31, Moscow 115409 (Russian Federation); PVI, Oxnard, California 93031-5023 (United States); State Research Institute for Chemistry and Technology of Organoelement Compounds, sh. Entuziastov 38, Moscow 111123 (Russian Federation); Siberian Divisions of Russian National Research Center, 'A.A. Bochvara Scientific Research Institute for Inorganic Materials', Seversk 636070 (Russian Federation)] (and others)

2008-02-15

139

An overview of LINAC ion sources  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses ion sources used in high-duty-factor proton and H{sup -} Linacs as well as in accelerators utilizing multi-charged heavy ions, mostly for nuclear physics applications. The included types are Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) sources as well as filament and rf driven multicusp sources. The paper does not strive to attain encyclopedic character but rather to highlight major lines of development, peak performance parameters and type-specific limitations and problems of these sources. The main technical aspects being discussed are particle feed, plasma generation and ion production by discharges, and plasma confinement.

Keller, Roderich [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01

140

Performance of an inverted ion source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Whereas energetic ion beams are conventionally produced by extracting ions (say, positive ions) from a plasma that is held at high (positive) potential, with ion energy determined by the potential drop through which the ions fall in the beam formation electrode system, in the device described here the plasma and its electronics are held at ground potential and the ion beam is formed and injected energetically into a space maintained at high (negative) potential. We refer to this configuration as an "inverted ion source." This approach allows considerable savings both technologically and economically, rendering feasible some ion beam applications, in particular small-scale ion implantation, that might otherwise not be possible for many researchers and laboratories. We have developed a device of this kind utilizing a metal vapor vacuum arc plasma source, and explored its operation and beam characteristics over a range of parameter variation. The downstream beam current has been measured as a function of extraction voltage (5-35 kV), arc current (50-230 A), metal ion species (Ti, Nb, Au), and extractor grid spacing and beamlet aperture size (3, 4, and 5 mm). The downstream ion beam current as measured by a magnetically-suppressed Faraday cup was up to as high as 600 mA, and with parametric variation quite similar to that found for the more conventional metal vapor vacuum arc ion source.

Salvadori, M. C.; Teixeira, F. S.; Sgubin, L. G.; Araujo, W. W. R.; Spirin, R. E.; Oks, E. M.; Brown, I. G.

2013-02-01

141

Performance of an inverted ion source.  

PubMed

Whereas energetic ion beams are conventionally produced by extracting ions (say, positive ions) from a plasma that is held at high (positive) potential, with ion energy determined by the potential drop through which the ions fall in the beam formation electrode system, in the device described here the plasma and its electronics are held at ground potential and the ion beam is formed and injected energetically into a space maintained at high (negative) potential. We refer to this configuration as an "inverted ion source." This approach allows considerable savings both technologically and economically, rendering feasible some ion beam applications, in particular small-scale ion implantation, that might otherwise not be possible for many researchers and laboratories. We have developed a device of this kind utilizing a metal vapor vacuum arc plasma source, and explored its operation and beam characteristics over a range of parameter variation. The downstream beam current has been measured as a function of extraction voltage (5-35 kV), arc current (50-230 A), metal ion species (Ti, Nb, Au), and extractor grid spacing and beamlet aperture size (3, 4, and 5 mm). The downstream ion beam current as measured by a magnetically-suppressed Faraday cup was up to as high as 600 mA, and with parametric variation quite similar to that found for the more conventional metal vapor vacuum arc ion source. PMID:23464210

Salvadori, M C; Teixeira, F S; Sgubin, L G; Araujo, W W R; Spirin, R E; Oks, E M; Brown, I G

2013-02-01

142

Note: Ion source design for ion trap systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A small plasma (glow discharge) based ion source and circuit are described in this work. The ion source works by producing a high voltage pulsed discharge between two electrodes in a pressure range of 50-100 mTorr. A third mesh electrode is used for ion extraction. The electrodes are small stainless steel screws mounted in a MACOR ionization chamber in a linear arrangement. The electrode arrangement is driven by a circuit, design for low power operation. This design is a proof of concept intended for applications on small cylindrical ion traps.

Noriega, J. R.; Quevedo, M.; Gnade, B.; Vasselli, J.

2013-06-01

143

Pseudo ribbon metal ion beam source  

SciTech Connect

The paper describes high broad metal ion source based on dc macroparticle filtered vacuum arc plasma generation with the dc ion-beam extraction. The possibility of formation of pseudo ribbon beam of metal ions with the parameters: ion beam length 0.6 m, ion current up to 0.2 A, accelerating voltage 40 kV, and ion energy up to 160 kV has been demonstrated. The pseudo ribbon ion beam is formed from dc vacuum arc plasma. The results of investigation of the vacuum arc evaporator ion-emission properties are presented. The influence of magnetic field strength near the cathode surface on the arc spot movement and ion-emission properties of vacuum-arc discharge for different cathode materials are determined. It was shown that vacuum-arc discharge stability can be reached when the magnetic field strength ranges from 40 to 70 G on the cathode surface.

Stepanov, Igor B., E-mail: stepanovib@tpu.ru; Ryabchikov, Alexander I.; Sivin, Denis O.; Verigin, Dan A. [Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30 Lenina Avenue, Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation)] [Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30 Lenina Avenue, Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation)

2014-02-15

144

Pseudo ribbon metal ion beam source.  

PubMed

The paper describes high broad metal ion source based on dc macroparticle filtered vacuum arc plasma generation with the dc ion-beam extraction. The possibility of formation of pseudo ribbon beam of metal ions with the parameters: ion beam length 0.6 m, ion current up to 0.2 A, accelerating voltage 40 kV, and ion energy up to 160 kV has been demonstrated. The pseudo ribbon ion beam is formed from dc vacuum arc plasma. The results of investigation of the vacuum arc evaporator ion-emission properties are presented. The influence of magnetic field strength near the cathode surface on the arc spot movement and ion-emission properties of vacuum-arc discharge for different cathode materials are determined. It was shown that vacuum-arc discharge stability can be reached when the magnetic field strength ranges from 40 to 70 G on the cathode surface. PMID:24593634

Stepanov, Igor B; Ryabchikov, Alexander I; Sivin, Denis O; Verigin, Dan A

2014-02-01

145

Pseudo ribbon metal ion beam source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper describes high broad metal ion source based on dc macroparticle filtered vacuum arc plasma generation with the dc ion-beam extraction. The possibility of formation of pseudo ribbon beam of metal ions with the parameters: ion beam length 0.6 m, ion current up to 0.2 A, accelerating voltage 40 kV, and ion energy up to 160 kV has been demonstrated. The pseudo ribbon ion beam is formed from dc vacuum arc plasma. The results of investigation of the vacuum arc evaporator ion-emission properties are presented. The influence of magnetic field strength near the cathode surface on the arc spot movement and ion-emission properties of vacuum-arc discharge for different cathode materials are determined. It was shown that vacuum-arc discharge stability can be reached when the magnetic field strength ranges from 40 to 70 G on the cathode surface.

Stepanov, Igor B.; Ryabchikov, Alexander I.; Sivin, Denis O.; Verigin, Dan A.

2014-02-01

146

Prototype negative ion sources for radioactive ion beam generation (abstract)  

SciTech Connect

Radioactive ion beams (RIBs) of {sup 17}F and {sup 18}F are of interest for investigation of astrophysical phenomena such as the {open_quotes}hot{close_quotes} CNO cycle and the rp stellar nuclear synthesis processes. In order to generate useful beam intensities of atomic F{sup {minus}}, the species must be efficiently and expediently released from the target material, thermally dissociated from fluoride release products during transport to the ionization chamber of the ion source, and efficiently ionized in the source upon arrival. We have conceived and evaluated two prototype negative ion sources for potential use for RIB generation: a direct extraction source and a kinetic ejection source. Both sources utilize Cs vapor to enhance F{sup {minus}} formation. The mechanical design features, operational parameters, ionization efficiencies for forming atomic F{sup {minus}} and delay times for transport of F and fluoride compounds for the respective sources are presented. The efficiency {eta} for formation and extraction of F{sup {minus}} for the direct extraction negative ion source is found to be {eta}{approximately}1.0{percent}, while the characteristic delay time {tau} for transport of F and fluorides through the source is typically, {eta}{approximately}120 s; the analogous efficiencies and delay times for the kinetic ejection negative ion source are, respectively: {eta}={approximately}3.2{percent} and {tau}={approximately}70 s. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

Alton, G.D. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6368 (United States)] [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6368 (United States); Welton, R.F.; Williams, C. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6368 (United States)] [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6368 (United States); [Oak Ridge Institute of Science and Engineering, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Cui, B. [China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing (China)] [China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing (China); Murray, S.N. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6368 (United States)] [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6368 (United States)

1998-02-01

147

Ion sources for MedAustron  

SciTech Connect

The MedAustron Ion therapy center will be constructed in Wiener Neustadt (Austria) in the vicinity of Vienna. Its accelerator complex consists of four ion sources, a linear accelerator, a synchrotron, and a beam delivery system to the three medical treatment rooms and to the research irradiation room. The ion sources shall deliver beams of H{sub 3}{sup 1+}, C{sup 4+}, and light ions with utmost reliability and stability. This paper describes the features of the ion sources presently planned for the MedAustron facility, such as ion source main parameters, gas injection, temperature control, and cooling systems. A dedicated beam diagnostics technique is proposed in order to characterize electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion beams; in the first drift region after the ion source, a fraction of the mixed beam is selected via moveable aperture. With standard beam diagnostics, we then aim to produce position-dependant observables such as ion-current density, beam energy distribution, and emittance for each charge states to be compared to simulations of ECR e-heating, plasma simulation, beam formation, and transport.

Lettry, J. [AB Department, CERN, CH1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Penescu, L.; Wallner, J.; Sargsyan, E. [EBG MedAustron GmbH, Viktor Kaplan-Strasse 2, A-2700 Wiener Neustadt (Austria)

2010-02-15

148

Ion sources for MedAustron.  

PubMed

The MedAustron Ion therapy center will be constructed in Wiener Neustadt (Austria) in the vicinity of Vienna. Its accelerator complex consists of four ion sources, a linear accelerator, a synchrotron, and a beam delivery system to the three medical treatment rooms and to the research irradiation room. The ion sources shall deliver beams of H(3)(1+), C(4+), and light ions with utmost reliability and stability. This paper describes the features of the ion sources presently planned for the MedAustron facility, such as ion source main parameters, gas injection, temperature control, and cooling systems. A dedicated beam diagnostics technique is proposed in order to characterize electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion beams; in the first drift region after the ion source, a fraction of the mixed beam is selected via moveable aperture. With standard beam diagnostics, we then aim to produce position-dependant observables such as ion-current density, beam energy distribution, and emittance for each charge states to be compared to simulations of ECR e-heating, plasma simulation, beam formation, and transport. PMID:20192349

Lettry, J; Penescu, L; Wallner, J; Sargsyan, E

2010-02-01

149

Ion Sources for MedAustron  

E-print Network

The MedAustron Ion therapy center will be constructed in Wiener Neustadt (Austria) in the vicinity of Vienna. Its accelerator complex consists of four ion sources, a linear accelerator, a synchrotron and a beam delivery system to the three medical treatment rooms and to the research irradiation room. The ion sources shall deliver beams of H31+, C4+ and light ions with utmost reliability and stability. This paper describes the features of the ion sources presently planned for the MedAustron facility; such as ion source main parameters, gas injection, temperature control and cooling systems. A dedicated beam diagnostics technique is proposed in order to characterize ECR ions beams; in the first drift region after the ion source, a fraction of the mixed beam is selected via moveable aperture. With standard beam diagnostics, we then aim to produce position-dependant observables such as ion-current density, beam energy distribution and emittance for each charge states to be compared to simulations of ECR e-heating...

Lettry, J; Wallner, J; Sargsyan, E

2010-01-01

150

Ion sources for MedAustrona)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The MedAustron Ion therapy center will be constructed in Wiener Neustadt (Austria) in the vicinity of Vienna. Its accelerator complex consists of four ion sources, a linear accelerator, a synchrotron, and a beam delivery system to the three medical treatment rooms and to the research irradiation room. The ion sources shall deliver beams of H31+, C4+, and light ions with utmost reliability and stability. This paper describes the features of the ion sources presently planned for the MedAustron facility, such as ion source main parameters, gas injection, temperature control, and cooling systems. A dedicated beam diagnostics technique is proposed in order to characterize electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion beams; in the first drift region after the ion source, a fraction of the mixed beam is selected via moveable aperture. With standard beam diagnostics, we then aim to produce position-dependant observables such as ion-current density, beam energy distribution, and emittance for each charge states to be compared to simulations of ECR e-heating, plasma simulation, beam formation, and transport.

Lettry, J.; Penescu, L.; Wallner, J.; Sargsyan, E.

2010-02-01

151

Cold atomic beam ion source for focused ion beam applications  

SciTech Connect

We report measurements and modeling of an ion source that is based on ionization of a laser-cooled atomic beam. We show a high brightness and a low energy spread, suitable for use in next-generation, high-resolution focused ion beam systems. Our measurements of total ion current as a function of ionization conditions support an analytical model that also predicts the cross-sectional current density and spatial distribution of ions created in the source. The model predicts a peak brightness of 2 × 10{sup 7} A m{sup ?2} sr{sup ?1} eV{sup ?1} and an energy spread less than 0.34 eV. The model is also combined with Monte-Carlo simulations of the inter-ion Coulomb forces to show that the source can be operated at several picoamperes with a brightness above 1 × 10{sup 7} A m{sup ?2} sr{sup ?1} eV{sup ?1}. We estimate that when combined with a conventional ion focusing column, an ion source with these properties could focus a 1 pA beam into a spot smaller than 1 nm. A total current greater than 5 nA was measured in a lower-brightness configuration of the ion source, demonstrating the possibility of a high current mode of operation.

Knuffman, B.; Steele, A. V. [Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States) [Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Maryland Nanocenter, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); zeroK NanoTech, Montgomery Village, Maryland 20886 (United States); McClelland, J. J. [Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States)] [Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States)

2013-07-28

152

On characterization of an ultracold ion source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ultracold ion source (UCIS) is based on creating very cold ion beams (T < 1 mK) by near-threshold photo-ionization of a laser-cooled and trapped ^85Rb gas. The UCIS has the potential of producing ion beams with a brightness and current comparable to the liquid-metal ion source (LMIS), which is the current state-of-art for focused ion beam (FIB) technology. The brightness characterizes the source and is proportional to the ion current, the source temperature and the energy spread. We have already shown that the UCIS can provide much lower energy spread than LMIS, and may therefore offer a route toward 1-nm ion beam milling. The ultra low temperature of the source permits collimated bunches to be created at a low energy (down to few eV), which allows using time-dependent fields for accelerating and focusing. With this lens, a source temperature of (3 ± 2) mK has been measured. A dynamic model of the source describing its properties under pulsed operation has been developed and experiments have been started in order to validate it. The extracted current is the missing ingredient needed to characterize the brightness of the UCIS.

Debernardi, N.; Engelen, W. J.; van Vliembergen, R. W. L.; Mutsaers, P. H. A.; Vredenbregt, E. J. D.; Luiten, O. J.

2011-06-01

153

Negative Decaborane Ion Beam from ITEP Bernas Ion Source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A joint research and development effort focusing on the design of steady state, intense ion sources has been in progress for the past two and a half years with a couple of Russian institutions. The ultimate goal of the effort is to meet the two, energy extreme range needs of mega-electron-volt and 100's of electron-volt ion implanters. This endeavor has already resulted in record steady state output currents of higher charge state antimony and phosphorous ions to meet high-energy implantation requirements. For low energy ion implantation, R&D efforts have involved molecular ions and a novel plasmaless/gasless deceleration method. To date, 1 emA of positive decaborane ions were extracted at 10 keV and a smaller current of negative decaborane ions were also extracted. Though of scientific interest, negative decaborane ions did not attract interest from industry, since the semiconductor ion implant industry seems to have solved the wafer-charging problem. This paper describes conditions under which negative decaborane ions are formed and extracted from a Bernas ion source.

Petrenko, S. V.; Kuibeda, R. P.; Kulevoy, T. V.; Batalin, V. A.; Pershin, V. I.; Koslov, A. V.; Stasevich, Yu. B.; Koshelev, V. A.; Hershcovitch, A.; Johnson, B. M.; Oks, E. M.; Gushenets, V. I.; Poole, H. J.

2007-08-01

154

Negative Decaborane Ion Beam from ITEP Bernas Ion Source  

SciTech Connect

A joint research and development effort focusing on the design of steady state, intense ion sources has been in progress for the past two and a half years with a couple of Russian institutions. The ultimate goal of the effort is to meet the two, energy extreme range needs of mega-electron-volt and 100's of electron-volt ion implanters. This endeavor has already resulted in record steady state output currents of higher charge state antimony and phosphorous ions to meet high-energy implantation requirements. For low energy ion implantation, R and D efforts have involved molecular ions and a novel plasmaless/gasless deceleration method. To date, 1 emA of positive decaborane ions were extracted at 10 keV and a smaller current of negative decaborane ions were also extracted. Though of scientific interest, negative decaborane ions did not attract interest from industry, since the semiconductor ion implant industry seems to have solved the wafer-charging problem. This paper describes conditions under which negative decaborane ions are formed and extracted from a Bernas ion source.

Petrenko, S. V.; Kuibeda, R. P.; Kulevoy, T. V.; Batalin, V. A.; Pershin, V. I.; Koslov, A. V.; Stasevich, Yu. B.; Koshelev, V. A. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow, (Russian Federation); Hershcovitch, A.; Johnson, B. M. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Oks, E. M.; Gushenets, V. I. [High Current Electronics Institute Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation); Poole, H. J. [PVI, Oxnard, California 93031-5023 (United States)

2007-08-10

155

Electrospray ion source with reduced analyte electrochemistry  

DOEpatents

An electrospray ion (ESI) source and method capable of ionizing an analyte molecule without oxidizing or reducing the analyte of interest. The ESI source can include an emitter having a liquid conduit, a working electrode having a liquid contacting surface, a spray tip, a secondary working electrode, and a charge storage coating covering partially or fully the liquid contacting surface of the working electrode. The liquid conduit, the working electrode and the secondary working electrode can be in liquid communication. The electrospray ion source can also include a counter electrode proximate to, but separated from, said spray tip. The electrospray ion source can also include a power system for applying a voltage difference between the working electrodes and a counter-electrode. The power system can deliver pulsed voltage changes to the working electrodes during operation of said electrospray ion source to minimize the surface potential of the charge storage coating.

Kertesz, Vilmos; Van Berkel, Gary J

2013-07-30

156

Design and simulation of ion optics for ion sources for production of singly charged ions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last 2 years different types of the singly charged ion sources were developed for FLNR (JINR) new projects such as Dubna radioactive ion beams, (Phase I and Phase II), the production of the tritium ion beam and the MASHA mass separator. The ion optics simulations for 2.45 GHz electron cyclotron resonance source, rf source, and the plasma ion source were performed. In this article the design and simulation results of the optics of new ion sources are presented. The results of simulation are compared with measurements obtained during the experiments.

Zelenak, A.; Bogomolov, S. L.

2004-05-01

157

Sources of polyatomic ions of organic liquids.  

PubMed

We have developed two types of liquid ion sources, one of which was a polyatomic ion source using liquid organic materials with a high-vapor pressure. Liquid materials such as octane and ethanol could be heated up to a maximum temperature of 100 degrees C, and the vapors were introduced into an ion source. They were ionized by an electron bombardment method and extracted from the ionizer. The ion current obtained at an extraction voltage of 2 kV was 230 microA for octane and several fragment ions such as alkyl ions were produced. On the other hand, another type of polyatomic ion source using alkyl naphthalene mixed with ionic liquid such as imidazolium dicyanamide has been developed. Instead of the electron bombardment method, a high-electric field method was used for the ion-emission from a sharp tip, because the vapor pressure of the liquid materials was relatively low. The threshold voltage was approximately 4.5 kV and the ion current of approximately 250 nA was obtained at an extraction voltage of 9.5 kV. PMID:20192425

Takaoka, G H; Takeuchi, M; Ryuto, H

2010-02-01

158

Design of magnet and control of the beam emittance for Penning H- ion source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design requirement and principle of the deflection magnet for Magnetron and Penning H- ion source are discussed. It is proved that there exists a maximum emittance for the beam that may be transformed by the magnet into a state with equal Twiss parameters of ?r = ?y and ?r = ?y, which is the requisite condition to get a minimum emittance at the entrance of RFQ after transporting by a LEBT with solenoids. For this maximum emittance, the corresponding magnetic field gradient index is 1.

Ouyang, Hua-Fu; Zhang, Hua-Shun

2008-08-01

159

High-current pulsed ion source for metallic ions  

SciTech Connect

A new sputter-ion PIG source and magnet system, optimized for intermediate charge states, q/A of 0.02 to 0.03, is described. This source will be used with the new Wideroe-based injector for the SuperHILAC. Pulsed electrical currents of several emA of heavy metal ions have been produced in a normalized emittance area of .05..pi.. cm-mr. The source system is comprised of two electrically separate anode chambers, one in operation and one spare, which can be selected by remote control. The entire source head is small and quickly removable.

Gavin, B.; Abbott, S.; MacGill, R.; Sorensen, R.; Staples, J.; Thatcher, R.

1981-03-01

160

State of the Art ECR Ion Sources  

SciTech Connect

Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion source which produces highly-charged ions is used in heavy ion accelerators worldwide. Applications also found in atomic physics research and industry ion implantation. ECR ion source performance continues to improve, especially in the last few years with new techniques, such as multiple-frequency plasma heating and better methods to provide extra cold electrons, combined with higher magnetic mirror fields. So far more than 1 emA of multiply-charged ions such as He{sup 2+} and O{sup 6+}, and 30 e{mu}A of Au{sup 32+}, 1.1 e{mu}A of {sup 238}U{sup 48+}, and epA currents of very high charge states such as {sup 86}Kr{sup 35+} and {sup 238}U{sup 60+} have been produced.

Xie, Z.Q.

1997-05-01

161

H- ion source developments at the SNS  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) will require substantially higher average and pulse H- beam currents than can be produced from conventional ion sources such as the base line SNS source. H- currents of 40-50 mA (SNS operations) and 70-100 mA (power upgrade project) with an rms emittance of 0.20-0.35 Pi mm mrad and a ~7% duty factor will be needed. We are therefore investigating several advanced ion source concepts based on RF excitation. First, the performance characteristics of an external antenna source based on an Al2O3 plasma chamber combined with an external multicusp magnetic configuration, an elemental Cs system, and plasma gun will be discussed. Second, the first plasma measurements of a helicon-driven H- ion source will also be presented.

Welton, Robert F [ORNL; Stockli, Martin P [ORNL; Murray Jr, S N [ORNL; Pennisi, Terry R [ORNL; Han, Baoxi [ORNL; Kang, Yoon W [ORNL; Goulding, Richard Howell [ORNL; Crisp, Danny W [ORNL; Sparks, Dennis O [ORNL; Luciano, Nicholas P [ORNL; Carmichael, Justin R [ORNL; Carr, Jr, Jerry [ORNL

2008-01-01

162

H(-) ion source developments at the SNS.  

PubMed

The U.S. Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) will require substantially higher average and pulse H(-) beam currents than can be produced from conventional ion sources such as the base line SNS source. H(-) currents of 40-50 mA (SNS operations) and 70-100 mA (power upgrade project) with a rms emittance of 0.20-0.35pi mm mrad and a approximately 7% duty factor will be needed. We are therefore investigating several advanced ion source concepts based on rf plasma excitation. First, the performance characteristics of an external antenna source based on an Al(2)O(3) plasma chamber combined with an external multicusp magnetic configuration, an elemental Cs system, and plasma gun will be discussed. Second, the first plasma measurements of a helicon-driven H(-) ion source will also be presented. PMID:18315274

Welton, R F; Stockli, M P; Murray, S N; Pennisi, T R; Han, B; Kang, Y; Goulding, R H; Crisp, D W; Sparks, D O; Luciano, N P; Carmichael, J R; Carr, J

2008-02-01

163

Three chamber negative ion source  

DOEpatents

A negative ion vessel is divided into an excitation chamber, a negative ionization chamber and an extraction chamber by two magnetic filters. Input means introduces neutral molecules into a first chamber where a first electron discharge means vibrationally excites the molecules which migrate to a second chamber. In the second chamber a second electron discharge means ionizes the molecules, producing negative ions which are extracted into or by a third chamber. A first magnetic filter prevents high energy electrons from entering the negative ionization chamber from the excitation chamber. A second magnetic filter prevents high energy electrons from entering the extraction chamber from the negative ionizing chamber. An extraction grid at the end of the negative ion vessel attracts negative ions into the third chamber and accelerates them. Another grid, located adjacent to the extraction grid, carries a small positive voltage in order to inhibit positive ions from migrating into the extraction chamber and contour the plasma potential. Additional electrons can be suppressed from the output flux using ExB forces provided by magnetic field means and the extractor grid electric potential.

Leung, Ka-Ngo (Hercules, CA); Ehlers, Kenneth W. (Alamo, CA); Hiskes, John R. (Livermore, CA)

1985-01-01

164

Excellent vacuum tribological properties of Pb/PbS film deposited by RF magnetron sputtering and ion sulfurizing.  

PubMed

Soft metal Pb film of 3 ?m in thickness was deposited on AISI 440C steel by RF magnetron sputtering, and then some of the Pb film samples were treated by low-temperature ion sulfurizing (LTIS) and formed Pb/PbS composite film. Tribological properties of the Pb and Pb/PbS films were tested contrastively in vacuum and air condition using a self-developed tribometer (model of MSTS-1). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were adopted to analyze the microstructure and chemical construction of the films and their worn surfaces. The results show that a mass of Pb was changed to PbS during the process of LTIS. In air condition, owing to the severe oxidation effect, pure Pb film showed relatively high friction coefficients (0.6), and Pb/PbS composite film also lost its friction-reduction property after sliding for a short time. In a vacuum, the average friction coefficients of Pb film were about 0.1, but the friction coefficient curve fluctuated obviously. And the Pb/PbS composite film exhibited excellent tribological properties in vacuum condition. Its friction coefficients keep stable at a low value of about 0.07 for a long time. If takes the value of friction coefficients exceeding 0.2 continuously as a criterion of lubrication failure, the sliding friction life of Pb/PbS film was as long as 3.2 × 10(5) r, which is 8 times of that of the Pb film. It can be concluded that the Pb/PbS film has excellent vacuum tribological properties and important foreground for applying in space solid lubrication related fields. PMID:24308504

Guozheng, Ma; Binshi, Xu; Haidou, Wang; Shuying, Chen; Zhiguo, Xing

2014-01-01

165

Ion production from solid state laser ion sources  

SciTech Connect

Laser ion sources based on resonant excitation and ionization of atoms are well-established tools for selective and efficient production of radioactive ion beams. Recent developments are focused on the use of the state-of-the-art all solid-state laser systems. To date, 35 elements of the periodic table are available from laser ion sources based on tunable Ti:sapphire lasers. Recent progress in this field regarding the establishment of suitable optical excitation schemes for Ti:sapphire lasers are reported.

Gottwald, T.; Mattolat, C.; Raeder, S.; Wendt, K. [Institute for Physics, University of Mainz, Staudinger Weg 7, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Havener, C.; Liu, Y. [Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Lassen, J. [TRIUMF-ISAC Division, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 2A3 (Canada); Rothe, S. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneve 23 (Switzerland)

2010-02-15

166

Ion production from solid state laser ion sources  

SciTech Connect

Laser ion sources based on resonant excitation and ionization of atoms are well-established tools for selective and efficient production of radioactive ion beams. Recent developments are focused on the use of the state-of-the-art all solid-state laser systems. To date, 35 elements of the periodic table are available from laser ion sources based on tunable Ti:sapphire lasers. Recent progress in this field regarding the establishment of suitable optical excitation schemes for Ti:sapphire lasers are reported.

Gottwald, T. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Mainz, Germany; Havener, Charles C [ORNL; Lassen, J. [TRIUMF, Canada; Liu, Yuan [ORNL; Mattolat, C. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Mainz, Germany; Raeder, S. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Mainz, Germany; Rothe, S. [CERN, Geneva, Switzerland; Wendt, K. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Mainz, Germany

2010-01-01

167

The University of Washington polarized ion source  

Microsoft Academic Search

A colliding-beam polarized ion source has been in operation for nuclear physics experiments at the University of Washington tandem-linac facility since late 1987. Thermal beams of polarized atomic hydrogen or deuterium are ionized by charge exchange in collisions with a collinear, fast, neutral cesium beam. Negative ions are extracted, and the polarization symmetry axis is precessed to any desired direction

C. A. Gossett; D. R. Balsley; G. C. Harper; C. M. Bitz; J. K. Eisenberg; J. A. Rogers

1990-01-01

168

The University of Washington polarized ion source  

Microsoft Academic Search

A colliding-beams polarized ion source has been in operation for nuclear physics experiments at the University of Washington tandem-linac facility since late 1987. Thermal beams of polarized atomic hydrogen or deuterium are ionized by charge exchange in collisions with a collinear, fast, neutral cesium beam. Negative ions are extracted and the polarization symmetry axis is precessed to any desired direction

C. A. Gossett; D. R. Balsley; G. C. Harper; C. M. Bitz; J. K. Eisenberg; J. A. Rogers

1989-01-01

169

Influence of plasma-generated negative oxygen ion impingement on magnetron sputtered amorphous SiO{sub 2} thin films during growth at low temperatures  

SciTech Connect

Growth of amorphous SiO{sub 2} thin films deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering at low temperatures has been studied under different oxygen partial pressure conditions. Film microstructures varied from coalescent vertical column-like to homogeneous compact microstructures, possessing all similar refractive indexes. A discussion on the process responsible for the different microstructures is carried out focusing on the influence of (i) the surface shadowing mechanism, (ii) the positive ion impingement on the film, and (iii) the negative ion impingement. We conclude that only the trend followed by the latter and, in particular, the impingement of O{sup -} ions with kinetic energies between 20 and 200 eV, agrees with the resulting microstructural changes. Overall, it is also demonstrated that there are two main microstructuring regimes in the growth of amorphous SiO{sub 2} thin films by magnetron sputtering at low temperatures, controlled by the amount of O{sub 2} in the deposition reactor, which stem from the competition between surface shadowing and ion-induced adatom surface mobility.

Macias-Montero, M.; Garcia-Garcia, F. J.; Alvarez, R.; Gil-Rostra, J.; Gonzalez, J. C.; Gonzalez-Elipe, A. R.; Palmero, A. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla (CSIC-US), Americo Vespucio 49, 41092 Seville (Spain); Cotrino, J. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla (CSIC-US), Americo Vespucio 49, 41092 Seville (Spain); Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Sevilla, Avda. Reina Mercedes, s/n, 42022 Seville (Spain)

2012-03-01

170

Ion Heating in Pulsed Helicon Sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous measurements demonstrated a strong correlation between ion temperature and the ratio of the antenna frequency to the local lower hybrid frequency. When strong ion heating occurs, the ion temperature profile in steady-state helicon sources is flat or peaked at the edge; suggesting an edge localized ion heating mechanism. The same parameters that yield the largest ion temperatures are also predicted to have the strongest damping of slow waves in the edge. Here we present observations that further support the conclusion that short wavelength slow waves parametrically decay into electrostatic modes and also directly heat ions. Collective Thomson scattering measurements indicate significant wave power at frequencies of f ˜ 100 kHz and perpendicular wave numbers of ˜ 89 rad/cm. The waves are localized to the same region as lower frequency ion acoustic waves are observed with probes. By pulsing the helicon source and observing the time evolution of the ion temperature profile, we find that the ion temperature profile flattens out and then becomes hollow at the same time the parametrically driven ion acoustic waves appear.

Scime, Earl; Magee, Richard; Carr, Jerry, Jr.; Galante, Matthew; Lusk, Greg; McCarren, Dustin; Reynolds, Eric; Sears, Stephanie; Vandervort, Robert; Hardin, Robert

2011-11-01

171

Ion Source Choices -- An H- Source for the High Intensity Neutrino Source  

SciTech Connect

The High Intensity Neutrino Source (HINS) program at Fermilab (formerly the Proton Driver) aims to develop a multi-mission linear accelerator (LINAC) capable of accelerate H- ions to 8 GeV. This paper touches on the ion source requirements for the HINS and discusses long pulse length testing of three ion sources which appear to have the capability of meeting these requirements.

Moehs, Douglas P. [Fermilab, P.O. Box 500, Batavia, IL 60563 (United States); Welton, Robert F.; Stockli, Martin P. [SNS, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Peters, Jens [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Alessi, James [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York, 11973 (United States)

2007-08-10

172

Laser ion source for particle accelerators  

E-print Network

There is an interest in accelerating atomic nuclei to produce particle beams for medical therapy, atomic and nuclear physics, inertial confinement fusion and particle physics. Laser Ion Sources, in which ions are extracted from plasma created when a high power density laser beam pulse strikes a solid surface in a vacuum, are not in common use. However, some new developments in which heavy ions have been accelerated show that such sources have the potential to provide the beams required for high-energy accelerator systems.

Sherwood, T R

1995-01-01

173

Molecular phosphorus ion source for semiconductor technology  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents results on the generation of molecular phosphorus ion beams in a hot filament ion source. Solid red phosphorous is evaporated mainly as tetra-atomic molecules up to a temperature of 800 deg. C. Thus, one of the main conditions for producing maximum P{sub 4}{sup +} fraction in the beam is to keep the temperature of the phosphorous oven, the steam line and the discharge chamber walls no greater than 800 deg. C. The prior version of our ion source was equipped with a discharge chamber cooling system. The modified source ensured a P{sub 4}{sup +} ion beam current greater than 30% of the total beam current.

Gushenets, V. I.; Bugaev, A. S.; Oks, E. M. [Institute of High Current Electronics SB RAS, Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation); Hershcovitch, A. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Kulevoy, T. V. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow 117218 (Russian Federation)

2012-02-15

174

Recent Development of IMP ECR Ion Sources  

SciTech Connect

Great efforts have been made to develop highly charged ECR ion sources for application of heavy ion accelerator and atomic physics research at IMP in the past few years. The latest development of ECR ion sources at IMP is briefly reviewed. Intense beams with high and intermediate charge states have been produced from IMP LECR3 by optimization of the ion source conditions including rf frequency extended up to 18GHz. 1.1 emA of Ar8+ and 325 e{mu} A of Ar11+ were produced. Dependence of beam emittance on those key parameters of ECR ion source, beam extraction and space charge compensation were experimentally studied at LECR3. Furthermore, an advanced superconducting ECR ion source named SECRAL is being constructed. SECRAL is designed to operate at rf frequency 18-28GHz with axial mirror magnetic fields 3.6-4.0 Tesla at injection, 2.2 Tesla at extraction and sextupole field 2.0 Tesla at the wall. The superconducting magnet with sextupole and three solenoids was tested in a test-cryostat and 95% of designed fields were reached. Construction status and planed schedule of SECRAL are presented.

Zhao, H.W.; Zhang, Z.M.; Sun, L.T.; Cao, Y.; He, W.; Zhang, X.Z.; Guo, X.H.; Ma, L.; Yuan, P.; Song, M.T.; Zhan, W.L.; Wei, B.W. [Institute of Modern Physics (IMP), Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou, 730000 (China)

2005-03-15

175

Development of microwave ion source for industrial applications.  

PubMed

A microwave ion source is one of the long-life ion sources. In this paper, we report on the characteristics of the extracted Ar ion beam produced by a microwave ion source under various conditions, in terms of magnetic flux distribution and mass flow, and the stability of the ion beam. The measured spectra show that, under the experimental condition, almost all of produced ions were Ar(+) ions. For more than 6 h, the ion beam was stable. PMID:24593643

Takahashi, N; Murata, H; Mitsubori, H; Sakuraba, J; Soga, T; Aoki, Y; Katoh, T; Saitoh, Y; Yamada, K; Ikenaga, N; Sakudo, N

2014-02-01

176

Low temperature ion source for calutrons  

DOEpatents

A new ion source assembly for calutrons has been provided for the efficient separation of elements having high vapor pressures. The strategic location of cooling pads and improved insulation permits operation of the source at lower temperatures. A vapor valve constructed of graphite and located in a constantly increasing temperature gradient provides reliable control of the vapor flow from the charge bottle to the arc chamber. A pronounced saving in calutron operating time and equipment maintenance has been achieved with the use of the present ion source.

Veach, Allen M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Bell, Jr., William A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Howell, Jr., George D. (Clinton, TN)

1981-01-01

177

Ion Source Development at the SNS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) now routinely operates near 1 MW of beam power on target with a highly-persistent ˜38 mA peak current in the linac and an availability of ˜90%. The ˜1 ms-long, 60 Hz, ˜50 mA H- beam pulses are extracted from a Cs-enhanced, multi-cusp, RF-driven, internal-antenna ion source. An electrostatic LEBT (Low Energy Beam Transport) focuses the 65 kV beam into the RFQ accelerator. The ion source and LEBT have normally a combined availability of ˜99%. Although much progress has been made over the last years to achieve this level of availability further improvements are desirable. Failures of the internal antenna and occasionally impaired electron dump insulators require several source replacements per year. An attempt to overcome the antenna issues with an AlN external antenna source early in 2009 had to be terminated due to availability issues. This report provides a comprehensive review of the design, experimental history, status, and description of recently updated components and future plans for this ion source. The mechanical design for improved electron dump vacuum feedthroughs is also presented, which is compatible with the baseline and both external antenna ion sources.

Welton, R. F.; Desai, N. J.; Han, B. X.; Kenik, E. A.; Murray, S. N.; Pennisi, T. R.; Potter, K. G.; Lang, B. R.; Santana, M.; Stockli, M. P.

2011-09-01

178

Ion Source Development at the SNS  

SciTech Connect

The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) now routinely operates near 1 MW of beam power on target with a highly-persistent ~38 mA peak current in the linac and an availability of ~90%. The ~1 ms-long, 60 Hz, ~50 mA H- beam pulses are extracted from a Cs-enhanced, multi-cusp, RF-driven, internal-antenna ion source. An electrostatic LEBT (Low Energy Beam Transport) focuses the 65 kV beam into the RFQ accelerator. The ion source and LEBT have normally a combined availability of ~99%. Although much progress has been made over the last years to achieve this level of availability further improvements are desirable. Failures of the internal antenna and occasionally impaired electron dump insulators require several source replacements per year. An attempt to overcome the antenna issues with an AlN external antenna source early in 2009 had to be terminated due to availability issues. This report provides a comprehensive review of the design, experimental history, status, and description of recently updated components and future plans for this ion source. The mechanical design for improved electron dump vacuum feedthroughs is also presented, which is compatible with the baseline and both external antenna ion sources.

Welton, Robert F [ORNL; Desai, Nandishkumar J [ORNL; Han, Baoxi [ORNL; Kenik, Edward A [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Murray Jr, S N [ORNL; Pennisi, Terry R [ORNL; Potter, Kerry G [ORNL; Lang, Bonnie R [ORNL; Santana, Manuel [ORNL; Stockli, Martin P [ORNL

2011-01-01

179

Ion Source Development at the SNS  

SciTech Connect

The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) now routinely operates near 1 MW of beam power on target with a highly-persistent {approx}38 mA peak current in the linac and an availability of {approx}90%. The {approx}1 ms-long, 60 Hz, {approx}50 mA H{sup -} beam pulses are extracted from a Cs-enhanced, multi-cusp, RF-driven, internal-antenna ion source. An electrostatic LEBT (Low Energy Beam Transport) focuses the 65 kV beam into the RFQ accelerator. The ion source and LEBT have normally a combined availability of {approx}99%. Although much progress has been made over the last years to achieve this level of availability further improvements are desirable. Failures of the internal antenna and occasionally impaired electron dump insulators require several source replacements per year. An attempt to overcome the antenna issues with an AlN external antenna source early in 2009 had to be terminated due to availability issues. This report provides a comprehensive review of the design, experimental history, status, and description of recently updated components and future plans for this ion source. The mechanical design for improved electron dump vacuum feedthroughs is also presented, which is compatible with the baseline and both external antenna ion sources.

Welton, R. F.; Han, B. X.; Kenik, E. A.; Murray, S. N.; Pennisi, T. R.; Potter, K. G.; Lang, B. R.; Santana, M.; Stockli, M. P. [Spallation Neutron Source, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN, 37830-647 (United States); Desai, N. J. [Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Worcester, MA, 01609 (United States)

2011-09-26

180

Ion source based on the cathodic arc  

DOEpatents

A cylindrically symmetric arc source to produce a ring of ions which leave the surface of the arc target radially and are reflected by electrostatic fields present in the source to a point of use, such as a part to be coated. An array of electrically isolated rings positioned in the source serves the dual purpose of minimizing bouncing of macroparticles and providing electrical insulation to maximize the electric field gradients within the source. The source also includes a series of baffles which function as a filtering or trapping mechanism for any macroparticles.

Sanders, David M. (Livermore, CA); Falabella, Steven (Livermore, CA)

1994-01-01

181

The status of the spallation neutron source ion source  

SciTech Connect

The ion source for the spallation neutron source (SNS) is a radio-frequency, multicusp source designed to deliver 45 mA of H2 to the SNS accelerator with a pulse length of 1 ms and repetition rate of 60 Hz. A total of three ion sources have been fabricated and commissioned at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and subsequently delivered to the SNS at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The ion sources are currently being rotated between operation on the SNS accelerator, where they are involved in ongoing efforts to commission the SNS LINAC, and the hot spare stand (HSS), where high-current tests are in progress. Commissioning work involves operating the source in a low duty-factor mode (pulse width {approx}200 ms and repetition rate {approx}5 Hz) for extended periods of time while the high-current tests involve source operation at full duty-factor of 6 percent (1 ms/60 Hz). This report discusses routine performance of the source employed in the commissioning role as well as the initial results o f high-current tests performed on the HSS.

Welton, R.F.; Stockli, M.P.; Murray, S.N.; Keller, R.

2003-09-11

182

Highly Stripped Ion Sources for MeV Ion Implantation  

SciTech Connect

Original technical objectives of CRADA number PVI C-03-09 between BNL and Poole Ventura, Inc. (PVI) were to develop an intense, high charge state, ion source for MeV ion implanters. Present day high-energy ion implanters utilize low charge state (usually single charge) ion sources in combination with rf accelerators. Usually, a MV LINAC is used for acceleration of a few rnA. It is desirable to have instead an intense, high charge state ion source on a relatively low energy platform (de acceleration) to generate high-energy ion beams for implantation. This de acceleration of ions will be far more efficient (in energy utilization). The resultant implanter will be smaller in size. It will generate higher quality ion beams (with lower emittance) for fabrication of superior semiconductor products. In addition to energy and cost savings, the implanter will operate at a lower level of health risks associated with ion implantation. An additional aim of the project was to producing a product that can lead to long­ term job creation in Russia and/or in the US. R&D was conducted in two Russian Centers (one in Tomsk and Seversk, the other in Moscow) under the guidance ofPVI personnel and the BNL PI. Multiple approaches were pursued, developed, and tested at various locations with the best candidate for commercialization delivered and tested at on an implanter at the PVI client Axcelis. Technical developments were exciting: record output currents of high charge state phosphorus and antimony were achieved; a Calutron-Bemas ion source with a 70% output of boron ion current (compared to 25% in present state-of-the-art). Record steady state output currents of higher charge state phosphorous and antimony and P ions: P{sup 2+} (8.6 pmA), P{sup 3+} (1.9 pmA), and P{sup 4+} (0.12 pmA) and 16.2, 7.6, 3.3, and 2.2 pmA of Sb{sup 3+} Sb {sup 4 +}, Sb{sup 5+}, and Sb{sup 6+} respectively. Ultimate commercialization goals did not succeed (even though a number of the products like high charge state phosphorus and antimony could have resulted in a lower power consumption of 30 kW/implanter) for the following reasons (which were discovered after R&D completion): record output of high charge state phosphorous would have thermally damage wafers; record high charge state of antimony requires tool (ion implanting machine in ion implantation jargon) modification, which did not make economic sense due to the small number of users. Nevertheless, BNL has benefited from advances in high-charge state ion generation, due to high charge state ions need for RHIC preinjection. High fraction boron ion was delivered to PVI client Axcelis for retrofit and implantation testing; the source could have reduced beam preinjector power consumption by a factor of 3.5. But, since the source generated some lithium (though in miniscule amounts); last minute decision was made not to employ the source in implanters. R&D of novel transport and gasless plasmaless deceleration, as well as decaborane molecular ion source to mitigate space charge problems in low energy shallow ion implantation was also conducted though results were not yet ready for commercialization. Future work should be focused on gasless plasmaless transport and deceleration as well as on molecular ions due to their significance to low energy, shallow implantation; which is the last frontier of ion implantation. To summarize the significant accomplishments: 1. Record steady state output currents of high charge state phosphorous, P, ions in particle milli-Ampere: P{sup 2+} (8.6 pmA), P{sup 3+} (1.9 pmA), and P{sup 4+} (0.12 pmA). 2. Record steady state output currents of high charge state antimony, Sb, ions in particle milli-Ampere: Sb{sup 3+} (16.2 pmA), Sb{sup 4+} (7.6 pmA), Sb{sup 5+} (3.3 pmA), and Sb{sup 6+} (2.2 pmA). 3. 70% output of boron ion current (compared to 25% in present state-of-the-art) from a Calutron-Bemas ion source. These accomplishments have the potential of benefiting the semiconductor manufacturing industry by lowering power consumption by as much as 30 kW per ion implanter. Major problem w

Hershcovitch, Ady

2009-06-30

183

Ion Source Development at the SNS  

SciTech Connect

The US Spallation Neutron Source* (SNS) has recently begun producing neutrons and is currently on track to becoming a world-leading facility for materials science based on neutron scattering. The facility is comprised of an H- ion source, a linear accelerator, an accumulator ring, a liquid-Hg target and a suite of neutron scattering instruments. Over the next several years the average H- current from the ion source will be increased in order to meet the baseline facility requirement of providing 1.4 MW of beam-power to the target and the SNS power upgrade power requirement of 2+ MW on target. Meeting the latter goal will require H- currents of 70-100 mA with an RMS emittance of 0.20-0.35 mm mrad and a ~7% duty-factor. To date, the RF-driven multicusp SNS ion source has only been able to demonstrate sustained operation at 33 mA of beam current at a ~7% duty-factor. This report details our efforts to develop variations of the current ion source which can meet the final requirements: designs and experimental results are presented for source versions featuring helicon plasma generators, high-power external antennas employing Cs, glow-discharge plasma guns supplying supplemental electrons and advanced Cs collars.

Welton, Robert F [ORNL] [ORNL; Stockli, Martin P [ORNL] [ORNL; Murray Jr, S N [ORNL] [ORNL; Carr, Jr, Jerry [ORNL; Carmichael, Justin R [ORNL] [ORNL; Goulding, Richard Howell [ORNL] [ORNL; Baity Jr, F Wallace [ORNL] [ORNL

2006-01-01

184

4th Generation ECR Ion Sources  

SciTech Connect

The concepts and technical challenges related to developing a 4th generation ECR ion source with an RF frequency greater than 40 GHz and magnetic confinement fields greater than twice Becr will be explored in this paper. Based on the semi-empirical frequency scaling of ECR plasma density with the square of operating frequency, there should be significant gains in performance over current 3rd generation ECR ion sources, which operate at RF frequencies between 20 and 30 GHz. While the 3rd generation ECR ion sources use NbTi superconducting solenoid and sextupole coils, the new sources will need to use different superconducting materials such as Nb3Sn to reach the required magnetic confinement, which scales linearly with RF frequency. Additional technical challenges include increased bremsstrahlung production, which may increase faster than the plasma density, bremsstrahlung heating of the cold mass and the availability of high power continuous wave microwave sources at these frequencies. With each generation of ECR ion sources, there are new challenges to be mastered, but the potential for higher performance and reduced cost of the associated accelerator continue to make this a promising avenue for development.

Lyneis, Claude M.; Leitner, D.; Todd, D.S.; Sabbi, G.; Prestemon, S.; Caspi, S.; Ferracin, P.

2008-12-01

185

Ion Source Development at the SNS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The US Spallation Neutron Source* (SNS) has recently begun producing neutrons and is currently on track to becoming a world-leading facility for material science based on neutron scattering. The facility is comprised of an H^- ion source, a linear accelerator, an accumulator ring and a liquid-Hg target. Over the next several years the average H^- current from the ion source will be increased in order to meet the baseline facility requirement of 1.4 MW of beam-on-target power and the SNS power upgrade power requirement of 2+ MW. Meeting these goals will require H^- currents of 40-80 mA with an RMS emittance of 0.25-0.35 ? mm mrad and a ˜7% duty-factor. To date, the RF-driven multicusp SNS ion source has only been able to demonstrate sustained operation at 33 mA of beam current at a ˜7% duty-factor. This report details our efforts to develop variations of the current ion source which can meet these requirements: designs and experimental results are presented for source variations featuring helicon plasma generators, high-power external antennas employing Cs, glow-dischage plasma guns supplying supplemental electrons and advanced Cs collars.

Welton, Robert; Stockli, Martin; Murray, Syd; Goulding, Rick; Carr, Jerry; Carmichael, Justine

2006-10-01

186

Pulsed source ion implantation apparatus and method  

DOEpatents

A new pulsed plasma-immersion ion-implantation apparatus that implants ions in large irregularly shaped objects to controllable depth without overheating the target, minimizing voltage breakdown, and using a constant electrical bias applied to the target. Instead of pulsing the voltage applied to the target, the plasma source, for example a tungsten filament or a RF antenna, is pulsed. Both electrically conducting and insulating targets can be implanted. 16 figs.

Leung, K.N.

1996-09-24

187

Pulsed source ion implantation apparatus and method  

DOEpatents

A new pulsed plasma-immersion ion-implantation apparatus that implants ions in large irregularly shaped objects to controllable depth without overheating the target, minimizing voltage breakdown, and using a constant electrical bias applied to the target. Instead of pulsing the voltage applied to the target, the plasma source, for example a tungsten filament or a RF antenna, is pulsed. Both electrically conducting and insulating targets can be implanted.

Leung, Ka-Ngo (Hercules, CA)

1996-01-01

188

Focused Ion beam source method and Apparatus  

SciTech Connect

A focused ion beam having a cross section of submicron diameter, a high ion current, and a narrow energy range is generated from a target comprised of particle source material by laser ablation. The method involves directing a laser beam having a cross section of critical diameter onto the target, producing a cloud of laser ablated particles having unique characteristics, and extracting and focusing a charged particle beam from the laser ablated cloud. The method is especially suited for producing focused ion beams for semiconductor device analysis and modification.

Pellin, Michael J.; Lykke, Keith R.; Lill, Thorsten B.

1998-08-17

189

Ion plating with an induction heating source  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Induction heating is introduced as an evaporation heat source in ion plating. A bare induction coil without shielding can be directly used in the glow discharge region with no arcing. The only requirement is to utilize an rf inductive generator with low operating frequency of 75 kHz. Mechanical simplicity of the ion plating apparatus and ease of operation is a great asset for industrial applications; practically any metal such as nickel, iron, and the high temperature refractories can be evaporated and ion plated.

Spalvins, T.; Brainard, W. A.

1976-01-01

190

ECR ion source with electron gun  

DOEpatents

An Advanced Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source (10) having an electron gun (52) for introducing electrons into the plasma chamber (18) of the ion source (10). The ion source (10) has a injection enclosure (12) and a plasma chamber tank (14). The plasma chamber (18) is defined by a plurality of longitudinal magnets (16). The electron gun (52) injects electrons axially into the plasma chamber (18) such that ionization within the plasma chamber (18) occurs in the presence of the additional electrons produced by the electron gun (52). The electron gun (52) has a cathode (116) for emitting electrons therefrom which is heated by current supplied from an AC power supply (96) while bias potential is provided by a bias power supply (118). A concentric inner conductor (60) and Outer conductor (62) carry heating current to a carbon chuck (104) and carbon pusher (114) Which hold the cathode (116) in place and also heat the cathode (16). In the Advanced Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source (10), the electron gun (52) replaces the conventional first stage used in prior art electron cyclotron resonance ion generators.

Xie, Zu Q. (El Cerrito, CA); Lyneis, Claude M. (Berkeley, CA)

1993-01-01

191

rf improvements for Spallation Neutron Source H-ion source  

SciTech Connect

The Spallation Neutron Source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is ramping up the accelerated proton beam power to 1.4 MW and just reached 1 MW. The rf-driven multicusp ion source that originates from the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has been delivering 38 mA H beam in the linac at 60 Hz, 0.9 ms. To improve availability, a rf-driven external antenna multicusp ion source with a water-cooled ceramic aluminum nitride AlN plasma chamber is developed. Computer modeling and simulations have been made to analyze and optimize the rf performance of the new ion source. Operational statistics and test runs with up to 56 mA medium energy beam transport beam current identify the 2 MHz rf system as a limiting factor in the system availability and beam production. Plasma ignition system is under development by using a separate 13 MHz system. To improve the availability of the rf power system with easier maintenance, we tested a 70 kV isolation transformer for the 80 kW, 6% duty cycle 2 MHz amplifier to power the ion source from a grounded solid-state amplifier. 2010 American Institute of Physics.

Kang, Yoon W [ORNL; Fuja, Raymond E [ORNL; Goulding, Richard Howell [ORNL; Hardek, Thomas W [ORNL; Lee, Sung-Woo [ORNL; McCarthy, Mike [ORNL; Piller, Chip [ORNL; Shin, Ki [ORNL; Stockli, Martin P [ORNL; Welton, Robert F [ORNL

2010-01-01

192

Negative ion source with low temperature transverse divergence optical system  

DOEpatents

A negative ion source is provided which has extremely low transverse divergence as a result of a unique ion focusing system in which the focal line of an ion beam emanating from an elongated, concave converter surface is outside of the ion exit slit of the source and the path of the exiting ions. The beam source operates with a minimum ion temperature which makes possible a sharply focused (extremely low transverse divergence) ribbon like negative ion beam.

Whealton, J.H.; Stirling, W.L.

1985-03-04

193

Negative ion source with low temperature transverse divergence optical system  

DOEpatents

A negative ion source is provided which has extremely low transverse divergence as a result of a unique ion focusing system in which the focal line of an ion beam emanating from an elongated, concave converter surface is outside of the ion exit slit of the source and the path of the exiting ions. The beam source operates with a minimum ion temperature which makes possible a sharply focused (extremely low transverse divergence) ribbon like negative ion beam.

Whealton, John H. (Oak Ridge, TN); Stirling, William L. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1986-01-01

194

Decaborane beam from ITEP Bernas ion source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A joint research and development program is under way to develop steady-state intense ion sources for the two energy extremes of MeV and hundreds of eV. The difficulties of extraction and transportation of low-energy boron beams are investigated using a decaborane compound [I. Yamada, W. L. Brown, J. A. Northby, and M. Sosnowski, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 79, 223 (1993)]. Presented here are the results from ITEP experiments using the Bernas ion source with an indirectly heated LaB6 cathode.

Kulevoy, T. V.; Petrenko, S. V.; Kuibeda, R. P.; Batalin, V. A.; Pershin, V. I.; Koslov, A. V.; Stasevich, Yu. B.; Hershcovitch, A.; Johnson, B. M.; Oks, E. M.; Gushenets, V. I.; Poole, H. J.; Storozhenko, P. A.; Gurkova, E. L.; Alexeyenko, O. V.

2006-03-01

195

Decaborane beam from ITEP Bernas ion source  

SciTech Connect

A joint research and development program is under way to develop steady-state intense ion sources for the two energy extremes of MeV and hundreds of eV. The difficulties of extraction and transportation of low-energy boron beams are investigated using a decaborane compound [I. Yamada, W. L. Brown, J. A. Northby, and M. Sosnowski, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 79, 223 (1993)]. Presented here are the results from ITEP experiments using the Bernas ion source with an indirectly heated LaB{sub 6} cathode.

Kulevoy, T.V.; Petrenko, S.V.; Kuibeda, R.P.; Batalin, V.A.; Pershin, V.I.; Koslov, A.V.; Stasevich, Yu.B.; Hershcovitch, A.; Johnson, B.M.; Oks, E.M.; Gushenets, V.I.; Poole, H.J.; Storozhenko, P.A.; Gurkova, E.L.; Alexeyenko, O.V. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow 117218 (Russian Federation); Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); High Current Electronics Institute Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation); PVI, Oxnard, California 93031-5023 (United States); State Research Institute for Chemistry and Technology of Organoelements Compounds, Shosse Entuziastov 38, Moscow 111123 (Russian Federation)

2006-03-15

196

Ion Source Development at the SNS  

SciTech Connect

The US Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) has recently begun producing neutrons and is currently on track to becoming a world-leading facility for material science based on neutron scattering. The facility is comprised of an H- ion source, a linear accelerator, an accumulator ring, a liquid-Hg target and a suite of neutron scattering instruments. Over the next several years the average H- current from the ion source will be increased in order to meet the baseline facility requirement of providing 1.4 MW of beam-power to the target and the SNS power upgrade power requirement of 2+ MW on target. Meeting the latter goal will require H- currents of 70-100 mA with an RMS emittance of 0.20-0.35 {pi} mm mrad and a {approx}7% duty-factor. To date, the RF-driven-multicusp SNS ion source has only been able to demonstrate sustained operation at 33 mA of beam current at a {approx}7% duty-factor. This report details our efforts to develop variations of the current ion source which can meet these requirements. Designs and experimental results are presented for helicon plasma drivers, high-power external antennas, glow-discharge plasma guns and advanced Cs systems.

Welton, R. F.; Stockli, M. P.; Murray, S. N.; Carr, J.; Carmichael, J. [SNS, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Goulding, R. H.; Baity, F. W. [Fusion Energy Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

2007-08-10

197

Ion Source Development at the SNS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The US Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) has recently begun producing neutrons and is currently on track to becoming a world-leading facility for material science based on neutron scattering. The facility is comprised of an H- ion source, a linear accelerator, an accumulator ring, a liquid-Hg target and a suite of neutron scattering instruments. Over the next several years the average H- current from the ion source will be increased in order to meet the baseline facility requirement of providing 1.4 MW of beam-power to the target and the SNS power upgrade power requirement of 2+ MW on target. Meeting the latter goal will require H- currents of 70-100 mA with an RMS emittance of 0.20-0.35 ? mm mrad and a ˜7% duty-factor. To date, the RF-driven-multicusp SNS ion source has only been able to demonstrate sustained operation at 33 mA of beam current at a ˜7% duty-factor. This report details our efforts to develop variations of the current ion source which can meet these requirements. Designs and experimental results are presented for helicon plasma drivers, high-power external antennas, glow-discharge plasma guns and advanced Cs systems.

Welton, R. F.; Stockli, M. P.; Murray, S. N.; Carr, J.; Carmichael, J.; Goulding, R. H.; Baity, F. W.

2007-08-01

198

Plasma ion sources and ion beam technology inmicrofabrications  

SciTech Connect

For over decades, focused ion beam (FIB) has been playing a very important role in microscale technology and research, among which, semiconductor microfabrication is one of its biggest application area. As the dimensions of IC devices are scaled down, it has shown the need for new ion beam tools and new approaches to the fabrication of small-scale devices. In the meanwhile, nanotechnology has also deeply involved in material science research and bioresearch in recent years. The conventional FIB systems which utilize liquid gallium ion sources to achieve nanometer scale resolution can no longer meet the various requirements raised from such a wide application area such as low contamination, high throughput and so on. The drive towards controlling materials properties at nanometer length scales relies on the availability of efficient tools. In this thesis, three novel ion beam tools have been developed and investigated as the alternatives for the conventional FIB systems in some particular applications. An integrated focused ion beam (FIB) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) system has been developed for direct doping or surface modification. This new instrument employs a mini-RF driven plasma source to generate focused ion beam with various ion species, a FEI two-lens electron (2LE) column for SEM imaging, and a five-axis manipulator system for sample positioning. An all-electrostatic two-lens column has been designed to focus the ion beam extracted from the source. Based on the Munro ion optics simulation, beam spot sizes as small as 100 nm can be achieved at beam energies between 5 to 35 keV if a 5 {micro}m-diameter extraction aperture is used. Smaller beam spot sizes can be obtained with smaller apertures at sacrifice of some beam current. The FEI 2LE column, which utilizes Schottky emission, electrostatic focusing optics, and stacked-disk column construction, can provide high-resolution (as small as 20 nm) imaging capability, with fairly long working distance (25 mm) at 25 keV beam voltage. Such an integrated FIB/SEM dual-beam system will not only improve the accuracy and reproducibility when performing ion beam sculpting and direct implantation processes, but will also enable researchers to perform cross-sectioning, imaging, and analysis with the same tool. A major advantage of this approach is the ability to produce a wide variety of ion species tailored to the application.

Ji, Lili

2007-09-01

199

Ionospheric sources for molecular ion outflow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mass-resolved satellite observations have established the presence of molecular ions in the low-altitude magnetosphere, outer magnetosphere, and ring current. Associated molecular outflows originate from the auroral zone F-region ionosphere and, while normally several orders of magnitude less intense than the well-known O+ outflow, are perhaps more closely tied to intense geomagnetic disturbances. Molecular outflow is also fundamentally different from O+ outflow, since molecular ions must first be generated in large quantities in the F-region, and then are subject to very short recombination lifetimes as they escape. Owing to observational difficulties, very little detailed information exists on the generation, energization, and upward transport of molecular ions. Furthermore, the basic geographic and geomagnetic activity dependence of the ionospheric source and higher altitude outflow are only loosely constrained. This research synthesizes both observations and models to gain a better understanding of molecular ion generation and upflow, and the basic characteristics of the ionospheric molecular source during geomagnetic storms. To illustrate ionospheric dynamics associated with published satellite observations of molecular upflow, a 2D ionospheric model is driven by boundary conditions consistent with observed field-aligned currents. These simulations provide detailed information about expected species-dependent ion densities, temperatures, fluxes, and associated transients. Similar model results are also compared against PFISR radar estimates of molecular ions generated by auroral arc activity. A detailed case study of the 24-25 Sept. 1998 geomagnetic storm is presented in which the EISCAT ESR and Tromso radars suggested enhancements in F-region molecular ions and Polar satellite simultaneously observed moleculars in the magnetosphere. Finally, data from Sondrestrom and EISCAT radars during multiple storms are combined in an attempt to build a statistical picture of the latitude and magnetic local time dependence of the ionospheric molecular source. Connections of this source with satellite observations of molecular outflow are also discussed.

Zettergren, M. D.; Peterson, W. K.; Blelly, P. F.; Alcayde, D.; Semeter, J. L.

2012-12-01

200

RF H- Ion Source with Saddle Antenna  

SciTech Connect

In this project we are developing an RF H- surface plasma source (SPS) which will synthesize the most important developments in the field of negative ion sources to provide high pulsed and average current, higher brightness, longer lifetime and higher reliability by improving a power efficiency. Several versions of new plasma generators with different antennas and magnetic field configurations were tested in a small AlN test chamber in the SNS ion source Test Stand. Then a prototype saddle antenna was installed in the Test Stand with a larger, normal-sized SNS AlN chamber that achieved a peak current of 67 mA and an apparent efficiency of 1.6 mA/kW. These values are comparable to those of the present SNS sources and can be expected to be improved when the prototype is developed into an operational version in the next phase of the project.

Dudnikov, Vadim G [ORNL; Johnson, Rolland P [ORNL; Murray Jr, S N [ORNL; Pennisi, Terry R [ORNL; Santana, Manuel [ORNL; Stockli, Martin P [ORNL; Welton, Robert F [ORNL

2010-01-01

201

Adhesion and wear properties of TiN films deposited on martensitic stainless steel and Stellite by reactive magnetron sputter ion plating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

TiN films were deposited onto the turbine blade materials, AISI 403 martensitic stainless steel and Stellite 6B, using reactive magnetron sputter ion plating. The hardness of the TiN film increases with the residual compressive stress and has a maximum value of 3400 kg/mm 2 at the substrate bias of about -75 V. In the scratch adhesion test, the critical loads for cohesive failure and adhesive failure are sensitively governed by the film hardness. The wear rate decreases with increasing hardness and has a minimum value at about -75 V. The ion plated TiN has a superior wear resistance than the bare Stellite 6B and AISI 403 martensitic stainless steel.

Lee, Min Ku; Kim, Whung Whoe; Kim, Joung Soo; Lee, Won Jong

1998-03-01

202

Ion source development at RTNS-II  

SciTech Connect

Results are reported for an ongoing effort to optimize D/sup +/ beam production by the MATS-III ion source used at RTNS-II. The characteristics of the source have been determined. Particular attention was paid to the extraction geometry and plasma production. The plasma spatial and temporal uniformity has been examined. The seven aperture triode geometry has been varied to optimize neutron production. This includes beamlet steering and electrode gapping as well as aperture shaping. 4 references, 4 figures.

Massoletti, D.; Heikkinen, D.W.

1984-09-26

203

Ion source choices - an h- source for the high intensity neutrino source  

SciTech Connect

The High Intensity Neutrino Source (HINS) program at Fermilab (formerly the Proton Driver) aims to develop a multi-mission linear accelerator (LINAC) capable of accelerate H{sup -} ions to 8 GeV. This paper touches on the ion source requirements for the HINS and discusses long pulse length testing of three ion sources which appear to have the capability of meeting these requirements.

Moehs, Douglas P.; /Fermilab; Welton, Robert F.; /SNS Project, Oak Ridge; Stockli, Martin P.; Peters, Jens; /DESY; Alessi, James; /Brookhaven

2006-08-01

204

Secondary electron ion source neutron generator  

DOEpatents

A neutron generator employing an electron emitter, an ion source bombarded by the electrons from the electron emitter, a plasma containment zone, and a target situated between the plasma containment zone and the electron emitter. The target contains occluded deuterium, tritium, or a mixture thereof

Brainard, John P. (Albuquerque, NM); McCollister, Daryl R. (Albuquerque, NM)

1998-01-01

205

Thyratron modulators in plasma source ion implantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plasma source ion implantation (PSII) is an emerging technology which can be used to harden metal surfaces in a conformal manner. North Star Research Corp. (NSRC) is building a unique implanter system for Empire Hard Chrome which will be the first truly commercial implanter of this type. The choice of pulsed power technology for this application is important from the

R. J. Adler; J. Scheuer; W. Horne

1995-01-01

206

Ion Sources for Deep and Shallow Ion Implantation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Various ions, but mostly B, P, Sb, & As, are implanted, over a wide range of energies into materials used in the construction of semiconductors. These energies range from as low as 100 eV for shallow surface implantations, to as high as multi-MeV for deep implantation into the substrate. State of the art ion sources meet industry needs for the energy range of 10 keV to 300 keV. But at the two extremes (100's of eV and at multi-MeV), there is room for improvement due to space charge limitations at the low energy range and due to inefficiency in acceleration at the higher energy range. A joint R&D effort focusing on meeting industry needs has been in progress for the past four years. This endeavor has resulted in record steady state output currents of higher charge state Antimony and Phosphorous ions as well as Decaborane molecular ions. This talk is a synopsis of an extensive ion source R&D program designed to address industry needs.

Hershcovitch, Ady; Batalin, V.; Bugaev, A.; Gushenets, V.; Johnson, B.; Kolomiets, A.; Kropachev, G.; Kuibeda, R.; Kulevoy, T.; Litovko, I.; Masunov, E.; Oks, E.; Pershin, V.; Petrenko, S.; Polozov, S.; Poole, H.; Rudskoy, I.; Seleznev, D.; Storozhenko, P.; Svarovski, A.; Yushkov, G.

2008-03-01

207

Survey of ion plating sources. [conferences  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Based on the type of evaporation source, gaseous media and mode of transport, the following is discussed: resistance, electron beam, sputtering, reactive and ion beam evaporation. Ionization efficiencies and ion energies in the glow discharge determine the percentage of atoms which are ionized under typical ion plating conditions. The plating flux consists of a small number of energetic ions and a large number of energetic neutrals. The energy distribution ranges from thermal energies up to a maximum energy of the discharge. The various reaction mechanisms which contribute to the exceptionally strong adherence - formation of a graded sustrate/coating interface are not fully understood, however the controlling factors are evaluated. The influence of process variables on the nucleation and growth characteristics are illustrated in terms of morphological changes which affect the mechanical and tribological properties of the coating.

Spalvins, T.

1979-01-01

208

The correlation between the radial distribution of high-energetic ions and the structural as well as electrical properties of magnetron sputtered ZnO:Al films  

SciTech Connect

The origin of the pronounced radial distributions of structural and electrical properties of magnetron sputtered ZnO:Al films has been investigated. The film properties were correlated with the radially resolved ion-distribution functions. While the positive ions exhibit low energies and a radial distribution with a maximum intensity opposite the center of the target, the negative ions can have energies up to several hundred eV, depending on the target potential, with a radial distribution with two maxima opposite the erosion tracks. The most prominent positive ion is that of the working gas (Ar{sup +}), while the highest flux of the negative ions is measured for negative oxygen O{sup ?}. The radial distribution of the flux of the high-energetic negative ions can clearly be related to the radial variations of the structural (c-axis lattice parameter, crystallite size) and electronic (resistivity) properties for sputtering from the planar target, which points to the decisive role of the high-energetic negative oxygen ions for the film quality. The relation between the negative ion bombardment and the structural as well as electronic properties can be explained by a qualitative model recently developed by us. The same target has also been investigated in the eroded state. In this case, the limited acceptance angle of the mass spectrometer leads to a misinterpretation of the radial distribution of the flux of the high-energetic negative ions. This effect can be explained by a simulation, based on the assumption that the high-energetic negative ions are mainly accelerated in the cathode (target) sheath perpendicular to the uneven substrate surface.

Bikowski, André; Welzel, Thomas; Ellmer, Klaus [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Institute for Solar Fuels, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, D-14109 Berlin (Germany)] [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Institute for Solar Fuels, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, D-14109 Berlin (Germany)

2013-12-14

209

The correlation between the radial distribution of high-energetic ions and the structural as well as electrical properties of magnetron sputtered ZnO:Al films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The origin of the pronounced radial distributions of structural and electrical properties of magnetron sputtered ZnO:Al films has been investigated. The film properties were correlated with the radially resolved ion-distribution functions. While the positive ions exhibit low energies and a radial distribution with a maximum intensity opposite the center of the target, the negative ions can have energies up to several hundred eV, depending on the target potential, with a radial distribution with two maxima opposite the erosion tracks. The most prominent positive ion is that of the working gas (Ar+), while the highest flux of the negative ions is measured for negative oxygen O-. The radial distribution of the flux of the high-energetic negative ions can clearly be related to the radial variations of the structural (c-axis lattice parameter, crystallite size) and electronic (resistivity) properties for sputtering from the planar target, which points to the decisive role of the high-energetic negative oxygen ions for the film quality. The relation between the negative ion bombardment and the structural as well as electronic properties can be explained by a qualitative model recently developed by us. The same target has also been investigated in the eroded state. In this case, the limited acceptance angle of the mass spectrometer leads to a misinterpretation of the radial distribution of the flux of the high-energetic negative ions. This effect can be explained by a simulation, based on the assumption that the high-energetic negative ions are mainly accelerated in the cathode (target) sheath perpendicular to the uneven substrate surface.

Bikowski, André; Welzel, Thomas; Ellmer, Klaus

2013-12-01

210

SNS Saddle Antenna H- Ion Source Project  

SciTech Connect

In this project we are developing an H- source, which will synthesize the most important developments in the field of negative ion sources to provide high current, high brightness, good lifetime, high reliability, and high power efficiency. We describe two planned modifications to the present SNS external antenna source in order to increase the plasma density near the output aperture: 1) replacing the present 2 MHz plasma-forming solenoid antenna with a 60 MHz saddle-type antenna and 2) replacing the permanent multicusp magnetic system with a weaker electro-magnet.

Dudnikov, Vadim [Muons, Inc.; Johnson, Rolland P. [Muons, Inc.; Dudnikova, Galina [University of Maryland; Stockli, Martin P [ORNL; Welton, Robert F [ORNL

2009-01-01

211

The SNS External Antenna H- Ion Source  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is an accelerator-based, pulsed neutron-scattering facility, currently in the process of ramping up neutron production. In order to insure that we will meet our operational commitments as well as provide for future facility upgrades with high reliability, we have developed an RF-driven, H- ion source based on a ceramic aluminum nitride (AlN) plasma chamber [1]. This source is expected to be utilized by the SNS for neutron production starting in 2009. This report details the design of the production source which features an AlN plasma chamber, 2-layer external antenna, cooled-multicusp magnet array, Cs2CrO4 cesium system and a Molybdenum plasma ignition gun. Performance of the production source both on the SNS accelerator and SNS test stand is reported. The source has also been designed to accommodate an elemental Cs system with an external reservoir which has demonstrated unanalyzed beam currents up to ~100mA (60Hz, 1ms) on the SNS ion source test stand.

Welton, Robert F [ORNL] [ORNL; Stockli, Martin P [ORNL] [ORNL; Murray Jr, S N [ORNL] [ORNL; Crisp, Danny W [ORNL] [ORNL; Carmichael, Justin R [ORNL] [ORNL; Goulding, Richard Howell [ORNL] [ORNL; Han, Baoxi [ORNL] [ORNL; Pennisi, Terry R [ORNL] [ORNL; Santana, Manuel [ORNL] [ORNL

2010-01-01

212

Growth of fullerene-like carbon nitride thin solid films by reactive magnetron sputtering; role of low-energy ion irradiation in determining microstructure and mechanical properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fullerene-like (FL) carbon nitride (CNx) films were deposited on Si (100) substrates by dc reactive, unbalanced, magnetron sputtering in a N2/Ar mixture from a high-purity pyrolythic graphite cathode in a dual-magnetron system with coupled magnetic fields. The N2 fraction in the discharge gas (0%-100%) and substrate bias (-25 V; -40 V) was varied, while the total pressure (0.4 Pa) and substrate temperature (450 °C) was kept constant. The coupled configuration of the magnetrons resulted in a reduced ion flux density, leading to a much lower average energy per incorporated particle, due to a less focused plasma as compared to a single magnetron. This enabled the evolution of a pronounced FL microstructure. The nitrogen concentration in the films saturated rapidly at 14-18 at. %, as determined by elastic recoil analysis, with a minor dependence on the discharge conditions. No correlations were detected between the photoelectron N1s core level spectra and the different microstructures, as observed by high-resolution electron microscopy. A variety of distinct FL structures were obtained, ranging from structures with elongated and aligned nitrogen-containing graphitic sheets to disordered structures, however, not exclusively linked to the total N concentration in the films. The microstructure evolution has rather to be seen as in equilibrium between the two competing processes of adsorption and desorption of nitrogen-containing species at the substrate. This balance is shifted by the energy and number of arriving species as well as by the substrate temperature. The most exceptional structure, for lower N2 fractions, consists of well-aligned, multi-layered circular features (nano-onions) with an inner diameter of approximately 0.7 nm and successive shells at a distance of ˜0.35 nm up to a diameter of 5 nm. It is shown that the intrinsic stress formation is closely linked with the evolution and accommodation of the heavily bent fullerene-like sheets. The FL CNx structures define the mechanical response of the films as revealed by nano-indentation. The material is highly elastic and fracture tough, and has reasonable hardness and elastic modulus values. On a nano-structured level, it is inferred the CNx stores deformation energy elastically by compression of the interplanar lattice spacing and buckling of the sheets, while crosslinks between sheets prevent gliding. Increasing the bias voltage from -25 to -40 V multiplies hardness and modulus values, while keeping their high ratio of up to 0.2, due to a higher degree of cross-linking.

Neidhardt, J.; Czigány, Zs.; Brunell, I. F.; Hultman, L.

2003-03-01

213

Characterization of an iodine-based ionic liquid ion source and studies on ion fragmentation  

E-print Network

Electrosprays are a well studied source of charged droplets and ions. A specific subclass is the ionic liquid ion source (ILIS), which produce ion beams from the electrostatically stressed meniscus of ionic liquids. ILIS ...

Fedkiw, Timothy Peter

2010-01-01

214

rf-driven ion sources for industrial applications (invited) (abstract)  

SciTech Connect

The Plasma and Ion Source Technology Group at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory have been developing rf-driven ion sources for the last two decades. These sources are being used to generate both positive and negative ion beams. Some of these sources are operating in particle accelerators such as the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge, while others are being employed in various industrial ion beam systems. There are four areas where the rf-driven ion sources are commonly used in industry. (1) In semiconductor manufacturing, rf-driven sources have found important applications in plasma etching, ion beam implantation, and ion beam lithography. (2) In material analysis and surface modification, miniature rf-ion sources can be found in focused ion beam systems. They can provide ion beams of essentially any element in the Periodic Table. The newly developed combined rf ion-electron beam unit improves greatly the performance of the secondary ion mass spectrometry tool. (3) For neutron production, rf ion source is a major component of compact, high flux D-D, D-T, or T-T neutron generators. These neutron sources are now being employed in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) as well as in neutron imaging and material interrogation. (4) Large area rf-driven ion source will be used in an industrial design neutral beam diagnostic system for probing fusion plasmas. Such sources can be easily scaled to provide large ion beam current for future fusion reactor applications.

Leung, Ka-Ngo [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and Nuclear Engineering Department, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

2008-02-15

215

Chromium plating pollution source reduction by plasma source ion implantation  

SciTech Connect

There is growing concern over the environmental toxicity and workers` health issues due to the chemical baths and rinse water used in the hard chromium plating process. In this regard the significant hardening response of chromium to nitrogen ion implantation can be environmentally beneficial from the standpoint of decreasing the thickness and the frequency of application of chromium plating. In this paper the results of a study of nitrogen ion implantation of chrome plated test flats using the non-line-of-sight Plasma Source Ion Implantation (PSII) process, are discussed. Surface characterization was performed using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES), and Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (ESCA). The surface properties were evaluated using a microhardness tester, a pin-on-disk wear tester, and a corrosion measurement system. Industrial field testing of nitrogen PSII treated chromium plated parts showed an improvement by a factor of two compared to the unimplanted case.

Chen, A.; Sridharan, K.; Dodd, R.A.; Conrad, J.R. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Qiu, X.; Hamdi, A.H.; Elmoursi, A.A.; Malaczynski, G.W. [General Motors Research Labs., Warren, MI (United States); Horne, W.G. [Empire Hard Chrome, Chicago, IL (United States)

1995-12-31

216

Compact microwave ion source for industrial applications  

SciTech Connect

A 2.45 GHz microwave ion source for ion implanters has many good properties for industrial application, such as easy maintenance and long lifetime, and it should be compact for budget and space. But, it has a dc current supply for the solenoid and a rf generator for plasma generation. Usually, they are located on high voltage platform because they are electrically connected with beam extraction power supply. Using permanent magnet solenoid and multi-layer dc break, high voltage deck and high voltage isolation transformer can be eliminated, and the dose rate on targets can be controlled by pulse duty control with semiconductor high voltage switch. Because the beam optics does not change, beam transfer components, such as focusing elements and beam shutter, can be eliminated. It has shown the good performances in budget and space for industrial applications of ion beams.

Cho, Yong-Sub; Kim, Dae-Il; Kim, Han-Sung; Seol, Kyung-Tae; Kwon, Hyeok-Jung; Hong, In-Seok [Proton Engineering Frontier Project, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

2012-02-15

217

Ion source antenna development for the Spallation Neutron Source  

Microsoft Academic Search

The operational lifetime of a radio-frequency (rf) ion source is generally governed by the length of time the insulating structure protecting the antenna survives during exposure to the plasma. Coating the antenna with a thin layer of insulating material is a common means of extending the life of such antennas. When low-power\\/low-duty factor rf excitation is employed, antenna lifetimes of

R. F. Welton; M. P. Stockli; Y. Kang; M. Janney; R. Keller; R. W. Thomae; T. Schenkel; S. Shukla

2002-01-01

218

Miniature induction oven for ion sources optimisation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The space and power limitation frequently arising when inserting ovens into ion sources lead us to explore alternatives to the direct current ohmic heating. An induction oven has the following advantages over a resistance one: a) the current in the induction coil is lower; b) heating may be concentrated on the sample surface by choosing the right value of the frequency and the total power is limited; c) there is no contact between the heating coil and the heated sample; in fact a boron nitride crucible separates the sample from the coil. A tantalum enclosure minimizes EMI and coupling to the plasma. The technological and optimisation problems due to the limited size are discussed. In perspective, these devices may heat a broad range of elements up to 2000 K extending application of any ion volume sources.

Cavenago, M.; Moisio, M. F.

1996-02-01

219

Characteristics of multi-element (ZrTaNbTiW)N films prepared by magnetron sputtering and plasma based ion implantation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multi-element (ZrTaNbTiW)N films are prepared by multi-target magnetron sputtering deposition and nitrogen plasma based ion implantation (PBII). The composition, structure and mechanical properties of the films are investigated. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) confirms the formation of a mixture of ZrN, TiN, TaN, Nb-N, ZrO2, Ta, Nb and W in the nitride film. X-ray diffraction (XRD) shows that the (ZrTaNbTiW) alloy film exhibits an amorphous phase, while the (ZrTaNbTiW)N nitride films are composed of BCC and FCC structures. The hardness and modulus of the films are improved significantly after nitrogen PBII and reach maximum values of 13.5 and 178.9 GPa, respectively.

Feng, Xingguo; Tang, Guangze; Ma, Xinxin; Sun, Mingren; Wang, Liqin

2013-04-01

220

Proton emission from a laser ion source.  

PubMed

At intensities of the order of 10(10) W?cm(2), ns pulsed lasers can be employed to ablate solid bulk targets in order to produce high emission of ions at different charge state and kinetic energy. A special interest is devoted to the production of protons with controllable energy and current from a roto-translating target irradiated in repetition rate at 1-10 Hz by a Nd:Yag pulsed laser beam. Different hydrogenated targets based on polymers and hydrates were irradiated in high vacuum. Special nanostrucutres can be embedded in the polymers in order to modify the laser absorption properties and the amount of protons to be accelerated in the plasma. For example, carbon nanotubes may increase the laser absorption and the hydrogen absorption to generate high proton yields from the plasma. Metallic nanostrucutres may increase the electron density of the plasma and the kinetic energy of the accelerated protons. Ion collectors, ion energy analyzer, and mass spectrometers, used in time-of-flight configuration, were employed to characterize the ion beam properties. A comparison with traditional proton ion source is presented and discussed. PMID:22380289

Torrisi, L; Cavallaro, S; Cutroneo, M; Margarone, D; Gammino, S

2012-02-01

221

Proton emission from a laser ion source  

SciTech Connect

At intensities of the order of 10{sup 10} W/cm{sup 2}, ns pulsed lasers can be employed to ablate solid bulk targets in order to produce high emission of ions at different charge state and kinetic energy. A special interest is devoted to the production of protons with controllable energy and current from a roto-translating target irradiated in repetition rate at 1-10 Hz by a Nd:Yag pulsed laser beam. Different hydrogenated targets based on polymers and hydrates were irradiated in high vacuum. Special nanostrucutres can be embedded in the polymers in order to modify the laser absorption properties and the amount of protons to be accelerated in the plasma. For example, carbon nanotubes may increase the laser absorption and the hydrogen absorption to generate high proton yields from the plasma. Metallic nanostrucutres may increase the electron density of the plasma and the kinetic energy of the accelerated protons. Ion collectors, ion energy analyzer, and mass spectrometers, used in time-of-flight configuration, were employed to characterize the ion beam properties. A comparison with traditional proton ion source is presented and discussed.

Torrisi, L. [INFN-LNS Via S. Sofia 44, 95123 Catania (Italy); Dip.to di Fisica, Universita di Messina, V.le F.S. D'Alcontres 31, 98166 S. Agata, Messina (Italy); Cavallaro, S.; Gammino, S. [INFN-LNS Via S. Sofia 44, 95123 Catania (Italy); Cutroneo, M. [Dip.to di Fisica, Universita di Messina, V.le F.S. D'Alcontres 31, 98166 S. Agata, Messina (Italy); Margarone, D. [Institute of Physics, ASCR, v.v.i., 182 21 Prague 8 (Czech Republic)

2012-02-15

222

HIGH-INTENSITY, HIGH CHARGE-STATE HEAVY ION SOURCES  

SciTech Connect

There are many accelerator applications for high intensity heavy ion sources, with recent needs including dc beams for RIA, and pulsed beams for injection into synchrotrons such as RHIC and LHC. The present status of sources producing high currents of high charge state heavy ions is reviewed. These sources include ECR, EBIS, and Laser ion sources. Benefits and limitations for these type sources are described. Possible future improvements in these sources are also mentioned.

ALESSI,J.G.

2004-08-16

223

Measurements of sputtered neutrals and ions and investigation of their roles on the plasma properties during rf magnetron sputtering of Zn and ZnO targets  

SciTech Connect

Langmuir probe and optical absorption spectroscopy measurements were used to determine the line-integrated electron density, electron temperature, and number density of Ar atoms in metastable {sup 3}P{sub 2} and {sup 3}P{sub 0} levels in a 5 mTorr, rf magnetron sputtering plasmas used for the deposition of ZnO-based thin films. While the average electron energy and density of Ar atoms in {sup 3}P{sub 2} and {sup 3}P{sub 0} excited states were fairly independent of self-bias voltage, the Ar {sup 3}P{sub 2}-to-electron number density ratio decreased by approximately a factor of 5 when going from ?115 V to ?300 V. This decrease was correlated to an increase by about one order of magnitude of the number density of sputtered Zn atoms determined by absolute actinometry measurements on Zn I using either Ar or Xe as the actinometer gas. These results were also found to be in excellent agreement with the predictions of a global model accounting for Penning ionization of sputtered Zn particles. The importance of the latter reactions was further confirmed by plasma sampling mass spectrometry showing a double peak structure for Zn ions: a low-energy component ascribed to thermalized ions created in the gas phase (by direct electron impact and by Penning ionization) and a high-energy tail due to ions ejected from the target and reaching quasi-collisionlessly the substrate surface.

Maaloul, L.; Stafford, L. [Département de Physique, Université de Montréal, Montréal, Québec H3C 3J7 (Canada)] [Département de Physique, Université de Montréal, Montréal, Québec H3C 3J7 (Canada)

2013-11-15

224

Electron cyclotron resonance ion sources in use for heavy ion cancer therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources for producing ion beams for heavy ion cancer therapy has been established for more than ten years. After the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator (HIMAC) at Chiba, Japan started therapy of patients with carbon ions in 1994 the first carbon ion beam for patient treatment at the accelerator facility of GSI was

K. Tinschert; R. Iannucci; R. Lang

2008-01-01

225

Development of a high current H- ion source for cyclotrons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A multi-cusp DC H- ion source has been designed and fabricated for medical applications of cyclotrons. Optimization of the ion source is in progress, such as the improvement of the filament configuration, magnetic filter strength, extraction electrode's shape, configuration of electron suppression magnets, and plasma electrode material. A small quantity of Cs has been introduced into the ion source to enhance the negative ion beam current. The ion source produced 16 mA of DC H- ion beam with the Cs-seeded operation at a low arc discharge power of 2.8 kW.

Etoh, H.; Aoki, Y.; Mitsubori, H.; Arakawa, Y.; Mitsumoto, T.; Yajima, S.; Sakuraba, J.; Kato, T.; Okumura, Y.

2014-02-01

226

Application of ECR ion source beams in atomic physics  

SciTech Connect

The availability of intense, high charge state ion beams from ECR ion sources has had significant impact not only on the upgrading of cyclotron and synchrotron facilities, but also on multicharged ion collision research, as evidenced by the increasing number of ECR source facilities used at least on a part time basis for atomic physics research. In this paper one such facility, located at the ORNL ECR source, and dedicated full time to the study of multicharged ion collisions, is described. Examples of applications of ECR ion source beams are given, based on multicharged ion collision physics studies performed at Oak Ridge over the last few years. 21 refs., 18 figs., 2 tabs.

Meyer, F.W.

1987-01-01

227

Development of a high current H(-) ion source for cyclotrons.  

PubMed

A multi-cusp DC H(-) ion source has been designed and fabricated for medical applications of cyclotrons. Optimization of the ion source is in progress, such as the improvement of the filament configuration, magnetic filter strength, extraction electrode's shape, configuration of electron suppression magnets, and plasma electrode material. A small quantity of Cs has been introduced into the ion source to enhance the negative ion beam current. The ion source produced 16 mA of DC H(-) ion beam with the Cs-seeded operation at a low arc discharge power of 2.8 kW. PMID:24593547

Etoh, H; Aoki, Y; Mitsubori, H; Arakawa, Y; Mitsumoto, T; Yajima, S; Sakuraba, J; Kato, T; Okumura, Y

2014-02-01

228

Practical experience in extending the ion source and injection system H--ion source duty cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ion source and injection system H- Penning surface-plasma source is currently being developed on the ion source development rig at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory in order to meet the requirements for the next generation of high-power proton drivers. Finite element modeling has been used previously to study the effect of increasing the duty cycle. The main requirement to allow increased duty cycles is improved cooling. By simply reducing the thickness of a sheet of mica to improve thermal conductance to the cooling system, duty cycles of 1.5ms at 50Hz can be achieved. Slight increase in hydrogen flow rate is required as the duty cycle is increased. As the duty cycle is increased the output current reduces, however, there is no change in beam emittance. The source cooling system is described and the heat flows within the source are discussed.

Faircloth, D. C.; Whitehead, M. O.; Wood, T.

2006-03-01

229

Ion source with improved primary arc collimation  

DOEpatents

An improved negative ion source is provided in which a self-biasing, molybdenum collimator is used to define the primary electron stream arc discharge from a filament operated at a negative potential. The collimator is located between the anode and the filament. It is electrically connected to the anode by means of an appropriate size resistor such that the collimator is biased at essentially the filament voltage during operation. Initially, the full arc voltage appears across the filament to collimator until the arc discharge strikes. Then the collimator biases itself to essentially filament potential due to current flow through the resistor thus defining the primary electron stream without intercepting any appreciable arc power. The collimator aperture is slightly smaller than the anode aperture to shield the anode from the arc power, thereby preventing the exposure of the anode to the full arc power which, in the past, has caused overheating and erosion of the anode collimator during extended time pulsed-beam operation of the source. With the self-biasing collimator of this invention, the ion source may be operated from short pulse periods to steady-state without destroying the anode.

Dagenhart, William K. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1985-01-01

230

High current short pulse ion sources  

SciTech Connect

High current short pulse ion beams can be generated by using a multicusp source. This is accomplished by switching the arc or the RF induction discharge on and off. An alternative approach is to maintain a continuous plasma discharge and extraction voltage but control the plasma flow into the extraction aperture by a combination of magnetic and electric fields. Short beam pulses can be obtained by using a fast electronic switch and a dc bias power supply. It is also demonstrated that very short beam pulses ({approximately} 10 {micro}s) with high repetition rate can be formed by a laser-driven LaB{sub 6} or barium photo-cathode.

Leung, K.N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Accelerator and Fusion Research Div.

1996-08-01

231

Photoionization of Multiply Charged Ions at the Advanced Light Source  

SciTech Connect

Photoionization of multiply charged ions is studied using the merged-beams technique at the Advanced Light Source. An ion beam is created using a compact 10-GHz all-permanent-magnet ECR ion source and is accelerated with a small accelerator. The ion beam is merged with a photon beam from an undulator to allow interaction over an extended path. Absolute photoionization cross sections have been measured for a variety of ions along both isoelectronic and isonuclear sequences.

Schlachter, A.S.; Kilcoyne, A.L.D. [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley CA 94720 (United States); Aguilar, A.; Gharaibeh, M.F.; Emmons, E.D.; Scully, S.W.J.; Phaneuf, R.A. [Department of Physics, MS 220, University of Nevada, Reno NV 89557 (United States); Mueller, A.; Schippers, S. [Institut fuer Atom- und Molekuelphysik, Justus-Liebig-Universitaet, 35392 Giessen (Germany); Alvarez, I.; Cisneros, C.; Hinojosa, G. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Cuernavaca (Mexico); McLaughlin, B.M. [Queen's University Belfast, BT71NN (United Kingdom)

2005-03-15

232

A PLASMA GUN DRIVER FOR THE SNS ION SOURCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The original ion source developed for the Spallation Neutron Source* (SNS) was an RF-driven, multi-cusp source based on an internal antenna (plasma - immersed) and designed to produce ~ 40 mA of H - with a ~7% duty- factor. To date, the ion source has demonstrated very reliable operation during commissioning of the SNS accelerator and early operations at low

R. F. Welton; M. P. Stockli; S. N. Murray; J. Carr; J. R. Carmichael

233

A hollow cathode ion source for production of primary ions for the BNL electron beam ion source  

SciTech Connect

A hollow cathode ion source, based on one developed at Saclay, has been modified significantly and used for several years to produce all primary 1+ ions injected into the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) at Brookhaven. Currents of tens to hundreds of microamperes have been produced for 1+ ions of He, C, O, Ne, Si, Ar, Ti, Fe, Cu, Kr, Xe, Ta, Au, and U. The source is very simple, relying on a glow discharge using a noble gas, between anode and a solid cathode containing the desired species. Ions of both the working gas and ionized sputtered cathode material are extracted, and then the desired species is selected using an ExB filter before being transported into the EBIS trap for charge breeding. The source operates pulsed with long life and excellent stability for most species. Reliable ignition of the discharge at low gas pressure is facilitated by the use of capacitive coupling from a simple toy plasma globe. The source design, and operating experience for the various species, is presented.

Alessi, James, E-mail: alessi@bnl.gov; Beebe, Edward; Carlson, Charles; McCafferty, Daniel; Pikin, Alexander; Ritter, John [Collider-Accelerator Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States)] [Collider-Accelerator Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States)

2014-02-15

234

A hollow cathode ion source for production of primary ions for the BNL electron beam ion source.  

PubMed

A hollow cathode ion source, based on one developed at Saclay, has been modified significantly and used for several years to produce all primary 1+ ions injected into the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) at Brookhaven. Currents of tens to hundreds of microamperes have been produced for 1+ ions of He, C, O, Ne, Si, Ar, Ti, Fe, Cu, Kr, Xe, Ta, Au, and U. The source is very simple, relying on a glow discharge using a noble gas, between anode and a solid cathode containing the desired species. Ions of both the working gas and ionized sputtered cathode material are extracted, and then the desired species is selected using an ExB filter before being transported into the EBIS trap for charge breeding. The source operates pulsed with long life and excellent stability for most species. Reliable ignition of the discharge at low gas pressure is facilitated by the use of capacitive coupling from a simple toy plasma globe. The source design, and operating experience for the various species, is presented. PMID:24593637

Alessi, James; Beebe, Edward; Carlson, Charles; McCafferty, Daniel; Pikin, Alexander; Ritter, John

2014-02-01

235

Progress of resonant ionization laser ion source development at GANIL  

SciTech Connect

SPIRAL2 (Système de Production d’Ions Radioactifs Accélérés en Ligne) is a research facility under construction at GANIL (Grand Accélérateur National d’Ions Lourds) for the production of radioactive ion beams by isotope separation on-line methods and low-energy in-flight techniques. A resonant ionization laser ion source will be one of the main techniques to produce the radioactive ion beams. GISELE (GANIL Ion Source using Electron Laser Excitation) is a test bench developed to study a fully operational laser ion source available for Day 1 operations at SPIRAL2 Phase 2. The aim of this project is to find the best technical solution which combines high selectivity and ionization efficiency with small ion beam emittance and stable long term operation. Latest results about the new ion source geometry will be presented.

Henares, J. L., E-mail: henares@ganil.fr; Huguet, Y.; Lecesne, N.; Leroy, R.; Osmond, B.; Sjödin, A. M. [GANIL, BP 55027, 14076 Caen Cedex 5 (France)] [GANIL, BP 55027, 14076 Caen Cedex 5 (France); Kron, T.; Schneider, F.; Wendt, K. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Staudinger Weg 7, 55099 Mainz (Germany)] [Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Staudinger Weg 7, 55099 Mainz (Germany)

2014-02-15

236

Progress of resonant ionization laser ion source development at GANIL.  

PubMed

SPIRAL2 (Système de Production d'Ions Radioactifs Accélérés en Ligne) is a research facility under construction at GANIL (Grand Accélérateur National d'Ions Lourds) for the production of radioactive ion beams by isotope separation on-line methods and low-energy in-flight techniques. A resonant ionization laser ion source will be one of the main techniques to produce the radioactive ion beams. GISELE (GANIL Ion Source using Electron Laser Excitation) is a test bench developed to study a fully operational laser ion source available for Day 1 operations at SPIRAL2 Phase 2. The aim of this project is to find the best technical solution which combines high selectivity and ionization efficiency with small ion beam emittance and stable long term operation. Latest results about the new ion source geometry will be presented. PMID:24593619

Henares, J L; Huguet, Y; Kron, T; Lecesne, N; Leroy, R; Osmond, B; Schneider, F; Sjödin, A M; Wendt, K

2014-02-01

237

THE INSTALLATION OF A SPUTTER CONE ION SOURCE FOR THE PRODUCTION OF TRITIUM ION BEAMS  

E-print Network

of an energetic alkali vapour beam [1] made the possibility of generating negative ion beams of radioactive1445 THE INSTALLATION OF A SPUTTER CONE ION SOURCE FOR THE PRODUCTION OF TRITIUM ION BEAMS of a radioactive material in an ion source within the environment of a nuclear physics laboratory. The precautions

Boyer, Edmond

238

Lithium ion sources for investigations of fast ion transport in magnetized plasmas  

E-print Network

Lithium ion sources for investigations of fast ion transport in magnetized plasmas Y. Zhang,a H 10 January 2007 In order to study the interaction of ions of intermediate energies with plasma fluctuations, two plasma immersible lithium ion sources, based on solid-state thermionic emitters Li

Heidbrink, William W.

239

Use of ion sources for nonsemiconductor surface modification (plenary)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At RIKEN, studies have been made on surface modification of metals, ceramics, and polymers using ion implantation in order to improve surface properties of various materials. For fundamental studies of surface modification, about 60 kinds of ions have been used as implanted elements, using rf-type, Nielsen-type, and hollow cathode-type ion sources. The Nielsen-type ion source has been the most useful for obtaining various ion species by modification to the evaporation oven and by selection of the source material. High current beams of some kinds of ions were obtained using Freeman-type or microwave-type ion sources. Ion beam modification with nonmass analyzed ions was investigated for practicable use of ion implantation. In this article, these ion sources are described, and their utilization in a variety of applications is reviewed. The improvement of the lifetime of tools by nitrogen implantation is introduced as a topic in the fields of nonsemiconductor materials, and several points for expansion of the field are emphasized. As a successful example in Japan, the dynamic mixing used in industry is introduced and ion sources are shown to be one of the technologically important factors. Plasma based ion implantation is compared with traditional surface finishing. Finally, the fabrication of small vascular grafts controlling cell adhesion is introduced as the applications of ion beams to biomedical materials.

Iwaki, Masaya

2002-02-01

240

Simulation of H- ion source extraction systems for the Spallation Neutron Source with Ion Beam Simulator.  

PubMed

A three-dimensional ion optical code IBSimu, which is being developed at the University of Jyva?skyla?, features positive and negative ion plasma extraction models and self-consistent space charge calculation. The code has been utilized for modeling the existing extraction system of the H(-) ion source of the Spallation Neutron Source. Simulation results are in good agreement with experimental data. A high-current extraction system with downstream electron dumping at intermediate energy has been designed. According to the simulations it provides lower emittance compared to the baseline system at H(-) currents exceeding 40 mA. A magnetic low energy beam transport section consisting of two solenoids has been designed to transport the beam from the alternative electrostatic extraction systems to the radio frequency quadrupole. PMID:22380214

Kalvas, T; Welton, R F; Tarvainen, O; Han, B X; Stockli, M P

2012-02-01

241

RF Ion Source-Driven IEC Design and Operation  

SciTech Connect

The next step needed to achieve higher neutron yields and improved neutron production efficiency with Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) sources requires operation with an external ion source so that the reaction chamber pressure is controlled separately for the source pressure. This paper presents recent progress in IEC research at the UIUC using a unique external ion source ILLIBS (Illinois Ion Beam Source). When filled with deuterium, the IEC provides {approx}10{sup 8} 2.5-MeV D-D fusion neutrons/sec at steady-state. The design and operation of a radiofrequency (RF) ion gun designed for this purpose is also discussed.

Miley, G.H.; Yang, Y.; Webber, J.; Shaban, Y.; Momota, H. [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign (United States)

2005-05-15

242

Emission source functions in heavy ion collisions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three-dimensional pion and kaon emission source functions are extracted from hydrokinetic model (HKM) simulations of central Au+Au collisions at the top Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) energy sNN=200 GeV. The model describes well the experimental data, previously obtained by the PHENIX and STAR collaborations using the imaging technique. In particular, the HKM reproduces the non-Gaussian heavy tails of the source function in the pair transverse momentum (out) and beam (long) directions, observed in the pion case and practically absent for kaons. The role of rescatterings and long-lived resonance decays in forming the mentioned long-range tails is investigated. The particle rescattering contribution to the out tail seems to be dominating. The model calculations also show substantial relative emission times between pions (with mean value 13 fm/c in the longitudinally comoving system), including those coming from resonance decays and rescatterings. A prediction is made for the source functions in Large Hadron Collider (LHC) Pb+Pb collisions at sNN=2.76 TeV, which are still not extracted from the measured correlation functions.

Shapoval, V. M.; Sinyukov, Yu. M.; Karpenko, Iu. A.

2013-12-01

243

Laser ion source for Columbia University’s microbeam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A laser ion source that will be installed on the new High Voltage Engineering (HVE) 5 MV Singletron accelerator at the Columbia University Radiological Research Accelerator Facility (RARAF) will expand the linear energy transfer (LET) range available for irradiation experiments with mammalian cells. Through laser ablation the laser ion source can produce heavy ions with high charge states from a solid target; after acceleration, these ions will have sufficient energy to irradiate cells on a thin surface at atmospheric pressure. A high-power 100 Hz pulsed Nd:YAG laser used with the laser ion source has produced aluminum ions with charge states greater than nine. Proper power management issues are important in obtaining the high charge states while protecting sensitive laser optics. We expect that the laser ion source will enable us to use ions from hydrogen to iron, providing an LET range of about 10-4500 keV/?m for cell targets.

Bigelow, A. W.; Randers-Pehrson, G.; Kelly, R. P.; Brenner, D. J.

2005-12-01

244

Photoionization of multiply charged ions at the advanced light source  

SciTech Connect

Photoionization of multiply charged ions is studied using the merged-beams technique at the Advanced Light Source. Absolute photoionization cross sections have been measured for a variety of ions along both isoelectronic and isonuclear sequences.

Schlachter, A.S.; Kilcoyne, A.L.D.; Aguilar, A.; Gharaibeh, M.F.; Emmons, E.D.; Scully, S.W.J.; Phaneuf, R.A.; Muller, A.; Schippers, S.; Alvarez, I.; Cisneros, C.; Hinojosa, G.; McLaughlin, B.M.

2004-10-07

245

Proposed laser ion source for the Columbia University microbeam  

E-print Network

at atmospheric pressure. The laser ion source being implemented at RARAF consists of three main components: a high-power 100 Hz Nd:YAG laser, a source vacuum chamber and a 24° spherical electrostatic analyzer reserved. PACS: 41.75.Ak; 41.85.Ne; 52.38.Mf; 79.20.Ds Keywords: Laser ion source; Spherical electrostatic

246

Mode Switching in Rela1vis1c Magnetrons and Hysteresis  

E-print Network

/ONR*) is Interested in High Power Microwave (HPM) Sources · A6 Magnetron with Radial ExtracD (AFOSR/ONR*) is Interested in High Power Microwave (HPM) Sources · A6 Magnetron Power Microwave (HPM) Sources · A6 Magnetron with Radial Extrac/on ­ Transparent

Shyy, Wei

247

Transport line for beam generated by ITEP Bernas ion source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A joint research and development program is underway to investigate beam transport systems for intense steady-state ion sources for ion implanters. Two energy extremes of MeV and hundreds of eV are investigated using a modified Bernas ion source with an indirectly heated cathode. Results are presented for simulations of electrostatic systems performed to investigate the transportation of ion beams over a wide mass range: boron to decaborane.

Petrenko, S. V.; Kropachev, G. N.; Kuibeda, R. P.; Kulevoy, T. V.; Pershin, V. I.; Masunov, E. S.; Polozov, S. M.; Hershcovitch, A.; Johnson, B. M.; Poole, H. J.

2006-03-01

248

Transport line for beam generated by ITEP Bernas ion source  

SciTech Connect

A joint research and development program is underway to investigate beam transport systems for intense steady-state ion sources for ion implanters. Two energy extremes of MeV and hundreds of eV are investigated using a modified Bernas ion source with an indirectly heated cathode. Results are presented for simulations of electrostatic systems performed to investigate the transportation of ion beams over a wide mass range: boron to decaborane.

Petrenko, S.V.; Kropachev, G.N.; Kuibeda, R.P.; Kulevoy, T.V.; Pershin, V.I.; Masunov, E.S.; Polozov, S.M.; Hershcovitch, A.; Johnson, B.M.; Poole, H.J. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow 117218 (Russian Federation); Moscow Engineering Physics Institute, Kashirskoe Shosse 31, Moscow 115409 (Russian Federation); Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); PVI, Oxnard, California 93031-5023 (United States)

2006-03-15

249

Carborane beam from ITEP Bernas ion source for semiconductor implanters.  

PubMed

A joint research and development of steady state intense boron ion sources for hundreds of electron-volt ion implanters has been in progress for the past 5 years. The difficulties of extraction and transportation of low energy boron beams can be solved by implanting clusters of boron atoms. In Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP) the Bernas ion source successfully generated the beam of decaborane ions. The carborane (C(2)B(10)H(12)) ion beam is more attractive material due to its better thermal stability. The results of carborane ion beam generation are presented. The result of the beam implantation into the silicon wafer is presented as well. PMID:20192467

Seleznev, D; Kropachev, G; Kozlov, A; Kuibeda, R; Koshelev, V; Kulevoy, T; Hershcovitch, A; Jonson, B; Poole, J; Alexeyenko, O; Gurkova, E; Oks, E; Gushenets, V; Polozov, S; Masunov, E

2010-02-01

250

Carborane beam from ITEP Bernas ion source for semiconductor implantersa)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A joint research and development of steady state intense boron ion sources for hundreds of electron-volt ion implanters has been in progress for the past 5 years. The difficulties of extraction and transportation of low energy boron beams can be solved by implanting clusters of boron atoms. In Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP) the Bernas ion source successfully generated the beam of decaborane ions. The carborane (C2B10H12) ion beam is more attractive material due to its better thermal stability. The results of carborane ion beam generation are presented. The result of the beam implantation into the silicon wafer is presented as well.

Seleznev, D.; Kropachev, G.; Kozlov, A.; Kuibeda, R.; Koshelev, V.; Kulevoy, T.; Hershcovitch, A.; Jonson, B.; Poole, J.; Alexeyenko, O.; Gurkova, E.; Oks, E.; Gushenets, V.; Polozov, S.; Masunov, E.

2010-02-01

251

Properties of NiAl and Ni-Al-N thin films deposited by closed field unbalanced magnetron sputter ion plating using elemental Ni and Al targets.  

PubMed

Approximately 1 microm thick NiAl and Ni-Al-N thin films have been deposited from individual elemental Ni (99.5% pure) and Al (99.5% pure) targets onto glass and stainless steel 316 substrates using closed field unbalanced magnetron sputter ion platting (CFUBMSIP) process. The films have been characterized using stylus profilometry, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDAX), X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The X-ray diffraction patterns of both types of thin films produced confirmed the formation of beta-NiAl phase. The EDAX results revealed that all of the NiAl thin films produced exhibited the near equiatomic NiAl phase with the best results given by the one deposited using 300 Watts DC power for Ni and 400 Watts DC power for Al targets respectively. However, the Ni-Al-N thin films showed a Ni-rich NiAl phase. AFM results of both types of films produced carried out on glass samples exhibited that the coatings have quite a smooth surface with surface roughness in nanometres range. PMID:19916405

Baig, M N; Ahmed, W; Khalid, F A; Said, R M; McLaughlin, J

2009-07-01

252

Double-layer ion acceleration triggered by ion magnetization in expanding radiofrequency plasma sources  

SciTech Connect

Ion energy distribution functions downstream of the source exit in magnetically expanding low-pressure plasmas are experimentally investigated for four source tube diameters ranging from about 5 to 15 cm. The magnetic-field threshold corresponding to a transition from a simple expanding plasma to a double layer-containing plasma is observed to increase with a decrease in the source tube diameter. The results demonstrate that for the four geometries, the double layer and the accelerated ion beam form when the ion Larmour radius in the source becomes smaller than the source tube radius, i.e., when the ions become magnetized in the source tube.

Takahashi, Kazunori [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Iwate University, Morioka 020-8551 (Japan); Space Plasma, Power and Propulsion Group, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra 0200 (Australia); Charles, Christine; Boswell, Rod W. [Space Plasma, Power and Propulsion Group, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra 0200 (Australia); Fujiwara, Tamiya [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Iwate University, Morioka 020-8551 (Japan)

2010-10-04

253

An all permanent magnet electron cyclotron resonance ion source for heavy ion therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high charge state all permanent Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source, Lanzhou All Permanent ECR ion source no. 3-LAPECR3, has been successfully built at IMP in 2012, which will serve as the ion injector of the Heavy Ion Medical Machine (HIMM) project. As a commercial device, LAPECR3 features a compact structure, small size, and low cost. According to HIMM scenario more than 100 e?A of C5+ ion beam should be extracted from the ion source, and the beam emittance better than 75 ?*mm*mrad. In recent commissioning, about 120 e?A of C5+ ion beam was got when work gas was CH4 while about 262 e?A of C5+ ion beam was obtained when work gas was C2H2 gas. The design and construction of the ion source and its low-energy transportation beam line, and the preliminary commissioning results will be presented in detail in this paper.

Cao, Yun; Li, Jia Qing; Sun, Liang Ting; Zhang, Xue Zhen; Feng, Yu Cheng; Wang, Hui; Ma, Bao Hua; Li, Xi Xia

2014-02-01

254

Very Large Scale Plasma Source Ion Implantation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plasma Source Ion Implantation (PSII) is a technology in the process of being commercialized for the surface enhancement of industrial components.( Plasma-Based Processing of Materials for Motor Vehicle Components and Manufacturing Applications, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Advanced Technology Program, Focused Program 95-02) The process is based on the utilization of plasma sheath characteristics to accelerate and implant ions (in pulses ranging from ~ 1 ?sec to a few 10s of ?sec) into target surfaces which can be complex, composed of multiple individual components, and potentially have very large surface areas. The implanted ions (typically nitrogen, carbon, oxygen, or other species readily produced from gaseous precursors) modify the target surface characteristics to depths of ~ 1000 Åthrough the formation of hard nitrides, carbides, etc. which can have significantly better wear and corrosion properties than the base target material. PSII is capable of achieving surface property enhancements which are comparable to those obtained through more conventional beam line implantation, but with significant improvements in process time and cost for large, complex targets.(C.P. Munson, et al., Surface and Coatings Technology 84 (1996) 528-536.) Plasma, plasma sheath, and secondary electron interactions become critically important for applications involving implantation into three dimensional target assemblies composed of large numbers of individual components. In these cases, interaction of the plasma sheaths from different portions of the target assembly and interaction of the energetic secondary electrons with the plasma and background neutral gas can dramatically alter the ambient plasma conditions. The highly energetic (>= 20 keV) secondary electrons can approach densities which are 10% of the background plasma (ne ~ 1-5 × 10^8/cm^3, Te ~ 2-5 eV), leading to highly non-Maxwellian velocity distributions and accompanying plasma instabilities. Langmuir probe measurements from within such an assembly are being compared to particle-in-cell simulations of the plasma behavior during the implantation process. Results of the experimental measurements and comparison to the numerical simulations will be presented.

Munson, Carter P.

1997-11-01

255

An ion source module for the Beijing Radioactive Ion-beam Facility  

SciTech Connect

An ion source module is developed for Beijing Radioactive Ion-beam Facility. The ion source module is designed to meet the requirements of remote handling. The connection and disconnection of the electricity, cooling and vacuum between the module and peripheral units can be executed without on-site manual work. The primary test of the target ion source has been carried out and a Li{sup +} beam has been extracted. Details of the ion source module and its primary test results are described.

Cui, B., E-mail: cui@ciae.ac.cn; Huang, Q.; Tang, B.; Ma, R.; Chen, L.; Ma, Y. [China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing (China)] [China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing (China)

2014-02-15

256

Ion source for tests of ion behavior in the Karlsruhe tritium neutrino experiment beam line  

SciTech Connect

An electron-impact ion source based on photoelectron emission was developed for ionization of gases at pressures below 10{sup -4} mbar in an axial magnetic field in the order of 5 T. The ion source applies only dc fields, which makes it suitable for use in the presence of equipment sensitive to radio-frequency (RF) fields. The ion source was successfully tested under varying conditions regarding pressure, magnetic field, and magnetic-field gradient, and the results were studied with the help of simulations. The processes in the ion source are well understood, and possibilities for further optimization of generated ion currents are clarified.

Lukic, S.; Bornschein, B.; Drexlin, G.; Glueck, F.; Kazachenko, O.; Zoll, M. C. R. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany); Schoeppner, M.; Weinheimer, Ch. [University of Muenster, Muenster (Germany)

2011-01-15

257

Novel Ion Traps for Enhanced Fluorescence Collections and Single Photon Sources Based on Barium Ions  

E-print Network

Novel Ion Traps for Enhanced Fluorescence Collections and Single Photon Sources Based on Barium Ions Gang Shu A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Washington Abstract Novel Ion Traps for Enhanced Fluorescence Collections and Single Photon Sources Based

Blinov, Boris

258

Development of the compact electron cyclotron resonance ion source for heavy-ion therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon-ion cancer treatment is successfully being made at the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC). Design philosophy for the ion sources for medical facilities are as follows: (1) sufficient beam intensity, a few hundred e muA (2) long lifetime with good stability; (3) easy operation and easy maintenance; and (4) compactness. In order to develop such source for future

M. Muramatsu; A. Kitagawa; S. Sato; Y. Sato; S. Yamada; T. Hattori; S. Shibuya

2000-01-01

259

Development and testing of a lithium ion source and injector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the development and testing of an intense lithium ion source and injector for an ion induction accelerator designed for warm, dense matter target heating experiments. The source is a 10.9-cm diameter aluminosilicate emitter on a porous tungsten substrate. For an injector voltage pulse of 120 kV, pulse duration of 1.0-?s FWHM, and an operating temperature of 1250°C, the source emits 35 mA of Li+ ions. The results follow experimental studies with much smaller sources. The key challenges included beam quality, source lifetime, and heat management.

Seidl, P. A.; Greenway, W. W.; Grote, D. P.; Jung, J.-Y.; Kwan, J. W.; Lidia, S. M.; Roy, P. K.; Takakuwa, J.; Vay, J.-L.; Waldron, W. L.

2012-04-01

260

Negative ion source development for fusion application (invited).  

PubMed

Giant negative ion sources, producing high-current of several tens amps with high energy of several hundreds keV to 1 MeV, are required for a neutral beam injector (NBI) in a fusion device. The giant negative ion sources are cesium-seeded plasma sources, in which the negative ions are produced on the cesium-covered surface. Their characteristic features are discussed with the views of large-volume plasma production, large-area beam acceleration, and high-voltage dc holding. The international thermonuclear experimental reactor NBI employs a 1 MeV-40 A of deuterium negative ion source, and intensive development programs for the rf-driven source plasma production and the multistage electrostatic acceleration are in progress, including the long pulse operation for 3600 s. Present status of the development, as well as the achievements of the giant negative ion sources in the working injectors, is also summarized. PMID:20192420

Takeiri, Yasuhiko

2010-02-01

261

High-efficiency target-ion sources for RIB generation  

SciTech Connect

A brief review is given of high-efficiency ion sources which have been developed or are under development at ISOL facilities which show particular promise for use at existing, future, or radioactive ion beam (RIB) facilities now under construction. Emphasis will be placed on those sources which have demonstrated high ionization efficiency, species versatility, and operational reliability and which have been carefully designed for safe handling in the high level radioactivity radiation fields incumbent at such facilities. Brief discussions will also be made of the fundamental processes which affect the realizable beam intensities in target-ion sources. Among the sources which will be reviewed will be selected examples of state-of-the-art electron-beam plasma-type ion sources, thermal-ionization, surface-ionization, ECR, and selectively chosen ion source concepts which show promise for radioactive ion beam generation. A few advanced, chemically selective target-ion sources will be described, such as sources based on the use of laser-resonance ionization, which, in principle, offer a more satisfactory solution to isobaric contamination problems than conventional electromagnetic techniques. Particular attention will be given to the sources which have been selected for initial or future use at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility now under construction at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

Alton, G.D.

1993-12-31

262

Development and status of the SNS ion source  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ion source for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is a radio-frequency, multicusp source designed to deliver 45 mA of H - with a normalized rms emittance of less than 0.2 ? mm mrad to the SNS accelerator. The ion source— designed, constructed, and commissioned at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)—satisfies the basic requirements of commissioning and early operation of

R. F. Welton; M. P. Stockli; S. N. Murray; R. Keller

2003-01-01

263

Experimental performance of a microwave cavity plasma disk ion source  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The detailed description and performance characteristics of a microwave ion source are presented. This ion source utilizes an internally tuned, single-mode (or selective multimode) cylindrical cavity applicator to focus and match microwave energy into a disk-shaped discharge zone. The combination of mode focus control and variable, internal cavity matching allows the efficient operation and beam extraction over a wide range of pressures, powers and gaseous inputs. Experimental measurements of ion beam current versus accelerating voltage and input microwave power in xenon and oxygen gas are presented. Ion source specific energy and mass utilization versus experimental variables are also determined. The experimental performance demonstrates the ability of this ion source to extract an ion beam with a well matched, stable, and continuous operation over a wide range of input gases, low pressures, and over input gas flow rates in excess of 100 to a few sccm. Double Langmuir probe measurements in xenon gas indicate high degrees of ionization, and electron and ion concentrations in excess of 100 critical densities in the microwave discharge zone. This ion source has many potential uses such as spacecraft electric propulsion, material ion beam processing, and neutral beam ion sources.

Root, J.; Asmussen, J.

1985-01-01

264

Magnetic field ion mitigation for EUV light sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fast ions from laser-produced EUV plasma are expected to significantly damage the collector mirror, which is located near the plasma in a EUV light source. Ion sputtering of the multilayer structure may be the main damage mechanism but layer boundary mixing and surface roughness increase are also observed from a Xe plasma exposure experiment. The magnetic field ion mitigation technology

Hiroshi Komori; Yousuke Imai; Georg Soumagne; Tamotsu Abe; Takashi Suganuma; Akira Endo

2005-01-01

265

New tandem type ion source based on electron cyclotron resonance for universal source of synthesized ion beams  

SciTech Connect

A new tandem type source has been constructed on the basis of electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma for producing synthesized ion beams. We investigate feasibility and hope to realize the device which has wide range operation window in a single device to produce many kinds of ion beams based on ECR ion source (ECRIS). It is considered that ECR plasmas are necessary to be available to individual operations with different plasma parameters. Both of analysis of ion beams and investigation of plasma parameters are conducted on produced plasmas. We describe construction of the new tandem type ion source based on ECRIS with wide operation window for aiming at producing synthesized ion beams as this new source can be a universal source.

Kato, Yushi, E-mail: kato@eei.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp; Kurisu, Yosuke; Nozaki, Dai; Yano, Keisuke; Kimura, Daiju; Kumakura, Sho; Imai, Youta; Nishiokada, Takuya; Sato, Fuminobu; Iida, Toshiyuki [Division of Electrical, Electronic and Information Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita-shi, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)] [Division of Electrical, Electronic and Information Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita-shi, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

2014-02-15

266

Low energy spread ion source with a coaxial magnetic filter  

DOEpatents

Multicusp ion sources are capable of producing ions with low axial energy spread which are necessary in applications such as ion projection lithography (IPL) and radioactive ion beam production. The addition of a radially extending magnetic filter consisting of a pair of permanent magnets to the multicusp source reduces the energy spread considerably due to the improvement in the uniformity of the axial plasma potential distribution in the discharge region. A coaxial multicusp ion source designed to further reduce the energy spread utilizes a cylindrical magnetic filter to achieve a more uniform axial plasma potential distribution. The coaxial magnetic filter divides the source chamber into an outer annular discharge region in which the plasma is produced and a coaxial inner ion extraction region into which the ions radially diffuse but from which ionizing electrons are excluded. The energy spread in the coaxial source has been measured to be 0.6 eV. Unlike other ion sources, the coaxial source has the capability of adjusting the radial plasma potential distribution and therefore the transverse ion temperature (or beam emittance).

Leung, Ka-Ngo (Hercules, CA); Lee, Yung-Hee Yvette (Berkeley, CA)

2000-01-01

267

Characterization of an 8-cm Diameter Ion Source System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of tests characterizing an 8-cm diameter ion source are presented. The tests were conducted in three separate vacuum test facilities at the University of Alabama-Huntsville, Colorado State University, and L3 Communications' ETI division. Standard ion optics tests describing electron backstreaming and total-voltage-limited impingement current behavior as a function of beam current were used as guidelines for selecting operating conditions where more detailed ion beam measurements were performed. The ion beam was profiled using an in-vacuum actuating probe system to determine the total ion current density and the ion charge state distribution variation across the face of the ion source. Both current density and ExB probes were utilized. The ion current density data were used to obtain integrated beam current, beam flatness parameters, and general beam profile shapes. The ExB probe data were used to determine the ratio of doubly to singly charged ion current. The ion beam profile tests were performed at over six different operating points that spanned the expected operating range of the DAWN thrusters being developed at L3. The characterization tests described herein reveal that the 8-cm ion source is suitable for use in (a) validating plasma diagnostic equipment, (b) xenon ion sputtering and etching studies of spacecraft materials, (c) plasma physics research, and (d) the study of ion thruster optics at varying conditions.

Li, Zhongmin; Hawk, C. W.; Hawk, Clark W.; Buttweiler, Mark S.; Williams, John D.; Buchholtz, Brett

2005-01-01

268

On the Origin of Inner Source Pickup Ions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inner source pickup ions are thought to originate from the interaction of solar wind ions with interplanetary dust grains in the inner heliosphere. Processes which produce inner source pickup ions, and which have been considered so far are implantation of solar wind on grains and subsequent desorption, charge exchange of solar wind ions during transit through submicron dust grains, sputtering and backscattering of ions. A large fraction if not all of the dust crossing the sphere of the Earth's orbit must end up as pickup ions as is evidenced from the comparable order of magnitude of dust flux inward and pickup ion flux outward at 1 AU. This suggests that the ultimate fate for a large fraction of small interplanetary dust particles after evaporation or sputtering is conversion into pickup ions. Sputtering becomes particularly efficient when dust particles-after fragmentation by collisions with each other-have diminished to sizes comparable to the range of solar wind ions in dust material. The sputter products, charged or neutral molecules, atoms or ions, ultimately will undergo photodissociation, photoionization, ionization by charge exchange with solar wind ions, and/or ionization by electron collisions. We investigate the relative importance of various processes on pickup ions on their way out of the inner heliosphere and the relevance of inner source pickup ions for diagnostics of dust particles near the Sun.

Bochsler, Peter; Möbius, Eberhard; Kucharek, Harald; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.

2010-12-01

269

Application of a compact microwave ion source to radiocarbon analysis  

SciTech Connect

The compact, high current, 2.45 GHz microwave-driven plasma ion source which was built for the Chalk River TASCC facility is presently being adapted for testing as a gas ion source for accelerator mass spectrometry, at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution accelerator mass spectrometer. The special requirements for producing carbon-ion beams from micromole quantities of carbon dioxide produced from environmental samples will be discussed. These samples will be introduced into the ion source by means of argon carrier gas and a silicon capillary injection system. Following the extraction of positive ions from the source, negative ion formation in a charge exchange vapor will effectively remove the argon from the carbon beam. Simultaneous injection of the three carbon isotopes into the accelerator is planned.

Schneider, R. J.; Reden, K. F. von; Hayes, J. M.; Wills, J. S. C. [NOSAMS Facility, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Massachusetts 02543 (United States); AECL Chalk River Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario, K0J 1J0 (Canada)

1999-04-26

270

Recent Development of IMP LECR3 Ion Source  

SciTech Connect

18GHz microwave has been fed to the LECR3 ion source to produce intense highly charged ion beams although this ion source was designed for 14.5GHz. Then 1.1 emA Ar8+ and 325 e{mu}A Ar11+ were obtained at 18GHz. During the source running for atomic physics experiment, some higher charge state ion beams such as Ar17+ and Ar18+ were detected and have been validated by atomic physics method. Furthermore, a few special gases, e.g. SiH4 and SF6, were tested on LECR3 ion source to produce required ion beams to satisfy the requirements of atomic physics experiments.

Zhang, Z.M.; Zhao, H.W.; Li, J.Y.; Sun, L.T.; Feng, Y.C.; Wang, H.; Ma, B.H.; Zhang, X.Z.; Guo, X.H.; Li, X.X.; Cao, Y.; Zhao, H.Y. [Institute of Modern Physics (IMP), Chinese Academy of Science, Lanzhou, 730000 (China)

2005-03-15

271

Polarized {sup 3}He{sup 2+} ion sources  

SciTech Connect

A brief review of the polarized {sup 3}He ion sources developed up to the present time is described particularly emphasizing on physics behind the methods of polarization.In the latter part of this report, a long history of the polarized {sup 3}He ion source developed at RCNP over the decade is presented.

Tanaka, M. [Department of Clinical Technology, Kobe Tokiwa College, Ohtani-cho 2-6-2, Nagata-ku, Kobe 653-0838 (Japan); Takahashi, Y.; Shimoda, T. [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, 1-1, Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Plis, Yu. A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, RU-141980, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Yosoi, M.; Takahisa, K. [Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University, Mihogaoka 10-1, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan)

2008-02-06

272

A double-plasma source of continuous bipolar ion-ion beam  

SciTech Connect

A double-plasma source capable of the generation of a continuous bipolar ion-ion beam is described. The quasi-neutral ion-ion flow to an extraction electrode is formed in the system containing primary inductively coupled plasma separated from a secondary plasma by an electrostatic grid-type filter. The total current of each ion species to the 250 mm diameter extraction electrode is about 80 mA; the electron current does not exceed 30% of the ion current. Method of positive/negative ion current ratio control is proposed, allowing the ion currents ratio variation in wide range.

Dudin, S. V. [Department of Physics and Technology, V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University, Kurchatova ave. 31, 61108 Kharkiv (Ukraine) [Department of Physics and Technology, V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University, Kurchatova ave. 31, 61108 Kharkiv (Ukraine); Scientific Center of Physical Technologies, Svobody sq. 6, 61022 Kharkiv (Ukraine); Rafalskyi, D. V. [Laboratoire de Physique des Plasmas, CNRS-Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau CEDEX 91128 (France)] [Laboratoire de Physique des Plasmas, CNRS-Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau CEDEX 91128 (France)

2013-01-21

273

A novel pulsed magnetron sputter technique utilizing very high target power densities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a novel pulsed power supply in combination with a standard circular flat magnetron source, operated with a Cu target, a peak power density of 2800Wcm-2 was achieved. This results in a very intense plasma with peak ion current densities of up to 3.4Acm?2 at the substrate situated 10cm from the target. The ionized fraction of the deposited Cu flux

Vladimir Kouznetsov; Karol Macák; Jochen M. Schneider; Ulf Helmersson; Ivan Petrov

1999-01-01

274

Pulsed, Inductively Generated, Streaming Plasma Ion Source for Heavy Ion Fusion Linacs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes a compact, high current density, pulsed ion source, based on electrodeless, inductively driven gas breakdown, developed to meet the requirements on normalized emittance, current density, uniformity and pulse duration for an ion injector in a heavy-ion fusion driver. The plasma source produces >10 s pulse of Argon plasma with ion current densities >100 mA\\/cm2 at 30 cm

Steven C. Glidden; Howard D Sanders; John B. Greenly; Daniel L. Dongwoo

2006-01-01

275

Selection and design of ion sources for use at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility  

SciTech Connect

The Holifield Radioactive Ion beam Facility now under construction at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory will use the 25-MV tandem accelerator for the acceleration of radioactive ion beams to energies appropriate for research in nuclear physics; negative ion beams are, therefore, required for injection into the tandem accelerator. Because charge exchange is an efficient means for converting initially positive ion beams to negative ion beams, both positive and negative ion sources are viable options for use at the facility. The choice of the type of ion source will depend on the overall efficiency for generating the radioactive species of interest. Although direct-extraction negative ion sources are clearly desirable, the ion formation efficiencies are often too low for practical consideration; for this situation, positive ion sources, in combination with charge exchange, are the logical choice. The high-temperature version of the CERN-ISOLDE positive ion source has been selected and a modified version of the source designed and fabricated for initial use at the facility because of its low emittance, relatively high ionization efficiencies and species versatility, and because it has been engineered for remote installation, removal and servicing as required for safe handling in a high-radiation-level ISOL facility. The source will be primarily used to generate ion beams from elements with intermediate to low electron affinities. Prototype plasma-sputter negative ion sources and negative surface-ionization sources are under design consideration for generating radioactive ion beams from high-electron-affinity elements. The design features of these sources and expected efficiencies and beam qualities (emittances) will be described in this report.

Alton, G.D.; Haynes, D.L.; Mills, G.D.; Olsen, D.K.

1993-12-31

276

Emittance of compact microwave ion source for low energy application.  

PubMed

The emittance of the compact microwave ion source for low energy application was investigated. The source structure was slightly modified from the previously reported version. The extraction apertures of 3 mm and 4 mm were used to evaluate the emittance. It was found that the normalized emittance of the present ion source ranged from 6 × 10(-8) m?rad (3 mm extraction aperture) to 2 × 10(-7) m?rad (4 mm extraction aperture), which are similar to that of the original ion source. PMID:24593455

Gotoh, Yasuhito; Taguchi, Shuhei; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Ishikawa, Junzo; Sakai, Shigeki

2014-02-01

277

Extending Ion Source Life on High Current Ion Implant Tools with In-Situ Chemical Cleaning  

SciTech Connect

Ion source replacement is generally the most frequent maintenance activity on an ion implanter impacting both productivity and consumable costs. In this paper we review the different mechanisms responsible for ion source failure. We report on in-situ chemical cleaning tests conducted at Toshiba Oita, which have shown potential for significant extension in source life. Several factors impact the effectiveness of xenon difluoride including failure modes, cleaning time and flow rates.

Uvais, A.; Botet, A. [ATMI, Danbury, CT (United States); Jinguji, M.; Sato, Y.; Yotsumoto, T. [Toshiba Corporation, Oita (Japan)

2011-01-07

278

Development of high power ion sources for fusion (invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent progress and development activities regarding high power ion sources for fusion researches are reviewed. High power positive ion sources, which have progressed in the 1980s, played important roles in fusion research. Most of the ion sources developed for major neutral beam injection (NBI) systems are a large area magnetic multipole type with tungsten cathode, and produce tens of amperes of positive hydrogen/deuterium/tritium ion beams at the energy around 100 keV. The NBI systems based on these ion sources delivered tens of MW neutral beams to the plasmas, and contributed to produce high temperature plasmas in the break-even condition in the tokamak type fusion devices. Meanwhile, R and D of high current negative ion sources were carried out for a high energy NBI system to be utilized not only for plasma heating, but also for the steady state operation and stable plasma control in the fusion burning plasmas. In the 1990s, rapid progress of high current negative ion sources has been made. Particularly, a cesiated magnetic filter source with high plasma confinement has, for the first time, produced a multi-ampere negative ion beam stably in the conditions required for the negative-ion-based NBI systems, namely high negative ion current density, low operating pressure, low extracted electron current, and good beamlet optics. Based on this progress, a 500 keV 10 MW NBI system has been developed for JT-60U at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, and construction of a 180 keV 15 MW NBI system is carried on at the National Institute for Fusion Science in Japan. The same type of negative ion source is applied to the design of a 1 MeV NBI system for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER).

Ohara, Y.

1998-02-01

279

ECR (Electron Cyclotron Resonance) ion sources for cyclotrons  

SciTech Connect

In the last decade ECR (Electron Cyclotron Resonance) ion sources have evolved from a single large, power consuming, complex prototype into a variety of compact, simple, reliable, efficient, high performance sources of high charge state ions for accelerators and atomic physics. The coupling of ECR sources to cyclotrons has resulted in significant performance gains in energy, intensity, reliability, and variety of ion species. Seven ECR sources are in regular operation with cyclotrons and numerous other projects are under development or in the planning stag. At least four laboratories have ECR sources dedicated for atomic physics research and other atomic physics programs share ECR sources with cyclotrons. An ECR source is now installed on the injector for the CERN SPS synchrotron to accelerate O/sup 8 +/ to relativistic energies. A project is underway at Argonne to couple an ECR source to a superconducting heavy-ion linac. Although tremendous progress has been made, the field of ECR sources is still a relatively young technology and there is still the potential for further advances both in source development and understanding of the plasma physics. The development of ECR sources is reviewed. The important physics mechanisms which come into play in the operation of ECR Sources are discussed, along with various models for charge state distributions (CSD). The design and performance of several ECR sources are compared. The 88-Inch Cyclotron and the LBL ECR is used as an example of cyclotron+ECR operation. The future of ECR sources is considered.

Lyneis, C.M.

1986-10-01

280

High brilliance negative ion and neutral beam source  

DOEpatents

A high brilliance mass selected (Z-selected) negative ion and neutral beam source having good energy resolution. The source is based upon laser resonance ionization of atoms or molecules in a small gaseous medium followed by charge exchange through an alkali oven. The source is capable of producing microampere beams of an extremely wide variety of negative ions, and milliampere beams when operated in the pulsed mode.

Compton, Robert N. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1991-01-01

281

Status of ion sources at National Institute of Radiological Sciencesa)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) maintains various ion accelerators in order to study the effects of radiation of the human body and medical uses of radiation. Two electrostatic tandem accelerators and three cyclotrons delivered by commercial companies have offered various life science tools; these include proton-induced x-ray emission analysis (PIXE), micro beam irradiation, neutron exposure, and radioisotope tracers and probes. A duoplasmatron, a multicusp ion source, a penning ion source (PIG), and an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) are in operation for these purposes. The Heavy-Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) is an accelerator complex for heavy-ion radiotherapy, fully developed by NIRS. HIMAC is utilized not only for daily treatment with the carbon beam but also for fundamental experiments. Several ECRISs and a PIG at HIMAC satisfy various research and clinical requirements.

Kitagawa, A.; Fujita, T.; Goto, A.; Hattori, T.; Hamano, T.; Hojo, S.; Honma, T.; Imaseki, H.; Katagiri, K.; Muramatsu, M.; Sakamoto, Y.; Sekiguchi, M.; Suda, M.; Sugiura, A.; Suya, N.

2012-02-01

282

Measurement of beam characteristics from C(6+) laser ion source.  

PubMed

We developed a C(6+) laser ion source for a heavy-ion accelerator. A carbon target was irradiated with a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm wavelength, 1.4 J maximum laser energy, 10 ns pulse duration) to generate a high-density plasma. The laser ion source employed a rotating carbon target for continuous operation. Ion beams were extracted from the plasma through a drift space using a direct plasma injection scheme [B. Yu. Sharkov, A. V. Shumshurov, V. P. Dubenkow, O. B. Shamaev, and A. A. Golubev, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 2841 (1992)] up to a maximum voltage of 40 kV. We measured the characteristics of the ion beams from the laser ion source and present the results of experiments here. PMID:24593626

Yamaguchi, A; Sako, K; Sato, K; Hayashizaki, N; Hattori, T

2014-02-01

283

Rotary-tuned magnetrons  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new means of rapidly tuning magnetron oscillators by a continuous rotating motion has been developed, permitting tuning rates 10 to 50 times faster than was previously possible with these tubes. The technique offers either controlled or completely random frequency agility on a pulse-to-pulse basis, and retains the inherent magnetron advantages of small size and weight, high efficiency, and simplicity

R. E. Edwards

1963-01-01

284

Negative hydrogen ion source for TOKAMAK neutral beam injector (invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intense negative ion source producing multimegawatt hydrogen/deuterium negative ion beams has been developed for the neutral beam injector (NBI) in TOKAMAK thermonuclear fusion machines. Negative ions are produced in a cesium seeded multi-cusp plasma generator via volume and surface processes, and accelerated with a multistage electrostatic accelerator. The negative ion source for JT-60U has produced 18.5 A/360 keV (6.7 MW) H- and 14.3 A/380 keV (5.4 MW) D- ion beams at average current densities of 11 mA/cm2 (H-) and 8.5 mA/cm2 (D-). A high energy negative ion source has been developed for the next generation TOKAMAK such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). The source has demonstrated to accelerate negative ions up to 1 MeV, the energy required for ITER. Higher negative ion current density of more than 20 mA/cm2 was obtained in the ITER concept sources. It was confirmed that the consumption rate of cesium is small enough to operate the source for a half year in ITER-NBI without maintenance.

Okumura, Y.; Fujiwara, Y.; Kashiwagi, M.; Kitagawa, T.; Miyamoto, K.; Morishita, T.; Hanada, M.; Takayanagi, T.; Taniguchi, M.; Watanabe, K.

2000-02-01

285

Development of Laser-Driven Ion Source  

SciTech Connect

We have studied the ion emission from a thin-foil target irradiated by p, s and circularly polarized laser pulses in order to clarify the mechanism of ion acceleration using a Titanium Sapphire laser with a peak irradiance of 3 x 1018 W/cm2. A tape target driver provided a fresh surface of a tantalum foil with the thickness of 3 micro-meters during the measurements. The laser polarization was changed from p to s- and to circular polarization by using the 1/2 and 1/4 wave plates made of mica. To obtain the ion energy spectra and to resolve the ion species, a Thomson parabola ion analyzer was placed behind the target along the target normal direction. The energy spectra close to 1MeV were obtained. Possible explanation of the experimental result is described. Finally, we describe the phase rotation technique to obtain a monochromatic proton beam.

Daido, H.; Nishiuchi, M.; Sagisaka, A.; Ogura, K.; Orimo, S.; Kado, M.; Hayashi, Y.; Mori, M.; Nagashima, A.; Pirozhkov, A.; Bulanov, S.; Esirkepov, T.; Kimura, T.; Tajima, T. [Advanced Photon Research Center, JAEA, Souraku-gun, Kyoto, 619-0215 (Japan); Fukumi, A.; Li, Z. [Advanced Photon Research Center, JAEA, Souraku-gun, Kyoto, 619-0215 (Japan); National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Inage-ku, Chiba, 263-8555 (Japan); Nemoto, K.; Oishi, Y.; Nayuki, T.; Fujii, T. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Yokosuka, 240-0196 (Japan)] (and others)

2006-04-07

286

Liquid metal ion source and alloy for ion emission of multiple ionic species  

DOEpatents

A liquid metal ion source and alloy for the simultaneous ion evaporation of arsenic and boron, arsenic and phosphorus, or arsenic, boron and phosphorus. The ionic species to be evaporated are contained in palladium-arsenic-boron and palladium-arsenic-boron-phosphorus alloys. The ion source, including an emitter means such as a needle emitter and a source means such as U-shaped heater element, is preferably constructed of rhenium and tungsten, both of which are readily fabricated. The ion sources emit continuous beams of ions having sufficiently high currents of the desired species to be useful in ion implantation of semiconductor wafers for preparing integrated circuit devices. The sources are stable in operation, experience little corrosion during operation, and have long operating lifetimes.

Clark, Jr., William M. (Thousand Oaks, CA); Utlaut, Mark W. (Saugus, CA); Wysocki, Joseph A. (Oxnard, CA); Storms, Edmund K. (Los Alamos, NM); Szklarz, Eugene G. (Los Alamos, NM); Behrens, Robert G. (Los Alamos, NM); Swanson, Lynwood W. (McMinnville, OR); Bell, Anthony E. (McMinnville, OR)

1987-06-02

287

Ion sources for initial use at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility  

SciTech Connect

The Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) now under construction at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory will use the 25-MV tandem accelerator for the acceleration of radioactive ion beams to energies appropriate for research in nuclear physics; negative ion beams are, therefore, required for injection into the tandem accelerator. Because charge exchange is an efficient means for converting initially positive ion beams to negative ion beams, both positive and negative ion sources are viable options for use at the facility; the choice of the type of ion source will depend on the overall efficiency for generating the radioactive species of interest. A high-temperature version of the CERN-ISOLDE positive ion source has been selected and a modified version of the source designed and fabricated for initial use at the HRIBF because of its low emittance, relatively high ionization efficiencies and species versatility, and because it has been engineered for remote installation, removal and servicing as required for safe handling in a high-radiation-level ISOL facility. Prototype plasma-sputter negative ion sources and negative surface-ionization sources are also under design consideration for generating negative radioactive ion beams from high-electron-affinity elements. The design features of these sources and expected efficiencies and beam qualities (emittances) will be described in this report.

Alton, G.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1994-05-01

288

Ion sources for initial use at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility  

SciTech Connect

The Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) now under construction at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory will use the 25-MV tandem accelerator for the acceleration of radioactive ion beams to energies appropriate for research in nuclear physics; negative ion beams are, therefore, required for injection into the tandem accelerator. Because charge exchange is an efficient means for converting initially positive ion beams to negative ion beams, both positive and negative ion sources are viable options for use at the facility; the choice of the type of ion source will depend on the overall efficiency for generating the radioactive species of interest. A high-temperature version of the CERN-ISOLDE positive ion source has been selected and a modified version of the source designed and fabricated for initial use at the HRIBF because of its low emittance, relatively high ionization efficiencies and species versatility, and because it has been engineered for remote installation, removal and servicing as required for safe handling in a high-radiation-level ISOL facility. Prototype plasma-sputter negative ion sources and negative surface-ionization sources are also under design consideration for generating negative radioactive ion beams from high-electron-affinity elements. The design features of these sources and expected efficiencies and beam qualities (emittances) will be described in this report.

Alton, G.D.

1993-12-31

289

MEASUREMENT OF ION BEAM FROM LASER ION SOURCE FOR RHIC Takeshi Kanesue, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 819-0395, Japan  

E-print Network

MEASUREMENT OF ION BEAM FROM LASER ION SOURCE FOR RHIC EBIS Takeshi Kanesue, Kyushu University Masahiro Okamura, BNL, Upton, NY 11973, U.S.A. Abstract Laser ion source (LIS) is a candidate of the primary ion source for the RHIC EBIS. LIS will provide intense charge state 1+ ions to the EBIS

290

Ion source and injection line for high intensity medical cyclotron  

SciTech Connect

A 14 MeV high intensity compact cyclotron, CYCIAE-14, was built at China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE). An injection system based on the external H? ion source was used on CYCIAE-14 so as to provide high intensity beam, while most positron emission tomography cyclotrons adopt internal ion source. A beam intensity of 100 ?A/14 MeV was extracted from the cyclotron with a small multi-cusp H? ion source (CIAE-CH-I type) and a short injection line, which the H? ion source of 3 mA/25 keV H? beam with emittance of 0.3??mm?mrad and the injection line of with only 1.2 m from the extraction of ion source to the medial plane of the cyclotron. To increase the extracted beam intensity of the cyclotron, a new ion source (CIAE-CH-II type) of 9.1 mA was used, with maximum of 500 ?A was achieved from the cyclotron. The design and test results of the ion source and injection line optimized for high intensity acceleration will be given in this paper.

Jia, XianLu, E-mail: jiaxl@ciae.ac.cn; Guan, Fengping; Yao, Hongjuan; Zhang, TianJue; Yang, Jianjun; Song, Guofang; Ge, Tao; Qin, Jiuchang [China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing (China)] [China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing (China)

2014-02-15

291

New ion source for KSTAR neutral beam injection systema)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The neutral beam injection system (NBI-1) of the KSTAR tokamak can accommodate three ion sources; however, it is currently equipped with only one prototype ion source. In the 2010 and 2011 KSTAR campaigns, this ion source supplied deuterium neutral beam power of 0.7-1.6 MW to the KSTAR plasma with a beam energy of 70-100 keV. A new ion source will be prepared for the 2012 KSTAR campaign with a much advanced performance compared with the previous one. The newly designed ion source has a very large transparency (˜56%) without deteriorating the beam optics, which is designed to deliver a 2 MW injection power of deuterium beams at 100 keV. The plasma generator of the ion source is of a horizontally cusped bucket type, and the whole inner wall, except the cathode filaments and plasma grid side, functions as an anode. The accelerator assembly consists of four multi-circular aperture grids made of copper and four electrode flanges made of aluminum alloy. The electrodes are insulated using PEEK. The ion source will be completed and tested in 2011.

Kim, Tae-Seong; Jeong, Seung Ho; In, Sang-Ryul

2012-02-01

292

Ion source and injection line for high intensity medical cyclotron.  

PubMed

A 14 MeV high intensity compact cyclotron, CYCIAE-14, was built at China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE). An injection system based on the external H- ion source was used on CYCIAE-14 so as to provide high intensity beam, while most positron emission tomography cyclotrons adopt internal ion source. A beam intensity of 100 ?A/14 MeV was extracted from the cyclotron with a small multi-cusp H- ion source (CIAE-CH-I type) and a short injection line, which the H- ion source of 3 mA/25 keV H- beam with emittance of 0.3??mm?mrad and the injection line of with only 1.2 m from the extraction of ion source to the medial plane of the cyclotron. To increase the extracted beam intensity of the cyclotron, a new ion source (CIAE-CH-II type) of 9.1 mA was used, with maximum of 500 ?A was achieved from the cyclotron. The design and test results of the ion source and injection line optimized for high intensity acceleration will be given in this paper. PMID:24593632

Jia, XianLu; Guan, Fengping; Yao, Hongjuan; Zhang, TianJue; Yang, Jianjun; Song, Guofang; Ge, Tao; Qin, Jiuchang

2014-02-01

293

Ion source issues for the DAE?ALUS neutrino experiment  

SciTech Connect

The DAE?ALUS experiment calls for 10 mA of protons at 800 MeV on a neutrino-producing target. To achieve this record-setting current from a cyclotron system, H{sub 2}{sup +} ions will be accelerated. Loosely bound vibrationally excited H{sub 2}{sup +} ions inevitably produced in conventional ion sources will be Lorentz stripped at the highest energies. Presence of these states was confirmed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and strategies were investigated to quench them, leading to a proposed R and D effort towards a suitable ion source for these high-power cyclotrons.

Alonso, Jose R., E-mail: JRAlonso@LBL.gov; Barletta, William A.; Toups, Matthew H.; Conrad, Janet [Laboratory for Nuclear Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)] [Laboratory for Nuclear Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Liu, Y.; Bannister, Mark E.; Havener, C. C.; Vane, Randy [Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)] [Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

2014-02-15

294

Ion source issues for the DAE?ALUS neutrino experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The DAE?ALUS experiment calls for 10 mA of protons at 800 MeV on a neutrino-producing target. To achieve this record-setting current from a cyclotron system, H2+ ions will be accelerated. Loosely bound vibrationally excited H2+ ions inevitably produced in conventional ion sources will be Lorentz stripped at the highest energies. Presence of these states was confirmed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and strategies were investigated to quench them, leading to a proposed R&D effort towards a suitable ion source for these high-power cyclotrons.

Alonso, Jose R.; Barletta, William A.; Toups, Matthew H.; Conrad, Janet; Liu, Y.; Bannister, Mark E.; Havener, C. C.; Vane, Randy

2014-02-01

295

Possible Source of Intermediate Ions over Marine Environment  

PubMed Central

Measurements of small, intermediate and large ions made onboard ORV Sagarkanya over the Arabian Sea in May-June 2003 during Arabian Sea Monsoon Experiment (ARMEX) are reported here. The daily averaged values of small-, intermediate-, and large-ion concentrations measured for 36 days during this cruise have been used for analysis. The analysis shows a weak positive correlation of 0.14 between intermediate- and large-ion concentrations, which indicates that the sources of these two types of ions are different over ocean surface. The negative correlation is observed between small- and intermediate-ion concentration for entire period of cruise. In addition, it is seen that the intermediate-ion concentration shows a very good (r = 0.58) and significant positive correlation with sea surface pressure. Based on good negative correlation between small- and intermediate-ion concentrations and good positive correlation between intermediate-ion concentration and sea surface pressure, it has been proposed that attachment of small ions to the ultrafine particles transported from upper troposphere to marine boundary layer is the main source of intermediate ions over ocean surface. This study supports the idea that the main source of ultrafine particles over marine boundary layer (MBL) is entrainment of aerosol particles from the free troposphere. PMID:22701357

Pawar, Sunil D.; Gopalakrishnan, V.

2012-01-01

296

Possible source of intermediate ions over marine environment.  

PubMed

Measurements of small, intermediate and large ions made onboard ORV Sagarkanya over the Arabian Sea in May-June 2003 during Arabian Sea Monsoon Experiment (ARMEX) are reported here. The daily averaged values of small-, intermediate-, and large-ion concentrations measured for 36 days during this cruise have been used for analysis. The analysis shows a weak positive correlation of 0.14 between intermediate- and large-ion concentrations, which indicates that the sources of these two types of ions are different over ocean surface. The negative correlation is observed between small- and intermediate-ion concentration for entire period of cruise. In addition, it is seen that the intermediate-ion concentration shows a very good (r = 0.58) and significant positive correlation with sea surface pressure. Based on good negative correlation between small- and intermediate-ion concentrations and good positive correlation between intermediate-ion concentration and sea surface pressure, it has been proposed that attachment of small ions to the ultrafine particles transported from upper troposphere to marine boundary layer is the main source of intermediate ions over ocean surface. This study supports the idea that the main source of ultrafine particles over marine boundary layer (MBL) is entrainment of aerosol particles from the free troposphere. PMID:22701357

Pawar, Sunil D; Gopalakrishnan, V

2012-01-01

297

An alkali ion source based on graphite intercalation compounds for ion mobility spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A variety of alkali cation emitters were developed as the ion source for ion mobility spectrometry. The cation emitters were constructed based on alkali ion graphite intercalation compounds (GICs). The compounds were prepared by fusing alkali salts with ground graphite. In order to produce alkali ions, the compounds were loaded on a filament and heated to red. Reactant ions of the form alk+ ions were observed for the alkali salts NaCl, KClsdotLiCl, CsCl and SrCl. In addition to Na+ ions, K+ ions were observed at the beginning of thermionic emission from Na-GIC. This is due to the low ionization potential of potassium that exists in trace amounts in sodium salts. In addition to the potassium ion, Na+ was observed in the case of LiCl salt. The Na+ and K+ peaks originating from impurities totally disappeared after about 40 min. However, the thermionic emission of the main ion of the corresponding salt lasted for several days. No negative ions were observed upon reversing the drift field. Selected organic compounds (methyl isobutyl ketone, dimethyl sulfoxide, acetone and tetrahydrofuran) were also ionized via alkali cation attachment reaction. Distinct ion mobility patterns were observed for different substances using one type of alkali reactant ion. However, the ion mobility pattern for a given substance changed when a different alkali reactant ion was used. Ammonia and amines were not ionized when this source was used.

Tabrizchi, Mahmoud; Hosseini, Zahra S.

2008-07-01

298

Electron cyclotron resonance ion sources in use for heavy ion cancer therapya)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources for producing ion beams for heavy ion cancer therapy has been established for more than ten years. After the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator (HIMAC) at Chiba, Japan started therapy of patients with carbon ions in 1994 the first carbon ion beam for patient treatment at the accelerator facility of GSI was delivered in 1997. ECR ion sources are the perfect tool for providing the required ion beams with good stability, high reliability, and easy maintenance after long operating periods. Various investigations were performed at GSI with different combinations of working gas and auxiliary gas to define the optimal beam conditions for an extended use of further ion species for the dedicated Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy (HIT) facility installed at the Radiological University Hospital Heidelberg, Germany. Commercially available compact all permanent magnet ECR ion sources operated at 14.5GHz were chosen for this facility. Besides for C4+12 these ion sources are used to provide beams of H31+1, He1+3, and O6+16. The final commissioning at the HIT facility could be finished at the end of 2006.

Tinschert, K.; Iannucci, R.; Lang, R.

2008-02-01

299

Electron cyclotron resonance ion sources in use for heavy ion cancer therapy  

SciTech Connect

The use of electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources for producing ion beams for heavy ion cancer therapy has been established for more than ten years. After the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator (HIMAC) at Chiba, Japan started therapy of patients with carbon ions in 1994 the first carbon ion beam for patient treatment at the accelerator facility of GSI was delivered in 1997. ECR ion sources are the perfect tool for providing the required ion beams with good stability, high reliability, and easy maintenance after long operating periods. Various investigations were performed at GSI with different combinations of working gas and auxiliary gas to define the optimal beam conditions for an extended use of further ion species for the dedicated Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy (HIT) facility installed at the Radiological University Hospital Heidelberg, Germany. Commercially available compact all permanent magnet ECR ion sources operated at 14.5 GHz were chosen for this facility. Besides for {sup 12}C{sup 4+} these ion sources are used to provide beams of {sup 1}H{sub 3}{sup 1+}, {sup 3}He{sup 1+}, and {sup 16}O{sup 6+}. The final commissioning at the HIT facility could be finished at the end of 2006.

Tinschert, K.; Iannucci, R.; Lang, R. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Planckstrasse 1, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany)

2008-02-15

300

Development of the Long Pulse Negative Ion Source for ITER  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A model of the ion source designed for the neutral beam injectors of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), the KAMABOKO III ion source, is being tested on the MANTIS test stand at the DRFC Cadarache in collaboration with JAERI, Japan, who designed and supplied the ion source. The ion source is attached to a 3 grid 30 keV accelerator (also supplied by JAERI) and the accelerated negative ion current is determined from the energy deposited on a calorimeter located 1.6 m from the source. During experiments on MANTIS three adverse effects of long pulse operation were found: • The negative ion current to the calorimeter is ?50% of that obtained from short pulse operation • Increasing the plasma grid (PG) temperature results in ?40% enhancement in negative ion yield, substantially below that reported for short pulse operation, ?100%. • The caesium "consumption" is up to 1500 times that expected. Results presented here indicate that each of these is, at least partially, explained by thermal effects. Additionally presented are the results of a detailed characterisation of the source, which enable the most efficient mode of operation to be identified.

Hemsworth, R. S.; Boilson, D.; Fanz, U.; Svensson, L.; de Esch, H. P. L.; Krylov, A.; Massmann, P.; Zaniol, B.

2005-04-01

301

Plasma ion dynamics and beam formation in electron cyclotron resonance ion sources  

SciTech Connect

In electron cyclotron resonance ion sources it has been demonstrated that plasma heating may be improved by means of different microwave to plasma coupling mechanisms, including the ''frequency tuning'' and the ''two frequency heating''. These techniques affect evidently the electron dynamics, but the relationship with the ion dynamics has not been investigated in details up to now. Here we will try to outline these relations: through the study of ion dynamics we may try to understand how to optimize the electron cyclotron resonance ion sources brightness. A simple model of the ion confinement and beam formation will be presented, based on particle-in-cell and single particle simulations.

Mascali, D. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Centro Siciliano di Fisica Nucleare e Struttura della Materia, Viale A. Doria, 6, 95125 Catania (Italy); Neri, L.; Miracoli, R. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Catania, Via S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); Gammino, S.; Celona, L.; Ciavola, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Gambino, N. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Universita di Catania, DFMCI, Via S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); Chikin, S. [Russian Resarch Center ''Kurchatov Institute,'' 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation)

2010-02-15

302

Ion Energy Distribution Studies of Ions and Radicals in an Ar/H2 Radio Frequency Magnetron Discharge During a-Si:H Deposition Using Energy-Resolved Mass Spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ion energy distributions of sputtered Si particles have been measured by an energy-resolved mass spectrometer, and we correlate the results with measured thin film properties. The plasmas have been generated in a conventional magnetron chamber powered at 150W, 13.56MHz at hydrogen flow rates ranging from 0-25sccm. Various Hn^+, SiHn^+, SiHn fragments (with n = 1, 2, 3) together with Ar^+ and ArH^+ species were detected in the discharge. The most important species for the film deposition is SiHn with n = 0,1,2, and H fragments affect the hydrogen content in the material. The flux of Ar^+ decreases and that of ArH^+ increases when the hydrogen flow rate was increased. However both fluxes saturate at hydrogen flow rates above 15sccm. Plasma parameters, such as plasma potential Vp, electron density ne and electron energy Te, are measured with the Langmuir probe. The ion energy distribution (IED) of all prominent species in the plasma is measured with an energy resolved mass analyzer. The plasma parameters decreased with increasing hydrogen flow rate; Vp, ne and Te decreased from 36.5V, 7.2x10^15 m-3, 5.6eV to 32.8, 2.2x10^15m-3 and 3.8eV respectively. The ion energy of the heavy species, Ar, Ar^+, ArH, ArH^+, SiHn and SiHn^+ radicals have ion energies comparable to the plasma potential. Analysis of the IEDs shows an inter-dependence of the species and their contribution to the thin film growth and properties.

Mensah, Samuel; Abu-Safe, Husam; Naseem, Hameed; Gordon, Matt

2012-02-01

303

Means for obtaining a metal ion beam from a heavy-ion cyclotron source  

DOEpatents

A description is given of a modification to a cyclotron ion source used in producing a high intensity metal ion beam. A small amount of an inert support gas maintains the usual plasma arc, except that it is necessary for the support gas to have a heavy mass, e.g., xenon or krypton as opposed to neon. A plate, fabricated from the metal (or anything that can be sputtered) to be ionized, is mounted on the back wall of the ion source arc chamber and is bombarded by returning energetic low-charged gas ions that fail to cross the initial accelerating gap between the ion source and the accelerating electrode. Some of the atoms that are dislodged from the plate by the returning gas ions become ionized and are extracted as a useful beam of heavy ions. (auth)

Hudson, E.D.; Mallory, M.L.

1975-08-01

304

Ion beam capture and charge breeding in electron cyclotron resonance ion source plasmas  

SciTech Connect

Beam capture of injected ions and charge breeding in electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) charge breeder ion source plasmas has been investigated utilizing an ECR plasma modeling code, the generalized ECR ion source model, and a Monte Carlo beam capture code. Beam capturing dynamics, charge breeding in the plasma, and the extracted charged ion states are described. Optimization of ion beam energy is performed for (1) high beam capture efficiency and (2) high charge state ion beam extractions. A sample case study for ANL-ECR has been performed. Ions entering ECR ion source plasma are slowed down mostly by the background ions. Assuming Maxwellian plasma ions, maximum beam energy loss occurs when the beam velocity is around the background thermal velocity in magnitude. It is also found that beam capture location affects charge state distribution. For instance, with a majority of beam ions captured near the middle of the device higher currents for higher charge states are obtained. The beam ions captured near the entry have a higher probability of backstreaming after they are captured. For this reason, the optimum beam energy of the injected Ar{sup +} beam ions for charge breeding is generally higher than the optimum input beam energy for maximum beam energy loss.

Kim, Jin-Soo; Zhao, L.; Cluggish, B. P.; Pardo, Richard [FAR-TECH, Inc., San Diego, California 92121 (United States); Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

2007-10-15

305

Ionization efficiency estimations for the SPES surface ion source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ion sources play a crucial role in ISOL (Isotope Separation On Line) facilities determining, with the target production system, the ion beam types available for experiments. In the framework of the SPES (Selective Production of Exotic Species) INFN (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare) project, a preliminary study of the alkali metal isotopes ionization process was performed, by means of a surface ion source prototype. In particular, taking into consideration the specific SPES in-target isotope production, Cs and Rb ion beams were produced, using a dedicated test bench at LNL (Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro). In this work the ionization efficiency test results for the SPES Ta surface ion source prototype are presented and discussed.

Manzolaro, M.; Andrighetto, A.; Meneghetti, G.; Rossignoli, M.; Corradetti, S.; Biasetto, L.; Scarpa, D.; Monetti, A.; Carturan, S.; Maggioni, G.

2013-12-01

306

Caborane beam from ITEP Bernas ion source for semiconductor implanters  

SciTech Connect

A joint research and development of steady state intense boron ion sources for hundreds of electron-volt ion implanters has been in progress for the past 5 years. The difficulties of extraction and transportation of low energy boron beams can be solved by implanting clusters of boron atoms. In Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP) the Bernas ion source successfully generated the beam of decaborane ions. The carborane (C{sub 2}B{sub 10}H{sub 12}) ion beam is more attractive material due to its better thermal stability. The results of carborane ion beam generation are presented. The result of the beam implantation into the silicon wafer is presented as well.

Seleznev, D.; Hershcovitch, A.; Kropachev, G.; Kozlov, A.; Kuibeda, R.; Koshelev, V.; Kulevoy, T.; Jonson, B.; Poole, J.; Alexeyenko, O.; Gurkova, E.; Oks, E.; Gushenets, V.; Polozov, S.; Masunov, E.

2010-02-01

307

H{sup -} ion source developments at the SNS  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) will require substantially higher average and pulse H{sup -} beam currents than can be produced from conventional ion sources such as the base line SNS source. H{sup -} currents of 40-50 mA (SNS operations) and 70-100 mA (power upgrade project) with a rms emittance of 0.20-0.35{pi} mm mrad and a {approx}7% duty factor will be needed. We are therefore investigating several advanced ion source concepts based on rf plasma excitation. First, the performance characteristics of an external antenna source based on an Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} plasma chamber combined with an external multicusp magnetic configuration, an elemental Cs system, and plasma gun will be discussed. Second, the first plasma measurements of a helicon-driven H{sup -} ion source will also be presented.

Welton, R. F.; Stockli, M. P.; Murray, S. N.; Pennisi, T. R.; Han, B.; Kang, Y.; Goulding, R. H.; Crisp, D. W.; Sparks, D. O.; Luciano, N. P.; Carmichael, J. R.; Carr, J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830-6471 (United States)

2008-02-15

308

An ion guide laser ion source for isobar-suppressed rare isotope beams  

SciTech Connect

Modern experiments at isotope separator on-line (ISOL) facilities like ISAC at TRIUMF often depend critically on the purity of the delivered rare isotope beams. Therefore, highly selective ion sources are essential. This article presents the development and successful on-line operation of an ion guide laser ion source (IG-LIS) for the production of ion beams free of isobaric contamination. Thermionic ions from the hot ISOL target are suppressed by an electrostatic potential barrier, while neutral radio nuclides effusing out are resonantly ionized by laser radiation within a quadrupole ion guide behind this barrier. The IG-LIS was developed through detailed thermal and ion optics simulation studies and off-line tests with stable isotopes. In a first on-line run with a SiC target a suppression of surface-ionized Na contaminants in the ion beam of up to six orders of magnitude was demonstrated.

Raeder, Sebastian, E-mail: sebastian.raeder@fys.kuleuven.be; Ames, Friedhelm; Bishop, Daryl; Bricault, Pierre; Kunz, Peter; Mjøs, Anders [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 2A3 (Canada)] [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 2A3 (Canada); Heggen, Henning, E-mail: heggen@triumf.ca [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 2A3 (Canada) [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 2A3 (Canada); Institute of Applied Physics, TU Darmstadt, Schlossgartenstr. 7, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Lassen, Jens, E-mail: lassen@triumf.ca; Teigelhöfer, Andrea [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 2A3 (Canada) [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 2A3 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2 (Canada)

2014-03-15

309

A review of ion sources for medical accelerators (invited)  

SciTech Connect

There are two major medical applications of ion accelerators. One is a production of short-lived isotopes for radionuclide imaging with positron emission tomography and single photon emission computer tomography. Generally, a combination of a source for negative ions (usually H- and/or D-) and a cyclotron is used; this system is well established and distributed over the world. Other important medical application is charged-particle radiotherapy, where the accelerated ion beam itself is being used for patient treatment. Two distinctly different methods are being applied: either with protons or with heavy-ions (mostly carbon ions). Proton radiotherapy for deep-seated tumors has become widespread since the 1990s. The energy and intensity are typically over 200 MeV and several 10{sup 10} pps, respectively. Cyclotrons as well as synchrotrons are utilized. The ion source for the cyclotron is generally similar to the type for production of radioisotopes. For a synchrotron, one applies a positive ion source in combination with an injector linac. Carbon ion radiotherapy awakens a worldwide interest. About 6000 cancer patients have already been treated with carbon beams from the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences in Japan. These clinical results have clearly verified the advantages of carbon ions. Heidelberg Ion Therapy Center and Gunma University Heavy Ion Medical Center have been successfully launched. Several new facilities are under commissioning or construction. The beam energy is adjusted to the depth of tumors. It is usually between 140 and 430 MeV/u. Although the beam intensity depends on the irradiation method, it is typically several 10{sup 8} or 10{sup 9} pps. Synchrotrons are only utilized for carbon ion radiotherapy. An ECR ion source supplies multi-charged carbon ions for this requirement. Some other medical applications with ion beams attract developer's interests. For example, the several types of accelerators are under development for the boron neutron capture therapy. This treatment is conventionally demonstrated by a nuclear reactor, but it is strongly expected to replace the reactor by the accelerator. We report status of ion source for medical application and such scope for further developments.

Muramatsu, M.; Kitagawa, A. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan)

2012-02-15

310

Ion current detector for high pressure ion sources for monitoring separations  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates generally to any application involving the monitoring of signal arising from ions produced by electrospray or other high pressure (>100 torr) ion sources. The present invention relates specifically to an apparatus and method for the detection of ions emitted from a capillary electrophoresis (CE) system, liquid chromatography, or other small-scale separation methods. And further, the invention provides a very simple diagnostic as to the quality of the separation and the operation of an electrospray source. 7 figs.

Smith, R.D.; Wahl, J.H.; Hofstadler, S.A.

1996-08-13

311

Ion current detector for high pressure ion sources for monitoring separations  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates generally to any application involving the monitoring of signal arising from ions produced by electrospray or other high pressure (>100 torr) ion sources. The present invention relates specifically to an apparatus and method for the detection of ions emitted from a capillary electrophoresis (CE) system, liquid chromatography, or other small-scale separation methods. And further, the invention provides a very simple diagnostic as to the quality of the separation and the operation of an electrospray source.

Smith, Richard D. (Richland, WA); Wahl, Jon H. (Richland, WA); Hofstadler, Steven A. (Richland, WA)

1996-01-01

312

Effect of resonant microwave power on a PIG ion source  

SciTech Connect

We have investigated the effect of applying microwave power at the electron cyclotron frequency on the characteristics of the ion beam extracted from a hot-cathode PIG ion source. No change was seen in the ion charge state distribution. A small but significant reduction in the beam noise level was seen, and it is possible that the technique may find application in situations where beam quiescence is important. 29 references, 2 figures.

Brown, I.G.; Galvin, J.E.; Gavin, B.F.; MacGill, R.A.

1984-08-01

313

Development of double cylindrical dielectric barrier discharge ion source.  

PubMed

This paper deals with the dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) ion source composed of the outer cylindrical dielectric tube and the inner grounded metallic tube electrode. The sample gas is supplied through the inner ceramic tube. In this ion source, the DBD plasma is localized in the DBD tube so that the sample gases can be ionized just outside of the ceramic tube by the DBD excited helium gas without being exposed in the plasma jet. Besides, ambient air does not take part in the ionization of the sample vapor because ionization takes place inside the DBD ion source. Thus, this method is totally free from contaminants in ambient air. It was found that this ion source is capable of soft, high-sensitivity, and reproducible ionization. Application of this technique to the analysis of methamphetamine, carbaryl and basil leaf was given. PMID:21240423

Hiraoka, Kenzo; Ninomiya, Satoshi; Chen, Lee Chuin; Iwama, Takashi; Mandal, Mridul Kanti; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Ariyada, Osamu; Furuya, Hiroko; Takekawa, Kenichi

2011-03-21

314

Experimental results of a dual-beam ion source for 200 keV ion implanter  

SciTech Connect

A dual beam ion source for 200 keV ion implanter aimed to produce 200 keV H{sub 2}{sup +} and He{sup +} beams simultaneously has been developed. Not suitable to use the analyzing magnet, the purity of beam extracted from the source becomes important to the performance of implanter. The performance of ion source was measured. The results of experiments show that the materials of inlet tube of ion source, the time of arc ionization in ion source, and the amount of gas flow have significant influence on the purity of beam. The measures by using copper as inlet tube material, long time of arc ionization, and increasing the inlet of gas flow could effectively reduce the impurity of beam. And the method using the gas mass flow controller to adjust the proportion of H{sub 2}{sup +} and He{sup +} is feasible.

Chen, L. H., E-mail: lihuachen@ciae.ac.cn; Cui, B. Q.; Ma, R. G.; Ma, Y. J.; Tang, B.; Huang, Q. H.; Jiang, W. S.; Zheng, Y. N. [Department of Nuclear Physics, China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing 102413 (China)] [Department of Nuclear Physics, China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing 102413 (China)

2014-02-15

315

Experimental results of a dual-beam ion source for 200 keV ion implanter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A dual beam ion source for 200 keV ion implanter aimed to produce 200 keV H2+ and He+ beams simultaneously has been developed. Not suitable to use the analyzing magnet, the purity of beam extracted from the source becomes important to the performance of implanter. The performance of ion source was measured. The results of experiments show that the materials of inlet tube of ion source, the time of arc ionization in ion source, and the amount of gas flow have significant influence on the purity of beam. The measures by using copper as inlet tube material, long time of arc ionization, and increasing the inlet of gas flow could effectively reduce the impurity of beam. And the method using the gas mass flow controller to adjust the proportion of H2+ and He+ is feasible.

Chen, L. H.; Cui, B. Q.; Ma, R. G.; Ma, Y. J.; Tang, B.; Huang, Q. H.; Jiang, W. S.; Zheng, Y. N.

2014-02-01

316

Power Transmission From The ITER Model Negative Ion Source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Cadarache development on negative ion sources is being carried out on the KAMABOKO III ion source on the MANTIS test bed. This is a model of the ion source designed for the neutral beam injectors of ITER. This ion source has been developed in collaboration with JAERI, Japan, who also designed and supplied the ion source. Its target performance is to accelerate a D- beam, with a current density of 200 A/m2 and <1 electron extracted per accelerated D- ion, at a source filling pressure of 0.3 Pa. For ITER a continuous ion beam must be assured for pulse lengths of 1000 s, but beams of up to 3,600 s are also envisaged. The ion source is attached to a 3 grid 30 keV accelerator (also supplied by JAERI) and the accelerated negative ion current is determined from the energy deposited on a calorimeter. During long pulse operation (?1000 s) it was found that the current density of both D- and H- beams, measured at the calorimeter was lower than expected and that a large discrepancy existed between the accelerated currents measured electrically and those transmitted to the calorimeter. The possibility that this discrepancy arose because the accelerated current included electrons (which would not be able to reach the calorimeter) was investigated and subsequently eliminated. Further studies have shown that the fraction of the electrical current reaching the calorimeter varies with the pulse length, which led to the suggestion that one or more of the accelerator grids were distorting due to the incident power during operation, leading to a progressive deterioration in the beam quality.. New extraction and acceleration grids have been designed and installed, which should have a better tolerance to thermal loads than those previously used. This paper describes the measurements of the power transmission and distribution using these grids.

Boilson, D.; de Esch, H. P. L.; Grand, C.; Hemsworth, R. S.; Krylov, A.

2007-08-01

317

Measurement of sheath expansion in plasma source ion implantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In plasma source ion implantation (PSII), the temporal and spatial sheath evolution in terms of the applied negative pulse on a planar target was investigated using a Langmuir probe. Experiments revealed that the dynamic sheath consists of three parts with respect to the phases of the pulse. (i) An ion-matrix sheath expansion scaled with the square root of pulse rise

Young-Woo Kim; Gon-Ho Kim; Seunghee Han; Yeonhee Lee; Jeonghee Cho; Soo-Yong Rhee

2001-01-01

318

Neutral ion sources in precision manufacturing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ion figuring of optical components is a relatively new technology that can alleviate some of the problems associated with traditional contact polishing. Because the technique is non contacting, edge distortions and rib structure print through do not occur. This initial investigation was aimed at determining the effect of ion figuring on surface roughness of previously polished or ductile ground ceramic optical samples. This is the first step in research directed toward the combination of a pre-finishing process (ductile grinding or polishing) with ion figuring to produce finished ceramic mirrors. The second phase of the project is focusing on the development of mathematical algorithms that will deconvolve the ion beam profile from the surface figure errors so that these errors can be successfully removed from the optical components. In the initial phase of the project, multiple, chemical vapor deposited silicon carbide (CVD SiC) samples were polished or ductile ground to specular or near-specular roughness. These samples were then characterized to determine topographic surface information. The surface evaluation consisted of stylus profilometry, interferometry, and optical and scanning electron microscopy. The surfaces, were ion machined to depths from 0-5 microns. The finished surfaces were characterized to evaluate the effects of the ion machining process with respect to the previous processing methods and the pre-existing subsurface damage. The development of the control algorithms for figuring optical components has been completed. These algorithms have been validated with simulations and future experiments have been planned to verify the methods. This paper will present the results of the initial surface finish experiments and the control algorithms simulations.

Fawcett, Steven C.; Drueding, Thomas W.

1994-01-01

319

Laser-driven ion sources for metal ion implantation for the reduction of dry friction  

SciTech Connect

The anomalously high ion currents and very high ionization levels of laser-produced plasmas give laser-driven ion sources significant advantages over conventional ion sources. In particular, laser-driven ion sources should provide higher currents of metal ions at lower cost, for implantation into solids in order to improve their material properties such as friction. The energy and charge distributions for Pb and Sn ions produced by ablation of solid targets with {approx}25 J, {approx}300 ps iodine laser pulses, resulting in up to 48-times ionized MeV ions, as well as the optimization of focus position, are presented. Implantation of these ions into Ck-45 steel, without electrostatic acceleration, produced profiles with two regions. Almost all of the ions were implanted in a near surface region a few nm deep. However, a small but significant number of ions were implanted as deep as could be measured with Rutherford backscattering (RBS), here 150 nm for Sn and 250 nm for Pb. For the implanted ion densities and profiles achieved, no change in the coefficient of friction was measured for either ion.

Boody, F. P. [Fachhochschule Regensburg, Seybothstrasse 2, 93053 Regensburg (Germany); Juha, L. [Fachhochschule Regensburg, Seybothstrasse 2, 93053 Regensburg (Germany) and Institute of Physics, Academy Sciences of the Czech Republic, Na Slovance 2, 180 40 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Kralikova, B.; Krasa, J.; Laska, L.; Masek, K.; Pfeifer, M.; Rohlena, K.; Skala, J.; Straka, P. [Institute of Physics, Academy Sciences of the Czech Republic, Na Slovance 2, 180 40 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Perina, V. [Nuclear Physics Institute, Academy Sciences of the Czech Republic, 25068 Rez (Czech Republic); Woryna, E. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, 00908 Warsaw (Poland); Giersch, D. [BMW AG, 80788 Munich (Germany); Hoepfl, R. [Fachhochschule Deggendorf, Franz-Josef-Strauss-Str. 7, 94469 Deggendorf (Germany); Kelly, J. C.; Hora, H. [University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052 (Australia)

1997-04-15

320

Multiple species beam production on laser ion source for electron beam ion source in Brookhaven National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

Extracted ion beams from the test laser ion source (LIS) were transported through a test beam transport line which is almost identical to the actual primary beam transport in the current electron beam ion source apparatus. The tested species were C, Al, Si, Cr, Fe, Cu, Ag, Ta, and Au. The all measured beam currents fulfilled the requirements. However, in the case of light mass ions, the recorded emittance shapes have larger aberrations and the RMS values are higher than 0.06 ??mm?mrad, which is the design goal. Since we have margin to enhance the beam current, if we then allow some beam losses at the injection point, the number of the single charged ions within the acceptance can be supplied. For heaver ions like Ag, Ta, and Au, the LIS showed very good performance.

Sekine, M., E-mail: sekine.m.ae@m.titech.ac.jp [Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro, Tokyo (Japan); Riken, Wako, Saitama (Japan); Ikeda, S. [Riken, Wako, Saitama (Japan) [Riken, Wako, Saitama (Japan); Department of Energy Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan); Hayashizaki, N. [Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro, Tokyo (Japan)] [Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro, Tokyo (Japan); Kanesue, T.; Okamura, M. [Collider-Accelerator Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States)] [Collider-Accelerator Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States)

2014-02-15

321

Multiple species beam production on laser ion source for electron beam ion source in Brookhaven National Laboratory.  

PubMed

Extracted ion beams from the test laser ion source (LIS) were transported through a test beam transport line which is almost identical to the actual primary beam transport in the current electron beam ion source apparatus. The tested species were C, Al, Si, Cr, Fe, Cu, Ag, Ta, and Au. The all measured beam currents fulfilled the requirements. However, in the case of light mass ions, the recorded emittance shapes have larger aberrations and the RMS values are higher than 0.06 ??mm?mrad, which is the design goal. Since we have margin to enhance the beam current, if we then allow some beam losses at the injection point, the number of the single charged ions within the acceptance can be supplied. For heaver ions like Ag, Ta, and Au, the LIS showed very good performance. PMID:24593625

Sekine, M; Ikeda, S; Hayashizaki, N; Kanesue, T; Okamura, M

2014-02-01

322

Heavy-ion sources for radiation therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The usefulness of particle beams for radiation therapy has been well and widely recognized. For the cure of cancer patients, many accelerator facilities have already been utilized, and some new facilities are now being put into operation, or are under construction. Considering the medical and biological requirements, light heavy ions with an energy of several hundred MeV\\/nucleon are regarded as

Y. Sato; A. Kitagawa; H. Ogawa; S. Yamada

1994-01-01

323

Ion sources for energy extremes of ion implantation (invited)a)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the past four years a joint research and development effort designed to develop steady state, intense ion sources has been in progress with the ultimate goal to develop ion sources and techniques that meet the two energy extreme range needs of meV and hundreads of eV ion implanters. This endeavor has already resulted in record steady state output currents of high charge state of antimony and phosphorus ions: P2+ [8.6pmA (particle milliampere)], P3+ (1.9pmA), and P4+ (0.12pmA) and 16.2, 7.6, 3.3, and 2.2pmA of Sb3+Sb4+, Sb5+, and Sb6+ respectively. For low energy ion implantation, our efforts involve molecular ions and a novel plasmaless/gasless deceleration method. To date, 1emA (electrical milliampere) of positive decaborane ions was extracted at 10keV and smaller currents of negative decaborane ions were also extracted. Additionally, boron current fraction of over 70% was extracted from a Bernas-Calutron ion source, which represents a factor of 3.5 improvement over currently employed ion sources.

Hershcovitch, A.; Johnson, B. M.; Batalin, V. A.; Kropachev, G. N.; Kuibeda, R. P.; Kulevoy, T. V.; Kolomiets, A. A.; Pershin, V. I.; Petrenko, S. V.; Rudskoy, I.; Seleznev, D. N.; Bugaev, A. S.; Gushenets, V. I.; Litovko, I. V.; Oks, E. M.; Yushkov, G. Yu.; Masunov, E. S.; Polozov, S. M.; Poole, H. J.; Storozhenko, P. A.; Svarovski, A. Ya.

2008-02-01

324

DUHOCAMIS: a dual hollow cathode ion source for metal ion beams.  

PubMed

In this paper we describe a novel ion source named DUHOCAMIS for multiply charged metal ion beams. This ion source is derived from the hot cathode Penning ion gauge ion source (JINR, Dubna, 1957). A notable characteristic is the modified Penning geometry in the form of a hollow sputter electrode, coaxially positioned in a compact bottle-magnetic field along the central magnetic line of force. The interaction of the discharge geometry with the inhomogeneous but symmetrical magnetic field enables this device to be operated as hollow cathode discharge and Penning discharge as well. The main features of the ion source are the very high metal ion efficiency (up to 25%), good operational reproducibility, flexible and efficient operations for low charged as well as highly charged ions, compact setup, and easy maintenance. For light ions, e.g., up to titanium, well-collimated beams in the range of several tens of milliamperes of pulsed ion current (1 ms, 10/s) have been reliably performed in long time runs. PMID:18315181

Zhao, W J; Müller, M W O; Janik, J; Liu, K X; Ren, X T

2008-02-01

325

Advanced light ion source extraction system for a new electron cyclotron resonance ion source geometry at Saclay.  

PubMed

One of the main goal of intense light ion injector projects such as IPHI, IFMIF, or SPIRAL2, is to produce high current beams while keeping transverse emittance as low as possible. To prevent emittance growth induced in a dual solenoid low energy transfer line, its length has to be minimized. This can be performed with the advanced light ion source extraction system concept that we are developing: a new ECR 2.45 GHz type ion source based on the use of an additional low energy beam transport (LEBT) short length solenoid close to the extraction aperture to create the resonance in the plasma chamber. The geometry of the source has been considerably modified to allow easy maintenance of each component and to save space in front of the extraction. The source aims to be very flexible and to be able to extract high current ion beams at energy up to 100 kV. A specific experimental setup for this source is under installation on the BETSI test bench, to compare its performances with sources developed up to now in the laboratory, such as SILHI, IFMIF, or SPIRAL2 ECR sources. This original extraction source concept is presented, as well as electromagnetic simulations with OPERA-2D code. Ion beam extraction in space charge compensation regime with AXCEL, and beam dynamics simulation with SOLMAXP codes show the beam quality improvement at the end of the LEBT. PMID:22380154

Delferrière, O; Gobin, R; Harrault, F; Nyckees, S; Sauce, Y; Tuske, O

2012-02-01

326

Characterization of phosphorus liquid-metal ion source as a dopant source in focused ion beam systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Characteristics of a phosphorus liquid-metal ion source (LMIS) for use in focused ion beam systems was investigated because of its potential as an n-type dopant for integrated circuit device fabrication. A continuous lifetime of more than 33 h was recorded as a part of the source stability measurement. Short-term stability measurements indicated a very stable beam emission during its operation.

R. H. Higuchi-Rusli; J. C. Corelli

1988-01-01

327

Multicharged iron ions produced by using induction heating vapor source  

SciTech Connect

Multiply charged Fe ions are produced from solid pure material in an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source. We develop an evaporator by using induction heating with an induction coil which is made of bare molybdenum wire partially covered by ceramic beads in vacuum and surrounding and heating directly the pure Fe rod. Heated material has no contact with insulators, so that outgas is minimized. The evaporator is installed around the mirror end plate outside of the ECR plasma with its hole grazing the ECR zone. Helium or argon gas is usually chosen for supporting gas. The multicharged Fe ions up to Fe{sup 13+} are extracted from the opposite side of mirror and against the evaporator, and then multicharged Fe ion beam is formed. We compare production of multicharged iron ions by using this new source with our previous methods.

Kato, Yushi; Kubo, Takashi; Muramatsu, Masayuki; Tanaka, Kiyokatsu; Kitagawa, Atsushi; Yoshida, Yoshikazu; Asaji, Toyohisa; Sato, Fuminobu; Iida, Toshiyuki [Division of Electrical, Electronic and Information Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita-shi, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555, Japan and Department of Mechanical Engineering, Toyo University, 2100 Kuzirai, Kawagoe-shi, Saitama (Japan); Tateyama Machine Co., Ltd., Tateyama Kagaku Group, 30 Shimonoban, Toyama 930-1305 (Japan); National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Toyo University, 2100 Kuzirai, Kawagoe-shi, Saitama (Japan); Tateyama Machine Co., Ltd., Tateyama Kagaku Group, 30 Shimonoban, Toyama 930-1305 (Japan); Division of Electrical, Electronic and Information Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita-shi, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

2008-02-15

328

Modeling metallic nanoparticle synthesis in a magnetron-based nanocluster source by gas condensation of a sputtered vapor  

SciTech Connect

Copper nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by inert-gas condensation of a sputtered metallic vapor using a dedicated commercial reactor. By controlling the time of residence of NPs in the carrier gas phase via the tuning of the collision path length, Cu NPs were produced. They exhibit various and well controlled diameters (3-10 nm) and a relatively narrow size dispersion. On the basis of these experimental results, a detailed modeling of NP nucleation and growth based on the classical nucleation theory was developed. It takes into account the peculiar geometry and thermal profile of the NP reactor. The simulated curves, calculated by a MATLAB program developed for that purpose, exhibit a good qualitative agreement with experiment. Moreover, they highlight the role of process parameters and the strong influence of the reactor temperature profile on the NP size distribution. In the future, such calculations could be used for the optimization of the NP source design in order to increase its efficiency and reproducibility.

Quesnel, E; Pauliac-Vaujour, E; Muffato, V [CEA-G/DRT/LITEN/DTNM, rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

2010-03-15

329

Sources of polarized negative ions: progress and prospects  

SciTech Connect

A summary of recent progress in the art of producing beams of polarized ions is given. In all sources of polarized ions, one first produces (or selects) neutral atoms which are polarized in electron spin. Those types of sources which use a beam of thermal polarized hydrogen atoms are discussed. Progress made in the preparation of the atomic beam and the methods used to convert the neutral atoms to polarized ions is summarized. The second type of source discussed is based on fast (keV) polarized hydrogen atoms. Conversion to negative ions is very simple because one only needs to pass the fast atoms through a suitable charge exchange medium (gas or vapor). However, the production of the polarized atoms is more difficult in this case. The proposal to employ polarized alkali vapor to form a beam of polarized fast H atoms, where the polarized alkali atoms are produced either by an atomic beam apparatus or by optical pumping is discussed. (WHK)

Haeberli, W.

1980-01-01

330

Simple Penning ion source for laboratory research and development applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple Penning ion generator (PIG) that can be easily fabricated with simple machining skills and standard laboratory accessories is described. The PIG source uses an iron cathode body, samarium cobalt permanent magnet, stainless steel anode, and iron cathode faceplate to generate a plasma discharge that yields a continuous 1mA beam of positively charged hydrogen ions at 1mTorr of pressure. This operating condition requires 5.4kV and 32.4W of power. Operation with helium is similar to hydrogen. The ion source is being designed and investigated for use in a sealed-tube neutron generator; however, this ion source is thoroughly described so that it can be easily implemented by other researchers for other laboratory research and development applications.

Rovey, Joshua L.; Ruzic, Brandon P.; Houlahan, Thomas J.

2007-10-01

331

Erosion of Extraction Electrodes of Ion Sources due to Sputtering  

SciTech Connect

The effects upon erosion due to implanted atoms in extraction electrodes of an ion source have been investigated through calculating the sputtering yields with a Monte Carlo simulation code, ACAT. The results obtained with ACAT have indicated that the sputtering yields of extraction electrodes are substantially affected by the retention of implanted atoms depending upon the mass ratio of electrode materials and extracted ions from the source plasma. The enhanced erosion takes place as the heavier ion beam species like phosphor is implanted into lighter electrode material like carbon. Additional mixing of materials arising from ion source operation, such as hot cathode materials evaporation onto a carbon extraction electrode, can shorten the lifetime of the extraction electrodes.

Kenmotsu, Takahiro; Wada, Motoi [Doshisha University Kyotanabe, Kyoto, 610-0394 (Japan); Miyamoto, Naoki [Nissin Ion Equipment Co. Ltd, Minamiku, Kyoto, 610-0332 (Japan)

2011-01-07

332

Simple Penning ion source for laboratory research and development applications.  

PubMed

A simple Penning ion generator (PIG) that can be easily fabricated with simple machining skills and standard laboratory accessories is described. The PIG source uses an iron cathode body, samarium cobalt permanent magnet, stainless steel anode, and iron cathode faceplate to generate a plasma discharge that yields a continuous 1 mA beam of positively charged hydrogen ions at 1 mTorr of pressure. This operating condition requires 5.4 kV and 32.4 W of power. Operation with helium is similar to hydrogen. The ion source is being designed and investigated for use in a sealed-tube neutron generator; however, this ion source is thoroughly described so that it can be easily implemented by other researchers for other laboratory research and development applications. PMID:17979457

Rovey, Joshua L; Ruzic, Brandon P; Houlahan, Thomas J

2007-10-01

333

Magnetron magnetic priming for rapid startup and noise reduction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnetron is a vacuum electronics crossed-field device: perpendicular electric and magnetic fields determine the electron dynamics. Compactness, efficiency and reliability make magnetrons suitable for a wide range of military and civilian applications: radar, industrial heating, plasma sources, and medical accelerators. The most ubiquitous use of magnetrons is as the microwave power source in microwave ovens, operating at 2.45 GHz and delivering about 800--1000 W. University of Michigan and several other research programs are actively pursuing the development of GW range relativistic magnetrons. This dissertation presents experimental and computational results concerning innovative techniques to improve magnetron noise, startup and mode stability. The DC-operated oven magnetron studies performed at University of Michigan opened new directions by utilizing azimuthally varying magnetic fields (magnetic priming). Magnetic priming for rapid startup in an N-cavity magnetron operating in the pi-mode is based on implementation of an axial magnetic field with N/2 azimuthal periods, to prebunch the electrons in the desired number of spokes (N/2). Experiments with magnetic priming on DC oven magnetrons using perturbing magnets added on the upper existing magnet of the magnetron showed rapid startup (pi-mode oscillation observed at low currents) and up to 35 dB noise reduction (close to the carrier and in sidebands). A complex 3-dimensional (3D) ICEPIC computational model recovered the oven magnetron magnetic priming experimental results: rapid electron prebunching due to presence of perturbing magnets, fast startup and tendency towards a lower noise state. Simulations in 6-cavity relativistic magnetrons show that ideal magnetic priming causes fast startup, rapid mode growth (with radial electron diffusion) and suppression of mode competition. A highly idealized model (planar, crossed-field, non-resonant, non-relativistic structure) using single particle dynamics showed that magnetic priming causes rapid electron prebunching, specific symmetries in the electron cloud and an orbital parametric instability (radial exponential growth).

Neculaes, Vasile Bogdan

334

Flow of nanosize cluster-containing plasma in a magnetron discharge  

SciTech Connect

A magnetron source of silver clusters captured by an argon flow with the quadrupole mass filter is used for the analysis of charged clusters after an orifice of the magnetron chamber, and the size distribution function follows from the analysis of clusters deposited on a silicon substrate by an atomic force microscope. Cluster charge near an orifice results from attachment of ions of a secondary plasma that is a tail of a magnetron plasma, and the cluster charge is mostly positive. The character of passage of a buffer gas flow with metal clusters through an orifice is studied both theoretically and experimentally. Assuming the cone shape of the drift chamber near the orifice, we analyze drift of charged clusters in a buffer gas flow towards the orifice if the electric field inside the drift chamber is created by charged rings on the cone surface. Under experimental conditions, when an equilibrium between the buffer gas flow and cluster flux is violated, a typical voltage of rings and parameters of corona discharge for cluster charging are estimated if the electric field does not allow for clusters to reach walls of the drift chamber. The number density of clusters near the orifice is estimated that increases both due to violation of an equilibrium for the cluster flux inside the buffer gas flow and owing to focusing of the cluster by the electric field that is created by electrodes located near walls and due to diffusion motion of clusters. Processes of cluster charging in the magnetron chamber are analyzed.

Smirnov, Boris M. [Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences, Izhorskaya 13/19, Moscow 125412 (Russian Federation); Shyjumon, Ibrahimkutty; Hippler, Rainer [Institut fuer Physik, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universitaet Greifswald, Felix-Hausdorff-Strasse 6, 17489 Greifswald (Germany)

2007-06-15

335

Development of solid surface modification technologies on the base of magnetron plasma sources in Nuclear Physics Institute of Tomsk Polytechnic University  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research was carried out aiming at development of technologies and industrial scale equipment for processing of large area sheet materials using magnetron sputtering systems (MSS). The properties of MSS with cylindrical and planar diodes, and with cathodes made from various materials, were investigated. The problems of their calculation and design, volt-ampere characteristics, emissive properties, and role of gas medium, were

Petr Ananin; Oleg Asainov; Galina Bleikher; Sergey Zubarev; Lev Kositsyn; Valery Krivibokov; Oleg Kuzmin; Victor Legostaev; Anatoly Padusenko; Oleg Paschenko; Dmitry Rychkov; Sergey Yanin

2000-01-01

336

Electron source for a mini ion trap mass spectrometer  

DOEpatents

An ion trap which operates in the regime between research ion traps which can detect ions with a mass resolution of better than 1:10.sup.9 and commercial mass spectrometers requiring 10.sup.4 ions with resolutions of a few hundred. The power consumption is kept to a minimum by the use of permanent magnets and a novel electron gun design. By Fourier analyzing the ion cyclotron resonance signals induced in the trap electrodes, a complete mass spectra in a single combined structure can be detected. An attribute of the ion trap mass spectrometer is that overall system size is drastically reduced due to combining a unique electron source and mass analyzer/detector in a single device. This enables portable low power mass spectrometers for the detection of environmental pollutants or illicit substances, as well as sensors for on board diagnostics to monitor engine performance or for active feedback in any process involving exhausting waste products.

Dietrich, Daniel D. (Livermore, CA); Keville, Robert F. (Valley Springs, CA)

1995-01-01

337

Electron source for a mini ion trap mass spectrometer  

DOEpatents

An ion trap is described which operates in the regime between research ion traps which can detect ions with a mass resolution of better than 1:10{sup 9} and commercial mass spectrometers requiring 10{sup 4} ions with resolutions of a few hundred. The power consumption is kept to a minimum by the use of permanent magnets and a novel electron gun design. By Fourier analyzing the ion cyclotron resonance signals induced in the trap electrodes, a complete mass spectra in a single combined structure can be detected. An attribute of the ion trap mass spectrometer is that overall system size is drastically reduced due to combining a unique electron source and mass analyzer/detector in a single device. This enables portable low power mass spectrometers for the detection of environmental pollutants or illicit substances, as well as sensors for on board diagnostics to monitor engine performance or for active feedback in any process involving exhausting waste products. 10 figs.

Dietrich, D.D.; Keville, R.F.

1995-12-19

338

Prototype negative-ion sources for radioactive ion-beam generation  

SciTech Connect

Radioactive ion beams (RIBs) of {sup 17}F and {sup 18}F are of interest for investigation of astrophysical phenomena such as the {open_quotes}hot{close_quotes} CNO cycle and the rp stellar nuclear synthesis processes. In order to generate useful beam intensities of atomic F{sup {minus}}, the species must be efficiently and expediently released from the target material, thermally dissociated from fluoride release products during transport to the ionization chamber of the ion source, and efficiently ionized in the source upon arrival. We have conceived and evaluated two prototype negative-ion sources for potential use for RIB generation: (1) a direct extraction source and (2) a kinetic-ejection source. Both sources utilize Cs vapor to enhance F{sup {minus}} formation. The mechanical design features, operational parameters, ionization efficiencies for forming atomic F{sup {minus}}, and delay times for transport of F and fluoride compounds for the respective sources are presented. The efficiency {eta} for formation and extraction of F{sup {minus}} for the direct extraction negative-ion source is found to be {eta}{approximately}1.0{percent} while the characteristic delay time {tau} for transport of F and fluorides through the source is, typically, {eta}{approximately}120thinsps; the analogous efficiencies and delay times for the kinetic ejection negative-ion source are, respectively: {eta}={approximately}3.2{percent} and {tau}={approximately}70thinsps. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

Alton, G.D. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6368 (United States)] [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6368 (United States); Welton, R.F.; Williams, C. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6368 (United States)] [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6368 (United States); [Oak Ridge Institute of Science and Engineering, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6368 (United States); Cui, B. [China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing (China)] [China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing (China); Murray, S.N. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6368 (United States)] [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6368 (United States)

1998-06-01

339

Characterization of TRIUMF dc H- ion sources for enhanced brightness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At TRIUMF, H- ion sources have been characterized on a teststand to improve the understanding of their performance. Measured beam characteristics such as current, emittance, and e /H- ratio were correlated with source conditions as a function of relevant plasma parameters. Plasma densities, temperatures, and plasma potentials were measured with a Langmuir probe and correlated with beam properties for different confining magnetic fields and different values of arc power and gas pressure. The mechanism of beam extraction was studied by correlating plasma potential profiles with the corresponding plasma electrode bias voltages obtained from optimizing ion source outputs. Experiments with collar biasing and noble gas mixing were unsuccessful because of undesirable plasma potential profiles.

Hwang, Y. S.; Cojocaru, G.; Yuan, D.; McDonald, M.; Jayamanna, K.; Kim, G. H.; Dutto, G.

2006-03-01

340

Ion source metal-arc fault current protection circuit  

SciTech Connect

Ion sources can be damaged by arcs between metallic components of the source if these arcs are permitted to last. The negative-biased low-work-function converter in a surface conversion negative ion source is especially susceptible to metal-arc breakdown damage. Here an electronic circuit for minimizing the damage caused by such an arc is described. The circuit uses a transistor switch and an inductor in series with the converter bias power supply to limit the damage during the metal-arc breakdown.

deVries, G.J.; Lietzke, A.F.; van Os, C.F.A.; Stearns, J.W. (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California (USA))

1991-12-01

341

RECRIS-Romanian ECR ion source: Performances and experimental developments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 14 GHz electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source—RECRIS, developed at the National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (IFIN-HH) in Bucharest, Romania is presented. The source is conceived as a facility for atomic physics and material studies. The main constructive characteristics and performances of RECRIS are presented. The construction has some original characteristics: modular construction allowing simple dismounting and modification of the inner parts, high extraction voltage, up to 50 kV, and the possibility to use some techniques to enhance the performances, such as a biased disk, mixing gas, and others. The source is provided with a 90° analyzing magnet and with experimental devices and are presented as well. The main experimental device connected to the ECR ion source is a highly sensitive and wide mass range time-of-flight mass spectrometer for recoil ions.

Dobrescu, S.; Schachter, L.

2002-02-01

342

An all permanent magnet electron cyclotron resonance ion source for heavy ion therapy  

SciTech Connect

A high charge state all permanent Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source, Lanzhou All Permanent ECR ion source no. 3-LAPECR3, has been successfully built at IMP in 2012, which will serve as the ion injector of the Heavy Ion Medical Machine (HIMM) project. As a commercial device, LAPECR3 features a compact structure, small size, and low cost. According to HIMM scenario more than 100 e?A of C{sup 5+} ion beam should be extracted from the ion source, and the beam emittance better than 75 ?*mm*mrad. In recent commissioning, about 120 e?A of C{sup 5+} ion beam was got when work gas was CH{sub 4} while about 262 e?A of C{sup 5+} ion beam was obtained when work gas was C{sub 2}H{sub 2} gas. The design and construction of the ion source and its low-energy transportation beam line, and the preliminary commissioning results will be presented in detail in this paper.

Cao, Yun, E-mail: caoyun@impcas.ac.cn; Li, Jia Qing; Sun, Liang Ting; Zhang, Xue Zhen; Feng, Yu Cheng; Wang, Hui; Ma, Bao Hua; Li, Xi Xia [Institute of Modern Physics, CAS, Lanzhou 730000 (China)] [Institute of Modern Physics, CAS, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

2014-02-15

343

An all permanent magnet electron cyclotron resonance ion source for heavy ion therapy.  

PubMed

A high charge state all permanent Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source, Lanzhou All Permanent ECR ion source no. 3-LAPECR3, has been successfully built at IMP in 2012, which will serve as the ion injector of the Heavy Ion Medical Machine (HIMM) project. As a commercial device, LAPECR3 features a compact structure, small size, and low cost. According to HIMM scenario more than 100 e?A of C(5+) ion beam should be extracted from the ion source, and the beam emittance better than 75 ?*mm*mrad. In recent commissioning, about 120 e?A of C(5+) ion beam was got when work gas was CH4 while about 262 e?A of C(5+) ion beam was obtained when work gas was C2H2 gas. The design and construction of the ion source and its low-energy transportation beam line, and the preliminary commissioning results will be presented in detail in this paper. PMID:24593539

Cao, Yun; Li, Jia Qing; Sun, Liang Ting; Zhang, Xue Zhen; Feng, Yu Cheng; Wang, Hui; Ma, Bao Hua; Li, Xi Xia

2014-02-01

344

Recent advances in high current vacuum arc ion sources for heavy ion fusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For a heavy ion fusion induction linac driver, a source of heavy ions with charge states 1+-3+, ?0.5 A current beams, ?20 ?s pulse widths and ˜10 Hz repetition rates is required. Thermionic sources have been the workhorse for the Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) program to date, but suffer from heating problems for large areas and contamination. They are limited to low (contact) ionization potential elements and offer relatively low ion fluxes with a charge state limited to 1+. Gas injection sources suffer from partial ionization and deleterious neutral gas effects. The above shortcomings of the thermionic ion sources can be overcome by a vacuum arc ion source. The vacuum arc ion source is a good candidate for HIF applications. It is capable of providing ions of various elements and different charge states in short and long pulse bursts and high beam current density. Under a Phase-I STTR from DOE, the feasibility of the vacuum arc ion source for the HIF applications was investigated. We have modified an existing vacuum arc ion source at LBNL to produce a gadolinium ( A?158) ion beam with >0.5 A beam current, 120 keV beam energy, ?6 cm diameter extraction aperture and ?20 ?s pulse width. The average beam current density at the extraction grids was ?17 mA/cm 2. We have measured that >85% Gd ions were in the 3+ charge state, the beam current fluctuation level (rms) was ?3%, pulse-to-pulse variation of the beam (rms) was about 3%, the uniformity of the beam density over its 6 cm diameter was ?98% and the ion longitudinal energy spread was ?1%. Additional measurements were made to improve charge state purity by using other materials and employing an axial magnetic field close to the cathode. Yttrium ( A?89), lead ( A?207), and Ba ( A?137) were tested at similar current parameters with Ba delivering nearly a pure charge state with >95% being in 2+ state. The results of the experiments indicate that the vacuum arc ion source is a good candidate for HIF applications.

Qi, Niansheng; Schein, Jochen; Prasad, Rahul R.; Krishnan, Mahadevan; Anders, Andre; Kwan, Joe; Brown, Ian

2001-05-01

345

Development of ion beams for space effects testing using an ECR ion source  

SciTech Connect

At LBNL's 88-Inch Cyclotron and Berkeley Accelerator Space Effects (BASE) Facility, a range of ion beams at energies from 1 to 55 MeV/nucleon are used for radiation space effects testing. By bombarding a component with ion beams the radiation component of the space environment can be simulated and single event effects (SEEs) determined. The performance of electronic components used in space flight and high altitude aircraft can then be evaluated. The 88- Inch Cyclotron is coupled to the three electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECR, AECR-U, VENUS). These ion sources provide a variety of ion species, ranging from protons to heavy ions such as bismuth, for these tests. In particular the ion sources have been developed to provide {sup c}ocktails{sup ,} a mixture of ions of similar mass-to-charge ratio, which can be simultaneously injected into the cyclotron, but selectively extracted from it. The ions differ in both their linear energy transfer (LET) deposited to the part and in their penetration depth into the tested part. The current heavy ion cocktails available are the 4.5, 10, 16, and 30 MeV per nucleon.

Benitez, Janilee; Hodgkinson, Adrian; Johnson, Mike; Loew, Tim; Lyneis, Claude; Phair, Larry [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Lab One Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

2013-04-19

346

Development of ion beams for space effects testing using an ECR ion source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At LBNL's 88-Inch Cyclotron and Berkeley Accelerator Space Effects (BASE) Facility, a range of ion beams at energies from 1 to 55 MeV/nucleon are used for radiation space effects testing. By bombarding a component with ion beams the radiation component of the space environment can be simulated and single event effects (SEEs) determined. The performance of electronic components used in space flight and high altitude aircraft can then be evaluated. The 88- Inch Cyclotron is coupled to the three electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECR, AECR-U, VENUS). These ion sources provide a variety of ion species, ranging from protons to heavy ions such as bismuth, for these tests. In particular the ion sources have been developed to provide "cocktails", a mixture of ions of similar mass-to-charge ratio, which can be simultaneously injected into the cyclotron, but selectively extracted from it. The ions differ in both their linear energy transfer (LET) deposited to the part and in their penetration depth into the tested part. The current heavy ion cocktails available are the 4.5, 10, 16, and 30 MeV per nucleon.

Benitez, Janilee; Hodgkinson, Adrian; Johnson, Mike; Loew, Tim; Lyneis, Claude; Phair, Larry

2013-04-01

347

RF Driven Multicusp H- Ion Source  

SciTech Connect

An rf driven multicusp source capable of generating 1-ms H{sup -} beam pulses with a repetition rate as high as 150 Hz has been developed. This source can be operated with a filament or other types of starter. There is almost no lifetime limitation and a clean plasma can be maintained for a long period of operation. It is demonstrated that rf power as high as 25 kW could be coupled inductively to the plasma via a glass-coated copper-coil antenna. The extracted H{sup -} current density achieved is about 200 mA/cm{sup 2}.

Leung, K.N.; DeVries, G.J.; DiVergilio, W.F.; Hamm, R.W.; Hauck, C.A.; Kunkel, W.B.; McDonald, D.S.; Williams, M.D.

1990-06-01

348

Tungsten nanostructure formation in a magnetron sputtering device  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

He+ ion induced tungsten nanostructure (tungsten fuzz) has been created for the first time in a magnetron sputtering device. The nanostructure was formed on a W substrate facing the target, the sample surface temperature was held at 1000 K, with an incident ion energy of 56.5 eV, and a helium ion fluence of 2.4 × 1024 m-2.

Petty, T. J.; Bradley, J. W.

2014-10-01

349

Improving a gas ion source for 14C AMS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For more than 4 years, gaseous samples of 1-50 ?g carbon have been routinely measured with the gas ion source of the small AMS (Accelerator Mass Spectrometer) facility MICADAS (MIni CArbon DAting System) at ETH Zurich. The applied measurement technique offers a simple and fast way of 14C measurements without the need of sample graphitization. A major drawback of gaseous 14C measurements, however, is the relatively low negative ion current, which results in longer measurement times and lower precision compared to graphitized samples. In December 2009, a new, improved Cs sputter ion source was installed at MICADAS and we began to optimize conditions for the measurement of gaseous samples. 12C- currents from the new ion source were improved from initially 3 to 12-15 ?A for routine measurements and the negative ion yield was increased by a factor of 2, reaching 8% on average during routine operation. Moreover, the new measurement settings enable a doubled CO2 flow, thus substantially reducing measurement times. The achieved performance allows closing the sample size gap between gaseous and solid samples and makes the gas ion source a promising tool for dating with a measurement precision of 5‰ on samples as small as 50 ?g carbon.

Fahrni, S. M.; Wacker, L.; Synal, H.-A.; Szidat, S.

2013-01-01

350

Volume H{sup {minus}} ion source development at LAMPF  

SciTech Connect

One method of increasing the intensity of the LAMPF proton Storage Ring is to use a brighter H{sup {minus}} ion source. To develop such a source, the performance of the small LBL dipole filter and the BNL toroidal filter volume H{sup {minus}} sources are being investigated. Results of testing a new high-duty-factor design of the BNL toroidal filter volume source are discussed. Results of experiments to reduce the electron to H{sup {minus}} ratio and modulate the beam intensity in the small LBL source are presented.

York, R.L.; Tupa, D.; Swenson, D.R.; Damjanovich, R.

1993-06-01

351

The status of the Electron Beam Ion Sources  

SciTech Connect

More than twenty years after its invention, 13 examples of the Electron Beam Ion Sources (EBIS) are in operation worldwide. The substantial progress in operation and insight, achieved over the last few years, made the EBISes become reliable tools for the production of beams of very highly charged, low-energy ions. For example, 8 EBISes produce bare argon on a standard basis. The successful production of hydrogen-like xenon presents the ions with the highest ionization energy, whereas the production of Th80+ presents the highest achieved charge state. Several synchrotrons are fed by EBIS injectors, taking advantage of the EBIS batch mode production, which yields the highest charge states. A few EBISes are used for ion source development. However, most of the EBISes' efforts are directed to research the physics of highly charged ions. Some of those are used to study the electron--ion interaction inside the source. But normally, most EBISes deliver the ions for external experiments, which so far concentrate on the recombination of the highly charged ions with atoms, molecules and surfaces. The ions are typically produced at a potential of 1 to a few kilovolts per charge; but in most cases, the EBIS is mounted on a high voltage platform or is followed by an RFQ, and therefore can generate ion energies from a few hundred volts up to a few hundred kilovolts per charge. The delivered beams have a low emittance and a low energy spread, which is an advantage for high-resolution experiments. This paper presents briefly all operational EBISes, their capabilities, their achievements, and their contribution to physics research. 5 figs., 1 tab., 59 refs.

Stockli, M.P.

1990-01-01

352

The status of the Electron Beam Ion Sources  

SciTech Connect

More than twenty years after its invention, 13 examples of the Electron Beam Ion Sources (EBIS) are in operation worldwide. The substantial progress in operation and insight, achieved over the last few years, made the EBISes become reliable tools for the production of beams of very highly charged, low-energy ions. For example, 8 EBISes produce bare argon on a standard basis. The successful production of hydrogen-like xenon presents the ions with the highest ionization energy, whereas the production of Th80+ presents the highest achieved charge state. Several synchrotrons are fed by EBIS injectors, taking advantage of the EBIS batch mode production, which yields the highest charge states. A few EBISes are used for ion source development. However, most of the EBISes` efforts are directed to research the physics of highly charged ions. Some of those are used to study the electron--ion interaction inside the source. But normally, most EBISes deliver the ions for external experiments, which so far concentrate on the recombination of the highly charged ions with atoms, molecules and surfaces. The ions are typically produced at a potential of 1 to a few kilovolts per charge; but in most cases, the EBIS is mounted on a high voltage platform or is followed by an RFQ, and therefore can generate ion energies from a few hundred volts up to a few hundred kilovolts per charge. The delivered beams have a low emittance and a low energy spread, which is an advantage for high-resolution experiments. This paper presents briefly all operational EBISes, their capabilities, their achievements, and their contribution to physics research. 5 figs., 1 tab., 59 refs.

Stockli, M.P.

1990-12-31

353

A Test Stand for Ion Sources of Ultimate Reliability  

SciTech Connect

The rationale behind the ITUR project is to perform a comparison between different kinds of H{sup -} ion sources using the same beam diagnostics setup. In particular, a direct comparison will be made in terms of the emittance characteristics of Penning Type sources such as those currently in use in the injector for the ISIS (UK) Pulsed Neutron Source and those of volumetric type such as that driving the injector for the ORNL Spallation Neutron Source (TN, U.S.A.). The endeavour here pursued is thus to build an Ion Source Test Stand where virtually any type of source can be tested and its features measured and, thus compared to the results of other sources under the same gauge. It would be possible then to establish a common ground for effectively comparing different ion sources. The long term objectives are thus to contribute towards building compact sources of minimum emittance, maximum performance, high reliability-availability, high percentage of desired particle production, stability and high brightness. The project consortium is lead by Tekniker-IK4 research centre and partners are companies Elytt Energy and Jema Group. The technical viability is guaranteed by the collaboration between the project consortium and several scientific institutions, such the CSIC (Spain), the University of the Basque Country (Spain), ISIS (STFC-UK), SNS (ORNL-USA) and CEA in Saclay (France)

Enparantza, R.; Uriarte, L.; Romano, P.; Alonso, J.; Ariz, I.; Egiraun, M. [Fundacion Tekniker-IK4, Eibar (Spain); Bermejo, F. J.; Etxebarria, V. [University of the Basque Country, Dpt. Electricity and Electronics, Leioa, Spain, and Consejo Superior de Investgaciones Cientificas, Inst. Estructura de la Materia (Spain); Lucas, J. [Elytt Energy, Portugalete (Spain); Del Rio, J. M. [Jema Group, Lasarte (Spain); Letchford, A.; Faircloth, D. [ISIS Accelerator Division, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot (United Kingdom); Stockli, M. [Spallation Neutron Source, Oak Ridge National Lab, Oak Ridge (United States)

2009-03-12

354

A Test Stand for Ion Sources of Ultimate Reliability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rationale behind the ITUR project is to perform a comparison between different kinds of H? ion sources using the same beam diagnostics setup. In particular, a direct comparison will be made in terms of the emittance characteristics of Penning Type sources such as those currently in use in the injector for the ISIS (UK) Pulsed Neutron Source and those of volumetric type such as that driving the injector for the ORNL Spallation Neutron Source (TN, U.S.A.). The endeavour here pursued is thus to build an Ion Source Test Stand where virtually any type of source can be tested and its features measured and, thus compared to the results of other sources under the same gauge. It would be possible then to establish a common ground for effectively comparing different ion sources. The long term objectives are thus to contribute towards building compact sources of minimum emittance, maximum performance, high reliability-availability, high percentage of desired particle production, stability and high brightness. The project consortium is lead by Tekniker-IK4 research centre and partners are companies Elytt Energy and Jema Group. The technical viability is guaranteed by the collaboration between the project consortium and several scientific institutions, such the CSIC (Spain), the University of the Basque Country (Spain), ISIS (STFC-UK), SNS (ORNL-USA) and CEA in Saclay (France).

Enparantza, R.; Uriarte, L.; Bermejo, F. J.; Etxebarria, V.; Lucas, J.; Del Rio, J. M.; Letchford, A.; Faircloth, D.; Stockli, M.; Romano, P.; Alonso, J.; Ariz, I.; Egiraun, M.

2009-03-01

355

Electron energy recovery system for negative ion sources  

DOEpatents

An electron energy recovery system for negative ion sources is provided. The system, employs crossed electric and magnetic fields to separate the electrons from ions as they are extracted from a negative ion source plasma generator and before the ions are accelerated to their full kinetic energy. With the electric and magnetic fields oriented 90.degree. to each other, the electrons are separated from the plasma and remain at approximately the electrical potential of the generator in which they were generated. The electrons migrate from the ion beam path in a precessing motion out of the ion accelerating field region into an electron recovery region provided by a specially designed electron collector electrode. The electron collector electrode is uniformly spaced from a surface of the ion generator which is transverse to the direction of migration of the electrons and the two surfaces are contoured in a matching relationship which departs from a planar configuration to provide an electric field component in the recovery region which is parallel to the magnetic field thereby forcing the electrons to be directed into and collected by the electron collector electrode. The collector electrode is maintained at a potential slightly positive with respect to the ion generator so that the electrons are collected at a small fraction of the full accelerating supply voltage energy.

Dagenhart, William K. (Oak Ridge, TN); Stirling, William L. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1982-01-01

356

Measurement of ion beam from laser ion source for RHIC EBIS.  

SciTech Connect

Laser ion source (LIS) is a candidate of the primary ion source for the RHIC EBIS. LIS will provide intense charge state 1+ ions to the EBIS for further ionization. We measured plasma properties of a variety of atomic species from C to Au using the second harmonics of Nd:YAG laser (532 nm wave length, up to 0.5 J/6 ns). Since properties of laser produced plasma is different from different species, laser power density for singly charged ion production should be verified experimentally for each atomic species. After plasma analysis experiments, Au ions was extracted from plasma and emittance of the ion beam was measured using a pepper pot type emittance monitor.

Kanesue,T.; Tamura, J.; Okamura, M.

2008-06-23

357

High power impulse magnetron sputtering discharge  

SciTech Connect

The high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) discharge is a recent addition to plasma based sputtering technology. In HiPIMS, high power is applied to the magnetron target in unipolar pulses at low duty cycle and low repetition frequency while keeping the average power about 2 orders of magnitude lower than the peak power. This results in a high plasma density, and high ionization fraction of the sputtered vapor, which allows better control of the film growth by controlling the energy and direction of the deposition species. This is a significant advantage over conventional dc magnetron sputtering where the sputtered vapor consists mainly of neutral species. The HiPIMS discharge is now an established ionized physical vapor deposition technique, which is easily scalable and has been successfully introduced into various industrial applications. The authors give an overview of the development of the HiPIMS discharge, and the underlying mechanisms that dictate the discharge properties. First, an introduction to the magnetron sputtering discharge and its various configurations and modifications is given. Then the development and properties of the high power pulsed power supply are discussed, followed by an overview of the measured plasma parameters in the HiPIMS discharge, the electron energy and density, the ion energy, ion flux and plasma composition, and a discussion on the deposition rate. Finally, some of the models that have been developed to gain understanding of the discharge processes are reviewed, including the phenomenological material pathway model, and the ionization region model.

Gudmundsson, J. T.; Brenning, N.; Lundin, D.; Helmersson, U. [University of Michigan--Shanghai Jiao Tong University Joint Institute, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dong Chuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China) and Science Institute, University of Iceland, Dunhaga 3, IS-107 Reykjavik (Iceland); Division of Space and Plasma Physics, School of Electrical Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44, Stockholm (Sweden); Plasma and Coatings Division, IFM-Materials Physics, Linkoeping University, SE-581 83, Linkoeping (Sweden)

2012-05-15

358

Low fragment polyatomic molecular ion source by using permanent magnets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electron-ionization-type polyatomic molecular ion source with low fragment was developed by using a pair of ring-shaped Sm-Co magnets. The magnets were placed forward and backward side of ionization part to confine electrons extracted from a thermionic cathode. Calculated electron trajectory of the developed ion source was 20 times longer than that of an ordinary outer filament configuration that has no magnetic confinement. Mass spectra of the molecular ions generated from n-tetradecane (C14H30) gas exhibited 4 times larger intensity than that of the ordinary configuration in a range of mass/charge from 93 to 210 u. This indicates that suppression of fragment ion was obtained by increase of low energy electrons resulted from the electron confinement.

Takeuchi, Mitsuaki; Hayashi, Kyouhei; Imanaka, Kousuke; Ryuto, Hiromichi; Takaoka, Gikan H.

2014-02-01

359

Minipermanent magnet high-current microwave ion source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 2.45GHz high-current microwave ion source with permanent magnet was developed at Peking University. The source body is about 10cm in diameter and 10cm in height, and its weight is less than 5kg. It can operate in both pulse and continuous wave (cw) modes. In pulse mode, more than 100mA hydrogen ion current was extracted from a 5mm ion extraction aperture, when the microwave power is 500W and the extraction voltage is 45kV, which corresponds to a beam density of 500mA/cm2. In cw mode, up to 60mA of hydrogen ion current can be extracted, and the beam density is 300mA/cm2 at the same conditions. The proton ratio is about 80% and the normalized root-mean-square emittance is less than 0.1?mmmrad in both modes.

Song, Zhizhong; Peng, Shixiang; Yu, Jinxiang; Ming, Jianchuan; Yuan, Zhongxi; Qian, Feng; Guo, Zhiyu

2006-03-01

360

Low fragment polyatomic molecular ion source by using permanent magnets.  

PubMed

Electron-ionization-type polyatomic molecular ion source with low fragment was developed by using a pair of ring-shaped Sm-Co magnets. The magnets were placed forward and backward side of ionization part to confine electrons extracted from a thermionic cathode. Calculated electron trajectory of the developed ion source was 20 times longer than that of an ordinary outer filament configuration that has no magnetic confinement. Mass spectra of the molecular ions generated from n-tetradecane (C14H30) gas exhibited 4 times larger intensity than that of the ordinary configuration in a range of mass/charge from 93 to 210 u. This indicates that suppression of fragment ion was obtained by increase of low energy electrons resulted from the electron confinement. PMID:24593425

Takeuchi, Mitsuaki; Hayashi, Kyouhei; Imanaka, Kousuke; Ryuto, Hiromichi; Takaoka, Gikan H

2014-02-01

361

DEVELOPMENT OF THE SNS EXTERNAL ANTENNA H- ION SOURCE  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is an accelerator-based, pulsed neutron-scattering facility currently in the process of ramping up neutron production. To meet present and future beam current and reliability requirements we are developing an RF-driven, H- ion source based on a ceramic aluminium nitride (AlN) plasma chamber surrounded by an external RF antenna. This report recounts the design of the prototype source, describes the Cs collar variations tested, enumerates recent modifications made to the source to prepare a production version, and summarizes the results of runs on the SNS test stand and Front End (FE) of the SNS accelerator. Up to ~100 mA unanalyzed beam currents (60Hz, 1ms) have been measured on the SNS ion source test stand, and up to 42mA have been successfully accelerated by the RFQ on the SNS front-end at lower RF power.

Welton, Robert F [ORNL] [ORNL; Carmichael, Justin R [ORNL] [ORNL; Crisp, Danny W [ORNL] [ORNL; Han, Baoxi [ORNL] [ORNL; Murray Jr, S N [ORNL] [ORNL; Pennisi, Terry R [ORNL] [ORNL; Santana, Manuel [ORNL] [ORNL; Stockli, Martin P [ORNL] [ORNL

2010-01-01

362

Sources of chlorate ion in US drinking water  

SciTech Connect

Samples of untreated source water and finished drinking water were obtained from 42 water utilities which treated their water with oxidants-disinfectants that included chlorine dioxide (ClO[sub 2]), gaseous chlorine, hypochlorite solutions, and chloramines. Chlorite ion was only detected in water from utilities that used ClO[sub 2]. Finished water from utilities that used ClO[sub 2] or hypochlorite solutions contained comparable concentrations of chlorate ion (ClO[sub 3][sup [minus

Bolyard, M. (Environmental Protection Agency, Denver, CO (United States)); Fair, P.S. (Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States)); Hautman, D.P. (Technology Applications Inc., Cincinnati, OH (United States))

1993-09-01

363

Sources of Chlorate Ion in US Drinking Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samples of untreated source water and finished drinking water were obtained from 42 water utilities which treated their water with oxidants-disinfectants that included chlorine dioxide (C1O?), gaseous chlorine, hypochlorite solutions, and chloramines. Chlorite ion was only detected in water from utilities that used C1O?. Finished water from utilities that used C1O? or hypochlorite solutions contained comparable concentrations of chlorate ion

Michele Bolyard; Patricia Snyder Fair; Daniel P. Hautman

1993-01-01

364

Design and development of the CSNS ion source control system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Now that the CSNS ion source test stand has been stably working for years, an online control system for the CSNS ion source which aims to be more stable and reliable is now under development. F3RP61-2L, a new PLC CPU module running an embedded Linux system, is introduced to the system as an IOC, to function together with the I/O modules of FA-M3 PLC on the PLC-bus. The adoption of the new IOC not only simplifies the architecture of the control system, but also improves the data transmission speed. In this paper, the design and development of the supervisory and control system for the CSNS ion source are described.

Lu, Yan-Hua; Li, Gang; Ouyang, Hua-Fu

2013-07-01

365

Development of a polarized 3He ion source for RHIC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A polarized 3He beam in RHIC would enable new, unique, high energy QCD studies of neutron structure with existing polarized proton beams. In addition, it could be used for important tests of the Standard Model in a future electronion collider. A source of polarized 3He++ ions utilizing the new Electron Beam Ionization Source (EBIS) at BNL is under development. 3He atoms can be polarized using metastability exchange optical pumping (MEOP) and the atoms transferred to EBIS. Fully stripped 3He++ ions would be extracted from EBIS and their polarization measured at low energies. The concept for the ion source is presented and the plan for the development described. Research supported by DOE Office of Nuclear Physics.

Epstein, C. S.

2012-09-01

366

The use of ionic liquid ion sources (ILIS) in FIB applications  

E-print Network

A new monoenergetic, high-brightness ion source can be constructed using an arrangement similar to liquid metal ion sources (LMIS) by substituting the liquid metal with an ionic liquid, or room temperature molten salt. Ion ...

Zorzos, Anthony Nicholas

2009-01-01

367

The metal vapor vacuum arc (MEVVA) high current ion source  

SciTech Connect

An ion source is described in which a metal vapor vacuum arc is used to create the plasma from which the ions are extracted. Beams of a variety of ions have been produced, ranging from lithium up to uranium. At an extraction voltage of 25 kV we've measured an ion beam current of over 1 Ampere, with over 550 ema of the beam in an emittance of 0.07..pi.. cm. mradians (normalized). The ion charge state distribution varies with cathode material and with arc power; for uranium a typical distribution is peaked at U/sup 5 +/, with up to 40% of the beam current in this charge state.

Brown, I.G.

1985-10-01

368

Metal vapor vacuum arc (MEVVA) high current ion source  

SciTech Connect

An ion source is described in which a metal vapor vacuum arc is used to create the plasma from which the ions are extracted. Beams of a variety of ions have been produced, ranging from lithium up to uranium. At an extraction voltage of 25 kV we've measured an ion beam current of over 1 Ampere, with over 550 ema of the beam in an emittance of 0.07..pi.. cm. mradians (normalized). The ion charge state distribution varies with cathode material and with arc power; for uranium a typical distribution is peaked at U/sup 5 +/, with up to 40% of the beam current in this charge state. 27 refs., 10 figs.

Brown, I.G.

1985-05-01

369

Shunting arc plasma source for pure carbon ion beam.  

PubMed

A plasma source is developed using a coaxial shunting arc plasma gun to extract a pure carbon ion beam. The pure carbon ion beam is a new type of deposition system for diamond and other carbon materials. Our plasma device generates pure carbon plasma from solid-state carbon material without using a hydrocarbon gas such as methane gas, and the plasma does not contain any hydrogen. The ion saturation current of the discharge measured by a double probe is about 0.2 mA?mm(2) at the peak of the pulse. PMID:22380206

Koguchi, H; Sakakita, H; Kiyama, S; Shimada, T; Sato, Y; Hirano, Y

2012-02-01

370

Shunting arc plasma source for pure carbon ion beama)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A plasma source is developed using a coaxial shunting arc plasma gun to extract a pure carbon ion beam. The pure carbon ion beam is a new type of deposition system for diamond and other carbon materials. Our plasma device generates pure carbon plasma from solid-state carbon material without using a hydrocarbon gas such as methane gas, and the plasma does not contain any hydrogen. The ion saturation current of the discharge measured by a double probe is about 0.2 mA/mm2 at the peak of the pulse.

Koguchi, H.; Sakakita, H.; Kiyama, S.; Shimada, T.; Sato, Y.; Hirano, Y.

2012-02-01

371

Multi-cathode metal vapor arc ion source  

DOEpatents

An ion generating apparatus utilizing a vacuum chamber, a cathode and an anode in the chamber. A source of electrical power produces an arc or discharge between the cathode and anode. The arc is sufficient to vaporize a portion of the cathode to form a plasma. The plasma is directed to an extractor which separates the electrons from the plasma, and accelerates the ions to produce an ion beam. One embodiment of the appaatus utilizes a multi-cathode arrangement for interaction with the anode.

Brown, Ian G. (1088 Woodside Rd., Berkeley, CA 94708); MacGill, Robert A. (645 Kern St., Richmond, CA 94805)

1988-01-01

372

Plasma emission spectroscopy for operating and developing the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) H(-) ion sources.  

PubMed

A RF-driven, Cs-enhanced H(-) ion source feeds the SNS accelerator with a high current (typically >50 mA), ?1.0 ms pulsed beam at 60 Hz. To achieve the persistent high current beam for several weeks long service cycles, each newly installed ion source undergoes a rigorous conditioning and cesiation processes. Plasma conditioning outgases the system and sputter-cleans the ion conversion surfaces. A cesiation process immediately following the plasma conditioning releases Cs to provide coverage on the ion conversion surfaces. The effectiveness of the ion source conditioning and cesiation is monitored with plasma emission spectroscopy using a high-sensitivity optical spectrometer. Plasma emission spectroscopy is also used to provide a means for diagnosing and confirming a failure of the insulating coating of the ion source RF antenna which is immersed in the plasma. Emissions of composition elements of the antenna coating material, Na emission being the most significant, drastically elevate to signal a failure when it happens. Plasma spectra of the developmental ion source with an AlN (aluminum nitrite) chamber and an external RF antenna are also briefly discussed. PMID:24593570

Han, B X; Welton, R F; Murray, S N; Pennisi, T R; Santana, M; Stockli, M P

2014-02-01

373

Plasma emission spectroscopy for operating and developing the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) H- ion sources  

SciTech Connect

An RF-driven, Cs-enhanced H- ion source feeds the SNS accelerator with a high current (typically >50 mA), ~1.0 ms pulsed beam at 60 Hz. To achieve the persistent high current beam for several weeks long service cycles, each newly installed ion source undergoes a rigorous conditioning and cesiation processes. Plasma conditioning outgases the system and sputter-cleans the ion conversion surfaces. A cesiation process immediately following the plasma conditioning releases Cs to provide coverage on the ion conversion surfaces. The effectiveness of the ion source conditioning and cesiation is monitored with plasma emission spectroscopy using a high-sensitivity optical spectrometer. Plasma emission spectroscopy is also used to provide a mean for diagnosing and confirming a failure of the insulating coating of the ion source RF antenna which is immersed in the plasma. Emissions of composition elements of the antenna coating material, Na emission being the most significant, drastically elevate to signal a failure when it happens. Plasma spectra of the developmental ion source with an AlN chamber and an external RF antenna are also briefly discussed.

Han, Baoxi [ORNL] [ORNL; Welton, Robert F [ORNL] [ORNL; Murray Jr, S N [ORNL] [ORNL; Pennisi, Terry R [ORNL] [ORNL; Santana, Manuel [ORNL] [ORNL; Stockli, Martin P [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01

374

Sources for Low Energy Extreme of Ion Implantation  

SciTech Connect

A joint research and development effort focusing on the design of steady state, intense ion sources has been in progress for the past four and a half years. The ultimate goal is to meet the two, energy extreme range needs of mega-electron-volt and 100's of electron-volt ion implanters. This endeavor has resulted in record steady state output currents of higher charge state Antimony and Phosphorous ions: P{sup 2+}(8.6 pmA), P{sup 3+}(1.9 pmA), and P{sup 4+}(0.12 pmA) and 16.2, 7.6, 3.3, and 2.2 pmA of Sb{sup 3+} Sb{sup 4+}, Sb{sup 5+}, and Sb{sup 6+} respectively. During the past year the effort was channeled towards low energy implantation, for which the effort involved molecular ions and a novel plasmaless/gasless deceleration method. To date, 3 emA of positive Decaborane ions were extracted at 14 keV and a smaller current of negative Decaborane ions were also extracted. Additionally, a Boron fraction of over 70% was extracted from a Bernas-Calutron ion source.

Hershcovitch, A.; Johnson, B. M. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Batalin, V. A.; Kolomiets, A. A.; Kropachev, G. N.; Kuibeda, R. P.; Kulevoy, T. V.; Pershin, V. I.; Petrenko, S. V.; Rudskoy, I.; Seleznev, D. N. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Bugaev, A. S.; Gushenets, V. I.; Oks, E. M.; Yushkov, G. Yu. [High Current Electronics Institute Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation); Masunov, E. S.; Polozov, S. M. [Moscow Engineering Physics Institute, Kashirskoe sh. 31, Moscow, 115409 (Russian Federation); Poole, H. J. [PVI, Oxnard, California 93031-5023 (United States); Storozhenko, P. A. [State Research Institute for Chemistry and Technology of Organoelement Compounds 38, sh. Entuziastov, Moscow, 111123 (Russian Federation); Svarovski, A. Ya. [Siberian Divisions of Russian National Research Center 'A.A. Bochvara Scientific Research Institute for Inorganic Materials', Seversk, 636070 (Russian Federation)

2008-11-03

375

Sources for Low Energy Extreme of Ion Implantation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A joint research and development effort focusing on the design of steady state, intense ion sources has been in progress for the past four and a half years. The ultimate goal is to meet the two, energy extreme range needs of mega-electron-volt and 100's of electron-volt ion implanters. This endeavor has resulted in record steady state output currents of higher charge state Antimony and Phosphorous ions: P2+ (8.6 pmA), P3+ (1.9 pmA), and P4+ (0.12 pmA) and 16.2, 7.6, 3.3, and 2.2 pmA of Sb3+ Sb4+, Sb5+, and Sb6+ respectively. During the past year the effort was channeled towards low energy implantation, for which the effort involved molecular ions and a novel plasmaless/gasless deceleration method. To date, 3 emA of positive Decaborane ions were extracted at 14 keV and a smaller current of negative Decaborane ions were also extracted. Additionally, a Boron fraction of over 70% was extracted from a Bernas-Calutron ion source.

Hershcovitch, A.; Batalin, V. A.; Bugaev, A. S.; Gushenets, V. I.; Johnson, B. M.; Kolomiets, A. A.; Kropachev, G. N.; Kuibeda, R. P.; Kulevoy, T. V.; Masunov, E. S.; Oks, E. M.; Pershin, V. I.; Petrenko, S. V.; Polozov, S. M.; Poole, H. J.; Rudskoy, I.; Seleznev, D. N.; Storozhenko, P. A.; Svarovski, A. Ya.; Yushkov, G. Yu.

2008-11-01

376

Analysis of the plasma generated in a laser ion source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the experimental results concerning the study and the development of a Laser Ion Source (LIS). By means of an excimer laser we irradiated a metal target at high power density, realizing an efficient source of multiple charged ions. The analysis of the generated plasma plume was performed for three different laser spot sizes determining the threshold conditions of the ablation process. A diagnostic system with a Faraday cup was developed in order to detect the ion current along the propagation tube. Time-of-flight measurements were performed, also inserting in front of the cup an adjustable voltage electrostatic barrier in order to get quantitative information about the ion flux and the kinetic energy of the produced ions. To study the plasma characteristics we evaluated the total etched material per pulse, 0.25 ?g, and the fractional ionization, 12%. A modified Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution was applied to provide a consistent description of the velocity distributions in the plume. The ablated material was spatially monitored by optical transmission analysis of a deposited film. Applying the high voltage to the LIS extraction gap, an ion beam containing Cu+1 (0.44mA), Cu+2 (0.34mA), Cu+3(0.99mA), and Cu+4(0.01mA) ions was obtained.

Nassisi, Vincenzo; Pedone, A.; Doria, D.; Rainø, A.

2003-11-01

377

ECR Ion Source for a High-Brightness Cyclotron  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New technology is being developed for high-brightness, high-current cyclotrons with performance benefits for accelerator-driven subcritical fission power, medical isotope production, and proton beam cancer therapy. This paper describes the design for a 65 kV electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source that will provide high-brightness beam for injection into the cyclotron. The ion source is modeled closely upon the one that is used at the Paul Scherrer Institute. Modifications are being made to provide enhanced brightness and compatibility for higher-current operation.

Comeaux, Justin; McIntyre, Peter; Assadi, Saeed

2011-10-01

378

Note: Flowing ion population from a resonance cavity source  

SciTech Connect

The experimental low energy plasma for hemispherical analyzers nominal testing thermal plasma facility of Dartmouth College uses a microwave plasma source which generates an ionosphere-like plasma through a two-step process. The plasma is initially generated inside a cylindrical, insulated, resonance cavity. This initial plasma must pass through a sheath in order to enter the main experimental region. This process imparts a significant flow velocity to the ions which has been neglected in previous analysis of this plasma source. We predict the flow energy of the ions to be between 12-15 eV depending on conservation laws and show agreement with experimental results.

Gayetsky, Lisa E.; Lynch, Kristina A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755 (United States)

2011-04-15

379

Report from Working Group 1 - ion sources & separators  

SciTech Connect

This Working Group concentrated on issues associated with ion sources and separators, summarizing both the state of the art in these areas as well as needs and requirements for first stages of the ISL post-accelerator. This report is divided into three sections: a summary of presentations made to the Working Group, a comparison of ion source technologies, and a discussion of front-end configuration issues. A concluding section summarizes key design issues novel to the ISL application, and points out areas where technology development is required.

Wollnik, H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Alonso, J.R. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

1994-05-01

380

Development of a carbon-cluster ion source for JYFLTRAP  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A carbon-cluster ion source based on laser ablation and ionization of a carbon sample has been built and tested for the JYFLTRAP setup. In the present configuration the ion source is situated in the electrostatic switchyard in front of the radiofrequency (RFQ) cooler and buncher. In this position the beam quality of the carbon clusters injected into the Penning trap system is considerably improved by the RFQ. Moreover, the mass-dependence of the RFQ's transmission can be used to some extent to suppress unwanted cluster sizes.

Elomaa, V.-V.; Eronen, T.; Hager, U.; Jokinen, A.; Kessler, T.; Moore, I. D.; Rahaman, S.; Weber, C.; Äystö, J.

2008-10-01

381

Vacuum arc bismuth ion source with film cathode  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new variant of vacuum arc ion source is described whereby the problems of short cathode lifetime and low charge states, commonly found for low boiling point cathode materials, are avoided. This novel source embodiment has been operated using bismuth as the wanted ionic species. It was found that the ion charge state spectrum can be improved (i.e., increased) significantly, with the charge state of maximum amplitude being increased from Bi1+ to Bi3+, and the number of pulses that were obtained before the cathode needed changing was 108.

Vasilyev, A.

1994-10-01

382

Angular distribution of plasma in the vacuum arc ion source.  

PubMed

This paper presents measurements of the angular distribution of the plasma components and different charge states of metal ions generated by a MEVVA-type ion source and measured by a time-of-flight mass-spectrometer. The experiments were performed for different cathode materials (Al, Cu, and Ti) and for different parameters of the vacuum arc discharge. The results are compared with prior results reported by other authors. The influence of different discharge parameters on the angular distribution in a vacuum arc source is discussed. PMID:22380199

Nikolaev, A G; Yushkov, G Yu; Savkin, K P; Oks, E M

2012-02-01

383

Note: flowing ion population from a resonance cavity source.  

PubMed

The experimental low energy plasma for hemispherical analyzers nominal testing thermal plasma facility of Dartmouth College uses a microwave plasma source which generates an ionosphere-like plasma through a two-step process. The plasma is initially generated inside a cylindrical, insulated, resonance cavity. This initial plasma must pass through a sheath in order to enter the main experimental region. This process imparts a significant flow velocity to the ions which has been neglected in previous analysis of this plasma source. We predict the flow energy of the ions to be between 12-15 eV depending on conservation laws and show agreement with experimental results. PMID:21529056

Gayetsky, Lisa E; Lynch, Kristina A

2011-04-01

384

Mass analyzer ``MASHA'' high temperature target and plasma ion source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new separator and mass analyzer of super heavy atoms (MASHA) has been created at the FLNR JINR Dubna to separate and measure masses of nuclei and molecules with precision better than 10-3. First experiments with the FEBIAD plasma ion source have been done and give an efficiency of ionization of up to 20% for Kr with a low flow test leak (6 particle ?A). We suppose a magnetic field optimization, using the additional electrode (einzel lens type) in the extracting system, and an improving of the vacuum conditions in order to increase the ion source efficiency.

Semchenkov, A. G.; Rassadov, D. N.; Bekhterev, V. V.; Bystrov, V. A.; Chizov, A. Yu.; Dmitriev, S. N.; Efremov, A. A.; Guljaev, A. V.; Kozulin, E. M.; Oganessian, Yu. Ts.; Starodub, G. Ya.; Voskresensky, V. M.; Bogomolov, S. L.; Paschenko, S. V.; Zelenak, A.; Tikhonov, V. I.

2004-05-01

385

High power pulsed magnetron sputtered CrN x films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microstructure and macroscopic properties of droplet free CrN films deposited by the recently developed high power pulsed magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) technique are presented. Magnetron glow discharges with peak power densities reaching 3000 W cm?2 were used to sputter Cr targets in both inert and reactive gas atmospheres. The flux arriving at the substrates consisted of neutrals and ions (approx. 70\\/30)

A. P Ehiasarian; W.-D Münz; L Hultman; U Helmersson; I Petrov

2003-01-01

386

Effect of electric field in the course of obtaining a-SiO{sub x}:H(Er, O) films by dc magnetron sputtering on their composition and photoluminescence intensity of erbium ions  

SciTech Connect

The effect of electric field on the elemental composition and photoluminescence of films of amorphous hydrogenated silicon doped with erbium and oxygen (a-SiO{sub x}:H(Er, O)) in the course of obtaining these films by dc magnetron sputtering is studied. Two series of films were studied in relation to the electric-field strength in the magnetron, the area of the metallic erbium target, and oxygen content in the working chamber. The first series of films was obtained using an electrically insulated substrate holder, and the second series was obtained with a positive potential at the substrate holder with respect to the cathode. It is shown that, although the character of variation in the elemental composition and photoluminescence intensity for erbium Er{sup 3+} ions differ appreciably in the films of the two series, both of these factors are determined, as a result, by the processes of sputtering oxidation of the Si and Er targets that represent the cathode.

Undalov, Yu. K., E-mail: undalov@mail.ioffe.ru; Terukov, E. I.; Gusev, O. B. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physicotechnical Institute (Russian Federation); Lebedev, V. M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Konstantinov St. Petersburg Institute of Nuclear Physics (Russian Federation); Trapeznikova, I. N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physicotechnical Institute (Russian Federation)

2008-11-15

387

Long pulse operation of the KAMABOKO III negative ion source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The target performance for the KAMABOKO ion source on the MANTIS test bed in Cadarache is to accelerate a beam of D- with a current density of 200 A/m2 and <1 extracted electron per accelerated D- ion, at an injected power ranging between 1 and 2 kW per liter of source volume, at a source pressure of 0.3 Pa. For ITER, a continuous neutral beam must be assured for pulse lengths of 500 s, but beams of up to 3600 s are also envisaged. During the last campaign, continuous beam pulses of duration up to 1000 s were demonstrated both in hydrogen and in deuterium. In this article, the source performance, the effect of the plasma grid temperature for long pulse operation, and the limits of the present experimental setup are described. Additionally, the effect of changing the strength of the magnetic filter in the ion source on the extracted ion and electron currents and the beam transmission is reported.

Boilson, D.; de Esch, H. P. L.; Hemsworth, R. S.; Kashiwagi, M.; Massmann, P.; Svensson, L.

2002-02-01

388

A decaborane ion source for high current implantation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Progressive semiconductor device scaling in each technology node requires the formation of shallower junctions, and thus lower energy implants. The difficulties associated with extraction and transport of low energy beams often result in a loss in wafer throughput. Implantation of boron using the molecular compound decaborane has been found to allow for the shallow implantation of boron without a significant design change in the implanter. The decaborane molecule has 10 boron atoms and 14 hydrogen atoms. The implanted dose is ten times the electrical dose and the implanted depth is equivalent to the depth of a boron beam at 1/11th of the extraction energy. This advantage can only be exploited with an ion source that does not destroy the fragile molecule. We report on the design of an ion source capable of ionizing decaborane without significant fragmentation of the molecule. After it was shown that the decaborane molecule fragments above 350 °C an ion source was designed to prevent thermal dissociation of the molecule. Competitive boron dose rates were achieved using this source in a commercial high current implanter. In addition, evidence is shown that a decaborane dimer is formed in the ion source and can be implanted.

Perel, Alex S.; Loizides, William K.; Reynolds, William E.

2002-02-01

389

Recent progress on the superconducting ion source VENUSa)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 28 GHz Ion Source VENUS (versatile ECR for nuclear science) is back in operation after the superconducting sextupole leads were repaired and a fourth cryocooler was added. VENUS serves as an R&D device to explore the limits of electron cyclotron resonance source performance at 28 GHz with its 10 kW gryotron and optimum magnetic fields and as an ion source to increase the capabilities of the 88-Inch Cyclotron both for nuclear physics research and applications. The development and testing of ovens and sputtering techniques cover a wide range of applications. Recent experiments on bismuth demonstrated stable operation at 300 e?A of Bi31+, which is in the intensity range of interest for high performance heavy-ion drivers such as FRIB (Facility for Rare Isotope Beams). In addition, the space radiation effects testing program at the cyclotron relies on the production of a cocktail beam with many species produced simultaneously in the ion source and this can be done with a combination of gases, sputter probes, and an oven. These capabilities are being developed with VENUS by adding a low temperature oven, sputter probes, as well as studying the RF coupling into the source.

Benitez, J. Y.; Franzen, K. Y.; Hodgkinson, A.; Loew, T.; Lyneis, C. M.; Phair, L.; Saba, J.; Strohmeier, M.; Tarvainen, O.

2012-02-01

390

Investigation of a tin liquid metal ion source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In view of its importance in materials research, tin is a metal worth studying in a liquid metal ion source configuration, even if results complement or extend previous work. This is the more so if the new work corrects misconceptions of the past and adds to current thinking. We, therefore, prepared a Sn liquid metal ion source employing a Ni needle to anchor the liquid, cone-shaped, emitter. Source properties, such as the current-voltage curve, the mass spectra of the beam and the energy spread of the main ionic species, were studied in detail. The mass spectra show a considerable amount of Sn clusters, apart from the dominant species, Sn+ and Sn++. The source was stable down to 1-?A emission current, corresponding to an energy spread for the singly charged ions of 7 eV. Theoretical arguments, involving the peak energy deficit of the ion-energy distribution, strongly suggest that both Sn+ and Sn++ are emitted by direct field evaporation from the liquid surface. The same conclusion is reached from a careful examination of the beam mass spectra of the source.

Bischoff, L.; Akhmadaliev, C.; Mair, A. W. R.; Mair, G. L. R.; Ganetsos, T.; Aidinis, C. J.

391

Practical experience in extending the ion source and injection system H{sup -}-ion source duty cycle  

SciTech Connect

The ion source and injection system H{sup -} Penning surface-plasma source is currently being developed on the ion source development rig at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory in order to meet the requirements for the next generation of high-power proton drivers. Finite element modeling has been used previously to study the effect of increasing the duty cycle. The main requirement to allow increased duty cycles is improved cooling. By simply reducing the thickness of a sheet of mica to improve thermal conductance to the cooling system, duty cycles of 1.5 ms at 50 Hz can be achieved. Slight increase in hydrogen flow rate is required as the duty cycle is increased. As the duty cycle is increased the output current reduces, however, there is no change in beam emittance. The source cooling system is described and the heat flows within the source are discussed.

Faircloth, D.C.; Whitehead, M.O.; Wood, T. [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)

2006-03-15

392

Subcutoff microwave driven plasma ion sources for multielemental focused ion beam systems  

SciTech Connect

A compact microwave driven plasma ion source for focused ion beam applications has been developed. Several gas species have been experimented including argon, krypton, and hydrogen. The plasma, confined by a minimum B multicusp magnetic field, has good radial and axial uniformity. The octupole multicusp configuration shows a superior performance in terms of plasma density ({approx}1.3x10{sup 11} cm{sup -3}) and electron temperature (7-15 eV) at a power density of 5-10 W/cm{sup 2}. Ion current densities ranging from a few hundreds to over 1000 mA/cm{sup 2} have been obtained with different plasma electrode apertures. The ion source will be combined with electrostatic Einzel lenses and should be capable of producing multielemental focused ion beams for nanostructuring and implantations. The initial simulation results for the focused beams have been presented.

Mathew, Jose V.; Chowdhury, Abhishek; Bhattacharjee, Sudeep [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208016 (India)

2008-06-15

393

The KSU-CRYEBIS: A unique ion source for low-energy highly charged ions  

SciTech Connect

The CRYogenic electron beam ion source at Kansas State University has been in operation since spring 1989. It produces up to Ar{sup 18+}, Kr{sup 34+}, and Xe{sup 44+} on a regular basis. Acceleration tubes and a beamline system were added during 1990. The ion source is mounted on a high voltage platform, which can be used to vary the ion energies between 2 and 200 kV per charge. The extraction-, analyzing-, and beamline systems were designed to accept a wide range of ion masses and charge states with the mass energy product ({ital M}{center dot}{ital E}/{ital q}{sup 2}) stretching over four orders of magnitude. The system is used to study the low-energy highly charged ions interacting with electrons, atoms, thin foils, and surfaces.

Stockli, M.P.; Ali, R.M.; Cocke, C.L.; Raphaelian, M.L.A.; Richard, P.; Tipping, T.N. (J. R. Macdonald Laboratory, Department of Physics, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas 66506-2604 (United States))

1992-04-01

394

The Brookhaven National Laboratory electron beam ion source for RHICa)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of a new heavy ion preinjector that will supply beams for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Space Radiation Laboratory, construction of a new electron beam ion source (EBIS) is now being completed. This source, based on the successful prototype Brookhaven National Laboratory Test EBIS, is designed to produce milliampere level currents of all ion species, with q/m=(1/6)-(1/2). Among the major components of this source are a 5 T, 2-m-long, 204 mm diameter warm bore superconducting solenoid, an electron gun designed to operate at a nominal current of 10 A, and an electron collector designed to dissipate ˜300 kW of peak power. Careful attention has been paid to the design of the vacuum system, since a pressure of 10-10 Torr is required in the trap region. The source includes several differential pumping stages, the trap can be baked to 400 C, and there are non-evaporable getter strips in the trap region. Power supplies include a 15 A, 15 kV electron collector power supply, and fast switchable power supplies for most of the 16 electrodes used for varying the trap potential distribution for ion injection, confinement, and extraction. The EBIS source and all EBIS power supplies sit on an isolated platform, which is pulsed up to a maximum of 100 kV during ion extraction. The EBIS is now fully assembled, and operation will be beginning following final vacuum and power supply tests. Details of the EBIS components are presented.

Alessi, J. G.; Barton, D.; Beebe, E.; Bellavia, S.; Gould, O.; Kponou, A.; Lambiase, R.; Lockey, R.; McNerney, A.; Mapes, M.; Marneris, Y.; Okamura, M.; Phillips, D.; Pikin, A. I.; Raparia, D.; Ritter, J.; Snydstrup, L.; Theisen, C.; Wilinski, M.

2010-02-01

395

Ion angular distribution in plasma of vacuum arc ion source with composite cathode and elevated gas pressure.  

PubMed

The Metal Vapor Vacuum Arc (MEVVA) ion sources are capable of generating ion beams of almost all metals of the periodic table. For this kind of ion source, a combination of gas feeding with magnetic field allows the simultaneous generation of both metal and gaseous ions. That makes the MEVVA ion source an excellent instrument for science and application. This work presents results of investigation for ion angular distributions in vacuum arc plasma of Mevva-V.Ru ion source for composite cathodes and for elevated gas pressure. It was shown that for all the cathode materials, singly charged ions have wider angular distribution than multiply charged ions. Increasing the working gas pressure leads to a significant change in the angular distribution of gaseous ions, while with the distribution of metal ions gas remains practically unchanged. The reasons for such different influences are discussed. PMID:24593598

Nikolaev, A G; Savkin, K P; Yushkov, G Yu; Oks, E M

2014-02-01

396

Ion angular distribution in plasma of vacuum arc ion source with composite cathode and elevated gas pressure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Metal Vapor Vacuum Arc (MEVVA) ion sources are capable of generating ion beams of almost all metals of the periodic table. For this kind of ion source, a combination of gas feeding with magnetic field allows the simultaneous generation of both metal and gaseous ions. That makes the MEVVA ion source an excellent instrument for science and application. This work presents results of investigation for ion angular distributions in vacuum arc plasma of Mevva-V.Ru ion source for composite cathodes and for elevated gas pressure. It was shown that for all the cathode materials, singly charged ions have wider angular distribution than multiply charged ions. Increasing the working gas pressure leads to a significant change in the angular distribution of gaseous ions, while with the distribution of metal ions gas remains practically unchanged. The reasons for such different influences are discussed.

Nikolaev, A. G.; Savkin, K. P.; Yushkov, G. Yu.; Oks, E. M.

2014-02-01

397

Temporal development of ion beam mean charge state in pulsed vacuum arc ion sources.  

PubMed

Vacuum arc ion sources, commonly also known as "Mevva" ion sources, are used to generate intense pulsed metal ion beams. It is known that the mean charge state of the ion beam lies between 1 and 4, depending on cathode material, arc current, arc pulse duration, presence or absence of magnetic field at the cathode, as well as background gas pressure. A characteristic of the vacuum arc ion beam is a significant decrease in ion charge state throughout the pulse. This decrease can be observed up to a few milliseconds, until a "noisy" steady-state value is established. Since the extraction voltage is constant, a decrease in the ion charge state has a proportional impact on the average ion beam energy. This paper presents results of detailed investigations of the influence of arc parameters on the temporal development of the ion beam mean charge state for a wide range of cathode materials. It is shown that for fixed pulse duration, the charge state decrease can be reduced by lower arc current, higher pulse repetition rate, and reduction of the distance between cathode and extraction region. The latter effect may be associated with charge exchange processes in the discharge plasma. PMID:18315167

Oks, E M; Yushkov, G Yu; Anders, A

2008-02-01

398

Ion plasma sources based on a microwave oven  

SciTech Connect

A domestic microwave oven with a vacuum ionization chamber inside can be used as a composite ion plasma source. The microwave discharge in the chamber is a source of charged particles and plasma. The power fed into the discharge can be up to 500 W at a frequency of 2.45 GHz, and the pressure in the chamber can be 0.1-1000 Pa. The microwave devices for material processing and film deposition are described.

Kuz`michev, A.I. [Kiev Polytechnic Institute (Ukraine)

1995-04-01

399

Plasma source ion implantation of ammonia into electroplated chromium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ammonia gas (NH3) has been used as a nitrogen source for plasma source ion implantation processing of electroplated chromium. No evidence was found of increased hydrogen concentrations in the bulk material, implying that ammonia can be used without risking hydrogen embrittlement. The retained nitrogen dose of 2.1 x 10(exp 17)N-at\\/sq cm is sufficient to increase the surface hardness of electroplated

J. T. Scheuer; K. C. Walter; D. J. Rej; M. Nastasi; J. P. Blanchard

1995-01-01

400

Blind Source Separation For Ion Mobility Spectra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Miniaturization is a powerful trend for smart chemical instrumentation in a diversity of applications. It is know that miniaturization in IMS leads to a degradation of the system characteristics. For the present work, we are interested in signal processing solutions to mitigate limitations introduced by limited drift tube length that basically involve a loss of chemical selectivity. While blind source separation techniques (BSS) are popular in other domains, their application for smart chemical instrumentation is limited. However, in some conditions, basically linearity, BSS may fully recover the concentration time evolution and the pure spectra with few underlying hypothesis. This is extremely helpful in conditions where non-expected chemical interferents may appear, or unwanted perturbations may pollute the spectra. SIMPLISMA has been advocated by Harrington et al. in several papers. However, more modern methods of BSS for bilinear decomposition with the restriction of positiveness have appeared in the last decade. In order to explore and compare the performances of those methods a series of experiments were performed.

Marco, S.; Pomareda, V.; Pardo, A.; Kessler, M.; Goebel, J.; Mueller, G.

2009-05-01

401

Production of radioactive Ag ion beams with a chemically selective laser ion source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a chemically selective laser ion source at the CERN-ISOLDE facility in order to study neutron-rich Ag nuclides. A pulsed laser system with high repetition rate has been used based on high-power copper-vapour pump lasers and dye lasers. With this source significant reductions of the isobaric background has been achieved.

Jading, Y.; Catherall, R.; Jokinen, A.; Jonsson, O. C.; Kugler, E.; Lettry, J.; Ravn, H. L.; Tengblad, O.; Kautzsch, T.; Klöckl, I.; Kratz, K.-L.; Scheerer, F.; Fedoseyev, V. N.; Mishin, V. I.; van Duppen, P.; Wöhr, A.; Walters, W. B.

1996-04-01

402

A compact, versatile low-energy electron beam ion source  

SciTech Connect

A new compact Electron Beam Ion Source, the Dresden EBIT-LE, is introduced as an ion source working at low electron beam energies. The EBIT-LE operates at an electron energy ranging from 100 eV to some keV and can easily be modified to an EBIT also working at higher electron beam energies of up to 15 keV. We show that, depending on the electron beam energy, electron beam currents from a few mA in the low-energy regime up to about 40 mA in the high-energy regime are possible. Technical solutions as well as first experimental results of the EBIT-LE are presented. In ion extraction experiments, a stable production of low and intermediate charged ions at electron beam energies below 2 keV is demonstrated. Furthermore, X-ray spectroscopy measurements confirm the possibility of using the machine as a source of X-rays from ions excited at low electron energies.

Zschornack, G., E-mail: g.zschornack@hzdr.de [Department of Physics, Dresden University of Technology, 01062 Dresden, Germany and Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, 01328 Dresden (Germany); König, J.; Schmidt, M.; Thorn, A. [DREEBIT GmbH, 01109 Dresden (Germany)] [DREEBIT GmbH, 01109 Dresden (Germany)

2014-02-15

403

Discrimination of ionic species from broad-beam ion sources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The performance of a broad-beam, three-grid, ion extraction system incorporating radio frequency (RF) mass discrimination was investigated experimentally. This testing demonstrated that the system, based on a modified single-stage Bennett mass spectrometer, can discriminate between ionic species having about a 2-to-1 mass ratio while producing a broad-beam of ions with low kinetic energy (less than 15 eV). Testing was conducted using either argon and krypton ions or atomic and diatomic oxygen ions. A simple one-dimensional model, which ignores magnetic field and space-charge effects, was developed to predict the species separation capabilities as well as the kinetic energies of the extracted ions. The experimental results correlated well with the model predictions. This RF mass discrimination system can be used in applications where both atomic and diatomic ions are produced, but a beam of only one of the species is desired. An example of such an application is a 5 eV atomic oxygen source. This source would produce a beam of atomic oxygen with 5 eV kinetic energy, which would be directed onto a material specimen, to simulate the interaction between the surface of a satellite and the rarefied atmosphere encountered in low-Earth orbit.

Anderson, J. R.

1993-01-01

404

Study of an ion source by an excimer laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the experimental results concerning the study and the development of a Laser Ion Source (LIS). By means of an excimer laser we irradiated a metal target at high power density, realizing an efficient source of multiple charged ions. The analysis of the generated plasma plume was performed for three different laser spot sizes, determining the threshold conditions of the ablation process. A diagnostic system with a Faraday cup was developed in order to detect the ion current along a propagation tube. Time-of-flight (TOF) measurements were performed, also inserting in front of the cup an adjustable voltage electrostatic barrier in order to get quantitative information about the ion flux and the kinetic energy of the produced ions. To study the plasma characteristics we evaluated the total etched material per pulse, 0.25 ?g, and the fractional ionization, 12%. The ablated material distribution was monitored by optical transmission analysis of a deposited film. Applying a high voltage to the LIS extraction gap, an ion beam containing Cu+1(0.44mA), Cu+2(0.34mA), Cu+3(0.09mA), and Cu+4(0.01mA) was obtained.

Nassisi, Vincenzo; Pedone, A.; Doria, D.

2003-11-01

405

Collisional electrostatic ion cyclotron waves as a possible source of energetic heavy ions in the magnetosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new mechanism is proposed for the source of energetic heavy ions (NO/+/, O2/+/, and O/+/) found in the magnetosphere. Simulations using a multispecies particle simulation code for resistive current-driven electrostatic ion cyclotron waves show transverse and parallel bulk heating of bottomside ionospheric heavy ion populations. The dominant mechanism for the transverse bulk heating is resonant ion heating by wave-particle ion trapping. Using a linear kinetic dispersion relation for a magnetized, collisional, homogenous, and multiion plasma, it is found that collisional electrostatic ion cyclotron waves near the NO(+), O2(+), and O(+) gyrofrequencies are unstable to field-aligned currents of 50 microA/sq m for a typical bottomside ionosphere.

Providakes, Jason; Seyler, Charles E.

1990-01-01

406

Initial tests of the Spallation Neutron Source H{sup -} ion source with an external antenna  

SciTech Connect

The ion source for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is a radio-frequency (rf) multicusp source designed to deliver H{sup -} beam pulses of 40 mA to the SNS accelerator with a normalized root-mean-square emittance of less than 0.2{pi} mm mrad, with a pulse length of 1 ms and a repetition rate of 60 Hz. In order to achieve this performance the source must operate with both high-pulse rf power, {approx}50 kW, and high average rf power, {approx}3.5 kW, over a continuous operational period of 3 weeks. During operation at these power levels the plasma-immersed, porcelain-coated rf antenna is susceptible to damage, limiting source lifetime. We are therefore developing an ion source where the plasma is separated from the Cu antenna by an Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} discharge chamber. This article describes the ion source, presents initial beam extraction measurements, and details our ongoing effort to develop this concept into a suitable ion source for the SNS.

Welton, R.F.; Stockli, M.P.; Murray, S.N.; Kang, Y.; Peters, J. [Accelerator Systems Division, Spallation Neutron Source, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830-6473 (United States); DESY, Hamburg (Germany)

2006-03-15

407

Pulsed magnetic field-electron cyclotron resonance ion source operation  

SciTech Connect

The pulsed magnetic field (PuMa)-electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source uses a pulsed coil to improve the peak current by opening the magnetic bottle along the beam axis. After demonstration of the principle of the pulsed magnetic extraction, the ion source was tested with different gases. We received promising results from helium to krypton. The influence of the current in the pulsed coil on the analyzed ion current was measured. With increased current levels within the pulsed coil not only the pulse height of the PuMa pulse, but the pulse length can also be controlled. By using the pulsed coil the maximum of the charge state distribution can be shifted to higher charge states. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

Muehle, C.; Ratzinger, U.; Joest, G.; Leible, K.; Schennach, S.; Wolf, B.H. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung, Postfach 11 05 52, 64220 Darmstadt (Germany)] [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung, Postfach 11 05 52, 64220 Darmstadt (Germany)

1996-03-01

408

Cesium Delivery System for Negative Ion Source at IPR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The technique of surface production of negative ions using cesium, Cs, has been efficiently exploited over the years for producing negative ion beams with increased current densities from negative ion sources used on neutral beam lines. Deposition of Cs on the source walls and the plasma grid lowers the work function and therefore enables a higher yield of H-, when hydrogen particles (H and/or Hx+) strike these surfaces. A single driver RF based (100 kW, 1 MHz) negative ion source test bed, ROBIN, is being set up at IPR under a technical collaboration between IPR and IPP, Germany. The optimization of the Cs oven design to be used on this facility as well as multidriver sources is underway. The characterization experiments of such a Cs delivery system with a 1 g Cs inventory have been carried out using surface ionization technique. The experiments have been carried by delivering Cs into a vacuum chamber without plasma. The linear motion of the surface ionization detector, SID, attached with a linear motion feedthrough allows measuring the angular distribution of the Cs coming out of the oven. Based on the experimental results, a Cs oven for ROBIN has been proposed. The Cs oven design and experimental results of the prototype Cs oven are reported and discussed in the paper.

Bansal, G.; Pandya, K.; Bandyopadhyay, M.; Chakraborty, A.; Singh, M. J.; Soni, J.; Gahlaut, A.; Parmar, K. G.

2011-09-01

409

Handling radiation generated during an ion source commissioninga)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiation is an important issue, which should be carefully treated during the design and commissioning of an ion source. Measurements show that X-rays are generated around the ceramics column of an extraction system when the source is powered up to 30 kV. The X-ray dose increases greatly when a beam is extracted. Inserting the ceramic column into a metal vacuum box is a good way to block X-ray emission for those cases. Moreover, this makes the online test of an intense H+ ion beam with energy up to 100 keV possible. However, for deuteron ion source commissioning, neutron and gamma-ray radiation become a serious topic. In this paper, we will describe the design of the extraction system and the radiation doses of neutrons and gamma-rays measured at different D+ beam energy during our 2.45 GHz deuteron electron cyclotron resonance ion source commissioning for PKUNIFTY (PeKing University Neutron Imaging FaciliTY) project at Peking University.

Ren, H. T.; Zhao, J.; Peng, S. X.; Lu, P. N.; Zhou, Q. F.; Xu, Y.; Chen, J.; Zhang, T.; Zhang, A. L.; Guo, Z. Y.; Chen, J. E.

2014-02-01

410

Handling radiation generated during an ion source commissioning  

SciTech Connect

Radiation is an important issue, which should be carefully treated during the design and commissioning of an ion source. Measurements show that X-rays are generated around the ceramics column of an extraction system when the source is powered up to 30 kV. The X-ray dose increases greatly when a beam is extracted. Inserting the ceramic column into a metal vacuum box is a good way to block X-ray emission for those cases. Moreover, this makes the online test of an intense H{sup +} ion beam with energy up to 100 keV possible. However, for deuteron ion source commissioning, neutron and gamma-ray radiation become a serious topic. In this paper, we will describe the design of the extraction system and the radiation doses of neutrons and gamma-rays measured at different D{sup +} beam energy during our 2.45 GHz deuteron electron cyclotron resonance ion source commissioning for PKUNIFTY (PeKing University Neutron Imaging FaciliTY) project at Peking University.

Ren, H. T.; Zhao, J., E-mail: zj@pku.edu.cn; Peng, S. X.; Lu, P. N.; Zhou, Q. F.; Xu, Y.; Chen, J.; Zhang, T.; Zhang, A. L.; Guo, Z. Y.; Chen, J. E. [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Institute of Heavy Ion Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Institute of Heavy Ion Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

2014-02-15

411

Ion sources and acceleration mechanisms inferred from local distribution functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the sources of the ions making up the complex and nonisotropic H+ velocity distribution functions observed by the Geotail spacecraft on May 23, 1995, in the near-Earth magnetotail region and recently reported by Frank et al. [1996]. A distribution function observed by Geotail at ~10RE downtail is used as input for the large scale kinetic (LSK) technique

M. Ashour-Abdalla; M. El-Alaoui; V. Peroomian; J. Raeder; R. J. Walker; R. L. Richard; L. M. Zelenyi; L. A. Frank; W. R. Paterson; J. M. Bosqued; R. P. Lepping; K. Ogilvie; S. Kokubun; T. Yamamoto

1997-01-01

412

Handling radiation generated during an ion source commissioning.  

PubMed

Radiation is an important issue, which should be carefully treated during the design and commissioning of an ion source. Measurements show that X-rays are generated around the ceramics column of an extraction system when the source is powered up to 30 kV. The X-ray dose increases greatly when a beam is extracted. Inserting the ceramic column into a metal vacuum box is a good way to block X-ray emission for those cases. Moreover, this makes the online test of an intense H(+) ion beam with energy up to 100 keV possible. However, for deuteron ion source commissioning, neutron and gamma-ray radiation become a serious topic. In this paper, we will describe the design of the extraction system and the radiation doses of neutrons and gamma-rays measured at different D(+) beam energy during our 2.45 GHz deuteron electron cyclotron resonance ion source commissioning for PKUNIFTY (PeKing University Neutron Imaging FaciliTY) project at Peking University. PMID:24593509

Ren, H T; Zhao, J; Peng, S X; Lu, P N; Zhou, Q F; Xu, Y; Chen, J; Zhang, T; Zhang, A L; Guo, Z Y; Chen, J E

2014-02-01

413

Note: A pulsed laser ion source for linear induction accelerators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a high-current laser ion source for induction accelerators. A copper target was irradiated by a frequency-quadrupled Nd:YAG laser (266 nm) with relatively low intensities of 108 W/cm2. The laser-produced plasma supplied a large number of Cu+ ions (˜1012 ions/pulse) during several microseconds. Emission spectra of the plasma were observed and the calculated electron temperature was about 1 eV. An induction voltage adder extracted high-current ion beams over 0.5 A/cm2 from a plasma-prefilled gap. The normalized beam emittance measured by a pepper-pot method was smaller than 1 ? mm mrad.

Zhang, H.; Zhang, K.; Shen, Y.; Jiang, X.; Dong, P.; Liu, Y.; Wang, Y.; Chen, D.; Pan, H.; Wang, W.; Jiang, W.; Long, J.; Xia, L.; Shi, J.; Zhang, L.; Deng, J.

2015-01-01

414

Note: A pulsed laser ion source for linear induction accelerators.  

PubMed

We have developed a high-current laser ion source for induction accelerators. A copper target was irradiated by a frequency-quadrupled Nd:YAG laser (266 nm) with relatively low intensities of 10(8) W/cm(2). The laser-produced plasma supplied a large number of Cu(+) ions (?10(12) ions/pulse) during several microseconds. Emission spectra of the plasma were observed and the calculated electron temperature was about 1 eV. An induction voltage adder extracted high-current ion beams over 0.5 A/cm(2) from a plasma-prefilled gap. The normalized beam emittance measured by a pepper-pot method was smaller than 1 ? mm mrad. PMID:25638131

Zhang, H; Zhang, K; Shen, Y; Jiang, X; Dong, P; Liu, Y; Wang, Y; Chen, D; Pan, H; Wang, W; Jiang, W; Long, J; Xia, L; Shi, J; Zhang, L; Deng, J

2015-01-01

415

Method and apparatus for plasma source ion implantation  

DOEpatents

Ion implantation into surfaces of three-dimensional targets is achieved by forming an ionized plasma about the target within an enclosing chamber and applying a pulse of high voltage between the target and the conductive walls of the chamber. Ions from the plasma are driven into the target object surfaces from all sides simultaneously without the need for manipulation of the target object. Repetitive pulses of high voltage, typically 20 kilovolts or higher, causes the ions to be driven deeply into the target. The plasma may be formed of a neutral gas introduced into the evacuated chamber and ionized therein with ionizing radiation so that a constant source of plasma is provided which surrounds the target object during the implantation process. Significant increases in the surface hardness and wear characteristics of various materials are obtained with ion implantation in this manner.

Conrad, John R. (Madison, WI)

1988-01-01

416

Method and apparatus for plasma source ion implantation  

DOEpatents

Ion implantation into surfaces of three-dimensional targets is achieved by forming an ionized plasma about the target within an enclosing chamber and applying a pulse of high voltage between the target and the conductive walls of the chamber. Ions from the plasma are driven into the target object surfaces from all sides simultaneously without the need for manipulation of the target object. Repetitive pulses of high voltage, typically 20 kilovolts or higher, causes the ions to be driven deeply into the target. The plasma may be formed of a neutral gas introduced into the evacuated chamber and ionized therein with ionizing radiation so that a constant source of plasma is provided which surrounds the target object during the implantation process. Significant increases in the surface hardness and wear characteristics of various materials are obtained with ion implantation in this manner. 7 figs.

Conrad, J.R.

1988-08-16

417

Emittance studies of the Spallation Neutron Source external-antenna H{sup -} ion source  

SciTech Connect

A new Allison-type emittance scanner has been built to characterize the ion sources and low energy beam transport systems at Spallation Neutron Source. In this work, the emittance characteristics of the H{sup -} beam produced with the external-antenna rf-driven ion source and transported through the two-lens electrostatic low energy beam transport are studied. The beam emittance dependence on beam intensity, extraction parameters, and the evolution of the emittance and twiss parameters over beam pulse duration are presented.

Han, B. X.; Stockli, M. P.; Welton, R. F.; Pennisi, T. R.; Murray, S. N.; Santana, M.; Long, C. D. [Spallation Neutron Source (SNS), Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

2010-02-15

418

Perveance and ion bunch structure from a ``compact, high-pressure'' laser ion source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Dublin City University (DCU) laser ion source (LIS) is a "compact high-pressure" laser ion source utilizing a table top Q-switched laser. The DCU-LIS combines high laser fluence (F >4 kJ cm-2), high laser intensity (I >1011 W cm-2) with a short field free region (L =48 mm) and high source potential (Vext>40 kV) in order to offset recombination losses within the plasma and maximize the proportion of highly charged ions which are extracted from the plasma plume. Such a configuration also provides high peak currents (Ip>3 mA), high current densities (J >5 mA cm-2), and high charge states (Cu6+) in the extracted ion-bunch train. However, to obtain and utilize these parameter values in a high pressure LIS requires characterization and control of a number of processes related to ion dynamics and space charge effects on the extracted ions at the plasma plume-anode-extraction gap interface. Relevant issues include electric field distortion, Debye shielding, beam divergence, overfocusing, and perveance (P) in addition to current density profiles for the extracted ion beam. In this paper we focus on these issues and their impact on charge particle extraction and acceleration with a view to elucidating the parameter regimes within which the DCU-LIS performance envelope is optimal.

Yeates, P.; Costello, J. T.; Kennedy, E. T.

2010-12-01

419

Production of multiply charge-state ions in a multicusp ion source  

SciTech Connect

High charge state ion beams are commonly used in atomic and nuclear physics experiments. Multiply charged ions are normally produced in an ECR or in an EBIS. Multicusp generators can confine primary electrons very efficiently. Therefore, the electrical and gas efficiencies of these devices are high. Since the magnetic cusp fields are localized near the chamber wall, large volumes of uniform and high density plasmas can be obtained at low pressure, conditions favorable for the formation of multiply charged state ions. Attempts have been made at LBNL to generate multiply charged ion beams by employing a 25-cm diam by 25-cm long multicusp source. Experimental results demonstrated that charge states as high as 7+ can be obtained with argon or xenon plasmas. Multiply charged metallic ions such as tungsten and titanium have also been successfully formed in the multicusp source by evaporation and sputtering processes. In order to extend the charge state to higher values, a novel technique of injecting high energy electrons into the source plasma is proposed. If this is successful, the multicusp source will become very useful for radioactive beam accelerators, ion implantation, and nuclear physics applications. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

Williams, M.D.; deVries, G.J.; Gough, R.A.; Leung, K.N.; Monroy, M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)] [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

1996-03-01

420

New Results with the superconducting ECR ion source VENUS  

SciTech Connect

During the last year, the VENUS ECR ion source was commissioned at 18 GHz and preparations for 28 GHz operation, which is set to begin early in 2004, are now underway. The goal of the VENUS ECR ion source project as the RIA R&D injector is the production of 240emA of U30+, a high current medium charge state beam. On the other hand, as an injector ion source for the 88-Inch Cyclotron the design objective is the production of 5emA of U48+, a low current, very high charge state beam. During the commissioning phase with 18 GHz, tests with various gases and recently metals have been performed with up to 2000 W RF power and the performance is very promising. For example, 1100 e mu A of O6+,180 e mu A of Ar12+, 150 emA of Xe20+ and 100 emA of Bi24+ were produced in the early commissioning phase, ranking VENUS among the currently highest performance 18 GHz ECR ion sources. The emittance of the beams produced at 18 GHz was measured with a two axis emittance scanner. In FY04 a 10 kW, 28 GHz gyrotron system will be added, which will enable VENUS to reach full performance. The performance of the VENUS ion source, low energy beam transport (LEBT) and its closed loop cryogenic system are described in the paper. Recently, a new high temperature axial oven has been installed in the source and the first results on metal beams such as bismuth are given. The design of the 28 GHz, 10 kW gyrotron system is also be described. During the last year, the VENUS ECR ion source was commissioned at 18 GHz and preparations for 28 GHz operation, which is set to begin early in 2004, are now underway. The goal of the VENUS ECR+, a high current medium charge state beam. On the other hand, as an injector ion source for the 88-Inch Cyclotron the design objective is the production of 5 emA of U48+, a low current, very high charge state beam. During the commissioning phase with 18 GHz, tests with various gases and recently metals have been performed with up to 2000 W RF power and the performance is very promising. For example, 1100 e mu A of O6+, 180 e muA of Ar12+, 150 emA of Xe20+ and 100 emA of Bi24+ were produced in the early commissioning phase, ranking VENUS among the currently highest performance 18 GHz ECR ion sources. The emittance of the beams produced at 18 GHz was measured with a two axis emittance scanner. In FY04 a 10kW, 28 GHz gyrotron system will be added, which will enable VENUS to reach full performance. The performance of the VENUS ion source, low energy beam transport (LEBT) and its closed loop cryogenic system are described in the paper. Recently, a new high temperature axial oven has been installed in the source and the first results on metal beams such as bismuth are given. The design of the 28 GHz, 10 kW gyrotron system is also be described.

Lyneis, C.M.; Leitner, D.; Abbott, S.R.; Dwinell, R.D.; Leitner,M.; Silver, C.S.; Taylor, C.

2004-05-13