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Sample records for magnetron ion source

  1. Linear ion source with magnetron hollow cathode discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, D.L.; Pu, S.H.; Wang, L.S.; Qiu, X.M.; Chu, Paul K.

    2005-11-15

    A linear ion source with magnetron hollow cathode discharge is described in this paper. The linear ion source is based on an anode layer thruster with closed-drift electrons that move in a closed path in the ExB fields. An open slit configuration is designed at the end of the ion source for the extraction of the linear ion beam produced by the magnetron hollow cathode discharge. The special configurations enable uninterrupted and expanded operation with oxygen as well as other reactive gases because of the absence of an electron source in the ion source. The ion current density and uniformity were experimentally evaluated. Using the ion source, surface modification was conducted on polyethylene terephthalate polymer films to improve the adhesion strength with ZnS coatings.

  2. Improved magnetron cold-cathode ion source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roehrig, J.; Torney, F.

    1970-01-01

    Cold cathode ionization source generates smaller amounts of spurious gases and has a higher sensitivity than commonly used hot-filament ion sources. Photon and X-ray background noise are reduced below detectable levels.

  3. Unbalance magnetron plasma source for ion mass-separator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paperny, V. L.; Krasov, V. I.; Astrakchantsev, N. V.; Lebedev, N. V.

    2014-11-01

    The report presents the results of the preliminary studies characteristics of an unbalanced magnetron plasma source supplied with the transport system based on a curved magnetic field. The aim of these studies was to recognize if the system is suitable, in principle, for mass-separation of a multi-component plasma flow. The magnetron source has 50 mm diameter cathode manufactured of an alloy composed of Cu (64%), Pb (22.5%) and admixtures, about of 14% (Al, Zn, C). By means of an immersion time-of-flight spectrometer, a spatial distribution of ions of the cathode material was measured through the system output cross-section. Distribution of atom of these elements was measured here by the X-ray fluorescence spectrometry as well. Both methods showed that the ions of the lighter element (Cu) were concentrated in the inner part of the plasma flow deflected by the magnetic field while the distribution of the heavy element (Pb) was shifted toward the outer area of the flow. The similar effect was observed for each couple of the elements. Such a system is promising for use in plasma technology of reprocessing spent nuclear fuel, namely for separation heavy radioactive fission product from nuclear waste.

  4. An inverted cylindrical sputter magnetron as metal vapor supply for electron cyclotron resonance ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Weichsel, T. Hartung, U.; Kopte, T.; Zschornack, G.; Kreller, M.; Silze, A.

    2014-05-15

    An inverted cylindrical sputter magnetron device has been developed. The magnetron is acting as a metal vapor supply for an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source. FEM simulation of magnetic flux density was used to ensure that there is no critical interaction between both magnetic fields of magnetron and ECR ion source. Spatially resolved double Langmuir probe and optical emission spectroscopy measurements show an increase in electron density by one order of magnitude from 1 × 10{sup 10} cm{sup ?3} to 1 × 10{sup 11} cm{sup ?3}, when the magnetron plasma is exposed to the magnetic mirror field of the ECR ion source. Electron density enhancement is also indicated by magnetron plasma emission photography with a CCD camera. Furthermore, photographs visualize the formation of a localized loss-cone - area, when the magnetron is operated at magnetic mirror field conditions. The inverted cylindrical magnetron supplies a metal atom load rate of R > 1 × 10{sup 18} atoms/s for aluminum, which meets the demand for the production of a milliampere Al{sup +} ion beam.

  5. An inverted cylindrical sputter magnetron as metal vapor supply for electron cyclotron resonance ion sources.

    PubMed

    Weichsel, T; Hartung, U; Kopte, T; Zschornack, G; Kreller, M; Silze, A

    2014-05-01

    An inverted cylindrical sputter magnetron device has been developed. The magnetron is acting as a metal vapor supply for an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source. FEM simulation of magnetic flux density was used to ensure that there is no critical interaction between both magnetic fields of magnetron and ECR ion source. Spatially resolved double Langmuir probe and optical emission spectroscopy measurements show an increase in electron density by one order of magnitude from 1 × 10(10) cm(-3) to 1 × 10(11) cm(-3), when the magnetron plasma is exposed to the magnetic mirror field of the ECR ion source. Electron density enhancement is also indicated by magnetron plasma emission photography with a CCD camera. Furthermore, photographs visualize the formation of a localized loss-cone - area, when the magnetron is operated at magnetic mirror field conditions. The inverted cylindrical magnetron supplies a metal atom load rate of R > 1 × 10(18) atoms/s for aluminum, which meets the demand for the production of a milliampere Al(+) ion beam. PMID:24880358

  6. An inverted cylindrical sputter magnetron as metal vapor supply for electron cyclotron resonance ion sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weichsel, T.; Hartung, U.; Kopte, T.; Zschornack, G.; Kreller, M.; Silze, A.

    2014-05-01

    An inverted cylindrical sputter magnetron device has been developed. The magnetron is acting as a metal vapor supply for an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source. FEM simulation of magnetic flux density was used to ensure that there is no critical interaction between both magnetic fields of magnetron and ECR ion source. Spatially resolved double Langmuir probe and optical emission spectroscopy measurements show an increase in electron density by one order of magnitude from 1 × 1010 cm-3 to 1 × 1011 cm-3, when the magnetron plasma is exposed to the magnetic mirror field of the ECR ion source. Electron density enhancement is also indicated by magnetron plasma emission photography with a CCD camera. Furthermore, photographs visualize the formation of a localized loss-cone - area, when the magnetron is operated at magnetic mirror field conditions. The inverted cylindrical magnetron supplies a metal atom load rate of R > 1 × 1018 atoms/s for aluminum, which meets the demand for the production of a milliampere Al+ ion beam.

  7. Magnetron sputtering source

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, D.M.; McKernan, M.A.; Grabner, R.F.; Ramsey, P.B.

    1994-08-02

    A magnetron sputtering source for sputtering coating substrates includes a high thermal conductivity electrically insulating ceramic and magnetically attached sputter target which can eliminate vacuum sealing and direct fluid cooling of the cathode assembly. The magnetron sputtering source design results in greater compactness, improved operating characteristics, greater versatility, and low fabrication cost. The design easily retrofits most sputtering apparatuses and provides for safe, easy, and cost effective target replacement, installation, and removal. 12 figs.

  8. Magnetron sputtering source

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, Daniel M. (Livermore, WA); McKernan, Mark A. (Livermore, CA); Grabner, R. Fred (Brentwood, CA); Ramsey, Philip B. (Livermore, CA)

    1994-01-01

    A magnetron sputtering source for sputtering coating substrates includes a high thermal conductivity electrically insulating ceramic and magnetically attached sputter target which can eliminate vacuum sealing and direct fluid cooling of the cathode assembly. The magnetron sputtering source design results in greater compactness, improved operating characteristics, greater versatility, and low fabrication cost. The design easily retrofits most sputtering apparatuses and provides for safe, easy, and cost effective target replacement, installation, and removal.

  9. A hybrid electron cyclotron resonance metal ion source with integrated sputter magnetron for the production of an intense Al+ ion beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weichsel, T.; Hartung, U.; Kopte, T.; Zschornack, G.; Kreller, M.; Philipp, A.

    2015-09-01

    A metal ion source prototype has been developed: a combination of magnetron sputter technology with 2.45 GHz electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source technology—a so called magnetron ECR ion source (MECRIS). An integrated ring-shaped sputter magnetron with an Al target is acting as a powerful metal atom supply in order to produce an intense current of singly charged metal ions. Preliminary experiments show that an Al+ ion current with a density of 167 ?A/cm2 is extracted from the source at an acceleration voltage of 27 kV. Spatially resolved double Langmuir probe measurements and optical emission spectroscopy were used to study the plasma states of the ion source: sputter magnetron, ECR, and MECRIS plasma. Electron density and temperature as well as Al atom density were determined as a function of microwave and sputter magnetron power. The effect of ECR heating is strongly pronounced in the center of the source. There the electron density is increased by one order of magnitude from 6 × 109 cm-3 to 6 × 1010 cm-3 and the electron temperature is enhanced from about 5 eV to 12 eV, when the ECR plasma is ignited to the magnetron plasma. Operating the magnetron at constant power, it was observed that its discharge current is raised from 1.8 A to 4.8 A, when the ECR discharge was superimposed with a microwave power of 2 kW. At the same time, the discharge voltage decreased from about 560 V to 210 V, clearly indicating a higher plasma density of the MECRIS mode. The optical emission spectrum of the MECRIS plasma is dominated by lines of excited Al atoms and shows a significant contribution of lines arising from singly ionized Al. Plasma emission photography with a CCD camera was used to prove probe measurements and to identify separated plasma emission zones originating from the ECR and magnetron discharge.

  10. A hybrid electron cyclotron resonance metal ion source with integrated sputter magnetron for the production of an intense Al? ion beam.

    PubMed

    Weichsel, T; Hartung, U; Kopte, T; Zschornack, G; Kreller, M; Philipp, A

    2015-09-01

    A metal ion source prototype has been developed: a combination of magnetron sputter technology with 2.45 GHz electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source technology-a so called magnetron ECR ion source (MECRIS). An integrated ring-shaped sputter magnetron with an Al target is acting as a powerful metal atom supply in order to produce an intense current of singly charged metal ions. Preliminary experiments show that an Al(+) ion current with a density of 167 ?A/cm(2) is extracted from the source at an acceleration voltage of 27 kV. Spatially resolved double Langmuir probe measurements and optical emission spectroscopy were used to study the plasma states of the ion source: sputter magnetron, ECR, and MECRIS plasma. Electron density and temperature as well as Al atom density were determined as a function of microwave and sputter magnetron power. The effect of ECR heating is strongly pronounced in the center of the source. There the electron density is increased by one order of magnitude from 6 × 10(9) cm(-3) to 6 × 10(10) cm(-3) and the electron temperature is enhanced from about 5 eV to 12 eV, when the ECR plasma is ignited to the magnetron plasma. Operating the magnetron at constant power, it was observed that its discharge current is raised from 1.8 A to 4.8 A, when the ECR discharge was superimposed with a microwave power of 2 kW. At the same time, the discharge voltage decreased from about 560 V to 210 V, clearly indicating a higher plasma density of the MECRIS mode. The optical emission spectrum of the MECRIS plasma is dominated by lines of excited Al atoms and shows a significant contribution of lines arising from singly ionized Al. Plasma emission photography with a CCD camera was used to prove probe measurements and to identify separated plasma emission zones originating from the ECR and magnetron discharge. PMID:26429434

  11. Reduction of beam current noise in the FNAL magnetron ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Bollinger, D. S. Karns, P. R. Tan, C. Y.

    2015-04-08

    The new FNAL Injector Line with a circular dimple magnetron ion source has been operational since December of 2012. Since the new injector came on line there have been variations in the H- beam current flattop observed near the downstream end of the Linac. Several different cathode geometries including a hollow cathode suggested by Dudnikov [1] were tried. Previous studies also showed that different mixtures of hydrogen and nitrogen had an effect on beam current noise [2]. We expanded on those studies by trying mixtures ranging from (0.25% nitrogen, 99.75% hydrogen) to (3% nitrogen, 97% hydrogen). The results of these studies in our test stand will be presented in this paper.

  12. Reduction of beam current noise in the FNAL magnetron ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bollinger, D. S.; Karns, P. R.; Tan, C. Y.

    2015-04-01

    The new FNAL Injector Line with a circular dimple magnetron ion source has been operational since December of 2012. Since the new injector came on line there have been variations in the H- beam current flattop observed near the downstream end of the Linac. Several different cathode geometries including a hollow cathode suggested by Dudnikov [1] were tried. Previous studies also showed that different mixtures of hydrogen and nitrogen had an effect on beam current noise [2]. We expanded on those studies by trying mixtures ranging from (0.25% nitrogen, 99.75% hydrogen) to (3% nitrogen, 97% hydrogen). The results of these studies in our test stand will be presented in this paper.

  13. Ion Source of Pure Single Charged Boron Based on Planar Magnetron Discharge in Self-Sputtering Mode

    SciTech Connect

    Vizir, A. V.; Gushenets, V. I.; Oks, E. M.; Yushkov, G. Yu.; Hershcovitch, A.; Kulevoy, T. V.

    2011-01-07

    A planar magnetron sputtering device with thermally isolated sintered boron target has been designed and demonstrated. The magnetron is intended to use for generation of boron ion beams, as well as in plasma immersion implantation. For a boron target, high target temperature is required because boron has low electrical conductivity at room temperature, which increases with temperature. The target is well insulated thermally and can be heated by an initial low-current, high-voltage DC discharge mode. A discharge power of 16 W was adequate to reach the required surface temperature, after that a transition of the discharge to a high-current, low-voltage mode is observed. Applying high current pulses over the DC heating discharge results in a self-sputtering operational mode of the magnetron discharge. Ion beam was extracted from the discharge plasma. Beam analysis was performed with a time-of-flight system. All the boron ions are single charged. The maximum boron ion fraction in the beam is greater than 99%, and the mean boron ion fraction, time-integrated over the whole pulse length, is about 95%. This kind of boron ion source could be competitive to conventional boron ion sources that utilize compounds such as BF{sub 3}, and could be useful for semiconductor industry application.

  14. Deposition and characterization of zirconium nitride (ZrN) thin films by reactive magnetron sputtering with linear gas ion source and bias voltage

    SciTech Connect

    Kavitha, A.; Kannan, R.; Subramanian, N. Sankara; Loganathan, S.

    2014-04-24

    Zirconium nitride thin films have been prepared on stainless steel substrate (304L grade) by reactive cylindrical magnetron sputtering method with Gas Ion Source (GIS) and bias voltage using optimized coating parameters. The structure and surface morphologies of the ZrN films were characterized using X-ray diffraction, atomic microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The adhesion property of ZrN thin film has been increased due to the GIS. The coating exhibits better adhesion strength up to 10 N whereas the ZrN thin film with bias voltage exhibits adhesion up to 500 mN.

  15. Ion source

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo (Hercules, CA); Ehlers, Kenneth W. (Alamo, CA)

    1984-01-01

    A magnetic filter for an ion source reduces the production of undesired ion species and improves the ion beam quality. High-energy ionizing electrons are confined by the magnetic filter to an ion source region, where the high-energy electrons ionize gas molecules. One embodiment of the magnetic filter uses permanent magnets oriented to establish a magnetic field transverse to the direction of travel of ions from the ion source region to the ion extraction region. In another embodiment, low energy 16 eV electrons are injected into the ion source to dissociate gas molecules and undesired ion species into desired ion species.

  16. Phase and Frequency Locked Magnetrons for SRF Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Neubauer, M.; Johnson, R.P.; Popovic, M.; Moretti, A.; /Fermilab

    2009-05-01

    Magnetrons are low-cost highly-efficient microwave sources, but they have several limitations, primarily centered about the phase and frequency stability of their output. When the stability requirements are low, such as for medical accelerators or kitchen ovens, magnetrons are the very efficient power source of choice. But for high energy accelerators, because of the need for frequency and phase stability - proton accelerators need 1-2 degrees source phase stability, and electron accelerators need .1-.2 degrees of phase stability - they have rarely been used. We describe a novel variable frequency cavity technique which will be utilized to phase and frequency lock magnetrons.

  17. Phase and Frequency Locked Magnetrons for SRF Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Neubauer, Michael; Johnson, Rolland

    2014-09-12

    There is great potential for a magnetron power source that can be controlled both in phase and frequency. Such a power source could revolutionize many particle accelerator systems that require lower capital cost and/or higher power efficiency. Beyond the accelerator community, phase and frequency locked magnetons could improve radar systems around the world and make affordable phased arrays for wireless power transmission for solar powered satellites. This joint project of Muons, Inc., Fermilab, and L-3 CTL was supported by an STTR grant monitored by the Nuclear Physics Office of the DOE Office of Science. The object of the program was to incorporate ferrite materials into the anode of a magnetron and, with appropriate biasing of the ferrites, to maintain frequency lock and to allow for frequency adjustment of the magnetron without mechanical tuners. If successful, this device would have a dual use both as a source for SRF linacs and for military applications where fast tuning of the frequency is a requirement. In order to place the materials in the proper location, several attributes needed to be modeled. First the impact of the magnetron’s magnetic field needed to be shielded from the ferrites so that they were not saturated. And second, the magnetic field required to change the frequency of the magnetron at the ferrites needed to be shielded from the region containing the circulating electrons. ANSYS calculations of the magnetic field were used to optimize both of these parameters. Once the design for these elements was concluded, parts were fabricated and a complete test assembly built to confirm the predictions of the computer models. The ferrite material was also tested to determine its compatibility with magnetron tube processing temperatures. This required a vacuum bake out of the chosen material to determine the cleanliness of the material in terms of outgassing characteristics, and a subsequent room temperature test to verify that the characteristics of the ferrite had not changed. A major problem that remains is to develop a ferrite material with low enough loss that it does not reduce the quality factor of the magnetron to an unacceptable level.

  18. Electron and ion transport in magnetron plasmas T. E. Sheridan, M. J. Goeckner, and J. Goree

    E-print Network

    Goree, John

    Electron and ion transport in magnetron plasmas T. E. Sheridan, M. J. Goeckner, and J. Goree; accepted 27 December 1989) We demonstrate experimentally that there is a strong link between electron transport and ion transport in sputtering magnetron plasmas. Electron densities and discharge currents

  19. Improved negative ion source

    DOEpatents

    Delmore, J.E.

    1984-05-01

    A method and apparatus for providing a negative ion source accelerates electrons away from a hot filament electron emitter into a region of crossed electric and magnetic fields arranged in a magnetron configuration. During a portion of the resulting cycloidal path, the electron velocity is reduced below its initial value. The electron accelerates as it leaves the surface at a rate of only slightly less than if there were no magnetic field, thereby preventing a charge buildup at the surface of the emitter. As the electron traverses the cycloid, it is decelerated during the second, third, and fourth quadrants, then reaccelerated as it approaches the end of the fourth quadrant to regain its original velocity. The minimum velocity occurs during the fourth quadrant, and corresponds to an electron temperature of 200 to 500/sup 0/C for the electric and magnetic fields commonly encountered in the ion sources of magnetic sector mass spectrometers. An ion source using the above-described thermalized electrons is also disclosed.

  20. Negative ion source

    DOEpatents

    Delmore, James E. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1987-01-01

    A method and apparatus for providing a negative ion source accelerates electrons away from a hot filament electron emitter into a region of crossed electric and magnetic fields arranged in a magnetron configuration. During a portion of the resulting cycloidal path, the electron velocity is reduced below its initial value. The electron accelerates as it leaves the surface at a rate of only slightly less than if there were no magnetic field, thereby preventing a charge buildup at the surface of the emitter. As the electron traverses the cycloid, it is decelerated during the second, third, and fourth quadrants, then reeccelerated as it approaches the end of the fourth quadrant to regain its original velocity. The minimum velocity occurs during the fourth quadrant, and corresponds to an electron temperature of 200.degree. to 500.degree. for the electric and magnetic fields commonly encountered in the ion sources of magnetic sector mass spectrometers. An ion source using the above-described thermalized electrons is also disclosed.

  1. Magnetron deposition of TCO films using ion beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asainov, O.; Umnov, S.; Chinin, A.

    2015-11-01

    Thin films of tin oxide (TO) were deposited on the glass substrates at room temperature using reactive magnetron sputtering at various oxygen partial pressures. After the deposition the films were irradiated with argon ions beam. The change of the optical and electrical properties of the films depending on the irradiation time was studied. Films optical properties in the range of 300-1100 nm were investigated by photometry as well as their structural properties were studied using X-ray diffraction. Diffractometric research showed that the films, deposited on a substrate, have a crystal structure, and after argon ions irradiation they become quasi-crystalline (amorphous). It was found that the transmission increases proportionally with the irradiation time, but the surface resistance -disproportionally.

  2. Rotating dust ring in an RF discharge coupled with a dc-magnetron sputter source. Experiment and simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matyash, K.; Fröhlich, M.; Kersten, H.; Thieme, G.; Schneider, R.; Hannemann, M.; Hippler, R.

    2004-10-01

    During an experiment involving coating of dust grains trapped in an RF discharge using a sputtering dc-magnetron source, a rotating dust ring was observed and investigated. After the magnetron was switched on, the dust cloud levitating above the RF electrode formed a ring rotating as a rigid body. Langmuir probe diagnostics were used for the measurement of plasma density and potential. It was discovered that the coupling of the dc-magnetron source to the RF discharge causes steep radial gradients in electron density and plasma potential. The rotation of the dust ring is attributed to the azimuthal component of the ion drag force, which appears due to the azimuthal drift of the ions caused by crossed radial electric and axial magnetic fields. In order to get more insight into the mechanism of dust ring rotation, a Particle-in-Cell simulation of a rotating dust cloud was performed. The results of the experiment and simulation are presented and discussed.

  3. Cesium in hydrogen negative-ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Belchenko, Yu.I.; Davydenko, V.I.

    2006-03-15

    Experimental data on the dynamics of cesium particles in the pulsed magnetron and Penning surface-plasma ion sources are presented. Cesium escape from the source emission apertures and the cesium ion current to discharge electrodes was measured. The low value of cesium flux from the source was detected. An intense cesium ion current to the cathode (up to 0.8 A/cm{sup 2}) was measured. The high value of cesium ion current to surface-plasma source cathode confirms the cesium circulation near the cathode.

  4. Unbalanced magnetron ion-assisted deposition and property modification of thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Savvides, N.; Window, B.

    1986-05-01

    Unbalanced magnetron (UM-gun) sputtering sources with the unique characteristic of a high deposition rate and concomitant high ion flux represent an exciting new development in ion-assisted deposition of thin films. We have used a UM-gun capable of producing ion current densities up to 5 mA cm/sup -2/ (ion flux 3 x 10/sup 16/ cm/sup -2/ s/sup -1/) when operated at a power of 500 W to produce a variety of thin films of amorphous and crystalline materials by varying both the bombarding ion energy in the range 2--100 eV and the ion/atom arrival rate ratio in the range 0.4--10. The great flexibility and usefulness of UM-guns is demonstrated with examples which include (a) hard diamondlike a-C films prepared under very low ion energy (13--16 eV) bombardment which possess a metastable bonding configuration consisting of a mixture of tetrahedral and trigonal coordination that varies with ion energy, (b) hard and wear-resistant TiN films whose electrical and optical properties change dramatically with ion bombardment, and (c) Ni/Cr alloy films showing ion-induced structural modifications.

  5. Source of Metal Ions Based on Penning Discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolodko, D. V.; Mamedov, N. V.; Sinelnikov, D. N.; Khodachenko, G. V.; Kaziev, A. V.; Tumarkin, A. V.; Pisarev, A. A.

    The deposition flux in magnetron discharges comprises two components: neutral particles and ions. In order to study the deposition process in detail, one needs to separate these components. Producing thin films by ion flux only requires development of a special ion source. The source of metal ions with Penning discharge was designed, numerically simulated and assembled. The characteristics of the ion source were determined experimentally.

  6. Negative ion source with hollow cathode discharge plasma

    DOEpatents

    Hershcovitch, A.; Prelec, K.

    1980-12-12

    A negative ion source of the type where negative ions are formed by bombarding a low-work-function surface with positive ions and neutral particles from a plasma, wherein a highly ionized plasma is injected into an anode space containing the low-work-function surface is described. The plasma is formed by hollow cathode discharge and injected into the anode space along the magnetic field lines. Preferably, the negative ion source is of the magnetron type.

  7. Negative ion source with hollow cathode discharge plasma

    DOEpatents

    Hershcovitch, Ady (Mt. Sinai, NY); Prelec, Krsto (Setauket, NY)

    1983-01-01

    A negative ion source of the type where negative ions are formed by bombarding a low-work-function surface with positive ions and neutral particles from a plasma, wherein a highly ionized plasma is injected into an anode space containing the low-work-function surface. The plasma is formed by hollow cathode discharge and injected into the anode space along the magnetic field lines. Preferably, the negative ion source is of the magnetron type.

  8. Aperture Ion Source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrero, Fred

    2012-01-01

    The aperture ion source was conceived to eliminate distortion in measurements of angular distributions of neutral atoms and molecules that require electron-impact ion sources. The approach simplifies the coupling between ion source and spectrometer while providing virtually distortion-free angular distributions and improved accuracy in the dimensions of the ionization region. Furthermore, it virtually eliminates the volume occupied by the ion source.

  9. Comparative analysis of continuous-wave surface-plasma negative ion sources with various discharge geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Belchenko, Yu; Sanin, A.; Sotnikov, O.; Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk, 630090

    2014-02-15

    Negative ion extraction from continuous-wave (CW) magnetron and semiplanotron discharges was studied and it was compared with that for the source with Penning electrode geometry. The CW negative ion beam up current to 13 mA was extracted from the magnetron source with emission aperture of 3.5 mm in diameter, while the beam with current up to 8 mA was obtained from the semiplanotron source modification. Characteristics of CW magnetron and semiplanotron sources are presented and analyzed.

  10. Comparative analysis of continuous-wave surface-plasma negative ion sources with various discharge geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belchenko, Yu; Sanin, A.; Sotnikov, O.

    2014-02-01

    Negative ion extraction from continuous-wave (CW) magnetron and semiplanotron discharges was studied and it was compared with that for the source with Penning electrode geometry. The CW negative ion beam up current to 13 mA was extracted from the magnetron source with emission aperture of 3.5 mm in diameter, while the beam with current up to 8 mA was obtained from the semiplanotron source modification. Characteristics of CW magnetron and semiplanotron sources are presented and analyzed.

  11. Comparative analysis of continuous-wave surface-plasma negative ion sources with various discharge geometry.

    PubMed

    Belchenko, Yu; Sanin, A; Sotnikov, O

    2014-02-01

    Negative ion extraction from continuous-wave (CW) magnetron and semiplanotron discharges was studied and it was compared with that for the source with Penning electrode geometry. The CW negative ion beam up current to 13 mA was extracted from the magnetron source with emission aperture of 3.5 mm in diameter, while the beam with current up to 8 mA was obtained from the semiplanotron source modification. Characteristics of CW magnetron and semiplanotron sources are presented and analyzed. PMID:24593556

  12. Substrate heating rates for planar and cylindrical-post magnetron sputtering sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, J. A.; Lamb, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    Results are presented for the substrate heating energy/atom required in the planar magnetron sputtering of Al, Cr, Ni, Cu, Mo, In, Ta, W, and Pt in Ar, as well as Al and Cr in O2. Data are also obtained for cylindrical magnetron sputtering of Nb, Ag, Ta, W, and Pb-Sn in Ar, and Mo sputtered in Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe. Planar and cylindrical magnetron heating rates were comparable. Special experiments were conducted to examine the contributions to substrate heating of plasma species and ion neutralization and reflection at the cathode; the results obtained indicate that charged plasma species do not significantly contribute to the heating, but that neutralized and reflected ions play a significant role in the planar as well as cylindrical cases despite the differences in cathode geometry.

  13. Industrial ion source technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, H. R.

    1976-01-01

    A 30 cm electron bombardment ion source was designed and fabricated for micromachining and sputtering applications. This source has a multipole magnetic field that employs permanent magnets between permeable pole pieces. An average ion current density of 1 ma/sq cm with 500 eV argon ions was selected as a design operating condition. The ion beam at this operating condition was uniform and well collimated, with an average variation of plus or minus 5 percent over the center 20 cm of the beam at distances up to 30 cm from the ion source. A variety of sputtering applications were undertaken with a small 10 cm ion source to better understand the ion source requirements in these applications. The results of these experimental studies are also included.

  14. Argon–oxygen dc magnetron discharge plasma probed with ion acoustic waves

    SciTech Connect

    Saikia, Partha Saikia, Bipul Kumar; Goswami, Kalyan Sindhu; Phukan, Arindam

    2014-05-15

    The precise determination of the relative concentration of negative ions is very important for the optimization of magnetron sputtering processes, especially for those undertaken in a multicomponent background produced by adding electronegative gases, such as oxygen, to the discharge. The temporal behavior of an ion acoustic wave excited from a stainless steel grid inside the plasma chamber is used to determine the relative negative ion concentration in the magnetron discharge plasma. The phase velocity of the ion acoustic wave in the presence of negative ions is found to be faster than in a pure argon plasma, and the phase velocity increases with the oxygen partial pressure. Optical emission spectroscopy further confirms the increase in the oxygen negative ion density, along with a decrease in the argon positive ion density under the same discharge conditions. The relative negative ion concentration values measured by ion acoustic waves are compared with those measured by a single Langmuir probe, and a similarity in the results obtained by both techniques is observed.

  15. Metal Ion Sources for Ion Beam Implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, W. J.; Zhao, Z. Q.; Ren, X. T.

    2008-11-03

    In this paper a theme touched upon the progress of metal ion sources devoted to metal ion beam implantation (MIBI) will be reviewed. A special emphasis will be given to some kinds of ion sources such as ECR, MEVVA and Cluster ion sources. A novel dual hollow cathode metal ion source named DUHOCAMIS will be introduced and discussed.

  16. Design and characterization of 2.45 GHz electron cyclotron resonance plasma source with magnetron magnetic field configuration for high flux of hyperthermal neutral beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seong Bong; Kim, Dae Chul; Namkung, Won; Cho, Moohyun; Yoo, Suk Jae

    2010-08-01

    A 2.45 GHz electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) source with a magnetron magnetic field configuration was developed to meet the demand of a hyperthermal neutral beam (HNB) flux on a substrate of more than 1×1015 cm-2 s-1 for industrial applications. The parameters of the operating pressure, ion density, electron temperature, and distance between the neutralization plate and the substrate for the HNB source are specified in a theoretical analysis. The electron temperature and the ion density are measured to characterize the ECR HNB source using a Langmuir probe and optical emission spectroscopy. The parameters of the ECR HNB source are in good agreement with the theoretically specified parameters.

  17. Ion energies in high power impulse magnetron sputtering with and without localized ionization zones

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Yuchen; Tanaka, Koichi; Liu, Jason; Anders, André

    2015-03-23

    High speed imaging of high power impulse magnetron sputtering discharges has revealed that ionization is localized in moving ionization zones but localization disappears at high currents for high yield targets. This offers an opportunity to study the effect ionization zones have on ion energies. We measure that ions have generally higher energies when ionization zones are present, supporting the concept that these zones are associated with moving potential humps. We propose that the disappearance of ionization zones is caused by an increased supply of atoms from the target which cools electrons and reduces depletion of atoms to be ionized.

  18. Pulsed ion beam source

    DOEpatents

    Greenly, John B. (Lansing, NY)

    1997-01-01

    An improved pulsed ion beam source having a new biasing circuit for the fast magnetic field. This circuit provides for an initial negative bias for the field created by the fast coils in the ion beam source which pre-ionize the gas in the source, ionize the gas and deliver the gas to the proper position in the accelerating gap between the anode and cathode assemblies in the ion beam source. The initial negative bias improves the interaction between the location of the nulls in the composite magnetic field in the ion beam source and the position of the gas for pre-ionization and ionization into the plasma as well as final positioning of the plasma in the accelerating gap. Improvements to the construction of the flux excluders in the anode assembly are also accomplished by fabricating them as layered structures with a high melting point, low conductivity material on the outsides with a high conductivity material in the center.

  19. Negative hydrogen ion sources for accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Moehs, D.P.; Peters, J.; Sherman, J.; /Los Alamos

    2005-08-01

    A variety of H{sup -} ion sources are in use at accelerator laboratories around the world. A list of these ion sources includes surface plasma sources with magnetron, Penning and surface converter geometries as well as magnetic-multipole volume sources with and without cesium. Just as varied is the means of igniting and maintaining magnetically confined plasmas. Hot and cold cathodes, radio frequency, and microwave power are all in use, as well as electron tandem source ignition. The extraction systems of accelerator H{sup -} ion sources are highly specialized utilizing magnetic and electric fields in their low energy beam transport systems to produce direct current, as well as pulsed and/or chopped beams with a variety of time structures. Within this paper, specific ion sources utilized at accelerator laboratories shall be reviewed along with the physics of surface and volume H{sup -} production in regard to source emittance. Current research trends including aperture modeling, thermal modeling, surface conditioning, and laser diagnostics will also be discussed.

  20. Microwave ion source

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Reijonen, Jani; Thomae, Rainer W.

    2005-07-26

    A compact microwave ion source has a permanent magnet dipole field, a microwave launcher, and an extractor parallel to the source axis. The dipole field is in the form of a ring. The microwaves are launched from the middle of the dipole ring using a coaxial waveguide. Electrons are heated using ECR in the magnetic field. The ions are extracted from the side of the source from the middle of the dipole perpendicular to the source axis. The plasma density can be increased by boosting the microwave ion source by the addition of an RF antenna. Higher charge states can be achieved by increasing the microwave frequency. A xenon source with a magnetic pinch can be used to produce intense EUV radiation.

  1. Selective ion source

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo (Hercules, CA)

    1996-01-01

    A ion source is described wherein selected ions maybe extracted to the exclusion of unwanted ion species of higher ionization potential. Also described is a method of producing selected ions from a compound, such as P.sup.+ from PH.sub.3. The invention comprises a plasma chamber, an electron source, a means for introducing a gas to be ionized by electrons from the electron source, means for limiting electron energy from the electron source to a value between the ionization energy of the selected ion species and the greater ionization energy of an unwanted ion specie, and means for extracting the target ion specie from the plasma chamber. In one embodiment, the electrons are generated in a plasma cathode chamber immediately adjacent to the plasma chamber. A small extractor draws the electrons from the plasma cathode chamber into the relatively positive plasma chamber. The energy of the electrons extracted in this manner is easily controlled. The invention is particularly useful for doping silicon with P.sup.+, AS.sup.+, and B.sup.+ without the problematic presence of hydrogen, helium, water, or carbon oxide ions. Doped silicon is important for manufacture of semiconductors and semiconductor devices.

  2. Selective ion source

    DOEpatents

    Leung, K.N.

    1996-05-14

    A ion source is described wherein selected ions maybe extracted to the exclusion of unwanted ion species of higher ionization potential. Also described is a method of producing selected ions from a compound, such as P{sup +} from PH{sub 3}. The invention comprises a plasma chamber, an electron source, a means for introducing a gas to be ionized by electrons from the electron source, means for limiting electron energy from the electron source to a value between the ionization energy of the selected ion species and the greater ionization energy of an unwanted ion specie, and means for extracting the target ion specie from the plasma chamber. In one embodiment, the electrons are generated in a plasma cathode chamber immediately adjacent to the plasma chamber. A small extractor draws the electrons from the plasma cathode chamber into the relatively positive plasma chamber. The energy of the electrons extracted in this manner is easily controlled. The invention is particularly useful for doping silicon with P{sup +}, As{sup +}, and B{sup +} without the problematic presence of hydrogen, helium, water, or carbon oxide ions. Doped silicon is important for manufacture of semiconductors and semiconductor devices. 6 figs.

  3. Distance-dependent plasma composition and ion energy in high power impulse magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Ehiasarian, Arutiun P; Andersson, Joakim; Anders, André

    2010-04-18

    The plasma composition of high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) has been studied for titanium and chromium targets using a combined energy analyser and quadrupole mass spectrometer. Measurements were done at distances from 50 to 300 mm from the sputtering target. Ti and Cr are similar in atomic mass but have significantly different sputter yields, which gives interesting clues on the effect of the target on plasma generation and transport of atoms. The Ti and Cr HIPIMS plasmas operated at a peak target current density of ~;;0.5 A cm-2. The measurements of the argon and metal ion content as well as the ion energy distribution functions showed that (1) singly and doubly charged ions were found for argon as well as for the target metal, (2) the majority of ions were singly charged argon for both metals at all distances investigated, (3) the Cr ion density was maintained to distances further from the target than Ti. Gas rarefaction was identified as a main factor promoting transport of metal ions, with the stronger effect observed for Cr, the material with higher sputter yield. Cr ions were found to displace a significant portion of the gas ions, whereas this was less evident in the Ti case. The observations indicate that the presence of metal vapour promotes charge exchange and reduces the electron temperature and thereby practically prevents the production of Ar2+ ions near the target. The content of higher charge states of metal ions depends on the probability of charge exchange with argon.

  4. Industrial ion source technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, H. R.; Robinson, R. S.

    1979-01-01

    In reactive ion etching of Si, varying amounts of O2 were added to the CF4 background. The experimental results indicated an etch rate less than that for Ar up to an O2 partial pressure of about .00006 Torr. Above this O2 pressure, the etch rate with CF4 exceeded that with Ar alone. For comparison the random arrival rate of O2 was approximately equal to the ion arrival rate at a partial pressure of about .00002 Torr. There were also ion source and ion pressure gauge maintenance problems as a result of the use of CF4. Large scale (4 sq cm) texturing of Si was accomplished using both Cu and stainless steel seed. The most effective seeding method for this texturing was to surround the sample with large inclined planes. Designing, fabricating, and testing a 200 sq cm rectangular beam ion source was emphasized. The design current density was 6 mA/sq cm with 500 eV argon ions, although power supply limitations permitted operation to only 2 mA/sq cm. The use of multiple rectangular beam ion sources for continuous processing of wider areas than would be possible with a single source was also studied. In all cases investigated, the most uniform coverage was obtained with 0 to 2 cm beam overlay. The maximum departure from uniform processing at optimum beam overlap was found to be +15%.

  5. High current ion source

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Ian G. (1088 Woodside Rd., Berkeley, CA 94708); MacGill, Robert A. (645 Kern St., Richmond, CA 94805); Galvin, James E. (2 Commodore Dr. #276, Emeryville, CA 94608)

    1990-01-01

    An ion source utilizing a cathode and anode for producing an electric arc therebetween. The arc is sufficient to vaporize a portion of the cathode to form a plasma. The plasma leaves the generation region and expands through another regon. The density profile of the plasma may be flattened using a magnetic field formed within a vacuum chamber. Ions are extracted from the plasma to produce a high current broad on beam.

  6. Pulsed ion beam source

    DOEpatents

    Greenly, J.B.

    1997-08-12

    An improved pulsed ion beam source is disclosed having a new biasing circuit for the fast magnetic field. This circuit provides for an initial negative bias for the field created by the fast coils in the ion beam source which pre-ionize the gas in the source, ionize the gas and deliver the gas to the proper position in the accelerating gap between the anode and cathode assemblies in the ion beam source. The initial negative bias improves the interaction between the location of the nulls in the composite magnetic field in the ion beam source and the position of the gas for pre-ionization and ionization into the plasma as well as final positioning of the plasma in the accelerating gap. Improvements to the construction of the flux excluders in the anode assembly are also accomplished by fabricating them as layered structures with a high melting point, low conductivity material on the outsides with a high conductivity material in the center. 12 figs.

  7. Laser-induced fluorescence characterization of ions in a magnetron plasma M. J. Goeckner, J. Goree, and T. E. Sheridan

    E-print Network

    Goree, John

    the plasma glow intensity as a function ofdistance above the cathode. Rossnagel 10 reported a rarefaction rms variation of only 2.6%. We operated the plasma with a voltage regulated cathode bias of - 400 VLaser-induced fluorescence characterization of ions in a magnetron plasma M. J. Goeckner, J. Goree

  8. Effect of pulse frequency on the ion fluxes during pulsed dc magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Rahamathunnisa, M.; Cameron, D. C.

    2009-03-15

    The ion fluxes and energies which impinge on the substrate during the deposition of chromium nitride by asymmetric bipolar pulsed dc reactive magnetron sputtering have been analyzed using energy resolved mass spectrometry. It has been found that there is a remarkable increase in ion flux at higher pulse frequencies and that the peak ion energy is directly related to the positive voltage overshoot of the target voltage. The magnitude of the metal flux depositing on the substrate is consistent with a 'dead time' of {approx}0.7 {mu}s at the start of the on period. The variation of the ion flux with pulse frequency has been explained by a simple model in which the ion density during the on period has a large peak which is slightly delayed from the large negative voltage overshoot which occurs at the start of the on pulse due to increased ionization at that time. This is consistent with the previously observed phenomena in pulsed sputtering.

  9. Metal negative ion beam extraction from a radio frequency ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Kanda, S.; Yamada, N.; Kasuya, T.; Romero, C. F. P.; Wada, M.

    2015-04-08

    A metal ion source of magnetron magnetic field geometry has been designed and operated with a Cu hollow target. Radio frequency power at 13.56?MHz is directly supplied to the hollow target to maintain plasma discharge and induce self-bias to the target for sputtering. The extraction of positive and negative Cu ion beams have been tested. The ion beam current ratio of Cu{sup +} to Ar{sup +} has reached up to 140% when Ar was used as the discharge support gas. Cu{sup ?} ion beam was observed at 50?W RF discharge power and at a higher Ar gas pressure in the ion source. Improvement of poor RF power matching and suppression of electron current is indispensable for a stable Cu{sup ?} ion beam production from the source.

  10. Metal negative ion beam extraction from a radio frequency ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanda, S.; Yamada, N.; Kasuya, T.; Romero, C. F. P.; Wada, M.

    2015-04-01

    A metal ion source of magnetron magnetic field geometry has been designed and operated with a Cu hollow target. Radio frequency power at 13.56 MHz is directly supplied to the hollow target to maintain plasma discharge and induce self-bias to the target for sputtering. The extraction of positive and negative Cu ion beams have been tested. The ion beam current ratio of Cu+ to Ar+ has reached up to 140% when Ar was used as the discharge support gas. Cu- ion beam was observed at 50 W RF discharge power and at a higher Ar gas pressure in the ion source. Improvement of poor RF power matching and suppression of electron current is indispensable for a stable Cu- ion beam production from the source.

  11. Ion dynamics in helicon sources.

    SciTech Connect

    Kline, J. L.; Balkey, M. M.; Keiter, P. A.; Scime, Earl E.; Keesee, Anne M.; Sun, X.; Harding R.; Compton, C.; Boivin, R. F.; Zintl, M. W.

    2002-01-01

    Recent experiments have demonstrated that ion dominated phenomena, such as the lower hybrid resonance, can play an important role in helicon source operation. In this work, we review recent ion heating measurements and the role of the slow wave in heating ions at the edge of helicon. sources. We also discuss the relationship between parametrically driven waves and ion heating near the rf antenna in helicon sources. Recent measurements of parallel and rotational ion flows in helicon sources have important implications for particle confinement, instability growth, and helicon source operation. In this work we present new measurements of ion flows and summarize the important features of the flows.

  12. Off line ion source terminal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayamanna, K.

    2014-01-01

    The off-line ion source (OLIS) terminal provides beams from stable isotopes to ISAC (see Fig. 1) experiments as well as for accelerator commissioning and for pilot beams for radioactive beam experiments. The OLIS terminal (see Fig. 2) is equipped with a microwave driven cusp source for single and double charge ions, a surface ion source for low energy spread alkali beams, and a multi-charge ion source.

  13. Charge exchange molecular ion source

    DOEpatents

    Vella, Michael C.

    2003-06-03

    Ions, particularly molecular ions with multiple dopant nucleons per ion, are produced by charge exchange. An ion source contains a minimum of two regions separated by a physical barrier and utilizes charge exchange to enhance production of a desired ion species. The essential elements are a plasma chamber for production of ions of a first species, a physical separator, and a charge transfer chamber where ions of the first species from the plasma chamber undergo charge exchange or transfer with the reactant atom or molecules to produce ions of a second species. Molecular ions may be produced which are useful for ion implantation.

  14. Tandem Terminal Ion Source

    SciTech Connect

    2000-10-23

    OAK-B135 Tandem Terminal Ion Source. The terminal ion source (TIS) was used in several experiments during this reporting period, all for the {sup 7}Be({gamma}){sup 8}B experiment. Most of the runs used {sup 1}H{sup +} at terminal voltages from 0.3 MV to 1.5 MV. One of the runs used {sup 2}H{sup +} at terminal voltage of 1.4 MV. The other run used {sup 4}He{sup +} at a terminal voltage of 1.37 MV. The list of experiments run with the TIS to date is given in table 1 below. The tank was opened four times for unscheduled source repairs. On one occasion the tank was opened to replace the einzel lens power supply which had failed. The 10 kV unit was replaced with a 15 kV unit. The second time the tank was opened to repair the extractor supply which was damaged by a tank spark. On the next occasion the tank was opened to replace a source canal which had sputtered away. Finally, the tank was opened to replace the discharge bottle which had been coated with aluminum sputtered from the exit canal.

  15. Design and characterization of 2.45 GHz electron cyclotron resonance plasma source with magnetron magnetic field configuration for high flux of hyperthermal neutral beam

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Seong Bong; Kim, Dae Chul; Yoo, Suk Jae; Namkung, Won; Cho, Moohyun

    2010-08-15

    A 2.45 GHz electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) source with a magnetron magnetic field configuration was developed to meet the demand of a hyperthermal neutral beam (HNB) flux on a substrate of more than 1x10{sup 15} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} for industrial applications. The parameters of the operating pressure, ion density, electron temperature, and distance between the neutralization plate and the substrate for the HNB source are specified in a theoretical analysis. The electron temperature and the ion density are measured to characterize the ECR HNB source using a Langmuir probe and optical emission spectroscopy. The parameters of the ECR HNB source are in good agreement with the theoretically specified parameters.

  16. Design and characterization of 2.45 GHz electron cyclotron resonance plasma source with magnetron magnetic field configuration for high flux of hyperthermal neutral beam.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong Bong; Kim, Dae Chul; Namkung, Won; Cho, Moohyun; Yoo, Suk Jae

    2010-08-01

    A 2.45 GHz electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) source with a magnetron magnetic field configuration was developed to meet the demand of a hyperthermal neutral beam (HNB) flux on a substrate of more than 1x10(15) cm(-2) s(-1) for industrial applications. The parameters of the operating pressure, ion density, electron temperature, and distance between the neutralization plate and the substrate for the HNB source are specified in a theoretical analysis. The electron temperature and the ion density are measured to characterize the ECR HNB source using a Langmuir probe and optical emission spectroscopy. The parameters of the ECR HNB source are in good agreement with the theoretically specified parameters. PMID:20815600

  17. Compact ion accelerator source

    DOEpatents

    Schenkel, Thomas; Persaud, Arun; Kapadia, Rehan; Javey, Ali

    2014-04-29

    An ion source includes a conductive substrate, the substrate including a plurality of conductive nanostructures with free-standing tips formed on the substrate. A conductive catalytic coating is formed on the nanostructures and substrate for dissociation of a molecular species into an atomic species, the molecular species being brought in contact with the catalytic coating. A target electrode placed apart from the substrate, the target electrode being biased relative to the substrate with a first bias voltage to ionize the atomic species in proximity to the free-standing tips and attract the ionized atomic species from the substrate in the direction of the target electrode.

  18. Ion sources for ion implantation technology (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Sakai, Shigeki Hamamoto, Nariaki; Inouchi, Yutaka; Umisedo, Sei; Miyamoto, Naoki

    2014-02-15

    Ion sources for ion implantation are introduced. The technique is applied not only to large scale integration (LSI) devices but also to flat panel display. For LSI fabrication, ion source scheduled maintenance cycle is most important. For CMOS image sensor devices, metal contamination at implanted wafer is most important. On the other hand, to fabricate miniaturized devices, cluster ion implantation has been proposed to make shallow PN junction. While for power devices such as silicon carbide, aluminum ion is required. For doping processes of LCD fabrication, a large ion source is required. The extraction area is about 150 cm × 10 cm, and the beam uniformity is important as well as the total target beam current.

  19. Reducing the impurity incorporation from residual gas by ion bombardment during high vacuum magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, Johanna; Widenkvist, Erika; Larsson, Karin; Kreissig, Ulrich; Mraz, Stanislav; Martinez, Carlos; Music, Denis; Schneider, J. M.

    2006-05-08

    The influence of ion energy on the hydrogen incorporation has been investigated for alumina thin films, deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering in an Ar/O{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O environment. Ar{sup +} with an average kinetic energy of {approx}5 eV was determined to be the dominating species in the plasma. The films were analyzed with x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and elastic recoil detection analysis, demonstrating evidence for amorphous films with stoichiometric O/Al ratio. As the substrate bias potential was increased from -15 V (floating potential) to -100 V, the hydrogen content decreased by {approx}70%, from 9.1 to 2.8 at. %. Based on ab initio calculations, these results may be understood by thermodynamic principles, where a supply of energy enables surface diffusion, H{sub 2} formation, and desorption [Rosen et al., J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 17, L137 (2005)]. These findings are of importance for the understanding of the correlation between ion energy and film composition and also show a pathway to reduce impurity incorporation during film growth in a high vacuum ambient.

  20. ULTRA-LOW-ENERGY HIGH-CURRENT ION SOURCE

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, Andre; Yushkov, Georgy Yu.; Baldwin, David A.

    2009-11-20

    The technical objective of the project was to develop an ultra-low-energy, high-intensity ion source (ULEHIIS) for materials processing in high-technology fields including semiconductors, micro-magnetics and optics/opto-electronics. In its primary application, this ion source can be incorporated into the 4Wave thin-film deposition technique called biased target ion-beam deposition (BTIBD), which is a deposition technique based on sputtering (without magnetic field, i.e., not the typical magnetron sputtering). It is a technological challenge because the laws of space charge limited current (Child-Langmuir) set strict limits of how much current can be extracted from a reservoir of ions, such as a suitable discharge plasma. The solution to the problem was an innovative dual-discharge system without the use of extraction grids.

  1. Primary ion sources for EBIS

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, R.

    2001-03-21

    This paper gives an introduction into the topic of primary ion sources that can be used to feed ions of normally solid elements into EBIS devices. Starting with a set of typical requirements for primary ion sources, some major types of ion generators are discussed first, with emphasis on their working principles rather than trying to give a fully representative listing of used and proposed generators. Beam-transport issues between primary ion source and EBIS are then examined, and generic characteristics of suitable beam-formation and transport systems are explained.

  2. Sources of radioactive ions

    SciTech Connect

    Alonso, J.R.

    1985-05-01

    Beams of unstable nuclei can be formed by direct injection of the radioactive atoms into an ion source, or by using the momentum of the primary production beam as the basis for the secondary beam. The effectiveness of this latter mechanism in secondary beam formation, i.e., the quality of the emerging beam (emittance, intensity, energy spread), depends critically on the nuclear reaction kinematics, and on the magnitude of the incident beam energy. When this beam energy significantly exceeds the energies typical of the nuclear reaction process, many of the qualities of the incident beam can be passed on to the secondary beam. Factors affecting secondary beam quality are discussed, along with techniques for isolating and purifying a specific secondary product. The ongoing radioactive beam program at the Bevalac is used as an example, with applications, present performance and plans for improvements.

  3. Metal negative ion production by an RF sputter self-extraction ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, N.; Kasuya, T.; Kenmotsu, T.; Vasquez, M. R., Jr.; Wada, M.

    2013-02-01

    An 80 mm diameter 80 mm long RF sputter type self-extraction negative ion source equipped with a metal sputter target has been tested to investigate the performance of producing beams of negative aluminum (Al) ions. An RF power at 13.56 MHz is directly supplied to a 60 mm diameter target containing a cylindrical and ring permanent magnets to form planar magnetron magnetic field geometry. The target is self-biased to a DC potential at about -250 V with respect to the plasma, and negative ions produced at the surface are self-extracted from the target across the sheath to reach the ion beam extraction hole. Injection of cesium into the discharge enhanced the amount of Al- ions but it also enlarged the impurity ion beam current.

  4. Investigation of ISIS and Brookhaven National Laboratory ion source electrodes after extended operation

    SciTech Connect

    Lettry J.; Alessi J.; Faircloth, D.; Gerardin, A.; Kalvas, T.; Pereira, H.; Sgobba, S.

    2012-02-23

    Linac4 accelerator of Centre Europeen de Recherches Nucleaires is under construction and a RF-driven H{sup -} ion source is being developed. The beam current requirement for Linac4 is very challenging: 80 mA must be provided. Cesiated plasma discharge ion sources such as Penning or magnetron sources are also potential candidates. Accelerator ion sources must achieve typical reliability figures of 95% and above. Investigating and understanding the underlying mechanisms involved with source failure or ageing is critical when selecting the ion source technology. Plasma discharge driven surface ion sources rely on molybdenum cathodes. Deformation of the cathode surfaces is visible after extended operation periods. A metallurgical investigation of an ISIS ion source is presented. The origin of the deformation is twofold: Molybdenum sputtering by cesium ions digs few tenths of mm cavities while a growth of molybdenum is observed in the immediate vicinity. The molybdenum growth under hydrogen atmosphere is hard and loosely bound to the bulk. It is, therefore, likely to peel off and be transported within the plasma volume. The observation of the cathode, anode, and extraction electrodes of the magnetron source operated at BNL for two years are presented. A beam simulation of H{sup -}, electrons, and Cs{sup -} ions was performed with the IBSimu code package to qualitatively explain the observations. This paper describes the operation conditions of the ion sources and discusses the metallurgical analysis and beam simulation results.

  5. Investigation of ISIS and Brookhaven National Laboratory ion source electrodes after extended operation

    SciTech Connect

    Lettry, J.; Gerardin, A.; Pereira, H.; Sgobba, S.; Alessi, J.; Faircloth, D.; Kalvas, T.

    2012-02-15

    Linac4 accelerator of Centre Europeen de Recherches Nucleaires is under construction and a RF-driven H{sup -} ion source is being developed. The beam current requirement for Linac4 is very challenging: 80 mA must be provided. Cesiated plasma discharge ion sources such as Penning or magnetron sources are also potential candidates. Accelerator ion sources must achieve typical reliability figures of 95% and above. Investigating and understanding the underlying mechanisms involved with source failure or ageing is critical when selecting the ion source technology. Plasma discharge driven surface ion sources rely on molybdenum cathodes. Deformation of the cathode surfaces is visible after extended operation periods. A metallurgical investigation of an ISIS ion source is presented. The origin of the deformation is twofold: Molybdenum sputtering by cesium ions digs few tenths of mm cavities while a growth of molybdenum is observed in the immediate vicinity. The molybdenum growth under hydrogen atmosphere is hard and loosely bound to the bulk. It is, therefore, likely to peel off and be transported within the plasma volume. The observation of the cathode, anode, and extraction electrodes of the magnetron source operated at BNL for two years are presented. A beam simulation of H{sup -}, electrons, and Cs{sup -} ions was performed with the IBSimu code package to qualitatively explain the observations. This paper describes the operation conditions of the ion sources and discusses the metallurgical analysis and beam simulation results.

  6. The impact of negative oxygen ion bombardment on electronic and structural properties of magnetron sputtered ZnO:Al films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bikowski, André; Welzel, Thomas; Ellmer, Klaus

    2013-06-01

    In order to study the impact of negative oxygen ion bombardment on the electronic transport properties of ZnO:Al films, a systematic magnetron sputtering study from ceramic targets with excitation frequencies from DC to 27 MHz, accompanied by strongly varying discharge voltages, has been performed. Higher plasma excitation frequencies significantly improve the transport properties of ZnO:Al films. The effect of the bombardment of the films by energetic particles (negative oxygen ions) can be explained by the dynamic equilibrium between the formation of acceptor-like oxygen interstitials compensating the extrinsic donors and the self-annealing of the interstitial defects at higher deposition temperatures.

  7. Simulation Study Using an Injection Phase-locked Magnetron as an Alternative Source for SRF Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Haipeng; Plawski, Tomasz E.; Rimmer, Robert A.

    2015-09-01

    As a drop-in replacement for the CEBAF CW klystron system, a 1497 MHz, CW type high efficiency magnetron using injection phase lock and amplitude variation is attractive. Amplitude control using magnetic field trimming and anode voltage modulation has been studied using analytical models and MATLAB/Simulink simulations. Since the 1497 MHz magnetron has not been built yet, previously measured characteristics of a 2.45GHz cooker magnetron are used as reference. The results of linear responses to the amplitude and phase control of a superconducting RF (SRF) cavity, and the expected overall benefit for the current CEBAF and future MEIC RF systems are presented in this paper.

  8. Negative ion source

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo (Hercules, CA); Ehlers, Kenneth W. (Alamo, CA)

    1984-01-01

    An ionization vessel is divided into an ionizing zone and an extraction zone by a magnetic filter. The magnetic filter prevents high-energy electrons from crossing from the ionizing zone to the extraction zone. A small positive voltage impressed on a plasma grid, located adjacent an extraction grid, positively biases the plasma in the extraction zone to thereby prevent positive ions from migrating from the ionizing zone to the extraction zone. Low-energy electrons, which would ordinarily be dragged by the positive ions into the extraction zone, are thereby prevented from being present in the extraction zone and being extracted along with negative ions by the extraction grid. Additional electrons are suppressed from the output flux using ExB drift provided by permanent magnets and the extractor grid electrical field.

  9. Negative ion source

    DOEpatents

    Leung, K.N.; Ehlers, K.W.

    1984-12-04

    An ionization vessel is divided into an ionizing zone and an extraction zone by a magnetic filter. The magnetic filter prevents high-energy electrons from crossing from the ionizing zone to the extraction zone. A small positive voltage impressed on a plasma grid, located adjacent an extraction grid, positively biases the plasma in the extraction zone to thereby prevent positive ions from migrating from the ionizing zone to the extraction zone. Low-energy electrons, which would ordinarily be dragged by the positive ions into the extraction zone, are thereby prevented from being present in the extraction zone and being extracted along with negative ions by the extraction grid. Additional electrons are suppressed from the output flux using ExB drift provided by permanent magnets and the extractor grid electrical field. 14 figs.

  10. Negative ion source

    DOEpatents

    Leung, K.N.; Ehlers, K.W.

    1982-08-06

    An ionization vessel is divided into an ionizing zone and an extraction zone by a magnetic filter. The magnetic filter prevents high-energy electrons from crossing from the ionizing zone to the extraction zone. A small positive voltage impressed on a plasma grid, located adjacent an extraction grid, positively biases the plasma in the extraction zone to thereby prevent positive ions from migrating from the ionizing zone to the extraction zone. Low-energy electrons, which would ordinarily be dragged by the positive ions into the extraction zone, are thereby prevented from being present in the extraction zone and being extracted along with negative ions by the extraction grid. Additional electrons are suppressed from the output flux using ExB drift provided by permanent magnets and the extractor grid electrical field.

  11. Cold Strontium Ion Source for Ion Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Jarom; Durfee, Dallin

    2015-05-01

    We are working on a cold source of Sr Ions to be used in an ion interferometer. The beam will be generated from a magneto-optical trap (MOT) of Sr atoms by optically ionizing atoms leaking out a carefully prepared hole in the MOT. A single laser cooling on the resonant transition (461 nm) in Sr should be sufficient for trapping, as we've calculated that losses to the atom beam will outweigh losses to dark states. Another laser (405 nm), together with light from the trapping laser, will drive a two photon transition in the atom beam to an autoionizing state. Supported by NSF Award No. 1205736.

  12. Pulsed reflex ion source studies

    SciTech Connect

    Bickes, Jr., R. W.; O'Hagan, J. B.

    1980-11-01

    Parametric studies of demountable versions of the pulsed ion source used in Controlatron and Zetatron neutron tubes were carried out. The goal of these experiments, a continuation of earlier work by Bacon and O'Hagan, was to investigate the deuteron beam intensity as a function of source geometry, electrode materials, operating conditions and pulse length. Geometric variations produced only modest changes in the ion beam intensity; the most sensitive parameter was the length of the secondary cathode. There is some evidence that the addition of oxygen either in the gas feed or using alumina on the cathode surfaces can increase the atomic ion fraction. The lowest reliable operating source pressure was approximately 1.33 Pa. The longest pulse length was about 1.2 ms. Difficulties in measuring the ion currents are discussed and suggestions for future experiments are briefly outlined.

  13. Negative-ion source applications.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, J

    2008-02-01

    In this paper heavy negative-ion sources which we developed and their applications for materials science are reviewed. Heavy negative ions can be effectively produced by the ejection of a sputtered atom through the optimally cesiated surface of target with a low work function. Then, enough continuous negative-ion currents for materials-science applications can be obtained. We developed several kinds of sputter-type heavy negative-ion sources such as neutral- and ionized-alkaline metal bombardment-type heavy negative-ion source and rf-plasma sputter type. In the case where a negative ion is irradiated on a material surface, surface charging seldom takes place because incoming negative charge of the negative ion is well balanced with outgoing negative charge of the released secondary electron. In the negative-ion implantation into an insulator or insulated conductive material, high precision implantation processing with charge-up free properties can be achieved. Negative-ion implantation technique, therefore, can be applied to the following novel material processing systems: the surface modification of micrometer-sized powders, the nanoparticle formation in an insulator for the quantum devices, and the nerve cell growth manipulation by precise control of the biocompatibility of polymer surface. When a negative ion with low kinetic energy approaches the solid surface, the kinetic energy causes the interatomic bonding (kinetic bonding), and formation of a metastable material is promoted. Carbon films with high constituent of sp(3) bonding, therefore, can be formed by carbon negative-ion beam deposition. PMID:18315249

  14. Ion Source Development For The Proposed FNAL 750 keV Injector Upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Bollinger, D. S.

    2011-09-26

    Currently there is a Proposed FNAL 750 keV Injector Upgrade for the replacement of the 40 year old Fermi National Laboratory (FNAL) Cockcroft-Walton accelerators with a new ion source and 200 MHz Radio Frequency Quadruple (RFQ). The slit type magnetron being used now will be replaced with a round aperture magnetron similar to the one used at Brookhaven National Lab (BNL). Operational experience from BNL has shown that this type of source is more reliable with a longer lifetime due to better power efficiency. The current source development effort is to produce a reliable source with >60 mA of H{sup -} beam current, 15 Hz rep-rate, 100 {mu}s pulse width, and a duty factor of 0.15%. The source will be based on the BNL design along with development done at FNAL for the High Intensity Neutrino Source (HINS).

  15. Ion source development for the proposed FNAL 750keV injector upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Bollinger, D.S.; /Fermilab

    2010-11-01

    Currently there is a Proposed FNAL 750keV Injector Upgrade for the replacement of the 40 year old Fermi National Laboratory (FNAL) Cockcroft-Walton accelerators with a new ion source and 200MHz Radio Frequency Quadruple (RFQ). The slit type magnetron being used now will be replaced with a round aperture magnetron similar to the one used at Brookhaven National Lab (BNL). Operational experience from BNL has shown that this type of source is more reliable with a longer lifetime due to better power efficiency. The current source development effort is to produce a reliable source with >60mA of H- beam current, 15Hz rep-rate, 100s pulse width, and a duty factor of 0.15%. The source will be based on the BNL design along with development done at FNAL for the High Intensity Neutrino Source (HINS).

  16. Solenoid and monocusp ion source

    DOEpatents

    Brainard, John Paul (Albuquerque, NM); Burns, Erskine John Thomas (Albuquerque, NM); Draper, Charles Hadley (Albuquerque, NM)

    1997-01-01

    An ion source which generates hydrogen ions having high atomic purity incorporates a solenoidal permanent magnets to increase the electron path length. In a sealed envelope, electrons emitted from a cathode traverse the magnetic field lines of a solenoid and a monocusp magnet between the cathode and a reflector at the monocusp. As electrons collide with gas, the molecular gas forms a plasma. An anode grazes the outer boundary of the plasma. Molecular ions and high energy electrons remain substantially on the cathode side of the cusp, but as the ions and electrons are scattered to the aperture side of the cusp, additional collisions create atomic ions. The increased electron path length allows for smaller diameters and lower operating pressures.

  17. Solenoid and monocusp ion source

    DOEpatents

    Brainard, J.P.; Burns, E.J.T.; Draper, C.H.

    1997-10-07

    An ion source which generates hydrogen ions having high atomic purity incorporates a solenoidal permanent magnets to increase the electron path length. In a sealed envelope, electrons emitted from a cathode traverse the magnetic field lines of a solenoid and a monocusp magnet between the cathode and a reflector at the monocusp. As electrons collide with gas, the molecular gas forms a plasma. An anode grazes the outer boundary of the plasma. Molecular ions and high energy electrons remain substantially on the cathode side of the cusp, but as the ions and electrons are scattered to the aperture side of the cusp, additional collisions create atomic ions. The increased electron path length allows for smaller diameters and lower operating pressures. 6 figs.

  18. Solenoid and monocusp ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Brainard, J.P.; Burns, E.J.T.; Draper, C.H.

    1995-12-31

    An ion source which generates ions having high atomic purity incorporates a solenoidal magnetic field to increase the electron path length. In a sealed envelope, electrons emitted from a cathode traverse the magnetic field lines of a solenoid and a monocusp magnet between the cathode and a reflector at the monocusp. As electrons collide with gas, the molecular gas forms a plasma. An anode grazes the outer boundary of the plasma. Molecular ions and high energy electrons remain substantially on the cathode side of the cusp, but as the ions and electrons are scattered to the aperture side of the cusp, additional collisions create atomic ions. The increased electron path length allows for smaller diameters and lower operating pressures.

  19. Design of a new electron cyclotron resonance ion source at Oshima National College of Maritime Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Asaji, T. Hirabara, N.; Izumihara, T.; Nakamizu, T.; Ohba, T.; Nakamura, T.; Furuse, M.; Hitobo, T.; Kato, Y.

    2014-02-15

    A new electron cyclotron resonance ion/plasma source has been designed and will be built at Oshima National College of Maritime Technology by early 2014. We have developed an ion source that allows the control of the plasma parameters over a wide range of electron temperatures for material research. A minimum-B magnetic field composed of axial mirror fields and radial cusp fields was designed using mainly Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets. The axial magnetic field can be varied by three solenoid coils. The apparatus has 2.45 GHz magnetron and 2.5–6.0 GHz solid-state microwave sources.

  20. Relating to monitoring ion sources

    DOEpatents

    Orr, Christopher Henry (Calderbridge, GB); Luff, Craig Janson (Calderbridge, GB); Dockray, Thomas (Calderbridge, GB); Macarthur, Duncan Whittemore (Los Alamos, NM); Bounds, John Alan (Los Alamos, NM)

    2002-01-01

    The apparatus and method provide techniques for monitoring the position on alpha contamination in or on items or locations. The technique is particularly applicable to pipes, conduits and other locations to which access is difficult. The technique uses indirect monitoring of alpha emissions by detecting ions generated by the alpha emissions. The medium containing the ions is moved in a controlled manner frog in proximity with the item or location to the detecting unit and the signals achieved over time are used to generate alpha source position information.

  1. Comparison of AlN films grown by RF magnetron sputtering and ion-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, J.; Fu, T.; Cheung, N.W.; Ross, J.; Newman, N.; Rubin, M.

    1993-04-01

    Crystalline aluminum nitride (AlN) thin films were formed on various substrates by using RF magnetron sputtering of an A1 target in a nitrogen plasma and also by ion-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (IAMBE). Basal-oriented AlN/(111) Si showed a degradation of crystallinity with increased substrate temperature from 550 to 770 C, while the crystallinity of AlN/(0001) A1{sub 2}O{sub 3} samples improved from 700 to 850 C. The optical absorption characteristics of the AlN/(0001) A1{sub 2}O{sub 3} films as grown by both deposition methods revealed a decrease in subbandgap absorption with increased substrate temperature.

  2. Novel plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition hardware and technique based on high power pulsed magnetron discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Zhongzhen; Tian Xiubo; Shi Jingwei; Wang Zeming; Gong Chunzhi; Yang Shiqin; Chu, Paul K.

    2011-03-15

    A novel plasma immersion ion implantation technique based on high power pulsed magnetron sputtering (HPPMS) discharge that can produce a high density metal plasma is described. The metal plasma is clean and does not suffer from contamination from macroparticles, and the process can be readily scaled up for industrial production. The hardware, working principle, and operation modes are described. A matching circuit is developed to modulate the high-voltage and HPPMS pulses to enable operation under different modes such as simultaneous implantation and deposition, pure implantation, and selective implantation. To demonstrate the efficacy of the system and technique, CrN films with a smooth and dense surface without macroparticles were produced. An excellent adhesion with a critical load of 59.9 N is achieved for the pure implantation mode.

  3. Ion optics of RHIC electron beam ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Pikin, A.; Alessi, J.; Beebe, E.; Kponou, A.; Okamura, M.; Raparia, D.; Ritter, J.; Tan, Y.; Kuznetsov, G.

    2012-02-15

    RHIC electron beam ion source has been commissioned to operate as a versatile ion source on RHIC injection facility supplying ion species from He to Au for Booster. Except for light gaseous elements RHIC EBIS employs ion injection from several external primary ion sources. With electrostatic optics fast switching from one ion species to another can be done on a pulse to pulse mode. The design of an ion optical structure and the results of simulations for different ion species are presented. In the choice of optical elements special attention was paid to spherical aberrations for high-current space charge dominated ion beams. The combination of a gridded lens and a magnet lens in LEBT provides flexibility of optical control for a wide range of ion species to satisfy acceptance parameters of RFQ. The results of ion transmission measurements are presented.

  4. Physics of Plasma-Based Ion Implantation&Deposition (PBIID)and High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering (HIPIMS): A Comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, Andre

    2007-08-28

    The emerging technology of High Power Impulse MagnetronSputtering (HIPIMS) has much in common with the more establishedtechnology of Plasma Based Ion Implantation&Deposition (PBIID):both use pulsed plasmas, the pulsed sheath periodically evolves andcollapses, the plasma-sheath system interacts with the pulse-drivingpower supply, the plasma parameters are affected by the power dissipated,surface atoms are sputtered and secondary electrons are emitted, etc.Therefore, both fields of science and technology could learn from eachother, which has not been fully explored. On the other hand, there aresignificant differences, too. Most importantly, the operation of HIPIMSheavilyrelies on the presence of a strong magnetic field, confiningelectrons and causing their ExB drift, which is closed for typicalmagnetron configurations. Second, at the high peak power levels used forHIPIMS, 1 kW/cm2 or greater averaged over the target area, the sputteredmaterial greatly affects plasma generation. For PBIID, in contrast,plasma generation and ion processing of the surface (ion implantation,etching, and deposition) are considered rela-tively independentprocesses. Third, secondary electron emission is generally considered anuisance for PBIID, especially at high voltages, whereas it is a criticalingredient to the operation of HIPIMS. Fourth, the voltages in PBIID areoften higher than in HIPIMS. For the first three reasons listed above,modelling of PBIID seems to be easier and could give some guidance forfuture HIPIMS models, which, clearly, will be more involved.

  5. Liquid metal ion source and alloy

    DOEpatents

    Clark, Jr., William M. (Thousand Oaks, CA); Utlaut, Mark W. (Saugus, CA); Behrens, Robert G. (Los Alamos, NM); Szklarz, Eugene G. (Los Alamos, NM); Storms, Edmund K. (Los Alamos, NM); Santandrea, Robert P. (Santa Fe, NM); Swanson, Lynwood W. (McMinnville, OR)

    1988-10-04

    A liquid metal ion source and alloy, wherein the species to be emitted from the ion source is contained in a congruently vaporizing alloy. In one embodiment, the liquid metal ion source acts as a source of arsenic, and in a source alloy the arsenic is combined with palladium, preferably in a liquid alloy having a range of compositions from about 24 to about 33 atomic percent arsenic. Such an alloy may be readily prepared by a combustion synthesis technique. Liquid metal ion sources thus prepared produce arsenic ions for implantation, have long lifetimes, and are highly stable in operation.

  6. Ion-source development at Argonne

    SciTech Connect

    Billquist, P.J.; Yntema, J.L.

    1982-01-01

    Brief descriptions are given of the ion source test stand, the ANIS source, a copy of the SNICS source, and the Chapman inverted sputter source. Relative performance is discussed, particularly for the inverted sputter source. Beam currents are given for several ion species. (GHT)

  7. Hydrogen hollow cathode ion source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mirtich, M. J., Jr.; Sovey, J. S.; Roman, R. F. (inventors)

    1980-01-01

    A source of hydrogen ions is disclosed and includes a chamber having at one end a cathode which provides electrons and through which hydrogen gas flows into the chamber. Screen and accelerator grids are provided at the other end of the chamber. A baffle plate is disposed between the cathode and the grids and a cylindrical baffle is disposed coaxially with the cathode at the one end of the chamber. The cylindrical baffle is of greater diameter than the baffle plate to provide discharge impedance and also to protect the cathode from ion flux. An anode electrode draws the electrons away from the cathode. The hollow cathode includes a tubular insert of tungsten impregnated with a low work function material to provide ample electrons. A heater is provided around the hollow cathode to initiate electron emission from the low work function material.

  8. PdPt catalyst synthesized using a gas aggregation source and magnetron sputtering for fuel cell electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caillard, A.; Cuynet, S.; Lecas, T.; Andreazza, P.; Mikikian, M.; Thomann, A.-L.; Brault, P.

    2015-12-01

    PdPt catalysts with different morphologies and atomic ratios have been synthesized on native SiO2/Si and on proton exchange membranes. The combination of the gas aggregation source and magnetron sputtering techniques allows the formation of quasi core-shell Pd0.97Pt0.03@Pt nanoclusters. Transmission electron microscopy and grazing incidence wide-angle x-ray scattering measurements of the Pd-rich core reveal a mean diameter of 4?nm and a face-centered cubic structure. The Pt shell around half of the Pd-rich core is formed by magnetron sputtering, and increases the nanocluster diameter (up to 10?nm) and the overall Pt content (up to 85%). Membranes coated by the PdPt core catalyst and PdPt@Pt catalyst (resulting in the formation of catalyst-coated membranes) are incorporated into fuel cells and their electrical characteristics are measured. The association of the two deposition techniques results in the formation of quasi core-shell PdPt@Pt nanoclusters, improving the start-up step of the fuel cell.

  9. Inductively generated streaming plasma ion source

    DOEpatents

    Glidden, Steven C.; Sanders, Howard D.; Greenly, John B.

    2006-07-25

    A novel pulsed, neutralized ion beam source is provided. The source uses pulsed inductive breakdown of neutral gas, and magnetic acceleration and control of the resulting plasma, to form a beam. The beam supplies ions for applications requiring excellent control of ion species, low remittance, high current density, and spatial uniformity.

  10. High Current Ion Sources and Injectors for Heavy Ion Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Kwan, Joe W.

    2005-02-15

    Heavy ion beam driven inertial fusion requires short ion beam pulses with high current and high brightness. Depending on the beam current and the number of beams in the driver system, the injector can use a large diameter surface ionization source or merge an array of small beamlets from a plasma source. In this paper, we review the scaling laws that govern the injector design and the various ion source options including the contact ionizer, the aluminosilicate source, the multicusp plasma source, and the MEVVA source.

  11. Production and ion-ion cooling of highly charged ions in electron string ion source.

    PubMed

    Donets, D E; Donets, E D; Donets, E E; Salnikov, V V; Shutov, V B; Syresin, E M

    2009-06-01

    The scheme of an internal injection of Au atoms into the working space of the "Krion-2" electron string ion source (ESIS) was applied and tested. In this scheme Au atoms are evaporated from the thin tungsten wire surface in vicinity of the source electron string. Ion beams with charge states up to Au51+ were produced. Ion-ion cooling with use of C and O coolant ions was studied. It allowed increasing of the Au51+ ion yield by a factor of 2. Ions of Kr up to charge state 28+ were also produced in the source. Electron strings were first formed with injection electron energy up to 6 keV. Methods to increase the ESIS ion output are discussed. PMID:19566200

  12. Laser ion source with solenoid field

    SciTech Connect

    Kanesue, Takeshi; Fuwa, Yasuhiro; Kondo, Kotaro; Okamura, Masahiro

    2014-11-12

    Pulse length extension of highly charged ion beam generated from a laser ion source is experimentally demonstrated. In this study, the laser ion source (LIS) has been recognized as one of the most powerful heavy ion source. However, it was difficult to provide long pulse beams. By applying a solenoid field (90 mT, 1 m) at plasma drifting section, a pulse length of carbon ion beam reached 3.2 ?s which was 4.4 times longer than the width from a conventional LIS. The particle number of carbon ions accelerated by a radio frequency quadrupole linear accelerator was 1.2 × 1011, which was provided by a single 1 J Nd-YAG laser shot. A laser ion source with solenoid field could be used in a next generation heavy ion accelerator.

  13. Laser ion source with solenoid field

    SciTech Connect

    Kanesue, Takeshi Okamura, Masahiro; Fuwa, Yasuhiro; Kondo, Kotaro

    2014-11-10

    Pulse length extension of highly charged ion beam generated from a laser ion source is experimentally demonstrated. The laser ion source (LIS) has been recognized as one of the most powerful heavy ion source. However, it was difficult to provide long pulse beams. By applying a solenoid field (90?mT, 1?m) at plasma drifting section, a pulse length of carbon ion beam reached 3.2??s which was 4.4 times longer than the width from a conventional LIS. The particle number of carbon ions accelerated by a radio frequency quadrupole linear accelerator was 1.2?×?10{sup 11}, which was provided by a single 1?J Nd-YAG laser shot. A laser ion source with solenoid field could be used in a next generation heavy ion accelerator.

  14. The Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS)

    SciTech Connect

    Brookhaven Lab

    2009-06-09

    Brookhaven National Lab has successfully developed a new pre-injector system, called the Electron Beam Ion Source, for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and NASA Space Radiation Laboratory science programs. The first of several planned improvemen

  15. The Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS)

    ScienceCinema

    Brookhaven Lab

    2010-01-08

    Brookhaven National Lab has successfully developed a new pre-injector system, called the Electron Beam Ion Source, for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and NASA Space Radiation Laboratory science programs. The first of several planned improvemen

  16. Laser ion source with solenoid field

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kanesue, Takeshi; Fuwa, Yasuhiro; Kondo, Kotaro; Okamura, Masahiro

    2014-11-12

    Pulse length extension of highly charged ion beam generated from a laser ion source is experimentally demonstrated. In this study, the laser ion source (LIS) has been recognized as one of the most powerful heavy ion source. However, it was difficult to provide long pulse beams. By applying a solenoid field (90 mT, 1 m) at plasma drifting section, a pulse length of carbon ion beam reached 3.2 ?s which was 4.4 times longer than the width from a conventional LIS. The particle number of carbon ions accelerated by a radio frequency quadrupole linear accelerator was 1.2 × 1011, whichmore »was provided by a single 1 J Nd-YAG laser shot. A laser ion source with solenoid field could be used in a next generation heavy ion accelerator.« less

  17. Plasma sources for electrons and ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, Ka-Ngo

    1999-11-01

    Plasma devices are commonly used for the production of ion beams. It has been demonstrated that the multicusp generator can produce very low energy ion beams for ion projection lithography applications. The multicusp source has also found important applications in focused ion beam systems. With its high and uniform plasma density, attempts have been made to extract high brightness electron beams from this type of plasma source, making it also useful for electron beam lithography applications. (c) 1999 American Vacuum Society.

  18. The physics of Electron Beam Ion Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Stockli, M.P.; Cocke, C.L.

    1990-12-31

    There are 13 Electron Beam Ion Sources in operation which produce highly charged ions, up to Th{sup 80+} and Xe{sup 53+}. Most of the sources are used to study these ions under electron impact or when recombining with gaseous or solid targets. That provides an insight into the atomic physics of these highly charged ions and into the physics of the plasma in which such ions can be found. This paper reviews the present knowledge of atomic processes, important in the production of such ions with an EBIS.

  19. The physics of Electron Beam Ion Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Stockli, M.P.; Cocke, C.L.

    1990-01-01

    There are 13 Electron Beam Ion Sources in operation which produce highly charged ions, up to Th[sup 80+] and Xe[sup 53+]. Most of the sources are used to study these ions under electron impact or when recombining with gaseous or solid targets. That provides an insight into the atomic physics of these highly charged ions and into the physics of the plasma in which such ions can be found. This paper reviews the present knowledge of atomic processes, important in the production of such ions with an EBIS.

  20. Ion source with corner cathode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrero, Federico A. (Inventor); Roman, Patrick A. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    An ion source may include first, second, and third electrodes. The first electrode may be a repeller having a V-shaped groove. The second electrode may be an electron emitter filament disposed adjacent the base of the V-shaped groove. The third electrode may be an anode that defines an enclosed volume with an aperture formed therein adjacent the electron emitter filament. A potential of the first electrode may be less than a potential of the second electrode, and the potential of the second electrode may be less than a potential of the third electrode. A fourth electrode that is disposed between the electron emitter filament and the anode may be used to produce a more collimated electron beam.

  1. A hollow cathode hydrogen ion source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sovey, J. S.; Mirtich, M. J.

    1977-01-01

    High current density ion sources have been used to heat plasmas in controlled thermonuclear reaction experiments. High beam currents imply relatively high emission currents from cathodes which have generally taken the form of tungsten filaments. A hydrogen ion source is described which was primarily developed to assess the emission current capability and design requirements for hollow cathodes for application in neutral injection devices. The hydrogen source produced ions by electron bombardment via a single hollow cathode. Source design followed mercury ion thruster technology, using a weak magnetic field to enhance ionization efficiency.

  2. Electron string ion sources for carbon ion cancer therapy accelerators

    E-print Network

    Boytsov, A Yu; Donets, E D; Donets, E E; Katagiri, K; Noda, K; Ponkin, D O; Ramzdorf, A Yu; Salnikov, V V; Shutov, V B

    2015-01-01

    The Electron String type of Ion Sources (ESIS) was developed, constructed and tested first in the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research. These ion sources can be the appropriate sources for production of pulsed C4+ and C6+ ion beams which can be used for cancer therapy accelerators. In fact the test ESIS Krion-6T already now at the solenoid magnetic field only 4.6 T provides more than 10^10 C4+ ions per pulse and about 5*10^9 C6+ ions per pulse. Such ion sources could be suitable for application at synchrotrons. It was also found, that Krion-6T can provide more than 10^11 C6+ ions per second at 100 Hz repetition rate, and the repetition rate can be increased at the same or larger ion output per second. This makes ESIS applicable at cyclotrons as well. As for production of 11C radioactive ion beams ESIS can be the most economic kind of ion source. To proof that the special cryogenic cell for pulse injection of gaseous species into electron string was successfully tested using the ESIS Krion-2M.

  3. Highly Polarized Ion Sources for Electron Ion Colliders (EIC)

    SciTech Connect

    V.G. Dudnikov, R.P. Johnson, Y.S. Derbenev, Y. Zhang

    2010-03-01

    The operation of the RHIC facility at BNL and the Electron Ion Colliders (EIC) under development at Jefferson Laboratory and BNL need high brightness ion beams with the highest polarization. Charge exchange injection into a storage ring or synchrotron and Siberian snakes have the potential to handle the needed polarized beam currents, but first the ion sources must create beams with the highest possible polarization to maximize collider productivity, which is proportional to a high power of the polarization. We are developing one universal H-/D- ion source design which will synthesize the most advanced developments in the field of polarized ion sources to provide high current, high brightness, ion beams with greater than 90% polarization, good lifetime, high reliability, and good power efficiency. The new source will be an advanced version of an atomic beam polarized ion source (ABPIS) with resonant charge exchange ionization by negative ions. An integrated ABPIS design will be prepared based on new materials and an optimized magnetic focusing system. Polarized atomic and ion beam formation, extraction, and transport for the new source will be computer simulated.

  4. Enhanced life ion source for germanium and carbon ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Hsieh, Tseh-Jen; Colvin, Neil; Kondratenko, Serguei

    2012-11-06

    Germanium and carbon ions represent a significant portion of total ion implantation steps in the process flow. Very often ion source materials that used to produce ions are chemically aggressive, especially at higher temperatures, and result in fast ion source performance degradation and a very limited lifetime [B.S. Freer, et. al., 2002 14th Intl. Conf. on Ion Implantation Technology Proc, IEEE Conf. Proc., p. 420 (2003)]. GeF{sub 4} and CO{sub 2} are commonly used to generate germanium and carbon beams. In the case of GeF{sub 4} controlling the tungsten deposition due to the de-composition of WF{sub 6} (halogen cycle) is critical to ion source life. With CO{sub 2}, the materials oxidation and carbon deposition must be controlled as both will affect cathode thermionic emission and anti-cathode (repeller) efficiencies due to the formation of volatile metal oxides. The improved ion source design Extended Life Source 3 (Eterna ELS3) together with its proprietary co-gas material implementation has demonstrated >300 hours of stable continuous operation when using carbon and germanium ion beams. Optimizing cogas chemistries retard the cathode erosion rate for germanium and carbon minimizes the adverse effects of oxygen when reducing gas is introduced for carbon. The proprietary combination of hardware and co-gas has improved source stability and the results of the hardware and co-gas development are discussed.

  5. ION SOURCES FOR ENERGY EXTREMES OF ION IMPLANTATION.

    SciTech Connect

    HERSCHCOVITCH,A.; JOHNSON, B.M.; BATALIN, V.A.; KROPACHEV, G.N.; KUIBEDA, R.P.; KULEVOY, T.V.; KOLOMIETS, A.A.; PERSHIN, V.I.; PETRENKO, S.V.; RUDSKOY, I.; SELEZNEV, D.N.; BUGAEV, A.S.; GUSHENETS, V.I.; LITOVKO, I.V.; OKS, E.M.; YUSHKOV, G. YU.; MASEUNOV, E.S.; POLOZOV, S.M.; POOLE, H.J.; STOROZHENKO, P.A.; SVAROVSKI, YA.

    2007-08-26

    For the past four years a joint research and development effort designed to develop steady state, intense ion sources has been in progress with the ultimate goal to develop ion sources and techniques, which meet the two energy extreme range needs of mega-electron-volt and 100's of electron-volt ion implanters. This endeavor has already resulted in record steady state output currents of high charge state of Antimony and Phosphorous ions: P{sup 2+} (8.6 pmA), P{sup 3+} (1.9 pmA), and P{sup 4+} (0.12 pmA) and 16.2, 7.6, 3.3, and 2.2 pmA of Sb{sup 3+} Sb{sup 4+}, Sb{sup 5+}, and Sb{sup 6+} respectively. For low energy ion implantation our efforts involve molecular ions and a novel plasmaless/gasless deceleration method. To date, 1 emA of positive Decaborane ions were extracted at 10 keV and smaller currents of negative Decaborane ions were also extracted. Additionally, Boron current fraction of over 70% was extracted from a Bemas-Calutron ion source, which represents a factor of 3.5 improvement over currently employed ion sources.

  6. CERN PS laser ion source development

    E-print Network

    Fournier, P; Haseroth, H; Khomenko, S; Kondrashev, S A; Kugler, H; Lisi, N; Lombardi, A M; Makarov, K; Meyer, C; Ostroumov, P N; Pirkl, Werner; Rörich, V; Roudskoy, I; Satov, Yu A; Schnuriger, J C; Scrivens, R; Sharkov, B Yu; Shumshurov, A V; Stepanov, A; Tenishev, V; Varelá-Rodriguez, F

    1999-01-01

    CERN, together with ITEP and TRINITI (Russia), is developing a CO2 laser ion source. The key design parameters are: 1.4 1010 ions of Pb25+ in a pulse of 5.5 ms, with a 4-rms emittance of 0.2 10-6 rad m, working at a repetition rate of 1 Hz. This device is considered as one candidate source for LHC heavy ion operation. The status of the laser development, the experimental set-up of the source consisting of the target area and its illumination, the plasma expansion area and extraction, beam transport and ion pre-acceleration by an RFQ, will be given.

  7. Molecular phosphorus ion source for semiconductor technology

    SciTech Connect

    Gushenets V. I.; Hershcovitch A.; Bugaev, A.S.; Oks, E.M.; Kulevoy, T.V.

    2012-02-15

    This paper presents results on the generation of molecular phosphorus ion beams in a hot filament ion source. Solid red phosphorous is evaporated mainly as tetra-atomic molecules up to a temperature of 800 C. Thus, one of the main conditions for producing maximum P{sub 4}{sup +} fraction in the beam is to keep the temperature of the phosphorous oven, the steam line and the discharge chamber walls no greater than 800 C. The prior version of our ion source was equipped with a discharge chamber cooling system. The modified source ensured a P{sub 4}{sup +} ion beam current greater than 30% of the total beam current.

  8. Sample inlet tube for ion source

    DOEpatents

    Prior, David [Hermiston, OR; Price, John [Richland, WA; Bruce, Jim [Oceanside, CA

    2002-09-24

    An improved inlet tube is positioned within an aperture through the device to allow the passage of ions from the ion source, through the improved inlet tube, and into the interior of the device. The inlet tube is designed with a larger end and a smaller end wherein the larger end has a larger interior diameter than the interior diameter of the smaller end. The inlet tube is positioned within the aperture such that the larger end is pointed towards the ion source, to receive ions therefrom, and the smaller end is directed towards the interior of the device, to deliver the ions thereto. Preferably, the ion source utilized in the operation of the present invention is a standard electrospray ionization source. Similarly, the present invention finds particular utility in conjunction with analytical devices such as mass spectrometers.

  9. Liquid metal ion source and alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, W.M. Jr.; Utlaut, M.W.; Storms, E.K.; Behrens, R.G.; Szklarz, E.G.; Swanson, L.W.; Santandrea, R.P.

    1988-10-04

    A liquid metal ion source is described comprising: emission means for emitting positively charged ions of an elemental chemical species; and source means for supplying the species to be emitted to the emission means, the species being supplied in a congruently vaporizing non-eutectic alloy of the elemental chemical species and at least one other element.

  10. Beam current controller for laser ion source

    DOEpatents

    Okamura, Masahiro

    2014-10-28

    The present invention relates to the design and use of an ion source with a rapid beam current controller for experimental and medicinal purposes. More particularly, the present invention relates to the design and use of a laser ion source with a magnetic field applied to confine a plasma flux caused by laser ablation.

  11. Recent advances in vacuum arc ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, I.G.; Anders, A.; Anders, S.; Dickinson, M.R.; MacGill, R.A.; Oks, E.M.

    1995-07-01

    Intense beams of metal ions can be formed from a vacuum arc ion source. Broadbeam extraction is convenient, and the time-averaged ion beam current delivered downstream can readily be in the tens of milliamperes range. The vacuum arc ion source has for these reasons found good application for metallurgical surface modification--it provides relatively simple and inexpensive access to high dose metal ion implantation. Several important source developments have been demonstrated recently, including very broad beam operation, macroparticle removal, charge state enhancement, and formation of gaseous beams. The authors have made a very broad beam source embodiment with beam formation electrodes 50 cm in diameter, producing a beam of width {approximately}35 cm for a nominal beam area of {approximately}1,000 cm{sup 2}, and a pulsed Ti beam current of about 7 A was formed at a mean ion energy of {approximately}100 keV. Separately, they`ve developed high efficiency macroparticle-removing magnetic filters and incorporated such a filter into a vacuum arc ion source so as to form macroparticle-free ion beams. Jointly with researchers at the High Current Electronics Institute at Tomsk, Russia, and the Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung at Darmstadt, Germany, they`ve developed a compact technique for increasing the charge states of ions produced in the vacuum arc plasma and thus providing a simple means of increasing the ion energy at fixed extractor voltage. Finally, operation with mixed metal and gaseous ion species has been demonstrated. Here, they briefly review the operation of vacuum marc ion sources and the typical beam and implantation parameters that can be obtained, and describe these source advances and their bearing on metal ion implantation applications.

  12. Radio frequency multicusp ion source development (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, K.N.

    1996-03-01

    The radio-frequency (rf) driven multicusp source was originally developed for use in the Superconducting Super Collider injector. It has been demonstrated that the source can meet the H{sup {minus}} beam current and emittance requirements for this application. By employing a porcelain-coated antenna, a clean plasma discharge with very long-life operation can be achieved. Today, the rf source is used to generate both positive and negative hydrogen ion beams and has been tested in various particle accelerator laboratories throughout the world. Applications of this ion source have been extended to other fields such as ion beam lithography, oil-well logging, ion implantation, accelerator mass spectrometry and medical therapy machines. This paper summarizes the latest rf ion source technology and development at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  13. Pseudo ribbon metal ion beam source

    SciTech Connect

    Stepanov, Igor B. Ryabchikov, Alexander I.; Sivin, Denis O.; Verigin, Dan A.

    2014-02-15

    The paper describes high broad metal ion source based on dc macroparticle filtered vacuum arc plasma generation with the dc ion-beam extraction. The possibility of formation of pseudo ribbon beam of metal ions with the parameters: ion beam length 0.6 m, ion current up to 0.2 A, accelerating voltage 40 kV, and ion energy up to 160 kV has been demonstrated. The pseudo ribbon ion beam is formed from dc vacuum arc plasma. The results of investigation of the vacuum arc evaporator ion-emission properties are presented. The influence of magnetic field strength near the cathode surface on the arc spot movement and ion-emission properties of vacuum-arc discharge for different cathode materials are determined. It was shown that vacuum-arc discharge stability can be reached when the magnetic field strength ranges from 40 to 70 G on the cathode surface.

  14. Influence of plasma-generated negative oxygen ion impingement on magnetron sputtered amorphous SiO{sub 2} thin films during growth at low temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Macias-Montero, M.; Garcia-Garcia, F. J.; Alvarez, R.; Gil-Rostra, J.; Gonzalez, J. C.; Gonzalez-Elipe, A. R.; Palmero, A.; Cotrino, J.

    2012-03-01

    Growth of amorphous SiO{sub 2} thin films deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering at low temperatures has been studied under different oxygen partial pressure conditions. Film microstructures varied from coalescent vertical column-like to homogeneous compact microstructures, possessing all similar refractive indexes. A discussion on the process responsible for the different microstructures is carried out focusing on the influence of (i) the surface shadowing mechanism, (ii) the positive ion impingement on the film, and (iii) the negative ion impingement. We conclude that only the trend followed by the latter and, in particular, the impingement of O{sup -} ions with kinetic energies between 20 and 200 eV, agrees with the resulting microstructural changes. Overall, it is also demonstrated that there are two main microstructuring regimes in the growth of amorphous SiO{sub 2} thin films by magnetron sputtering at low temperatures, controlled by the amount of O{sub 2} in the deposition reactor, which stem from the competition between surface shadowing and ion-induced adatom surface mobility.

  15. An overview of LINAC ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, Roderich

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses ion sources used in high-duty-factor proton and H{sup -} Linacs as well as in accelerators utilizing multi-charged heavy ions, mostly for nuclear physics applications. The included types are Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) sources as well as filament and rf driven multicusp sources. The paper does not strive to attain encyclopedic character but rather to highlight major lines of development, peak performance parameters and type-specific limitations and problems of these sources. The main technical aspects being discussed are particle feed, plasma generation and ion production by discharges, and plasma confinement.

  16. Electron string ion sources for carbon ion cancer therapy accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boytsov, A. Yu.; Donets, D. E.; Donets, E. D.; Donets, E. E.; Katagiri, K.; Noda, K.; Ponkin, D. O.; Ramzdorf, A. Yu.; Salnikov, V. V.; Shutov, V. B.

    2015-08-01

    The type of the Electron String Ion Sources (ESIS) is considered to be the appropriate one to produce pulsed C4+ and C6+ ion beams for cancer therapy accelerators. In fact, the new test ESIS Krion-6T already now provides more than 1010 C4+ ions per pulse and about 5 × 109 C6+ ions per pulse. Such ion sources could be suitable to apply at synchrotrons. It has also been found that Krion-6T can provide more than 1011 C6+ ions per second at the 100 Hz repetition rate, and the repetition rate can be increased at the same or larger ion output per second. This makes ESIS applicable at cyclotrons as well. ESIS can be also a suitable type of ion source to produce the 11C radioactive ion beams. A specialized cryogenic cell was experimentally tested at the Krion-2M ESIS for pulse injection of gaseous species into the electron string. It has been shown in experiments with stable methane that the total conversion efficiency of methane molecules to C4+ ions reached 5%÷10%. For cancer therapy with simultaneous irradiation and precise dose control (positron emission tomography) by means of 11C, transporting to the tumor with the primary accelerated 11C4+ beam, this efficiency is preliminarily considered to be large enough to produce the 11C4+ beam from radioactive methane and to inject this beam into synchrotrons.

  17. Electron string ion sources for carbon ion cancer therapy accelerators.

    PubMed

    Boytsov, A Yu; Donets, D E; Donets, E D; Donets, E E; Katagiri, K; Noda, K; Ponkin, D O; Ramzdorf, A Yu; Salnikov, V V; Shutov, V B

    2015-08-01

    The type of the Electron String Ion Sources (ESIS) is considered to be the appropriate one to produce pulsed C(4+) and C(6+) ion beams for cancer therapy accelerators. In fact, the new test ESIS Krion-6T already now provides more than 10(10) C(4+) ions per pulse and about 5 × 10(9) C(6+) ions per pulse. Such ion sources could be suitable to apply at synchrotrons. It has also been found that Krion-6T can provide more than 10(11) C(6+) ions per second at the 100 Hz repetition rate, and the repetition rate can be increased at the same or larger ion output per second. This makes ESIS applicable at cyclotrons as well. ESIS can be also a suitable type of ion source to produce the (11)C radioactive ion beams. A specialized cryogenic cell was experimentally tested at the Krion-2M ESIS for pulse injection of gaseous species into the electron string. It has been shown in experiments with stable methane that the total conversion efficiency of methane molecules to C(4+) ions reached 5%÷10%. For cancer therapy with simultaneous irradiation and precise dose control (positron emission tomography) by means of (11)C, transporting to the tumor with the primary accelerated (11)C(4+) beam, this efficiency is preliminarily considered to be large enough to produce the (11)C(4+) beam from radioactive methane and to inject this beam into synchrotrons. PMID:26329182

  18. Cold atomic beam ion source for focused ion beam applications

    SciTech Connect

    Knuffman, B.; Steele, A. V.; Maryland Nanocenter, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742; zeroK NanoTech, Montgomery Village, Maryland 20886 ; McClelland, J. J.

    2013-07-28

    We report measurements and modeling of an ion source that is based on ionization of a laser-cooled atomic beam. We show a high brightness and a low energy spread, suitable for use in next-generation, high-resolution focused ion beam systems. Our measurements of total ion current as a function of ionization conditions support an analytical model that also predicts the cross-sectional current density and spatial distribution of ions created in the source. The model predicts a peak brightness of 2 × 10{sup 7} A m{sup ?2} sr{sup ?1} eV{sup ?1} and an energy spread less than 0.34 eV. The model is also combined with Monte-Carlo simulations of the inter-ion Coulomb forces to show that the source can be operated at several picoamperes with a brightness above 1 × 10{sup 7} A m{sup ?2} sr{sup ?1} eV{sup ?1}. We estimate that when combined with a conventional ion focusing column, an ion source with these properties could focus a 1 pA beam into a spot smaller than 1 nm. A total current greater than 5 nA was measured in a lower-brightness configuration of the ion source, demonstrating the possibility of a high current mode of operation.

  19. Ion sources for sealed neutron tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, E.J.T.; Bischoff, G.C.

    1996-11-01

    Fast and thermal neutron activation analysis with sealed neutron generators has been used to detect oil (oil logging), hazardous waste, fissile material, explosives, and contraband (drugs). Sealed neutron generators, used in the above applications, must be small and portable, have good electrical efficiency and long life. The ion sources used in the sealed neutron tubes require high gas utilization efficiencies or low pressure operation with high ionization efficiencies. In this paper, the authors compare a number of gas ion sources that can be used in sealed neutron tubes. The characteristics of the most popular ion source, the axial Penning discharge will be discussed as part of the zetatron neutron generator. Other sources to be discussed include the SAMIS source and RF ion source.

  20. MEVVA ion source for high current metal ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, I.; Washburn, J.

    1986-07-01

    The MEVVA (Metal Vapor Vacuum Arc) ion source is a new kind of source which can produce high current beams of metal ions. Beams of a wide range of elements have been produced, spanning the periodic table from lithium up to and including uranium. The source extraction voltage is up to 60 kV, and we are increasing this up to 120 kV. A total ion beam current of over 1 Ampere has been extracted from the present embodiment of the concept, and this is not an inherent limit. The ion charge state distribution varies with cathode material and arc current, and beams like Li/sup +/, Co/sup +,2+,3+/ and U/sup 3+,4+,5+,6+/ for example, are typical; thus the implantation energy can be up to several hundred kilovolts without additional acceleration. The ion source has potential applications for ion implantation and ion beam mixing for achievement of improved corrosion resistance or wear resistance in metals or surface modification of ceramic materials and semiconductors. Here we outline the source and its performance, and describe some very preliminary implantation work using this source.

  1. New Developments of a Laser Ion Source for Ion Synchrotrons

    E-print Network

    Kondrashev, S; Konukov, K; Sharkov, B Yu; Shumshurov, A V; Camut, O; Chamings, J A; Kugler, H; Scrivens, R; Charushin, A; Makarov, K; Satov, Yu; Smakovskii, Yu

    2004-01-01

    Laser Ion Sources (LIS) are well suited to filling synchrotron rings with highly charged ions of almost any element in a single turn injection mode. We report the first measurements of the LIS output parameters for Pb27+ ions generated by the new 100 J/1 Hz Master Oscillator - Power Amplifier CO2-laser system. A new LIS has been designed, built and tested at CERN, as an ion source for ITEP-TWAC accelerator/accumulator facility, and as a possible future source for an upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) injector chain. The use of the LIS based on 100 J/1 Hz CO2-laser together with the new ion LINAC, as injector for ITEP-TWAC project, is discussed..

  2. Thirty-centimeter-diameter ion milling source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, R. S.

    1978-01-01

    A 30-cm beam diameter ion source has been designed and fabricated for micromachining and sputtering applications. An argon ion current density of 1 mA/cu cm at 500 eV ion energy was selected as a design operating condition. The completed ion source met the design criteria at this operating condition with a uniform and well-collimated beam having an average variation in current density of + or - 5% over the center of 20 cm of the beam. This ion source has a multipole magnetic field that employs permanent magnets between permeable pole pieces. Langmuir probe surveys of the source plasma support the design concepts of a multipole field and a circumferential cathode to enhance plasma uniformity.

  3. OPERATION OF THE RHIC AU ION SOURCE.

    SciTech Connect

    STESKI,D.B.; ALESSI,J.; BENJAMIN,J.; CARLSON,C.; MANNI,M.; THIEBERGER,P.; WIPLICH,M.

    2001-09-02

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is beginning its second year of operation. A cesium sputter ion source injecting into a tandem Van de Graaff provides the gold ions for RHIC. The ion source is operated in the pulsed beam mode and produces a 500{micro}sec long pulse of Au{sup -} with a peak intensity of 290pA at the entrance of the tandem. After acceleration in the tandem and post stripping, this results in a beam of Au{sup +32} with an intensity of 80e{micro}A and an energy of 182MeV. Over the last several years, a series of improvements have been made to increase the intensity of the pulsed beam from the ion source. Details of the source performance and improvements will be presented. In addition, an effort is under way to provide other beam species for RHIC collisions.

  4. ECR ion source with electron gun

    DOEpatents

    Xie, Z.Q.; Lyneis, C.M.

    1993-10-26

    An Advanced Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source having an electron gun for introducing electrons into the plasma chamber of the ion source is described. The ion source has a injection enclosure and a plasma chamber tank. The plasma chamber is defined by a plurality of longitudinal magnets. The electron gun injects electrons axially into the plasma chamber such that ionization within the plasma chamber occurs in the presence of the additional electrons produced by the electron gun. The electron gun has a cathode for emitting electrons therefrom which is heated by current supplied from an AC power supply while bias potential is provided by a bias power supply. A concentric inner conductor and outer conductor carry heating current to a carbon chuck and carbon pusher which hold the cathode in place and also heat the cathode. In the Advanced Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source, the electron gun replaces the conventional first stage used in prior electron cyclotron resonance ion generators. 5 figures.

  5. Intense metal ion beam source for heavy ion fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, I.G.

    1986-05-01

    We have developed an ion source which can produce high current beams of metal ions. The source uses a metal vapor vacuum arc discharge as the plasma medium from which the ions are extracted, so we have called this source the MEVVA ion source. The metal plasma is created simply and efficiently and no carrier gas is required. Beams have been produced from metallic elements spanning the periodic table from lithium through uranium, at extraction voltages from 10 to 60 kV and with beam currents as high as 1.1 Amperes (electrical current in all charge states). A brief description of the source is given and its possible application as an ion source for heavy ion fusion is considered. Beams such as C/sup +/ (greater than or equal to99% of the beam in this species and charge state), Cr/sup 2 +/ (80%), and Ta/sup 3+,4+,5+/ (mixed charge states) have been produced. Beam emittance measurements and ways of increasing the source brightness are discussed.

  6. Ion source design for industrial applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, H. R.; Robinson, R. S.

    1981-01-01

    The design of broad-beam industrial ion sources is described. The approach used emphasizes refractory metal cathodes and permanent-magnet multipole discharge chambers. Design procedures and sample calculations are given for the discharge chamber, ion optics, cathodes, and magnetic circuit. Hardware designs are included for the isolator, cathode supports, anode supports, pole-piece assembly, and ion-optics supports. There are other ways of designing most ion source components, but the designs presented are representative of current technology and adaptable to a wide range of configurations.

  7. On characterization of an ultracold ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debernardi, N.; Engelen, W. J.; van Vliembergen, R. W. L.; Mutsaers, P. H. A.; Vredenbregt, E. J. D.; Luiten, O. J.

    2011-05-01

    The ultracold ion source (UCIS) is based on creating very cold ion beams (T < 1 mK) by near-threshold photo-ionization of a laser-cooled and trapped 85Rb gas. The UCIS has the potential of producing ion beams with a brightness and current comparable to the liquid-metal ion source (LMIS), which is the current state-of-art for focused ion beam (FIB) technology. The brightness characterizes the source and is proportional to the ion current, the source temperature and the energy spread. We have already shown that the UCIS can provide much lower energy spread than LMIS, and may therefore offer a route toward 1-nm ion beam milling. The ultra low temperature of the source permits collimated bunches to be created at a low energy (down to few eV), which allows using time-dependent fields for accelerating and focusing. With this lens, a source temperature of (3 +/- 2) mK has been measured. A dynamic model of the source describing its properties under pulsed operation has been developed and experiments have been started in order to validate it. The extracted current is the missing ingredient needed to characterize the brightness of the UCIS.

  8. High-current pulsed ion source for metallic ions

    SciTech Connect

    Gavin, B.; Abbott, S.; MacGill, R.; Sorensen, R.; Staples, J.; Thatcher, R.

    1981-03-01

    A new sputter-ion PIG source and magnet system, optimized for intermediate charge states, q/A of 0.02 to 0.03, is described. This source will be used with the new Wideroe-based injector for the SuperHILAC. Pulsed electrical currents of several emA of heavy metal ions have been produced in a normalized emittance area of .05..pi.. cm-mr. The source system is comprised of two electrically separate anode chambers, one in operation and one spare, which can be selected by remote control. The entire source head is small and quickly removable.

  9. Ion source with external RF antenna

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Ji, Qing; Wilde, Stephen

    2005-12-13

    A radio frequency (RF) driven plasma ion source has an external RF antenna, i.e. the RF antenna is positioned outside the plasma generating chamber rather than inside. The RF antenna is typically formed of a small diameter metal tube coated with an insulator. An external RF antenna assembly is used to mount the external RF antenna to the ion source. The RF antenna tubing is wound around the external RF antenna assembly to form a coil. The external RF antenna assembly is formed of a material, e.g. quartz, which is essentially transparent to the RF waves. The external RF antenna assembly is attached to and forms a part of the plasma source chamber so that the RF waves emitted by the RF antenna enter into the inside of the plasma chamber and ionize a gas contained therein. The plasma ion source is typically a multi-cusp ion source.

  10. Electrospray ion source with reduced analyte electrochemistry

    DOEpatents

    Kertesz, Vilmos; Van Berkel, Gary J

    2013-07-30

    An electrospray ion (ESI) source and method capable of ionizing an analyte molecule without oxidizing or reducing the analyte of interest. The ESI source can include an emitter having a liquid conduit, a working electrode having a liquid contacting surface, a spray tip, a secondary working electrode, and a charge storage coating covering partially or fully the liquid contacting surface of the working electrode. The liquid conduit, the working electrode and the secondary working electrode can be in liquid communication. The electrospray ion source can also include a counter electrode proximate to, but separated from, said spray tip. The electrospray ion source can also include a power system for applying a voltage difference between the working electrodes and a counter-electrode. The power system can deliver pulsed voltage changes to the working electrodes during operation of said electrospray ion source to minimize the surface potential of the charge storage coating.

  11. Electrospray ion source with reduced analyte electrochemistry

    DOEpatents

    Kertesz, Vilmos [Knoxville, TN; Van Berkel, Gary [Clinton, TN

    2011-08-23

    An electrospray ion (ESI) source and method capable of ionizing an analyte molecule without oxidizing or reducing the analyte of interest. The ESI source can include an emitter having a liquid conduit, a working electrode having a liquid contacting surface, a spray tip, a secondary working electrode, and a charge storage coating covering partially or fully the liquid contacting surface of the working electrode. The liquid conduit, the working electrode and the secondary working electrode can be in liquid communication. The electrospray ion source can also include a counter electrode proximate to, but separated from, said spray tip. The electrospray ion source can also include a power system for applying a voltage difference between the working electrodes and a counter-electrode. The power system can deliver pulsed voltage changes to the working electrodes during operation of said electrospray ion source to minimize the surface potential of the charge storage coating.

  12. Metal versus rare-gas ion irradiation during Ti{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}N film growth by hybrid high power pulsed magnetron/dc magnetron co-sputtering using synchronized pulsed substrate bias

    SciTech Connect

    Greczynski, Grzegorz; Lu Jun; Jensen, Jens; Petrov, Ivan; Greene, Joseph E.; Bolz, Stephan; Koelker, Werner; Schiffers, Christoph; Lemmer, Oliver; Hultman, Lars

    2012-11-15

    Metastable NaCl-structure Ti{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}N is employed as a model system to probe the effects of metal versus rare-gas ion irradiation during film growth using reactive high-power pulsed magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) of Al and dc magnetron sputtering of Ti. The alloy film composition is chosen to be x = 0.61, near the kinetic solubility limit at the growth temperature of 500 Degree-Sign C. Three sets of experiments are carried out: a -60 V substrate bias is applied either continuously, in synchronous with the full HIPIMS pulse, or in synchronous only with the metal-rich-plasma portion of the HIPIMS pulse. Alloy films grown under continuous dc bias exhibit a thickness-invariant small-grain, two-phase nanostructure (wurtzite AlN and cubic Ti{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}N) with random orientation, due primarily to intense Ar{sup +} irradiation leading to Ar incorporation (0.2 at. %), high compressive stress (-4.6 GPa), and material loss by resputtering. Synchronizing the bias with the full HIPIMS pulse results in films that exhibit much lower stress levels (-1.8 GPa) with no measureable Ar incorporation, larger grains elongated in the growth direction, a very small volume fraction of wurtzite AlN, and random orientation. By synchronizing the bias with the metal-plasma phase of the HIPIMS pulses, energetic Ar{sup +} ion bombardment is greatly reduced in favor of irradiation predominantly by Al{sup +} ions. The resulting films are single phase with a dense competitive columnar structure, strong 111 orientation, no measureable trapped Ar concentration, and even lower stress (-0.9 GPa). Thus, switching from Ar{sup +} to Al{sup +} bombardment, while maintaining the same integrated incident ion/metal ratio, eliminates phase separation, minimizes renucleation during growth, and reduces the high concentration of residual point defects, which give rise to compressive stress.

  13. Ion production from solid state laser ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Gottwald, T.; Mattolat, C.; Raeder, S.; Wendt, K.; Havener, C.; Liu, Y.; Lassen, J.; Rothe, S.

    2010-02-15

    Laser ion sources based on resonant excitation and ionization of atoms are well-established tools for selective and efficient production of radioactive ion beams. Recent developments are focused on the use of the state-of-the-art all solid-state laser systems. To date, 35 elements of the periodic table are available from laser ion sources based on tunable Ti:sapphire lasers. Recent progress in this field regarding the establishment of suitable optical excitation schemes for Ti:sapphire lasers are reported.

  14. Metal vapor vacuum arc ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, I.G.; Dickinson, M.R.; Galvin, J.E.; Godechot, X.; MacGill, R.A.

    1990-06-01

    We have developed a family of metal vapor vacuum are (MEVVA) high current metal ion sources. The sources were initially developed for the production of high current beams of metal ions for heavy ion synchrotron injection for basic nuclear physics research; more recently they have also been used for metal ion implantation. A number of different embodiments of the source have been developed for these specific applications. Presently the sources operate in a pulsed mode, with pulse width of order 1 ms and repetition rate up to 100 pps. Beam extraction voltage is up to 100 kV, and since the ions produced in the vacuum arc plasma are in general multiply ionized the ion energy is up to several hundred keV. Beam current is up to several Amperes peak and around 10 mA time averaged delivered onto target. Nearly all of the solid metals of the Periodic Table have been use to produce beam. A number of novel features have been incorporated into the sources, including multiple cathodes and the ability to switch between up to 18 separate cathode materials simply and quickly, and a broad beam source version as well as miniature versions. here we review the source designs and their performance. 45 refs., 7 figs.

  15. H- ion source developments at the SNS

    SciTech Connect

    Welton, Robert F; Stockli, Martin P; Murray Jr, S N; Pennisi, Terry R; Han, Baoxi; Kang, Yoon W; Goulding, Richard Howell; Crisp, Danny W; Sparks, Dennis O; Luciano, Nicholas P; Carmichael, Justin R; Carr, Jr, Jerry

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) will require substantially higher average and pulse H- beam currents than can be produced from conventional ion sources such as the base line SNS source. H- currents of 40-50 mA (SNS operations) and 70-100 mA (power upgrade project) with an rms emittance of 0.20-0.35 Pi mm mrad and a ~7% duty factor will be needed. We are therefore investigating several advanced ion source concepts based on RF excitation. First, the performance characteristics of an external antenna source based on an Al2O3 plasma chamber combined with an external multicusp magnetic configuration, an elemental Cs system, and plasma gun will be discussed. Second, the first plasma measurements of a helicon-driven H- ion source will also be presented.

  16. Development of a polarized Helium-3 ion source for RHIC using the electron beam ion source

    E-print Network

    Epstein, Charles Samuel

    2013-01-01

    This thesis presents my work on the design and development of a source of polarized Helium-3 ions for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven National Lab, Upton, NY. The 3He atoms will be polarized using the ...

  17. Three chamber negative ion source

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo (Hercules, CA); Ehlers, Kenneth W. (Alamo, CA); Hiskes, John R. (Livermore, CA)

    1985-01-01

    A negative ion vessel is divided into an excitation chamber, a negative ionization chamber and an extraction chamber by two magnetic filters. Input means introduces neutral molecules into a first chamber where a first electron discharge means vibrationally excites the molecules which migrate to a second chamber. In the second chamber a second electron discharge means ionizes the molecules, producing negative ions which are extracted into or by a third chamber. A first magnetic filter prevents high energy electrons from entering the negative ionization chamber from the excitation chamber. A second magnetic filter prevents high energy electrons from entering the extraction chamber from the negative ionizing chamber. An extraction grid at the end of the negative ion vessel attracts negative ions into the third chamber and accelerates them. Another grid, located adjacent to the extraction grid, carries a small positive voltage in order to inhibit positive ions from migrating into the extraction chamber and contour the plasma potential. Additional electrons can be suppressed from the output flux using ExB forces provided by magnetic field means and the extractor grid electric potential.

  18. Negative ion source with external RF antenna

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Hahto, Sami K.; Hahto, Sari T.

    2007-02-13

    A radio frequency (RF) driven plasma ion source has an external RF antenna, i.e. the RF antenna is positioned outside the plasma generating chamber rather than inside. The RF antenna is typically formed of a small diameter metal tube coated with an insulator. An external RF antenna assembly is used to mount the external RF antenna to the ion source. The RF antenna tubing is wound around the external RF antenna assembly to form a coil. The external RF antenna assembly is formed of a material, e.g. quartz, which is essentially transparent to the RF waves. The external RF antenna assembly is attached to and forms a part of the plasma source chamber so that the RF waves emitted by the RF antenna enter into the inside of the plasma chamber and ionize a gas contained therein. The plasma ion source is typically a multi-cusp ion source. A converter can be included in the ion source to produce negative ions.

  19. Molecular phosphorus ion source for semiconductor technology

    SciTech Connect

    Gushenets, V. I.; Bugaev, A. S.; Oks, E. M.; Hershcovitch, A.; Kulevoy, T. V.

    2012-02-15

    This paper presents results on the generation of molecular phosphorus ion beams in a hot filament ion source. Solid red phosphorous is evaporated mainly as tetra-atomic molecules up to a temperature of 800 deg. C. Thus, one of the main conditions for producing maximum P{sub 4}{sup +} fraction in the beam is to keep the temperature of the phosphorous oven, the steam line and the discharge chamber walls no greater than 800 deg. C. The prior version of our ion source was equipped with a discharge chamber cooling system. The modified source ensured a P{sub 4}{sup +} ion beam current greater than 30% of the total beam current.

  20. Negative-ion source applications (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Ishikawa, J.

    2008-02-15

    In this paper heavy negative-ion sources which we developed and their applications for materials science are reviewed. Heavy negative ions can be effectively produced by the ejection of a sputtered atom through the optimally cesiated surface of target with a low work function. Then, enough continuous negative-ion currents for materials-science applications can be obtained. We developed several kinds of sputter-type heavy negative-ion sources such as neutral- and ionized-alkaline metal bombardment-type heavy negative-ion source and rf-plasma sputter type. In the case where a negative ion is irradiated on a material surface, surface charging seldom takes place because incoming negative charge of the negative ion is well balanced with outgoing negative charge of the released secondary electron. In the negative-ion implantation into an insulator or insulated conductive material, high precision implantation processing with charge-up free properties can be achieved. Negative-ion implantation technique, therefore, can be applied to the following novel material processing systems: the surface modification of micrometer-sized powders, the nanoparticle formation in an insulator for the quantum devices, and the nerve cell growth manipulation by precise control of the biocompatibility of polymer surface. When a negative ion with low kinetic energy approaches the solid surface, the kinetic energy causes the interatomic bonding (kinetic bonding), and formation of a metastable material is promoted. Carbon films with high constituent of sp{sup 3} bonding, therefore, can be formed by carbon negative-ion beam deposition.

  1. Highly Stripped Ion Sources for MeV Ion Implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Hershcovitch, Ady

    2009-06-30

    Original technical objectives of CRADA number PVI C-03-09 between BNL and Poole Ventura, Inc. (PVI) were to develop an intense, high charge state, ion source for MeV ion implanters. Present day high-energy ion implanters utilize low charge state (usually single charge) ion sources in combination with rf accelerators. Usually, a MV LINAC is used for acceleration of a few rnA. It is desirable to have instead an intense, high charge state ion source on a relatively low energy platform (de acceleration) to generate high-energy ion beams for implantation. This de acceleration of ions will be far more efficient (in energy utilization). The resultant implanter will be smaller in size. It will generate higher quality ion beams (with lower emittance) for fabrication of superior semiconductor products. In addition to energy and cost savings, the implanter will operate at a lower level of health risks associated with ion implantation. An additional aim of the project was to producing a product that can lead to long­ term job creation in Russia and/or in the US. R&D was conducted in two Russian Centers (one in Tomsk and Seversk, the other in Moscow) under the guidance ofPVI personnel and the BNL PI. Multiple approaches were pursued, developed, and tested at various locations with the best candidate for commercialization delivered and tested at on an implanter at the PVI client Axcelis. Technical developments were exciting: record output currents of high charge state phosphorus and antimony were achieved; a Calutron-Bemas ion source with a 70% output of boron ion current (compared to 25% in present state-of-the-art). Record steady state output currents of higher charge state phosphorous and antimony and P ions: P{sup 2+} (8.6 pmA), P{sup 3+} (1.9 pmA), and P{sup 4+} (0.12 pmA) and 16.2, 7.6, 3.3, and 2.2 pmA of Sb{sup 3+} Sb {sup 4 +}, Sb{sup 5+}, and Sb{sup 6+} respectively. Ultimate commercialization goals did not succeed (even though a number of the products like high charge state phosphorus and antimony could have resulted in a lower power consumption of 30 kW/implanter) for the following reasons (which were discovered after R&D completion): record output of high charge state phosphorous would have thermally damage wafers; record high charge state of antimony requires tool (ion implanting machine in ion implantation jargon) modification, which did not make economic sense due to the small number of users. Nevertheless, BNL has benefited from advances in high-charge state ion generation, due to high charge state ions need for RHIC preinjection. High fraction boron ion was delivered to PVI client Axcelis for retrofit and implantation testing; the source could have reduced beam preinjector power consumption by a factor of 3.5. But, since the source generated some lithium (though in miniscule amounts); last minute decision was made not to employ the source in implanters. R&D of novel transport and gasless plasmaless deceleration, as well as decaborane molecular ion source to mitigate space charge problems in low energy shallow ion implantation was also conducted though results were not yet ready for commercialization. Future work should be focused on gasless plasmaless transport and deceleration as well as on molecular ions due to their significance to low energy, shallow implantation; which is the last frontier of ion implantation. To summarize the significant accomplishments: 1. Record steady state output currents of high charge state phosphorous, P, ions in particle milli-Ampere: P{sup 2+} (8.6 pmA), P{sup 3+} (1.9 pmA), and P{sup 4+} (0.12 pmA). 2. Record steady state output currents of high charge state antimony, Sb, ions in particle milli-Ampere: Sb{sup 3+} (16.2 pmA), Sb{sup 4+} (7.6 pmA), Sb{sup 5+} (3.3 pmA), and Sb{sup 6+} (2.2 pmA). 3. 70% output of boron ion current (compared to 25% in present state-of-the-art) from a Calutron-Bemas ion source. These accomplishments have the potential of benefiting the semiconductor manufacturing industry by lowering power consumption by as much as 30 kW per ion implanter. Major problem w

  2. Design study of primary ion provider for relativistic heavy ion collider electron beam ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Kondo, K.; Kanesue, T.; Tamura, J.; Okamura, M.

    2010-02-15

    Brookhaven National Laboratory has developed the new preinjector system, electron beam ion source (EBIS) for relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration Space Radiation Laboratory. Design of primary ion provider is an essential problem since it is required to supply beams with different ion species to multiple users simultaneously. The laser ion source with a defocused laser can provide a low charge state and low emittance ion beam, and is a candidate for the primary ion source for RHIC-EBIS. We show a suitable design with appropriate drift length and solenoid, which helps to keep sufficient total charge number with longer pulse length. The whole design of primary ion source, as well as optics arrangement, solid targets configuration and heating about target, is presented.

  3. Development of polarized 3He ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, M.; Takahashi, Y.; Shimoda, T.; Yasui, S.; Yosoi, M.; Takahisa, K.; Shimakura, N.

    2007-02-26

    A long history on the polarized 3He ion source developed at RCNP is presented. We started with an 'OPPIS' (Optical Pumping Polarized Ion Source) and later found the fundamental difficulties in the OPPIS. To overcome them an 'EPPIS' (Electron Pumping Polarized Ion Source) was proposed and its validity was experimentally proven. However, a serious technical disadvantage was also found in the EPPIS. To avoid this disadvantage we proposed a new concept, 'SEPIS' (Spin Exchange Polarized Ion Source), which uses an enhanced spin-exchange cross section theoretically expected at low 3He+ incident energies for the 3He+ + Rb system.Next, we describe the present status of the SEPIS development; construction of a bench test device allowing the measurements of not only the spin-exchange cross sections {sigma}se but also the electron capture cross sections {sigma}ec for the 3He+ + Rb system. The latest experimental data on {sigma}ec are presented and compared with other previous experimental data and the theoretical calculations. A design study of the SEPIS for practical use in nuclear (cyclotron) and particle physics (synchrotron) is shortly mentioned.Finally, we mention possibility to polarize ions heavier than 3He as an application of SEPIS. The theoretical calculation showed that {sigma}se comparable to that for the 3He+ + Rb is expected for the Li2+ + Rb system, which suggests that the SEPIS will hopefully be a general tool to polarize any heavy ions.

  4. Optimization of the beam extraction systems for the Linac4 H- ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fink, D. A.; Lettry, J.; Midttun, Ø.; Scrivens, R.; Steyaert, D.; Valerio-Lizarraga, C. A.

    2015-04-01

    The development of the Linac 4 and its integration into CERN's acceleration complex is part of the foreseen luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The goal is to inject a 160 MeV H- beam into the CERN PS Booster (PSB) in order to increase the beam brightness by a factor of 2 compared to the 50 MeV proton linac, Linac 2, that is currently in operation. The requirements for the ion source are a 45 keV H- beam of 80 mA intensity, 2 Hz repetition rate and 0.5 ms pulse length within a normalized rms-emittance of 0.25 mm. mrad. The previously installed beam extraction system has been designed for an H- ion beam intensity of 20 mA produced by an RF-volume source with an electron to H- ratio of up to 50. For the required intensity upgrades of the Linac4 ion source, a new beam extraction system is being produced and tested; it is optimized for a cesiated surface RF-source with a nominal beam current of 40 mA and an electron to H- ratio of 4. The simulations, based on the IBSIMU code, are presented. At the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), a peak beam current of more than 100 mA was demonstrated with a magnetron H- source at an energy of 35 keV and a repetition rate of 2 Hz. A new extraction system is required to operate at an energy of 45 keV; simulation of a two stage extraction system dedicated to the magnetron is presented.

  5. Optimization of the beam extraction systems for the Linac4 H{sup ?} ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, D. A.; Lettry, J.; Scrivens, R.; Steyaert, D.; Midttun, Ø.; Valerio-Lizarraga, C. A.

    2015-04-08

    The development of the Linac 4 and its integration into CERN’s acceleration complex is part of the foreseen luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The goal is to inject a 160?MeV H{sup ?} beam into the CERN PS Booster (PSB) in order to increase the beam brightness by a factor of 2 compared to the 50?MeV proton linac, Linac 2, that is currently in operation. The requirements for the ion source are a 45 keV H{sup ?} beam of 80?mA intensity, 2?Hz repetition rate and 0.5?ms pulse length within a normalized rms-emittance of 0.25?mm· mrad. The previously installed beam extraction system has been designed for an H{sup ?} ion beam intensity of 20?mA produced by an RF-volume source with an electron to H{sup ?} ratio of up to 50. For the required intensity upgrades of the Linac4 ion source, a new beam extraction system is being produced and tested; it is optimized for a cesiated surface RF-source with a nominal beam current of 40?mA and an electron to H{sup ?} ratio of 4. The simulations, based on the IBSIMU code, are presented. At the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), a peak beam current of more than 100?mA was demonstrated with a magnetron H{sup ?} source at an energy of 35 keV and a repetition rate of 2?Hz. A new extraction system is required to operate at an energy of 45 keV; simulation of a two stage extraction system dedicated to the magnetron is presented.

  6. The correlation between the radial distribution of high-energetic ions and the structural as well as electrical properties of magnetron sputtered ZnO:Al films

    SciTech Connect

    Bikowski, André; Welzel, Thomas; Ellmer, Klaus

    2013-12-14

    The origin of the pronounced radial distributions of structural and electrical properties of magnetron sputtered ZnO:Al films has been investigated. The film properties were correlated with the radially resolved ion-distribution functions. While the positive ions exhibit low energies and a radial distribution with a maximum intensity opposite the center of the target, the negative ions can have energies up to several hundred eV, depending on the target potential, with a radial distribution with two maxima opposite the erosion tracks. The most prominent positive ion is that of the working gas (Ar{sup +}), while the highest flux of the negative ions is measured for negative oxygen O{sup ?}. The radial distribution of the flux of the high-energetic negative ions can clearly be related to the radial variations of the structural (c-axis lattice parameter, crystallite size) and electronic (resistivity) properties for sputtering from the planar target, which points to the decisive role of the high-energetic negative oxygen ions for the film quality. The relation between the negative ion bombardment and the structural as well as electronic properties can be explained by a qualitative model recently developed by us. The same target has also been investigated in the eroded state. In this case, the limited acceptance angle of the mass spectrometer leads to a misinterpretation of the radial distribution of the flux of the high-energetic negative ions. This effect can be explained by a simulation, based on the assumption that the high-energetic negative ions are mainly accelerated in the cathode (target) sheath perpendicular to the uneven substrate surface.

  7. The correlation between the radial distribution of high-energetic ions and the structural as well as electrical properties of magnetron sputtered ZnO:Al films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bikowski, André; Welzel, Thomas; Ellmer, Klaus

    2013-12-01

    The origin of the pronounced radial distributions of structural and electrical properties of magnetron sputtered ZnO:Al films has been investigated. The film properties were correlated with the radially resolved ion-distribution functions. While the positive ions exhibit low energies and a radial distribution with a maximum intensity opposite the center of the target, the negative ions can have energies up to several hundred eV, depending on the target potential, with a radial distribution with two maxima opposite the erosion tracks. The most prominent positive ion is that of the working gas (Ar+), while the highest flux of the negative ions is measured for negative oxygen O-. The radial distribution of the flux of the high-energetic negative ions can clearly be related to the radial variations of the structural (c-axis lattice parameter, crystallite size) and electronic (resistivity) properties for sputtering from the planar target, which points to the decisive role of the high-energetic negative oxygen ions for the film quality. The relation between the negative ion bombardment and the structural as well as electronic properties can be explained by a qualitative model recently developed by us. The same target has also been investigated in the eroded state. In this case, the limited acceptance angle of the mass spectrometer leads to a misinterpretation of the radial distribution of the flux of the high-energetic negative ions. This effect can be explained by a simulation, based on the assumption that the high-energetic negative ions are mainly accelerated in the cathode (target) sheath perpendicular to the uneven substrate surface.

  8. Ion Source Development at the SNS

    SciTech Connect

    Welton, R. F.; Han, B. X.; Kenik, E. A.; Murray, S. N.; Pennisi, T. R.; Potter, K. G.; Lang, B. R.; Santana, M.; Stockli, M. P.; Desai, N. J.

    2011-09-26

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) now routinely operates near 1 MW of beam power on target with a highly-persistent {approx}38 mA peak current in the linac and an availability of {approx}90%. The {approx}1 ms-long, 60 Hz, {approx}50 mA H{sup -} beam pulses are extracted from a Cs-enhanced, multi-cusp, RF-driven, internal-antenna ion source. An electrostatic LEBT (Low Energy Beam Transport) focuses the 65 kV beam into the RFQ accelerator. The ion source and LEBT have normally a combined availability of {approx}99%. Although much progress has been made over the last years to achieve this level of availability further improvements are desirable. Failures of the internal antenna and occasionally impaired electron dump insulators require several source replacements per year. An attempt to overcome the antenna issues with an AlN external antenna source early in 2009 had to be terminated due to availability issues. This report provides a comprehensive review of the design, experimental history, status, and description of recently updated components and future plans for this ion source. The mechanical design for improved electron dump vacuum feedthroughs is also presented, which is compatible with the baseline and both external antenna ion sources.

  9. Ion Source Development at the SNS

    SciTech Connect

    Welton, Robert F; Desai, Nandishkumar J; Han, Baoxi; Kenik, Edward A; Murray Jr, S N; Pennisi, Terry R; Potter, Kerry G; Lang, Bonnie R; Santana, Manuel; Stockli, Martin P

    2011-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) now routinely operates near 1 MW of beam power on target with a highly-persistent ~38 mA peak current in the linac and an availability of ~90%. The ~1 ms-long, 60 Hz, ~50 mA H- beam pulses are extracted from a Cs-enhanced, multi-cusp, RF-driven, internal-antenna ion source. An electrostatic LEBT (Low Energy Beam Transport) focuses the 65 kV beam into the RFQ accelerator. The ion source and LEBT have normally a combined availability of ~99%. Although much progress has been made over the last years to achieve this level of availability further improvements are desirable. Failures of the internal antenna and occasionally impaired electron dump insulators require several source replacements per year. An attempt to overcome the antenna issues with an AlN external antenna source early in 2009 had to be terminated due to availability issues. This report provides a comprehensive review of the design, experimental history, status, and description of recently updated components and future plans for this ion source. The mechanical design for improved electron dump vacuum feedthroughs is also presented, which is compatible with the baseline and both external antenna ion sources.

  10. Ion source based on the cathodic arc

    DOEpatents

    Sanders, D.M.; Falabella, S.

    1994-02-01

    A cylindrically symmetric arc source to produce a ring of ions which leave the surface of the arc target radially and are reflected by electrostatic fields present in the source to a point of use, such as a part to be coated, is described. An array of electrically isolated rings positioned in the source serves the dual purpose of minimizing bouncing of macroparticles and providing electrical insulation to maximize the electric field gradients within the source. The source also includes a series of baffles which function as a filtering or trapping mechanism for any macroparticles. 3 figures.

  11. Ion source based on the cathodic arc

    DOEpatents

    Sanders, David M. (Livermore, CA); Falabella, Steven (Livermore, CA)

    1994-01-01

    A cylindrically symmetric arc source to produce a ring of ions which leave the surface of the arc target radially and are reflected by electrostatic fields present in the source to a point of use, such as a part to be coated. An array of electrically isolated rings positioned in the source serves the dual purpose of minimizing bouncing of macroparticles and providing electrical insulation to maximize the electric field gradients within the source. The source also includes a series of baffles which function as a filtering or trapping mechanism for any macroparticles.

  12. Liquid metal alloy ion source based metal ion injection into a room-temperature electron beam ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Thorn, A.; Ritter, E.; Zschornack, G.; Ullmann, F.; Pilz, W.; Bischoff, L.

    2012-02-15

    We have carried out a series of measurements demonstrating the feasibility of using the Dresden electron beam ion source (EBIS)-A, a table-top sized, permanent magnet technology based electron beam ion source, as a charge breeder. Low charged gold ions from an AuGe liquid metal alloy ion source were injected into the EBIS and re-extracted as highly charged ions, thereby producing charge states as high as Au{sup 60+}. The setup, the charge breeding technique, breeding efficiencies as well as acceptance and emittance studies are presented.

  13. Negative ion source with low temperature transverse divergence optical system

    DOEpatents

    Whealton, J.H.; Stirling, W.L.

    1985-03-04

    A negative ion source is provided which has extremely low transverse divergence as a result of a unique ion focusing system in which the focal line of an ion beam emanating from an elongated, concave converter surface is outside of the ion exit slit of the source and the path of the exiting ions. The beam source operates with a minimum ion temperature which makes possible a sharply focused (extremely low transverse divergence) ribbon like negative ion beam.

  14. Negative ion source with low temperature transverse divergence optical system

    DOEpatents

    Whealton, John H. (Oak Ridge, TN); Stirling, William L. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1986-01-01

    A negative ion source is provided which has extremely low transverse divergence as a result of a unique ion focusing system in which the focal line of an ion beam emanating from an elongated, concave converter surface is outside of the ion exit slit of the source and the path of the exiting ions. The beam source operates with a minimum ion temperature which makes possible a sharply focused (extremely low transverse divergence) ribbon like negative ion beam.

  15. Pulsed source ion implantation apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Leung, K.N.

    1996-09-24

    A new pulsed plasma-immersion ion-implantation apparatus that implants ions in large irregularly shaped objects to controllable depth without overheating the target, minimizing voltage breakdown, and using a constant electrical bias applied to the target. Instead of pulsing the voltage applied to the target, the plasma source, for example a tungsten filament or a RF antenna, is pulsed. Both electrically conducting and insulating targets can be implanted. 16 figs.

  16. Pulsed source ion implantation apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo (Hercules, CA)

    1996-01-01

    A new pulsed plasma-immersion ion-implantation apparatus that implants ions in large irregularly shaped objects to controllable depth without overheating the target, minimizing voltage breakdown, and using a constant electrical bias applied to the target. Instead of pulsing the voltage applied to the target, the plasma source, for example a tungsten filament or a RF antenna, is pulsed. Both electrically conducting and insulating targets can be implanted.

  17. 4th Generation ECR Ion Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Lyneis, Claude M.; Leitner, D.; Todd, D.S.; Sabbi, G.; Prestemon, S.; Caspi, S.; Ferracin, P.

    2008-12-01

    The concepts and technical challenges related to developing a 4th generation ECR ion source with an RF frequency greater than 40 GHz and magnetic confinement fields greater than twice Becr will be explored in this paper. Based on the semi-empirical frequency scaling of ECR plasma density with the square of operating frequency, there should be significant gains in performance over current 3rd generation ECR ion sources, which operate at RF frequencies between 20 and 30 GHz. While the 3rd generation ECR ion sources use NbTi superconducting solenoid and sextupole coils, the new sources will need to use different superconducting materials such as Nb3Sn to reach the required magnetic confinement, which scales linearly with RF frequency. Additional technical challenges include increased bremsstrahlung production, which may increase faster than the plasma density, bremsstrahlung heating of the cold mass and the availability of high power continuous wave microwave sources at these frequencies. With each generation of ECR ion sources, there are new challenges to be mastered, but the potential for higher performance and reduced cost of the associated accelerator continue to make this a promising avenue for development.

  18. Plasma ion sources and ion beam technology inmicrofabrications

    SciTech Connect

    Ji, Lili

    2007-09-01

    For over decades, focused ion beam (FIB) has been playing a very important role in microscale technology and research, among which, semiconductor microfabrication is one of its biggest application area. As the dimensions of IC devices are scaled down, it has shown the need for new ion beam tools and new approaches to the fabrication of small-scale devices. In the meanwhile, nanotechnology has also deeply involved in material science research and bioresearch in recent years. The conventional FIB systems which utilize liquid gallium ion sources to achieve nanometer scale resolution can no longer meet the various requirements raised from such a wide application area such as low contamination, high throughput and so on. The drive towards controlling materials properties at nanometer length scales relies on the availability of efficient tools. In this thesis, three novel ion beam tools have been developed and investigated as the alternatives for the conventional FIB systems in some particular applications. An integrated focused ion beam (FIB) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) system has been developed for direct doping or surface modification. This new instrument employs a mini-RF driven plasma source to generate focused ion beam with various ion species, a FEI two-lens electron (2LE) column for SEM imaging, and a five-axis manipulator system for sample positioning. An all-electrostatic two-lens column has been designed to focus the ion beam extracted from the source. Based on the Munro ion optics simulation, beam spot sizes as small as 100 nm can be achieved at beam energies between 5 to 35 keV if a 5 {micro}m-diameter extraction aperture is used. Smaller beam spot sizes can be obtained with smaller apertures at sacrifice of some beam current. The FEI 2LE column, which utilizes Schottky emission, electrostatic focusing optics, and stacked-disk column construction, can provide high-resolution (as small as 20 nm) imaging capability, with fairly long working distance (25 mm) at 25 keV beam voltage. Such an integrated FIB/SEM dual-beam system will not only improve the accuracy and reproducibility when performing ion beam sculpting and direct implantation processes, but will also enable researchers to perform cross-sectioning, imaging, and analysis with the same tool. A major advantage of this approach is the ability to produce a wide variety of ion species tailored to the application.

  19. The Stockholm electron beam ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beebe, E.; Liljeby, L.; Engström, Å.; Björkhage, M.

    1993-03-01

    The electron beam ion source, CRYSIS, produces highly charged ions for injection into the heavy ion storage ring - CRYRING at the Manne Siegbahn Institute, and for low energy atomic physics experiments. It will also provide highly charged ions for the Stockholm-Mainz Penning trap scheduled for installation at MSI in early 1993. CRYSIS has produced ions up to Ar18+ and 136Xe49+ using electron beam currents of typically Ie = 200-300 mA and current density je = 100-200 A/cm2. Continuous electron beams of energy E = 19 keV and current Ie = 600 mA have been propagated through the source with transmission greater than 99.9%. Test beams of He2+ and N7+ extracted from the source in 50-100 ?s pulses have been injected into CRYRING with the entire CRYSIS platform raised to 20 kV. Ions of charge up to 136Xe44+ extracted in extended 50-100 ms pulses have been used in coincidence-type atomic physics experiments. The status of CRYSIS as of March 15, 1992 is reported. Improvements, modes of operation, and results are discussed.

  20. Ion plating with an induction heating source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spalvins, T.; Brainard, W. A.

    1976-01-01

    Induction heating is introduced as an evaporation heat source in ion plating. A bare induction coil without shielding can be directly used in the glow discharge region with no arcing. The only requirement is to utilize an rf inductive generator with low operating frequency of 75 kHz. Mechanical simplicity of the ion plating apparatus and ease of operation is a great asset for industrial applications; practically any metal such as nickel, iron, and the high temperature refractories can be evaporated and ion plated.

  1. Focused ion beam source method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Pellin, Michael J. (Naperville, IL); Lykke, Keith R. (Gaithersburg, MD); Lill, Thorsten B. (Sunnyvale, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A focused ion beam having a cross section of submicron diameter, a high ion current, and a narrow energy range is generated from a target comprised of particle source material by laser ablation. The method involves directing a laser beam having a cross section of critical diameter onto the target, producing a cloud of laser ablated particles having unique characteristics, and extracting and focusing a charged particle beam from the laser ablated cloud. The method is especially suited for producing focused ion beams for semiconductor device analysis and modification.

  2. Oxygen and carbon ions from a reflex discharge ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hentschel, R.; Henke, D.

    1992-04-01

    Intense beams of oxygen and carbon ions are of interest for applications in microelectronics and material modification. However, it is often impossible to produce them with usual arc discharge ion sources for a sufficiently long time because of the corrosion or covering of the cathode. The paper shows how the lifetime difficulties can be overcome using a strontium oxide platinum cathode in connection with oxygen or carbon dioxide as working gas. Beams in the 50 mA range with a share of 40% O+ or 30% C+ are steadily obtained from a compact reflex discharge ion source. A cathode lifetime of more than 60 h has been reached at a discharge current of 8 A.

  3. Growth of fullerene-like carbon nitride thin solid films by reactive magnetron sputtering; role of low-energy ion irradiation in determining microstructure and mechanical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neidhardt, J.; Czigány, Zs.; Brunell, I. F.; Hultman, L.

    2003-03-01

    Fullerene-like (FL) carbon nitride (CNx) films were deposited on Si (100) substrates by dc reactive, unbalanced, magnetron sputtering in a N2/Ar mixture from a high-purity pyrolythic graphite cathode in a dual-magnetron system with coupled magnetic fields. The N2 fraction in the discharge gas (0%-100%) and substrate bias (-25 V; -40 V) was varied, while the total pressure (0.4 Pa) and substrate temperature (450 °C) was kept constant. The coupled configuration of the magnetrons resulted in a reduced ion flux density, leading to a much lower average energy per incorporated particle, due to a less focused plasma as compared to a single magnetron. This enabled the evolution of a pronounced FL microstructure. The nitrogen concentration in the films saturated rapidly at 14-18 at. %, as determined by elastic recoil analysis, with a minor dependence on the discharge conditions. No correlations were detected between the photoelectron N1s core level spectra and the different microstructures, as observed by high-resolution electron microscopy. A variety of distinct FL structures were obtained, ranging from structures with elongated and aligned nitrogen-containing graphitic sheets to disordered structures, however, not exclusively linked to the total N concentration in the films. The microstructure evolution has rather to be seen as in equilibrium between the two competing processes of adsorption and desorption of nitrogen-containing species at the substrate. This balance is shifted by the energy and number of arriving species as well as by the substrate temperature. The most exceptional structure, for lower N2 fractions, consists of well-aligned, multi-layered circular features (nano-onions) with an inner diameter of approximately 0.7 nm and successive shells at a distance of ˜0.35 nm up to a diameter of 5 nm. It is shown that the intrinsic stress formation is closely linked with the evolution and accommodation of the heavily bent fullerene-like sheets. The FL CNx structures define the mechanical response of the films as revealed by nano-indentation. The material is highly elastic and fracture tough, and has reasonable hardness and elastic modulus values. On a nano-structured level, it is inferred the CNx stores deformation energy elastically by compression of the interplanar lattice spacing and buckling of the sheets, while crosslinks between sheets prevent gliding. Increasing the bias voltage from -25 to -40 V multiplies hardness and modulus values, while keeping their high ratio of up to 0.2, due to a higher degree of cross-linking.

  4. ECR ion source with electron gun

    DOEpatents

    Xie, Zu Q. (El Cerrito, CA); Lyneis, Claude M. (Berkeley, CA)

    1993-01-01

    An Advanced Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source (10) having an electron gun (52) for introducing electrons into the plasma chamber (18) of the ion source (10). The ion source (10) has a injection enclosure (12) and a plasma chamber tank (14). The plasma chamber (18) is defined by a plurality of longitudinal magnets (16). The electron gun (52) injects electrons axially into the plasma chamber (18) such that ionization within the plasma chamber (18) occurs in the presence of the additional electrons produced by the electron gun (52). The electron gun (52) has a cathode (116) for emitting electrons therefrom which is heated by current supplied from an AC power supply (96) while bias potential is provided by a bias power supply (118). A concentric inner conductor (60) and Outer conductor (62) carry heating current to a carbon chuck (104) and carbon pusher (114) Which hold the cathode (116) in place and also heat the cathode (16). In the Advanced Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source (10), the electron gun (52) replaces the conventional first stage used in prior art electron cyclotron resonance ion generators.

  5. Compact ion source neutron generator

    DOEpatents

    Schenkel, Thomas; Persaud, Arun; Kapadia, Rehan; Javey, Ali; Chang-Hasnain, Constance; Rangelow, Ivo; Kwan, Joe

    2015-10-13

    A neutron generator includes a conductive substrate comprising a plurality of conductive nanostructures with free-standing tips and a source of an atomic species to introduce the atomic species in proximity to the free-standing tips. A target placed apart from the substrate is voltage biased relative to the substrate to ionize and accelerate the ionized atomic species toward the target. The target includes an element capable of a nuclear fusion reaction with the ionized atomic species to produce a one or more neutrons as a reaction by-product.

  6. New type of metal ion source: Surface diffusion Li{sup +} ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Medvedev, V.K.; Suchorski, Y.; Block, J.H.

    1995-03-01

    A surface diffusion metal ion source, a new type of metal ion source, is explored. In this device a field desorption process is used to achieve an almost monoenergetic continuous flux of Li{sup +} ions from a [111]-oriented W field emitter. Earlier difficulties with the continuous supply of adatoms, required to produce measurable desorption rates, were overcome by making use of solid state surface diffusion from the Li multilayer reservoir at the shank of the field emitter. The high density of the ion beam (an ion current of 10{sup {minus}12} A was achieved from a W trimer), the extremely narrow energy distribution (full width at half-maximum of 0.25 eV) and the stable geometric form of the emitter itself during the operation are advantages of the new ion source which may be important in different areas of nanotechnology. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Vacuum} {ital Society}

  7. Recent negative ion source activity at JYFL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalvas, T.; Tarvainen, O.; Komppula, J.; Laitinen, M.; Sajavaara, T.; Koivisto, H.; Jokinen, A.; Dehnel, M. P.

    2013-02-01

    A filament-powered multicusp ion source for production of H- has been developed for the Jyväskylä Pelletron accelerator for use in ion beam lithography and particle induced X-ray emission applications. The source can be considered conventional with the exception of the filter field being created with an electric magnet for continuous adjustability. A permanent magnet dipoleantidipole electron dump is integrated in the puller electrode. The source provides 50 ?A H- beam at 10 keV energy with 0.019 mm mrad 95 % normalized rms emittance through a 2 mm aperture. Lower emittance is achievable by changing the plasma electrode insert to a smaller aperture one if application requires. A new commercial MCC30/15 cyclotron has been installed at the Jyväskylä accelerator laboratory providing 30MeV H+ and 15Mev D+ for use in nuclear physics experiments and applications. The ion source delivered with the cyclotron is a a filament-powered multicusp source capable of about 130 h continuous operation at 1 mA H- output between filament changes. The ion source is located in the cyclotron vault and therefore a significant waiting time for the vault cooldown is required before filament change is possible. This kind of operation is not acceptable as 350 h and longer experiments are expected. Therefore a project for developing a CW 13.56 MHz RF ion source has been initiated. A planar RF antenna replacing the filament back plate of the existing TRIUMF-type ion source has been used in the first tests with 240 ?A of H- and 21 mA of electrons measured at 1.5 kW of RF power. Tests with higher RF power levels were prevented by electron beam induced sparking. A new plasma chamber has been built and a new extraction is being designed for the RF ion source. The extraction code IBSimu has recently gone through a major update on how smooth electrode surfaces are implemented in the Poisson solvers. This has made it possible to implement a fast multigrid solver with low memory consumption. Also a method has been made to import 3D CAD geometries into simulations.

  8. rf improvements for Spallation Neutron Source H- ion source.

    PubMed

    Kang, Y W; Fuja, R; Goulding, R H; Hardek, T; Lee, S-W; McCarthy, M P; Piller, M C; Shin, K; Stockli, M P; Welton, R F

    2010-02-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is ramping up the accelerated proton beam power to 1.4 MW and just reached 1 MW. The rf-driven multicusp ion source that originates from the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has been delivering approximately 38 mA H(-) beam in the linac at 60 Hz, 0.9 ms. To improve availability, a rf-driven external antenna multicusp ion source with a water-cooled ceramic aluminum nitride (AlN) plasma chamber is developed. Computer modeling and simulations have been made to analyze and optimize the rf performance of the new ion source. Operational statistics and test runs with up to 56 mA medium energy beam transport beam current identify the 2 MHz rf system as a limiting factor in the system availability and beam production. Plasma ignition system is under development by using a separate 13 MHz system. To improve the availability of the rf power system with easier maintenance, we tested a 70 kV isolation transformer for the 80 kW, 6% duty cycle 2 MHz amplifier to power the ion source from a grounded solid-state amplifier. PMID:20192394

  9. Spallation neutron source saddle antenna H- ion source project.

    PubMed

    Dudnikov, Vadim; Johnson, Rolland P; Dudnikova, Galina; Stockli, Martin; Welton, Robert

    2010-02-01

    In this project we are developing an H(-) source which will synthesize the most important developments in the field of negative ion sources to provide high current, high brightness, good lifetime, high reliability, and high power efficiency. We describe two planned modifications to the present spallation neutron source external antenna source in order to increase the plasma density near the output aperture: (1) replacing the present 2 MHz plasma-forming solenoid antenna with a 13 MHz saddle-type antenna and (2) replacing the permanent multicusp magnetic system with a weaker electromagnet. PMID:20192379

  10. Ion sources for induction linac driven heavy ion fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Rutkowski, H.L.; Eylon, S.; Chupp, W.W.

    1993-08-01

    The use of ion sources in induction linacs for heavy ion fusion is fundamentally different from their use in the rf linac-storage rings approach. Induction linacs require very high current, short pulse extraction usually with large apertures which are dictated by the injector design. One is faced with the problem of extracting beams in a pulsed fashion while maintaining high beam quality during the pulse (low-emittance). Four types of sources have been studied for this application. The vacuum arc and the rf cusp field source are the plasma types and the porous plug and hot alumino-silicate surface source are the thermal types. The hot alumino-silicate potassium source has proved to be the best candidate for the next generation of scaled experiments. The porous plug for potassium is somewhat more difficult to use. The vacuum arc suffers from noise and lifetime problems and the rf cusp field source is difficult to use with very short pulses. Operational experience with all of these types of sources is presented.

  11. Spark discharge coupled laser multicharged ion source.

    PubMed

    Shaim, Md Haider A; Elsayed-Ali, Hani E

    2015-07-01

    A spark discharge is coupled to a laser multicharged ion source to enhance ion generation. The laser plasma triggers a spark discharge with electrodes located in front of the ablated target. For an aluminum target, the spark discharge results in significant enhancement in the generation of multicharged ions along with higher charge states than observed with the laser source alone. When a Nd:YAG laser pulse (wavelength 1064 nm, pulse width 7.4 ns, pulse energy 72 mJ, laser spot area on target 0.0024 cm(2)) is used, the total multicharged ions detected by a Faraday cup is 1.0 nC with charge state up to Al(3+). When the spark amplification stage is used (0.1 ?F capacitor charged to 5.0 kV), the total charge measured increases by a factor of ?9 with up to Al(6+) charge observed. Using laser pulse energy of 45 mJ, charge amplification by a factor of ?13 was observed for a capacitor voltage of 4.5 kV. The spark discharge increases the multicharged ion generation without increasing target ablation, which solely results from the laser pulse. This allows for increased multicharged ion generation with relatively low laser energy pulses and less damage to the surface of the target. PMID:26233369

  12. Development of versatile multiaperture negative ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Cavenago, M.; Minarello, A.; Sattin, M.; Serianni, G.; Antoni, V.; Bigi, M.; Pasqualotto, R.; Recchia, M.; Veltri, P.; Agostinetti, P.; Barbisan, M.; Baseggio, L.; Cervaro, V.; Degli Agostini, F.; Franchin, L.; Laterza, B.; Ravarotto, D.; Rossetto, F.; Zaniol, B.; Zucchetti, S.; and others

    2015-04-08

    Enhancement of negative ion sources for production of large ion beams is a very active research field nowadays, driven from demand of plasma heating in nuclear fusion devices and accelerator applications. As a versatile test bench, the ion source NIO1 (Negative Ion Optimization 1) is being commissioned by Consorzio RFX and INFN. The nominal beam current of 135?mA at ?60?kV is divided into 9 beamlets, with multiaperture extraction electrodes. The plasma is sustained by a 2?MHz radiofrequency power supply, with a standard matching box. A High Voltage Deck (HVD) placed inside the lead shielding surrounding NIO1 contains the radiofrequency generator, the gas control, electronics and power supplies for the ion source. An autonomous closed circuit water cooling system was installed for the whole system, with a branch towards the HVD, using carefully optimized helical tubing. Insulation transformer is installed in a nearby box. Tests of several magnetic configurations can be performed. Status of experiments, measured spectra and plasma luminosity are described. Upgrades of magnetic filter, beam calorimeter and extraction grid and related theoretical issues are reviewed.

  13. Development of versatile multiaperture negative ion sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavenago, M.; Serianni, G.; Antoni, V.; Bigi, M.; De Muri, M.; Pasqualotto, R.; Recchia, M.; Veltri, P.; Agostinetti, P.; Barbisan, M.; Baseggio, L.; Cervaro, V.; Cazzador, M.; Degli Agostini, F.; Franchin, L.; Kulevoy, T.; Laterza, B.; Mimo, A.; Minarello, A.; Petrenko, S.; Ravarotto, D.; Rossetto, F.; Sattin, M.; Zaniol, B.; Zucchetti, S.

    2015-04-01

    Enhancement of negative ion sources for production of large ion beams is a very active research field nowadays, driven from demand of plasma heating in nuclear fusion devices and accelerator applications. As a versatile test bench, the ion source NIO1 (Negative Ion Optimization 1) is being commissioned by Consorzio RFX and INFN. The nominal beam current of 135 mA at -60 kV is divided into 9 beamlets, with multiaperture extraction electrodes. The plasma is sustained by a 2 MHz radiofrequency power supply, with a standard matching box. A High Voltage Deck (HVD) placed inside the lead shielding surrounding NIO1 contains the radiofrequency generator, the gas control, electronics and power supplies for the ion source. An autonomous closed circuit water cooling system was installed for the whole system, with a branch towards the HVD, using carefully optimized helical tubing. Insulation transformer is installed in a nearby box. Tests of several magnetic configurations can be performed. Status of experiments, measured spectra and plasma luminosity are described. Upgrades of magnetic filter, beam calorimeter and extraction grid and related theoretical issues are reviewed.

  14. Improved ion source for use with oxygen

    SciTech Connect

    Guarnieri, C.R.; Ramanathan, K.V.; Yee, D.S.; Cuomo, J.J.

    1988-07-01

    When Kaufman ion sources are used with pure oxygen at high discharge powers, their operational lifetime is limited to minutes. The lifetime of the source can be significantly increased by using thoria-coated filaments for the cathodes. In addition, the lifetime can be increased further by coating the anode with a conductive oxide such as IrO/sub 2/. This coating is deposited by sputter deposition. With these improvements the operational lifetime can be increased by a factor of 100.

  15. Influence of ionisation zone motion in high power impulse magnetron sputtering on angular ion flux and NbO$_x$ film growth

    E-print Network

    Franz, Robert; Kolbeck, Jonathan; Anders, André

    2015-01-01

    The ion energies and fluxes in the high power impulse magnetron sputtering plasma from a Nb target were analysed angularly resolved along the tangential direction of the racetrack. A reactive oxygen-containing atmosphere was used as such discharge conditions are typically employed for the synthesis of thin films. Asymmetries in the flux distribution of the recorded ions as well as their energies and charge states were noticed when varying the angle between mass-energy analyser and target surface. More positively charged ions with higher count rates in the medium energy range of their distributions were detected in $+\\mathbf{E}\\times \\mathbf{B}$ than in $-\\mathbf{E}\\times \\mathbf{B}$ direction, thus confirming the notion that ionisation zones are associated with moving potential humps. The motion of the recorded negatively charged high-energy oxygen ions was unaffected. NbO$_x$ thin films at different angles and positions were synthesised and analysed as to their structure and properties in order to correlate ...

  16. Main magnetic focus ion source with the radial extraction of ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovsyannikov, V. P.; Nefiodov, A. V.

    2016-01-01

    In the main magnetic focus ion source, atomic ions are produced in the local ion trap created by the rippled electron beam in focusing magnetic field. Here we present the novel modification of the room-temperature hand-size device, which allows the extraction of ions in the radial direction perpendicular to the electron beam across the magnetic field. The detected X-ray emission evidences the production of Ir44+ and Ar16+ ions. The ion source can operate as the ion trap for X-ray spectroscopy, as the ion source for the production of highly charged ions and also as the ion source of high brightness.

  17. Survey of ion plating sources. [conferences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spalvins, T.

    1979-01-01

    Based on the type of evaporation source, gaseous media and mode of transport, the following is discussed: resistance, electron beam, sputtering, reactive and ion beam evaporation. Ionization efficiencies and ion energies in the glow discharge determine the percentage of atoms which are ionized under typical ion plating conditions. The plating flux consists of a small number of energetic ions and a large number of energetic neutrals. The energy distribution ranges from thermal energies up to a maximum energy of the discharge. The various reaction mechanisms which contribute to the exceptionally strong adherence - formation of a graded sustrate/coating interface are not fully understood, however the controlling factors are evaluated. The influence of process variables on the nucleation and growth characteristics are illustrated in terms of morphological changes which affect the mechanical and tribological properties of the coating.

  18. Secondary electron ion source neutron generator

    DOEpatents

    Brainard, John P. (Albuquerque, NM); McCollister, Daryl R. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1998-01-01

    A neutron generator employing an electron emitter, an ion source bombarded by the electrons from the electron emitter, a plasma containment zone, and a target situated between the plasma containment zone and the electron emitter. The target contains occluded deuterium, tritium, or a mixture thereof

  19. Secondary electron ion source neutron generator

    DOEpatents

    Brainard, J.P.; McCollister, D.R.

    1998-04-28

    A neutron generator employing an electron emitter, an ion source bombarded by the electrons from the electron emitter, a plasma containment zone, and a target situated between the plasma containment zone and the electron emitter is disclosed. The target contains occluded deuterium, tritium, or a mixture thereof. 4 figs.

  20. Ion source development for ultratrace detection of uranium and thorium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Batchelder, J. C.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Chu, R.; Fan, S.; Romero-Romero, E.; Stracener, D. W.

    2015-10-01

    Efficient ion sources are needed for detecting ultratrace U and Th impurities in a copper matrix by mass spectrometry techniques such as accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Two positive ion sources, a hot-cavity surface ionization source and a resonant ionization laser ion source, are evaluated in terms of ionization efficiencies for generating ion beams of U and Th. The performances of the ion sources are characterized using uranyl nitrate and thorium nitrate sample materials with sample sizes between 20 and 40 ?g of U or Th. For the surface ion source, the dominant ion beams observed are UO+ or ThO+ and ionization efficiencies of 2-4% have been obtained with W and Re cavities. With the laser ion source, three-step resonant photoionization of U atoms has been studied and only atomic U ions are observed. An ionization efficiency of about 9% has been demonstrated. The performances of both ion sources are expected to be further improved.

  1. Characterization of an iodine-based ionic liquid ion source and studies on ion fragmentation

    E-print Network

    Fedkiw, Timothy Peter

    2010-01-01

    Electrosprays are a well studied source of charged droplets and ions. A specific subclass is the ionic liquid ion source (ILIS), which produce ion beams from the electrostatically stressed meniscus of ionic liquids. ILIS ...

  2. SNS Saddle Antenna H- Ion Source Project

    SciTech Connect

    Dudnikov, Vadim; Johnson, Rolland P.; Dudnikova, Galina; Stockli, Martin P; Welton, Robert F

    2009-01-01

    In this project we are developing an H- source, which will synthesize the most important developments in the field of negative ion sources to provide high current, high brightness, good lifetime, high reliability, and high power efficiency. We describe two planned modifications to the present SNS external antenna source in order to increase the plasma density near the output aperture: 1) replacing the present 2 MHz plasma-forming solenoid antenna with a 60 MHz saddle-type antenna and 2) replacing the permanent multicusp magnetic system with a weaker electro-magnet.

  3. rf-driven ion sources for industrial applications (invited) (abstract)

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, Ka-Ngo

    2008-02-15

    The Plasma and Ion Source Technology Group at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory have been developing rf-driven ion sources for the last two decades. These sources are being used to generate both positive and negative ion beams. Some of these sources are operating in particle accelerators such as the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge, while others are being employed in various industrial ion beam systems. There are four areas where the rf-driven ion sources are commonly used in industry. (1) In semiconductor manufacturing, rf-driven sources have found important applications in plasma etching, ion beam implantation, and ion beam lithography. (2) In material analysis and surface modification, miniature rf-ion sources can be found in focused ion beam systems. They can provide ion beams of essentially any element in the Periodic Table. The newly developed combined rf ion-electron beam unit improves greatly the performance of the secondary ion mass spectrometry tool. (3) For neutron production, rf ion source is a major component of compact, high flux D-D, D-T, or T-T neutron generators. These neutron sources are now being employed in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) as well as in neutron imaging and material interrogation. (4) Large area rf-driven ion source will be used in an industrial design neutral beam diagnostic system for probing fusion plasmas. Such sources can be easily scaled to provide large ion beam current for future fusion reactor applications.

  4. The SNS External Antenna H- Ion Source

    SciTech Connect

    Welton, Robert F; Stockli, Martin P; Murray Jr, S N; Crisp, Danny W; Carmichael, Justin R; Goulding, Richard Howell; Han, Baoxi; Pennisi, Terry R; Santana, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is an accelerator-based, pulsed neutron-scattering facility, currently in the process of ramping up neutron production. In order to insure that we will meet our operational commitments as well as provide for future facility upgrades with high reliability, we have developed an RF-driven, H- ion source based on a ceramic aluminum nitride (AlN) plasma chamber [1]. This source is expected to be utilized by the SNS for neutron production starting in 2009. This report details the design of the production source which features an AlN plasma chamber, 2-layer external antenna, cooled-multicusp magnet array, Cs2CrO4 cesium system and a Molybdenum plasma ignition gun. Performance of the production source both on the SNS accelerator and SNS test stand is reported. The source has also been designed to accommodate an elemental Cs system with an external reservoir which has demonstrated unanalyzed beam currents up to ~100mA (60Hz, 1ms) on the SNS ion source test stand.

  5. Experimental Evaluation of a Negative Ion Source for a Heavy Ion Fusion Negative Ion Driver

    SciTech Connect

    Grisham, L. R.; Hahto, S. K.; Hahto, S. T.; Kwan, J. W.; Leung, K. N.

    2004-06-16

    Negative halogen ions have recently been proposed as a possible alternative to positive ions for heavy ion fusion drivers because electron accumulation would not be a problem in the accelerator, and if desired, the beams could be photo-detached to neutrals. To test the ability to make suitable quality beams, an experiment was conducted at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory using chlorine in an RF-driven ion source. Without introducing any cesium (which is required to enhance negative ion production in hydrogen ion sources) a negative chlorine current density of 45 mA/cm{sup 2} was obtained under the same conditions that gave 57 45 mA/cm{sup 2} of positive chlorine, suggesting the presence of nearly as many negative ions as positive ions in the plasma near the extraction plane. The negative ion spectrum was 99.5% atomic chlorine ions, with only 0.5% molecular chlorine, and essentially no impurities. Although this experiment did not incorporate the type of electron suppression technology that i s used in negative hydrogen beam extraction, the ratio of co-extracted electrons to Cl{sup -} was as low as 7 to 1, many times lower than the ratio of their mobilities, suggesting that few electrons are present in the near-extractor plasma. This, along with the near-equivalence of the positive and negative ion currents, suggests that the plasma in this region was mostly an ion-ion plasma. The negative chlorine current density was relatively insensitive to pressure, and scaled linearly with RF power. If this linear scaling continues to hold at higher RF powers, it should permit current densities of 100 45 mA/cm{sup 2}, sufficient for present heavy ion fusion injector concepts. The effective ion temperatures of the positive and negative ions appeared to be similar and relatively low for a plasma source.

  6. Compact microwave ion source for industrial applications

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Yong-Sub; Kim, Dae-Il; Kim, Han-Sung; Seol, Kyung-Tae; Kwon, Hyeok-Jung; Hong, In-Seok

    2012-02-15

    A 2.45 GHz microwave ion source for ion implanters has many good properties for industrial application, such as easy maintenance and long lifetime, and it should be compact for budget and space. But, it has a dc current supply for the solenoid and a rf generator for plasma generation. Usually, they are located on high voltage platform because they are electrically connected with beam extraction power supply. Using permanent magnet solenoid and multi-layer dc break, high voltage deck and high voltage isolation transformer can be eliminated, and the dose rate on targets can be controlled by pulse duty control with semiconductor high voltage switch. Because the beam optics does not change, beam transfer components, such as focusing elements and beam shutter, can be eliminated. It has shown the good performances in budget and space for industrial applications of ion beams.

  7. Microscopy with a Deterministic Single Ion Source

    E-print Network

    Georg Jacob; Karin Groot-Berning; Sebastian Wolf; Stefan Ulm; Luc Couturier; Samuel T. Dawkins; Ulrich G. Poschinger; Ferdinand Schmidt-Kaler; Kilian Singer

    2015-12-01

    We realize a single particle microscope by using deterministically extracted laser cooled $^{40}$Ca$^+$ ions from a Paul trap as probe particles for transmission imaging. We demonstrate focusing of the ions with a resolution of 5.8$\\;\\pm\\;$1.0$\\,$nm and a minimum two-sample deviation of the beam position of 1.5$\\,$nm in the focal plane. The deterministic source, even when used in combination with an imperfect detector, gives rise to much higher signal to noise ratios as compared with conventional Poissonian sources. Gating of the detector signal by the extraction event suppresses dark counts by 6 orders of magnitude. We implement a Bayes experimental design approach to microscopy in order to maximize the gain in spatial information. We demonstrate this method by determining the position of a 1$\\,\\mu$m circular hole structure to an accuracy of 2.7$\\,$nm using only 579 probe particles.

  8. Microscopy with a Deterministic Single Ion Source

    E-print Network

    Jacob, Georg; Wolf, Sebastian; Ulm, Stefan; Couturier, Luc; Dawkins, Samuel T; Poschinger, Ulrich G; Schmidt-Kaler, Ferdinand; Singer, Kilian

    2015-01-01

    We realize a single particle microscope by using deterministically extracted laser cooled $^{40}$Ca$^+$ ions from a Paul trap as probe particles for transmission imaging. We demonstrate focusing of the ions with a resolution of 5.8$\\;\\pm\\;$1.0$\\,$nm and a minimum two-sample deviation of the beam position of 1.5$\\,$nm in the focal plane. The deterministic source, even when used in combination with an imperfect detector, gives rise to much higher signal to noise ratios as compared with conventional Poissonian sources. Gating of the detector signal by the extraction event suppresses dark counts by 6 orders of magnitude. We implement a Bayes experimental design approach to microscopy in order to maximize the gain in spatial information. We demonstrate this method by determining the position of a 1$\\,\\mu$m circular hole structure to an accuracy of 2.7$\\,$nm using only 579 probe particles.

  9. Improved Ambient Pressure Pyroelectric Ion Source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beegle, Luther W.; Kim, Hugh I.; Kanik, Isik; Ryu, Ernest K.; Beckett, Brett

    2011-01-01

    The detection of volatile vapors of unknown species in a complex field environment is required in many different applications. Mass spectroscopic techniques require subsystems including an ionization unit and sample transport mechanism. All of these subsystems must have low mass, small volume, low power, and be rugged. A volatile molecular detector, an ambient pressure pyroelectric ion source (APPIS) that met these requirements, was recently reported by Caltech researchers to be used in in situ environments.

  10. HIGH-INTENSITY, HIGH CHARGE-STATE HEAVY ION SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    ALESSI,J.G.

    2004-08-16

    There are many accelerator applications for high intensity heavy ion sources, with recent needs including dc beams for RIA, and pulsed beams for injection into synchrotrons such as RHIC and LHC. The present status of sources producing high currents of high charge state heavy ions is reviewed. These sources include ECR, EBIS, and Laser ion sources. Benefits and limitations for these type sources are described. Possible future improvements in these sources are also mentioned.

  11. On the onset voltage of liquid metal ion sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mair, G. L. R.

    1989-09-01

    Various formulae for the onset voltage corresponding to liquid metal ion sources (LMIS) of different design are compared to a wide range of experimental data. Provided the correct formula is used in each particular case, the agreement between theory and experiment is satisfactory. Predicting the source starting voltage correctly is of use in ion source and ion column design.

  12. Development of a high current H(-) ion source for cyclotrons.

    PubMed

    Etoh, H; Aoki, Y; Mitsubori, H; Arakawa, Y; Mitsumoto, T; Yajima, S; Sakuraba, J; Kato, T; Okumura, Y

    2014-02-01

    A multi-cusp DC H(-) ion source has been designed and fabricated for medical applications of cyclotrons. Optimization of the ion source is in progress, such as the improvement of the filament configuration, magnetic filter strength, extraction electrode's shape, configuration of electron suppression magnets, and plasma electrode material. A small quantity of Cs has been introduced into the ion source to enhance the negative ion beam current. The ion source produced 16 mA of DC H(-) ion beam with the Cs-seeded operation at a low arc discharge power of 2.8 kW. PMID:24593547

  13. On the stability of complex ions in ionic liquid Ion sources

    E-print Network

    Miller, Catherine Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Ionic liquids are molten salts at room temperature that consist of positive and negative ions. These liquids can be used in electrosprays to produce ion beams. Ionic liquid ion source (ILIS) beams typically consist of ...

  14. 1+-n+ ECR ION SOURCE DEVELOPMENT TEST STAND

    SciTech Connect

    Donald P. May

    2006-04-07

    A test stand for the investigation of 1+-n+ charge boosting using an ECR ion sources is currently being assembled at the Texas A&M Cyclotron Institute. The ultimate goal is to relate the charge-boosting of ions of stable species to possible charge-boosting of ions of radioactive species extracted from the diverse, low-charge-state ion sources developed for radioactive ion beams.

  15. Negative ion production in multicusp sources (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belchenko, Y. I.; Oka, Y.; Kaneko, O.; Takeiri, Y.; Tsumori, K.

    2002-02-01

    Cesium seed improves multicusp negative ion (NI) Source performance. Experiments display the surface origin of NI production in the multicusp source (MS): a strong NI yield dependence on plasma grid (PG) temperature and work function, a low NI yield sensitivity to Cs density in plasma, etc. On other hand, cesium seed changes the MS plasma potential, electron density, and temperature, decreases the coextracted electron current, and produces a NI density increase in the source volume. Cesium ions can contribute to the slow positive charge in the plasma presheath and extraction region, and improve the NI extraction. The study of NI production was done by the directed deposition of a well-defined amount of cesium, by cesium recovery in the MS. The obtained data evidences the surface origin of H- yield enhancement 3-10 mg cesium deposition was enough for producing a NI yield increase due to hydrogen conversion on the cesiated PG surface. The long-term H- yield enhancement with larger cesium deposition and no change of NI yield with the PG temperature change displays the maintenance of the thick Cs+W coverage, which governs the enhanced surface H- production in the MS. The experimental data and the MS surface-plasma mechanism features will be presented and discussed.

  16. Ion source with improved primary arc collimation

    DOEpatents

    Dagenhart, W.K.

    1983-12-16

    An improved negative ion source is provided in which a self-biasing, molybdenum collimator is used to define the primary electron stream arc discharge from a filament operated at a negative potential. The collimator is located between the anode and the filament. It is electrically connected to the anode by means of an appropriate size resistor such that the collimator is biased at essentially the filament voltage during operation. Initially, the full arc voltage appears across the filament to collimator until the arc discharge strikes. Then the collimator biases itself to essentially filament potential due to current flow through the resistor thus defining the primary electron stream without intercepting any appreciable arc power. The collimator aperture is slightly smaller than the anode aperture to shield the anode from the arc power which, in the past, has caused overheating and erosion of the anode collimator during extended time pulsed-beam operation of the source. With the self-biasing collimator of this invention, the ion source may be operated from short pulse periods to steady-state without destroying the anode.

  17. Ion source with improved primary arc collimation

    DOEpatents

    Dagenhart, William K. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1985-01-01

    An improved negative ion source is provided in which a self-biasing, molybdenum collimator is used to define the primary electron stream arc discharge from a filament operated at a negative potential. The collimator is located between the anode and the filament. It is electrically connected to the anode by means of an appropriate size resistor such that the collimator is biased at essentially the filament voltage during operation. Initially, the full arc voltage appears across the filament to collimator until the arc discharge strikes. Then the collimator biases itself to essentially filament potential due to current flow through the resistor thus defining the primary electron stream without intercepting any appreciable arc power. The collimator aperture is slightly smaller than the anode aperture to shield the anode from the arc power, thereby preventing the exposure of the anode to the full arc power which, in the past, has caused overheating and erosion of the anode collimator during extended time pulsed-beam operation of the source. With the self-biasing collimator of this invention, the ion source may be operated from short pulse periods to steady-state without destroying the anode.

  18. Xenon ion sources for space applications (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beattie, J. R.; Matossian, J. N.

    1990-01-01

    In this article, we describe the technology of xenon ion thrusters under development for space-propulsion and plasma-contactor applications. Emphasis is placed on the 1.4-kW Xenon Ion Propulsion Subsystem (XIPS) designed for satellite stationkeeping. The 25-cm-diam XIPS thruster produces 63.5 mN of thrust at a specific impulse of 2800 s, requiring only about one-tenth the propellant mass of conventional chemical-propulsion systems. Using a ring-cusp magnetic field to confine the discharge plasma, the XIPS thruster converts input power into thrust-beam power with an efficiency of over 82%. We also describe a XIPS ion source under development for more demanding propulsion applications such as orbit raising. A 30-cm-diam laboratory-model XIPS thruster scaled from the smaller unit produces over 340 mN of thrust with an input power in excess of 10 kW and a specific impulse of about 4900 s. Under these operating conditions, the XIPS thruster converts input power into thrust-beam power with an efficiency of 91%. With its ion-extraction electrodes and ion-beam neutralizer removed, the XIPS discharge chamber has been shown to be a highly efficient xenon plasma contactor for a variety of applications, ranging from space-science investigations to electrodynamic tethers. We will describe a 1991 flight application in which our 25-cm XIPS plasma contactor will be used to stabilize the electrical potential of the Shuttle Orbiter during firings of a 1.5-A electron beam from its payload bay.

  19. A hollow cathode ion source for production of primary ions for the BNL electron beam ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Alessi, James Beebe, Edward; Carlson, Charles; McCafferty, Daniel; Pikin, Alexander; Ritter, John

    2014-02-15

    A hollow cathode ion source, based on one developed at Saclay, has been modified significantly and used for several years to produce all primary 1+ ions injected into the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) at Brookhaven. Currents of tens to hundreds of microamperes have been produced for 1+ ions of He, C, O, Ne, Si, Ar, Ti, Fe, Cu, Kr, Xe, Ta, Au, and U. The source is very simple, relying on a glow discharge using a noble gas, between anode and a solid cathode containing the desired species. Ions of both the working gas and ionized sputtered cathode material are extracted, and then the desired species is selected using an ExB filter before being transported into the EBIS trap for charge breeding. The source operates pulsed with long life and excellent stability for most species. Reliable ignition of the discharge at low gas pressure is facilitated by the use of capacitive coupling from a simple toy plasma globe. The source design, and operating experience for the various species, is presented.

  20. The emittance and brightness characteristics of negative ion sources suitable for MeV ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Alton, G.D.

    1987-01-01

    This paper provides the description and beam properties of ion sources suitable for use with ion implantation devices. Particular emphasis is placed on the emittance and brightness properties of state-of-the-art, high intensity, negative ion sources based on the cesium ion sputter principle. (WRF)

  1. Ion sources at the KVI (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drentje, A. G.; Kremers, H. R.; Mulder, J.; Sijbring, J.

    1998-02-01

    At the KVI there are presently four ion sources available: POLIS, for polarized protons and deuterons, to be injected in the new superconducting cyclotron AGOR ECRIS3, to produce highly charged ions for AGOR, ECRIS4, to produce highly charged ions for the Atomic and Surface Physics research facility (essentially a copy of ECRIS3), and CUSP, for high intensity AGOR beams of protons, deuteron, or alpha particles. We will report here on the performance and status of POLIS and ECRIS3. POLIS is an atomic beam type polarized ion source, according to the well known scheme with a cryo cooled dissociator, watercooled hexapole magnets, "strong field" and "weak field" radio frequency (rf) transitions for hydrogen and deuterium, and a 2.45 GHz electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) type ionizer. The source was constructed in a joint effort with the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Cyclotron department. The ionizer section was modified and can be operated up to 40 kV. Following successful tests and deuteron polarization measurements at low energies, POLIS was connected to AGOR in November 1996. Most parts are now adapted to the AGOR-KVI control system. The first experiments with proton beams (190 MeV) from AGOR were done with polarized beams. As a consequence, the first measurement of proton polarization could be done only during these experiments, and all efforts to improve the polarization had to take place also during experiments. Efforts to get the weak field transition in operation have given a present best value of polarization of 70%±0.5% of the theoretical value. This value is deduced from an assumed analyzing power of the applied reaction. The strong field unit is not perfect; the best value which has been observed is 56%±0.5%. However, the difference between the given polarizations could be the result of a systematic error in the measurement of polarization "zero." The output of POLIS is in the order of 50 ?Å. The running time is usually 1-2 weeks (with nozzle at 53 K) until the dissociator and nozzle become contaminated; with a nitrogen layer (nozzle at 35 K) the polarization degree tends to be higher, but the running time is reduced to 3-5 days. POLIS has been in operation during more than 70% of the 33 weeks scheduled for experiments with AGOR since November 1996. Present activities concentrate on the improvement of the strong field unit, increasing the ionizer efficiency and the running time. ECRIS3 is a room temperature ECR ion source, with rf and gas feed according to the CAPRICE scheme. Its performance has been reported earlier (RIKEN 95). Gas mixing is important for the production of highly charged ions. Like in other sources, the anomaly for oxygen isotopes has also been measured. One new observation concerning gas mixing, in particular for the production of argon beams, is the following: For medium charge states, e.g., Ar8+, there is a slight preference for helium as a mixing gas, as compared to pure argon. In fact, oxygen is not good here. On the contrary, for high charge states like Ar14+, oxygen is a very good mixing gas, helium has only a small effect, but the best results have been obtained with isotopic 18O as a mixing gas. Recently, the same has been observed with CAPRICE 10 GHz at CEN-Grenoble, and to some extent with ECRIS4.

  2. Numerical model of Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source

    E-print Network

    Mironov, V; Bondarchenko, A; Efremov, A; Loginov, V

    2015-01-01

    Important features of Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source (ECRIS) operation are accurately reproduced with a numerical code. The code uses the particle-in-cell technique to model a dynamics of ions in ECRIS plasma. It is shown that gas dynamical ion confinement mechanism is sufficient to provide the ion production rates in ECRIS close to the experimentally observed values. Extracted ion currents are calculated and compared to the experiment for few sources. Changes in the extracted ion currents are obtained with varying the gas flow into the source chamber and the microwave power. Empirical scaling laws for ECRIS design are studied and the underlying physical effects are discussed.

  3. Study of Compact Penning Ion Source for Material Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Das, B. K.; Das, R.; Shyam, A.

    2011-07-15

    Development of ion sources of various sizes has been carried out since a long back. Gaseous ions of different nature are being used in different field of research as well as industrial applications like surface modification, doping, surface etching, sputtering, production of nano size particles and focused ion beam etc. Out of various geometry and operation regime, due to compactness, ruggedness and long life, penning type ion sources are widely used in different field of research and applications. One such type of ion source was developed in our laboratory. Though this source was meant for neutron generation, using deuterium ions, the effectiveness for other purposes was investigated. The discharge characteristic was studied for different gases like, Deuterium, Helium, Nitrogen, Oxygen and Argon. The source being a self extracted type; the extracted ion current from the extraction aperture was measured using one faraday cup. In this paper we have discussed, the discharge characteristic and the extraction ion current for different type of gases.

  4. Development of a lithium liquid metal ion source for MeV ion beam analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Read, P.M.; Maskrey, J.T.; Alton, G.D.

    1988-01-01

    Lithium liquid metal ion sources are an attractive complement to the existing gaseous ion sources that are extensively used for ion beam analysis. This is due in part to the high brightness of the liquid metal ion source and in part to the availability of a lithium ion beam. High brightness is of particular importance to MeV ion microprobes which are now approaching current density limitations on targets determined by the ion source. The availability of a lithium beam provides increased capabilities for hydrogen profiling and high resolution Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. This paper describes the design and performance of a lithium liquid metal ion source suitable for use on a 5MV Laddertron accelerator. Operational experience with the source and some of its uses for ion beam analysis are discussed. 8 refs., 2 figs.

  5. Proposed laser ion source for the Columbia University microbeam

    E-print Network

    and a double focusing element with point-to-point focusing in both the horizontal and vertical planes. We expect that the laser ion source will enable us to use ions of sufficient range from hydrogen to iron source will enable us to obtain ions from hydrogen to iron with an approximate LET range of 10­4500 ke

  6. Multilayered TiAlN films on Ti6Al4V alloy for biomedical applications by closed field unbalanced magnetron sputter ion plating process.

    PubMed

    Yi, Peiyun; Peng, Linfa; Huang, Jiaqiang

    2016-02-01

    Ti6Al4V alloy has been widely used as a suitable material for surgical implants such as artificial hip joints. In this study, a series of multilayered gradient TiAlN coatings were deposited on Ti6Al4V substrate using closed field unbalanced magnetron sputter ion plating (CFUBMSIP) process. Taguchi design of experiment approach was used to reveal the influence of depositing parameters to the film composition and performance of TiAlN coatings. The phase structure and chemical composition of the TiAlN films were characterized by X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Mechanical properties, including hardness, Young's modulus, friction coefficient, wear rate and adhesion strength were systematically evaluated. Potentiodynamic tests were conducted to evaluate the corrosion resistance of the coated samples in Ringer's solution at 37°C to simulate human body environment. Comprehensive performance of TiAlN films was evaluated by assigning different weight according to the application environment. S8, deposited by Ti target current of 8A, Al target current of 6A, bias voltage of -60V and nitrogen content with OEM (optical emission monitor) value of 45%, was found to achieve best performance in orthogonal experiments. Depositing parameters of S8 might be practically applied for commercialization of surgical implants. PMID:26652421

  7. Properties of NiAl and Ni-Al-N thin films deposited by closed field unbalanced magnetron sputter ion plating using elemental Ni and Al targets.

    PubMed

    Baig, M N; Ahmed, W; Khalid, F A; Said, R M; McLaughlin, J

    2009-07-01

    Approximately 1 microm thick NiAl and Ni-Al-N thin films have been deposited from individual elemental Ni (99.5% pure) and Al (99.5% pure) targets onto glass and stainless steel 316 substrates using closed field unbalanced magnetron sputter ion platting (CFUBMSIP) process. The films have been characterized using stylus profilometry, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDAX), X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The X-ray diffraction patterns of both types of thin films produced confirmed the formation of beta-NiAl phase. The EDAX results revealed that all of the NiAl thin films produced exhibited the near equiatomic NiAl phase with the best results given by the one deposited using 300 Watts DC power for Ni and 400 Watts DC power for Al targets respectively. However, the Ni-Al-N thin films showed a Ni-rich NiAl phase. AFM results of both types of films produced carried out on glass samples exhibited that the coatings have quite a smooth surface with surface roughness in nanometres range. PMID:19916405

  8. Applications of the MEVVA high current metal ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, I.G.

    1986-08-01

    A new kind of ion source has been developed in which a metal vapor vacuum arc (MEVVA) is used to produce the plasma from which the ion beam is extracted. The novel and exciting feature of this source is the very high metal ion beam current attainable. A total ion beam current of over 1 Ampere has been extracted from the embodiment of the concept that we're presently using, and this is not a limit of the method. The source was developed to upgrade the uranium ion beam intensity of the Bevatron, LBL's heavy ion synchrotron, for basic nuclear physics research. Other important applications include its use within the Heavy Ion Fusion research effort; for ion implantation; and for other basic research uses. In this paper the source is described briefly, its performance outlined, and its poential and limitations for a variety of applications is discussed.

  9. Side extraction duoPIGatron-type ion source.

    SciTech Connect

    GUSHENETS,V.I.; OKS, E.M.; HERSCHOVITCH, A.; JOHNSON, B.M.

    2007-08-26

    We have designed and constructed a compact duoPIGatron-type ion source, for possible use in ion implanters, in such the ion can be extracted from side aperture in contrast to conventional duoPIGatron sources with axial ion extraction. The size of the side extraction aperture is 1x40 mm. The ion source was developed to study physical and technological aspects relevant to an industrial ion source. The side extraction duoPIGatron has stable arc, uniformly bright illumination, and dense plasma. The present work describes some of preliminary operating parameters of the ion source using Argon, BF3. The total unanalyzed beam currents are 23 mA using Ar at an arc current 5 A and 13 mA using BF3 gas at an arc current 6 A.

  10. Design and Construction of a Microwave Plasma Ion Source

    E-print Network

    Ç?nar, Kamil

    2011-01-01

    This thesis is about the designing and constructing a microwave ion source. The ions are generated in a thermal and dense hydrogen plasma by microwave induction. The plasma is generated by using a microwave source with a frequency of 2.45 GHz and a power of 700 W. The generated microwave is pulsing with a frequency of 50 Hz. The designed and constructed microwave system generates hydrogen plasma in a pyrex plasma chamber. Moreover, an ion extraction unit is designed and constructed in order to extract the ions from the generated hydrogen plasma. The ion beam extraction is achieved and ion currents are measured. The plasma parameters are determined by a double Langmuir probe and the ion current is measured by a Faraday cup. The designed ion extraction unit is simulated by using the dimensions of the designed and constructed ion extraction unit in order to trace out the trajectories of the extracted ions.

  11. An ion source module for the Beijing Radioactive Ion-beam Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, B. Huang, Q.; Tang, B.; Ma, R.; Chen, L.; Ma, Y.

    2014-02-15

    An ion source module is developed for Beijing Radioactive Ion-beam Facility. The ion source module is designed to meet the requirements of remote handling. The connection and disconnection of the electricity, cooling and vacuum between the module and peripheral units can be executed without on-site manual work. The primary test of the target ion source has been carried out and a Li{sup +} beam has been extracted. Details of the ion source module and its primary test results are described.

  12. Ion source for tests of ion behavior in the Karlsruhe tritium neutrino experiment beam line

    SciTech Connect

    Lukic, S.; Bornschein, B.; Drexlin, G.; Glueck, F.; Kazachenko, O.; Zoll, M. C. R.; Schoeppner, M.; Weinheimer, Ch.

    2011-01-15

    An electron-impact ion source based on photoelectron emission was developed for ionization of gases at pressures below 10{sup -4} mbar in an axial magnetic field in the order of 5 T. The ion source applies only dc fields, which makes it suitable for use in the presence of equipment sensitive to radio-frequency (RF) fields. The ion source was successfully tested under varying conditions regarding pressure, magnetic field, and magnetic-field gradient, and the results were studied with the help of simulations. The processes in the ion source are well understood, and possibilities for further optimization of generated ion currents are clarified.

  13. Novel Ion Traps for Enhanced Fluorescence Collections and Single Photon Sources Based on Barium Ions

    E-print Network

    Blinov, Boris

    Novel Ion Traps for Enhanced Fluorescence Collections and Single Photon Sources Based on Barium Ions Gang Shu A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Washington Abstract Novel Ion Traps for Enhanced Fluorescence Collections and Single Photon Sources Based

  14. A double-plasma source of continuous bipolar ion-ion beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudin, S. V.; Rafalskyi, D. V.

    2013-01-01

    A double-plasma source capable of the generation of a continuous bipolar ion-ion beam is described. The quasi-neutral ion-ion flow to an extraction electrode is formed in the system containing primary inductively coupled plasma separated from a secondary plasma by an electrostatic grid-type filter. The total current of each ion species to the 250 mm diameter extraction electrode is about 80 mA; the electron current does not exceed 30% of the ion current. Method of positive/negative ion current ratio control is proposed, allowing the ion currents ratio variation in wide range.

  15. Negative ion source development for fusion application (invited).

    PubMed

    Takeiri, Yasuhiko

    2010-02-01

    Giant negative ion sources, producing high-current of several tens amps with high energy of several hundreds keV to 1 MeV, are required for a neutral beam injector (NBI) in a fusion device. The giant negative ion sources are cesium-seeded plasma sources, in which the negative ions are produced on the cesium-covered surface. Their characteristic features are discussed with the views of large-volume plasma production, large-area beam acceleration, and high-voltage dc holding. The international thermonuclear experimental reactor NBI employs a 1 MeV-40 A of deuterium negative ion source, and intensive development programs for the rf-driven source plasma production and the multistage electrostatic acceleration are in progress, including the long pulse operation for 3600 s. Present status of the development, as well as the achievements of the giant negative ion sources in the working injectors, is also summarized. PMID:20192420

  16. High-efficiency target-ion sources for RIB generation

    SciTech Connect

    Alton, G.D.

    1993-12-31

    A brief review is given of high-efficiency ion sources which have been developed or are under development at ISOL facilities which show particular promise for use at existing, future, or radioactive ion beam (RIB) facilities now under construction. Emphasis will be placed on those sources which have demonstrated high ionization efficiency, species versatility, and operational reliability and which have been carefully designed for safe handling in the high level radioactivity radiation fields incumbent at such facilities. Brief discussions will also be made of the fundamental processes which affect the realizable beam intensities in target-ion sources. Among the sources which will be reviewed will be selected examples of state-of-the-art electron-beam plasma-type ion sources, thermal-ionization, surface-ionization, ECR, and selectively chosen ion source concepts which show promise for radioactive ion beam generation. A few advanced, chemically selective target-ion sources will be described, such as sources based on the use of laser-resonance ionization, which, in principle, offer a more satisfactory solution to isobaric contamination problems than conventional electromagnetic techniques. Particular attention will be given to the sources which have been selected for initial or future use at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility now under construction at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  17. Diagnostics and modeling of plasma processes in ion sources

    E-print Network

    Vertes, Akos

    ). For ion implantation, ion milling, and etching purposes, hollow cathode (4), plasma cathode (5-16), surface plasma (17), hollow cathode (18), microwave (19), alkaline anode (20-22), radial field dischargeDiagnostics and modeling of plasma processes in ion sources Akos Vertes*, Renaat Gijbels, and Fred

  18. Experimental performance of a microwave cavity plasma disk ion source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Root, J.; Asmussen, J.

    1985-01-01

    The detailed description and performance characteristics of a microwave ion source are presented. This ion source utilizes an internally tuned, single-mode (or selective multimode) cylindrical cavity applicator to focus and match microwave energy into a disk-shaped discharge zone. The combination of mode focus control and variable, internal cavity matching allows the efficient operation and beam extraction over a wide range of pressures, powers and gaseous inputs. Experimental measurements of ion beam current versus accelerating voltage and input microwave power in xenon and oxygen gas are presented. Ion source specific energy and mass utilization versus experimental variables are also determined. The experimental performance demonstrates the ability of this ion source to extract an ion beam with a well matched, stable, and continuous operation over a wide range of input gases, low pressures, and over input gas flow rates in excess of 100 to a few sccm. Double Langmuir probe measurements in xenon gas indicate high degrees of ionization, and electron and ion concentrations in excess of 100 critical densities in the microwave discharge zone. This ion source has many potential uses such as spacecraft electric propulsion, material ion beam processing, and neutral beam ion sources.

  19. Characterization of an 8-cm Diameter Ion Source System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Zhongmin; Hawk, C. W.; Hawk, Clark W.; Buttweiler, Mark S.; Williams, John D.; Buchholtz, Brett

    2005-01-01

    Results of tests characterizing an 8-cm diameter ion source are presented. The tests were conducted in three separate vacuum test facilities at the University of Alabama-Huntsville, Colorado State University, and L3 Communications' ETI division. Standard ion optics tests describing electron backstreaming and total-voltage-limited impingement current behavior as a function of beam current were used as guidelines for selecting operating conditions where more detailed ion beam measurements were performed. The ion beam was profiled using an in-vacuum actuating probe system to determine the total ion current density and the ion charge state distribution variation across the face of the ion source. Both current density and ExB probes were utilized. The ion current density data were used to obtain integrated beam current, beam flatness parameters, and general beam profile shapes. The ExB probe data were used to determine the ratio of doubly to singly charged ion current. The ion beam profile tests were performed at over six different operating points that spanned the expected operating range of the DAWN thrusters being developed at L3. The characterization tests described herein reveal that the 8-cm ion source is suitable for use in (a) validating plasma diagnostic equipment, (b) xenon ion sputtering and etching studies of spacecraft materials, (c) plasma physics research, and (d) the study of ion thruster optics at varying conditions.

  20. New tandem type ion source based on electron cyclotron resonance for universal source of synthesized ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, Yushi Kurisu, Yosuke; Nozaki, Dai; Yano, Keisuke; Kimura, Daiju; Kumakura, Sho; Imai, Youta; Nishiokada, Takuya; Sato, Fuminobu; Iida, Toshiyuki

    2014-02-15

    A new tandem type source has been constructed on the basis of electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma for producing synthesized ion beams. We investigate feasibility and hope to realize the device which has wide range operation window in a single device to produce many kinds of ion beams based on ECR ion source (ECRIS). It is considered that ECR plasmas are necessary to be available to individual operations with different plasma parameters. Both of analysis of ion beams and investigation of plasma parameters are conducted on produced plasmas. We describe construction of the new tandem type ion source based on ECRIS with wide operation window for aiming at producing synthesized ion beams as this new source can be a universal source.

  1. Low energy spread ion source with a coaxial magnetic filter

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo (Hercules, CA); Lee, Yung-Hee Yvette (Berkeley, CA)

    2000-01-01

    Multicusp ion sources are capable of producing ions with low axial energy spread which are necessary in applications such as ion projection lithography (IPL) and radioactive ion beam production. The addition of a radially extending magnetic filter consisting of a pair of permanent magnets to the multicusp source reduces the energy spread considerably due to the improvement in the uniformity of the axial plasma potential distribution in the discharge region. A coaxial multicusp ion source designed to further reduce the energy spread utilizes a cylindrical magnetic filter to achieve a more uniform axial plasma potential distribution. The coaxial magnetic filter divides the source chamber into an outer annular discharge region in which the plasma is produced and a coaxial inner ion extraction region into which the ions radially diffuse but from which ionizing electrons are excluded. The energy spread in the coaxial source has been measured to be 0.6 eV. Unlike other ion sources, the coaxial source has the capability of adjusting the radial plasma potential distribution and therefore the transverse ion temperature (or beam emittance).

  2. Mo layer thickness requirement on the ion source back plate for the HNB and DNB ion sources in ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, M. J.; De Esch, H. P. L.; Hemsworth, R.; Boilson, D.

    2015-04-01

    All the inner surfaces of the ion sources and the upstream surface of the plasma grid of the ITER neutral beam ion sources are proposed to be coated with molybdenum. This is done to avoid sputtering of the base material (Cu or CuCrZr) by the ions in the source plasma (D+, D2+, D3+ or H+, H2+, H3+). The sputtering of Mo by the ions in the source plasma is low compared to that from Cu, and the threshold energy for sputtering ˜80 eV) is high compared to the energy of the ions in the source. However the D2+, H2+ and D+, H+ ions backstreaming from the accelerators will have energies that substantially exceed that threshold and it is important that the Mo layer is not eroded such that the base material is exposed to the source plasma. In the case of the HNB, the backstreaming ion power is calculated to be in the order of ˜1 MW, and the average energy of the backstreaming ions is calculated to be ˜300 keV. The ion sources in the HNB beam lines, 40 A 1 MeV D and 46 A 870 keV H beams, are supposed to operate for a period of 2 x 107 s. For the DNB, 60 A 100 keV H beams, the corresponding number is 1.4 × 106 s considering a beam duty cycle of 3s ON/20s OFF with 5 Hz modulation. The Mo layer on the ion source back plate should be thick enough to survive this operational time. Thickness estimation has been carried out taking into account the sputtering yields (atoms/ion), the energy spectrum of the backstreaming ions and the estimated profiles on the ion source back plate.

  3. Application of a compact microwave ion source to radiocarbon analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, R. J.; Reden, K. F. von; Hayes, J. M.; Wills, J. S. C.

    1999-04-26

    The compact, high current, 2.45 GHz microwave-driven plasma ion source which was built for the Chalk River TASCC facility is presently being adapted for testing as a gas ion source for accelerator mass spectrometry, at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution accelerator mass spectrometer. The special requirements for producing carbon-ion beams from micromole quantities of carbon dioxide produced from environmental samples will be discussed. These samples will be introduced into the ion source by means of argon carrier gas and a silicon capillary injection system. Following the extraction of positive ions from the source, negative ion formation in a charge exchange vapor will effectively remove the argon from the carbon beam. Simultaneous injection of the three carbon isotopes into the accelerator is planned.

  4. Laser desorption lamp ionization source for ion trap mass spectrometry

    E-print Network

    Zare, Richard N.

    Laser desorption lamp ionization source for ion trap mass spectrometry Qinghao Wu and Richard N. Zare* A two-step laser desorption lamp ionization source coupled to an ion trap mass spectrometer (LDLI-ITMS) has been constructed and characterized. The pulsed infrared (IR) output of an Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm

  5. FERROELECTRIC PLASMA SOURCE FOR HEAVY ION BEAM CHARGE NEUTRALIZATION *

    E-print Network

    Gilson, Erik

    FERROELECTRIC PLASMA SOURCE FOR HEAVY ION BEAM CHARGE NEUTRALIZATION * Philip C. Efthimion, Erik P electrons for charge neutralizing heavy ion beams to allow them to focus to a small spot size. Calculations and operate at low neutral pressures. The source utilizes the ferroelectric ceramic BaTiO3 to form metal

  6. A design of large current ion gun employing liquid metal ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Yuzo; Wang, Hui; Endo, Katsuyoshi; Yamauchi, Kazuto; Ide, Takashi

    1990-07-01

    A lens system for a large current liquid metal ion source has been designed by a numerical computer simulation method. As a computed result, the lens system can focus an ion beam having an emission angle of 60° to a beam having a radius of 1.8 mm at 1 m from the ion source. Following the simulated result, the lens system was constructed and tested. When the total ion current extracted from the ion source was less than 10 ?A, more than 95% of the total ion was focused to a beam with a radius of about 2 mm at 1 m from the ion source, which agreed well with the computer simulation result. When the total ion current became more than 10 ?A, the minimum radius of the focused ion beam at 1 m from the ion source gradually increased with it. However, even if the total ion current was more than 50 ?A, almost 80% of it could be obtained on a 1×1 cm2 target at 1 m from the ion source.

  7. Physics research and technology developments of electron string ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Donets, D. E.; Donets, E. E.; Ramzdorf, A. Yu.; Salnikov, V. V.; Shutov, V. B.; Donets, E. D.; Honma, T.; Noda, K.

    2012-02-15

    The most recent experimental information on electron string phenomenon, such as two step transition to electron string state, stability of e-strings in condition of electron energy recuperation, are described. The new technology developments of electron string ion sources (ESIS) include pulse injection of gaseous species in e-string and its efficient conversion to ion beams, slow ion extraction, ion-ion cooling of heavy ions with CH{sub 4} coolant, and a progress in the construction of the new Joint Institute for Nuclear Research ESIS with 6 T solenoid are briefly considered.

  8. Physics research and technology developments of electron string ion sources.

    PubMed

    Donets, D E; Donets, E E; Honma, T; Noda, K; Ramzdorf, A Yu; Salnikov, V V; Shutov, V B; Donets, E D

    2012-02-01

    The most recent experimental information on electron string phenomenon, such as two step transition to electron string state, stability of e-strings in condition of electron energy recuperation, are described. The new technology developments of electron string ion sources (ESIS) include pulse injection of gaseous species in e-string and its efficient conversion to ion beams, slow ion extraction, ion-ion cooling of heavy ions with CH(4) coolant, and a progress in the construction of the new Joint Institute for Nuclear Research ESIS with 6 T solenoid are briefly considered. PMID:22380208

  9. Small radio frequency driven multicusp ion source for positive hydrogen ion beam production

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, L.T.; Herz, P.R.; Leung, K.N.; Pickard, D.S. )

    1994-04-01

    A compact, 2.5 cm diam rf-driven multicusp ion source has been developed and tested for H[sup +] ion production in pulse mode operation. The source is optimized for atomic hydrogen ion species and extractable current. It is found that hydrogen ion beam current densities in excess of 650 mA/cm[sup 2] can be achieved with H[sup +] species above 80%. The geometry and position of the porcelain-coated copper antenna were found to be of great significance in relation to the efficiency of the ion source.

  10. Negative hydrogen ion beam extraction from an AC heated cathode driven Bernas-type ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Okano, Y.; Miyamoto, N.; Kasuya, T.; Wada, M.

    2015-04-08

    A plasma grid structure was installed to a Bernas-type ion source used for ion implantation equipment. A negative hydrogen (H{sup ?}) ion beam was extracted by an AC driven ion source by adjusting the bias to the plasma grid. The extracted electron current was reduced by positively biasing the plasma grid, while an optimum plasma grid bias voltage for negative ion beam extraction was found to be positive 3?V with respect to the arc chamber. Source operations with AC cathode heating show extraction characteristics almost identical to that with DC cathode heating, except a minute increase in H{sup ?} current at higher frequency of cathode heating current.

  11. Negative ions as a source of low energy neutral beams

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, J.H.

    1980-01-01

    Little consideration has been given to the impact of recent developments in negative ion source technology on the design of low energy neutral beam injectors. However, negative ion sources of improved operating efficiency, higher gas efficiency, and smaller beam divergence will lead to neutral deuterium injectors, operating at less than 100 keV, with better operating efficiencies and more compact layouts than can be obtained from positive ion systems.

  12. Extending Ion Source Life on High Current Ion Implant Tools with In-Situ Chemical Cleaning

    SciTech Connect

    Uvais, A.; Botet, A.; Jinguji, M.; Sato, Y.; Yotsumoto, T.

    2011-01-07

    Ion source replacement is generally the most frequent maintenance activity on an ion implanter impacting both productivity and consumable costs. In this paper we review the different mechanisms responsible for ion source failure. We report on in-situ chemical cleaning tests conducted at Toshiba Oita, which have shown potential for significant extension in source life. Several factors impact the effectiveness of xenon difluoride including failure modes, cleaning time and flow rates.

  13. Liquid metal ion source and alloy for ion emission of multiple ionic species

    DOEpatents

    Clark, Jr., William M. (Thousand Oaks, CA); Utlaut, Mark W. (Saugus, CA); Wysocki, Joseph A. (Oxnard, CA); Storms, Edmund K. (Los Alamos, NM); Szklarz, Eugene G. (Los Alamos, NM); Behrens, Robert G. (Los Alamos, NM); Swanson, Lynwood W. (McMinnville, OR); Bell, Anthony E. (McMinnville, OR)

    1987-06-02

    A liquid metal ion source and alloy for the simultaneous ion evaporation of arsenic and boron, arsenic and phosphorus, or arsenic, boron and phosphorus. The ionic species to be evaporated are contained in palladium-arsenic-boron and palladium-arsenic-boron-phosphorus alloys. The ion source, including an emitter means such as a needle emitter and a source means such as U-shaped heater element, is preferably constructed of rhenium and tungsten, both of which are readily fabricated. The ion sources emit continuous beams of ions having sufficiently high currents of the desired species to be useful in ion implantation of semiconductor wafers for preparing integrated circuit devices. The sources are stable in operation, experience little corrosion during operation, and have long operating lifetimes.

  14. Measurement of beam characteristics from C6+ laser ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, A.; Sako, K.; Sato, K.; Hayashizaki, N.; Hattori, T.

    2014-02-01

    We developed a C6+ laser ion source for a heavy-ion accelerator. A carbon target was irradiated with a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm wavelength, 1.4 J maximum laser energy, 10 ns pulse duration) to generate a high-density plasma. The laser ion source employed a rotating carbon target for continuous operation. Ion beams were extracted from the plasma through a drift space using a direct plasma injection scheme [B. Yu. Sharkov, A. V. Shumshurov, V. P. Dubenkow, O. B. Shamaev, and A. A. Golubev, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 2841 (1992)] up to a maximum voltage of 40 kV. We measured the characteristics of the ion beams from the laser ion source and present the results of experiments here.

  15. Sheath structure in negative ion sources for fusion (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    McAdams, R.; King, D. B.; Surrey, E.

    2012-02-15

    In fusion negative ion sources, the negative ions are formed on the caesiated plasma grid predominantly by hydrogen atoms from the plasma. The space charge of the negative ions leaving the wall is not fully compensated by incoming positive ions and at high enough emission a virtual cathode is formed. This virtual cathode limits the flux of negative ions transported across the sheath to the plasma. A 1D collisionless model of the sheath is presented taking into account the virtual cathode. The model will be applied to examples of the ion source operation. Extension of the model to the bulk plasma shows good agreement with experimental data. A possible role for fast ions is discussed.

  16. ECR (Electron Cyclotron Resonance) ion sources for cyclotrons

    SciTech Connect

    Lyneis, C.M.

    1986-10-01

    In the last decade ECR (Electron Cyclotron Resonance) ion sources have evolved from a single large, power consuming, complex prototype into a variety of compact, simple, reliable, efficient, high performance sources of high charge state ions for accelerators and atomic physics. The coupling of ECR sources to cyclotrons has resulted in significant performance gains in energy, intensity, reliability, and variety of ion species. Seven ECR sources are in regular operation with cyclotrons and numerous other projects are under development or in the planning stag. At least four laboratories have ECR sources dedicated for atomic physics research and other atomic physics programs share ECR sources with cyclotrons. An ECR source is now installed on the injector for the CERN SPS synchrotron to accelerate O/sup 8 +/ to relativistic energies. A project is underway at Argonne to couple an ECR source to a superconducting heavy-ion linac. Although tremendous progress has been made, the field of ECR sources is still a relatively young technology and there is still the potential for further advances both in source development and understanding of the plasma physics. The development of ECR sources is reviewed. The important physics mechanisms which come into play in the operation of ECR Sources are discussed, along with various models for charge state distributions (CSD). The design and performance of several ECR sources are compared. The 88-Inch Cyclotron and the LBL ECR is used as an example of cyclotron+ECR operation. The future of ECR sources is considered.

  17. Compact 2.45 GHz microwave ion/atom source.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Y; Kasuya, T; Wada, M; Maeno, S

    2008-02-01

    Characteristics of a microwave driven 3.4 cm diameter compact ion/atom source equipped with permanent magnets were tested. The source can be mounted to a standard copper gasket flange, and microwave power is supplied through an N-type microwave connector. The ion source plasma was observed through an ion extraction hole with an optical emission spectrometer. Peak height of an optical line spectrum emission corresponding to atomic nitrogen increased in proportion to the microwave input power. Quadrupole mass spectrometer showed that N(+) and N(2)(+) were the dominant species in the extracted ion beam. Nitrogen ion current density of 0.23 mA/cm(2) was obtained with only 10 W discharge power and 6 x 10(-3) Pa source surrounding pressure. PMID:18315108

  18. Development of a Polarized Helium-3 Ion Source for RHIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epstein, Charles; Milner, Richard; Maxwell, James; Alessi, James; Pikin, Alexander; Zelenski, Anatoli

    2012-10-01

    A polarized Helium-3 beam in RHIC would enable new, unique, high-energy QCD studies of neutron structure with existing polarized proton beams, as well as fundamental tests of the standard model in a future electron-ion collider eRHIC. An MIT-BNL collaboration is developing a polarized Helium-3 ion source for RHIC, and initial construction is underway. Helium-3 atoms will first be polarized through metastability exchange optical pumping and then transferred to the RHIC Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS). Fully stripped Helium-3 ions would be extracted from EBIS and their polarization measured at low energies before acceleration in RHIC.

  19. Ion source issues for the DAE?ALUS neutrino experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso, Jose R.; Barletta, William A.; Toups, Matthew H.; Conrad, Janet; Liu, Y.; Bannister, Mark E.; Havener, C. C.; Vane, Randy

    2014-02-01

    The DAE?ALUS experiment calls for 10 mA of protons at 800 MeV on a neutrino-producing target. To achieve this record-setting current from a cyclotron system, H2+ ions will be accelerated. Loosely bound vibrationally excited H2+ ions inevitably produced in conventional ion sources will be Lorentz stripped at the highest energies. Presence of these states was confirmed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and strategies were investigated to quench them, leading to a proposed R&D effort towards a suitable ion source for these high-power cyclotrons.

  20. Electron cyclotron resonance ion sources in use for heavy ion cancer therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Tinschert, K.; Iannucci, R.; Lang, R.

    2008-02-15

    The use of electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources for producing ion beams for heavy ion cancer therapy has been established for more than ten years. After the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator (HIMAC) at Chiba, Japan started therapy of patients with carbon ions in 1994 the first carbon ion beam for patient treatment at the accelerator facility of GSI was delivered in 1997. ECR ion sources are the perfect tool for providing the required ion beams with good stability, high reliability, and easy maintenance after long operating periods. Various investigations were performed at GSI with different combinations of working gas and auxiliary gas to define the optimal beam conditions for an extended use of further ion species for the dedicated Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy (HIT) facility installed at the Radiological University Hospital Heidelberg, Germany. Commercially available compact all permanent magnet ECR ion sources operated at 14.5 GHz were chosen for this facility. Besides for {sup 12}C{sup 4+} these ion sources are used to provide beams of {sup 1}H{sub 3}{sup 1+}, {sup 3}He{sup 1+}, and {sup 16}O{sup 6+}. The final commissioning at the HIT facility could be finished at the end of 2006.

  1. Pure radioactive Ga ion beams provided by new laser ion source for nuclear research at ORNL

    E-print Network

    Pure radioactive Ga ion beams provided by new laser ion source for nuclear research at ORNL pure beams of radioactive nuclei far from stability. · Beams of neutron-rich Ga isotopes were delivered to the Low-energy Radioactive Ion Beam Spectroscopy Station (LeRIBSS) with previously unattainable purity

  2. Ion source and injection line for high intensity medical cyclotron

    SciTech Connect

    Jia, XianLu Guan, Fengping; Yao, Hongjuan; Zhang, TianJue; Yang, Jianjun; Song, Guofang; Ge, Tao; Qin, Jiuchang

    2014-02-15

    A 14 MeV high intensity compact cyclotron, CYCIAE-14, was built at China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE). An injection system based on the external H? ion source was used on CYCIAE-14 so as to provide high intensity beam, while most positron emission tomography cyclotrons adopt internal ion source. A beam intensity of 100 ?A/14 MeV was extracted from the cyclotron with a small multi-cusp H? ion source (CIAE-CH-I type) and a short injection line, which the H? ion source of 3 mA/25 keV H? beam with emittance of 0.3??mm?mrad and the injection line of with only 1.2 m from the extraction of ion source to the medial plane of the cyclotron. To increase the extracted beam intensity of the cyclotron, a new ion source (CIAE-CH-II type) of 9.1 mA was used, with maximum of 500 ?A was achieved from the cyclotron. The design and test results of the ion source and injection line optimized for high intensity acceleration will be given in this paper.

  3. Plasma ion dynamics and beam formation in electron cyclotron resonance ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Mascali, D.; Neri, L.; Miracoli, R.; Gammino, S.; Celona, L.; Ciavola, G.; Gambino, N.; Chikin, S.

    2010-02-15

    In electron cyclotron resonance ion sources it has been demonstrated that plasma heating may be improved by means of different microwave to plasma coupling mechanisms, including the ''frequency tuning'' and the ''two frequency heating''. These techniques affect evidently the electron dynamics, but the relationship with the ion dynamics has not been investigated in details up to now. Here we will try to outline these relations: through the study of ion dynamics we may try to understand how to optimize the electron cyclotron resonance ion sources brightness. A simple model of the ion confinement and beam formation will be presented, based on particle-in-cell and single particle simulations.

  4. Ion beam capture and charge breeding in electron cyclotron resonance ion source plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jin-Soo; Zhao, L.; Cluggish, B. P.; Pardo, Richard

    2007-10-15

    Beam capture of injected ions and charge breeding in electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) charge breeder ion source plasmas has been investigated utilizing an ECR plasma modeling code, the generalized ECR ion source model, and a Monte Carlo beam capture code. Beam capturing dynamics, charge breeding in the plasma, and the extracted charged ion states are described. Optimization of ion beam energy is performed for (1) high beam capture efficiency and (2) high charge state ion beam extractions. A sample case study for ANL-ECR has been performed. Ions entering ECR ion source plasma are slowed down mostly by the background ions. Assuming Maxwellian plasma ions, maximum beam energy loss occurs when the beam velocity is around the background thermal velocity in magnitude. It is also found that beam capture location affects charge state distribution. For instance, with a majority of beam ions captured near the middle of the device higher currents for higher charge states are obtained. The beam ions captured near the entry have a higher probability of backstreaming after they are captured. For this reason, the optimum beam energy of the injected Ar{sup +} beam ions for charge breeding is generally higher than the optimum input beam energy for maximum beam energy loss.

  5. A vacuum spark ion source: High charge state metal ion beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yushkov, G. Yu.; Nikolaev, A. G.; Oks, E. M.; Frolova, V. P.

    2016-02-01

    High ion charge state is often important in ion beam physics, among other reasons for the very practical purpose that it leads to proportionately higher ion beam energy for fixed accelerating voltage. The ion charge state of metal ion beams can be increased by replacing a vacuum arc ion source by a vacuum spark ion source. Since the voltage between anode and cathode remains high in a spark discharge compared to the vacuum arc, higher metal ion charge states are generated which can then be extracted as an ion beam. The use of a spark of pulse duration less than 10 ?s and with current up to 10 kA allows the production of ion beams with current of several amperes at a pulse repetition rate of up to 5 pps. We have demonstrated the formation of high charge state heavy ions (bismuth) of up to 15 + and a mean ion charge state of more than 10 +. The physics and techniques of our vacuum spark ion source are described.

  6. Liquid metal ion source for cluster ions of metals and alloys: design and characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhaskar, N. D.; Klimcak, C. M.; Frueholz, R. P.

    1990-01-01

    Currently liquid metal ion sources (LMISs) are of great interest for a wide variety of applications—ion implantation, ion microlithography, thrusters for electric space propulsion, etc. A novel application of the LMIS is for the production of metallic cluster ions. In our laboratory we have designed and optimized the performance of a LMIS for the production of cluster ions of alkali metals. Using liquid rubidium (Rb) we have observed copious production of singly charged cluster ions (Rb+N, N=1-100). As expected the largest fraction of the emission consists of atomic ions. For low source current (<5 ?A) about 80% of the total emission current is that of Rb+. The remaining 20% consists of Rb+2 and Rb+3. However, for large emission currents (>80 ?A) we observe cluster ions as large as Rb+100. We study the mass distribution using the time-of-flight technique.

  7. An ion guide laser ion source for isobar-suppressed rare isotope beams

    SciTech Connect

    Raeder, Sebastian Ames, Friedhelm; Bishop, Daryl; Bricault, Pierre; Kunz, Peter; Mjøs, Anders; Heggen, Henning; Institute of Applied Physics, TU Darmstadt, Schlossgartenstr. 7, 64289 Darmstadt ; Lassen, Jens Teigelhöfer, Andrea; Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2

    2014-03-15

    Modern experiments at isotope separator on-line (ISOL) facilities like ISAC at TRIUMF often depend critically on the purity of the delivered rare isotope beams. Therefore, highly selective ion sources are essential. This article presents the development and successful on-line operation of an ion guide laser ion source (IG-LIS) for the production of ion beams free of isobaric contamination. Thermionic ions from the hot ISOL target are suppressed by an electrostatic potential barrier, while neutral radio nuclides effusing out are resonantly ionized by laser radiation within a quadrupole ion guide behind this barrier. The IG-LIS was developed through detailed thermal and ion optics simulation studies and off-line tests with stable isotopes. In a first on-line run with a SiC target a suppression of surface-ionized Na contaminants in the ion beam of up to six orders of magnitude was demonstrated.

  8. Sources and Losses of Ring Current Ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Sheng-Hsien; Fok, Mei-Ching H.; Angeloupoulos, Vassilis

    2010-01-01

    During geomagnetic quiet times, in-situ measurements of ring current energetic ions (few to few tens of keVs) from THEMIS spacecraft often exhibit multiple ion populations at discrete energies that extend from the inner magnetosphere to the magnetopause at dayside or plasma sheet at nightside. During geomagnetic storm times, the levels of fluxes as well as the mean energies of these ions elevated dramatically and the more smooth distributions in energies and distances during quiet times are disrupted into clusters of ion populations with more confined spatial extends. This reveals local plasma heating processes that might have come into play. Several processes have been proposed. Magnetotail dipolarization, sudden enhancement of field-aligned current, local current disruptions, and plasma waves are possible mechanisms to heat the ions locally as well as strong convections of energetic ions directly from the magnetotail due to reconnections. We will examine two geomagnetic storms on October 11, 2008 and July 22, 2009 to reveal possible heating mechanisms. We will analyze in-situ plasma and magnetic field measurements from THEMIS, GOES, and DMSP for the events to study the ion pitch angle distributions and magnetic field perturbations in the auroral ionosphere and inner magnetosphere where the plasma heating processes occur.

  9. Vacuum Arc Ion Sources: Recent Developments and Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Ian; Oks, Efim

    2005-05-01

    The vacuum arc ion source has evolved over the past twenty years into a standard laboratory tool for the production of high current beams of metal ions, and is now used in a number of different embodiments at many laboratories around the world. The primary application of this kind of source has evolved to be ion implantation for material surface modification. Another important use is for injection of high current beams of heavy metal ions into the front ends of particle accelerators, and much excellent work has been carried out in recent years in optimizing the source for reliable accelerator application. The source also provides a valuable tool for the investigation of the fundamental plasma physics of vacuum arc plasma discharges. As the use of the source has grown and diversified, at the same time the ion source performance and operational characteristics have been improved in a variety of different ways also. Here we review the growth and status of vacuum arc ion sources around the world, and summarize some of the applications for which the sources have been used.

  10. Possible source of intermediate ions over marine environment.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Sunil D; Gopalakrishnan, V

    2012-01-01

    Measurements of small, intermediate and large ions made onboard ORV Sagarkanya over the Arabian Sea in May-June 2003 during Arabian Sea Monsoon Experiment (ARMEX) are reported here. The daily averaged values of small-, intermediate-, and large-ion concentrations measured for 36 days during this cruise have been used for analysis. The analysis shows a weak positive correlation of 0.14 between intermediate- and large-ion concentrations, which indicates that the sources of these two types of ions are different over ocean surface. The negative correlation is observed between small- and intermediate-ion concentration for entire period of cruise. In addition, it is seen that the intermediate-ion concentration shows a very good (r = 0.58) and significant positive correlation with sea surface pressure. Based on good negative correlation between small- and intermediate-ion concentrations and good positive correlation between intermediate-ion concentration and sea surface pressure, it has been proposed that attachment of small ions to the ultrafine particles transported from upper troposphere to marine boundary layer is the main source of intermediate ions over ocean surface. This study supports the idea that the main source of ultrafine particles over marine boundary layer (MBL) is entrainment of aerosol particles from the free troposphere. PMID:22701357

  11. Polarized 3He? ion source with hyperfine state selection

    SciTech Connect

    Dudnikov, V.; Morozov, Vasiliy; Dudnikov, A.

    2015-04-01

    High beam polarization is essential to the scientific productivity of a collider. Polarized 3He ions are an essential part of the nuclear physics programs at existing and future ion-ion and electron-ion colliders such as BNL's RHIC and eRHIC and JLab's ELIC. Ion sources with performance exceeding that achieved today are a key requirement for the development of these next generation high-luminosity high-polarization colliders. The development of high-intensity high-brightness arc-discharge ion sources at the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (BINP) has opened up an opportunity for realization of a new type of a polarized 3He? ion source. This report discusses a polarized 3He? ion source based on the large difference of extra-electron auto-detachment lifetimes of the different 3He? ion hyperfine states. The highest momentum state of 5/2 has the largest lifetime of ? ? 350 µs while the lower momentum states have lifetimes of ? ~ 10 µs. By producing 3He? ion beam composed of only the |5/2, ±5/2> hyperfine states and then quenching one of the states by an RF resonant field, 3He? beam polarization of 90% can be achieved. Such a method of polarized 3He? production has been considered before; however, due to low intensities of the He+ ion sources existing at that time, it was not possible to produce any interesting intensity of polarized 3He? ions. The high-brightness arc-discharge ion source developed at BINP can produce a high-brightness 3He+ beam with an intensity of up to 2 A allowing for selection of up to ?1-4 mA of 3He? ions with ?90% polarization. The high gas efficiency of an arc-discharge source is important due to the high cost of 3He gas. Some features of such a PIS as well as prototype designs are considered. An integrated 3He? ion source design providing high beam polarization could be prepared using existing BNL equipment with incorporation of new designs of the 1) arc discharge plasma generator, 2) extraction system, 3) charge exchange jet, and 4) magnetic separation system.

  12. Polarized 3He- ion source with hyperfine state selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudnikov, V.; Morozov, V.; Dudnikov, A.

    2015-04-01

    High beam polarization is essential to the scientific productivity of a collider. Polarized 3He ions are an essential part of the nuclear physics programs at existing and future ion-ion and electron-ion colliders such as BNL's RHIC and eRHIC and JLab's ELIC. Ion sources with performance exceeding that achieved today are a key requirement for the development of these next generation high-luminosity high-polarization colliders. The development of high-intensity high-brightness arc-discharge ion sources at the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (BINP) has opened up an opportunity for realization of a new type of a polarized 3He- ion source. This report discusses a polarized 3He- ion source based on the large difference of extra-electron auto-detachment lifetimes of the different 3He- ion hyperfine states. The highest momentum state of 5/2 has the largest lifetime of ? ˜ 350 µs while the lower momentum states have lifetimes of ? ~ 10 µs. By producing 3He- ion beam composed of only the |5/2, ±5/2> hyperfine states and then quenching one of the states by an RF resonant field, 3He- beam polarization of 90% can be achieved. Such a method of polarized 3He- production has been considered before; however, due to low intensities of the He+ ion sources existing at that time, it was not possible to produce any interesting intensity of polarized 3He- ions. The high-brightness arc-discharge ion source developed at BINP can produce a high-brightness 3He+ beam with an intensity of up to 2 A allowing for selection of up to ˜1-4 mA of 3He- ions with ˜90% polarization. The high gas efficiency of an arc-discharge source is important due to the high cost of 3He gas. Some features of such a PIS as well as prototype designs are considered. An integrated 3He- ion source design providing high beam polarization could be prepared using existing BNL equipment with incorporation of new designs of the 1) arc discharge plasma generator, 2) extraction system, 3) charge exchange jet, and 4) magnetic separation system.

  13. Fragment ions produced from hexamethyldisilane in a Freeman-type ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimura, Satoru; Kiuchi, Masato

    2015-10-01

    Fragment ions produced from hexamethyldisilane (HMDS) in a Freeman-type ion source with a hot tungsten wire were studied using a low-energy mass analyzed ion beam system. Dominant fragment ions from HMDS were identified to be H+, H2+, C+, CH3+, Si+, SiCH4+, SiC2H6+, and SiC3H9+. The rates of ion fragment production strongly depended on the tungsten temperature. We conclude that the irradiation of the mass-selected SiCH4+ ions obtained from HMDS to Si substrates is useful for the secure epitaxial growth of SiC.

  14. Ion current detector for high pressure ion sources for monitoring separations

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Richard D. (Richland, WA); Wahl, Jon H. (Richland, WA); Hofstadler, Steven A. (Richland, WA)

    1996-01-01

    The present invention relates generally to any application involving the monitoring of signal arising from ions produced by electrospray or other high pressure (>100 torr) ion sources. The present invention relates specifically to an apparatus and method for the detection of ions emitted from a capillary electrophoresis (CE) system, liquid chromatography, or other small-scale separation methods. And further, the invention provides a very simple diagnostic as to the quality of the separation and the operation of an electrospray source.

  15. Ion current detector for high pressure ion sources for monitoring separations

    DOEpatents

    Smith, R.D.; Wahl, J.H.; Hofstadler, S.A.

    1996-08-13

    The present invention relates generally to any application involving the monitoring of signal arising from ions produced by electrospray or other high pressure (>100 torr) ion sources. The present invention relates specifically to an apparatus and method for the detection of ions emitted from a capillary electrophoresis (CE) system, liquid chromatography, or other small-scale separation methods. And further, the invention provides a very simple diagnostic as to the quality of the separation and the operation of an electrospray source. 7 figs.

  16. Ionization efficiency estimations for the SPES surface ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzolaro, M.; Andrighetto, A.; Meneghetti, G.; Rossignoli, M.; Corradetti, S.; Biasetto, L.; Scarpa, D.; Monetti, A.; Carturan, S.; Maggioni, G.

    2013-12-01

    Ion sources play a crucial role in ISOL (Isotope Separation On Line) facilities determining, with the target production system, the ion beam types available for experiments. In the framework of the SPES (Selective Production of Exotic Species) INFN (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare) project, a preliminary study of the alkali metal isotopes ionization process was performed, by means of a surface ion source prototype. In particular, taking into consideration the specific SPES in-target isotope production, Cs and Rb ion beams were produced, using a dedicated test bench at LNL (Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro). In this work the ionization efficiency test results for the SPES Ta surface ion source prototype are presented and discussed.

  17. A review of ion sources for medical accelerators (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Muramatsu, M.; Kitagawa, A.

    2012-02-15

    There are two major medical applications of ion accelerators. One is a production of short-lived isotopes for radionuclide imaging with positron emission tomography and single photon emission computer tomography. Generally, a combination of a source for negative ions (usually H- and/or D-) and a cyclotron is used; this system is well established and distributed over the world. Other important medical application is charged-particle radiotherapy, where the accelerated ion beam itself is being used for patient treatment. Two distinctly different methods are being applied: either with protons or with heavy-ions (mostly carbon ions). Proton radiotherapy for deep-seated tumors has become widespread since the 1990s. The energy and intensity are typically over 200 MeV and several 10{sup 10} pps, respectively. Cyclotrons as well as synchrotrons are utilized. The ion source for the cyclotron is generally similar to the type for production of radioisotopes. For a synchrotron, one applies a positive ion source in combination with an injector linac. Carbon ion radiotherapy awakens a worldwide interest. About 6000 cancer patients have already been treated with carbon beams from the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences in Japan. These clinical results have clearly verified the advantages of carbon ions. Heidelberg Ion Therapy Center and Gunma University Heavy Ion Medical Center have been successfully launched. Several new facilities are under commissioning or construction. The beam energy is adjusted to the depth of tumors. It is usually between 140 and 430 MeV/u. Although the beam intensity depends on the irradiation method, it is typically several 10{sup 8} or 10{sup 9} pps. Synchrotrons are only utilized for carbon ion radiotherapy. An ECR ion source supplies multi-charged carbon ions for this requirement. Some other medical applications with ion beams attract developer's interests. For example, the several types of accelerators are under development for the boron neutron capture therapy. This treatment is conventionally demonstrated by a nuclear reactor, but it is strongly expected to replace the reactor by the accelerator. We report status of ion source for medical application and such scope for further developments.

  18. A review of ion sources for medical accelerators (invited).

    PubMed

    Muramatsu, M; Kitagawa, A

    2012-02-01

    There are two major medical applications of ion accelerators. One is a production of short-lived isotopes for radionuclide imaging with positron emission tomography and single photon emission computer tomography. Generally, a combination of a source for negative ions (usually H- and/or D-) and a cyclotron is used; this system is well established and distributed over the world. Other important medical application is charged-particle radiotherapy, where the accelerated ion beam itself is being used for patient treatment. Two distinctly different methods are being applied: either with protons or with heavy-ions (mostly carbon ions). Proton radiotherapy for deep-seated tumors has become widespread since the 1990s. The energy and intensity are typically over 200 MeV and several 10(10) pps, respectively. Cyclotrons as well as synchrotrons are utilized. The ion source for the cyclotron is generally similar to the type for production of radioisotopes. For a synchrotron, one applies a positive ion source in combination with an injector linac. Carbon ion radiotherapy awakens a worldwide interest. About 6000 cancer patients have already been treated with carbon beams from the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences in Japan. These clinical results have clearly verified the advantages of carbon ions. Heidelberg Ion Therapy Center and Gunma University Heavy Ion Medical Center have been successfully launched. Several new facilities are under commissioning or construction. The beam energy is adjusted to the depth of tumors. It is usually between 140 and 430 MeV?u. Although the beam intensity depends on the irradiation method, it is typically several 10(8) or 10(9) pps. Synchrotrons are only utilized for carbon ion radiotherapy. An ECR ion source supplies multi-charged carbon ions for this requirement. Some other medical applications with ion beams attract developer's interests. For example, the several types of accelerators are under development for the boron neutron capture therapy. This treatment is conventionally demonstrated by a nuclear reactor, but it is strongly expected to replace the reactor by the accelerator. We report status of ion source for medical application and such scope for further developments. PMID:22380341

  19. RF absorption and ion heating in helicon sources.

    PubMed

    Kline, J L; Scime, E E; Boivin, R F; Keesee, A M; Sun, X; Mikhailenko, V S

    2002-05-13

    Experimental data are presented that are consistent with the hypothesis that anomalous rf absorption in helicon sources is due to electron scattering arising from parametrically driven ion-acoustic waves downstream from the antenna. Also presented are ion temperature measurements demonstrating anisotropic heating (T( perpendicular)>T(parallel)) at the edge of the discharge. The most likely explanation is ion-Landau damping of electrostatic slow waves at a local lower-hybrid-frequency resonance. PMID:12005639

  20. Effect of resonant microwave power on a PIG ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, I.G.; Galvin, J.E.; Gavin, B.F.; MacGill, R.A.

    1984-08-01

    We have investigated the effect of applying microwave power at the electron cyclotron frequency on the characteristics of the ion beam extracted from a hot-cathode PIG ion source. No change was seen in the ion charge state distribution. A small but significant reduction in the beam noise level was seen, and it is possible that the technique may find application in situations where beam quiescence is important. 29 references, 2 figures.

  1. H{sup -} ion source developments at the SNS

    SciTech Connect

    Welton, R. F.; Stockli, M. P.; Murray, S. N.; Pennisi, T. R.; Han, B.; Kang, Y.; Goulding, R. H.; Crisp, D. W.; Sparks, D. O.; Luciano, N. P.; Carmichael, J. R.; Carr, J.

    2008-02-15

    The U.S. Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) will require substantially higher average and pulse H{sup -} beam currents than can be produced from conventional ion sources such as the base line SNS source. H{sup -} currents of 40-50 mA (SNS operations) and 70-100 mA (power upgrade project) with a rms emittance of 0.20-0.35{pi} mm mrad and a {approx}7% duty factor will be needed. We are therefore investigating several advanced ion source concepts based on rf plasma excitation. First, the performance characteristics of an external antenna source based on an Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} plasma chamber combined with an external multicusp magnetic configuration, an elemental Cs system, and plasma gun will be discussed. Second, the first plasma measurements of a helicon-driven H{sup -} ion source will also be presented.

  2. Analysis of the double-ion plasma in the extraction region in hydrogen negative ion sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuyama, T.; Okuda, S.; Fukano, A.; Tsumori, K.; Nakano, H.; Hatayama, A.

    2013-02-01

    To understand the plasma characteristics in the extraction region of hydrogen negative ion sources is very important for the optimization of H- extraction from the sources. The profile of plasma density in the extraction region is analyzed with a 2D PIC modeling of the NIFS-R&D H- sources. The simulation results make clear the physics process forming a double-ion plasma layer (which consists of positive H+ and negative H- ions) recently observed in the Cs-seeded experiments of the NIFS-R&D source in the vicinity of the extraction hole and the PG (plasma grid).

  3. Surface-electrode ion trap with integrated light source

    E-print Network

    Kim, Tony Hyun

    An atomic ion is trapped at the tip of a single-mode optical fiber in a cryogenic (8 K) surface-electrode ion trap. The fiber serves as an integrated source of laser light, which drives the quadrupolequbit transition of ...

  4. ECR plasma source for heavy ion beam charge neutralization

    E-print Network

    Gilson, Erik

    ECR plasma source for heavy ion beam charge neutralization PHILIP C. EFTHIMION,1 ERIK GILSON,1 plasmas are being considered as a medium for charge neutralizing heavy ion beams in order to focus beyond and at a length ;0.1­2 m would be suitable for achieving a high level of charge neutralization. An Electron

  5. RF PLASMA SOURCE FOR HEAVY ION BEAM CHARGE NEUTRALIZATION

    E-print Network

    Gilson, Erik

    RF PLASMA SOURCE FOR HEAVY ION BEAM CHARGE NEUTRALIZATION Philip C. Efthimion, Erik Gilson, Larry ionized plasmas are being used as a medium for charge neutralizing heavy ion beams in order to focus Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) in support of the joint Neutralized Transport Experiment (NTX

  6. The COSY/JÜLICH Polarized H- and D- Ion Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felden, O.; Gebel, R.; Maier, R.

    2011-01-01

    The polarized ion source at the cooler synchrotron facility COSY of the research center Jülich, Germany, delivers negative polarized proton or deuteron ions for investigation of hadron structure and dynamics in the momentum range from 0.3 GeV/c to 3.8 GeV/c. The polarized negative ion source at COSY is based on the colliding beams principle, using an intense pulsed neutralized cesium beam for charge exchange with a pulsed highly polarized hydrogen or deuterium beam. The source is operated at 0.5 Hz repetition rate with 20 ms pulse length which is the maximum useful length for the stripping injection into the synchrotron. The paper summarizes the status and activities at the polarized ion source at the COoler SYnchrotron COSY/Jülich.

  7. Conditioning of ion sources for mass spectrometry of plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Dylla, H.F.; Blanchard, W.R.

    1983-02-01

    Mass spectrometry is a useful diagnostic technique for monitoring plasma species and plasma-surface interactions. In order to maximize the sensitivity of measurements of hydrogen-fueled fusion plasmas or hydrogen-based discharge cleaning and etching plasmas, the ion sources of mass spectrometers are operated at or near the high pressure limit of 10/sup -4/ Torr (10/sup -2/ Pa). Such high ambient pressures of hydrogen give rise to high background levels of residual gases such as H/sub 2/O, CO, and CH/sub 4/, due to surface reactions on the ion source electrodes. For a commonly used ion source configuration, the residual gas production is a linear function of the ambient H/sub 2/ pressure. Hydrogen conditioning can reduce the absolute residual gas levels. Steady-state residual gas production is observed in a conditioned ion source, which is related to a balance of diffusion and sorption on the electrode surfaces.

  8. Development of boron and phosphorus liquid metal ion sources for the focused ion beam system

    SciTech Connect

    Higuchi-Rusli, R.

    1986-01-01

    The approach taken here was to develop and build dual carbon filament liquid metal ion sources along with the test bed system. Pd/sub 73/B/sub 27/ and Pt/sub 58/B/sub 42/ binary alloys were selected as p-type dopant sources, and Cu/sub 3/P binary alloy was used as n-type dopant source. Three emitters with different tip radii were used in the present investigation. The results indicate that Pd/sub 73/B/sub 27/ alloy is a good candidate for a boron liquid metal ion source. This conclusion was derived in this investigation from a lifetime test result with 2.5 ..mu..m emitter of more than 120 hours. Pt/sub 58/B/sub 42/ alloy is not a suitable alloy source for a boron liquid metal ion source despite the higher mole fraction of boron to be used as a source of ionizing species. Cu/sub 3/P alloy is a good candidate for a phosphorus liquid metal ion source. Any apparent chemical interactions were found by metallographic technique, although AES result shows emitter element in the spectrum of collected beam current. A combination of rhenium and graphite ribbon as liquid metal ion source emitter and heater used in this investigation is the only possible approach to produce a long lifetime boron and phosphorus liquid metal ion source.

  9. The Use of Ionic Liquid Ion Sources (ILIS) in FIB Applications

    E-print Network

    using an arrangement similar to liquid metal ion sources (LMIS) by substituting the liquid metal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 1.2 Focused Ion Beam History and Development . . . . . . . . . . 16 2 LIQUID METAL ION SOURCES VS. IONIC LIQUID ION SOURCES 18 2.1 Liquid Metal Ion Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 2

  10. Unresolved problems in cesiation processes of negative hydrogen ion sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, Motoi

    2013-09-01

    Attempts are being made to optimize negative hydrogen (H-) ion current by introducing Cs into an ion source, but there are some unanswered questions in properly handling Cs to realize stable extraction of H- ion beams. For example, Cs amount to optimize H- production often becomes much larger than the amount predicted to realize partial monolayer of Cs on the source wall. Additional charge of Cs into a source to recover reduced H- current by continuous operation does not necessarily realize the original value. Beam intensity of H- changes with the impurity content in the ion source. The purpose of the present paper is to list up these uncertainties and unknown factors in negative ion source performance operated with Cs. The paper tries to identify possible mechanisms causing these problems by running a simulation code ACAT (Atomic Collision in Amorphous Target). The code predicts that glancing injection of hydrogen ions doubles the numbers of both reflection coefficients and ion induced desorption yields from those for the normal incidence. It also indicates smaller hydrogen desorption yields for thick layer of adsorbed hydrogen on the surface. These results are compared with experimental data obtained in UHV conditions.

  11. Experimental evaluation of a negative ion source for a heavy ionfusion negative ion driver

    SciTech Connect

    Grisham, L.R.; Hahto, S.K.; Hahto, S.T.; Kwan, J.W.; Leung, K.N.

    2005-01-18

    Negative halogen ions have recently been proposed as a possible alternative to positive ions for heavy ion fusion drivers because electron accumulation would not be a problem in the accelerator, and if desired, the beams could be photodetached to neutrals [1,2,3]. To test the ability to make suitable quality beams, an experiment was conducted at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory using chlorine in an RF-driven ion source. Without introducing any cesium (which is required to enhance negative ion production in hydrogen ion sources) a negative chlorine current density of 45 mA/cm{sup 2} was obtained under the same conditions that gave 57 mA/cm{sup 2} of positive chlorine, suggesting the presence of nearly as many negative ions as positive ions in the plasma near the extraction plane. The negative ion spectrum was 99.5% atomic chlorine ions, with only 0.5% molecular chlorine, and essentially no impurities. Although this experiment did not incorporate the type of electron suppression technology that is used in negative hydrogen beam extraction, the ratio of co-extracted electrons to Cl{sup -} was as low as 7 to 1, many times lower than the ratio of their mobilities, suggesting that few electrons are present in the near-extractor plasma. This, along with the near-equivalence of the positive and negative ion currents, suggests that the plasma in this region was mostly an ion-ion plasma. The negative chlorine current density was relatively insensitive to pressure, and scaled linearly with RF power. If this linear scaling continues to hold at higher RF powers, it should permit current densities of 100 mA/cm{sup 2}, sufficient for present heavy ion fusion injector concepts. The effective ion temperatures of the positive and negative ions appeared to be similar and relatively low for a plasma source.

  12. DUHOCAMIS: a dual hollow cathode ion source for metal ion beams.

    PubMed

    Zhao, W J; Müller, M W O; Janik, J; Liu, K X; Ren, X T

    2008-02-01

    In this paper we describe a novel ion source named DUHOCAMIS for multiply charged metal ion beams. This ion source is derived from the hot cathode Penning ion gauge ion source (JINR, Dubna, 1957). A notable characteristic is the modified Penning geometry in the form of a hollow sputter electrode, coaxially positioned in a compact bottle-magnetic field along the central magnetic line of force. The interaction of the discharge geometry with the inhomogeneous but symmetrical magnetic field enables this device to be operated as hollow cathode discharge and Penning discharge as well. The main features of the ion source are the very high metal ion efficiency (up to 25%), good operational reproducibility, flexible and efficient operations for low charged as well as highly charged ions, compact setup, and easy maintenance. For light ions, e.g., up to titanium, well-collimated beams in the range of several tens of milliamperes of pulsed ion current (1 ms, 10/s) have been reliably performed in long time runs. PMID:18315181

  13. DUHOCAMIS: A dual hollow cathode ion source for metal ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, W. J.; Mueller, M. W. O.; Janik, J.; Liu, K. X.; Ren, X. T.

    2008-02-15

    In this paper we describe a novel ion source named DUHOCAMIS for multiply charged metal ion beams. This ion source is derived from the hot cathode Penning ion gauge ion source (JINR, Dubna, 1957). A notable characteristic is the modified Penning geometry in the form of a hollow sputter electrode, coaxially positioned in a compact bottle-magnetic field along the central magnetic line of force. The interaction of the discharge geometry with the inhomogeneous but symmetrical magnetic field enables this device to be operated as hollow cathode discharge and Penning discharge as well. The main features of the ion source are the very high metal ion efficiency (up to 25%), good operational reproducibility, flexible and efficient operations for low charged as well as highly charged ions, compact setup, and easy maintenance. For light ions, e.g., up to titanium, well-collimated beams in the range of several tens of milliamperes of pulsed ion current (1 ms, 10/s) have been reliably performed in long time runs.

  14. Multiple species beam production on laser ion source for electron beam ion source in Brookhaven National Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Sekine, M; Ikeda, S; Hayashizaki, N; Kanesue, T; Okamura, M

    2014-02-01

    Extracted ion beams from the test laser ion source (LIS) were transported through a test beam transport line which is almost identical to the actual primary beam transport in the current electron beam ion source apparatus. The tested species were C, Al, Si, Cr, Fe, Cu, Ag, Ta, and Au. The all measured beam currents fulfilled the requirements. However, in the case of light mass ions, the recorded emittance shapes have larger aberrations and the RMS values are higher than 0.06 ??mm?mrad, which is the design goal. Since we have margin to enhance the beam current, if we then allow some beam losses at the injection point, the number of the single charged ions within the acceptance can be supplied. For heaver ions like Ag, Ta, and Au, the LIS showed very good performance. PMID:24593625

  15. Volume production of negative hydrogen and deuterium ions in a reflex-type ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimbo, K.; Ehlers, K. W.; Leung, K. N.; Pyle, R. V.

    1986-08-01

    The extraction of negative and positive hydrogen and deuterium ions from a reflex-type negative ion source has been investigated. Extracted positive and negative ion currents were measured as functions of the gas flow rate, the axial magnetic field, and the bias potential of the cylindrical wall of the arc-chamber. By biasing the cylindrical wall several volts negative relative to the anode, a maximum H - current of 9.7 mA ( J - ? 100 mA/cm2) and D - current of 4.1 mA ( J - ? 42 mA/cm2) were obtained in steady state operation. This result shows a factor of two improvement over previous data. The total impurity negative ion content was less than 1%. When the source was arranged for positive ion extraction, a high proton ratio (90%) was observed. The extracted negative ion current was approximately as large as the positive ion current.

  16. Neutral ion sources in precision manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fawcett, Steven C.; Drueding, Thomas W.

    1994-01-01

    Ion figuring of optical components is a relatively new technology that can alleviate some of the problems associated with traditional contact polishing. Because the technique is non contacting, edge distortions and rib structure print through do not occur. This initial investigation was aimed at determining the effect of ion figuring on surface roughness of previously polished or ductile ground ceramic optical samples. This is the first step in research directed toward the combination of a pre-finishing process (ductile grinding or polishing) with ion figuring to produce finished ceramic mirrors. The second phase of the project is focusing on the development of mathematical algorithms that will deconvolve the ion beam profile from the surface figure errors so that these errors can be successfully removed from the optical components. In the initial phase of the project, multiple, chemical vapor deposited silicon carbide (CVD SiC) samples were polished or ductile ground to specular or near-specular roughness. These samples were then characterized to determine topographic surface information. The surface evaluation consisted of stylus profilometry, interferometry, and optical and scanning electron microscopy. The surfaces, were ion machined to depths from 0-5 microns. The finished surfaces were characterized to evaluate the effects of the ion machining process with respect to the previous processing methods and the pre-existing subsurface damage. The development of the control algorithms for figuring optical components has been completed. These algorithms have been validated with simulations and future experiments have been planned to verify the methods. This paper will present the results of the initial surface finish experiments and the control algorithms simulations.

  17. Mo layer thickness requirement on the ion source back plate for the HNB and DNB ion sources in ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, M. J.; Hemsworth, R.; Boilson, D.; De Esch, H. P. L.

    2015-04-08

    All the inner surfaces of the ion sources and the upstream surface of the plasma grid of the ITER neutral beam ion sources are proposed to be coated with molybdenum. This is done to avoid sputtering of the base material (Cu or CuCrZr) by the ions in the source plasma (D{sup +}, D{sub 2}{sup +}, D{sub 3}{sup +} or H{sup +}, H{sub 2}{sup +}, H{sub 3}{sup +}). The sputtering of Mo by the ions in the source plasma is low compared to that from Cu, and the threshold energy for sputtering ?80 eV) is high compared to the energy of the ions in the source. However the D{sub 2}{sup +}, H{sub 2}{sup +} and D{sup +}, H{sup +} ions backstreaming from the accelerators will have energies that substantially exceed that threshold and it is important that the Mo layer is not eroded such that the base material is exposed to the source plasma. In the case of the HNB, the backstreaming ion power is calculated to be in the order of ?1 MW, and the average energy of the backstreaming ions is calculated to be ?300 keV. The ion sources in the HNB beam lines, 40 A 1?MeV D and 46 A 870 keV H beams, are supposed to operate for a period of 2 x 10{sup 7} s. For the DNB, 60 A 100 keV H beams, the corresponding number is 1.4 × 10{sup 6} s considering a beam duty cycle of 3s ON/20s OFF with 5?Hz modulation. The Mo layer on the ion source back plate should be thick enough to survive this operational time. Thickness estimation has been carried out taking into account the sputtering yields (atoms/ion), the energy spectrum of the backstreaming ions and the estimated profiles on the ion source back plate.

  18. Preliminary result of rapid solenoid for controlling heavy-ion beam parameters of laser ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Okamura, M.; Sekine, M.; Ikeda, S.; Kanesue, T.; Kumaki, M.; Fuwa, Y.

    2015-03-13

    To realize a heavy ion inertial fusion driver, we have studied a possibility of laser ion source (LIS). A LIS can provide high current high brightness heavy ion beams, however it was difficult to manipulate the beam parameters. To overcome the issue, we employed a pulsed solenoid in the plasma drift section and investigated the effect of the solenoid field on singly charged iron beams. The rapid ramping magnetic field could enhance limited time slice of the current and simultaneously the beam emittance changed accordingly. This approach may also useful to realize an ion source for HIF power plant.

  19. Report on the workshop on ion sources for hadron colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Alessi, J.G.

    1997-11-01

    A workshop on Ion Sources for Hadron Colliders was held September 4--5, 1997 in Gelnhausen, Germany. This workshop, organized by the WE-Heraeus-Stiftung Foundation, the University of Frankfurt, Brookhaven National Laboratory, and CERN, directly followed the 7th Symposium on Electron Beam Ion Sources and Traps. Various options were reviewed for the development of a high current, intermediate charge state heavy ion source for use on colliders such as RHIC and LHC. In addition to status reports on ECR, EBIS, and laser sources, there was also discussion of issues relevant to the scaling of these sources to intensities as required by RHIC and LHC. The presentations and discussions from this workshop are summarized.

  20. Development of a Polarized He3 Ion Source for RHIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epstein, Charles; Alessi, J.; Beebe, E.; Heil, W.; Karpuk, S.; Milner, R.; Otten, E.; Pikin, A.; Zelenski, A.

    2011-10-01

    A polarized 3He beam in RHIC would enable new, unique, high-energy QCD studies of neutron structure with existing polarized proton beams, as well as important tests of the standard model in a future electron-ion collider (eRHIC). A new polarized 3He ion source using the Electron Beam Ionization Source (EBIS) at BNL is under development. 3He atoms are first polarized using metastability exchange optical pumping (MEOP) and then transferred to EBIS. Fully stripped 3He++ ions would be extracted from EBIS and their polarization measured at low energies before acceleration in RHIC. Research supported by DOE Office of Nuclear Physics.

  1. Mevva ion source operated in purely gaseous mode

    SciTech Connect

    Yushkov, G.Y.; MacGill, R.A.; Brown, I. G.

    2003-03-27

    We have operated a vacuum arc ion source in such a way as to form beams of purely gaseous ions. The vacuum arc configuration that is conventionally used to produce intense beams of metal ions was altered so as to form gaseous ion beams, with only minimal changes to the external circuitry and no changes at all internally to the ion source. In our experiments we formed beams from oxygen (O{sup +} and O{sub 2}{sup +}), nitrogen (N{sup +} and N{sub 2}{sup +}), argon (Ar{sup +}) and carbon dioxide (C{sup +}, CO{sub 2}{sup +}, O{sup +} and O{sub 2}{sup +}) at extraction voltage of 2 to 50 kV. We used a pulsed mode of operation, with beam pulses approximately 50 milliseconds long and repetition rate 10 pulses per second, for a duty cycle of about 50%. Downstream ion beam current as measured by a 5 cm diameter Faraday cup was typically 0.5 mA pulse or about 250 {micro}A time averaged. This time averaged beam current is very similar to that obtained for metal ions when the source is operated in the usual vacuum arc mode. Here we describe the modifications made to the source and the results of our investigations.

  2. A hollow cathode hydrogen ion source. [for controlled fusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sovey, J. S.; Mirtich, M. J.

    1977-01-01

    High current density ion sources have been used to heat plasmas in controlled thermonuclear reaction experiments. High beam currents imply relatively high emission currents from cathodes which have generally taken the form of tungsten filaments. This paper describes a hydrogen ion source which was primarily developed to assess the emission current capability and design requirements for hollow cathodes for application in neutral injection devices. The hydrogen source produced ions by electron bombardment via a single hollow cathode. Source design followed mercury ion thruster technology, using a weak magnetic field to enhance ionization efficiency. A 1.3-cm-diam hollow cathode using a low work function material dispenser performed satisfactorily over a discharge current range of 10-90 A. Cylindrical probe measurements taken without ion extraction indicate maximum ion number densities on the order of 10 trillion/cu cm. Discharge durations ranged from 30 sec to continuous operation. Tests with beam extraction at 2.5 keV and 30 A discharge current yield average ion beam current densities of 0.1 A/sq cm over a 5-cm extraction diameter. Results of this study can be used to supply the baseline information needed to scale hollow cathodes for operation at discharge currents of hundreds of amperes using distributed cathodes.

  3. ECR-Driven Multicusp Volume H- Ion Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacal, M.; Ivanov, A. A.; Rouillé, C.; Svarnas, P.; Béchu, S.; Pelletier, J.

    2005-04-01

    We studied the negative ion current extracted from the plasma created by seven elementary ECR sources, operating at 2.45 GHz, placed in the magnetic multipole chamber "Camembert III". We varied the pressure from 1 to 4 mTorr, with a maximum power of 1 kW and studied the plasma created in this system by measuring the various plasma parameters, including the density and temperature of the negative hydrogen ions. We found that the electron temperature is optimal for negative hydrogen ion production at 9.5 cm from the ECR sources. The tantalum-covered wall surface pollution reduces the extracted negative ion current and enhances the electron current. Tantalum evaporation has a positive effect. The use of a grid and of a collar in front of the plasma electrode did not lead to any enhancement of the extracted negative ion current.

  4. Radio-frequency He/sup -/ source and a source of negative ions by cesium sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Billen, J.H.

    1980-01-01

    Two sources of negative ions are described. An rf source produces up to 14 ..mu..A beams of He/sup -/ by charge exchange in Rb vapor. The other Source of Negative Ions by Cesium Sputtering (SNICS) produces a wide variety of negative ion beams in the ..mu..A range. Two important features of SNICS are its simple, compact construction and its very good beam emittance (2 to 4 ..pi..mm mrad MeV/sup 1/). Both sources have lifetimes >200 hours and they are used extensively on the Wisconsin EN tandem.

  5. Impregnated-electrode-type liquid metal ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Ishikawa, J.; Takagi, T.

    1984-12-01

    An impregnated-electrode-type liquid metal ion source has been developed in which a sintered porous tungsten tip is used. The flow rate of the liquid metal can be controlled by selecting the diameters of the tungsten powders to be sintered (10 and 100 ..mu..m). Since the liquid metal can be stably supplied to the tip head, stable operation in a wide range from low (a few ..mu..A) to high ion current (a few hundred ..mu..A) is possible for various metals such as gallium and gold. Moreover, it is also a potential ion source with liquid metals such as silver with high vapor pressure at the melting point. A new method of holding and directly heating the main component of the ion source by means of knife-edged electrodes with a spring is extremely effective for high temperature operation.

  6. Simple Penning ion source for laboratory research and development applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rovey, Joshua L.; Ruzic, Brandon P.; Houlahan, Thomas J.

    2007-10-01

    A simple Penning ion generator (PIG) that can be easily fabricated with simple machining skills and standard laboratory accessories is described. The PIG source uses an iron cathode body, samarium cobalt permanent magnet, stainless steel anode, and iron cathode faceplate to generate a plasma discharge that yields a continuous 1mA beam of positively charged hydrogen ions at 1mTorr of pressure. This operating condition requires 5.4kV and 32.4W of power. Operation with helium is similar to hydrogen. The ion source is being designed and investigated for use in a sealed-tube neutron generator; however, this ion source is thoroughly described so that it can be easily implemented by other researchers for other laboratory research and development applications.

  7. Transverse coupling property of beam from ECR ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Y.; Yuan, Y. J.; Sun, L. T.; Feng, Y. C.; Fang, X.; Cao, Y.; Lu, W.; Zhang, X. Z.; Zhao, H. W.

    2014-11-15

    Experimental evidence of the property of transverse coupling of beam from Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion source is presented. It is especially of interest for an ECR ion source, where the cross section of extracted beam is not round along transport path due to the magnetic confinement configuration. When the ions are extracted and accelerated through the descending axial magnetic field at the extraction region, the horizontal and vertical phase space strongly coupled. In this study, the coupling configuration between the transverse phase spaces of the beam from ECR ion source is achieved by beam back-tracking simulation based on the measurements. The reasonability of this coupling configuration has been proven by a series of subsequent simulations.

  8. Sources of polarized negative ions: progress and prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Haeberli, W.

    1980-01-01

    A summary of recent progress in the art of producing beams of polarized ions is given. In all sources of polarized ions, one first produces (or selects) neutral atoms which are polarized in electron spin. Those types of sources which use a beam of thermal polarized hydrogen atoms are discussed. Progress made in the preparation of the atomic beam and the methods used to convert the neutral atoms to polarized ions is summarized. The second type of source discussed is based on fast (keV) polarized hydrogen atoms. Conversion to negative ions is very simple because one only needs to pass the fast atoms through a suitable charge exchange medium (gas or vapor). However, the production of the polarized atoms is more difficult in this case. The proposal to employ polarized alkali vapor to form a beam of polarized fast H atoms, where the polarized alkali atoms are produced either by an atomic beam apparatus or by optical pumping is discussed. (WHK)

  9. Erosion of Extraction Electrodes of Ion Sources due to Sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Kenmotsu, Takahiro; Wada, Motoi; Miyamoto, Naoki

    2011-01-07

    The effects upon erosion due to implanted atoms in extraction electrodes of an ion source have been investigated through calculating the sputtering yields with a Monte Carlo simulation code, ACAT. The results obtained with ACAT have indicated that the sputtering yields of extraction electrodes are substantially affected by the retention of implanted atoms depending upon the mass ratio of electrode materials and extracted ions from the source plasma. The enhanced erosion takes place as the heavier ion beam species like phosphor is implanted into lighter electrode material like carbon. Additional mixing of materials arising from ion source operation, such as hot cathode materials evaporation onto a carbon extraction electrode, can shorten the lifetime of the extraction electrodes.

  10. POLARIZED ION SOURCES FOR HIGH ENERGY ACCELERATORS AND COLLIDERS

    SciTech Connect

    ZELENSKI,A.N.

    2000-10-16

    The recent progress in polarized ion source development is reviewed. In dc operation a 1.0 mA polarized H{sup -} ion current is now available from the Optically-Pumped Polarized Ion Source (OPPIS) . In pulsed operation a 10 mA polarized H{sup -} ion current was demonstrated at the TRIUMF pulsed OPPIS test bench and a 3.5 mA peak current was obtained from an Atomic Beam Source (ABS) at the INR Moscow test bench. The possibilities for future improvements with both techniques are discussed. A new OPPIS for RHIC spin physics is described. The OPPIS reliably delivered polarized beam for the polarized run at RHIC. The results obtained with a new pulsed ABS injector for the IUCF Cooler Ring are also discussed.

  11. POLARIZED ION SOURCES FOR HIGH ENERGY ACCELERATORS AND COLLIDERS

    SciTech Connect

    ZELENSKI,A.N.

    2000-10-16

    The recent progress in polarized ion source development is reviewed. In dc operation a 1.0 mA polarized H{sup -} ion current is now available from the Optically-Pumped Polarized Ion Source (OPPIS). In pulsed operation a 10 mA polarized H{sup -} ion current was demonstrated at the TRIUMF pulsed OPPIS test bench and a 3.5 mA peak current was obtained from an Atomic Beam Source (ABS) at the INR Moscow test bench. The possibilities for future improvements with both techniques are discussed. A new OPPIS for RHIC spin physics is described. The OPPIS reliably delivered polarized beam for the polarized run at RHIC. The results obtained with a new pulsed ABS injector for the IUCF Cooler Ring are also discussed.

  12. An all permanent magnet electron cyclotron resonance ion source for heavy ion therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Yun Li, Jia Qing; Sun, Liang Ting; Zhang, Xue Zhen; Feng, Yu Cheng; Wang, Hui; Ma, Bao Hua; Li, Xi Xia

    2014-02-15

    A high charge state all permanent Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source, Lanzhou All Permanent ECR ion source no. 3-LAPECR3, has been successfully built at IMP in 2012, which will serve as the ion injector of the Heavy Ion Medical Machine (HIMM) project. As a commercial device, LAPECR3 features a compact structure, small size, and low cost. According to HIMM scenario more than 100 e?A of C{sup 5+} ion beam should be extracted from the ion source, and the beam emittance better than 75 ?*mm*mrad. In recent commissioning, about 120 e?A of C{sup 5+} ion beam was got when work gas was CH{sub 4} while about 262 e?A of C{sup 5+} ion beam was obtained when work gas was C{sub 2}H{sub 2} gas. The design and construction of the ion source and its low-energy transportation beam line, and the preliminary commissioning results will be presented in detail in this paper.

  13. Volume production of negative ions in the reflex type ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Jimbo, K.

    1982-01-01

    The production of negative hydrogen ions is investigated in the reflex-type negative ion source. The extracted negative hydrogen currents of 9.7 mA (100 mA/cm/sup 2/) for H/sup -/ and of 4.1 mA (42 mA/cm/sup 2/) for D/sup -/ are obtained continuously. The impurity is less then 1%. An isotope effect of negative ion production is observed. When anomalous diffusion in the positive column was found by Lehnert and Hoh (1960), it was pointed out that the large particle loss produced by anomalous diffusion is compensated by the large particle production inside the plasma, i.e., the plasma tries to maintain itself. The self-sustaining property of the plasma is applied to the reflex-type negative ion source. Anomalous diffusion was artificially encouraged by changing the radial electric field inside the reflex discharge. The apparent encouragement of negative ion diffusion by the increase of density fluctuation amplitude is observed. Twice as much negative ion current was obtained with the artificial encouragement as without. It is found from the quasilinear theory that the inwardly directed radial electric field destabilizes the plasma in the reflex-type ion source. The nonlinear theory based on Yoshikawa method (1962) is extended, and the anomalous diffusion coefficient in a weakly ionized plasma is obtained. The electrostatic sheath trap, which increases the confinement of negative ions in the reflex-type ion source, is also discussed.

  14. Development of ion beams for space effects testing using an ECR ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Benitez, Janilee; Hodgkinson, Adrian; Johnson, Mike; Loew, Tim; Lyneis, Claude; Phair, Larry

    2013-04-19

    At LBNL's 88-Inch Cyclotron and Berkeley Accelerator Space Effects (BASE) Facility, a range of ion beams at energies from 1 to 55 MeV/nucleon are used for radiation space effects testing. By bombarding a component with ion beams the radiation component of the space environment can be simulated and single event effects (SEEs) determined. The performance of electronic components used in space flight and high altitude aircraft can then be evaluated. The 88- Inch Cyclotron is coupled to the three electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECR, AECR-U, VENUS). These ion sources provide a variety of ion species, ranging from protons to heavy ions such as bismuth, for these tests. In particular the ion sources have been developed to provide {sup c}ocktails{sup ,} a mixture of ions of similar mass-to-charge ratio, which can be simultaneously injected into the cyclotron, but selectively extracted from it. The ions differ in both their linear energy transfer (LET) deposited to the part and in their penetration depth into the tested part. The current heavy ion cocktails available are the 4.5, 10, 16, and 30 MeV per nucleon.

  15. Injected 1+ ion beam as a diagnostics tool of charge breeder ECR ion source plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarvainen, O.; Lamy, T.; Angot, J.; Thuillier, T.; Delahaye, P.; Maunoury, L.; Choinski, J.; Standylo, L.; Galatà, A.; Patti, G.; Koivisto, H.

    2015-06-01

    Charge breeder electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (CB-ECRIS) are used as 1+???n+??charge multiplication devices of post-accelerated radioactive ion beams. The charge breeding process involves thermalization of the injected 1+??ions with the plasma ions in ion-ion collisions, subsequent ionization by electron impact and extraction of the n+??ions. Charge breeding experiments of 85Rb and 133Cs ion beams with the 14.5 GHz PHOENIX CB-ECRIS operating with oxygen gas demonstrate the plasma diagnostics capabilities of the 1+??injection method. Two populations can be distinguished in the m/q-spectrum of the extracted ion beams, the low (1+??and 2+) charge states representing the uncaptured fraction of the incident 1+??ion beam and the high charge states that have been captured in ion-ion collisions and subsequently charge bred through electron impact ionization. Identification of the uncaptured fraction of the 1+??ions allows estimating the lower limit of ion-ion collision frequency of various charge states in the ECRIS plasma. The collision frequencies of highly charged ions (˜107 Hz) are shown to exceed their gyrofrequencies (˜106 Hz) at least by an order of magnitude, which implies that the dynamics of high charge state ions are dictated by magnetically confined electrons and ambipolar diffusion and only low charge state ions can be considered magnetized. Furthermore, it is concluded that the plasma density of the ECRIS charge breeder is most likely on the order of 1011 cm-3 i.e. well below the critical density for 14.5 GHz microwaves.

  16. Electron source for a mini ion trap mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Dietrich, Daniel D. (Livermore, CA); Keville, Robert F. (Valley Springs, CA)

    1995-01-01

    An ion trap which operates in the regime between research ion traps which can detect ions with a mass resolution of better than 1:10.sup.9 and commercial mass spectrometers requiring 10.sup.4 ions with resolutions of a few hundred. The power consumption is kept to a minimum by the use of permanent magnets and a novel electron gun design. By Fourier analyzing the ion cyclotron resonance signals induced in the trap electrodes, a complete mass spectra in a single combined structure can be detected. An attribute of the ion trap mass spectrometer is that overall system size is drastically reduced due to combining a unique electron source and mass analyzer/detector in a single device. This enables portable low power mass spectrometers for the detection of environmental pollutants or illicit substances, as well as sensors for on board diagnostics to monitor engine performance or for active feedback in any process involving exhausting waste products.

  17. Electron source for a mini ion trap mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Dietrich, D.D.; Keville, R.F.

    1995-12-19

    An ion trap is described which operates in the regime between research ion traps which can detect ions with a mass resolution of better than 1:10{sup 9} and commercial mass spectrometers requiring 10{sup 4} ions with resolutions of a few hundred. The power consumption is kept to a minimum by the use of permanent magnets and a novel electron gun design. By Fourier analyzing the ion cyclotron resonance signals induced in the trap electrodes, a complete mass spectra in a single combined structure can be detected. An attribute of the ion trap mass spectrometer is that overall system size is drastically reduced due to combining a unique electron source and mass analyzer/detector in a single device. This enables portable low power mass spectrometers for the detection of environmental pollutants or illicit substances, as well as sensors for on board diagnostics to monitor engine performance or for active feedback in any process involving exhausting waste products. 10 figs.

  18. A low energy ion source for electron capture spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tusche, C.; Kirschner, J.

    2014-06-01

    We report on the design of an ion source for the production of single and double charged Helium ions with kinetic energies in the range from 300 eV down to 5 eV. The construction is based on a commercial sputter ion gun equipped with a Wien-filter for mass/charge separation. Retardation of the ions from the ionizer potential (2 keV) takes place completely within the lens system of the sputter gun, without modification of original parts. For 15 eV He+ ions, the design allows for beam currents up to 30 nA, limited by the space charge repulsion in the beam. For He2 + operation, we obtain a beam current of 320 pA at 30 eV, and 46 pA at 5 eV beam energy, respectively. In addition, operating parameters can be optimized for a significant contribution of metastable He*+ (2s) ions.

  19. Permanent magnet helicon source for ion propulsion Francis F. Chen

    E-print Network

    Chen, Francis F.

    they are related to whistler waves, helicons exist only in a steady (DC) magnetic field ( B0). Sources basedPermanent magnet helicon source for ion propulsion Francis F. Chen Electrical Engineering require a large electromagnet and power supply to produce the magnetic field. At this stage of research

  20. Operation Status of the J-PARC Ion Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oguri, Hidetomo; Ohkoshi, Kiyonori; Ikegami, Kiyoshi; Yamazaki, Saishun; Takagi, Akira; Koizumi, Isao; Ueno, Akira

    A cesium-free negative hydrogen ion source driven with a LaB6 filament is being operated for J-PARC. The ion source has been providing a beam for approximately eight years without any serious troubles. The ion source consists of a cylindrical plasma chamber, a beam extractor and a large vacuum chamber with 2 turbo molecular pumps of 1500 l/s for differential pumping. The source plasma is produced by an arc discharge and confined by a multi-cusp magnetic field produced by permanent magnets surrounding the chamber wall. The 50 keV negative hydrogen beam is extracted by applying about -50 kV to the beam extractor. The basic structure of the ion source has not been changed since the operation was started. The ion source has been operated in two different modes such as low current mode of 20 mA and high current mode of 32 mA. Continuous operation for about 1,000 h and about 500 h was achieved in low and high current mode, respectively. After the operation, we replace the filament by a brand-new one to prevent the filament from failing during the operation. The required time for the replacement including the filament degassing process, the vacuuming and the conditioning operation is about 15 h.

  1. Effect of electric field in the course of obtaining a-SiO{sub x}:H(Er, O) films by dc magnetron sputtering on their composition and photoluminescence intensity of erbium ions

    SciTech Connect

    Undalov, Yu. K. Terukov, E. I.; Gusev, O. B.; Lebedev, V. M.; Trapeznikova, I. N.

    2008-11-15

    The effect of electric field on the elemental composition and photoluminescence of films of amorphous hydrogenated silicon doped with erbium and oxygen (a-SiO{sub x}:H(Er, O)) in the course of obtaining these films by dc magnetron sputtering is studied. Two series of films were studied in relation to the electric-field strength in the magnetron, the area of the metallic erbium target, and oxygen content in the working chamber. The first series of films was obtained using an electrically insulated substrate holder, and the second series was obtained with a positive potential at the substrate holder with respect to the cathode. It is shown that, although the character of variation in the elemental composition and photoluminescence intensity for erbium Er{sup 3+} ions differ appreciably in the films of the two series, both of these factors are determined, as a result, by the processes of sputtering oxidation of the Si and Er targets that represent the cathode.

  2. Tracking the Magnetron Motion in FT-ICR Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Jertz, Roland; Friedrich, Jochen; Kriete, Claudia; Nikolaev, Evgeny N; Baykut, Gökhan

    2015-08-01

    In Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) the ion magnetron motion is not usually directly measured, yet its contribution to the performance of the FT-ICR cell is important. Its presence is manifested primarily by the appearance of even-numbered harmonics in the spectra. In this work, the relationship between the ion magnetron motion in the ICR cell and the intensities of the second harmonic signal and its sideband peak in the FT-ICR spectrum is studied. Ion motion simulations show that during a cyclotron motion excitation of ions which are offset to the cell axis, a position-dependent radial drift of the cyclotron center takes place. This radial drift can be directed outwards if the ion is initially offset towards one of the detection electrodes, or it can be directed inwards if the ion is initially offset towards one of the excitation electrodes. Consequently, a magnetron orbit diameter can increase or decrease during a resonant cyclotron excitation. A method has been developed to study this behavior of the magnetron motion by acquiring a series of FT-ICR spectra using varied post-capture delay (PCD) time intervals. PCD is the delay time after the capture of the ions in the cell before the cyclotron excitation of the ion is started. Plotting the relative intensity of the second harmonic sideband peak versus the PCD in each mass spectrum leads to an oscillating "PCD curve". The position and height of minima and maxima of this curve can be used to interpret the size and the position of the magnetron orbit. Ion motion simulations show that an off-axis magnetron orbit generates even-numbered harmonic peaks with sidebands at a distance of one magnetron frequency and multiples of it. This magnetron offset is due to a radial offset of the electric field axis versus the geometric cell axis. In this work, we also show how this offset of the radial electric field center can be corrected by applying appropriate DC correction voltages to the mantle electrodes of the ICR cell while observing the signals of the second harmonic peak group. The field correction leads to a definite performance increase in terms of resolving power and mass accuracy, and the mass spectrum contains intensity-minimized even-numbered harmonics. This is very important in the case of high performance cells, particularly the dynamically harmonized cell, since the magnetron motion can severely impair the averaging effect for dynamic harmonization and can therefore reduce the resolving power. PMID:25971670

  3. Tracking the Magnetron Motion in FT-ICR Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jertz, Roland; Friedrich, Jochen; Kriete, Claudia; Nikolaev, Evgeny N.; Baykut, Gökhan

    2015-08-01

    In Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) the ion magnetron motion is not usually directly measured, yet its contribution to the performance of the FT-ICR cell is important. Its presence is manifested primarily by the appearance of even-numbered harmonics in the spectra. In this work, the relationship between the ion magnetron motion in the ICR cell and the intensities of the second harmonic signal and its sideband peak in the FT-ICR spectrum is studied. Ion motion simulations show that during a cyclotron motion excitation of ions which are offset to the cell axis, a position-dependent radial drift of the cyclotron center takes place. This radial drift can be directed outwards if the ion is initially offset towards one of the detection electrodes, or it can be directed inwards if the ion is initially offset towards one of the excitation electrodes. Consequently, a magnetron orbit diameter can increase or decrease during a resonant cyclotron excitation. A method has been developed to study this behavior of the magnetron motion by acquiring a series of FT-ICR spectra using varied post-capture delay (PCD) time intervals. PCD is the delay time after the capture of the ions in the cell before the cyclotron excitation of the ion is started. Plotting the relative intensity of the second harmonic sideband peak versus the PCD in each mass spectrum leads to an oscillating "PCD curve". The position and height of minima and maxima of this curve can be used to interpret the size and the position of the magnetron orbit. Ion motion simulations show that an off-axis magnetron orbit generates even-numbered harmonic peaks with sidebands at a distance of one magnetron frequency and multiples of it. This magnetron offset is due to a radial offset of the electric field axis versus the geometric cell axis. In this work, we also show how this offset of the radial electric field center can be corrected by applying appropriate DC correction voltages to the mantle electrodes of the ICR cell while observing the signals of the second harmonic peak group. The field correction leads to a definite performance increase in terms of resolving power and mass accuracy, and the mass spectrum contains intensity-minimized even-numbered harmonics. This is very important in the case of high performance cells, particularly the dynamically harmonized cell, since the magnetron motion can severely impair the averaging effect for dynamic harmonization and can therefore reduce the resolving power.

  4. A New Droplet Breakup Model for Dimer Ion Formation from a Gallium Liquid Metal Ion Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hornsey, Richard; Ishitani, Tohru

    1990-06-01

    It is demonstrated that energy distribution curves for Ga2+ found in the literature are inconsistent with existing models of cluster ion formation in liquid metal ion sources (LMIS). A new model for the rapid breakup of metastable droplets away from the emitting area is proposed to explain gallium dimer ion formation. Simple calculations are performed to establish the feasibility of this mechanism, and the practical application of this model is discussed in detail.

  5. Volume production of negative ions in the reflex-type ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Jimbo, K.

    1982-06-01

    The production of negative hydrogen ions is investigated in the reflex-type negative ion source. The extracted negative hydrogen currents of 9.7 mA (100 mA/cm/sup 2/) for H/sup -/ and of 4.1 mA(42 mA/cm/sup 2/) for D/sup -/ are obtained continuously. The impurity is less than 1%. An isotope effect of negative ion production is observed.

  6. The status of the Electron Beam Ion Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Stockli, M.P.

    1990-01-01

    More than twenty years after its invention, 13 examples of the Electron Beam Ion Sources (EBIS) are in operation worldwide. The substantial progress in operation and insight, achieved over the last few years, made the EBISes become reliable tools for the production of beams of very highly charged, low-energy ions. For example, 8 EBISes produce bare argon on a standard basis. The successful production of hydrogen-like xenon presents the ions with the highest ionization energy, whereas the production of Th80+ presents the highest achieved charge state. Several synchrotrons are fed by EBIS injectors, taking advantage of the EBIS batch mode production, which yields the highest charge states. A few EBISes are used for ion source development. However, most of the EBISes' efforts are directed to research the physics of highly charged ions. Some of those are used to study the electron--ion interaction inside the source. But normally, most EBISes deliver the ions for external experiments, which so far concentrate on the recombination of the highly charged ions with atoms, molecules and surfaces. The ions are typically produced at a potential of 1 to a few kilovolts per charge; but in most cases, the EBIS is mounted on a high voltage platform or is followed by an RFQ, and therefore can generate ion energies from a few hundred volts up to a few hundred kilovolts per charge. The delivered beams have a low emittance and a low energy spread, which is an advantage for high-resolution experiments. This paper presents briefly all operational EBISes, their capabilities, their achievements, and their contribution to physics research. 5 figs., 1 tab., 59 refs.

  7. The status of the Electron Beam Ion Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Stockli, M.P.

    1990-12-31

    More than twenty years after its invention, 13 examples of the Electron Beam Ion Sources (EBIS) are in operation worldwide. The substantial progress in operation and insight, achieved over the last few years, made the EBISes become reliable tools for the production of beams of very highly charged, low-energy ions. For example, 8 EBISes produce bare argon on a standard basis. The successful production of hydrogen-like xenon presents the ions with the highest ionization energy, whereas the production of Th80+ presents the highest achieved charge state. Several synchrotrons are fed by EBIS injectors, taking advantage of the EBIS batch mode production, which yields the highest charge states. A few EBISes are used for ion source development. However, most of the EBISes` efforts are directed to research the physics of highly charged ions. Some of those are used to study the electron--ion interaction inside the source. But normally, most EBISes deliver the ions for external experiments, which so far concentrate on the recombination of the highly charged ions with atoms, molecules and surfaces. The ions are typically produced at a potential of 1 to a few kilovolts per charge; but in most cases, the EBIS is mounted on a high voltage platform or is followed by an RFQ, and therefore can generate ion energies from a few hundred volts up to a few hundred kilovolts per charge. The delivered beams have a low emittance and a low energy spread, which is an advantage for high-resolution experiments. This paper presents briefly all operational EBISes, their capabilities, their achievements, and their contribution to physics research. 5 figs., 1 tab., 59 refs.

  8. Review of MEVVA ion source performance for accelerator injection

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, I.G.; Godechot, X. ); Spaedtke, P.; Emig, H.; Rueck, D.M.; Wolf, B.H. )

    1991-05-01

    The Mevva (metal vapor vacuum arc) ion source provides high current beams of multiply-charged metal ions suitable for use in heavy ion synchrotrons as well as for metallurgical ion implantation. Pulsed beam currents of up to several amperes can be produced at ion energies of up to several hundred keV. Operation has been demonstrate for 48 metallic ion species: Li, C, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ge, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Mo, Pd, Ag, Cd, In, Sn, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Dy, Ho, Er, Yb, Hf, Ta, W, Ir, Pt, Au, Pb, Bi, Th and U. When the source is operated optimally the rms fractional beam noise can be as low as 7% of the mean beam current; and when properly triggered the source operates reliably and reproducibly for many tens of thousands of pulses without failure. In this paper we review the source performance referred specifically to its use for synchrotron injection. 15 refs., 3 figs.

  9. Electron energy recovery system for negative ion sources

    DOEpatents

    Dagenhart, William K. (Oak Ridge, TN); Stirling, William L. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1982-01-01

    An electron energy recovery system for negative ion sources is provided. The system, employs crossed electric and magnetic fields to separate the electrons from ions as they are extracted from a negative ion source plasma generator and before the ions are accelerated to their full kinetic energy. With the electric and magnetic fields oriented 90.degree. to each other, the electrons are separated from the plasma and remain at approximately the electrical potential of the generator in which they were generated. The electrons migrate from the ion beam path in a precessing motion out of the ion accelerating field region into an electron recovery region provided by a specially designed electron collector electrode. The electron collector electrode is uniformly spaced from a surface of the ion generator which is transverse to the direction of migration of the electrons and the two surfaces are contoured in a matching relationship which departs from a planar configuration to provide an electric field component in the recovery region which is parallel to the magnetic field thereby forcing the electrons to be directed into and collected by the electron collector electrode. The collector electrode is maintained at a potential slightly positive with respect to the ion generator so that the electrons are collected at a small fraction of the full accelerating supply voltage energy.

  10. Intense metal-ion-beam production using an impregnated-electrode-type liquid-metal ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, Junzo; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Aoyama, Yuji; Takagi, Toshinori

    1990-01-01

    The properties of liquid-metal ion sources are very sensitive to their tip structure. Because the impregnated-electrode-type liquid-metal ion source has a porous tip, it generates more than 300-?A ion currents of various metals including relatively high vapor-pressure metals such as Li, Cu, Ga, Ge, Ag, In, and Au, from which ions can be stably extracted. The large beam divergence, a common disadvantage in liquid-metal ion sources, can be overcome by designing new lens systems to efficiently transport the ion beam for both high- and low-energy applications. In addition, the ion beam current can be multiplied by using multiple emission cusps; thus, a germanium ion current of 1.3 mA was obtained by a three-point emission source. Therefore, the impregnated-electrode-type liquid-metal ion source can be utilized as a metal ion source for general applications.

  11. Intense metal-ion-beam production using an impregnated-electrode-type liquid-metal ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Ishikawa, J.; Tsuji, H.; Aoyama, Y.; Takagi, T. )

    1990-01-01

    The properties of liquid-metal ion sources are very sensitive to their tip structure. Because the impregnated-electrode-type liquid-metal ion source has a porous tip, it generates more than 300-{mu}A ion currents of various metals including relatively high vapor-pressure metals such as Li, Cu, Ga, Ge, Ag, In, and Au, from which ions can be stably extracted. The large beam divergence, a common disadvantage in liquid-metal ion sources, can be overcome by designing new lens systems to efficiently transport the ion beam for both high- and low-energy applications. In addition, the ion beam current can be multiplied by using multiple emission cusps; thus, a germanium ion current of 1.3 mA was obtained by a three-point emission source. Therefore, the impregnated-electrode-type liquid-metal ion source can be utilized as a metal ion source for general applications.

  12. Rare earth focused ion beam implantation utilizing Er and Pr liquid alloy ion sources

    E-print Network

    Cincinnati, University of

    substrate.17 The success of FIB technology is due to the invention of liquid metal ion sources LMIS .18 A LMIS can be made in needle or capillary form. The liquid metal is drawn into a Taylor cone where ion be used. The liquid metal or liquid alloy should have low vapor pressure and good wettability

  13. Observation of doubly-charged dimer ion emission in liquid-metal-ion sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishitani, T.; Umemura, K.; Kawanami, Y.

    1989-08-01

    Liquid-metal-ion sources (LMIS's) emit atomic and cluster ions. In the mass analysis of LMIS's using Au-Sb and Pt-Sb alloys, the doubly-charged dimer ions Sb 2+2 are observed as well as the doubly-charged diatomic ions AuSb 2+ and PtSb 2+. The flux abundance of Sb 2+2 in Sb + +Sb 2+2 for a Au-Sb alloy is approximately 20%, which is larger by one order of magnitude than that for a Pt-Au alloy. It is predicted that the stability of cluster ions is strongly affected by the electrostatic field near the ion emitter. The formation mechanism of M 2+2 ions is discussed using mass spectra and energy distribution curves.

  14. High brilliance multicusp ion source for hydrogen microscopy at SNAKE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moser, M.; Reichart, P.; Carli, W.; Greubel, C.; Peeper, K.; Hartung, P.; Dollinger, G.

    2012-02-01

    In order to improve the lateral resolution of the 3D hydrogen microscopy by proton-proton scattering at the Munich microprobe SNAKE, we have installed a new multicusp ion source for negative hydrogen ions manufactured by HVEE at the Munich 14 MV tandem accelerator that boosts the proton beam brilliance with the potential to reduce the beam diameter at the focal plane of SNAKE. We measured a beam brilliance B = 27 A m -2 rad -2 eV -1 directly behind the ion source that is at the space charge limit for conventional ion sources. After preacceleration to in total 180 keV beam energy we measure a slightly reduced beam brilliance of B = 10 ?A mm -2 mrad -2 MeV -1. For injection into the tandem accelerator, the extracted H --current of the multicusp source of 1 mA is reduced to about 10 ?A because of radiation safety regulations and heating problems at the object slits of SNAKE. Due to beam oscillations and influences of the terminal stripper of the tandem we measured a reduced beam brilliance of 0.8 ?A mm -2 mrad -2 MeV -1 in front of SNAKE at 25 MeV but still being nearly 10 times larger than measured with any other ion source.

  15. Development of Li+ alumino-silicate ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, P.K.; Seidl, P.A.; Waldron, W.; Greenway, W.; Lidia, S.; Anders, A.; Kwan, J.

    2009-04-21

    To uniformly heat targets to electron-volt temperatures for the study of warm dense matter, one strategy is to deposit most of the ion energy at the peak of energy loss (dE/dx) with a low (E< 5 MeV) kinetic energy beam and a thin target[1]. Lower mass ions have a peak dE/dx at a lower kinetic energy. To this end, a small lithium (Li+) alumino-silicate source has been fabricated, and its emission limit has been measured. These surface ionization sources are heated to 1000-1150 C where they preferentially emit singly ionized alkali ions. Alumino-silicates sources of K+ and Cs+ have been used extensively in beam experiments, but there are additional challenges for the preparation of high-quality Li+ sources: There are tighter tolerances in preparing and sintering the alumino-silicate to the substrate to produce an emitter that gives uniform ion emission, sufficient current density and low beam emittance. We report on recent measurements ofhigh ( up to 35 mA/cm2) current density from a Li+ source. Ion species identification of possible contaminants is being verified with a Wien (E x B) filter, and via time-of-flight.

  16. Improving the ion current density distribution from a gridless ion source by optimizing the orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabricius, Henrik

    1999-09-01

    A Mark II gridless ion source and HCES5000 hollow cathode electron source are used for ion assisted deposition (IAD) of dense coatings. It is possible to check the ion beam profile with a beam probe translated at a right angle to the beam axis. By rotating the probe it is possible to eliminate the contribution form charge exchange ions and to estimate the mean free path of the energetic ions. The beam intensity is expressed as a polynomial in cosine to the angle between the ion track and the beam axis and we derive mathematical equations to describe the result in distribution of ion current density on a flat and on an umbrella shaped substrate holder. A grid of target points is introduced immediately in front of the holder an in turn we aim the ion gun towards each of these. In each case, we calculate the mean ion current density and the variance across the rotating substrate holder. Finally, we use the obtained maps to optimize the orientation of the ion gun.

  17. A Test Stand for Ion Sources of Ultimate Reliability

    SciTech Connect

    Enparantza, R.; Uriarte, L.; Romano, P.; Alonso, J.; Ariz, I.; Egiraun, M.; Bermejo, F. J.; Etxebarria, V.; Lucas, J.; Del Rio, J. M.; Letchford, A.; Faircloth, D.; Stockli, M.

    2009-03-12

    The rationale behind the ITUR project is to perform a comparison between different kinds of H{sup -} ion sources using the same beam diagnostics setup. In particular, a direct comparison will be made in terms of the emittance characteristics of Penning Type sources such as those currently in use in the injector for the ISIS (UK) Pulsed Neutron Source and those of volumetric type such as that driving the injector for the ORNL Spallation Neutron Source (TN, U.S.A.). The endeavour here pursued is thus to build an Ion Source Test Stand where virtually any type of source can be tested and its features measured and, thus compared to the results of other sources under the same gauge. It would be possible then to establish a common ground for effectively comparing different ion sources. The long term objectives are thus to contribute towards building compact sources of minimum emittance, maximum performance, high reliability-availability, high percentage of desired particle production, stability and high brightness. The project consortium is lead by Tekniker-IK4 research centre and partners are companies Elytt Energy and Jema Group. The technical viability is guaranteed by the collaboration between the project consortium and several scientific institutions, such the CSIC (Spain), the University of the Basque Country (Spain), ISIS (STFC-UK), SNS (ORNL-USA) and CEA in Saclay (France)

  18. The use of ionic liquid ion sources (ILIS) in FIB applications

    E-print Network

    Zorzos, Anthony Nicholas

    2009-01-01

    A new monoenergetic, high-brightness ion source can be constructed using an arrangement similar to liquid metal ion sources (LMIS) by substituting the liquid metal with an ionic liquid, or room temperature molten salt. Ion ...

  19. Time evolution of charge states in an ECR ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Pardo, R.C.; Harkewicz, R.; Billquist, P.J.

    1995-12-01

    The production of high charge-state ions in an ECR ion source has been studied as a function of time using a pulsed NdYAG laser to ablate heavy metal (bismuth) ions into the plasma. The time required to produce a charge state has been measured by observing the arrival time of the ions at a Faraday cup after the source analyzing magnet. The results of these measurements have been compared to a simple sequential ionization model and are found to be in good agreement with the data. The data can be used to characterize the plasma electron density, electron temperature and neutral atom density since these are the only three adjustable parameters in the model and are sufficient to achieve good agreement for the time evolution of all observed charge states.

  20. Beam dynamics of a liquid-metal ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whealton, J. H.; Meszaros, P. S.; Rothe, K. E.; Raridon, R. J.; Ryan, P. M.

    1990-01-01

    rms emittance growth of liquid-metal ion sources is studied. Processes included are nonlinear expansion through extractor and accelerator fringe fields, nonlinear beam space charge, plasma effects near needle, and waves [either ion acoustic or space charge limited as considered by Dudnikov (private communication, 1988)]. This investigation consists of 2-D analysis of appropriate Vlasov-Poisson equations in both steady-state and time-dependent formulations. Various geometries will be considered such as some used by Alton of ORNL.

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF THE SNS EXTERNAL ANTENNA H- ION SOURCE

    SciTech Connect

    Welton, Robert F; Carmichael, Justin R; Crisp, Danny W; Han, Baoxi; Murray Jr, S N; Pennisi, Terry R; Santana, Manuel; Stockli, Martin P

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is an accelerator-based, pulsed neutron-scattering facility currently in the process of ramping up neutron production. To meet present and future beam current and reliability requirements we are developing an RF-driven, H- ion source based on a ceramic aluminium nitride (AlN) plasma chamber surrounded by an external RF antenna. This report recounts the design of the prototype source, describes the Cs collar variations tested, enumerates recent modifications made to the source to prepare a production version, and summarizes the results of runs on the SNS test stand and Front End (FE) of the SNS accelerator. Up to ~100 mA unanalyzed beam currents (60Hz, 1ms) have been measured on the SNS ion source test stand, and up to 42mA have been successfully accelerated by the RFQ on the SNS front-end at lower RF power.

  2. Droplet and cluster ion emission from Ga and In liquid metal ion sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hornsey, Richard; Ishitani, Tohru

    1990-10-01

    There is at present a need to model the emission of droplets from liquid metal ion sources (LMIS), in order to account for such additional phenomena as cluster-ion emissions; knowledge of the droplets' initial sizes and droplets is required for the prediction of cluster ion voltage deficits. A simple model is developed in which the droplets are envisioned as forming from the breakoff of the tip sphere from the LMIS apical jet. The scheme is demonstrated to be useful in the derivation of qualitative variations of LMIS mass loss, Ga and In dimer ion voltage deficits, and energy spreads with current.

  3. Production of a highly charged uranium ion beam with RIKEN superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Higurashi, Y.; Ohnishi, J.; Nakagawa, T.; Haba, H.; Fujimaki, M.; Komiyama, M.; Kamigaito, O.; Tamura, M.; Aihara, T.; Uchiyama, A.

    2012-02-15

    A highly charged uranium (U) ion beam is produced from the RIKEN superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source using 18 and 28 GHz microwaves. The sputtering method is used to produce this U ion beam. The beam intensity is strongly dependent on the rod position and sputtering voltage. We observe that the emittance of U{sup 35+} for 28 GHz microwaves is almost the same as that for 18 GHz microwaves. It seems that the beam intensity of U ions produced using 28 GHz microwaves is higher than that produced using 18 GHz microwaves at the same Radio Frequency (RF) power.

  4. The ATLAS PII-ECR ion source project

    SciTech Connect

    Pardo, R.C.; Billquist, P.J.; Dey, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    The Argonne PII-ECR ion source has been operating for ten months. Beam development has proceeded well and has included the first beams from solid materials as well as gases. High voltage operation has been accomplished and beams to an atomic physics program have been provided for a total of four months. Problems with the high voltage transformer has limited run time at high voltage. A test of ion cyclotron resonance heating has occurred, demonstrating the possibility of selectively enhancing certain charge states in the extracted beam distributions. First beam from the Phase I Positive Ion Injector (PII) project is scheduled for February, 1989. 7 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Shunting arc plasma source for pure carbon ion beam.

    PubMed

    Koguchi, H; Sakakita, H; Kiyama, S; Shimada, T; Sato, Y; Hirano, Y

    2012-02-01

    A plasma source is developed using a coaxial shunting arc plasma gun to extract a pure carbon ion beam. The pure carbon ion beam is a new type of deposition system for diamond and other carbon materials. Our plasma device generates pure carbon plasma from solid-state carbon material without using a hydrocarbon gas such as methane gas, and the plasma does not contain any hydrogen. The ion saturation current of the discharge measured by a double probe is about 0.2 mA?mm(2) at the peak of the pulse. PMID:22380206

  6. Shunting arc plasma source for pure carbon ion beama)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koguchi, H.; Sakakita, H.; Kiyama, S.; Shimada, T.; Sato, Y.; Hirano, Y.

    2012-02-01

    A plasma source is developed using a coaxial shunting arc plasma gun to extract a pure carbon ion beam. The pure carbon ion beam is a new type of deposition system for diamond and other carbon materials. Our plasma device generates pure carbon plasma from solid-state carbon material without using a hydrocarbon gas such as methane gas, and the plasma does not contain any hydrogen. The ion saturation current of the discharge measured by a double probe is about 0.2 mA/mm2 at the peak of the pulse.

  7. Multi-cathode metal vapor arc ion source

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Ian G. (1088 Woodside Rd., Berkeley, CA 94708); MacGill, Robert A. (645 Kern St., Richmond, CA 94805)

    1988-01-01

    An ion generating apparatus utilizing a vacuum chamber, a cathode and an anode in the chamber. A source of electrical power produces an arc or discharge between the cathode and anode. The arc is sufficient to vaporize a portion of the cathode to form a plasma. The plasma is directed to an extractor which separates the electrons from the plasma, and accelerates the ions to produce an ion beam. One embodiment of the appaatus utilizes a multi-cathode arrangement for interaction with the anode.

  8. Development of a polarized 3He ion source for RHIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epstein, C. S.

    2012-09-01

    A polarized 3He beam in RHIC would enable new, unique, high energy QCD studies of neutron structure with existing polarized proton beams. In addition, it could be used for important tests of the Standard Model in a future electronion collider. A source of polarized 3He++ ions utilizing the new Electron Beam Ionization Source (EBIS) at BNL is under development. 3He atoms can be polarized using metastability exchange optical pumping (MEOP) and the atoms transferred to EBIS. Fully stripped 3He++ ions would be extracted from EBIS and their polarization measured at low energies. The concept for the ion source is presented and the plan for the development described. Research supported by DOE Office of Nuclear Physics.

  9. Design and development of the CSNS ion source control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yan-Hua; Li, Gang; Ouyang, Hua-Fu

    2013-07-01

    Now that the CSNS ion source test stand has been stably working for years, an online control system for the CSNS ion source which aims to be more stable and reliable is now under development. F3RP61-2L, a new PLC CPU module running an embedded Linux system, is introduced to the system as an IOC, to function together with the I/O modules of FA-M3 PLC on the PLC-bus. The adoption of the new IOC not only simplifies the architecture of the control system, but also improves the data transmission speed. In this paper, the design and development of the supervisory and control system for the CSNS ion source are described.

  10. Reservoir-type liquid metal ion source of Al

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Hiroshi; Torii, Yasuhiro

    1986-07-01

    A liquid metal ion source of Al with a boride reservoir was developed. In this reservoir a shorter boride emitter was designed to overcome the brittleness of boride materials and some problems in supplying the Al material. This source makes possible a long continuous operation time and enhanced reliability. The fundamental performance characteristics did not change after 250 h of operation. A stable Al ion beam emission was obtained for more than 500 h and its current fluctuation was less than ±1%/3 h for a 20-30-?A source ion current. The energy spread was less than 9 eV (FWHM) for a 30-?A/sr angular current intensity.

  11. Magnetized hollow cathode activated magnetron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baránková, H.; Bardos, L.; Bardos, A.

    2015-10-01

    Planar magnetron in which the target is coupled with a magnetized hollow cathode is presented. Detailed principles of such arrangements are explained. The hollow cathode activated magnetron produces intense and stable plasmas in a wider interval of the working gas pressures as compared to the conventional magnetrons at the same power. The developed arrangements enhance sputtering from the magnetron target by the high-density hollow cathode plasma and increase the number of sputtered/evaporated species. Results of the test experiments of these arrangements on a commercial planar magnetron with the Ti target are presented and their capabilities discussed.

  12. Subcutoff microwave driven plasma ion sources for multielemental focused ion beam systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mathew, Jose V.; Chowdhury, Abhishek; Bhattacharjee, Sudeep

    2008-06-15

    A compact microwave driven plasma ion source for focused ion beam applications has been developed. Several gas species have been experimented including argon, krypton, and hydrogen. The plasma, confined by a minimum B multicusp magnetic field, has good radial and axial uniformity. The octupole multicusp configuration shows a superior performance in terms of plasma density ({approx}1.3x10{sup 11} cm{sup -3}) and electron temperature (7-15 eV) at a power density of 5-10 W/cm{sup 2}. Ion current densities ranging from a few hundreds to over 1000 mA/cm{sup 2} have been obtained with different plasma electrode apertures. The ion source will be combined with electrostatic Einzel lenses and should be capable of producing multielemental focused ion beams for nanostructuring and implantations. The initial simulation results for the focused beams have been presented.

  13. A New HRIBF Electron Beam Plasma Ion Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goans, Ronald; Carter, Ken; Griffith, Boyce; Reed, Charles

    2011-04-01

    The particle-surface interactions that dominate the effusion of particles through the target/ion source system (TISS) typically require very high temperatures to reduce the release time, particularly for the less volatile species. This high- temperature environment, however, may not be conducive to the efficient formation and transport of molecular sidebands. To investigate and improve the operating conditions necessary to optimize the molecular-sideband technique at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF), the standard HRIBF Electron Beam Plasma (EBP) ion source design was modified to allow independent and controlled heating of the transfer line and cathode. The modified TISS was built and the modifications have been characterized. While maintaining the cathode temperature necessary for normal operation of the EBP ion source, the transfer line temperature was varied from about 1300°C to 2000°C for a target temperature held at 1900°C. A complete overview of the new target/ion source parameters will be presented. This research is sponsored by the National Nuclear Security Administration under the Stewardship Science Academic Alliances program through DOE Cooperative Agreement # DE-FC03-3NA00143.

  14. Development of a carbon-cluster ion source for JYFLTRAP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elomaa, V.-V.; Eronen, T.; Hager, U.; Jokinen, A.; Kessler, T.; Moore, I. D.; Rahaman, S.; Weber, C.; Äystö, J.

    2008-10-01

    A carbon-cluster ion source based on laser ablation and ionization of a carbon sample has been built and tested for the JYFLTRAP setup. In the present configuration the ion source is situated in the electrostatic switchyard in front of the radiofrequency (RFQ) cooler and buncher. In this position the beam quality of the carbon clusters injected into the Penning trap system is considerably improved by the RFQ. Moreover, the mass-dependence of the RFQ's transmission can be used to some extent to suppress unwanted cluster sizes.

  15. Note: Flowing ion population from a resonance cavity source

    SciTech Connect

    Gayetsky, Lisa E.; Lynch, Kristina A.

    2011-04-15

    The experimental low energy plasma for hemispherical analyzers nominal testing thermal plasma facility of Dartmouth College uses a microwave plasma source which generates an ionosphere-like plasma through a two-step process. The plasma is initially generated inside a cylindrical, insulated, resonance cavity. This initial plasma must pass through a sheath in order to enter the main experimental region. This process imparts a significant flow velocity to the ions which has been neglected in previous analysis of this plasma source. We predict the flow energy of the ions to be between 12-15 eV depending on conservation laws and show agreement with experimental results.

  16. Note: flowing ion population from a resonance cavity source.

    PubMed

    Gayetsky, Lisa E; Lynch, Kristina A

    2011-04-01

    The experimental low energy plasma for hemispherical analyzers nominal testing thermal plasma facility of Dartmouth College uses a microwave plasma source which generates an ionosphere-like plasma through a two-step process. The plasma is initially generated inside a cylindrical, insulated, resonance cavity. This initial plasma must pass through a sheath in order to enter the main experimental region. This process imparts a significant flow velocity to the ions which has been neglected in previous analysis of this plasma source. We predict the flow energy of the ions to be between 12-15 eV depending on conservation laws and show agreement with experimental results. PMID:21529056

  17. Field evaporation ion source with possible application to electrostatic propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weizer, V. G.

    1971-01-01

    Field evaporation of solid metal electrodes has been proposed as an ion source for an electrostatic propulsion device. The chief advantage over existing ion sources is the prospect of 100 percent fuel utilization efficiency. This advantage arises as a result of the elimination of the need for a gaseous precursor state for propellant ionization. The attainment of required high surface field strengths is achieved through field-induced extrusion of the electrode geometry at elevated temperatures. Contributions of both surface and bulk transport mechanisms are taken into account.

  18. Plasma emission spectroscopy for operating and developing the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) H(-) ion sources.

    PubMed

    Han, B X; Welton, R F; Murray, S N; Pennisi, T R; Santana, M; Stockli, M P

    2014-02-01

    A RF-driven, Cs-enhanced H(-) ion source feeds the SNS accelerator with a high current (typically >50 mA), ?1.0 ms pulsed beam at 60 Hz. To achieve the persistent high current beam for several weeks long service cycles, each newly installed ion source undergoes a rigorous conditioning and cesiation processes. Plasma conditioning outgases the system and sputter-cleans the ion conversion surfaces. A cesiation process immediately following the plasma conditioning releases Cs to provide coverage on the ion conversion surfaces. The effectiveness of the ion source conditioning and cesiation is monitored with plasma emission spectroscopy using a high-sensitivity optical spectrometer. Plasma emission spectroscopy is also used to provide a means for diagnosing and confirming a failure of the insulating coating of the ion source RF antenna which is immersed in the plasma. Emissions of composition elements of the antenna coating material, Na emission being the most significant, drastically elevate to signal a failure when it happens. Plasma spectra of the developmental ion source with an AlN (aluminum nitrite) chamber and an external RF antenna are also briefly discussed. PMID:24593570

  19. Intense polarized /sup 3/He ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Slobodrian, R.J.; Bertrand, R.; Grioux, J.; Labrie, R.; Lapainte, R.; Meunier, J.F.; Pigeon, G.; Pouliot, L.; Rioux, C.; Roy, R.

    1985-10-01

    This source is based on the atomic polarization of the 2/sup 3/S/sub 1/ metastable state of the neutral atom. A version suitable for operation on the high voltage terminal of a CN Van de Graaff has been constructed, bench tested and installed in the terminal of a 7.5 MV machine. The polarization of the atomic beam is higher than 90%. It is now fully operational and a current of /sup 3/He/sup +/ of 300 nA has been measured after acceleration.

  20. Recent progress on the superconducting ion source VENUS

    SciTech Connect

    Benitez, J. Y.; Franzen, K. Y.; Hodgkinson, A.; Loew, T.; Lyneis, C. M.; Phair, L.; Saba, J.; Strohmeier, M.; Tarvainen, O.

    2012-02-15

    The 28 GHz Ion Source VENUS (versatile ECR for nuclear science) is back in operation after the superconducting sextupole leads were repaired and a fourth cryocooler was added. VENUS serves as an R and D device to explore the limits of electron cyclotron resonance source performance at 28 GHz with its 10 kW gryotron and optimum magnetic fields and as an ion source to increase the capabilities of the 88-Inch Cyclotron both for nuclear physics research and applications. The development and testing of ovens and sputtering techniques cover a wide range of applications. Recent experiments on bismuth demonstrated stable operation at 300 e{mu}A of Bi{sup 31+}, which is in the intensity range of interest for high performance heavy-ion drivers such as FRIB (Facility for Rare Isotope Beams). In addition, the space radiation effects testing program at the cyclotron relies on the production of a cocktail beam with many species produced simultaneously in the ion source and this can be done with a combination of gases, sputter probes, and an oven. These capabilities are being developed with VENUS by adding a low temperature oven, sputter probes, as well as studying the RF coupling into the source.

  1. Practical experience in extending the ion source and injection system H{sup -}-ion source duty cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Faircloth, D.C.; Whitehead, M.O.; Wood, T.

    2006-03-15

    The ion source and injection system H{sup -} Penning surface-plasma source is currently being developed on the ion source development rig at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory in order to meet the requirements for the next generation of high-power proton drivers. Finite element modeling has been used previously to study the effect of increasing the duty cycle. The main requirement to allow increased duty cycles is improved cooling. By simply reducing the thickness of a sheet of mica to improve thermal conductance to the cooling system, duty cycles of 1.5 ms at 50 Hz can be achieved. Slight increase in hydrogen flow rate is required as the duty cycle is increased. As the duty cycle is increased the output current reduces, however, there is no change in beam emittance. The source cooling system is described and the heat flows within the source are discussed.

  2. Fast neutral beam ion source coupled to a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, N.C.; Limbach, P.A.; Shomo, R.E. II; Marshall, A.G. ); Appelhans, A.D.; Delmore, J.E. )

    1991-11-01

    The coupling of an autoneutralizing SF{sup {minus}}{sub 6} fast ion-beam gun to a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT/ICR) mass spectrometer is described. The fast neutral beam provides for secondary-ion-type FT/ICR mass analysis (e.g., production of abundant pseudomolecular (M+H){sup +} ions) of involatile samples without the need for external ion injection, since ions are formed at the entrance to the ICR ion trap. The design, construction, and testing of the hybrid instrument are described. The feasibility of the experiment (for both broadband and high-resolution FT/ICR positive-ion mass spectra) is demonstrated with {ital tetra}-butylammonium bromide and a Tylenol{sup ( )} sample. The ability to analyze high molecular weight polymers with high mass resolution is demonstrated for Teflon{sup ( )}. All of the advantages of the fast neutral beam ion source previously demonstrated with quadrupole mass analysis are preserved, and the additional advantages of FT/ICR mass analysis (e.g., high mass resolving power, ion trapping) are retained.

  3. Fast neutral beam ion source coupled to a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Nicholas C.; Limbach, Patrick A.; Shomo, Ronald E., II; Marshall, Alan G.; Appelhans, Anthony D.; Delmore, James E.

    1991-11-01

    The coupling of an autoneutralizing SF-6 fast ion-beam gun to a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT/ICR) mass spectrometer is described. The fast neutral beam provides for secondary-ion-type FT/ICR mass analysis [e.g., production of abundant pseudomolecular (M+H)+ ions] of involatile samples without the need for external ion injection, since ions are formed at the entrance to the ICR ion trap. The design, construction, and testing of the hybrid instrument are described. The feasibility of the experiment (for both broadband and high-resolution FT/ICR positive-ion mass spectra) is demonstrated with tetra-butylammonium bromide and a Tylenol? sample. The ability to analyze high molecular weight polymers with high mass resolution is demonstrated for Teflon?. All of the advantages of the fast neutral beam ion source previously demonstrated with quadrupole mass analysis are preserved, and the additional advantages of FT/ICR mass analysis (e.g., high mass resolving power, ion trapping) are retained.

  4. The Brookhaven National Laboratory electron beam ion source for RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Alessi, J.G.; Barton, D.; Beebe, E.; Bellavia, S.; Gould, O.; Kponou, A.; Lambiase, R.; Lockey, R.; McNerney, A.; Mapes, M.; Marneris, I.; Okamura, M.; Phillips, D.; Pikin, A.I.; Raparia, D.; Ritter, J.; Snydstrup, L.; Theisen, C.; Wilinski, M.

    2010-02-22

    As part of a new heavy ion preinjector that will supply beams for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Space Radiation Laboratory, construction of a new electron beam ion source (EBIS) is now being completed. This source, based on the successful prototype Brookhaven National Laboratory Test EBIS, is designed to produce milliampere level currents of all ion species, with q/m = (1/6)-(1/2). Among the major components of this source are a 5 T, 2-m-long, 204 mm diameter warm bore superconducting solenoid, an electron gun designed to operate at a nominal current of 10 A, and an electron collector designed to dissipate {approx} 300 kW of peak power. Careful attention has been paid to the design of the vacuum system, since a pressure of 10{sup -10} Torr is required in the trap region. The source includes several differential pumping stages, the trap can be baked to 400 C, and there are non-evaporable getter strips in the trap region. Power supplies include a 15 A, 15 kV electron collector power supply, and fast switchable power supplies for most of the 16 electrodes used for varying the trap potential distribution for ion injection, confinement, and extraction. The EBIS source and all EBIS power supplies sit on an isolated platform, which is pulsed up to a maximum of 100 kV during ion extraction. The EBIS is now fully assembled, and operation will be beginning following final vacuum and power supply tests. Details of the EBIS components are presented.

  5. The Brookhaven National Laboratory electron beam ion source for RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Alessi, J. G.; Barton, D.; Beebe, E.; Bellavia, S.; Gould, O.; Kponou, A.; Lambiase, R.; Lockey, R.; McNerney, A.; Mapes, M.; Marneris, Y.; Okamura, M.; Phillips, D.; Pikin, A. I.; Raparia, D.; Ritter, J.; Snydstrup, L.; Theisen, C.; Wilinski, M.

    2010-02-15

    As part of a new heavy ion preinjector that will supply beams for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Space Radiation Laboratory, construction of a new electron beam ion source (EBIS) is now being completed. This source, based on the successful prototype Brookhaven National Laboratory Test EBIS, is designed to produce milliampere level currents of all ion species, with q/m=(1/6)-(1/2). Among the major components of this source are a 5 T, 2-m-long, 204 mm diameter warm bore superconducting solenoid, an electron gun designed to operate at a nominal current of 10 A, and an electron collector designed to dissipate {approx}300 kW of peak power. Careful attention has been paid to the design of the vacuum system, since a pressure of 10{sup -10} Torr is required in the trap region. The source includes several differential pumping stages, the trap can be baked to 400 C, and there are non-evaporable getter strips in the trap region. Power supplies include a 15 A, 15 kV electron collector power supply, and fast switchable power supplies for most of the 16 electrodes used for varying the trap potential distribution for ion injection, confinement, and extraction. The EBIS source and all EBIS power supplies sit on an isolated platform, which is pulsed up to a maximum of 100 kV during ion extraction. The EBIS is now fully assembled, and operation will be beginning following final vacuum and power supply tests. Details of the EBIS components are presented.

  6. Analysis of the H- ion emissive surface in the extraction region of negative ion sources.

    PubMed

    Kameyama, N; Fukuyama, T; Wada, S; Kuppel, S; Tsumori, K; Nakano, H; Hatayama, A; Miyamoto, K; Fukano, A; Bacal, M

    2012-02-01

    To understand the plasma characteristics in the extraction region of negative H(-) sources is very important for the optimization of H(-) extraction from the sources. The profile of plasma density and electrostatic potential in the extraction region with and without extraction grid voltage are analyzed with a 2D particle in cell modeling of the NIFS-RD H(-) sources. The simulation results make clear the physical process forming a double ion plasma layer (which consists only of positive H(+) and negative H(-) ions) recently observed in the Cs-seeded experiments of the NIFS-R&D source in the vicinity of the extraction hole and the plasma grid. The results also give a useful insight into the formation mechanism of the plasma meniscus and the H(-) extraction process for such double ion plasma. PMID:22380230

  7. Quartz antenna for radio frequency ion source operation

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y.; Gough, R.A.; Leung, K.N.; Perkins, L.T.; Pickard, D.S.; Vujic, J.; Wu, L.K.; Olivo, M.; Einenkel, H.

    1998-02-01

    Radio-frequency (rf) driven multicusp ion sources developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory use an internal induction coil (antenna) for plasma generation. The copper rf-antenna with a thin layer of porcelain coating, which is presently used, cannot fully satisfy the increasing demands on source cleanliness and antenna lifetime under high power cw or pulsed operation in applications where water cooling is not possible. A quartz antenna has been designed and operated in the multicusp ion source. It has been demonstrated that the overall performance of the new antenna exceeds that of the regular porcelain-coated antenna. It can be operated with a long lifetime in different discharge plasmas. The quartz antenna has also been tested at the Paul Scherrer Institute for cw source operation at rf power higher than 5 kW. Results demonstrated that the antenna can survive under dense plasma discharge operations. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  8. Models of radiofrequency coupling for negative ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Cavenago, M.; Petrenko, S.

    2012-02-15

    Radiofrequency heating for ICP (inductively coupled plasma) ion sources depends on the source operating pressure, the presence or absence of a Faraday shield, the driver coil geometry, the frequency used, and the magnetic field configuration: in negative ion source a magnetic filter seems necessary for H{sup -} survival. The result of single particle simulations showing the possibility of electron acceleration in the preglow regime and for reasonable driver chamber radius (15 cm) is reported, also as a function of the static external magnetic field. An effective plasma conductivity, depending not only from electron density, temperature, and rf field but also on static magnetic field is here presented and compared to previous models. Use of this conductivity and of multiphysics tools for a plasma transport and heating model is shown and discussed for a small source.

  9. Discrimination of ionic species from broad-beam ion sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. R.

    1993-01-01

    The performance of a broad-beam, three-grid, ion extraction system incorporating radio frequency (RF) mass discrimination was investigated experimentally. This testing demonstrated that the system, based on a modified single-stage Bennett mass spectrometer, can discriminate between ionic species having about a 2-to-1 mass ratio while producing a broad-beam of ions with low kinetic energy (less than 15 eV). Testing was conducted using either argon and krypton ions or atomic and diatomic oxygen ions. A simple one-dimensional model, which ignores magnetic field and space-charge effects, was developed to predict the species separation capabilities as well as the kinetic energies of the extracted ions. The experimental results correlated well with the model predictions. This RF mass discrimination system can be used in applications where both atomic and diatomic ions are produced, but a beam of only one of the species is desired. An example of such an application is a 5 eV atomic oxygen source. This source would produce a beam of atomic oxygen with 5 eV kinetic energy, which would be directed onto a material specimen, to simulate the interaction between the surface of a satellite and the rarefied atmosphere encountered in low-Earth orbit.

  10. A high-performance electron beam ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Alessi,J.; Beebe, E.; Bellavia, S.; Gould, O.; Kponou, A.; Lambiase, R.; Lockey, R.; McCafferty, D.; Okamura, M.; Pikin, A. I.; Raparia, D.; Ritter, J.; Syndstrup, L.

    2009-06-08

    At Brookhaven National Laboratory, a high current Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) has been developed as part of a new preinjector that is under construction to replace the Tandem Van de Graaffs as the heavy ion preinjector for the RHIC and NASA experimental programs. This preinjector will produce milliampere-level currents of essentially any ion species, with q/A {ge} 1/6, in short pulses, for injection into the Booster synchrotron. In order to produce the required intensities, this EBIS uses a 10A electron gun, and an electron collector designed to handle 300 kW of pulsed electron beam power. The EBIS trap region is 1.5 m long, inside a 5T, 2m long, 8-inch bore superconducting solenoid. The source is designed to switch ion species on a pulse-to-pulse basis, at a 5 Hz repetition rate. Singly-charged ions of the appropriate species, produced external to the EBIS, are injected into the trap and confined until the desired charge state is reached via stepwise ionization by the electron beam. Ions are then extracted and matched into an RFQ, followed by a short IH Linac, for acceleration to 2 MeV/A, prior to injection into the Booster synchrotron. An overview of the preinjector is presented, along with experimental results from the prototype EBIS, where all essential requirements have already been demonstrated. Design features and status of construction of the final high intensity EBIS is also be presented.

  11. Imaging of granular sources in high energy heavy ion collisions

    E-print Network

    Zhi-Tao Yang; Wei-Ning Zhang; Lei Huo; Jing-Bo Zhang

    2008-11-13

    We investigate the source imaging for a granular pion-emitting source model in high energy heavy ion collisions. The two-pion source functions of the granular sources exhibit a two-tiered structure. Using a parametrized formula of granular two-pion source function, we examine the two-tiered structure of the source functions for the imaging data of Au+Au collisions at Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) and Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). We find that the imaging technique introduced by Brown and Danielewicz is suitable for probing the granular structure of the sources. Our data-fitting results indicate that there is not visible granularity for the sources at AGS energies. However, the data for the RHIC collisions with the selections of $40 < {\\rm centrality} < 90%$ and $0.20source has more parameters than the simple Gaussian, hence can describe more complicated shapes.

  12. Commissioning of the superconducting ECR ion source VENUS

    SciTech Connect

    Leitner, Daniela; Abbott, Steve R.; Dwinell, Roger D.; Leitner, Matthaeus; Taylor, Clyde; Lyneis, Claude M.

    2003-05-15

    VENUS (Versatile ECR ion source for NUclear Science) is a next generation superconducting ECR ion source, designed to produce high current, high charge state ions for the 88-Inch Cyclotron at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. VENUS also serves as the prototype ion source for the RIA (Rare Isotope Accelerator) front end. The magnetic confinement configuration consists of three superconducting axial coils and six superconducting radial coils in a sextupole configuration. The nominal design fields of the axial magnets are 4T at injection and 3T at extraction; the nominal radial design field strength at the plasma chamber wall is 2T, making VENUS the world most powerful ECR plasma confinement structure. The magnetic field strength has been designed for optimum operation at 28 GHz. The four-year VENUS project has recently achieved two major milestones: The first plasma was ignited in June, the first mass-analyzed high charge state ion beam was extracted in September of 2002. The pa per describes the ongoing commissioning. Initial results including first emittance measurements are presented.

  13. A compact, versatile low-energy electron beam ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Zschornack, G.; König, J.; Schmidt, M.; Thorn, A.

    2014-02-15

    A new compact Electron Beam Ion Source, the Dresden EBIT-LE, is introduced as an ion source working at low electron beam energies. The EBIT-LE operates at an electron energy ranging from 100 eV to some keV and can easily be modified to an EBIT also working at higher electron beam energies of up to 15 keV. We show that, depending on the electron beam energy, electron beam currents from a few mA in the low-energy regime up to about 40 mA in the high-energy regime are possible. Technical solutions as well as first experimental results of the EBIT-LE are presented. In ion extraction experiments, a stable production of low and intermediate charged ions at electron beam energies below 2 keV is demonstrated. Furthermore, X-ray spectroscopy measurements confirm the possibility of using the machine as a source of X-rays from ions excited at low electron energies.

  14. Ion trajectories in plasma ion implantation of slender cylindrical bores using a small inner end source

    SciTech Connect

    Tian Xiubo; Gong Chunzhi; Huang Yongxian; Jiang Haifu; Yang Shiqin; Fu, Ricky K. Y.; Chu, Paul K.

    2008-11-10

    Plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) into slender cylindrical bores with higher efficiency is described in this letter. The use of an inner end plasma source excited by a radio-frequency hollow cathode is investigated theoretically and experimentally. The end source that is covered by a small grounded shielding electrode to ensure steady discharge enables continuous delivery of the required plasmas, and the potential difference in the tube increases the ion impact energy. Particle-in-cell simulation demonstrates that the ion trajectories are complex due to the special electric field configuration that is composed of three regions characterized by ion acceleration, no electric field, and ion deceleration. The end source structure with the open shielding electrode is insufficient to achieve high ion energy, although it is effective in maintaining a steady discharge in the source. Hence, a shielding electrode with a protruding electrode structure is required to conduct high energy PIII; a cylindrical bore with an inner diameter of 20 mm is successfully implanted.

  15. Long-life bismuth liquid metal ion source for focussed ion beam micromachining application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazarov, P.; Melnikov, A.; Wernhardt, R.; Wieck, A. D.

    2008-09-01

    Liquid metal ion sources (LMISs) with Ga as ion species are widely used in focused ion beam (FIB) technology for micromachining and surface treatment on the sub-micron and nano-scale. Key features of a LMIS for investigating mechanical properties and 3D-microfabrication of materials are long life-time, high brightness, stable ion current and a highly effective milling ability for the material to be modified. In order to increase the material removal rate, heavier ions than Ga and their clusters should be applied. Bismuth (Bi) is the heaviest, non-radio-active element in the periodic table, is non-toxic and exhibits a low melting point. We have thus produced a long-life (about 1000 h) Bi LMIS with a good beam performance, applicable in any FIB system. Since Bi is the only element in this source, it is not necessary to separate it from other ions by a mass filter. Investigation of the sputtering rate of NiTi shape memory alloys using Ga and Bi LMIS showed that, for the same experimental conditions, the material removal rate with using of Bi nk+ ions in a standard FIB machine without a mass separator is about five times larger compared to Ga + ions. This use of Bi as LMIS-species is the ultimate breakthrough in sputtering applications.

  16. Nanostructure operations by means of the liquid metal ion sources.

    PubMed

    Gasanov, I S; Gurbanov, I I

    2012-02-01

    Characteristics of a disperse phase of liquid metal ion source on the basis of various working substances are investigated. It is revealed that generation of the charged particles occurs in the threshold image and is simultaneously accompanied by excitation of capillary instability on a surface of the emitter. The majority of particles has the size about 2 nm (Sn) and a specific charge of 5 × 10(4) C?kg. If the working liquid possesses high viscosity (Ni), generation of nanodroplets does not occur. Gold nanoparticles are used for deposition on a surface of quartz cantilevers with the purpose of increase in sensitivity of biosensors and on an external surface of carbon nanotubes for creation pressure sensors. By means of an ion source nanostructures can be etched on a flat surface of conductive materials without difficult ion optics. PMID:22380338

  17. Pulsed magnetic field-electron cyclotron resonance ion source operation

    SciTech Connect

    Muehle, C.; Ratzinger, U.; Joest, G.; Leible, K.; Schennach, S.; Wolf, B.H.

    1996-03-01

    The pulsed magnetic field (PuMa)-electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source uses a pulsed coil to improve the peak current by opening the magnetic bottle along the beam axis. After demonstration of the principle of the pulsed magnetic extraction, the ion source was tested with different gases. We received promising results from helium to krypton. The influence of the current in the pulsed coil on the analyzed ion current was measured. With increased current levels within the pulsed coil not only the pulse height of the PuMa pulse, but the pulse length can also be controlled. By using the pulsed coil the maximum of the charge state distribution can be shifted to higher charge states. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  18. Fundamental studies on the Cs dynamics under ion source conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedl, R.; Fantz, U.

    2014-02-01

    The performance of surface conversion based negative hydrogen ion sources is mainly determined by the caesium dynamics. Therefore, fundamental investigations in vacuum and plasma are performed at a flexible laboratory setup with ion source parameters. Studies on the influence of Cs on the plasma parameters of H2 and D2 plasmas showed that ne and Te in the bulk plasma are not affected by relevant amounts of Cs and no isotopic differences could be observed. The coating of the vessel surfaces with Cs, however, leads to a considerable gettering of hydrogen atoms from the plasma volume and to the decrease of ne close to a sample surface due to the formation of negative ions.

  19. Fundamental studies on the Cs dynamics under ion source conditions.

    PubMed

    Friedl, R; Fantz, U

    2014-02-01

    The performance of surface conversion based negative hydrogen ion sources is mainly determined by the caesium dynamics. Therefore, fundamental investigations in vacuum and plasma are performed at a flexible laboratory setup with ion source parameters. Studies on the influence of Cs on the plasma parameters of H2 and D2 plasmas showed that ne and Te in the bulk plasma are not affected by relevant amounts of Cs and no isotopic differences could be observed. The coating of the vessel surfaces with Cs, however, leads to a considerable gettering of hydrogen atoms from the plasma volume and to the decrease of ne close to a sample surface due to the formation of negative ions. PMID:24593549

  20. Beam emittance measurements of ORNL negative ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, C.C.; Akerman, M.A.; Becraft, W.R.; Dagenhart, W.K.; Haselton, H.H.; Schechter, D.E.; Stirling, W.L.; Whealton, J.H.; Donaghy, J.J.

    1989-01-01

    The emittances of hydrogen and deuterium negative ion beams produced by volume ion sources have been measured in a transverse plane normal to the beam trajectory. The extraction voltage was varied from 10 to 40 kV, and the transverse magnetic field in the Penning discharges was varied from 0.1 to 0.2 T. Measurements were made on beams with current densities up to 60 mA/cm/sup 2/ at Oak Ridge National Laboratory with an emittance scanner originally developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The beam profile at the scanner can be used to improve the accuracy of the emittance measurements. Other factors affecting emittance measurements are discussed. This analysis may be applicable to other ion sources. 6 figs.

  1. Note: A pulsed laser ion source for linear induction accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, H.; Zhang, K.; Shen, Y.; Jiang, X.; Dong, P.; Liu, Y.; Wang, Y.; Chen, D.; Pan, H.; Wang, W.; Jiang, W.; Long, J.; Xia, L.; Shi, J.; Zhang, L.; Deng, J.

    2015-01-15

    We have developed a high-current laser ion source for induction accelerators. A copper target was irradiated by a frequency-quadrupled Nd:YAG laser (266 nm) with relatively low intensities of 10{sup 8} W/cm{sup 2}. The laser-produced plasma supplied a large number of Cu{sup +} ions (?10{sup 12} ions/pulse) during several microseconds. Emission spectra of the plasma were observed and the calculated electron temperature was about 1 eV. An induction voltage adder extracted high-current ion beams over 0.5 A/cm{sup 2} from a plasma-prefilled gap. The normalized beam emittance measured by a pepper-pot method was smaller than 1 ? mm mrad.

  2. Low-energy dc ion source for low operating pressure.

    PubMed

    Oks, Efim; Shandrikov, Maxim; Salvadori, Cecilia; Brown, Ian

    2014-08-01

    We report on an experimental study of an ion source based on a Penning discharge with a cold hollow cathode in crossed electric and magnetic fields. The minimum vacuum chamber operating pressure was 3 × 10(-5) Torr for argon and 5 × 10(-5) Torr for hydrogen. The use of a hollow cathode allowed decreasing the discharge operating voltage down to 350 V at a discharge current of ~100 mA. At a discharge current of 100 mA and beam accelerating voltage of 2 kV, the ion current was 2.5 mA for argon and 8 mA for hydrogen, and the ion beam on-axis current density 170 and 450 ?A/cm(2), respectively. The current-voltage characteristics of the discharge and the radial ion beam current density distribution were measured. The influence of pressure on the discharge parameters and their time stability was investigated. PMID:25173264

  3. Method and apparatus for plasma source ion implantation

    DOEpatents

    Conrad, John R. (Madison, WI)

    1988-01-01

    Ion implantation into surfaces of three-dimensional targets is achieved by forming an ionized plasma about the target within an enclosing chamber and applying a pulse of high voltage between the target and the conductive walls of the chamber. Ions from the plasma are driven into the target object surfaces from all sides simultaneously without the need for manipulation of the target object. Repetitive pulses of high voltage, typically 20 kilovolts or higher, causes the ions to be driven deeply into the target. The plasma may be formed of a neutral gas introduced into the evacuated chamber and ionized therein with ionizing radiation so that a constant source of plasma is provided which surrounds the target object during the implantation process. Significant increases in the surface hardness and wear characteristics of various materials are obtained with ion implantation in this manner.

  4. Method and apparatus for plasma source ion implantation

    DOEpatents

    Conrad, J.R.

    1988-08-16

    Ion implantation into surfaces of three-dimensional targets is achieved by forming an ionized plasma about the target within an enclosing chamber and applying a pulse of high voltage between the target and the conductive walls of the chamber. Ions from the plasma are driven into the target object surfaces from all sides simultaneously without the need for manipulation of the target object. Repetitive pulses of high voltage, typically 20 kilovolts or higher, causes the ions to be driven deeply into the target. The plasma may be formed of a neutral gas introduced into the evacuated chamber and ionized therein with ionizing radiation so that a constant source of plasma is provided which surrounds the target object during the implantation process. Significant increases in the surface hardness and wear characteristics of various materials are obtained with ion implantation in this manner. 7 figs.

  5. Grating monochromator for electron cyclotron resonance ion source operation

    SciTech Connect

    Muto, Hideshi; Ohshiro, Yukimitsu; Yamaka, Shouichi; Watanabe, Shin-ichi; Yamaguchi, Hidetoshi; Shimoura, Susumu; Oyaizu, Michihiro; Kase, Masayuki; Kubono, Shigeru; RIKEN Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, Wako Saitama 351-0198; Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanchang Road 509, Lanzhou 730000 ; Hattori, Toshiyuki

    2013-07-15

    Recently, we started to observe optical line spectra from an ECR plasma using a grating monochromator with a photomultiplier. The light intensity of line spectrum from the ECR plasma had a strong correlation with ion beam intensity measured by a magnetic mass analyzer. This correlation is a significant information for beam tuning because it allows the extraction of the desired ion species from the ECR plasma. Separation of ion species of the same charge to mass ratio with an electromagnetic mass analyzer is known to be an exceptionally complex process, but this research gives new insights into its simplification. In this paper, the grating monochromator method for beam tuning of a Hyper-ECR ion source as an injector for RIKEN azimuthal varying field (AVF) cyclotron is described.

  6. Laser ion source activities at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kanesue, Takeshi; Okamura, Masahiro

    2015-07-31

    In Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), we have been developing laser ion sources for diverse accelerators. Tabletop Nd:YAG lasers with up to several Joules of energy are mainly used to create ablation plasmas for stable operations. The obtained charge states depend on laser power density and target species. Two types of ion extraction schemes, Direct Plasma Injection Scheme (DPIS) and conventional static extraction, are used depending on application. We optimized and select a suitable laser irradiation condition and a beam extraction scheme to meet the requirement of the following accelerator system. We have demonstrated to accelerate more than 5 x 1010more »of C6+ ions using the DPIS. We successfully commissioned low charge ion beam provider to the user facilities in BNL. As a result, to achieve higher current, higher charge state and lower emittance, further studies will continue.« less

  7. Grating monochromator for electron cyclotron resonance ion source operation.

    PubMed

    Muto, Hideshi; Ohshiro, Yukimitsu; Yamaka, Shouichi; Watanabe, Shin-ichi; Oyaizu, Michihiro; Kubono, Shigeru; Yamaguchi, Hidetoshi; Kase, Masayuki; Hattori, Toshiyuki; Shimoura, Susumu

    2013-07-01

    Recently, we started to observe optical line spectra from an ECR plasma using a grating monochromator with a photomultiplier. The light intensity of line spectrum from the ECR plasma had a strong correlation with ion beam intensity measured by a magnetic mass analyzer. This correlation is a significant information for beam tuning because it allows the extraction of the desired ion species from the ECR plasma. Separation of ion species of the same charge to mass ratio with an electromagnetic mass analyzer is known to be an exceptionally complex process, but this research gives new insights into its simplification. In this paper, the grating monochromator method for beam tuning of a Hyper-ECR ion source as an injector for RIKEN azimuthal varying field (AVF) cyclotron is described. PMID:23902055

  8. Low-energy dc ion source for low operating pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Oks, Efim; Shandrikov, Maxim; Brown, Ian

    2014-08-15

    We report on an experimental study of an ion source based on a Penning discharge with a cold hollow cathode in crossed electric and magnetic fields. The minimum vacuum chamber operating pressure was 3 × 10{sup ?5} Torr for argon and 5 × 10{sup ?5} Torr for hydrogen. The use of a hollow cathode allowed decreasing the discharge operating voltage down to 350 V at a discharge current of ?100 mA. At a discharge current of 100 mA and beam accelerating voltage of 2 kV, the ion current was 2.5 mA for argon and 8 mA for hydrogen, and the ion beam on-axis current density 170 and 450 ?A/cm{sup 2}, respectively. The current-voltage characteristics of the discharge and the radial ion beam current density distribution were measured. The influence of pressure on the discharge parameters and their time stability was investigated.

  9. Laser ion source activities at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Kanesue, Takeshi; Okamura, Masahiro

    2015-07-31

    In Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), we have been developing laser ion sources for diverse accelerators. Tabletop Nd:YAG lasers with up to several Joules of energy are mainly used to create ablation plasmas for stable operations. The obtained charge states depend on laser power density and target species. Two types of ion extraction schemes, Direct Plasma Injection Scheme (DPIS) and conventional static extraction, are used depending on application. We optimized and select a suitable laser irradiation condition and a beam extraction scheme to meet the requirement of the following accelerator system. We have demonstrated to accelerate more than 5 x 1010 of C6+ ions using the DPIS. We successfully commissioned low charge ion beam provider to the user facilities in BNL. As a result, to achieve higher current, higher charge state and lower emittance, further studies will continue.

  10. Cesium Delivery System for Negative Ion Source at IPR

    SciTech Connect

    Bansal, G.; Pandya, K.; Soni, J.; Gahlaut, A.; Parmar, K. G.; Bandyopadhyay, M.; Chakraborty, A.; Singh, M. J.

    2011-09-26

    The technique of surface production of negative ions using cesium, Cs, has been efficiently exploited over the years for producing negative ion beams with increased current densities from negative ion sources used on neutral beam lines. Deposition of Cs on the source walls and the plasma grid lowers the work function and therefore enables a higher yield of H{sup -}, when hydrogen particles (H and/or H{sub x}{sup +}) strike these surfaces.A single driver RF based (100 kW, 1 MHz) negative ion source test bed, ROBIN, is being set up at IPR under a technical collaboration between IPR and IPP, Germany. The optimization of the Cs oven design to be used on this facility as well as multidriver sources is underway. The characterization experiments of such a Cs delivery system with a 1 g Cs inventory have been carried out using surface ionization technique. The experiments have been carried by delivering Cs into a vacuum chamber without plasma. The linear motion of the surface ionization detector, SID, attached with a linear motion feedthrough allows measuring the angular distribution of the Cs coming out of the oven. Based on the experimental results, a Cs oven for ROBIN has been proposed. The Cs oven design and experimental results of the prototype Cs oven are reported and discussed in the paper.

  11. Ion Sources and Mass Analyzers in Protein Characterization

    E-print Network

    Richardson, David

    system. #12;Mass Resolution dM FWHM 25% valley M1 M2 Resolution is often defined as M/dM. "Unit unit. In high resolution, dM may be 0.010 mass unit. However, the actual resolution depends on how oneIon Sources and Mass Analyzers in Protein Characterization Principles of MS and MS/MS Matrix

  12. Progress in Polarized 3He Ion Source at RCNP

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, M.; Takahashi, Y.; Shimoda, T.; Yasui, S.; Yosoi, M.; Takahisa, K.; Shimakura, N.; Plis, Yu. A.; Donets, E. D.

    2007-06-13

    A long history on the polarized 3He ion source developed at RCNP is presented. We started with an 'OPPIS' (Optical Pumping Polarized Ion Source) and later found the fundamental difficulties in the OPPIS. To overcome them an 'EPPIS' (Electron Pumping Polarized Ion Source) was proposed and its validity was experimentally proven. However, a serious technical disadvantage was also found in the EPPIS. To avoid this disadvantage we proposed a new concept, 'SEPIS' (Spin Exchange Polarized Ion Source), which uses an enhanced spin-exchange cross section theoretically expected at low 3He+ incident energies in the 3He+ + Rb system. Next, we describe the present status of the SEPIS development: construction of a bench test device allowing the measurements of not only the spin-exchange cross sections {sigma}se but also the electron capture cross sections {sigma}ec for the 3He+ + Rb system. The latest experimental data on {sigma}ec are presented and compared with other previous experimental data and the theoretical calculations.Finally, a design study of the SEPIS for practical use in nuclear (cyclotron) and particle physics (synchrotron) is shortly mentioned.

  13. Power efficiency improvements with the radio frequency H- ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalvas, T.; Tarvainen, O.; Komppula, J.; Koivisto, H.; Tuunanen, J.; Potkins, D.; Stewart, T.; Dehnel, M.

    2016-02-01

    CW 13.56 MHz radio frequency-driven H- ion source is under development at the University of Jyväskylä for replacing an existing filament-driven ion source at the MCC30/15 cyclotron. Previously, production of 1 mA H- beam, which is the target intensity of the ion source, has been reported at 3 kW of RF power. The original ion source front plate with an adjustable electromagnet based filter field has been replaced with a new front plate with permanent magnet filter field. The new structure is more open and enables a higher flux of ro-vibrationally excited molecules towards the plasma electrode and provides a better control of the potential near the extraction due to a stronger separation of the main plasma from the plasma electrode. While the original system provided better control over the e-/H- ratio, the new configuration has led to a higher production efficiency of 1 mA H- at 1.75 kW RF power. The latest results and upgrade plans are presented.

  14. Blind Source Separation For Ion Mobility Spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Marco, S.; Pomareda, V.

    2009-05-23

    Miniaturization is a powerful trend for smart chemical instrumentation in a diversity of applications. It is know that miniaturization in IMS leads to a degradation of the system characteristics. For the present work, we are interested in signal processing solutions to mitigate limitations introduced by limited drift tube length that basically involve a loss of chemical selectivity. While blind source separation techniques (BSS) are popular in other domains, their application for smart chemical instrumentation is limited. However, in some conditions, basically linearity, BSS may fully recover the concentration time evolution and the pure spectra with few underlying hypothesis. This is extremely helpful in conditions where non-expected chemical interferents may appear, or unwanted perturbations may pollute the spectra. SIMPLISMA has been advocated by Harrington et al. in several papers. However, more modern methods of BSS for bilinear decomposition with the restriction of positiveness have appeared in the last decade. In order to explore and compare the performances of those methods a series of experiments were performed.

  15. Main Magnetic Focus Ion Source: II. The first investigations at 10 keV

    E-print Network

    Ovsyannikov, V P

    2015-01-01

    The basic principles of design for the compact ion source of new generation are presented. The device uses the local ion trap created by the axial electron beam rippled in a thick magnetic lens. In accordance with this feature, the ion source is given the name main magnetic focus ion source. The experimental evidences for the production of Ir$^{59+}$, Xe$^{44+}$, and Ar$^{16+}$ ions are obtained. The control over depth of the local ion trap is shown to be feasible.

  16. Effects of magnetic field gradient on ion beam current in cylindrical Hall ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Tang Deli; Zhao Jie; Wang Lisheng; Pu Shihao; Cheng Changming; Chu, Paul K.

    2007-12-15

    The effects of the magnetic gradient on the ion beam current in an end Hall-type ion source with a magnetic mirror field are investigated. In a cylindrical Hall ion source in which a cylindrical magnetic ring other than a regular magnetic pole is shortened and centrally inserted, a mirror magnetic field profile can be formed around the annular anode. A positive-negative variable magnetic gradient is shown experimentally to enhance ionization; the ionization efficiency is substantially affected by the different magnetic gradient. The high ionization results in 60% efficiency in the conversion of discharge current to ion beam current. The experimental results and interpretation of the effects are presented in this paper.

  17. New Results with the superconducting ECR ion source VENUS

    SciTech Connect

    Lyneis, C.M.; Leitner, D.; Abbott, S.R.; Dwinell, R.D.; Leitner,M.; Silver, C.S.; Taylor, C.

    2004-05-13

    During the last year, the VENUS ECR ion source was commissioned at 18 GHz and preparations for 28 GHz operation, which is set to begin early in 2004, are now underway. The goal of the VENUS ECR ion source project as the RIA R&D injector is the production of 240emA of U30+, a high current medium charge state beam. On the other hand, as an injector ion source for the 88-Inch Cyclotron the design objective is the production of 5emA of U48+, a low current, very high charge state beam. During the commissioning phase with 18 GHz, tests with various gases and recently metals have been performed with up to 2000 W RF power and the performance is very promising. For example, 1100 e mu A of O6+,180 e mu A of Ar12+, 150 emA of Xe20+ and 100 emA of Bi24+ were produced in the early commissioning phase, ranking VENUS among the currently highest performance 18 GHz ECR ion sources. The emittance of the beams produced at 18 GHz was measured with a two axis emittance scanner. In FY04 a 10 kW, 28 GHz gyrotron system will be added, which will enable VENUS to reach full performance. The performance of the VENUS ion source, low energy beam transport (LEBT) and its closed loop cryogenic system are described in the paper. Recently, a new high temperature axial oven has been installed in the source and the first results on metal beams such as bismuth are given. The design of the 28 GHz, 10 kW gyrotron system is also be described. During the last year, the VENUS ECR ion source was commissioned at 18 GHz and preparations for 28 GHz operation, which is set to begin early in 2004, are now underway. The goal of the VENUS ECR+, a high current medium charge state beam. On the other hand, as an injector ion source for the 88-Inch Cyclotron the design objective is the production of 5 emA of U48+, a low current, very high charge state beam. During the commissioning phase with 18 GHz, tests with various gases and recently metals have been performed with up to 2000 W RF power and the performance is very promising. For example, 1100 e mu A of O6+, 180 e muA of Ar12+, 150 emA of Xe20+ and 100 emA of Bi24+ were produced in the early commissioning phase, ranking VENUS among the currently highest performance 18 GHz ECR ion sources. The emittance of the beams produced at 18 GHz was measured with a two axis emittance scanner. In FY04 a 10kW, 28 GHz gyrotron system will be added, which will enable VENUS to reach full performance. The performance of the VENUS ion source, low energy beam transport (LEBT) and its closed loop cryogenic system are described in the paper. Recently, a new high temperature axial oven has been installed in the source and the first results on metal beams such as bismuth are given. The design of the 28 GHz, 10 kW gyrotron system is also be described.

  18. Initial tests of the Spallation Neutron Source H{sup -} ion source with an external antenna

    SciTech Connect

    Welton, R.F.; Stockli, M.P.; Murray, S.N.; Kang, Y.; Peters, J.

    2006-03-15

    The ion source for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is a radio-frequency (rf) multicusp source designed to deliver H{sup -} beam pulses of 40 mA to the SNS accelerator with a normalized root-mean-square emittance of less than 0.2{pi} mm mrad, with a pulse length of 1 ms and a repetition rate of 60 Hz. In order to achieve this performance the source must operate with both high-pulse rf power, {approx}50 kW, and high average rf power, {approx}3.5 kW, over a continuous operational period of 3 weeks. During operation at these power levels the plasma-immersed, porcelain-coated rf antenna is susceptible to damage, limiting source lifetime. We are therefore developing an ion source where the plasma is separated from the Cu antenna by an Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} discharge chamber. This article describes the ion source, presents initial beam extraction measurements, and details our ongoing effort to develop this concept into a suitable ion source for the SNS.

  19. Numerical simulation of ion charge breeding in electron beam ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, L. Kim, Jin-Soo

    2014-02-15

    The Electron Beam Ion Source particle-in-cell code (EBIS-PIC) tracks ions in an EBIS electron beam while updating electric potential self-consistently and atomic processes by the Monte Carlo method. Recent improvements to the code are reported in this paper. The ionization module has been improved by using experimental ionization energies and shell effects. The acceptance of injected ions and the emittance of extracted ion beam are calculated by extending EBIS-PIC to the beam line transport region. An EBIS-PIC simulation is performed for a Cs charge-breeding experiment at BNL. The charge state distribution agrees well with experiments, and additional simulation results of radial profiles and velocity space distributions of the trapped ions are presented.

  20. Review of highly charged heavy ion production with electron cyclotron resonance ion source (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Nakagawa, T.

    2014-02-15

    The electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) plays an important role in the advancement of heavy ion accelerators and other ion beam applications worldwide, thanks to its remarkable ability to produce a great variety of intense highly charged heavy ion beams. Great efforts over the past decade have led to significant ECRIS performance improvements in both the beam intensity and quality. A number of high-performance ECRISs have been built and are in daily operation or are under construction to meet the continuously increasing demand. In addition, comprehension of the detailed and complex physical processes in high-charge-state ECR plasmas has been enhanced experimentally and theoretically. This review covers and discusses the key components, leading-edge developments, and enhanced ECRIS performance in the production of highly charged heavy ion beams.

  1. Grid-controlled metal ion sources for heavy ion fusion accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Len, L.K.; Humphries, S. Jr.; Burkart, C.

    1986-01-01

    A variety of metal ions can be generated using vacuum arcs, but due to the nature of these arcs, the flux generated fluctuates in time. We have successfully employed electrostatically biased grids to control the plasma and to provide a well-behaved, space charge limited ion source. The grid prevents the plasma from entering the extraction gap before the main voltage pulse is applied. The extracted ion current is space charge limited, resulting in a constant output current even though the ion flux from the vacuum arc source varies considerably. There are several advantages over other conventional sources, for instance, thermionic sources are faced with heating problems especially for large area configurations, while gas-injection sources cause prefill problems because they take too long to reach equilibrium. We have performed extraction experiments with aluminium and indium arc sources. We have extracted 300 mA of pure Al/sup +/ at 30 kV for 10 ..mu..s. The normalized beam emittance has been measured to be 8 /times/ 10/sup /minus/7/ ..pi..-m-rad. 3 refs., 5 figs.

  2. Production of Si + and Cl + ion beams from a Freeman type ion source using low toxicity and non-corrosive vapours as source gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wielunski, L. S.; Paterson, G. D.; Bell, J. M.; Clegg, R. E.

    2004-01-01

    A method is proposed for production of Si + and Cl + ions in Freeman type ion sources using low toxicity and non-corrosive vapours of hexamethyldisilane ((CH 3) 3SiSi(CH 3) 3) and carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4), respectively. These source materials can be used without expensive and complicated safety systems required for silane and chlorine source gases. Experimental X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results show that in the case of (CH 3) 3SiSi(CH 3) 3 vapour used as the ion source gas, the ion beam, after using standard magnetic field ion mass analysis for mass 28, contains about 62% of 28Si + ions. It is assumed that the molecular ions C 2H 4+ with the same mass 28 are the main component of the remaining 38% of this ion beam. In the case of the use of CCl 4 vapour as ion source gas and magnetic field mass analysis set for mass 35, a pure Cl + beam is observed; there are no other ions of mass 35 that can be formed from the source gas. The same system when used with water vapour as a source gas can produce pure ion beams of O + and/or H + ions without adverse effects produced in the ion source by oxygen gas (oxidation) or typical safety problems with a hydrogen gas supply (explosive).

  3. H/sup -/ ion source research at Los Alamos

    SciTech Connect

    Allison, P.; Smith, H.V. Jr.; Sherman, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    Up to 160 mA of H/sup -/ ions has been extracted at 20 kV from a 10 by 0.5-mm/sup 2/ slit in a Penning surface-plasma source. Typically, 70% of the beam can be transported through a bending magnet to a Faraday cup or emittance scanner. Up to 90% transmission has been observed for some neutralizing gases. Average and pulsed cesium flows from the source were measured with a surface-ionization gauge. Operating parameters of the source and measurements of the emittance are reported.

  4. Proceedings of the 10th international workshop on ECR ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, F W; Kirkpatrick, M I

    1991-01-01

    This report contains papers on the following topics: Recent Developments and Future Projects on ECR Ion Sources; Operation of the New KVI ECR Ion Source at 10 GHz; Operational Experience and Status of the INS SF-ECR Ion Source; Results of the New ECR4'' 14.5 GHz ECRIS; Preliminary Performance of the AECR; Experimental Study of the Parallel and Perpendicular Particle Losses from an ECRIS Plasma; Plasma Instability in Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heated Ion Sources; The Hyperbolic Energy Analyzer; Status of ECR Source Development; The New 10 GHz CAPRICE Source; First Operation of the Texas A M ECR Ion Source; Recent Developments of the RIKEN ECR Ion Sources; The 14 GHz CAPRICE Source; Characteristics and Potential Applications of an ORNL Microwave ECR Multicusp Plasma Ion Source; ECRIPAC: The Production and Acceleration of Multiply Charged Ions Using an ECR Plasma; ECR Source for the HHIRF Tandem Accelerator; Feasibility Studies for an ECR-Generated Plasma Stripper; Production of Ion Beams by using the ECR Plasmas Cathode; A Single Stage ECR Source for Efficient Production of Radioactive Ion Beams; The Single Staged ECR Source at the TRIUMF Isotope Separator TISOL; The Continuous Wave, Optically Pumped H{sup {minus}} Source; The H{sup +} ECR Source for the LAMPF Optically Pumped Polarized Ion Source; Present Status of the Warsaw CUSP ECR Ion Source; An ECR Source for Negative Ion Production; GYRAC-D: A Device for a 200 keV ECR Plasma Production and Accumulation; Status Report of the 14.4 GHZ ECR in Legnaro; Status of JYFL-ECRIS; Report on the Uppsala ECRIS Facility and Its Planned Use for Atomic Physics; A 10 GHz ECR Ion Source for Ion-Electron and Ion-Atom Collision Studies; and Status of the ORNL ECR Source Facility for Multicharged Ion Collision Research.

  5. Fluctuation of an ion beam extracted from an AC filament driven Bernas-type ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Miyamoto, N. Okajima, Y.; Wada, M.

    2014-02-15

    Argon ion beam fluctuation from an AC filament driven Bernas-type ion source is observed. The ion beam was measured by an 8 measurement elements beam profile monitor. The amplitude of the beam current fluctuation stayed in the same level from 100 Hz to 1 kHz of the filament heating frequency. The beam current fluctuation frequency measured by the beam profile monitor was equal to the frequency of the AC filament operation. The fluctuation amplitudes of the beam current by AC operation were less than 7% and were in the same level of the DC operation.

  6. Cavity Ring-Down System for Density Measurement of Negative Hydrogen Ion on Negative Ion Source

    SciTech Connect

    Nakano, Haruhisa; Tsumori, Katsuyoshi; Nagaoka, Kenichi; Shibuya, Masayuki; Kisaki, Masashi; Ikeda, Katsunori; Osakabe, Masaki; Kaneko, Osamu; Asano, Eiji; Kondo, Tomoki; Sato, Mamoru; Komada, Seiji; Sekiguchi, Haruo; Takeiri, Yasuhiko; Fantz, Ursel

    2011-09-26

    A Cavity Ring-Down (CRD) system was applied to measure the density of negative hydrogen ion (H{sup -}) in vicinity of extraction surface in the H{sup -} source for the development of neutral beam injector on Large Helical Device (LHD). The density measurement with sampling time of 50 ms was carried out. The measured density with the CRD system is relatively good agreement with the density evaluated from extracted beam-current with applying a similar relation of positive ion sources. In cesium seeded into ion-source plasma, the linearity between an arc power of the discharge and the measured density with the CRD system was observed. Additionally, the measured density was proportional to the extracted beam current. These characteristics indicate the CRD system worked well for H{sup -} density measurement in the region of H{sup -} and extraction.

  7. Volume Production of Negative Hydrogen and Deuterium Ions in aReflex-Type Ion Source

    SciTech Connect

    Jimbo, K.; Ehlers, K.W.; Leung, K.N.; Pyle, R.V.

    1986-01-01

    The extraction of negative and positive hydrogen and deuterium ions from a reflex-type negative ion source has been investigated. Extracted positive and negative ion currents were measured as functions of the gas flow rate, the axial magnetic field, and the bias potential of the cylindrical wall of the arc-chamber. By biasing the cylindrical wall several volts negative relative to the anode, a maximum H{sup -} current of 9.7 mA(J{sup -} {approx_equal} 100 mA/cm{sup 2}) and D{sup -} current of 4.1 mA (J{sup -} {approx_equal} 42 mA/cm{sup 2})were obtained in steady state operation. This result shows a factor of two improvement over previous data. The total impurity negative ion content was less than 1%. When the source was arranged for positive ion extraction, a high proton ratio (90%) was observed. The extracted negative ion current was approximately as large as the positive ion current.

  8. Magnetron sputtered boron films

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, Daniel M. (Livermore, CA); Jankowski, Alan F. (Livermore, CA)

    1998-01-01

    A method is described for the production of thin boron and titanium/boron films by magnetron sputter deposition. The amorphous boron films contain no morphological growth features, unlike those found when thin films are prepared by various physical vapor deposition processes. Magnetron sputter deposition method requires the use of a high density crystalline boron sputter target which is prepared by hot isostatic pressing. Thin boron films prepared by this method are useful for producing hardened surfaces, surfacing machine tools, etc. and for ultra-thin band pass filters as well as the low Z element in low Z/high Z optical components, such as mirrors which enhance reflectivity from grazing to normal incidence.

  9. Magnetron sputtered boron films

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, D.M.; Jankowski, A.F.

    1998-06-16

    A method is described for the production of thin boron and titanium/boron films by magnetron sputter deposition. The amorphous boron films contain no morphological growth features, unlike those found when thin films are prepared by various physical vapor deposition processes. Magnetron sputter deposition method requires the use of a high density crystalline boron sputter target which is prepared by hot isostatic pressing. Thin boron films prepared by this method are useful for producing hardened surfaces, surfacing machine tools, etc. and for ultra-thin band pass filters as well as the low Z element in low Z/high Z optical components, such as mirrors which enhance reflectivity from grazing to normal incidence. 8 figs.

  10. Numerical modeling of the SNS H- ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veitzer, Seth A.; Beckwith, Kristian R. C.; Kundrapu, Madhusudhan; Stoltz, Peter H.

    2015-04-01

    Ion source rf antennas that produce H- ions can fail when plasma heating causes ablation of the insulating coating due to small structural defects such as cracks. Reducing antenna failures that reduce the operating capabilities of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) accelerator is one of the top priorities of the SNS H- Source Program at ORNL. Numerical modeling of ion sources can provide techniques for optimizing design in order to reduce antenna failures. There are a number of difficulties in developing accurate models of rf inductive plasmas. First, a large range of spatial and temporal scales must be resolved in order to accurately capture the physics of plasma motion, including the Debye length, rf frequencies on the order of tens of MHz, simulation time scales of many hundreds of rf periods, large device sizes on tens of cm, and ion motions that are thousands of times slower than electrons. This results in large simulation domains with many computational cells for solving plasma and electromagnetic equations, short time steps, and long-duration simulations. In order to reduce the computational requirements, one can develop implicit models for both fields and particle motions (e.g. divergence-preserving ADI methods), various electrostatic models, or magnetohydrodynamic models. We have performed simulations using all three of these methods and have found that fluid models have the greatest potential for giving accurate solutions while still being fast enough to perform long timescale simulations in a reasonable amount of time. We have implemented a number of fluid models with electromagnetics using the simulation tool USim and applied them to modeling the SNS H- ion source. We found that a reduced, single-fluid MHD model with an imposed magnetic field due to the rf antenna current and the confining multi-cusp field generated increased bulk plasma velocities of > 200 m/s in the region of the antenna where ablation is often observed in the SNS source. We report here on comparisons of simulated plasma parameters and code performance using more accurate physical models, such as two-temperature extended MHD models, for both a related benchmark system describing a inductively coupled plasma reactor, and for the SNS ion source. We also present results from scaling studies for mesh generation and solvers in the USim simulation code.

  11. Development of the 3rd Generation ECR ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Lyneis, C.M.; Xie, Z.Q.; Taylor, C.E.

    1997-09-01

    The LBNL 3rd Generation ECR ion source has progressed from a concept to the fabrication of a full scale prototype superconducting magnet structure. This new ECR ion source will combine the recent ECR ion source techniques that significantly enhance the production of high charge state ions. The design includes a plasma chamber made from aluminum to provide additional cold electrons, three separate microwave feeds to allow multiple-frequency plasma heating (at 10, 14 and 18 GHz or at 6, 10 and 14 GHz) and very high magnetic mirror fields. The design calls for mirror fields of 4 T at injection and 3 T at extraction and for a radial field strength at the wall of 2.4 T. The prototype superconducting magnet structure which consists of three solenoid coils and six race track coils with iron poles forming the sextupole has been tested in a vertical dewar. After training, the sextupole magnet reached 105% of its design current with the solenoids off. With the solenoids operating at approximately 70% of their full design field, the sextuple coils operated at 95% of the design value which corresponds to a sextupole field strength at the plasma wall of more than 2.1 T.

  12. A low energy ion source for electron capture spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Tusche, C.; Kirschner, J.

    2014-06-15

    We report on the design of an ion source for the production of single and double charged Helium ions with kinetic energies in the range from 300 eV down to 5 eV. The construction is based on a commercial sputter ion gun equipped with a Wien-filter for mass/charge separation. Retardation of the ions from the ionizer potential (2 keV) takes place completely within the lens system of the sputter gun, without modification of original parts. For 15 eV He{sup +} ions, the design allows for beam currents up to 30 nA, limited by the space charge repulsion in the beam. For He{sup 2+} operation, we obtain a beam current of 320?pA at 30 eV, and 46 pA at 5 eV beam energy, respectively. In addition, operating parameters can be optimized for a significant contribution of metastable He*{sup +} (2s) ions.

  13. Surface-electrode ion trap with integrated light source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Tony Hyun; Herskind, Peter F.; Chuang, Isaac L.

    2011-05-01

    An atomic ion is trapped at the tip of a single-mode optical fiber in a cryogenic (8 K) surface-electrode ion trap. The fiber serves as an integrated source of laser light, which drives the quadrupole qubit transition of S88r+. Through in situ translation of the nodal point of the trapping field, the Gaussian beam profile of the fiber output is imaged, and the fiber-ion displacement, in units of the mode waist at the ion, is optimized to within 0.13±0.10 of the mode center despite an initial offset of 3.30±0.10. Fiber-induced charging by 125 ?W of 674 nm light is observed to be ˜10 V/m at an ion height of 670 ?m, with charging and discharging time constants of 1.6±0.3 s and 4.7±0.6 s, respectively. This work is of importance to large-scale, ion-based quantum information processing, where optics integration in surface-electrode designs may be a crucial enabling technology.

  14. Operation of a microwave proton source in pulsed mode

    SciTech Connect

    Zaugg, T.; Rose, C.; Schneider, J.D.; Sherman, J.; Stevens, R. Jr.

    1998-12-31

    Initial beam operation of the cw radio-frequency-quadrupole (RFQ) built for the Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA) project requires the injection into the RFQ of a 75-keV, pulsed, H{sup +} beam with a rise and fall time less than 10 microseconds and a pulse width from 0.1 to 1 millisecond at a repetition rate up to 10 Hz. The ion source for the accelerator is a microwave proton source driven by a 2.45-GHz magnetron. Pulsed beam for the RFQ is accomplished by modulation of the magnetron tube current. The magnetron provides microwave pulses to the ion source, and a medium-bandwidth, extraction power supply produces the H{sup +} ion beam using a four-electrode extractor. A similar ion source with a three-element extractor operating at 50 kV has also been tested with this magnetron modulator. The authors report the results of modulating the ion-source microwave power and extracting a pulsed proton beam using both a triode and a tetrode extractor.

  15. Beam dynamics of a liquid metal ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Whealton, J.H.; Meszaros, P.S.; Rothe, K.E.; Raridon, R.J.; Ryan, P.M.

    1989-01-01

    RMS emittance growth of liquid metal ion sources is studied. Processes included are nonlinear expansion through extractor and accelerator fringe fields, nonlinear beam space charge, plasma effects near needle, and waves (either ion-acoustic or space charge limited as considered by V.I. Dudnikov). This investigation consists of 2-D analysis of appropriate Vlasov-Poisson equations in both steady-state and time-dependent formulations. Various geometries will be considered such as some used by G. Alton of ORNL. 2 refs., 7 figs.

  16. The KSU cryogenic electron-beam ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stockli, Martin P.; Cocke, C. L.; Richard, P.

    1990-01-01

    We built a cryogenic electron-beam ion source which is now in operation. We report some experiences and results of the start-up phase, which was aimed at producing beams of highly charged argon. In March 1989 the first ions were extracted and identified as argon 17+ using Donets' x-ray technique. In April we started performing diagnostics with a 90° double-focusing analyzing magnet to study the charge-state distributions. In June we extracted beams with fully stripped argon 18+ as the most abundant argon charge state.

  17. Magnetron Structure Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, Thomas A.; Luginsland, John W.; Lemke, Ray W.

    1998-11-01

    Magnetrons are excellent devices for generating microwaves, with efficiencies greater than 70 percent when operated at low voltages. However, when operated at higher voltages (more than 100 kV), relativistic magnetrons suffer from short output rf pulses, as well as large decreases in efficiencies (typically less than 30 percent). Recent 3-D computer simulations have addressed the issue of efficiency limitations( R. W. Lemke, ‘3-D PIC Simulation Study of the Relativistic Magnetron’, presented at the IEEE ICOPS meeting, June 1998 ). A possible cause for short rf pulses is the large electric fields that exist in the vane structures. Using a large slot to vane ratio can lead to the reduction of the electric field stresses, however using a large number of vanes leads to severe mode competition. The Air Force Research Lab is using 2- and 3-D electromagnetic codes to investigate different mode structures which may lend themselves to ‘large’ mode separation between the Pi-mode and its nearest adjacent modes, while minimizing the electric field stress. Results will be presented.

  18. Increased ion intensity and reliability of the Stockholm electron beam ion source (abstract)a)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beebe, E.; Liljeby, L.; Pikin, A.; Björkhage, M.; Engström, Å.; Paal, A.

    1994-04-01

    The electron beam ion source, CRYSIS, produces highly charged ions for injection into the heavy ion storage ring—CRYRING at MSL, as well as low energy atomic physics experiments and the Stockholm-Mainz Penning trap recently installed at MSL. CRYSIS has produced ions up to Ar18+ and 136Xe52+. Pulsed beams of Ar13+ ions 60 ?s in duration have been injected into CRYRING via an RFQ and ions of charge up to 136Xe44+ have been used in atomic physics experiments with pulse duration 10-250 ms. A vacuum separation of the cryostat and ionization volumes has been made. Temperature control and measurement of internal electrodes have increased the gas injection efficiency and reduced the memory effect associated with a cryogenic EBIS. External ion injection has been added as an alternative to neutral gas injection for introducing the species to be ionized to high charge states. Monitoring of the radio frequency noise signal with a spectrum analyzer has aided in the propagation of quiet, high current (450 mA) dc electron beams. These quiet electron beams have been used to produce extracted ion pulses of higher intensities than in previous operation.

  19. A CW radiofrequency ion source for production of negative hydrogen ion beams for cyclotrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalvas, T.; Tarvainen, O.; Komppula, J.; Koivisto, H.; Tuunanen, J.; Potkins, D.; Stewart, T.; Dehnel, M. P.

    2015-04-01

    A CW 13.56 MHz radiofrequency-driven ion source RADIS for production of H- and D- beams is under development for replacing the filament-driven ion source of the MCC30/15 cyclotron. The RF ion source has a 16-pole multicusp plasma chamber, an electromagnet-based magnetic filter and an external planar spiral RF antenna behind an AlN window. The extraction is a 5-electrode system with an adjustable puller electrode voltage for optimizing the beam formation, a water-cooled electron dump electrode and an accelerating einzel lens. At 2650 W of RF power, the source produces 1 mA of H- (2.6 mA/cm2), which is the intensity needed at injection for production of 200 µA H+ with the filament-driven ion source. A simple pepperpot device has been developed for characterizing the beam emittance. Plans for improving the power efficiency with the use of a new permanent magnet front plate is discussed.

  20. A CW radiofrequency ion source for production of negative hydrogen ion beams for cyclotrons

    SciTech Connect

    Kalvas, T.; Tarvainen, O.; Komppula, J.; Koivisto, H.; Tuunanen, J.; Potkins, D.; Stewart, T.; Dehnel, M. P.

    2015-04-08

    A CW 13.56?MHz radiofrequency-driven ion source RADIS for production of H{sup ?} and D{sup ?} beams is under development for replacing the filament-driven ion source of the MCC30/15 cyclotron. The RF ion source has a 16-pole multicusp plasma chamber, an electromagnet-based magnetic filter and an external planar spiral RF antenna behind an AlN window. The extraction is a 5-electrode system with an adjustable puller electrode voltage for optimizing the beam formation, a water-cooled electron dump electrode and an accelerating einzel lens. At 2650?W of RF power, the source produces 1?mA of H{sup ?} (2.6?mA/cm{sup 2}), which is the intensity needed at injection for production of 200?µA H{sup +} with the filament-driven ion source. A simple pepperpot device has been developed for characterizing the beam emittance. Plans for improving the power efficiency with the use of a new permanent magnet front plate is discussed.

  1. A Hollow Cathode Magnetron (HCM)

    SciTech Connect

    S.A. Cohen; Z. Wang

    1998-04-01

    A new type of plasma sputtering device, named the hollow cathode magnetron (HCM), has been developed by surrounding a planar magnetron cathode with a hollow cathode structure (HCS). Operating characteristics of HCMs, current-voltage ( I-V ) curves for fixed discharge pressure and voltage-pressure ( V-p ) curves for fixed cathode current, are measured. Such characteristics are compared with their planar magnetron counterparts. New operation regimes, such as substantially lower pressures (0.3 mTorr), were discovered for HCMs. Cathode erosion profiles show marked improvement over planar magnetron in terms of material utilization. The use of HCMs for thin film deposition are discussed.

  2. Status of the ion source DECRIS-SC

    SciTech Connect

    Efremov, A.; Bekhterev, V.; Bogomolov, S.; Dmitriev, S.; Lebedev, A.; Leporis, M.; Nikiforov, A.; Paschenko, S.; Yakovlev, B.; Yazvitsky, N.; Datskov, V.; Drobin, V.; Seleznev, V.; Tsvineva, G.; Shishov, Yu.A.

    2006-03-15

    A 'liquid He-free' superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion Source DECRIS-SC, to be used as an injector for the compact IC-100 cyclotron, has been designed and built in cooperation between the FLNR and LHE (JINR). The main feature is that a compact refrigerator of the Gifford-McMahon type is used to cool the solenoid coils. Due to a very small cooling power at 4.2 K (about 1 W) our efforts were aimed at optimizing the magnetic structure and minimizing external heating of the coils. The maximum magnetic-field strengths are 3 and 2 T in the injection and extraction regions, respectively. When the source had been assembled and magnetic field measured, the ion source was immediately installed at the injection line of the cyclotron. During the first tests, which were run only a few days, some problems arose due to a relatively poor efficiency of the beam transport and analyzing line. From the moment of the first reliable beam production up to now the ion source has been operating continuously for the cyclotron tuning and then for the experiment. Some results of the one-year operation are reported.

  3. Status and operation of the Linac4 ion source prototypes

    SciTech Connect

    Lettry, J. Aguglia, D.; Andersson, P.; Bertolo, S.; Butterworth, A.; Coutron, Y.; Dallocchio, A.; Chaudet, E.; Gil-Flores, J.; Guida, R.; Hansen, J.; Koszar, I.; Mahner, E.; Mastrostefano, C.; Mathot, S.; Mattei, S.; Midttun, Ø.; Moyret, P.; Nisbet, D.; O’Neil, M.; and others

    2014-02-15

    CERN's Linac4 45 kV H{sup ?} ion sources prototypes are installed at a dedicated ion source test stand and in the Linac4 tunnel. The operation of the pulsed hydrogen injection, RF sustained plasma, and pulsed high voltages are described. The first experimental results of two prototypes relying on 2 MHz RF-plasma heating are presented. The plasma is ignited via capacitive coupling, and sustained by inductive coupling. The light emitted from the plasma is collected by viewports pointing to the plasma chamber wall in the middle of the RF solenoid and to the plasma chamber axis. Preliminary measurements of optical emission spectroscopy and photometry of the plasma have been performed. The design of a cesiated ion source is presented. The volume source has produced a 45 keV H{sup ?} beam of 16–22 mA which has successfully been used for the commissioning of the Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT), Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator, and chopper of Linac4.

  4. H- Ion Sources for High Intensity Proton Drivers

    SciTech Connect

    Dudnikov, Vadim; Johnson, Rolland P.; Stockli, Martin P; Welton, Robert F; Dudnikova, Galina

    2010-01-01

    Spallation neutron source user facilities require reliable, intense beams of protons. The technique of H- charge exchange injection into a storage ring or synchrotron can provide the needed beam currents, but may be limited by the ion sources that have currents and reliability that do not meet future requirements and emittances that are too large for efficient acceleration. In this project we are developing an H- source which will synthesize the most important developments in the field of negative ion sources to provide high current, small emittance, good lifetime, high reliability, and power efficiency. We describe planned modifications to the present external antenna source at SNS that involve: 1) replacing the present 2 MHz plasma-forming solenoid antenna with a 60 MHz saddle-type antenna and 2) replacing the permanent multicusp magnet with a weaker electromagnet, in order to increase the plasma density near the outlet aperture. The SNS test stand will then be used to verify simulations of this approach that indicate significant improvements in H- output current and efficiency, where lower RF power will allow higher duty factor, longer source lifetime, and/or better reliability.

  5. Plasma 'anti-assistance' and 'self-assistance' to high power impulse magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, Andre; Yushkov, Georgy Yu.

    2009-04-01

    A plasma assistance system was investigated with the goal to operate high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) at lower pressure than usual, thereby to enhance the utilization of the ballistic atoms and ions with high kinetic energy in the film growth process. Gas plasma flow from a constricted plasma source was aimed at the magnetron target. Contrary to initial expectations, such plasma assistance turned out to be contraproductive because it led to the extinction of the magnetron discharge. The effect can be explained by gas rarefaction. A better method of reducing the necessary gas pressure is operation at relatively high pulse repetition rates where the afterglow plasma of one pulse assists in the development of the next pulse. Here we show that this method, known from medium-frequency (MF) pulsed sputtering, is also very important at the much lower pulse repetition rates of HiPIMS. A minimum in the possible operational pressure is found in the frequency region between HiPIMS and MF pulsed sputtering.

  6. Plasma"anti-assistance" and"self-assistance" to high power impulse magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, Andre; Yushkov, Georgy Yu.

    2009-01-30

    A plasma assistance system was investigated with the goal to operate high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) at lower pressure than usual, thereby to enhance the utilization of the ballistic atoms and ions with high kinetic energy in the film growth process. Gas plasma flow from a constricted plasma source was aimed at the magnetron target. Contrary to initial expectations, such plasma assistance turned out to be contra-productive because it led to the extinction of the magnetron discharge. The effect can be explained by gas rarefaction. A better method of reducing the necessary gas pressure is operation at relatively high pulse repetition rates where the afterglow plasma of one pulse assists in the development of the next pulse. Here we show that this method, known from medium-frequency (MF) pulsed sputtering, is also very important at the much lower pulse repetition rates of HiPIMS. A minimum in the possible operational pressure is found in the frequency region between HiPIMS and MF pulsed sputtering.

  7. Concept for a fourth generation electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Lyneis, C.; Ferracin, P.; Caspi, S.; Hodgkinson, A.; Sabbi, G. L.

    2012-02-15

    A fourth generation electron cyclotron resonance ion source with an operating frequency between 40 and 56 GHz has the potential to quadruple the heavy-ion beam currents and provide a cost effective upgrade path for heavy ion drivers in use or in the planning stage at radioactive beam facilities. Design studies show it is feasible to produce the required magnetic fields in the plasma chamber, 7 T axially and 4 T in the radial direction with a magnetic structure using commercially available Nb{sub 3}Sn superconducting materials. In this paper we describe the design of such a magnet structure including a 3D analysis of the Lorentz forces generated by the magnetic fields and the necessary clamping structure to stabilize the conductor against these forces.

  8. High yields from the Stockholm electron beam ion source CRYSIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, R.; Björkhage, M.; Carlé, P.; Engström, Å.; Liljeby, L.; Rouleau, G.; Wenander, F.

    1997-06-01

    CRYSIS is an electron beam ion source (EBIS) with a superconducting solenoid. Highly charged ions are delivered to the acceleration and storage ring CRYRING [ K. Abrahamsson et al., Nucl. Instr. Methods B 79 (1993) 269.], SMILETRAP [C. Carlberg et al., Phys. Scr. T 59 (1995) 196.] and to low energy atomic and surface physics experiments. Stable electron beam currents up to 700 mA are obtained, in order to enhance the ion yield out of the EBIS. Measurements of the total charge per pulse at different working conditions and electron beam current density measurements were done. At electron beam currents of 600 mA yields up to 2.5 × 1010 charges per pulse could be measured.

  9. Plasma shape control by pulsed solenoid on laser ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekine, M.; Ikeda, S.; Romanelli, M.; Kumaki, M.; Fuwa, Y.; Kanesue, T.; Hayashizaki, N.; Lambiase, R.; Okamura, M.

    2015-09-01

    A Laser ion source (LIS) provides high current heavy ion beams with a very simple mechanical structure. Plasma is produced by a pulsed laser ablation of a solid state target and ions are extracted by an electric field. However, it was difficult to manipulate the beam parameters of a LIS, since the plasma condition could only be adjusted by the laser irradiation condition. To enhance flexibility of LIS operation, we employed a pulsed solenoid in the plasma drift section and investigated the effect of the solenoid field on singly charged iron beams. The experimentally obtained current profile was satisfactorily controlled by the pulsed magnetic field. This approach may also be useful to reduce beam emittance of a LIS.

  10. Plasma shape control by pulsed solenoid on laser ion source

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sekine, M.; Ikeda, S.; Romanelli, M.; Kumaki, M.; Fuwa, Y.; Kanesue, T.; Hayashizaki, N.; Lambiase, R.; Okamura, M.

    2015-05-28

    A Laser ion source (LIS) provides high current heavy ion beams with a very simple mechanical structure. Plasma is produced by a pulsed laser ablation of a solid state target and ions are extracted by an electric field. It was difficult to manipulate the beam parameters of a LIS, since the plasma condition could only be adjusted by the laser irradiation condition. To enhance flexibility of LIS operation, we employed a pulsed solenoid in the plasma drift section and investigated the effect of the solenoid field on singly charged iron beams. The experimentally obtained current profile was satisfactorily controlled bymore »the pulsed magnetic field. Thus, this approach may also be useful to reduce beam emittance of a LIS.« less

  11. Plasma shape control by pulsed solenoid on laser ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Sekine, M.; Ikeda, S.; Romanelli, M.; Kumaki, M.; Fuwa, Y.; Kanesue, T.; Hayashizaki, N.; Lambiase, R.; Okamura, M.

    2015-05-28

    A Laser ion source (LIS) provides high current heavy ion beams with a very simple mechanical structure. Plasma is produced by a pulsed laser ablation of a solid state target and ions are extracted by an electric field. It was difficult to manipulate the beam parameters of a LIS, since the plasma condition could only be adjusted by the laser irradiation condition. To enhance flexibility of LIS operation, we employed a pulsed solenoid in the plasma drift section and investigated the effect of the solenoid field on singly charged iron beams. The experimentally obtained current profile was satisfactorily controlled by the pulsed magnetic field. Thus, this approach may also be useful to reduce beam emittance of a LIS.

  12. Wall-loss distribution of charge breeding ions in an electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, S. C.; Oyaizu, M.; Imai, N.; Hirayama, Y.; Ishiyama, H.; Miyatake, H.; Niki, K.; Okada, M.; Watanabe, Y. X.; Otokawa, Y.; Osa, A.; Ichikawa, S.

    2011-03-15

    The ion loss distribution in an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) was investigated to understand the element dependence of the charge breeding efficiency in an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) charge breeder. The radioactive {sup 111}In{sup 1+} and {sup 140}Xe{sup 1+} ions (typical nonvolatile and volatile elements, respectively) were injected into the ECR charge breeder at the Tokai Radioactive Ion Accelerator Complex to breed their charge states. Their respective residual activities on the sidewall of the cylindrical plasma chamber of the source were measured after charge breeding as functions of the azimuthal angle and longitudinal position and two-dimensional distributions of ions lost during charge breeding in the ECRIS were obtained. These distributions had different azimuthal symmetries. The origins of these different azimuthal symmetries are qualitatively discussed by analyzing the differences and similarities in the observed wall-loss patterns. The implications for improving the charge breeding efficiencies of nonvolatile elements in ECR charge breeders are described. The similarities represent universal ion loss characteristics in an ECR charge breeder, which are different from the loss patterns of electrons on the ECRIS wall.

  13. ELECTRON BEAM ION SOURCE PREINJECTOR PROJECT (EBIS) CONCEPTUAL DESIGN REPORT.

    SciTech Connect

    ALESSI, J.; BARTON, D.; BEEBE, E.; GASSNER, D.; ET AL.

    2005-02-28

    This report describes a new heavy ion pre-injector for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) based on a high charge state Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS), a Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator, and a short Linac. The highly successful development of an EBIS at BNL now makes it possible to replace the present pre-injector that is based on an electrostatic Tandem with a reliable, low maintenance Linac-based pre-injector. Linac-based pre-injectors are presently used at most accelerator and collider facilities with the exception of RHIC, where the required gold beam intensities could only be met with a Tandem until the recent EBIS development. EBIS produces high charge state ions directly, eliminating the need for the two stripping foils presently used with the Tandem. Unstable stripping efficiencies of these foils are a significant source of luminosity degradation in RHIC. The high reliability and flexibility of the new Linac-based pre-injector will lead to increased integrated luminosity at RHIC and is an essential component for the long-term success of the RHIC facility. This new pre-injector, based on an EBIS, also has the potential for significant future intensity increases and can produce heavy ion beams of all species including uranium beams and, as part of a future upgrade, might also be used to produce polarized {sup 3}He beams. These capabilities will be critical to the future luminosity upgrades and electron-ion collisions in RHIC. The new RFQ and Linac that are used to accelerate beams from the EBIS to an energy sufficient for injection into the Booster are both very similar to existing devices already in operation at other facilities. Injection into the Booster will occur at the same location as the existing injection from the Tandem.

  14. ELECTRON BEAM ION SOURCE PREINJECTOR PROJECT (EBIS) CONCEPTUAL DESIGN REPORT.

    SciTech Connect

    ALESSI, J.; BARTON, D.; BEEBE, E.; GASSNER, D.; GRANDINETTI, R.; HSEUH, H.; JAVIDFAR, A.; KPONOU, A.; LAMBIASE, R.; LESSARD, E.; LOCKEY, R.; LODESTRO, V.; MAPES, M.; MIRABELLA, D.; NEHRING, T.; OERTER, B.; PENDZICK, A.; PIKIN, A.; RAPARIA, D.; RITTER, J.; ROSER, T.; RUSSO, T.; SNYDSTRUP, L.; WILINSKI, M.; ZALTSMAN, A.; ZHANG, S.

    2005-09-01

    This report describes a new heavy ion pre-injector for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) based on a high charge state Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS), a Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator, and a short Linear accelerator (Linac). The highly successful development of an EBIS at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) now makes it possible to replace the present pre-injector that is based on an electrostatic Tandem with a reliable, low maintenance Linac-based pre-injector. Linac-based preinjectors are presently used at most accelerator and collider facilities with the exception of RHIC, where the required gold beam intensities could only be met with a Tandem until the recent EBIS development. EBIS produces high charge state ions directly, eliminating the need for the two stripping foils presently used with the Tandem. Unstable stripping efficiencies of these foils are a significant source of luminosity degradation in RHIC. The high reliability and flexibility of the new Linac-based pre-injector will lead to increased integrated luminosity at RHIC and is an essential component for the long-term success of the RHIC facility. This new pre-injector, based on an EBIS, also has the potential for significant future intensity increases and can produce heavy ion beams of all species including uranium beams and, as part of a future upgrade, might also be used to produce polarized {sup 3}He beams. These capabilities will be critical to the future luminosity upgrades and electron-ion collisions in RHIC. The proposed pre-injector system would also provide for a major enhancement in capability for the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL), which utilizes heavy-ion beams from the RHIC complex. EBIS would allow for the acceleration of all important ion species for the NASA radiobiology program, such as, helium, argon, and neon which are unavailable with the present Tandem injector. In addition, the new system would allow for very rapid switching of ion species for NSRL experiments, reducing delays due to the interference with RHIC injection operations, and allowing enhanced mixed field radiation studies. The new RFQ and Linac that are used to accelerate beams from the EBIS to an energy sufficient for injection into the Booster are both very similar to existing devices already in operation at other facilities. Injection into the Booster will occur at the same location as the existing injection from the Tandem.

  15. Laser desorption lamp ionization source for ion trap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qinghao; Zare, Richard N

    2015-01-01

    A two-step laser desorption lamp ionization source coupled to an ion trap mass spectrometer (LDLI-ITMS) has been constructed and characterized. The pulsed infrared (IR) output of an Nd:YAG laser (1064?nm) is directed to a target inside a chamber evacuated to ~15?Pa causing desorption of molecules from the target's surface. The desorbed molecules are ionized by a vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) lamp (filled with xenon, major wavelength at 148?nm). The resulting ions are stored and detected in a three-dimensional quadrupole ion trap modified from a Finnigan Mat LCQ mass spectrometer operated at a pressure of ? 0.004?Pa. The limit of detection for desorbed coronene molecules is 1.5?pmol, which is about two orders of magnitude more sensitive than laser desorption laser ionization mass spectrometry using a fluorine excimer laser (157?nm) as the ionization source. The mass spectrum of four standard aromatic compounds (pyrene, coronene, rubrene and 1,4,8,11,15,18,22,25-octabutoxy-29H,31H-phthalocyanine (OPC)) shows that parent ions dominate. By increasing the infrared laser power, this instrument is capable of detecting inorganic compounds. PMID:25601688

  16. Improving efficiency of negative ion production in ion source with saddle antenna.

    PubMed

    Dudnikov, V; Johnson, R P; Murrey, S; Pinnisi, T; Piller, C; Santana, M; Stockli, M; Welton, R; Johnson, C; Turvey, M

    2014-02-01

    Extraction of negative ions from a saddle antenna radio-frequency surface plasma source is considered. Several versions of new plasma generators with different antennas and magnetic field configurations were tested in the smal Oak Ridge National Laboratory Spallation Neutron Source Test Stand. The efficiency of positive ion generation in plasma has been improved to 200 mA/cm(2)?kW from 2.5 mA/cm(2)?kW. A small oven was developed for cesiation by cesium compounds and alloy decomposition. After cesiation, a current of negative ions to the collector was increased from 1 mA to 10 mA with 1.5 kW RF power in the plasma and longitudinal magnetic field Bl ? 250 G. The specific efficiency of H(-) production was increased to 20 mA/cm(2)?kW from 2.5 mA/cm(2)?kW. PMID:24593551

  17. Comparison between single- and dual-electrode ion source systems for low-energy ion transport

    SciTech Connect

    Vasquez, M. Jr.; Tokumura, S.; Kasuya, T.; Maeno, S.; Wada, M.

    2012-11-06

    Extraction of ions with energies below 100 eV has been demonstrated using a hot-cathode multi-cusp ion source equipped with extraction electrodes made of thin wires. Two electrode geometries, a single-electrode system, and a dual-electrode system were built and tested. The single-electrode configuration showed high ion beam current densities at shorter distances from the electrode but exhibited rapid attenuation as the distance from the electrode increased. Beam angular spread measurements showed similar beam divergence for both electrode configurations at low plasma densities. At high plasma densities and low extraction potentials, the single-electrode system showed the angular spread twice as large as that of the dual-electrode system. Energy distribution analyses showed a broader energy spread for ion beams extracted from a single-electrode set-up.

  18. Sensitive glow discharge ion source for aerosol and gas analysis

    DOEpatents

    Reilly, Peter T. A. (Knoxville, TN)

    2007-08-14

    A high sensitivity glow discharge ion source system for analyzing particles includes an aerodynamic lens having a plurality of constrictions for receiving an aerosol including at least one analyte particle in a carrier gas and focusing the analyte particles into a collimated particle beam. A separator separates the carrier gas from the analyte particle beam, wherein the analyte particle beam or vapors derived from the analyte particle beam are selectively transmitted out of from the separator. A glow discharge ionization source includes a discharge chamber having an entrance orifice for receiving the analyte particle beam or analyte vapors, and a target electrode and discharge electrode therein. An electric field applied between the target electrode and discharge electrode generates an analyte ion stream from the analyte vapors, which is directed out of the discharge chamber through an exit orifice, such as to a mass spectrometer. High analyte sensitivity is obtained by pumping the discharge chamber exclusively through the exit orifice and the entrance orifice.

  19. Gridded IEC Discharge Physics with an Auxiliary Ion Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miley, George H.

    2001-04-01

    The gridded inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) fusion device is utilized as a portable low-level neutron source for activation analysis.[1] Normal operation involves an unique plasma discharge where ion beams are formed outside of the grid that pass through the grid openings, converging at the center in the spherical device.[2] Due to the transparent grid combined with the novel beam formation process, the plasma discharge follows a modified Paschen break-down law which in effect determines the voltage-pressure-current relation for operation. Recent experiments have employed an auxiliary ion source to allow operation at lower pressures. The modified breakdown/operational relationship observed experimentally and a theoretical model for these unique plasma discharges will be presented. [1] G. H. Miley and J. Sved, Appl. Radiation and Isotopes, 48, 10-12, 1557-1561 (1997). [2] G. H. Miley, et al., IEEE Trans. Plasma Science, 25, 4, 733-739 (1997)

  20. Investigation of helium ion production in constricted direct current plasma ion source with layered-glows.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yuna; Chung, Kyoung-Jae; Park, Yeong-Shin; Hwang, Y S

    2014-02-01

    Generation of helium ions is experimentally investigated with a constricted direct current (DC) plasma ion source operated at layered-glow mode, in which electrons could be accelerated through multiple potential structures so as to generate helium ions including He(2+) by successive ionization collisions in front of an extraction aperture. The helium discharge is sustained with the formation of a couple of stable layers and the plasma ball with high density is created near the extraction aperture at the operational pressure down to 0.6 Torr with concave cathodes. The ion beam current extracted with an extraction voltage of 5 kV is observed to be proportional to the discharge current and inversely proportional to the operating pressure, showing high current density of 130 mA/cm(2) and power density of 0.52 mA/cm(2)/W. He(2+) ions, which were predicted to be able to exist due to multiple-layer potential structure, are not observed. Simple calculation on production of He(2+) ions inside the plasma ball reveals that reduced operating pressure and increased cathode area will help to generate He(2+) ions with the layered-glow DC discharge. PMID:24593635

  1. Investigation of helium ion production in constricted direct current plasma ion source with layered-glows

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Yuna; Chung, Kyoung-Jae; Park, Yeong-Shin; Hwang, Y. S.; Center for Advance Research in Fusion Reactor Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744

    2014-02-15

    Generation of helium ions is experimentally investigated with a constricted direct current (DC) plasma ion source operated at layered-glow mode, in which electrons could be accelerated through multiple potential structures so as to generate helium ions including He{sup 2+} by successive ionization collisions in front of an extraction aperture. The helium discharge is sustained with the formation of a couple of stable layers and the plasma ball with high density is created near the extraction aperture at the operational pressure down to 0.6 Torr with concave cathodes. The ion beam current extracted with an extraction voltage of 5 kV is observed to be proportional to the discharge current and inversely proportional to the operating pressure, showing high current density of 130 mA/cm{sup 2} and power density of 0.52 mA/cm{sup 2}/W. He{sup 2+} ions, which were predicted to be able to exist due to multiple-layer potential structure, are not observed. Simple calculation on production of He{sup 2+} ions inside the plasma ball reveals that reduced operating pressure and increased cathode area will help to generate He{sup 2+} ions with the layered-glow DC discharge.

  2. Potassium source for ion-exchange glass waveguide fabrication.

    PubMed

    da Silva, B J; de Melo, R P; Falco-Filho, E L; de Araújo, C B

    1997-08-20

    We propose and demonstrate the use of a new potassium-ion source for glass waveguide fabrication based on a KI -ZnCl2 mixture. Planar waveguide were made using glasses such as BK7, Pyrex, soda lime, and commercial semiconductor doped glasses. The optical quality of the waveguides prepared compare favorably with the quality obtained using other fabrication techniques and the processing time is considerably reduced. PMID:18259435

  3. Optimal pulse modulator design criteria for plasma source ion implanters

    SciTech Connect

    Reass, W.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes what are believed to be the required characteristics of a high-voltage modulator for efficient and optimal ion deposition from the ''Plasma Source Ion Implantation'' (PSII) process. The PSII process is a method to chemically or physically alter and enhance surface properties of objects by placing them in a weakly ionized plasma and pulsing the object with a high negative voltage. The attracted ions implant themselves and form chemical bonds or are interstitially mixed with the base material. Present industrial uses of implanted objects tends to be for limited-production, high-value-added items. Traditional implanting hardware uses the typical low-current (ma) semiconductor raster scan'' implanters. The targets must also be manipulated to maintain a surface normal to the ion beam. The PSII method can provide bulk'' equipment processing on a large industrial scale. For the first generation equipment, currents are scaled from milliamps to hundreds of amps, voltages to -175kV, at kilohertz rep-rates, and high plasma ion densities.

  4. Development of a versatile multiaperture negative ion source.

    PubMed

    Cavenago, M; Kulevoy, T; Petrenko, S; Serianni, G; Antoni, V; Bigi, M; Fellin, F; Recchia, M; Veltri, P

    2012-02-01

    A 60 kV ion source (9 beamlets of 15 mA each of H(-)) and plasma generators are being developed at Consorzio RFX and INFN-LNL, for their versatility in experimental campaigns and for training. Unlike most experimental sources, the design aimed at continuous operation. Magnetic configuration can achieve a minimum ?B? trap, smoothly merged with the extraction filter. Modular design allows for quick substitution and upgrading of parts such as the extraction and postacceleration grids or the electrodes in contact with plasma. Experiments with a radio frequency plasma generator and Faraday cage inside the plasma are also described. PMID:22380216

  5. Lifetime of the Highly Efficient H- Ion Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Bollinger, D.S.; Dudnikov, V.G.; Faircloth, D.C.; Lawrie, S.R.; /Rutherford

    2012-05-01

    Factors limiting the operating lifetime of Compact Surface Plasma Sources (CSPS) are analyzed and possible treatments for lifetime enhancement are considered. Noiseless discharges with lower gas and cesium densities are produced in experiments with modified discharge cells. With these discharge cells it is possible to increase the emission aperture and extract the same beam with a lower discharge current and with correspondingly increased source lifetime. A design of an advanced CSPS is presented. Optimization of the discharge cells in a Penning H{sup -} ion source is a viable method for increasing the phase space of the stable region for noiseless discharge production. With this method, cesium usage would be decreased, potentially resulting in longer source lifetimes.

  6. Collector and source sheaths of a finite ion temperature plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwager, L. A.; Birdsall, C. K.

    1988-04-01

    The region between a Maxwellian plasma source and an absorbing surface is modeled with an electrostatic particle simulation and with a kinetic plasma-sheath model. In the kinetic model, Poisson's equation and Vlasov equations govern the velocity distribution of the ions and electrons. The numerical and theoretical results for collector potential and plasma transport agree with the bounded model of Emmert et al., but differ somewhat from those using traditional Bohm sheath analysis. The plasma source injects equal fluxes of half-Maxwellian ions and electrons with specified mass and temperature ratios and is assumed to have a zero electric field. Representing the potential change within a distributed full-Maxwellian source region, the source potential drop depends primarily on temperature ratio and evolves a few Debye lengths from the source to neutralize the injected plasma. The plasma flows to an electrically floating collector where the more familiar electron repelling collector sheath appears. Profiles of potential, density, drift velocity, temperature, kinetic energy flux, and heat flux are shown from simulation; all compare very well with theory.

  7. The Discovery of Rhea as a Source of Nitrogen Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reisenfeld, Daniel; Janzen, Paul; Johnson, Robert; Powell, Ronald; Smith, H. Todd; Wilson, Robert

    The Cassini plasma spectrometer (CAPS) instrument made measurements of the plasma envi-ronment near Rhea when Cassini passed through the moon's wake on November 26, 2005 at a distance of 500 km, and again on August 30, 2007, at a distance of 5000 km. During both en-counters, the CAPS ion mass spectrometer (CAPS/IMS) detected an enhancement of nitrogen ions (N+ ) by a factor of two relative to the ambient environment. Compared to water group ions (O+ , OH+ , H2 O+ , H3 O+ ), this amounted to a fractional increase from 10% to 20% of the water group content. There has already been a suggestion that Rhea possesses a dust halo (Jones, et al., Science 2008) and that it is a source of O2 + (Martens et al., GRL, 2008). Our results provide further evidence that Rhea is a source of plasma for Saturn's magnetosphere. To explore the degree to which Rhea may have an active surface, modeling of the nitrogen source rate is currently under way. We will present our current results as well as composition results from the upcoming Rhea encounter on March 2, 2010, when Cassini passes within 100 km of the moon.

  8. Laser measurement of H{sup -} ions in a field-effect-transistor based radio frequency ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, N.; Matsuno, T.; Funaoi, T.; Ando, A.; Tauchi, Y.; Nakano, H.; Tsumori, K.; Takeiri, Y.

    2012-02-15

    Hydrogen negative ion density measurements are required to clarify the characteristics of negative ion production and ion source performance. Both of laser photodetachment and cavity ring down (CRD) measurements have been implemented to a field-effect-transistor based radio-frequency ion source. The density ratio of negative hydrogen ions to electrons was successfully measured by laser photodetachment and effect of magnetic filter field on negative ion density was confirmed. The calculated CRD signal showed that CRD mirrors with >99.990% reflectivity are required and loss of reflectivity due to cesium contamination should be minimized.

  9. Development of C{sub 60} plasma ion source for time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry applications

    SciTech Connect

    Ji Qing; Chen Ye; Ji Lili; Hahto, Sami; Leung, Ka-Ngo; Lee, Tae Geol; Moon, Dae Won

    2008-02-15

    Initial data from a multicusp ion source developed for buckminsterfullerene (C{sub 60}) cluster ion production are reported in this article. A C{sub 60}{sup +} beam current of 425 nA and a C{sub 60}{sup -} beam current of 200 nA are obtainable in continuous mode. Compared to prior work using electron impact ionization, the multicusp ion source provides at least two orders of magnitude increase in the extractable C{sub 60}{sup +} beam current. Mass spectra for both positive and negative bismuth cluster ions generated by the multicusp ion source are also included.

  10. Long Plasma Source for Heavy Ion Beam Charge Neutralization

    SciTech Connect

    Efthimion, P.C.; Gilson, E.P.; Grisham, L.; Davidson, R.C.; Logan, B.G.; Seidl, P.A.; Waldron, W.

    2008-06-01

    Plasmas are a source of unbound electrons for charge neutralizing intense heavy ion beams to focus them to a small spot size and compress their axial length. The plasma source should operate at low neutral pressures and without strong externally-applied fields. To produce long plasma columns, sources based upon ferroelectric ceramics with large dielectric coefficients have been developed. The source utilizes the ferroelectric ceramic BaTiO{sub 3} to form metal plasma. The drift tube inner surface of the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX) is covered with ceramic material. High voltage ({approx} 8 kV) is applied between the drift tube and the front surface of the ceramics. A BaTiO{sub 3} source comprised of five 20-cm-long sources has been tested and characterized, producing relatively uniform plasma in the 5 x 10{sup 10} cm{sup -3} density range. The source was integrated into the NDCX device for charge neutralization and beam compression experiments, and yielded current compression ratios {approx} 120. Present research is developing multi-meter-long and higher density sources to support beam compression experiments for high energy density physics applications.

  11. Improvements to the internal and external antenna H- ion sources at the Spallation Neutron Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welton, R. F.; Dudnikov, V. G.; Han, B. X.; Murray, S. N.; Pennisi, T. R.; Pillar, C.; Santana, M.; Stockli, M. P.; Turvey, M. W.

    2014-02-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS), a large scale neutron production facility, routinely operates with 30-40 mA peak current in the linac. Recent measurements have shown that our RF-driven internal antenna, Cs-enhanced, multi-cusp ion sources injects ˜55 mA of H- beam current (˜1 ms, 60 Hz) at 65-kV into a Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator through a closely coupled electrostatic Low-Energy Beam Transport system. Over the last several years a decrease in RFQ transmission and issues with internal antennas has stimulated source development at the SNS both for the internal and external antenna ion sources. This report discusses progress in improving internal antenna reliability, H- yield improvements which resulted from modifications to the outlet aperture assembly (applicable to both internal and external antenna sources) and studies made of the long standing problem of beam persistence with the external antenna source. The current status of the external antenna ion source will also be presented.

  12. The continued development of the Spallation Neutron Source external antenna H- ion source.

    PubMed

    Welton, R F; Carmichael, J; Desai, N J; Fuga, R; Goulding, R H; Han, B; Kang, Y; Lee, S W; Murray, S N; Pennisi, T; Potter, K G; Santana, M; Stockli, M P

    2010-02-01

    The U.S. Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is an accelerator-based, pulsed neutron-scattering facility, currently in the process of ramping up neutron production. In order to ensure that the SNS will meet its operational commitments as well as provide for future facility upgrades with high reliability, we are developing a rf-driven, H(-) ion source based on a water-cooled, ceramic aluminum nitride (AlN) plasma chamber. To date, early versions of this source have delivered up to 42 mA to the SNS front end and unanalyzed beam currents up to approximately 100 mA (60 Hz, 1 ms) to the ion source test stand. This source was operated on the SNS accelerator from February to April 2009 and produced approximately 35 mA (beam current required by the ramp up plan) with availability of approximately 97%. During this run several ion source failures identified reliability issues, which must be addressed before the source re-enters production: plasma ignition, antenna lifetime, magnet cooling, and cooling jacket integrity. This report discusses these issues, details proposed engineering solutions, and notes progress to date. PMID:20192396

  13. Spallation neutron source saddle antenna H{sup -} ion source project

    SciTech Connect

    Dudnikov, Vadim; Johnson, Rolland P.; Dudnikova, Galina; Stockli, Martin; Welton, Robert

    2010-02-15

    In this project we are developing an H{sup -} source which will synthesize the most important developments in the field of negative ion sources to provide high current, high brightness, good lifetime, high reliability, and high power efficiency. We describe two planned modifications to the present spallation neutron source external antenna source in order to increase the plasma density near the output aperture: (1) replacing the present 2 MHz plasma-forming solenoid antenna with a 13 MHz saddle-type antenna and (2) replacing the permanent multicusp magnetic system with a weaker electromagnet.

  14. Magnetron tuner has locking feature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martucci, V. J.

    1969-01-01

    Magnetron tuning arrangement features a means of moving a tuning ring axially within an anode cavity by a system of reduction gears engaging a threaded tuning shaft of lead screw. The shaft positions the tuning ring for the desired magnetron output frequency, and a washer prevents backlash.

  15. Magic-T-Coupled Magnetrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickinson, R. M.

    1985-01-01

    Outputs of two magnetrons added coherently in scheme based on resonant waveguide coupling and injection phase locking. In addition, filaments are turned off after starting. Overall effect is relatively-inexpensive, lowpower, noisy magnetrons generate clean carrier signals of higher power that ordinarily require more expensive klystrons.

  16. A compact ion source for intense neutron generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkins, Luke Torrilhon

    Today, numerous applications for neutrons, beyond those of the nuclear power industry, are beginning to emerge and become viable. From neutron radiography which, not unlike conventional X-rays, can provide an in-depth image through various materials, to neutron radiotherapy, for the treatment of certain forms of cancer, all these applications promise to improve our quality of life. To meet the growing need for neutrons, greater demands are being made on the neutron 'generator' technology, demands for improved neutron output and reliability at reduced physical sizes and costs. One such example in the field of borehole neutron generators, where, through neutron activation analysis, the elemental composition, concentration and location in the surrounding borehole media can be ascertained. These generators, which commonly rely on the fusion of deuterium (D) and tritium (T) at energies of the order of one hundred thousand Volts, seem to defy their physical limitations to provide neutron outputs approaching a billion per second in packages no greater than two inches in diameter. In an attempt to answer this demand, we, at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), have begun developing a new generation of neutron generators making use of recent developments in ion source technology. The specific application which motivates this development is in the environmental monitoring field, where pollutants and their concentrations in the subsurface must be assessed. To achieve the desired direction of low-level concentrations and obtain a better directional sensitivity, a neutron output of 109 to 1010 D-T neutrons per second was targeted for generator package which can fit inside a ~5 cm diameter borehole. To accomplish this performance, a radio-frequency (RF)- driven ion source developed at LBNL was adapted to the requirements of this application. The advantages of this type of ion source are its intrinsic ability to tailor the delivery of RF power to the ion source and therefore control the neutron output (pulse width, repetition rate and magnitude) while operating at low pressures (~5 mTorr). In the experimental testing presented herein, a prototype, 5 cm-diameter, inductively driven ion source has produced unsaturated hydrogen beam current densities in excess of 1 A/cm2 and monatomic species fractions in excess of 90%. This satisfactory performance, with respect to the targeted neutron output, was achieved with a 2 MHz, 60 kW pulse of RF to produce a ~20?s plasma pulse at <100 Hz.

  17. Negative hydrogen ion production in a helicon plasma source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santoso, J.; Manoharan, R.; O'Byrne, S.; Corr, C. S.

    2015-09-01

    In order to develop very high energy (>1 MeV) neutral beam injection systems for applications, such as plasma heating in fusion devices, it is necessary first to develop high throughput negative ion sources. For the ITER reference source, this will be realised using caesiated inductively coupled plasma devices, containing either hydrogen or deuterium discharges, operated with high rf input powers (up to 90 kW per driver). It has been suggested that due to their high power coupling efficiency, helicon devices may be able to reduce power requirements and potentially obviate the need for caesiation due to the high plasma densities achievable. Here, we present measurements of negative ion densities in a hydrogen discharge produced by a helicon device, with externally applied DC magnetic fields ranging from 0 to 8.5 mT at 5 and 10 mTorr fill pressures. These measurements were taken in the magnetised plasma interaction experiment at the Australian National University and were performed using the probe-based laser photodetachment technique, modified for the use in the afterglow of the plasma discharge. A peak in the electron density is observed at ˜3 mT and is correlated with changes in the rf power transfer efficiency. With increasing magnetic field, an increase in the negative ion fraction from 0.04 to 0.10 and negative ion densities from 8 × 1014 m-3 to 7 × 1015 m-3 is observed. It is also shown that the negative ion densities can be increased by a factor of 8 with the application of an external DC magnetic field.

  18. Industrial ion source technology. [for ion beam etching, surface texturing, and deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, H. R.

    1977-01-01

    Plasma probe surveys were conducted in a 30-cm source to verify that the uniformity in the ion beam is the result of a corresponding uniformity in the discharge-chamber plasma. A 15 cm permanent magnet multipole ion source was designed, fabricated, and demonstrated. Procedures were investigated for texturing a variety of seed and surface materials for controlling secondary electron emission, increasing electron absorption of light, and improved attachment of biological tissue for medical implants using argon and tetrafluoromethane as the working gases. The cross section for argon-argon elastic collisions in the ion-beam energy range was calculated from interaction potentials and permits calculation of beam interaction effects that can determine system pumping requirements. The data also indicate that different optimizations of ion-beam machines will be advantageous for long and short runs, with 1 mA-hr/cm being the rough dividing line for run length. The capacity to simultaneously optimize components in an ion-beam machine for a single application, a capacity that is not evident in competitive approaches such as diode sputtering is emphasized.

  19. Ion optical properties of an electron-beam-guiding ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Kishi, T.; Takagi, T.

    1982-11-01

    Ion optical properties of an electron-beam-guiding ion source have been studied by numerical calculation of the ion beam trajectories in the gun region and by experiments. It was found that the ions drifting toward the anode aperture could be focused as a small spot on the emitting end of the pipe cathode of outside diameter 1 mm and inside diameter 0.6 mm. For the gun configuration used, the best focus condition was obtained at V/sub g/ = -23 V, V/sub a/ = 2 kV, and I/sub p/ = 2 mA when a bismuth block target was used as a source material, where V/sub g/, V/sub a/, and I/sub p/ were the bias voltages of the beam-forming electrode and anode, and the total electron beam current. The maximum ion beam current density and normalized brightness were of the order of 2.7 ..mu..A/cm/sup 2/ and 9.1 x 10/sup 10/ A/m/sup 2/ rad/sup 2/.

  20. Development of a low energy ion source for ROSINA ion mode calibration

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, Martin; Altwegg, Kathrin; Jaeckel, Annette; Balsiger, Hans

    2006-10-15

    The European Rosetta mission on its way to comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko will remain for more than a year in the close vicinity (1 km) of the comet. The two ROSINA mass spectrometers on board Rosetta are designed to analyze the neutral and ionized volatile components of the cometary coma. However, the relative velocity between the comet and the spacecraft will be minimal and also the velocity of the outgassing particles is below 1 km/s. This combination leads to very low ion energies in the surrounding plasma of the comet, typically below 20 eV. Additionally, the spacecraft may charge up to a few volts in this environment. In order to simulate such plasma and to calibrate the mass spectrometers, a source for ions with very low energies had to be developed for the use in the laboratory together with the different gases expected at the comet. In this paper we present the design of this ion source and we discuss the physical parameters of the ion beam like sensitivity, energy distribution, and beam shape. Finally, we show the first ion measurements that have been performed together with one of the two mass spectrometers.

  1. Electron cyclotron resonance ion source experience at the Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Center

    SciTech Connect

    Winkelmann, T.; Cee, R.; Haberer, T.; Naas, B.; Peters, A.; Scheloske, S.; Spaedtke, P.; Tinschert, K.

    2008-02-15

    Radiotherapy with heavy ions is an upcoming cancer treatment method with to date unparalleled precision. It associates higher control rates particularly for radiation resistant tumor species with reduced adverse effects compared to conventional photon therapy. The accelerator beam lines and structures of the Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Center (HIT) have been designed under the leadership of GSI, Darmstadt with contributions of the IAP Frankfurt. Currently, the accelerator is under commissioning, while the injector linac has been completed. When the patient treatment begins in 2008, HIT will be the first medical heavy ion accelerator in Europe. This presentation will provide an overview about the project, with special attention given to the 14.5 GHz electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources in operation with carbon, hydrogen, helium, and oxygen, and the experience of one year of continuous operation. It also displays examples for beam emittances, measured in the low energy beam transport. In addition to the outlook of further developments at the ECR ion sources for a continuously stable operation, this paper focuses on some of the technical processings of the past year.

  2. Flux and energy analysis of species in hollow cathode magnetron ionized physical vapor deposition of copper

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, L.; Ko, E.; Dulkin, A.; Park, K. J.; Fields, S.; Leeser, K.; Meng, L.; Ruzic, D. N.

    2010-12-15

    To meet the stringent requirements of interconnect metallization for sub-32 nm technologies, an unprecedented level of flux and energy control of film forming species has become necessary to further advance ionized physical vapor deposition technology. Such technology development mandates improvements in methods to quantify the metal ion fraction, the gas/metal ion ratio, and the associated ion energies in the total ion flux to the substrate. In this work, a novel method combining planar Langmuir probes, quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), and gridded energy analyzer (GEA) custom instrumentation is developed to estimate the plasma density and temperature as well as to measure the metal ion fraction and ion energy. The measurements were conducted in a Novellus Systems, Inc. Hollow Cathode Magnetron (HCM{sup TM}) physical vapor deposition source used for deposition of Cu seed layer for 65-130 nm technology nodes. The gridded energy analyzer was employed to measure ion flux and ion energy, which was compared to the collocated planar Langmuir probe data. The total ion-to-metal neutral ratio was determined by the QCM combined with GEA. The data collection technique and the corresponding analysis are discussed. The effect of concurrent resputtering during the deposition process on film thickness profile is also discussed.

  3. Estimates of ion sources in deciduous and coniferous throughfall

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Puckett, L.J.

    1990-01-01

    Estimates of external and internal sources of ions in net throughfall deposition were derived for a deciduous and coniferous canopy by use of multiple regression. The externel source component appears to be dominated by dry deposition of Ca2+, SO2 and NO3- during dormant and growing seasons for the two canopy types. Increases in the leaching rates of K+ and Mg2+ during the growing season reflect the presence of leaves in the deciduous canopy and increased physiological activity in both canopies. Internal leaching rates for SO42- doubled during the growing season presumably caused by increased physiological activity and uptake of SO2 through stomates. Net deposition of SO42- in throughfall during the growing season appears highly dependent on stomatal uptake of SO2. Estimates of SO2 deposition velocities were 0.06 cm s-1 and 0.13 cm s-1 for the deciduous and coniferous canopies, respectively, during the dormant season, and 0.30 cm s-1 and 0.43 cm s-1 for the deciduous and coniferous canopies, respectively, during the growing season. For the ions of major interest with respect to ecosystem effects, namely H+, NO3- and SO42-, precipitation inputs generally outweighed estimates of dry deposition input. However, net throughfall deposition of NO3- and SO42- accounted for 20-47 and 34-50 per cent, respectively, of total deposition of those ions. Error estimates of ion sources were at least 50-100 per cent and the method is subject to several assumptions and limitations.

  4. Method for the production of atomic ion species from plasma ion sources

    DOEpatents

    Spence, D.; Lykke, K.

    1998-08-04

    A technique to enhance the yield of atomic ion species (H{sup +}, D{sup +}, O{sup +}, N{sup +}, etc.) from plasma ion sources. The technique involves the addition of catalyzing agents to the ion discharge. Effective catalysts include H{sub 2}O, D{sub 2}O, O{sub 2}, and SF{sub 6}, among others, with the most effective being water (H{sub 2}O) and deuterated water (D{sub 2}O). This technique has been developed at Argonne National Laboratory, where microwave generated plasmas have produced ion beams comprised of close to 100% purity protons (H{sup +}) and close to 100% purity deuterons (D{sup +}). The technique also increases the total yield of protons and deuterons by converting unwanted ion species, namely, H{sub 2}{sup +}, H{sub 3}{sup +} and D{sub 2}{sup +}, D{sub 3}{sup +}, into the desired ion species, H{sup +} and D{sup +}, respectively. 4 figs.

  5. Method for the production of atomic ion species from plasma ion sources

    DOEpatents

    Spence, David (Hinsdale, IL); Lykke, Keith (Woodridge, IL)

    1998-01-01

    A technique to enhance the yield of atomic ion species (H.sup.+, D.sup.+, O.sup.+, N.sup.+, etc.) from plasma ion sources. The technique involves the addition of catalyzing agents to the ion discharge. Effective catalysts include H.sub.2 O, D.sub.2 O, O.sub.2, and SF.sub.6, among others, with the most effective being water (H.sub.2 O) and deuterated water (D.sub.2 O). This technique has been developed at Argonne National Laboratory, where microwave generated plasmas have produced ion beams comprised of close to 100% purity protons (H.sup.+) and close to 100% purity deuterons (D.sup.+). The technique also increases the total yield of protons and deuterons by converting unwanted ion species, namely, H.sub.2.sup.+,H.sub.3.sup.+ and D.sub.2.sup.+, D.sub.3.sup.+, into the desired ion species, H.sup.+ and D.sup.+, respectively.

  6. Size scaling of negative hydrogen ion sources for fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fantz, U.; Franzen, P.; Kraus, W.; Schiesko, L.; Wimmer, C.; Wünderlich, D.

    2015-04-01

    The RF-driven negative hydrogen ion source (H-, D-) for the international fusion experiment ITER has a width of 0.9 m and a height of 1.9 m and is based on a ? scale prototype source being in operation at the IPP test facilities BATMAN and MANITU for many years. Among the challenges to meet the required parameters in a caesiated source at a source pressure of 0.3 Pa or less is the challenge in size scaling of a factor of eight. As an intermediate step a ½ scale ITER source went into operation at the IPP test facility ELISE with the first plasma in February 2013. The experience and results gained so far at ELISE allowed a size scaling study from the prototype source towards the ITER relevant size at ELISE, in which operational issues, physical aspects and the source performance is addressed, highlighting differences as well as similarities. The most ITER relevant results are: low pressure operation down to 0.2 Pa is possible without problems; the magnetic filter field created by a current in the plasma grid is sufficient to reduce the electron temperature below the target value of 1 eV and to reduce together with the bias applied between the differently shaped bias plate and the plasma grid the amount of co-extracted electrons. An asymmetry of the co-extracted electron currents in the two grid segments is measured, varying strongly with filter field and bias. Contrary to the prototype source, a dedicated plasma drift in vertical direction is not observed. As in the prototype source, the performance in deuterium is limited by the amount of co-extracted electrons in short as well as in long pulse operation. Caesium conditioning is much harder in deuterium than in hydrogen for which fast and reproducible conditioning is achieved. First estimates reveal a caesium consumption comparable to the one in the prototype source despite the large size.

  7. Design of the extraction system and beamline of the superconducting ECR ion source VENUS

    SciTech Connect

    Leitner, Matthaeus A.; Wutte, Daniela C.; Lyneis, Claude M.

    2001-05-07

    A new, very high magnetic field superconducting ECR ion source, VENUS, is under construction at the LBNL 88-Inch Cyclotron [1,2]. The paper describes the VENUS extraction system and discusses the ion beam formation in the strong axial magnetic field (3 T) of the ECR ion source. Emittance values as expected from theory, which assumes a uniform plasma density across the plasma outlet hole, are compared with actual measurements from the AECR-U ion source. Results indicate that highly charged heavier ions are concentrated on the source axis. They are extracted from an ''effective'' plasma outlet hole, whose smaller radius must be included in ion optics simulations.

  8. RF-Plasma Source Commissioning in Indian Negative Ion Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, M. J.; Bandyopadhyay, M.; Yadava, Ratnakar; Chakraborty, A. K.; Bansal, G.; Gahlaut, A.; Soni, J.; Kumar, Sunil; Pandya, K.; Parmar, K. G.; Sonara, J.; Kraus, W.; Heinemann, B.; Riedl, R.; Obermayer, S.; Martens, C.; Franzen, P.; Fantz, U.

    2011-09-26

    The Indian program of the RF based negative ion source has started off with the commissioning of ROBIN, the inductively coupled RF based negative ion source facility under establishment at Institute for Plasma research (IPR), India. The facility is being developed under a technology transfer agreement with IPP Garching. It consists of a single RF driver based beam source (BATMAN replica) coupled to a 100 kW, 1 MHz RF generator with a self excited oscillator, through a matching network, for plasma production and ion extraction and acceleration. The delivery of the RF generator and the RF plasma source without the accelerator, has enabled initiation of plasma production experiments. The recent experimental campaign has established the matching circuit parameters that result in plasma production with density in the range of 0.5-1x10{sup 18}/m{sup 3}, at operational gas pressures ranging between 0.4-1 Pa. Various configurations of the matching network have been experimented upon to obtain a stable operation of the set up for RF powers ranging between 25-85 kW and pulse lengths ranging between 4-20 s. It has been observed that the range of the parameters of the matching circuit, over which the frequency of the power supply is stable, is narrow and further experiments with increased number of turns in the coil are in the pipeline to see if the range can be widened. In this paper, the description of the experimental system and the commissioning data related to the optimisation of the various parameters of the matching network, to obtain stable plasma of required density, are presented and discussed.

  9. Carbon Nanotube Based Deuterium Ion Source for Improved Neutron Generators

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, R. L.; Jiang, N.; Thuesen, L.; Leung, K. N.; Antolak, A. J.

    2009-03-10

    Field ionization uses high electric fields to cause the ionization and emission of ions from the surface of a sharp electrode. We are developing a novel field ionization neutron generator using carbon nanotubes (CNT) to produce the deuterium ion current. The generator consists of three major components: a deuterium ion source made of carbon nanotubes, a smooth negatively-biased target electrode, and a secondary electron suppression system. When a negative high voltage is applied on the target electrode, a high gradient electric field is formed at the tips of the carbon nanotubes. This field is sufficiently strong to create deuterium (D) ions at or near the nanotubes which are accelerated to the target causing D-D reactions to occur and the production of neutrons. A cross magnetic field is used to suppress secondary emission electrons generated on the target surface. We have demonstrated field ionization currents of 70 nA (1 {mu}A/cm{sup 2}) at hydrogen gas pressure of 10 mTorr. We have found that the current scales proportionally with CNT area and also with the gas pressure in the range of 1 mTorr to 10 mTorr. We have demonstrated pulse cut-off times as short as 2 {mu}sec. Finally, we have shown the feasibility of generating neutrons using deuterium gas.

  10. Negative-ion-beam generation with the ORNL SITEX source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dagenhart, W. K.; Stirling, W. L.; Kim, J.

    1982-05-01

    Parametric studies were made on a hot cathode reflex discharge H(-) surface ionization source with transverse extraction (SITEX) in both the pure hydrogen and the mixed hydrogen cesium mode. Extraction current density, beam current, gas efficiency, extracted electron to H(-) current ratio, heavy negative ion impurities, optics, and long pulse operation were investigated as a function of time, are voltage, arc current, converter voltage, H2 gas flow, cesium feed rate, and plasma generator geometries. Initial results of the research were an extracted H(-) beam current density of 56 mA/cm(2) at 23 mA for 5 s pulses and, gas efficiency of 3%, theta (perpendicular) (1/e) approx. 2 + or - 1 deg, theta (parallel) (1/e) approx. 1 + or - 1 deg, at a beam energy of 25 keV. Negative heavy ion beam impurities were reduced to 1% at low current densities. H(-) ions are produced principally by positive ion surface conversion using elemental cesium fractional monolayer coverage on a molybdenum converter substrate, which is biased negatively with respect to the anode.

  11. Negative-ion-beam generation with the ORNL SITEX source

    SciTech Connect

    Dagenhart, W.K.; Stirling, W.L.; Kim, J.

    1982-05-01

    Parametric studies were made on a hot cathode reflex discharge H/sup -/ Surface Ionization source with Transverse Extraction (SITEX) in both the pure hydrogen and the mixed hydrogen-cesium mode. Extraction current density, beam current, gas efficiency, extracted electron-to-H/sup -/ current ratio, heavy negative ion impurities, optics, and long pulse operation were investigated as a function of time, arc voltage, arc current, converter voltage, H/sub 2/ gas flow, cesium feed rate, and plasma generator geometries. Initial results of the research were an extracted H/sup -/ beam current density of 56 mA/cm/sup 2/ at 23 mA for 5 s pulses and, gas efficiency of 3%, theta/sub perpendicular/ (1/e) approx. 2 +- 1/sup 0/, theta/sub parallel/ (1/e) approx. 1 +- 1/sup 0/, at a beam energy of 25 keV. Negative heavy ion beam impurities were reduced to < 1% at low current densities. H/sup -/ ions are produced prinicpally by positive ion surface conversion using elemental cesium fractional monolayer coverage on a molybdenum converter substrate, which is biased negatively with respect to the anode.

  12. Charge breeding results and future prospects with electron cyclotron resonance ion source and electron beam ion source (invited).

    PubMed

    Vondrasek, R; Levand, A; Pardo, R; Savard, G; Scott, R

    2012-02-01

    The Californium Rare Ion Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) of the Argonne National Laboratory ATLAS facility will provide low-energy and reaccelerated neutron-rich radioactive beams for the nuclear physics program. A 70 mCi (252)Cf source produces fission fragments which are thermalized and collected by a helium gas catcher into a low-energy particle beam with a charge of 1+ or 2+. An electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source functions as a charge breeder in order to raise the ion charge sufficiently for acceleration in the ATLAS linac. The final CARIBU configuration will utilize a 1 Ci (252)Cf source to produce radioactive beams with intensities up to 10(6) ions?s for use in the ATLAS facility. The ECR charge breeder has been tested with stable beam injection and has achieved charge breeding efficiencies of 3.6% for (23)Na(8+), 15.6% for (84)Kr(17+), and 13.7% for (85)Rb(19+) with typical breeding times of 10 ms?charge state. For the first radioactive beams, a charge breeding efficiency of 11.7% has been achieved for (143)Cs(27+) and 14.7% for (143)Ba(27+). The project has been commissioned with a radioactive beam of (143)Ba(27+) accelerated to 6.1 MeV?u. In order to take advantage of its lower residual contamination, an EBIS charge breeder will replace the ECR charge breeder in the next two years. The advantages and disadvantages of the two techniques are compared taking into account the requirements of the next generation radioactive beam facilities. PMID:22380254

  13. Charge breeding results and future prospects with electron cyclotron resonance ion source and electron beam ion source (invited)a)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vondrasek, R.; Levand, A.; Pardo, R.; Savard, G.; Scott, R.

    2012-02-01

    The Californium Rare Ion Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) of the Argonne National Laboratory ATLAS facility will provide low-energy and reaccelerated neutron-rich radioactive beams for the nuclear physics program. A 70 mCi 252Cf source produces fission fragments which are thermalized and collected by a helium gas catcher into a low-energy particle beam with a charge of 1+ or 2+. An electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source functions as a charge breeder in order to raise the ion charge sufficiently for acceleration in the ATLAS linac. The final CARIBU configuration will utilize a 1 Ci 252Cf source to produce radioactive beams with intensities up to 106 ions/s for use in the ATLAS facility. The ECR charge breeder has been tested with stable beam injection and has achieved charge breeding efficiencies of 3.6% for 23Na8+, 15.6% for 84Kr17+, and 13.7% for 85Rb19+ with typical breeding times of 10 ms/charge state. For the first radioactive beams, a charge breeding efficiency of 11.7% has been achieved for 143Cs27+ and 14.7% for 143Ba27+. The project has been commissioned with a radioactive beam of 143Ba27+ accelerated to 6.1 MeV/u. In order to take advantage of its lower residual contamination, an EBIS charge breeder will replace the ECR charge breeder in the next two years. The advantages and disadvantages of the two techniques are compared taking into account the requirements of the next generation radioactive beam facilities.

  14. Charge breeding results and future prospects with electron cyclotron resonance ion source and electron beam ion source (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Vondrasek, R.; Levand, A.; Pardo, R.; Savard, G.; Scott, R.

    2012-02-15

    The Californium Rare Ion Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) of the Argonne National Laboratory ATLAS facility will provide low-energy and reaccelerated neutron-rich radioactive beams for the nuclear physics program. A 70 mCi {sup 252}Cf source produces fission fragments which are thermalized and collected by a helium gas catcher into a low-energy particle beam with a charge of 1+ or 2+. An electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source functions as a charge breeder in order to raise the ion charge sufficiently for acceleration in the ATLAS linac. The final CARIBU configuration will utilize a 1 Ci {sup 252}Cf source to produce radioactive beams with intensities up to 10{sup 6} ions/s for use in the ATLAS facility. The ECR charge breeder has been tested with stable beam injection and has achieved charge breeding efficiencies of 3.6% for {sup 23}Na{sup 8+}, 15.6% for {sup 84}Kr{sup 17+}, and 13.7% for {sup 85}Rb{sup 19+} with typical breeding times of 10 ms/charge state. For the first radioactive beams, a charge breeding efficiency of 11.7% has been achieved for {sup 143}Cs{sup 27+} and 14.7% for {sup 143}Ba{sup 27+}. The project has been commissioned with a radioactive beam of {sup 143}Ba{sup 27+} accelerated to 6.1 MeV/u. In order to take advantage of its lower residual contamination, an EBIS charge breeder will replace the ECR charge breeder in the next two years. The advantages and disadvantages of the two techniques are compared taking into account the requirements of the next generation radioactive beam facilities.

  15. Investigations on the structure of the extracted ion beam from an electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Spaedtke, P.; Lang, R.; Maeder, J.; Rossbach, J.; Tinschert, K.; Maimone, F.

    2012-02-15

    Using improved beam diagnostic tools, the structure of an ion beam extracted from an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) becomes visible. Especially viewing targets to display the beam profile and pepper pot devices for emittance measurements turned out to be very useful. On the contrary, diagnostic tools integrating over one space coordinate like wire harps for profile measurements or slit-slit devices, respectively slit-grid devices to measure the emittance might be applicable for beam transport investigations in a quadrupole channel, but are not very meaningful for investigations regarding the given ECRIS symmetry. Here we try to reproduce the experimentally found structure on the ion beam by simulation. For the simulation, a certain model has to be used to reproduce the experimental results. The model is also described in this paper.

  16. High-resolution mass spectrometer for liquid metal ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Wortmann, Martin; Ludwig, Arne; Reuter, Dirk; Wieck, Andreas D.; Meijer, Jan

    2013-09-15

    Recently, a mass spectrometer for liquid metal ion sources (LMIS) has been built and set into operation. This device uses an E×B-filter as mass dispersive element and provides sufficient resolution to analyse the emission of clusters from LMIS to much higher mass ranges (>2000 amu) than commercially available mass filters for focused ion beam systems. It has also been shown that for small masses the composition of clusters from different isotopes can be resolved. Furthermore, a rather high fluence of monodisperse clusters in the range of 10{sup 6}–10{sup 7} clusters/s can be achieved with this setup. This makes it a promising tool for the preparation of mass selected clusters. In this contribution, theoretical considerations as well as technical details and the results of first measurements are presented.

  17. Microwave Ion Source and Beam Injection for an Accelerator-drivenNeutron Source

    SciTech Connect

    Vainionpaa, J.H.; Gough, R.; Hoff, M.; Kwan, J.W.; Ludewigt,B.A.; Regis, M.J.; Wallig, J.G.; Wells, R.

    2007-02-15

    An over-dense microwave driven ion source capable ofproducing deuterium (or hydrogen) beams at 100-200 mA/cm2 and with atomicfraction>90 percent was designed and tested with an electrostaticlow energy beam transport section (LEBT). This ion source wasincorporatedinto the design of an Accelerator Driven Neutron Source(ADNS). The other key components in the ADNS include a 6 MeV RFQaccelerator, a beam bending and scanning system, and a deuterium gastarget. In this design a 40 mA D+ beam is produced from a 6 mm diameteraperture using a 60 kV extraction voltage. The LEBT section consists of 5electrodes arranged to form 2 Einzel lenses that focus the beam into theRFQ entrance. To create the ECR condition, 2 induction coils are used tocreate ~; 875 Gauss on axis inside the source chamber. To prevent HVbreakdown in the LEBT a magnetic field clamp is necessary to minimize thefield in this region. Matching of the microwave power from the waveguideto the plasma is done by an autotuner. We observed significantimprovement of the beam quality after installing a boron nitride linerinside the ion source. The measured emittance data are compared withPBGUNS simulations.

  18. Development of ECR ion source and LEBT technology for RIA

    SciTech Connect

    Leitner, Daniela; Lyneis, Claude M.; Abbott, Steven R.; Dwinell, Roger D.; Leitner, Matthaeus; Silver, Charles S.; Taylor, Clyde E.

    2004-08-10

    The Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA) Linac driver requires a great variety of high charge state ion beams with up to a magnitude higher intensity than currently achievable for the heaviest masses. The goal of the RIA injector R&D program for VENUS is the reliable production of intense medium charge state ion beams, e.g., 8 puA (particle mu A) of U29+. Therefore, the superconducting ECR ion source VENUS has been designed from the beginning for optimum operation at 28 GHz at high power (10 kW). In addition, a high intensity Low Energy Beam Transport, LEBT, that was developed to analyze and transport these multiply-charged, space charge dominated beams. During the last year VENUS was commissioned at 18 GHz and preparations for 28 GHz operation continued. Tests with various gases and recently metals have been performed with up to 2000 W of 18 GHz RF power. Promising performance has been measured in those preliminary beam tests. For example, 180 p mu A of O6+, 15 p mu A of Ar12+, 7.5 puA of X e20+ and 4puA of Bi24+ were produced in the early commissioning phase, ranking VENUS among the currently highest performance 18 GHz ECR ion sources. In FY04 a 10 kW 28 gyrotron system will be added, which will enable VENUS to reach full performance. The emittance of the beams produced at 18 GHz was measured with a two axis emittance scanner developed with earlier RIA R&D funds.

  19. The Thermal Ion Dynamics Experiment and Plasma Source Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, T. E.; Chappell, C. R.; Chandler, M. O.; Fields, S. A.; Pollock, C. J.; Reasoner, D. L.; Young, D. T.; Burch, J. L.; Eaker, N.; Waite, J. H., Jr.; McComas, D. J.; Nordholdt, J. E.; Thomsen, M. F.; Berthelier, J. J.; Robson, R.

    1995-01-01

    The Thermal Ion Dynamics Experiment (TIDE) and the Plasma Source Instrument (PSI) have been developed in response to the requirements of the ISTP Program for three-dimensional (3D) plasma composition measurements capable of tracking the circulation of low-energy (0-500 eV) plasma through the polar magnetosphere. This plasma is composed of penetrating magnetosheath and escaping ionospheric components. It is in part lost to the downstream solar wind and in part recirculated within the magnetosphere, participating in the formation of the diamagnetic hot plasma sheet and ring current plasma populations. Significant obstacles which have previously made this task impossible include the low density and energy of the outflowing ionospheric plasma plume and the positive spacecraft floating potentials which exclude the lowest-energy plasma from detection on ordinary spacecraft. Based on a unique combination of focusing electrostatic ion optics and time of flight detection and mass analysis, TIDE provides the sensitivity (seven apertures of about 1 cm squared effective area each) and angular resolution (6 x 18 degrees) required for this purpose. PSI produces a low energy plasma locally at the POLAR spacecraft that provides the ion current required to balance the photoelectron current, along with a low temperature electron population, regulating the spacecraft potential slightly positive relative to the space plasma. TIDE/PSI will: (a) measure the density and flow fields of the solar and terrestrial plasmas within the high polar cap and magnetospheric lobes; (b) quantify the extent to which ionospheric and solar ions are recirculated within the distant magnetotail neutral sheet or lost to the distant tail and solar wind; (c) investigate the mass-dependent degree energization of these plasmas by measuring their thermodynamic properties; (d) investigate the relative roles of ionosphere and solar wind as sources of plasma to the plasma sheet and ring current.

  20. Computer simulations for rf design of a Spallation Neutron Source external antenna H- ion source.

    PubMed

    Lee, S W; Goulding, R H; Kang, Y W; Shin, K; Welton, R F

    2010-02-01

    Electromagnetic modeling of the multicusp external antenna H(-) ion source for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) has been performed in order to optimize high-power performance. During development of the SNS external antenna ion source, antenna failures due to high voltage and multicusp magnet holder rf heating concerns under stressful operating conditions led to rf characteristics analysis. In rf simulations, the plasma was modeled as an equivalent lossy metal by defining conductivity as sigma. Insulation designs along with material selections such as ferrite and Teflon could be included in the computer simulations to compare antenna gap potentials, surface power dissipations, and input impedance at the operating frequencies, 2 and 13.56 MHz. Further modeling and design improvements are outlined in the conclusion. PMID:20192395

  1. Final Report - Ion Production and Transport in Atmospheric Pressure Ion Source Mass Spectrometers

    SciTech Connect

    Farnsworth, Paul B.; Spencer, Ross L.

    2014-05-14

    This document is the final report on a project that focused in the general theme of atmospheric-pressure ion production and transport for mass spectrometry. Within that general theme there were two main projects: the fundamental study of the transport of elemental ions through the vacuum interface of an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICPMS), and fundamental studies of the ionization mechanisms in ambient desorption/ionization (ADI) sources for molecular mass spectrometry. In both cases the goal was to generate fundamental understanding of key instrumental processes that would lead to the development of instruments that were more sensitive and more consistent in their performance. The emphasis on consistency derives from the need for instruments that have the same sensitivity, regardless of sample type. In the jargon of analytical chemistry, such instruments are said to be free from matrix effects. In the ICPMS work each stage of ion production and of ion transport from the atmospheric pressure to the high-vacuum mass analyzer was studied. Factors controlling ion transport efficiency and consistency were identified at each stage of pressure reduction. In the ADI work the interactions between an electrospray plume and a fluorescent sample on a surface were examined microscopically. A new mechanism for analyte ion production in desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) was proposed. Optical spectroscopy was used to track the production of reactive species in plasmas used as ADI sources. Experiments with mixed-gas plasmas demonstrated that the addition of a small amount of hydrogen to a helium ADI plasma could boost the sensitivity for some analytes by over an order of magnitude.

  2. Next Generation H- Ion Sources for the SNS

    SciTech Connect

    Welton, Robert F; Carmichael, Justin R; Carr, Jr, Jerry; Crisp, Danny W; Goulding, Richard Howell; Han, Baoxi; Pennisi, Terry R; Murray Jr, S N; Stockli, Martin P; Tarvainen, Olli A; Santana, Manuel

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is the leading accelerator-based, pulsed neutron-scattering facility, currently in the process of ramping up neutron production. In order to insure meeting operational requirements as well as providing for future facility beam power upgrades, a multifaceted H{sup -} ion source development program is ongoing. This work discusses several aspects of this program, specifically the design and first beam measurements of an RF-driven, external antenna H{sup -} ion source based on an AlN ceramic plasma chamber, elemental and chromate Cs-systems, and plasma ignition gun. Unanalyzed beam currents of up to {approx}100 mA (60Hz, 1ms) have been observed and sustained currents >60 mA (60Hz, 1ms) have been demonstrated on the test stand. Accelerated beam currents of {approx}40 mA have also been demonstrated into the SNS front end. Data are also presented describing the first H{sup -} beam extraction experiments from a helicon plasma generator based on the Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket (VASIMR) engine design.

  3. Next Generation H{sup -} Ion Sources for the SNS

    SciTech Connect

    Welton, R. F.; Stockli, M. P.; Murray, S. N.; Crisp, D.; Carmichael, J.; Goulding, R. H.; Han, B.; Pennisi, T.; Santana, M.; Tarvainen, O.

    2009-03-12

    The U.S. Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is the leading accelerator-based, pulsed neutron-scattering facility, currently in the process of ramping up neutron production. In order to insure meeting operational requirements as well as providing for future facility beam power upgrades, a multifaceted H- ion source development program is ongoing. This work discusses several aspects of this program, specifically the design and first beam measurements of an RF-driven, external antenna H- ion source based on an A1N ceramic plasma chamber, elemental and chromate Cs-systems, and plasma ignition gun. Unanalyzed beam currents of up to {approx}100 mA(60 Hz, 1 ms) have been observed and sustained currents >60 mA(60 Hz, 1 ms) have been demonstrated on the test stand. Accelerated beam currents of {approx}40 mA have also been demonstrated into the SNS front end. Data are also presented describing the first H- beam extraction experiments from a helicon plasma generator based on the Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket (VASIMR) engine design.

  4. Magnetron Sputtered Gold Contacts on N-gaas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buonaquisti, A. D.; Matson, R. J.; Russell, P. E.; Holloway, P. H.

    1984-01-01

    Direct current planar magnetron sputtering was used to deposit gold Schottky barrier electrical contacts on n-type GaAs of varying doping densities. The electrical character of the contact was determined from current voltage and electron beam induced voltage data. Without reducing the surface concentration of carbon and oxide, the contacts were found to be rectifying. There is evidence that energetic neutral particles reflected from the magnetron target strike the GaAs and cause interfacial damage similar to that observed for ion sputtering. Particle irradiation of the surface during contact deposition is discussed.

  5. Penning discharge ion source with self-cleaning aperture

    DOEpatents

    Gavin, Basil F. (Berkeley, CA); MacGill, Robert A. (Richmond, CA); Thatcher, Raymond K. (El Cerrito, CA)

    1982-01-01

    An ion source of the Penning discharge type having a self-cleaning aperture is provided by a second dynode (24) with an exit aperture (12) in a position opposite a first dynode 10a, from which the ions are sputtered, two opposing cathodes (14, 16), each with an anode (18, 20) for accelerating electrons emitted from the cathodes into a cylindrical space defined by the first and second dynode. A support gas maintained in this space is ionized by the electrons. While the cathodes are supplied with a negative pulse to emit electrons, the first dynode is supplied with a negative pulse (e.g., -300 V) to attract atoms of the ionized gas (plasma). At the same time, the second dynode may also be supplied with a small voltage that is negative with respect to the plasma (e.g., -5 V) for tuning the position of the plasma miniscus for optimum extraction geometry. When the negative pulse to the first dynode is terminated, the second dynode is driven strongly negative (e.g., -600 V) thereby allowing heavy sputtering to take place for a short period to remove virtually all of the atoms deposited on the second dynode from material sputtered off the first dynode. An extractor (22) immediately outside the exit aperture of the second dynode is maintained at ground potential during this entire period of sputtering while the anode, dynode and cathode reference voltage is driven strongly positive (about +20 kV to +30 kV) so that ions accelerated through the aperture will be at ground potential. In that manner, material from the first dynode deposited on the second dynode will be sputtered, in time, to add to the ion beam. Atoms sputtered from the second dynode which do not become ionized and exit through the slit will be redeposited on the first dynode, and hence recycled for further ion beam generation during subsequent operating cycles.

  6. Ionization efficiency studies for xenon ions with thesuperconducting ECR ion source VENUS

    SciTech Connect

    Leitner, Daniela; Lyneis, Claude M.; Todd, DamonS.; Tarvainen,Olli

    2007-06-05

    Ionization efficiency studies for high charge state xenon ions using a calibrated gas leak are presented. A 75% enriched {sup 129}Xe gas leak with a gas flow equivalent to 5.11p{mu}A was used in all the measurements. The experiments were performed at the VENUS (Versatile ECR ion source for Nuclear Science) ion source for 18 GHz, 28 GHz and double frequency operation. Overall, total ionization efficiencies close to 100% and ionization efficiencies into a single charge state up to 22% were measured. The influence of the biased disk on the ionization efficiency was studied and the results were somewhat surprising. When the biased disk was removed from the plasma chamber, the ionization efficiency was dramatically reduced for single frequency operation. However, using double frequency heating the ionization efficiencies achieved without the biased disk almost matched the ionization efficiencies achieved with the biased probe. In addition, we have studied the influence of the support gas on the charge state distribution of the xenon ions. Either pure oxygen or a mixture of oxygen and helium were used as support gases. The addition of a small amount of helium can increase the ionization efficiency into a single charge state by narrowing the charge state distribution. Furthermore by varying the helium flow the most efficient charge state can be shifted over a wide range without compromising the ionization efficiency. This is not possible using only oxygen as support gas. Results from these studies are presented and discussed.

  7. H- Ion Sources for High Intensity Proton Drivers

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Rolland Paul; Dudnikov, Vadim

    2015-02-20

    Existing RF Surface Plasma Sources (SPS) for accelerators have specific efficiencies for H+ and H- ion generation around 3 to 5 mA/cm2 per kW, where about 50 kW of RF power is typically needed for 50 mA beam current production. The Saddle Antenna (SA) SPS described here was developed to improve H- ion production efficiency, reliability and availability for pulsed operation as used in the ORNL Spallation Neutron Source . At low RF power, the efficiency of positive ion generation in the plasma has been improved to 200 mA/cm2 per kW of RF power at 13.56 MHz. Initial cesiation of the SPS was performed by heating cesium chromate cartridges by discharge as was done in the very first versions of the SPS. A small oven to decompose cesium compounds and alloys was developed and tested. After cesiation, the current of negative ions to the collector was increased from 1 mA to 10 mA with RF power 1.5 kW in the plasma (6 mm diameter emission aperture) and up to 30 mA with 4 kW RF power in the plasma and 250 Gauss longitudinal magnetic field. The ratio of electron current to negative ion current was improved from 30 to 2. Stable generation of H- beam without intensity degradation was demonstrated in the aluminum nitride (AlN) discharge chamber for 32 days at high discharge power in an RF SPS with an external antenna. Some modifications were made to improve the cooling and cesiation stability. The extracted collector current can be increased significantly by optimizing the longitudinal magnetic field in the discharge chamber. While this project demonstrated the advantages of the pulsed version of the SA RF SPS as an upgrade to the ORNL Spallation Neutron Source, it led to a possibility for upgrades to CW machines like the many cyclotrons used for commercial applications. Four appendices contain important details of the work carried out under this grant.

  8. Separation of beam and electrons in the spallation neutron source H{sup -} ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Whealton, J.H.; Raridon, R.J.; Leung, K.N.

    1997-12-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) requires an ion source producing an H{sup {minus}} beam with a peak current of 35mA at a 6.2 percent duty factor. For the design of this ion source, extracted electrons must be transported and dumped without adversely affecting the H{sup {minus}} beam optics. Two issues are considered: (1) electron containment transport and controlled removal; and (2) first-order H{sup {minus}} beam steering. For electron containment, various magnetic, geometric and electrode biasing configurations are analyzed. A kinetic description for the negative ions and electrons is employed with self-consistent fields obtained from a steady-state solution to Poisson`s equation. Guiding center electron trajectories are used when the gyroradius is sufficiently small. The magnetic fields used to control the transport of the electrons and the asymmetric sheath produced by the gyrating electrons steer the ion beam. Scenarios for correcting this steering by split acceleration and focusing electrodes will be considered in some detail.

  9. Conceptional design of the laser ion source based hadrontherapy facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Xiu-Cui; Song, Ming-Tao; Zhang, Xiao-Hu

    2014-04-01

    A laser ion source (LIS), which can provide a carbon beam with highly stripped state (C6+) and high intensity (several tens mA), would significantly change the overall design of the hadrontherapy facility. The proposed LIS based hadrontherapy facility has the advantages of short linac length, simple injection scheme, and small synchrotron size. With the experience from the DPIS and HITFiL projects that have been conducted in IMP, a conceptional design of the LIS based hadrontherapy facility will be presented, with special attention given to APF type IH DTL design and simulation.

  10. Development of Hydrogen Pair-Ion Source on the Basis of Catalytic Ionization

    SciTech Connect

    Oohara, W.; Maeda, T.; Higuchi, T.

    2011-09-26

    To develop a hydrogen pair-ion source comprising only H{sup +} and H{sup -} ions, the efficient production of pair ions is required. When discharged hydrogen plasma is used for positive-ion irradiation to a Ni catalyst, the pair ions are produced from the back of the irradiation plane. The number of pair ions produced increases proportionally with the irradiation flux.

  11. Particle contamination formation in magnetron sputtering processes

    SciTech Connect

    Selwyn, G.S.; Sequeda, F.; Huang, C.

    1997-07-01

    Defects caused by particulate contamination are an important concern in the fabrication of thin film products. Often, magnetron sputtering processes are used for this purpose. Particle contamination generated during thin film processing can be detected using laser light scattering, a powerful diagnostic technique which provides real-time, {ital in situ} imaging of particles {gt}0.3 {mu}m on the target, substrate, or in the plasma. Using this technique, we demonstrate that the mechanisms for particle generation, transport, and trapping during magnetron sputter deposition are different from the mechanisms reported in previously studied plasma etch processes, due to the inherent spatial nonuniformity of magnetically enhanced plasmas. During magnetron sputter deposition, one source of particle contamination is linked to portions of the sputtering target surface exposed to weaker plasma density. There, film redeposition induces filament or nodule growth. Sputter removal of these features is inhibited by the dependence of sputter yield on angle of incidence. These features enhance trapping of plasma particles, which then increases filament growth. Eventually the growths effectively {open_quotes}short-circuit{close_quotes} the sheath, causing high currents to flow through these features. This, in turn, causes mechanical failure of the growth resulting in fracture and ejection of the target contaminants into the plasma and onto the substrate. Evidence of this effect has been observed in semiconductor fabrication and storage disk manufacturing. Discovery of this mechanism in both technologies suggests it may be universal to many sputter processes. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Vacuum Society.}

  12. Temperature Dependence On The Emission Characteristics Of A AuGe Liquid Metal Alloy Ion Source

    SciTech Connect

    Ganetsos, Theodore; Laskaris, Nikos; Kotsos, Bill; Bischoff, Lothar; Pilz, Wolfgang; Akhmadaliev, Chavkat

    2007-04-23

    Focused ion beam systems employing liquid metal ion sources have become of increasing importance in the microelectronics industry. Maskless ion implantation as a modern patterning technique is one of the most attractive application of Focused Ion Beams. In spite of the fact that a great deal of research has been carried out on liquid metal ion sources, surprisingly few results exist on the temperature dependence of their emission characteristics. In this article we study a AuGe liquid metal alloy ion source. The unusual results are explained in terms of the abnormal behavior of the surface tension of the alloy with temperature.

  13. Physics and modeling of an end-Hall (gridless) ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Oudini, N.; Hagelaar, G. J. M.; Boeuf, J.-P.; Garrrigues, L.

    2011-04-01

    In an end-Hall source, an ion beam is extracted from a magnetized plasma and accelerated by the plasma electric field without grids. The principle of end-Hall sources is similar to that of Hall effect thrusters (or closed-drift thrusters), but their design is optimized for processing applications (ion beam assisted deposition or substrate cleaning) rather than propulsion. The beam divergence is larger in end-Hall ion sources, and these sources can operate at low ion energies. Although end-Hall sources are commonly used in the surface processing industry, no detailed modeling of these sources is available, and their operation is quite empirical. In this paper, a self-consistent, two-dimensional, quasineutral model of an end-Hall ion source is developed and used in order to improve the understanding of the basic physics of these plasma sources and to quantify the parameters controlling the properties of the extracted ion beam.

  14. Ion Beam Plasma Interactions in the ASTRAL Helicon Plasma Source.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boivin, R. F.; Kesterson, A.; Kamar, O.; Lin, Y.; Munoz, J.; Wang, X.

    2008-11-01

    A 100 KeV NEC duoplasmatron is used to produce an energetic ion beam (10 KeV < E < 100 KeV). The beam is sent through plasmas produced by the ASTRAL helicon plasma source. The beam current and beam size are measured by a device combining Retarding Field Analyzer (RFA) and Faraday Cup (FC) features. ASTRAL produces bright intense He/Ne/Ar plasmas with the following parameters: ne = 1E11 -- 1E13 cm-3 and Te = 2 - 10 eV, B-field < 1.3 kGauss, rf power <= 2 kWatt. RF compensated Langmuir probes are used to measure Te and ne. Depending on the ion beam energy and the ratio of beam density over plasma density different wave instabilities will be generated within the plasmas. A real-time spectrum analyzer will be used to identify the wave instabilities and their evolution in the plasma. We will present early experimental results together with some preliminary theoretical simulation using 2D and 3D hybrid simulation codes. In these codes, ions are treated as fully kinetic particles while electrons are treated as a fluid. Both species are moving in a self-consistent electromagnetic field.

  15. Simulation of cesium injection and distribution in rf-driven ion sources for negative hydrogen ion generation

    SciTech Connect

    Gutser, R.; Wuenderlich, D.; Fantz, U.

    2010-02-15

    Cesium seeded sources for surface generated negative hydrogen ions are major components of neutral beam injection systems in future large-scale fusion experiments such as ITER. Stability and delivered current density depend highly on the cesium conditions during plasma-on and plasma-off phases of the ion source. The Monte Carlo code CSFLOW3D was used to study the transport of neutral and ionic cesium in both phases. Homogeneous and intense flows were obtained from two cesium sources in the expansion region of the ion source and from a dispenser array, which is located 10 cm in front of the converter surface.

  16. High-intensity positive beams extracted from a compact double-chamber ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Huck, H.; Somacal, H.; Di Gregorio, D.E.; Fernandez Niello, J.O.; Igarzabal, M.; Di Paolo, H.; Reinoso, M.

    2005-06-15

    This work presents the design and development of a simple ion source, the associated ion extraction optics, and the beam transport of a low-energy and high-current proton accelerator. In its actual version, the ion source can deliver positive proton currents up to 100 mA. This rather high beam current is achieved by adding a small ionization chamber between the discharge chamber containing the filament and the extraction electrode of the ion source. Different parameters of the ion source and the injection beam line are evaluated by means of computer simulations to optimize the beam production and transmission.

  17. Laser ion source development for the Columbia University microbeam A. W. Bigelow,a)

    E-print Network

    Bigelow, Alan W.

    Laser ion source development for the Columbia University microbeam A. W. Bigelow,a) G. Randers Presented on 4 September 2001 A design is given of a laser ion source for the 4.2 MV Van de Graaff be used for broad-beam irradiations. The operating principle, laser ablation, can produce heavy ions

  18. Ion-mediated Nucleation as an Important Source of Global Tropospheric Aerosols

    E-print Network

    Yu, Fangqun

    Ion-mediated Nucleation as an Important Source of Global Tropospheric Aerosols Fangqun Yu1 , Zifa have significant climatic and health implications. While ions have long been suggested as favorable nucleation embryos, their significance as a global source of particles has remained uncertain. Here, an ion

  19. Intense beam production of highly charged heavy ions by the superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source SECRAL.

    PubMed

    Zhao, H W; Sun, L T; Zhang, X Z; Guo, X H; Cao, Y; Lu, W; Zhang, Z M; Yuan, P; Song, M T; Zhao, H Y; Jin, T; Shang, Y; Zhan, W L; Wei, B W; Xie, D Z

    2008-02-01

    There has been increasing demand to provide higher beam intensity and high enough beam energy for heavy ion accelerator and some other applications, which has driven electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source to produce higher charge state ions with higher beam intensity. One of development trends for highly charged ECR ion source is to build new generation ECR sources by utilization of superconducting magnet technology. SECRAL (superconducting ECR ion source with advanced design in Lanzhou) was successfully built to produce intense beams of highly charged ion for Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL). The ion source has been optimized to be operated at 28 GHz for its maximum performance. The superconducting magnet confinement configuration of the ion source consists of three axial solenoid coils and six sextupole coils with a cold iron structure as field booster and clamping. An innovative design of SECRAL is that the three axial solenoid coils are located inside of the sextupole bore in order to reduce the interaction forces between the sextupole coils and the solenoid coils. For 28 GHz operation, the magnet assembly can produce peak mirror fields on axis of 3.6 T at injection, 2.2 T at extraction, and a radial sextupole field of 2.0 T at plasma chamber wall. During the commissioning phase at 18 GHz with a stainless steel chamber, tests with various gases and some metals have been conducted with microwave power less than 3.5 kW by two 18 GHz rf generators. It demonstrates the performance is very promising. Some record ion beam intensities have been produced, for instance, 810 e microA of O(7+), 505 e microA of Xe(20+), 306 e microA of Xe(27+), and so on. The effect of the magnetic field configuration on the ion source performance has been studied experimentally. SECRAL has been put into operation to provide highly charged ion beams for HIRFL facility since May 2007. PMID:18315105

  20. Characteristics of the positive ion source at reduced gas feed

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, S. K. Bharathi, P.; Prahlad, V.; Patel, P. J.; Choksi, B.; Jana, M. R.; Bansal, L. K.; Qureshi, K.; Sumod, C. B.; Vadher, V.; Thakkar, D.; Gupta, L. N.; Rambabu, S.; Parmar, S.; Contractor, N.; Sahu, A. K.; Pandya, B.; Sridhar, B.; Pandya, S.; Baruah, U. K.

    2014-11-15

    The neutral beam injector of steady state superconducting tokamak (SST1-NBI) at IPR is designed for injecting upto 1.7 MW of neutral beam (Hº, 30–55 keV) power to the tokamak plasma for heating and current drive. Operations of the positive ion source (PINI or Plug-In-Neutral-Injector) of SST1-NBI were carried out on the NBI test stand. The PINI was operated at reduced gas feed rate of 2–3 Torr l/s, without using the high speed cryo pumps. Experiments were conducted to achieve a stable beam extraction by optimizing operational parameters namely, the arc current (120–300 A), acceleration voltage (16–40 kV), and a suitable control sequence. The beam divergence, power density profiles, and species fractions (H{sup +}:H{sub 2}{sup +}:H{sub 3}{sup +}) were measured by using the diagnostics such as thermal calorimetry, infrared thermography, and Doppler shift spectroscopy. The maximum extracted beam current was about 18 A. A further increase of beam current was found to be limited by the amount of gas feed rate to the ion source.

  1. Characteristics of 80 keV positive ion source for Large Helical Device.

    PubMed

    Nakano, H; Osakabe, M; Tsumori, K; Sato, M; Shibuya, M; Ikeda, K; Nagaoka, K; Kaneko, O; Asano, E; Kondo, T; Komada, S; Takeiri, Y

    2010-02-01

    An additional beamline, BL5, equipped with four positive ion sources will be installed on Large Helical Device (LHD) in 2010. The performance of an ion source which generates 80 keV deuterium and 60 keV hydrogen beams was investigated. The structure of the ion source is based on that of a BL4 ion source on LHD. The main differences between the ion sources for the BL4 and BL5 are the acceleration voltages and the materials of plasma electrodes: copper and molybdenum, respectively. The molybdenum plasma electrode for BL5 has better performance than the copper plasma electrode of BL4. The integrated performance of the ion source for BL5 reached a value equivalent to approximately 58 A in the beam current of hydrogen positive ion at 60 keV in the beam energy. PMID:20192422

  2. Ion extraction from a saddle antenna RF surface plasma source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudnikov, V.; Johnson, R. P.; Han, B.; Murray, S.; Pennisi, T.; Piller, C.; Santana, M.; Stockli, M.; Welton, R.; Breitschopf, J.; Dudnikova, G.

    2015-04-01

    Existing RF Surface Plasma Sources (SPS) for accelerators have specific efficiencies for H+ and H- ion generation around 3 to 5 mA/cm2 per kW, where about 50 kW of RF power is typically needed for 50 mA beam current production. The Saddle Antenna (SA) SPS described here was developed to improve H- ion production efficiency and SPS reliability and availability. At low RF power, the efficiency of positive ion generation in the plasma has been improved to 200 mA/cm2 per kW of RF power at 13.56 MHz. Initial cesiation of the SPS was performed by heating cesium chromate cartridges by discharge as was done in the very first versions of the SPS. A small oven to decompose cesium compounds and alloys was developed and tested. After cesiation, the current of negative ions to the collector was increased from 1 mA to 10 mA with RF power ˜1.5 kW in the plasma (6 mm diameter emission aperture) and up to 30 mA with ˜4 kW RF power in the plasma and 250 Gauss longitudinal magnetic field. The ratio of electron current to negative ion current was improved from 30 to 2. Stable generation of H- beam without intensity degradation was demonstrated in the AlN discharge chamber for a long time at high discharge power in an RF SPS with an external antenna. Continuous wave (CW) operation of the SA SPS has been tested on the small test stand. The general design of the CW SA SPS is based on the pulsed version. Some modifications were made to improve the cooling and cesiation stability. The extracted collector current can be increased significantly by optimizing the longitudinal magnetic field in the discharge chamber. CW operation with negative ion extraction was tested with RF power up to 1.8 kW from the generator (˜1.2 kW in the plasma) with production up to Ic=7 mA. Long term operation was tested with 1.2 kW from the RF generator (˜0.8 kW in the plasma) with production of Ic=5 mA, Iex ˜15 mA (Uex=8 kV, Uc=14 kV).

  3. Penning discharge ion source with self-cleaning aperture

    DOEpatents

    Gavin, B.F.; MacGill, R.A.; Thatcher, R.K.

    1980-11-10

    An ion source of the Penning discharge type having a self-cleaning aperture is provided by a second dynode with an exit aperture in a position opposite a first dynode, from which the ions are sputtered, two opposing cathodes, each with an anode for accelerating electrons emitted from the cathodes into a cylindrical space defined by the first and second dynode. A support gas maintained in this space is ionized by the electrons. While the cathodes are supplied with a negative pulse to emit electrons, the first dynode is supplied with a negative pulse (e.g., -300 V) to attract atoms of the ionized gas (plasma). At the same time, the second dynode may also be supplied with a small voltage that is negative with respect to the plasma (e.g., -5 V) for tuning the position of the plasma miniscus for optimum extraction geometry. When the negative pulse to the first dynode is terminated, the second dynode is driven strongly negative (e.g., -600 V) thereby allowing heavy sputtering to take place for a short period to remove virtually all of the atoms deposited on the second dynode from material sputtered off the first dynode. An extractor immediately outside the exit aperture of the second dynode is maintained at ground potential while the anode, dynode, and cathode reference voltage is driven strongly positive (about +20 kV to +30 kV) so that ions accelerated through the aperture will be at ground potential. Material from the first dynode deposited on the second dynode will be sputtered, in time, to add to the ion beam.

  4. Computer System for Unattended Control of Negative Ion Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubarev, P. V.; Khilchenko, A. D.; Kvashnin, A. N.; Moiseev, D. V.; Puriga, E. A.; Sanin, A. L.; Savkin, V. Ya.

    2011-09-01

    The computer system for control of cw surface-plasma source of negative ions is described. The system provides an automatic handling of source parameters by the specified scenario. It includes the automatic source start and long-term operation with switching and control of the power supplies blocks, setting and reading of source parameters like hydrogen feed, cesium seed, electrodes' temperature, checking of the protection and blockings elements like vacuum degradation, absence of cooling water, etc. The semi-automatic mode of control is also available, where the order of steps and magnitude of parameters, included to scenario, is corrected in situ by the operator. Control system includes the main controller and a set of peripheral local controllers. Commands execution is carried out by the main controller. Each peripheral controller is driven by the stand-alone program, stored in its ROM. Control system is handled from PC via Ethernet. The PC and controllers are connected by fiber optic lines, which provide the high voltage insulation and the stable system operation in spite the breakdowns and electromagnetic noise of cross-field discharge. The PC program for data setting and information display is developed under the LabView.

  5. Numerical study of the characteristics of the ion and fast atom beams in an end-Hall ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Oudini, N.; Garrigues, L.; Hagelaar, G. J. M.; Boeuf, J. P.

    2012-10-15

    An end-Hall ion source is a cylindrical magnetized device of few centimeters in length able to generate an ion beam with a current of typically 1 A and ion energies in the range of 100 eV. This ion source does not use acceleration grids, has a relatively large ion beam divergence, and is well suited for ion assisted deposition processes. In this paper, a self-consistent two-dimensional quasi-neutral model of an end-Hall ion source is used to understand the parameters controlling the characteristics of the extracted. The model results underline the role of charge exchange collisions on beam properties. The calculated energy distribution functions reveal the existence of groups of slow ions and fast neutrals. Ion mean energy corresponds to roughly 60% of the discharge voltage, while the root mean square deviation from the mean energy corresponds to about 33% of the discharge voltage, as in experiments. The influence of the position of the electron emitting source on the ion angular distribution is also shown.

  6. Improving efficiency of negative ion production in ion source with saddle antenna

    SciTech Connect

    Dudnikov, V. Johnson, R. P.; Murrey, S.; Pinnisi, T.; Piller, C.; Santana, M.; Stockli, M.; Welton, R.; Johnson, C.; Turvey, M.

    2014-02-15

    Extraction of negative ions from a saddle antenna radio-frequency surface plasma source is considered. Several versions of new plasma generators with different antennas and magnetic field configurations were tested in the smal Oak Ridge National Laboratory Spallation Neutron Source Test Stand. The efficiency of positive ion generation in plasma has been improved to 200 mA/cm{sup 2}?kW from 2.5 mA/cm{sup 2}?kW. A small oven was developed for cesiation by cesium compounds and alloy decomposition. After cesiation, a current of negative ions to the collector was increased from 1 mA to 10 mA with 1.5 kW RF power in the plasma and longitudinal magnetic field B{sub l} ? 250 G. The specific efficiency of H{sup ?} production was increased to 20 mA/cm{sup 2}?kW from 2.5 mA/cm{sup 2}?kW.

  7. Studies in ion source development for application in heavy ion fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Kapica, Jonathan G.

    2004-05-30

    The overall purpose of these experiments is to contribute to the development of ion injector technology in order to produce a driver for use in a heavy-ion-fusion (HIF) power generating facility. The overall beam requirements for HIF are quite demanding; a short list of the constraints is the following: (1) Low cost (a large portion of overall cost will come from the beam system); (2) Bright, low emittance beam; (3) Total beam energy 5MJ; (4) Spot size 3mm (radius); (5) Pulse Duration 10ns; (6) Current on target 40kA; (7) Repetition Rate 5Hz; (8) Standoff from target 5m; and (9) Transverse Temp < 1 keV. The reasons for employing ion beams in inertial fusion systems become obvious when the repetition rate required is considered. While laser drivers are useful in producing a proof-of-concept, they will be incapable of application in power generation. Consequently attempts in the U.S. to achieve a power generating system make use of linear ion accelerators. It is apparent that the accelerator system requires the highest quality input as obtainable. Therefore injector design is an essential portion of the entire inertial fusion system. At Lawrence Berkeley and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories experiments are being conducted using two injector formats. For this project I have conducted a series of studies using both. The next two sections provide a brief description of the sources used for my experiments.

  8. Design of the 3rd generation ECR ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Lyneis, C.M.; Xie, Z.Q.; Taylor, C.E.

    1997-02-01

    Development of the 3rd Generation ECR ion source has progressed from a concept described in the last ECR Ion Source Workshop to the fabrication of a full scale prototype superconducting magnet structure. The prototype consists of three solenoid coils and six race track coils with iron poles forming the sextupole. The design calls for mirror fields of 4 T at injection and 3 T at extraction and for a radial field strength at the wall of 2.4 T. The prototype magnet will be tested this spring in an existing vertical cryostat to determine its operating characteristics including maximum operating values, training characteristics and to study the interaction between the solenoid and sextupole coils. Design of the ECR plasma chamber includes aluminum walls to provide an enhanced source of cold electrons, up to three separate microwave feeds to allow simultaneous heating of the plasma electrons at 10, 14 and 18 GHz or at 6, 10 and 14 GHz. Water cooling of the plasma chamber walls and the injection and extraction plates is planned so that up to 10 kW of microwave power can be used without excessive heating of the chamber components. Experience with the AECR-U at LBNL shows that increasing the magnetic fields and using two frequency heating allows operation at lower neutral pressures and higher microwave power density. Both of these conditions are needed to produce very high charge states from elements with masses greater than xenon and the resulting higher energy, more intense heavy beams from the 88-Inch Cyclotron would provide new research opportunities.

  9. Extracted ion current density in close-coupling multi-antenna type radio frequency driven ion source: CC-MATIS.

    PubMed

    Oka, Y; Shoji, T

    2014-02-01

    Positive ions are extracted by using a small extractor from the Close-Coupling Multi-Antenna Type radio frequency driven Ion Source. Two types of RF antenna are used. The maximum extracted ion current density reaches 0.106 A/cm(2). The RF net power efficiency of the extracted ion current density under standard condition is 11.6 mA/cm(2)/kW. The efficiency corresponds to the level of previous beam experiments on elementary designs of multi-antenna sources, and also to the efficiency level of a plasma driven by a filament in the same chamber. The multi-antenna type RF plasma source is promising for all metal high density ion sources in a large volume chamber. PMID:24593587

  10. Searching For A Suitable Gas Ion Source For 14C Accelerator Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Reden, Karl von; Roberts, Mark; Han, Baoxi; Schneider, Robert; Wills, John

    2007-08-10

    This paper describes the challenges facing 14C Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) in the effort to directly analyze the combusted effluent of a chromatograph (or any other continuous source of sample material). An efficient, low-memory negative gas ion source would greatly simplify the task to make this a reality. We discuss our tests of a microwave ion source charge exchange canal combination, present an improved design, and hope to generate more interest in the negative ion source community to develop a direct-extraction negative carbon gas ion source for AMS.

  11. Ionic liquid ion source emitter arrays fabricated on bulk porous substrates for spacecraft propulsion

    E-print Network

    Courtney, Daniel George

    2011-01-01

    Ionic Liquid Ion Sources (ILIS) are a subset of electrospray capable of producing bipolar beams of pure ions from ionic liquids. Ionic liquids are room temperature molten salts, characterized by negligible vapor pressures, ...

  12. Plasma Source Ion Implantation of Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, Kevin Carl

    Three plasma source ion implantation (PSII) schemes applied to three aluminum systems have been studied. Pure aluminum, and aluminum alloys 7075 (Al-Cu-Mg-Zn) and A390 (Al-17Si-Cu-Fe) were (1) argon ion sputter-cleaned and nitrogen-implanted, (2) nitrogen-implanted without sputter -cleaning, and (3) argon-implanted. Nitrogen implantation was performed with the goal of modifying the surface properties by transformation of the surface to aluminum-nitride. Argon implantation was performed with the goal of modifying the surface properties by inducing radiation damage. All implantation schemes were accomplished using a glow discharge mode of the PSII process. Implanted surfaces were investigated using Auger depth profiling and Transmission Electron Microscopy. The profiles indicated a stoichiometric layer, ~ 0.15 ?m thick, of AlN on the nitrogen-implanted samples. Electron microscopy confirmed the complete conversion of the aluminum surface to AlN. Knoop microhardness tests showed an increase in surface hardness, especially at low loads. The improvements were independent of prior sputter-cleaning and were approximately equal for the studied aluminum systems. Pin-on-disk wear tests were conducted using a ruby stylus and isopropanol lubrication. Argon implantation decreased the wear resistance of pure aluminum and 7075. Nitrogen implantation improved the wear rates by a factor of ~10 for pure aluminum and 7075. These improvements were independent of prior sputter-cleaning. The coefficient of friction was not significantly influenced by the implantation schemes. Due to a coarse microstructure, tribological tests of ion-implanted A390 were inconclusive. Corrosion studies performed in a 3.5 wt% NaCl solution (seawater) indicated nitrogen implantation gave pure aluminum improved corrosion resistance. The improvement is due to the complete conversion of the aluminum surface to AlN. Because of pre-existing precipitates, the corrosion properties of 7075 and A390 were not significantly affected. This work demonstrated significant modification of the tribological and electrochemical properties of the aluminum surface can be accomplished using nitrogen plasma source ion implantation.

  13. A New High-Performance Ion Source Based on Magnetically Neutral Loop Discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimokawa, Fusao

    2010-11-01

    We have developed a new high-performance ion source on the basis of the high-density plasma formation method known as magnetically neutral loop discharge (NLD). The ion source consists of three separate electromagnetic coils, an ion extraction electrode, and a quartz vessel plasma chamber with a one-turn RF antenna coil, which is the main component of conventional RF ion sources. The three electromagnetic coils are located around the periphery of the plasma chamber. The current in the middle coil flows opposite to the currents in the top and bottom coils. With this configuration, our source produces a high plasma density of 1011 cm-3, which is about ten times higher than that of a conventional source under a low gas pressure of 0.1 Pa. In addition, it is possible to control both the ring like plasma diameter and the high-density plasma generation position in the plasma chamber. As a result, we achieved a high ion current density of up to 1 mA/cm2 at 50 V of ion extraction voltage, which is almost five times higher than the conventional source. Furthermore, we also obtained a high ion current uniformity of ±5% over a 6-in.-diameter wafer using the source's plasma space controllability. A processing system that uses this ion source will contribute to faster processing, high-quality processing, and excellent-uniformity processing for ion beam etching, ion beam deposition, and ion beam sputter deposition. Many other applications are also expected.

  14. Study of the negative ion extraction mechanism from a double-ion plasma in negative ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Goto, I.; Nishioka, S.; Hatayama, A.; Miyamoto, K.

    2015-04-08

    We have developed a 2D3V-PIC model of the extraction region, aiming to clarify the basic extraction mechanism of H{sup ?} ions from the double-ion plasma in H{sup ?} negative ion sources. The result shows the same tendency of the H{sup ?} ion density n{sub H{sup ?}} as that observed in the experiments, i.e.,n{sub H{sup ?}} in the upstream region away from the plasma meniscus (H{sup ?} emitting surface) has been reduced by applying the extraction voltage. At the same time, relatively slow temporal oscillation of the electric potential compared with the electron plasma frequency has been observed in the extraction region. Results of the systematic study using a 1D3V-PIC model with the uniform magnetic field confirm the result that the electrostatic oscillation is identified to be lower hybrid wave. The effect of this oscillation on the H{sup ?} transport will be studied in the future.

  15. High energy metal ion implantation using `Magis`, a novel, broad-beam, Marx-generator-based ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, A.; Brown, I.G.; Dickinson, M.R.; MacGill, R.A.

    1996-08-01

    Ion energy of the beam formed by an ion source is proportional to extractor voltage and ion charge state. Increasing the voltage is difficult and costly for extraction voltage over 100 kV. Here we explore the possibility of increasing the charge states of metal ions to facilitate high-energy, broad beam ion implantation at a moderate voltage level. Strategies to enhance the ion charge state include operating in the regimes of high-current vacuum sparks and short pulses. Using a time-of-flight technique we have measured charge states as high as 7+ (73 kA vacuum spark discharge) and 4+ (14 kA short pulse arc discharge), both for copper, with the mean ion charge states about 6.0 and 2.5, respectively. Pulsed discharges can conveniently be driven by a modified Marx generator, allowing operation of ``Magis`` with a single power supply (at ground potential) for both plasma production and ion extraction.

  16. Kinetic modeling of particle dynamics in H(-) negative ion sources (invited).

    PubMed

    Hatayama, A; Shibata, T; Nishioka, S; Ohta, M; Yasumoto, M; Nishida, K; Yamamoto, T; Miyamoto, K; Fukano, A; Mizuno, T

    2014-02-01

    Progress in the kinetic modeling of particle dynamics in H(-) negative ion source plasmas and their comparisons with experiments are reviewed, and discussed with some new results. Main focus is placed on the following two topics, which are important for the research and development of large negative ion sources and high power H(-) ion beams: (i) Effects of non-equilibrium features of EEDF (electron energy distribution function) on H(-) production, and (ii) extraction physics of H(-) ions and beam optics. PMID:24593433

  17. Development of intense hydrogen-negative-ion source for neutral beam injectors at NIFS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeiri, Y.; Tsumori, K.; Osakabe, M.; Ikeda, K.; Nagaoka, K.; Nakano, H.; Kisaki, M.; Kaneko, O.; Asano, E.; Kondo, T.; Sato, M.; Shibuya, M.; Komada, S.; Sekiguchi, H.

    2013-02-01

    Intense hydrogen-negative-ion source development, conducted at National Institute for Fusion Science (NIFS), is reviewed. Presently, the developed negative-ion sources are utilized in the negative-ion-based neutral beam injectors, which are installed to the Large Helical Device, the world's largest superconducting fusion machine, and the total injection power has achieved 16MW with the energy of 180-190 keV using three injectors with six sources. In the developed negative-ion accelerator with multi-slotted grounded grid, the grid heat load is much reduced due to its high transparency, leading to a high-energy acceleration of a high-current negative ion beam. As a result, one ion source produces 190keV-37A of negative ions for 1.6sec at maximum, corresponding to 340A/m2 of the current density. For further improvement of the negative ion source, plasma characteristics are investigated in the extraction region with a multi-diagnostics system. With the Cs seeding, the H- density increases and the electron density decreases, and, finally, an ion-ion plasma which consists of almost positive and negative ions is observed. The measured negative ion density is not largely decreased toward the plasma grid surface, on which the negative ion is produced. Reduction of the negative ion density is observed by the negative ion extraction, and invasion of the electric field for the negative ion extraction is recognized. Understanding of the negative ion transport in the plasma and the mechanism of the negative ion extraction should contribute to improvement of the source performance.

  18. On the ionospheric source region of cold ion outflow K. Li,1,2,3

    E-print Network

    Bergen, Universitetet i

    is the primary source for cold ions. We also found that the expansion and contraction of the polar cap as a consequence of changes in solar wind parameters were correlated with the source region size and intensity that there are several important source regions for the outflow; the polar wind, the ion cleft and the auroral region

  19. The emission characteristics of an indium needle-type liquid metal ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hornsey, R. I.

    1989-09-01

    Operational data for an indium needle-type liquid metal ion source are presented. Detailed comparisons are drawn between these characteristics and those of a similar gallium source. The behaviours of the two sources are found to be strikingly similar, indicating a common mechanism of ion emission.

  20. Sources and transport systems for low energy extreme of ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Hershcovitch, A.; Batalin, V.A.; Bugaev, A.S.; Gushenets, V.I.; Alexeyenko, O.; Gurkova, E.; Johnson, B.M.; Kolomiets, A.A.; Kropachev, G.N.; Kuibeda, R.P.; Kulevoy, T.V.; Masunov, E.S.; Oks, E.M.; Pershin, V.I.; Polozov, S.M.; Poole, H.J.; Seleznev, D.N.; Storozhenko, P.A.; Vizir, A.; Svarovski, A.Ya.; Yakushin, P.; Yushkov, G.Yu.

    2010-06-06

    For the past seven years a joint research and development effort focusing on the design of steady state, intense ion sources has been in progress with the ultimate goal being to meet the two, energy extreme range needs of mega-electron-volt and 100's of electron-volt ion implanters. However, since the last Fortier is low energy ion implantation, focus of the endeavor has shifted to low energy ion implantation. For boron cluster source development, we started with molecular ions of decaborane (B{sub 10}H{sub 14}), octadecaborane (B{sub 18}H{sub 22}), and presently our focus is on carborane (C{sub 2}B{sub 10}H{sub 12}) ions developing methods for mitigating graphite deposition. Simultaneously, we are developing a pure boron ion source (without a working gas) that can form the basis for a novel, more efficient, plasma immersion source. Our Calutron-Berna ion source was converted into a universal source capable of switching between generating molecular phosphorous P{sub 4}{sup +}, high charge state ions, as well as other types of ions. Additionally, we have developed transport systems capable of transporting a very large variety of ion species, and simulations of a novel gasless/plasmaless ion beam deceleration method were also performed.