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1

Improved magnetron cold-cathode ion source  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cold cathode ionization source generates smaller amounts of spurious gases and has a higher sensitivity than commonly used hot-filament ion sources. Photon and X-ray background noise are reduced below detectable levels.

Roehrig, J.; Torney, F.

1970-01-01

2

Magnetron-Discharge-Based Ion Source for Improvement of an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Device  

Microsoft Academic Search

A magnetron discharge as a built-in ion source have studied both experimentally and numerically for a compact discharge-type fusion neutron source called IECF (Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion). With this magnetron discharge, ions are produced in the vicinity of the vacuum chamber (anode) at negative electric potential. Therefore, produced ions are expected to have nearly full energy corresponding to the applied

Teruhisa Takamatsu; Kai Masuda; Kiyoshi Yoshikawa; Hisayuki Toku; Kazunobu Nagasaki; Toshiyuki Kyunai

2005-01-01

3

Unbalance magnetron plasma source for ion mass-separator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The report presents the results of the preliminary studies characteristics of an unbalanced magnetron plasma source supplied with the transport system based on a curved magnetic field. The aim of these studies was to recognize if the system is suitable, in principle, for mass-separation of a multi-component plasma flow. The magnetron source has 50 mm diameter cathode manufactured of an alloy composed of Cu (64%), Pb (22.5%) and admixtures, about of 14% (Al, Zn, C). By means of an immersion time-of-flight spectrometer, a spatial distribution of ions of the cathode material was measured through the system output cross-section. Distribution of atom of these elements was measured here by the X-ray fluorescence spectrometry as well. Both methods showed that the ions of the lighter element (Cu) were concentrated in the inner part of the plasma flow deflected by the magnetic field while the distribution of the heavy element (Pb) was shifted toward the outer area of the flow. The similar effect was observed for each couple of the elements. Such a system is promising for use in plasma technology of reprocessing spent nuclear fuel, namely for separation heavy radioactive fission product from nuclear waste.

Paperny, V. L.; Krasov, V. I.; Astrakchantsev, N. V.; Lebedev, N. V.

2014-11-01

4

Low-Energy Penning Ionization Gauge Type Ion Source Assisted by RF Magnetron Discharge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The construction and characteristics of a new low-energy Penning ionization gauge (PIG)-type ion source assisted by RF magnetron discharge are described. A two-stage scheme of the ion source is realized by using RF magnetron plasma as the cathodes for the PIG discharge. This scheme permits the independent control of both the ion beam energy and the parameters of discharge plasma

Sergey N. Abolmasov; Alexandr A. Bizyukov; Yoshinobu Kawai; Andrei Y. Kashaba; Vasyl I. Maslov; Konstantin N. Sereda

2002-01-01

5

Magnetron-Discharge-Based Ion Source for Improvement of an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Device  

SciTech Connect

A magnetron discharge as a built-in ion source have studied both experimentally and numerically for a compact discharge-type fusion neutron source called IECF (Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion). With this magnetron discharge, ions are produced in the vicinity of the vacuum chamber (anode) at negative electric potential. Therefore, produced ions are expected to have nearly full energy corresponding to the applied voltage to the IECF cathode but slightly smaller energy preventing them from hitting the anode of the opposite end, eventually improving both fusion reaction rate and ion recirculation life. Also, the magnetron ion source was found to produce ample ion current for maintenance of the discharge. With the optimization of the configuration of the magnetron discharge, further improvement of the fusion reaction rate is found feasible.

Takamatsu, Teruhisa; Masuda, Kai; Yoshikawa, Kiyoshi; Toku, Hisayuki; Nagasaki, Kazunobu; Kyunai, Toshiyuki [Kyoto University (Japan)

2005-05-15

6

An inverted cylindrical sputter magnetron as metal vapor supply for electron cyclotron resonance ion sources  

SciTech Connect

An inverted cylindrical sputter magnetron device has been developed. The magnetron is acting as a metal vapor supply for an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source. FEM simulation of magnetic flux density was used to ensure that there is no critical interaction between both magnetic fields of magnetron and ECR ion source. Spatially resolved double Langmuir probe and optical emission spectroscopy measurements show an increase in electron density by one order of magnitude from 1 × 10{sup 10} cm{sup ?3} to 1 × 10{sup 11} cm{sup ?3}, when the magnetron plasma is exposed to the magnetic mirror field of the ECR ion source. Electron density enhancement is also indicated by magnetron plasma emission photography with a CCD camera. Furthermore, photographs visualize the formation of a localized loss-cone - area, when the magnetron is operated at magnetic mirror field conditions. The inverted cylindrical magnetron supplies a metal atom load rate of R > 1 × 10{sup 18} atoms/s for aluminum, which meets the demand for the production of a milliampere Al{sup +} ion beam.

Weichsel, T., E-mail: tim.weichsel@fep.fraunhofer.de; Hartung, U.; Kopte, T. [Fraunhofer Institute for Electron Beam and Plasma Technology, 01277 Dresden (Germany)] [Fraunhofer Institute for Electron Beam and Plasma Technology, 01277 Dresden (Germany); Zschornack, G. [Institute of Solid State Physics, Dresden University of Technology, 01062 Dresden, Germany and Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Dresden (Germany)] [Institute of Solid State Physics, Dresden University of Technology, 01062 Dresden, Germany and Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Dresden (Germany); Kreller, M.; Silze, A. [DREEBIT GmbH, 01900 Grossroehrsdorf (Germany)] [DREEBIT GmbH, 01900 Grossroehrsdorf (Germany)

2014-05-15

7

An inverted cylindrical sputter magnetron as metal vapor supply for electron cyclotron resonance ion sources.  

PubMed

An inverted cylindrical sputter magnetron device has been developed. The magnetron is acting as a metal vapor supply for an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source. FEM simulation of magnetic flux density was used to ensure that there is no critical interaction between both magnetic fields of magnetron and ECR ion source. Spatially resolved double Langmuir probe and optical emission spectroscopy measurements show an increase in electron density by one order of magnitude from 1 × 10(10) cm(-3) to 1 × 10(11) cm(-3), when the magnetron plasma is exposed to the magnetic mirror field of the ECR ion source. Electron density enhancement is also indicated by magnetron plasma emission photography with a CCD camera. Furthermore, photographs visualize the formation of a localized loss-cone - area, when the magnetron is operated at magnetic mirror field conditions. The inverted cylindrical magnetron supplies a metal atom load rate of R > 1 × 10(18) atoms/s for aluminum, which meets the demand for the production of a milliampere Al(+) ion beam. PMID:24880358

Weichsel, T; Hartung, U; Kopte, T; Zschornack, G; Kreller, M; Silze, A

2014-05-01

8

An inverted cylindrical sputter magnetron as metal vapor supply for electron cyclotron resonance ion sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An inverted cylindrical sputter magnetron device has been developed. The magnetron is acting as a metal vapor supply for an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source. FEM simulation of magnetic flux density was used to ensure that there is no critical interaction between both magnetic fields of magnetron and ECR ion source. Spatially resolved double Langmuir probe and optical emission spectroscopy measurements show an increase in electron density by one order of magnitude from 1 × 1010 cm-3 to 1 × 1011 cm-3, when the magnetron plasma is exposed to the magnetic mirror field of the ECR ion source. Electron density enhancement is also indicated by magnetron plasma emission photography with a CCD camera. Furthermore, photographs visualize the formation of a localized loss-cone - area, when the magnetron is operated at magnetic mirror field conditions. The inverted cylindrical magnetron supplies a metal atom load rate of R > 1 × 1018 atoms/s for aluminum, which meets the demand for the production of a milliampere Al+ ion beam.

Weichsel, T.; Hartung, U.; Kopte, T.; Zschornack, G.; Kreller, M.; Silze, A.

2014-05-01

9

Joint functioning of a magnetron sputtering system and an end-hall ion source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The features of joint operation of a magnetron sputtering system (MSS) and an end-Hall ion source (EHIS) are investigated. It is noted that the initiation of the magnetron discharge leads to partial or complete neutralization of the ion beam generated by the EHIS; in other words, in some regimes of the MSS, the ion source operates in the filament-free regime. In such a case, the magnetron discharge is the source of electrons required for sustaining the discharge and for compensating the ion beam from the EHIS. The dependences of the discharge characteristics of the EHIS and MSS are established when a filament neutralizer and MSS discharge are used for compensating the EHIS ion beam. The balance of currents in the ion source-magnetron sputtering system is considered by analyzing the joint functioning of the MSS and EHIS. It is shown that the maximal discharge current from the ion source for which the charge compensation condition is preserved depends on the unbalance and the magnetron discharge current.

Golosov, D. A.; Eungsun, Byon; Zavadski, S. M.

2014-09-01

10

Inertial electrostatic confinement fusion device with an ion source using a magnetron discharge  

Microsoft Academic Search

An inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) fusion device is studied for a compact fusion neutron\\/proton source using a built-in magnetron ion source. The addition of an ion source to the IEC fusion device enhances fusion reactions by allowing a lower operating gas pressure and by providing a beam-like ion energy distribution. Under lower gas pressures, charge exchange collisions are reduced, resulting

T. Takamatsu; K. Masuda; T. Kyunai; H. Toku; K. Yoshikawa

2006-01-01

11

Characteristics of end Hall ion source with magnetron hollow cathode discharge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An end Hall ion source with magnetron hollow cathode discharge is described. The source is suitable for high current, low energy ion beam applications such as Hall current plasma accelerators. The end Hall ion source is based on an anode layer thruster with closed drift electrons that move in a closed path in the E × B field. Only a simple magnetron power supply is used in the ion source. The special configuration enables uninterrupted and expanded operation with oxygen as well as other reactive gases because of the absence of an electron source in the ion source. In our evaluation, the ion beam current was measured by a circular electrostatic probe and the energy distribution of the ion beam was measured by a retarding potential analyzer (RPA). An ion beam current density of up to 10 mA/cm 2 was obtained at a mean ion energy of 100-250 eV using Ar or O 2. The ion source can be operated in a stable fashion at a discharge voltage between 200 and 500 V and without additional electron triggering. The discharge power of the ion source can be easily changed by adjusting the gas flow rate and anode voltage. No water cooling is needed for power from 500 W to 2 kW. The simple and rugged ion source is suitable for industrial applications such as deposition of thin films with enhanced adhesion. The operational characteristics of the ion source are experimentally determined and discussed.

Tang, Deli; Wang, Lisheng; Pu, Shihao; Cheng, Changming; Chu, Paul K.

2007-04-01

12

Hollow metal target magnetron sputter type radio frequency ion source.  

PubMed

A 70 mm diameter 70 mm long compact ion source equipped with a hollow sputtering target has been designed and tested. The hollow sputtering target serves as the radio frequency (RF) plasma excitation electrode at 13.56 MHz. A stable beam of Cu(+) has been extracted when Ar was used as the discharge support gas. In the extracted beam, Cu(+) had occupied more than 85% of the total ion current. Further increase in Cu(+) ions in the beam is anticipated by increasing the RF power and Ar pressure. PMID:24593636

Yamada, N; Kasuya, T; Tsubouchi, N; Wada, M

2014-02-01

13

Hollow metal target magnetron sputter type radio frequency ion source  

SciTech Connect

A 70 mm diameter 70 mm long compact ion source equipped with a hollow sputtering target has been designed and tested. The hollow sputtering target serves as the radio frequency (RF) plasma excitation electrode at 13.56 MHz. A stable beam of Cu{sup +} has been extracted when Ar was used as the discharge support gas. In the extracted beam, Cu{sup +} had occupied more than 85% of the total ion current. Further increase in Cu{sup +} ions in the beam is anticipated by increasing the RF power and Ar pressure.

Yamada, N., E-mail: mwada@mail.doshisha.ac.jp; Kasuya, T.; Wada, M. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Doshisha University, Kyoto 610–0321 (Japan)] [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Doshisha University, Kyoto 610–0321 (Japan); Tsubouchi, N. [Kansai Institute, Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Osaka 563–8577 (Japan)] [Kansai Institute, Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Osaka 563–8577 (Japan)

2014-02-15

14

Magnetron sputtering source  

DOEpatents

A magnetron sputtering source for sputtering coating substrates includes a high thermal conductivity electrically insulating ceramic and magnetically attached sputter target which can eliminate vacuum sealing and direct fluid cooling of the cathode assembly. The magnetron sputtering source design results in greater compactness, improved operating characteristics, greater versatility, and low fabrication cost. The design easily retrofits most sputtering apparatuses and provides for safe, easy, and cost effective target replacement, installation, and removal.

Makowiecki, Daniel M. (Livermore, WA); McKernan, Mark A. (Livermore, CA); Grabner, R. Fred (Brentwood, CA); Ramsey, Philip B. (Livermore, CA)

1994-01-01

15

Magnetron sputtering source  

DOEpatents

A magnetron sputtering source for sputtering coating substrates includes a high thermal conductivity electrically insulating ceramic and magnetically attached sputter target which can eliminate vacuum sealing and direct fluid cooling of the cathode assembly. The magnetron sputtering source design results in greater compactness, improved operating characteristics, greater versatility, and low fabrication cost. The design easily retrofits most sputtering apparatuses and provides for safe, easy, and cost effective target replacement, installation, and removal. 12 figs.

Makowiecki, D.M.; McKernan, M.A.; Grabner, R.F.; Ramsey, P.B.

1994-08-02

16

The stability of SiO 2 films prepared using a magnetron sputter type negative ion source (MSNIS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aging effect of SiO2 films was investigated. SiO2 films were prepared using a magnetron sputter type negative ion source (MSNIS) utilizing the direct ion beam deposition (DIBD) method. Thin SiO2 films are known as suffering from aging effect after the deposition. To minimize the variation of the refractive index or thickness of the film after the long period of time,

Namwoong Paik

2005-01-01

17

Cathode grid current dependence of D(d, n)3He reaction rates in an inertial electrostatic confinement device driven by a ring-shaped magnetron ion source  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present D(d, n)3 He reaction rates for a new inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) device which aims to overcome neutralization (charge exchange) of accelerating ions by operating at D2 gas pressures of just 5-10 mPa with the aid of an internal ring-shaped magnetron ion source. Initial experiments with a voltage of -60 kV applied to a central spherical cathode grid

K. Masuda; T. Nakagawa; J. Kipritidis; T. Kajiwara; Y. Yamagaki; H. Zen; K. Yoshikawa; K. Nagasaki

2010-01-01

18

Modeling the time variation of beam-grid fusion reaction rates in an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement device driven by a ring-shaped magnetron ion source  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use the two-dimensional analysis code KUAD2 to simulate D^{+_{2}} trajectories in an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) device driven by a ring-shaped magnetron ion source (RS-MIS). This aims to maximize the path length lambdaCX for ion-gas charge exchange by operating at just units of mPa D2 gas pressures; however, under these conditions simulations reveal a surprisingly small path length for

J. Kipritidis; K. Masuda; T. Kajiwara; Y. Yamagaki; K. Nagasaki

2011-01-01

19

High-energy ions and atoms sputtered and reflected from a magnetron source for deposition of magnetic thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the magnetron sputtering process, moderate bombardment of particles on a substrate gives favorable effects on the deposited films, while excessive bombardment at high energies may cause film damage and surface roughness. To make these influences clear, high-energy ions and neutrals are comprehensively measured by a mass spectrometer with an energy analyzer in the case of magnetron sputtering of a Permalloy™ target (80% Ni/20% Fe). Ni atoms sputtered from the target by a dc magnetron discharge (~600 V, <0.2 A) in argon below 4 Pa have an energy distribution function (EDF) spreading up to ~8 eV. A similar shape of EDF is also observed for Ni+ ions, which are produced possibly by electron-impact ionization of Ni atoms in gas phase. The EDF of Ar+ ions has a tail of extremely high energies of ~150 eV. Production of such energetic ions is tentatively explained in terms of resonant charge exchange of energetic Ar atoms reflected from the target after surface neutralization of ~600 eV Ar+ ions impinging on the target. The existence of energetic Ar atoms is verified by mass spectrometry with an extra-ionizer, and is also supported by a sputtering simulation code (TRIM).

Matsui, Hiroki; Toyoda, Hirotaka; Sugai, Hideo

2005-07-01

20

High power impulse magnetron sputtering and related discharges: scalable plasma sources for plasma-based ion implantation and deposition  

SciTech Connect

High power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) and related self-sputtering techniques are reviewed from a viewpoint of plasma-based ion implantation and deposition (PBII&D). HIPIMS combines the classical, scalable sputtering technology with pulsed power, which is an elegant way of ionizing the sputtered atoms. Related approaches, such as sustained self-sputtering, are also considered. The resulting intense flux of ions to the substrate consists of a mixture of metal and gas ions when using a process gas, or of metal ions only when using `gasless? or pure self-sputtering. In many respects, processing with HIPIMS plasmas is similar to processing with filtered cathodic arc plasmas, though the former is easier to scale to large areas. Both ion implantation and etching (high bias voltage, without deposition) and thin film deposition (low bias, or bias of low duty cycle) have been demonstrated.

Anders, Andre

2009-09-01

21

Deposition and characterization of zirconium nitride (ZrN) thin films by reactive magnetron sputtering with linear gas ion source and bias voltage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zirconium nitride thin films have been prepared on stainless steel substrate (304L grade) by reactive cylindrical magnetron sputtering method with Gas Ion Source (GIS) and bias voltage using optimized coating parameters. The structure and surface morphologies of the ZrN films were characterized using X-ray diffraction, atomic microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The adhesion property of ZrN thin film has been increased due to the GIS. The coating exhibits better adhesion strength up to 10 N whereas the ZrN thin film with bias voltage exhibits adhesion up to 500 mN.

Kavitha, A.; Subramanian, N. Sankara; Loganathan, S.; Kannan, R.

2014-04-01

22

Deposition and characterization of zirconium nitride (ZrN) thin films by reactive magnetron sputtering with linear gas ion source and bias voltage  

SciTech Connect

Zirconium nitride thin films have been prepared on stainless steel substrate (304L grade) by reactive cylindrical magnetron sputtering method with Gas Ion Source (GIS) and bias voltage using optimized coating parameters. The structure and surface morphologies of the ZrN films were characterized using X-ray diffraction, atomic microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The adhesion property of ZrN thin film has been increased due to the GIS. The coating exhibits better adhesion strength up to 10 N whereas the ZrN thin film with bias voltage exhibits adhesion up to 500 mN.

Kavitha, A.; Kannan, R. [Department of Physics, University College of Engineering, Anna University, Dindugal-624622 (India); Subramanian, N. Sankara [Department of Physics, Thiagarajar College of Engineering, Madurai -625015, Tamilnadu (India); Loganathan, S. [Ion Plating, Titan Industries Ltd., Hosur - 635126, Tamilnadu (India)

2014-04-24

23

Ion source  

DOEpatents

A magnetic filter for an ion source reduces the production of undesired ion species and improves the ion beam quality. High-energy ionizing electrons are confined by the magnetic filter to an ion source region, where the high-energy electrons ionize gas molecules. One embodiment of the magnetic filter uses permanent magnets oriented to establish a magnetic field transverse to the direction of travel of ions from the ion source region to the ion extraction region. In another embodiment, low energy 16 eV electrons are injected into the ion source to dissociate gas molecules and undesired ion species into desired ion species.

Leung, Ka-Ngo (Hercules, CA); Ehlers, Kenneth W. (Alamo, CA)

1984-01-01

24

Phase and Frequency Locked Magnetrons for SRF Sources  

SciTech Connect

Magnetrons are low-cost highly-efficient microwave sources, but they have several limitations, primarily centered about the phase and frequency stability of their output. When the stability requirements are low, such as for medical accelerators or kitchen ovens, magnetrons are the very efficient power source of choice. But for high energy accelerators, because of the need for frequency and phase stability - proton accelerators need 1-2 degrees source phase stability, and electron accelerators need .1-.2 degrees of phase stability - they have rarely been used. We describe a novel variable frequency cavity technique which will be utilized to phase and frequency lock magnetrons.

Neubauer, M.; Johnson, R.P.; /Muons Inc., Batavia; Popovic, M.; Moretti, A.; /Fermilab

2009-05-01

25

Properties of H⁻ and D⁻ beams from magnetron and Penning sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quality of negative hydrogen isotope beams are evaluated after extraction from magnetron and Penning sources. The general conclusions of these measurements are that: (a) the beam quality from these plasma sources are adequate for the transport of high current negative ion beams in bending magnets; (b) there is evidence of practically complete space charge neutralization in the drift space

T. Sluyters; V. Kovarik

1979-01-01

26

Boron ion beam generation using a self-sputtering planar magnetron  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A boron ion source based on planar magnetron discharge with solid boron target has been developed. To obtain a sufficient conductivity of the boron target for high current discharge ignition, the target was heated to the temperature more than 350 °C. To reach this temperature, thermally isolated target was heated by low-current high-voltage magnetron DC discharge. Applying a high-current pulse (100 ?s range) provides a self-sputtering mode of the discharge, which generates the boron plasma. Boron ion beam with current more than 150 mA was extracted from the plasma by applying an accelerating voltage of 20 kV. The boron ion fraction in the beam reached 95%, averaged over the pulse length, and the rest ions were working gas (Kr+). It was shown that "keeping alive" DC discharge completely eliminates a time delay of pulsed discharge current onset, and reduces the pulsed discharge minimal working pressure.

Vizir, Aleksey; Nikolaev, Aleksey; Oks, Efim; Savkin, Konstantin; Shandrikov, Maxim; Yushkov, Georgy

2014-02-01

27

H/sup -/ beam emittance measurements for the penning and the asymmetric, grooved magnetron surface-plasma sources  

SciTech Connect

Beam-intensity and emittance measurements show that the H/sup -/ beam from our Penning surface-plasma source (SPS) has twice the intensity and ten times the brightness of the H/sup -/ beam from an asymmetric, grooved magnetron SPS. We deduce H/sup -/ ion temperatures of 5 eV for the Penning SPS and 22 eV for the asymmetric, grooved magnetron.

Smith, H.V. Jr.; Allison, P.W.

1981-01-01

28

Impact of ion magnetron motion on electron capture dissociation Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electron capture dissociation (ECD) efficiency in a 9.4 T Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometer varies periodically with the time interval between ion and electron injection. The observed modulation frequency correlates to within 1% with ion magnetron frequency, most probably due to misalignment between the ion beam and the electron beam. The optimum ECD conditions are obtained by

Yury O. Tsybin; Christopher L. Hendrickson; Steven C. Beu; Alan G. Marshall

2006-01-01

29

Phase and Frequency Locked Magnetrons for SRF Sources  

SciTech Connect

There is great potential for a magnetron power source that can be controlled both in phase and frequency. Such a power source could revolutionize many particle accelerator systems that require lower capital cost and/or higher power efficiency. Beyond the accelerator community, phase and frequency locked magnetons could improve radar systems around the world and make affordable phased arrays for wireless power transmission for solar powered satellites. This joint project of Muons, Inc., Fermilab, and L-3 CTL was supported by an STTR grant monitored by the Nuclear Physics Office of the DOE Office of Science. The object of the program was to incorporate ferrite materials into the anode of a magnetron and, with appropriate biasing of the ferrites, to maintain frequency lock and to allow for frequency adjustment of the magnetron without mechanical tuners. If successful, this device would have a dual use both as a source for SRF linacs and for military applications where fast tuning of the frequency is a requirement. In order to place the materials in the proper location, several attributes needed to be modeled. First the impact of the magnetron’s magnetic field needed to be shielded from the ferrites so that they were not saturated. And second, the magnetic field required to change the frequency of the magnetron at the ferrites needed to be shielded from the region containing the circulating electrons. ANSYS calculations of the magnetic field were used to optimize both of these parameters. Once the design for these elements was concluded, parts were fabricated and a complete test assembly built to confirm the predictions of the computer models. The ferrite material was also tested to determine its compatibility with magnetron tube processing temperatures. This required a vacuum bake out of the chosen material to determine the cleanliness of the material in terms of outgassing characteristics, and a subsequent room temperature test to verify that the characteristics of the ferrite had not changed. A major problem that remains is to develop a ferrite material with low enough loss that it does not reduce the quality factor of the magnetron to an unacceptable level.

Neubauer, Michael [Muons, Inc.; Johnson, Rolland

2014-09-12

30

Negative ion source  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for providing a negative ion source accelerates electrons away from a hot filament electron emitter into a region of crossed electric and magnetic fields arranged in a magnetron configuration. During a portion of the resulting cycloidal path, the electron velocity is reduced below its initial value. The electron accelerates as it leaves the surface at a rate of only slightly less than if there were no magnetic field, thereby preventing a charge buildup at the surface of the emitter. As the electron traverses the cycloid, it is decelerated during the second, third, and fourth quadrants, then reeccelerated as it approaches the end of the fourth quadrant to regain its original velocity. The minimum velocity occurs during the fourth quadrant, and corresponds to an electron temperature of 200.degree. to 500.degree. for the electric and magnetic fields commonly encountered in the ion sources of magnetic sector mass spectrometers. An ion source using the above-described thermalized electrons is also disclosed.

Delmore, James E. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1987-01-01

31

Improved negative ion source  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for providing a negative ion source accelerates electrons away from a hot filament electron emitter into a region of crossed electric and magnetic fields arranged in a magnetron configuration. During a portion of the resulting cycloidal path, the electron velocity is reduced below its initial value. The electron accelerates as it leaves the surface at a rate of only slightly less than if there were no magnetic field, thereby preventing a charge buildup at the surface of the emitter. As the electron traverses the cycloid, it is decelerated during the second, third, and fourth quadrants, then reaccelerated as it approaches the end of the fourth quadrant to regain its original velocity. The minimum velocity occurs during the fourth quadrant, and corresponds to an electron temperature of 200 to 500/sup 0/C for the electric and magnetic fields commonly encountered in the ion sources of magnetic sector mass spectrometers. An ion source using the above-described thermalized electrons is also disclosed.

Delmore, J.E.

1984-05-01

32

Impact of ion magnetron motion on electron capture dissociation Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electron capture dissociation (ECD) efficiency in a 9.4T Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometer varies periodically with the time interval between ion and electron injection. The observed modulation frequency correlates to within 1% with ion magnetron frequency, most probably due to misalignment between the ion beam and the electron beam. The optimum ECD conditions are obtained by correctly

Yury O. Tsybin; Christopher L. Hendrickson; Steven C. Beu; Alan G. Marshall

2006-01-01

33

Rotating dust ring in an RF discharge coupled with a dc-magnetron sputter source. Experiment and simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During an experiment involving coating of dust grains trapped in an RF discharge using a sputtering dc-magnetron source, a rotating dust ring was observed and investigated. After the magnetron was switched on, the dust cloud levitating above the RF electrode formed a ring rotating as a rigid body. Langmuir probe diagnostics were used for the measurement of plasma density and potential. It was discovered that the coupling of the dc-magnetron source to the RF discharge causes steep radial gradients in electron density and plasma potential. The rotation of the dust ring is attributed to the azimuthal component of the ion drag force, which appears due to the azimuthal drift of the ions caused by crossed radial electric and axial magnetic fields. In order to get more insight into the mechanism of dust ring rotation, a Particle-in-Cell simulation of a rotating dust cloud was performed. The results of the experiment and simulation are presented and discussed.

Matyash, K.; Fröhlich, M.; Kersten, H.; Thieme, G.; Schneider, R.; Hannemann, M.; Hippler, R.

2004-10-01

34

Extraction and transport of H/sup -/, D/sup -/ beams from magnetron sources  

SciTech Connect

Negative ion beam optical properties from regular and asymmetric magnetrons are described in single and double gap extractor structures. A significant reduction of beam emittance was observed when the regular flat cathode of the magnetron was replaced by the asymmetric source. The beam divergence could be reduced from 250 mradian in a single gap extractor to 75 mradian in a double gap extractor, but not without beam losses. The loading on the high voltage grid can be reduced to 10% of the total H/sup -/ current at an optimum extraction voltage. A 0.5A beam was transported and focussed in a 90/sup 0/ bending magnet with a field gradient n = 1.

Sluyters, T; Alessi, J

1980-01-01

35

Generation and detection of coherent magnetron motion in Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the most useful recent ion cyclotron resonance (ICR) developments is the conversion of magnetron motion to cyclotron motion by azimuthal quadrupolar excitation in the presence of ion-neutral collisions. The technique offers a mass-selective means for ``shrink-wrapping'' an ion cloud into a tight packet along the central axis of an ICR ion trap for enhanced signal to noise ratio, mass resolving power, and other advantages. However, the process itself is not directly observable. In this paper, we show that the conversion may be rendered observable by converting coherent magnetron motion (produced by off-axis ionization during a period short compared to the magnetron frequency) to coherent cyclotron motion, followed by subsequent dipole detection at ?+ (reduced cyclotron frequency) or quadrupolar detection at ?c (unperturbed cyclotron frequency) and 2?+. Detection at ?c eliminates the ICR frequency shift due to the electrostatic trapping potential, providing for increased mass accuracy; detection at 2?+ may offer increased mass resolving power. The observed signal behavior as a function of excitation amplitude-duration product is predicted theoretically and confirmed experimentally for both types of detection. Unlike the otherwise analogous 180° pulse in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), the magnetron-to-cyclotron interconversion may be phase-coherent with respect to both initial and final states. Finally, we show how coherent magnetron motion of two ion packets of different magnetron phase can be converted to cyclotron motion of two ion packets of different cyclotron phase, and we discuss the implications of that process.

Chen, Ruidan; Guan, Shenheng; Marshall, Alan G.

1994-02-01

36

Improved ion source  

DOEpatents

A magnetic filter for an ion source reduces the production of undesired ion species and improves the ion beam quality. High-energy ionizing electrons are confined by the magnetic filter to an ion source region, where the high-energy electrons ionize gas molecules. One embodiment of the magnetic filter uses permanent magnets oriented to establish a magnetic field transverse to the direction of travel of ions from the ion source region to the ion extraction region. In another embodiment, low energy 16 eV electrons are injected into the ion source to dissociate gas molecules and undesired ion species into desired ion species,

Leung, K.N.; Ehlers, K.W.

1982-05-04

37

Origins of ion energy distribution function (IEDF) in high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) plasma discharge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ion energy distribution function (IEDF) in high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) discharges was studied by plasma sampling energy-resolved mass spectroscopy. HIPIMS of chromium (Cr), titanium (Ti) and carbon (C) targets in argon (Ar) atmosphere was analysed. Singly and doubly charged ions of both the target and the gas were detected. Time-averaged IEDFs were measured for all detected ions

A. Hecimovic; K. Burcalova; A. P. Ehiasarian

2008-01-01

38

Microstructural comparisons of ultrathin Cu films deposited by ion-beam and dc-magnetron sputtering  

SciTech Connect

We report and contrast both the electrical resistance and the microstructure of copper thin films deposited in an oxygen-containing atmosphere by ion-beam and dc-magnetron sputtering. For films with thicknesses of 5 nm or less, the resistivity of the Cu films is minimized at oxygen concentrations ranging from 0.2% to 1% for dc-magnetron sputtering and 6%-10% for ion-beam sputtering. Films sputtered under both conditions show a similar decrease of interface roughness with increasing oxygen concentration, although the magnetron-deposited films are smoother. The dc-magnetron-produced films have higher resistivity, have smaller Cu grains, and contain a higher concentration of cuprous oxide particles. We discuss the mechanisms leading to the grain refinement and the consequent reduced resistivity in both types of films.

Prater, W.L.; Allen, E.L.; Lee, W.-Y.; Toney, M.F.; Kellock, A.; Daniels, J.S.; Hedstrom, J.A.; Harrell, T. [Chemical and Materials Engineering Department, San Jose State University, One Washington Square, San Jose, California 95192 (United States); Hitachi Global Storage Technologies, 5600 Cottle Road, San Jose, California 95193 (United States); Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) Almaden Research Center, 650 Harry Road, San Jose, California 95120 (United States)

2005-05-01

39

High-power magnetron transmitter as an RF source for superconducting linear accelerators  

E-print Network

A concept of a high-power magnetron transmitter for operation within a wideband control feedback loop in phase and amplitude is presented. This transmitter is proposed to drive Superconducting RF (SRF) cavities for intensity-frontier GeV-scale proton/ion linacs. The transmitter performance at the dynamic control was verified in experiments with CW, S-Band, 1 kW magnetrons. The wideband control of magnetrons, required for the superconducting linacs, was realized using the magnetrons, injection-locked by the phase-modulated signals. The capabilities of the magnetrons injection-locked by the phase-modulated signals and adequateness for feeding of SRF cavities were verified by measurements of the transfer function magnitude characteristics of single and 2-cascade magnetrons, by measurements the magnetrons phase performance and by measurements of spectra of the carrier frequency. At the ratio of power of locking signal to output power less than -13 dB (in 2-cascade scheme per magnetron, respectively) we demonstrat...

Kazakevich, Grigory; Flanagan, Gene; Marhauser, Frank; Yakovlev, Vyacheslav; Chase, Brian; Lebedev, Valeri; Nagaitsev, Sergei; Pasquinelli, Ralph; Solyak, Nikolay; Quinn, Kenneth; Wolff, Daniel; Pavlov, Viatcheslav

2014-01-01

40

Ion-assisted pulsed magnetron sputtering deposition of taC films  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process of ion-assisted deposition of ta-C films by pulsed magnetron sputtering of a graphite target has been investigated. Probe measurements of the magnetron discharge plasma have been performed and its space- and time-dependent characteristics have been obtained as functions of the sputtering parameters and the bias voltage applied to the substrate. It has been shown that the density of

S. P Bugaev; V. G Podkovyrov; K. V Oskomov; S. V Smaykina; N. S Sochugov

2001-01-01

41

A self-sputtering ion source: A new approach to quiescent metal ion beams  

SciTech Connect

A new metal ion source is presented based on sustained self-sputtering plasma in a magnetron discharge. Metals exhibiting high self-sputtering yield like Cu, Ag, Zn, and Bi can be used in a high-power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) discharge such that the plasma almost exclusively contains singly charged metal ions of the target material. The plasma and extracted ion beam are quiescent. The ion beams consist mostly of singly charged ions with a space-charge limited current density which reached about 10 mA/cm2 at an extraction voltage of 45 kV and a first gap spacing of 12 mm.

Oks, Efim M.; Anders, Andre

2009-09-03

42

Origin of the energetic ion beams at the substrate generated during high power pulsed magnetron sputtering of titanium  

E-print Network

High power pulsed magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) plasmas generate energetic metal ions at the substrate as a major difference to conventional direct current magnetron sputtering. The origin of these energetic ions in HiPIMS is still an open issue, which is unraveled by using three fast diagnostics: time resolved mass spectrometry with a temporal resolution of 2 $\\mu$s, phase resolved optical emission spectroscopy with 1 $\\mu$s and the rotating shutter experiment with a resolution of 50 $\\mu$s. A power scan from dcMS-like to HiPIMS plasmas was performed, with a 2-inch magnetron and a titanium target as sputter source and argon as working gas. Clear differences in the transport as well in the energetic properties of Ar$^+$, Ar$^{2+}$, Ti$^+$ and Ti$^{2+}$ were observed. For discharges with highest peak power densities a high energetic group of Ti$^{+}$ and Ti$^{2+}$ could be identified. A cold group of ions is always present. It is found that hot ions are observed only, when the plasma enters the spokes regime, ...

Maszl, Christian; Benedikt, Jan; von Keudell, Achim

2013-01-01

43

Spherical ion source  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radial focusing of electrons in ion source produces greater ion densities, resulting in higher resolution and focus capability for a given source volume. Electron beam is focused near exit aperture by spherical fields. High density ions allow focusing ion beam to high density at echo, allowing high current through small aperture.

Hall, L. G.

1969-01-01

44

Aperture Ion Source  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The aperture ion source was conceived to eliminate distortion in measurements of angular distributions of neutral atoms and molecules that require electron-impact ion sources. The approach simplifies the coupling between ion source and spectrometer while providing virtually distortion-free angular distributions and improved accuracy in the dimensions of the ionization region. Furthermore, it virtually eliminates the volume occupied by the ion source.

Herrero, Fred

2012-01-01

45

Comparative analysis of continuous-wave surface-plasma negative ion sources with various discharge geometry.  

PubMed

Negative ion extraction from continuous-wave (CW) magnetron and semiplanotron discharges was studied and it was compared with that for the source with Penning electrode geometry. The CW negative ion beam up current to 13 mA was extracted from the magnetron source with emission aperture of 3.5 mm in diameter, while the beam with current up to 8 mA was obtained from the semiplanotron source modification. Characteristics of CW magnetron and semiplanotron sources are presented and analyzed. PMID:24593556

Belchenko, Yu; Sanin, A; Sotnikov, O

2014-02-01

46

Substrate heating rates for planar and cylindrical-post magnetron sputtering sources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results are presented for the substrate heating energy/atom required in the planar magnetron sputtering of Al, Cr, Ni, Cu, Mo, In, Ta, W, and Pt in Ar, as well as Al and Cr in O2. Data are also obtained for cylindrical magnetron sputtering of Nb, Ag, Ta, W, and Pb-Sn in Ar, and Mo sputtered in Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe. Planar and cylindrical magnetron heating rates were comparable. Special experiments were conducted to examine the contributions to substrate heating of plasma species and ion neutralization and reflection at the cathode; the results obtained indicate that charged plasma species do not significantly contribute to the heating, but that neutralized and reflected ions play a significant role in the planar as well as cylindrical cases despite the differences in cathode geometry.

Thornton, J. A.; Lamb, J. L.

1984-01-01

47

Industrial ion source technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 30 cm electron bombardment ion source was designed and fabricated for micromachining and sputtering applications. This source has a multipole magnetic field that employs permanent magnets between permeable pole pieces. An average ion current density of 1 ma/sq cm with 500 eV argon ions was selected as a design operating condition. The ion beam at this operating condition was uniform and well collimated, with an average variation of plus or minus 5 percent over the center 20 cm of the beam at distances up to 30 cm from the ion source. A variety of sputtering applications were undertaken with a small 10 cm ion source to better understand the ion source requirements in these applications. The results of these experimental studies are also included.

Kaufman, H. R.

1976-01-01

48

Ion sources for accelerators  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of different types of ion sources used for accelerator applications is given. Typical problems like the source life time, or the special need for technical solutions for specific elements will demonstrate the advantage of each type of ion source. In any case reliability is a main topic. Besides the plasma generation of the desired element, beam formation and

P. Spädtke; J. Bossler; H. Emig; K. D Leible; C. Mühle; H. Schulte; K. Tinschert

1998-01-01

49

Magnetron Discharge Characteristics for Improvement of an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Neutron\\/Proton Source  

Microsoft Academic Search

A magnetron discharge was adopted in the inertial-electrostatic confinement (IEC) fusion device for drastic improvement of fusion reaction rate. With this discharge in the vicinity of the vacuum chamber, a substantial number of ions produced there are expected to have almost full energy corresponding to the applied voltage to the transparent IEC cathode under relatively low pressures compared with the

K. Yoshikawa; H. Toku; K. Masuda; T. Mizutani; A. Nagafuchi; M. Imoto; T. Takamatsu; K. Nagasaki

2003-01-01

50

Magnetron-based source of neutral metal vapors for photoelectron spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

The construction of a magnetron-based source for neutral metal vapors is presented. The first photoelectron spectroscopy experiments with the source using synchrotron radiation at MAX-lab, Sweden are described. Photoelectron spectra of atomic copper, silver, and nickel are reported with an 80 meV resolution for Cu and Ag, previously not achieved in experiments using synchrotron light.

Tchaplyguine, M.; Peredkov, S.; Svensson, H.; Schulz, J.; Oehrwall, G.; Lundwall, M.; Rander, T.; Lindblad, A.; Bergersen, H.; Svensson, S.; Gisselbrecht, M.; Sorensen, S. L.; Gridneva, L.; Maartensson, N.; Bjoerneholm, O. [MAX-Lab, Lund University, Box 118, 22100 Lund (Sweden); Department of Synchrotron Radiation Research, Lund University, Box 118, 22100 Lund (Sweden); MAX-Lab, Lund University, Box 118, 22100 Lund (Sweden); Department of Physics, Uppsala University, Box 530, 75121 Uppsala (Sweden); LIXAM, Batiment 350, Universite Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay (France); Department of Synchrotron Radiation Research, Lund University, Box 118, 22100 Lund (Sweden); MAX-Lab, Lund University, Box 118, 22100 Lund (Sweden); MAX-Lab, Lund University, Box 118, 22100 Lund (Sweden) and Department of Physics, Uppsala University, Box 530, 75121 Uppsala (Sweden); Department of Physics, Uppsala University, Box 530, 75121 Uppsala (Sweden)

2006-03-15

51

Magnetron Discharge Characteristics for Improvement of an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Neutron/Proton Source  

SciTech Connect

A magnetron discharge was adopted in the inertial-electrostatic confinement (IEC) fusion device for drastic improvement of fusion reaction rate. With this discharge in the vicinity of the vacuum chamber, a substantial number of ions produced there are expected to have almost full energy corresponding to the applied voltage to the transparent IEC cathode under relatively low pressures compared with the conventional glow discharge. The magnetron discharge is found to occur even for the pressure of 0.07 mTorr (H{sub 2}) in the present configuration of the experiment, compared with 5 mTorr in the glow discharge.

Yoshikawa, K.; Toku, H.; Masuda, K.; Mizutani, T.; Nagafuchi, A.; Imoto, M.; Takamatsu, T.; Nagasaki, K. [Kyoto University (Japan)

2003-09-15

52

High current ion sources  

SciTech Connect

The concept of high current ion source is both relative and evolutionary. Within the domain of one particular kind of ion source technology a current of microamperers might be high', while in another area a current of 10 Amperes could low'. Even within the domain of a single ion source type, what is considered high current performance today is routinely eclipsed by better performance and higher current output within a short period of time. Within their fields of application, there is a large number of kinds of ion sources that can justifiably be called high current. Thus, as a very limited example only, PIGs, Freemen sources, ECR sources, duoplasmatrons, field emission sources, and a great many more all have their high current variants. High current ion beams of gaseous and metallic species can be generated in a number of different ways. Ion sources of the kind developed at various laboratories around the world for the production of intense neutral beams for controlled fusion experiments are used to form large area proton deuteron beams of may tens of Amperes, and this technology can be used for other applications also. There has been significant progress in recent years in the use of microwave ion sources for high current ion beam generation, and this method is likely to find wide application in various different field application. Finally, high current beams of metal ions can be produced using metal vapor vacuum arc ion source technology. After a brief consideration of high current ion source design concepts, these three particular methods are reviewed in this paper.

Brown, I.G.

1989-06-01

53

Argon–oxygen dc magnetron discharge plasma probed with ion acoustic waves  

SciTech Connect

The precise determination of the relative concentration of negative ions is very important for the optimization of magnetron sputtering processes, especially for those undertaken in a multicomponent background produced by adding electronegative gases, such as oxygen, to the discharge. The temporal behavior of an ion acoustic wave excited from a stainless steel grid inside the plasma chamber is used to determine the relative negative ion concentration in the magnetron discharge plasma. The phase velocity of the ion acoustic wave in the presence of negative ions is found to be faster than in a pure argon plasma, and the phase velocity increases with the oxygen partial pressure. Optical emission spectroscopy further confirms the increase in the oxygen negative ion density, along with a decrease in the argon positive ion density under the same discharge conditions. The relative negative ion concentration values measured by ion acoustic waves are compared with those measured by a single Langmuir probe, and a similarity in the results obtained by both techniques is observed.

Saikia, Partha, E-mail: partha.008@gmail.com; Saikia, Bipul Kumar; Goswami, Kalyan Sindhu [Centre of Plasma Physics, Institute for Plasma Research, Nazirakhat, Sonapur, Kamrup, Assam 782 402 (India); Phukan, Arindam [Madhabdev College, Narayanpur, Lakhimpur, Assam 784164 (India)

2014-05-15

54

Activated Ion Electron Capture Dissociation (AI ECD) of proteins: synchronization of infrared and electron irradiation with ion magnetron motion.  

PubMed

Here, we show that to perform activated ion electron capture dissociation (AI-ECD) in a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometer equipped with a CO(2) laser, it is necessary to synchronize both infrared irradiation and electron capture dissociation with ion magnetron motion. This requirement is essential for instruments in which the infrared laser is angled off-axis, such as the Thermo Finnigan LTQ FT. Generally, the electron irradiation time required for proteins is much shorter (ms) than that required for peptides (tens of ms), and the modulation of ECD, AI ECD, and infrared multiphoton dissociation (IRMPD) with ion magnetron motion is more pronounced. We have optimized AI ECD for ubiquitin, cytochrome c, and myoglobin; however the results can be extended to other proteins. We demonstrate that pre-ECD and post-ECD activation are physically different and display different kinetics. We also demonstrate how, by use of appropriate AI ECD time sequences and normalization, the kinetics of protein gas-phase refolding can be deconvoluted from the diffusion of the ion cloud and measured on the time scale longer than the period of ion magnetron motion. PMID:19200749

Mikhailov, Victor A; Cooper, Helen J

2009-05-01

55

Pulsed ion beam source  

DOEpatents

An improved magnetically-confined anode plasma pulsed ion beam source. Beam rotation effects and power efficiency are improved by a magnetic design which places the separatrix between the fast field flux structure and the slow field structure near the anode of the ion beam source, by a gas port design which localizes the gas delivery into the gap between the fast coil and the anode, by a pre-ionizer ringing circuit connected to the fast coil, and by a bias field means which optimally adjusts the plasma formation position in the ion beam source.

Greenly, John B. (Lansing, NY)

1996-01-01

56

Preparation of giant magnetostrictive thin film by magnetron and ion beam sputtering processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thin films of giant magnetostrictive materials were formed by dc magnetron sputtering and ion beam sputtering processes. A systematic investigation was made to examine the effect of these deposition processes on the magnetic properties and magnetostriction of TbFe2 and (Tb, Dy)Fe2 thin films. The magnetostriction of the films formed by dc sputtering was in the range from 200 to 400

K. Nakazato; M. Hashimoto; H. Uchida; Y. Matsumura

2000-01-01

57

Negative hydrogen ion sources for accelerators  

SciTech Connect

A variety of H{sup -} ion sources are in use at accelerator laboratories around the world. A list of these ion sources includes surface plasma sources with magnetron, Penning and surface converter geometries as well as magnetic-multipole volume sources with and without cesium. Just as varied is the means of igniting and maintaining magnetically confined plasmas. Hot and cold cathodes, radio frequency, and microwave power are all in use, as well as electron tandem source ignition. The extraction systems of accelerator H{sup -} ion sources are highly specialized utilizing magnetic and electric fields in their low energy beam transport systems to produce direct current, as well as pulsed and/or chopped beams with a variety of time structures. Within this paper, specific ion sources utilized at accelerator laboratories shall be reviewed along with the physics of surface and volume H{sup -} production in regard to source emittance. Current research trends including aperture modeling, thermal modeling, surface conditioning, and laser diagnostics will also be discussed.

Moehs, D.P.; /Fermilab; Peters, J.; /DESY; Sherman, J.; /Los Alamos

2005-08-01

58

Microwave ion source  

DOEpatents

A compact microwave ion source has a permanent magnet dipole field, a microwave launcher, and an extractor parallel to the source axis. The dipole field is in the form of a ring. The microwaves are launched from the middle of the dipole ring using a coaxial waveguide. Electrons are heated using ECR in the magnetic field. The ions are extracted from the side of the source from the middle of the dipole perpendicular to the source axis. The plasma density can be increased by boosting the microwave ion source by the addition of an RF antenna. Higher charge states can be achieved by increasing the microwave frequency. A xenon source with a magnetic pinch can be used to produce intense EUV radiation.

Leung, Ka-Ngo; Reijonen, Jani; Thomae, Rainer W.

2005-07-26

59

BERNAS ION SOURCE DISCHARGE SIMULATION  

SciTech Connect

The joint research and development program is continued to develop steady-state ion source of decaborane beam for ion implantation industry. Bemas ion source is the wide used ion source for ion implantation industry. The new simulation code was developed for the Bemas ion source discharge simulation. We present first results of the simulation for several materials interested in semiconductors. As well the comparison of results obtained with experimental data obtained at the ITEP ion source test-bench is presented.

RUDSKOY,I.; KULEVOY, T.V.; PETRENKO, S.V.; KUIBEDA, R.P.; SELEZNEV, D.N.; PERSHIN, V.I.; HERSHCOVITCH, A.; JOHNSON, B.M.; GUSHENETS, V.I.; OKS, E.M.; POOLE, H.J.

2007-08-26

60

Distribution of Fe atom density in a dc magnetron sputtering plasma source measured by laser-induced fluorescence imaging spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetron sputtering discharge is widely used as an efficient method for thin film fabrication. In order to achieve the optimized fabrication, understanding of the kinetics in plasmas is essential. In the present work, we measured the density distribution of sputtered Fe atoms using laser-induced fluorescence imaging spectroscopy. A dc magnetron plasma source with a Fe target was used. An area

K. Shibagaki; N. Nafarizal; K. Sasaki; H. Toyoda; S. Iwata; T. Kato; S. Tsunashima; H. Sugai

2003-01-01

61

Selective ion source  

DOEpatents

A ion source is described wherein selected ions maybe extracted to the exclusion of unwanted ion species of higher ionization potential. Also described is a method of producing selected ions from a compound, such as P.sup.+ from PH.sub.3. The invention comprises a plasma chamber, an electron source, a means for introducing a gas to be ionized by electrons from the electron source, means for limiting electron energy from the electron source to a value between the ionization energy of the selected ion species and the greater ionization energy of an unwanted ion specie, and means for extracting the target ion specie from the plasma chamber. In one embodiment, the electrons are generated in a plasma cathode chamber immediately adjacent to the plasma chamber. A small extractor draws the electrons from the plasma cathode chamber into the relatively positive plasma chamber. The energy of the electrons extracted in this manner is easily controlled. The invention is particularly useful for doping silicon with P.sup.+, AS.sup.+, and B.sup.+ without the problematic presence of hydrogen, helium, water, or carbon oxide ions. Doped silicon is important for manufacture of semiconductors and semiconductor devices.

Leung, Ka-Ngo (Hercules, CA)

1996-01-01

62

Negative hydrogen ion source research and beam parameters for accelerators  

Microsoft Academic Search

H beams are useful for multi-turn charge-exchange stripping injection into circular accelerators. Studies on a modified ion source for this purpose are presented. This paper includes some theory about a H magnetron discharge, ion-electron emission, emittance and problems linked with emittance measurement and calculations. Investigated parameters of the emittance probe for optimal performance give a screen voltage of 150 V

Timofey V. Zolkin

2006-01-01

63

Industrial ion source technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In reactive ion etching of Si, varying amounts of O2 were added to the CF4 background. The experimental results indicated an etch rate less than that for Ar up to an O2 partial pressure of about .00006 Torr. Above this O2 pressure, the etch rate with CF4 exceeded that with Ar alone. For comparison the random arrival rate of O2 was approximately equal to the ion arrival rate at a partial pressure of about .00002 Torr. There were also ion source and ion pressure gauge maintenance problems as a result of the use of CF4. Large scale (4 sq cm) texturing of Si was accomplished using both Cu and stainless steel seed. The most effective seeding method for this texturing was to surround the sample with large inclined planes. Designing, fabricating, and testing a 200 sq cm rectangular beam ion source was emphasized. The design current density was 6 mA/sq cm with 500 eV argon ions, although power supply limitations permitted operation to only 2 mA/sq cm. The use of multiple rectangular beam ion sources for continuous processing of wider areas than would be possible with a single source was also studied. In all cases investigated, the most uniform coverage was obtained with 0 to 2 cm beam overlay. The maximum departure from uniform processing at optimum beam overlap was found to be +15%.

Kaufman, H. R.; Robinson, R. S.

1979-01-01

64

SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF THE VANADIUM NITRIDE AND CARBONITRIDE COATINGS DEPOSITED BY COMBINED MAGNETRON SPUTTERING AND ION IMPLANTATION (CMSII)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vanadium nitride and carbonitride coatings have been prepared by an ion assisted method that combines deposition and ion implantation as simultaneous processes (Combined Magnetron Sputtering and Ion Implantation CMSII). Elemental and phase composition, texture, morphology, hardness and tribological behavior (friction and wear) were investigated using GDOES, XRD and SEM tech- niques, Vickers microhardness measurements and tribological tests. Film character- istics

E. Grigore; C. Ruset; M. Balaceanu; A. Vladescu; M. Braic; V. Braic

65

Ion composition produced by high power impulse magnetron sputtering discharges near the substrate  

SciTech Connect

Plasma composition near the substrate was investigated in a high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) discharge using Langmuir probe analysis, mass spectroscopy, and atomic absorption spectroscopy. The HIPIMS discharge was operated in nonreactive Ar atmosphere at a pressure of 2.66 Pa and the magnetron cathode was furnished with Ti target. Plasma density, metal ion-to-neutral ratio, and gas ion-to-metal ion ratio were studied as a function of discharge current. At peak discharge current densities of {approx}1 A cm{sup -2}, the results show that a dense plasma (n{sub e}{approx}10{sup 18} m{sup -3}) expanded from the target toward the substrate and lasted more than 330 {mu}s after the supplied power was turned off. The shape of the time-averaged ion energy distribution function of sputtered material exhibited a transition from Thompson to Maxwellian distribution, indicating efficient energy transfer in the discharge. The metal content in the plasma monotonically increased with discharge current and the metal ion-to-neutral ratio reached approximately 1:1 in the postdischarge plasma at peak current density of 5 A cm{sup -2}.

Ehiasarian, A. P.; Vetushka, A.; Hecimovic, A. [Materials and Engineering Research Institute, Sheffield Hallam University, Howard Street, Sheffield S1 1WB (United Kingdom); Konstantinidis, S. [Materia Nova, Avenue Copernic 1, 7000 Mons (Belgium)

2008-10-15

66

Origin of the energetic ions at the substrate generated during high power pulsed magnetron sputtering of titanium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) plasmas generate energetic metal ions at the substrate as a major difference to conventional direct current magnetron sputtering (dcMS). The origin of these very energetic ions in HiPIMS is still an open issue, which is unravelled using two fast diagnostics: time-resolved mass spectrometry with a temporal resolution of 2 µs and phase resolved optical emission spectroscopy with a temporal resolution of 1 µs. A power scan from dcMS-like to HiPIMS plasmas was performed, with a 2 inch magnetron and a titanium target as sputter source and argon as working gas. Clear differences in the transport as well as the energetic properties of Ar+, Ar2+, Ti+ and Ti2+ were observed. For discharges with highest peak power densities a high energetic group of Ti+ and Ti2+ could be identified with energies of approximately 25 eV and of 50 eV, respectively. A cold group of ions was always present. It is found that hot ions are observed only when the plasma enters the spokes regime, which can be monitored by oscillations in the IV characteristics in the MHz range that are picked up by the used VI probes. These oscillations are correlated with the spokes phenomenon and are explained as an amplification of the Hall current inside the spokes as hot ionization zones. To explain the presence of energetic ions, we propose a double layer (DL) confining the hot plasma inside a spoke: if an atom becomes ionized inside the spokes region it is accelerated because of the DL to higher energies whereas its energy remains unchanged if it is ionized outside. In applying this DL model to our measurements the observed phenomena as well as several measurements from other groups can be explained. Only if spokes and a DL are present can the confined particles gain enough energy to leave the magnetic trap. We conclude from our findings that the spoke phenomenon represents the essence of HiPIMS plasmas, explaining their good performance for material synthesis applications.

Maszl, C.; Breilmann, W.; Benedikt, J.; von Keudell, A.

2014-06-01

67

High current ion source  

DOEpatents

An ion source utilizing a cathode and anode for producing an electric arc therebetween. The arc is sufficient to vaporize a portion of the cathode to form a plasma. The plasma leaves the generation region and expands through another regon. The density profile of the plasma may be flattened using a magnetic field formed within a vacuum chamber. Ions are extracted from the plasma to produce a high current broad on beam.

Brown, Ian G. (1088 Woodside Rd., Berkeley, CA 94708); MacGill, Robert A. (645 Kern St., Richmond, CA 94805); Galvin, James E. (2 Commodore Dr. #276, Emeryville, CA 94608)

1990-01-01

68

Pulsed ion beam source  

DOEpatents

An improved pulsed ion beam source is disclosed having a new biasing circuit for the fast magnetic field. This circuit provides for an initial negative bias for the field created by the fast coils in the ion beam source which pre-ionize the gas in the source, ionize the gas and deliver the gas to the proper position in the accelerating gap between the anode and cathode assemblies in the ion beam source. The initial negative bias improves the interaction between the location of the nulls in the composite magnetic field in the ion beam source and the position of the gas for pre-ionization and ionization into the plasma as well as final positioning of the plasma in the accelerating gap. Improvements to the construction of the flux excluders in the anode assembly are also accomplished by fabricating them as layered structures with a high melting point, low conductivity material on the outsides with a high conductivity material in the center. 12 figs.

Greenly, J.B.

1997-08-12

69

Low temperature magnetron sputter deposition of polycrystalline silicon thin films using high flux ion bombardment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate that the microstructure of polycrystalline silicon thin films depends strongly on the flux of low energy ions that bombard the growth surface during magnetron sputter deposition. The deposition system is equipped with external electromagnetic coils which, through the unbalanced magnetron effect, provide direct control of the ion flux independent of the ion energy. We report the influence of low energy (<27eV) Ar+ on the low temperature (<450°C) growth of polycrystalline silicon thin films onto amorphous substrates. We use spectroscopic ellipsometry, Raman scattering, x-ray diffraction, and cross sectional transmission electron microscopy to analyze the film microstructure. We demonstrate that increasing the flux ratio of Ar+ ions to silicon neutrals (J+/J0) during growth by an order of magnitude (from 3 to 30) enables the direct nucleation of polycrystalline Si on glass and SiO2 coated Si at temperatures below 400°C. We discuss possible mechanisms for this enhancement of crystalline microstructure, including the roles of enhanced adatom mobility and the formation of shallow, mobile defects.

Gerbi, Jennifer E.; Abelson, John R.

2007-03-01

70

Distance-dependent plasma composition and ion energy in high power impulse magnetron sputtering  

SciTech Connect

The plasma composition of high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) has been studied for titanium and chromium targets using a combined energy analyser and quadrupole mass spectrometer. Measurements were done at distances from 50 to 300 mm from the sputtering target. Ti and Cr are similar in atomic mass but have significantly different sputter yields, which gives interesting clues on the effect of the target on plasma generation and transport of atoms. The Ti and Cr HIPIMS plasmas operated at a peak target current density of ~;;0.5 A cm-2. The measurements of the argon and metal ion content as well as the ion energy distribution functions showed that (1) singly and doubly charged ions were found for argon as well as for the target metal, (2) the majority of ions were singly charged argon for both metals at all distances investigated, (3) the Cr ion density was maintained to distances further from the target than Ti. Gas rarefaction was identified as a main factor promoting transport of metal ions, with the stronger effect observed for Cr, the material with higher sputter yield. Cr ions were found to displace a significant portion of the gas ions, whereas this was less evident in the Ti case. The observations indicate that the presence of metal vapour promotes charge exchange and reduces the electron temperature and thereby practically prevents the production of Ar2+ ions near the target. The content of higher charge states of metal ions depends on the probability of charge exchange with argon.

Ehiasarian, Arutiun P; Andersson, Joakim; Anders, Andr& #233

2010-04-18

71

High temperature ion source  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Modified Nielsen-type ion source produces temperatures up to 1500 degrees C and permits obtaining a plasma from low vapor-pressure materials. Design minimizes thermal stresses. Dual-filament discharge chamber achieves the high temperature and provides independent control of the heating and electron emission functions.

Swift, R.

1970-01-01

72

Use of multiple DC magnetron deposition sources for uniform coating of large areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Uniform coating of large areas is a technically challenging aspect of physical vapor deposition. This investigation shows that good film uniformity across large areas can be repetitively achieved by a DC magnetron sputtering process by use of multiple sources. A unique feature of this technique is the ability to predict and control the film distribution using the deposition rate, adding flexibility to the deposition system. A model for predicting the material distribution from multiple sources is presented. It will also be demonstrated that this process yields efficient use of the vapor generated from the sources, which results in higher deposition rates and less system maintenance.

Reicher, David W.; Christian, Roberto; Davidson, Patrick; Peplinski, Stanley Z.

2009-08-01

73

ORNL ECR multicharged ion source  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multicharged ion source based on Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) heating was designed and built at ORNL. The ECR ion source, which is completely dedicated for atomic physics collision studies, produces higher charge states and higher beam intensities than the present ORNL PIG multicharged ion source, and will thus permit study of collision processes involving ions of higher charge states

F. W. Meyer

1984-01-01

74

Orbital motion of dust particles in an rf magnetron discharge. Ion drag force or neutral atom wind force  

SciTech Connect

Microparticles with sizes up to 130 {mu}m have been confined and the velocity and diameter of particles in a plasma trap of an rf magnetron discharge with an arc magnetic field have been simultaneously measured. The motion of the gas induced by electron and ion cyclotron currents has been numerically simulated using the Navier-Stokes equation. The experimental and numerical results confirm the mechanism of the orbital motion of dust particles in the magnetron discharge plasma that is associated with the orbital motion of the neutral gas accelerated by electron and ion drift flows in crossed electric and magnetic fields.

Pal, A. F.; Ryabinkin, A. N.; Serov, A. O. [Moscow State University, Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics (Russian Federation); Dyatko, N. A.; Starostin, A. N.; Filippov, A. V., E-mail: fav@triniti.ru [Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Fusion Research (Russian Federation)

2012-03-15

75

Ion source apparatus  

SciTech Connect

A gas is introduced into a discharge chamber of an ion source apparatus, and a gas discharge is performed between a thermionic cathode and an anode. Ions are extracted from the plasma formed in this gas discharge by a grid electrode. The thermionic cathode has a hollow cylindrical shape. A cathode chamber is defined by the thermionic cathode and a cylindrical partition wall supporting it. A columnar auxiliary electrode is coaxially inserted in the thermionic cathode. An A.C. voltage from a power source unit is supplied between the thermionic cathode and the auxiliary electrode such that effective power for keeping the thermionic cathode at a positive potential with respect to the auxiliary electrode is higher than that for keeping the auxiliary electrode at a positive potential with respect to the thermionic cathode.

Sugawara, T.; Ito, Y.

1985-03-19

76

Ion dynamics in helicon sources.  

SciTech Connect

Recent experiments have demonstrated that ion dominated phenomena, such as the lower hybrid resonance, can play an important role in helicon source operation. In this work, we review recent ion heating measurements and the role of the slow wave in heating ions at the edge of helicon. sources. We also discuss the relationship between parametrically driven waves and ion heating near the rf antenna in helicon sources. Recent measurements of parallel and rotational ion flows in helicon sources have important implications for particle confinement, instability growth, and helicon source operation. In this work we present new measurements of ion flows and summarize the important features of the flows.

Kline, J. L. (John L.); Balkey, M. M. (Matthew M.); Keiter, P. A. (Paul A.); Scime, Earl E.; Keesee, Anne M.; Sun, X.; Harding R.; Compton, C.; Boivin, R. F.; Zintl, M. W.

2002-01-01

77

C/CrC nanocomposite coating deposited by magnetron sputtering at high ion irradiation conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CrC with the fcc NaCl (B1) structure is a metastable phase that can be obtained under the non-equilibrium conditions of high ion irradiation. A nano-composite coating consisting of amorphous carbon embedded in a CrC matrix was prepared via the unbalanced magnetron sputtering of graphite and Cr metal targets in Ar gas with a high ionized flux (ion-to-neutral ratio Ji/Jn = 6). The nanoscale amorphous carbon clusters self-assembled into layers alternated by CrC, giving the composite a multilayer structure. The phase, microstructure, and composition of the coating were characterized using x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy coupled with electron energy loss spectroscopy. The interpretation of the true coating structure, in particular the carbide type, is discussed.

Zhou, Z.; Rainforth, W. M.; Gass, M. H.; Bleloch, A.; Ehiassarian, A. P.; Hovsepian, P. Eh.

2011-10-01

78

Control of ions energy distribution in dual-frequency magnetron sputtering discharges  

SciTech Connect

The ion energy distributions (IEDs) in the dual-frequency magnetron sputtering discharges were investigated by retarding field energy analyzer. Increasing power ratio of 2?MHz to 13.56 (27.12 or 60) MHz led to the evolution of IEDs from a uni-modal distribution towards a uni-modal distribution with high-energy peak shoulder and a bi-modal distribution. While increasing power ratio of 13.56?MHz to 27.12?MHz and 27.12?MHz to 60?MHz, led to the increase of peak energy. The evolution of IEDs shape and the increase of peak energy are due to the change of ions responding to the average field of high-frequency period towards the instantaneous sheath potential of low-frequency period.

Ye, Chao, E-mail: cye@suda.edu.cn; He, Haijie; Huang, Fupei; Liu, Yi [School of Physics Science and Technology, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Thin Films, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China)] [School of Physics Science and Technology, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Thin Films, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Wang, Xiangying [Medical College of Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China)] [Medical College of Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China)

2014-04-15

79

Charge exchange molecular ion source  

DOEpatents

Ions, particularly molecular ions with multiple dopant nucleons per ion, are produced by charge exchange. An ion source contains a minimum of two regions separated by a physical barrier and utilizes charge exchange to enhance production of a desired ion species. The essential elements are a plasma chamber for production of ions of a first species, a physical separator, and a charge transfer chamber where ions of the first species from the plasma chamber undergo charge exchange or transfer with the reactant atom or molecules to produce ions of a second species. Molecular ions may be produced which are useful for ion implantation.

Vella, Michael C.

2003-06-03

80

Industrial ion source technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analytical model was developed to describe the development of a coned surface texture with ion bombardment and simultaneous deposition of an impurity. A mathematical model of sputter deposition rate from a beveled target was developed in conjuction with the texturing models to provide an important input to that model. The establishment of a general procedure that will allow the treatment of manay different sputtering configurations is outlined. Calculation of cross sections for energetic binary collisions was extened to Ar, Kr.. and Xe with total cross sections for viscosity and diffusion calculated for the interaction energy range from leV to 1000eV. Physical sputtering and reactive ion etching experiments provided experimental data on the operating limits of a broad beam ion source using CF4 as a working gas to produce reactive species in a sputtering beam. Magnetic clustering effects are observed when Al is seeded with Fe and sputtered with Ar(?) ions. Silicon was textured at a micron scale by using a substrate temperature of 600 C.

Kaufman, H. R.; Robinson, R. S.

1978-01-01

81

Tandem-Mirror Ion Source  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Improved ion source produces beam of ions at any kinetic energy from 1 to 1,000 eV, with little spread in energy or angle. Such ion beams useful in studies of surface properties of materials, surface etching, deposition, and development of plasma-diagnostic instrumentation. Tandemmirror ion source uses electrostatic and magnetic fields to keep electrons in ionization chamber and assure uniform output ion beam having low divergence in energy and angle.

Biddle, A.; Stone, N.; Reasoner, D.; Chisholm, W.; Reynolds, J.

1986-01-01

82

Compact ion accelerator source  

DOEpatents

An ion source includes a conductive substrate, the substrate including a plurality of conductive nanostructures with free-standing tips formed on the substrate. A conductive catalytic coating is formed on the nanostructures and substrate for dissociation of a molecular species into an atomic species, the molecular species being brought in contact with the catalytic coating. A target electrode placed apart from the substrate, the target electrode being biased relative to the substrate with a first bias voltage to ionize the atomic species in proximity to the free-standing tips and attract the ionized atomic species from the substrate in the direction of the target electrode.

Schenkel, Thomas; Persaud, Arun; Kapadia, Rehan; Javey, Ali

2014-04-29

83

Advances in metal ion sources  

SciTech Connect

Beams of metallic ion species can be produced by the ECR (electron cyclotron resonance) ion source and by the MEVVA (metal vapor vacuum arc) ion source. Although the ECR source is fundamentally a gaseous ion source, metal ion beams can be produced by introducing metallic feed material into the plasma discharge using a number of techniques. The ion charge states can be very high, which is a significant advantage to most applications. The MEVVA ion source, on the other hand, is specifically a metal ion source. It has produced metallic ion beams from virtually all the solid metallic elements at a current of typically hundreds of milliamperes; the ions produced are in general multiply ionized, but not as highly stripped as those generated in the ECR source. Although the MEVVA source at present operates in a pulsed mode with a low duty cycle (less than or equal to 1%), work is in progress to increase the duty cycle significantly. In this paper the operation and performance of the LBL ECR and MEVVA ion sources, with respect to metal ion generation, are described.

Brown, I.G.

1988-05-01

84

Ion sources for ion implantation technology (invited)  

SciTech Connect

Ion sources for ion implantation are introduced. The technique is applied not only to large scale integration (LSI) devices but also to flat panel display. For LSI fabrication, ion source scheduled maintenance cycle is most important. For CMOS image sensor devices, metal contamination at implanted wafer is most important. On the other hand, to fabricate miniaturized devices, cluster ion implantation has been proposed to make shallow PN junction. While for power devices such as silicon carbide, aluminum ion is required. For doping processes of LCD fabrication, a large ion source is required. The extraction area is about 150 cm × 10 cm, and the beam uniformity is important as well as the total target beam current.

Sakai, Shigeki, E-mail: sakai-shigeki@nissin.co.jp; Hamamoto, Nariaki; Inouchi, Yutaka; Umisedo, Sei; Miyamoto, Naoki [Nissin Ion Equipment co., ltd, 575 Kuze-Tonoshiro-cho Minami-ku, Kyoto 601-8205 (Japan)] [Nissin Ion Equipment co., ltd, 575 Kuze-Tonoshiro-cho Minami-ku, Kyoto 601-8205 (Japan)

2014-02-15

85

Ion sources for ion implantation technology (invited).  

PubMed

Ion sources for ion implantation are introduced. The technique is applied not only to large scale integration (LSI) devices but also to flat panel display. For LSI fabrication, ion source scheduled maintenance cycle is most important. For CMOS image sensor devices, metal contamination at implanted wafer is most important. On the other hand, to fabricate miniaturized devices, cluster ion implantation has been proposed to make shallow PN junction. While for power devices such as silicon carbide, aluminum ion is required. For doping processes of LCD fabrication, a large ion source is required. The extraction area is about 150 cm × 10 cm, and the beam uniformity is important as well as the total target beam current. PMID:24593650

Sakai, Shigeki; Hamamoto, Nariaki; Inouchi, Yutaka; Umisedo, Sei; Miyamoto, Naoki

2014-02-01

86

ORNL ECR multicharged ion source  

SciTech Connect

A multicharged ion source based on Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) heating has been designed and built at ORNL. The ECR ion source, which is completely dedicated for atomic physics collision studies, produces higher charge states and higher beam intensities than the present ORNL PIG multicharged ion source, and will thus permit study of collision processes involving ions of higher charge states in experiments requiring higher beam intensities than could be previously obtained in our laboratory. The source has already produced up to fully stripped C and O beams, as well as up to He-like Ar beams. Measurements of the energy spread of ions extracted from the ion source operating in both single-stage and two-stage mode are described. In addition, initial results of total cross section measurements for fully stripped light ions incident on atomic hydrogen in the energy range 0.2 to 10 keV are presented. 13 references, 7 figures, 1 table.

Meyer, F.W.

1984-01-01

87

Ion sources for electric propulsion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ion systems, which accelerate ions of Cs, Hg, or colloid particles by electrostatic fields, are furthest advanced and ready for application. Four kinds of ion sources have been developed: The contact ionization source for Cs as propellants, the electron bombardment source for Cs or Hg, the RF ionization source for Hg, and the hollow needle spray nozzle for colloidal glycerol particles. In each case, the ion beam must be neutralized by injection of electrons shortly behind the exit orifice to avoid adverse space charge effects.

Stuhlinger, E.

1971-01-01

88

ULTRA-LOW-ENERGY HIGH-CURRENT ION SOURCE  

SciTech Connect

The technical objective of the project was to develop an ultra-low-energy, high-intensity ion source (ULEHIIS) for materials processing in high-technology fields including semiconductors, micro-magnetics and optics/opto-electronics. In its primary application, this ion source can be incorporated into the 4Wave thin-film deposition technique called biased target ion-beam deposition (BTIBD), which is a deposition technique based on sputtering (without magnetic field, i.e., not the typical magnetron sputtering). It is a technological challenge because the laws of space charge limited current (Child-Langmuir) set strict limits of how much current can be extracted from a reservoir of ions, such as a suitable discharge plasma. The solution to the problem was an innovative dual-discharge system without the use of extraction grids.

Anders, Andre; Yushkov, Georgy Yu.; Baldwin, David A.

2009-11-20

89

Development of multiampere negative ion sources  

SciTech Connect

The Neutral Beam Development Group at BNL is developing H-/D- surface plasma sources as part of a high energy neutral beam injector. Uncooled Penning and magnetron sources have operated at a maximum beam current of 1 A (10 ms pulses, Mk III) and a maximum pulse length of 200 ms (0.3 A, Mk IV). A magnetron source with focusing grooves on the cathode and an asymmetric anode-cathode geometry operates at a power efficiency of 8 kW/A and a 6% gas efficiency. As the next step, a water cooled magnetron, designed to give a steady state beam of 1 to 2 A, has been constructed. Experiments are in progress to test a modification of the magnetron which may significantly improve its performance. By injecting a sheet of plasma, produced by a highly gas efficient hollow cathode discharge, into a magnetron type anode-cathode geometry, we anticipate a reduction of the source operating pressure by at least three orders of magnitude. Initial experiments have given indications of H/sup -/ production. The next plasma injection experiment is designed to give a steady state beam of approx. = 1 A.

Alessi, J.; Hershcovitch, A.; Prelec, K.; Sluyters, T.

1981-01-01

90

Investigation of ISIS and Brookhaven National Laboratory ion source electrodes after extended operation  

SciTech Connect

Linac4 accelerator of Centre Europeen de Recherches Nucleaires is under construction and a RF-driven H{sup -} ion source is being developed. The beam current requirement for Linac4 is very challenging: 80 mA must be provided. Cesiated plasma discharge ion sources such as Penning or magnetron sources are also potential candidates. Accelerator ion sources must achieve typical reliability figures of 95% and above. Investigating and understanding the underlying mechanisms involved with source failure or ageing is critical when selecting the ion source technology. Plasma discharge driven surface ion sources rely on molybdenum cathodes. Deformation of the cathode surfaces is visible after extended operation periods. A metallurgical investigation of an ISIS ion source is presented. The origin of the deformation is twofold: Molybdenum sputtering by cesium ions digs few tenths of mm cavities while a growth of molybdenum is observed in the immediate vicinity. The molybdenum growth under hydrogen atmosphere is hard and loosely bound to the bulk. It is, therefore, likely to peel off and be transported within the plasma volume. The observation of the cathode, anode, and extraction electrodes of the magnetron source operated at BNL for two years are presented. A beam simulation of H{sup -}, electrons, and Cs{sup -} ions was performed with the IBSimu code package to qualitatively explain the observations. This paper describes the operation conditions of the ion sources and discusses the metallurgical analysis and beam simulation results.

Lettry J.; Alessi J.; Faircloth, D.; Gerardin, A.; Kalvas, T.; Pereira, H.; Sgobba, S.

2012-02-23

91

Investigation of ISIS and Brookhaven National Laboratory ion source electrodes after extended operation  

SciTech Connect

Linac4 accelerator of Centre Europeen de Recherches Nucleaires is under construction and a RF-driven H{sup -} ion source is being developed. The beam current requirement for Linac4 is very challenging: 80 mA must be provided. Cesiated plasma discharge ion sources such as Penning or magnetron sources are also potential candidates. Accelerator ion sources must achieve typical reliability figures of 95% and above. Investigating and understanding the underlying mechanisms involved with source failure or ageing is critical when selecting the ion source technology. Plasma discharge driven surface ion sources rely on molybdenum cathodes. Deformation of the cathode surfaces is visible after extended operation periods. A metallurgical investigation of an ISIS ion source is presented. The origin of the deformation is twofold: Molybdenum sputtering by cesium ions digs few tenths of mm cavities while a growth of molybdenum is observed in the immediate vicinity. The molybdenum growth under hydrogen atmosphere is hard and loosely bound to the bulk. It is, therefore, likely to peel off and be transported within the plasma volume. The observation of the cathode, anode, and extraction electrodes of the magnetron source operated at BNL for two years are presented. A beam simulation of H{sup -}, electrons, and Cs{sup -} ions was performed with the IBSimu code package to qualitatively explain the observations. This paper describes the operation conditions of the ion sources and discusses the metallurgical analysis and beam simulation results.

Lettry, J.; Gerardin, A.; Pereira, H.; Sgobba, S. [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Alessi, J. [BNL, P.O. Box 5000, Upton, New York 11973-5000 (United States); Faircloth, D. [RAL, Harwell Oxford, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Kalvas, T. [University of Jyvaskyla, P.O.Box 35, FI-40014 (Finland)

2012-02-15

92

Visualization of Trajectories of Electron Beams Emitted by an IonSource with Closed Electron Drift  

SciTech Connect

Trajectories of electron beams emitted by an ion source with an anode layer and Hall electron closed drift orbits were visualized using light emission from a working gas excited by electrons. Gas discharge of magnetron type, arising in the beam drift region under the influence of an electric field of a target bias potential, was visualized.

Institue of Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine; Brown, Ian G.; Bordenjuk, Ian V.; Panchenko, Oleg A.; Sologub, Sergei V.; Brown, Ian G.

2007-10-01

93

Reducing the impurity incorporation from residual gas by ion bombardment during high vacuum magnetron sputtering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of ion energy on the hydrogen incorporation has been investigated for alumina thin films, deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering in an Ar /O2/H2O environment. Ar+ with an average kinetic energy of ˜5eV was determined to be the dominating species in the plasma. The films were analyzed with x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and elastic recoil detection analysis, demonstrating evidence for amorphous films with stoichiometric O /Al ratio. As the substrate bias potential was increased from -15V (floating potential) to -100V, the hydrogen content decreased by ˜70%, from 9.1to2.8at.%. Based on ab initio calculations, these results may be understood by thermodynamic principles, where a supply of energy enables surface diffusion, H2 formation, and desorption [Rosén et al., J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 17, L137 (2005)]. These findings are of importance for the understanding of the correlation between ion energy and film composition and also show a pathway to reduce impurity incorporation during film growth in a high vacuum ambient.

Rosén, Johanna; Widenkvist, Erika; Larsson, Karin; Kreissig, Ulrich; Mráz, Stanislav; Martinez, Carlos; Music, Denis; Schneider, J. M.

2006-05-01

94

Reducing the impurity incorporation from residual gas by ion bombardment during high vacuum magnetron sputtering  

SciTech Connect

The influence of ion energy on the hydrogen incorporation has been investigated for alumina thin films, deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering in an Ar/O{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O environment. Ar{sup +} with an average kinetic energy of {approx}5 eV was determined to be the dominating species in the plasma. The films were analyzed with x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and elastic recoil detection analysis, demonstrating evidence for amorphous films with stoichiometric O/Al ratio. As the substrate bias potential was increased from -15 V (floating potential) to -100 V, the hydrogen content decreased by {approx}70%, from 9.1 to 2.8 at. %. Based on ab initio calculations, these results may be understood by thermodynamic principles, where a supply of energy enables surface diffusion, H{sub 2} formation, and desorption [Rosen et al., J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 17, L137 (2005)]. These findings are of importance for the understanding of the correlation between ion energy and film composition and also show a pathway to reduce impurity incorporation during film growth in a high vacuum ambient.

Rosen, Johanna; Widenkvist, Erika; Larsson, Karin; Kreissig, Ulrich; Mraz, Stanislav; Martinez, Carlos; Music, Denis; Schneider, J. M. [Materials Chemistry, RWTH Aachen University, D-52056 Aachen (Germany); Department of Materials Chemistry, Angstroem Laboratory, Uppsala University, Box 538, 751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Research Center Rossendorf, P.O. Box 510119, D-01314 Dresden (Germany); Materials Chemistry, RWTH Aachen University, D-52056 Aachen (Germany)

2006-05-08

95

Design, plasma studies, and ion assisted thin film growth in an unbalanced dual target magnetron sputtering system with a solenoid coil  

Microsoft Academic Search

An original design and solution to the problem of magnetic field interactions in a vacuum chamber between two unbalanced magnetron sputtering sources and a solenoid coil serving to increase plasma density in near substrate position, is presented. By changing the solenoid coil current strength and direction, plasma growth conditions in an argon discharge and Ti-magnetron cathodes were found to vary

C Engström; T Berlind; J Birch; L Hultman; I. P Ivanov; S. R Kirkpatrick; S Rohde

2000-01-01

96

Refurbishing tritium contaminated ion sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extended tritium experimentation on TFTR has necessitated refurbishing Neutral Beam Long Pulse Ion Sources (LPIS) which developed operational difficulties, both in the TFTR Test Cell and later, in the NE Source Refurbishment Shop. Shipping contaminated sources off-site for repair was not permissible from a transport and safety perspective. Therefore, the NE source repair facility was upgraded by relocating fixtures, tooling,

K. E. Wright; R. H. Carnevale; B. E. McCormack; T. Stevenson; A. von Halle

1995-01-01

97

HIMAC PIG ion source development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The HIMAC (Heavy-Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba) project is in progress. Necessary characteristics for the HIMAC ion source are high current (130-630 muA with a q\\/A of 1\\/7) from He to Ar, good stability, long life and easy maintenance. To attain these characteristics, an indirectly heated PIG ion source test bench has been designed and constructed since 1985. A low-energy

T. Yamada; Y. Sato; H. Ogawa; T. Kimura

1989-01-01

98

Reversal ion source - A new source of negative ion beams  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new type of ion source utilizing beams of electrons and target molecules, rather than a diffuse, volume plasma, is described. The source utilizes an electrostatic electron 'mirror' which reverses trajectories in an electron beam, producing electrons at their turning point having a distribution of velocities centered at zero velocity. A gas which attaches zero-velocity electrons is introduced at this turning point. Negative ions are produced by an attachment or dissociative attachment process. For many of the thermal electron-attaching molecules the cross sections can be quite large, varying as the inverse square root of the electron energy or just the s-wave threshold law. The efficiency and current density of the ion source for production of Cl(-) through the large, thermal energy attachment process is estimated. It is argued that the source can be used for the production of negative ions through attachment resonances located at higher energies as well.

Orient, O. J.; Chutjian, A.; Alajajian, S. H.

1985-01-01

99

Three chamber negative ion source  

DOEpatents

It is an object of this invention provide a negative ion source which efficiently provides a large flux of negatively ionized particles. This invention provides a volume source of negative ions which has a current density sufficient for magnetic fusion applications and has electrons suppressed from the output. It is still another object of this invention to provide a volume source of negative ions which can be electrostatically accelerated to high energies and subsequently neutralized to form a high energy neutral beam for use with a magnetically confined plasma.

Leung, K.N.; Ehlers, K.W.; Hiskes, J.R.

1983-11-10

100

The characteristics of a new negative metal ion beam source and its applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerous efforts at energetic thin film deposition processes using ion beams have been made to meet the demands of today's thin film industry. As one of these efforts, a new Magnetron Sputter Negative Ion Source (MSNIS) was developed. In this study, the development and the characterization of the MSNIS were investigated. Amorphous carbon films were used as a sample coating medium to evaluate the ion beam energy effect. A review of energetic Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) techniques is presented in Chapter 1. The energetic PVD methods can be classified into two major categories: the indirect ion beam method Ion Beam Assisted Deposition (IBAD), and the direct ion beam method-Direct Ion Beam Deposition (DIBD). In this chapter, currently available DIBD processes such as Cathodic Arc, Laser Ablation, Ionized Physical Vapor Deposition (I-PVD) and Magnetron Sputter Negative Ion Source (MSNIS) are individually reviewed. The design and construction of the MSNIS is presented in chapter 2. The MSNIS is a hybrid of the conventional magnetron sputter configuration and the cesium surface ionizer. The negative sputtered ions are produced directly from the sputter target by surface ionization. In chapter 3, the ion beam and plasma characteristics of an 8? diameter MSNIS are investigated using a retarding field analyzer and a cylindrical Langmuir Probe. The measured electron temperature is approximately 2-5 eV, while the plasma density and plasma potential were of the order of 10 11-1012 cm3 and 5-20 V, respectively, depending on the pressure and power. In chapter 4, in order to evaluate the effect of the ion beam on the resultant films, amorphous carbon films were deposited under various conditions. The structure of carbon films was investigated using Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The result suggests the fraction of spa bonding is more than 70% in some samples prepared by MSNIS while magnetron sputtered samples showed less than 30%. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Paik, Namwoong

2001-10-01

101

Development of heavy ion sources at GSI  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the heavy ion accelerator Unilac Penning ionization gauge (PIG) ion sources are used to deliver multiply charged ions (<10+) of nearly any element of the periodic table. Typical operational ion currents are given. In the future electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources will play a dominant role for the Unilac. The development of a new 14-GHz ECR ion source

B. H. Wolf; J. Bossler; H. Emig; K. D. Leible

1990-01-01

102

Negative ion source  

DOEpatents

An ionization vessel is divided into an ionizing zone and an extraction zone by a magnetic filter. The magnetic filter prevents high-energy electrons from crossing from the ionizing zone to the extraction zone. A small positive voltage impressed on a plasma grid, located adjacent an extraction grid, positively biases the plasma in the extraction zone to thereby prevent positive ions from migrating from the ionizing zone to the extraction zone. Low-energy electrons, which would ordinarily be dragged by the positive ions into the extraction zone, are thereby prevented from being present in the extraction zone and being extracted along with negative ions by the extraction grid. Additional electrons are suppressed from the output flux using ExB drift provided by permanent magnets and the extractor grid electrical field. 14 figs.

Leung, K.N.; Ehlers, K.W.

1984-12-04

103

Negative ion source  

DOEpatents

An ionization vessel is divided into an ionizing zone and an extraction zone by a magnetic filter. The magnetic filter prevents high-energy electrons from crossing from the ionizing zone to the extraction zone. A small positive voltage impressed on a plasma grid, located adjacent an extraction grid, positively biases the plasma in the extraction zone to thereby prevent positive ions from migrating from the ionizing zone to the extraction zone. Low-energy electrons, which would ordinarily be dragged by the positive ions into the extraction zone, are thereby prevented from being present in the extraction zone and being extracted along with negative ions by the extraction grid. Additional electrons are suppressed from the output flux using ExB drift provided by permanent magnets and the extractor grid electrical field.

Leung, Ka-Ngo (Hercules, CA); Ehlers, Kenneth W. (Alamo, CA)

1984-01-01

104

Negative ion source  

DOEpatents

An ionization vessel is divided into an ionizing zone and an extraction zone by a magnetic filter. The magnetic filter prevents high-energy electrons from crossing from the ionizing zone to the extraction zone. A small positive voltage impressed on a plasma grid, located adjacent an extraction grid, positively biases the plasma in the extraction zone to thereby prevent positive ions from migrating from the ionizing zone to the extraction zone. Low-energy electrons, which would ordinarily be dragged by the positive ions into the extraction zone, are thereby prevented from being present in the extraction zone and being extracted along with negative ions by the extraction grid. Additional electrons are suppressed from the output flux using ExB drift provided by permanent magnets and the extractor grid electrical field.

Leung, K.N.; Ehlers, K.W.

1982-08-06

105

Intense high charge state ion sources (invited)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of Penning ionization gauge (PIG), duoplasmatron (DP), laser-plasma ion source (LPIS), Electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS), and electron beam ion source (EBIS) used for the production of intense and high charge state ion beams is given. The outputs of high charge states of different elements of the Periodic Table from ion sources of these types are compared.

V. B. Kutner

1994-01-01

106

Optimal Position of Ion Source for High Performance of IEC  

SciTech Connect

An inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) fusion device is possibly used for portable neutron sources. R. L. Hirsh reported that D-D the neutrons of 1.8 x 10{sup 8} n/s were produced. Recently, the similar amounts of fusion reactions are observed to occur in IEC devices In the most of IEC devices, since gas pressure is so high that the ions lose their energy by the frequent collisions with the neutral gas. The conditions of the high voltage and the low pressure are preferable because the energy of beam ions is kept very high and used for the fusion reaction more efficiently. It, however, is difficult to produce enough amounts of ions through a glow discharge at the low pressure. One of the solutions is to equip the ion source such as a magnetron near the anode. We have made three-dimensional orbit following code to evaluate the life of the ions produced near the anode surface. The code includes atomic collisions with background neutral gas and indicates the optimal positions to equip ion source which gives longer life of accelerated ions.

Osawa, Hodaka [Kansai University (Japan); Ishibashi, Takayuki [Kansai University (Japan); Ohnishi, Masami [Kansai University (Japan); Yoshikawa, Kiyoshi [Kyoto University (Japan)

2005-05-15

107

Langmuir-probe measurements of a pulsed and steady-state rf glow-discharge source and of an rf planar-magnetron source  

Microsoft Academic Search

Langmuir-probe measurements were made of a conventional radio-frequency glow-discharge source (in both pulsed and constant-power modes) and of a radio-frequency planar-magnetron source. The rf-driven oscillations of the plasma were neutralized by tuning the probe impedance with an external circuit. The conventional source, with a copper cathode, exhibited temperatures of roughly 2–5 eV and electron densities of 109–1010 cm?3, with the

M. J. Heintz; G. M. Hieftje

1996-01-01

108

Ion Source Development For The Proposed FNAL 750 keV Injector Upgrade  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Currently there is a Proposed FNAL 750 keV Injector Upgrade for the replacement of the 40 year old Fermi National Laboratory (FNAL) Cockcroft-Walton accelerators with a new ion source and 200 MHz Radio Frequency Quadruple (RFQ). [1] The slit type magnetron being used now will be replaced with a round aperture magnetron similar to the one used at Brookhaven National Lab (BNL). Operational experience from BNL has shown that this type of source is more reliable with a longer lifetime due to better power efficiency [2]. The current source development effort is to produce a reliable source with >60 mA of H- beam current, 15 Hz rep-rate, 100 ?s pulse width, and a duty factor of 0.15%. The source will be based on the BNL design along with development done at FNAL for the High Intensity Neutrino Source (HINS) [3].

Bollinger, D. S.

2011-09-01

109

Improved Multiple-Species Cyclotron Ion Source  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Use of pure isotope 86Kr instead of natural krypton in multiple-species ion source enables source to produce krypton ions separated from argon ions by tuning cylcotron with which source used. Addition of capability to produce and separate krypton ions at kinetic energies of 150 to 400 MeV necessary for simulation of worst-case ions occurring in outer space.

Soli, George A.; Nichols, Donald K.

1990-01-01

110

Development of heavy ion sources at GSI  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the heavy ion accelerator Unilac Penning ionization gauge (PIG) ion sources are used to deliver multiply charged ions (>10{sup +}) of nearly any element of the periodic table. Typical operational ion currents are given. In the future electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources will play a dominant role for the Unilac. The development of a new 14-GHz ECR ion

B. H. Wolf; J. Bossler; H. Emig; K. D. Leible; M. Mueller; D. M. Rueck; P. Spaedtke

1990-01-01

111

STATUS OF ITEP DECABORANE ION SOURCE PROGRAM.  

SciTech Connect

The joint research and development program is continued to develop steady-state ion source of decaborane beam for ion implantation industry. Both Freeman and Bemas ion sources for decaborane ion beam generation were investigated. Decaborane negative ion beam as well as positive ion beam were generated and delivered to the output of mass separator. Experimental results obtained in ITEP are presented.

KULEVOY,T.V.; PETRENKO, S.V.; KUIBEDA, R.P.; SELEZNEV, D.N.; KOZLOV, A.V.; STASEVICH, YU.B.; SITNIKOV, A.L.; SHAMAILOV, I.M.; PERSHIN, V.I.; HERSHCOVITCH, A.; JOHNSON, B.M.; GUSHENETS, V.I.; OKS, E.M.; POOLE, H.J.; MASUNOV, E.S.; POLOZOV, S.M.

2007-08-26

112

Solenoid and monocusp ion source  

DOEpatents

An ion source which generates hydrogen ions having high atomic purity incorporates a solenoidal permanent magnets to increase the electron path length. In a sealed envelope, electrons emitted from a cathode traverse the magnetic field lines of a solenoid and a monocusp magnet between the cathode and a reflector at the monocusp. As electrons collide with gas, the molecular gas forms a plasma. An anode grazes the outer boundary of the plasma. Molecular ions and high energy electrons remain substantially on the cathode side of the cusp, but as the ions and electrons are scattered to the aperture side of the cusp, additional collisions create atomic ions. The increased electron path length allows for smaller diameters and lower operating pressures. 6 figs.

Brainard, J.P.; Burns, E.J.T.; Draper, C.H.

1997-10-07

113

Solenoid and monocusp ion source  

DOEpatents

An ion source which generates hydrogen ions having high atomic purity incorporates a solenoidal permanent magnets to increase the electron path length. In a sealed envelope, electrons emitted from a cathode traverse the magnetic field lines of a solenoid and a monocusp magnet between the cathode and a reflector at the monocusp. As electrons collide with gas, the molecular gas forms a plasma. An anode grazes the outer boundary of the plasma. Molecular ions and high energy electrons remain substantially on the cathode side of the cusp, but as the ions and electrons are scattered to the aperture side of the cusp, additional collisions create atomic ions. The increased electron path length allows for smaller diameters and lower operating pressures.

Brainard, John Paul (Albuquerque, NM); Burns, Erskine John Thomas (Albuquerque, NM); Draper, Charles Hadley (Albuquerque, NM)

1997-01-01

114

Multi-source ion funnel  

DOEpatents

A method for introducing ions generated in a region of relatively high pressure into a region of relatively low pressure by providing at least two electrospray ion sources, providing at least two capillary inlets configured to direct ions generated by the electrospray sources into and through each of the capillary inlets, providing at least two sets of primary elements having apertures, each set of elements having a receiving end and an emitting end, the primary sets of elements configured to receive a ions from the capillary inlets at the receiving ends, and providing a secondary set of elements having apertures having a receiving end and an emitting end, the secondary set of elements configured to receive said ions from the emitting end of the primary sets of elements and emit said ions from said emitting end of the secondary set of elements. The method may further include the step of providing at least one jet disturber positioned within at least one of the sets of primary elements, providing a voltage, such as a dc voltage, in the jet disturber, thereby adjusting the transmission of ions through at least one of the sets of primary elements.

Tang, Keqi; Belov, Mikhail B.; Tolmachev, Aleksey V.; Udseth, Harold R.; Smith, Richard D.

2005-12-27

115

The DCU laser ion source.  

PubMed

Laser ion sources are used to generate and deliver highly charged ions of various masses and energies. We present details on the design and basic parameters of the DCU laser ion source (LIS). The theoretical aspects of a high voltage (HV) linear LIS are presented and the main issues surrounding laser-plasma formation, ion extraction and modeling of beam transport in relation to the operation of a LIS are detailed. A range of laser power densities (I approximately 10(8)-10(11) W cm(-2)) and fluences (F=0.1-3.9 kJ cm(-2)) from a Q-switched ruby laser (full-width half-maximum pulse duration approximately 35 ns, lambda=694 nm) were used to generate a copper plasma. In "basic operating mode," laser generated plasma ions are electrostatically accelerated using a dc HV bias (5-18 kV). A traditional einzel electrostatic lens system is utilized to transport and collimate the extracted ion beam for detection via a Faraday cup. Peak currents of up to I approximately 600 microA for Cu(+) to Cu(3+) ions were recorded. The maximum collected charge reached 94 pC (Cu(2+)). Hydrodynamic simulations and ion probe diagnostics were used to study the plasma plume within the extraction gap. The system measured performance and electrodynamic simulations indicated that the use of a short field-free (L=48 mm) region results in rapid expansion of the injected ion beam in the drift tube. This severely limits the efficiency of the electrostatic lens system and consequently the sources performance. Simulations of ion beam dynamics in a "continuous einzel array" were performed and experimentally verified to counter the strong space-charge force present in the ion beam which results from plasma extraction close to the target surface. Ion beam acceleration and injection thus occur at "high pressure." In "enhanced operating mode," peak currents of 3.26 mA (Cu(2+)) were recorded. The collected currents of more highly charged ions (Cu(4+)-Cu(6+)) increased considerably in this mode of operation. PMID:20441334

Yeates, P; Costello, J T; Kennedy, E T

2010-04-01

116

The DCU laser ion source  

SciTech Connect

Laser ion sources are used to generate and deliver highly charged ions of various masses and energies. We present details on the design and basic parameters of the DCU laser ion source (LIS). The theoretical aspects of a high voltage (HV) linear LIS are presented and the main issues surrounding laser-plasma formation, ion extraction and modeling of beam transport in relation to the operation of a LIS are detailed. A range of laser power densities (I{approx}10{sup 8}-10{sup 11} W cm{sup -2}) and fluences (F=0.1-3.9 kJ cm{sup -2}) from a Q-switched ruby laser (full-width half-maximum pulse duration {approx}35 ns, {lambda}=694 nm) were used to generate a copper plasma. In ''basic operating mode,'' laser generated plasma ions are electrostatically accelerated using a dc HV bias (5-18 kV). A traditional einzel electrostatic lens system is utilized to transport and collimate the extracted ion beam for detection via a Faraday cup. Peak currents of up to I{approx}600 {mu}A for Cu{sup +} to Cu{sup 3+} ions were recorded. The maximum collected charge reached 94 pC (Cu{sup 2+}). Hydrodynamic simulations and ion probe diagnostics were used to study the plasma plume within the extraction gap. The system measured performance and electrodynamic simulations indicated that the use of a short field-free (L=48 mm) region results in rapid expansion of the injected ion beam in the drift tube. This severely limits the efficiency of the electrostatic lens system and consequently the sources performance. Simulations of ion beam dynamics in a ''continuous einzel array'' were performed and experimentally verified to counter the strong space-charge force present in the ion beam which results from plasma extraction close to the target surface. Ion beam acceleration and injection thus occur at ''high pressure.'' In ''enhanced operating mode,'' peak currents of 3.26 mA (Cu{sup 2+}) were recorded. The collected currents of more highly charged ions (Cu{sup 4+}-Cu{sup 6+}) increased considerably in this mode of operation.

Yeates, P. [National Centre for Plasma Science and Technology (NCPST), Dublin (Ireland); Costello, J. T.; Kennedy, E. T. [National Centre for Plasma Science and Technology (NCPST), Dublin (Ireland); School of Physical Sciences, Dublin City University (DCU), Glasnevin (Ireland)

2010-04-15

117

Liquid metal ion source and alloy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A liquid metal ion source and alloy, wherein the species to be emitted from the ion source is contained in a congruently vaporizing alloy. In one embodiment, the liquid metal ion source acts as a source of arsenic, and in a source alloy the arsenic is combined with palladium, preferably in a liquid alloy having a range of compositions from

Clark Jr. William M; Mark W. Utlaut; Robert G. Behrens; Eugene G. Szklarz; Edmund K. Storms; Robert P. Santandrea; Lynwood W. Swanson

1988-01-01

118

Ion sources for sealed neutron tubes  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, we will compare a number of gas ion sources that can be used in sealed neutron tubes. The characteristics of the most popular ion source, the axial Penning discharge will be discussed as part of the zetatron neutron generator. Other sources to be discussed include the SAMIS source and RF ion source. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

Burns, E.J. [Neutron Tube Department, Sandia National Laboratories, P.O. Box 5800, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-0516 (United States); Bischoff, G.C. [Lockheed Martin Specialty Components, P.O. Box 2908, Largo, Florida 34649-2908 (United States)

1997-02-01

119

Design of a new electron cyclotron resonance ion source at Oshima National College of Maritime Technology.  

PubMed

A new electron cyclotron resonance ion/plasma source has been designed and will be built at Oshima National College of Maritime Technology by early 2014. We have developed an ion source that allows the control of the plasma parameters over a wide range of electron temperatures for material research. A minimum-B magnetic field composed of axial mirror fields and radial cusp fields was designed using mainly Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets. The axial magnetic field can be varied by three solenoid coils. The apparatus has 2.45 GHz magnetron and 2.5-6.0 GHz solid-state microwave sources. PMID:24593519

Asaji, T; Hirabara, N; Izumihara, T; Hitobo, T; Nakamizu, T; Ohba, T; Nakamura, T; Furuse, M; Kato, Y

2014-02-01

120

Design of a new electron cyclotron resonance ion source at Oshima National College of Maritime Technology  

SciTech Connect

A new electron cyclotron resonance ion/plasma source has been designed and will be built at Oshima National College of Maritime Technology by early 2014. We have developed an ion source that allows the control of the plasma parameters over a wide range of electron temperatures for material research. A minimum-B magnetic field composed of axial mirror fields and radial cusp fields was designed using mainly Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets. The axial magnetic field can be varied by three solenoid coils. The apparatus has 2.45 GHz magnetron and 2.5–6.0 GHz solid-state microwave sources.

Asaji, T., E-mail: asaji@oshima-k.ac.jp; Hirabara, N.; Izumihara, T.; Nakamizu, T.; Ohba, T.; Nakamura, T.; Furuse, M. [Oshima National College of Maritime Technology (OCMT), 1091-1 Komatsu, Suo-oshima, Yamaguchi 742-2193 (Japan)] [Oshima National College of Maritime Technology (OCMT), 1091-1 Komatsu, Suo-oshima, Yamaguchi 742-2193 (Japan); Hitobo, T. [Tateyama Machine Co., Ltd., 30 Shimonoban, Toyama 930-1305 (Japan)] [Tateyama Machine Co., Ltd., 30 Shimonoban, Toyama 930-1305 (Japan); Kato, Y. [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)] [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

2014-02-15

121

The ORNL ECR multicharged ion source  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multicharged ion source based on electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) heating has been designed and built at ORNL. The ECR ion source, which is completely dedicated for atomic physics collisions studies, produces higher charge states and higher beam intensities than the present ORNL PIG multicharged ion source, and will thus permit study of collision processes involving ions of higher charge

F. W. Meyer

1985-01-01

122

MIS-1 electron-beam ion source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Institute of Nuclear Physics (INP) has developed and produced electron-beam multiply charged ion sources. These ion sources give the electron beam its high density in the ionization area, at the ion trap ?103 A/cm2. They produce multiply charged ions of various elements, both gaseous and solid ones. These ion sources successfully employ the technique of the dozed inlet of solid-element atoms into the ion trap.

Abdulmanov, V. G.; Dikansky, N. S.

2010-12-01

123

Relating to monitoring ion sources  

DOEpatents

The apparatus and method provide techniques for monitoring the position on alpha contamination in or on items or locations. The technique is particularly applicable to pipes, conduits and other locations to which access is difficult. The technique uses indirect monitoring of alpha emissions by detecting ions generated by the alpha emissions. The medium containing the ions is moved in a controlled manner frog in proximity with the item or location to the detecting unit and the signals achieved over time are used to generate alpha source position information.

Orr, Christopher Henry (Calderbridge, GB); Luff, Craig Janson (Calderbridge, GB); Dockray, Thomas (Calderbridge, GB); Macarthur, Duncan Whittemore (Los Alamos, NM); Bounds, John Alan (Los Alamos, NM)

2002-01-01

124

Transversely accelerated ions: An ionospheric source of hot magnetospheric ions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A source of hot magnetospheric ions has been discovered operating in the auroral topside ionosphere. A part of the cold ionospheric ion distribution is being transversely accelerated within a source region as low as 1000 km. Subsequent to their transverse acceleration the ions are driven upward into the magnetosphere by the gradient B mirror force. These ions are observed by

D. M. Klumpar

1979-01-01

125

Performance characteristics of an inertial-electrostatic confinement fusion device with magnetron discharge  

Microsoft Academic Search

A magnetron discharge as a built-in ion source for an inertial-electrostatic confinement fusion (IECF) device was experimentally studied aiming at a drastic improvement of fusion reaction rate. With this discharge in the vicinity of the grounded vacuum chamber, produced ions are expected to have almost full energy corresponding to the voltage applied to the central transparent cathode. Also, the magnetron-glow

Kai Masuda; Kiyoshi Yoshikawa; Toshiyuki Mizutani; Teruhisa Takamatsu; Masaki Imoto; Kazunobu Nagasaki; Hisayuki Toku

2003-01-01

126

Internal H - ion source for cyclotrons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of experimental studies of the ion source with a cold hollow cathode for production of H- ions are presented. The cavity parameters for effective hollow cathode operation in the PIG-type of discharge have been found and a H--ion current up to 2 mA at a small gas flow rate has been obtained. The ion source can be used as an internal ion source in cyclotrons.

Glazov, A.; Novikov, D.; Vasiliev, N.

1994-04-01

127

Miniature high current metal ion source  

SciTech Connect

A small, simple ion source for the production of high brightness beams of metal ions is described. A metal vapor vacuum arc discharge is used to establish the high density plasma from which the ion beam is extracted. The source is finger-sized, and can produce pulsed metal ion beams with current up to the 10 ma range. 9 refs., 6 figs.

Brown, I.G.; Galvin, J.E.; MacGill, R.A.; Wright, R.T.

1986-04-01

128

Liquid metal ion source and alloy  

DOEpatents

A liquid metal ion source and alloy, wherein the species to be emitted from the ion source is contained in a congruently vaporizing alloy. In one embodiment, the liquid metal ion source acts as a source of arsenic, and in a source alloy the arsenic is combined with palladium, preferably in a liquid alloy having a range of compositions from about 24 to about 33 atomic percent arsenic. Such an alloy may be readily prepared by a combustion synthesis technique. Liquid metal ion sources thus prepared produce arsenic ions for implantation, have long lifetimes, and are highly stable in operation.

Clark, Jr., William M. (Thousand Oaks, CA); Utlaut, Mark W. (Saugus, CA); Behrens, Robert G. (Los Alamos, NM); Szklarz, Eugene G. (Los Alamos, NM); Storms, Edmund K. (Los Alamos, NM); Santandrea, Robert P. (Santa Fe, NM); Swanson, Lynwood W. (McMinnville, OR)

1988-10-04

129

Ion optics of RHIC electron beam ion source  

SciTech Connect

RHIC electron beam ion source has been commissioned to operate as a versatile ion source on RHIC injection facility supplying ion species from He to Au for Booster. Except for light gaseous elements RHIC EBIS employs ion injection from several external primary ion sources. With electrostatic optics fast switching from one ion species to another can be done on a pulse to pulse mode. The design of an ion optical structure and the results of simulations for different ion species are presented. In the choice of optical elements special attention was paid to spherical aberrations for high-current space charge dominated ion beams. The combination of a gridded lens and a magnet lens in LEBT provides flexibility of optical control for a wide range of ion species to satisfy acceptance parameters of RFQ. The results of ion transmission measurements are presented.

Pikin, A.; Alessi, J.; Beebe, E.; Kponou, A.; Okamura, M.; Raparia, D.; Ritter, J.; Tan, Y. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Kuznetsov, G. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation)

2012-02-15

130

Hydrogen hollow cathode ion source  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A source of hydrogen ions is disclosed and includes a chamber having at one end a cathode which provides electrons and through which hydrogen gas flows into the chamber. Screen and accelerator grids are provided at the other end of the chamber. A baffle plate is disposed between the cathode and the grids and a cylindrical baffle is disposed coaxially with the cathode at the one end of the chamber. The cylindrical baffle is of greater diameter than the baffle plate to provide discharge impedance and also to protect the cathode from ion flux. An anode electrode draws the electrons away from the cathode. The hollow cathode includes a tubular insert of tungsten impregnated with a low work function material to provide ample electrons. A heater is provided around the hollow cathode to initiate electron emission from the low work function material.

Mirtich, M. J., Jr.; Sovey, J. S.; Roman, R. F. (inventors)

1980-01-01

131

Comparison of AlN films grown by RF magnetron sputtering and ion-assisted molecular beam epitaxy  

SciTech Connect

Crystalline aluminum nitride (AlN) thin films were formed on various substrates by using RF magnetron sputtering of an A1 target in a nitrogen plasma and also by ion-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (IAMBE). Basal-oriented AlN/(111) Si showed a degradation of crystallinity with increased substrate temperature from 550 to 770 C, while the crystallinity of AlN/(0001) A1{sub 2}O{sub 3} samples improved from 700 to 850 C. The optical absorption characteristics of the AlN/(0001) A1{sub 2}O{sub 3} films as grown by both deposition methods revealed a decrease in subbandgap absorption with increased substrate temperature.

Chan, J.; Fu, T.; Cheung, N.W.; Ross, J.; Newman, N.; Rubin, M.

1993-04-01

132

Ion irradiation effects during growth of Mo/V(001) superlattices by dual-target magnetron sputtering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Epitaxial (001)-oriented Mo/V superlattice films with wavelengths of ? 5 nm have been grown on MgO(001) substrates, kept at 700°C, by dual-target unbalanced magnetron sputter deposition in Ar discharges. Low-energy (15-250 eV) Ar ion irradiation with incident ion-to-metal flux ratio of ? 1 during film growth was obtained through the application of a negative potential Vs to the substrate. The effects of ion bombardment on interface roughness and mixing, resputtering rates, and defect structure were investigated using a combination of cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and simulation of XRD patterns. High-resolution XTEM images showed that the interfaces were relatively sharp for Vs ? 100 V while higher Vs values resulted in more diffuse interfaces indicating ion-induced intermixing. By using a kinematical model of diffraction, and comparing with experimental XRD results, it could be concluded that the intermixing increased from ? 0.3 nm (2 monolayers) at Vs = 15 V to & 0.9 nm (6 monolayers) at Vs = 250 V. The inhomogeneous strain showed a large increase for V s & 50 V. This is explained by an incorporation of point defects. Coherency strain relaxation between layers is suggested to take place through the formation of edge dislocations with Burgers vector <110> by climb processes. Finally, increasing Vs also resulted in resputtering, preferentially from the V layers.

Håkansson, G.; Birch, J.; Hultman, L.; Ivanov, I. P.; Sundgren, J.-E.; Wallenberg, L. R.

1992-07-01

133

A 30-cm diameter argon ion source  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 30 cm diameter argon ion source was evaluated. Ion source beam currents up to 4a were extracted with ion energies ranging from 0.2 to 1.5 KeV. An ion optics scaling relation was developed for predicting ion beam extraction capability as a function of total extraction voltage, gas type, and screen grid open area. Ignition and emission characteristics of several hollow cathode geometries were assessed for purposes of defining discharge chamber and neutralizer cathodes. Also presented are ion beam profile characteristics which exhibit broad beam capability well suited for ion beam sputtering applications.

Sovey, J. S.

1976-01-01

134

High Current Ion Sources and Injectors for Heavy Ion Fusion  

SciTech Connect

Heavy ion beam driven inertial fusion requires short ion beam pulses with high current and high brightness. Depending on the beam current and the number of beams in the driver system, the injector can use a large diameter surface ionization source or merge an array of small beamlets from a plasma source. In this paper, we review the scaling laws that govern the injector design and the various ion source options including the contact ionizer, the aluminosilicate source, the multicusp plasma source, and the MEVVA source.

Kwan, Joe W.

2005-02-15

135

Bernas ion source for Genus Tandetron ion implanters  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Bernas type ion source has been developed for Genus high energy ion implanters. The new source increases output by 50% and lifetime by 100% for boron applications, compared to the standard Genus PIG ion source. Up to 49 mA of total beam has been extracted from a BF3 plasma through an aperture, 7.0 mm in diameter, and 14 mA

T. Sakase; P. E. Maciejowski; W. H. Leavitt; N. Tokoro

1996-01-01

136

The Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS)  

ScienceCinema

Brookhaven National Lab has successfully developed a new pre-injector system, called the Electron Beam Ion Source, for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and NASA Space Radiation Laboratory science programs. The first of several planned improvemen

Brookhaven Lab

2010-01-08

137

Laser ion source with solenoid field  

DOE PAGESBeta

Pulse length extension of highly charged ion beam generated from a laser ion source is experimentally demonstrated. The laser ion source (LIS) has been recognized as one of the most powerful heavy ion source. However, it was difficult to provide long pulse beams. By applying a solenoid field (90 mT, 1 m) at plasma drifting section, a pulse length of carbon ion beam reached 3.2 ?s which was 4.4 times longer than the width from a conventional LIS. The particle number of carbon ions accelerated by a radio frequency quadrupole linear accelerator was 1.2 × 1011, which was provided by a single 1 J Nd-YAG laser shot. A laser ion source with solenoid field could be used in a next generation heavy ion accelerator.

Kanesue, Takeshi [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Fuwa, Yasuhiro [Kyoto Univ., Kyoto (Japan); RIKEN (Japan); Kondo, Kotaro [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Okamura, Masahiro [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

2014-11-10

138

Laser ion source with solenoid field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pulse length extension of highly charged ion beam generated from a laser ion source is experimentally demonstrated. The laser ion source (LIS) has been recognized as one of the most powerful heavy ion source. However, it was difficult to provide long pulse beams. By applying a solenoid field (90 mT, 1 m) at plasma drifting section, a pulse length of carbon ion beam reached 3.2 ?s which was 4.4 times longer than the width from a conventional LIS. The particle number of carbon ions accelerated by a radio frequency quadrupole linear accelerator was 1.2 × 1011, which was provided by a single 1 J Nd-YAG laser shot. A laser ion source with solenoid field could be used in a next generation heavy ion accelerator.

Kanesue, Takeshi; Fuwa, Yasuhiro; Kondo, Kotaro; Okamura, Masahiro

2014-11-01

139

The BIE100 ECR ion source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

BIE100, an all-permanent-magnet-based electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source, has been under development at Berkeley Ion Equipment (BIE). With a relatively small but optimized source magnet volume, the maximum peak magnetic field strengths of the BIE100 reach 13 kG on axis and 11 kG at the plasma chamber walls, respectively. Microwaves of frequencies of 12.75 and 14 GHz are to simultaneously heat the plasma electrons. The development goal of this ECR ion source is to further explore the capabilities of ECR ion source in the efficient production of the intermediate and high charge state rare ion beams needed for the generation of rare ion beams and industrial applications. This article will present the design features of the BIE100 ion source and its current status.

Xie, Dan Z.

2002-02-01

140

Internal H - ion source for cyclotrons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of experimental studies of the ion source with a cold hollow cathode for production of H? ions are presented. The cavity parameters for effective hollow cathode operation in the PIG-type of discharge have been found and a H?-ion current up to 2 mA at a small gas flow rate has been obtained. The ion source can be used

A. Glazov; D. Novikov; N. Vasiliev

1994-01-01

141

Ion source with corner cathode  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An ion source may include first, second, and third electrodes. The first electrode may be a repeller having a V-shaped groove. The second electrode may be an electron emitter filament disposed adjacent the base of the V-shaped groove. The third electrode may be an anode that defines an enclosed volume with an aperture formed therein adjacent the electron emitter filament. A potential of the first electrode may be less than a potential of the second electrode, and the potential of the second electrode may be less than a potential of the third electrode. A fourth electrode that is disposed between the electron emitter filament and the anode may be used to produce a more collimated electron beam.

Herrero, Federico A. (Inventor); Roman, Patrick A. (Inventor)

2012-01-01

142

Research of spectral description films of amorphous hydrogenated silicon received by a magnetron method with the use of an ionic source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spectral characteristics films of amorphous hydrogenated silicon received by a magnetron method with use of an ionic source are investigated. As results of researches of temperature dependences on a condition of hydrogen in argon-hydrogen plasma are resulted and a number of laws influencing on electric and optical properties amorphous films is revealed.

Slipchenko, Nicolay I.; Bykov, Mikhail A.; Mazinov, Alim S.

2008-05-01

143

High-charge-state ion sources  

SciTech Connect

Sources of high charge state positive ions have uses in a variety of research fields. For heavy ion particle accelerators higher charge state particles give greater acceleration per gap and greater bending strength in a magnet. Thus higher energies can be obtained from circular accelerators of a given size, and linear accelerators can be designed with higher energy gain per length using higher charge state ions. In atomic physics the many atomic transitions in highly charged ions supplies a wealth of spectroscopy data. High charge state ion beams are also used for charge exchange and crossed beam experiments. High charge state ion sources are reviewed. (WHK)

Clark, D.J.

1983-06-01

144

Polycrystalline CuInSe2 thin films for solar cells by three-source magnetron sputtering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polycrystalline CuInSe2 films were deposited in a wide range of Cu/In ratios by three-source magnetron sputtering technique onto soda-lime glass and Mo-coated glass substrates at elevated substrate temperatures. Good run-to-run reproductibility was achieved in our sputtering system using melt-grown polycrystalline selenium target. In excess films which are desirable for solar cells were obtained in the temperature range of 400 to 500 C. These films showed a preferential (112) orientation of the chalcopyrite structure and possessed an excellent adhesion property to the substrates. Preliminary solar cells with ZnO:Al/CdS/CuInSe2 structure resulted in a conversion efficiency of 6.3% under AM 1.5 illumination.

Nakada, Tokio; Migita, Kazuo; Kunioka, Akio

1993-08-01

145

Polycrystalline CuInSe2 Thin Films for Solar Cells by Three-Source Magnetron Sputtering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polycrystalline CuInSe2 films were deposited in a wide range of Cu/In ratios by three-source magnetron sputtering technique onto soda-lime glass and Mo-coated glass substrates at elevated substrate temperatures. Good run-to-run reproducibility was achieved in our sputtering system using melt-grown polycrystalline selenium target. In-excess films which are desirable for solar cells were obtained in the temperature range of 400 to 500°C. These films showed a preferential (112) orientation of the chalcopyrite structure and possessed an excellent adhesion property to the substrates. Preliminary solar cells with ZnO:Al/CdS/CuInSe2 structure resulted in a conversion efficiency of 6.3% under AM 1.5 illumination.

Nakada, Tokio; Migita, Kazuo; Kunioka, Akio

1993-08-01

146

A hollow cathode hydrogen ion source  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High current density ion sources have been used to heat plasmas in controlled thermonuclear reaction experiments. High beam currents imply relatively high emission currents from cathodes which have generally taken the form of tungsten filaments. A hydrogen ion source is described which was primarily developed to assess the emission current capability and design requirements for hollow cathodes for application in neutral injection devices. The hydrogen source produced ions by electron bombardment via a single hollow cathode. Source design followed mercury ion thruster technology, using a weak magnetic field to enhance ionization efficiency.

Sovey, J. S.; Mirtich, M. J.

1977-01-01

147

Production of highly charged ion beams from ECR ion sources  

SciTech Connect

Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion source development has progressed with multiple-frequency plasma heating, higher mirror magnetic fields and better technique to provide extra cold electrons. Such techniques greatly enhance the production of highly charged ions from ECR ion sources. So far at cw mode operation, up to 300 e{mu}A of O{sup 7+} and 1.15 emA of O{sup 6+}, more than 100 e{mu}A of intermediate heavy ions for charge states up to Ar{sup 13+}, Ca{sup 13+}, Fe{sup 13+}, Co{sup 14+} and Kr{sup 18+}, and tens of e{mu}A of heavy ions with charge states to Kr{sup 26+}, Xe{sup 28+}, Au{sup 35+}, Bi{sup 34+} and U{sup 34+} have been produced from ECR ion sources. At an intensity of at least 1 e{mu}A, the maximum charge state available for the heavy ions are Xe{sup 36+}, Au{sup 46+}, Bi{sup 47+} and U{sup 48+}. An order of magnitude enhancement for fully stripped argon ions (I {ge} 60 enA) also has been achieved. This article will review the ECR ion source progress and discuss key requirement for ECR ion sources to produce the highly charged ion beams.

Xie, Z.Q. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Nuclear Science Div.

1997-09-01

148

Laser ion source for low charge heavy ion beams  

SciTech Connect

For heavy ion inertial fusion application, a combination of a laser ion source and direct plasma injection scheme into an RFQ is proposed. The combination might provide more than 100 mA of singly charged heavy ion beam from a single laser shot. A planned feasibility test with moderate current is also discussed.

Okamura,M.; Pikin, A.; Zajic, V.; Kanesue, T.; Tamura, J.

2008-08-03

149

Ionization phenomena and sources of negative ions  

SciTech Connect

Negative ion source technology has rapidly advanced during the past several years as a direct consequence of the discovery of Krohn that negative ion yields can be greatly enhanced by sputtering in the presence of Group IA elements. Today, most negative ion sources use this discovery directly or the principles implied to effect negative ion formation through surface ionization. As a consequence, the more traditional direct extraction plasma and charge exchange sources are being used less frequently. However, the charge exchange generation mechanism appears to be as universal, is very competitive in terms of efficiency and has the advantage in terms of metastable ion formation. In this review, an attempt has been made to briefly describe the principal processes involved in negative ion formation and sources which are representative of a particular principle. The reader is referred to the literature for specific details concerning the operational characteristics, emittances, brightnesses, species and intensity capabilities of particular sources. 100 references.

Alton, G.D.

1983-01-01

150

Effects of Processing Variables on Tantalum Nitride by Reactive-Ion-Assisted Magnetron Sputtering Deposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The binary compound tantalum nitride (TaN) and ternary compounds tantalum tungsten nitrides (Ta1-xWxNy) exhibit interesting properties such as high melting point, high hardness, and chemical inertness. Such nitrides were deposited on a tungsten carbide (WC) die and silicon wafers by ion-beam-sputter evaporation of the respective metal under nitrogen ion-assisted deposition (IAD). The effects of N2\\/Ar flux ratio, post annealing, ion-assisted

Chao-Tsang Wei; Han-Ping D. Shieh

2006-01-01

151

Electron string ion sources for carbon ion cancer therapy accelerators  

E-print Network

The Electron String type of Ion Sources (ESIS) was developed, constructed and tested first in the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research. These ion sources can be the appropriate sources for production of pulsed C4+ and C6+ ion beams which can be used for cancer therapy accelerators. In fact the test ESIS Krion-6T already now at the solenoid magnetic field only 4.6 T provides more than 10^10 C4+ ions per pulse and about 5*10^9 C6+ ions per pulse. Such ion sources could be suitable for application at synchrotrons. It was also found, that Krion-6T can provide more than 10^11 C6+ ions per second at 100 Hz repetition rate, and the repetition rate can be increased at the same or larger ion output per second. This makes ESIS applicable at cyclotrons as well. As for production of 11C radioactive ion beams ESIS can be the most economic kind of ion source. To proof that the special cryogenic cell for pulse injection of gaseous species into electron string was successfully tested using the ESIS Krion-2M.

Boytsov, A Yu; Donets, E D; Donets, E E; Katagiri, K; Noda, K; Ponkin, D O; Ramzdorf, A Yu; Salnikov, V V; Shutov, V B

2015-01-01

152

Highly Polarized Ion Sources for Electron Ion Colliders (EIC)  

SciTech Connect

The operation of the RHIC facility at BNL and the Electron Ion Colliders (EIC) under development at Jefferson Laboratory and BNL need high brightness ion beams with the highest polarization. Charge exchange injection into a storage ring or synchrotron and Siberian snakes have the potential to handle the needed polarized beam currents, but first the ion sources must create beams with the highest possible polarization to maximize collider productivity, which is proportional to a high power of the polarization. We are developing one universal H-/D- ion source design which will synthesize the most advanced developments in the field of polarized ion sources to provide high current, high brightness, ion beams with greater than 90% polarization, good lifetime, high reliability, and good power efficiency. The new source will be an advanced version of an atomic beam polarized ion source (ABPIS) with resonant charge exchange ionization by negative ions. An integrated ABPIS design will be prepared based on new materials and an optimized magnetic focusing system. Polarized atomic and ion beam formation, extraction, and transport for the new source will be computer simulated.

V.G. Dudnikov, R.P. Johnson, Y.S. Derbenev, Y. Zhang

2010-03-01

153

Enhanced life ion source for germanium and carbon ion implantation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Germanium and carbon ions represent a significant portion of total ion implantation steps in the process flow. Very often ion source materials that used to produce ions are chemically aggressive, especially at higher temperatures, and result in fast ion source performance degradation and a very limited lifetime [B.S. Freer, et. al., 2002 14th Intl. Conf. on Ion Implantation Technology Proc, IEEE Conf. Proc., p. 420 (2003)]. GeF4 and CO2 are commonly used to generate germanium and carbon beams. In the case of GeF4 controlling the tungsten deposition due to the de-composition of WF6 (halogen cycle) is critical to ion source life. With CO2, the materials oxidation and carbon deposition must be controlled as both will affect cathode thermionic emission and anti-cathode (repeller) efficiencies due to the formation of volatile metal oxides. The improved ion source design Extended Life Source 3 (Eterna ELS3) together with its proprietary co-gas material implementation has demonstrated >300 hours of stable continuous operation when using carbon and germanium ion beams. Optimizing cogas chemistries retard the cathode erosion rate for germanium and carbon minimizes the adverse effects of oxygen when reducing gas is introduced for carbon. The proprietary combination of hardware and co-gas has improved source stability and the results of the hardware and co-gas development are discussed.

Hsieh, Tseh-Jen; Colvin, Neil; Kondratenko, Serguei

2012-11-01

154

Enhanced life ion source for germanium and carbon ion implantation  

SciTech Connect

Germanium and carbon ions represent a significant portion of total ion implantation steps in the process flow. Very often ion source materials that used to produce ions are chemically aggressive, especially at higher temperatures, and result in fast ion source performance degradation and a very limited lifetime [B.S. Freer, et. al., 2002 14th Intl. Conf. on Ion Implantation Technology Proc, IEEE Conf. Proc., p. 420 (2003)]. GeF{sub 4} and CO{sub 2} are commonly used to generate germanium and carbon beams. In the case of GeF{sub 4} controlling the tungsten deposition due to the de-composition of WF{sub 6} (halogen cycle) is critical to ion source life. With CO{sub 2}, the materials oxidation and carbon deposition must be controlled as both will affect cathode thermionic emission and anti-cathode (repeller) efficiencies due to the formation of volatile metal oxides. The improved ion source design Extended Life Source 3 (Eterna ELS3) together with its proprietary co-gas material implementation has demonstrated >300 hours of stable continuous operation when using carbon and germanium ion beams. Optimizing cogas chemistries retard the cathode erosion rate for germanium and carbon minimizes the adverse effects of oxygen when reducing gas is introduced for carbon. The proprietary combination of hardware and co-gas has improved source stability and the results of the hardware and co-gas development are discussed.

Hsieh, Tseh-Jen; Colvin, Neil; Kondratenko, Serguei [Axcelis Technologies, Inc. 108 Cherry Hill Drive, Beverly, MA 01915 (United States)

2012-11-06

155

Ion sources at the KVI (abstract)  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the KVI there are presently four ion sources available: POLIS, for polarized protons and deuterons, to be injected in the new superconducting cyclotron AGOR ECRIS3, to produce highly charged ions for AGOR, ECRIS4, to produce highly charged ions for the Atomic and Surface Physics research facility (essentially a copy of ECRIS3), and CUSP, for high intensity AGOR beams of

A. G. Drentje; H. R. Kremers; J. Mulder; J. Sijbring

1998-01-01

156

Cyclotron Internal Ion Source with DC Extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a method for increasing the intensities for heavy ion beams accelerated in isochronous cyclotrons at high harmonics (h¿5) of the orbit frequency. Normally, only small intensities are obtained at high harmonics because of the low effective accelerating voltage between the ion source and the puller electrode. We have developed and tested a dc ion extraction system for

M. L. Mallory; E. D. Hudson; R. S. Lord

1973-01-01

157

Magnetron-sputtered Ag surfaces. New evidence for the nature of the ag ions intervening in bacterial inactivation.  

PubMed

DC-magnetron sputtering with an Ag target on textile surfaces produced Ag particles with sizes approximately 4.7 nm (+/-15%). Sputtering for 15 s led to Ag layers of 15-20 nm. The threshold sputtering time precluding airborne bacterial growth was about 60 s. In this case, the coating was approximately 40-50 nm thick and the cotton Ag loading was 0.0026 wt %. The Ag particle size did not vary significantly with sputtering time between 15 and 600 s. Only coatings above this thickness lead to bacterial inactivation. Ag/Pt targets with sputtering times<60 s did not increase the bactericide performance of the Ag cotton samples with respect to sputtering from an Ag target alone, as expected from the position of Pt respect to Ag in the electrochemical series (Galvanic effect). The Ag cotton deposition led to very thin metallic semitransparent gray color coatings. X-ray of the Ag cotton suggested the presence of amorphous and crystalline Ag species. By X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), it was found that the amount of oxidized silver species on the cotton was similar for sputtering times of 60 and 600 s, but the total amount of Ag deposited was almost two times higher after 600 s sputtering. This suggests that the positive silver-ions were located mainly at the silver interface. The type of silver ions produced using the Ag/Pt sputtering was determined to be very similar at 15, 60, and 600 s with the silver ions produced with the Ag target. This explains the lack of an increased inhibitory effect of Pt during the inactivation of airborne bacteria when present in the Pt/Ag target with respect to the Ag target, because in both cases similar silver ionic species were found. PMID:20356239

Mejía, M I; Restrepo, G; Marín, J M; Sanjines, R; Pulgarín, C; Mielczarski, E; Mielczarski, J; Kiwi, J

2010-01-01

158

Sample inlet tube for ion source  

DOEpatents

An improved inlet tube is positioned within an aperture through the device to allow the passage of ions from the ion source, through the improved inlet tube, and into the interior of the device. The inlet tube is designed with a larger end and a smaller end wherein the larger end has a larger interior diameter than the interior diameter of the smaller end. The inlet tube is positioned within the aperture such that the larger end is pointed towards the ion source, to receive ions therefrom, and the smaller end is directed towards the interior of the device, to deliver the ions thereto. Preferably, the ion source utilized in the operation of the present invention is a standard electrospray ionization source. Similarly, the present invention finds particular utility in conjunction with analytical devices such as mass spectrometers.

Prior, David [Hermiston, OR; Price, John [Richland, WA; Bruce, Jim [Oceanside, CA

2002-09-24

159

Liquid metal ion source and alloy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A liquid metal ion source is described comprising: emission means for emitting positively charged ions of an elemental chemical species; and source means for supplying the species to be emitted to the emission means, the species being supplied in a congruently vaporizing non-eutectic alloy of the elemental chemical species and at least one other element.

W. M. Jr. Clark; M. W. Utlaut; E. K. Storms; R. G. Behrens; E. G. Szklarz; L. W. Swanson; R. P. Santandrea

1988-01-01

160

Beam current controller for laser ion source  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to the design and use of an ion source with a rapid beam current controller for experimental and medicinal purposes. More particularly, the present invention relates to the design and use of a laser ion source with a magnetic field applied to confine a plasma flux caused by laser ablation.

Okamura, Masahiro

2014-10-28

161

ION SOURCES FOR ENERGY EXTREMES OF ION IMPLANTATION.  

SciTech Connect

For the past four years a joint research and development effort designed to develop steady state, intense ion sources has been in progress with the ultimate goal to develop ion sources and techniques, which meet the two energy extreme range needs of mega-electron-volt and 100's of electron-volt ion implanters. This endeavor has already resulted in record steady state output currents of high charge state of Antimony and Phosphorous ions: P{sup 2+} (8.6 pmA), P{sup 3+} (1.9 pmA), and P{sup 4+} (0.12 pmA) and 16.2, 7.6, 3.3, and 2.2 pmA of Sb{sup 3+} Sb{sup 4+}, Sb{sup 5+}, and Sb{sup 6+} respectively. For low energy ion implantation our efforts involve molecular ions and a novel plasmaless/gasless deceleration method. To date, 1 emA of positive Decaborane ions were extracted at 10 keV and smaller currents of negative Decaborane ions were also extracted. Additionally, Boron current fraction of over 70% was extracted from a Bemas-Calutron ion source, which represents a factor of 3.5 improvement over currently employed ion sources.

HERSCHCOVITCH,A.; JOHNSON, B.M.; BATALIN, V.A.; KROPACHEV, G.N.; KUIBEDA, R.P.; KULEVOY, T.V.; KOLOMIETS, A.A.; PERSHIN, V.I.; PETRENKO, S.V.; RUDSKOY, I.; SELEZNEV, D.N.; BUGAEV, A.S.; GUSHENETS, V.I.; LITOVKO, I.V.; OKS, E.M.; YUSHKOV, G. YU.; MASEUNOV, E.S.; POLOZOV, S.M.; POOLE, H.J.; STOROZHENKO, P.A.; SVAROVSKI, YA.

2007-08-26

162

An overview of LINAC ion sources  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses ion sources used in high-duty-factor proton and H{sup -} Linacs as well as in accelerators utilizing multi-charged heavy ions, mostly for nuclear physics applications. The included types are Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) sources as well as filament and rf driven multicusp sources. The paper does not strive to attain encyclopedic character but rather to highlight major lines of development, peak performance parameters and type-specific limitations and problems of these sources. The main technical aspects being discussed are particle feed, plasma generation and ion production by discharges, and plasma confinement.

Keller, Roderich [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01

163

Performance of an inverted ion source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Whereas energetic ion beams are conventionally produced by extracting ions (say, positive ions) from a plasma that is held at high (positive) potential, with ion energy determined by the potential drop through which the ions fall in the beam formation electrode system, in the device described here the plasma and its electronics are held at ground potential and the ion beam is formed and injected energetically into a space maintained at high (negative) potential. We refer to this configuration as an "inverted ion source." This approach allows considerable savings both technologically and economically, rendering feasible some ion beam applications, in particular small-scale ion implantation, that might otherwise not be possible for many researchers and laboratories. We have developed a device of this kind utilizing a metal vapor vacuum arc plasma source, and explored its operation and beam characteristics over a range of parameter variation. The downstream beam current has been measured as a function of extraction voltage (5-35 kV), arc current (50-230 A), metal ion species (Ti, Nb, Au), and extractor grid spacing and beamlet aperture size (3, 4, and 5 mm). The downstream ion beam current as measured by a magnetically-suppressed Faraday cup was up to as high as 600 mA, and with parametric variation quite similar to that found for the more conventional metal vapor vacuum arc ion source.

Salvadori, M. C.; Teixeira, F. S.; Sgubin, L. G.; Araujo, W. W. R.; Spirin, R. E.; Oks, E. M.; Brown, I. G.

2013-02-01

164

Pseudo ribbon metal ion beam source  

SciTech Connect

The paper describes high broad metal ion source based on dc macroparticle filtered vacuum arc plasma generation with the dc ion-beam extraction. The possibility of formation of pseudo ribbon beam of metal ions with the parameters: ion beam length 0.6 m, ion current up to 0.2 A, accelerating voltage 40 kV, and ion energy up to 160 kV has been demonstrated. The pseudo ribbon ion beam is formed from dc vacuum arc plasma. The results of investigation of the vacuum arc evaporator ion-emission properties are presented. The influence of magnetic field strength near the cathode surface on the arc spot movement and ion-emission properties of vacuum-arc discharge for different cathode materials are determined. It was shown that vacuum-arc discharge stability can be reached when the magnetic field strength ranges from 40 to 70 G on the cathode surface.

Stepanov, Igor B., E-mail: stepanovib@tpu.ru; Ryabchikov, Alexander I.; Sivin, Denis O.; Verigin, Dan A. [Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30 Lenina Avenue, Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation)] [Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30 Lenina Avenue, Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation)

2014-02-15

165

Pseudo ribbon metal ion beam source.  

PubMed

The paper describes high broad metal ion source based on dc macroparticle filtered vacuum arc plasma generation with the dc ion-beam extraction. The possibility of formation of pseudo ribbon beam of metal ions with the parameters: ion beam length 0.6 m, ion current up to 0.2 A, accelerating voltage 40 kV, and ion energy up to 160 kV has been demonstrated. The pseudo ribbon ion beam is formed from dc vacuum arc plasma. The results of investigation of the vacuum arc evaporator ion-emission properties are presented. The influence of magnetic field strength near the cathode surface on the arc spot movement and ion-emission properties of vacuum-arc discharge for different cathode materials are determined. It was shown that vacuum-arc discharge stability can be reached when the magnetic field strength ranges from 40 to 70 G on the cathode surface. PMID:24593634

Stepanov, Igor B; Ryabchikov, Alexander I; Sivin, Denis O; Verigin, Dan A

2014-02-01

166

Ion sources for sealed neutron tubes  

SciTech Connect

Fast and thermal neutron activation analysis with sealed neutron generators has been used to detect oil (oil logging), hazardous waste, fissile material, explosives, and contraband (drugs). Sealed neutron generators, used in the above applications, must be small and portable, have good electrical efficiency and long life. The ion sources used in the sealed neutron tubes require high gas utilization efficiencies or low pressure operation with high ionization efficiencies. In this paper, the authors compare a number of gas ion sources that can be used in sealed neutron tubes. The characteristics of the most popular ion source, the axial Penning discharge will be discussed as part of the zetatron neutron generator. Other sources to be discussed include the SAMIS source and RF ion source.

Burns, E.J.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Neutron Tube Dept.; Bischoff, G.C. [Lockheed Martin Specialty Components, Largo, FL (United States)

1996-11-01

167

Prototype negative ion sources for radioactive ion beam generation (abstract)  

SciTech Connect

Radioactive ion beams (RIBs) of {sup 17}F and {sup 18}F are of interest for investigation of astrophysical phenomena such as the {open_quotes}hot{close_quotes} CNO cycle and the rp stellar nuclear synthesis processes. In order to generate useful beam intensities of atomic F{sup {minus}}, the species must be efficiently and expediently released from the target material, thermally dissociated from fluoride release products during transport to the ionization chamber of the ion source, and efficiently ionized in the source upon arrival. We have conceived and evaluated two prototype negative ion sources for potential use for RIB generation: a direct extraction source and a kinetic ejection source. Both sources utilize Cs vapor to enhance F{sup {minus}} formation. The mechanical design features, operational parameters, ionization efficiencies for forming atomic F{sup {minus}} and delay times for transport of F and fluoride compounds for the respective sources are presented. The efficiency {eta} for formation and extraction of F{sup {minus}} for the direct extraction negative ion source is found to be {eta}{approximately}1.0{percent}, while the characteristic delay time {tau} for transport of F and fluorides through the source is typically, {eta}{approximately}120 s; the analogous efficiencies and delay times for the kinetic ejection negative ion source are, respectively: {eta}={approximately}3.2{percent} and {tau}={approximately}70 s. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

Alton, G.D. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6368 (United States)] [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6368 (United States); Welton, R.F.; Williams, C. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6368 (United States)] [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6368 (United States); [Oak Ridge Institute of Science and Engineering, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Cui, B. [China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing (China)] [China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing (China); Murray, S.N. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6368 (United States)] [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6368 (United States)

1998-02-01

168

Ion sources for MedAustron.  

PubMed

The MedAustron Ion therapy center will be constructed in Wiener Neustadt (Austria) in the vicinity of Vienna. Its accelerator complex consists of four ion sources, a linear accelerator, a synchrotron, and a beam delivery system to the three medical treatment rooms and to the research irradiation room. The ion sources shall deliver beams of H(3)(1+), C(4+), and light ions with utmost reliability and stability. This paper describes the features of the ion sources presently planned for the MedAustron facility, such as ion source main parameters, gas injection, temperature control, and cooling systems. A dedicated beam diagnostics technique is proposed in order to characterize electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion beams; in the first drift region after the ion source, a fraction of the mixed beam is selected via moveable aperture. With standard beam diagnostics, we then aim to produce position-dependant observables such as ion-current density, beam energy distribution, and emittance for each charge states to be compared to simulations of ECR e-heating, plasma simulation, beam formation, and transport. PMID:20192349

Lettry, J; Penescu, L; Wallner, J; Sargsyan, E

2010-02-01

169

Cold atomic beam ion source for focused ion beam applications  

SciTech Connect

We report measurements and modeling of an ion source that is based on ionization of a laser-cooled atomic beam. We show a high brightness and a low energy spread, suitable for use in next-generation, high-resolution focused ion beam systems. Our measurements of total ion current as a function of ionization conditions support an analytical model that also predicts the cross-sectional current density and spatial distribution of ions created in the source. The model predicts a peak brightness of 2 × 10{sup 7} A m{sup ?2} sr{sup ?1} eV{sup ?1} and an energy spread less than 0.34 eV. The model is also combined with Monte-Carlo simulations of the inter-ion Coulomb forces to show that the source can be operated at several picoamperes with a brightness above 1 × 10{sup 7} A m{sup ?2} sr{sup ?1} eV{sup ?1}. We estimate that when combined with a conventional ion focusing column, an ion source with these properties could focus a 1 pA beam into a spot smaller than 1 nm. A total current greater than 5 nA was measured in a lower-brightness configuration of the ion source, demonstrating the possibility of a high current mode of operation.

Knuffman, B.; Steele, A. V. [Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States) [Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Maryland Nanocenter, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); zeroK NanoTech, Montgomery Village, Maryland 20886 (United States); McClelland, J. J. [Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States)] [Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States)

2013-07-28

170

Thirty-centimeter-diameter ion milling source  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 30-cm beam diameter ion source has been designed and fabricated for micromachining and sputtering applications. An argon ion current density of 1 mA/cu cm at 500 eV ion energy was selected as a design operating condition. The completed ion source met the design criteria at this operating condition with a uniform and well-collimated beam having an average variation in current density of + or - 5% over the center of 20 cm of the beam. This ion source has a multipole magnetic field that employs permanent magnets between permeable pole pieces. Langmuir probe surveys of the source plasma support the design concepts of a multipole field and a circumferential cathode to enhance plasma uniformity.

Robinson, R. S.

1978-01-01

171

ECR ion source with electron gun  

DOEpatents

An Advanced Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source having an electron gun for introducing electrons into the plasma chamber of the ion source is described. The ion source has a injection enclosure and a plasma chamber tank. The plasma chamber is defined by a plurality of longitudinal magnets. The electron gun injects electrons axially into the plasma chamber such that ionization within the plasma chamber occurs in the presence of the additional electrons produced by the electron gun. The electron gun has a cathode for emitting electrons therefrom which is heated by current supplied from an AC power supply while bias potential is provided by a bias power supply. A concentric inner conductor and outer conductor carry heating current to a carbon chuck and carbon pusher which hold the cathode in place and also heat the cathode. In the Advanced Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source, the electron gun replaces the conventional first stage used in prior electron cyclotron resonance ion generators. 5 figures.

Xie, Z.Q.; Lyneis, C.M.

1993-10-26

172

Ion source development for various applications in Korea (invited) (abstract)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ion source development in Korea has been related with various applications from accelerator to nanotechnology. Conventional ion sources such as Duoplasmatron and PIG ion sources were developed for high power proton accelerator and small cyclotron accelerators. To improve lifetime of the high current proton ion source, helicon plasma ion sources were developed with external rf antenna and applied for neutron

Y. S. Hwang

2008-01-01

173

Ion source design for industrial applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design of broad-beam industrial ion sources is described. The approach used emphasizes refractory metal cathodes and permanent-magnet multipole discharge chambers. Design procedures and sample calculations are given for the discharge chamber, ion optics, cathodes, and magnetic circuit. Hardware designs are included for the isolator, cathode supports, anode supports, pole-piece assembly, and ion-optics supports. There are other ways of designing most ion source components, but the designs presented are representative of current technology and adaptable to a wide range of configurations.

Kaufman, H. R.; Robinson, R. S.

1981-01-01

174

Electrospray ion source with reduced analyte electrochemistry  

DOEpatents

An electrospray ion (ESI) source and method capable of ionizing an analyte molecule without oxidizing or reducing the analyte of interest. The ESI source can include an emitter having a liquid conduit, a working electrode having a liquid contacting surface, a spray tip, a secondary working electrode, and a charge storage coating covering partially or fully the liquid contacting surface of the working electrode. The liquid conduit, the working electrode and the secondary working electrode can be in liquid communication. The electrospray ion source can also include a counter electrode proximate to, but separated from, said spray tip. The electrospray ion source can also include a power system for applying a voltage difference between the working electrodes and a counter-electrode. The power system can deliver pulsed voltage changes to the working electrodes during operation of said electrospray ion source to minimize the surface potential of the charge storage coating.

Kertesz, Vilmos [Knoxville, TN; Van Berkel, Gary [Clinton, TN

2011-08-23

175

Ion source with external RF antenna  

DOEpatents

A radio frequency (RF) driven plasma ion source has an external RF antenna, i.e. the RF antenna is positioned outside the plasma generating chamber rather than inside. The RF antenna is typically formed of a small diameter metal tube coated with an insulator. An external RF antenna assembly is used to mount the external RF antenna to the ion source. The RF antenna tubing is wound around the external RF antenna assembly to form a coil. The external RF antenna assembly is formed of a material, e.g. quartz, which is essentially transparent to the RF waves. The external RF antenna assembly is attached to and forms a part of the plasma source chamber so that the RF waves emitted by the RF antenna enter into the inside of the plasma chamber and ionize a gas contained therein. The plasma ion source is typically a multi-cusp ion source.

Leung, Ka-Ngo; Ji, Qing; Wilde, Stephen

2005-12-13

176

Electrospray ion source with reduced analyte electrochemistry  

DOEpatents

An electrospray ion (ESI) source and method capable of ionizing an analyte molecule without oxidizing or reducing the analyte of interest. The ESI source can include an emitter having a liquid conduit, a working electrode having a liquid contacting surface, a spray tip, a secondary working electrode, and a charge storage coating covering partially or fully the liquid contacting surface of the working electrode. The liquid conduit, the working electrode and the secondary working electrode can be in liquid communication. The electrospray ion source can also include a counter electrode proximate to, but separated from, said spray tip. The electrospray ion source can also include a power system for applying a voltage difference between the working electrodes and a counter-electrode. The power system can deliver pulsed voltage changes to the working electrodes during operation of said electrospray ion source to minimize the surface potential of the charge storage coating.

Kertesz, Vilmos; Van Berkel, Gary J

2013-07-30

177

ECR ion sources and microwave discharge ion sources at LNS: present status and perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most important developments in the field of ion sources at INFN-LNS, Catania, have been based on the generation of warm plasmas by means of microwaves at different frequencies. Indeed, we have built three different 2.45 GHz microwave discharge ion sources for different purposes, ranging from high efficiency ionization of light ions to high current proton beams production. A fourth

G. Ciavola; S. Gammino; L. Celona; L. Torrisi; L. Ando; M. Presti; S. Manciagli

2003-01-01

178

High-current pulsed ion source for metallic ions  

SciTech Connect

A new sputter-ion PIG source and magnet system, optimized for intermediate charge states, q/A of 0.02 to 0.03, is described. This source will be used with the new Wideroe-based injector for the SuperHILAC. Pulsed electrical currents of several emA of heavy metal ions have been produced in a normalized emittance area of .05..pi.. cm-mr. The source system is comprised of two electrically separate anode chambers, one in operation and one spare, which can be selected by remote control. The entire source head is small and quickly removable.

Gavin, B.; Abbott, S.; MacGill, R.; Sorensen, R.; Staples, J.; Thatcher, R.

1981-03-01

179

Heavy-ion sources for radiation therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The usefulness of particle beams for radiation therapy has been well and widely recognized. For the cure of cancer patients, many accelerator facilities have already been utilized, and some new facilities are now being put into operation, or are under construction. Considering the medical and biological requirements, light heavy ions with an energy of several hundred MeV/nucleon are regarded as being the most suitable species. A reasonable choice to this end is an accelerator complex, for an example, one comprising an ion source, an injector linac, and a synchrotron. The ion source is of great importance, since its characteristics strongly affect the overall performance of the accelerator system. A pulsed Penning source (PIGIS) has been successfully used at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Recently, at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences a low-duty pulsed PIGIS for the heavy-ion medical accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) has been developed; it has both a long lifetime and a high peak intensity. As other types of ion sources, an electron-beam ion source (EBIS) and an electron-cyclotron-resonance ion source (ECRIS) are being developed at several laboratories. An EBIS is basically a pulsed source, and is being successfully used at Saclay. By using an after-glow mode, two ECRISs have made remarkable progress at Grenoble and the Grand Accelerateur National d'Ions Lourds; similar tests are proceeding for the Schwer-Ionen Synchrotron at the Gesellschaft for Schwer-Ionenforschung, the booster at Centre d'Europeen de Recherche Nucleaire, and the HIMAC. These different types of heavy-ion sources are discussed from the viewpoint of their application to radiation therapy.

Sato, Y.; Kitagawa, A.; Ogawa, H.; Yamada, S.

1994-10-01

180

Inert gas ion source program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

THe original 12 cm hexagonal magneto-electrostatic containment discharge chamber has been optimized for argon and xenon operation. Argon mass utilization efficiencies of 65 to 77 percent were achieved at keeper-plus-main discharge energy consumptions of 200 to 458 eV/ion, respectively. Xenon performance of 84 to 96 percent mass utilization was realized at 203 to 350 eV/ion. The optimization process and test results are discussed.

Ramsey, W. D.

1978-01-01

181

Negative-hydrogen-ion sources  

SciTech Connect

There are two main areas of negative hydrogen ion applications: injection into high energy accelerators and production of beams of energetic hydrogen atoms for fusion devices. In both cases, the ease with which the charge state of negative ions can be changed by either single or double electron stripping is the reason that made their application attractive. In tandem accelerators, the final energy of H/sup +/ ions is twice as high as it would correspond to the terminal voltage, in circular accelerators (synchrotrons, storage rings) injection of H/sup +/ ions by full stripping of H/sup -/ ions in a foil inside the ring is not limited by the Liouville's theorem and results in a higher phase space density than achieved by direct H/sup +/ injection. Finally, beams of hydrogen atoms at energies above 100 keV, which will be required for plasma heating and current drive in future fusion devices, can efficiently be produced only by acceleration of negative ions and their subsequent neutralization.

Prelec, K.

1983-01-01

182

H(-) ion source developments at the SNS.  

PubMed

The U.S. Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) will require substantially higher average and pulse H(-) beam currents than can be produced from conventional ion sources such as the base line SNS source. H(-) currents of 40-50 mA (SNS operations) and 70-100 mA (power upgrade project) with a rms emittance of 0.20-0.35pi mm mrad and a approximately 7% duty factor will be needed. We are therefore investigating several advanced ion source concepts based on rf plasma excitation. First, the performance characteristics of an external antenna source based on an Al(2)O(3) plasma chamber combined with an external multicusp magnetic configuration, an elemental Cs system, and plasma gun will be discussed. Second, the first plasma measurements of a helicon-driven H(-) ion source will also be presented. PMID:18315274

Welton, R F; Stockli, M P; Murray, S N; Pennisi, T R; Han, B; Kang, Y; Goulding, R H; Crisp, D W; Sparks, D O; Luciano, N P; Carmichael, J R; Carr, J

2008-02-01

183

Laser ion sources for radioactive beams (invited)  

SciTech Connect

Resonant ionisation laser ion sources are nowadays extensively used, when available, at many leading on-line facilities. Moreover, new laser ion sources are now under development in most of the recent on-line facility projects under construction worldwide. This success is mainly due to the reliability, the ionization efficiency and the high purity that this type of source can achieve for the production of radioactive species and for a large range of chemical elements. Laser ion sources for radioactive beams gather many different systems such as dye laser or all-solid state titanium:sapphire laser systems, high or low repetition rates, hot cavities or gas cells, additional selectivity by using chemical techniques, or the LIST technique (laser ion source trap). In this paper, the physics of laser ion sources will be described with the current limitations and challenges for the future. An overview of the laser ion source facilities will be given, with an emphasis on the ongoing developments and perspectives on LIS.

Lecesne, N. [Grand Accelerateur National d'Ions Lourds, BP 55027, 14076 Caen cedex 5 (France)

2012-02-15

184

Compact Ion Source for Mass Spectrometers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cyclotron-resonance device uses miniature components and permanent magnet for small size, low weight, and low cost. Gas molecules are ionized by electrons from hot filament. Magnetic field, acting with electrostatic drift field, causes ions to move in circles with a superimposed drift perpendicular to both fields, toward the exit. Compact source can be used for studying ion-molecule reactions by ion cyclotron-resonance methods in conventional mass spectrometer with either magnetic sector or quadrupole sector.

Anicich, V. G.; Huntress, W. T. J.

1982-01-01

185

Ion production from solid state laser ion sources  

SciTech Connect

Laser ion sources based on resonant excitation and ionization of atoms are well-established tools for selective and efficient production of radioactive ion beams. Recent developments are focused on the use of the state-of-the-art all solid-state laser systems. To date, 35 elements of the periodic table are available from laser ion sources based on tunable Ti:sapphire lasers. Recent progress in this field regarding the establishment of suitable optical excitation schemes for Ti:sapphire lasers are reported.

Gottwald, T.; Mattolat, C.; Raeder, S.; Wendt, K. [Institute for Physics, University of Mainz, Staudinger Weg 7, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Havener, C.; Liu, Y. [Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Lassen, J. [TRIUMF-ISAC Division, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 2A3 (Canada); Rothe, S. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneve 23 (Switzerland)

2010-02-15

186

Enhancing the performances of ECR Ion Sources  

SciTech Connect

The performances of ECR ion sources can be enhanced in the spatial domain by tailoring the central magnetic field so that it is uniformly distributed over a large plasma volume and is of magnitude so as to be in resonance with single frequency microwave radiation. Analogously, the performances of conventional minimum-B ECR ion sources can be enhanced in the frequency domain by injecting multiple discrete frequency or broadband microwave radiation into their plasma volumes. In this report, examples of both the spatial-and frequency-domain techniques will be given. For example, the design aspects of an all permanent-magnet ''volume-type'' (spatial-domain) ECR ion source will be described and the effects of injecting multiple frequencies (frequency-domain) on the charge-state-distributions extracted from a conventional minimum-B ECR ion source will be presented.

Alton, G.D.; Liu, Y.

1999-03-29

187

Physics aspects of negative ion sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physical phenomena important in volume and surface production negative hydrogen ion sources are reviewed. The phenomenon, designated volume production, was attributed to dissociative electron attachment of low energy electrons to rovibrationally excited molecules. The experimental verification in 2005 of the reality of this mechanism is reported. Recent results obtained by measuring the negative ion temperature in a filament discharge

M. Bacal

2006-01-01

188

Three chamber negative ion source  

DOEpatents

A negative ion vessel is divided into an excitation chamber, a negative ionization chamber and an extraction chamber by two magnetic filters. Input means introduces neutral molecules into a first chamber where a first electron discharge means vibrationally excites the molecules which migrate to a second chamber. In the second chamber a second electron discharge means ionizes the molecules, producing negative ions which are extracted into or by a third chamber. A first magnetic filter prevents high energy electrons from entering the negative ionization chamber from the excitation chamber. A second magnetic filter prevents high energy electrons from entering the extraction chamber from the negative ionizing chamber. An extraction grid at the end of the negative ion vessel attracts negative ions into the third chamber and accelerates them. Another grid, located adjacent to the extraction grid, carries a small positive voltage in order to inhibit positive ions from migrating into the extraction chamber and contour the plasma potential. Additional electrons can be suppressed from the output flux using ExB forces provided by magnetic field means and the extractor grid electric potential.

Leung, Ka-Ngo (Hercules, CA); Ehlers, Kenneth W. (Alamo, CA); Hiskes, John R. (Livermore, CA)

1985-01-01

189

Development of a polarized Helium-3 ion source for RHIC using the electron beam ion source  

E-print Network

This thesis presents my work on the design and development of a source of polarized Helium-3 ions for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven National Lab, Upton, NY. The 3He atoms will be polarized using the ...

Epstein, Charles Samuel

2013-01-01

190

Types of primary electrons sources for terahertz cold-cathode magnetron “firing”  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this communication, we have examined the primary electron sources for initiating the pulsed terahertz cold-secondary electron emission cathode SWMs. The capability of these sources emitting and injecting the required start up current is evaluated. The causes for an initiation delay and other factors associated with setting the steady oscillation mode at different side cathode currents are elucidated.

Daniel V. Yeryomka

2008-01-01

191

Negative ion source with external RF antenna  

DOEpatents

A radio frequency (RF) driven plasma ion source has an external RF antenna, i.e. the RF antenna is positioned outside the plasma generating chamber rather than inside. The RF antenna is typically formed of a small diameter metal tube coated with an insulator. An external RF antenna assembly is used to mount the external RF antenna to the ion source. The RF antenna tubing is wound around the external RF antenna assembly to form a coil. The external RF antenna assembly is formed of a material, e.g. quartz, which is essentially transparent to the RF waves. The external RF antenna assembly is attached to and forms a part of the plasma source chamber so that the RF waves emitted by the RF antenna enter into the inside of the plasma chamber and ionize a gas contained therein. The plasma ion source is typically a multi-cusp ion source. A converter can be included in the ion source to produce negative ions.

Leung, Ka-Ngo; Hahto, Sami K.; Hahto, Sari T.

2007-02-13

192

Laser ion source with solenoid for Brookhaven National Laboratory-electron beam ion source  

SciTech Connect

The electron beam ion source (EBIS) preinjector at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is a new heavy ion-preinjector for relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC) and NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL). Laser ion source (LIS) is a primary ion source provider for the BNL-EBIS. LIS with solenoid at the plasma drift section can realize the low peak current ({approx}100 {mu}A) with high charge ({approx}10 nC) which is the BNL-EBIS requirement. The gap between two solenoids does not cause serious plasma current decay, which helps us to make up the BNL-EBIS beamline.

Kondo, K.; Okamura, M. [Collider-Accelerator Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, New York (United States); Yamamoto, T. [Cooperative Major in Nuclear Energy, Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan); Sekine, M. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

2012-02-15

193

Laser ion source with solenoid for Brookhaven National Laboratory-electron beam ion source  

SciTech Connect

The electron beam ion source (EBIS) preinjector at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is a new heavy ion-preinjector for relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC) and NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL). Laser ion source (LIS) is a primary ion source provider for the BNL-EBIS. LIS with solenoid at the plasma drift section can realize the low peak current ({approx}100 {micro}A) with high charge ({approx}10 nC) which is the BNL-EBIS requirement. The gap between two solenoids does not cause serious plasma current decay, which helps us to make up the BNL-EBIS beamline.

Kondo K.; Yamamoto, T.; Sekine, M.; Okamura, M.

2012-02-22

194

Laser ion source with solenoid for Brookhaven National Laboratory-electron beam ion source.  

PubMed

The electron beam ion source (EBIS) preinjector at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is a new heavy ion-preinjector for relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC) and NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL). Laser ion source (LIS) is a primary ion source provider for the BNL-EBIS. LIS with solenoid at the plasma drift section can realize the low peak current (?100 ?A) with high charge (?10 nC) which is the BNL-EBIS requirement. The gap between two solenoids does not cause serious plasma current decay, which helps us to make up the BNL-EBIS beamline. PMID:22380298

Kondo, K; Yamamoto, T; Sekine, M; Okamura, M

2012-02-01

195

Dual Chamber Laser Ion Source at Lisol  

E-print Network

A new type of the gas cell for the resonance ionization laser ion source at the Leuven Isotope Separator On Line (LISOL) has been developed and tested at off-line and on-line conditions. Two-step selective laser ionization is applied to produce purified beams of radioactive isotopes. The selectivity of the ion source has been increased by more than one order of magnitude by separation of the stopping and laser ionization regions. This allows to use electrical fields for further ion purification.

Kudryavtsev, Yu; Gentens, J; Huyse, M; Ivanov, O; Pauwels, D; Sonoda, T; Bergh, P Van den; Van Duppen, P

2009-01-01

196

Dual Chamber Laser Ion Source at Lisol  

E-print Network

A new type of the gas cell for the resonance ionization laser ion source at the Leuven Isotope Separator On Line (LISOL) has been developed and tested at off-line and on-line conditions. Two-step selective laser ionization is applied to produce purified beams of radioactive isotopes. The selectivity of the ion source has been increased by more than one order of magnitude by separation of the stopping and laser ionization regions. This allows to use electrical fields for further ion purification.

Yu. Kudryavtsev; T. E. Cocolios; J. Gentens; M. Huyse; O. Ivanov; D. Pauwels; T. Sonoda; P. Van den Bergh; P. Van Duppen

2009-04-23

197

Recent Development of IMP ECR Ion Sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Great efforts have been made to develop highly charged ECR ion sources for application of heavy ion accelerator and atomic physics research at IMP in the past few years. The latest development of ECR ion sources at IMP is briefly reviewed. Intense beams with high and intermediate charge states have been produced from IMP LECR3 by optimization of the ion source conditions including rf frequency extended up to 18GHz. 1.1 emA of Ar8+ and 325 e? A of Ar11+ were produced. Dependence of beam emittance on those key parameters of ECR ion source, beam extraction and space charge compensation were experimentally studied at LECR3. Furthermore, an advanced superconducting ECR ion source named SECRAL is being constructed. SECRAL is designed to operate at rf frequency 18-28GHz with axial mirror magnetic fields 3.6-4.0 Tesla at injection, 2.2 Tesla at extraction and sextupole field 2.0 Tesla at the wall. The superconducting magnet with sextupole and three solenoids was tested in a test-cryostat and 95% of designed fields were reached. Construction status and planed schedule of SECRAL are presented.

Zhao, H. W.; Zhang, Z. M.; Sun, L. T.; Cao, Y.; He, W.; Zhang, X. Z.; Guo, X. H.; Ma, L.; Yuan, P.; Song, M. T.; Zhan, W. L.; Wei, B. W.

2005-03-01

198

Recent Development of IMP ECR Ion Sources  

SciTech Connect

Great efforts have been made to develop highly charged ECR ion sources for application of heavy ion accelerator and atomic physics research at IMP in the past few years. The latest development of ECR ion sources at IMP is briefly reviewed. Intense beams with high and intermediate charge states have been produced from IMP LECR3 by optimization of the ion source conditions including rf frequency extended up to 18GHz. 1.1 emA of Ar8+ and 325 e{mu} A of Ar11+ were produced. Dependence of beam emittance on those key parameters of ECR ion source, beam extraction and space charge compensation were experimentally studied at LECR3. Furthermore, an advanced superconducting ECR ion source named SECRAL is being constructed. SECRAL is designed to operate at rf frequency 18-28GHz with axial mirror magnetic fields 3.6-4.0 Tesla at injection, 2.2 Tesla at extraction and sextupole field 2.0 Tesla at the wall. The superconducting magnet with sextupole and three solenoids was tested in a test-cryostat and 95% of designed fields were reached. Construction status and planed schedule of SECRAL are presented.

Zhao, H.W.; Zhang, Z.M.; Sun, L.T.; Cao, Y.; He, W.; Zhang, X.Z.; Guo, X.H.; Ma, L.; Yuan, P.; Song, M.T.; Zhan, W.L.; Wei, B.W. [Institute of Modern Physics (IMP), Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou, 730000 (China)

2005-03-15

199

Development of microwave ion source for industrial applications.  

PubMed

A microwave ion source is one of the long-life ion sources. In this paper, we report on the characteristics of the extracted Ar ion beam produced by a microwave ion source under various conditions, in terms of magnetic flux distribution and mass flow, and the stability of the ion beam. The measured spectra show that, under the experimental condition, almost all of produced ions were Ar(+) ions. For more than 6 h, the ion beam was stable. PMID:24593643

Takahashi, N; Murata, H; Mitsubori, H; Sakuraba, J; Soga, T; Aoki, Y; Katoh, T; Saitoh, Y; Yamada, K; Ikenaga, N; Sakudo, N

2014-02-01

200

Metal versus rare-gas ion irradiation during Ti{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}N film growth by hybrid high power pulsed magnetron/dc magnetron co-sputtering using synchronized pulsed substrate bias  

SciTech Connect

Metastable NaCl-structure Ti{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}N is employed as a model system to probe the effects of metal versus rare-gas ion irradiation during film growth using reactive high-power pulsed magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) of Al and dc magnetron sputtering of Ti. The alloy film composition is chosen to be x = 0.61, near the kinetic solubility limit at the growth temperature of 500 Degree-Sign C. Three sets of experiments are carried out: a -60 V substrate bias is applied either continuously, in synchronous with the full HIPIMS pulse, or in synchronous only with the metal-rich-plasma portion of the HIPIMS pulse. Alloy films grown under continuous dc bias exhibit a thickness-invariant small-grain, two-phase nanostructure (wurtzite AlN and cubic Ti{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}N) with random orientation, due primarily to intense Ar{sup +} irradiation leading to Ar incorporation (0.2 at. %), high compressive stress (-4.6 GPa), and material loss by resputtering. Synchronizing the bias with the full HIPIMS pulse results in films that exhibit much lower stress levels (-1.8 GPa) with no measureable Ar incorporation, larger grains elongated in the growth direction, a very small volume fraction of wurtzite AlN, and random orientation. By synchronizing the bias with the metal-plasma phase of the HIPIMS pulses, energetic Ar{sup +} ion bombardment is greatly reduced in favor of irradiation predominantly by Al{sup +} ions. The resulting films are single phase with a dense competitive columnar structure, strong 111 orientation, no measureable trapped Ar concentration, and even lower stress (-0.9 GPa). Thus, switching from Ar{sup +} to Al{sup +} bombardment, while maintaining the same integrated incident ion/metal ratio, eliminates phase separation, minimizes renucleation during growth, and reduces the high concentration of residual point defects, which give rise to compressive stress.

Greczynski, Grzegorz; Lu Jun; Jensen, Jens; Petrov, Ivan; Greene, Joseph E.; Bolz, Stephan; Koelker, Werner; Schiffers, Christoph; Lemmer, Oliver; Hultman, Lars [Department of Physics (IFM), Linkoeping University, SE-581 83 Linkoeping (Sweden); Department of Physics (IFM), Linkoeping University, SE-581 83 Linkoeping (Sweden) and Materials Science Department and Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Department of Physics (IFM), Linkoeping University, SE-581 83 Linkoeping (Sweden); Materials Science Department and Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States) and Department of Physics, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); CemeCon AG, Adenauerstr. 20 A4, D-52146 Wurselen (Germany); Department of Physics (IFM), Linkoeping University, SE-581 83 Linkoeping (Sweden)

2012-11-15

201

Volume production negative hydrogen ion sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review the evolution of volume production negative hydrogen ion sources since the discovery in 1977 of the new phenomenon, designated as volume production and attributed to dissociative electron attachment of low energy electrons to rovibrationally excited molecules. The experimental verification in 2005 of the reality of this mechanism is reported. The magnetically filtered tandem sources, using hot filaments or

Marthe Bacal; Akiyoshi Hatayama; Jens Peters

2005-01-01

202

Reactive magnetron sputtering of highly (001)-textured WS2-x films: Influence of Ne+, Ar+ and Xe+ ion bombardment on the film growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tungsten disulfide WS2 is a layer-type semi-conductor with an energy band gap and an absorption coefficient making it suitable as an absorber for thin film solar cells. In the article [1] WS2-x films were pre-pared by reactive magnetron sputtering from a metallic tungsten target in Ar-H2S atmospheres.The cover figure shows in situ energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction patterns for films deposited at different substrate potentials, i.e. for deposition conditions with ion assistance at different ion energies. These spectra and the corresponding SEM photographs of the film morphology show the strong influence of the ion energy on the film growth. The crystallographic struc-ture of WS2-x is shown between the two SEM pictures.The first author, Klaus Ellmer, is working at the Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin, Dept. of Solar Energy Research. His research fields are thin film deposition by reactive magnetron sputtering for solar cells, plasma characterization, in situ energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction and electronic transport in transpar-ent conductive oxides.

Ellmer, K.; Seeger, S.; Sieber, I.; Bohne, W.; Röhrich, J.; Strub, E.; Mientus, R.

2006-02-01

203

Low temperature ion source for calutrons  

DOEpatents

A new ion source assembly for calutrons has been provided for the efficient separation of elements having high vapor pressures. The strategic location of cooling pads and improved insulation permits operation of the source at lower temperatures. A vapor valve constructed of graphite and located in a constantly increasing temperature gradient provides reliable control of the vapor flow from the charge bottle to the arc chamber. A pronounced saving in calutron operating time and equipment maintenance has been achieved with the use of the present ion source.

Veach, Allen M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Bell, Jr., William A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Howell, Jr., George D. (Clinton, TN)

1981-01-01

204

Ion source brightness and nuclear microprobe applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ion source used to provide beams for nuclear microprobe systems must ideally satisfy several demands. Of primary importance is the beam brightness. It is clearly desirable to employ the brightest possible source in order to focus the smallest possible probe size on the specimen, with the highest possible beam current. Also important is the need for minimal maintenance, particularly for ion sources used inside single ended accelerators. We report here on measurements conducted on the beam from the RF ion source in our 5U Pelletron accelerator. We have found that the beam brightness is highly heterogenous, with the paraxial rays about an order of magnitude brighter than the surrounding rays. This is desirable for nuclear microprobe operation because probe forming lens systems optimised for large demagnification magnitude can exploit the high brightness of the paraxial region. We find several other accelerators around the world also exhibit this characteristic.

Szymanski, Roland; Jamieson, David N.

1997-07-01

205

Surface ionization source for heavy ions  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ion source using the surface ionization process is described. Elements whose ionization potentials are below or around 6 eV may be ionized in the source. The element vapour to be ionized is passed through one or more rhenium grids on which surface ionization occurs. The source is tested for different elements-lithium, indium, rare earths, uranium-the latter corresponding to the

B. Rasser; D. I. C. Pearson; M. Remy

1980-01-01

206

Ion Source Development at the SNS  

SciTech Connect

The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) now routinely operates near 1 MW of beam power on target with a highly-persistent ~38 mA peak current in the linac and an availability of ~90%. The ~1 ms-long, 60 Hz, ~50 mA H- beam pulses are extracted from a Cs-enhanced, multi-cusp, RF-driven, internal-antenna ion source. An electrostatic LEBT (Low Energy Beam Transport) focuses the 65 kV beam into the RFQ accelerator. The ion source and LEBT have normally a combined availability of ~99%. Although much progress has been made over the last years to achieve this level of availability further improvements are desirable. Failures of the internal antenna and occasionally impaired electron dump insulators require several source replacements per year. An attempt to overcome the antenna issues with an AlN external antenna source early in 2009 had to be terminated due to availability issues. This report provides a comprehensive review of the design, experimental history, status, and description of recently updated components and future plans for this ion source. The mechanical design for improved electron dump vacuum feedthroughs is also presented, which is compatible with the baseline and both external antenna ion sources.

Welton, Robert F [ORNL; Desai, Nandishkumar J [ORNL; Han, Baoxi [ORNL; Kenik, Edward A [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Murray Jr, S N [ORNL; Pennisi, Terry R [ORNL; Potter, Kerry G [ORNL; Lang, Bonnie R [ORNL; Santana, Manuel [ORNL; Stockli, Martin P [ORNL

2011-01-01

207

Ion Source Development at the SNS  

SciTech Connect

The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) now routinely operates near 1 MW of beam power on target with a highly-persistent {approx}38 mA peak current in the linac and an availability of {approx}90%. The {approx}1 ms-long, 60 Hz, {approx}50 mA H{sup -} beam pulses are extracted from a Cs-enhanced, multi-cusp, RF-driven, internal-antenna ion source. An electrostatic LEBT (Low Energy Beam Transport) focuses the 65 kV beam into the RFQ accelerator. The ion source and LEBT have normally a combined availability of {approx}99%. Although much progress has been made over the last years to achieve this level of availability further improvements are desirable. Failures of the internal antenna and occasionally impaired electron dump insulators require several source replacements per year. An attempt to overcome the antenna issues with an AlN external antenna source early in 2009 had to be terminated due to availability issues. This report provides a comprehensive review of the design, experimental history, status, and description of recently updated components and future plans for this ion source. The mechanical design for improved electron dump vacuum feedthroughs is also presented, which is compatible with the baseline and both external antenna ion sources.

Welton, R. F.; Han, B. X.; Kenik, E. A.; Murray, S. N.; Pennisi, T. R.; Potter, K. G.; Lang, B. R.; Santana, M.; Stockli, M. P. [Spallation Neutron Source, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN, 37830-647 (United States); Desai, N. J. [Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Worcester, MA, 01609 (United States)

2011-09-26

208

Ion source based on the cathodic arc  

DOEpatents

A cylindrically symmetric arc source to produce a ring of ions which leave the surface of the arc target radially and are reflected by electrostatic fields present in the source to a point of use, such as a part to be coated, is described. An array of electrically isolated rings positioned in the source serves the dual purpose of minimizing bouncing of macroparticles and providing electrical insulation to maximize the electric field gradients within the source. The source also includes a series of baffles which function as a filtering or trapping mechanism for any macroparticles. 3 figures.

Sanders, D.M.; Falabella, S.

1994-02-01

209

Ion source based on the cathodic arc  

DOEpatents

A cylindrically symmetric arc source to produce a ring of ions which leave the surface of the arc target radially and are reflected by electrostatic fields present in the source to a point of use, such as a part to be coated. An array of electrically isolated rings positioned in the source serves the dual purpose of minimizing bouncing of macroparticles and providing electrical insulation to maximize the electric field gradients within the source. The source also includes a series of baffles which function as a filtering or trapping mechanism for any macroparticles.

Sanders, David M. (Livermore, CA); Falabella, Steven (Livermore, CA)

1994-01-01

210

Surface ionization source for heavy ions  

SciTech Connect

An ion source using the surface ionization process is described. Elements whose ionization potentials are below or around 6 eV may be ionized in the source. The element vapour to be ionized is passed through one or more rhenium grids on which surface ionization occurs. The source is tested for different elements: lithium, indium, rare earths, uranium: the latter corresponding to the upper limit of the ionization potential range. The properties and performance of the source are studied. Currents from many tens of ..mu..A to many mA have been extracted, depending on the source element.

Rasser, B.; Pearson, D.I.C.; Remy, M.

1980-04-01

211

Single-ring magnetic cusp ion source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The single-ring cusp ion source discussed in this paper was developed to provide a dc ion beam in a nonpumped D-T neutron generator. The source operates at 0.25 Pa and produces a uniform-density beam through an aperture of 1.3-cm diameter. At the standard operating voltage of 150 V and arc current of 10 A, the atomic ion content of the 200-mA deuterium ion beam is about 60%, and the ion impurity level is less than 0.5%. The ion output of the source was examined at arc currents of up to 40 A and found to be a linear function; in addition, very high D+ yields were realized. With the aid of a shielded Langmuir probe, we have determined such plasma properties as electron energy, plasma potential, floating potential, and current density throughout the volume of the source. It was observed that the plasma is effectively confined by the magnetic field and there is evidence of an electron energy filtering mechanism similar to that found in multicusp ion sources. Electron energy on the filament side of the cusp has been determined to be about 75 eV and on the aperture side about 12 eV. Since the electron impact cross section for ionizing diatomic deuterium is maximum at 75 eV and the cross section for dissociating D+2 to D+ is greatest near 12 eV, we believe that a very effective two-step ionization process accounts for the high D+ yield of the single-ring magnetic cusp source. Plasma potentials measured have values close to the voltage of the anode, and the floating potentials are seen to be directly related to electron energy values. The floating potential is near cathode voltage where electron energies are high, and close to anode voltage where electron energies are low.

Brainard, J. P.; O'Hagan, J. B.

1983-11-01

212

Highly Stripped Ion Sources for MeV Ion Implantation  

SciTech Connect

Original technical objectives of CRADA number PVI C-03-09 between BNL and Poole Ventura, Inc. (PVI) were to develop an intense, high charge state, ion source for MeV ion implanters. Present day high-energy ion implanters utilize low charge state (usually single charge) ion sources in combination with rf accelerators. Usually, a MV LINAC is used for acceleration of a few rnA. It is desirable to have instead an intense, high charge state ion source on a relatively low energy platform (de acceleration) to generate high-energy ion beams for implantation. This de acceleration of ions will be far more efficient (in energy utilization). The resultant implanter will be smaller in size. It will generate higher quality ion beams (with lower emittance) for fabrication of superior semiconductor products. In addition to energy and cost savings, the implanter will operate at a lower level of health risks associated with ion implantation. An additional aim of the project was to producing a product that can lead to long­ term job creation in Russia and/or in the US. R&D was conducted in two Russian Centers (one in Tomsk and Seversk, the other in Moscow) under the guidance ofPVI personnel and the BNL PI. Multiple approaches were pursued, developed, and tested at various locations with the best candidate for commercialization delivered and tested at on an implanter at the PVI client Axcelis. Technical developments were exciting: record output currents of high charge state phosphorus and antimony were achieved; a Calutron-Bemas ion source with a 70% output of boron ion current (compared to 25% in present state-of-the-art). Record steady state output currents of higher charge state phosphorous and antimony and P ions: P{sup 2+} (8.6 pmA), P{sup 3+} (1.9 pmA), and P{sup 4+} (0.12 pmA) and 16.2, 7.6, 3.3, and 2.2 pmA of Sb{sup 3+} Sb {sup 4 +}, Sb{sup 5+}, and Sb{sup 6+} respectively. Ultimate commercialization goals did not succeed (even though a number of the products like high charge state phosphorus and antimony could have resulted in a lower power consumption of 30 kW/implanter) for the following reasons (which were discovered after R&D completion): record output of high charge state phosphorous would have thermally damage wafers; record high charge state of antimony requires tool (ion implanting machine in ion implantation jargon) modification, which did not make economic sense due to the small number of users. Nevertheless, BNL has benefited from advances in high-charge state ion generation, due to high charge state ions need for RHIC preinjection. High fraction boron ion was delivered to PVI client Axcelis for retrofit and implantation testing; the source could have reduced beam preinjector power consumption by a factor of 3.5. But, since the source generated some lithium (though in miniscule amounts); last minute decision was made not to employ the source in implanters. R&D of novel transport and gasless plasmaless deceleration, as well as decaborane molecular ion source to mitigate space charge problems in low energy shallow ion implantation was also conducted though results were not yet ready for commercialization. Future work should be focused on gasless plasmaless transport and deceleration as well as on molecular ions due to their significance to low energy, shallow implantation; which is the last frontier of ion implantation. To summarize the significant accomplishments: 1. Record steady state output currents of high charge state phosphorous, P, ions in particle milli-Ampere: P{sup 2+} (8.6 pmA), P{sup 3+} (1.9 pmA), and P{sup 4+} (0.12 pmA). 2. Record steady state output currents of high charge state antimony, Sb, ions in particle milli-Ampere: Sb{sup 3+} (16.2 pmA), Sb{sup 4+} (7.6 pmA), Sb{sup 5+} (3.3 pmA), and Sb{sup 6+} (2.2 pmA). 3. 70% output of boron ion current (compared to 25% in present state-of-the-art) from a Calutron-Bemas ion source. These accomplishments have the potential of benefiting the semiconductor manufacturing industry by lowering power consumption by as much as 30 kW per ion implanter. Major problem w

Hershcovitch, Ady

2009-06-30

213

Ion-energy distributions at a substrate in reactive magnetron sputtering discharges in Ar/H2S from copper, indium, and tungsten targets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ion-energy distributions from copper, indium, and tungsten targets were measured during reactive sputtering in argon-hydrogen sulfide (H2S) mixtures, since reactive magnetron sputtering of sulfides from metallic targets is of increasing interest, especially for photovoltaic applications (buffer and absorber layers, i.e., CuInS2, In2S3, or WS2). The mass spectra of the ions show a wide range of molecules HxSn derived from H2S by plasma-assisted attachment both for positive (n ?9) and for negative (n ?6) ions. From the copper and the indium targets metallic ions (Cu+, In+) could be detected. While tungsten and indium sulfur compounds were found, copper does not form compounds with sulfur, caused by its lower chemical reactivity. Positive (Ar+, S+, W+, Cu+, In+, etc.) as well as negative ions (S-, InS-, WS3-) were measured for dc and rf (27 MHz) plasma excitations. The positive ions originate mainly from the plasma in front of the substrate and exhibit energies of about 12 eV for the dc and 18 eV for the rf discharge for the substrate at floating potential. The energy difference is caused by the higher electron temperature in the rf compared to the dc discharge. The ion-energy distributions of negative ions exhibit two distinct peaks. The high-energetic peak can be attributed to ions accelerated in the cathode dark space to a high energy (up to more than 400 eV) corresponding to the cathode (target) voltage. The second peak has its maximum at zero energy decreasing steeply up to energies of about 100 eV. These ions are generated by charge-exchange collisions of energetic species from the target (reflected neutral argon, negative sulfur ions, etc.) on their passage from the target to the substrate caused by the high charge-exchange cross section. rf magnetron sputtering leads to significantly lower energies of negative ions from the target, caused by the lower discharge voltages, which could be advantageous for the deposition of active semiconducting sulfide films.

Seeger, S.; Harbauer, K.; Ellmer, K.

2009-03-01

214

Low Z impurity ion extraction from TFTR ion sources  

SciTech Connect

TFTR deuterium neutral beams have been operated unintentionally with significant quantities of extracted water ions. Water has been observed with an Optical Multichannel Analyzer (OMA) during beam extraction when small water leaks were present within the arc chamber. These leaks were thermally induced with the contamination level increasing linearly with pulse length. 6% of the beam current was attributed to water ions for the worst leak, corresponding to an instantaneous value of 12% at the end of a 1.5 s pulse. A pre-calorimeter collimator was damaged as a result of this operation. A similar contamination is observed during initial operation of ion sources exposed to air. This latter contamination is attributed to the synthesis, from adsorbed air, of either D{sub 2}O or the indistinguishable ND{sub 3}. Initial operation of new ion sources typically produces a contamination level of {approximately}2%. These impurities are reduced to undetectable levels after 50 to 100 beam pulses. Once a water molecule is present in the plasma generator, it is predominantly ionized rather than dissociated, resulting in the extraction of only trace amounts of hydrogenated ions. The addition of water to the extracted beam also reduces the optimum perveance, moving the typical underdense operating point closer to optimum, causing the frequency of grid faults to increase. Close to 90% of the water extracted from ion sources with water leaks was deuterated, implying that the potential exists for the production of tritiated water during TFTR`s forthcoming DT operation. Isotope exchange in the plasma generator takes place rapidly and is believed to be surface catalyzed. The primary concern is with O implanted into beam absorbers recombining with tritium, and the subsequent hold up of T{sub 2}O on cryopanels. Continuous surveillance with the OMA diagnostic during DT operation will ensure that ion sources with detectable water are not operated with tritium.

Kamperschroer, J.H.; Grisham, L.R.; Newman, R.A.; O`Connor, T.E.; Stevenson, T.N.; von Halle, A.; Williams, M.D.; Wright, K.E.

1993-04-01

215

Low Z impurity ion extraction from TFTR ion sources  

SciTech Connect

TFTR deuterium neutral beams have been operated unintentionally with significant quantities of extracted water ions. Water has been observed with an Optical Multichannel Analyzer (OMA) during beam extraction when small water leaks were present within the arc chamber. These leaks were thermally induced with the contamination level increasing linearly with pulse length. 6% of the beam current was attributed to water ions for the worst leak, corresponding to an instantaneous value of 12% at the end of a 1.5 s pulse. A pre-calorimeter collimator was damaged as a result of this operation. A similar contamination is observed during initial operation of ion sources exposed to air. This latter contamination is attributed to the synthesis, from adsorbed air, of either D[sub 2]O or the indistinguishable ND[sub 3]. Initial operation of new ion sources typically produces a contamination level of [approximately]2%. These impurities are reduced to undetectable levels after 50 to 100 beam pulses. Once a water molecule is present in the plasma generator, it is predominantly ionized rather than dissociated, resulting in the extraction of only trace amounts of hydrogenated ions. The addition of water to the extracted beam also reduces the optimum perveance, moving the typical underdense operating point closer to optimum, causing the frequency of grid faults to increase. Close to 90% of the water extracted from ion sources with water leaks was deuterated, implying that the potential exists for the production of tritiated water during TFTR's forthcoming DT operation. Isotope exchange in the plasma generator takes place rapidly and is believed to be surface catalyzed. The primary concern is with O implanted into beam absorbers recombining with tritium, and the subsequent hold up of T[sub 2]O on cryopanels. Continuous surveillance with the OMA diagnostic during DT operation will ensure that ion sources with detectable water are not operated with tritium.

Kamperschroer, J.H.; Grisham, L.R.; Newman, R.A.; O'Connor, T.E.; Stevenson, T.N.; von Halle, A.; Williams, M.D.; Wright, K.E.

1993-04-01

216

Design study of primary ion provider for relativistic heavy ion collider electron beam ion source  

SciTech Connect

Brookhaven National Laboratory has developed the new preinjector system, electron beam ion source (EBIS) for relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration Space Radiation Laboratory. Design of primary ion provider is an essential problem since it is required to supply beams with different ion species to multiple users simultaneously. The laser ion source with a defocused laser can provide a low charge state and low emittance ion beam, and is a candidate for the primary ion source for RHIC-EBIS. We show a suitable design with appropriate drift length and solenoid, which helps to keep sufficient total charge number with longer pulse length. The whole design of primary ion source, as well as optics arrangement, solid targets configuration and heating about target, is presented.

Kondo, K. [Department of Energy Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan); Radiation Laboratory, RIKEN, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Collider-Accelerator Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Kanesue, T. [Department of Applied Quantum Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Tamura, J. [Department of Energy Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan); Okamura, M. [Collider-Accelerator Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States)

2010-02-15

217

Reducing ion beam noise of vacuum arc ion sources  

SciTech Connect

Vacuum arc ion sources are known for delivering high currents of metal ion beams. By Langmuir probe and Faraday cup measurements it is shown that fluctuations of the ion beam current are due to the fluctuations of plasma density which in turn are due to the explosive nature of plasma production at cathode spots. Humphries and co-workers and later Oks and co-workers have shown that beam fluctuations can be reduced by inserting biased meshes in the plasma. Here, the idea of ion extraction at kV-level with post-acceleration is investigated. The high voltage allows us to use coarse, ridged meshes or grids. The combination of an extractor operating in the overdense plasma regime with post-acceleration lead to very reproducible, practically ''noiseless'' ion beams however at the expense of low ion current density. The noise reduction is due to ion optics effects. Although the current setup is not suitable for a heavy ion fusion injector due to the low beam current and the risk of extractor voltage breakdown, further development of the concept may lead to reproducible beam pulses of sufficiently high current and brightness.

Anders, Andre; Hollinger, Ralph

2001-08-29

218

Fourth generation electron cyclotron resonance ion sources.  

PubMed

The concepts and technical challenges related to developing a fourth generation electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source with a rf frequency greater than 40 GHz and magnetic confinement fields greater than twice B(ECR) will be explored in this article. Based on the semiempirical frequency scaling of ECR plasma density with the square of operating frequency, there should be significant gains in performance over current third generation ECR ion sources, which operate at rf frequencies between 20 and 30 GHz. While the third generation ECR ion sources use NbTi superconducting solenoid and sextupole coils, the new sources will need to use different superconducting materials, such as Nb(3)Sn, to reach the required magnetic confinement, which scales linearly with rf frequency. Additional technical challenges include increased bremsstrahlung production, which may increase faster than the plasma density, bremsstrahlung heating of the cold mass, and the availability of high power continuous wave microwave sources at these frequencies. With each generation of ECR ion sources, there are new challenges to be mastered, but the potential for higher performance and reduced cost of the associated accelerator continues to make this a promising avenue for development. PMID:18315111

Lyneis, Claude M; Leitner, D; Todd, D S; Sabbi, G; Prestemon, S; Caspi, S; Ferracin, P

2008-02-01

219

4th Generation ECR Ion Sources  

SciTech Connect

The concepts and technical challenges related to developing a 4th generation ECR ion source with an RF frequency greater than 40 GHz and magnetic confinement fields greater than twice Becr will be explored in this paper. Based on the semi-empirical frequency scaling of ECR plasma density with the square of operating frequency, there should be significant gains in performance over current 3rd generation ECR ion sources, which operate at RF frequencies between 20 and 30 GHz. While the 3rd generation ECR ion sources use NbTi superconducting solenoid and sextupole coils, the new sources will need to use different superconducting materials such as Nb3Sn to reach the required magnetic confinement, which scales linearly with RF frequency. Additional technical challenges include increased bremsstrahlung production, which may increase faster than the plasma density, bremsstrahlung heating of the cold mass and the availability of high power continuous wave microwave sources at these frequencies. With each generation of ECR ion sources, there are new challenges to be mastered, but the potential for higher performance and reduced cost of the associated accelerator continue to make this a promising avenue for development.

Lyneis, Claude M.; Leitner, D.; Todd, D.S.; Sabbi, G.; Prestemon, S.; Caspi, S.; Ferracin, P.

2008-12-01

220

Development of the Long Pulse Negative Ion Source for ITER  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model of the ion source designed for the neutral beam injectors of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), the KAMABOKO III ion source, is being tested on the MANTIS test stand at the DRFC Cadarache in collaboration with JAERI, Japan, who designed and supplied the ion source. The ion source is attached to a 3 grid 30 keV accelerator

R. S. Hemsworth; D. Boilson; U. Fanz; L. Svensson; H. P. L. de Esch; A. Krylov; P. Massmann; B. Zaniol

2005-01-01

221

Beam emittance measurements of transformer coupled plasma ion source for focused ion beam  

Microsoft Academic Search

A transformer coupled plasma (TCP) ion source has been tested in order to test its feasibility as a high brightness ion source for focused ion beam. When operating the TCP ion source with filter magnets in front of plasma electrode for a negative ion source, lower emittances are expected. Extracted beam emittances are measured with an Allison-type scanning device for

Yoon Jae Kim; I. S. Hong; H. S. Kim; Y. S. Hwang

2004-01-01

222

Laser ion source for nuclear spectroscopic studies  

SciTech Connect

An element selective laser ion source has been used to produce beams of exotic radioactive nuclei and to study their decay properties. The operational principle of the ion source is based on selective resonant laser ionization of nuclear reaction products thermalized and neutralized in a noble gas at high pressure. The ion source has been installed at the mass separator (LISOL) which is coupled on line to the cyclotron accelerator at Louvain-la-Neuve. Exotic nickel and cobalt nuclei were produced in proton-induced fission of {sup 238}U. The {beta} decay of {sup 68-74}Ni and {sup 67-70}Co isotopes has been studied by means of {beta}-{gamma} and {gamma}-{gamma} spectroscopy.

Kudryavtsev, Yuri; Andreyev, Andrej; Bruyneel, Bart; Franchoo, Serge; Gentens, Johnny; Huyse, Mark; Kruglov, Kirill; Mueller, Wilhelm; Raabe, Riccardo; Reusen, Ils; Bergh, Paul van den; Duppen, Piet van; Roosbroeck, Jan van; Vermeeren, Ludo; Weissman, Leonid [Instituut voor Kern-en Stralingsfysika, K. U. Leuven Celestijnenlaan 2000 D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)

1998-12-16

223

Liquid metal alloy ion source based metal ion injection into a room-temperature electron beam ion source  

SciTech Connect

We have carried out a series of measurements demonstrating the feasibility of using the Dresden electron beam ion source (EBIS)-A, a table-top sized, permanent magnet technology based electron beam ion source, as a charge breeder. Low charged gold ions from an AuGe liquid metal alloy ion source were injected into the EBIS and re-extracted as highly charged ions, thereby producing charge states as high as Au{sup 60+}. The setup, the charge breeding technique, breeding efficiencies as well as acceptance and emittance studies are presented.

Thorn, A.; Ritter, E.; Zschornack, G. [Fachrichtung Physik, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Helmholtzstrasse 10, D-01069 Dresden (Germany); Ullmann, F. [DREEBIT GmbH, Zur Wetterwarte 50, D-01109 Dresden (Germany); Pilz, W.; Bischoff, L. [Helmholtzzentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Bautzner Landstrasse 400, D-01328 Dresden (Germany)

2012-02-15

224

Negative ion source with low temperature transverse divergence optical system  

DOEpatents

A negative ion source is provided which has extremely low transverse divergence as a result of a unique ion focusing system in which the focal line of an ion beam emanating from an elongated, concave converter surface is outside of the ion exit slit of the source and the path of the exiting ions. The beam source operates with a minimum ion temperature which makes possible a sharply focused (extremely low transverse divergence) ribbon like negative ion beam.

Whealton, John H. (Oak Ridge, TN); Stirling, William L. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1986-01-01

225

Ion plating with an induction heating source  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Induction heating is introduced as an evaporation heat source in ion plating. A bare induction coil without shielding can be directly used in the glow discharge region with no arcing. The only requirement is to utilize an rf inductive generator with low operating frequency of 75 kHz. Mechanical simplicity of the ion plating apparatus and ease of operation is a great asset for industrial applications; practically any metal such as nickel, iron, and the high temperature refractories can be evaporated and ion plated.

Spalvins, T.; Brainard, W. A.

1976-01-01

226

Ion source design for industrial applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The more frequently used design techniques for the components of broad-beam electron bombardment ion sources are discussed. The approach used emphasizes refractory metal cathodes and permanent-magnet multipole discharge chambers. Design procedures and sample calculations are given for the discharge chamber, ion optics, the cathodes, and the magnetic circuit. Hardware designs are included for the isolator, cathode supports, anode supports, pole-piece assembly, and ion-optics supports. A comparison is made between two-grid and three-grid optics. The designs presented are representative of current technology and are adaptable to a wide range of configurations.

Kaufman, H. R.; Robinson, R. S.

1981-01-01

227

Focused ion beam source method and apparatus  

DOEpatents

A focused ion beam having a cross section of submicron diameter, a high ion current, and a narrow energy range is generated from a target comprised of particle source material by laser ablation. The method involves directing a laser beam having a cross section of critical diameter onto the target, producing a cloud of laser ablated particles having unique characteristics, and extracting and focusing a charged particle beam from the laser ablated cloud. The method is especially suited for producing focused ion beams for semiconductor device analysis and modification.

Pellin, Michael J. (Naperville, IL); Lykke, Keith R. (Gaithersburg, MD); Lill, Thorsten B. (Sunnyvale, CA)

2000-01-01

228

Ion trajectories in an electrostatic ion guide for external ion source fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

An electrostatic ion guide (EIG) that consists of concentric cylinder and central wire electrodes can transport ions efficiently\\u000a from an external ion source to an ion cyclotron resonance (ICR) ion trap for mass analysis, with several advantages over current\\u000a injection methods. Because the electrostatic force of the EIG captures ions in a stable orbit about the wire electrode, ions\\u000a with

Jarrod A. Marto; Alan G. Marshall; Michael A. May; Patrick A. Limbach

1995-01-01

229

Plasma ion sources and ion beam technology inmicrofabrications  

SciTech Connect

For over decades, focused ion beam (FIB) has been playing a very important role in microscale technology and research, among which, semiconductor microfabrication is one of its biggest application area. As the dimensions of IC devices are scaled down, it has shown the need for new ion beam tools and new approaches to the fabrication of small-scale devices. In the meanwhile, nanotechnology has also deeply involved in material science research and bioresearch in recent years. The conventional FIB systems which utilize liquid gallium ion sources to achieve nanometer scale resolution can no longer meet the various requirements raised from such a wide application area such as low contamination, high throughput and so on. The drive towards controlling materials properties at nanometer length scales relies on the availability of efficient tools. In this thesis, three novel ion beam tools have been developed and investigated as the alternatives for the conventional FIB systems in some particular applications. An integrated focused ion beam (FIB) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) system has been developed for direct doping or surface modification. This new instrument employs a mini-RF driven plasma source to generate focused ion beam with various ion species, a FEI two-lens electron (2LE) column for SEM imaging, and a five-axis manipulator system for sample positioning. An all-electrostatic two-lens column has been designed to focus the ion beam extracted from the source. Based on the Munro ion optics simulation, beam spot sizes as small as 100 nm can be achieved at beam energies between 5 to 35 keV if a 5 {micro}m-diameter extraction aperture is used. Smaller beam spot sizes can be obtained with smaller apertures at sacrifice of some beam current. The FEI 2LE column, which utilizes Schottky emission, electrostatic focusing optics, and stacked-disk column construction, can provide high-resolution (as small as 20 nm) imaging capability, with fairly long working distance (25 mm) at 25 keV beam voltage. Such an integrated FIB/SEM dual-beam system will not only improve the accuracy and reproducibility when performing ion beam sculpting and direct implantation processes, but will also enable researchers to perform cross-sectioning, imaging, and analysis with the same tool. A major advantage of this approach is the ability to produce a wide variety of ion species tailored to the application.

Ji, Lili

2007-09-01

230

Multiple arc ion sources for heavy ion fusion  

SciTech Connect

Heavy ion fusion requires high current density, low-emittance ion sources that are reliable and long lived. We report experimental and simulation results on the performance of carbon arc ion sources intended for use in a scaled induction linac experiment. These sources use a planar electrostatic plasma switch to prevent plasma from entering the extraction gap before the extraction voltage pulse is applied. This provides good beam optics for short pulse extraction. Measurements of current density and emittance are presented. Both double-slit and channel plate-pepper pot techniques are used for emittance measurement. Data presented are from a compact three-arc source with plasma coupling of the cathodes. Data on lifetime and multiple arc triggering are also presented. The plasma switch performance has been modeled with a 2D explicit electrostatic particle-in-cell code. Results showing plasma shutoff phenomena and behavior during extraction are presented. A 2D steady-state ion flow model is also used to predict the optimum plasma switch geometry for producing minimum emittance generation at the switch surface.

Rutkowski, H.L.; Johnson, R.M.; Greenway, W.G.; Gross, M.A. (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, California 94720 (US)); Hewett, D.W. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 800, Livermore, California 94550 (USA)); Humphries, S. Jr. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131 (USA))

1990-01-01

231

Single-Ion Two-Photon Source  

SciTech Connect

A single trapped ion is converted into a pseudo-two-photon source by splitting its resonance fluorescence, delaying part of it and by recombining both parts on a beam splitter. A destructive two-photon interference is observed with a contrast reaching 83(5)%. The spectral brightness of our two-photon source is quantified and shown to be comparable to parametric down-conversion devices.

Dubin, F.; Rotter, D.; Mukherjee, M.; Gerber, S. [Institute for Experimental Physics, University of Innsbruck, Technikerstrasse 25, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Blatt, R. [Institute for Experimental Physics, University of Innsbruck, Technikerstrasse 25, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Institute for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, Innsbruck (Austria)

2007-11-02

232

Ion Source Development at the SNS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) now routinely operates near 1 MW of beam power on target with a highly-persistent ~38 mA peak current in the linac and an availability of ~90%. The ~1 ms-long, 60 Hz, ~50 mA H- beam pulses are extracted from a Cs-enhanced, multi-cusp, RF-driven, internal-antenna ion source. An electrostatic LEBT (Low Energy Beam Transport) focuses the

Robert F Welton; Nandishkumar J Desai; Baoxi Han; Edward A Kenik; S N Murray Jr; Terry R Pennisi; Kerry G Potter; Bonnie R Lang; Manuel Santana; Martin P Stockli

2011-01-01

233

Lithium alumino-silicate ion source development  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report experimental progress on Li+ source development in preparation for warm dense matter heating experiments. To uniformly heat targets to electron-volt temperatures for the study of warm dense matter, we are pursuing the use of a low (E < 5 MeV) kinetic energy singly ionized lithium beam and a thin target. Two kinds of lithium (Li+) alumino-silicate ion sources,

Prabir Kumar Roy; Peter A. Seidl; Joe W. Kwan; Wayne G. Greenway; William L. Waldron; James K. Wu; Kavous Mazaheri

2009-01-01

234

Performance of the LBL ECR ion source  

SciTech Connect

The LBL Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion source in test operation since January 1984 has produced a wide variety of high charge state ion beams suitable for injection into the 88-Inch Cyclotron. Two recent developments have dramatically improved the capability of the ECR source. The first development was the production of metallic ions. The intensities of aluminum ions produced were 36, 22, 10, and .065 e..mu..A for charge states 6, 7, 8, and 11, respectively. Calcium ion intensities were 36, 31, 4.6, and 0.20 e..mu..A for charge states 8, 9, 12, and 14, respectively. The second development was the replacement of the sextupole magnet used in of all other high charge state ECR sources with an octupole structure. This modification resulted in a dramatic improvement in the intensities of the high charge state beams and a significant upward shift in the charge state distribution (C.S.D.). The ECR-octupole or OCTIGUN has produced 89, 52, 9, and 2.5 e..mu..A of Ar/sup 8,9,11,12+/ and 21, 10, and 0.34 e..mu..A of Kr/sup 10,14,18+/, respectively. For the high charge states of argon and krypton the improvement gained by using the octupole is typically a factor of 5 to 10.

Lyneis, C.M.

1984-10-01

235

Improved Bevatron local injector ion source performance  

SciTech Connect

Performance tests of the improved Bevatron Local Injector PIG Ion Source using particles of Si 4/sup +/, Ne 3/sup +/, and He 2/sup +/ are described. Initial measurements of the 8.4 keV/nucleon Si 4/sup +/ beam show an intensity of 100 particle microamperes with a normalized emittance of .06 ..pi.. cm-mrad. A low energy beam transport line provides mass analysis, diagnostics, and matching into a 200 MHz RFQ linac. The RFQ accelerates the beam from 8.4 to 200 keV/nucleon. The injector is unusual in the sense that all ion source power supplies, the ac distribution network, vacuum control equipment, and computer control system are contained in a four bay rack mounted on insulators which is located on a floor immediately above the ion source. The rack, transmission line, and the ion source housing are raised by a dc power supply to 80 kilovolts above earth ground. All power supplies, which are referenced to rack ground, are modular in construction and easily removable for maintenance. AC power is delivered to the rack via a 21 kVA, 3-phase transformer. 2 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Stover, G.; Zajec, E.

1985-05-01

236

Development of Lithium and Hydrogen Ion Sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sources of Li^{-} and H^{-} ions are needed for diagnostic neutral beams and for current drive in fusion plasmas. Previous efforts to generate Li^ {-} beams have focused on electron capture in a gas or production on a low work function surface in a plasma. Volume production of Li^{ -} by dissociative attachment of optically pumped lithium molecules has also

Steven Raymond Walther

1989-01-01

237

A negative ion source for spectrometer calibration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. A negative ion source has been built to perform the primary calibrations of the electron spectrometers used on the Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) Facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The calibration requirement for the DARHT electron beam calls for an energy\\/momentum measurement of better than 1% absolute precision, and better than 0.5% relative precision.

R. Trainham; R. R. Bartsch; C. Ekdahl; A. P. Tipton; H. A. Bender

2004-01-01

238

Secondary electron ion source neutron generator  

DOEpatents

A neutron generator employing an electron emitter, an ion source bombarded by the electrons from the electron emitter, a plasma containment zone, and a target situated between the plasma containment zone and the electron emitter is disclosed. The target contains occluded deuterium, tritium, or a mixture thereof. 4 figs.

Brainard, J.P.; McCollister, D.R.

1998-04-28

239

Secondary electron ion source neutron generator  

DOEpatents

A neutron generator employing an electron emitter, an ion source bombarded by the electrons from the electron emitter, a plasma containment zone, and a target situated between the plasma containment zone and the electron emitter. The target contains occluded deuterium, tritium, or a mixture thereof

Brainard, John P. (Albuquerque, NM); McCollister, Daryl R. (Albuquerque, NM)

1998-01-01

240

Survey of ion plating sources. [conferences  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Based on the type of evaporation source, gaseous media and mode of transport, the following is discussed: resistance, electron beam, sputtering, reactive and ion beam evaporation. Ionization efficiencies and ion energies in the glow discharge determine the percentage of atoms which are ionized under typical ion plating conditions. The plating flux consists of a small number of energetic ions and a large number of energetic neutrals. The energy distribution ranges from thermal energies up to a maximum energy of the discharge. The various reaction mechanisms which contribute to the exceptionally strong adherence - formation of a graded sustrate/coating interface are not fully understood, however the controlling factors are evaluated. The influence of process variables on the nucleation and growth characteristics are illustrated in terms of morphological changes which affect the mechanical and tribological properties of the coating.

Spalvins, T.

1979-01-01

241

Installation and commissioning of the new Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory H- Magnetron  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL) 40 year old Cockcroft-Walton 750 keV injectors with slit aperture magnetron ion sources have been replaced with a circular aperture magnetron, Low Energy Beam Transport, Radio Frequency Quadrupole Accelerator, and Medium Energy Beam Transport, as part of the FNAL Proton Improvement Plan. The injector design is based on a similar system at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The installation, commissioning efforts, and source operations to date will be covered in this paper along with plans for additional changes to the original design to improve reliability by reducing extractor spark rates and arc current duty factor.

Bollinger, D. S.

2014-02-01

242

The correlation between the radial distribution of high-energetic ions and the structural as well as electrical properties of magnetron sputtered ZnO:Al films  

SciTech Connect

The origin of the pronounced radial distributions of structural and electrical properties of magnetron sputtered ZnO:Al films has been investigated. The film properties were correlated with the radially resolved ion-distribution functions. While the positive ions exhibit low energies and a radial distribution with a maximum intensity opposite the center of the target, the negative ions can have energies up to several hundred eV, depending on the target potential, with a radial distribution with two maxima opposite the erosion tracks. The most prominent positive ion is that of the working gas (Ar{sup +}), while the highest flux of the negative ions is measured for negative oxygen O{sup ?}. The radial distribution of the flux of the high-energetic negative ions can clearly be related to the radial variations of the structural (c-axis lattice parameter, crystallite size) and electronic (resistivity) properties for sputtering from the planar target, which points to the decisive role of the high-energetic negative oxygen ions for the film quality. The relation between the negative ion bombardment and the structural as well as electronic properties can be explained by a qualitative model recently developed by us. The same target has also been investigated in the eroded state. In this case, the limited acceptance angle of the mass spectrometer leads to a misinterpretation of the radial distribution of the flux of the high-energetic negative ions. This effect can be explained by a simulation, based on the assumption that the high-energetic negative ions are mainly accelerated in the cathode (target) sheath perpendicular to the uneven substrate surface.

Bikowski, André; Welzel, Thomas; Ellmer, Klaus [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Institute for Solar Fuels, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, D-14109 Berlin (Germany)] [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Institute for Solar Fuels, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, D-14109 Berlin (Germany)

2013-12-14

243

Development of the third generation electron cyclotron resonance ion source  

Microsoft Academic Search

The LBNL third generation electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source has progressed from a concept to the fabrication of a full scale prototype superconducting magnet structure. This new ECR ion source will combine the recent ECR ion source techniques that significantly enhance the production of high charge state ions. The design includes a plasma chamber made from aluminum to provide

C. M. Lyneis; Z. Q. Xie; C. E. Taylor

1998-01-01

244

Development of the 3rd generation ECR ion source  

Microsoft Academic Search

The LBNL 3rd Generation ECR ion source has progressed from a concept to the fabrication of a full scale prototype superconducting magnet structure. This new ECR ion source will combine the recent ECR ion source techniques that significantly enhance the production of high charge state ions. The design includes a plasma chamber made from aluminum to provide additional cold electrons,

C. M. Lyneis; Z. Q. Xie; C. E. Taylor

1997-01-01

245

Development of the third generation ECR ion source  

Microsoft Academic Search

The LBNL third generation electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source has progressed from a concept to the fabrication of a full scale prototype superconducting magnet structure. This new ECR ion source will combine the recent ECR ion source techniques that significantly enhance the production of high charge state ions. The design includes a plasma chamber made from aluminum to provide

C. M. Lyneis; Z. Q. Xie; C. E. Taylor

1998-01-01

246

Status of ion sources for the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator HIMAC  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) at National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) is the first heavy-ion accelerator complex dedicated to cancer therapy. HIMAC is equipped with two kinds of ion sources. The PIG ion source is an indirectly heated cathode type, which is operated with a very low-duty factor. The ECR ion source has a single closed

A. Kitagawa; S. Yamada; M. Muramatsu; H. Ogawa; Y. Sato; M. Torikoshi; J. Yoshizawa; M. Sekiguchi; T. Hattori; Y. Honda; T. Kimura; C. Kobayashi; H. Matsushita; T. Okada; H. Sakamoto; M. Yamamoto; K. Sawada

1996-01-01

247

Development of 13 GHz compact electron cyclotron resonance ion source  

Microsoft Academic Search

An extremely compact, all-permanent-magnet electron cyclotron resonance ion source was designed and manufactured mainly for materials development. The ion source was installed in a 400 kV ion implanter, and a heavy ion beam in the mega-electron-volt (MeV) energy region with high beam intensity was available using multiply charged ions from the ion source. The magnet measured 120 mm in length

Y. Saitoh; K. Ohkoshi; K. Arakawa

2004-01-01

248

The SNS External Antenna H- Ion Source  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is an accelerator-based, pulsed neutron-scattering facility, currently in the process of ramping up neutron production. In order to insure that we will meet our operational commitments as well as provide for future facility upgrades with high reliability, we have developed an RF-driven, H- ion source based on a ceramic aluminum nitride (AlN) plasma chamber [1]. This source is expected to be utilized by the SNS for neutron production starting in 2009. This report details the design of the production source which features an AlN plasma chamber, 2-layer external antenna, cooled-multicusp magnet array, Cs2CrO4 cesium system and a Molybdenum plasma ignition gun. Performance of the production source both on the SNS accelerator and SNS test stand is reported. The source has also been designed to accommodate an elemental Cs system with an external reservoir which has demonstrated unanalyzed beam currents up to ~100mA (60Hz, 1ms) on the SNS ion source test stand.

Welton, Robert F [ORNL] [ORNL; Stockli, Martin P [ORNL] [ORNL; Murray Jr, S N [ORNL] [ORNL; Crisp, Danny W [ORNL] [ORNL; Carmichael, Justin R [ORNL] [ORNL; Goulding, Richard Howell [ORNL] [ORNL; Han, Baoxi [ORNL] [ORNL; Pennisi, Terry R [ORNL] [ORNL; Santana, Manuel [ORNL] [ORNL

2010-01-01

249

Growth of fullerene-like carbon nitride thin solid films by reactive magnetron sputtering; role of low-energy ion irradiation in determining microstructure and mechanical properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fullerene-like (FL) carbon nitride (CNx) films were deposited on Si (100) substrates by dc reactive, unbalanced, magnetron sputtering in a N2/Ar mixture from a high-purity pyrolythic graphite cathode in a dual-magnetron system with coupled magnetic fields. The N2 fraction in the discharge gas (0%-100%) and substrate bias (-25 V; -40 V) was varied, while the total pressure (0.4 Pa) and substrate temperature (450 °C) was kept constant. The coupled configuration of the magnetrons resulted in a reduced ion flux density, leading to a much lower average energy per incorporated particle, due to a less focused plasma as compared to a single magnetron. This enabled the evolution of a pronounced FL microstructure. The nitrogen concentration in the films saturated rapidly at 14-18 at. %, as determined by elastic recoil analysis, with a minor dependence on the discharge conditions. No correlations were detected between the photoelectron N1s core level spectra and the different microstructures, as observed by high-resolution electron microscopy. A variety of distinct FL structures were obtained, ranging from structures with elongated and aligned nitrogen-containing graphitic sheets to disordered structures, however, not exclusively linked to the total N concentration in the films. The microstructure evolution has rather to be seen as in equilibrium between the two competing processes of adsorption and desorption of nitrogen-containing species at the substrate. This balance is shifted by the energy and number of arriving species as well as by the substrate temperature. The most exceptional structure, for lower N2 fractions, consists of well-aligned, multi-layered circular features (nano-onions) with an inner diameter of approximately 0.7 nm and successive shells at a distance of ˜0.35 nm up to a diameter of 5 nm. It is shown that the intrinsic stress formation is closely linked with the evolution and accommodation of the heavily bent fullerene-like sheets. The FL CNx structures define the mechanical response of the films as revealed by nano-indentation. The material is highly elastic and fracture tough, and has reasonable hardness and elastic modulus values. On a nano-structured level, it is inferred the CNx stores deformation energy elastically by compression of the interplanar lattice spacing and buckling of the sheets, while crosslinks between sheets prevent gliding. Increasing the bias voltage from -25 to -40 V multiplies hardness and modulus values, while keeping their high ratio of up to 0.2, due to a higher degree of cross-linking.

Neidhardt, J.; Czigány, Zs.; Brunell, I. F.; Hultman, L.

2003-03-01

250

Characterization of an iodine-based ionic liquid ion source and studies on ion fragmentation  

E-print Network

Electrosprays are a well studied source of charged droplets and ions. A specific subclass is the ionic liquid ion source (ILIS), which produce ion beams from the electrostatically stressed meniscus of ionic liquids. ILIS ...

Fedkiw, Timothy Peter

2010-01-01

251

Status of ECR ion sources at JAERI  

E-print Network

At the Takasaki site of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, four ECR ion sources were purchased or developed so far. This paper will report their performance, modification and status. The outlines for each source are as follows; 1. OCTOPUS purchased from IBA s.a. has been in use with a cyclotron since 1990. The gas feed system was modified to change gas species within 10 minutes to avoid impurity ions in the cocktail beam acceleration technique of the cyclotron. 2. ECR-18 with 18-GHz microwave has a solenoid coil between a pair of mirror coils to change mirror ratio in a wide range. A bump between mirror peaks in the original axial field distribution was removed by halving the solenoid length. The performance in generating high charge state ions was significantly improved as a result. 3. HYPERNANOGAN was purchased from PANTECHNIK s.a. and installed in the cyclotron system this year. Test operation was successfully made with generation of Ar, Pb and Ta ions. 4. MINI ECR is a full permanent magnet source wi...

Yokota, W; Nara, T; Ishi, Y; Arakawa, K; Ohkoshi, K

1999-01-01

252

Fullerenes in electron cyclotron resonance ion sources  

SciTech Connect

Fullerene plasmas and beams have been produced in our electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRIS) originally designed for other purposes. The ATOMKI-ECRIS is a traditional ion source with solenoid mirror coils to generate highly charged ions. The variable frequencies NIRS-KEI-1 and NIRS-KEI-2 are ECR ion sources built from permanent magnets and specialized for the production of carbon beams. The paper summarizes the experiments and results obtained by these facilities with fullerenes. Continuous effort has been made to get the highest C{sub 60} beam intensities. Surprisingly, the best result was obtained by moving the C{sub 60} oven deep inside the plasma chamber, very close to the resonance zone. Record intensity singly and doubly charged fullerene beams were obtained (600 and 1600 nA, respectively) at lower C{sub 60} material consumption. Fullerene derivatives were also produced. We mixed fullerenes with other plasmas (N, Fe) with the aim of making new materials. Nitrogen encapsulated fullerenes (mass: 720+14=734) were successfully produced. In the case of iron, two methods (ferrocene, oven) were tested. Molecules with mass of 720+56=776 were detected in the extracted beam spectra.

Biri, S.; Fekete, E.; Kitagawa, A.; Muramatsu, M.; Janossy, A.; Palinkas, J. [Institute of Nuclear Research (ATOMKI), H-4026 Debrecen, Bem ter 18/C (Hungary); National Institute for Radiological Sciences (NIRS), 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Department of Experimental Physics, Technical University of Budapest, H-1521 Budapest, P.O. Box 91 (Hungary); Department of Experimental Physics, University of Debrecen, H-4026 Debrecen, Bem ter 18/A (Hungary)

2006-03-15

253

rf-driven ion sources for industrial applications (invited) (abstract)  

SciTech Connect

The Plasma and Ion Source Technology Group at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory have been developing rf-driven ion sources for the last two decades. These sources are being used to generate both positive and negative ion beams. Some of these sources are operating in particle accelerators such as the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge, while others are being employed in various industrial ion beam systems. There are four areas where the rf-driven ion sources are commonly used in industry. (1) In semiconductor manufacturing, rf-driven sources have found important applications in plasma etching, ion beam implantation, and ion beam lithography. (2) In material analysis and surface modification, miniature rf-ion sources can be found in focused ion beam systems. They can provide ion beams of essentially any element in the Periodic Table. The newly developed combined rf ion-electron beam unit improves greatly the performance of the secondary ion mass spectrometry tool. (3) For neutron production, rf ion source is a major component of compact, high flux D-D, D-T, or T-T neutron generators. These neutron sources are now being employed in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) as well as in neutron imaging and material interrogation. (4) Large area rf-driven ion source will be used in an industrial design neutral beam diagnostic system for probing fusion plasmas. Such sources can be easily scaled to provide large ion beam current for future fusion reactor applications.

Leung, Ka-Ngo [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and Nuclear Engineering Department, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

2008-02-15

254

Electron cyclotron resonance ion sources of highly charged ions: from classical to superconducting sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Along their continuous performance progression, electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRIS) of highly charged ions must now cope with new demanding confinement requirements, specifically, higher magnetic fields in devices of larger dimensions, that can be realized only with superconducting coils. In this article we deal with the present state of the art of ECRIS, summarize the underlying plasma physics and

G. Melin

1999-01-01

255

Extracted current saturation in negative ion sources  

SciTech Connect

The extraction of negatively charged particles from a negative ion source is one of the crucial issues in the development of the neutral beam injector system for future experimental reactor ITER. Full 3D electrostatic particle-in-cell Monte Carlo collision code - ONIX [S. Mochalskyy et al., Nucl. Fusion 50, 105011 (2010)] - is used to simulate the hydrogen plasma behaviour and the extracted particle features in the vicinity of the plasma grid, both sides of the aperture. It is found that the contribution to the extracted negative ion current of ions born in the volume is small compared with that of ions created at the plasma grid walls. The parametric study with respect to the rate of negative ions released from the walls shows an optimum rate. Beyond this optimum, a double layer builds-up by the negative ion charge density close to the grid aperture surface reducing thus extraction probability, and therefore the extracted current. The effect of the extraction potential and magnetic field magnitudes on the extraction is also discussed. Results are in good agreement with available experimental data.

Mochalskyy, S.; Lifschitz, A. F.; Minea, T. [LPGP, University Paris-Sud 11, bat 210, 15 rue G. Clemenceau-Orsay, F91405 (France)

2012-06-01

256

Extracted current saturation in negative ion sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The extraction of negatively charged particles from a negative ion source is one of the crucial issues in the development of the neutral beam injector system for future experimental reactor ITER. Full 3D electrostatic particle-in-cell Monte Carlo collision code—ONIX [S. Mochalskyy et al., Nucl. Fusion 50, 105011 (2010)]—is used to simulate the hydrogen plasma behaviour and the extracted particle features in the vicinity of the plasma grid, both sides of the aperture. It is found that the contribution to the extracted negative ion current of ions born in the volume is small compared with that of ions created at the plasma grid walls. The parametric study with respect to the rate of negative ions released from the walls shows an optimum rate. Beyond this optimum, a double layer builds-up by the negative ion charge density close to the grid aperture surface reducing thus extraction probability, and therefore the extracted current. The effect of the extraction potential and magnetic field magnitudes on the extraction is also discussed. Results are in good agreement with available experimental data.

Mochalskyy, S.; Lifschitz, A. F.; Minea, T.

2012-06-01

257

High electric field deuterium ion sources for neutron generators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Active interrogation systems for highly enriched uranium require improved fieldable neutron sources. The target technology for deuterium-tritium neutron generators is well understood and the most significant improvement can be achieved by improving the deuterium ion source through increased output and, in some cases, lifetime of the ion source. We are developing a new approach to a deuterium ion sources based

Birk Reichenbach

2009-01-01

258

Note: Development of ESS Bilbao's proton ion source: Ion Source Hydrogen Positive  

SciTech Connect

The Ion Source Hydrogen positive is a 2.7 GHz off-resonance microwave discharge ion source. It uses four coils to generate an axial magnetic field in the plasma chamber around 0.1 T that exceeds the ECR resonance field. A new magnetic system was designed as a combination of the four coils and soft iron in order to increase the reliability of the source. The description of the simulations of the magnetic field and the comparison with the magnetic measurements are presented. Moreover, results of the initial commissioning of the source for extraction voltage until 50 kV will be reported.

Miracoli, R., E-mail: rmiracoli@essbilbao.org; Feuchtwanger, J.; Arredondo, I.; Belver, D.; Gonzalez, P. J.; Corres, J.; Djekic, S.; Echevarria, P.; Eguiraun, M.; Garmendia, N.; Muguira, L. [ESS-Bilbao, Leioa (Spain)] [ESS-Bilbao, Leioa (Spain)

2014-02-15

259

Compact microwave ion source for industrial applications  

SciTech Connect

A 2.45 GHz microwave ion source for ion implanters has many good properties for industrial application, such as easy maintenance and long lifetime, and it should be compact for budget and space. But, it has a dc current supply for the solenoid and a rf generator for plasma generation. Usually, they are located on high voltage platform because they are electrically connected with beam extraction power supply. Using permanent magnet solenoid and multi-layer dc break, high voltage deck and high voltage isolation transformer can be eliminated, and the dose rate on targets can be controlled by pulse duty control with semiconductor high voltage switch. Because the beam optics does not change, beam transfer components, such as focusing elements and beam shutter, can be eliminated. It has shown the good performances in budget and space for industrial applications of ion beams.

Cho, Yong-Sub; Kim, Dae-Il; Kim, Han-Sung; Seol, Kyung-Tae; Kwon, Hyeok-Jung; Hong, In-Seok [Proton Engineering Frontier Project, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

2012-02-15

260

Ion source antenna development for the Spallation Neutron Source  

Microsoft Academic Search

The operational lifetime of a radio-frequency (rf) ion source is generally governed by the length of time the insulating structure protecting the antenna survives during exposure to the plasma. Coating the antenna with a thin layer of insulating material is a common means of extending the life of such antennas. When low-power\\/low-duty factor rf excitation is employed, antenna lifetimes of

R. F. Welton; M. P. Stockli; Y. Kang; M. Janney; R. Keller; R. W. Thomae; T. Schenkel; S. Shukla

2002-01-01

261

H- ion source development for the FNAL 750keV injector upgrade  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The new FNAL 750keV injector upgrade for the replacement of the 40 year old Fermi National Laboratory (FNAL) Cockcroft-Walton accelerators with a new ion source and 200MHz Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ), Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) and Medium Energy Beam Transport (MEBT) [1], has been built and is now being tested prior to installation during the 2012 shutdown. The new H- ion source is a round aperture magnetron which was developed at Brookhaven National Lab (BNL) by Jim Alessi[2]. Operational experience from BNL has shown that this type of source is more reliable with a longer lifetime (on the order of 6 to 9 months) due to better power efficiency. With a similar duty factor to BNL, we expect to have a comparable lifetime between source changes. The new source design reliably produces 90mA of H- beam current at 15Hz rep-rate, 250?s pulse width, and a duty factor of 0.38%. The measured emittances at the end of the LEBT are horizontally ?H = 0.21? mm* mrad and vertically ?V = 0.17? mm* mrad. With 35kV extraction the power efficiency is 60mA/kW. The source design, along with data from a test stand and the LEBT, will be presented in this paper.

Bollinger, D. S.

2013-02-01

262

Miniature induction oven for ion sources optimisation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The space and power limitation frequently arising when inserting ovens into ion sources lead us to explore alternatives to the direct current ohmic heating. An induction oven has the following advantages over a resistance one: a) the current in the induction coil is lower; b) heating may be concentrated on the sample surface by choosing the right value of the frequency and the total power is limited; c) there is no contact between the heating coil and the heated sample; in fact a boron nitride crucible separates the sample from the coil. A tantalum enclosure minimizes EMI and coupling to the plasma. The technological and optimisation problems due to the limited size are discussed. In perspective, these devices may heat a broad range of elements up to 2000 K extending application of any ion volume sources.

Cavenago, M.; Moisio, M. F.

1996-02-01

263

Experimental Evaluation of a Negative Ion Source for a Heavy Ion Fusion Negative Ion Driver  

SciTech Connect

Negative halogen ions have recently been proposed as a possible alternative to positive ions for heavy ion fusion drivers because electron accumulation would not be a problem in the accelerator, and if desired, the beams could be photo-detached to neutrals. To test the ability to make suitable quality beams, an experiment was conducted at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory using chlorine in an RF-driven ion source. Without introducing any cesium (which is required to enhance negative ion production in hydrogen ion sources) a negative chlorine current density of 45 mA/cm{sup 2} was obtained under the same conditions that gave 57 45 mA/cm{sup 2} of positive chlorine, suggesting the presence of nearly as many negative ions as positive ions in the plasma near the extraction plane. The negative ion spectrum was 99.5% atomic chlorine ions, with only 0.5% molecular chlorine, and essentially no impurities. Although this experiment did not incorporate the type of electron suppression technology that i s used in negative hydrogen beam extraction, the ratio of co-extracted electrons to Cl{sup -} was as low as 7 to 1, many times lower than the ratio of their mobilities, suggesting that few electrons are present in the near-extractor plasma. This, along with the near-equivalence of the positive and negative ion currents, suggests that the plasma in this region was mostly an ion-ion plasma. The negative chlorine current density was relatively insensitive to pressure, and scaled linearly with RF power. If this linear scaling continues to hold at higher RF powers, it should permit current densities of 100 45 mA/cm{sup 2}, sufficient for present heavy ion fusion injector concepts. The effective ion temperatures of the positive and negative ions appeared to be similar and relatively low for a plasma source.

Grisham, L. R.; Hahto, S. K.; Hahto, S. T.; Kwan, J. W.; Leung, K. N.

2004-06-16

264

Field Ion Source Development for Neutron Generators  

SciTech Connect

An ion source based on the principles of electrostatic field desorption is being developed to improve the performance of existing compact neutron generators. The ion source is an array of gated metal tips derived from field electron emitter array microfabrication technology. A comprehensive summary of development and experimental activities is presented. Many structural modifications to the arrays have been incorporated to achieve higher tip operating fields, while lowering fields at the gate electrode to prevent gate field electron emission which initiates electrical breakdown in the array. The latest focus of fabrication activities has been on rounding the gate electrode edge and surrounding the gate electrode with dielectric material. Array testing results have indicated a steady progression of increased array tip operating fields with each new design tested. The latest arrays have consistently achieved fields beyond those required for the onset of deuterium desorption ({approx}20 V/nm), and have demonstrated the desorption of deuterium at fields up to 36 V/nm. The number of ions desorbed from an array has been quantified, and field desorption of metal tip substrate material from array tips has been observed for the first time. Gas-phase field ionization studies with {approx}10,000 tip arrays have achieved deuterium ion currents of {approx}50 nA. Neutron production by field ionization has yielded {approx}10{sup 2} n/s from {approx}1 mm{sup 2} of array area using the deuterium-deuterium fusion reaction at 90 kV.

B. Bargsten Johnson; P. R. Schwoebel; C. E. Holland; P. J. Resnick; K. L. Hertz; D. L. Chichester

2012-01-01

265

Microstructure and mechanical properties of CrN films fabricated by high power pulsed magnetron discharge plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CrN films with strong adhesion with the substrate have been fabricated on Ti6Al4V alloy using novel plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (PIII&D) based on high power pulsed magnetron sputtering (HPPMS). A macro-particle free chromium plasma is generated by HPPMS while the samples are subjected to high voltage pulses to conduct PIII&D. The CrN coatings have a dense columnar structure and low surface roughness. The grains in the films have the face-center cubic (fcc) structure with the (2 0 0) preferred orientation. An excellent adhesion is achieved with a critical load up to 74.7 N. An implantation voltage of 18 kV yields a hardness of 18 GPa and better wear resistance and a low friction coefficient of 0.48 are achieved.

Wu, Zhongzhen; Tian, Xiubo; Wang, Zeming; Gong, Chunzhi; Yang, Shiqin; Tan, Cher Ming; Chu, Paul K.

2011-10-01

266

Direct analysis of solid samples by laser excited atomic fluorescence spectrometry with sample atomization by ion sputtering in a planar magnetron discharge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A specially designed planar magnetron for direct atomization of solid materials by ion sputtering for laser excited atomic fluorescence spectrometry (LEAFS) was investigated. This atomizer provides a much higher atomic flux than the previously used hollow cathode type. The potential of the atomizer was examined through the analysis of Si traces in high-purity In and Ga. Theoretically simulated calibration curves for a particular geometry of the atomizer were compared with those that were experimentally obtained. For both matrices, the deviations of the experimental and simulated calibration curves were by less than a factor of three. The limits of detection (3?) of 0.4 ng/g for In and of 1 ng/g for Ga were obtained.

Dashin, S. A.; Mayorov, I. A.; Bolshov, M. A.

1993-03-01

267

Improved Ambient Pressure Pyroelectric Ion Source  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The detection of volatile vapors of unknown species in a complex field environment is required in many different applications. Mass spectroscopic techniques require subsystems including an ionization unit and sample transport mechanism. All of these subsystems must have low mass, small volume, low power, and be rugged. A volatile molecular detector, an ambient pressure pyroelectric ion source (APPIS) that met these requirements, was recently reported by Caltech researchers to be used in in situ environments.

Beegle, Luther W.; Kim, Hugh I.; Kanik, Isik; Ryu, Ernest K.; Beckett, Brett

2011-01-01

268

Improvement of four anode rods ion source  

SciTech Connect

In this work, an improved form of a saddle field ion source has been designed and constructed. It consists of four anode rods made from copper and two copper cathode discs. The two cathode discs are placed symmetrically on both sides of the four anode rods. The electrical discharge and output ion beam characteristics were measured at different pressures using argon gas. The optimum distance between each two anode rods was determined. Also the optimum distance between the four anode rods and any cathode disc was obtained. It was found that the optimum distance between each two anode rods equal to 6 mm, while the optimum distance between the four anode rods and any cathode disc equal to 16 mm, where a stable discharge current and maximum output ion beam current can be obtained. The effect of negative extraction voltage applied to both the extractor electrode and Faraday cup on the output ion beam current was studied. The sputter yield of copper and aluminum targets using argon ions of different energies was determined.

Abdel Salam, F. W.; El-Khabeary, H.; Abdel Reheem, A. M. [Accelerators and Ion Sources Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, P. No. 13759 (Egypt); Ahmed, M. M. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Helwan University, Cairo (Egypt)

2011-03-15

269

Development of the ion source for cluster implantation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bernas ion source development to meet needs of 100s of electron-volt ion implanters for shallow junction production is in progress in Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics. The ion sources provides high intensity ion beam of boron clusters under self-cleaning operation mode. The last progress with ion source operation is presented. The mechanism of self-cleaning procedure is described.

Kulevoy, T. V.; Seleznev, D. N.; Kozlov, A. V.; Kuibeda, R. P.; Kropachev, G. N.; Alexeyenko, O. V.; Dugin, S. N.; Oks, E. M.; Gushenets, V. I.; Hershcovitch, A.; Jonson, B.; Poole, H. J.

2014-02-01

270

HIGH-INTENSITY, HIGH CHARGE-STATE HEAVY ION SOURCES  

SciTech Connect

There are many accelerator applications for high intensity heavy ion sources, with recent needs including dc beams for RIA, and pulsed beams for injection into synchrotrons such as RHIC and LHC. The present status of sources producing high currents of high charge state heavy ions is reviewed. These sources include ECR, EBIS, and Laser ion sources. Benefits and limitations for these type sources are described. Possible future improvements in these sources are also mentioned.

ALESSI,J.G.

2004-08-16

271

Extraction physics in volume H--ion sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent hydrogen negative-ion sources (JT60, large helical device (LHD)) operate with a magnetic filter field extending up to the plasma electrode and extraction opening. As shown earlier such a magnetic field has a strong effect upon the value of the extracted negative ion and electron current. Measurements of the negative ion and electron density were performed in the ion source,

M. Bacal; A. Hatayama; T. Matsumiya; M. Hamabe; T. Kuroda; Y. Oka

2006-01-01

272

Negative ion density distribution in a volume negative ion source-its dependence on plasma parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a volume negative ion source, H- ions are formed in hydrogen plasmas by dissociative attachment of slow plasma electrons to highly vibrationally excited hydrogen molecules, and these vibrational molecules are produced by energetic electron impact. Production of D- ions is believed to be the same as that of H- ions. To develop efficient D- ion sources, it is important

S. Mori; Y. Tauchi; O. Fukumasa; M. Hamabe; Y. Takeiri

2003-01-01

273

Investigation of an injector with an arc multicharged ion source  

Microsoft Academic Search

An injector with a PIG ion source has been designed for the axial injection system of the U-200 cyclotron. An accel-decel electrode system and Wien filter are used for extraction of the ion beam. Some results of computer simulations of the ion trajectories in such an ion optical system and the experimental results of the ion beam formation and transport

S. Biri; S. L. Bogomolov; V. B. Kutner; Yu. P. Tretyakov

1992-01-01

274

Optimization of a two-stages electrostatic reflex ion source  

Microsoft Academic Search

In our argon, oxygen, or nitrogen broad beam ion source, 80 mm in diameter, which is either an electrostatic reflex ion source, or a magnetic and electrostatic reflex ion source, the hot filament has been replaced by a carefully optimized microwave plasma (MP) cathode under the electron cyclotron resonance condition. Different geometries of antennae in which the microwave transverse electric

A. Farchi; L. Wartski; F. Boukari; V. Roy; Ph. Coste; J. Aubert

1994-01-01

275

A Quick Change Axial Cold Cathode Ion Source  

Microsoft Academic Search

An axial cold cathode heavy ion source has been built and successfully operated on the Michigan State University Cyclotron. This ion source was designed to minimize the time to change cathodes and thereby increase the cyclotron efficiency. The ion source change time (i.e. the time to change the cathode and restrike the arc) can be less than 15 minutes. In

M. L. Mallory; P. S. Miller; W. S. Chien

1977-01-01

276

Operating experience with an ion source in a superconducting cyclotron  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors have developed a PIG ion source for axial insertion in the K500 cyclotron. The operation of the ion source has been limited to the requirements demanded by the operation of the cyclotron. These requirements have been for moderate charge state light heavy ions, of principally carbon, nitrogen and neon. The source design is more than adequate for moderate

T. A. Antaya; J. A. Kuchar; M. L. Mallory

1983-01-01

277

Ions beams and ferroelectric plasma sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Near-perfect space-charge neutralization is required for the transverse compression of high perveance ion beams for ion-beam-driven warm dense matter experiments, such as the Neutralized Drift Compression eXperiment (NDCX). Neutralization can be accomplished by introducing a plasma in the beam path, which provides free electrons that compensate the positive space charge of the ion beam. In this thesis, charge neutralization of a 40 keV, perveance-dominated Ar+ beam by a Ferroelectric Plasma Source (FEPS) is investigated. First, the parameters of the ion beam, such as divergence due to the extraction optics, charge neutralization fraction, and emittance were measured. The ion beam was propagated through the FEPS plasma, and the effects of charge neutralization were inferred from time-resolved measurements of the transverse beam profile. In addition, the dependence of FEPS plasma parameters on the configuration of the driving pulser circuit was studied to optimize pulser design. An ion accelerator was constructed that produced a 30-50 keV Ar + beam with pulse duration <300 mus and dimensionless perveance Q up to 8 x 10-4. Transverse profile measurements 33 cm downstream of the ion source showed that the dependence of beam radius on Q was consistent with space charge expansion. It was concluded that the beam was perveance-dominated with a charge neutralization fraction of approximately zero in the absence of neutralizing plasma. Since beam expansion occurred primarily due to space charge, the decrease in effective perveance due to neutralization by FEPS plasma can be inferred from the reduction in beam radius. Results on propagation of the ion beam through FEPS plasma demonstrate that after the FEPS is triggered, the beam radius decreases to its neutralized value in about 5 mus. The duration of neutralization was about 10 mus at a charging voltage VFEPS = 5.5 kV and 35 mus at VFEPS = 6.5 kV. With VFEPS = 6.5 kV, the transverse current density profile 33 cm downstream of the source had a Gaussian shape with xrms =5 mm, which corresponds to a half-angle divergence of 0.87°. The measurements show that near-perfect charge neutralization with FEPS can be attained. No loss of ion beam current was detected, indicating the absence of a neutral cloud in the region of beam propagation, which would cause beam loss to charge exchange collisions. This provides evidence in favor of using FEPS in a future Heavy Ion Fusion accelerator. The FEPS discharge was investigated based on current-voltage measurements in the pulser circuit. Different values of series resistance and storage capacitance in the pulser circuit were used. The charged particle current emitted by the FEPS into vacuum was measured from the difference in forward and return currents in the driving circuit. It was found that FEPS is an emitter of negative charge, and that electron current emission begins approximately 0.5 mus after the fast-rising high voltage pulse is applied and lasts for tens of mus. The value of the series resistance in the pulser circuit was varied to change the rise time of the voltage pulse; plasma density was expected to decrease with increasing values of resistance. However, the data showed that changing the resistance had no significant effect. The average charge emitted per shot depends strongly on the value of the storage capacitance. Lowering the capacitance from 141 nF to 47 nF resulted in a near-complete shut-off of charge emission, although the amplitude of the applied voltage pulse was as high, and rise time as short, as when high-density plasma was produced. Increasing the capacitance from 141 nF to 235 nF increased the average charge emitted per shot by a factor of 2.

Stepanov, Anton

278

Development of a high current H(-) ion source for cyclotrons.  

PubMed

A multi-cusp DC H(-) ion source has been designed and fabricated for medical applications of cyclotrons. Optimization of the ion source is in progress, such as the improvement of the filament configuration, magnetic filter strength, extraction electrode's shape, configuration of electron suppression magnets, and plasma electrode material. A small quantity of Cs has been introduced into the ion source to enhance the negative ion beam current. The ion source produced 16 mA of DC H(-) ion beam with the Cs-seeded operation at a low arc discharge power of 2.8 kW. PMID:24593547

Etoh, H; Aoki, Y; Mitsubori, H; Arakawa, Y; Mitsumoto, T; Yajima, S; Sakuraba, J; Kato, T; Okumura, Y

2014-02-01

279

ECR and cesium ionizer systems for the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory atomic beam polarized ion source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A plasma ionizer in which the electrons are heated via electron-cyclotron resonance is used to produce beams of polarized H + (or D +) ions from spin-polarized H 0 (or D 0) beams. The plasma is confined axially via a magnetic mirror field and radially by a sextupole field created by permanent magnets. Plasma heating is accomplished via 75 to 100 W of rf power fed radially into the region between the mirror coils either from a variable frequency, 2.8 or 4.8 GHz traveling wave tube amplifier or from a 2.45 GHz magnetron source. The operation of the system is simple, stable, and reproducible. The extracted positive polarized beam can be converted to negative by adding electrons in a cesium vapor charge-exchange canal; the effective conversion efficiency ranges between 15 and 20%. The extracted polarized beam has an energy spread < 15 eV.

Clegg, T. B.; Hooke, W. M.; Crosson, E. R.; Lovette, A. W.; Middleton, H. L.; Pfutzner, H. G.; Sweeton, K. A.

1995-02-01

280

Ion source with improved primary arc collimation  

DOEpatents

An improved negative ion source is provided in which a self-biasing, molybdenum collimator is used to define the primary electron stream arc discharge from a filament operated at a negative potential. The collimator is located between the anode and the filament. It is electrically connected to the anode by means of an appropriate size resistor such that the collimator is biased at essentially the filament voltage during operation. Initially, the full arc voltage appears across the filament to collimator until the arc discharge strikes. Then the collimator biases itself to essentially filament potential due to current flow through the resistor thus defining the primary electron stream without intercepting any appreciable arc power. The collimator aperture is slightly smaller than the anode aperture to shield the anode from the arc power, thereby preventing the exposure of the anode to the full arc power which, in the past, has caused overheating and erosion of the anode collimator during extended time pulsed-beam operation of the source. With the self-biasing collimator of this invention, the ion source may be operated from short pulse periods to steady-state without destroying the anode.

Dagenhart, William K. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1985-01-01

281

1+-n+ ECR ION SOURCE DEVELOPMENT TEST STAND  

SciTech Connect

A test stand for the investigation of 1+-n+ charge boosting using an ECR ion sources is currently being assembled at the Texas A&M Cyclotron Institute. The ultimate goal is to relate the charge-boosting of ions of stable species to possible charge-boosting of ions of radioactive species extracted from the diverse, low-charge-state ion sources developed for radioactive ion beams.

Donald P. May

2006-04-07

282

Recent work on a microwave ion source  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The performance of a microwave (2.45 GHz) plasma-disk ion source using a cylindrical microwave cavity is described. The operating characteristics in argon and xenon gases with 50-200 W of input power and gas flow rates from 10-80 sccm are presented. In particular, extracted beam current versus accelerating voltage, and specific energy vs. mass utilization efficiency and extracted beam current are presented. Double Langmuir probe measurements indicate that electron densities in excess of 10 to the 12th per cu cm can be readily achieved in the microwave generated plasma.

Asmussen, J.; Root, J.

1984-01-01

283

Calculation of plasma properties in ion sources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Simple algebraic equations are developed that can be used to calculate the average primary electron density, the average primary to Maxwellian density ratio, and the average Maxwellian electron temperature in the discharge chamber of a cusped magnetic field ion source. These properties may be calculated as functions of the propellant gas flow rate and the propellant utilization efficiency. Each of the plasma properties calculated using the model agrees well with the corresponding experimental data for both argon and xenon gases over a wide range of propellant flow rates and utilization efficiencies.

Brophy, J. R.; Wilbur, P. J.

1985-01-01

284

A PLASMA GUN DRIVER FOR THE SNS ION SOURCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The original ion source developed for the Spallation Neutron Source* (SNS) was an RF-driven, multi-cusp source based on an internal antenna (plasma - immersed) and designed to produce ~ 40 mA of H - with a ~7% duty- factor. To date, the ion source has demonstrated very reliable operation during commissioning of the SNS accelerator and early operations at low

R. F. Welton; M. P. Stockli; S. N. Murray; J. Carr; J. R. Carmichael

285

Recent developments of the LBL ECR ion source  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of the LBL ECR has improved significantly since January 85 when the last ECR Ion Source Workshop was held in Berkeley. The 88-Inch Cyclotron began regular operation with the ECR source just prior to the workshop. Since then about 80% of the cyclotron operating schedule has been with the ECR source. The light-ion filament source is used only

Lyneis

1986-01-01

286

A hollow cathode ion source for production of primary ions for the BNL electron beam ion source  

SciTech Connect

A hollow cathode ion source, based on one developed at Saclay, has been modified significantly and used for several years to produce all primary 1+ ions injected into the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) at Brookhaven. Currents of tens to hundreds of microamperes have been produced for 1+ ions of He, C, O, Ne, Si, Ar, Ti, Fe, Cu, Kr, Xe, Ta, Au, and U. The source is very simple, relying on a glow discharge using a noble gas, between anode and a solid cathode containing the desired species. Ions of both the working gas and ionized sputtered cathode material are extracted, and then the desired species is selected using an ExB filter before being transported into the EBIS trap for charge breeding. The source operates pulsed with long life and excellent stability for most species. Reliable ignition of the discharge at low gas pressure is facilitated by the use of capacitive coupling from a simple toy plasma globe. The source design, and operating experience for the various species, is presented.

Alessi, James, E-mail: alessi@bnl.gov; Beebe, Edward; Carlson, Charles; McCafferty, Daniel; Pikin, Alexander; Ritter, John [Collider-Accelerator Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States)] [Collider-Accelerator Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States)

2014-02-15

287

A hollow cathode ion source for production of primary ions for the BNL electron beam ion source.  

PubMed

A hollow cathode ion source, based on one developed at Saclay, has been modified significantly and used for several years to produce all primary 1+ ions injected into the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) at Brookhaven. Currents of tens to hundreds of microamperes have been produced for 1+ ions of He, C, O, Ne, Si, Ar, Ti, Fe, Cu, Kr, Xe, Ta, Au, and U. The source is very simple, relying on a glow discharge using a noble gas, between anode and a solid cathode containing the desired species. Ions of both the working gas and ionized sputtered cathode material are extracted, and then the desired species is selected using an ExB filter before being transported into the EBIS trap for charge breeding. The source operates pulsed with long life and excellent stability for most species. Reliable ignition of the discharge at low gas pressure is facilitated by the use of capacitive coupling from a simple toy plasma globe. The source design, and operating experience for the various species, is presented. PMID:24593637

Alessi, James; Beebe, Edward; Carlson, Charles; McCafferty, Daniel; Pikin, Alexander; Ritter, John

2014-02-01

288

A hollow cathode ion source for production of primary ions for the BNL electron beam ion source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A hollow cathode ion source, based on one developed at Saclay, has been modified significantly and used for several years to produce all primary 1+ ions injected into the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) at Brookhaven. Currents of tens to hundreds of microamperes have been produced for 1+ ions of He, C, O, Ne, Si, Ar, Ti, Fe, Cu, Kr, Xe, Ta, Au, and U. The source is very simple, relying on a glow discharge using a noble gas, between anode and a solid cathode containing the desired species. Ions of both the working gas and ionized sputtered cathode material are extracted, and then the desired species is selected using an ExB filter before being transported into the EBIS trap for charge breeding. The source operates pulsed with long life and excellent stability for most species. Reliable ignition of the discharge at low gas pressure is facilitated by the use of capacitive coupling from a simple toy plasma globe. The source design, and operating experience for the various species, is presented.

Alessi, James; Beebe, Edward; Carlson, Charles; McCafferty, Daniel; Pikin, Alexander; Ritter, John

2014-02-01

289

Development of hollow anode penning ion source for laboratory application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The research work presented here focuses for the development of miniature penning type ion source. One hollow anode penning type ion source was developed in our laboratory. The size of the ion source is 38 mm diameter and 55 mm length. The ion source consists of two cathodes, a hollow anode and one piece of rare earth permanent magnet. The plasma was created in the plasma region between cathodes and the hollow anode. The J × B force in the region helps for efficient ionization of the gas even in the high vacuum region˜1×10 -5 Torr. The ions were extracted in the axial direction with help of the potential difference between the electrodes and the geometry of the extraction angle. The effect of the extraction electrode geometry for efficient extraction of the ions from the plasma region was examined. This ion source is a self extracted ion source. The self extracted phenomena reduce the cost and the size of the ion source. The extracted ion current was measured by a graphite probe. An ion current of more than 200 ?A was observed at the probe placed 70 mm apart from the extraction electrode. In this paper, the structure of the ion source, effect of operating pressure, potential difference and the magnetic field on the extracted ion current is reported.

Das, B. K.; Shyam, A.; Das, R.; Rao, A. D. P.

2012-03-01

290

Structure Determination of Noble Metal Clusters by Trapped Ion Electron Diffraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structures of noble metal cluster ions have been studied by the recently developed technique of trapped ion electron diffraction (TIED)^1. In brief, cluster ions are generated by a magnetron sputter source and injected into a cooled (95 K) quadrupole ion trap. After mass selection and thermalization, the trapped ions are irradiated with a 40 keV electron beam. The resulting

Detlef Schooss

2006-01-01

291

The negative hydrogen Penning ion gauge ion source for KIRAMS-13 cyclotron  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cold-cathode-type Penning ion gauge (PIG) ion source for the internal ion source of KIRAMS-13 cyclotron has been used for generation of negative hydrogen ions. The dc H-beam current of 650 muA from the PIG ion source with the Dee voltage of 40 kV and arc current of 1.0 A is extrapolated from the measured dc extraction beam currents at

D. H. An; I. S. Jung; J. Kang; H. S. Chang; B. H. Hong; S. Hong; M. Y. Lee; Y. Kim; T. K. Yang; J. S. Chai

2008-01-01

292

Performance of a Pulsed Ion Beam with a Renewable Cryogenically Cooled Ion Source  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. A magnetically insulated diode configuration is commonly used as a source of high-power ion beams. A desirable ion source operated within such a diode should feature high-purity of selectable ions, and localize ion formation within the anode-cathode (A-K) gap to maximize the potential for high-brightness operation. We have developed a pulsed ion source based on the

T. J. Renk; G. A. Mann; G. A. Torres

2007-01-01

293

Progress of resonant ionization laser ion source development at GANIL  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SPIRAL2 (Système de Production d'Ions Radioactifs Accélérés en Ligne) is a research facility under construction at GANIL (Grand Accélérateur National d'Ions Lourds) for the production of radioactive ion beams by isotope separation on-line methods and low-energy in-flight techniques. A resonant ionization laser ion source will be one of the main techniques to produce the radioactive ion beams. GISELE (GANIL Ion Source using Electron Laser Excitation) is a test bench developed to study a fully operational laser ion source available for Day 1 operations at SPIRAL2 Phase 2. The aim of this project is to find the best technical solution which combines high selectivity and ionization efficiency with small ion beam emittance and stable long term operation. Latest results about the new ion source geometry will be presented.

Henares, J. L.; Huguet, Y.; Kron, T.; Lecesne, N.; Leroy, R.; Osmond, B.; Schneider, F.; Sjödin, A. M.; Wendt, K.

2014-02-01

294

Progress of resonant ionization laser ion source development at GANIL  

SciTech Connect

SPIRAL2 (Système de Production d’Ions Radioactifs Accélérés en Ligne) is a research facility under construction at GANIL (Grand Accélérateur National d’Ions Lourds) for the production of radioactive ion beams by isotope separation on-line methods and low-energy in-flight techniques. A resonant ionization laser ion source will be one of the main techniques to produce the radioactive ion beams. GISELE (GANIL Ion Source using Electron Laser Excitation) is a test bench developed to study a fully operational laser ion source available for Day 1 operations at SPIRAL2 Phase 2. The aim of this project is to find the best technical solution which combines high selectivity and ionization efficiency with small ion beam emittance and stable long term operation. Latest results about the new ion source geometry will be presented.

Henares, J. L., E-mail: henares@ganil.fr; Huguet, Y.; Lecesne, N.; Leroy, R.; Osmond, B.; Sjödin, A. M. [GANIL, BP 55027, 14076 Caen Cedex 5 (France)] [GANIL, BP 55027, 14076 Caen Cedex 5 (France); Kron, T.; Schneider, F.; Wendt, K. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Staudinger Weg 7, 55099 Mainz (Germany)] [Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Staudinger Weg 7, 55099 Mainz (Germany)

2014-02-15

295

Progress of resonant ionization laser ion source development at GANIL.  

PubMed

SPIRAL2 (Système de Production d'Ions Radioactifs Accélérés en Ligne) is a research facility under construction at GANIL (Grand Accélérateur National d'Ions Lourds) for the production of radioactive ion beams by isotope separation on-line methods and low-energy in-flight techniques. A resonant ionization laser ion source will be one of the main techniques to produce the radioactive ion beams. GISELE (GANIL Ion Source using Electron Laser Excitation) is a test bench developed to study a fully operational laser ion source available for Day 1 operations at SPIRAL2 Phase 2. The aim of this project is to find the best technical solution which combines high selectivity and ionization efficiency with small ion beam emittance and stable long term operation. Latest results about the new ion source geometry will be presented. PMID:24593619

Henares, J L; Huguet, Y; Kron, T; Lecesne, N; Leroy, R; Osmond, B; Schneider, F; Sjödin, A M; Wendt, K

2014-02-01

296

Characteristics of the Berkeley multicusp ion source.  

PubMed

The performance of a cubical permanent magnet generated line-cusp ion source has been investigated for use with neutral beam injectors. This source has been operated with discharge currents greater than 500 A and ion current densities higher than 400 mA/cm2 at the extraction grid. The uniformity of the density profile across the extraction area is found to be dependent on the gas pressure. By using a fast Langmuir probe sweeping circuit, the electron temperature and the plasma density and potential have been analyzed for different discharge powers and gas pressures. The heat load on the plasma grid when it is electrically floating or connected to the negative cathode has been compared calorimetrically. The use of lanthanum hexaboride and impregnated oxide cathodes have been investigated for the purpose of long pulse operation. The phenomenon of mode flipping is found to occur quite frequently during a discharge with these magnetic-field-free cathodes. Species composition as a function of discharge power and chamber length is measured by a mass spectrometer. PMID:18699390

Ehlers, K W; Leung, K N

1979-11-01

297

Ion Mobility Spectrometry: Ion Source Development and Applications in Physical and Biological Sciences  

Microsoft Academic Search

The utility of ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) has been steadily growing, and it cuts across diverse areas in physical and biological sciences. The development of ion sources, particularly in the context of IMS, is described. IMS ion sources operate efficiently in ambient environment and yield ions for a wide range of complex molecules including biological materials. While significant progress has

Samar K. Guharay; Prabha Dwivedi; Herbert H. Hilljr

2008-01-01

298

Lithium ion sources for investigations of fast ion transport in magnetized plasmas  

E-print Network

Lithium ion sources for investigations of fast ion transport in magnetized plasmas Y. Zhang,a H 10 January 2007 In order to study the interaction of ions of intermediate energies with plasma fluctuations, two plasma immersible lithium ion sources, based on solid-state thermionic emitters Li

Heidbrink, William W.

299

Ion extraction system of the Kyoto beam-plasma type ion source  

Microsoft Academic Search

A modified beam-plasma type ion source has been designed and investigated to obtain a high ion current with a low extraction voltage. In this source, both a primary electron beam injected from an ion extractor and a secondary electron beam from the surface of a primary electron beam collector are cooperatively used for plasma production and high ion current extraction.

J. Ishikawa; F. Sano; H. Tsuji; T. Takagi

1978-01-01

300

Reactive magnetron sputtering of highly (001)-textured WS2-x films: Influence of Ne+, Ar+ and Xe+ ion bombardment on the film growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Layer-type van der Waals semiconductor WS2-x films were grown by radio frequency reactive magnetron sputtering from a metallic tungsten target onto oxidized silicon substrates. The sputtering atmosphere consisted of 75% hydrogen sulfide and 25% neon, argon or xenon. The substrate voltage and hence the energy of the ions bombarding the growing film, was varied from about 20 V (floating potential) to -80 V. By in situ energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction the growth of the films was monitored and by elastic recoil detection analysis the film composition was measured. It was found that with xenon in the sputtering atmosphere a substrate voltage of -20 V is sufficient to suppress the crystalline film growth, while for argon as the sputtering rare gas this occurs only at -80 V. The disturbed film growth is accompanied by a sulfur loss of the growing WS2-x films down to x = 1.1 for sputtering in Ar + H2S at a substrate potential of -60 V. The results are tentatively explained by the different momentum transfers to sulfur atoms, which is highest for argon ions. It has also to be taken into account that the low-energy xenon bombardment is a many-body cascade process with a much higher local energy density compared to argon and neon bombardment and leading to a higher defect density and a supression of the crystalline growth.

Ellmer, K.; Seeger, S.; Sieber, I.; Bohne, W.; Röhrich, J.; Strub, E.; Mientus, R.

2006-02-01

301

Development of a hybrid PIG-ECR ion source  

Microsoft Academic Search

A combined ion source with 20 cm beam diameter, utilizing both a cold-cathode Philips or Penning ionization gauge (PIG) discharge and an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) discharge, has been built and tested. The ion source has been designed to study what effects, if any, might be induced by superimposing microwave power at the ECR condition onto a cold-cathode PIG ion

S. N. Abolmasov; M. Shindo; M. V. Buttlar; H. Muta; A. A. Bizyukov; Y. Kawai

2003-01-01

302

Experimental program for the Princeton Ion Source Test Facility  

E-print Network

; Negative ion beams; Space-charge neutralization 1. INTRODUCTION The 100 kV test is designed with clearancesExperimental program for the Princeton Ion Source Test Facility L.R. GRISHAM,1 E.P. GILSON,1 I October 2010) Abstract A 100 kV ion source test stand formerly operated at Lawrence Livermore National

Gilson, Erik

303

Simulation of H- ion source extraction systems for the Spallation Neutron Source with Ion Beam Simulator.  

PubMed

A three-dimensional ion optical code IBSimu, which is being developed at the University of Jyva?skyla?, features positive and negative ion plasma extraction models and self-consistent space charge calculation. The code has been utilized for modeling the existing extraction system of the H(-) ion source of the Spallation Neutron Source. Simulation results are in good agreement with experimental data. A high-current extraction system with downstream electron dumping at intermediate energy has been designed. According to the simulations it provides lower emittance compared to the baseline system at H(-) currents exceeding 40 mA. A magnetic low energy beam transport section consisting of two solenoids has been designed to transport the beam from the alternative electrostatic extraction systems to the radio frequency quadrupole. PMID:22380214

Kalvas, T; Welton, R F; Tarvainen, O; Han, B X; Stockli, M P

2012-02-01

304

High-current microwave ion source for wide-energy-range O+ ion implantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high-current microwave ion source which is used for O+ ion implantation in separation by implanted oxygen (SIMOX) wafer fabrication is presented. The source consists of a new transform waveguide which efficiently propagates a 2.45 GHz microwave power into the ion source, a cylindrical plasma chamber of 90 mm in diameter, and a multiaperture extraction electrode system. The extracted beams

K. Tokiguchi; T. Seki; J. Ito; T. Sato; K. Mera

2000-01-01

305

The Emittance and Brightness of Ion Beams from a PIG Ion Source with End Extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emittance of positive ion beams extracted from a PIG ion source with end extraction was measured for optimal operating conditions of the source at different positions of the beam line. The source was operated with noble gases in a high voltage - low current discharge mode. The results showed that the emittances increase with increasing ion mass and intensity

H. Baumann; K. Bethge; G. Klein

1976-01-01

306

RF Ion Source-Driven IEC Design and Operation  

SciTech Connect

The next step needed to achieve higher neutron yields and improved neutron production efficiency with Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) sources requires operation with an external ion source so that the reaction chamber pressure is controlled separately for the source pressure. This paper presents recent progress in IEC research at the UIUC using a unique external ion source ILLIBS (Illinois Ion Beam Source). When filled with deuterium, the IEC provides {approx}10{sup 8} 2.5-MeV D-D fusion neutrons/sec at steady-state. The design and operation of a radiofrequency (RF) ion gun designed for this purpose is also discussed.

Miley, G.H.; Yang, Y.; Webber, J.; Shaban, Y.; Momota, H. [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign (United States)

2005-05-15

307

Charge-transfer collisions for polarized ion sources  

SciTech Connect

Charge-transfer processes relevant to polarized ion sources are discussed and results are summarized. The primary atom discussed is hydrogen, with particulr emphasis on H/sup -/ formation. Heavier negative ions are briefly discussed.

Schlachter, A.S.

1983-06-01

308

Mode Switching in Rela1vis1c Magnetrons and Hysteresis  

E-print Network

/ONR*) is Interested in High Power Microwave (HPM) Sources · A6 Magnetron with Radial ExtracD (AFOSR/ONR*) is Interested in High Power Microwave (HPM) Sources · A6 Magnetron Power Microwave (HPM) Sources · A6 Magnetron with Radial Extrac/on ­ Transparent

Shyy, Wei

309

Side extraction duoPIGatron-type ion source.  

SciTech Connect

We have designed and constructed a compact duoPIGatron-type ion source, for possible use in ion implanters, in such the ion can be extracted from side aperture in contrast to conventional duoPIGatron sources with axial ion extraction. The size of the side extraction aperture is 1x40 mm. The ion source was developed to study physical and technological aspects relevant to an industrial ion source. The side extraction duoPIGatron has stable arc, uniformly bright illumination, and dense plasma. The present work describes some of preliminary operating parameters of the ion source using Argon, BF3. The total unanalyzed beam currents are 23 mA using Ar at an arc current 5 A and 13 mA using BF3 gas at an arc current 6 A.

GUSHENETS,V.I.; OKS, E.M.; HERSCHOVITCH, A.; JOHNSON, B.M.

2007-08-26

310

Time profile of ion pulses produced in a hot-cavity laser ion source  

SciTech Connect

The time spreads of Mn ions produced by three-photon resonant ionization in a hot-cavity laser ion source are measured. A one-dimensional ion-transport model is developed to simulate the observed ion time structures. Assuming ions are generated with a Maxwellian velocity distribution and are guided by an axial electric field, the predictions of the model agree reasonably well with the experimental data and suggest that the ions are radially confined in the ion source and a substantial fraction of the ions in the transport tube are extracted.

Liu, Y.; Beene, J. R.; Havener, C. C.; Vane, C. R. [Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Geppert, Ch.; Gottwald, T.; Kessler, T.; Wies, K.; Wendt, K. [Institut fuer Physik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, D-55099 Mainz (Germany)

2010-02-15

311

Radio frequency power system for inductive heating in ion sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past large ion sources have been operated with filaments in conjunction with a high current arc. Tungsten filaments used in this application have a potential disadvantage of undesirable short life times, and they tend to contaminate the source with tungsten deposits. At Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory we have applied radio frequency (RF) induction to a multicusp negative ion source

J. W. Kwan; G. J. de Vries; G. D. Ackerman; M. D. Williams

1993-01-01

312

Positive and negative ion sources for magnetic fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The positive or negative ion sources which form the primary components of neutral beam injection systems used in controlled nuclear fusion using magnetic confinement have to meet simultaneously several demanding requirements. This paper describes the underlying physics of modern positive ion sources, which provide the required high proton fraction (>90%) and high current density (?2 kA\\/m2) at a low source

Ronald Stephen Hemsworth; Takashi Inoue

2005-01-01

313

Effects of ion pumping in a pulsed Penning source  

Microsoft Academic Search

We recently reported on the first observation of ion-pumping phenomenon in a low-duty pulsed Penning source at the heavy-ion medical accelerator (HIMAC) in Chiba and its effectiveness to produce multiply charged ions [Y. Sato et al., Nucl. Instrum Methods Phys. Res. A 450, 231 (2000)]. In the Penning-ionized gauge ion source (PIGIS) of the HIMAC, the gas flow is not

Y. Sato; T. Miyata; T. Miyoshi; A. Kitagawa; M. Muramatsu; T. Murakami; T. Honma; M. Yamamoto; H. Ogawa; S. Yamada

2002-01-01

314

Ion source for high-precision mass spectrometry  

DOEpatents

The invention is directed to a method for increasing the precision of positive-ion relative abundance measurements conducted in a sector mass spectrometer having an ion source for directing a beam of positive ions onto a collimating slit. The method comprises incorporating in the source an electrostatic lens assembly for providing a positive-ion beam of circular cross section for collimation by the slit. 2 figures, 3 tables.

Todd, P.J.; McKown, H.S.; Smith, D.H.

1982-04-26

315

Ion source for high-precision mass spectrometry  

DOEpatents

The invention is directed to a method for increasing the precision of positive-ion relative abundance measurements conducted in a sector mass spectrometer having an ion source for directing a beam of positive ions onto a collimating slit. The method comprises incorporating in the source an electrostatic lens assembly for providing a positive-ion beam of circular cross section for collimation by the slit.

Todd, Peter J. (Oak Ridge, TN); McKown, Henry S. (Oak Ridge, TN); Smith, David H. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1984-01-01

316

Negative hydrogen ion source for TOKAMAK neutral beam injector (invited)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intense negative ion source producing multimegawatt hydrogen\\/deuterium negative ion beams has been developed for the neutral beam injector (NBI) in TOKAMAK thermonuclear fusion machines. Negative ions are produced in a cesium seeded multi-cusp plasma generator via volume and surface processes, and accelerated with a multistage electrostatic accelerator. The negative ion source for JT-60U has produced 18.5 A\\/360 keV (6.7 MW)

Y. Okumura; Y. Fujiwara; M. Kashiwagi; T. Kitagawa; K. Miyamoto; T. Morishita; M. Hanada; T. Takayanagi; M. Taniguchi; K. Watanabe

2000-01-01

317

Energy distribution properties of focused ion beams from liquid metal ion sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given, as follows. The field-emitted electron and ion beams in a high-voltage diode are found to be sources of very high brightness. For example, liquid metal ion sources (LMIS) produce ion beams of 5 ?A current from a source size estimated to 10-7 cm. This is why the focused ion beams are often used in the direct

H. S. Uhm; E. H. Choi; G. S. Cho; S. O. Kang

1995-01-01

318

Recommissioning the deuterium negative ion source experiment ion source for studies in support of ignition device to test engineering concepts  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the international collaborative effort into fusion research, work has begun to recommission the deuterium negative ion source experiment (DENISE) at Dublin City University (DCU). Modifications to the original apparatus to allow easier access to both the ion source and the extraction region for diagnostic systems are nearing completion. A new source chamber that can be used with

P. McNeely; D. Boilson; N. Curran; M. Hopkins; D. Vender

1998-01-01

319

Fermilab HINS Proton Ion Source Beam Measurements  

SciTech Connect

The proton ion source for the High Intensity Neutrino Source (HINS) Linac front-end at Fermilab has been successfully commissioned. It produces a 50 keV, 3 msec beam pulse with a peak current greater than 20mA at 2.5Hz. The beam is transported to the radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) by a low energy beam transport (LEBT) that consists of two focusing solenoids, four steering dipole magnets and a beam current transformer. To understand beam transmission through the RFQ, it is important to characterize the 50 keV beam before connecting the LEBT to the RFQ. A wire scanner and a Faraday cup are temporarily installed at the exit of the LEBT to study the beam parameters. Beam profile measurements are made for different LEBT settings and results are compared to those from computer simulations. In lieu of direct emittance measurements, solenoid variation method based on profile measurements is used to reconstruct the beam emittance.

Tam, W.M.; Apollinari, G.; Chaurize, S.; Hays, S.; Romanov, G.; Scarpine, V.; Schmidt, C.; Webber, R.; /Fermilab

2009-05-01

320

Properties of NiAl and Ni-Al-N thin films deposited by closed field unbalanced magnetron sputter ion plating using elemental Ni and Al targets.  

PubMed

Approximately 1 microm thick NiAl and Ni-Al-N thin films have been deposited from individual elemental Ni (99.5% pure) and Al (99.5% pure) targets onto glass and stainless steel 316 substrates using closed field unbalanced magnetron sputter ion platting (CFUBMSIP) process. The films have been characterized using stylus profilometry, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDAX), X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The X-ray diffraction patterns of both types of thin films produced confirmed the formation of beta-NiAl phase. The EDAX results revealed that all of the NiAl thin films produced exhibited the near equiatomic NiAl phase with the best results given by the one deposited using 300 Watts DC power for Ni and 400 Watts DC power for Al targets respectively. However, the Ni-Al-N thin films showed a Ni-rich NiAl phase. AFM results of both types of films produced carried out on glass samples exhibited that the coatings have quite a smooth surface with surface roughness in nanometres range. PMID:19916405

Baig, M N; Ahmed, W; Khalid, F A; Said, R M; McLaughlin, J

2009-07-01

321

An all permanent magnet electron cyclotron resonance ion source for heavy ion therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high charge state all permanent Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source, Lanzhou All Permanent ECR ion source no. 3-LAPECR3, has been successfully built at IMP in 2012, which will serve as the ion injector of the Heavy Ion Medical Machine (HIMM) project. As a commercial device, LAPECR3 features a compact structure, small size, and low cost. According to HIMM scenario more than 100 e?A of C5+ ion beam should be extracted from the ion source, and the beam emittance better than 75 ?*mm*mrad. In recent commissioning, about 120 e?A of C5+ ion beam was got when work gas was CH4 while about 262 e?A of C5+ ion beam was obtained when work gas was C2H2 gas. The design and construction of the ion source and its low-energy transportation beam line, and the preliminary commissioning results will be presented in detail in this paper.

Cao, Yun; Li, Jia Qing; Sun, Liang Ting; Zhang, Xue Zhen; Feng, Yu Cheng; Wang, Hui; Ma, Bao Hua; Li, Xi Xia

2014-02-01

322

A 30-cm diameter argon ion source. [for ion thrusters and sputtering  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 30-cm diameter argon ion source was evaluated. Ion source beam currents up to 4A were extracted with ion energies ranging from 0.2 to 1.5 KeV. An ion optics scaling relation was developed for predicting ion beam extraction capability as a function of total extraction voltage, gas type and screen grid open area. Ignition and emission characteristics of several hollow cathode geometries were assessed for purposes of defining discharge chamber and neutralizer cathodes. Also presented are ion beam profile characteristics which exhibit broad beam capability well suited for ion beam sputtering applications.

Sovey, J. S.

1976-01-01

323

An ion source module for the Beijing Radioactive Ion-beam Facility  

SciTech Connect

An ion source module is developed for Beijing Radioactive Ion-beam Facility. The ion source module is designed to meet the requirements of remote handling. The connection and disconnection of the electricity, cooling and vacuum between the module and peripheral units can be executed without on-site manual work. The primary test of the target ion source has been carried out and a Li{sup +} beam has been extracted. Details of the ion source module and its primary test results are described.

Cui, B., E-mail: cui@ciae.ac.cn; Huang, Q.; Tang, B.; Ma, R.; Chen, L.; Ma, Y. [China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing (China)] [China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing (China)

2014-02-15

324

An ion source module for the Beijing Radioactive Ion-beam Facility.  

PubMed

An ion source module is developed for Beijing Radioactive Ion-beam Facility. The ion source module is designed to meet the requirements of remote handling. The connection and disconnection of the electricity, cooling and vacuum between the module and peripheral units can be executed without on-site manual work. The primary test of the target ion source has been carried out and a Li(+) beam has been extracted. Details of the ion source module and its primary test results are described. PMID:24593616

Cui, B; Huang, Q; Tang, B; Ma, R; Chen, L; Ma, Y

2014-02-01

325

Ion source for tests of ion behavior in the Karlsruhe tritium neutrino experiment beam line  

SciTech Connect

An electron-impact ion source based on photoelectron emission was developed for ionization of gases at pressures below 10{sup -4} mbar in an axial magnetic field in the order of 5 T. The ion source applies only dc fields, which makes it suitable for use in the presence of equipment sensitive to radio-frequency (RF) fields. The ion source was successfully tested under varying conditions regarding pressure, magnetic field, and magnetic-field gradient, and the results were studied with the help of simulations. The processes in the ion source are well understood, and possibilities for further optimization of generated ion currents are clarified.

Lukic, S.; Bornschein, B.; Drexlin, G.; Glueck, F.; Kazachenko, O.; Zoll, M. C. R. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany); Schoeppner, M.; Weinheimer, Ch. [University of Muenster, Muenster (Germany)

2011-01-15

326

Novel Ion Traps for Enhanced Fluorescence Collections and Single Photon Sources Based on Barium Ions  

E-print Network

Novel Ion Traps for Enhanced Fluorescence Collections and Single Photon Sources Based on Barium Ions Gang Shu A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Washington Abstract Novel Ion Traps for Enhanced Fluorescence Collections and Single Photon Sources Based

Blinov, Boris

327

Two approaches for H- ion production with 2.45 GHz ion sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last few years, the accelerator community requested the development of improved negative hydrogen ion sources. For spallation sources, like SNS or ESS, pulsed high intensity H- ion beams of a few tens of milliamperes, with a duty cycle close to 10%, are required. New facilities like CERN also ask for high performance negative ion beams. Since CEA undertook

R. Gobin; P. Auvray; M. Bacal; J. Breton; O. Delferrière; F. Harrault; A. A. Ivanov Jr.; P. Svarnas; O. Tuske

2006-01-01

328

Surface Ionization Type Ion Source of Ba+ Ions for Use in Collision Experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

A surface ionization type ion source, which produces a Ba+ ion beam of known chemical purity and excitation state, has been developed specifically for use in collision experiments. Barium vapor is surface ionized on a rhenium filament that is heated to approximately 1800°C by the passage of a direct current. The water cooled source provides ion currents of about 10

R. K. Feeney; F. M. Bacon; M. T. Elford; J. W. Hooper

1972-01-01

329

ECR Ion Source Developments at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

New techniques for enhancing the performances of electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources are being investigated at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. We have utilized the multiple discrete frequency technique to improve the charge state distributions extracted from conventional magnetic field geometry ECR source by injecting three frequencies into the source. A new flat central magnetic field concept, has been incorporated in the designs of a compact all-permanent-magnet source for high charge-state ion beam generation and a compact electromagnetic source for singly ionized radioactive ion beam generation for use in the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) research program. A review of the three frequency injection experiments and descriptions of the design aspects of the "volume-type" ECR ion sources will be given in this report.

Alton, G.D.; Liu, Y.; Meyer, F.W.

1998-10-05

330

Very Large Scale Plasma Source Ion Implantation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plasma Source Ion Implantation (PSII) is a technology in the process of being commercialized for the surface enhancement of industrial components.( Plasma-Based Processing of Materials for Motor Vehicle Components and Manufacturing Applications, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Advanced Technology Program, Focused Program 95-02) The process is based on the utilization of plasma sheath characteristics to accelerate and implant ions (in pulses ranging from ~ 1 ?sec to a few 10s of ?sec) into target surfaces which can be complex, composed of multiple individual components, and potentially have very large surface areas. The implanted ions (typically nitrogen, carbon, oxygen, or other species readily produced from gaseous precursors) modify the target surface characteristics to depths of ~ 1000 Åthrough the formation of hard nitrides, carbides, etc. which can have significantly better wear and corrosion properties than the base target material. PSII is capable of achieving surface property enhancements which are comparable to those obtained through more conventional beam line implantation, but with significant improvements in process time and cost for large, complex targets.(C.P. Munson, et al., Surface and Coatings Technology 84 (1996) 528-536.) Plasma, plasma sheath, and secondary electron interactions become critically important for applications involving implantation into three dimensional target assemblies composed of large numbers of individual components. In these cases, interaction of the plasma sheaths from different portions of the target assembly and interaction of the energetic secondary electrons with the plasma and background neutral gas can dramatically alter the ambient plasma conditions. The highly energetic (>= 20 keV) secondary electrons can approach densities which are 10% of the background plasma (ne ~ 1-5 × 10^8/cm^3, Te ~ 2-5 eV), leading to highly non-Maxwellian velocity distributions and accompanying plasma instabilities. Langmuir probe measurements from within such an assembly are being compared to particle-in-cell simulations of the plasma behavior during the implantation process. Results of the experimental measurements and comparison to the numerical simulations will be presented.

Munson, Carter P.

1997-11-01

331

Ion confinement in electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRIS): importance of nonlinear plasma-wave interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

In electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRIS), ions are produced in a highly ionized microwave heated plasma contained in a minimum-B magnetic trap. Recent experiments have revealed that the absorption of electromagnetic wave energy is accompanied by a weak ion sound turbulence, a signature of a decay instability of the electromagnetic plasma wave excited by the admitted microwave. Ions are

Andrei A. Ivanov; Klaus Wiesemann

2005-01-01

332

High-efficiency target-ion sources for RIB generation  

SciTech Connect

A brief review is given of high-efficiency ion sources which have been developed or are under development at ISOL facilities which show particular promise for use at existing, future, or radioactive ion beam (RIB) facilities now under construction. Emphasis will be placed on those sources which have demonstrated high ionization efficiency, species versatility, and operational reliability and which have been carefully designed for safe handling in the high level radioactivity radiation fields incumbent at such facilities. Brief discussions will also be made of the fundamental processes which affect the realizable beam intensities in target-ion sources. Among the sources which will be reviewed will be selected examples of state-of-the-art electron-beam plasma-type ion sources, thermal-ionization, surface-ionization, ECR, and selectively chosen ion source concepts which show promise for radioactive ion beam generation. A few advanced, chemically selective target-ion sources will be described, such as sources based on the use of laser-resonance ionization, which, in principle, offer a more satisfactory solution to isobaric contamination problems than conventional electromagnetic techniques. Particular attention will be given to the sources which have been selected for initial or future use at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility now under construction at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

Alton, G.D.

1993-12-31

333

RF-Plasma Coupling Schemes for the SNS Ion Source  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ion source for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is a radio-frequency, multicusp source designed to deliver beams of 45 mA of H- with a normalized rms emittance of 0.2 pi mm mrad to the SNS accelerator. RF power with a frequency of 2 MHz is delivered to the ion source by an 80-kW pulsed power supply generating nominal pulses

R. F. Welton; M. P. Stockli; S. Shukla; Y. Kang; R. Keller; J. Staples

2003-01-01

334

Development and status of the SNS ion source  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ion source for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is a radio-frequency, multicusp source designed to deliver 45 mA of H - with a normalized rms emittance of less than 0.2 ? mm mrad to the SNS accelerator. The ion source— designed, constructed, and commissioned at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)—satisfies the basic requirements of commissioning and early operation of

R. F. Welton; M. P. Stockli; S. N. Murray; R. Keller

2003-01-01

335

Experimental performance of a microwave cavity plasma disk ion source  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The detailed description and performance characteristics of a microwave ion source are presented. This ion source utilizes an internally tuned, single-mode (or selective multimode) cylindrical cavity applicator to focus and match microwave energy into a disk-shaped discharge zone. The combination of mode focus control and variable, internal cavity matching allows the efficient operation and beam extraction over a wide range of pressures, powers and gaseous inputs. Experimental measurements of ion beam current versus accelerating voltage and input microwave power in xenon and oxygen gas are presented. Ion source specific energy and mass utilization versus experimental variables are also determined. The experimental performance demonstrates the ability of this ion source to extract an ion beam with a well matched, stable, and continuous operation over a wide range of input gases, low pressures, and over input gas flow rates in excess of 100 to a few sccm. Double Langmuir probe measurements in xenon gas indicate high degrees of ionization, and electron and ion concentrations in excess of 100 critical densities in the microwave discharge zone. This ion source has many potential uses such as spacecraft electric propulsion, material ion beam processing, and neutral beam ion sources.

Root, J.; Asmussen, J.

1985-01-01

336

Ion Sources and Mass Analyzers in Protein Characterization  

E-print Network

Differentiation of Co-eluting analytes #12;Looking at MS Data: LC/MS Data is Three Dimensional Mass spec dataIon Sources and Mass Analyzers in Protein Characterization Principles of MS and MS/MS Matrix Quadrupole Mass Filter Quadrupole Ion Trap Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance #12;Mass Spectrometry

Richardson, David

337

Laser ion source and RFQ Linac for Direct injection scheme  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ion beams extracted from ion source usually are injected to accelerator through Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) under controlling beam divergence. But beam loss is the problem in the case of high intensity heavy ion beam due to its very strong space charge force. We proposed and are studying Direct injection scheme as a solution of this problem. In Direct

H. Kashiwagi; M. Okamura; T. Hattori; T. Katayama; R. A. Jameson; R. Becker; A. Schempp; T. Takeuchi; A. Sakumi; N. Hayashizaki; Y. Takahashi; T. Hata; K. Yamamoto

2003-01-01

338

Effect of resonant microwave power on a PIG ion source  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have investigated the effect of applying microwave power at the electron cyclotron frequency on the characteristics of the ion beam extracted from a hotcathode PIG ion source. No change was seen in the ion charge state distribution. A small but significant reduction in the beam noise level was seen, and it is possible that the technique may find application

Ian G. Brown; B. F. Galvin; J. E. Galvin; Robert A. MacGill

1985-01-01

339

Effect of resonant microwave power on a PIG ion source  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of applying microwave power at the electron cyclotron frequency on the characteristics of the ion beam extracted from a hot-cathode Penning ionization gauge (PIG) ion source was investigated. No change was seen in the ion charge state distribution. A small but significant reduction in the beam noise level was seen, and it is possible that the technique may

I. G. Brown; J. E. Galvin; B. F. Gavin; R. A. MacGill

1984-01-01

340

New tandem type ion source based on electron cyclotron resonance for universal source of synthesized ion beams.  

PubMed

A new tandem type source has been constructed on the basis of electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma for producing synthesized ion beams. We investigate feasibility and hope to realize the device which has wide range operation window in a single device to produce many kinds of ion beams based on ECR ion source (ECRIS). It is considered that ECR plasmas are necessary to be available to individual operations with different plasma parameters. Both of analysis of ion beams and investigation of plasma parameters are conducted on produced plasmas. We describe construction of the new tandem type ion source based on ECRIS with wide operation window for aiming at producing synthesized ion beams as this new source can be a universal source. PMID:24593529

Kato, Yushi; Kurisu, Yosuke; Nozaki, Dai; Yano, Keisuke; Kimura, Daiju; Kumakura, Sho; Imai, Youta; Nishiokada, Takuya; Sato, Fuminobu; Iida, Toshiyuki

2014-02-01

341

New tandem type ion source based on electron cyclotron resonance for universal source of synthesized ion beams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new tandem type source has been constructed on the basis of electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma for producing synthesized ion beams. We investigate feasibility and hope to realize the device which has wide range operation window in a single device to produce many kinds of ion beams based on ECR ion source (ECRIS). It is considered that ECR plasmas are necessary to be available to individual operations with different plasma parameters. Both of analysis of ion beams and investigation of plasma parameters are conducted on produced plasmas. We describe construction of the new tandem type ion source based on ECRIS with wide operation window for aiming at producing synthesized ion beams as this new source can be a universal source.

Kato, Yushi; Kurisu, Yosuke; Nozaki, Dai; Yano, Keisuke; Kimura, Daiju; Kumakura, Sho; Imai, Youta; Nishiokada, Takuya; Sato, Fuminobu; Iida, Toshiyuki

2014-02-01

342

Low energy spread ion source with a coaxial magnetic filter  

DOEpatents

Multicusp ion sources are capable of producing ions with low axial energy spread which are necessary in applications such as ion projection lithography (IPL) and radioactive ion beam production. The addition of a radially extending magnetic filter consisting of a pair of permanent magnets to the multicusp source reduces the energy spread considerably due to the improvement in the uniformity of the axial plasma potential distribution in the discharge region. A coaxial multicusp ion source designed to further reduce the energy spread utilizes a cylindrical magnetic filter to achieve a more uniform axial plasma potential distribution. The coaxial magnetic filter divides the source chamber into an outer annular discharge region in which the plasma is produced and a coaxial inner ion extraction region into which the ions radially diffuse but from which ionizing electrons are excluded. The energy spread in the coaxial source has been measured to be 0.6 eV. Unlike other ion sources, the coaxial source has the capability of adjusting the radial plasma potential distribution and therefore the transverse ion temperature (or beam emittance).

Leung, Ka-Ngo (Hercules, CA); Lee, Yung-Hee Yvette (Berkeley, CA)

2000-01-01

343

Characterization of an 8-cm Diameter Ion Source System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of tests characterizing an 8-cm diameter ion source are presented. The tests were conducted in three separate vacuum test facilities at the University of Alabama-Huntsville, Colorado State University, and L3 Communications' ETI division. Standard ion optics tests describing electron backstreaming and total-voltage-limited impingement current behavior as a function of beam current were used as guidelines for selecting operating conditions where more detailed ion beam measurements were performed. The ion beam was profiled using an in-vacuum actuating probe system to determine the total ion current density and the ion charge state distribution variation across the face of the ion source. Both current density and ExB probes were utilized. The ion current density data were used to obtain integrated beam current, beam flatness parameters, and general beam profile shapes. The ExB probe data were used to determine the ratio of doubly to singly charged ion current. The ion beam profile tests were performed at over six different operating points that spanned the expected operating range of the DAWN thrusters being developed at L3. The characterization tests described herein reveal that the 8-cm ion source is suitable for use in (a) validating plasma diagnostic equipment, (b) xenon ion sputtering and etching studies of spacecraft materials, (c) plasma physics research, and (d) the study of ion thruster optics at varying conditions.

Li, Zhongmin; Hawk, C. W.; Hawk, Clark W.; Buttweiler, Mark S.; Williams, John D.; Buchholtz, Brett

2005-01-01

344

A double-plasma source of continuous bipolar ion-ion beam  

SciTech Connect

A double-plasma source capable of the generation of a continuous bipolar ion-ion beam is described. The quasi-neutral ion-ion flow to an extraction electrode is formed in the system containing primary inductively coupled plasma separated from a secondary plasma by an electrostatic grid-type filter. The total current of each ion species to the 250 mm diameter extraction electrode is about 80 mA; the electron current does not exceed 30% of the ion current. Method of positive/negative ion current ratio control is proposed, allowing the ion currents ratio variation in wide range.

Dudin, S. V. [Department of Physics and Technology, V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University, Kurchatova ave. 31, 61108 Kharkiv (Ukraine) [Department of Physics and Technology, V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University, Kurchatova ave. 31, 61108 Kharkiv (Ukraine); Scientific Center of Physical Technologies, Svobody sq. 6, 61022 Kharkiv (Ukraine); Rafalskyi, D. V. [Laboratoire de Physique des Plasmas, CNRS-Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau CEDEX 91128 (France)] [Laboratoire de Physique des Plasmas, CNRS-Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau CEDEX 91128 (France)

2013-01-21

345

Application of a compact microwave ion source to radiocarbon analysis  

SciTech Connect

The compact, high current, 2.45 GHz microwave-driven plasma ion source which was built for the Chalk River TASCC facility is presently being adapted for testing as a gas ion source for accelerator mass spectrometry, at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution accelerator mass spectrometer. The special requirements for producing carbon-ion beams from micromole quantities of carbon dioxide produced from environmental samples will be discussed. These samples will be introduced into the ion source by means of argon carrier gas and a silicon capillary injection system. Following the extraction of positive ions from the source, negative ion formation in a charge exchange vapor will effectively remove the argon from the carbon beam. Simultaneous injection of the three carbon isotopes into the accelerator is planned.

Schneider, R. J.; Reden, K. F. von; Hayes, J. M.; Wills, J. S. C. [NOSAMS Facility, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Massachusetts 02543 (United States); AECL Chalk River Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario, K0J 1J0 (Canada)

1999-04-26

346

Langmuir probe studies on a RF ion source for NBI  

Microsoft Academic Search

IPP Garching has been developing a RF ion source for H? production. In order to improve the data quality a new scanning probe system with passive RF compensation has been installed on the Type VI ion source on the BATMAN test stand. Using this probe, measurements have been carried out to study changes to the plasma parameters (electron density, electron

P McNeely; B Heineman; W Kraus; R Riedl; E Speth; O Vollmer

2001-01-01

347

Design of a versatile multiaperture negative ion source  

Microsoft Academic Search

Negative ion sources are a key component of the neutral beam injector to be installed in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor. At present research and development activities address several important issues related to beam extraction, optics, and optimization. Together with the design of real size devices and the accumulation of atomic cross section databases, a relatively small negative ion source

M. Cavenago; T. Kulevoy; S. Petrenko; V. Antoni; M. Bigi; E. Gazza; M. Recchia; G. Serianni; P. Veltri

2010-01-01

348

Design of the 3rd generation ECR ion source  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of the 3rd Generation ECR ion source has progressed from a concept described in the last ECR Ion Source Workshop to the fabrication of a full scale prototype superconducting magnet structure. The prototype consists of three solenoid coils and six race track coils with iron poles forming the sextupole. The design calls for mirror fields of 4 T at

C. M. Lyneis; Z. Q. Xie; C. E. Taylor

1997-01-01

349

Electron Bombardment Ion Source for Low Energy Beams  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high current, electron bombardment ion source of simple design and suitable for low energy ion beam production is described. The source produces ion beams in the energy range from a few electron volts to several kilo-electron volts with an energy spread of a fraction of 1 eV, with high current density (5 ?A?cm2 at 25 eV), and without the

S. Dworetsky; R. Novick; W. W. Smith; N. Tolk

1968-01-01

350

Laser-driven ion sources for high-brightness high-purity ion beams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. Surface-plasma ion sources are critical to generating high-brightness, high purity ion beams on applied-B ion diodes. The source plasma must meet requirements for species, thickness, purity, degree of conductivity, formation timescale, and feasibility. Laser ionization schemes have been used on high-power ion diodes with encouraging but inconsistent results in diode impedance and beam purity. We are

A. B. Filuk; C. H. Ching; M. E. Cuneo; J. E. Bailey; M. A. Bernard; B. F. Clark; W. E. Fowler; P. Lake; J. S. Lash; J. McKenney; P. R. Menge; D. Cohen; P. Wang

1997-01-01

351

The ECR heavy-ion source for ATLAS  

SciTech Connect

The ATLAS PII-ECR ion source is the first ECR ion source to be designed for operation in a high voltage platform. The source system is required to provide beams of heavy ions with a velocity of 0.01c for subsequent acceleration by the superconducting ATLAS Positive Ion Injector Linac. At present, the ability of the system to provide high charge state ions with velocities up to .01c is probably unique and as such has generated significant interest in the atomic physics community. A beamline for atomic physics has been installed and is now in use. The source began operation in October, 1987. The source capabilities and operating experiences to date will be discussed. 6 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

Pardo, R.C.; Billquist, P.J.

1989-01-01

352

Physics research and technology developments of electron string ion sources  

SciTech Connect

The most recent experimental information on electron string phenomenon, such as two step transition to electron string state, stability of e-strings in condition of electron energy recuperation, are described. The new technology developments of electron string ion sources (ESIS) include pulse injection of gaseous species in e-string and its efficient conversion to ion beams, slow ion extraction, ion-ion cooling of heavy ions with CH{sub 4} coolant, and a progress in the construction of the new Joint Institute for Nuclear Research ESIS with 6 T solenoid are briefly considered.

Donets, D. E.; Donets, E. E.; Ramzdorf, A. Yu.; Salnikov, V. V.; Shutov, V. B.; Donets, E. D. [Veksler and Baldin Laboratory of High Energy Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna 141980 (Russian Federation); Honma, T.; Noda, K. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage, Chiba, 263-8555 (Japan)

2012-02-15

353

Application of ion thruster technology to a 30-cm multipole sputtering ion source  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 30-cm electron-bombardment ion source has been designed and fabricated for micromachining and sputtering applications. This source has a multipole magnetic field that employs permanent magnets between permeable pole pieces. An average ion current density of 1 ma/sq cm with 500-eV argon ions was selected as a design operating condition. The ion beam at this operating condition was uniform and well collimated, with an average variation of + or -5 percent over the center 20 cm of the beam at a distance up to 30 cm from the ion source.

Robinson, R. S.; Kaufman, H. R.

1976-01-01

354

GISELE: A resonant ionization laser ion source for the production of radioactive ions at GANIL  

SciTech Connect

SPIRAL2 is the new project under construction at GANIL to produce radioactive ion beams and in particular neutron rich ion beams. For the past 10 yr SPIRAL1 at GANIL has been delivering accelerated radioactive ion beams of gases. Both facilities now need to extend the range of radioactive ion beams produced to condensable elements. For that purpose, a resonant ionization laser ion source, funded by the French Research National Agency, is under development at GANIL, in collaboration with IPN Orsay, University of Mainz (Germany) and TRIUMF, Vancouver (Canada). A description of this project called GISELE (GANIL Ion Source using Electron Laser Excitation) is presented.

Lecesne, N.; Alves-Conde, R.; De Oliveira, F.; Dubois, M.; Flambard, J. L.; Franberg, H.; Jardin, P.; Leroy, R.; Pacquet, J. Y.; Pichard, A.; Saint-Laurent, M. G. [GANIL, BP 55027, 14076 Caen Cedex 5 (France); Coterreau, E.; Le Blanc, F.; Olivier, A. [IPN Orsay, BP 1-91406 Orsay (France); Gottwald, T.; Mattolat, C.; Wendt, K. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Staudinger Weg 7, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Lassen, J. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 2A3 (Canada); Rothe, S. [Department of Engineering, CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

2010-02-15

355

Review on heavy ion radiotherapy facilities and related ion sources (invited)  

SciTech Connect

Heavy ion radiotherapy awakens worldwide interest recently. The clinical results obtained by the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences in Japan have clearly demonstrated the advantages of carbon ion radiotherapy. Presently, there are four facilities for heavy ion radiotherapy in operation, and several new facilities are under construction or being planned. The most common requests for ion sources are a long lifetime and good stability and reproducibility. Sufficient intensity has been achieved by electron cyclotron resonance ion sources at the present facilities.

Kitagawa, A.; Fujita, T.; Muramatsu, M. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Biri, S. [Institute of Nuclear Research (ATOMKI), H-4026 Debrecen, Bem ter 18/C (Hungary); Drentje, A. G. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut (KVI), 9747AA Groningen (Netherlands)

2010-02-15

356

Liquid metal ion source and alloy for ion emission of multiple ionic species  

Microsoft Academic Search

A liquid metal ion source and alloy for the simultaneous ion evaporation of arsenic and boron, arsenic and phosphorus, or arsenic, boron and phosphorus. The ionic species to be evaporated are contained in palladium-arsenic-boron and palladium-arsenic-boron-phosphorus alloys. The ion source, including an emitter means such as a needle emitter and a source means such as U-shaped heater element, is preferably

Clark Jr. William M; Mark W. Utlaut; Joseph A. Wysocki; Edmund K. Storms; Eugene G. Szklarz; Robert G. Behrens; Lynwood W. Swanson; Anthony E. Bell

1987-01-01

357

Pantechnik new superconducting ion source: PantechniK Indian Superconducting Ion Source  

SciTech Connect

The new ECR ion source PantechniK Indian Superconducting Ion Source (PKISIS) was recently commissioned at Pantechnik. Three superconducting coils generate the axial magnetic field configuration, while the radial magnetic field is done with the multi-layer permanent magnets. Special care was devoted to the design of the hexapolar structure, allowing a maximum magnetic field of 1.32 T at the wall of the 82 mm diameter plasma chamber. The three superconducting coils using low temperature superconducting wires are cooled by a single double stage cryo-cooler (4.2 K). Cryogen-free technology is used, providing reliability and easy maintenance at low cost. The maximum installed RF power (18.0 GHz) is of 2 kW. Metallic beams can be produced with an oven (T{sub max}= 1400 deg. C) installed with an angle of 5 deg. with respect to the source axis or a sputtering system, mounted on the axis of the source. The beam extraction system is constituted of three electrodes in accel-decel configuration. The new source of Pantechnik is conceived for reaching optimum performances at 18 GHz RF frequencies. PKISIS magnetic fields are 2.1 T axial B{sub inj} and 1.32 T radial field in the wall, variable B{sub min} with an independent coil and a large and opened extraction region. Moreover, PKISIS integrates modern design concepts, like RF direct injection (2 kW availability), dc-bias moving disk, out-of-axis oven and axial sputtering facility for metal beams. Finally, PKISIS is also conceived in order to operate in a high-voltage platform with minor power consumption.

Gaubert, G.; Bieth, C.; Bougy, W.; Brionne, N.; Donzel, X.; Leroy, R.; Sineau, A.; Vallerand, C.; Villari, A. C. C. [Pantechnik, Bayeux 14400 (France); Thuillier, T. [LPSC UJF CNRS/IN2P3 INPG, Grenoble 38000 (France)

2012-02-15

358

Pantechnik new superconducting ion source: PantechniK Indian Superconducting Ion Source.  

PubMed

The new ECR ion source PantechniK Indian Superconducting Ion Source (PKISIS) was recently commissioned at Pantechnik. Three superconducting coils generate the axial magnetic field configuration, while the radial magnetic field is done with the multi-layer permanent magnets. Special care was devoted to the design of the hexapolar structure, allowing a maximum magnetic field of 1.32 T at the wall of the 82 mm diameter plasma chamber. The three superconducting coils using low temperature superconducting wires are cooled by a single double stage cryo-cooler (4.2 K). Cryogen-free technology is used, providing reliability and easy maintenance at low cost. The maximum installed RF power (18.0 GHz) is of 2 kW. Metallic beams can be produced with an oven (T(max) = 1400 °C) installed with an angle of 5° with respect to the source axis or a sputtering system, mounted on the axis of the source. The beam extraction system is constituted of three electrodes in accel-decel configuration. The new source of Pantechnik is conceived for reaching optimum performances at 18 GHz RF frequencies. PKISIS magnetic fields are 2.1 T axial B(inj) and 1.32 T radial field in the wall, variable B(min) with an independent coil and a large and opened extraction region. Moreover, PKISIS integrates modern design concepts, like RF direct injection (2 kW availability), dc-bias moving disk, out-of-axis oven and axial sputtering facility for metal beams. Finally, PKISIS is also conceived in order to operate in a high-voltage platform with minor power consumption. PMID:22380191

Gaubert, G; Bieth, C; Bougy, W; Brionne, N; Donzel, X; Leroy, R; Sineau, A; Vallerand, C; Villari, A C C; Thuillier, T

2012-02-01

359

ECR (Electron Cyclotron Resonance) ion sources for cyclotrons  

SciTech Connect

In the last decade ECR (Electron Cyclotron Resonance) ion sources have evolved from a single large, power consuming, complex prototype into a variety of compact, simple, reliable, efficient, high performance sources of high charge state ions for accelerators and atomic physics. The coupling of ECR sources to cyclotrons has resulted in significant performance gains in energy, intensity, reliability, and variety of ion species. Seven ECR sources are in regular operation with cyclotrons and numerous other projects are under development or in the planning stag. At least four laboratories have ECR sources dedicated for atomic physics research and other atomic physics programs share ECR sources with cyclotrons. An ECR source is now installed on the injector for the CERN SPS synchrotron to accelerate O/sup 8 +/ to relativistic energies. A project is underway at Argonne to couple an ECR source to a superconducting heavy-ion linac. Although tremendous progress has been made, the field of ECR sources is still a relatively young technology and there is still the potential for further advances both in source development and understanding of the plasma physics. The development of ECR sources is reviewed. The important physics mechanisms which come into play in the operation of ECR Sources are discussed, along with various models for charge state distributions (CSD). The design and performance of several ECR sources are compared. The 88-Inch Cyclotron and the LBL ECR is used as an example of cyclotron+ECR operation. The future of ECR sources is considered.

Lyneis, C.M.

1986-10-01

360

A hydrodynamic model of the negative ion source  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unlike atomic and molecular processes in ion sources, the macroscopic properties have received little attention. Here, {open_quote}hydrodynamic{close_quote} equations are used to investigate the electron, positive and negative ion properties of a bucket source. The source is assumed to be two-dimensional with the filter magnetic field (- 30G) in the ignorable direction. The momentum equations include elastic collision processes between neutrals,

F. A. Haas; A. J. T. Holmes; E. Surrey

1992-01-01

361

Diagnostic measurements and models of a compact ion source  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. Investigations of a compact 2.45 GHz microwave electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source operating in argon, hydrogen and mixed argon-hydrogen discharges are described. The objective of this investigation is to develop a quantified understanding of the source operation in argon\\/hydrogen discharges. The approach is a combined numerical modeling and diagnostic measurement methodology. The ion source discharge

M.-H. Tsai; T. A. Grotjohn

1998-01-01

362

Development of compact cluster ion sources using metal cluster complexes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to develop a new compact cluster ion source as a low damage sputtering source for SIMS to analyze ultra-shallow dopant state we have studied the possibility of using a metal cluster complex as an ion beam source. Metal cluster complexes such as Os3(CO)12 and Ir4(CO)12 have been studied from the view point of their stability in high vacuum

T. Mizota; H. Nonaka; T. Fujimoto; A. Kurokawa; S. Ichimura

2004-01-01

363

Preliminary experiments with a cusp-field ion source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preliminary experiments with a cusp field ion source were completed and the total ion current and mass and energy distributions were measured as a function of source operating conditions and cusp field geometry. These experiments indicate that a cusp field source may be used in the Sandia neutron generator for cancer therapy and may permit the incorporation of a simplified unpumped accelerator design. Suggestions for future work are outlined.

Bickes, R. W., Jr.; Ohagan, J. B.

1980-12-01

364

High brilliance negative ion and neutral beam source  

DOEpatents

A high brilliance mass selected (Z-selected) negative ion and neutral beam source having good energy resolution. The source is based upon laser resonance ionization of atoms or molecules in a small gaseous medium followed by charge exchange through an alkali oven. The source is capable of producing microampere beams of an extremely wide variety of negative ions, and milliampere beams when operated in the pulsed mode.

Compton, Robert N. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1991-01-01

365

Measurement of beam characteristics from C(6+) laser ion source.  

PubMed

We developed a C(6+) laser ion source for a heavy-ion accelerator. A carbon target was irradiated with a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm wavelength, 1.4 J maximum laser energy, 10 ns pulse duration) to generate a high-density plasma. The laser ion source employed a rotating carbon target for continuous operation. Ion beams were extracted from the plasma through a drift space using a direct plasma injection scheme [B. Yu. Sharkov, A. V. Shumshurov, V. P. Dubenkow, O. B. Shamaev, and A. A. Golubev, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 2841 (1992)] up to a maximum voltage of 40 kV. We measured the characteristics of the ion beams from the laser ion source and present the results of experiments here. PMID:24593626

Yamaguchi, A; Sako, K; Sato, K; Hayashizaki, N; Hattori, T

2014-02-01

366

Status of ion sources at National Institute of Radiological Sciencesa)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) maintains various ion accelerators in order to study the effects of radiation of the human body and medical uses of radiation. Two electrostatic tandem accelerators and three cyclotrons delivered by commercial companies have offered various life science tools; these include proton-induced x-ray emission analysis (PIXE), micro beam irradiation, neutron exposure, and radioisotope tracers and probes. A duoplasmatron, a multicusp ion source, a penning ion source (PIG), and an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) are in operation for these purposes. The Heavy-Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) is an accelerator complex for heavy-ion radiotherapy, fully developed by NIRS. HIMAC is utilized not only for daily treatment with the carbon beam but also for fundamental experiments. Several ECRISs and a PIG at HIMAC satisfy various research and clinical requirements.

Kitagawa, A.; Fujita, T.; Goto, A.; Hattori, T.; Hamano, T.; Hojo, S.; Honma, T.; Imaseki, H.; Katagiri, K.; Muramatsu, M.; Sakamoto, Y.; Sekiguchi, M.; Suda, M.; Sugiura, A.; Suya, N.

2012-02-01

367

Charge state distribution analysis of Al and Pb ions from the laser ion source at IMP  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A prototype laser ion source that could demonstrate the possibility of producing intense pulsed high charge state ion beams has been established with a commercial Nd:YAG laser (Emax=3 J, 1064 nm, 8-10 ns) to produce laser plasma for the research of Laser Ion Source (LIS). At the laser ion source test bench, high purity (99.998%) aluminum and lead targets have been tested for laser plasma experiment. An Electrostatic Ion Analyzer (EIA) and Electron Multiply Tube (EMT) detector were used to analyze the charge state and energy distribution of the ions produced by the laser ion source. The maximum charge states of Al12+ and Pb7+ were achieved. The results will be presented and discussed in this paper.

Sha, Shan; Jin, Qian-Yu; Li, Zhang-Min; Guo, Xiao-Hong; Zhou, Lun-Cai; Cai, Guo-Zhu; Sun, Liang-Ting; Zhang, Xue-Zhen; Zhao, Huan-Yu; Chen, Xi-Meng; Zhao, Hong-Wei

2013-11-01

368

Molecular and negative ion production by a standard electron cyclotron resonance ion source  

SciTech Connect

Molecular and negative ion beams, usually produced in special ion sources, play an increasingly important role in fundamental and applied atomic physics. The ATOMKI-ECRIS is a standard ECR ion source, designed to provide highly charged ion (HCI) plasmas and beams. In the present work, H{sup -}, O{sup -}, OH{sup -}, O{sub 2}{sup -}, C{sup -}, C{sub 60}{sup -} negative ions and H{sub 2}{sup +}, H{sub 3}{sup +}, OH{sup +}, H{sub 2}O{sup +}, H{sub 3}O{sup +}, O{sub 2}{sup +} positive molecular ions were generated in this HCI-ECRIS. Without any major modification in the source and without any commonly applied tricks (such as usage of cesium or magnetic filter), negative ion beams of several {mu}A and positive molecular ion beams in the mA range were successfully obtained.

Racz, R. [Institute of Nuclear Research (ATOMKI), Bem ter 18/c, H-4026 Debrecen (Hungary); University of Debrecen, Egyetem ter 1, H-4010 Debrecen (Hungary); Biri, S.; Juhasz, Z.; Sulik, B. [Institute of Nuclear Research (ATOMKI), Bem ter 18/c, H-4026 Debrecen (Hungary); Palinkas, J. [University of Debrecen, Egyetem ter 1, H-4010 Debrecen (Hungary)

2012-02-15

369

ECR (electron cyclotron resonance) ion sources and applications with heavy-ion linacs  

SciTech Connect

The electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source has been developed in the last few years into a reliable source of high charge-state heavy ions. The availability of heavy ions with relatively large charge-to-mass ratios (0.1--0.5) has made it possible to contemplate essentially new classes of heavy-ion linear accelerators. In this talk, I shall review the state-of-the-art in ECR source performance and describe some of the implications this performance level has for heavy-ion linear accelerator design. The present linear accelerator projects using ECR ion sources will be noted and the performance requirements of the ECR source for these projects will be reviewed. 30 refs., 3 figs.

Pardo, R.C.

1990-01-01

370

Liquid metal ion source and alloy for ion emission of multiple ionic species  

DOEpatents

A liquid metal ion source and alloy for the simultaneous ion evaporation of arsenic and boron, arsenic and phosphorus, or arsenic, boron and phosphorus. The ionic species to be evaporated are contained in palladium-arsenic-boron and palladium-arsenic-boron-phosphorus alloys. The ion source, including an emitter means such as a needle emitter and a source means such as U-shaped heater element, is preferably constructed of rhenium and tungsten, both of which are readily fabricated. The ion sources emit continuous beams of ions having sufficiently high currents of the desired species to be useful in ion implantation of semiconductor wafers for preparing integrated circuit devices. The sources are stable in operation, experience little corrosion during operation, and have long operating lifetimes.

Clark, Jr., William M. (Thousand Oaks, CA); Utlaut, Mark W. (Saugus, CA); Wysocki, Joseph A. (Oxnard, CA); Storms, Edmund K. (Los Alamos, NM); Szklarz, Eugene G. (Los Alamos, NM); Behrens, Robert G. (Los Alamos, NM); Swanson, Lynwood W. (McMinnville, OR); Bell, Anthony E. (McMinnville, OR)

1987-06-02

371

Expansion Discharge Source for Ion Beam Laser Spectroscopy of Cold Molecular Ions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Molecular ions are important in several fields of research, and spectroscopy acts as a key tool in the study of these ions. However, problems such as low ion abundance, ion-neutral confusion, and spectral congestion due to high internal temperatures can hinder effective spectroscopic studies. To circumvent these problems, we are developing a technique called Sensitive, Cooled, Resolved, Ion BEam Spectroscopy (SCRIBES). This ion beam spectrometer will feature a continuous supersonic expansion discharge source to produce cold molecular ions, electrostatic ion optics to focus the ions into an ion beam and bend the beam away from co-produced neutral molecules, an overlap region for cavity enhanced spectroscopy, and a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. When completed, SCRIBES will be an effective tool for the study of large, fluxional, and complex molecular ions that are difficult to study with other means. The ion beam spectrometer has been successfully implemented with a hot ion source. This talk will focus on the work of integrating a supersonic expansion discharge source into the instrument. To better understand how the source would work in the whole ion beam instrument, characterization studies are being performed with spectroscopy of HN_2^+ in a section of the system to ascertain the rotational temperature of the ion expansion. Attempts are also underway to measure the ion current from a beam formed from the expansion. Once the source in this environment is properly understood, we will reintegrate it to the rest of the ion beam system, completing SCRIBES. A. A. Mills, B. M. Siller, M. W. Porambo, M. Perera, H. Kreckel and B. J. McCall J. Chem. Phys., 135, 224201, (2011). K. N. Crabtree, C. A. Kauffman and B. J. McCall Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 086103, (2010).

Porambo, Michael; Pearson, Jessica; Riccardo, Craig; McCall, Benjamin J.

2013-06-01

372

Ion source and injection line for high intensity medical cyclotron.  

PubMed

A 14 MeV high intensity compact cyclotron, CYCIAE-14, was built at China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE). An injection system based on the external H- ion source was used on CYCIAE-14 so as to provide high intensity beam, while most positron emission tomography cyclotrons adopt internal ion source. A beam intensity of 100 ?A/14 MeV was extracted from the cyclotron with a small multi-cusp H- ion source (CIAE-CH-I type) and a short injection line, which the H- ion source of 3 mA/25 keV H- beam with emittance of 0.3??mm?mrad and the injection line of with only 1.2 m from the extraction of ion source to the medial plane of the cyclotron. To increase the extracted beam intensity of the cyclotron, a new ion source (CIAE-CH-II type) of 9.1 mA was used, with maximum of 500 ?A was achieved from the cyclotron. The design and test results of the ion source and injection line optimized for high intensity acceleration will be given in this paper. PMID:24593632

Jia, XianLu; Guan, Fengping; Yao, Hongjuan; Zhang, TianJue; Yang, Jianjun; Song, Guofang; Ge, Tao; Qin, Jiuchang

2014-02-01

373

Ion source and injection line for high intensity medical cyclotron  

SciTech Connect

A 14 MeV high intensity compact cyclotron, CYCIAE-14, was built at China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE). An injection system based on the external H? ion source was used on CYCIAE-14 so as to provide high intensity beam, while most positron emission tomography cyclotrons adopt internal ion source. A beam intensity of 100 ?A/14 MeV was extracted from the cyclotron with a small multi-cusp H? ion source (CIAE-CH-I type) and a short injection line, which the H? ion source of 3 mA/25 keV H? beam with emittance of 0.3??mm?mrad and the injection line of with only 1.2 m from the extraction of ion source to the medial plane of the cyclotron. To increase the extracted beam intensity of the cyclotron, a new ion source (CIAE-CH-II type) of 9.1 mA was used, with maximum of 500 ?A was achieved from the cyclotron. The design and test results of the ion source and injection line optimized for high intensity acceleration will be given in this paper.

Jia, XianLu, E-mail: jiaxl@ciae.ac.cn; Guan, Fengping; Yao, Hongjuan; Zhang, TianJue; Yang, Jianjun; Song, Guofang; Ge, Tao; Qin, Jiuchang [China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing (China)] [China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing (China)

2014-02-15

374

Ion source and injection line for high intensity medical cyclotron  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 14 MeV high intensity compact cyclotron, CYCIAE-14, was built at China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE). An injection system based on the external H- ion source was used on CYCIAE-14 so as to provide high intensity beam, while most positron emission tomography cyclotrons adopt internal ion source. A beam intensity of 100 ?A/14 MeV was extracted from the cyclotron with a small multi-cusp H- ion source (CIAE-CH-I type) and a short injection line, which the H- ion source of 3 mA/25 keV H- beam with emittance of 0.3? mm mrad and the injection line of with only 1.2 m from the extraction of ion source to the medial plane of the cyclotron. To increase the extracted beam intensity of the cyclotron, a new ion source (CIAE-CH-II type) of 9.1 mA was used, with maximum of 500 ?A was achieved from the cyclotron. The design and test results of the ion source and injection line optimized for high intensity acceleration will be given in this paper.

Jia, XianLu; Guan, Fengping; Yao, Hongjuan; Zhang, TianJue; Yang, Jianjun; Song, Guofang; Ge, Tao; Qin, Jiuchang

2014-02-01

375

Two approaches for H- ion production with 2.45 GHz ion sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the last few years, the accelerator community requested the development of improved negative hydrogen ion sources. For spallation sources, like SNS or ESS, pulsed high intensity H- ion beams of a few tens of milliamperes, with a duty cycle close to 10%, are required. New facilities like CERN also ask for high performance negative ion beams. Since CEA undertook an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR)-based ion source programme, a European network devoted to high performance negative ion source development has been created. In this group, several laboratories developing 2.45 GHz ECR sources follow different approaches to increase the extracted ion current. At Saclay, with a solenoidal magnetic structure based on coils, close to 3 mA H- ion beam is now extracted in pulsed mode (2 ms/100 ms). A metallic biased grid separates the plasma bulk from the H- ion production zone and significantly improves the H- extracted current. At Ecole Polytechnique, the source Camembert III operates in continuous wave and pulsed modes. Photodetachment measurements in continuous wave mode show considerable H- ion density (109-1010 cm-3), whether the primary electrons are provided by filaments or small ECR modules inserted into the plasma chamber. Similarities and differences between the ECR-driven and the filamented source are discussed. Representative experimental results from the sources of the two laboratories as well as future plans are reported here.

Gobin, R.; Auvray, P.; Bacal, M.; Breton, J.; Delferrière, O.; Harrault, F.; Ivanov, A. A., Jr.; Svarnas, P.; Tuske, O.

2006-06-01

376

Ion source issues for the DAE?ALUS neutrino experiment  

SciTech Connect

The DAE?ALUS experiment calls for 10 mA of protons at 800 MeV on a neutrino-producing target. To achieve this record-setting current from a cyclotron system, H{sub 2}{sup +} ions will be accelerated. Loosely bound vibrationally excited H{sub 2}{sup +} ions inevitably produced in conventional ion sources will be Lorentz stripped at the highest energies. Presence of these states was confirmed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and strategies were investigated to quench them, leading to a proposed R and D effort towards a suitable ion source for these high-power cyclotrons.

Alonso, Jose R., E-mail: JRAlonso@LBL.gov; Barletta, William A.; Toups, Matthew H.; Conrad, Janet [Laboratory for Nuclear Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)] [Laboratory for Nuclear Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Liu, Y.; Bannister, Mark E.; Havener, C. C.; Vane, Randy [Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)] [Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

2014-02-15

377

Miniature cyclotron resonance ion source using small permanent magnet  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An ion source using the cyclotron resonance principle is described. A miniaturized ion source device is used in an air gap of a small permanent magnet with a substantially uniform field in the air gap of about 0.5 inch. The device and permanent magnet are placed in an enclosure which is maintained at a high vacuum (typically 10 to the minus 7th power) into which a sample gas can be introduced. The ion beam end of the device is placed very close to an aperture through which an ion beam can exit into the apparatus for an experiment.

Anicich, V. G.; Huntress, W. T., Jr. (inventors)

1980-01-01

378

New developments in magnetron sputter processes for precision optics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reactive magnetron sputtering processes have gained considerable interest for the production of precision optical coatings. Pulsed sputtering techniques allow the deposition of high quality optical materials at high deposition rates. However, under high throughput conditions and with tight spectral tolerances, process stabilization has to be included in the fabrication process. Normally, pulsed magnetron sputter techniques are typically characterized by a low ionization. Very recently, ionized magnetron sputtering techniques are under investigation, where either the reactive gas or the metallic sputtered particles are highly ionized. Plasma assisted reactive magnetron sputtering ("PARMS") using an additional plasma source or the high pulse power magnetron sputtering ("HiPIMS" or "HPPMS") can be applied therefore. The present paper gives results of film properties of optical materials obtained with these ionized magnetron sputtering techniques and discusses potentials of the techniques for the use with precision optics.

Vergöhl, Michael; Werner, Oliver; Bruns, Stefan

2008-09-01

379

Application of compact electron cyclotron resonance ion source  

SciTech Connect

The compact electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source with a permanent magnet configuration (Kei2 source) has been developed at National Institute of Radiological Sciences for a new carbon therapy facility. The Kei2 source was designed for production of C{sup 4+} ions; its performance such as beam intensity and stability has already reached the medical requirements. Therefore, the prototype development of the source for medical use is essentially finished. Recently, we have started a few studies on other applications of the source. One is the production of fullerenes in the ECR plasma and modified fullerenes with various atoms for new materials. A second application is the production of multiply charged ions (not only carbon) for ion implantation. In this paper, some basic experiments for these applications are reported.

Muramatsu, M.; Kitagawa, A.; Iwata, Y.; Ogawa, H.; Hojo, S.; Kubo, T.; Kato, Y.; Biri, S.; Fekete, E.; Yoshida, Y.; Drentje, A. G. [Graduate School of Mechanical Engineering, Toyo University, Tokyo 112-8606, Japan and National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Department of Electrical, Electronic and Information Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Institute of Nuclear Research (ATOMKI), H-4026 Debrecen, Bem ter 18/c (Hungary); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Toyo University, 2100 Kujirai, Kawagoe, Saitama 350-0815 (Japan); National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage, Chiba 263-8555, Japan and K.V.I. University of Groningen, 9747 AA Groningen (Netherlands)

2008-02-15

380

Sources and Losses of Ring Current Ions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During geomagnetic quiet times, in-situ measurements of ring current energetic ions (few to few tens of keVs) from THEMIS spacecraft often exhibit multiple ion populations at discrete energies that extend from the inner magnetosphere to the magnetopause at dayside or plasma sheet at nightside. During geomagnetic storm times, the levels of fluxes as well as the mean energies of these ions elevated dramatically and the more smooth distributions in energies and distances during quiet times are disrupted into clusters of ion populations with more confined spatial extends. This reveals local plasma heating processes that might have come into play. Several processes have been proposed. Magnetotail dipolarization, sudden enhancement of field-aligned current, local current disruptions, and plasma waves are possible mechanisms to heat the ions locally as well as strong convections of energetic ions directly from the magnetotail due to reconnections. We will examine two geomagnetic storms on October 11, 2008 and July 22, 2009 to reveal possible heating mechanisms. We will analyze in-situ plasma and magnetic field measurements from THEMIS, GOES, and DMSP for the events to study the ion pitch angle distributions and magnetic field perturbations in the auroral ionosphere and inner magnetosphere where the plasma heating processes occur.

Chen, Sheng-Hsien; Fok, Mei-Ching H.; Angeloupoulos, Vassilis

2010-01-01

381

High Current Cluster Ion Beam Source  

SciTech Connect

New surface modification processes, such as surface smoothing and shallow implantation, have been demonstrated using the gas cluster ion irradiations because of their unique interaction between cluster ions and surface atoms. High ion dose is needed to realize the nano-level smoothing and etching of hard materials with increasing the productivity of processing using cluster ion beam. In order to achieve high current cluster ion beam, the cluster generation and ion extraction were studied. The intensity of neutral beams generated from various metal nozzles was measured and the efficient cluster generation was realized. The mass distributions were measured with a Time-of-Flight (TOF) and each cluster size distribution had a peak at size of 20000-30000. The efficient extraction was realized by structural improvement of the ionizer. As a result, when the gas pressure was 15000 Torr and the acceleration energy is 25keV, the beam current reached 600{mu}A. With this beam current, 6 inches wafers can be treated with 1x1016 ions/cm2 for about 8 minutes.

Seki, Toshio [Ion Beam Engineering Experimental Laboratory, Kyoto University, Kyoto, 606-8501 Japan (Japan); Collaborative Research Center for Cluster Ion Beam Process Technology (Japan); Matsuo, Jiro; Takaoka, Gikan H. [Ion Beam Engineering Experimental Laboratory, Kyoto University, Kyoto, 606-8501 (Japan)

2003-08-26

382

The Development of a Discharge Heated Penning Ion Source for Multiply-Charged Ions in a K = 500 Superconducting Cyclotron  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the studies made during the design, testing, operation and development of a PIG ion source for the production of multiply-charged ions in the K500 Cyclotron. In Chapter 1 the fundamental properties of Penning (PIG) ion sources and the design of the K500 cyclotron ion source are presented. Pulsed operation of the source, including the power supply operation and

Timothy Allen Antaya

1986-01-01

383

Vacuum Arc Ion Sources: Recent Developments and Applications  

SciTech Connect

The vacuum arc ion source has evolved over the past twenty years into a standard laboratory tool for the production of high current beams of metal ions, and is now used in a number of different embodiments at many laboratories around the world. The primary application of this kind of source has evolved to be ion implantation for material surface modification. Another important use is for injection of high current beams of heavy metal ions into the front ends of particle accelerators, and much excellent work has been carried out in recent years in optimizing the source for reliable accelerator application. The source also provides a valuable tool for the investigation of the fundamental plasma physics of vacuum arc plasma discharges. As the use of the source has grown and diversified, at the same time the ion source performance and operational characteristics have been improved in a variety of different ways also. Here we review the growth and status of vacuum arc ion sources around the world, and summarize some of the applications for which the sources have been used.

Brown, Ian; Oks, Efim

2005-05-01

384

Characteristics of a microwave plasma disk ion source  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This letter describes an ion source using a cylindrical microwave cavity operating in a hybrid mode associated with the TE(211) empty cavity mode. The design principles and associated electrical systems are also discussed. Extracted beam current versus accelerating voltage, and specific energy versus extracted beam current are displayed over the range of flow rates 20-80 sccm and absorbed powers 80-150 W. The results show the feasibility of this concept. The ion source has many potential uses such as space propulsion, material processing, and neutral beam ion sources.

Asmussen, J.; Root, J.

1984-01-01

385

Pure radioactive Ga ion beams provided by new laser ion source for nuclear research at ORNL  

E-print Network

Pure radioactive Ga ion beams provided by new laser ion source for nuclear research at ORNL pure beams of radioactive nuclei far from stability. · Beams of neutron-rich Ga isotopes were delivered to the Low-energy Radioactive Ion Beam Spectroscopy Station (LeRIBSS) with previously unattainable purity

386

Production of high charge state ions with the advanced electron cyclotron resonance ion source at LBNL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production of high charge state ions with the Advanced Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source (AECR) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has been significantly improved by application of various new techniques. Heating the plasma simultaneously with microwaves of two frequencies (10 and 14 GHz) has increased the production of very high charge state heavy ions. The two-frequency technique provides extra

Zu Qi Xie; C. M. Lyneis

1995-01-01

387

Novel Ion Traps for Enhanced Fluorescence Collections and Single Photon Sources Based on Barium Ions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Efficient ion-photon interface is critical for ion-photon and ion-ion entanglement generation, which are the fundamental building blocks for loophole-free Bell inequality violation tests based on ion qubits, and for the quantum computer architecture based on ion-photon networks. As one approach to address the problem, the feasibility of integrating reflective optics into ion trap to increase free-space photon interception is studied. The development and operation of two novel ion traps are demonstrated: one integrates a spherical mirror with a linear quadrapole trap, and the other combines the optical surface with the RF electrode. The possibility of using aspherical optics to improve ion images is studied and partially implemented. A continuously excited single photon source based on 138Ba + ion is demonstrated and calibrated. Methods of scaling up current design are also discussed.

Shu, Gang

2010-11-01

388

Development of high intensity deuteron ion source for the fusion intense neutron source  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high intensity deuteron ion source has been developed in order to increase the neutron flax from the D-T neutron source for Fusion Neutronics Source at JAERI. It is possible to extract more than 50 mA of deuteron beam at the beam energy of 50 keV. The lifetime of the tungsten filaments utilized in the ion source has been achieved

M. Kinsho; M. Sugimoto; M. Seki; H. Oguri; Y. Okumura

2000-01-01

389

The negative hydrogen Penning ion gauge ion source for KIRAMS-13 cyclotrona)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cold-cathode-type Penning ion gauge (PIG) ion source for the internal ion source of KIRAMS-13 cyclotron has been used for generation of negative hydrogen ions. The dc H-beam current of 650?A from the PIG ion source with the Dee voltage of 40kV and arc current of 1.0A is extrapolated from the measured dc extraction beam currents at the low extraction dc voltages. The output optimization of PIG ion source in the cyclotron has been carried out by using various chimneys with different sizes of the expansion gap between the plasma boundary and the chimney wall. This paper presents the results of the dc H-extraction measurement and the expansion gap experiment.

An, D. H.; Jung, I. S.; Kang, J.; Chang, H. S.; Hong, B. H.; Hong, S.; Lee, M. Y.; Kim, Y.; Yang, T. K.; Chai, J. S.

2008-02-01

390

The negative hydrogen Penning ion gauge ion source for KIRAMS-13 cyclotron.  

PubMed

The cold-cathode-type Penning ion gauge (PIG) ion source for the internal ion source of KIRAMS-13 cyclotron has been used for generation of negative hydrogen ions. The dc H-beam current of 650 microA from the PIG ion source with the Dee voltage of 40 kV and arc current of 1.0 A is extrapolated from the measured dc extraction beam currents at the low extraction dc voltages. The output optimization of PIG ion source in the cyclotron has been carried out by using various chimneys with different sizes of the expansion gap between the plasma boundary and the chimney wall. This paper presents the results of the dc H-extraction measurement and the expansion gap experiment. PMID:18315141

An, D H; Jung, I S; Kang, J; Chang, H S; Hong, B H; Hong, S; Lee, M Y; Kim, Y; Yang, T K; Chai, J S

2008-02-01

391

The negative hydrogen Penning ion gauge ion source for KIRAMS-13 cyclotron  

SciTech Connect

The cold-cathode-type Penning ion gauge (PIG) ion source for the internal ion source of KIRAMS-13 cyclotron has been used for generation of negative hydrogen ions. The dc H-beam current of 650 {mu}A from the PIG ion source with the Dee voltage of 40 kV and arc current of 1.0 A is extrapolated from the measured dc extraction beam currents at the low extraction dc voltages. The output optimization of PIG ion source in the cyclotron has been carried out by using various chimneys with different sizes of the expansion gap between the plasma boundary and the chimney wall. This paper presents the results of the dc H-extraction measurement and the expansion gap experiment.

An, D. H.; Jung, I. S.; Kang, J.; Chang, H. S.; Hong, B. H.; Hong, S.; Lee, M. Y.; Kim, Y.; Yang, T. K.; Chai, J. S. [Laboratory of Particle Accelerator Development, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences (KIRAMS), Seoul 139-740 (Korea, Republic of)

2008-02-15

392

Rapid microscale analyses with an external ion source Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design of a multi-purpose external ion source Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer for rapid microscale analyses of complex mixtures is presented. Rapid microscale analyses are carried out using several desorption and ionisation techniques, and benefit from a hydrocarbon-free UHV (Ultra High Vacuum) system. Two different techniques for polymer analysis will be discussed. “In source” filament pyrolysis is

Ron M. A. Heeren; Jaap J. Boon

1996-01-01

393

Characteristics of a self-extraction negative ion source  

SciTech Connect

A multi-cusp, self-extraction, negative hydrogen ion source has been designed and constructed. Several diagnostic techniques have been applied to study the operating characteristics of this type of source. Negative H/sup -/ and D/sup -/ ions are produced on a negatively biased converter surface, and are self-extracted from the system. With the addition of cesium, the source has been operated at a neutral pressure of 1 x 10/sup -3/ Torr to generate a steady-state H/sup -/ ion current greater than 400 mA. The generation of impurity negative ions has been investigated, as have methods for reducing the presence of background electrons in the ion exit region. Plans for a larger, next-generation device will be discussed.

Ehlers, K.W.; Leung, K.N.

1980-10-01

394

An ion guide laser ion source for isobar-suppressed rare isotope beams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern experiments at isotope separator on-line (ISOL) facilities like ISAC at TRIUMF often depend critically on the purity of the delivered rare isotope beams. Therefore, highly selective ion sources are essential. This article presents the development and successful on-line operation of an ion guide laser ion source (IG-LIS) for the production of ion beams free of isobaric contamination. Thermionic ions from the hot ISOL target are suppressed by an electrostatic potential barrier, while neutral radio nuclides effusing out are resonantly ionized by laser radiation within a quadrupole ion guide behind this barrier. The IG-LIS was developed through detailed thermal and ion optics simulation studies and off-line tests with stable isotopes. In a first on-line run with a SiC target a suppression of surface-ionized Na contaminants in the ion beam of up to six orders of magnitude was demonstrated.

Raeder, Sebastian; Heggen, Henning; Lassen, Jens; Ames, Friedhelm; Bishop, Daryl; Bricault, Pierre; Kunz, Peter; Mjøs, Anders; Teigelhöfer, Andrea

2014-03-01

395

An ion guide laser ion source for isobar-suppressed rare isotope beams  

SciTech Connect

Modern experiments at isotope separator on-line (ISOL) facilities like ISAC at TRIUMF often depend critically on the purity of the delivered rare isotope beams. Therefore, highly selective ion sources are essential. This article presents the development and successful on-line operation of an ion guide laser ion source (IG-LIS) for the production of ion beams free of isobaric contamination. Thermionic ions from the hot ISOL target are suppressed by an electrostatic potential barrier, while neutral radio nuclides effusing out are resonantly ionized by laser radiation within a quadrupole ion guide behind this barrier. The IG-LIS was developed through detailed thermal and ion optics simulation studies and off-line tests with stable isotopes. In a first on-line run with a SiC target a suppression of surface-ionized Na contaminants in the ion beam of up to six orders of magnitude was demonstrated.

Raeder, Sebastian, E-mail: sebastian.raeder@fys.kuleuven.be; Ames, Friedhelm; Bishop, Daryl; Bricault, Pierre; Kunz, Peter; Mjøs, Anders [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 2A3 (Canada)] [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 2A3 (Canada); Heggen, Henning, E-mail: heggen@triumf.ca [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 2A3 (Canada) [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 2A3 (Canada); Institute of Applied Physics, TU Darmstadt, Schlossgartenstr. 7, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Lassen, Jens, E-mail: lassen@triumf.ca; Teigelhöfer, Andrea [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 2A3 (Canada) [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 2A3 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2 (Canada)

2014-03-15

396

An ion guide laser ion source for isobar-suppressed rare isotope beams.  

PubMed

Modern experiments at isotope separator on-line (ISOL) facilities like ISAC at TRIUMF often depend critically on the purity of the delivered rare isotope beams. Therefore, highly selective ion sources are essential. This article presents the development and successful on-line operation of an ion guide laser ion source (IG-LIS) for the production of ion beams free of isobaric contamination. Thermionic ions from the hot ISOL target are suppressed by an electrostatic potential barrier, while neutral radio nuclides effusing out are resonantly ionized by laser radiation within a quadrupole ion guide behind this barrier. The IG-LIS was developed through detailed thermal and ion optics simulation studies and off-line tests with stable isotopes. In a first on-line run with a SiC target a suppression of surface-ionized Na contaminants in the ion beam of up to six orders of magnitude was demonstrated. PMID:24689577

Raeder, Sebastian; Heggen, Henning; Lassen, Jens; Ames, Friedhelm; Bishop, Daryl; Bricault, Pierre; Kunz, Peter; Mjøs, Anders; Teigelhöfer, Andrea

2014-03-01

397

Ion current detector for high pressure ion sources for monitoring separations  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates generally to any application involving the monitoring of signal arising from ions produced by electrospray or other high pressure (>100 torr) ion sources. The present invention relates specifically to an apparatus and method for the detection of ions emitted from a capillary electrophoresis (CE) system, liquid chromatography, or other small-scale separation methods. And further, the invention provides a very simple diagnostic as to the quality of the separation and the operation of an electrospray source.

Smith, Richard D. (Richland, WA); Wahl, Jon H. (Richland, WA); Hofstadler, Steven A. (Richland, WA)

1996-01-01

398

Ion current detector for high pressure ion sources for monitoring separations  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates generally to any application involving the monitoring of signal arising from ions produced by electrospray or other high pressure (>100 torr) ion sources. The present invention relates specifically to an apparatus and method for the detection of ions emitted from a capillary electrophoresis (CE) system, liquid chromatography, or other small-scale separation methods. And further, the invention provides a very simple diagnostic as to the quality of the separation and the operation of an electrospray source. 7 figs.

Smith, R.D.; Wahl, J.H.; Hofstadler, S.A.

1996-08-13

399

A review of ion sources for medical accelerators (invited).  

PubMed

There are two major medical applications of ion accelerators. One is a production of short-lived isotopes for radionuclide imaging with positron emission tomography and single photon emission computer tomography. Generally, a combination of a source for negative ions (usually H- and/or D-) and a cyclotron is used; this system is well established and distributed over the world. Other important medical application is charged-particle radiotherapy, where the accelerated ion beam itself is being used for patient treatment. Two distinctly different methods are being applied: either with protons or with heavy-ions (mostly carbon ions). Proton radiotherapy for deep-seated tumors has become widespread since the 1990s. The energy and intensity are typically over 200 MeV and several 10(10) pps, respectively. Cyclotrons as well as synchrotrons are utilized. The ion source for the cyclotron is generally similar to the type for production of radioisotopes. For a synchrotron, one applies a positive ion source in combination with an injector linac. Carbon ion radiotherapy awakens a worldwide interest. About 6000 cancer patients have already been treated with carbon beams from the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences in Japan. These clinical results have clearly verified the advantages of carbon ions. Heidelberg Ion Therapy Center and Gunma University Heavy Ion Medical Center have been successfully launched. Several new facilities are under commissioning or construction. The beam energy is adjusted to the depth of tumors. It is usually between 140 and 430 MeV?u. Although the beam intensity depends on the irradiation method, it is typically several 10(8) or 10(9) pps. Synchrotrons are only utilized for carbon ion radiotherapy. An ECR ion source supplies multi-charged carbon ions for this requirement. Some other medical applications with ion beams attract developer's interests. For example, the several types of accelerators are under development for the boron neutron capture therapy. This treatment is conventionally demonstrated by a nuclear reactor, but it is strongly expected to replace the reactor by the accelerator. We report status of ion source for medical application and such scope for further developments. PMID:22380341

Muramatsu, M; Kitagawa, A

2012-02-01

400

Comparison of graphite materials for targets of laser ion source.  

PubMed

To investigate efficient graphite material for carbon ion production in laser ion source, the plasma properties produced from these materials are measured. Comparing acquired current profile and charge state distribution, the distributions of ions in laser induced plasma from isotropic graphite and single crystal of graphite are different. The produced quantity of C(6+) from isotropic materials is larger than that from single crystal. PMID:24593629

Fuwa, Y; Ikeda, S; Kumaki, M; Sekine, M; Munemoto, N; Cinquegrani, D; Romanelli, M; Kanesue, T; Okamura, M; Iwashita, Y

2014-02-01

401

Experimental results of a dual-beam ion source for 200 keV ion implanter  

SciTech Connect

A dual beam ion source for 200 keV ion implanter aimed to produce 200 keV H{sub 2}{sup +} and He{sup +} beams simultaneously has been developed. Not suitable to use the analyzing magnet, the purity of beam extracted from the source becomes important to the performance of implanter. The performance of ion source was measured. The results of experiments show that the materials of inlet tube of ion source, the time of arc ionization in ion source, and the amount of gas flow have significant influence on the purity of beam. The measures by using copper as inlet tube material, long time of arc ionization, and increasing the inlet of gas flow could effectively reduce the impurity of beam. And the method using the gas mass flow controller to adjust the proportion of H{sub 2}{sup +} and He{sup +} is feasible.

Chen, L. H., E-mail: lihuachen@ciae.ac.cn; Cui, B. Q.; Ma, R. G.; Ma, Y. J.; Tang, B.; Huang, Q. H.; Jiang, W. S.; Zheng, Y. N. [Department of Nuclear Physics, China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing 102413 (China)] [Department of Nuclear Physics, China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing 102413 (China)

2014-02-15

402

Experimental results of a dual-beam ion source for 200 keV ion implanter.  

PubMed

A dual beam ion source for 200 keV ion implanter aimed to produce 200 keV H2 (+) and He(+) beams simultaneously has been developed. Not suitable to use the analyzing magnet, the purity of beam extracted from the source becomes important to the performance of implanter. The performance of ion source was measured. The results of experiments show that the materials of inlet tube of ion source, the time of arc ionization in ion source, and the amount of gas flow have significant influence on the purity of beam. The measures by using copper as inlet tube material, long time of arc ionization, and increasing the inlet of gas flow could effectively reduce the impurity of beam. And the method using the gas mass flow controller to adjust the proportion of H2 (+) and He(+) is feasible. PMID:24593645

Chen, L H; Cui, B Q; Ma, R G; Ma, Y J; Tang, B; Huang, Q H; Jiang, W S; Zheng, Y N

2014-02-01

403

Highly charged ion beam diagnostics at the mVINIS Ion Source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to determine position, dimensions and intensities of multiply charged ion beams at the mVINIS Ion Source, a novel method was developed based on a fluorescent screen and a commercial digital TV camera. The spatial characteristics of multiply charged ion beams (for example the ionization states of Ar2+ to Ar10+) have been precisely measured and analyzed at the TESLA Accelerator Installation for the first time. In this work, we discuss in details the characteristics of Ar8+ion beams. The obtained ion beam characteristics were compared with the results of previously applied conventional methods of ion beam diagnostics.

Popeskov, B.; Milivojevi, M.; Cveti, J.; Nedeljkovi, T.; Dragani, I.

2007-03-01

404

Proposed laser ion source for the Columbia University microbeam  

E-print Network

and a double focusing element with point-to-point focusing in both the horizontal and vertical planes. We of Ar- kansas [4]. Ion trajectories in this source experi- enced in turn, 70 cm of plasma expansion

405

Conditioning of ion sources for mass spectrometry of plasmas  

SciTech Connect

Mass spectrometry is a useful diagnostic technique for monitoring plasma species and plasma-surface interactions. In order to maximize the sensitivity of measurements of hydrogen-fueled fusion plasmas or hydrogen-based discharge cleaning and etching plasmas, the ion sources of mass spectrometers are operated at or near the high pressure limit of 10/sup -4/ Torr (10/sup -2/ Pa). Such high ambient pressures of hydrogen give rise to high background levels of residual gases such as H/sub 2/O, CO, and CH/sub 4/, due to surface reactions on the ion source electrodes. For a commonly used ion source configuration, the residual gas production is a linear function of the ambient H/sub 2/ pressure. Hydrogen conditioning can reduce the absolute residual gas levels. Steady-state residual gas production is observed in a conditioned ion source, which is related to a balance of diffusion and sorption on the electrode surfaces.

Dylla, H.F.; Blanchard, W.R.

1983-02-01

406

Production of multicharged iron ions with inductively heated vapor source  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiply charged Fe ions are produced from solid material in a 2.45 GHz electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source. We develop an evaporator by induction heating with an induction coil covered by ceramics in vacuum and surrounding the pure Fe rod with noncontact. The typical power and the frequency of the induction currents range from 300 to 800 W and

Yushi Kato; Masashi Tomida; Takashi Kubo; Toyohisa Asaji; Kiyokatsu Tanaka; Fuminobu Sato; Toshiyuki Iida

2006-01-01

407

Multicharged iron ions produced by using induction heating vapor source  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiply charged Fe ions are produced from solid pure material in an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source. We develop an evaporator by using induction heating with an induction coil which is made of bare molybdenum wire partially covered by ceramic beads in vacuum and surrounding and heating directly the pure Fe rod. Heated material has no contact with insulators,

Yushi Kato; Takashi Kubo; Masayuki Muramatsu; Kiyokatsu Tanaka; Atsushi Kitagawa; Yoshikazu Yoshida; Toyohisa Asaji; Fuminobu Sato; Toshiyuki Iida

2008-01-01

408

Operational characteristics of a radio frequency ion-source  

Microsoft Academic Search

A radiofrequency type ion source using a 30 Mc\\/s oscillator was designed ; with co-axial magnetic field and its operational characteristics are measured, ; taking oscillator power, gas pressure, magnetic field, probe voltage, and canal ; geometry as independent parameters. From these graphs, correlations were made ; with the internal phenomena of the gas discharge and of ion extraction. A

A. K. Ganguly; H. Bakhru

1963-01-01

409

Electrohydrodynamically driven large-area liquid ion sources  

DOEpatents

A large-area liquid ion source comprises means for generating, over a large area of the surface of a liquid, an electric field of a strength sufficient to induce emission of ions from a large area of said liquid. Large areas in this context are those distinct from emitting areas in unidimensional emitters.

Pregenzer, Arian L. (Corrales, NM)

1988-01-01

410

Artificially Structured Boundary for a high purity ion trap or ion source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A plasma enclosed by an Artificially Structured Boundary (ASB) is proposed here as an alternative to existing ion source assemblies. In accelerator applications, many ion sources can have a limited lifetime or frequent service intervals due to sputtering and eventual degradation of the ion source assembly. Ions are accelerated towards the exit canal of positive ion sources, whereas, due to the biasing scheme, electrons or negative ions are accelerated towards the back of the ion source assembly. This can either adversely affect the experiment in progress due to sputtered contamination or compromise the integrity of the ion source assembly. Charged particle trajectories in the proximity of an ASB experience electromagnetic fields that are designed to hinder ion-surface interactions. Away from the ASB there is an essentially field free region. The field produced by an ASB is considered to consist of a periodic sequence of electrostatically plugged magnetic field cusps. A classical trajectory Monte Carlo simulation is extended to include electrostatic plugging of magnetic field cusps. The conditions necessary for charged particles to be reflected by the ASB are presented and quantified in terms of normalized parameters.

Pacheco, J. L.; Ordonez, C. A.; Weathers, D. L.

2014-08-01

411

New Results with the superconducting ECR ion source VENUS  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last year, the VENUS ECR ion source was commissioned at 18 GHz and preparations for 28 GHz operation, which is set to begin early in 2004, are now underway. The goal of the VENUS ECR ion source project as the RIA R&D injector is the production of 240emA of U30+, a high current medium charge state beam. On

C. M. Lyneis; D. Leitner; S. R. Abbott; R. D. Dwinell; M. Leitner; C. S. Silver; C. Taylor

2004-01-01

412

Neutral ion sources in precision manufacturing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ion figuring of optical components is a relatively new technology that can alleviate some of the problems associated with traditional contact polishing. Because the technique is non contacting, edge distortions and rib structure print through do not occur. This initial investigation was aimed at determining the effect of ion figuring on surface roughness of previously polished or ductile ground ceramic optical samples. This is the first step in research directed toward the combination of a pre-finishing process (ductile grinding or polishing) with ion figuring to produce finished ceramic mirrors. The second phase of the project is focusing on the development of mathematical algorithms that will deconvolve the ion beam profile from the surface figure errors so that these errors can be successfully removed from the optical components. In the initial phase of the project, multiple, chemical vapor deposited silicon carbide (CVD SiC) samples were polished or ductile ground to specular or near-specular roughness. These samples were then characterized to determine topographic surface information. The surface evaluation consisted of stylus profilometry, interferometry, and optical and scanning electron microscopy. The surfaces, were ion machined to depths from 0-5 microns. The finished surfaces were characterized to evaluate the effects of the ion machining process with respect to the previous processing methods and the pre-existing subsurface damage. The development of the control algorithms for figuring optical components has been completed. These algorithms have been validated with simulations and future experiments have been planned to verify the methods. This paper will present the results of the initial surface finish experiments and the control algorithms simulations.

Fawcett, Steven C.; Drueding, Thomas W.

1994-02-01

413

Neutral ion sources in precision manufacturing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ion figuring of optical components is a relatively new technology that can alleviate some of the problems associated with traditional contact polishing. Because the technique is non contacting, edge distortions and rib structure print through do not occur. This initial investigation was aimed at determining the effect of ion figuring on surface roughness of previously polished or ductile ground ceramic optical samples. This is the first step in research directed toward the combination of a pre-finishing process (ductile grinding or polishing) with ion figuring to produce finished ceramic mirrors. The second phase of the project is focusing on the development of mathematical algorithms that will deconvolve the ion beam profile from the surface figure errors so that these errors can be successfully removed from the optical components. In the initial phase of the project, multiple, chemical vapor deposited silicon carbide (CVD SiC) samples were polished or ductile ground to specular or near-specular roughness. These samples were then characterized to determine topographic surface information. The surface evaluation consisted of stylus profilometry, interferometry, and optical and scanning electron microscopy. The surfaces, were ion machined to depths from 0-5 microns. The finished surfaces were characterized to evaluate the effects of the ion machining process with respect to the previous processing methods and the pre-existing subsurface damage. The development of the control algorithms for figuring optical components has been completed. These algorithms have been validated with simulations and future experiments have been planned to verify the methods. This paper will present the results of the initial surface finish experiments and the control algorithms simulations.

Fawcett, Steven C.; Drueding, Thomas W.

1994-01-01

414

Nb3Sn superconducting magnets for electron cyclotron resonance ion sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources are an essential component of heavy-ion accelerators. Over the past few decades advances in magnet technology and an improved understanding of the ECR ion source plasma physics have led to remarkable performance improvements of ECR ion sources. Currently third generation high field superconducting ECR ion sources operating at frequencies around 28 GHz are the

P. Ferracin; S. Caspi; H. Felice; D. Leitner; C. M. Lyneis; S. Prestemon; G. L. Sabbi; D. S. Todd

2009-01-01

415

Nb3Sn superconducting magnets for electron cyclotron resonance ion sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources are an essential component of heavy-ion accelerators. Over the past few decades advances in magnet technology and an improved understanding of the ECR ion source plasma physics have led to remarkable performance improvements of ECR ion sources. Currently third generation high field superconducting ECR ion sources operating at frequencies around 28 GHz are the

P. Ferracin; S. Caspi; H. Felice; D. Leitner; C. M. Lyneis; S. Prestemon; G. L. Sabbi; D. S. Todd

2010-01-01

416

Multiple species beam production on laser ion source for electron beam ion source in Brookhaven National Laboratory.  

PubMed

Extracted ion beams from the test laser ion source (LIS) were transported through a test beam transport line which is almost identical to the actual primary beam transport in the current electron beam ion source apparatus. The tested species were C, Al, Si, Cr, Fe, Cu, Ag, Ta, and Au. The all measured beam currents fulfilled the requirements. However, in the case of light mass ions, the recorded emittance shapes have larger aberrations and the RMS values are higher than 0.06 ??mm?mrad, which is the design goal. Since we have margin to enhance the beam current, if we then allow some beam losses at the injection point, the number of the single charged ions within the acceptance can be supplied. For heaver ions like Ag, Ta, and Au, the LIS showed very good performance. PMID:24593625

Sekine, M; Ikeda, S; Hayashizaki, N; Kanesue, T; Okamura, M

2014-02-01

417

Combinatorial characterization of transparent conductive properties of Ga-doped ZnO films cosputtered from electron cyclotron resonance and rf magnetron plasma sources  

SciTech Connect

The simultaneous sputtering of ZnO and Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} by electron cyclotron resonance and rf magnetron plasma sources produced Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) films with continuously varying Ga concentration over the substrate surface. Combinatorial evaluation of electrical and optical properties of GZO film grown on silica glass substrate without heater annealing enabled identification of minimum resistivity (0.5 m{Omega} cm) at a Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} content of 5.5 wt % with an optical transmittance of 90% in the visible wavelength. The monotonically decreasing mobility that was associated with increasing carrier concentration as Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} content was increased indicated that conduction was governed by ionized impurity scattering. Above the critical Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} content (6 wt %), carrier concentration decreased since excess Ga atoms that were incorporated beyond the solubility limit at Zn sites hindered large crystalline domains from forming. The ZnO (002) x-ray diffraction peak was suppressed and peaks assigned to Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} were observed at high Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} content. The optimum Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} content shifted to 3.5 wt % at a deposition temperature of 200 deg. C and 2.5 wt % at 300 deg. C, and the minimum resistivity was further decreased to 0.28 m{Omega} cm at 200 deg. C. However, the resistivities at these elevated temperatures were incredibly high both at the lower and higher side of the optimum Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} content.

Akazawa, Housei [NTT Microsystem Integration Laboratories, 3-1 Morinosato Wakamiya, Atsugi-shi, Kanagawa 243-0198 (Japan)

2010-03-15

418

Observation of multiple charge states and high ion energies in high-power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) and burst HiPIMS using a LaB6 target  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The charge-state-resolved ion energies of high-power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) discharges were measured, using a LaB6 target, as a function of charging voltage, pulse length, pulse frequency and ‘on/off’ time ratio within applied HiPIMS bursts. The highest charge states can reach ‘+2’ and ‘+3’ for boron and lanthanum ions, respectively. At high discharge powers, the B/La ion ratio can exceed the respective atom ratio in the target producing B-rich plasma with up to 98% boron ions. In the case of two-segmented bursts with high ‘on/off’ time ratios, La3+ is the dominating lanthanum ion species and the ion energy distribution of B+ shows a pronounced high-energy tail extending up to 750 eV. The measured plasma compositions, ion charge states and ion energies are discussed within the established framework of HiPIMS discharges and the recent postulation that potential humps are associated with drifting ionization zones. The recorded high B/La ion ratios are a result of complex effects related to particle fluxes in the HiPIMS plasma of compound targets, as explained with the help of an expanded schematic representation of self-sputtering and gas atom recycling. The high energies of the B+ ions are based on a combination of the self-sputtering of boron, backscattering of incident boron ions on lanthanum atoms in the target and acceleration by the potential hump. Further evidence for potential humps is provided by the observed charge-state dependence of ion energies and features between the thermal peak and high-energy tail of the ion energy distribution functions.

Franz, Robert; Clavero, César; Bolat, Rustem; Mendelsberg, Rueben; Anders, André

2014-06-01

419

Experimental evaluation of a negative ion source for a heavy ionfusion negative ion driver  

SciTech Connect

Negative halogen ions have recently been proposed as a possible alternative to positive ions for heavy ion fusion drivers because electron accumulation would not be a problem in the accelerator, and if desired, the beams could be photodetached to neutrals [1,2,3]. To test the ability to make suitable quality beams, an experiment was conducted at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory using chlorine in an RF-driven ion source. Without introducing any cesium (which is required to enhance negative ion production in hydrogen ion sources) a negative chlorine current density of 45 mA/cm{sup 2} was obtained under the same conditions that gave 57 mA/cm{sup 2} of positive chlorine, suggesting the presence of nearly as many negative ions as positive ions in the plasma near the extraction plane. The negative ion spectrum was 99.5% atomic chlorine ions, with only 0.5% molecular chlorine, and essentially no impurities. Although this experiment did not incorporate the type of electron suppression technology that is used in negative hydrogen beam extraction, the ratio of co-extracted electrons to Cl{sup -} was as low as 7 to 1, many times lower than the ratio of their mobilities, suggesting that few electrons are present in the near-extractor plasma. This, along with the near-equivalence of the positive and negative ion currents, suggests that the plasma in this region was mostly an ion-ion plasma. The negative chlorine current density was relatively insensitive to pressure, and scaled linearly with RF power. If this linear scaling continues to hold at higher RF powers, it should permit current densities of 100 mA/cm{sup 2}, sufficient for present heavy ion fusion injector concepts. The effective ion temperatures of the positive and negative ions appeared to be similar and relatively low for a plasma source.

Grisham, L.R.; Hahto, S.K.; Hahto, S.T.; Kwan, J.W.; Leung, K.N.

2005-01-18

420

DUHOCAMIS: A dual hollow cathode ion source for metal ion beams  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we describe a novel ion source named DUHOCAMIS for multiply charged metal ion beams. This ion source is derived from the hot cathode Penning ion gauge ion source (JINR, Dubna, 1957). A notable characteristic is the modified Penning geometry in the form of a hollow sputter electrode, coaxially positioned in a compact bottle-magnetic field along the central magnetic line of force. The interaction of the discharge geometry with the inhomogeneous but symmetrical magnetic field enables this device to be operated as hollow cathode discharge and Penning discharge as well. The main features of the ion source are the very high metal ion efficiency (up to 25%), good operational reproducibility, flexible and efficient operations for low charged as well as highly charged ions, compact setup, and easy maintenance. For light ions, e.g., up to titanium, well-collimated beams in the range of several tens of milliamperes of pulsed ion current (1 ms, 10/s) have been reliably performed in long time runs.

Zhao, W. J.; Mueller, M. W. O.; Janik, J.; Liu, K. X.; Ren, X. T. [Institute of Heavy Ion Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China) and State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing, 100871 (China); GSI, D64291 Darmstadt (Germany) and Sentastr. 12, D68199, Mannheim (Germany); Institute of Microelectronics, Slovak Technical University, Bratislava, Llcovicova 3 (Slovakia); Institute of Heavy Ion Physics, Peking University, Beijing, 100871 (China) and State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing, 100871 (China)

2008-02-15

421

Intense beam production of highly charged heavy ions by the superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source SECRAL (invited)  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been increasing demand to provide higher beam intensity and high enough beam energy for heavy ion accelerator and some other applications, which has driven electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source to produce higher charge state ions with higher beam intensity. One of development trends for highly charged ECR ion source is to build new generation ECR sources by

H. W. Zhao; L. T. Sun; X. Z. Zhang; X. H. Guo; Y. Cao; W. Lu; Z. M. Zhang; P. Yuan; M. T. Song; H. Y. Zhao; T. Jin; Y. Shang; W. L. Zhan; B. W. Wei; D. Z. Xie

2008-01-01

422

Laser ion source with a double pulse laser system  

SciTech Connect

To extend an ion beam pulse of a laser ion source, multiple laser shots could be used. To check the feasibility of this idea, we tested double laser irradiations on an iron target. When the interval of the two laser shots is longer than 10 {mu}s, the obtained ion current profile was expressed as a sum of two individual expanded laser plasmas. However, if the interval is too close, a current reduction was observed. This technique can be effectively applied to low charge state ion production.

Okamura, M.; Kondo, K. [Collider-Accelerator Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Gish Allouche, G. [Bryn Mawr College, Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania 19010 (United States); Yamamoto, T. [Waseda University, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan)

2012-02-15

423

Laser ion source with a double pulse laser system  

SciTech Connect

To extend an ion beam pulse of a laser ion source, multiple laser shots could be used. To check the feasibility of this idea, we tested double laser irradiations on an iron target. When the interval of the two laser shots is longer than 10 {micro}s, the obtained ion current profile was expressed as a sum of two individual expanded laser plasmas. However, if the interval is too close, a current reduction was observed. This technique can be effectively applied to low charge state ion production.

Okamura M.; Kondo, K.; Gish Allouche, G.; Yamamoto, T.

2012-02-13

424

A hollow cathode hydrogen ion source. [for controlled fusion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High current density ion sources have been used to heat plasmas in controlled thermonuclear reaction experiments. High beam currents imply relatively high emission currents from cathodes which have generally taken the form of tungsten filaments. This paper describes a hydrogen ion source which was primarily developed to assess the emission current capability and design requirements for hollow cathodes for application in neutral injection devices. The hydrogen source produced ions by electron bombardment via a single hollow cathode. Source design followed mercury ion thruster technology, using a weak magnetic field to enhance ionization efficiency. A 1.3-cm-diam hollow cathode using a low work function material dispenser performed satisfactorily over a discharge current range of 10-90 A. Cylindrical probe measurements taken without ion extraction indicate maximum ion number densities on the order of 10 trillion/cu cm. Discharge durations ranged from 30 sec to continuous operation. Tests with beam extraction at 2.5 keV and 30 A discharge current yield average ion beam current densities of 0.1 A/sq cm over a 5-cm extraction diameter. Results of this study can be used to supply the baseline information needed to scale hollow cathodes for operation at discharge currents of hundreds of amperes using distributed cathodes.

Sovey, J. S.; Mirtich, M. J.

1977-01-01

425

Multicharged iron ions produced by using induction heating vapor source  

SciTech Connect

Multiply charged Fe ions are produced from solid pure material in an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source. We develop an evaporator by using induction heating with an induction coil which is made of bare molybdenum wire partially covered by ceramic beads in vacuum and surrounding and heating directly the pure Fe rod. Heated material has no contact with insulators, so that outgas is minimized. The evaporator is installed around the mirror end plate outside of the ECR plasma with its hole grazing the ECR zone. Helium or argon gas is usually chosen for supporting gas. The multicharged Fe ions up to Fe{sup 13+} are extracted from the opposite side of mirror and against the evaporator, and then multicharged Fe ion beam is formed. We compare production of multicharged iron ions by using this new source with our previous methods.

Kato, Yushi; Kubo, Takashi; Muramatsu, Masayuki; Tanaka, Kiyokatsu; Kitagawa, Atsushi; Yoshida, Yoshikazu; Asaji, Toyohisa; Sato, Fuminobu; Iida, Toshiyuki [Division of Electrical, Electronic and Information Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita-shi, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555, Japan and Department of Mechanical Engineering, Toyo University, 2100 Kuzirai, Kawagoe-shi, Saitama (Japan); Tateyama Machine Co., Ltd., Tateyama Kagaku Group, 30 Shimonoban, Toyama 930-1305 (Japan); National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Toyo University, 2100 Kuzirai, Kawagoe-shi, Saitama (Japan); Tateyama Machine Co., Ltd., Tateyama Kagaku Group, 30 Shimonoban, Toyama 930-1305 (Japan); Division of Electrical, Electronic and Information Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita-shi, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

2008-02-15

426

Multicharged iron ions produced by using induction heating vapor source.  

PubMed

Multiply charged Fe ions are produced from solid pure material in an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source. We develop an evaporator by using induction heating with an induction coil which is made of bare molybdenum wire partially covered by ceramic beads in vacuum and surrounding and heating directly the pure Fe rod. Heated material has no contact with insulators, so that outgas is minimized. The evaporator is installed around the mirror end plate outside of the ECR plasma with its hole grazing the ECR zone. Helium or argon gas is usually chosen for supporting gas. The multicharged Fe ions up to Fe(13+) are extracted from the opposite side of mirror and against the evaporator, and then multicharged Fe ion beam is formed. We compare production of multicharged iron ions by using this new source with our previous methods. PMID:18315102

Kato, Yushi; Kubo, Takashi; Muramatsu, Masayuki; Tanaka, Kiyokatsu; Kitagawa, Atsushi; Yoshida, Yoshikazu; Asaji, Toyohisa; Sato, Fuminobu; Iida, Toshiyuki

2008-02-01

427

A Hot Cavity Laser Ion Source at IGISOL  

E-print Network

A development program is underway at the IGISOL (Ion Guide Isotope Separator On-Line) facility, University of Jyvaskyla, to efficiently and selectively produce low-energy radioactive ion beams of silver isotopes and isomers, with a particular interest in N=Z 94Ag. A hot cavity ion source has been installed, based on the FEBIAD (Forced Electron Beam Induced Arc Discharge) technique, combined with a titanium:sapphire laser system for selective laser ionization. The silver recoils produced via the heavy-ion fusion-evaporation reaction, 40Ca(58Ni, p3n)94Ag, are stopped in a graphite catcher, diffused, extracted and subsequently ionized using a three-step laser ionization scheme. The performance of the different components of the hot cavity laser ion source is discussed and initial results using stable 107,109Ag are presented.

Reponen, M; Moore, I D; Rothe, S; Äystö, J

2008-01-01

428

A Hot Cavity Laser Ion Source at IGISOL  

E-print Network

A development program is underway at the IGISOL (Ion Guide Isotope Separator On-Line) facility, University of Jyvaskyla, to efficiently and selectively produce low-energy radioactive ion beams of silver isotopes and isomers, with a particular interest in N=Z 94Ag. A hot cavity ion source has been installed, based on the FEBIAD (Forced Electron Beam Induced Arc Discharge) technique, combined with a titanium:sapphire laser system for selective laser ionization. The silver recoils produced via the heavy-ion fusion-evaporation reaction, 40Ca(58Ni, p3n)94Ag, are stopped in a graphite catcher, diffused, extracted and subsequently ionized using a three-step laser ionization scheme. The performance of the different components of the hot cavity laser ion source is discussed and initial results using stable 107,109Ag are presented.

M. Reponen; T. Kessler; I. D. Moore; S. Rothe; J. Äystö

2008-12-08

429

Erosion of Extraction Electrodes of Ion Sources due to Sputtering  

SciTech Connect

The effects upon erosion due to implanted atoms in extraction electrodes of an ion source have been investigated through calculating the sputtering yields with a Monte Carlo simulation code, ACAT. The results obtained with ACAT have indicated that the sputtering yields of extraction electrodes are substantially affected by the retention of implanted atoms depending upon the mass ratio of electrode materials and extracted ions from the source plasma. The enhanced erosion takes place as the heavier ion beam species like phosphor is implanted into lighter electrode material like carbon. Additional mixing of materials arising from ion source operation, such as hot cathode materials evaporation onto a carbon extraction electrode, can shorten the lifetime of the extraction electrodes.

Kenmotsu, Takahiro; Wada, Motoi [Doshisha University Kyotanabe, Kyoto, 610-0394 (Japan); Miyamoto, Naoki [Nissin Ion Equipment Co. Ltd, Minamiku, Kyoto, 610-0332 (Japan)

2011-01-07

430

Ion source and injector experiments at the HIF/VNL  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The heavy-ion fusion program is conducting several ion source and injector experiments to support ongoing HIF beam transport experiments and to develop new injector concepts for future fusion drivers. In the area of large diameter surface source, we studied the beam optics, experimented with aperturing, and benchmarked the computer simulation code. Steady progress was made in the merging beamlet experiment. The RF plasma source was optimized to produce high current density beamlets. Computer simulation of merging beamlets had produced a design and the hardware is being fabricated. We are examining a new concept based on accel-decel injection to produce super-high line charge density for application in driving targets for high energy density physics studies. Since trapping of secondary electrons in high current positive ion beams is still a concern for HIF, we consider a backup option using negative ion beams.

Kwan, J. W.; Baca, D.; Henestroza, E.; Kapica, J.; Bieniosek, F. M.; Waldron, W. L.; Vay, J.-L.; Yu, S.; Westenskow, G. A.; Grote, D. P.; Halaxa, E.; Haber, I.; Grisham, L.

2005-05-01

431

Transverse coupling property of beam from ECR ion sources.  

PubMed

Experimental evidence of the property of transverse coupling of beam from Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion source is presented. It is especially of interest for an ECR ion source, where the cross section of extracted beam is not round along transport path due to the magnetic confinement configuration. When the ions are extracted and accelerated through the descending axial magnetic field at the extraction region, the horizontal and vertical phase space strongly coupled. In this study, the coupling configuration between the transverse phase spaces of the beam from ECR ion source is achieved by beam back-tracking simulation based on the measurements. The reasonability of this coupling configuration has been proven by a series of subsequent simulations. PMID:25430108

Yang, Y; Yuan, Y J; Sun, L T; Feng, Y C; Fang, X; Cao, Y; Lu, W; Zhang, X Z; Zhao, H W

2014-11-01

432

Ion source improvement by electron injection from a ferroelectric cathode  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With increasing rf power, the electron concentration in the plasma of electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources is decreasing in comparison to the ion concentration, so that the plasma is charging up positively. When reviewing the basic performance requirements of ECR sources it becomes evident that the direct injection of electrons into the ECR plasma is increasing the electron charge density and the ion current yield. Ferroelectric ceramics was used as very robust, electron emitting cathode material under the heavy-duty conditions inside the plasma chamber of an ECR ion source. The electron emission from the ferroelectric cathode is turned on by a high repetition-rate bipolar pulse of ±1.2 to 1.6 kV amplitude to the electrodes deposited on both sides of the disk-shaped cathode. Lead-barium-zirconium-titanate (30/70/30) cathodes doped with 2 mol % Bi2O3 were installed and tested in the Ar-ion plasma of the ECR ion source CAESAR at INFN-LNS, Catania. The aim was to visibly increase the yield of the ion output current by electron injection. The plasma was heated by rf in continuous mode, while the ferroelectric cathode was pulsed at a repetition rate of 50 to 250 Hz. Pulsed electron injection at 250 Hz led to a noticeable increase of 30% of the Ar8+ output current at a rf power level of 400 W. In addition, magnetohydrodynamic instabilities were damped during and after electron injection. These results strongly encourage further research and development on the application of ferroelectric cathodes for increasing the ion current yield from hot plasma ion sources.

Boscolo, I.; Cialdi, S.; Valentini, M.; Gammino, S.; Ciavola, G.; Celona, L.; Marletta, S.; Riege, H.; Handerek, J.

2001-09-01

433

Ion kinetics in a helicon plasma source reactor  

SciTech Connect

In this contribution we present correlated measurements of plasma optical emission, plasma potential and density, and ion axial and radial drift velocities in an extended {open_quotes}helicon{close_quotes} source/diffusion chamber system. This enables us to have insights about plasma excitation, transport and loss processes in this low pressure, high density plasma source.

Chatain, F.; Boswell, R.; Dalaire, A. [Universite Joseph Fourier, Saint Martin d`Heres (France)] [and others

1995-12-31

434

Quartz antenna for radio frequency ion source operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radio-frequency (rf) driven multicusp ion sources developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory use an internal induction coil (antenna) for plasma generation. The copper rf-antenna with a thin layer of porcelain coating, which is presently used, cannot fully satisfy the increasing demands on source cleanliness and antenna lifetime under high power cw or pulsed operation in applications where water cooling

Y. Lee; R. A. Gough; K. N. Leung; L. T. Perkins; D. S. Pickard; J. Vujic; L. K. Wu; M. Olivo; H. Einenkel

1998-01-01

435

A lithium ion source using the surface ionization process  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have constructed a capillary ion source using the surface ionization of lithium on rhenium. Currents of 400 ?A during 300 h, or 100 ?A during 1000 h, can be obtained; the life span of the source is only limited by the capacity of the lithium reservoir.

M. Remy; R. Haug

1970-01-01

436

Experimental evaluation of a negative-ion source for a heavy-ion fusion negative-ion driver  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Negative halogen ions have recently been proposed as a possible alternative to positive ions for heavy-ion fusion drivers because electron accumulation would not be a problem in the accelerator, and if desired, the beams could be photodetached to neutrals (Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 464 (2001) 315; Fusion Sci. Technol. 43 (2003) 191; Laser Part. Beams 21 (2003) 545). To test the ability to make suitable quality beams, an experiment was conducted at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory using chlorine in an RF-driven ion source. Without introducing any cesium (which is required to enhance negative ion production in hydrogen ion sources) a negative chlorine current density of 45 mA/cm 2 was obtained under the same conditions that gave 57 mA/cm 2 of positive chlorine, suggesting the presence of nearly as many negative ions as positive ions in the plasma near the extraction plane. The negative-ion spectrum was 99.5% atomic chlorine ions, with only 0.5% molecular chlorine, and essentially no impurities. Although this experiment did not incorporate the type of electron suppression technology that is used in negative hydrogen beam extraction, the ratio of co-extracted electrons to Cl - was as low as 7 to 1, many times lower than the ratio of their mobilities, suggesting that few electrons are present in the near-extractor plasma. This, along with the near-equivalence of the positive- and negative-ion currents, suggests that the plasma in this region was mostly an ion-ion plasma. The negative chlorine current density was relatively insensitive to pressure, and scaled linearly with RF power. If this linear scaling continues to hold at higher RF powers, it should permit current densities of 100 mA/cm 2, sufficient for present heavy-ion fusion injector concepts. The effective ion temperatures of the positive and negative ions appeared to be similar and relatively low for a plasma source.

Grisham, L. R.; Hahto, S. K.; Hahto, S. T.; Kwan, J. W.; Leung, K. N.

2005-05-01

437

Prototype negative-ion sources for radioactive ion-beam generation  

SciTech Connect

Radioactive ion beams (RIBs) of {sup 17}F and {sup 18}F are of interest for investigation of astrophysical phenomena such as the {open_quotes}hot{close_quotes} CNO cycle and the rp stellar nuclear synthesis processes. In order to generate useful beam intensities of atomic F{sup {minus}}, the species must be efficiently and expediently released from the target material, thermally dissociated from fluoride release products during transport to the ionization chamber of the ion source, and efficiently ionized in the source upon arrival. We have conceived and evaluated two prototype negative-ion sources for potential use for RIB generation: (1) a direct extraction source and (2) a kinetic-ejection source. Both sources utilize Cs vapor to enhance F{sup {minus}} formation. The mechanical design features, operational parameters, ionization efficiencies for forming atomic F{sup {minus}}, and delay times for transport of F and fluoride compounds for the respective sources are presented. The efficiency {eta} for formation and extraction of F{sup {minus}} for the direct extraction negative-ion source is found to be {eta}{approximately}1.0{percent} while the characteristic delay time {tau} for transport of F and fluorides through the source is, typically, {eta}{approximately}120thinsps; the analogous efficiencies and delay times for the kinetic ejection negative-ion source are, respectively: {eta}={approximately}3.2{percent} and {tau}={approximately}70thinsps. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

Alton, G.D. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6368 (United States)] [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6368 (United States); Welton, R.F.; Williams, C. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6368 (United States)] [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6368 (United States); [Oak Ridge Institute of Science and Engineering, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6368 (United States); Cui, B. [China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing (China)] [China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing (China); Murray, S.N. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6368 (United States)] [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6368 (United States)

1998-06-01

438

Deterministic Ultracold Ion Source Targeting the Heisenberg Limit  

SciTech Connect

The major challenges to fabricate quantum processors and future nano-solid-state devices are material modification techniques with nanometer resolution and suppression of statistical fluctuations of dopants or qubit carriers. Based on a segmented ion trap with mK laser-cooled ions we have realized a deterministic single-ion source which could operate with a huge range of sympathetically cooled ion species, isotopes or ionic molecules. We have deterministically extracted a predetermined number of ions on demand and have measured a longitudinal velocity uncertainty of 6.3 m/s and a spatial beam divergence of 600 {mu}rad. We show in numerical simulations that if the ions are cooled to the motional ground state (Heisenberg limit) nanometer spatial resolution can be achieved.

Schnitzler, W.; Linke, N. M.; Fickler, R.; Schmidt-Kaler, F.; Singer, K. [Institut fuer Quanteninformationsverarbeitung, Universitaet Ulm, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, 89081 Ulm (Germany); Meijer, J. [RUBION, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, 44780 Bochum (Germany)

2009-02-20

439

Electron source for a mini ion trap mass spectrometer  

DOEpatents

An ion trap which operates in the regime between research ion traps which can detect ions with a mass resolution of better than 1:10.sup.9 and commercial mass spectrometers requiring 10.sup.4 ions with resolutions of a few hundred. The power consumption is kept to a minimum by the use of permanent magnets and a novel electron gun design. By Fourier analyzing the ion cyclotron resonance signals induced in the trap electrodes, a complete mass spectra in a single combined structure can be detected. An attribute of the ion trap mass spectrometer is that overall system size is drastically reduced due to combining a unique electron source and mass analyzer/detector in a single device. This enables portable low power mass spectrometers for the detection of environmental pollutants or illicit substances, as well as sensors for on board diagnostics to monitor engine performance or for active feedback in any process involving exhausting waste products.

Dietrich, Daniel D. (Livermore, CA); Keville, Robert F. (Valley Springs, CA)

1995-01-01

440

A low energy ion source for electron capture spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the design of an ion source for the production of single and double charged Helium ions with kinetic energies in the range from 300 eV down to 5 eV. The construction is based on a commercial sputter ion gun equipped with a Wien-filter for mass/charge separation. Retardation of the ions from the ionizer potential (2 keV) takes place completely within the lens system of the sputter gun, without modification of original parts. For 15 eV He+ ions, the design allows for beam currents up to 30 nA, limited by the space charge repulsion in the beam. For He2 + operation, we obtain a beam current of 320 pA at 30 eV, and 46 pA at 5 eV beam energy, respectively. In addition, operating parameters can be optimized for a significant contribution of metastable He*+ (2s) ions.

Tusche, C.; Kirschner, J.

2014-06-01

441

RF Negative Ion Source Development at IPP Garching  

SciTech Connect

IPP Garching is heavily involved in the development of an ion source for Neutral Beam Heating of the ITER Tokamak. RF driven ion sources have been successfully developed and are in operation on the ASDEX-Upgrade Tokamak for positive ion based NBH by the NB Heating group at IPP Garching. Building on this experience a RF driven H- ion source has been under development at IPP Garching as an alternative to the ITER reference design ion source. The number of test beds devoted to source development for ITER has increased from one (BATMAN) by the addition of two test beds (MANITU, RADI). This paper contains descriptions of the three test beds. Results on diagnostic development using laser photodetachment and cavity ringdown spectroscopy are given for BATMAN. The latest results for long pulse development on MANITU are presented including the to date longest pulse (600 s). As well, details of source modifications necessitated for pulses in excess of 100 s are given. The newest test bed RADI is still being commissioned and only technical details of the test bed are included in this paper. The final topic of the paper is an investigation into the effects of biasing the plasma grid.

Kraus, W.; McNeely, P.; Berger, M.; Christ-Koch, S.; Falter, H. D.; Fantz, U.; Franzen, P.; Froeschle, M.; Heinemann, B.; Leyer, S.; Riedl, R.; Speth, E.; Wuenderlich, D. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748, Garching (Germany)

2007-08-10

442

Status of the polarized D- ion source at KEK  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A status of the optically pumped polarized negative deutrium ion source at KEK is presented. In order to obtain a large beam intensity with this source, After optimization of an ECR deuteron source, a polarized negative deuterium ion beam current of about 380 ?A was obtained. A polarized deuteron beam has been successfully accelerated up to 10.2 GeV at KEK 12 GeV-PS. In this acceleration test, since the OPPIS was operated as a single optically pumped mode.

Takagi, A.; Kinsho, M.; Ikegami, K.; Igarashi, Z.; Mori, Y.

1998-01-01

443

Plasma Ion Sources for Atmospheric Pressure Ionization Mass Spectrometry.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric pressure ionization (API) sources using direct-current (DC) and radio-frequency (RF) plasma have been developed in this thesis work. These ion sources can provide stable discharge currents of ~ 1 mA, 2-3 orders of magnitude larger than that of the corona discharge, a widely used API source. The plasmas can be generated and maintained in 1 atm of various buffer gases by applying -500 to -1000 V (DC plasma) or 1-15 W with a frequency of 165 kHz (RF plasma) on the needle electrode. These ion sources have been used with liquid injection to detect various organic compounds of pharmaceutical, biotechnological and environmental interest. Key features of these ion sources include soft ionization with the protonated molecule as the largest peak, and superb sensitivity with detection limits in the low picogram or femtomole range and a linear dynamic range over ~4 orders of magnitude. The RF plasma has advantages over the DC plasma in its ability to operate in various buffer gases and to produce a more stable plasma. Factors influencing the performance of the ion sources have been studied, including RF power level, liquid flow rate, chamber temperature, solvent composition, and voltage affecting the collision induced dissociation (CID). Ionization of hydrocarbons by the RF plasma API source was also studied. Soft ionization is generally produced. To obtain high sensitivity, the ion source must be very dry and the needle-to-orifice distance must be small. Nitric oxide was used to enhance the sensitivity. The RF plasma source was then used for the analysis of hydrocarbons in auto emissions. Comparisons between the corona discharge and the RF plasma have been made in terms of discharge current, ion residence time, and the ion source model. The RF plasma source provides larger linear dynamic range and higher sensitivity than the corona discharge, due to its much larger discharge current. The RF plasma was also observed to provide longer ion residence times and was not limited by space-charge effect as in the corona source.

Zhao, Jian-Guo

1994-01-01

444

Comment on "Effects of Magnetic Field Gradient on Ion Beam Current in Cylindrical Hall Ion Source  

SciTech Connect

It is argued that the key difference of the cylindrical Hall thruster (CHT) as compared to the end-Hall ion source cannot be exclusively attributed to the magnetic field topology [Tang et al. J. Appl. Phys., 102, 123305 (2007)]. With a similar mirror-type topology, the CHT configuration provides the electric field with nearly equipotential magnetic field surfaces and a better suppression of the electron cross-field transport, as compared to both the end-Hall ion source and the cylindrical Hall ion source of Tang et al.

Raitses, Y.; Smirnov A.; Fisch, N.J.

2008-08-29

445

Production of highly charged ion beams with the Grenoble test electron cyclotron resonance ion source (plenary)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grenoble Test Source (GTS) is a room temperature electron cyclotron resonance ion source whose purpose is to deepen the knowledge of this type of device. GTS was designed according to magnetic scaling laws determined with the SERSE source [Hitz et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 509 (2002); Gammino et al., ibid. 72, 4090 (2001)] while keeping enough flexibility in terms

D. Hitz; A. Girard; K. Serebrennikov; G. Melin; D. Cormier; J. M. Mathonnet; J. Chartier; L. Sun; J. P. Briand; M. Benhachoum

2004-01-01

446

An all permanent magnet electron cyclotron resonance ion source for heavy ion therapy.  

PubMed

A high charge state all permanent Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source, Lanzhou All Permanent ECR ion source no. 3-LAPECR3, has been successfully built at IMP in 2012, which will serve as the ion injector of the Heavy Ion Medical Machine (HIMM) project. As a commercial device, LAPECR3 features a compact structure, small size, and low cost. According to HIMM scenario more than 100 e?A of C(5+) ion beam should be extracted from the ion source, and the beam emittance better than 75 ?*mm*mrad. In recent commissioning, about 120 e?A of C(5+) ion beam was got when work gas was CH4 while about 262 e?A of C(5+) ion beam was obtained when work gas was C2H2 gas. The design and construction of the ion source and its low-energy transportation beam line, and the preliminary commissioning results will be presented in detail in this paper. PMID:24593539

Cao, Yun; Li, Jia Qing; Sun, Liang Ting; Zhang, Xue Zhen; Feng, Yu Cheng; Wang, Hui; Ma, Bao Hua; Li, Xi Xia

2014-02-01

447

An all permanent magnet electron cyclotron resonance ion source for heavy ion therapy  

SciTech Connect

A high charge state all permanent Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source, Lanzhou All Permanent ECR ion source no. 3-LAPECR3, has been successfully built at IMP in 2012, which will serve as the ion injector of the Heavy Ion Medical Machine (HIMM) project. As a commercial device, LAPECR3 features a compact structure, small size, and low cost. According to HIMM scenario more than 100 e?A of C{sup 5+} ion beam should be extracted from the ion source, and the beam emittance better than 75 ?*mm*mrad. In recent commissioning, about 120 e?A of C{sup 5+} ion beam was got when work gas was CH{sub 4} while about 262 e?A of C{sup 5+} ion beam was obtained when work gas was C{sub 2}H{sub 2} gas. The design and construction of the ion source and its low-energy transportation beam line, and the preliminary commissioning results will be presented in detail in this paper.

Cao, Yun, E-mail: caoyun@impcas.ac.cn; Li, Jia Qing; Sun, Liang Ting; Zhang, Xue Zhen; Feng, Yu Cheng; Wang, Hui; Ma, Bao Hua; Li, Xi Xia [Institute of Modern Physics, CAS, Lanzhou 730000 (China)] [Institute of Modern Physics, CAS, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

2014-02-15

448

A high charge state heavy ion beam source for HIF  

SciTech Connect

A high current low emittance high charge state heavy ion beam source is being developed. This is designed to deliver HIF (heavy ion fusion) driver accelerator scale beam. Using high-charge-state beam in a driver accelerator for HIF may increase the acceleration efficiency, leading to a reduction in the driver accelerator size and cost. The proposed source system which consists of the gas beam electron stripper followed by a high charge state beam separator, can be added to existing single charge state, low emittance, high brightness ion sources and injectors. We shall report on the source physics design using 2D beam envelope simulations and experimental feasibility studies` results using a neutral gas stripper and a beam separator at the exit of the LBL 2 MV injector.

Eylon, S. [Duly Research, Inc., Rancho Palos Verdes, CA (United States); Henestroza, E. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

1995-04-01

449