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1

[Factors of anxiety and autonomic tonus in senior preschool children from Magnitogorsk].  

PubMed

In the paper there are presented the results of a study of anxiety and balance ofparts of autonomous nervous system in healthy children 5-7 years old, residing in different parts of Magnitogorsk. It is shown that state of heightened and high alert was shown to be more common among children living on the left bank of the Urals river around the Magnitogorsk Metallurgical Integrated Plant. In these children an imbalance in the work of the parts of the autonomic nervous system was detected more frequently, at that shifts were observed mainly in the direction to ergotropic tone. At the same time balanced work of the parts of the autonomic nervous system was observed more frequently in children living on the right bank of the Urals river. Discovered psychosomatic features of examined children turned out to be associated with both the social characteristics of family lifestyle and the emotional stress of parents, and the contents of some organic compounds in total snow samples collected in the territories of kindergartens which they attended. One ofthe most significant results ofthe work we consider the detection of a correlation relationship between emotional stress of parents and activity of key enzymes in their children, reflecting the protective and adaptive reactions of the organism. On the basis of these and previously obtained data, we suggest that social and psychological factors of the family are not only a potential source of maladaptation of the child, but, probably, can have an impact on the stability and sensitivity of the genome of children. PMID:24340605

Ingel', F I; Stepanova, A A; Stepanova, O P; Legostaeva, T B; Koganova, Z I; Kozlova, O B

2013-01-01

2

Slag treatment at Kardemir integrated iron and steel works  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integrated iron- and steelmaking plants generate large amounts of solid wastes, which are mainly blast furnace and steel furnace slags, dusts, sludges, etc. The main problem faced at Kardemir integrated iron and steel works is with the steelmaking slags, i.e. open-hearth furnace slag and more recently basic oxygen furnaces (BOF) slag. Over the last 50 years of operation, more than

Y. Topkaya; N. Sevinç; A. Günayd?n

2004-01-01

3

A novel streptococcal integrative conjugative element involved in iron acquisition  

PubMed Central

In this study, we determined the function of a novel non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) system carried by a streptococcal integrative conjugative element (ICE), ICESe2. The NRPS shares similarity with the yersiniabactin system found in the high-pathogenicity island of Yersinia sp. and is the first of its kind to be identified in streptococci. We named the NRPS product ‘equibactin’ and genes of this locus eqbA–N. ICESe2, although absolutely conserved in Streptococcus equi, the causative agent of equine strangles, was absent from all strains of the closely related opportunistic pathogen Streptococcus zooepidemicus. Binding of EqbA, a DtxR-like regulator, to the eqbB promoter was increased in the presence of cations. Deletion of eqbA resulted in a small-colony phenotype. Further deletion of the irp2 homologue eqbE, or the genes eqbH, eqbI and eqbJ encoding a putative ABC transporter, or addition of the iron chelator nitrilotriacetate, reversed this phenotype, implicating iron toxicity. Quantification of 55Fe accumulation and sensitivity to streptonigrin suggested that equibactin is secreted by S. equi and that the eqbH, eqbI and eqbJ genes are required for its associated iron import. In agreement with a structure-based model of equibactin synthesis, supplementation of chemically defined media with salicylate was required for equibactin production. PMID:18990191

Heather, Zoe; Holden, Matthew T G; Steward, Karen F; Parkhill, Julian; Song, Lijiang; Challis, Gregory L; Robinson, Carl; Davis-Poynter, Nicholas; Waller, Andrew S

2008-01-01

4

Ironing out the issues: integrated approaches to understanding iron homeostasis in plants.  

PubMed

Plants initialize responses to environmental changes at all levels, from signaling to translation and beyond. Such is the case for fluctuations in the availability of iron (Fe), one of the most critical micronutrients for plants. The results of these responses are physiological and morphological changes that lead to increased iron uptake from the rhizosphere, and recycling and reallocation of Fe, which must be properly localized within specific cells and cellular compartment for use. The use of reductionist approaches, in combination with in vivo and in situ Fe localization tools, has been able to shed light on critical signaling molecules, transcriptional regulators, transporters and other proteins involved in Fe homeostasis. Recent advances in elemental distribution and speciation analysis now enable detection and measurement of Fe and other elements at resolutions never seen before. Moreover, increasing use of systems biology approaches provide a substantially broader perspective of how Fe availability affects processes at many levels. This review highlights the latest in vivo and in situ iron localization approaches and some of the recent advances in understanding mechanisms that control Fe translocation. A broad perspective of how Fe localization data might one day be integrated with large-scale data to create models for Fe homeostasis is presented. PMID:23849132

Samira, Rozalynne; Stallmann, Anna; Massenburg, Lynnicia N; Long, Terri A

2013-09-01

5

Iron  

MedlinePLUS

... shows that giving iron intravenously can improve some symptoms of heart failure. It is not yet known if taking an iron supplement by mouth would help.Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Developing research shows that taking iron sulfate ( ...

6

FUGITIVE EMISSIONS FROM INTEGRATED IRON AND STEEL PLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an engineering investigation of fugitive (non-ducted) emissions in the iron and steel industry. Operations excluded from the study are coke ovens, basic oxygen furnace (BOF) charging, and blast furnace cast houses. Fugitive emission factors for iron an...

7

Iron  

MedlinePLUS

... several factors [ 1 , 3 , 8 , 11-15 ]. Storage levels of iron have the greatest influence on iron ... RDA), Adequate Intakes (AI), and Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (UL). The RDA recommends the average daily intake ...

8

Laser sintering of separated and uniformly distributed multiwall carbon nanotubes integrated iron nanocomposites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Uniform distribution of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in metal matrix during additive manufacturing of nanocomposites is always a challenge since the CNTs tend to aggregate in the molten pool. In this study, Multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) were separated and distributed uniformly into iron matrix by laser sintering process. MWNTs and iron powders were mixed together by magnetic stir, coated on steel 4140 surface, followed by laser sintering. Due to the fast heating and cooling rate, the CNTs are evenly distributed in the metal matrix. The temperature field was calculated by multiphysics simulation considering size effects, including size dependent melting temperature, thermal conductivity, and heat capacity. The SEM, TEM, and XRD were used to understand the laser sintering of CNT integrated nanocomposites. The results proved the feasibility of this technique to synthesize MWNTS integrated metal matrix nanocomposites.

Lin, Dong; Richard Liu, C.; Cheng, Gary J.

2014-03-01

9

Chemical constituents in particulate emissions from an integrated iron and steel facility.  

PubMed

Particle emissions from four integrated iron and steel plant processes, i.e., coke making, sintering, cold forming, and hot forming, were investigated in this study. Particle compositions of 21 element species, 11 ionic species, elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC) and 16 polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed to create "fingerprints" of the particles emitted from various processes in an integrated iron and steel plant. Results indicated that element compositions (0.11-0.42 g/g), water-soluble ions (0.34-0.52 g/g), elemental carbon (0.008-0.14 g/g), organic carbon (0.02-0.06 g/g) and PAHs (0.52-6.2 mg/g) contributed to the particle mass. In general, sulfur had a higher mass contribution than the other elements, which resulted from the use of coal, flux, heavy oil, and many recycled materials in the iron and steel plant. The particle mass contribution of potassium and chlorine in the sinter plant was higher than in other processes; this may be attributed to the lower boiling point and volatility of potassium. In addition, many recycled materials were fed into the sinter plant, causing a high concentration of potassium and chlorine in the particle phase. Eight PAH compounds were analyzed in the four processes. The carcinogenic compound Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) was detectable only in the sintering process. PMID:17276592

Tsai, Jiun-Horng; Lin, Kuo-Hsiung; Chen, Chih-Yu; Ding, Jian-Yuan; Choa, Ching-Guan; Chiang, Hung-Lung

2007-08-17

10

Assessing dust exposure in an integrated iron and steel manufacturing plant in South India.  

PubMed

A study to monitor and estimate respirable particulate matter (RPM), toxic trace metal concentrations in the work environment was carried out in different sections of an integrated steel manufacturing industry. The average RPM concentration observed varied according to the section blast furnace was 2.41 mg/m;{3}; energy optimization furnace, 1.87 mg/m;{3}; sintering plant, 0.98 mg/m;{3}; continuous casting machine, 1.93 mg/m;{3}. The average trace metal concentration estimated from the RPM samples like iron, manganese, lead and chromium did not exceed ACGIH prescribed levels. PMID:18413935

Ravichandran, B; Krishnamurthy, V; Ravibabu, K; Raghavan, S; Rajan, B K; Rajmohan, H R

2008-01-01

11

Fracture toughness studies of gray and ductile cast irons using a J-integral approach  

E-print Network

of microstructure on the fracture toughness of cast 'ran will be reviewed. This review will emphasize the J-integral approach for determining the fracture toughness and its significance to cast irons. An Overview of Fracture The theoretical strength of defect... available energy, or energy release rate, and a is the crack length. This work laid the foundation for the important area of fracture mechanics. Local stresses near a crack tip depend on the product of the nominal stress, era and the square root...

Floyd, Donna Lynne Woodall

2012-06-07

12

Monolithic integration of chalcogenide glass\\/iron garnet waveguides and resonators for on-chip nonreciprocal photonic devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report monolithic integration of chalcogenide glass(ChG)\\/iron garnet waveguides and racetrack resonators on silicon for on-chip nonreciprocal photonic devices applications. Using a two step growth strategy, we successfully integrated phase pure Bi0.8Y2.2Fe5O12 (Bi0.8YIG), Bi1.8Y1.2Fe5O12 (Bi1.8YIG) and Ce1Y2Fe5O12 (CeYIG) polycrystalline thin films on silicon with low fabrication thermal budgets. Strip-loaded ChG\\/Iron garnet waveguides and racetrack resonators were fabricated by thermal evaporation

Lei Bi; Juejun Hu; Gerald F. Dionne; Lionel Kimerling; C. A. Ross

2011-01-01

13

Chemical profile identification of fugitive and confined particle emissions from an integrated iron and steelmaking plant.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to obtain the characteristic inorganic chemical profile of important particle sources identified in the integrated iron and steel process: sintering, blast furnace, steelmaking and desulfurization slag processing. A complete chemical and physical characterization program was developed: particle size distribution, chemical analysis, XRD, SEM-EDX and TGA/DTA. The sample collected from the sinter stack showed high levels of K and Cl(-), followed by Fe, NH4(+), Ca, Na and Pb. The profile of the dust samples taken from the sinter cake discharge zone was quite different, showing higher amounts of Fe, Ca and Al, and lower amounts of K, Cl(-), Na and Pb. Dust samples collected from the blast furnace (BF) and steelmaking cast house may be distinguished from each other based on the higher levels of Fe (hematite and magnetite) and lower levels of Ca, Zn and C (graphite) found in BF dust. High levels of Ca and Fe were found in samples taken from the desulfurization slag processing area. Such information can be useful for source apportionment studies at receptor sites that could be influenced by iron and steelmaking plant emissions. PMID:23454464

Hleis, Dany; Fernández-Olmo, Ignacio; Ledoux, Frédéric; Kfoury, Adib; Courcot, Lucie; Desmonts, Thérèse; Courcot, Dominique

2013-04-15

14

Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles impair endothelial integrity and inhibit nitric oxide production.  

PubMed

Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) are widely used both clinically and experimentally for diverse in vivo applications, such as contrast enhancement in magnetic resonance imaging, hyperthermia and drug delivery. Biomedical applications require particles to have defined physical and chemical properties, and to be stable in biological media. Despite a suggested low cytotoxic action, adverse reactions of SPION in concentrations relevant for biomedical use have not yet been studied in sufficient detail. In the present work we employed Endorem®, dextran-stabilized SPION approved as an intravenous contrast agent, and compared its action to a set of other nanoparticles with potential for magnetic resonance imaging applications. SPION in concentrations relevant for in vivo applications were rapidly taken up by endothelial cells and exhibited no direct cytotoxicity. Electric cell impedance sensing measurements demonstrated that SPION, but not BaSO4/Gd nanoparticles, impaired endothelial integrity, as was confirmed by increased intercellular gap formation in endothelial monolayers. These structural changes induced the subcellular translocation and inhibition of the cytoprotective and anti-atherosclerotic enzyme endothelial NO-synthase and reduced NO production. Lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory NO production of macrophages was not affected by SPION. In conclusion, our data suggest that SPION might substantially alter endothelial integrity and function at therapeutically relevant doses, which are not cytotoxic. PMID:25123083

Astanina, Ksenia; Simon, Yvette; Cavelius, Christian; Petry, Sandra; Kraegeloh, Annette; Kiemer, Alexandra K

2014-11-01

15

Probing Iron Accumulation in Sacchromyces cerevisiae Using Integrative Biophysical and Biochemical Techniques  

E-print Network

to that of Yah1p-depleted and wild type yeast. Constitutive activation of iron regulon genes does not alter the cellular iron distribution significantly. However disruption of Fe/S cluster assembly by Yah1p depletion causes dramatic cellular iron redistribution...

Miao, Ren

2012-02-14

16

Bisphenol A mineralization by integrated ultrasound-UV-iron (II) treatment.  

PubMed

Bisphenol A (BPA), an organic compound largely used in the plastic industry as a monomer for production of epoxy resins and polycarbonate, is an emerging contaminant that is released in the environmentfrom bottles and packaging. BPA degradation (118 micromol L(-1)) under sonochemical conditions was investigated in this study, using a 300 kHz frequency, with a 80 W electrical power. Under these conditions, BPA was eliminated by the ultrasound process (-90 min). However, even after long ultrasound irradiation periods (10 h), more than 50% of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and 80% of total organic carbon (TOC) remained in the solution, indicating that most BPA intermediates are recalcitrant toward ultrasonic action. Accumulation of hydrogen peroxide from *OH and *OOH radical recombination was also observed. To increase the efficiency of BPA treatment, experiments combined ultrasound with Fe2+ (100 micromol L(-1)) and/or UV radiation (254 nm): Ultrasound/UV; Ultrasound/Fe2+; Ultrasound/UV/ Fe2+. Both UV and Fe2+ induced hydrogen peroxide dissociation, leading to additional *OH radicals and complete COD and TOC removal. Thus difficulties in obtaining mineralization of micropollutants like BPA through ultrasonic action alone, can be overcome by the Ultrasound/UV/ Fe2+ combination. Moreover, this technique was found to be the most cost-effective one. So, the integrated ultrasound-UV-iron(ll) process was shown to be of interest for the treatment of wastewaters contaminated with BPA. PMID:17265962

Torres, Ricardo A; Pétrier, Christian; Combet, Evelyne; Moulet, Florence; Pulgarin, Cesar

2007-01-01

17

Anti-plasmodial activity of aroylhydrazone and thiosemicarbazone iron chelators: effect on erythrocyte membrane integrity, parasite development and the intracellular labile iron pool.  

PubMed

Iron chelators inhibit the growth of the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, in culture and in animal and human studies. We previously reported the anti-plasmodial activity of the chelators, 2-hydroxy-1-naphthylaldehyde isonicotinoyl hydrazone (311), 2-hydroxy-1-naphthylaldehyde 4-methyl-3-thiosemicarbazone (N4mT), and 2-hydroxy-1-naphthylaldehyde 4-phenyl-3-thiosemicarbazone (N4pT). In fact, these ligands showed greater growth inhibition of chloroquine-sensitive (3D7) and chloroquine-resistant (7G8) strains of P. falciparum in culture compared to desferrioxamine (DFO). The present study examined the effects of 311, N4mT and N4pT on erythrocyte membrane integrity and asexual parasite development. While the characteristic biconcave disk shape of the erythrocytes was unaffected, the chelators caused very slight hemolysis at IC50 values that inhibited parasite growth. The chelators 311, N4mT and N4pT affected all stages of the intra-erythrocytic development cycle (IDC) of P. falciparum in culture. However, while these ligands primarily affected the ring-stage, DFO inhibited primarily trophozoite and schizont-stages. Ring, trophozoite and schizont-stages of the IDC were inhibited by significantly lower concentrations of 311, N4mT, and N4pT (IC50=4.45±1.70, 10.30±4.40, and 3.64±2.00?M, respectively) than DFO (IC50=23.43±3.40?M). Complexation of 311, N4mT and N4pT with iron reduced their anti-plasmodial activity. Estimation of the intracellular labile iron pool (LIP) in erythrocytes showed that the chelation efficacy of 311, N4mT and N4pT corresponded to their anti-plasmodial activities, suggesting that the LIP may be a potential source of non-heme iron for parasite metabolism within the erythrocyte. This study has implications for malaria chemotherapy that specifically disrupts parasite iron utilization. PMID:24028863

Walcourt, Asikiya; Kurantsin-Mills, Joseph; Kwagyan, John; Adenuga, Babafemi B; Kalinowski, Danuta S; Lovejoy, David B; Lane, Darius J R; Richardson, Des R

2013-12-01

18

Integration of iron in natural and synthetic Al-pyrophyllites: an infrared spectroscopic study.  

E-print Network

transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopies and electron microprobe; the hydrothermal synthesis in IR spectroscopy. KEYWORDS: Pyrophyllite, hydrothermal syntheses, FTIR spectroscopy, iron defaults is an efficient tool for the determination of local cationic environments as well as fine structural features

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

19

Fracture toughness studies of nodular iron using a J-integral approach  

E-print Network

Fracture toughness normalized to yield strength as a function of temperature for irons with various silicon contents (pear- lite (2'-. ) and for irons with various pearlite content (Si 2. 5') ax Figure Page 15 Macroscopic fractured surfaces of the Si... reduces its room temperatuze yield strength, about 83 %i'a tor each 1'; decrease in 17 silicon. Therefore, although lowering the silicon content might appear to be the answer for increasing the low temperature fracture toughness, it reduces room...

Mead, Hearl Edward

2012-06-07

20

Monolithic integration of chalcogenide glass/iron garnet waveguides and resonators for on-chip nonreciprocal photonic devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report monolithic integration of chalcogenide glass(ChG)/iron garnet waveguides and racetrack resonators on silicon for on-chip nonreciprocal photonic devices applications. Using a two step growth strategy, we successfully integrated phase pure Bi0.8Y2.2Fe5O12 (Bi0.8YIG), Bi1.8Y1.2Fe5O12 (Bi1.8YIG) and Ce1Y2Fe5O12 (CeYIG) polycrystalline thin films on silicon with low fabrication thermal budgets. Strip-loaded ChG/Iron garnet waveguides and racetrack resonators were fabricated by thermal evaporation and lift off. The waveguide loss was systematically characterized by cutback and paperclip methods. For the first time, the optical transmission loss of polycrystalline Bi or Ce doped garnets were evaluated at communication wavelengths in waveguides. Polycrystalline CeYIG films show a saturation Faraday rotation of -830deg/cm and transmission loss of {40dB/cm at 1550nm, which is promising for on-chip nonreciprocal photonic device applications. Such waveguide structures were successfully incorporated in GeS2/Bi0.8YIG racetrack resonators which show well defined resonance spectrum at near infrared wavelength. The nonreciprocal phase shift (NRPS) and device figure of merit of the ChG/Garnet waveguides were simulated by numerical methods. Possible improvements and applications of such devices for integrated optical isolator applications are analyzed and discussed.

Bi, Lei; Hu, Juejun; Dionne, Gerald F.; Kimerling, Lionel; Ross, C. A.

2011-01-01

21

Machinability of Austempered Ductile Iron (ADI) Produced by Integrated Green Technology of Continuous Casting-Heat Treatment Processes  

SciTech Connect

This study presents the novel processing technique known as continuous casting-heat treatment processes to produce Austempered Ductile Iron (ADI) which is a new class of ductile iron. ADI is characterized by improved mechanical properties but has low machinability as compared to other cast irons and steel of similar strength. The novel technique is developed by the integration of casting (in die casting) and heat treatment processes in foundry to save cost energy and time. Specimens just after casting were austenitized at 930 deg. C for 90 min and then austempered in fluidized bed at 380 deg. C for 90 and 120 min. Hence, the effect of austempering time on the morphology of retained austenite and mechanical properties of the material were examined and compared with conventionally produced ADI. Drilling tests were then carried out to evaluate the machinability of ADI in terms of cutting forces, chip micro-hardness, chip morphology and surface roughness. The mechanical properties of ADI austempered for 120 min have found to be better as compare to the ADI austempered for 90 min.

Meena, A.; El Mansori, M.; Ghidossi, P. [Arts et Metiers ParisTech, LMPF-EA 4106, Rue Saint Dominique, BP 508, 51006, Chalons-en-Champagne, Cedex (France)

2011-01-17

22

Field Demonstration of Emerging Pipe Wall Integrity Assessment Technologies for Large Cast Iron Water Mains - Paper  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sponsored a large-scale field demonstration of innovative leak detection/location and condition assessment technologies on a 76-year old, 2,000-ft long, cement-lined, 24-in. cast-iron water main in Louisville, KY from July through Se...

23

FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF EMERGING PIPE WALL INTEGRITY ASSESSMENT TECHNOLOGIES FOR LARGE CAST IRON WATER MAINS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency sponsored a large-scale field demonstration of innovative leak detection/location and condition assessment technologies on a 76-year old, 2,500-ft long, cement-lined, 24-in. cast iron water main in Louisville, KY from July through Septembe...

24

Integration of nonlinear dielectric barium strontium titanate with polycrystalline yttrium iron garnet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biaxially oriented nonlinear dielectric Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3 (BST) films have been grown on polycrystalline ferrite yttrium iron garnet (YIG) substrates. We use a structurally and chemically compatible MgO buffer to improve the crystallinity of the BST on polycrystalline YIG substrates, where the biaxially oriented MgO is deposited by an ion-beam assisted-deposition technique. The biaxially oriented BST has a dielectric loss of less than 0.01 and a capacitance tunability of greater than 25% at a direct current bias voltage of 40 V at room temperature.

Jia, Q. X.; Groves, J. R.; Arendt, P.; Fan, Y.; Findikoglu, A. T.; Foltyn, S. R.; Jiang, H.; Miranda, F. A.

1999-03-01

25

Iron deficiency anemia  

PubMed Central

Iron is essential to virtually all living organisms and is integral to multiple metabolic functions. The most important function is oxygen transport in hemoglobin. Iron deficiency anemia in dogs and cats is usually caused by chronic blood loss and can be discovered incidentally as animals may have adapted to the anemia. Severe iron deficiency is characterized by a microcytic, hypochromic, potentially severe anemia with a variable regenerative response. Iron metabolism and homeostasis will be reviewed, followed by a discussion of diagnostic testing and therapeutic recommendations for dogs and cats with iron deficiency anemia. PMID:22942439

Naigamwalla, Dinaz Z.; Webb, Jinelle A.; Giger, Urs

2012-01-01

26

Iron and Iron Deficiency  

MedlinePLUS

... other types of foods eaten at the same meal. Foods containing heme iron (meat, poultry, and fish) ... heme iron absorption when eaten at the same meal. Substances (such as polyphenols, phytates, or calcium) that ...

27

Disorders of iron metabolism. Part II: iron deficiency and iron overload.  

PubMed

MAIN DISORDERS OF IRON METABOLISM: Increased iron requirements, limited external supply, and increased blood loss may lead to iron deficiency (ID) and iron deficiency anaemia. In chronic inflammation, the excess of hepcidin decreases iron absorption and prevents iron recycling, resulting in hypoferraemia and iron restricted erythropoiesis, despite normal iron stores (functional iron deficiency), and finally anaemia of chronic disease (ACD), which can evolve to ACD plus true ID (ACD+ID). In contrast, low hepcidin expression may lead to hereditary haemochromatosis (HH type I, mutations of the HFE gene) and type II (mutations of the hemojuvelin and hepcidin genes). Mutations of transferrin receptor 2 lead to HH type III, whereas those of the ferroportin gene lead to HH type IV. All these syndromes are characterised by iron overload. As transferrin becomes saturated in iron overload states, non-transferrin bound iron appears. Part of this iron is highly reactive (labile plasma iron), inducing free radical formation. Free radicals are responsible for the parenchymal cell injury associated with iron overload syndromes. ROLE OF LABORATORY TESTING IN DIAGNOSIS: In iron deficiency status, laboratory tests may provide evidence of iron depletion in the body or reflect iron deficient red cell production. Increased transferrin saturation and/or ferritin levels are the main cues for further investigation of iron overload. The appropriate combination of different laboratory tests with an integrated algorithm will help to establish a correct diagnosis of iron overload, iron deficiency and anaemia. REVIEW OF TREATMENT OPTIONS: Indications, advantages and side effects of the different options for treating iron overload (phlebotomy and iron chelators) and iron deficiency (oral or intravenous iron formulations) will be discussed. PMID:21177268

Muñoz, Manuel; García-Erce, José Antonio; Remacha, Ángel Francisco

2011-04-01

28

Biofortification of wheat grain with iron and zinc: integrating novel genomic resources and knowledge from model crops  

PubMed Central

Wheat, like many other staple cereals, contains low levels of the essential micronutrients iron and zinc. Up to two billion people worldwide suffer from iron and zinc deficiencies, particularly in regions with predominantly cereal-based diets. Although wheat flour is commonly fortified during processing, an attractive and more sustainable solution is biofortification, which requires developing new varieties of wheat with inherently higher iron and zinc content in their grains. Until now most studies aimed at increasing iron and zinc content in wheat grains have focused on discovering natural variation in progenitor or related species. However, recent developments in genomics and transformation have led to a step change in targeted research on wheat at a molecular level. We discuss promising approaches to improve iron and zinc content in wheat using knowledge gained in model grasses. We explore how the latest resources developed in wheat, including sequenced genomes and mutant populations, can be exploited for biofortification. We also highlight the key research and practical challenges that remain in improving iron and zinc content in wheat. PMID:24600464

Borrill, Philippa; Connorton, James M.; Balk, Janneke; Miller, Anthony J.; Sanders, Dale; Uauy, Cristobal

2014-01-01

29

Elevated metals compromise repair of oxidative DNA damage via the base excision repair pathway: implications of pathologic iron-overload in the brain on integrity of neuronal DNA  

PubMed Central

Tissue-specific iron content is tightly regulated to simultaneously satisfy specialized metabolic needs and avoid cytotoxicity. In the brain, disruption of iron homeostasis may occur in acute as well as progressive injuries associated with neuronal dysfunction and death. We hypothesized that adverse effects of disrupted metal homeostasis on brain function may involve impairment of DNA repair processes. Since in the brain, the base excision repair (BER) pathway is central for handling oxidatively damaged DNA, we investigated effects of elevated iron and zinc on key BER enzymes. In vitro DNA repair assays revealed inhibitory effects of metals on BER activities, including the incision of abasic sites, 5’-flap cleavage, gap filling DNA synthesis and ligation. Using the comet assay, we showed that while metals at concentrations, which inhibit BER activities in in vitro assays, do not induce direct genomic damage in cultured primary neurons, they significantly delay repair of genomic DNA damage induced by sub-lethal exposure to H2O2. Thus, in the brain even a mild transient metal overload, may adversely affect the DNA repair capacity and thereby compromise genomic integrity and initiate long-term deleterious sequelae including neuronal dysfunction and death. PMID:19619136

Li, Hui; Swiercz, Rafal; Englander, Ella W.

2009-01-01

30

Iron contamination in silicon technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   This article continues the review of fundamental physical properties of iron and its complexes in silicon (Appl. Phys. A 69, 13 (1999)), and is focused on ongoing applied research of iron in silicon technology. The first section of this article\\u000a presents an analysis of the effect of iron on devices, including integrated circuits, power devices, and solar cells. Then,

A. A. Istratov; H. Hieslmair; E. R. Weber

2000-01-01

31

Iron acquisition by teleost fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iron is a vital micronutrient for teleost fish, being an integral component of proteins involved in cellular respiration and oxygen transfer. However, in excess iron is toxic, and fish need to balance uptake to prevent deficiency vs. potential toxicity. This review assesses the current physiological and molecular knowledge of the mechanisms of iron acquisition in the teleost fish. It focuses

Nicolas Bury; Martin Grosell

2003-01-01

32

The DUF59 Family Gene AE7 Acts in the Cytosolic Iron-Sulfur Cluster Assembly Pathway to Maintain Nuclear Genome Integrity in Arabidopsis[C][W][OA  

PubMed Central

Eukaryotic organisms have evolved a set of strategies to safeguard genome integrity, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here, we report that ASYMMETRIC LEAVES1/2 ENHANCER7 (AE7), an Arabidopsis thaliana gene encoding a protein in the evolutionarily conserved Domain of Unknown Function 59 family, participates in the cytosolic iron-sulfur (Fe-S) cluster assembly (CIA) pathway to maintain genome integrity. The severe ae7-2 allele is embryo lethal, whereas plants with the weak ae7 (ae7-1) allele are viable but exhibit highly accumulated DNA damage that activates the DNA damage response to arrest the cell cycle. AE7 is part of a protein complex with CIA1, NAR1, and MET18, which are highly conserved in eukaryotes and are involved in the biogenesis of cytosolic and nuclear Fe-S proteins. ae7-1 plants have lower activities of the cytosolic [4Fe-4S] enzyme aconitase and the nuclear [4Fe-4S] enzyme DNA glycosylase ROS1. Additionally, mutations in the gene encoding the mitochondrial ATP binding cassette transporter ATM3/ABCB25, which is required for the activity of cytosolic Fe-S enzymes in Arabidopsis, also result in defective genome integrity similar to that of ae7-1. These results indicate that AE7 is a central member of the CIA pathway, linking plant mitochondria to nuclear genome integrity through assembly of Fe-S proteins. PMID:23104832

Luo, Dexian; Bernard, Delphine G.; Balk, Janneke; Hai, Huang; Cui, Xiaofeng

2012-01-01

33

Vacuum annealed cerium-substituted yttrium iron garnet films on non-garnet substrates for integrated optical circuits  

SciTech Connect

Polycrystalline cerium-substituted yttrium iron garnet (CeYIG) showing large Faraday rotation (FR) in the near-IR region was grown on non-garnet (synthetic fused silica, Si, and Si-on-insulator) substrates by sputtering followed by thermal annealing in vacuum. The FR of the films is comparable to the single crystal value. Structural characterization, magnetic properties, refractive index, extinction coefficient, surface topography, and FR vs. wavelength were measured and the magnetooptical figure of merit was compared with that of CeYIG films on garnet substrates.

Goto, Taichi; Ross, C. A. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Eto, Yu; Kobayashi, Keiichi; Haga, Yoji; Inoue, Mitsuteru [Toyohashi University of Technology, Hibarigaoka, Tempaku, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan)

2013-05-07

34

Regulation of cellular iron metabolism  

PubMed Central

Iron is an essential but potentially hazardous biometal. Mammalian cells require sufficient amounts of iron to satisfy metabolic needs or to accomplish specialized functions. Iron is delivered to tissues by circulating transferrin, a transporter that captures iron released into the plasma mainly from intestinal enterocytes or reticuloendothelial macrophages. The binding of iron-laden transferrin to the cell-surface transferrin receptor 1 results in endocytosis and uptake of the metal cargo. Internalized iron is transported to mitochondria for the synthesis of haem or iron–sulfur clusters, which are integral parts of several metalloproteins, and excess iron is stored and detoxified in cytosolic ferritin. Iron metabolism is controlled at different levels and by diverse mechanisms. The present review summarizes basic concepts of iron transport, use and storage and focuses on the IRE (iron-responsive element)/IRP (iron-regulatory protein) system, a well known post-transcriptional regulatory circuit that not only maintains iron homoeostasis in various cell types, but also contributes to systemic iron balance. PMID:21348856

Wang, Jian; Pantopoulos, Kostas

2011-01-01

35

Integrated Self-Assembly of the Mms6 Magnetosome Protein to Form an Iron-Responsive Structure  

PubMed Central

A common feature of biomineralization proteins is their self-assembly to produce a surface consistent in size with the inorganic crystals that they produce. Mms6, a small protein of 60 amino acids from Magnetospirillum magneticum strain AMB-1 that promotes the in vitro growth of superparamagnetic magnetite nanocrystals, assembles in aqueous solution to form spherical micelles that could be visualized by TEM and AFM. The results reported here are consistent with the view that the N and C-terminal domains interact with each other within one polypeptide chain and across protein units in the assembly. From studies to determine the amino acid residues important for self-assembly, we identified the unique GL repeat in the N-terminal domain with additional contributions from amino acids in other positions, throughout the molecule. Analysis by CD spectroscopy identified a structural change in the iron-binding C-terminal domain in the presence of Fe3+. A change in the intrinsic fluorescence of tryptophan in the N-terminal domain showed that this structural change is transmitted through the protein. Thus, self-assembly of Mms6 involves an interlaced structure of intra- and inter-molecular interactions that results in a coordinated structural change in the protein assembly with iron binding. PMID:23857056

Feng, Shuren; Wang, Lijun; Palo, Pierre; Liu, Xunpei; Mallapragada, Surya K.; Nilsen-Hamilton, Marit

2013-01-01

36

Development of Bottom-up Representation of Industrial Energy Efficiency Technologies in Integrated Assessment Models for the Iron and Steel Sector  

SciTech Connect

Adoption of efficient end-use technologies is one of the key measures for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. With the working of energy programs and policies on carbon regulation, how to effectively analyze and manage the costs associated with GHG reductions become extremely important for the industry and policy makers around the world. Energy-climate (EC) models are often used for analyzing the costs of reducing GHG emissions (e.g., carbon emission) for various emission-reduction measures, because an accurate estimation of these costs is critical for identifying and choosing optimal emission reduction measures, and for developing related policy options to accelerate market adoption and technology implementation. However, accuracies of assessing of GHG-emission reduction costs by taking into account the adoption of energy efficiency technologies will depend on how well these end-use technologies are represented in integrated assessment models (IAM) and other energy-climate models. In this report, we first conduct brief overview on different representations of end-use technologies (mitigation measures) in various energy-climate models, followed by problem statements, and a description of the basic concepts of quantifying the cost of conserved energy including integrating non-regrets options. A non-regrets option is defined as a GHG reduction option that is cost effective, without considering their additional benefits related to reducing GHG emissions. Based upon these, we develop information on costs of mitigation measures and technological change. These serve as the basis for collating the data on energy savings and costs for their future use in integrated assessment models. In addition to descriptions of the iron and steel making processes, and the mitigation measures identified in this study, the report includes tabulated databases on costs of measure implementation, energy savings, carbon-emission reduction, and lifetimes. The cost curve data on mitigation measures are available over time, which allows an estimation of technological change over a decade-long historical period. In particular, the report will describe new treatment of technological change in energy-climate modeling for this industry sector, i.e., assessing the changes in costs and energy-savings potentials via comparing 1994 and 2002 conservation supply curves. In this study, we compared the same set of mitigation measures for both 1994 and 2002 -- no additional mitigation measure for year 2002 was included due to unavailability of such data. Therefore, the estimated potentials in total energy savings and carbon reduction would most likely be more conservative for year 2002 in this study. Based upon the cost curves, the rate of change in the savings potential at a given cost can be evaluated and be used to estimate future rates of change that can be the input for energy-climate models. Through characterizing energy-efficiency technology costs and improvement potentials, we have developed and presented energy cost curves for energy efficiency measures applicable to the U.S. iron and steel industry for the years 1994 and 2002. The cost curves can change significantly under various scenarios: the baseline year, discount rate, energy intensity, production, industry structure (e.g., integrated versus secondary steel making and number of plants), efficiency (or mitigation) measures, share of iron and steel production to which the individual measures can be applied, and inclusion of other non-energy benefits. Inclusion of other non-energy benefits from implementing mitigation measures can reduce the costs of conserved energy significantly. In addition, costs of conserved energy (CCE) for individual mitigation measures increase with the increases in discount rates, resulting in a general increase in total cost of mitigation measures for implementation and operation with a higher discount rate. In 1994, integrated steel mills in the U.S. produced 55.

Xu, T.T.; Sathaye, J.; Galitsky, C.

2010-09-30

37

Atmospheric iron deposition: global distribution, variability, and human perturbations.  

PubMed

Atmospheric inputs of iron to the open ocean are hypothesized to modulate ocean biogeochemistry. This review presents an integration of available observations of atmospheric iron and iron deposition, and also covers bioavailable iron distributions. Methods for estimating temporal variability in ocean deposition over the recent past are reviewed. Desert dust iron is estimated to represent 95% of the global atmospheric iron cycle, and combustion sources of iron are responsible for the remaining 5%. Humans may be significantly perturbing desert dust (up to 50%). The sources of bioavailable iron are less well understood than those of iron, partly because we do not know what speciation of the iron is bioavailable. Bioavailable iron can derive from atmospheric processing of relatively insoluble desert dust iron or from direct emissions of soluble iron from combustion sources. These results imply that humans could be substantially impacting iron and bioavailable iron deposition to ocean regions, but there are large uncertainties in our understanding. PMID:21141037

Mahowald, Natalie M; Engelstaedter, Sebastian; Luo, Chao; Sealy, Andrea; Artaxo, Paulo; Benitez-Nelson, Claudia; Bonnet, Sophie; Chen, Ying; Chuang, Patrick Y; Cohen, David D; Dulac, Francois; Herut, Barak; Johansen, Anne M; Kubilay, Nilgun; Losno, Remi; Maenhaut, Willy; Paytan, Adina; Prospero, Joseph M; Shank, Lindsey M; Siefert, Ronald L

2009-01-01

38

Iron overdose  

MedlinePLUS

Iron is an ingredient in many mineral and vitamin supplements. Iron supplements are also sold by themselves. Types include: Ferrous sulfate (Feosol, Slow Fe) Ferrous gluconate (Fergon) Ferrous fumarate (Femiron, Feostat) Note: This list may not be all-inclusive.

39

Eat Iron?!!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To gain an understanding of mixtures and the concept of separation of mixtures, students use strong magnets to find the element of iron in iron-fortified breakfast cereal flakes. Through this activity, they see how the iron component of this heterogeneous mixture (cereal) retains its properties and can thus be separated by physical means.

NSF GK-12 and Research Experience for Teachers (RET) Programs,

40

Microbial Iron Cycling in Acidic Geothermal Springs of Yellowstone National Park: Integrating Molecular Surveys, Geochemical Processes, and Isolation of Novel Fe-Active Microorganisms  

PubMed Central

Geochemical, molecular, and physiological analyses of microbial isolates were combined to study the geomicrobiology of acidic iron oxide mats in Yellowstone National Park. Nineteen sampling locations from 11 geothermal springs were studied ranging in temperature from 53 to 88°C and pH 2.4 to 3.6. All iron oxide mats exhibited high diversity of crenarchaeal sequences from the Sulfolobales, Thermoproteales, and Desulfurococcales. The predominant Sulfolobales sequences were highly similar to Metallosphaera yellowstonensis str. MK1, previously isolated from one of these sites. Other groups of archaea were consistently associated with different types of iron oxide mats, including undescribed members of the phyla Thaumarchaeota and Euryarchaeota. Bacterial sequences were dominated by relatives of Hydrogenobaculum spp. above 65–70°C, but increased in diversity below 60°C. Cultivation of relevant iron-oxidizing and iron-reducing microbial isolates included Sulfolobus str. MK3, Sulfobacillus str. MK2, Acidicaldus str. MK6, and a new candidate genus in the Sulfolobales referred to as Sulfolobales str. MK5. Strains MK3 and MK5 are capable of oxidizing ferrous iron autotrophically, while strain MK2 oxidizes iron mixotrophically. Similar rates of iron oxidation were measured for M. yellowstonensis str. MK1 and Sulfolobales str. MK5. Biomineralized phases of ferric iron varied among cultures and field sites, and included ferric oxyhydroxides, K-jarosite, goethite, hematite, and scorodite depending on geochemical conditions. Strains MK5 and MK6 are capable of reducing ferric iron under anaerobic conditions with complex carbon sources. The combination of geochemical and molecular data as well as physiological observations of isolates suggests that the community structure of acidic Fe mats is linked with Fe cycling across temperatures ranging from 53 to 88°C. PMID:22470372

Kozubal, Mark A.; Macur, Richard E.; Jay, Zackary J.; Beam, Jacob P.; Malfatti, Stephanie A.; Tringe, Susannah G.; Kocar, Benjamin D.; Borch, Thomas; Inskeep, William P.

2012-01-01

41

Iron refractory iron deficiency anemia  

PubMed Central

Iron refractory iron deficiency anemia is a hereditary recessive anemia due to a defect in the TMPRSS6 gene encoding Matriptase-2. This protein is a transmembrane serine protease that plays an essential role in down-regulating hepcidin, the key regulator of iron homeostasis. Hallmarks of this disease are microcytic hypochromic anemia, low transferrin saturation and normal/high serum hepcidin values. The anemia appears in the post-natal period, although in some cases it is only diagnosed in adulthood. The disease is refractory to oral iron treatment but shows a slow response to intravenous iron injections and partial correction of the anemia. To date, 40 different Matriptase-2 mutations have been reported, affecting all the functional domains of the large ectodomain of the protein. In vitro experiments on transfected cells suggest that Matriptase-2 cleaves Hemojuvelin, a major regulator of hepcidin expression and that this function is altered in this genetic form of anemia. In contrast to the low/undetectable hepcidin levels observed in acquired iron deficiency, in patients with Matriptase-2 deficiency, serum hepcidin is inappropriately high for the low iron status and accounts for the absent/delayed response to oral iron treatment. A challenge for the clinicians and pediatricians is the recognition of the disorder among iron deficiency and other microcytic anemias commonly found in pediatric patients. The current treatment of iron refractory iron deficiency anemia is based on parenteral iron administration; in the future, manipulation of the hepcidin pathway with the aim of suppressing it might become an alternative therapeutic approach. PMID:23729726

De Falco, Luigia; Sanchez, Mayka; Silvestri, Laura; Kannengiesser, Caroline; Muckenthaler, Martina U.; Iolascon, Achille; Gouya, Laurent; Camaschella, Clara; Beaumont, Carole

2013-01-01

42

Iron deficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iron deficiency remains one of the world’s greatest public health problems. Globally it is the greatest contributor to anaemia, affecting 47% of pre-school age children and 25% of school age children worldwide, and is a major contributor to both physical and neuro-developmental morbidity.Iron deficiency results from inadequate intake, excess turnover or excessive loss. Whilst inadequate intake is the commonest cause

Katrina Pettit; Jennifer Rowley; Nick Brown

2011-01-01

43

An integrative computational model for large-scale identification of metalloproteins in microbial genomes: a focus on iron-sulfur cluster proteins.  

PubMed

Metalloproteins represent a ubiquitous group of molecules which are crucial to the survival of all living organisms. While several metal-binding motifs have been defined, it remains challenging to confidently identify metalloproteins from primary protein sequences using computational approaches alone. Here, we describe a comprehensive strategy based on a machine learning approach to design and assess a penalized generalized linear model. We used this strategy to detect members of the iron-sulfur cluster protein family. A new category of descriptors, whose profile is based on profile hidden Markov models, encoding structural information was combined with public descriptors into a linear model. The model was trained and tested on distinct datasets composed of well-characterized iron-sulfur protein sequences, and the resulting model provided higher sensitivity compared to a motif-based approach, while maintaining a good level of specificity. Analysis of this linear model allows us to detect and quantify the contribution of each descriptor, providing us with a better understanding of this complex protein family along with valuable indications for further experimental characterization. Two newly-identified proteins, YhcC and YdiJ, were functionally validated as genuine iron-sulfur proteins, confirming the prediction. The computational model was then applied to over 550 prokaryotic genomes to screen for iron-sulfur proteomes; the results are publicly available at: . This study represents a proof-of-concept for the application of a penalized linear model to identify metalloprotein superfamilies on a large-scale. The application employed here, screening for iron-sulfur proteomes, provides new candidates for further biochemical and structural analysis as well as new resources for an extensive exploration of iron-sulfuromes in the microbial world. PMID:25117543

Estellon, Johan; Ollagnier de Choudens, Sandrine; Smadja, Myriam; Fontecave, Marc; Vandenbrouck, Yves

2014-10-01

44

Glutathione S-transferase and MRP1 form an integrated system involved in the storage and transport of dinitrosyl-dithiolato iron complexes in cells.  

PubMed

Nitrogen monoxide (NO) is vital for many essential biological processes as a messenger and effector molecule. The physiological importance of NO is the result of its high affinity for iron in the active sites of proteins such as guanylate cyclase. Indeed, NO possesses a rich coordination chemistry with iron and the formation of dinitrosyl-dithiolato iron complexes (DNICs) is well documented. In mammals, NO generated by cytotoxic activated macrophages has been reported to play a role as a cytotoxic effector against tumor cells by binding and releasing intracellular iron. Studies from our laboratory have shown that two proteins traditionally involved in drug resistance, namely multidrug-resistance protein 1 and glutathione S-transferase, play critical roles in intracellular NO transport and storage through their interaction with DNICs (R.N. Watts et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103:7670-7675, 2006; H. Lok et al., J. Biol. Chem. 287:607-618, 2012). Notably, DNICs are present at high concentrations in cells and are biologically available. These complexes have a markedly longer half-life than free NO, making them an ideal "common currency" for this messenger molecule. Considering the many critical roles NO plays in health and disease, a better understanding of its intracellular trafficking mechanisms will be vital for the development of new therapeutics. PMID:25035074

Lok, H C; Sahni, S; Richardson, V; Kalinowski, D S; Kovacevic, Z; Lane, D J R; Richardson, D R

2014-10-01

45

The integrated role of desferrioxamine and phenserine targeted to an iron-responsive element in the APP-mRNA 5'-untranslated region.  

PubMed

The Alzheimer's amyloid precursor protein (APP) is the metalloprotein that is cleaved to generate the pathogenic Abeta peptide. We showed that iron closely regulated the expression of APP by 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) sequences in APP mRNA. Iron modulated APP holoprotein expression by a pathway similar to iron control of the translation of the ferritin-L and -H mRNAs by iron-responsive elements in their 5'-UTRs. APP gene transcription is also responsive to copper deficit where the Menkes protein depleted fibroblasts of copper to suppress transcription of APP through metal regulatory and copper regulatory sequences upstream of the APP 5' cap site. APP is a copper-zinc metalloprotein and chelation of Fe(3+) by desferrioxamine and Cu(2+) by clioquinol appeared to provide effective therapy for the treatment of AD in limited patient studies. We have introduced an RNA-based screen for small APP 5'-UTR binding molecules to identify leads that limit APP translation (but not APLP-1 and APLP-2) and amyloid Abeta peptide production. A library of 1200 drugs was screened to identify lead drugs that limited APP 5'-UTR-directed translation of a reporter gene. The efficacy of these leads was confirmed for specificity in a cell-based secondary assay to measure the steady-state levels of APP holoprotein relative to APLP-1/APLP-2 by Western blotting. Several chelators were identified among the APP 5'-UTR directed leads consistent with the presence of an IRE stem-loop in front of the start codon of the APP transcript. The APP 5'-UTR-directed drugs--desferrioxamine (Fe(3+) chelator), tetrathiomolybdate (Cu(2+) chelator), and dimercaptopropanol (Pb(2+) and Hg(2+) chelator)--each suppressed APP holoprotein expression (and lowered Abeta peptide secretion). The novel anticholinesterase phenserine also provided "proof of concept" for our strategy to target the APP 5'-UTR sequence to identify "anti-amyloid" drugs. We further defined the interaction between iron chelation and phenserine action to control APP 5'-UTR-directed translation in neuroblastoma (SY5Y) transfectants. Phenserine was most efficient to block translation under conditions of intracellular iron chelation with desferrioxamine suggesting that this anticholinesterase operated through an iron (metal)-dependent pathway at the APP 5'-UTR site. PMID:15681799

Venti, Amanda; Giordano, Tony; Eder, Paul; Bush, Ashley I; Lahiri, Debomoy K; Greig, Nigel H; Rogers, Jack T

2004-12-01

46

Taking iron supplements  

MedlinePLUS

... levels. You may also need to take iron supplements as well to rebuild iron stores in your ... ABOUT IRON SUPPLEMENTS Iron supplements may be taken as capsules, tablets, chewable tablets, and liquids. The most common tablet size is ...

47

Iron and infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iron and infection. Intravenous iron therapy maintains iron stores and decreases erythropoietin demand in patients undergoing regular dialysis therapy. Microbiology studies show a close relationship between the availability of iron and bacterial virulence. Iron is also an essential requirement of bacteria for multiplication in the host. Therefore, clinical conditions associated with iron excess in the host may increase the risk

SANDA I. PATRUTA; WALTER H. HORL

1999-01-01

48

Genetics Home Reference: Iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia  

MedlinePLUS

... Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia On this page: Description Genetic changes Inheritance Diagnosis ... July 2014 What is iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia? Iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia is one of ...

49

Iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia (IRIDA).  

PubMed

Iron deficiency anemia is a common global problem whose etiology is typically attributed to acquired inadequate dietary intake and/or chronic blood loss. However, in several kindreds multiple family members are affected with iron deficiency anemia that is unresponsive to oral iron supplementation and only partially responsive to parenteral iron therapy. The discovery that many of these cases harbor mutations in the TMPRSS6 gene led to the recognition that they represent a single clinical entity: iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia (IRIDA). This article reviews clinical features of IRIDA, recent genetic studies, and insights this disorder provides into the regulation of systemic iron homeostasis. PMID:25064705

Heeney, Matthew M; Finberg, Karin E

2014-08-01

50

Iron in multiple sclerosis: roles in neurodegeneration and repair.  

PubMed

MRI and histological studies have shown global alterations in iron levels in the brains of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), including increases in the iron stored by macrophages and microglia. Excessive free iron can be toxic, and accumulation of iron in MS has generally been thought to be detrimental. However, iron maintains the integrity of oligodendrocytes and myelin, and facilitates their regeneration following injury. The extracellular matrix, a key regulator of remyelination, might also modulate iron levels. This Review highlights key histological and MRI studies that have investigated changes in iron distribution associated with MS. Potential sources of iron, as well as iron regulatory proteins and the detrimental roles of excessive iron within the CNS, are also discussed, with emphasis on the importance of iron within cells for oxidative metabolism, proliferation and differentiation of oligodendrocytes, and myelination. In light of the beneficial and detrimental properties of iron within the CNS, we present considerations for treatments that target iron in MS. Such treatments must balance trophic and toxic properties of iron, by providing sufficient iron levels for remyelination and repair while avoiding excesses that might overwhelm homeostatic mechanisms and contribute to damage. PMID:25002107

Stephenson, Erin; Nathoo, Nabeela; Mahjoub, Yasamin; Dunn, Jeff F; Yong, V Wee

2014-08-01

51

Pharmacology of Iron Transport  

PubMed Central

Elucidating the molecular basis for the regulation of iron uptake, storage, and distribution is necessary to understand iron homeostasis. Pharmacological tools are emerging to identify and distinguish among different iron transport pathways. Stimulatory or inhibitory small molecules with effects on iron uptake can help characterize the mechanistic elements of iron transport and the roles of the transporters involved in these processes. In particular, iron chelators can serve as potential pharmacological tools to alleviate diseases of iron overload. This review focuses on the pharmacology of iron transport, introducing iron transport membrane proteins and known inhibitors. PMID:23020294

Byrne, Shaina L.; Krishnamurthy, Divya; Wessling-Resnick, Marianne

2013-01-01

52

Disorders of iron metabolism. Part II: iron deficiency and iron overload  

Microsoft Academic Search

Main disorders of iron metabolismIncreased iron requirements, limited external supply, and increased blood loss may lead to iron deficiency (ID) and iron deficiency anaemia. In chronic inflammation, the excess of hepcidin decreases iron absorption and prevents iron recycling, resulting in hypoferraemia and iron restricted erythropoiesis, despite normal iron stores (functional iron deficiency), and finally anaemia of chronic disease (ACD), which

Manuel Muñoz; José Antonio García-Erce; Ángel Francisco Remacha

2010-01-01

53

Iron deficiency anemia  

MedlinePLUS

... You get iron deficiency anemia when your body's iron stores run low. This can occur because: You lose ... ferrous sulfate) are needed to build up the iron stores in your body. Most of the time, your ...

54

Iron and Prochlorococcus/  

E-print Network

Iron availability and primary productivity in the oceans are intricately linked through photosynthesis. At the global scale we understand how iron addition induces phytoplankton blooms through meso-scale iron-addition ...

Thompson, Anne Williford

2009-01-01

55

Iron and Stony-iron Meteorites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Without iron and stony-iron meteorites, our chances of ever sampling the deep interior of a differentiated planetary object would be next to nil. Although we live on a planet with a very substantial core, we will never be able to sample it. Fortunately, asteroid collisions provide us with a rich sampling of the deep interiors of differentiated asteroids.Iron and stony-iron

H. Haack; T. J. McCoy

2003-01-01

56

HEPCIDIN AND IRON HOMEOSTASIS  

PubMed Central

Despite fluctuations in dietary iron intake and intermittent losses through bleeding, the plasma iron concentrations in humans remain stable at 10–30 ?M. While most of the iron entering blood plasma comes from recycling, appropriate amount of iron is absorbed from the diet to compensate for losses and maintain nontoxic amounts in stores. Plasma iron concentration and iron distribution are similarly regulated in laboratory rodents. The hepatic peptide hepcidin was identified as the systemic iron-regulatory hormone. In the efferent arc, hepcidin regulates intestinal iron absorption, plasma iron concentrations, and tissue iron distribution by inducing degradation of its receptor, the cellular iron exporter ferroportin. Ferroportin exports iron into plasma from absorptive enterocytes, from macrophages that recycle the iron of senescent erythrocytes, and from hepatocytes that store iron. In the more complex and less well understood afferent arc, hepatic hepcidin synthesis is transcriptionally regulated by extracellular and intracellular iron concentrations through a molecular complex of bone morphogenetic protein receptors and their iron-specific ligands, modulators and iron sensors. Through as yet undefined pathways, hepcidin is also homeostatically regulated by the iron requirements of erythroid precursors for hemoglobin synthesis. In accordance with the role of hepcidin-mediated iron redistribution in host defense, hepcidin production is regulated by inflammation as well. Increased hepcidin concentrations in plasma are pathogenic in iron-restrictive anemias including anemias associated with inflammation, chronic kidney disease and some cancers. Hepcidin deficiency causes iron overload in hereditary hemochromatosis and ineffective erythropoiesis. Hepcidin, ferroportin and their regulators represent potential targets for the diagnosis and treatment of iron disorders and anemias. PMID:22306005

Ganz, Tomas; Nemeth, Elizabeta

2014-01-01

57

Iron speciation and dynamics during SERIES, a mesoscale iron enrichment experiment in the NE Pacific  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the Sub-arctic Ecosystem Response to Iron Enrichment Study (SERIES), the addition of ferrous iron to high-nitrate low-chlorophyll (HNLC) waters near Ocean Station PAPA (OSP: 50°N, 145°W) produced a phytoplankton bloom and CO 2 drawdown, as evidenced by decreasing CO 2 fugacity ( fCO 2). We analyzed five fractions or phases of iron: soluble (<0.03 ?m), dissolved (<0.22 ?m), total dissolved (acidified dissolved, <0.22 ?m), labile (unfiltered), and total (acidified, unfiltered). From these, we also calculated non-labile iron, colloidal iron (0.03-0.22 ?m), and both labile and non-labile particulate iron (>0.22 ?m). Here, we describe iron distributions and the evolution of iron phases in the upper ocean during the experiment. We also present an iron budget accounting for horizontal and vertical dilution. At the time of our first sampling eight hours after fertilization was completed, total iron reached 8.6 nmol L -1 and dissolved iron was approximately 3 nmol L -1. Early in the experiment the dissolved iron phase decreased the most rapidly and by late day 6 the integrated dissolved iron (8.6 ?mol m -2) represented less than 10% of the initial addition (90-95 ?mol m -2). However at this same time the total integrated iron at the centre of the patch was still 52 ?mol m -2 or almost 60% of the calculated initial addition. By day 12,45% of the added iron (from both injections) could be accounted for in the patch. The half-life of total iron in the patch for the first injection was estimated to be less than 5 days if dilution is not considered, but more than 13 days if dilution is taken into account. The most notable change in iron percentages from one form to another occurred early in the first week of the experiment where the predominant phase shift was from the colloidal portion of dissolved iron to labile particulate iron that could have been biologically induced or simply aggregation of oxyhydroxides. This was immediately followed by a physical event resulting in a reduction in the non-labile particulate iron due to sinking out of the patch. The second infusion did not change the relative concentration of the various pools of iron as might be expected, but this was likely due to the fact that it was a much smaller injection than the first. The most pronounced change after the second infusion was the reduction in the labile particulate pool which coincided with one of the largest decreases in silicate observed during the entire experiment. In general the gradual decrease in the fraction of the 10 m colloidal iron as well as episodic losses of, or shifts in, integrated colloidal iron are thought to be the result of adsorption of colloidal iron to the plankton cell surfaces as well as aggregation of oxyhydroxides but could also be the result of utilization of colloidal iron by mixotrophic phytoplankton.

Wong, C. S.; Johnson, W. K.; Sutherland, N.; Nishioka, J.; Timothy, D. A.; Robert, M.; Takeda, S.

2006-10-01

58

Pathways of iron absorption.  

PubMed

Iron is vital for all living organisms but excess iron can be lethal because it facilitates free radical formation. Thus iron absorption is carefully regulated to maintain an equilibrium between absorption and body loss of iron. In countries where meat is a significant part of the diet, most body iron is derived from dietary heme because heme binds few of the dietary chelators that bind inorganic iron. Uptake of heme into enterocytes occurs as a metalloporphyrin in an endosomal process. Intracellular iron is released from heme by heme oxygenase to enter plasma as inorganic iron. Ferric iron is absorbed via a beta(3) integrin and mobilferrin pathway (IMP) which is unshared with other nutritional metals. Ferrous iron uptake is facilitated by a DMT-1 pathway which is shared with manganese. In the iron deficient gut, large quantities of both mobilferrin and DMT-1 are found in goblet cells and intraluminal mucins suggesting that they are secreted with mucin into the intestinal lumen to bind iron to facilitate uptake by the cells. In the cytoplasm, IMP and DMT associate in a large protein complex called paraferritin which serves as a ferrireductase. Paraferritin solublizes iron binding proteins and reduces iron to make iron available for production of iron containing proteins such as heme. Iron uptake by intestinal absorptive cells is regulated by the iron concentration within the cell. Except in hemochromatosis it remains in equilibrium with total body stores via transferrin receptors on the basolateral membrane of absorptive cells. Increased intracellular iron either up-regulates or satiates iron binding proteins on regulatory proteins to alter their location in the intestinal mucosa. PMID:12547224

Conrad, Marcel E; Umbreit, Jay N

2002-01-01

59

Iron metabolism in transplantation.  

PubMed

Recipient's iron status is an important determinant of clinical outcome in transplantation medicine. This review addresses iron metabolism in solid organ transplantation, where the role of iron as a mediator of ischemia-reperfusion injury, as an immune-modulatory element, and as a determinant of organ and graft function is discussed. Although iron chelators reduce ischemia-reperfusion injury in cell and animal models, these benefits have not yet been implemented into clinical practice. Iron deficiency and iron overload are associated with reduced immune activation, whose molecular mechanisms are reviewed in detail. Furthermore, iron overload and hyperferritinemia are associated with poor prognosis in end-stage organ failure in patients awaiting kidney, or liver transplantation. This negative prognostic impact of iron overload appears to persist after transplantation, which highlights the need for optimizing iron management before and after solid organ transplantation. In contrast, iron deficiency and anemia are also associated with poor prognosis in patients with end-stage heart failure. Intravenous iron supplementation should be managed carefully because parenterally induced iron overload could persist after successful transplantation. In conclusion, current evidence shows that iron overload and iron deficiency are important risk factors before and after solid organ transplantation. Iron status should therefore be actively managed in patients on the waiting list and after transplantation. PMID:24964028

Schaefer, Benedikt; Effenberger, Maria; Zoller, Heinz

2014-11-01

60

Treatment of mature landfill leachate by internal micro-electrolysis integrated with coagulation: a comparative study on a novel sequencing batch reactor based on zero valent iron.  

PubMed

A comparative study of treating mature landfill leachate with various treatment processes was conducted to investigate whether the method of combined processes of internal micro-electrolysis (IME) without aeration and IME with full aeration in one reactor was an efficient treatment for mature landfill leachate. A specifically designed novel sequencing batch internal micro-electrolysis reactor (SIME) with the latest automation technology was employed in the experiment. Experimental data showed that combined processes obtained a high COD removal efficiency of 73.7 ± 1.3%, which was 15.2% and 24.8% higher than that of the IME with and without aeration, respectively. The SIME reactor also exhibited a COD removal efficiency of 86.1 ± 3.8% to mature landfill leachate in the continuous operation, which is much higher (p<0.05) than that of conventional treatments of electrolysis (22.8-47.0%), coagulation-sedimentation (18.5-22.2%), and the Fenton process (19.9-40.2%), respectively. The innovative concept behind this excellent performance is a combination effect of reductive and oxidative processes of the IME, and the integration electro-coagulation. Optimal operating parameters, including the initial pH, Fe/C mass ratio, air flow rate, and addition of H(2)O(2), were optimized. All results show that the SIME reactor is a promising and efficient technology in treating mature landfill leachate. PMID:22771343

Ying, Diwen; Peng, Juan; Xu, Xinyan; Li, Kan; Wang, Yalin; Jia, Jinping

2012-08-30

61

Iron deficiency in Europe.  

PubMed

In Europe, iron deficiency is considered to be one of the main nutritional deficiency disorders affecting large fractions of the population, particularly such physiological groups as children, menstruating women and pregnant women. Some factors such as type of contraception in women, blood donation or minor pathological blood loss (haemorrhoids, gynaecological bleeding...) considerably increase the difficulty of covering iron needs. Moreover, women, especially adolescents consuming low-energy diets, vegetarians and vegans are at high risk of iron deficiency. Although there is no evidence that an absence of iron stores has any adverse consequences, it does indicate that iron nutrition is borderline, since any further reduction in body iron is associated with a decrease in the level of functional compounds such as haemoglobin. The prevalence of iron-deficient anaemia has slightly decreased in infants and menstruating women. Some positive factors may have contributed to reducing the prevalence of iron-deficiency anaemia in some groups of population: the use of iron-fortified formulas and iron-fortified cereals; the use of oral contraceptives and increased enrichment of iron in several countries; and the use of iron supplements during pregnancy in some European countries. It is possible to prevent and control iron deficiency by counseling individuals and families about sound iron nutrition during infancy and beyond, and about iron supplementation during pregnancy, by screening persons on the basis of their risk for iron deficiency, and by treating and following up persons with presumptive iron deficiency. This may help to reduce manifestations of iron deficiency and thus improve public health. Evidence linking iron status with risk of cardiovascular disease or cancer is unconvincing and does not justify changes in food fortification or medical practice, particularly because the benefits of assuring adequate iron intake during growth and development are well established. But stronger evidence is needed before rejecting the hypothesis that greater iron stores increase the incidence of CVD or cancer. At present, currently available data do not support radical changes in dietary recommendations. They include all means for increasing the content of dietary factors enhancing iron absorption or reducing the content of factors inhibiting iron absorption. Increased knowledge and increased information about factors may be important tools in the prevention of iron deficiency in Europe. PMID:11683548

Hercberg, S; Preziosi, P; Galan, P

2001-04-01

62

Iron and Diabetes Risk  

PubMed Central

Iron overload is a risk factor for diabetes. The link between iron and diabetes was first recognized in pathologic conditions—hereditary hemochromatosis and thalassemia—but high levels of dietary iron also impart diabetes risk. Iron plays a direct and causal role in diabetes pathogenesis mediated both by ?-cell failure and insulin resistance. Iron is also a factor in the regulation of metabolism in most tissues involved in fuel homeostasis, with the adipocyte in particular serving an iron-sensing role. The underlying molecular mechanisms mediating these effects are numerous and incompletely understood, but include oxidant stress and modulation of adipokines and intracellular signal transduction pathways. PMID:23473030

Simcox, Judith A.; McClain, Donald A.

2013-01-01

63

Availability of Food Iron  

PubMed Central

Iron has been extracted from 25 common foods under conditions resembling those prevailing in the stomach under physiological conditions. In most cases less than half the iron in the foods is released into solution. The soluble iron is mainly in ionizable form, except in the case of meat products and black pudding. The amount of food iron released is influenced by cooking and the presence of iron-binding substances in some foods. The total dietary iron probably does not represent the amount available for absorption. PMID:5774316

Jacobs, A.; Greenman, D. A.

1969-01-01

64

Ocean iron cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interest in the biogeochemical cycle of iron has grown rapidly over the last two decades, due to the potential role of this element in modulating global climate in the geological past and ocean productivity in the present day. This trace metal has a disproportionately large effect (1 × 105 C:Fe) on photosynthetic carbon fixation by phytoplankton. In around one third of the open ocean, so-called high-nitrate low-chlorophyll (HNLC) regions, the resident phytoplankton have low growth rates despite an abundance of plant nutrients. This is due to the low supply of iron. Iron is present in the ocean in three phases, dissolved, colloidal, and particulate (biogenic and lithogenic). However, iron chemistry is complex with interactions between chemistry and biology such as the production of iron-binding siderophores by oceanic bacteria. This results in the interplay of inorganic chemistry, photochemistry, and organic complexation. Sources of new iron include dust deposition, upwelling of iron-rich deep waters, and the resuspension and lateral transport of sediments. Sinks for iron are mainly biological as evidenced by the vertical nutrient-like profile for dissolved iron in the ocean. Iron is rapidly recycled by the upper ocean biota within a so-called "ferrous wheel." The fe ratio [(new iron)/(new + regenerated iron)] provides an index of the relative supply of iron to the biota by new versus recycled iron. Over the last 15 years, interest in the potential role of iron in shaping climate in the geological past resulted in some of the most ambitious experiments in oceanography: large-scale (i.e., 50-1000 km2) iron enrichment of HNLC waters. They have provided valuable insights into how iron supply influences the biogeochemical cycles of elements such as carbon, sulfur, silicon, nitrogen, and phosphate.

Boyd, Philip W.

65

Molecular control of vertebrate iron homeostasis by iron regulatory proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both deficiencies and excesses of iron represent major public health problems throughout the world. Understanding the cellular and organismal processes controlling iron homeostasis is critical for identifying iron-related diseases and in advancing the clinical treatments for such disorders of iron metabolism. Iron regulatory proteins (IRPs) 1 and 2 are key regulators of vertebrate iron metabolism. These RNA binding proteins post-transcriptionally

Michelle L. Wallander; Elizabeth A. Leibold; Richard S. Eisenstein

2006-01-01

66

Iron and Your Child  

MedlinePLUS

... they lose monthly when they begin menstruating.) Young athletes who regularly engage in intense exercise tend to ... iron-containing RBCs during menstrual bleeding. Also, teen athletes lose iron through sweating and other routes during ...

67

Iron Chelation Therapy  

MedlinePLUS

... also in other organs that don't normally store iron, such as the: pancreas joints (especially in the ... Ferritin is a protein inside of cells that stores iron for later use by your body. For unknown ...

68

Hemochromatosis: Iron Storage Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... What's this? Submit Button CDC Features Hemochromatosis: Iron Storage Disease Language: English Español (Spanish) Share Compartir Excessive ... Learn more about hemochromatosis, a type of iron storage disease, and stay healthy. What Is Hemochromatosis? Hemochromatosis ...

69

Iron Dextran Injection  

MedlinePLUS

... called iron replacement products. It works by replenishing iron stores so that the body can make more red blood cells. ... attacks its own joints, causing pain, swelling, and loss of function) or ... become pregnant while receiving iron dextran injection, call your doctor.

70

Iron nutrition in adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adolescence is an important period of nutritional vulnerability due to increased dietary requirements for growth and development. Iron needs are elevated as a result of intensive growth and muscular development, which implies an increase in blood volume; thus, it is extremely important for the adolescent's iron requirements to be met. Diet, therefore, must provide enough iron and, moreover, nutrients producing

MARTA MESÍAS; ISABEL SEIQUER; M. PILAR NAVARRO

2012-01-01

71

Iron-oxide catalyzed silicon photoanode for water splitting  

E-print Network

This thesis presents an integrated study of high efficiency photoanodes for water splitting using silicon and iron-oxide. The fundamental limitations of silicon to water splitting applications were overcome by an ultrathin ...

Jun, Kimin

2011-01-01

72

Molecular Structure of Iron  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Since antiquity, Iron has been known for its malleability and abundance. Iron is a soft grey metal that is very ductile and easy to work; it can be rolled, hammered, bent, and tempered. Iron makes up 5% of the earth's crust in the form of ores such as hematite, limonite, magnetite, and taconite. This makes it the second most abundant metal, following aluminum. Most iron is used to manufacture carbon steel: iron with about 1.5% carbon and traces of other elements, but it is also used for many other alloys and steels of various types. Iron melts at 1808 degrees Kelvin and boils at 3023 degrees Kelvin. Insufficient iron in the bloodstream causes anemia, a medical condition causing unusual tiredness and other symptoms resulting from underdeveloped or few red blood cells.

2003-04-16

73

Iron and thrombosis  

PubMed Central

Although essential for cell physiology, an increase or depletion of body iron has harmful effects on health. Apart from iron deficiency anemia and iron overload-related organ tissue damage, there are increasing evidences that body iron status is implicated in atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. The hypothesis formulated in 1981 that iron depletion may protect against cardiovascular events is intriguing and has generated a significant debate in the last two decades. Indeed, to study this phenomenon, several investigators have tried to design appropriate experimental and clinical studies and to identify useful biochemical and genetic markers of iron status. The results of the literature on the effect of iron deficiency and overload on vascular health are critically reviewed in this study from a pathogenic and clinical point of view. PMID:18066546

Targher, Giovanni; Montagnana, Martina; Lippi, Giuseppe

2007-01-01

74

PHOTON SCIENCE SEMINAR Diamonds, Iron and XDiamonds, Iron and XDiamonds, Iron and XDiamonds, Iron and X----rays:rays:rays:rays  

E-print Network

PHOTON SCIENCE SEMINAR Diamonds, Iron and XDiamonds, Iron and XDiamonds, Iron and XDiamonds, Iron Scientist at the Advanced Photon Source and Postdoctoral Fellow at the Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie

Jackson, Jennifer M.

75

Mechanisms of mammalian iron homeostasis  

PubMed Central

Iron is vital for almost all organisms because of its ability to donate and accept electrons with relative ease. It serves as a cofactor for many proteins and enzymes necessary for oxygen and energy metabolism, as well as for several other essential processes. Mammalian cells utilize multiple mechanisms to acquire iron. Disruption of iron homeostasis is associated with various human diseases: iron deficiency resulting from defects in acquisition or distribution of the metal causes anemia; whereas iron surfeit resulting from excessive iron absorption or defective utilization causes abnormal tissue iron deposition, leading to oxidative damage. Mammals utilize distinct mechanisms to regulate iron homeostasis at the systemic and cellular levels. These involve the hormone hepcidin and iron regulatory proteins, which collectively ensure iron balance. This review outlines recent advances in iron regulatory pathways, as well as in mechanisms underlying intracellular iron trafficking, an important but less-studied area of mammalian iron homeostasis. PMID:22703180

Pantopoulos, Kostas; Porwal, Suheel Kumar; Tartakoff, Alan; Devireddy, L.

2012-01-01

76

Iron-Air Rechargeable Battery: A Robust and Inexpensive Iron-Air Rechargeable Battery for Grid-Scale Energy Storage  

SciTech Connect

GRIDS Project: USC is developing an iron-air rechargeable battery for large-scale energy storage that could help integrate renewable energy sources into the electric grid. Iron-air batteries have the potential to store large amounts of energy at low cost—iron is inexpensive and abundant, while oxygen is freely obtained from the air we breathe. However, current iron-air battery technologies have suffered from low efficiency and short life spans. USC is working to dramatically increase the efficiency of the battery by placing chemical additives on the battery’s iron-based electrode and restructuring the catalysts at the molecular level on the battery’s air-based electrode. This can help the battery resist degradation and increase life span. The goal of the project is to develop a prototype iron-air battery at significantly cost lower than today’s best commercial batteries.

None

2010-10-01

77

Iron regulation by hepcidin  

PubMed Central

Hepcidin is a key hormone that is involved in the control of iron homeostasis in the body. Physiologically, hepcidin is controlled by iron stores, inflammation, hypoxia, and erythropoiesis. The regulation of hepcidin expression by iron is a complex process that requires the coordination of multiple proteins, including hemojuvelin, bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP6), hereditary hemochromatosis protein, transferrin receptor 2, matriptase-2, neogenin, BMP receptors, and transferrin. Misregulation of hepcidin is found in many disease states, such as the anemia of chronic disease, iron refractory iron deficiency anemia, cancer, hereditary hemochromatosis, and ineffective erythropoiesis, such as ?-thalassemia. Thus, the regulation of hepcidin is the subject of interest for the amelioration of the detrimental effects of either iron deficiency or overload. PMID:23722909

Zhao, Ningning; Zhang, An-Sheng; Enns, Caroline A.

2013-01-01

78

Iron and transfusion medicine.  

PubMed

Blood bankers have focused their energy to secure blood transfusion, and only recently have studies been published on the effect of blood donation on iron metabolism. In many facilities, hemoglobin measurement is only performed just before or even during blood donation, but the determination of iron stores is largely ignored. The 2013 paradox of transfusion medicine is due to the fact that blood donation may be harmful and leads to iron deficiency with or without anemia, but for other individuals, it may be a healthy measure preventing type 2 diabetes. The purpose of this review is to discuss iron metabolism in the perspective of blood donation, notably regarding their possible genetic profiles that eventually will discriminate "good" iron absorbers from "bad" iron responders. PMID:24148756

Waldvogel-Abramovski, Sophie; Waeber, Gérard; Gassner, Christoph; Buser, Andreas; Frey, Beat M; Favrat, Bernard; Tissot, Jean-Daniel

2013-11-01

79

IRON IN MULTIPLE MYELOMA  

PubMed Central

Multiple myeloma is a non-curable B cell malignancy in which iron metabolism plays an important role. Patients with this disorder almost universally suffer from a clinically significant anemia, which is often symptomatic, and which is due to impaired iron utilization. Recent studies indicate that the proximal cause of dysregulated iron metabolism and anemia in these patients is cytokine-induced upregulation of hepcidin expression. Malignant myeloma cells are dependent on an increased influx of iron and therapeutic efforts are being made to target this requirement. The studies detailing the characteristics and biochemical abnormalities in iron metabolism causing anemia and the initial attempts to target iron therapeutically are described in this review. PMID:23879589

VanderWall, Kristina; Daniels-Wells, Tracy R; Penichet, Manuel; Lichtenstein, Alan

2013-01-01

80

Iron sensors and signals in response to iron deficiency.  

PubMed

The transcription of genes involved in iron acquisition in plants is induced under iron deficiency, but our understanding of iron sensors and signals remains limited. Iron Deficiency-responsive Element-binding Factor 1 (IDEF1) and Hemerythrin motif-containing Really Interesting New Gene- and Zinc-finger proteins (HRZs)/BRUTUS (BTS) have recently emerged as candidate iron sensors because of their functions as potent regulators of iron deficiency responses and their iron-binding properties. IDEF1 is a central transcriptional regulator of graminaceous genes involved in iron uptake and utilization, predominantly during the early stages of iron deficiency. HRZs/BTS are E3 ubiquitin ligases and negative regulators of iron deficiency responses in both graminaceous and non-graminaceous plants. Rice OsHRZ1 and OsHRZ2 are also potent regulators of iron accumulation. Characterizing these putative iron sensors also provides clues to understanding the nature of iron signals, which may involve ionized iron itself, other metals, oxygen, redox status, heme and iron-sulfur clusters, in addition to metabolites affected by iron deficiency. Systemic iron responses may also be regulated by phloem-mobile iron and its chelators such as nicotianamine. Iron sensors and signals will be identified by demonstration of signal transmission by IDEF1, HRZs/BTS, or unknown factors. PMID:24908504

Kobayashi, Takanori; Nishizawa, Naoko K

2014-07-01

81

Reactivity of Iron  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this laboratory excercise, students will be introduced to the oxidation / corrosion of iron from two different sources (flame and water). From the examination of corrosion from multiple sources, students will be able to compare and contrast the effects each has on the iron samples. Students will also be able to observe the effect of various material processing techniques has on the corrosive properties of iron.

Stoebe, Thomas G.

2008-10-28

82

35. GREY IRON TUMBLERS, IN THE GREY IRON FOUNDRY ROTATE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

35. GREY IRON TUMBLERS, IN THE GREY IRON FOUNDRY ROTATE CASTINGS WITH SHOT TO REMOVE AND SURFACE OXIDES AND REMAINING EXCESS METALS. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

83

Iron, Meat and Health  

PubMed Central

This article is a summary of the publication “Iron and Health” by the Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) to the U.K. Government (2010), which reviews the dietary intake of iron and the impact of different dietary patterns on the nutritional and health status of the U.K. population. It concludes that several uncertainties make it difficult to determine dose-response relationships or to confidently characterize the risks associated with iron deficiency or excess. The publication makes several recommendations concerning iron intakes from food, including meat, and from supplements, as well as recommendations for further research. PMID:22254098

Geissler, Catherine; Singh, Mamta

2011-01-01

84

Plea for Iron Astrochemistry  

SciTech Connect

Iron is a key element and compound in living bodies. It is the most abundant refractory element and has the most stable nucleus in the Universe. Also, elemental Iron has a relevant abundance in the interstellar medium and dense clouds, it can be in gas phase or included in dust particles. During this talk, I shall explain why this special interest in Iron and shall give a brief explanation about its origin and the interstellar nucleosynthesis. After this I'll detail the rich chemistry that Iron can be involved in the interstellar medium, dense clouds with several species.

Mostefaoui, T. A.; Benmerad, B.; Kerkar, M. [Faculte des Sciences Exactes, Targa ou Zemmour, Universite de A. Mira, 6000 Bejaiea (Algeria)

2010-10-31

85

Iron storage in bacteria.  

PubMed

Iron is an essential nutrient for nearly all organisms but presents problems of toxicity, poor solubility and low availability. These problems are alleviated through the use of iron-storage proteins. Bacteria possess two types of iron-storage protein, the haem-containing bacterioferritins and the haem-free ferritins. These proteins are widespread in bacteria, with at least 39 examples known so far in eubacteria and archaebacteria. The bacterioferritins and ferritins are distantly related but retain similar structural and functional properties. Both are composed of 24 identical or similar subunits (approximately 19 kDa) that form a roughly spherical protein (approximately 450 kDa, approximately 120 A diameter) containing a large hollow centre (approximately 80 A diameter). The hollow centre acts as an iron-storage cavity with the capacity to accommodate at least 2000 iron atoms in the form of a ferric-hydroxyphosphate core. Each subunit contains a four-helix bundle which carries the active site or ferroxidase centre of the protein. The ferroxidase centres endow ferrous-iron-oxidizing activity and are able to form a di-iron species that is an intermediate in the iron uptake, oxidation and core formation process. Bacterioferritins contain up to 12 protoporphyrin IX haem groups located at the two-fold interfaces between pairs of two-fold related subunits. The role of the haem is unknown, although it may be involved in mediating iron-core reduction and iron release. Some bacterioferritins are composed of two subunit types, one conferring haem-binding ability (alpha) and the other (beta) bestowing ferroxidase activity. Bacterioferritin genes are often adjacent to genes encoding a small [2Fe-2S]-ferredoxin (bacterioferritin-associated ferredoxin or Bfd). Bfd may directly interact with bacterioferritin and could be involved in releasing iron from (or delivering iron to) bacterioferritin or other iron complexes. Some bacteria contain two bacterioferritin subunits, or two ferritin subunits, that in most cases co-assemble. Others possess both a bacterioferritin and a ferritin, while some appear to lack any type of iron-storage protein. The reason for these differences is not understood. Studies on ferritin mutants have shown that ferritin enhances growth during iron starvation and is also involved in iron accumulation in the stationary phase of growth. The ferritin of Campylobacter jejuni is involved in redox stress resistance, although this does not appear to be the case for Escherichia coli ferritin (FtnA). No phenotype has been determined for E. coli bacterioferritin mutants and the precise role of bacterioferritin in E. coli remains uncertain. PMID:9889981

Andrews, S C

1998-01-01

86

Physiology of iron metabolism.  

PubMed

A revolution occurred during the last decade in the comprehension of the physiology as well as in the physiopathology of iron metabolism. The purpose of this review is to summarize the recent knowledge that has accumulated, allowing a better comprehension of the mechanisms implicated in iron homeostasis. Iron metabolism is very fine tuned. The free molecule is very toxic; therefore, complex regulatory mechanisms have been developed in mammalian to insure adequate intestinal absorption, transportation, utilization, and elimination. 'Ironomics' certainly will be the future of the understanding of genes as well as of the protein-protein interactions involved in iron metabolism. PMID:25053935

Waldvogel-Abramowski, Sophie; Waeber, Gérard; Gassner, Christoph; Buser, Andreas; Frey, Beat M; Favrat, Bernard; Tissot, Jean-Daniel

2014-06-01

87

Iron requirements in erythropoietin therapy.  

PubMed

When erythropoietin (epoetins or darbepoetin) is used to treat the anemias of chronic renal failure, cancer chemotherapy, inflammatory bowel diseases, HIV infection and rheumatoid arthritis, functional iron deficiency rapidly ensues unless individuals are iron-overloaded from prior transfusions. Therefore, iron therapy is essential when using erythropoietin to maximize erythropoiesis by avoiding absolute and functional iron deficiency. Body iron stores (800-1200 mg) are best maintained by providing this much iron intravenously in a year, or more if blood loss is significant (in hemodialysis patients this can be 1-3 g). There is no ideal method for monitoring iron therapy, but serum ferritin and transferrin iron saturation are the most common tests. Iron deficiency is also detected by measuring the percentage of hypochromic red blood cells, content of hemoglobin in reticulocytes, soluble transferrin receptor levels, and free erythrocyte protoporphyrin values, but iron overload is not monitored by these tests. Iron gluconate and iron sucrose are the safest intravenous medications. PMID:15737895

Eschbach, Joseph Wetherill

2005-06-01

88

Iron Sucrose Injection  

MedlinePLUS

... called iron replacement products. It works by replenishing iron stores so that the body can make more red blood cells. ... of the hands, feet, ankles, or lower legs; loss of consciousness; or ... stop your infusion immediately and provide emergency medical treatment.

89

The case for iron  

Microsoft Academic Search

Excess major nutrients occur in offshore areas ranging from the tropical equatorial Pacific to the polar Antarctic. In spite of the great ecological differences in these environments, the authors believe they share a common trait: iron deficiency. Here they present the case of iron; they point out that all of these areas are far from Fe-rich terrestrial sources and that

JOHN H. MARTIN; R. MICHAEL GORDON; STEVE E. FITZWATER

1991-01-01

90

Thin Wall Iron Castings  

SciTech Connect

Results of an investigation made to develop methods of making iron castings having wall thicknesses as small as 2.5 mm in green sand molds are presented. It was found that thin wall ductile and compacted graphite iron castings can be made and have properties consistent with heavier castings. Green sand molding variables that affect casting dimensions were also identified.

J.F. Cuttino; D.M. Stefanescu; T.S. Piwonka

2001-10-31

91

The Rusting of Iron  

Microsoft Academic Search

DURING the past few months the study of the chemical changes involved in the rusting of iron has been coming to the fore. In 1888 Crum Brown pointed out that iron remained free from rust in an atmosphere of oxygen carbon dioxide, and water vapour so long as liquid water was prevented from condensing on its surface. Whitney, in 1903,

J. Newton Friend

1906-01-01

92

Plea for Iron Astrochemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iron is a key element and compound in living bodies. It is the most abundant refractory element and has the most stable nucleus in the Universe. Also, elemental Iron has a relevant abundance in the interstellar medium and dense clouds, it can be in gas phase or included in dust particles. During this talk, I shall explain why this special

T. A. Mostefaoui; B. Benmerad; M. Kerkar

2010-01-01

93

Intravenous Iron Sucrose for Children with Iron Deficiency Failing to Respond to Oral Iron Therapy  

PubMed Central

Background For decades parenteral iron has been used in patients with iron deficiency unresponsive to oral iron therapy and in hemodialysis-dependent patients receiving erythropoietin. Newer intravenous (IV) iron formulations such as iron sucrose have replaced high molecular weight iron dextran in dialysis patients; however, the use of parenteral iron in children without renal disease has not been well defined. Procedure Pharmacy records were reviewed on children (? 18 yrs of age) who received IV iron sucrose at Children's Medical Center Dallas between January 1, 2004 and June 30, 2009. Patients who received iron sucrose for chronic renal disease were excluded from analysis. Results Thirty-eight children received iron sucrose for non-renal indications, 13 with iron deficiency refractory to oral iron therapy, 13 with iron malabsorption or dependence on parenteral nutrition, 7 for chronic gastrointestinal blood loss, and 5 for miscellaneous indications. Among these 38 children, who received a total of 510 doses of IV iron sucrose, there were only 6 adverse reactions. Patients in all categories had a good response to the iron sucrose, with a median hemoglobin rise of 1.9 – 3.1 g/dl depending on the indication. Conclusions Parenteral iron is a safe and effective means to treat iron deficiency in children who cannot receive or do not respond to oral iron due to intolerance, poor adherence or iron malabsorption. PMID:21298748

Crary, Shelley E.; Hall, Katherine; Buchanan, George R.

2010-01-01

94

Hypersensitivity from intravenous iron products.  

PubMed

In the last several years, intravenous therapy with iron products has been more widely used. Although it has been a standard procedure in dialysis-associated anemia since the early 1990s, its use is expanding to a host of conditions associated with iron deficiency, especially young women with heavy uterine bleeding and pregnancy. Free iron is associated with unacceptable high toxicity inducing severe, hemodynamically significant symptoms. Subsequently, formulations that contain the iron as an iron carbohydrate nanoparticle have been designed. With newer formulations, including low-molecular-weight iron dextran, iron sucrose, ferric gluconate, ferumoxytol, iron isomaltoside, and ferric carboxymaltose, serious adverse events are rare. PMID:25017687

Bircher, Andreas J; Auerbach, Michael

2014-08-01

95

Microbes: mini iron factories.  

PubMed

Microbes have flourished in extreme habitats since beginning of the Earth and have played an important role in geological processes like weathering, mineralization, diagenesis, mineral formation and destruction. Biotic mineralization is one of the most fascinating examples of how microbes have been influencing geological processes. Iron oxidizing and reducing bacteria are capable of precipitating wide varieties of iron oxides (magnetite), carbonates (siderite) and sulphides (greigite) via controlled or induced mineralization processes. Microbes have also been considered to play an important role in the history of evolution of sedimentary rocks on Earth from the formation of banded iron formations during the Archean to modern biotic bog iron and ochre deposits. Here, we discuss the role that microbes have been playing in precipitation of iron and the role and importance of interdisciplinary studies in the field of geology and biology in solving some of the major geological mysteries. PMID:25320452

Joshi, Kumar Batuk

2014-12-01

96

Iron studies in hemophilia  

SciTech Connect

Although iron deficiency is not recognized as a usual complication of hemophilia, we questioned whether intermittent occult loss of blood in urine or stool might predispose hemophiliacs to chronic iron deficiency. Seven men with factor VII and one with factor IX deficiency were studied. Blood studied, bone marrow aspirates, urine and stool samples, and ferrokinetics with total-body counting up to five months were examined. These data showed no excessive loss of blood during the study period; however, marrow iron stores were decidedly decreased, being absent in four subjects. We suggest that in some hemophiliacs, iron deposits in tissues such as synovial membranes may form a high proportion of the body's total iron stores.

Lottenberg, R.; Kitchens, C.S.; Roessler, G.S.; Noyes, W.D.

1981-12-01

97

49 CFR 192.369 - Service lines: Connections to cast iron or ductile iron mains.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Service lines: Connections to cast iron or ductile iron mains. 192.369...369 Service lines: Connections to cast iron or ductile iron mains. (a) Each service line connected to a cast iron or ductile iron main must be...

2010-10-01

98

49 CFR 192.489 - Remedial measures: Cast iron and ductile iron pipelines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Remedial measures: Cast iron and ductile iron pipelines. 192...Control § 192.489 Remedial measures: Cast iron and ductile iron pipelines. (a) General graphitization. Each segment of cast iron or ductile iron pipe on which...

2013-10-01

99

49 CFR 192.489 - Remedial measures: Cast iron and ductile iron pipelines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Remedial measures: Cast iron and ductile iron pipelines. 192...Control § 192.489 Remedial measures: Cast iron and ductile iron pipelines. (a) General graphitization. Each segment of cast iron or ductile iron pipe on which...

2011-10-01

100

49 CFR 192.369 - Service lines: Connections to cast iron or ductile iron mains.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Service lines: Connections to cast iron or ductile iron mains. 192.369...369 Service lines: Connections to cast iron or ductile iron mains. (a) Each service line connected to a cast iron or ductile iron main must be...

2012-10-01

101

49 CFR 192.369 - Service lines: Connections to cast iron or ductile iron mains.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Service lines: Connections to cast iron or ductile iron mains. 192.369...369 Service lines: Connections to cast iron or ductile iron mains. (a) Each service line connected to a cast iron or ductile iron main must be...

2011-10-01

102

49 CFR 192.489 - Remedial measures: Cast iron and ductile iron pipelines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Remedial measures: Cast iron and ductile iron pipelines. 192...Control § 192.489 Remedial measures: Cast iron and ductile iron pipelines. (a) General graphitization. Each segment of cast iron or ductile iron pipe on which...

2010-10-01

103

49 CFR 192.489 - Remedial measures: Cast iron and ductile iron pipelines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Remedial measures: Cast iron and ductile iron pipelines. 192...Control § 192.489 Remedial measures: Cast iron and ductile iron pipelines. (a) General graphitization. Each segment of cast iron or ductile iron pipe on which...

2012-10-01

104

49 CFR 192.369 - Service lines: Connections to cast iron or ductile iron mains.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Service lines: Connections to cast iron or ductile iron mains. 192.369...369 Service lines: Connections to cast iron or ductile iron mains. (a) Each service line connected to a cast iron or ductile iron main must be...

2013-10-01

105

Iron-loaded synthetic chrysotile: a new model solid for studying the role of iron in asbestos toxicity.  

PubMed

The generation of reactive oxygen species and other radicals, catalyzed by iron ions at the fiber surface, is thought to play an important role in asbestos-induced cytotoxicity and genotoxicity, but a direct confirmation of this statement needs the availability of asbestos samples differing only for their iron content, without the interference of other physicochemical features. Synthetic stoichiometric chrysotile nanofibers, devoid of iron or any other contaminant, did not exert genotoxic and cytotoxic effects nor elicited oxidative stress in a murine alveolar macrophage cell line; on the contrary, the same nanofibers, loaded with 0.57% and 0.94% (w/w) iron, induced DNA strand breaks, lipoperoxidation, inhibition of redox metabolism and alterations of cell integrity, similarly to natural chrysotile. On the other hand, the incubation with ferric nitrilotriacetate, a cell-permeating iron complex, even if it caused an intracellular overloading of iron very similar to that elicited by iron-loaded synthetic chrysotile and by natural chrysotile, did not exert any of these effects. This suggests that chrysotile is not toxic by acting simply as a carrier of iron into the cell, but rather that the redox activity of iron is potentiated when organized at the fibers surface into specific crystallographic sites having coordination states able to activate free radical generation. Synthetic chrysotile fibers may be proposed as a standard reference sample and model solids for experimental studies on asbestos fibers aiming to clarify the mechanisms of its toxicity and to synthesize new fibers devoid of pathogenic effects. PMID:17315889

Gazzano, Elena; Turci, Francesco; Foresti, Elisabetta; Putzu, Maria Grazia; Aldieri, Elisabetta; Silvagno, Francesca; Lesci, Isidoro Giorgio; Tomatis, Maura; Riganti, Chiara; Romano, Canzio; Fubini, Bice; Roveri, Norberto; Ghigo, Dario

2007-03-01

106

Correcting Iron Deficiencies in Soybean with Foliar Iron Fertilizer  

E-print Network

Correcting Iron Deficiencies in Soybean with Foliar Iron Fertilizer Kevin Bronson, Calvin TrostleH soils in our region is conducive to "lime-induced chlorosis" or iron (Fe) deficiency in soybean. High p indicators of iron deficiency for chlorotic and green soybean, Ropesville, Texas, 2001 Soil type Soil Ca (ppm

Mukhtar, Saqib

107

Iron deficiency anemia.  

PubMed

The prevalence of iron deficiency anemia is 2 percent in adult men, 9 to 12 percent in non-Hispanic white women, and nearly 20 percent in black and Mexican-American women. Nine percent of patients older than 65 years with iron deficiency anemia have a gastrointestinal cancer when evaluated. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force currently recommends screening for iron deficiency anemia in pregnant women but not in other groups. Routine iron supplementation is recommended for high-risk infants six to 12 months of age. Iron deficiency anemia is classically described as a microcytic anemia. The differential diagnosis includes thalassemia, sideroblastic anemias, some types of anemia of chronic disease, and lead poisoning. Serum ferritin is the preferred initial diagnostic test. Total iron-binding capacity, transferrin saturation, serum iron, and serum transferrin receptor levels may be helpful if the ferritin level is between 46 and 99 ng per mL (46 and 99 mcg per L); bone marrow biopsy may be necessary in these patients for a definitive diagnosis. In children, adolescents, and women of reproductive age, a trial of iron is a reasonable approach if the review of symptoms, history, and physical examination are negative; however, the hemoglobin should be checked at one month. If there is not a 1 to 2 g per dL (10 to 20 g per L) increase in the hemoglobin level in that time, possibilities include malabsorption of oral iron, continued bleeding, or unknown lesion. For other patients, an endoscopic evaluation is recommended beginning with colonoscopy if the patient is older than 50. PMID:17375513

Killip, Shersten; Bennett, John M; Chambers, Mara D

2007-03-01

108

The Iron Line Background  

E-print Network

We investigate the presence of iron line emission among faint X-ray sources identified in the 1Ms Chandra Deep Field South and in the 2Ms Chandra Deep Field North. Individual source spectra are stacked in seven redshift bins over the range z=0.5-4. We find that iron line emission is an ubiquitous property of X-ray sources up to z~3. The measured line strengths are in good agreement with those expected by simple pre-Chandra estimates based on X-ray background synthesis models. The average rest frame equivalent width of the iron line does not show significant changes with redshift.

Marcella Brusa; Roberto Gilli; Andrea Comastri

2005-01-25

109

Coal desulfurization. [using iron pentacarbonyl  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Organic sulfur is removed from coal by treatment with an organic solution of iron pentacarbonyl. Organic sulfur compounds can be removed by reaction of the iron pentacarbonyl with coal to generate CO and COS off-gases. The CO gas separated from COS can be passed over hot iron fillings to generate iron pentacarbonyl.

Hsu, G. C. (inventor)

1979-01-01

110

Iron deficiency anemia and educational  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigates the effect of iron supplementation on measures of school performance among 78 iron-deficient anemic and 41 nonanemic children in an economically deprived rural area in Central Java, Indonesia. All the subjects were treated forancylostomiasis before iron supplementation. They were randomly assigned to either an iron or placebo group. Hematological and behavioral measurements were obtained immediately before

AG Soemantri; Ernesto Pollitt; Insun Kim

1985-01-01

111

Molecular Structure of Iron Monoxide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Iron monoxide is an odorless black powder. Technologies and uses of iron and iron oxide powders have progressed steadily. Synthetic iron oxide powders are used primarily for pigmentary and magnetic properties. These powders are inexpensive to make and are used to color concrete products, paints, plastics and other media.

2003-06-04

112

HERC2 targets the iron regulator FBXL5 for degradation and modulates iron metabolism.  

PubMed

FBXL5 (F-box and leucine-rich repeat protein 5) is the F-box protein subunit of, and therefore responsible for substrate recognition by, the SCF(FBXL5) ubiquitin-ligase complex, which targets iron regulatory protein 2 (IRP2) for proteasomal degradation. IRP2 plays a central role in the maintenance of cellular iron homeostasis in mammals through posttranscriptional regulation of proteins that contribute to control of the intracellular iron concentration. The FBXL5-IRP2 axis is integral to control of iron metabolism in vivo, given that mice lacking FBXL5 die during early embryogenesis as a result of unrestrained IRP2 activity and oxidative stress attributable to excessive iron accumulation. Despite its pivotal role in the control of iron homeostasis, however, little is known of the upstream regulation of FBXL5 activity. We now show that FBXL5 undergoes constitutive ubiquitin-dependent degradation at the steady state. With the use of a proteomics approach to the discovery of proteins that regulate the stability of FBXL5, we identified the large HECT-type ubiquitin ligase HERC2 (HECT and RLD domain containing E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 2) as an FBXL5-associated protein. Inhibition of the HERC2-FBXL5 interaction or depletion of endogenous HERC2 by RNA interference resulted in the stabilization of FBXL5 and a consequent increase in its abundance. Such accumulation of FBXL5 in turn led to a decrease in the intracellular content of ferrous iron. Our results thus suggest that HERC2 regulates the basal turnover of FBXL5, and that this ubiquitin-dependent degradation pathway contributes to the control of mammalian iron metabolism. PMID:24778179

Moroishi, Toshiro; Yamauchi, Takayoshi; Nishiyama, Masaaki; Nakayama, Keiichi I

2014-06-01

113

Iron in my cereal  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is a hands on activity where students will gather information on their findings about iron in different cereals. Then use their finding and give reasonings of the differences and similarities.

Macias, Anne H.

114

Fracture behavior and microstructure of steel fiber reinforced cast iron  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, improvement of fracture toughness and strength of gray cast iron by reinforcing steel fiber was investigated.\\u000a Three point bend specimens were used to calculate the flexural strength and fracture toughness. Fracture toughness of the\\u000a reinforced cast iron with two distinct volume fraction (Vf = 0.05 and 0.08) were calculated by compliance method and J-integral method using single specimen technique.

Mehmet ?im?ir

2007-01-01

115

Application of iron magnetic nanoparticles in protein immobilization.  

PubMed

Due to their properties such as superparamagnetism, high surface area, large surface-to-volume ratio, easy separation under external magnetic fields, iron magnetic nanoparticles have attracted much attention in the past few decades. Various modification methods have been developed to produce biocompatible magnetic nanoparticles for protein immobilization. This review provides an updated and integrated focus on the fabrication and characterization of suitable magnetic iron nanoparticle-based nano-active materials for protein immobilization. PMID:25093986

Xu, Jiakun; Sun, Jingjing; Wang, Yuejun; Sheng, Jun; Wang, Fang; Sun, Mi

2014-01-01

116

Iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia in women.  

PubMed

Iron deficiency is one of the most common nutritional problems in the world and disproportionately affects women and children. Stages of iron deficiency can be characterized as mild deficiency where iron stores become depleted, marginal deficiency where the production of many iron-dependent proteins is compromised but hemoglobin levels are normal and iron deficiency anemia where synthesis of hemoglobin is decreased and oxygen transport to the tissues is reduced. Iron deficiency anemia is usually assessed by measuring hemoglobin levels but this approach lacks both specificity and sensitivity. Failure to identify and treat earlier stages of iron deficiency is concerning given the neurocognitive implications of iron deficiency without anemia. Most of the daily iron requirement is derived from recycling of senescent erythrocytes by macrophages; only 5-10 % comes from the diet. Iron absorption is affected by inhibitors and enhancers of iron absorption and by the physiological state. Inflammatory conditions, including obesity, can result in iron being retained in the enterocytes and macrophages causing hypoferremia as a strategic defense mechanism to restrict iron availability to pathogens. Premenopausal women usually have low iron status because of iron loss in menstrual blood. Conditions which further increase iron loss, compromise absorption or increase demand, such as frequent blood donation, gastrointestinal lesions, athletic activity and pregnancy, can exceed the capacity of the gastrointestinal tract to upregulate iron absorption. Women of reproductive age are at particularly high risk of iron deficiency and its consequences however there is a controversial argument that evolutionary pressures have resulted in an iron deficient phenotype which protects against infection. PMID:25083899

Coad, Jane; Pedley, Kevin

2014-01-01

117

Dietary and prophylactic iron supplements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mild hypoferremia represents an aspect of the ability of the body to withhold iron from pathogenic bacteria, fungi, and protozoa,\\u000a and from neoplastic cells. However, our iron-withholding defense system can be thwarted by practices that enhance iron overload\\u000a such as indiscriminate iron fortification of foods, medically prescribed iron supplements, alcohol ingestion, and cigarette\\u000a smoking. Elevated standards for normal levels of

Susan Kent; Eugene D. Weinberg; Patricia Stuart-Macadam

1990-01-01

118

An Ancient Gauge for Iron  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The iron regulatory proteins IRP1 and IRP2 are critical to the import, export, and sequestration of iron for achievement of the cytosolic concentrations needed to support the synthesis of iron-binding proteins and for prevention of unfavorable iron-dependent oxidation events in mammalian cells. This perspective discusses reports by Vashisht et al. and Salahudeen et al. that human cells gauge cellular iron and concomitantly alter the activity of IRPs through a mechanism that depends on the protein FBXL5.

Tracey Rouault (National Institute of Child Health and Human Development;Molecular Medicine Program)

2009-10-30

119

An update on iron physiology.  

PubMed

Iron is an essential micronutrient, as it is required for adequate erythropoietic function, oxidative metabolism and cellular immune responses. Although the absorption of dietary iron (1-2 mg/d) is regulated tightly, it is just balanced with losses. Therefore, internal turnover of iron is essential to meet the requirements for erythropoiesis (20-30 mg/d). Increased iron requirements, limited external supply, and increased blood loss may lead to iron deficiency (ID) and iron-deficiency anemia. Hepcidin, which is made primarily in hepatocytes in response to liver iron levels, inflammation, hypoxia and anemia, is the main iron regulatory hormone. Once secreted into the circulation, hepcidin binds ferroportin on enterocytes and macrophages, which triggers its internalization and lysosomal degradation. Thus, in chronic inflammation, the excess of hepcidin decreases iron absorption and prevents iron recycling, which results in hypoferremia and iron-restricted erythropoiesis, despite normal iron stores (functional ID), and anemia of chronic disease (ACD), which can evolve to ACD plus true ID (ACD + ID). In contrast, low hepcidin expression may lead to iron overload, and vice versa. Laboratory tests provide evidence of iron depletion in the body, or reflect iron-deficient red cell production. The appropriate combination of these laboratory tests help to establish a correct diagnosis of ID status and anemia. PMID:19787824

Muñoz, Manuel; Villar, Isabel; García-Erce, José Antonio

2009-10-01

120

Iron homeostasis in the liver  

PubMed Central

Iron is an essential nutrient that is tightly regulated. A principal function of the liver is the regulation of iron homeostasis. The liver senses changes in systemic iron requirements and can regulate iron concentrations in a robust and rapid manner. The last 10 years have led to the discovery of several regulatory mechanisms in the liver which control the production of iron regulatory genes, storage capacity, and iron mobilization. Dysregulation of these functions leads to an imbalance of iron, which is the primary causes of iron-related disorders. Anemia and iron overload are two of the most prevalent disorders worldwide and affect over a billion people. Several mutations in liver-derived genes have been identified, demonstrating the central role of the liver in iron homeostasis. During conditions of excess iron, the liver increases iron storage and protects other tissues, namely the heart and pancreas from iron-induced cellular damage. However, a chronic increase in liver iron stores results in excess reactive oxygen species production and liver injury. Excess liver iron is one of the major mechanisms leading to increased steatohepatitis, fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:23720289

Anderson, Erik R; Shah, Yatrik M

2014-01-01

121

Iron Absorption in Drosophila melanogaster  

PubMed Central

The way in which Drosophila melanogaster acquires iron from the diet remains poorly understood despite iron absorption being of vital significance for larval growth. To describe the process of organismal iron absorption, consideration needs to be given to cellular iron import, storage, export and how intestinal epithelial cells sense and respond to iron availability. Here we review studies on the Divalent Metal Transporter-1 homolog Malvolio (iron import), the recent discovery that Multicopper Oxidase-1 has ferroxidase activity (iron export) and the role of ferritin in the process of iron acquisition (iron storage). We also describe what is known about iron regulation in insect cells. We then draw upon knowledge from mammalian iron homeostasis to identify candidate genes in flies. Questions arise from the lack of conservation in Drosophila for key mammalian players, such as ferroportin, hepcidin and all the components of the hemochromatosis-related pathway. Drosophila and other insects also lack erythropoiesis. Thus, systemic iron regulation is likely to be conveyed by different signaling pathways and tissue requirements. The significance of regulating intestinal iron uptake is inferred from reports linking Drosophila developmental, immune, heat-shock and behavioral responses to iron sequestration. PMID:23686013

Mandilaras, Konstantinos; Pathmanathan, Tharse; Missirlis, Fanis

2013-01-01

122

MRI measures of corpus callosum iron and myelin in early Huntington's disease.  

PubMed

Increased iron in subcortical gray matter (GM) structures of patients with Huntington's disease (HD) has been suggested as a causal factor in neuronal degeneration. But how iron content is related to white matter (WM) changes in HD is still unknown. For example, it is not clear whether WM changes share the same physiopathology (i.e. iron accumulation) with GM or whether there is a different mechanism. The present study used MRI to examine iron content in premanifest gene carriers (PreHD, n = 25) and in early HD patients (n = 25) compared with healthy controls (n = 50). 3T MRI acquisitions included high resolution 3D T1, EPI sequences for diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) as an indirect measure of tissue integrity, and T2*-weighted gradient echo-planar imaging for MR-based relaxometry (R2*), which provides an indirect measure of ferritin/iron deposition in the brain. Myelin breakdown starts in the PreHD stage, but there is no difference in iron content values. Iron content reduction manifests later, in the early HD stage, in which we found a lower R2* parameter value in the isthmus. The WM iron reduction in HD is temporally well-defined (no iron differences in PreHD subjects and iron differences only in early HD patients). Iron level in callosal WM may be regarded as a marker of disease state, as iron does not differentiate PreHD subjects from controls but distinguishes between PreHD and HD. PMID:24895252

Di Paola, M; Phillips, O R; Sanchez-Castaneda, C; Di Pardo, A; Maglione, V; Caltagirone, C; Sabatini, U; Squitieri, F

2014-07-01

123

Iron metabolism: The low-molecular-mass iron pool  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This review examines various aspects of iron metabolism in mammalian and bacterial cells which support the hypothesis of the existence and the biological significance of an intracellular pool of low-molecular mass iron complexes.

M. Fontecave; J. L. Pierre

1991-01-01

124

Iron biomineralization by anaerobic neutrophilic iron-oxidizing bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Minerals formed by bio-oxidation of ferrous iron (Fe(II)) at neutral pH, their association with bacterial ultrastructures as well as their impact on the metabolism of iron-oxidizing bacteria remain poorly understood. Here, we investigated iron biomineralization by the anaerobic nitrate-dependent iron-oxidizing bacterium Acidovorax sp. strain BoFeN1 in the presence of dissolved Fe(II) using electron microscopy and Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy (STXM).

Jennyfer Miot; Karim Benzerara; Guillaume Morin; Andreas Kappler; Sylvain Bernard; Martin Obst; Céline Férard; Fériel Skouri-Panet; Jean-Michel Guigner; Nicole Posth; Matthieu Galvez; Gordon E. Brown; François Guyot

2009-01-01

125

A Novel Iron-Regulated Metal Transporter from Plants Identified by Functional Expression in Yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iron is an essential nutrient for virtually all organisms. The IRT1 (iron-regulated transporter) gene of the plant Arabidopsis thaliana, encoding a probable Fe(II) transporter, was cloned by functional expression in a yeast strain defective for iron uptake. Yeast expressing IRT1 possess a novel Fe(II) uptake activity that is strongly inhibited by Cd. IRT1 is predicted to be an integral membrane

David Eide; Margaret Broderius; Janette Fett; Mary Lou Guerinot

1996-01-01

126

Symbiotic response of common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) to iron deficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to assess symbiotic activity (the nodules integrity and the iron use efficiency) in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) under low iron availability, the growth of plants and nodules, the concentration of leghaemoglobin and malondialdehyde,\\u000a and activity of nitrogenase, catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase were analysed in two (contrasting) common bean\\u000a varieties subjected to iron deficiency. Results show that

Krouma Abdelmajid; Ben Hamed Karim; Abdelly Chedly

2008-01-01

127

How Is Iron-Deficiency Anemia Treated?  

MedlinePLUS

... the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Iron-Deficiency Anemia Treated? Treatment for iron-deficiency anemia will depend ... may be advised. Treatments for Severe Iron-Deficiency Anemia Blood Transfusion If your iron-deficiency anemia is ...

128

Anemia caused by low iron - children  

MedlinePLUS

Anemia - iron deficiency - children ... able to absorb iron well, even though the child is eating enough iron Slow blood loss over ... bleeding in the digestive tract Iron deficiency in children can also be related to lead poisoning .

129

Iron in Infection and Immunity  

PubMed Central

Iron is an essential nutrient for both humans and pathogenic microbes. Because of its ability to exist in one of two oxidation states, iron is an ideal redox catalyst for diverse cellular processes including respiration and DNA replication. However, the redox potential of iron also contributes to its toxicity, thus iron concentration and distribution must be carefully controlled. Given the absolute requirement for iron by virtually all human pathogens, an important facet of the innate immune system is to limit iron availability to invading microbes in a process termed nutritional immunity. Successful human pathogens must therefore possess mechanisms to circumvent nutritional immunity in order to cause disease. In this review, we discuss regulation of iron metabolism in the setting of infection and delineate strategies used by human pathogens to overcome iron-withholding defenses. PMID:23684303

Cassat, James E.; Skaar, Eric P.

2013-01-01

130

Enzymes of respiratory iron oxidation  

SciTech Connect

This report focuses on the progress made in three areas of research concerned with enzymes involved in respiratory iron oxidation. The three areas are as follows: development of an improved procedure for the routine large scale culture of iron oxidizing chemolithotrophs based on the in-situ electrolysis of the soluble iron in the growth medium; to perform iron oxidation kinetic studies on whole cells using the oxygen electrode; and to identify, separate, purify, and characterize the individual cellular components.

Blake, R. II.

1991-01-01

131

Toughness Properties of Nodular Iron  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The German government recently certified ductile iron for construction of nuclear waste transport containers. This approved use of ductile iron for such a critical application represents the culmination of ten years worth of research bringing to light the surprising toughness of ductile iron. This article explains how modern fracture mechanics and microstructure/property relationships have altered the stereotype of ductile iron as a low toughness material.

Bradley, Walter L.

1985-01-01

132

Iron excretion in iron dextran-overloaded mice  

PubMed Central

Background Iron homeostasis in humans is tightly regulated by mechanisms aimed to conserve iron for reutilisation, with a negligible role played by excretory mechanisms. In a previous study we found that mice have an astonishing ability to tolerate very high doses of parenterally administered iron dextran. Whether this ability is linked to the existence of an excretory pathway remains to be ascertained. Materials and methods Iron overload was generated by intraperitoneal injections of iron dextran (1 g/kg) administered once a week for 8 weeks in two different mouse strains (C57bl/6 and B6D2F1). Urinary and faecal iron excretion was assessed by inductively coupling plasma-mass spectrometry, whereas cardiac and liver architecture was evaluated by echocardiography and histological methods. For both strains, 24-hour faeces and urine samples were collected and iron concentration was determined on days 0, 1 and 2 after iron administration. Results In iron-overloaded C57bl/6 mice, the faecal iron concentration increased by 218% and 157% on days 1 and 2, respectively (p<0.01). The iron excreted represented a loss of 14% of total iron administered. Similar but smaller changes was also found in B6D2F1 mice. Conversely, we found no significant changes in the concentration of iron in the urine in either of the strains of mice. In both strains, histological examination showed accumulation of iron in the liver and heart which tended to decrease over time. Conclusions This study indicates that mice have a mechanism for removal of excess body iron and provides insights into the possible mechanisms of excretion. PMID:24960657

Musumeci, Marco; Maccari, Sonia; Massimi, Alessia; Stati, Tonino; Sestili, Paola; Corritore, Elisa; Pastorelli, Augusto; Stacchini, Paolo; Marano, Giuseppe; Catalano, Liviana

2014-01-01

133

Iron deficiency and cognitive functions  

PubMed Central

Micronutrient deficiencies, especially those related to iodine and iron, are linked to different cognitive impairments, as well as to potential long-term behavioral changes. Among the cognitive impairments caused by iron deficiency, those referring to attention span, intelligence, and sensory perception functions are mainly cited, as well as those associated with emotions and behavior, often directly related to the presence of iron deficiency anemia. In addition, iron deficiency without anemia may cause cognitive disturbances. At present, the prevalence of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia is 2%–6% among European children. Given the importance of iron deficiency relative to proper cognitive development and the alterations that can persist through adulthood as a result of this deficiency, the objective of this study was to review the current state of knowledge about this health problem. The relevance of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia, the distinction between the cognitive consequences of iron deficiency and those affecting specifically cognitive development, and the debate about the utility of iron supplements are the most relevant and controversial topics. Despite there being methodological differences among studies, there is some evidence that iron supplementation improves cognitive functions. Nevertheless, this must be confirmed by means of adequate follow-up studies among different groups.

Jáuregui-Lobera, Ignacio

2014-01-01

134

Iron, transferrin and myelinogenesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transferrin (Tf), the iron binding protein of vertebrates serum, is known to be synthesized by oligodendrocytes (Ols) in the central nervous system. It has been postulated that Tf is involved in Ols maturation and myelinogenesis. This link is particularly important in the understanding of a severe human pathology: the multiple sclerosis, which remains without efficient treatment. We generated transgenic mice containing the complete human Tf gene and extensive regulatory sequences from the 5 ' and 3 ' untranslated regions that specifically overexpress Tf in Ols. Brain cytoarchitecture of the transgenic mice appears to be normal in all brain regions examined, total myelin content is increased by 30% and motor coordination is significantly improved when compared with non-transgenic littermates. Tf role in the central nervous system may be related to its affinity for metallic cations. Normal and transgenic mice were used for determination of trace metals (iron, copper and zinc) and minerals (potassium and calcium) concentration in cerebellum and corpus callosum. The freeze-dried samples were prepared to allow proton-induced X-ray emission and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry analyses with the nuclear microprobe in Bordeaux. Preliminary results were obtained and carbon distribution was revealed as a very good analysis to distinguish precisely the white matter region. A comparison of metallic and mineral elements contents in brain between normal and transgenic mice shows that iron, copper and zinc levels remained constant. This result provides evidence that effects of Tf overexpression in the brain do not solely relate to iron transport.

Sergeant, C.; Vesvres, M. H.; Devès, G.; Baron, B.; Guillou, F.

2003-09-01

135

The Ironic Curtain  

E-print Network

of the guard is accomplished with pomp and ceremony. The fact that there is little or no traffic to speak of in Pyongyang does not interfere with the gravity with which the traffic ladies carry out their work. Remember the iron curtain? Well, this must...

Hacker, Randi

2008-06-11

136

Iron dominated magnets  

SciTech Connect

These two lectures on iron dominated magnets are meant for the student of accelerator science and contain general treatments of the subjects design and construction. The material is arranged in the categories: General Concepts and Cost Considerations, Profile Configuration and Harmonics, Magnetic Measurements, a few examples of ''special magnets'' and Materials and Practices. Extensive literature is provided.

Fischer, G.E.

1985-07-01

137

Extracting phosphoric iron under laboratorial conditions smelting bog iron ores  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years it has been indicated by archaeometric investigations that phosphoric-iron (P-iron, low carbon steel with 0,5-1,5wt% P), which is an unknown and unused kind of steel in the modern industry, was widely used in different parts of the world in medieval times. In this study we try to explore the role of phosphorus in the arhaeometallurgy of iron and answer some questions regarding the smelting bog iron ores with high P-content. XRF analyses were performed on bog iron ores collected in Somogy county. Smelting experiments were carried out on bog iron ores using a laboratory model built on the basis of previously conducted reconstructed smelting experiments in copies of excavated furnaces. The effect of technological parameters on P-content of the resulted iron bloom was studied. OM and SEM-EDS analyses were carried out on the extracted iron and slag samples. On the basis of the material analyses it can be stated that P-iron is usually extracted but the P-content is highly affected by technological parameters. Typical microstructures of P-iron and of slag could also be identified. It could also be established that arsenic usually solved in high content in iron as well.

Török, B.; Thiele, A.

2013-12-01

138

Novel approaches and application of contemporary sensory evaluation practices in iron fortification programs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Iron deficiency is the leading nutritional deficiency in the U.S. and the rest of the world, with its highest prevalences in the developing world. Iron fortification of food has been proposed as a strategy to reduce the high prevalence of iron deficiency. Poor consumer acceptance, unacceptable taste, and discoloration of the iron-fortified foods have been frequently listed as causes of unsuccessful iron fortification programs. An excellent prospect for improving consumer acceptance of iron-fortified foods is the incorporation of a thorough, organized, and unified approach to sensory evaluation practices into iron fortification programs for product optimization. The information gained from systematic sensory evaluation allows for the manipulation of the sensory attributes, and thus improvement of the sensory properties of the fortified food. However, iron fortification programs have not systematically measured the effect of fortification on the sensory quality of the food. Because sensory evaluation is an important criterion in successful iron fortification, an integrated approach is necessary. Therefore, nutritionists and sensory scientists should work closely with each other to select the most suitable sensory tests and methods. The objectives of this article are to: (1) critically review and discuss some traditional and contemporary approaches and applications of sensory evaluation practices in iron fortification programs, and (2) demonstrate the importance of incorporating a multidisciplinary, systematic sensory evaluation approach in iron fortification programs.

Bovell-Benjamin, Adelia C.; Guinard, Jean-Xavier

2003-01-01

139

The iron stimulon and fur regulon of Geobacter sulfurreducens and their role in energy metabolism.  

PubMed

Iron plays a critical role in the physiology of Geobacter species. It serves as both an essential component for proteins and cofactors and an electron acceptor during anaerobic respiration. Here, we investigated the iron stimulon and ferric uptake regulator (Fur) regulon of Geobacter sulfurreducens to examine the coordination between uptake of Fe(II) and the reduction of Fe(III) at the transcriptional level. Gene expression studies across a variety of different iron concentrations in both the wild type and a ?fur mutant strain were used to determine the iron stimulon. The stimulon consists of a broad range of gene products, ranging from iron-utilizing to central metabolism and iron reduction proteins. Integration of gene expression and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) data sets assisted in the identification of the Fur transcriptional regulatory network and Fur's role as a regulator of the iron stimulon. Additional physiological and transcriptional analyses of G. sulfurreducens grown with various Fe(II) concentrations revealed the depth of Fur's involvement in energy metabolism and the existence of redundancy within the iron-regulatory network represented by IdeR, an alternative iron transcriptional regulator. These characteristics enable G. sulfurreducens to thrive in environments with fluctuating iron concentrations by providing it with a robust mechanism to maintain tight and deliberate control over intracellular iron homeostasis. PMID:24584254

Embree, Mallory; Qiu, Yu; Shieu, Wendy; Nagarajan, Harish; O'Neil, Regina; Lovley, Derek; Zengler, Karsten

2014-05-01

140

The Iron Stimulon and Fur Regulon of Geobacter sulfurreducens and Their Role in Energy Metabolism  

PubMed Central

Iron plays a critical role in the physiology of Geobacter species. It serves as both an essential component for proteins and cofactors and an electron acceptor during anaerobic respiration. Here, we investigated the iron stimulon and ferric uptake regulator (Fur) regulon of Geobacter sulfurreducens to examine the coordination between uptake of Fe(II) and the reduction of Fe(III) at the transcriptional level. Gene expression studies across a variety of different iron concentrations in both the wild type and a ?fur mutant strain were used to determine the iron stimulon. The stimulon consists of a broad range of gene products, ranging from iron-utilizing to central metabolism and iron reduction proteins. Integration of gene expression and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) data sets assisted in the identification of the Fur transcriptional regulatory network and Fur's role as a regulator of the iron stimulon. Additional physiological and transcriptional analyses of G. sulfurreducens grown with various Fe(II) concentrations revealed the depth of Fur's involvement in energy metabolism and the existence of redundancy within the iron-regulatory network represented by IdeR, an alternative iron transcriptional regulator. These characteristics enable G. sulfurreducens to thrive in environments with fluctuating iron concentrations by providing it with a robust mechanism to maintain tight and deliberate control over intracellular iron homeostasis. PMID:24584254

Embree, Mallory; Qiu, Yu; Shieu, Wendy; Nagarajan, Harish; O'Neil, Regina; Lovley, Derek

2014-01-01

141

The role of iron regulatory proteins in mammalian iron homeostasis and disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iron regulatory proteins 1 and 2 (IRP1 and IRP2) are mammalian proteins that register cytosolic iron concentrations and post-transcriptionally regulate expression of iron metabolism genes to optimize cellular iron availability. In iron-deficient cells, IRPs bind to iron-responsive elements (IREs) found in the mRNAs of ferritin, the transferrin receptor and other iron metabolism transcripts, thereby enhancing iron uptake and decreasing iron

Tracey A Rouault

2006-01-01

142

[Biochemical markers of iron status].  

PubMed

Traditionally, the standard biochemical markers of iron status are serum iron, transferrin, transferrin saturation, ferritin and, more recently, soluble transferrin receptor. Diagnosis of iron deficiency is usually associated with a low serum ferritin concentration. The diagnosis can be difficult in diseases in which there is an acute-phase response, because ferritin is an acute-phase reactant. In this case, measuring soluble transferrin receptor may be useful because an increased concentration is an indicator of iron deficiency. Iron stores are frequently diminished in patients on dialysis, as a result of increased blood loss and poor iron absorption. Demand for available iron is increased further by the use of erythropoietin and iron deficiency is one of the primary causes for decreased response to recombinant human erythropoeitin therapy (rHuEpo). Prevalence of inflammation in patients on dialysis is estimated to be high (as 50% patients). Because ferritin is an acute-phase reactant, levels may be elevated in cases of inflammation. The aim of recent guidelines is to better assess anaemia and iron stores. Serum ferritin and transferrin saturation are regarded as the most reliable indicators of iron status. A newer alternative laboratory measurement is the soluble transferrin receptor. Some authors suggest that the circulating soluble transferring receptor levels may be useful in monitoring iron status in patients on dialysis if rHuEpo doses are maintained constant. Prospective longitudinal studies are needed to evaluate this hypothesis. PMID:17373277

Aimone-Gastin, Isabelle

2006-11-01

143

Iron deficiency and child development.  

PubMed

Iron deficiency is widespread in infants and young children, especially in developing countries. Animal models provide convincing evidence that, despite iron repletion, iron deficiency during the brain growth spurt alters metabolism and neurotransmission, myelination, and gene and protein profiles. In the human, there is compelling evidence that 6- to 24-month-old infants with iron-deficiency anemia are at risk for poorer cognitive, motor, social-emotional, and neurophysiologic development in the short- and long-term outcome. In contrast to inconsistent developmental effects of iron therapy for iron-deficient infants, recent large, randomized trials of iron supplementation in developing countries uniformly show benefits of iron, especially on motor development and social-emotional behavior. These results indicate that adverse effects can be prevented and/or reversed with iron earlier in development or before iron deficiency becomes severe or chronic. New findings also point to the need for more attention to the developmental effects of prenatal iron deficiency. PMID:18297894

Lozoff, Betsy

2007-12-01

144

ASSESSMENT OF SURFACE RUNOFF FROM IRON AND STEEL MILLS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a program to determine if surface runoff from iron and steel mills is an environmental problem. It includes a compilation of data available before this program, information gathered from plant tours, and results of a field survey at two fully integrate...

145

49 CFR 192.487 - Remedial measures: Distribution lines other than cast iron or ductile iron lines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...measures: Distribution lines other than cast iron or ductile iron lines. 192.487...measures: Distribution lines other than cast iron or ductile iron lines. (a) General corrosion. Except for cast iron or ductile iron pipe,...

2013-10-01

146

49 CFR 192.487 - Remedial measures: Distribution lines other than cast iron or ductile iron lines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...measures: Distribution lines other than cast iron or ductile iron lines. 192.487...measures: Distribution lines other than cast iron or ductile iron lines. (a) General corrosion. Except for cast iron or ductile iron pipe,...

2010-10-01

147

49 CFR 192.487 - Remedial measures: Distribution lines other than cast iron or ductile iron lines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...measures: Distribution lines other than cast iron or ductile iron lines. 192.487...measures: Distribution lines other than cast iron or ductile iron lines. (a) General corrosion. Except for cast iron or ductile iron pipe,...

2011-10-01

148

49 CFR 192.487 - Remedial measures: Distribution lines other than cast iron or ductile iron lines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...measures: Distribution lines other than cast iron or ductile iron lines. 192.487...measures: Distribution lines other than cast iron or ductile iron lines. (a) General corrosion. Except for cast iron or ductile iron pipe,...

2012-10-01

149

Iron pages of HTSC  

SciTech Connect

Experimental data are presented on the superconducting and electronic properties of iron-based high-temperature superconductors in the normal and superconducting states. The following topics are discussed: lattice structure; structure of magnetic vortices; magnetic penetration depth; Fermi surface; isotope effect; and critical magnetic fields both in oxide compounds of 1111 type and oxide-free compounds of 122, 111, and 011 types as a function of the doping level, temperature, and external pressure.

Gasparov, V. A., E-mail: vgasparo@issp.ac.r [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Solid State Physics (Russian Federation)

2010-08-15

150

Iron homeostasis and eye disease  

PubMed Central

Summary Iron is necessary for life, but excess iron can be toxic to tissues. Iron is thought to damage tissues primarily by generating oxygen free radicals through the Fenton reaction. We present an overview of the evidence supporting iron's potential contribution to a broad range of eye disease using an anatomical approach. Firstly, iron can be visualized in the cornea as iron lines in the normal aging cornea as well as in diseases like keratoconus and pterygium. In the lens, we present the evidence for the role of oxidative damage in cataractogenesis. Also, we review the evidence that iron may play a role in the pathogenesis of the retinal disease age-related macular degeneration. Although currently there is no direct link between excess iron and development of optic neuropathies, ferrous iron's ability to form highly reactive oxygen species may play a role in optic nerve pathology. Lastly, we discuss recent advances in prevention and therapeutics for eye disease with antioxidants and iron chelators,. PMID:19059309

Loh, Allison; Hadziahmetovic, Majda; Dunaief, Joshua L.

2009-01-01

151

Iron homoeostasis in rheumatic disease.  

PubMed

Iron is critical in nearly all cell functions and the ability of a cell, tissue and organism to procure this metal is obligatory for survival. Iron is necessary for normal immune function, and relative iron deficiency is associated with mild immunosuppression. Concentrations of this metal in excess of those required for function can present both an oxidative stress and elevate risks for infection. As a result, the human has evolved to have a complex mechanism of regulating iron and limiting its availability. This homoeostasis can be disrupted. Autoimmune diseases and gout often present with abnormal iron homoeostasis, thus supporting a participation of the metal in these injuries. We review the role of iron in normal immune function and discuss both clinical evidence of altered iron homoeostasis in autoimmune diseases and gout as well as possible implications of both depletion and supplementation of this metal in this patient population. We conclude that altered iron homoeostasis may represent a purposeful response to inflammation that could have theoretical anti-inflammatory benefits. We encourage physicians to avoid routine iron supplementation in those without depleted iron stores. PMID:19628641

Baker, Joshua F; Ghio, Andrew J

2009-11-01

152

The iron chelator deferasirox protects mice from mucormycosis through iron starvation  

PubMed Central

Mucormycosis causes mortality in at least 50% of cases despite current first-line therapies. Clinical and animal data indicate that the presence of elevated available serum iron predisposes the host to mucormycosis. Here we demonstrate that deferasirox, an iron chelator recently approved for use in humans by the US FDA, is a highly effective treatment for mucormycosis. Deferasirox effectively chelated iron from Rhizopus oryzae and demonstrated cidal activity in vitro against 28 of 29 clinical isolates of Mucorales at concentrations well below clinically achievable serum levels. When administered to diabetic ketoacidotic or neutropenic mice with mucormycosis, deferasirox significantly improved survival and decreased tissue fungal burden, with an efficacy similar to that of liposomal amphotericin B. Deferasirox treatment also enhanced the host inflammatory response to mucormycosis. Most importantly, deferasirox synergistically improved survival and reduced tissue fungal burden when combined with liposomal amphotericin B. These data support clinical investigation of adjunctive deferasirox therapy to improve the poor outcomes of mucormycosis with current therapy. As iron availability is integral to the pathogenesis of other infections (e.g., tuberculosis, malaria), broader investigation of deferasirox as an antiinfective treatment is warranted. PMID:17786247

Ibrahim, Ashraf S.; Gebermariam, Teclegiorgis; Fu, Yue; Lin,, Lin; Husseiny, Mohamed I.; French, Samuel W.; Schwartz, Julie; Skory, Christopher D.; Edwards, John E.; Spellberg, Brad J.

2007-01-01

153

Iron isotopes constrain biologic and abiologic processes in banded iron formation genesis  

E-print Network

Iron isotopes constrain biologic and abiologic processes in banded iron formation genesis Clark M banded iron formations (BIFs) from the Hamersley Basin (Australia) and Transvaal Craton (South Africa, (2) complete reduction by bacterial dissimilatory iron reduction (DIR), and (3) interaction

Roden, Eric E.

154

Molecular basis of inherited microcytic anemia due to defects in iron acquisition or heme synthesis  

PubMed Central

Microcytic anemia is the most commonly encountered anemia in general medical practice. Nutritional iron deficiency and ? thalassemia trait are the primary causes in pediatrics, whereas bleeding disorders and anemia of chronic disease are common in adulthood. Microcytic hypochromic anemia can result from a defect in globin genes, in heme synthesis, in iron availability or in iron acquisition by the erythroid precursors. These microcytic anemia can be sideroblastic or not, a trait which reflects the implications of different gene abnormalities. Iron is a trace element that may act as a redox component and therefore is integral to vital biological processes that require the transfer of electrons as in oxygen transport, oxidative phosphorylation, DNA biosynthesis and xenobiotic metabolism. However, it can also be pro-oxidant and to avoid its toxicity, iron metabolism is strictly controlled and failure of these control systems could induce iron overload or iron deficient anemia. During the past few years, several new discoveries mostly arising from human patients or mouse models have highlighted the implication of iron metabolism components in hereditary microcytic anemia, from intestinal absorption to its final inclusion into heme. In this paper we will review the new information available on the iron acquisition pathway by developing erythrocytes and its regulation, and we will consider only inherited microcytosis due to heme synthesis or to iron metabolism defects. This information could be useful in the diagnosis and classification of these microcytic anemias. PMID:19181781

Iolascon, Achille; De Falco, Luigia; Beaumont, Carole

2009-01-01

155

Spin state of iron--the control parameter of iron-containing HTSC: Dependence of ground state energy, phonon energies and atom positions on the spin state of iron ion in FeTe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The density functional theory was applied to calculate the electronic structure, ground state energy, phonon frequencies at the center and at the boundary of the Brillouin zone, as well as the distribution of magnetic moment over d-orbitals of iron in the magnetically ordered phase of FeTe as functions of the magnetic moment—spin state of iron. It was shown that the ground state energy minimum is achieved at a certain distribution of the magnetic moment over d-orbitals and at a certain spin state of the iron ion. The impact of the new type of interaction ("the spin state-lattice" interaction) on the phonon subsystem was studied numerically. It was found that the high-frequency part of the phonon spectra undergoes the most significant changes upon changing the spin state. To describe the properties of iron-containing HTSC compounds, an integral parameter (spin state of iron ion) was suggested.

Pashkevich, Yu. G.; Shevtsova, T. N.; Gusev, A. A.; Gnezdilov, V. P.; Lemmens, P.

2012-09-01

156

Microbial reduction of iron ore  

DOEpatents

A process is provided for reducing iron ore by treatment with microorganisms which comprises forming an aqueous mixture of iron ore, microorganisms operable for reducing the ferric iron of the iron ore to ferrous iron, and a substrate operable as an energy source for the microbial reduction; and maintaining the aqueous mixture for a period of time and under conditions operable to effect the reduction of the ore. Preferably the microorganism is Pseudomonas sp. 200 and the reduction conducted anaerobically with a domestic wastewater as the substrate. An aqueous solution containing soluble ferrous iron can be separated from the reacted mixture, treated with a base to precipitate ferrous hydroxide which can then be recovered as a concentrated slurry.

Hoffmann, Michael R. (Pasadena, CA); Arnold, Robert G. (Pasadena, CA); Stephanopoulos, Gregory (Pasadena, CA)

1989-01-01

157

Intravenous Iron Sucrose and Oral Iron for the Treatment of Iron Deficiency Anaemia in Pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of intravenous iron sucrose and oral iron administration for the treatment of iron deficiency anaemia in pregnancy. Materials and Methods: Hundred women with gestational age between 30 and 34 weeks with established iron deficiency anaemia with Haemoglobin-6-8g/dL were randomised to receive either oral ferrous sulphate 200 mg thrice daily or required dose of intravenous iron sucrose 200 mg in 200 ml NS on alternate days. Haemoglobin, haematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, reticulocyte count were measured at recruitment and on 2nd week, 4th week and at 37 weeks. Adverse drug reactions were also noted in both the groups. Results were analyzed by student’s t-test and Chi-square test. Results: Haemoglobin values varied significantly with time between the two groups at second week, 4th week and at term (p<0.005). The mean difference in mean corpuscular volume from the recruitment value was not significant at 2nd week. When compared to iron sucrose group, oral iron group had significant gastro-intestinal adverse effects. Conclusion: Intravenous iron sucrose treated iron deficiency anaemia of pregnancy faster, and more effectively than oral iron therapy, with no serious adverse drug reactions. PMID:24995217

Abhilashini, G.D.; Reddi, Rani

2014-01-01

158

Iron Aluminide Hot Gas Filters  

SciTech Connect

Currently, high temperature filter systems are in the demonstration phase with the first commercial scale hot filter systems being installed on integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) and pressurized fluid bed combustion cycle (PBFC) systems (70 MW). They are dependent on the development of durable and economic high temperature filter systems. These filters are mostly ceramic tubes or candles. Ceramic filter durability has not been high. Failure is usually attributed to mechanical or thermal shock: they can also undergo significant changes due to service conditions. The overall objective of this project is to commercialize weldable, crack resistant filters which will provide several years service in advanced power processes. The specific objectives of this project are to develop corrosion resistant alloys and manufacturing processes to make Iron Aluminide filter media, and to use a ``short term`` exposure apparatus supported by other tests to identify the most promising candidate (alloy plus sintering cycle). The objectives of the next phases are to demonstrate long term corrosion stability for the best candidate followed by the production of fifty filters (optional).

Hurley, J.; Brosious, S.; Johnson, M. [Pall Process Equipment Development Div., Pall Corp., Cortland, NY (United States)

1996-12-31

159

Expanding horizons in iron chelation and the treatment of cancer: role of iron in the regulation of ER stress and the epithelial-mesenchymal transition.  

PubMed

Cancer is a major public health issue and, despite recent advances, effective clinical management remains elusive due to intra-tumoural heterogeneity and therapeutic resistance. Iron is a trace element integral to a multitude of metabolic processes, including DNA synthesis and energy transduction. Due to their generally heightened proliferative potential, cancer cells have a greater metabolic demand for iron than normal cells. As such, iron metabolism represents an important "Achilles' heel" for cancer that can be targeted by ligands that bind and sequester intracellular iron. Indeed, novel thiosemicarbazone chelators that act by a "double punch" mechanism to both bind intracellular iron and promote redox cycling reactions demonstrate marked potency and selectivity in vitro and in vivo against a range of tumours. The general mechanisms by which iron chelators selectively target tumour cells through the sequestration of intracellular iron fall into the following categories: (1) inhibition of cellular iron uptake/promotion of iron mobilisation; (2) inhibition of ribonucleotide reductase, the rate-limiting, iron-containing enzyme for DNA synthesis; (3) induction of cell cycle arrest; (4) promotion of localised and cytotoxic reactive oxygen species production by copper and iron complexes of thiosemicarbazones (e.g., Triapine(®) and Dp44mT); and (5) induction of metastasis and tumour suppressors (e.g., NDRG1 and p53, respectively). Emerging evidence indicates that chelators can further undermine the cancer phenotype via inhibiting the epithelial-mesenchymal transition that is critical for metastasis and by modulating ER stress. This review explores the "expanding horizons" for iron chelators in selectively targeting cancer cells. PMID:24472573

Lane, Darius J R; Mills, Thomas M; Shafie, Nurul H; Merlot, Angelica M; Saleh Moussa, Rayan; Kalinowski, Danuta S; Kovacevic, Zaklina; Richardson, Des R

2014-04-01

160

Iron and ferritin accumulate in separate cellular locations in Phaseolus seeds  

PubMed Central

Background Iron is an important micronutrient for all living organisms. Almost 25% of the world population is affected by iron deficiency, a leading cause of anemia. In plants, iron deficiency leads to chlorosis and reduced yield. Both animals and plants may suffer from iron deficiency when their diet or environment lacks bioavailable iron. A sustainable way to reduce iron malnutrition in humans is to develop staple crops with increased content of bioavailable iron. Knowledge of where and how iron accumulates in seeds of crop plants will increase the understanding of plant iron metabolism and will assist in the production of staples with increased bioavailable iron. Results Here we reveal the distribution of iron in seeds of three Phaseolus species including thirteen genotypes of P. vulgaris, P. coccineus, and P. lunatus. We showed that high concentrations of iron accumulate in cells surrounding the provascular tissue of P. vulgaris and P. coccineus seeds. Using the Perls' Prussian blue method, we were able to detect iron in the cytoplasm of epidermal cells, cells near the epidermis, and cells surrounding the provascular tissue. In contrast, the protein ferritin that has been suggested as the major iron storage protein in legumes was only detected in the amyloplasts of the seed embryo. Using the non-destructive micro-PIXE (Particle Induced X-ray Emission) technique we show that the tissue in the proximity of the provascular bundles holds up to 500 ?g g-1 of iron, depending on the genotype. In contrast to P. vulgaris and P. coccineus, we did not observe iron accumulation in the cells surrounding the provascular tissues of P. lunatus cotyledons. A novel iron-rich genotype, NUA35, with a high concentration of iron both in the seed coat and cotyledons was bred from a cross between an Andean and a Mesoamerican genotype. Conclusions The presented results emphasize the importance of complementing research in model organisms with analysis in crop plants and they suggest that iron distribution criteria should be integrated into selection strategies for bean biofortification. PMID:20149228

2010-01-01

161

Good Sources of Nutrients: Iron  

E-print Network

aprender Hierro para la salud Reduce el riesgo de anemia por deficiencia de ? hierro Puede ayudar a evitar infecciones? ?D?nde se encuentra el hierro? El hierro es un mineral que se encuentra en una var- iedad de alimentos, tal como: Carne magra? Panes y... health Reduces the risk of iron-deficiency anemia? May help prevent infections? Where is iron found? Iron is a mineral found in a variety of foods such as: Lean meat? Iron-enriched and whole-grain breads and ? cereals Cooked dried beans including...

Scott, Amanda; Replogle, Jacqueline

2008-08-28

162

46 CFR 56.60-10 - Cast iron and malleable iron.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cast iron and malleable iron. 56.60-10...APPURTENANCES Materials § 56.60-10 Cast iron and malleable iron. (a) The low ductility of cast iron and malleable iron should be...

2013-10-01

163

46 CFR 56.60-10 - Cast iron and malleable iron.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cast iron and malleable iron. 56.60-10...APPURTENANCES Materials § 56.60-10 Cast iron and malleable iron. (a) The low ductility of cast iron and malleable iron should be...

2010-10-01

164

46 CFR 56.60-10 - Cast iron and malleable iron.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cast iron and malleable iron. 56.60-10...APPURTENANCES Materials § 56.60-10 Cast iron and malleable iron. (a) The low ductility of cast iron and malleable iron should be...

2012-10-01

165

46 CFR 56.60-10 - Cast iron and malleable iron.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cast iron and malleable iron. 56.60-10...APPURTENANCES Materials § 56.60-10 Cast iron and malleable iron. (a) The low ductility of cast iron and malleable iron should be...

2011-10-01

166

The role of heme and iron-sulfur clusters in mitochondrial biogenesis, maintenance, and decay with age.  

PubMed

Mitochondria decay with age from oxidative damage and loss of protective mechanisms. Resistance, repair, and replacement mechanisms are essential for mitochondrial preservation and maintenance. Iron plays an essential role in the maintenance of mitochondria, through its two major functional forms: heme and iron-sulfur clusters. Both iron-based cofactors are formed and utilized in the mitochondria and then distributed throughout the cell. This is an important function of mitochondria that is not directly related to the production of ATP. Heme and iron-sulfur clusters are important for the normal assembly and for the optimal activity of the electron transfer complexes. Loss of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase (complex IV), integrity of mtDNA, and function can result from abnormal homeostasis of iron. We review the physiological role of iron-sulfur clusters and heme in the integrity of the mitochondria and the generation of oxidants. PMID:11795893

Atamna, Hani; Walter, Patrick B; Ames, Bruce N

2002-01-15

167

An international registry for neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation  

PubMed Central

We report the development of an international registry for Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation (NBIA), in the context of TIRCON (Treat Iron-Related Childhood-Onset Neurodegeneration), an EU-FP7 – funded project. This registry aims to combine scattered resources, integrate clinical and scientific knowledge, and generate a rich source for future research studies. This paper describes the content, architecture and future utility of the registry with the intent to capture as many NBIA patients as possible and to offer comprehensive information to the international scientific community. PMID:22985983

2012-01-01

168

Snapshot of iron response in Shewanella oneidensis by gene network reconstruction  

PubMed Central

Background Iron homeostasis of Shewanella oneidensis, a ?-proteobacterium possessing high iron content, is regulated by a global transcription factor Fur. However, knowledge is incomplete about other biological pathways that respond to changes in iron concentration, as well as details of the responses. In this work, we integrate physiological, transcriptomics and genetic approaches to delineate the iron response of S. oneidensis. Results We show that the iron response in S. oneidensis is a rapid process. Temporal gene expression profiles were examined for iron depletion and repletion, and a gene co-expression network was reconstructed. Modules of iron acquisition systems, anaerobic energy metabolism and protein degradation were the most noteworthy in the gene network. Bioinformatics analyses suggested that genes in each of the modules might be regulated by DNA-binding proteins Fur, CRP and RpoH, respectively. Closer inspection of these modules revealed a transcriptional regulator (SO2426) involved in iron acquisition and ten transcriptional factors involved in anaerobic energy metabolism. Selected genes in the network were analyzed by genetic studies. Disruption of genes encoding a putative alcaligin biosynthesis protein (SO3032) and a gene previously implicated in protein degradation (SO2017) led to severe growth deficiency under iron depletion conditions. Disruption of a novel transcriptional factor (SO1415) caused deficiency in both anaerobic iron reduction and growth with thiosulfate or TMAO as an electronic acceptor, suggesting that SO1415 is required for specific branches of anaerobic energy metabolism pathways. Conclusion Using a reconstructed gene network, we identified major biological pathways that were differentially expressed during iron depletion and repletion. Genetic studies not only demonstrated the importance of iron acquisition and protein degradation for iron depletion, but also characterized a novel transcriptional factor (SO1415) with a role in anaerobic energy metabolism. PMID:19321007

Yang, Yunfeng; Harris, Daniel P; Luo, Feng; Xiong, Wenlu; Joachimiak, Marcin; Wu, Liyou; Dehal, Paramvir; Jacobsen, Janet; Yang, Zamin; Palumbo, Anthony V; Arkin, Adam P; Zhou, Jizhong

2009-01-01

169

IRON RELEASE AND COLORED WATER FORMATION FROM IRON SCALES  

EPA Science Inventory

Iron corrosion in water distribution networks is of special concern in the drinking water industry because of the large amount of unlined iron pipe that is in use. Corrosion can destroy the pipe, consume oxidants and disinfectants in the water, create scales that increase the en...

170

Nanosized Iron Oxide Colloids Strongly Enhance Microbial Iron Reduction? †  

PubMed Central

Microbial iron reduction is considered to be a significant subsurface process. The rate-limiting bioavailability of the insoluble iron oxyhydroxides, however, is a topic for debate. Surface area and mineral structure are recognized as crucial parameters for microbial reduction rates of bulk, macroaggregate iron minerals. However, a significant fraction of iron oxide minerals in the subsurface is supposed to be present as nanosized colloids. We therefore studied the role of colloidal iron oxides in microbial iron reduction. In batch growth experiments with Geobacter sulfurreducens, colloids of ferrihydrite (hydrodynamic diameter, 336 nm), hematite (123 nm), goethite (157 nm), and akaganeite (64 nm) were added as electron acceptors. The colloidal iron oxides were reduced up to 2 orders of magnitude more rapidly (up to 1,255 pmol h?1 cell?1) than bulk macroaggregates of the same iron phases (6 to 70 pmol h?1 cell?1). The increased reactivity was not only due to the large surface areas of the colloidal aggregates but also was due to a higher reactivity per unit surface. We hypothesize that this can be attributed to the high bioavailability of the nanosized aggregates and their colloidal suspension. Furthermore, a strong enhancement of reduction rates of bulk ferrihydrite was observed when nanosized ferrihydrite aggregates were added. PMID:19915036

Bosch, Julian; Heister, Katja; Hofmann, Thilo; Meckenstock, Rainer U.

2010-01-01

171

Corrosion of Iron Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Materials Science and Technology Teacher's Workshop (MAST) provides this demonstration on corrosion. The laboratory exercise will allow students the opportunity to "observe the electrochemical nature of the changes in an iron nail when it corrodes and to investigate methods to protect it." Ways of preventing corrosion include protecting the metal with a more active metal and excluding oxygen and moisture from the material's surface with a protective coating. The lesson includes a step by step explanation of the laboratory procedure, discussion questions and teacher notes.

2011-11-14

172

Iron in spleen tissues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This contribution aims in characterization of structural positions of iron in human and horse spleen. 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy was employed as a principal method of investigation in addition to X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). At room temperature, ferritin nanoparticles exhibit superparamagnetic behavior due to their small dimensions. Corresponding Mössbauer spectra show doublet-like patterns. Experiments performed at low temperatures unveiled presence of magnetically split components and enabled to determine the blocking temperature. Dimensions of Fe-containing species were established from detailed analyses of TEM images.

Miglierini, M.; Dekan, J.; Kopani, M.; Lancok, A.; Kohout, J.; Cieslar, M.

2012-10-01

173

The Iron Within  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Forty-fifth monthly installment of our "What A Year!" website project, introducing life science breakthroughs to middle and high school students and their teachers. In order to cause infection, pathogenic bacteria must be able to obtain all the nutrients they need from the human body, including metals such as zinc, iron, and manganese. As a result, many vertebrate species (including humans) have evolved ways to store these metals in forms that are not readily accessible to bacteria. This mechanism is known as nutritional immunity. Staphylococcus aureus has developed such a mechanism, making it a very successful invader.

2011-02-01

174

Iron–iron oxide composite thin films prepared by chemical vapor deposition from iron pentacarbonyl  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iron–iron oxide (Fe–Fe3O4) composite thin films were prepared by an atmospheric-pressure chemical vapor deposition method. Iron pentacarbonyl and carbon dioxide gas were used as source materials. The effect of carbon dioxide mole fraction on the structure of the film is discussed. For both Fe–Fe3O4 and Fe–?-Fe2O3 films, the magnetic properties were obtained from the hysteresis curve of in-plane magnetization. The

Toshiro Maruyama; Yoshitaka Shinyashiki

1998-01-01

175

Iron piracy: acquisition of transferrin-bound iron by bacterial pathogens.  

PubMed

The mechanism of iron utilization from transferrin has been most extensively characterized in the pathogenic Neisseria species and Haemophilus species. Two transferrin-binding proteins, Tbp1 and Tbp2, have been identified in these pathogens and are thought to be components of the transferrin receptor. Tbp1 appears to be an integral, TonB-dependent outer membrane protein while Tbp2, a lipoprotein, may be peripherally associated with the outer membrane. The relative contribution of each of these proteins to transferrin binding and utilization is discussed and a model of iron uptake from transferrin is presented. Sequence comparisons of the genes encoding neisserial transferrin-binding proteins suggest that they are probably under positive selection for variation and may have resulted from inter-species genetic exchange. PMID:7715446

Cornelissen, C N; Sparling, P F

1994-12-01

176

The Iron Metallome in Eukaryotic Organisms  

PubMed Central

This chapter is focused on the iron metallome in eukaryotes at the cellular and subcellular level, including properties, utilization in metalloproteins, trafficking, storage, and regulation of these processes. Studies in the model eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae and mammalian cells will be highlighted. The discussion of iron properties will center on the speciation and localization of intracellular iron as well as the cellular and molecular mechanisms for coping with both low iron bioavailability and iron toxicity. The section on iron metalloproteins will emphasize heme, iron-sulfur cluster, and non-heme iron centers, particularly their cellular roles and mechanisms of assembly. The section on iron uptake, trafficking, and storage will compare methods used by yeast and mammalian cells to import iron, how this iron is brought into various organelles, and types of iron storage proteins. Regulation of these processes will be compared between yeast and mammalian cells at the transcriptional, post-transcriptional, and post-translational levels. PMID:23595675

Dlouhy, Adrienne C.; Outten, Caryn E.

2013-01-01

177

Compacted graphite iron: Cast iron makes a comeback  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although compacted graphite iron has been known for more than four decades, the absence of a reliable mass-production technique has resulted in relatively little effort to exploit its operational benefits. However, a proven on-line process control technology developed by SinterCast allows for series production of complex components in high-quality CGI. The improved mechanical properties of compacted graphite iron relative to conventional gray iron allow for substantial weight reduction in gasoline and diesel engines or substantial increases in horsepower, or an optimal combination of both. Concurrent with these primary benefits, CGI also provides significant emissions and fuel efficiency benefits allowing automakers to meet legislated performance standards. The operational and environmental benefits of compacted graphite iron together with its low cost and recyclability reinforce cast iron as a prime engineering material for the future.

Dawson, S.

1994-08-01

178

Iron around the clock.  

PubMed

Carbon assimilation, a key determinant of plant biomass production, is under circadian regulation. Light and temperature are major inputs of the plant clock that control various daily rhythms. Such rhythms confer adaptive advantages to the organisms by adjusting their metabolism in anticipation of environmental fluctuations. The relationship between the circadian clock and nutrition extends far beyond the regulation of carbon assimilation as mineral nutrition, and specially iron homeostasis, is regulated through this mechanism. Conversely, iron status was identified as a new and important input regulating the central oscillator, raising the question of the nature of the Fe-dependent signal that modulates the period of the circadian clock. Several lines of evidence strongly suggest that fully developed and functional chloroplasts as well as early light signalling events, involving phytochromes, are essential to couple the clock to Fe responses. Nevertheless, the exact nature of the signal, which most probably involves unknown or not yet fully characterized elements of the chloroplast-to-nucleus retrograde signalling pathway, remains to be identified. Finally, this regulation may also involves epigenetic components. PMID:24908512

Tissot, Nicolas; Przybyla-Toscano, Jonathan; Reyt, Guilhem; Castel, Baptiste; Duc, Céline; Boucherez, Jossia; Gaymard, Frédéric; Briat, Jean-François; Dubos, Christian

2014-07-01

179

Iron deficiency and the intellect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children are especially liable to iron-deficiency anaemia in developing countries, and in the inner cities of developed countries. Does the lack of iron cause impaired physical and mental development, and can this in certain circumstances be a permanent effect? One of the reasons that this is such a difficult question to answer is that there can be so many confounding

Neil Gordon

2003-01-01

180

Iron deficiency after partial gastrectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iron-deficiency anaemia will develop in half the males and nearly all females after partial gastrectomy, and in addition to causing the anaemia the sideropenia may cause any general symptoms such as lassitude, failure to maintain weight, or dumping symptoms.The variable response to treatment is due to the fact that ferrous iron is not adequately released from coated tablets taken after

J. R. Hobbs

1961-01-01

181

IRON FILE SYSTEMS Vijayan Prabhakaran  

E-print Network

IRON FILE SYSTEMS by Vijayan Prabhakaran B.E. Computer Sciences (Regional Engineering College;v Abstract IRON FILE SYSTEMS Vijayan Prabhakaran Disk drives are widely used as a primary medium for storing information. While commodity file systems trust disks to either work or fail completely, modern

Liblit, Ben

182

IRON FILE SYSTEMS Vijayan Prabhakaran  

E-print Network

IRON FILE SYSTEMS by Vijayan Prabhakaran B.E. Computer Sciences (Regional Engineering College #12; v Abstract IRON FILE SYSTEMS Vijayan Prabhakaran Disk drives are widely used as a primary medium for storing information. While commodity file systems trust disks to either work or fail completely, modern

Arpaci-Dusseau, Andrea

183

Radiolabeled iron in soybeans: intrinsic labeling and bioavailability of iron to rats from defatted flour  

SciTech Connect

Soybeans can be efficiently labeled with radiolabeled iron by supplying the iron via a nutrient culture medium as an iron salt or as a chelate. By using dual labeled iron and EDTA, it was determined that none of the chelator was transported to the shoots with the iron. Therefore, the use of chelated iron as the iron source in the nutrient medium should not affect assessments of bioavailability of iron from plants. Bioavailability (determined from whole-body retention curves of /sup 59/Fe in rats) of iron from defatted soy flour was relatively high and addition of vitamin C did not significantly enhance absorption of iron from defatted soy flour.

Weaver, C.M.; Schmitt, H.A.; Stuart, M.A.; Mason, A.C.; Meyer, N.R.; Elliott, J.G.

1984-06-01

184

Iron and Mechanisms of Neurotoxicity  

PubMed Central

The accumulation of transition metals (e.g., copper, zinc, and iron) and the dysregulation of their metabolism are a hallmark in the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative diseases. This paper will be focused on the mechanism of neurotoxicity mediated by iron. This metal progressively accumulates in the brain both during normal aging and neurodegenerative processes. High iron concentrations in the brain have been consistently observed in Alzheimer's (AD) and Parkinson's (PD) diseases. In this connection, metalloneurobiology has become extremely important in establishing the role of iron in the onset and progression of neurodegenerative diseases. Neurons have developed several protective mechanisms against oxidative stress, among them, the activation of cellular signaling pathways. The final response will depend on the identity, intensity, and persistence of the oxidative insult. The characterization of the mechanisms mediating the effects of iron-induced increase in neuronal dysfunction and death is central to understanding the pathology of a number of neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:21234369

Salvador, Gabriela A.; Uranga, Romina M.; Giusto, Norma M.

2011-01-01

185

Abnormal iron homeostasis and neurodegeneration  

PubMed Central

Abnormal iron metabolism is observed in many neurodegenerative diseases, however, only two have shown dysregulation of brain iron homeostasis as the primary cause of neurodegeneration. Herein, we review one of these - hereditary ferritinopathy (HF) or neuroferritinopathy, which is an autosomal dominant, adult onset degenerative disease caused by mutations in the ferritin light chain (FTL) gene. HF has a clinical phenotype characterized by a progressive movement disorder, behavioral disturbances, and cognitive impairment. The main pathologic findings are cystic cavitation of the basal ganglia, the presence of ferritin inclusion bodies (IBs), and substantial iron deposition. Mutant FTL subunits have altered sequence and length but assemble into soluble 24-mers that are ultrastructurally indistinguishable from those of the wild type. Crystallography shows substantial localized disruption of the normally tiny 4-fold pores between the ferritin subunits because of unraveling of the C-termini into multiple polypeptide conformations. This structural alteration causes attenuated net iron incorporation leading to cellular iron mishandling, ferritin aggregation, and oxidative damage at physiological concentrations of iron and ascorbate. A transgenic murine model parallels several features of HF, including a progressive neurological phenotype, ferritin IB formation, and misregulation of iron metabolism. These studies provide a working hypothesis for the pathogenesis of HF by implicating (1) a loss of normal ferritin function that triggers iron accumulation and overproduction of ferritin polypeptides, and (2) a gain of toxic function through radical production, ferritin aggregation, and oxidative stress. Importantly, the finding that ferritin aggregation can be reversed by iron chelators and oxidative damage can be inhibited by radical trapping may be used for clinical investigation. This work provides new insights into the role of abnormal iron metabolism in neurodegeneration. PMID:23908629

Muhoberac, Barry B.; Vidal, Ruben

2013-01-01

186

Geophysical signatures of disseminated iron minerals: A proxy for understanding subsurface biophysicochemical processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

studies have linked biogeophysical signatures to the presence of iron minerals resulting from distinct biophysicochemical processes. Utilizing geophysical methods as a proxy of such biophysicochemical processes requires an understanding of the geophysical signature of the different iron minerals. Laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the complex conductivity and magnetic susceptibility signatures of five iron minerals disseminated in saturated porous media under variable iron mineral content and grain size. Both pyrite and magnetite show high quadrature and inphase conductivities compared to hematite, goethite, and siderite, whereas magnetite was the highly magnetic mineral dominating the magnetic susceptibility measurements. The quadrature conductivity spectra of both pyrite and magnetite exhibit a well-defined characteristic relaxation peak below 10 kHz, not observed with the other iron minerals. The quadrature conductivity and magnetic susceptibility of individual and a mixture of iron minerals are dominated and linearly proportional to the mass fraction of the highly conductive (pyrite and magnetite) and magnetic (magnetite) iron minerals, respectively. The quadrature conductivity magnitude increased with decreasing grain size diameter of magnetite and pyrite with a progressive shift of the characteristic relaxation peak toward higher frequencies. The quadrature conductivity response of a mixture of different grain sizes of iron minerals is shown to be additive, whereas magnetic susceptibility measurements were insensitive to the variation in grain size diameters (1-0.075 mm). The integration of complex conductivity and magnetic susceptibility measurements can therefore provide a complimentary tool for the successful investigation of in situ biophysicochemical processes resulting in biotransformation or secondary iron mineral precipitation.

Abdel Aal, Gamal Z.; Atekwana, Estella A.; Revil, A.

2014-09-01

187

Fluidized bed for removing iron and acidity from acid mine drainage  

SciTech Connect

Acid mine drainage (AMD) continues to be an important water pollution problem around the world. A fluidized bed reactor (FBR) for the removal of iron from acid mine drainage (AMD) was evaluated as part of a prototype multistage system, which included a bioreactor to oxidize ferrous iron, an FBR for the precipitation of ferric iron as a coating on media, and a carbonate bed (CB) for pH control. In the integrated system, a 99% iron removal efficiency was achieved, with effluent iron concentration remaining <3 mg L{sup {minus}1} and pH > 6. The optimum pH for iron removal in the FBR was about pH 3.5. Above that pH, and above an iron loading of about 0.20 mg Fe h{sup {minus}1} m{sup {minus}2} reactor surface area, suspended iron particles developed in the reactor system. Particulates in the feed had an adverse impact on the removal performance of the system. Schwertmannite appeared to be the predominant mineral formed in the precipitation reactor. Coating growth on the sand media appeared to result from the attachment and consolidation of small iron particles (<1.0 {mu}m) that formed in the bulk solution.

Diz, H.R.; Novak, J.T. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

1998-08-01

188

Normal Iron Metabolism and the Pathophysiology of Iron Overload Disorders  

PubMed Central

Iron overload disorders represent a heterogenous group of conditions resulting from inherited and acquired causes. If undiagnosed they can be progressive and fatal. Early detection and phlebotomy prior to the onset of cirrhosis can reduce morbidity and normalise life expectancy. We now have greater insight into the complex mechanisms of normal and disordered iron homeostasis following the discovery of new proteins and genetic defects. Here we review the normal mechanisms and regulation of gastrointestinal iron absorption and liver iron transport and their dysregulation in iron overload states. Advances in the understanding of the natural history of iron overload disorders and new methods for clinical detection and management of hereditary haemochromatosis are also reviewed. The current screening strategies target high-risk groups such as first-degree relatives of affected individuals and those with clinical features suggestive of iron loading. Potential ethical, legal and psychosocial issues arising through application of genetic screening programs need to be resolved prior to implementation of general population screening programs. PMID:16886043

Siah, Chiang W; Ombiga, John; Adams, Leon A; Trinder, Debbie; Olynyk, John K

2006-01-01

189

Microorganisms pumping iron: anaerobic microbial iron oxidation and reduction.  

PubMed

Iron (Fe) has long been a recognized physiological requirement for life, yet for many microorganisms that persist in water, soils and sediments, its role extends well beyond that of a nutritional necessity. Fe(II) can function as an electron source for iron-oxidizing microorganisms under both oxic and anoxic conditions and Fe(III) can function as a terminal electron acceptor under anoxic conditions for iron-reducing microorganisms. Given that iron is the fourth most abundant element in the Earth's crust, iron redox reactions have the potential to support substantial microbial populations in soil and sedimentary environments. As such, biological iron apportionment has been described as one of the most ancient forms of microbial metabolism on Earth, and as a conceivable extraterrestrial metabolism on other iron-mineral-rich planets such as Mars. Furthermore, the metabolic versatility of the microorganisms involved in these reactions has resulted in the development of biotechnological applications to remediate contaminated environments and harvest energy. PMID:16980937

Weber, Karrie A; Achenbach, Laurie A; Coates, John D

2006-10-01

190

Microbial acquisition of iron from ferric iron bearing minerals  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Iron is a universal requirement for all life forms. Although the fourth most abundant element in the geosphere, iron is virtually insoluble at physiological pH in oxidizing environments, existing mainly as very insoluble oxides and hydroxides. Currently it is not understood how iron is solubilized and made available for biological use. This research project addressed this topic by conducting a series of experiments that utilized techniques from both soil microbiology and mineral surface geochemistry. Microbiological analysis consisted of the examination of metabolic and physiological responses to mineral iron supplements. At the same time mineral surfaces were examined for structural changes brought about by microbially mediated dissolution. The results of these experiments demonstrated that (1) bacterial siderophores were able to promote the dissolution of iron oxides, (2) that strict aerobic microorganisms may use anaerobic processes to promote iron oxide dissolution, and (3) that it is possible to image the surface of iron oxides undergoing microbial dissolution.

Hersman, L.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Sposito, G. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

1998-12-31

191

Unraveling Mechanisms Regulating Systemic Iron Homeostasis  

PubMed Central

Systemic iron balance must be tightly regulated to prevent the deleterious effects of iron deficiency and iron overload. Hepcidin, a circulating hormone that is synthesized by the liver, has emerged as a key regulator of systemic iron homeostasis. Hepcidin inhibits the absorption of dietary iron from the intestine as well as the release of iron derived from red blood cells from macrophages; thus, variation in hepcidin levels modifies the total amount of iron stored in the body as well as the availability of iron for erythropoiesis. The production of hepcidin by the liver is modulated by multiple physiological stimuli, including iron loading, inflammation, and erythropoietic activity. Investigation of the functions of the gene products mutated in inherited iron disorders using tissue culture systems and animal models has provided valuable insights into the mechanisms by which these hepcidin responses are mediated. This review focuses on recent advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of systemic iron homeostasis. PMID:22160085

Finberg, Karin E.

2013-01-01

192

Safety of Iron Sucrose in Hemodialysis Patients Intolerant to Other Parenteral Iron Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: This report summarizes the data gathered in four prospective studies of intravenous iron sucrose therapy administered to iron-deficient hemodialysis patients with a history of intolerance to other parenteral iron preparations. Methods: A total of 130 iron dextran- and\\/or sodium ferric gluconate-sensitive patients received intravenous iron sucrose therapy to correct iron deficiency, and\\/or maintain body iron stores. A history of

Chaim Charytan; Michael H. Schwenk; Mourhege M. Al-Saloum; Bruce S. Spinowitz

2004-01-01

193

Serum hepcidin levels in Helicobacter pylori-infected children with iron-deficiency anemia: a case-control study.  

PubMed

Recently, hepcidin, an antimicrobial-like peptide hormone, has evolved as the master regulator of systemic iron homeostasis. Hepcidin integrates signals from diverse physiological inputs, forming a key connection between iron trafficking and response to infection. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether Helicobacter pylori infection modulates serum hepcidin level and response to oral iron therapy in children with iron-deficiency anemia. This was a case-control study including 60 children with iron-deficiency anemia (IDA; 30 H. pylori infected and 30 H. pylori noninfected) and 30 healthy children with comparable age and gender as the control group. Iron parameters including serum iron, ferritin, transferrin, total iron binding capacity, and transferrin saturation and serum hepcidin levels were assessed initially and after 3 months of oral iron therapy for IDA. Compared to the control group, serum hepcidin was significantly lower in H. pylori-noninfected children with IDA (P?iron therapy (P?iron therapy (P?>?0.05). Although hepcidin showed significant positive correlations with serum ferritin, hemoglobin (Hb), iron, and transferrin saturation in noninfected children with IDA (P?iron, and transferrin saturation in H. pylori-infected children with IDA (P?iron therapy in children with iron-deficiency anemia. PMID:23760782

Azab, Seham F A; Esh, Asmaa M H

2013-11-01

194

Influence of iron doping on spatial soliton formation and fixing in lithium niobate crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyse the feasibility of using iron-doping in lithium niobate in order to stabilize and permanently fix light-induced integrated structures. General 3D optical interconnections were realized in bulk lithium niobate crystals by means of soliton waveguides exploiting the enhanced photorefractive properties obtainable using specific iron doping. We report an enhancement of the photorefractive properties in doped crystals that can be considered for permanently fixing the integrated circuits. This work opens new directions for realizing permanent self-assembled and self-aligned integrated electro-optic devices and photonic circuits.

Fazio, E.; Zaltron, A.; Belardini, A.; Argiolas, N.; Sada, C.

2014-11-01

195

Iron homeostasis in breast cancer.  

PubMed

Iron is an essential element and a critical component of molecules involved in energy production, cell cycle and intermediate metabolism. However, the same characteristic chemistry that makes it so biologically versatile may lead to iron-associated toxicity as a consequence of increased oxidative stress. The fact that free iron accumulates with age and generates ROS led to the hypothesis that it could be involved in the etiogenesis of several chronic diseases. Iron has been consistently linked to carcinogenesis, either through persistent failure in the redox balance or due to its critical role in cellular proliferation. Several reports have given evidence that alterations in the import, export and storage of cellular iron may contribute to breast cancer development, behavior and recurrence. In this review, we summarize the basic mechanisms of systemic and cellular iron regulation and highlight the findings that link their deregulation with breast cancer. To conclude, progresses in iron chelation therapy in breast cancer, as a tool to fight chemotherapy resistance, are also reviewed. PMID:24486738

Marques, Oriana; da Silva, Berta Martins; Porto, Graça; Lopes, Carlos

2014-05-28

196

Nanofiltration and Fenton's process over iron shavings for surfactants removal.  

PubMed

The presence of surfactants in wastewater composition tends to jeopardize the efficiency of the traditional aerobic treatment processes. In this regard, the application of Fenton's reaction and nanofiltration as single processes and integrated (nanofiltration followed by Fenton's process) was investigated on the abatement of a solution containing two surfactants usually found in effluents coming from detergent industry (dodecylbenzene--DDB and sodium lauryl ether sulphate--SLES). The potential of a solid waste (iron shavings) as catalyst in the Fenton's process was evaluated and the reaction system was optimized regarding the key operating parameters (iron and hydrogen peroxide concentration and pH). The highest chemical oxygen demand (COD) degradation (66%) was attained for pH 3, [H2O2] = 32 mM and 50 g/L of iron shavings. Besides, it was concluded that oxidation was due to hydroxyl radicals adsorbed on the metal surface even if bulk interaction between hydrogen peroxide and dissolved iron cannot be neglected. The main variables ruling nanofiltration were evaluated (pH, temperature and cross-flow rate). Eighty-four percent of COD rejection was determined at pH 7.5, cross-flow 14.4 cm3 s(-1), 20 degrees C and 15 bar of pressure drop. Finally, nanofiltration followed by Fenton's process under the best conditions was integrated; however, no significant improvement was attained with 85% of COD being globally removed. PMID:25145192

Martins, Rui C; Nunes, Marta; Gando-Ferreira, Licínio M; Quinta-Ferreira, Rosa M

2014-01-01

197

Cellular distribution and localisation of iron in adult rat brain ( substantia nigra)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Iron appears to be one of the main factors in the metal induced neurodegeneration. Quantitative information on cellular, sub-cellular and cell specific distributions of iron is therefore important to assess. The investigations reported here were carried out on a brain from an adult rat. Therefore, 6 ?m thick embedded, unstained brain sections containing the midbrain ( substantia nigra, SN) were analysed. Particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) using a focussed proton beam (beam - diameter app. 1 ?m) was performed to determine the quantitative iron content on a cellular and sub-cellular level. The integral analysis shows that the iron content in the SN pars reticulata is twice as high than in the SN pars compacta. The analysis of the iron content on the cellular level revealed no remarkable differences between glia cells and neurons. This is in contrast to other studies using staining techniques.

Meinecke, Ch.; Morawski, M.; Reinert, T.; Arendt, T.; Butz, T.

2006-08-01

198

Iron oxyhydroxide mineralization on microbial extracellular polysaccharides  

E-print Network

Iron oxyhydroxide mineralization on microbial extracellular polysaccharides Clara S. Chan a Iron biominerals can form in neutral pH microaerophilic environments where microbes both catalyze iron, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). We focused on iron microbial mat samples from

199

THE IRON PROJECT Anil K. Pradhan  

E-print Network

THE IRON PROJECT Anil K. Pradhan Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio and application of these methods is the aim of the Iron Project. At present the primary focus is on collisional processes for all ions of iron, Fe I -- FeXXVI, and other iron­peak elements; new work on radiative

Pradhan, Anil

200

Acquisition of Iron by Gardnerella vaginalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six Gardnerella vaginalis strains were examined for the ability to utilize various iron-containing compounds as iron sources. In a plate bioassay, all six strains acquired iron from ferrous chloride, ferric chloride, ferrous sulfate, ferric ammonium citrate, ferrous ammonium sulfate, bovine and equine hemin, bovine catalase, and equine, bovine, rabbit, and human hemoglobin. All six strains also acquired iron from human

GREGORY P. JAROSIK; CAROL BETH LAND; PATRICE DUHON

1998-01-01

201

Iron Oxide Based High Temperature Desulfurization Sorbent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iron oxide sorbent is used as high temperature desulfurization sorbent due to high sulfur capacity, easy regeneration and recovery elemental sulfur. In this paper, the iron oxide based high-temperature sorbent was obtained by mixing iron oxide with calcium oxide, extrudating and calcinating. The sulfidation, reduction and regeneration performance for the prepared iron oxide based desulfurization sorbent were conducted. The phases

Ju Shangguan; Pengfei Hou; Yongjun Zhu; Litong Liang; Fang Shen; Huiling Fan; Maoqian Miao

2009-01-01

202

Nutritional iron deficiency: an evolutionary perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iron deficiency, with or without iron-deficiency anemia, is so ubiquitous that it affects all populations of the world irrespective of race, culture, or ethnic background. Despite all the latest advances in modern medicine, improved nutrition, and the ready availability of cheap oral iron, there is still no good explanation for the widespread persistence of iron deficiency. It is possible that

Srdjan Denic; Mukesh M. Agarwal

2007-01-01

203

Soldering iron temperature is automatically reduced  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hinged cradle-microswitch arrangement maintains a soldering iron at less than peak temperature when not in use. The microswitch introduces a voltage reducing element into the soldering iron power circuit when the iron is placed on the cradle. The iron, when removed from the cradle, returns to operating temperature in 15 to 30 seconds.

Lum, J. Y.

1966-01-01

204

Precise coulometric determination of iron in iron ores with electrogenerated manganese(III) fluoride.  

PubMed

Iron in Mohr's salt, electrolytic iron and iron ores has been determined by precision coulometric titration with electrolytically generated manganese (III) fluoride, with biamperometric end-point detection. The titration curve indicated the irreversibility of the electrode reaction of manganese(III) fluoride. Total iron in several standard samples of iron ores was determined with standard deviations of about 0.012%. PMID:18961613

Yoshimori, T; Tanaka, T

1975-01-01

205

49 CFR 192.373 - Service lines: Cast iron and ductile iron.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Service lines: Cast iron and ductile iron. 192.373 Section 192...and Service Lines § 192.373 Service lines: Cast iron and ductile iron. (a) Cast or ductile iron pipe less than 6 inches...

2010-10-01

206

49 CFR 192.373 - Service lines: Cast iron and ductile iron.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Service lines: Cast iron and ductile iron. 192.373 Section 192...and Service Lines § 192.373 Service lines: Cast iron and ductile iron. (a) Cast or ductile iron pipe less than 6 inches...

2011-10-01

207

49 CFR 192.373 - Service lines: Cast iron and ductile iron.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Service lines: Cast iron and ductile iron. 192.373 Section 192...and Service Lines § 192.373 Service lines: Cast iron and ductile iron. (a) Cast or ductile iron pipe less than 6 inches...

2012-10-01

208

49 CFR 192.373 - Service lines: Cast iron and ductile iron.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Service lines: Cast iron and ductile iron. 192.373 Section 192...and Service Lines § 192.373 Service lines: Cast iron and ductile iron. (a) Cast or ductile iron pipe less than 6 inches...

2013-10-01

209

Extracellular Iron Biomineralization by Photoautotrophic Iron-Oxidizing Bacteria ? †  

PubMed Central

Iron oxidation at neutral pH by the phototrophic anaerobic iron-oxidizing bacterium Rhodobacter sp. strain SW2 leads to the formation of iron-rich minerals. These minerals consist mainly of nano-goethite (?-FeOOH), which precipitates exclusively outside cells, mostly on polymer fibers emerging from the cells. Scanning transmission X-ray microscopy analyses performed at the C K-edge suggest that these fibers are composed of a mixture of lipids and polysaccharides or of lipopolysaccharides. The iron and the organic carbon contents of these fibers are linearly correlated at the 25-nm scale, which in addition to their texture suggests that these fibers act as a template for mineral precipitation, followed by limited crystal growth. Moreover, we evidence a gradient of the iron oxidation state along the mineralized fibers at the submicrometer scale. Fe minerals on these fibers contain a higher proportion of Fe(III) at cell contact, and the proportion of Fe(II) increases at a distance from the cells. All together, these results demonstrate the primordial role of organic polymers in iron biomineralization and provide first evidence for the existence of a redox gradient around these nonencrusting, Fe-oxidizing bacteria. PMID:19592528

Miot, Jennyfer; Benzerara, Karim; Obst, Martin; Kappler, Andreas; Hegler, Florian; Schadler, Sebastian; Bouchez, Camille; Guyot, Francois; Morin, Guillaume

2009-01-01

210

Method for reducing iron losses in an iron smelting process  

DOEpatents

A process of smelting iron that comprises the steps of: a) introducing a source of iron oxide, oxygen, nitrogen, and a source of carbonaceous fuel to a smelting reactor, at least some of said oxygen being continuously introduced through an overhead lance; b) maintaining conditions in said reactor to cause (i) at least some of the iron oxide to be chemically reduced, (ii) a bath of molten iron to be created and stirred in the bottom of the reactor, surmounted by a layer of slag, and (iii) carbon monoxide gas to rise through the slag; c) causing at least some of said carbon monoxide to react in the reactor with the incoming oxygen, thereby generating heat for reactions taking place in the reactor; and d) releasing from the reactor an offgas effluent, is run in a way that keeps iron losses in the offgas relatively low. After start-up of the process is complete, steps (a) and (b) are controlled so as to: e) keep the temperature of the molten iron at or below about 1550.degree. C. and f) keep the slag weight at or above about 0.8 tonne per square meter.

Sarma, Balu (Airmont, NY); Downing, Kenneth B. (Greenville, SC)

1999-01-01

211

Method for reducing iron losses in an iron smelting process  

DOEpatents

A process of smelting iron that comprises the steps of: (a) introducing a source of iron oxide, oxygen, nitrogen, and a source of carbonaceous fuel to a smelting reactor, at least some of said oxygen being continuously introduced through an overhead lance; (b) maintaining conditions in said reactor to cause (1) at least some of the iron oxide to be chemically reduced, (2) a bath of molten iron to be created and stirred in the bottom of the reactor, surmounted by a layer of slag, and (3) carbon monoxide gas to rise through the slag; (c) causing at least some of said carbon monoxide to react in the reactor with the incoming oxygen, thereby generating heat for reactions taking place in the reactor; and (d) releasing from the reactor an offgas effluent, is run in a way that keeps iron losses in the offgas relatively low. After start-up of the process is complete, steps (a) and (b) are controlled so as to: (1) keep the temperature of the molten iron at or below about 1550 C and (2) keep the slag weight at or above about 0.8 ton per square meter. 13 figs.

Sarma, B.; Downing, K.B.

1999-03-23

212

IRON-TOLERANT CYANOBACTERIA: IMPLICATIONS FOR ASTROBIOLOGY  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The review is dedicated to the new group of extremophiles - iron tolerant cyanobacteria. The authors have analyzed earlier published articles about the ecology of iron tolerant cyanobacteria and their diversity. It was concluded that contemporary iron depositing hot springs might be considered as relative analogs of Precambrian environment. The authors have concluded that the diversity of iron-tolerant cyanobacteria is understudied. The authors also analyzed published data about the physiological peculiarities of iron tolerant cyanobacteria. They made the conclusion that iron tolerant cyanobacteria may oxidize reduced iron through the photosystem of cyanobacteria. The involvement of both Reaction Centers 1 and 2 is also discussed. The conclusion that iron tolerant protocyanobacteria could be involved in banded iron formations generation is also proposed. The possible mechanism of the transition from an oxygenic photosynthesis to an oxygenic one is also discussed. In the final part of the review the authors consider the possible implications of iron tolerant cyanobacteria for astrobiology.

Brown, Igor I.; Allen, Carlton C.; Mummey, Daniel L.; Sarkisova, Svetlana A.; McKay, David S.

2006-01-01

213

Discovery of the Iron Isotopes  

E-print Network

Twenty-eight iron isotopes have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is discussed. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

A. Schuh; A. Fritsch; M. Heim; A. Shore; M. Thoennessen

2009-09-01

214

Luminescent iron clusters in solution.  

PubMed

Metal clusters, composed of a few atoms at the core, exhibit unique properties and have potential applications. Although atomically precise clusters of noble metals have been synthesized, analogous systems of reactive metals, such as iron, have not been realized in solution due to high reactivity. Here we report the synthesis and characterization of novel iron clusters in the hemoglobin matrix that are highly luminescent (quantum yield 10% at 565 nm). The super-paramagnetic iron clusters, after successful ligand exchange from protein and phase transfer from water to chloroform using tri-octylphosphineoxide (TOPO), were detected as [Fe??(TOPO)?(H?O)?](+), [Fe??(TOPO)?(H?O)](+) and [Fe?(TOPO)(H?O)?](+) by mass spectrometry. This study lays the groundwork for exploiting unique properties of soluble iron clusters. PMID:24356936

Goswami, Nirmal; Baksi, Ananya; Giri, Anupam; Xavier, Paulrajpillai Lourdu; Basu, Gautam; Pradeep, Thalappil; Pal, Samir Kumar

2014-01-01

215

Thermal hazard of iron picrate.  

PubMed

Iron picrate (FePic) was synthesized under conditions similar to those that result in the natural deterioration of chemical weapons. Its thermal hazard was investigated by comparing it with iron picrate obtained by the chemical synthesis method (FePic(Ba)). FePic has eight or more water molecules of crystallization and consists of a mixture of various hydrates. It shows low sensitivity to friction and drop hammer tests due to the large number of water molecules of crystallization. Under the experimental conditions of the thermal analysis, the hydrated iron picrates began to decompose before being dehydrated to form the anhydrous salt. Prolonged holding under natural environmental conditions does not appear to result in formation of the dangerous anhydrous salt. Based on the observed heating rate dependence, it is thought that the hydrated iron picrate should start to decompose before dehydration to the anhydrous salt occurs when subjected to a large heating rate. PMID:16343750

Akiyoshi, Miyako; Okada, Ken; Matsunaga, Takehiro

2006-05-20

216

Iron for restless legs syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common neurologic syndrome and is associated with iron deficiency in many patients. It is unclear whether iron therapy is effective treatment for RLS. Objectives The objective of this review was to assess the effects of iron supplementation (oral or intravenous) for patients with RLS. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE (Jan 1995 to April 2011); EMBASE (Jan 1995 to April 2011); PsycINFO (Jan 1995 to April 2011); and CINAHL (Jan 1995 to April 2011). Corresponding authors of included trials and additional members of the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group were contacted to locate additional published or unpublished trials. Selection criteria Controlled trials comparing any formulation of iron with placebo, other medications, or no treatment in adults diagnosed with RLS according to expert clinical interview or explicit diagnostic criteria. Data collection and analysis Two review authors extracted data and at least two authors assessed trial quality. We contacted trial authors for missing data. Main results Six studies (192 total subjects) were identified and included in this analysis. The quality of trials was variable. Our primary outcome was restlessness or uncomfortable leg sensations, which was quantified using the IRLS severity scale in four trials and another RLS symptom scale in a fifth trial. Combining data from the four trials using the IRLS severity scale, there was no clear benefit from iron therapy (mean difference in IRLS severity scores of -3.79, 95% CI: -7.68 to 0.10, p = 0.06). However, the fifth trial did find iron therapy to be beneficial (median decrease of 3 points in the iron group and no change in the placebo group on a 10 point scale of RLS symptoms, p = 0.01). Quality of life was improved in the iron group relative to placebo in some studies but not others. Changes in periodic limb movements were not different between groups (measured in two studies). Objective sleep quality, subjective sleep quality and daytime functioning were not different between treatment groups in the studies that assessed them. The single study of subjects with end stage renal disease did show a benefit of therapy. Most trials did not require subjects to have co-morbid iron deficiency and several excluded patients with severe anemia. The single study that was limited to iron deficient subjects did not show clear benefit of iron supplementation on RLS symptoms. There was no clear superiority of oral or intravenous delivery of iron. Iron therapy did not result in significantly more side effects than placebo (RR 1.39, 95% CI 0.85 to 2.27). Authors' conclusions There is insufficient evidence to determine whether iron therapy is beneficial for the treatment of RLS. Further research to determine whether some or all types of RLS patients may benefit from iron therapy, as well as the best route of iron administration, is needed. PMID:22592724

Trotti, Lynn M; Bhadriraju, Srinivas; Becker, Lorne A

2014-01-01

217

Process dynamics of electric arc furnace during direct reduced iron melting  

Microsoft Academic Search

A phenomenological mathematical model to simulate steelmaking operations in an electric arc furnace (EAF) has been developed.\\u000a This model has been validated with industrial data from a Mexican company that employs direct reduced iron (DRI) as the main\\u000a iron unit. The slag and steel composition can be predicted in real time with the aid of several components integrated into\\u000a the

R. D. Morales; A. N. Conejo; H. H. Rodriguez

2002-01-01

218

[Iron-deficiency anemia and gastrointestinal bleeding].  

PubMed

The physiology of iron homeostasis, clinical presentation, diagnosis, differential diagnosis and therapeutic options in iron-deficiency anemia are discussed. Iron deficiency is the most common haematological disorder encountered in general practice and iron-deficiency anemia is the most frequently occurring anemia throughout the world. Blood loss is a major cause of iron-deficiency anemia. Gastrointestinal bleeding is the most common cause of iron deficiency in adult men and is second only to menstrual blood loss as a cause in women. Iron-deficiency anemia is not a disease itself but a manifestation of an underlying disease, searching for the latter is therefore crucial and may be of far greater importance to the ultimate well-being of the patient than repleting iron stores. The symptoms and signs of iron deficiency are partially explained by the presence of anemia. However, there also appears to be a direct effect of iron deficiency on the central nervous system. The most important screening investigations for iron deficiency in clinical practice are the haemoglobin, the haematocrit and the mean corpuscular volume (MCV). The single most important measure of iron status is the serum ferritin, values below the lower limit of normal being specific for iron deficiency. In inflammation, hepatopathy and haemolysis serum ferritin is also released leading to falsely elevated values, therefore an analysis of the C-reactive protein (CRP) should always accompany the analysis of serum ferritin. Repleting iron stores is usually done with oral iron therapy, the available preparations are comparable with respect to efficacy, side effects and costs. The main indications for parenteral iron therapy are intolerance to oral iron, intestinal malabsorption and poor compliance to an oral regimen. The iron sucrose preparation should bepreferentially used for that purpose, the total dose is calculated from the amount of iron needed to restore the haemoglobin deficit plus an additional amount to replenish iron stores. PMID:16739893

Rüfer, A; Criblez, D; Wuillemin, W A

2006-05-01

219

Acid mine drainage biogeochemistry at Iron Mountain, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

: The Richmond Mine at Iron Mountain, Shasta County, California, USA provides an excellent opportunity to study the chemical and biological controls on acid mine drainage (AMD) generation in situ, and to identify key factors controlling solution chemistry. Here we integrate four years of field-based geochemical data with 16S rRNA gene clone libraries and rRNA probe-based studies of microbial population

Gregory K. Druschel; Brett J. Baker; Thomas M. Gihring; Jillian F. Banfield

2004-01-01

220

Iron, oxidative stress and gestational diabetes.  

PubMed

Both iron deficiency and hyperglycemia are highly prevalent globally for pregnant women. Iron supplementation is recommended during pregnancy to control iron deficiency. The purposes of the review are to assess the oxidative effects of iron supplementation and the potential relationship between iron nutrition and gestational diabetes. High doses of iron (~relative to 60 mg or more daily for adult humans) can induce lipid peroxidation in vitro and in animal studies. Pharmaceutical doses of iron supplements (e.g., 10× RDA or more for oral supplements or direct iron supplementation via injection or addition to the cell culture medium) for a short or long duration will induce DNA damage. Higher heme-iron intake or iron status measured by various biomarkers, especially serum ferritin, might contribute to greater risk of gestational diabetes, which may be mediated by iron oxidative stress though lipid oxidation and/or DNA damage. However, information is lacking about the effect of low dose iron supplementation (? 60 mg daily) on lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and gestational diabetes. Randomized trials of low-dose iron supplementation (? 60 mg daily) for pregnant women are warranted to test the relationship between iron oxidative stress and insulin resistance/gestational diabetes, especially for iron-replete women. PMID:25255832

Zhuang, Taifeng; Han, Huijun; Yang, Zhenyu

2014-09-01

221

Iron, Oxidative Stress and Gestational Diabetes  

PubMed Central

Both iron deficiency and hyperglycemia are highly prevalent globally for pregnant women. Iron supplementation is recommended during pregnancy to control iron deficiency. The purposes of the review are to assess the oxidative effects of iron supplementation and the potential relationship between iron nutrition and gestational diabetes. High doses of iron (~relative to 60 mg or more daily for adult humans) can induce lipid peroxidation in vitro and in animal studies. Pharmaceutical doses of iron supplements (e.g., 10× RDA or more for oral supplements or direct iron supplementation via injection or addition to the cell culture medium) for a short or long duration will induce DNA damage. Higher heme-iron intake or iron status measured by various biomarkers, especially serum ferritin, might contribute to greater risk of gestational diabetes, which may be mediated by iron oxidative stress though lipid oxidation and/or DNA damage. However, information is lacking about the effect of low dose iron supplementation (?60 mg daily) on lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and gestational diabetes. Randomized trials of low-dose iron supplementation (?60 mg daily) for pregnant women are warranted to test the relationship between iron oxidative stress and insulin resistance/gestational diabetes, especially for iron-replete women. PMID:25255832

Zhuang, Taifeng; Han, Huijun; Yang, Zhenyu

2014-01-01

222

Iron Necessity: The Secret of Wolbachia's Success?  

PubMed Central

The bacterium Wolbachia (order Rickettsiales) is probably the world's most successful vertically-transmitted symbiont, distributed among a staggering 40% of terrestrial arthropod species. Wolbachia has great potential in vector control due to its ability to manipulate its hosts' reproduction and to impede the replication and dissemination of arboviruses and other pathogens within haematophagous arthropods. In addition, the unexpected presence of Wolbachia in filarial nematodes of medical and veterinary importance has provided an opportunity to target the adult worms of Wuchereria bancrofti, Onchocerca volvulus, and Dirofilaria immitis with safe drugs such as doxycycline. A striking feature of Wolbachia is its phenotypic plasticity between (and sometimes within) hosts, which may be underpinned by its ability to integrate itself into several key processes within eukaryotic cells: oxidative stress, autophagy, and apoptosis. Importantly, despite significant differences in the genomes of arthropod and filarial Wolbachia strains, these nexuses appear to lie on a continuum in different hosts. Here, we consider how iron metabolism may represent a fundamental aspect of host homeostasis that is impacted by Wolbachia infection, connecting disparate pathways ranging from the provision of haem and ATP to programmed cell death, aging, and the recycling of intracellular resources. Depending on how Wolbachia and host cells interact across networks that depend on iron, the gradient between parasitism and mutualism may shift dynamically in some systems, or alternatively, stabilise on one or the other end of the spectrum. PMID:25329055

Gill, Alessandra Christina; Darby, Alistair C.; Makepeace, Benjamin L.

2014-01-01

223

Rethinking Iron Regulation and Assessment in Iron Deficiency, Anemia of Chronic Disease, and Obesity: Introducing Hepcidin  

PubMed Central

Adequate iron availability is essential to human development and overall health. Iron is a key component of oxygen-carrying proteins, has a pivotal role in cellular metabolism, and is essential to cell growth and differentiation. Inadequate dietary iron intake, chronic and acute inflammatory conditions, and obesity are each associated with alterations in iron homeostasis. Tight regulation of iron is necessary because iron is highly toxic and human beings can only excrete small amounts through sweat, skin and enterocyte sloughing, and fecal and menstrual blood loss. Hepcidin, a small peptide hormone produced mainly by the liver, acts as the key regulator of systemic iron homeostasis. Hepcidin controls movement of iron into plasma by regulating the activity of the sole known iron exporter ferroportin-1. Downregulation of the ferroportin-1 exporter results in sequestration of iron within intestinal enterocytes, hepatocytes, and iron-storing macrophages reducing iron bioavailability. Hepcidin expression is increased by higher body iron levels and inflammation and decreased by anemia and hypoxia. Importantly, existing data illustrate that hepcidin may play a significant role in the development of several iron-related disorders, including the anemia of chronic disease and the iron dysregulation observed in obesity. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to discuss iron regulation, with specific emphasis on systemic regulation by hepcidin, and examine the role of hepcidin within several disease states, including iron deficiency, anemia of chronic disease, and obesity. The relationship between obesity and iron depletion and the clinical assessment of iron status will also be reviewed. PMID:22717199

Tussing-Humphreys, Lisa; Pustacioglu, Cenk; Nemeth, Elizabeta; Braunschweig, Carol

2012-01-01

224

Simultaneous Measurements of Temperature and Iron-Slag Ratio at Taphole of Blast Furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the initial process in an integrated steel-making plant, molten iron is produced in a blast furnace. The molten iron has a temperature between 1700 K and 1900 K. The outflow stream discharged from a taphole comprises the molten iron and slag (which is a mixture of molten oxides). Monitoring of the stream temperature is important because it has information on the thermal condition inside the blast furnace. A newly developed simultaneous measurement technique for temperature and iron-slag ratio is reported. A monochromatic CCD camera with a short exposure time is used to obtain a thermal image of the rapidly moving stream. The thermal image has a marble-like pattern caused by the physical separation of the iron and slag and their different optical properties. Iron thermometry is realized by automatically detecting the peak of the iron gray-level distribution on a histogram. Meanwhile, the thermal radiance of the semitransparent slag varies as a function of the thickness. The slag temperature is calculated from the maximum gray level, presuming that the emissivity of the slag is constant at a thick slag part. The slag ratio is measured by counting the number of pixels on the histogram. A field test was carried out at an operating blast furnace. The iron temperature, slag temperature, and slag ratio were successfully measured. This multiple image measurement is expected to be the new information source for stable blast furnace operation.

Sugiura, M.; Shinotake, A.; Nakashima, M.; Omoto, N.

2014-07-01

225

Two transcription factors are necessary for iron homeostasis in a salt-dwelling archaeon  

PubMed Central

Because iron toxicity and deficiency are equally life threatening, maintaining intracellular iron levels within a narrow optimal range is critical for nearly all known organisms. However, regulatory mechanisms that establish homeostasis are not well understood in organisms that dwell in environments at the extremes of pH, temperature, and salinity. Under conditions of limited iron, the extremophile Halobacterium salinarum, a salt-loving archaeon, mounts a specific response to scavenge iron for growth. We have identified and characterized the role of two transcription factors (TFs), Idr1 and Idr2, in regulating this important response. An integrated systems analysis of TF knockout gene expression profiles and genome-wide binding locations in the presence and absence of iron has revealed that these TFs operate collaboratively to maintain iron homeostasis. In the presence of iron, Idr1 and Idr2 bind near each other at 24 loci in the genome, where they are both required to repress some genes. By contrast, Idr1 and Idr2 are both necessary to activate other genes in a putative a feed forward loop. Even at loci bound independently, the two TFs target different genes with similar functions in iron homeostasis. We discuss conserved and unique features of the Idr1–Idr2 system in the context of similar systems in organisms from other domains of life. PMID:21109526

Schmid, Amy K.; Pan, Min; Sharma, Kriti; Baliga, Nitin S.

2011-01-01

226

Simultaneous Measurements of Temperature and Iron-Slag Ratio at Taphole of Blast Furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the initial process in an integrated steel-making plant, molten iron is produced in a blast furnace. The molten iron has a temperature between 1700 K and 1900 K. The outflow stream discharged from a taphole comprises the molten iron and slag (which is a mixture of molten oxides). Monitoring of the stream temperature is important because it has information on the thermal condition inside the blast furnace. A newly developed simultaneous measurement technique for temperature and iron-slag ratio is reported. A monochromatic CCD camera with a short exposure time is used to obtain a thermal image of the rapidly moving stream. The thermal image has a marble-like pattern caused by the physical separation of the iron and slag and their different optical properties. Iron thermometry is realized by automatically detecting the peak of the iron gray-level distribution on a histogram. Meanwhile, the thermal radiance of the semitransparent slag varies as a function of the thickness. The slag temperature is calculated from the maximum gray level, presuming that the emissivity of the slag is constant at a thick slag part. The slag ratio is measured by counting the number of pixels on the histogram. A field test was carried out at an operating blast furnace. The iron temperature, slag temperature, and slag ratio were successfully measured. This multiple image measurement is expected to be the new information source for stable blast furnace operation.

Sugiura, M.; Shinotake, A.; Nakashima, M.; Omoto, N.

2014-08-01

227

Membrane development in the cyanobacterium, Anacystis nidulans, during recovery from iron starvation  

SciTech Connect

Deprivation of iron from the growth medium results in physiological as well as structural changes in the unicellular cyanobacterium Anacystis nidulans R2. Important among these changes are alterations in the composition and function of the photosynthetic membranes. Room-temperature absorption spectra of iron-starved cyanobacterial cells show a chlorophyll absorption peak at 672 nanometers, 7 nanometers blue-shifted from its normal position at 679 nanometers. Iron-starved cells have decreased amounts of chlorophyll and phycobilins. Their fluorescence spectra (77K) have one prominent chlorophyll emission peak at 684 nanometers as compared to three peaks at 687, 696, and 717 nanometers from normal cells. Chlorophyll-protein analysis of iron-deprived cells indicated the absence of high molecular weight bands. Addition of iron to iron-starved cells induced a restoration process in which new components were initially synthesized and integrated into preexisting membranes; at later times, new membranes were assembled and cell division commenced. Synthesis of chlorophyll and phycocyanins started almost immediately after the addition of iron. The origin of the fluorescence emission at 687 and 696 nanometers is discussed in relation to the specific chlorophyll-protein complexes formed during iron reconstitution. 26 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

Pakrasi, H.B.; Goldenberg, A.; Sherman, L.A.

1985-09-01

228

Host iron status and iron supplementation mediate susceptibility to erythrocytic stage Plasmodium falciparum.  

PubMed

Iron deficiency and malaria have similar global distributions, and frequently co-exist in pregnant women and young children. Where both conditions are prevalent, iron supplementation is complicated by observations that iron deficiency anaemia protects against falciparum malaria, and that iron supplements increase susceptibility to clinically significant malaria, but the mechanisms remain obscure. Here, using an in vitro parasite culture system with erythrocytes from iron-deficient and replete human donors, we demonstrate that Plasmodium falciparum infects iron-deficient erythrocytes less efficiently. In addition, owing to merozoite preference for young erythrocytes, iron supplementation of iron-deficient individuals reverses the protective effects of iron deficiency. Our results provide experimental validation of field observations reporting protective effects of iron deficiency and harmful effects of iron administration on human malaria susceptibility. Because recovery from anaemia requires transient reticulocytosis, our findings imply that in malarious regions iron supplementation should be accompanied by effective measures to prevent falciparum malaria. PMID:25059846

Clark, Martha A; Goheen, Morgan M; Fulford, Anthony; Prentice, Andrew M; Elnagheeb, Marwa A; Patel, Jaymin; Fisher, Nancy; Taylor, Steve M; Kasthuri, Raj S; Cerami, Carla

2014-01-01

229

FOLLOW-UP OF A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL OF IRON-FORTIFIED (12.7 MG/L) VS. LOW-IRON (2.3 MG/L) INFANT FORMULA: DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME AT 10 YEARS  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess long-term developmental outcome in children who received iron-fortified or low-iron formula. Design Follow-up at 10 years of randomized controlled trial (1991–1994) of 2 levels of formula iron. Examiners blind to group. Setting Urban areas around Santiago, Chile. Participants Original study enrolled healthy full-term infants in community clinics; 835 completed the trial. At 10 years, 573 were assessed (57%). Intervention Iron-fortified (12.7 mg/l) or low-iron (2.3 mg/l) formula from 6 to 12 months. Main Outcome Measures IQ, spatial memory, arithmetic achievement, visual-motor integration, visual perception, and motor functioning. We used covaried regression to compare iron-fortified and low-iron groups and consider hemogobin (HB) prior to randomization and sensitivity analyses to identify 6-month HB at which groups diverged in outcome. Results Compared to low-iron, the iron-fortified group scored lower on every 10-year outcome (significant for spatial memory, visual-motor integration; suggestive for IQ, arithmetic, visual perception, motor coordination; 1.4 – 4.6 points lower, effect sizes 0.13 – 0.21). Children with high 6-month HB (> 128 g/l) showed poorer outcome on these measures if they received iron-fortified formula (10.7 – 19.3 points lower; large effect sizes, 0.85 – 1.36); those with low HB (< 105 g/l) showed better outcome (2.6 – 4.5 points higher; small but significant effects, 0.22 – 0.36). High HB represented 5.5% of sample (n = 26); low HB, 17.0% (n = 87). Conclusions Long-term development may be adversely affected in infants with high HB who receive 12.7 mg/l iron-fortified formula. Optimal amounts of iron in infant formula warrant further study. PMID:22064877

Lozoff, Betsy; Castillo, Marcela; Clark, Katy M.; Smith, Julia B.

2012-01-01

230

"There is iron and iron…" Burkinabè women's perceptions of iron supplementation: a qualitative study.  

PubMed

Most pregnant women in Burkina Faso are iron deficient and many are anemic. This study assessed women's understanding of anemia and the role of iron in preventing and treating this condition. A qualitative study was conducted within a randomized controlled trial of weekly iron supplementation in a rural malaria endemic area. Focus groups with women of similar age, parity, and marital status took place in 12 of 24 study villages. Two additional focus groups were conducted with female field workers. Tape-recorded transcripts were translated into French and analyzed using Framework analysis. Anemia, for which no Mooré term or traditional treatment for anemia was evident, was described in terms of blood volume. Moderate blood loss (diminished blood) could be easily replaced by eating well and was not considered serious. Massive blood loss (finished blood) was a rare, life-threatening illness. Iron tablets could increase blood volume and help women withstand massive blood loss at delivery, but for the latter, transfusion was indicated. Women had no knowledge of iron's role and did not readily concede that iron supplements contained elemental iron. Neither adolescents nor field workers were convinced of the benefits of supplementing non-pregnant adolescents, who were incorrectly considered to be at low risk of anemia. Young women's knowledge of anemia did not provide an adequate explanatory framework to motivate anemia prevention. Improving information on the role of iron is especially important for adolescent girls who may be incorrectly considered at low risk of anemia as they have not yet experienced pregnancy. PMID:25138626

Compaore, A; Gies, S; Brabin, B; Tinto, H; Brabin, L

2014-10-01

231

Iron accumulation and iron-regulatory protein activity in human hepatoma (HepG2) cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iron may populate distinct hepatocellular iron pools that differentially regulate expression of proteins such as ferritin and transferrin receptor (TfR) through iron-regulatory mRNA-binding proteins (IRPs), and may additionally regulate uptake and accumulation of non-transferrin-bound iron (NTBI). We examined iron-regulatory protein (IRP) binding activity and ferritin\\/TfR expression in human hepatoma (HepG2) cells exposed to iron at different levels for different periods.

Zvezdana Popovic; Douglas M. Templeton

2004-01-01

232

THE ROLE OF FERRIC IRON UPTAKE REGULATOR (FUR) PROTEIN ON IRON REGULATION IN COXIELLA BURNETII  

E-print Network

iron from the iron rich molecules in the host such as transferrin or hemoglobin. While studying iron acquisition in Legionella, (the phylogenetically closest relative to Coxiella) it was found that activated macrophages controlled infection... by downregulating transferrin receptors by up to 73 percent. By corralling the iron stores, the macrophage is able to prevent Legionella from acquiring the iron necessary for its survival. One of the problems associated with these iron acquisition methods...

Wilson, Mary J

2006-08-16

233

Processing and trafficking of the iron regulatory protein, hemojuvelin.  

E-print Network

??Mutations in hemojuvelin (HJV) lead to the iron overload disorder juvenile hemochromatosis. HJV regulates iron metabolism by activating transcription of the iron regulatory peptide, hepcidin,… (more)

Maxson, Julia Elizabeth

2011-01-01

234

Systemic Iron Supplementation Replenishes Iron Stores Without Enhancing Colon Carcinogenesis in Murine Models of Ulcerative Colitis: Comparison with Iron-Enriched Diet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ulcerative colitis (UC) patients frequently require iron supplementation to remedy anemia. The impact of systemic iron supplementation (intraperitoneal injection) on UC-associated carcinogenesis was assessed in mice subjected to cyclic dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) treatment and compared with dietary iron enrichment. Systemic iron supplementation, but not a twofold iron diet, remedied iron deficiency as indicated by the histochemical detection of splenic

Darren N. Seril; Jie Liao; Chung S. Yang; Guang-Yu Yang

2005-01-01

235

Adiposity in women and children from transition countries predicts decreased iron absorption, iron deficiency and a reduced response to iron fortification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Overweight is increasing in transition countries, while iron deficiency remains common. In industrialized countries, greater adiposity increases risk of iron deficiency. Higher hepcidin levels in obesity may reduce dietary iron absorption. Therefore, we investigated the association between body mass index (BMI) and iron absorption, iron status and the response to iron fortification in populations from three transition countries (Thailand, Morocco

M. B. Zimmermann; C. Zeder; S. Muthayya; P. Winichagoon; N. Chaouki; I. Aeberli; R. F. Hurrell

2008-01-01

236

[Diagnosis and treatment of iron deficiency].  

PubMed

The investigation of iron deficiency should be oriented by clinical background. In group at risk (infants and children, women of childbearing age, pregnant women) management is limited to nutritional inquiry and gynaecologic examination and oral iron treatment. In men and post menopausal women iron deficiency is assumed to be the result of occult gastro-intestinal blood loss; so, in these patients, upper and lower gastro-intestinal endoscopy are required. Benign lesions are more frequently found in upper digestive tract than lower digestive tract. When these investigations are negative and iron treatment unsuccessful, enteroscopy is recommended. Oral iron treatment is performed with ferrous salts (200 mg/d). Duration of treatment depends on severity of iron deficiency: three months for iron stores deficiency an iron deficient erythropoisis, six months for iron deficiency anaemia. PMID:10865495

Grosbois, B; Gatel, A

2000-05-01

237

Synthesis, properties, and applications of iron nanoparticles.  

SciTech Connect

Iron, the most ubiquitous of the transition metals and the fourth most plentiful element in the Earths crust, is the structural backbone of our modern infrastructure. It is therefore ironic that as a nanoparticle, iron has been somewhat neglected in favor of its own oxides, as well as other metals such as cobalt, nickel, gold, and platinum. This is unfortunate, but understandable. Irons reactivity is important in macroscopic applications (particularly rusting), but is a dominant concern at the nanoscale. Finely divided iron has long been known to be pyrophoric, which is a major reason that iron nanoparticles have not been more fully studied to date. This extreme reactivity has traditionally made iron nanoparticles difficult to study and inconvenient for practical applications. Iron however has a great deal to offer at the nanoscale, including very potent magnetic and catalytic properties. Recent work has begun to take advantage of irons potential, and work in this field appears to be blossoming.

Huber, Dale L.

2005-01-01

238

Sequestration and Scavenging of Iron in Infection  

PubMed Central

The proliferative capability of many invasive pathogens is limited by the bioavailability of iron. Pathogens have thus developed strategies to obtain iron from their host organisms. In turn, host defense strategies have evolved to sequester iron from invasive pathogens. This review explores the mechanisms employed by bacterial pathogens to gain access to host iron sources, the role of iron in bacterial virulence, and iron-related genes required for the establishment or maintenance of infection. Host defenses to limit iron availability for bacterial growth during the acute-phase response and the consequences of iron overload conditions on susceptibility to bacterial infection are also examined. The evidence summarized herein demonstrates the importance of iron bioavailability in influencing the risk of infection and the ability of the host to clear the pathogen. PMID:23836822

Parrow, Nermi L.; Fleming, Robert E.

2013-01-01

239

Iron bioavailability and dietary reference values.  

PubMed

Iron differs from other minerals because iron balance in the human body is regulated by absorption only because there is no physiologic mechanism for excretion. On the basis of intake data and isotope studies, iron bioavailability has been estimated to be in the range of 14-18% for mixed diets and 5-12% for vegetarian diets in subjects with no iron stores, and these values have been used to generate dietary reference values for all population groups. Dietary factors that influence iron absorption, such as phytate, polyphenols, calcium, ascorbic acid, and muscle tissue, have been shown repeatedly to influence iron absorption in single-meal isotope studies, whereas in multimeal studies with a varied diet and multiple inhibitors and enhancers, the effect of single components has been, as expected, more modest. The importance of fortification iron and food additives such as erythorbic acid on iron bioavailability from a mixed diet needs clarification. The influence of vitamin A, carotenoids, and nondigestible carbohydrates on iron absorption and the nature of the "meat factor" remain unresolved. The iron status of the individual and other host factors, such as obesity, play a key role in iron bioavailability, and iron status generally has a greater effect than diet composition. It would therefore be timely to develop a range of iron bioavailability factors based not only on diet composition but also on subject characteristics, such as iron status and prevalence of obesity. PMID:20200263

Hurrell, Richard; Egli, Ines

2010-05-01

240

Retinal iron homeostasis in health and disease  

PubMed Central

Iron is essential for life, but excess iron can be toxic. As a potent free radical creator, iron generates hydroxyl radicals leading to significant oxidative stress. Since iron is not excreted from the body, it accumulates with age in tissues, including the retina, predisposing to age-related oxidative insult. Both hereditary and acquired retinal diseases are associated with increased iron levels. For example, retinal degenerations have been found in hereditary iron overload disorders, like aceruloplasminemia, Friedreich's ataxia, and pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration. Similarly, mice with targeted mutation of the iron exporter ceruloplasmin and its homolog hephaestin showed age-related retinal iron accumulation and retinal degeneration with features resembling human age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Post mortem AMD eyes have increased levels of iron in retina compared to age-matched healthy donors. Iron accumulation in AMD is likely to result, in part, from inflammation, hypoxia, and oxidative stress, all of which can cause iron dysregulation. Fortunately, it has been demonstrated by in vitro and in vivo studies that iron in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and retina is chelatable. Iron chelation protects photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelial cells (RPE) in a variety of mouse models. This has therapeutic potential for diminishing iron-induced oxidative damage to prevent or treat AMD. PMID:23825457

Song, Delu; Dunaief, Joshua L.

2013-01-01

241

Regulation of Iron Metabolism by Pyrococcus furiosus  

PubMed Central

Iron is an essential element for the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus, and many of its iron-containing enzymes have been characterized. How iron assimilation is regulated, however, is unknown. The genome sequence contains genes encoding two putative iron-responsive transcription factors, DtxR and Fur. Global transcriptional profiles of the dtxR deletion mutant (?DTXR) and the parent strain under iron-sufficient and iron-limited conditions indicated that DtxR represses the expression of the genes encoding two putative iron transporters, Ftr1 and FeoAB, under iron-sufficient conditions. Under iron limitation, DtxR represses expression of the gene encoding the iron-containing enzyme aldehyde ferredoxin oxidoreductase and a putative ABC-type transporter. Analysis of the dtxR gene sequence indicated an incorrectly predicted translation start site, and the corrected full-length DtxR protein, in contrast to the truncated version, specifically bound to the promoters of ftr1 and feoAB, confirming its role as a transcription regulator. Expression of the gene encoding Ftr1 was dramatically upregulated by iron limitation, but no phenotype was observed for the ?FTR1 deletion mutant under iron-limited conditions. The intracellular iron concentrations of ?FTR1 and the parent strain were similar, suggesting that under the conditions tested, Ftr1 is not an essential iron transporter despite its response to iron. In contrast to DtxR, the Fur protein appears not to be a functional regulator in P. furiosus, since it did not bind to the promoters of any of the iron-regulated genes and the deletion mutant (?FUR) revealed no transcriptional responses to iron availability. DtxR is therefore the key iron-responsive transcriptional regulator in P. furiosus. PMID:23504018

Zhu, Yixuan; Kumar, Sunil; Menon, Angeli L.; Scott, Robert A.

2013-01-01

242

The Role of Hepcidin in Iron Metabolism  

PubMed Central

Hepcidin is the central regulator of systemic iron homeostasis. Dysregulation of hepcidin production results in a variety of iron disorders. Hepcidin deficiency is the cause of iron overload in hereditary hemochromatosis, iron-loading anemias, and hepatitis C. Hepcidin excess is associated with anemia of inflammation, chronic kidney disease and iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia. Diagnostic and therapeutic applications of this new knowledge are beginning to emerge. Dr. Ernest Beutler played a significant role in advancing our understanding of the function of hepcidin. This review is dedicated to his memory. PMID:19907144

Nemeth, Elizabeta; Ganz, Tomas

2009-01-01

243

Laser cooling of Iron atoms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the first laser cooling of Iron atoms. Our laser cooling setup makes use of 2 UV laser radiation sent colinearly in a 0.8 m Zeeman slower. One laser is meant for optical pumping of the Iron atoms from the ground state to the lowest energy metastable state. The second laser cools down the atoms using a quasi-perfect closed transition from the optical pumped metastable state. The velocity distribution at the exit of the Zeeman slower is obtained from a probe laser crossing the atom beam at an angle of 50 degrees. The fluorescence light is detected using a photomultiplier tube coupled with a boxcar analyzer. The Iron atom beam is produced with a commercial effusion cell working at around 1950 K. Our laser radiations are stabilized using standard saturated-absorption signals in both an Iron hollow cathode absorption cell and an Iodine cell. We will present our experimental setup, as well as the first evidences of cooled down Iron atoms at the exit of the Zeeman slower.

Bastin, Thierry; Huet, Nicolas; Krins, Stephanie

2013-03-01

244

Laboratory experiments on the weathering of iron meteorites and carbonaceous chondrites by iron-oxidizing bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Batch culture experiments were performed to investigate the weathering of meteoritic material by iron-oxidizing bacteria. The aerobic, acidophilic iron oxidizer (A. ferrooxidans) was capable of oxidizing iron from both carbonaceous chondrites (Murchison and Cold Bokkeveld) and iron meteorites (York and Casas Grandes). Preliminary iron isotope results clearly show contrasted iron pathways during oxidation with and without bacteria suggesting that a biological role in meteorite weathering could be distinguished isotopically. Anaerobic iron-oxidizers growing under pH-neutral conditions oxidized iron from iron meteorites. These results show that rapid biologicallymediated alteration of extraterrestrial materials can occur in both aerobic and anaerobic environments. These results also demonstrate that iron can act as a source of energy for microorganisms from both iron and carbonaceous chondrites in aerobic and anaerobic conditions with implications for life on the early Earth and the possible use of microorganisms to extract minerals from asteroidal material.

Gronstal, A.; Pearson, V.; Kappler, A.; Dooris, C.; Anand, M.; Poitrasson, F.; Kee, T. P.; Cockell, C. S.

2009-03-01

245

Reversing productivity losses from iron deficiency: the economic case.  

PubMed

Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) depresses human productivity, but policymakers do not generally view this effect as an impediment to sustained economic growth. Economic logic should be enfolded in public advocacy for increased investment in the prevention and control of IDA. This paper argues that integrated strategies are required, with each intervention clearly related to particular groups at risk, and benefits carefully calibrated with costs. Protecting women's lives through supplementation has the first call on public resources, but the most productive investments reduce population prevalence at least cost, and these lie with food-based approaches within the competence of the processed food and seed industries. The public and private sectors must embark on modernization of the food industry in developing countries and reorientation of the international agricultural research complex so that iron-enriched essential foods will be affordable and accessible to the poor, especially children. The costs of IDA, the availability of cost-effective strategies and the benefits of sustained iron nutrition improvement to individuals, families and nations are reviewed. The roles of iron supplementation, food fortification, plant breeding and biotechnology, both actual and imminent, are described. The paper concludes that a recast Green Revolution directed toward dietary quality may be the key to enhancing the learning and earning capacity of young people in the developing world. PMID:11925484

Hunt, Joseph M

2002-04-01

246

[Iron overload and insulin resistance].  

PubMed

There is increasing evidence that moderately elevated body iron stores, below levels commonly found in genetic hemochromatosis, may be associated with adverse health outcomes. Genetic hemochromatosis, characterized by transferrin saturation (TS) greater than 45%, is most often linked to homozygosity of the HFE C282Y allele. The phenotype is also modulated by mutations of more recently discovered genes (including ferroportin, hemojuvelin, hepcidin, and transferrin receptor) and environmental factors (including alcohol, viruses, diet, blood loss). Iron overload without hemochromatosis is characterized by high levels of serum ferritin and normal TS, as seen in dysmetabolic hepatosiderosis. Elevated serum ferritin levels predict incident type 2 diabetes in prospective studies and have been associated with hypertension, dyslipidemia, glucose tolerance disturbances, central adiposity, and metabolic syndrome. High ferritin levels are not synonymous with iron overload and may in some cases be a simple marker of insulin resistance. PMID:16292193

Vantyghem, M-C; Girardot, C; Boulogne, A; Wemeau, J-L

2005-11-01

247

Transferrins: iron release from lactoferrin.  

PubMed

Iron loss in vitro by the iron scavenger bovine lactoferrin was investigated in acidic media in the presence of three different monoanions (NO(3)(-), Cl(-) and Br(-)) and one dianion (SO(4)(2-)). Holo and monoferric C-site lactoferrins lose iron in acidic media (pH< or =3.5) by a four-step mechanism. The first two steps describe modifications in the conformation affecting the whole protein, which occur also with apolactoferrin. These two processes are independent of iron load and are followed by a third step consisting of the gain of two protons. This third step is kinetically controlled by the interaction with two Cl(-), Br(-) and NO(3)(-) or one SO(4)(2-). In the fourth step, iron loss is under the kinetic control of a slow gain of two protons; third-order rate-constants k(2), 4.3(+/-0.2)x10(3), 3.4(+/-0.5)x10(3), 3.3(+/-0.5)x10(3) and 1.5(+/-0.5)x10(3) M(-2) s(-1) when the protein is in interaction with SO(4)(2-), NO(3)(-), Cl(-) or Br(-), respectively. This step is accompanied by the loss of the interaction with the anions; equilibrium constant K(2), 20+/-5 mM, 1.0(+/-0.2)x10(-1), 1.5(+/-0.5)x10(-1) and 1.0(+/-0.3)x10(-1) M(2), for SO(4)(-), NO(3)(-), Cl(-) and Br(-), respectively. This mechanism is very different from that determined in mildly acidic media at low ionic strength (micro<0.5) for the iron transport proteins, serum transferrin and ovotransferrin, with which no prior change in conformation or interaction with anions is required. These differences may result from the fact that in the transport proteins, the interdomain hydrogen bonds that consolidate the closed conformation of the iron-binding cleft occur between amino acid side-chain residues that can protonate in mildly acidic media. With bovine lactoferrin, most of the interdomain hydrogen bonds involved in the C-site and one of those involved in the N-site occur between amino acid side-chain residues that cannot protonate. The breaking of the interdomain H-bond upon protonation can trigger the opening of the iron cleft, facilitating iron loss in serum transferrin and ovotransferrin. This situation is, however, different in lactoferrin, where iron loss requires a prior change in conformation. This can explain why lactoferrin does not lose its iron load in acidic media and why it is not involved in iron transport in acidic endosomes. PMID:11023790

Abdallah, F B; El Hage Chahine, J M

2000-10-20

248

Iron, lactoferrin and iron regulatory protein activity in the synovium; relative importance of iron loading and the inflammatory response  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVESTo determine the ability of lactoferrin in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) synovial fluid to bind “free” iron, and to study the regulatory mechanisms therein that control iron homeostasis.METHODS“Free” iron was determined by the bleomycin assay and lactoferrin concentrations by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. The activities of iron regulatory protein (IRP) and NF-?B in synovial fluid cells were assayed by mobility shift

C Guillén; I B McInnes; H Kruger; J H Brock

1998-01-01

249

Estimation of Dietary Iron Bioavailability from Food Iron Intake and Iron Status  

PubMed Central

Currently there are no satisfactory methods for estimating dietary iron absorption (bioavailability) at a population level, but this is essential for deriving dietary reference values using the factorial approach. The aim of this work was to develop a novel approach for estimating dietary iron absorption using a population sample from a sub-section of the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS). Data were analyzed in 873 subjects from the 2000–2001 adult cohort of the NDNS, for whom both dietary intake data and hematological measures (hemoglobin and serum ferritin (SF) concentrations) were available. There were 495 men aged 19–64 y (mean age 42.7±12.1 y) and 378 pre-menopausal women (mean age 35.7±8.2 y). Individual dietary iron requirements were estimated using the Institute of Medicine calculations. A full probability approach was then applied to estimate the prevalence of dietary intakes that were insufficient to meet the needs of the men and women separately, based on their estimated daily iron intake and a series of absorption values ranging from 1–40%. The prevalence of SF concentrations below selected cut-off values (indicating that absorption was not high enough to maintain iron stores) was derived from individual SF concentrations. An estimate of dietary iron absorption required to maintain specified SF values was then calculated by matching the observed prevalence of insufficiency with the prevalence predicted for the series of absorption estimates. Mean daily dietary iron intakes were 13.5 mg for men and 9.8 mg for women. Mean calculated dietary absorption was 8% in men (50th percentile for SF 85 µg/L) and 17% in women (50th percentile for SF 38 µg/L). At a ferritin level of 45 µg/L estimated absorption was similar in men (14%) and women (13%). This new method can be used to calculate dietary iron absorption at a population level using data describing total iron intake and SF concentration. PMID:25356629

Dainty, Jack R.; Berry, Rachel; Lynch, Sean R.; Harvey, Linda J.; Fairweather-Tait, Susan J.

2014-01-01

250

The world iron and steel industry and its impact on Indiana iron and steel and electric utility industries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this research, a large scale mathematical programming model is developed to represent steel production and distribution. This model is used to investigate how technological changes, environmental restrictions, and government trade policies will affect future production location and relocation, world energy consumption, environmental pollution, and international trade in steel. Future potential relocation of production capacity of the world iron and steel industry will have substantial impacts on the North American electric utility industry, especially in Indiana. Given that the iron and steel industry is among the most energy intensive industries in North America, the electricity consumption of Indiana in particular is expected to change significantly as the industry adjusts to the changing environment. This research models the iron and steel industry in its use of two types of mills: integrated mills and mini-mills. Integrated mills use complex and capital intensive production processes to produce steel from iron ore, using a combination of the blast furnace and basic oxygen furnace. Mini-mills use electric melters which convert mainly scrap or directly reduced iron to steel. The model can reflect the trade and energy consequences of a chosen pattern of steel production, as well as the constraints on the pollutant generation. It also reflects various government trade policies to protect domestic steel production, such as quotas and protective tariffs. In addition, the model minimizes the total cost of steel production and transportation by evaluating the geographic patterns of the following factors: (1) iron and steel production; (2) new facility construction; (3) trade patterns. These factors are each subject to various constraints, such as demands, environmental restrictions, and government trade policies, imposed on the pattern of production. Optimization is performed for a single target year far enough in the future to allow construction of new capacity. The model also captures the transitional competition between the existing and the new capacities. Results indicate how future technological changes, environmental concerns and restrictions, and government trade policies can influence the iron and steel industry and the electric consumption of Indiana.

Leung, Thomas Cheong-Yuen

251

Iron chelation and multiple sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Histochemical and MRI studies have demonstrated that MS (multiple sclerosis) patients have abnormal deposition of iron in both gray and white matter structures. Data is emerging indicating that this iron could partake in pathogenesis by various mechanisms, e.g., promoting the production of reactive oxygen species and enhancing the production of proinflammatory cytokines. Iron chelation therapy could be a viable strategy to block iron-related pathological events or it can confer cellular protection by stabilizing hypoxia inducible factor 1?, a transcription factor that normally responds to hypoxic conditions. Iron chelation has been shown to protect against disease progression and/or limit iron accumulation in some neurological disorders or their experimental models. Data from studies that administered a chelator to animals with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, a model of MS, support the rationale for examining this treatment approach in MS. Preliminary clinical studies have been performed in MS patients using deferoxamine. Although some side effects were observed, the large majority of patients were able to tolerate the arduous administration regimen, i.e., 6–8 h of subcutaneous infusion, and all side effects resolved upon discontinuation of treatment. Importantly, these preliminary studies did not identify a disqualifying event for this experimental approach. More recently developed chelators, deferasirox and deferiprone, are more desirable for possible use in MS given their oral administration, and importantly, deferiprone can cross the blood–brain barrier. However, experiences from other conditions indicate that the potential for adverse events during chelation therapy necessitates close patient monitoring and a carefully considered administration regimen. PMID:24397846

Weigel, Kelsey J.; Lynch, Sharon G.; LeVine, Steven M.

2014-01-01

252

Disassembling Iron Availability to Phytoplankton  

PubMed Central

The bioavailability of iron to microorganisms and its underlying mechanisms have far reaching repercussions to many natural systems and diverse fields of research, including ocean biogeochemistry, carbon cycling and climate, harmful algal blooms, soil and plant research, bioremediation, pathogenesis, and medicine. Within the framework of ocean sciences, short supply and restricted bioavailability of Fe to phytoplankton is thought to limit primary production and curtail atmospheric CO2 drawdown in vast ocean regions. Yet a clear-cut definition of bioavailability remains elusive, with elements of iron speciation and kinetics, phytoplankton physiology, light, temperature, and microbial interactions, to name a few, all intricately intertwined into this concept. Here, in a synthesis of published and new data, we attempt to disassemble the complex concept of iron bioavailability to phytoplankton by individually exploring some of its facets. We distinguish between the fundamentals of bioavailability – the acquisition of Fe-substrate by phytoplankton – and added levels of complexity involving interactions among organisms, iron, and ecosystem processes. We first examine how phytoplankton acquire free and organically bound iron, drawing attention to the pervasiveness of the reductive uptake pathway in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic autotrophs. Turning to acquisition rates, we propose to view the availability of various Fe-substrates to phytoplankton as a spectrum rather than an absolute “all or nothing.” We then demonstrate the use of uptake rate constants to make comparisons across different studies, organisms, Fe-compounds, and environments, and for gaging the contribution of various Fe-substrates to phytoplankton growth in situ. Last, we describe the influence of aquatic microorganisms on iron chemistry and fate by way of organic complexation and bio-mediated redox transformations and examine the bioavailability of these bio-modified Fe species. PMID:22529839

Shaked, Yeala; Lis, Hagar

2012-01-01

253

Selected properties of iron aluminides  

SciTech Connect

Important properties of iron aluminides have been compiled in order to help engineers and scientists to be able to quickly assess this materials system. This compilation is by no means exhaustive, but it represents a reasonable first effort to summarize the properties of iron aluminides. Considerable care has been, used in assembling the data into tables. However, no guarantee can be made that all the values compiled here are correct; and in case of doubt, or in order to obtain more detailed information, the original sources should always be consulted.

Schneibel, J.H.

1994-09-01

254

Drinking Water Problems: Iron and Manganese  

E-print Network

concentrations of iron and manganese) Oxidizing filter?manganese greensand or zeolite (use with zeolite coated with manganese oxide. These substances adsorb dis- solved iron and manganese. Synthetic zeolite requires less backwash water and softens water as it removes impurities...

Dozier, Monty; McFarland, Mark L.

2004-02-20

255

Iron, hepcidin, and the metal connection  

PubMed Central

Identification of new players in iron metabolism, such as hepcidin, which regulates ferroportin and divalent metal transporter 1 expression, has improved our knowledge of iron metabolism and iron-related diseases. However, from both experimental data and clinical findings, “iron-related proteins” appear to also be involved in the metabolism of other metals, especially divalent cations. Reports have demonstrated that some metals may affect, directly or indirectly, the expression of proteins involved in iron metabolism. Throughout their lives, individuals are exposed to various metals during personal and/or occupational activities. Therefore, better knowledge of the connections between iron and other metals could improve our understanding of iron-related diseases, especially the variability in phenotypic expression, as well as a variety of diseases in which iron metabolism is secondarily affected. Controlling the metabolism of other metals could represent a promising innovative therapeutic approach. PMID:24926268

Loréal, Olivier; Cavey, Thibault; Bardou-Jacquet, Edouard; Guggenbuhl, Pascal; Ropert, Martine; Brissot, Pierre

2014-01-01

256

Correcting Iron Deficiencies in Grain Sorghum  

E-print Network

Until grain sorghum develops an extensive root system, young plants may be unable to obtain enough ferrous iron to maintain normal growth. This publication offers strategies for avoiding, identifying and correcting iron deficiencies....

Livingston, Stephen; Coffman, Cloyce G.; Unruh, L. G.

1996-02-20

257

49 CFR 230.91 - Chafing irons.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders Draw Gear and Draft Systems § 230.91 Chafing irons. Chafing irons that permit proper curving shall be securely attached...

2010-10-01

258

The tongue and oesophagus in iron-deficiency anaemia and the effect of iron therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biopsies of the tongue and oesophagus were performed on 14 patients with uncomplicated iron-deficiency anaemia before and after treatment with iron. Haemoglobin and serum iron estimations were performed at the same time.Nine patients had clinical evidence of atrophic changes in the tongue before therapy was started. Evidence of regeneration appeared within one or two weeks of starting iron therapy. Two

I. McLean Baird; O. G. Dodge; F. J. Palmer; R. J. Wawman

1961-01-01

259

Fep1, an Iron Sensor Regulating Iron Transporter Gene Expression in Schizosaccharomyces pombe*  

E-print Network

Fep1, an Iron Sensor Regulating Iron Transporter Gene Expression in Schizosaccharomyces pombe iron under high affinity conditions through the action of a cell sur- face ferric reductase encoded by the frp1 gene and a two-component iron-transporting complex encoded by the fip1 and fio1 genes. When cells

Labbé, Simon

260

IronIC Patch: A Wearable Device for the Remote Powering and Connectivity of Implantable Systems  

E-print Network

IronIC Patch: A Wearable Device for the Remote Powering and Connectivity of Implantable Systems the implanted device to the The research work presented was funded by the i-IronIC project and by the NanoSys project. The NanoSys project is within the program ERC-2009-AdG- 246810, the i-IronIC project was financed

De Micheli, Giovanni

261

DOMAIN PATTERNS AND REVERSALS BY WALL MOVEMENTS OF THIN FILMS OF IRON AND NICKEL IRON  

E-print Network

310 DOMAIN PATTERNS AND REVERSALS BY WALL MOVEMENTS OF THIN FILMS OF IRON AND NICKEL IRON By C. E in which a magnetic field was applied during evaporation. The behaviour of the iron film is similar in both directions but in the case of the nickel-iron film the reversal of magnetization in the perpendicular

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

262

Iron release from corroded iron pipes in drinkingwater distribution systems: effect of dissolved oxygen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iron release from corroded iron pipes is the principal cause of ''colored water'' problems in drinkingwater distribution systems. The corrosion scales present in corroded iron pipes restrict the flow of water, and can also deteriorate the water quality. This research was focused on understandingthe effect of dissolved oxyg en (DO), a key water quality parameter, on iron release from the

P. Sarina; V. L. Snoeyink; J. Bebee; K. K. Jim; W. M. Krivena Beckett; J. A. Clement

263

Increased iron (III) and total iron content in post mortem substantia nigra of parkinsonian brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Significant differences in the content of iron (III) and total iron were found in post mortem substantia nigra of Parkinson's disease. There was an increase of 176% in the levels of total iron and 255% of iron (III) in the substantia nigra of the parkinsonian patients compared to age matched controls. In the cortex (Brodmann area 21), hippocampus, putamen,

E. Sofic; P. Riederer; H. Heinsen; H. Beckmann; G. P. Reynolds; G. Hebenstreit; M. B. H. Youdim

1988-01-01

264

Intravenous iron-containing products: EMA procrastination.  

PubMed

A European reassessment has led to identical changes in the summaries of product characteristics (SPCs) for all intravenous iron-containing products: the risk of serious adverse effects is now highlighted, underlining the fact that intravenous iron-containing products should only be used when the benefits clearly outweigh the harms. Unfortunately, iron dextran still remains on the market despite a higher risk of hypersensitivity reactions than with iron sucrose. PMID:25162093

2014-07-01

265

Anemia and Iron Deficiency in Developing Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iron deficiency and anemia are major public health concerns throughout the world and are of special concern in many developing\\u000a countries where the incidence and severity of anemia in certain populations is very high. Pregnant women, women of childbearing\\u000a age, and young children are especially vulnerable to iron deficiency and iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) because of increased\\u000a iron needs during growth

Usha Ramakrishnan; Beth Imhoff-Kunsch

266

Clinical practice guidelines for maintaining adequate iron status with intravenous iron dextran in hemodialysis patients.  

PubMed

While oral iron can be used to manage iron stores in some hemodialysis patients, most require intravenous iron supplementation. Maintenance of iron balance in these patients is critical, since patients with end stage renal disease often suffer from anemia caused by inadequate production of red blood cells and iron deficiency resulting from chronic blood loss. Using guidelines that include maintenance dosing ensures sustained adequate iron stores and maximizes the effects of rHuEPO therapy. Easy-to-administer clinical practice guidelines for repletion and maintenance of iron stores are presented here. PMID:10633605

Peacock, E; Lindenfeld, S M

1999-06-01

267

Determination of yttrium iron garnet superexchange parameters as a function of oxygen and cation stoichiometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, we describe the consequences of oxygen and metal-ion deficiency for the magnetic properties of a magnetic oxide in bulk and thin-film form. The influence of the off stoichiometry on valence of the iron atoms and the local structural configuration of these atoms is investigated in correlation with the magnetic Curie temperatures and the associated microscopic parameters, such as the exchange integrals. Combining both structural information obtained by x-ray absorption spectroscopy at FeK edge and exchange integrals as determined from temperature-resolved magneto-optical magnetometry, we show that the electron-transfer integrals, underlying the superexchange interaction, control the global dependence of the Curie temperature on stoichiometry as should be expected. The determination of the electron-transfer integrals allows also the confirmation that metal-ion deficiencies in off-stoichiometric yttrium iron garnet (OS YIG) films lead to a significant increase in the magnetization (as observed experimentally). That can only be explained when considering a preferential site occupation of the iron vacancies on octahedral sites in agreement with our earlier work on OS YIG films [Y. Dumont , Phys. Rev. B 76, 6 (2007)]. Furthermore, the combination of the experimentally determined iron valence with the Fea-O-Fed bonding angle and the exchange integrals allows for the direct determination of the crystal electric field parameter and the Coulomb repulsion energy as a function of the stoichiometry of the YIG films.

Noun, W.; Popova, E.; Bardelli, F.; Dumont, Y.; Bertacco, R.; Tagliaferri, A.; Tessier, M.; Guyot, M.; Berini, B.; Keller, N.

2010-02-01

268

The Ins and Outs of Iron Homeostasis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Iron is an essential element that is toxic when it accumulates in excess. Intricate regulatory mechanisms have evolved to maintain iron homeostasis within cells and between different tissues of complex organisms. This review discusses the proteins involved in iron transport and storage and their regulation in health and disease.

Adriana Donovan (Harvard Medical School, ChildrenÃÂs Hospital Boston, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute); Cindy N. Roy (Harvard Medical School ChildrenÃÂs Hospital Boston, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute); Nancy C. Andrews (Harvard Medical School ChildrenÃÂs Hospital Boston, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute,)

2006-04-01

269

21 CFR 522.1182 - Iron injection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...i) For prevention of iron deficiency anemia, inject 100 mg (1 mL) by intramuscular...ii) For treatment of iron deficiency anemia, inject 100 mg (1 mL) by intramuscular...follows: (i) For the prevention of anemia due to iron deficiency,...

2010-04-01

270

Modeling the global ocean iron cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a model of the ocean transport and biogeochemical cycling of iron and the subsequent control on export production and macronutrient distributions. Ocean transport of phosphorus and iron are represented by a highly idealized six-box ocean model. Export production is parameterized simply; it is limited by light, phosphate, and iron availability in the surface ocean. We prescribe the regional

Payal Parekh; Michael J. Follows; Edward Boyle

2004-01-01

271

4, 249275, 2007 Effects of iron on  

E-print Network

BGD 4, 249­275, 2007 Effects of iron on diatom stoichiometry L. J. Hoffmann et al. Title Page of iron on the elemental stoichiometry during EIFEX and in the diatoms Fragilariopsis kerguelensis #12;BGD 4, 249­275, 2007 Effects of iron on diatom stoichiometry L. J. Hoffmann et al. Title Page

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

272

ANEMIA OF DISORDERED IRON METABOLISM AND HEME  

E-print Network

Total Iron Concentration 40-50 mg Hemoglobin = 0.5 mg iron/ml blood Transferrin = Transport Protein;9/16/2013 4 IRON DEFICIENCY ANEMIA CAUSES Dietary Deficiency Blood Loss Hemodialysis Malabsorption IDA infections, chronic inflammatory disorders, or neoplastic disorders Cytokines are mediators Inhibit EPO

273

Impairment of cefdinir absorption by iron ion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of iron ion on the absorption of cefdinir, a new oral cephalosporin derivative, was evaluated in healthy male volunteers in a randomized three-way crossover study. The subjects received 200 mg cefdinir alone, 200 mg cefdinir and two tablets of iron ion concomitantly, and two tablets of iron ion preparation 3 hours after 200 mg cefdinir administration. The area

Kazuyuki Ueno; Kazuhiko Tanaka; Keniji Tsujimura; Yoshiyuki Morishima; Hideji Iwashige; Kunio Yamazaki; Izumi Nakata; Kazuyuki Ueno BS

1993-01-01

274

Micromilling enhances iron bioaccessibility from wholegrain wheat.  

PubMed

Cereals constitute important sources of iron in human diet; however, much of the iron in wheat is lost during processing for the production of white flour. This study employed novel food processing techniques to increase the bioaccessibility of naturally occurring iron in wheat. Iron was localized in wheat by Perl's Prussian blue staining. Soluble iron from digested wheat flour was measured by a ferrozine spectrophotometric assay. Iron bioaccessibility was determined using an in vitro simulated peptic-pancreatic digestion, followed by measurement of ferritin (a surrogate marker for iron absorption) in Caco-2 cells. Light microscopy revealed that iron in wheat was encapsulated in cells of the aleurone layer and remained intact after in vivo digestion and passage through the gastrointestinal tract. The solubility of iron in wholegrain wheat and in purified wheat aleurone increased significantly after enzymatic digestion with Driselase, and following mechanical disruption using micromilling. Furthermore, following in vitro simulated peptic-pancreatic digestion, iron bioaccessibility, measured as ferritin formation in Caco-2 cells, from micromilled aleurone flour was significantly higher (52%) than from whole aleurone flour. Taken together our data show that disruption of aleurone cell walls could increase iron bioaccessibility. Micromilled aleurone could provide an alternative strategy for iron fortification of cereal products. PMID:25380143

Latunde-Dada, G O; Li, X; Parodi, A; Edwards, C H; Ellis, P R; Sharp, P A

2014-11-19

275

Ligand iron catalysts for selective hydrogenation  

DOEpatents

Disclosed are iron ligand catalysts for selective hydrogenation of aldehydes, ketones and imines. A catalyst such as dicarbonyl iron hydride hydroxycyclopentadiene) complex uses the OH on the five member ring and hydrogen linked to the iron to facilitate hydrogenation reactions, particularly in the presence of hydrogen gas.

Casey, Charles P. (Madison, WI); Guan, Hairong (Cincinnati, OH)

2010-11-16

276

Gas and iron content of galaxy clusters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Up to now, many theoretical studies aimed at reproducing the total amount of iron and gas in the intra-cluster medium meet the embarrassing situation, in which if the iron content is reproduced, the gas is not. More precisely, at given iron mass, too little gas and too high Fe abundance in turn are obtained as compared to the observational data.

C. Chiosi

2000-01-01

277

Introduction Southern Ocean natural iron fertilization  

E-print Network

Introduction Southern Ocean natural iron fertilization The surface waters of the Southern Ocean Experiment (SOIREE, e.g. Abraham et al., 2000; Boyd et al., 2000) and Southern Ocean Iron Fertilization casting doubt on the potential for geoengi- neering climate via iron fertilization (e.g. Zeebe and Archer

278

Iron Deficiency in Autism and Asperger Syndrome.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Retrospective analysis of the full blood count and, when available, serum ferritin measurements of 96 children (52 with autism and 44 with Asperger syndrome) found six autistic children had iron deficiency and 12 of the 23 autistic children with serum ferritin measures were iron deficient. Far fewer Asperger children were iron deficient. Results…

Latif, A.; Heinz, P.; Cook, R.

2002-01-01

279

Microbial iron uptake as a mechanism for dispersing iron from deep-sea hydrothermal vents.  

PubMed

Deep-sea hydrothermal vents are a significant source of oceanic iron. Although hydrothermal iron rapidly precipitates as inorganic minerals on mixing with seawater, it can be stabilized by organic matter and dispersed more widely than previously recognized. The nature and source of this organic matter is unknown. Here we show that microbial genes involved in cellular iron uptake are highly expressed in the Guaymas Basin deep-sea hydrothermal plume. The nature of these microbial iron transporters, taken together with the low concentration of dissolved iron and abundance of particulate iron in the plume, indicates that iron minerals are the target for this microbial scavenging and uptake. Our findings indicate that cellular iron uptake is a major process in plume microbial communities and suggest new mechanisms for generating Fe-C complexes. This 'microbial iron pump' could represent an important mode of converting hydrothermal iron into bioavailable forms that can be dispersed throughout the oceans. PMID:24496055

Li, Meng; Toner, Brandy M; Baker, Brett J; Breier, John A; Sheik, Cody S; Dick, Gregory J

2014-01-01

280

Iron isotope fractionation between liquid and vapor phases of iron pentacarbonyl.  

PubMed

Iron isotope fractionation between liquid and vapor iron pentacarbonyl was measured in a closed system at approximately 0 and approximately 21 degrees C to determine if Fe isotope analysis of iron pentacarbonyl vapor is viable using electron-impact, gas-source mass spectrometry. At the 2sigma level, there is no significant Fe isotope fractionation between vapor and liquid under conditions thought to reflect equilibrium. Experiments at approximately 0 degrees C indicate iron pentacarbonyl vapor is approximately 0.05 per mil (per thousand) greater in (56)Fe/(54)Fe than liquid iron pentacarbonyl, which is just resolvable at the 1sigma level. Partial decomposition of iron pentacarbonyl vapor or liquid to an iron oxide or iron metal shows that significant isotopic fractionation occurs, where the decomposed product has a lower (56)Fe/(54)Fe ratio as compared to the starting iron pentacarbonyl. It follows that methods to decompose iron pentacarbonyl must be quantitative to obtain accurate isotope values. PMID:19071272

Wiesli, René A; Beard, Brian L; Braterman, Paul S; Johnson, Clark M; Saha, Susanta K; Sinha, Mahadeva P

2007-01-15

281

Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation.  

PubMed

Neurodegenerative disorders with brain iron accumulation (NBIA) are a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of conditions in which there is neurodegeneration accompanied by elevated levels of brain iron. NBIA is frequently of genetic etiology, but may be secondary to an acquired systemic or neurological disease. Mutations in the ferritin light chain cause an adult-onset autosomal-dominant choreiform movement disorder termed neuroferritinopathy. Homozygous mutations in the ceruloplasmin gene cause aceruloplasminemia, which is characterized by the triad of diabetes, retinopathy, and a neurological disorder in mid adulthood. Mutations in pantothenate kinase 2 (PANK2) and phospholipase A2 (PLA2G6) cause recessive, childhood-onset extrapyramidal disorders termed pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN) and infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy (INAD), respectively. There is considerable phenotypic overlap between these conditions. The most useful investigation in suspected NBIA is brain magnetic resonance imaging, which can identify pathological iron deposition and distinguish between genotypes. Iron depletion therapy has been demonstrated to be successful in aceruloplasminemia, but not neuroferritinopathy, PKAN, or INAD. The presentation of NBIA overlaps with the more common adult movement disorders and pediatric neurometabolic conditions, and a high index of suspicion is required to make a correct diagnosis. PMID:21496576

McNeill, Alisdair; Chinnery, Patrick F

2011-01-01

282

Iron Deficiency and Bariatric Surgery  

PubMed Central

It is estimated that the prevalence of anaemia in patients scheduled for bariatric surgery is higher than in the general population and the prevalence of iron deficiencies (with or without anaemia) may be higher as well. After surgery, iron deficiencies and anaemia may occur in a higher percentage of patients, mainly as a consequence of nutrient deficiencies. In addition, perioperative anaemia has been related with increased postoperative morbidity and mortality and poorer quality of life after bariatric surgery. The treatment of perioperative anaemia and nutrient deficiencies has been shown to improve patients’ outcomes and quality of life. All patients should undergo an appropriate nutritional evaluation, including selective micronutrient measurements (e.g., iron), before any bariatric surgical procedure. In comparison with purely restrictive procedures, more extensive perioperative nutritional evaluations are required for malabsorptive procedures due to their nutritional consequences. The aim of this study was to review the current knowledge of nutritional deficits in obese patients and those that commonly appear after bariatric surgery, specifically iron deficiencies and their consequences. As a result, some recommendations for screening and supplementation are presented. PMID:23676549

Jauregui-Lobera, Ignacio

2013-01-01

283

Iron deficiency and bariatric surgery.  

PubMed

It is estimated that the prevalence of anaemia in patients scheduled for bariatric surgery is higher than in the general population and the prevalence of iron deficiencies (with or without anaemia) may be higher as well. After surgery, iron deficiencies and anaemia may occur in a higher percentage of patients, mainly as a consequence of nutrient deficiencies. In addition, perioperative anaemia has been related with increased postoperative morbidity and mortality and poorer quality of life after bariatric surgery. The treatment of perioperative anaemia and nutrient deficiencies has been shown to improve patients' outcomes and quality of life. All patients should undergo an appropriate nutritional evaluation, including selective micronutrient measurements (e.g., iron), before any bariatric surgical procedure. In comparison with purely restrictive procedures, more extensive perioperative nutritional evaluations are required for malabsorptive procedures due to their nutritional consequences. The aim of this study was to review the current knowledge of nutritional deficits in obese patients and those that commonly appear after bariatric surgery, specifically iron deficiencies and their consequences. As a result, some recommendations for screening and supplementation are presented. PMID:23676549

Jáuregui-Lobera, Ignacio

2013-05-01

284

Fuel compositions containing iron pentacarbonyl  

SciTech Connect

An improved fuel composition comprising a major amount of hydrocarbons boiling in the gasoline boiling range, and a minor amount of iron pentacarbonyl capable of improving the octane number rating of the composition but insufficient to cause excessive wear in engine parts when the fuel composition is burned in an internal combustion engine.

Hinkamp, J.B.

1982-06-22

285

Coal desulfurization with iron pentacarbonyl  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Coal desulfurization with iron pentacarbonyl treatment under mild conditions removes up to eighty percent of organic sulfur. Preliminary tests on treatment process suggest it may be economical enough to encourage investigation of use for coal desulfurization. With mild operating conditions, process produces environmentally-acceptable clean coal at reasonable cost.

Hsu, G. C.

1979-01-01

286

Dynamic transition in supercritical iron.  

PubMed

Recent advance in understanding the supercritical state posits the existence of a new line above the critical point separating two physically distinct states of matter: rigid liquid and non-rigid gas-like fluid. The location of this line, the Frenkel line, remains unknown for important real systems. Here, we map the Frenkel line on the phase diagram of supercritical iron using molecular dynamics simulations. On the basis of our data, we propose a general recipe to locate the Frenkel line for any system, the recipe that importantly does not involve system-specific detailed calculations and relies on the knowledge of the melting line only. We further discuss the relationship between the Frenkel line and the metal-insulator transition in supercritical liquid metals. Our results enable predicting the state of supercritical iron in several conditions of interest. In particular, we predict that liquid iron in the Jupiter core is in the "rigid liquid" state and is highly conducting. We finally analyse the evolution of iron conductivity in the core of smaller planets such as Earth and Venus as well as exoplanets: as planets cool off, the supercritical core undergoes the transition to the rigid-liquid conducting state at the Frenkel line. PMID:25424664

Fomin, Yu D; Ryzhov, V N; Tsiok, E N; Brazhkin, V V; Trachenko, K

2014-01-01

287

FUGITIVE EMISSIONS FROM IRON FOUNDRIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes the assessment of fugitive emissions of air pollutants discharged from process operations in iron foundries, and the need for the development of control technology for the most critical sources. Data indicates that the most significant fugitive emissions cont...

288

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF IRON CASTING  

EPA Science Inventory

Sampling of ductile iron casting in green sand molds with phenolic isocyanate cores and in phenol-formaldehyde bound shell molds did not provide definitive proof that environmentally hazardous organic emission occur. Both molding systems produced the same type of major emissions,...

289

PostTranscriptional Regulation of Human Iron Metabolism by Iron Regulatory Proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACTIn mammalian iron metabolism, ferritin, transferrin receptor and several other iron metabolism genes are post-transcriptionally regulated. Iron regulatory proteins 1 and 2 are cytosolic proteins that bind to RNA stem-loops known as iron-responsive elements in several transcripts. We have studied the role of these proteins in knockout mice and discovered that misregulation of iron metabolism can be a primary cause

Tracey A. Rouault

2002-01-01

290

Hadronic Shower Development in Iron-Scintillator Tile Calorimetry  

E-print Network

The lateral and longitudinal profiles of hadronic showers detected by a prototype of the ATLAS Iron-Scintillator Tile Hadron Calorimeter have been investigated. This calorimeter uses a unique longitudinal configuration of scintillator tiles. Using a fine-grained pion beam scan at 100 GeV, a detailed picture of transverse shower behavior is obtained. The underlying radial energy densities for four depth segments and for the entire calorimeter have been reconstructed. A three-dimensional hadronic shower parametrization has been developed. The results presented here are useful for understanding the performance of iron-scintillator calorimeters, for developing fast simulations of hadronic showers, for many calorimetry problems requiring the integration of a shower energy deposition in a volume and for future calorimeter design.

Tilecal Atlas Collaboration

1999-04-29

291

Hadronic Shower Development in Tile Iron-Scintillator Calorimetry  

E-print Network

The lateral and longitudinal profiles of hadronic showers detected by a prototype of the ATLAS Iron-Scintillator Tile Hadron Calorimeter have been investigated. This calorimeter uses a unique longitudinal configuration of scintillator tiles. Using a fine-grained pion beam scan at 100 GeV, a detailed picture of transverse shower behavior is obtained. The underlying radial energy densities for four depth segments and for the entire calorimeter have been reconstructed. A three-dimensional hadronic shower parametrization has been developed. The results presented here are useful for understanding the performance of iron-scintillator calorimeters, for developing fast simulations of hadronic showers, for many calorimetry problems requiring the integration of a shower energy deposition in a volume and for future calorimeter design.

Yuri A. Kulchitsky

1999-10-07

292

Hadronic shower development in Iron-Scintillator Tile Calorimetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lateral and longitudinal profiles of hadronic showers detected by a prototype of the ATLAS Iron-Scintillator Tile Hadron Calorimeter have been investigated. This calorimeter presents a unique longitudinal configuration of scintillator tiles. Using a fine-grained pion beam scan at 100 GeV, a detailed picture of transverse shower behaviour is obtained. The underlying radial energy densities for the four depth segments and for the entire calorimeter have been reconstructed. A three-dimensional hadronic shower parametrisation has been developed. The results presented here are useful for understanding the performance of iron-scintillator calorimeters, for developing fast simulations of hadronic showers, for many calorimetry problems requiring the integration of a shower energy deposition in a volume and for future calorimeters design.

Amaral, P.; Amorim, A.; Anderson, K.; Barreira, G.; Benetta, R.; Berglund, S.; Biscarat, C.; Blanchot, G.; Blucher, E.; Bogush, A.; Bohm, C.; Boldea, V.; Borisov, O.; Bosman, M.; Bromberg, C.; Budagov, J.; Burdin, S.; Caloba, L.; Carvalho, J.; Casado, P.; Castillo, M. V.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cavasinni, V.; Chadelas, R.; Chirikov-Zorin, I.; Chlachidze, G.; Cobal, M.; Cogswell, F.; Colaço, F.; Cologna, S.; Constantinescu, S.; Costanzo, D.; Crouau, M.; Daudon, F.; David, J.; David, M.; Davidek, T.; Dawson, J.; De, K.; Del Prete, T.; De Santo, A.; Di Girolamo, B.; Dita, S.; Dolejsi, J.; Dolezal, Z.; Downing, R.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Engström, M.; Errede, D.; Errede, S.; Evans, H.; Fenyuk, A.; Ferrer, A.; Flaminio, V.; Gallas, E.; Gaspar, M.; Gil, I.; Gildemeister, O.; Glagolev, V.; Gomes, A.; Gonzalez, V.; González De La Hoz, S.; Grabski, V.; Grauges, E.; Grenier, P.; Hakopian, H.; Haney, M.; Hansen, M.; Hellman, S.; Henriques, A.; Hebrard, C.; Higon, E.; Holmgren, S.; Huston, J.; Ivanyushenkov, Yu.; Jon-And, K.; Juste, A.; Kakurin, S.; Karapetian, G.; Karyukhin, A.; Kopikov, S.; Kukhtin, V.; Kulchitsky, Y.; Kurzbauer, W.; Kuzmin, M.; Lami, S.; Lapin, V.; Lazzeroni, C.; Lebedev, A.; Leitner, R.; Li, J.; Lomakin, Yu.; Lomakina, O.; Lokajicek, M.; Lopez Amengual, J. M.; Maio, A.; Malyukov, S.; Marroquin, F.; Martins, J. P.; Mazzoni, E.; Merritt, F.; Miller, R.; Minashvili, I.; Miralles, Ll.; Montarou, G.; Munar, A.; Nemecek, S.; Nessi, M.; Onofre, A.; Orteu, S.; Park, I. C.; Pallin, D.; Pantea, D.; Paoletti, R.; Patriarca, J.; Pereira, A.; Perlas, J. A.; Petit, P.; Pilcher, J.; Pinhão, J.; Poggioli, L.; Price, L.; Proudfoot, J.; Pukhov, O.; Reinmuth, G.; Renzoni, G.; Richards, R.; Roda, C.; Romance, J. B.; Romanov, V.; Ronceux, B.; Rosnet, P.; Rumyantsev, V.; Russakovich, N.; Sanchis, E.; Sanders, H.; Santoni, C.; Santos, J.; Sawyer, L.; Says, L.-P.; Seixas, J. M.; Selldèn, B.; Semenov, A.; Shchelchkov, A.; Shochet, M.; Simaitis, V.; Sissakian, A.; Solodkov, A.; Solovianov, O.; Sonderegger, P.; Sosebee, M.; Soustruznik, K.; Spanó, F.; Stanek, R.; Starchenko, E.; Stephens, R.; Suk, M.; Tang, F.; Tas, P.; Thaler, J.; Tokar, S.; Topilin, N.; Trka, Z.; Turcot, A.; Turcotte, M.; Valkar, S.; Varandas, M. J.; Vartapetian, A.; Vazeille, F.; Vichou, I.; Vinogradov, V.; Vorozhtsov, S.; Wagner, D.; White, A.; Wolters, H.; Yamdagni, N.; Yarygin, G.; Yosef, C.; Zaitsev, A.; Zdrazil, M.; Zuñiga, J.

2000-03-01

293

Capabilities and Integration Potential of Current Casting Design Software  

E-print Network

are being investigated. The cast materials that are being considered include steel, cast iron, aluminumCapabilities and Integration Potential of Current Casting Design Software ( A Preliminary Report) D, G.W., and Srinivasan, V., "Capabilities and Integration Potential of Current Casting Design Software

Beckermann, Christoph

294

Iron, lactoferrin and iron regulatory protein activity in the synovium; relative importance of iron loading and the inflammatory response  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES—To determine the ability of lactoferrin in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) synovial fluid to bind "free" iron, and to study the regulatory mechanisms therein that control iron homeostasis.?METHODS—"Free" iron was determined by the bleomycin assay and lactoferrin concentrations by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. The activities of iron regulatory protein (IRP) and NF-?B in synovial fluid cells were assayed by mobility shift assay.?RESULTS—30% of synovial fluids contained "free" iron and in these, lactoferrin concentrations were significantly lower than in those with no "free" iron (p<0.01). Addition of exogenous lactoferrin consistently reduced the amount of "free" iron in positive synovial fluids. IRP activity in synovial cells did not correlate with synovial fluid iron concentrations but did correlate with NF-?B activation and with serum C reactive protein.?CONCLUSION—Lactoferrin may prevent iron mediated tissue damage in RA by reducing "free" synovial iron concentration when inflammatory stimuli have disregulated IRP mediated iron homeostasis.?? Keywords: lactoferrin; rheumatoid arthritis; inflammation PMID:9741316

Guillen, C; McInnes, I; Kruger, H; Brock, J

1998-01-01

295

Iron, anemia and hepcidin in malaria  

PubMed Central

Malaria and iron have a complex but important relationship. Plasmodium proliferation requires iron, both during the clinically silent liver stage of growth and in the disease-associated phase of erythrocyte infection. Precisely how the protozoan acquires its iron from its mammalian host remains unclear, but iron chelators can inhibit pathogen growth in vitro and in animal models. In humans, iron deficiency appears to protect against severe malaria, while iron supplementation increases risks of infection and disease. Malaria itself causes profound disturbances in physiological iron distribution and utilization, through mechanisms that include hemolysis, release of heme, dyserythropoiesis, anemia, deposition of iron in macrophages, and inhibition of dietary iron absorption. These effects have significant consequences. Malarial anemia is a major global health problem, especially in children, that remains incompletely understood and is not straightforward to treat. Furthermore, the changes in iron metabolism during a malaria infection may modulate susceptibility to co-infections. The release of heme and accumulation of iron in granulocytes may explain increased vulnerability to non-typhoidal Salmonella during malaria. The redistribution of iron away from hepatocytes and into macrophages may confer host resistance to superinfection, whereby blood-stage parasitemia prevents the development of a second liver-stage Plasmodium infection in the same organism. Key to understanding the pathophysiology of iron metabolism in malaria is the activity of the iron regulatory hormone hepcidin. Hepcidin is upregulated during blood-stage parasitemia and likely mediates much of the iron redistribution that accompanies disease. Understanding the regulation and role of hepcidin may offer new opportunities to combat malaria and formulate better approaches to treat anemia in the developing world. PMID:24910614

Spottiswoode, Natasha; Duffy, Patrick E.; Drakesmith, Hal

2014-01-01

296

Iron supplementation in athletes. Current recommendations.  

PubMed

There is still debate in the literature on whether or not endurance athletes tend to have low iron stores. In this article, we propose that endurance athletes really are at risk of becoming iron deficient due to an imbalance between absorption of dietary iron and exercise-induced iron loss. The purpose of this article is to present a critical review of the literature on iron supplementation in sport. The effect of iron deficiency on performance, its diagnosis and suggestions for treatment are also discussed. Studies of the nutritional status of athletes in various disciplines have shown that male, but not female, athletes clearly achieve the recommended dietary intake of iron (10 to 15 mg/day). This reflects the situation in the general population, with menstruating women being the main risk group for mild iron deficiency, even in developed countries. Whereas the benefit of iron supplementation in athletes with iron deficiency anaemia is well established, this is apparently not true for non-anaemic athletes who have exhausted iron stores alone (prelatent iron deficiency); most of the studies in the literature show no significant changes due to supplementation in the physical capacity of athletes with prelatent iron deficiency. However, the treatment protocols used in some of these studies do not meet the general recommendations for the optimal clinical management of iron deficiency, that is, with respect to adequate daily dosage, mode of administration and treatment period. For future studies, we recommend a prolonged treatment period (> or = 3 months) with standardised conditions of administration (use of a pharmaceutical iron preparation with known high bioavailability and a dosage of ferrous (Fe++) iron 100 mg/day, taken on an empty stomach). Currently, decisions regarding iron supplementation are best made on the basis of taking care of individual athletes. We believe that there are sufficient arguments to support controlled iron supplementation in all athletes with low serum ferritin levels. Firstly, the development of iron deficiency is prevented. Secondly, the nonspecific upregulation of intestinal metal ion absorption is reverted to normal, thus limiting the hyperabsorption of potentially toxic lead and cadmium even in individuals with mild iron deficiency. PMID:9820921

Nielsen, P; Nachtigall, D

1998-10-01

297

Comparative bioavailability of elemental iron powders for repair of iron deficiency anemia in rats. Studies of efficacy and toxicity of carbonyl iron.  

PubMed

The rate of hemoglobin repletion in iron-deficient rats was used to measure the bioavailability of several elemental iron powders added to an iron-free nutritionally balanced chow. We used ferrous sulfate as a standard, highly bioavailable control. Of the several powders, carbonyl iron demonstrated the highest bioavailability. Testing elemental iron powders in human diets seems appropriate. PMID:637033

Sacks, P V; Houchin, D N

1978-04-01

298

Iron Acquisition and Expression of Iron Regulatory Proteins in the Developing Brain: Manipulation by Ethanol Exposure, Iron Deprivation and Cellular Dysfunction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The World Health Organization considers iron deficiency the number one nutritional disorder in the world. In this review, the normal pattern for iron accumulation and expression of iron regulatory proteins (transferrin and its receptor, and ferritin) in brain during development are examined biochemically and at the cellular and molecular levels. Iron and the iron-regulatory proteins are at their highest postnatal

James R. Connor

1994-01-01

299

Adipocyte iron regulates adiponectin and insulin sensitivity.  

PubMed

Iron overload is associated with increased diabetes risk. We therefore investigated the effect of iron on adiponectin, an insulin-sensitizing adipokine that is decreased in diabetic patients. In humans, normal-range serum ferritin levels were inversely associated with adiponectin, independent of inflammation. Ferritin was increased and adiponectin was decreased in type 2 diabetic and in obese diabetic subjects compared with those in equally obese individuals without metabolic syndrome. Mice fed a high-iron diet and cultured adipocytes treated with iron exhibited decreased adiponectin mRNA and protein. We found that iron negatively regulated adiponectin transcription via FOXO1-mediated repression. Further, loss of the adipocyte iron export channel, ferroportin, in mice resulted in adipocyte iron loading, decreased adiponectin, and insulin resistance. Conversely, organismal iron overload and increased adipocyte ferroportin expression because of hemochromatosis are associated with decreased adipocyte iron, increased adiponectin, improved glucose tolerance, and increased insulin sensitivity. Phlebotomy of humans with impaired glucose tolerance and ferritin values in the highest quartile of normal increased adiponectin and improved glucose tolerance. These findings demonstrate a causal role for iron as a risk factor for metabolic syndrome and a role for adipocytes in modulating metabolism through adiponectin in response to iron stores. PMID:22996660

Gabrielsen, J Scott; Gao, Yan; Simcox, Judith A; Huang, Jingyu; Thorup, David; Jones, Deborah; Cooksey, Robert C; Gabrielsen, David; Adams, Ted D; Hunt, Steven C; Hopkins, Paul N; Cefalu, William T; McClain, Donald A

2012-10-01

300

Falling clothes irons rarely cause burns.  

PubMed

Children's Hospital of Michigan's Burn Center treats approximately three pediatric contact burns annually related to clothes irons, which involve the face, torso, and extremities. These burns leave well-demarcated burn patterns, including the steam holes from the heat plate of the iron. The average age of these children is 15 months. The history given by the parent is that the child pulled the cord of an iron that was on an ironing board or high shelf. It seemed unlikely to the investigators that a falling iron would produce such demarcated burns. A free-standing shelf unit was built with shelf heights of 36, 60, and 72 inches (the height of an ironing board and shelves at home). Three irons of different weights were put in three different positions on each shelf, with the cord dangling. A doll the approximate size of a 15-month old was positioned in front of the shelf. The dangling cord was pulled, and the falling iron was videotaped. The video was edited in freeze frame at the point at which the iron hit the doll. Two hundred seventy falls were recorded. The flat heat plate of the iron never hit the doll. The linear edge of the heat plate hit the doll on only seven falls. This study demonstrates that it is very unlikely for the flat heat plate of a falling iron to contact a toddler-sized doll. Children who allegedly sustain demarcated burns in this manner need to be investigated for nonaccidental injury. PMID:24476991

Allasio, David; Shanti, Christina

2014-01-01

301

Adipocyte iron regulates adiponectin and insulin sensitivity  

PubMed Central

Iron overload is associated with increased diabetes risk. We therefore investigated the effect of iron on adiponectin, an insulin-sensitizing adipokine that is decreased in diabetic patients. In humans, normal-range serum ferritin levels were inversely associated with adiponectin, independent of inflammation. Ferritin was increased and adiponectin was decreased in type 2 diabetic and in obese diabetic subjects compared with those in equally obese individuals without metabolic syndrome. Mice fed a high-iron diet and cultured adipocytes treated with iron exhibited decreased adiponectin mRNA and protein. We found that iron negatively regulated adiponectin transcription via FOXO1-mediated repression. Further, loss of the adipocyte iron export channel, ferroportin, in mice resulted in adipocyte iron loading, decreased adiponectin, and insulin resistance. Conversely, organismal iron overload and increased adipocyte ferroportin expression because of hemochromatosis are associated with decreased adipocyte iron, increased adiponectin, improved glucose tolerance, and increased insulin sensitivity. Phlebotomy of humans with impaired glucose tolerance and ferritin values in the highest quartile of normal increased adiponectin and improved glucose tolerance. These findings demonstrate a causal role for iron as a risk factor for metabolic syndrome and a role for adipocytes in modulating metabolism through adiponectin in response to iron stores. PMID:22996660

Gabrielsen, J. Scott; Gao, Yan; Simcox, Judith A.; Huang, Jingyu; Thorup, David; Jones, Deborah; Cooksey, Robert C.; Gabrielsen, David; Adams, Ted D.; Hunt, Steven C.; Hopkins, Paul N.; Cefalu, William T.; McClain, Donald A.

2012-01-01

302

Ferric Iron Reduction by Acidophilic Heterotrophic Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Fifty mesophilic and five moderately thermophilic strains of acidophilic heterotrophic bacteria were tested for the ability to reduce ferric iron in liquid and solid media under aerobic conditions; about 40% of the mesophiles (but none of the moderate thermophiles) displayed at least some capacity to reduce iron. Both rates and extents of ferric iron reduction were highly strain dependent. No acidophilic heterotroph reduced nitrate or sulfate, and (limited) reduction of manganese(IV) was noted in only one strain (Acidiphilium facilis), an acidophile which did not reduce iron. Insoluble forms of ferric iron, both amorphous and crystalline, were reduced, as well as soluble iron. There was evidence that, in at least some acidophilic heterotrophs, iron reduction was enzymically mediated and that ferric iron could act as a terminal electron acceptor. In anaerobically incubated cultures, bacterial biomass increased with increasing concentrations of ferric but not ferrous iron. Mixed cultures of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans or Leptospirillum ferrooxidans and an acidophilic heterotroph (SJH) produced sequences of iron cycling in ferrous iron-glucose media. PMID:16348395

Johnson, D. Barrie; McGinness, Stephen

1991-01-01

303

The copper-iron connection: hereditary aceruloplasminemia.  

PubMed

Hereditary aceruloplasminemia is an autosomal recessive disorder of iron homeostasis due to loss-of-function mutations in the ceruloplasmin gene. Affected individuals may present in adulthood with evidence of hepatic iron overload, diabetes, peripheral retinal degeneration, dystonia, dementia, or dysarthria. Laboratory studies demonstrate microcytic anemia, elevated serum ferritin, and a complete absence of serum ceruloplasmin ferroxidase activity. Consistent with the observed neurologic findings, magnetic resonance imaging reveals iron accumulation within the basal ganglia. Histologic studies detect abundant iron in hepatocytes, reticuloendothelial cells of the liver and spleen, beta cells of the pancreas, and astrocytes and neurons throughout the central nervous system. Characterization of this disorder reveals an essential role for ceruloplasmin in determining the rate of iron efflux from cells with mobilizable iron stores and provides new insights into the mechanisms of human iron metabolism. PMID:12382203

Nittis, Thalia; Gitlin, Jonathan D

2002-10-01

304

Molecular mechanisms of Staphylococcus aureus iron acquisition  

PubMed Central

The unique redox potential of iron is ideal for use as a cofactor in diverse biochemical reactions. Iron is therefore vital for the growth and proliferation of nearly all organisms, including pathogenic bacteria. Vertebrates sequester excess iron within proteins in order to alleviate toxicity and restrict the amount of free iron available for invading pathogens. Restricting the growth of infectious microorganisms by sequestering essential nutrients is referred to as nutritional immunity. In order to circumvent nutritional immunity bacterial pathogens have evolved elegant systems that allow for the acquisition of iron during infection. The Gram-positive extracellular pathogen Staphylococcus aureus is a commensal organism that can cause severe disease when it gains access to underlying tissues. Iron acquisition is required for S. aureus colonization and subsequent pathogenesis. Herein we review the strategies S. aureus employs to obtain iron through the production of siderophores and the consumption of host heme. PMID:21639791

Hammer, Neal D.; Skaar, Eric P.

2013-01-01

305

Teaching Integrity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Integrity is one of those essential yet highly ambiguous concepts. For the purpose of this chapter, integrity is defined as that combination of both attributes and actions that makes entities appear to be whole and ethical, as well as consistent. Like the concepts of leadership or wisdom or community or collaboration, integrity is a key element of…

Saunders, Sue; Butts, Jennifer Lease

2011-01-01

306

Ironing out the statistical wrinkles in "ten ironic rules".  

PubMed

The article "Ten ironic rules for non-statistical reviewers" (Friston, 2012) shares some commonly heard frustrations about the peer-review process that all researchers can identify with. Though we found the article amusing, we have some concerns about its description of a number of statistical issues. In this commentary we address these issues, as well as the premise of the article. PMID:23587691

Lindquist, Martin A; Caffo, Brian; Crainiceanu, Ciprian

2013-11-01

307

Placental iron transport and maternal absorption.  

PubMed

The iron need in pregnancy is significantly higher in comparison to that in the nonpregnant state. The iron absorbed during pregnancy is used for expansion of the maternal erythrocyte mass, to fulfill the fetus's iron needs, to create placenta, and to cope with blood loss at delivery. Term neonates have a total body store of about 1 g of iron, all derived from the mother. Despite the overall increase in nutritional requirements, biochemical, metabolic, and physiological adjustments of the maternal organism happen in order to meet the extra demands and to support the homeostasis of iron. In all healthy pregnant women with sufficient iron stores, the increased iron absorption is coupled with the mobilization of iron stores. Unfortunately, iron deficiency during pregnancy is alarmingly common. The function of placental transport determines the composition of umbilical cord blood providing nutrients and oxygen to the fetus to ensure appropriate fetal growth. Iron in the developing fetus is accumulated against a concentration gradient and, in the case of maternal iron deficiency, the placenta can protect the fetus significantly through the increased expression of placental transferrin receptor together with a rise in divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1). Despite the resistance of the fetus to maternal deficiency, any stress that alters placental development or function may have consequences for the developing fetus. Despite its central importance in fetal development, little is known about the mechanism of iron transfer across the placenta. Consequently, it is crucial to understand the molecular basis of placental iron transport in order to optimize the iron intake recommendation, reducing adverse pregnancy outcomes for both the mother and her child. PMID:22123640

Cetin, Irene; Berti, Cristiana; Mandò, Chiara; Parisi, Francesca

2011-01-01

308

Iron transport systems of Serratia marcescens.  

PubMed Central

Serratia marcescens W225 expresses an unconventional iron(III) transport system. Uptake of Fe3+ occurs in the absence of an iron(III)-solubilizing siderophore, of an outer membrane receptor protein, and of the TonB and ExbBD proteins involved in outer membrane transport. The three SfuABC proteins found to catalyze iron(III) transport exhibit the typical features of periplasmic binding-protein-dependent systems for transport across the cytoplasmic membrane. In support of these conclusions, the periplasmic SfuA protein bound iron chloride and iron citrate but not ferrichrome, as shown by protection experiments against degradation by added V8 protease. The cloned sfuABC genes conferred upon an Escherichia coli aroB mutant unable to synthesize its own enterochelin siderophore the ability to grow under iron-limiting conditions (in the presence of 0.2 mM 2.2'-dipyridyl). Under extreme iron deficiency (0.4 mM 2.2'-dipyridyl), however, the entry rate of iron across the outer membrane was no longer sufficient for growth. Citrate had to be added in order for iron(III) to be translocated as an iron citrate complex in a FecA- and TonB-dependent manner through the outer membrane and via SfuABC across the cytoplasmic membrane. FecA- and TonB-dependent iron transport across the outer membrane could be clearly correlated with a very low concentration of iron in the medium. Expression of the sfuABC genes in E. coli was controlled by the Fur iron repressor gene. S. marcescens W225 was able to synthesize enterochelin and take up iron(III) enterochelin. It contained an iron(III) aerobactin transport system but lacked aerobactin synthesis. This strain was able to utilize the hydroxamate siderophores ferrichrome, coprogen, ferrioxamine B, rhodotorulic acid, and schizokinen as sole iron sources and grew on iron citrate as well. In contrast to E. coli K-12, S. marcescens could utilize heme. DNA fragments of the E. coli fhuA, iut, exbB, and fur genes hybridized with chromosomal S. marcescens DNA fragments, whereas no hybridization was obtained between S. marcescens chromosomal DNA and E. coli fecA, fhuE, and tonB gene fragments. The presence of multiple iron transport systems was also indicated by the increased synthesis of at least five outer membrane proteins (in the molecular weight range of 72,000 to 87,000) after growth in low-iron media. Serratia liquefaciens and Serratia ficaria produced aerobactin, showing that this siderophore also occurs in the genus Serratia. Images PMID:1531225

Angerer, A; Klupp, B; Braun, V

1992-01-01

309

Iron Cycling at Loihi Seamount  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Loi"hi is an active submarine volcano located close to the island of Hawai"i at a depth around 1100 m. The summit is host to a variety of focused and diffuse flow hydrothermal vent sites, which have in common a chemistry that is dominated by the presence of Fe(II) often in concentrations of 10's to 100's of ?M at circumneutral pH. An outcome of these conditions is the deposition of substantial quantities of rust-colored microbial mats that are dominated by Fe-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB). These mat communities were first sampled in the late 1980s, and have subsequently been the subject of continued investigation, to the extent that Loih'i is now a model system for understanding deep-sea microbial communites that are primarily driven by iron-based lithotrophic metabolism. While the role of FeOB is becoming well-established, the short-term fate of the iron oxyhydroxides that are produced is less well understood, and specifically that role that Fe-reducing bacteria may have in re-cycling Fe(III) to Fe(II). A recent cruise to Loihi in 2006 found that one vent site, which has been slowly decreasing in activity, was essentially "dead", i.e. there was no sign of fluid flow or temperature anomaly. Yet, iron mats several cm thick persisted and chemical analysis suggested O2 penetrated the mat and that no Fe(II) was present, i.e. there no sign of active Fe-reduction. This raises the question of how active is the iron cycle in Loih'i iron mats? Experiments to measure Fe- reduction potential in Lohi"i mats do show activity and it is possible to enrich Fe-reducing bacteria. We have recently isolated a novel Geothermobacter sp. HR-1 from a Loih'i mat, that is an Fe-reducer and grows at mesophilic temperatures. This work will report on continued investigations into the iron cycle at Loih'i to further constrain the chemical conditions, further elucidate the potential for Fe-reduction in natural mat samples, and present the outcome of growing native isolates of Fe- oxidizers and reducers from Loih'i in co-culture.

Emerson, D.

2007-12-01

310

Diversity of bacterial iron mineralization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bacterial cells, growing naturally in freshwater and marine environments or experimentally in culture, can precipitate a variety of authigenic iron minerals. With the vast majority of bacteria biomineralization is a two-step process: initially metals are electrostatically bound to the anionic surfaces of the cell wall and surrounding organic polymers, where they subsequently serve as nucleation sites for crystal growth. The biogenic minerals have crystal habits and chemical compositions similar to those produced by precipitation from inorganic solutions because they are governed by the same equilibrium principles that control mineralization of their inorganic counterparts. As the latter stages of mineralization are inorganically driven, the type of biomineral formed is inevitably dependent on the available counter-ions, and hence, the chemical composition of the waters in which the microorganisms are growing. In oxygenated waters, iron hydroxides are a common precipitate and can form passively through the binding of dissolved ferric species to negatively charged polymers or when soluble ferrous iron spontaneously reacts with dissolved oxygen to precipitate as ferric hydroxide on available nucleation sites (e.g. bacteria). Alternatively, the metabolic activity of Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria can induce ferric hydroxide precipitation as a secondary by-product. Ferric hydroxide may then serve as a precursor for more stable iron oxides, such as goethite and hematite via dissolution-reprecipitation or dehydration, respectively, or it may react with dissolved silica, phosphate or sulphate to form other authigenic mineral phases. Under suboxic to anoxic conditions, ferric hydroxide may be converted to magnetite, siderite, and iron sulphides through various reductive processes associated with organic matter mineralization. Under biologically controlled conditions, where mineralization is completely regulated, magnetotactic bacteria form magnetite and greigite as navigational tools to guide themselves into their preferred habitat. In general, the formation of iron biominerals is not difficult to achieve, bacteria simply provide charged surfaces that bind metals and they excrete metabolic waste products into the surrounding environment that induce mineralization. The ubiquitous presence of bacteria in aquatic systems and their inherent ability to biomineralize, therefore, makes them extremely important agents in driving both modern and ancient geochemical cycles.

Konhauser, Kurt O.

1998-05-01

311

The Iron Project: Atomic Data for the Iron Peak Elements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the latest results from the Iron Project by the Ohio State atomic astrophysics group. The Iron Project is devoted to the study of radiative and collisional atomic processes primarily for the iron-group elements for applications in astrophysical and laboratory plasmas. Among the processes of particular interest are: electron impact excitation, photoionization, and electron-ion recombination. The large-scale atomic calculations for the heavy atomic systems are carried out using the R-matrix method, extended to inlcude relativistic effects in the Breit-Pauli approximation. The codes have been adapted to a variety of computational platforms, particularly massively parallel processors, the Cray T3D/E and the IBM SP2. Selected results, and new physical features, are reported from recent work on collision strengths, radiative transition probabilities, photoionization cross sections, and unified electron-ion recombination rates for Fe I-V, Fe XXII, Ni II, and all ions of Carbon, Nitrogen, and Oxygen. We also report new resonance averaged ground state photoionization cross sections from the Opacity Project for use in astrophysical modeling codes.

Bautista, Manuel A.; Nahar, Sultana N.; Pradhan, Anil K.; Romano, Patrizia; Zhang, Holg Lin

1998-05-01

312

Iron supplementation for female athletes: effects on iron status and performance outcomes.  

PubMed

Iron is an essential micronutrient involved in oxidative metabolism and critical to exercise performance. The prevalence of iron deficiency (ID) is much higher in active women for a variety of reasons, and poor iron status has been shown to be detrimental to overall health as well as physical performance. Iron status can be assessed using a number of indicators; however clinical cut-offs for active populations remain controversial. Randomized, placebo-controlled supplementation trials of iron-depleted female athletes have shown that oral iron supplementation in doses of 100-mg FeSO4·d (approximately 20 mg elemental iron) improves iron status and may improve measures of physical performance. It is recommended that female athletes most at risk of ID be screened at the beginning of and during the training season using hemoglobin and serum ferritin, and appropriate dietary and/or supplementation recommendations be made to those with compromised iron status. PMID:23851410

DellaValle, Diane M

2013-01-01

313

Olfactory ferric and ferrous iron absorption in iron-deficient rats  

PubMed Central

The absorption of metals from the nasal cavity to the blood and the brain initiates an important route of occupational exposures leading to health risks. Divalent metal transporter-1 (DMT1) plays a significant role in the absorption of intranasally instilled manganese, but whether iron uptake would be mediated by the same pathway is unknown. In iron-deficient rats, blood 59Fe levels after intranasal administration of the radioisotope in the ferrous form were significantly higher than those observed for iron-sufficient control rats. Similar results were obtained when ferric iron was instilled intranasally, and blood levels of 59Fe were even greater in the iron-deficient rats compared with the amount of ferrous iron absorbed. Experiments with Belgrade (b/b) rats showed that DMT1 deficiency limited ferric iron uptake from the nasal cavity to the blood compared with +/b controls matched for iron deficiency. These results indicate that olfactory uptake of ferric iron by iron-deficient rats involves DMT1. Western blot experiments confirmed that DMT1 levels are significantly higher in iron-deficient rats compared with iron-sufficient controls in olfactory tissue. Thus the molecular mechanism of olfactory iron absorption is regulated by body iron status and involves DMT1. PMID:22492739

Ruvin Kumara, V. M.

2012-01-01

314

Effects of heme iron enriched peptide on iron deficiency anemia in rats.  

PubMed

The present study aims to investigate whether a daily intake of heme iron enriched peptide obtained from bovine hemoglobin is effective in alleviating iron deficiency anemia (IDA). Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups: a control group, an anemic group not treated, and anemic groups treated with FeSO4 or with the heme iron enriched peptide at low, moderate or high doses. The rats in the anemic groups were fed on a low-iron diet to establish the iron deficiency anemia model. After the model had been established, different doses of heme iron enriched peptide were given to the rats once a day via intragastric administration. After the iron supplement administration, it was observed that heme iron enriched peptide had effective restorative action returning the hemoglobin, red blood cells, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration and serum iron in IDA animals to normal values or better. In addition, compared with FeSO4, higher Fe bioavailability and fewer side effects were observed. The rats in the moderate dose group had the highest apparent Fe absorption. Moreover, in vivo antioxidant activity was also observed, enhancing the activities of antioxidant enzymes and reduced malondialdehyde levels in IDA rats. Furthermore, the heme iron enriched peptide also exhibited strong in vitro antioxidant activities. In conclusion, heme iron enriched peptide significantly alleviated iron deficiency anemia, and exhibited strong in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities. This suggests that heme iron enriched peptide might be exploited as a safe, efficient new iron supplement. PMID:24326613

Tang, Ning; Chen, Le-qun; Zhuang, Hong

2014-02-01

315

Iron metabolism in the pathogenesis of iron-induced kidney injury.  

PubMed

In the past 8 years, there has been renewed interest in the role of iron in both acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD). In patients with kidney diseases, renal tubules are exposed to a high concentration of iron owing to increased glomerular filtration of iron and iron-containing proteins, including haemoglobin, transferrin and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL). Levels of intracellular catalytic iron may increase when glomerular and renal tubular cells are injured. Reducing the excessive luminal or intracellular levels of iron in the kidney could be a promising approach to treat AKI and CKD. Understanding the role of iron in kidney injury and as a therapeutic target requires insight into the mechanisms of iron metabolism in the kidney, the role of endogenous proteins involved in iron chelation and transport, including hepcidin, NGAL, the NGAL receptor and divalent metal transporter 1, and iron-induced toxic effects. This Review summarizes emerging knowledge, which suggests that complex mechanisms of iron metabolism exist in the kidney, modulated directly or indirectly by cellular iron content, inflammation, ischaemia and oxidative stress. The potential exists for prevention and treatment of iron-induced kidney injury by customized iron removal or relocation, aided by detailed insight into the underlying pathological mechanisms. PMID:23670084

Martines, A M F; Masereeuw, R; Tjalsma, H; Hoenderop, J G; Wetzels, J F M; Swinkels, D W

2013-07-01

316

Evolution integrals  

E-print Network

A framework analogous to path integrals in quantum physics is set up for abstract dynamical systems in a W*-algebraic setting. We consider spaces of evolutions, defined in a specific way, of a W*-algebra A as an analogue of spaces of classical paths, and show how integrals over such spaces, which we call ``evolution integrals'', lead to dynamics in a Hilbert space on a ``higher level'' which is viewed as an analogue of quantum dynamics obtained from path integrals. The measures with respect to which these integrals are performed are projection valued.

Rocco Duvenhage

2006-02-02

317

Saugus Iron Works: Life and Work at an Early American Industrial Site. Teaching with Historic Places.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1948 archeologists verified that a now overgrown and urbanized landscape along the Saugus River (Massachusetts) was the site of the Saugus Iron Works from 1646 until 1648. That discovery led to a careful, though partly conjectural, reconstruction of the first successful integrated ironmaking plant in the colonial America. The early Puritan…

Whitman, Maryann

318

POLLUTION EFFECTS OF ABNORMAL OPERATIONS IN IRON AND STEEL MAKING. VOLUME II. SINTERING, MANUAL OF PRACTICE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report is one in a six-volume series considering abnormal operating conditions (AOCs) in the primary section (sintering, blast furnace ironmaking, open hearth, electric furnace, and basic oxygen steelmaking) of an integrated iron and steel plant. Pollution standards, generall...

319

SURVEY OF FOULING, FOAM, CORROSION, AND SCALING CONTROL IN IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY RECYCLE SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a review of the state-of-the-art for fouling, foaming, corrosion, and scaling control in the treatment and recycle of process waters of integrated iron and steel mills. Areas examined were: (1) the character of the wastewaters generated in the differen...

320

POLLUTION EFFECTS OF ABNORMAL OPERATIONS IN IRON AND STEEL MAKING. VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

The report is the first in a six-volume series considering abnormal operating conditions (AOCs) in the primary section (sintering, blast furnace ironmaking, open hearth, electric furnace, and basic oxygen steelmaking) of an integrated iron and steel plant. Pollution standards, ge...

321

Iron status of women is associated with the iron concentration of potable groundwater in rural Bangladesh.  

PubMed

Women of reproductive age are at a high risk of iron deficiency, often as a result of diets low in bioavailable iron. In some settings, the iron content of domestic groundwater sources is high, yet its contribution to iron intake and status has not been examined. In a rural Bangladeshi population of women deficient in dietary iron, we evaluated the association between groundwater iron intake and iron status. In 2008, participants (n = 209 with complete data) were visited to collect data on 7-d food frequency, 7-d morbidity history, 24-h drinking water intake, and rice preparation, and to measure the groundwater iron concentration. Blood was collected to assess iron and infection status. Plasma ferritin (?g/L) and body iron (mg/kg) concentrations were [median (IQR)] 67 (46, 99) and 10.4 ± 2.6, respectively, and the prevalence of iron deficiency (ferritin < 12 ?g/L) was 0%. Daily iron intake from water [42 mg (18, 71)] was positively correlated with plasma ferritin (r = 0.36) and total body iron (r = 0.35) (P < 0.001 for both). In adjusted linear regression analyses, plasma ferritin increased by 6.1% (95% CI: 3.8, 8.4%) and body iron by 0.3 mg/kg (0.2, 0.4) for every 10-mg increase in iron intake from water (P < 0.001). In this rural area of northern Bangladesh, women of reproductive age had no iron deficiency likely attributable to iron consumed from drinking groundwater, which contributed substantially to dietary intake. These findings suggest that iron intake from water should be included in dietary assessments in such settings. PMID:21451130

Merrill, Rebecca D; Shamim, Abu Ahmed; Ali, Hasmot; Jahan, Nusrat; Labrique, Alain B; Schulze, Kerry; Christian, Parul; West, Keith P

2011-05-01

322

Iron and anemia in human biology: a review of mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biology of iron in relation to anemia is best understood by a review of the iron cycle, since the majority of iron for\\u000a erythropoiesis is provided by iron recovered from senescent erythrocytes. In iron-deficiency anemia, storage iron declines\\u000a until iron delivery to the bone marrow is insufficient for erythropoiesis. This can be monitored with clinical indicators,\\u000a beginning with low

Garry J. Handelman; Nathan W. Levin

2008-01-01

323

Stabilization of iron regulatory protein 2, IRP2, by aluminum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iron regulatory protein 2 (IRP2) is one of the central regulators of iron homeostasis. IRP2 regulates expression of molecules involved in iron metabolism by binding to iron responsive elements (IREs) in the transcripts of those molecules in iron depletion. IRP2 is regulated by the accelerated degradation initiated by the iron-catalyzed oxidation. Here we report that aluminum antagonizes the iron-induced decrease

Koji Yamanaka; Nagahiro Minato; Kazuhiro Iwai

1999-01-01

324

Iron--what is melt?  

SciTech Connect

The melting point of iron reported from a variety of phenomena observed in the laser-heated diamond-anvil-cell (DAC) and in shock wave studies differs widely. Although three groups of investigators, observing the same phenomena in the DAC are in good agreement to about 40 GPa, they disagree significantly with other measurements of melting point based on observation of different phenomena in the DAC. These latter data are in substantial agreement with some of the reported melting temperatures from two groups of investigators who measured temperature along the Hugoniot. However, a third group of investigators observe a sound velocity discontinuity along the Hugoniot and calculate a significantly lower temperature for melting. Melting point determination in iron is subject to the interpretation of physical phenomena, experimental errors which are probably larger than estimated, and perhaps undetected chemical reactions.

Duba, A.G.

1993-06-01

325

Iron storage disease in tapirs.  

PubMed

Recent studies of serum iron and iron binding capacity have indicated that tapirs could be at risk of developing hemochromatosis. However, in recent surveys of pathologic findings in tapirs, hemochromatosis was not reported as a cause of death. This study reviews necropsy reports from three species of tapir (Baird's tapir [Tapirus bairdii], Malayan tapir [Tapirus indicus], and Brazilian tapir [Tapirus terrestris]) at the Philadelphia Zoological Garden between 1902 and 1994. Twelve cases of hemosiderosis, including fatal hemochromatosis in two Baird's tapirs, were found among 19 cases examined histologically. Hemochromatosis has previously been reported in the horse, rhinoceros, and in one Brazilian tapir. Dietary factors were investigated but could not be confirmed to have contributed to the incidence of hemosiderosis and hemochromatosis in the three species of tapir in the Philadelphia Zoological Garden collection. PMID:17312812

Bonar, Christopher J; Trupkiewicz, John G; Toddes, Barbara; Lewandowski, Albert H

2006-03-01

326

Iron crystals in lunar breccias  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many of the vugs in the highly recrystallized breccias from Apollos 14, 15, and 16 contain euhedral iron crystals. Three populations have been recognized based on crystal habit. In the first group the trapezohedron predominates and the cube faces are smaller. The second group is characterized by the cube as the dominant form; trapezohedron and tetrahexahedron faces are smaller and about equally developed. The dominant habit of the third group is the octahedron with smaller but equally developed cube and dodecahedron faces. Iron has been mobilized and redistributed in a vapor phase. The euhedral crystals, the abundant growth steps, and the open network of substrate crystals clearly support the concept of growth from a vapor-phase.

Clanton, U. S.; Mckay, D. S.; Laughon, R. B.; Ladle, G. H.

1973-01-01

327

Iron-tolerant Cyanobacteria as a Tool to Study Terrestrial and Extraterrestrial Iron Deposition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We are investigating biological mechanisms of terrestrial iron deposition as analogs for Martian hematite recently confirmed by. Possible terrestrial analogs include iron oxide hydrothermal deposits, rock varnish, iron-rich laterites, ferricrete soils, moki balls, and banded iron formations (BIFs). With the discovery of recent volcanic activity in the summit craters of five Martian volcanoes, renewed interest in the iron dynamics of terrestrial hydrothermal environments and associated microorganisms is warranted. In this study we describe a new genus and species of CB exhibiting elevated dissolved iron tolerance and the ability to precipitate hematite on the surface of their exopolymeric sheathes.

Brown, I. I.; Mummey, D.; Cooksey, K. E.; McKay, D. S.

2005-01-01

328

Reactive iron in marine sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

A combined field\\/laboratory study has been undertaken to explore the mineralogy, concentrations and reactivity (towards sulfide) of iron in marine sediments. Also considered is the importance of bacterial Fe liberation in regulating pore-water chemistry. Two contrasting marine environments are included; one is the relatively Fe-poor FOAM site and the other is the Fe-rich sediment of the subaqueous Mississippi Delta. Results

Donald E. Canfield

1989-01-01

329

Iron and manganese in lakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of redox processes in determining the chemistry of iron and manganese is considered systematically. Both metals have soluble reduced forms and insoluble oxyhydroxides which are readily interconverted in the vicinity of a redox boundary. Although the oxyhydroxides are dominant in well-oxygenated waters, measureable concentrations of Fe(II) and Mn(II) can be observed, especially where photochemical reduction occurs. Differences in

William Davison

1993-01-01

330

Current approach to iron chelation in children.  

PubMed

Transfusion-dependent children, mostly with thalassaemia major, but also and occasionally to a more significant degree, with inherited bone marrow failures, can develop severe iron overload in early life. Moreover, chronic conditions associated with ineffective erythropoiesis, such as non-transfusion-dependent thalassaemia (NTDT), may lead to iron overload through increased gut absorption of iron starting in childhood. Currently, the goal of iron chelation has shifted from treating iron overload to preventing iron accumulation and iron-induced end-organ complications, in order to achieve a normal pattern of complication-free survival and of quality of life. New chelation options increase the likelihood of achieving these goals. Timely initiation, close monitoring and continuous adjustment are the cornerstones of optimal chelation therapy in children, who have a higher transfusional requirements compared to adults in order to reach haemoglobin levels adequate for normal growth and development. Despite increased knowledge, there are still uncertainties about the level of body iron at which iron chelation therapy should be started and about the appropriate degree of iron stores' depletion. PMID:24646011

Aydinok, Yesim; Kattamis, Antonis; Viprakasit, Vip

2014-06-01

331

The molecular biology of human iron metabolism.  

PubMed

Iron is one of the most important nonorganic substances that make life possible. Iron plays major roles in oxygen transport (eg, hemoglobin; -67% of total body iron [TBI]), short-term oxygen storage (eg, myoglobin; -3.5% of TBI), and energy generation (eg, cytochromes; -3% of TBI). Iron also serves vital roles in various nonheme-containing enzymes (-2% of TBI). Figure 1 lists heme-containing and nonheme iron-containing proteins. TBI is controlled by the rate of iron absorption; there are no physiologic mechanisms to excrete excess iron. Iron deficiency has many adverse consequences, including anemia, and in children, behavioral and learning disorders. Iron excess is toxic to the body, harming the heart, liver, skin, pancreatic islet beta cells, bones, joints, and pituitary gland. Maintaining proper iron balance is essential for maintaining homeostasis and health. TBI in adults normally ranges between 3.5 and 5.0 g. A total of 75% of TBI is functional, and 25% is stored within cells as ferritin or hemosiderin. Ferritin contains 24 subunits of light chains (L chains; 19.7 kDa) and heavy chains (H chains; 21.1 kDa). The L chains are encoded on chromosome 19q13.33 and are 175 amino acids long. The H chains are encoded on chromosome 11q1 and are 183 amino acids long. Each ferritin molecule can contain as many as approximately 4500 ferric ions. Because the major role of iron is in hemoglobin synthesis, this review will focus on iron, iron transport, and hematopoiesis. PMID:24868988

Winter, William E; Bazydlo, Lindsay A L; Harris, Neil S

2014-01-01

332

Intravenous iron in inflammatory bowel disease.  

PubMed

The prevalence of anemia across studies on patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is high (30%). Both iron deficiency (ID) and anemia of chronic disease contribute most to the development of anemia in IBD. The prevalence of ID is even higher (45%). Anemia and ID negatively impact the patient's quality of life. Therefore, together with an adequate control of disease activity, iron replacement therapy should start as soon as anemia or ID is detected to attain a normal hemoglobin (Hb) and iron status. Many patients will respond to oral iron, but compliance may be poor, whereas intravenous (i.v.) compounds are safe, provide a faster Hb increase and iron store repletion, and presents a lower rate of treatment discontinuation. Absolute indications for i.v. iron treatment should include severe anemia, intolerance or inappropriate response to oral iron, severe intestinal disease activity, or use of an erythropoietic stimulating agent. Four different products are principally used in clinical practice, which differ in their pharmacokinetic properties and safety profiles: iron gluconate and iron sucrose (lower single doses), and iron dextran and ferric carboxymaltose (higher single doses). After the initial resolution of anemia and the repletion of iron stores, the patient's hematological and iron parameters should be carefully and periodically monitored, and maintenance iron treatment should be provided as required. New i.v. preparations that allow for giving 1000-1500 mg in a single session, thus facilitating patient management, provide an excellent tool to prevent or treat anemia and ID in this patient population, which in turn avoids allogeneic blood transfusion and improves their quality of life. PMID:19787830

Muñoz, Manuel; Gómez-Ramírez, Susana; García-Erce, José Antonio

2009-10-01

333

Iron-Tolerant Cyanobacteria: Ecophysiology and Fingerprinting  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Although the iron-dependent physiology of marine and freshwater cyanobacterial strains has been the focus of extensive study, very few studies dedicated to the physiology and diversity of cyanobacteria inhabiting iron-depositing hot springs have been conducted. One of the few studies that have been conducted [B. Pierson, 1999] found that cyanobacterial members of iron depositing bacterial mat communities might increase the rate of iron oxidation in situ and that ferrous iron concentrations up to 1 mM significantly stimulated light dependent consumption of bicarbonate, suggesting a specific role for elevated iron in photosynthesis of cyanobacteria inhabiting iron-depositing hot springs. Our recent studies pertaining to the diversity and physiology of cyanobacteria populating iron-depositing hot springs in Great Yellowstone area (Western USA) indicated a number of different isolates exhibiting elevated tolerance to Fe(3+) (up to 1 mM). Moreover, stimulation of growth was observed with increased Fe(3+) (0.02-0.4 mM). Molecular fingerprinting of unialgal isolates revealed a new cyanobacterial genus and species Chroogloeocystis siderophila, an unicellular cyanobacterium with significant EPS sheath harboring colloidal Fe(3+) from iron enriched media. Our preliminary data suggest that some filamentous species of iron-tolerant cyanobacteria are capable of exocytosis of iron precipitated in cytoplasm. Prior to 2.4 Ga global oceans were likely significantly enriched in soluble iron [Lindsay et al, 2003], conditions which are not conducive to growth of most contemporary oxygenic cyanobacteria. Thus, iron-tolerant CB may have played important physiological and evolutionary roles in Earths history.

Brown, I. I.; Mummey, D.; Lindsey, J.; McKay, D. S.

2006-01-01

334

Iron speciation in beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) biofortified by common breeding.  

PubMed

The iron storage protein ferritin is a potential vehicle to enhance the iron content of biofortified crops. With the aim of evaluating the potential of ferritin iron in plant breeding, we used species-specific isotope dilution mass spectrometry to quantify ferritin iron in bean varieties with a wide range of total iron content. Zinc, phytic acid, and polyphenols were also measured. Total iron concentration in 21 bean varieties ranged from 32 to 115 ppm and was positively correlated with concentrations of zinc (P = 0.001) and nonferritin bound iron (P < 0.001). Ferritin iron ranged from 13% to 35% of total iron and increased only slightly in high iron beans (P = 0.007). Concentrations of nonferritin bound iron and phytic acid were correlated (P = 0.001), although phytic acid:iron molar ratio decreased with increasing iron concentration (P = 0.003). Most iron in high iron beans was present as nonferritin bound iron, which confirms our earlier finding showing that ferritin iron in beans was lower than previously published. As the range of ferritin iron content in beans is relatively narrow, there is less opportunity for breeders to breed for high ferritin. The relevance of these findings to the extent of iron absorption depends on resolving the question of whether ferritin iron is absorbed or not to a greater extent than nonferritin bound iron. PMID:25124357

Hoppler, Matthias; Egli, Ines; Petry, Nicolai; Gille, Doreen; Zeder, Christophe; Walczyk, Thomas; Blair, Matthew W; Hurrell, Richard F

2014-09-01

335

[Causes of disturbances in iron turnover in chronic renal failure].  

PubMed

In many patients with chronic renal insufficiency a depletion of stored and cellular iron (absolute iron deficiency), a blockade of iron in body stores (functional iron deficiency) or an iron overload can be shown. The factors leading to absolute iron deficiency are: 1) loss of iron as a result of blood loss by the gastrointestinal tract, taking blood specimens for laboratory tests and related to dialytic procedure; 2) enhanced use of iron during intensive erythropoiesis stimulated by recombinant human erythropoietin; 3) dietary iron deficiency or impaired iron uptake from the gastrointestinal tract; 4) other forms of gastrointestinal tract impairment; 5) pharmaceutical substances forming inabsorbable iron complexes and/or diluting the acidity of the gastric juice; 6) certain demographic factors. Functional iron deficiency develops during treatment with recombinant human erythropoietin and in the infectious state and during the inflammatory process. The use of recombinant human erythropoietin accelerates erythropoesis and by so increases iron requirement frequently far higher than the ability of iron stores to "transfer" iron to the bone marrow--this may be a result of ineffective mobilisation of iron stores and/or ineffective transport. In the infectious process the use of iron is impaired because of augmented cytokines production which leads to increase iron uptake and storage in the reticulo-endothelial system. Iron overload is caused by excessive iron intake, e.g. parenteral iron administration or repeated blood transfusions. PMID:12089896

Prusak, Ma?gorzata; Grzegorzewska, Alicja E

2002-04-01

336

Escherichia coli RIC Is Able to Donate Iron to Iron-Sulfur Clusters  

PubMed Central

Escherichia coli RIC (Repair of Iron Centers) is a diiron protein previously reported to be involved in the repair of iron-sulfur proteins damaged by oxidative or nitrosative stresses, and proposed to act as an iron donor. This possible role of RIC was now examined specifically by evaluating its ability to donate iron ions to apo-iron-sulfur proteins, determining the iron binding constants and assessing the lability of its iron ions. We show, by UV-visible, EPR and resonance Raman spectroscopies that RIC may participate in the synthesis of an iron-sulfur cluster in the apo-forms of the spinach ferredoxin and IscU when in the presence of the sulfide donating system IscS and L-cysteine. Iron binding assays allowed determining the as-isolated and fully reduced RIC dissociation constants for the ferric and ferrous iron of 10?27 M and 10?13 M, respectively. Mössbauer studies revealed that the RIC iron ions are labile, namely when the center is in the mixed-valence redox form as compared with the (?-oxo) diferric one. Altogether, these results suggest that RIC is capable of delivering iron for the formation of iron-sulfur clusters. PMID:24740378

Nobre, Ligia S.; Garcia-Serres, Ricardo; Todorovic, Smilja; Hildebrandt, Peter; Teixeira, Miguel; Latour, Jean-Marc; Saraiva, Ligia M.

2014-01-01

337

Modelling Iron-Bentonite Interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The presence of both iron canisters and bentonitic clay in some engineered barrier system (EBS) designs for the geological disposal of high-level radioactive wastes creates the potential for chemical interactions which may impact upon the long-term performance of the clay as a barrier to radionuclide migration. Flooding of potential radionuclide sorption sites on the clay by ferrous ions and conversion of clay to non-swelling sheet silicates (e.g. berthierine) are two possible outcomes deleterious to long-term performance. Laboratory experimental studies of the corrosion of iron in clay show that corrosion product layers are generally thin (< 1 µm) with magnetite, siderite, or ‘green rust' occurring depending upon temperature and ambient partial pressure of carbon dioxide. In theory, incorporation of iron into clay alteration products could act as a ‘pump' to accelerate corrosion. However, the results of laboratory experiments to characterise the products of iron-bentonite interaction are less than unequivocal. The type and amounts of solid products appear to be strong functions of time, temperature, water/clay ratio, and clay and pore fluid compositions. For example, the products of high temperature experiments (> 250 °C) are dominated by chlorite, whereas lower temperatures produce berthierine, odinite, cronstedtite, or Fe-rich smectite. Unfortunately, the inevitable short-term nature of laboratory experimental studies introduces issues of metastability and kinetics. The sequential formation in time of minerals in natural systems often produces the formation of phases not predicted by equilibrium thermodynamics. Evidence from analogous natural systems suggests that the sequence of alteration of clay by Fe-rich fluids will proceed via an Ostwald step sequence. The computer code, QPAC, has been modified to incorporate processes of nucleation, growth, precursor cannibalisation, and Ostwald ripening to address the issues of the slow growth of bentonite alteration products. This, together with inclusion of processes of iron corrosion and diffusion, has enabled investigation of a representative model of the alteration of bentonite in a typical EBS environment. Simulations with fixed mineral surface areas show that berthierine dominates the solid product assemblage, with siderite replacing it at simulation times greater than 10 000 years. Simulations with time-dependent mineral surface areas show a sequence of solid alteration products, described by: magnetite -> cronstedtite -> berthierine -> chlorite. Using plausible estimates of mineral-fluid interfacial free energies, chlorite growth is not achieved until 5 000 years of simulation time. The results of this modelling work suggest that greater emphasis should be placed upon methods to up-scale the results of laboratory experiments to timescales of relevance to performance assessment.

Watson, C.; Savage, D.; Benbow, S.; Wilson, J.

2009-04-01

338

Superparamagnetic nanosystems based on iron oxide nanoparticles for biomedical imaging.  

PubMed

Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles and their dispersion in various mediums are of wide interest for their biomedical applications and physicochemical properties. MFe(2)O(4) or MOFe(2)O(3) (where M = Co, Li, Ni or Mn, for example) can be molecularly engineered to provide a wide range of magnetic properties. In this article, we survey the literature, integrating the results of our work to give a rational view on the synthesis, physicochemical properties and applications of MFe(2)O(4), especially for MRI. However, retrieving detailed biological information on a subcellular level is difficult, owing to the limited resolution and low sensitivity of the MRI technique. Thus, this article also concentrates on the development of a magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles/quantum dot hybrids, as a dual-mode magnetic-fluorescent probe. The synthesis and physicochemical properties of the magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles/quantum dot hybrids and, especially, its application as an MRI-fluorescent probe, will also be described. PMID:21542689

Liu, Fujun; Laurent, Sophie; Fattahi, Hassan; Vander Elst, Luce; Muller, Robert N

2011-04-01

339

Structural basis for iron piracy by pathogenic Neisseria.  

PubMed

Neisseria are obligate human pathogens causing bacterial meningitis, septicaemia and gonorrhoea. Neisseria require iron for survival and can extract it directly from human transferrin for transport across the outer membrane. The transport system consists of TbpA, an integral outer membrane protein, and TbpB, a co-receptor attached to the cell surface; both proteins are potentially important vaccine and therapeutic targets. Two key questions driving Neisseria research are how human transferrin is specifically targeted, and how the bacteria liberate iron from transferrin at neutral pH. To address these questions, we solved crystal structures of the TbpA-transferrin complex and of the corresponding co-receptor TbpB. We characterized the TbpB-transferrin complex by small-angle X-ray scattering and the TbpA-TbpB-transferrin complex by electron microscopy. Our studies provide a rational basis for the specificity of TbpA for human transferrin, show how TbpA promotes iron release from transferrin, and elucidate how TbpB facilitates this process. PMID:22327295

Noinaj, Nicholas; Easley, Nicole C; Oke, Muse; Mizuno, Naoko; Gumbart, James; Boura, Evzen; Steere, Ashley N; Zak, Olga; Aisen, Philip; Tajkhorshid, Emad; Evans, Robert W; Gorringe, Andrew R; Mason, Anne B; Steven, Alasdair C; Buchanan, Susan K

2012-03-01

340

Iron-Based Redox Switches in Biology  

PubMed Central

Abstract By virtue of its unique electrochemical properties, iron makes an ideal redox active cofactor for many biologic processes. In addition to its important role in respiration, central metabolism, nitrogen fixation, and photosynthesis, iron also is used as a sensor of cellular redox status. Iron-based sensors incorporate Fe-S clusters, heme, and mononuclear iron sites to act as switches to control protein activity in response to changes in cellular redox balance. Here we provide an overview of iron-based redox sensor proteins, in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, that have been characterized at the biochemical level. Although this review emphasizes redox sensors containing Fe-S clusters, proteins that use heme or novel iron sites also are discussed. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 11, 1029–1046. PMID:19021503

Theil, Elizabeth C.

2009-01-01

341

The Iron Project: Atomic Data for the Iron Peak Elements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Almost all classes of astronomical objects exhibit spectral features of Fe ions and, in general, of ions of the iron-peak sequence. These are, therefore, of great diagnostic value across most wavelength ranges, from the hard X-ray and extreme UV up to the far IR. The IRON Project is an international collaboration devoted to the study of atomic process for all ions of the iron-group elements for applications in astrophysical and laboratory plasmas. For this purpose, the computer codes for atomic calculations using the R-matrix method in the close coupling approximation developed under the Opacity Project were extended to include relativistic Breit-Pauli effects. The codes were also adapted to run on a variety of computational platforms including massively parallel machine, e.g. Cray T3D and IBM SP2. Presently we report some recent results by the Ohio State group on collision strengths, radiative transition probabilities, photoionization cross section, and total electron-ion recombination rates for all carbon and nitrogen ions, Fe I-V, Fe XXII, Fe XXV, and Fe XXVI. An important feature of the present work is that accurate photoionization and recombination data are calculated for the first time in a self-consistent manner, as required in photoionization models. Carbon and nitrogen ionic fractions in coronal and photoionization equilibrium are presented and compared with previous works. The work is supported partially by the U.S. National Science Foundation (PHY-9421898), NASA LTSA program (NAGW-3315) and NASA ADP program (NAS5-32643

Pradhan, A. K.; Zhang, H. L.; Nahar, S. N.; Romano, P.; Bautista, M. A.

1996-12-01

342

Out of balance--systemic iron homeostasis in iron-related disorders.  

PubMed

Iron is an essential element in our daily diet. Most iron is required for the de novo synthesis of red blood cells, where it plays a critical role in oxygen binding to hemoglobin. Thus, iron deficiency causes anemia, a major public health burden worldwide. On the other extreme, iron accumulation in critical organs such as liver, heart, and pancreas causes organ dysfunction due to the generation of oxidative stress. Therefore, systemic iron levels must be tightly balanced. Here we focus on the regulatory role of the hepcidin/ferroportin circuitry as the major regulator of systemic iron homeostasis. We discuss how regulatory cues (e.g., iron, inflammation, or hypoxia) affect the hepcidin response and how impairment of the hepcidin/ferroportin regulatory system causes disorders of iron metabolism. PMID:23917168

Steinbicker, Andrea U; Muckenthaler, Martina U

2013-08-01

343

A novel regeneration of iron citrate solution by biooxidation of iron-oxidizing bacteria.  

PubMed

Liquid phase oxidation process using chelated iron solution is among the most promising techniques for the hydrogen sulfide removal due to its double advantage of waste minimization and resource recovery. Regeneration of chelated iron is a core reaction in this process. Regeneration of chelated iron in acidic solution is very difficult. In this paper, a novel regeneration of iron citrate in acidic solution by biooxidation of iron-oxidizing bacteria was reported firstly. By using such a process, the influence of iron-oxidizing bacteria on the regeneration rate was investigated. The results demonstrated the regeneration rate with the new technology was increased significantly. The process may contribute to the biooxidation of iron-oxidizing bacteria. Application of this novel process increased the regeneration rate under the optimum conditions, suggesting the iron citrate regeneration process may be a feasible and economical method in application. PMID:25242290

Wang, Y J; Li, D P; Liu, C; Zhan, G Q; He, X H

2014-11-01

344

Out of Balance--Systemic Iron Homeostasis in Iron-Related Disorders  

PubMed Central

Iron is an essential element in our daily diet. Most iron is required for the de novo synthesis of red blood cells, where it plays a critical role in oxygen binding to hemoglobin. Thus, iron deficiency causes anemia, a major public health burden worldwide. On the other extreme, iron accumulation in critical organs such as liver, heart, and pancreas causes organ dysfunction due to the generation of oxidative stress. Therefore, systemic iron levels must be tightly balanced. Here we focus on the regulatory role of the hepcidin/ferroportin circuitry as the major regulator of systemic iron homeostasis. We discuss how regulatory cues (e.g., iron, inflammation, or hypoxia) affect the hepcidin response and how impairment of the hepcidin/ferroportin regulatory system causes disorders of iron metabolism. PMID:23917168

Steinbicker, Andrea U.; Muckenthaler, Martina U.

2013-01-01

345

Ferrous versus Ferric Oral Iron Formulations for the Treatment of Iron Deficiency: A Clinical Overview  

PubMed Central

Iron deficiency anaemia represents a major public health problem, particularly in infants, young children, pregnant women, and females with heavy menses. Oral iron supplementation is a cheap, safe, and effective means of increasing haemoglobin levels and restoring iron stores to prevent and correct iron deficiency. Many preparations are available, varying widely in dosage, formulation (quick or prolonged release), and chemical state (ferrous or ferric form). The debate over the advantages of ferrous versus ferric formulations is ongoing. In this literature review, the tolerability and efficacy of ferrous versus ferric iron formulations are evaluated. We focused on studies comparing ferrous sulphate preparations with ferric iron polymaltose complex preparations, the two predominant forms of iron used. Current data show that slow-release ferrous sulphate preparations remain the established and standard treatment of iron deficiency, irrespective of the indication, given their good bioavailability, efficacy, and acceptable tolerability demonstrated in several large clinical studies. PMID:22654638

Santiago, Palacios

2012-01-01

346

Performance Optimization of Metallic Iron and Iron Oxide Nanomaterials for Treatment of Impaired Water Supplies  

E-print Network

in the presence of iron and sulfur-containing compounds.iron systems [33]. We also cannot rule out the possibility of elemental sulfuriron sulfides such as tochilinite [25]. XPS confirmed the presence of reduced sulfur

Xie, Yang

2011-01-01

347

THE EFFECT OF WATER CHEMISTRY ON THE PROPERTIES OF IRON PARTICLES AND IRON SUSPENSIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The structure and properties of iron colloids in aquatic systems is important in understanding their behavior in environmental and engineering systems. For example the adsorption of contaminants onto iron colloids and subsequent transport through ground water aquifers and surface...

348

Effects of Iron Supplementation and Activity on Serum Iron Depletion and Hemoglobin Levels in Female Athletes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research revealed that a four-month basketball training program did not significantly alter serum iron, total iron binding capacity, hemoglobin, and percent saturation levels in female basketball athletes. (JD)

Cooter, G. Rankin; Mowbray, Kathy W.

1978-01-01

349

Prevention of Iron Deficiency in Infancy, Childhood and Adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iron deficiency (ID) is prevalent in infants, children and adolescents worldwide due to their high iron requirements during growth, low dietary iron intake and low-bioavailability diet. Low iron status is associated with adverse health consequences throughout childhood. Prevention measures should be initiated early and include iron supplementation of pregnant women, delayed cord clamping at delivery and exclusive breast-feeding for 6

Maria Andersson; Richard F. Hurrell

2010-01-01

350

Diacerhein blocks iron regulatory protein activation in inflamed human monocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iron Regulatory Proteins (IRPs), by modulating expression of ferritin, which stores excess iron in a non toxic form, and transferrin receptor, which controls iron uptake, are the main controller of cellular iron metabolism. During inflammation, modification of IRP activity may affect iron availability, free radical generation and cytokine gene response in inflammatory cells. In the present study we tested the

Antonello Pietrangelo; Giuliana Montosi; Stefania Recalcati; Cinzia Garuti; Gaetano Cairo

1998-01-01

351

Genetic and Biochemical Analysis of High Iron Toxicity in Yeast  

PubMed Central

Iron storage in yeast requires the activity of the vacuolar iron transporter Ccc1. Yeast with an intact CCC1 are resistant to iron toxicity, but deletion of CCC1 renders yeast susceptible to iron toxicity. We used genetic and biochemical analysis to identify suppressors of high iron toxicity in ?ccc1 cells to probe the mechanism of high iron toxicity. All genes identified as suppressors of high iron toxicity in aerobically grown ?ccc1 cells encode organelle iron transporters including mitochondrial iron transporters MRS3, MRS4, and RIM2. Overexpression of MRS3 suppressed high iron toxicity by decreasing cytosolic iron through mitochondrial iron accumulation. Under anaerobic conditions, ?ccc1 cells were still sensitive to high iron toxicity, but overexpression of MRS3 did not suppress iron toxicity and did not result in mitochondrial iron accumulation. We conclude that Mrs3/Mrs4 can sequester iron within mitochondria under aerobic conditions but not anaerobic conditions. We show that iron toxicity in ?ccc1 cells occurred under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Microarray analysis showed no evidence of oxidative damage under anaerobic conditions, suggesting that iron toxicity may not be solely due to oxidative damage. Deletion of TSA1, which encodes a peroxiredoxin, exacerbated iron toxicity in ?ccc1 cells under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions, suggesting a unique role for Tsa1 in iron toxicity. PMID:21115478

Lin, Huilan; Li, Liangtao; Jia, Xuan; Ward, Diane McVey; Kaplan, Jerry

2011-01-01

352

Iron bioavailability from super enriched breads in weanling mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bread made from starch, unenriched, enriched, super-enriched and whole wheat flour was fed to male weanling mice for 21 days to explore the effect on iron utilization using liver, blood iron status and iron balance as parameters of evaluation. The results indicated that iron retentions, blood hemoglobin and hematocrit levels, and liver iron concentration numerically tended to be greater in

C. D. Ricketts; C. Kies

1994-01-01

353

High toughness-high strength iron alloy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An iron alloy is provided which exhibits strength and toughness characteristics at cryogenic temperatures. The alloy consists essentially of about 10 to 16 percent by weight nickel, about 0.1 to 1.0 percent by weight aluminum, and 0 to about 3 percent by weight copper, with the balance being essentially iron. The iron alloy is produced by a process which includes cold rolling at room temperature and subsequent heat treatment.

Stephens, J. R.; Witzke, W. R. (inventors)

1980-01-01

354

The Cu isotopic composition of iron meteorites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-precision Cu isotopic compositions have been measured for the metal phase of 29 iron meteorites from various groups and for four terrestrial standards. The data are reported as the ?65Cu permil deviation of the 65Cu/63Cu ratio relative to the NIST SRM 976 standard. Terrestrial mantle rocks have a very narrow range of variations and scatter around zero. In contrast, iron meteorites show ?65Cu approximately 2.3‰ variations. Different groups of iron meteorites have distinct ?65Cu values. Nonmagmatic IAB-IIICD iron meteorites have similar ?65Cu (0.03 ± 0.08 and 0.12 ± 0.10, respectively), close to terrestrial values (approximately 0). The other group of nonmagmatic irons, IIE, is isotopically distinct (-0.69 ± 0.15). IVB is the iron meteorite group with the strongest elemental depletion in Cu and samples in this group are enriched in the lighter isotope (?65Cu down to -2.26‰). Evaporation should have produced an enrichment in 65Cu over 63Cu (?65Cu >0) and can therefore be ruled out as a mechanism for volatile loss in IVB meteorites. In silicate-bearing iron meteorites, ?17O correlates with ?65Cu. This correlation between nonmass-dependent and mass-dependent parameters suggests that the Cu isotopic composition of iron meteorites has not been modified by planetary differentiation to a large extent. Therefore, Cu isotopic ratios can be used to confirm genetic links. Cu isotopes thus confirm genetic relationships between groups of iron meteorites (e.g., IAB and IIICD; IIIE and IIIAB); and between iron meteorites and chondrites (e.g., IIE and H chondrites). Several genetic connections between iron meteorites groups are confirmed by Cu isotopes, (e.g., IAB and IIICD; IIIE and IIIAB); and between iron meteorites and chondrites (e.g., IIE and H chondrites).

Bishop, Matthew Cole; Moynier, Frederic; Weinstein, Charlotte; Fraboulet, Jean-Gabriel; Wang, Kun; Foriel, Julien

2012-02-01

355

Thermodynamics applied to iron smelting techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermodynamics allows us to understand the chemical reactions occurring inside an experimental archaeometallurgical shaft furnace for iron smelting. The production of an iron bloom, with the so-called direct process, is described in a daily pyrometallurgical cycle. The experiences suggest that, as higher and better blown furnaces were built for improving the production, different reactions have been involved and a new material, pig iron, has been obtained

Cavallini, Mauro

2013-12-01

356

Weldability and hot ductility of iron aluminides  

SciTech Connect

The weldability of iron aluminide alloys is discussed. Although readily welded with electron beam (EB) and gas-tungsten arc (GTA) techniques, iron aluminides are sometimes susceptible to cracking during cooling when welded with the GTA welding process. Taken into account are the effects of microstructural instability (grain growth), weld heat input (cooling rate) and environment on the hot ductility of an iron aluminide alloy designated FA-129. 64 refs., 59 figs., 3 tabs.

Ash, D.I.; Edwards, G.R. (Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States). Center for Welding and Joining Research); David, S.A. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

1991-05-01

357

Iron-regulatory proteins, iron-responsive elements and ferritin mRNA translation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iron plays a central role in the metabolism of all cells. This is evident by its major contribution to many diverse functions, such as DNA replication, bacterial pathogenicity, photosynthesis, oxidative stress control and cell proliferation. In mammalian systems, control of intracellular iron homeostasis is largely due to posttranscriptional regulation of binding by iron-regulatory RNA-binding proteins (IRPs) to iron-responsive elements (IREs)

Andrew M. Thomson; Jack T. Rogers; Peter J. Leedman

1999-01-01

358

Iron-regulatory proteins limit hypoxia-inducible factor-2? expression in iron deficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypoxia stimulates erythropoiesis, the major iron-utilization pathway. We report the discovery of a conserved, functional iron-responsive element (IRE) in the 5? untranslated region of the messenger RNA encoding endothelial PAS domain protein-1, EPAS1 (also called hypoxia-inducible factor-2?, HIF2?). Via this IRE, iron regulatory protein binding controls EPAS1 mRNA translation in response to cellular iron availability. Our results uncover a regulatory

Mayka Sanchez; Bruno Galy; Martina U Muckenthaler; Matthias W Hentze

2007-01-01

359

The Transcriptional Landscape of Campylobacter jejuni under Iron Replete and Iron Limited Growth Conditions  

PubMed Central

The genome-wide Campylobacter jejuni transcriptional response under iron replete and iron limited conditions was characterized using RNA-seq. We have identified 111 novel C. jejuni 5’UTRs and mapped 377 co-transcribed genes into 230 transcriptional operons. In contrast to previous microarray results, the C. jejuni iron stimulon is less extensive than previously believed and consists of 77 iron activated genes and 50 iron repressed genes. As anticipated, the iron repressed genes are primarily those involved in iron acquisition or oxidative stress defense. Interestingly, these experiments have revealed that iron is an important modulator of flagellar biogenesis with almost all the components of the flagella found to be iron activated. Given that motility is a well-known C. jejuni colonization factor, this suggests that there is an important regulatory coupling of flagellar biogenesis and iron level in C. jejuni. In addition we have identified several consensus mutations in the C. jejuni NCTC11168 strain that are widespread in the Campylobacter research community and which may explain conflicting phenotypic reports for this strain. Comparative analysis of iron responsive genes with the known Fur regulon indicates that many iron responsive genes are not Fur responsive; suggesting that additional iron regulatory factors remain to be characterized in C. jejuni. Further analysis of the RNA-seq data identified multiple novel transcripts including 19 potential ncRNAs. The expression of selected ncRNAs was confirmed and quantified with qRT-PCR. The qRT-PCR results indicate that several of these novel transcripts are either Fur and/or iron responsive. The fact that several of these ncRNAs are iron responsive or Fur regulated suggests that they may perform regulatory roles in iron homeostasis. PMID:24223952

Butcher, James; Stintzi, Alain

2013-01-01

360

Supplementing iron bioavailability enhanced mung bean.  

PubMed

Iron deficiency anaemia is a major public health problem. The high incidence is either due to insufficient intake of iron or poor bio availability. Enhancing the bio availability is as important as increasing the intake. The absorption could be enhanced by including ascorbic acid and beta carotene containing fruits and vegetables into recipes of iron containing food preparations. The effect of supplementation of iron bio-availability enhanced mung bean preparations was studied on 75 women who were compared against 75 who served as controls and another 75 who consumed regular traditional recipes. The methodology included identification of suitable mung bean variety, assessing iron in vitro bio availability, mapping the anaemic women, estimating their iron levels, supplementation for one year and studying the effect of supplementation. Mung bean supplementation had increased serum protein levels from 5.36 to 6.73 g/dl, serum iron levels had increased from 16.6 to 46.7 microg/dl. The TIBC levels decreased from 555 to 508 microg/dl while serum ferritin levels increased from 3.56 to 5.94 microg/dl and Hb levels from 7.54 to 8.29 g/dl. Thus, improving the bioavailability of iron of food preparations, will improve the iron status of women. PMID:18296312

Purushothaman, Vijayalakshmi; M, Amirthaveni; Tsou, Samson C S; S, Shanmugasundaram

2008-01-01

361

Characterization of tetraethylene glycol passivated iron nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study describes the synthesis and characterization of iron@iron oxide nanoparticles produced by passivation of metallic iron in tetraethylene glycol media. Structural and chemical characterizations were performed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Mössbauer spectroscopy. Pomegranate-like core@shell nanoparticulate material in the size range of 90-120 nm was obtained. According to quantitative phase analysis using Rietveld structure refinement the synthesized iron oxide was identified as magnetite (Fe3O4) whereas the iron to magnetite mass fractions was found to be 47:53. These findings are in good agreement with the data obtained from Mössbauer and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The XPS data revealed the presence of a surface organic layer with higher hydrocarbon content, possibly due to the tetraethylene glycol thermal degradation correlated with iron oxidation. The room-temperature (300 K) saturation magnetization measured for the as-synthesized iron and for the iron-iron oxide were 145 emu g-1 and 131 emu g-1, respectively. The measured saturation magnetizations are in good agreement with data obtained from TEM, XRD and Mössbauer spectroscopy.

Nunes, Eloiza da Silva; Viali, Wesley Renato; da Silva, Sebastião William; Coaquira, José Antonio Huamaní; Garg, Vijayendra Kumar; de Oliveira, Aderbal Carlos; Morais, Paulo César; Jafelicci Júnior, Miguel

2014-10-01

362

Diagnosis and management of iron deficiency anemia.  

PubMed

Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is a common hematologic condition, affecting a substantial proportion of the world's women and young children. Optimal management of IDA requires an accurate diagnosis, identification and correction of the underlying cause, provision of medicinal iron therapy, and confirmation of treatment success. There are limited data to support current treatment approaches regarding oral iron preparation, dosing, monitoring, and duration of therapy. New intravenous iron agents have improved safety profiles, which may foster their increased utilization in the treatment of patients with IDA. Clinical trials focused on improving current treatment standards for IDA are sorely needed. PMID:25064710

Powers, Jacquelyn M; Buchanan, George R

2014-08-01

363

Biosynthesis and characterization of layered iron phosphate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Layered iron phosphate with uniform morphology has been synthesized by a precipitation method with yeast cells as a biosurfactant. The yeast cells are used to regulate the nucleation and growth of layered iron phosphate. The uniform layered structure is characterized by small-angle x-ray diffraction (SAXD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) analyses. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) is used to analyze the chemical bond linkages in organic-inorganic hybrid iron phosphate. The likely synthetic mechanism of nucleation and oriented growth is discussed. The electrical conductivity of hybrid iron phosphate heat-treated at different temperatures is presented.

Zhou, Weijia; He, Wen; Wang, Meiting; Zhang, Xudong; Li, Peng; Yan, Shunpu; Tian, Xiuying; Sun, Xianan; Han, Xiuxiu

2008-12-01

364

Synthesis of iron fertilization experiments: From the Iron Age in the Age of Enlightenment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Comparison of eight iron experiments shows that maximum Chl a, the maximum DIC removal, and the overall DIC/Fe efficiency all scale inversely with depth of the wind mixed layer (WML) defining the light environment. Moreover, lateral patch dilution, sea surface irradiance, temperature, and grazing play additional roles. The Southern Ocean experiments were most influenced by very deep WMLs. In contrast, light conditions were most favorable during SEEDS and SERIES as well as during IronEx-2. The two extreme experiments, EisenEx and SEEDS, can be linked via EisenEx bottle incubations with shallower simulated WML depth. Large diatoms always benefit the most from Fe addition, where a remarkably small group of thriving diatom species is dominated by universal response of Pseudo-nitzschia spp. Significant response of these moderate (10-30 ?m), medium (30-60 ?m), and large (>60 ?m) diatoms is consistent with growth physiology determined for single species in natural seawater. The minimum level of "dissolved" Fe (filtrate < 0.2 ?m) maintained during an experiment determines the dominant diatom size class. However, this is further complicated by continuous transfer of original truly dissolved reduced Fe(II) into the colloidal pool, which may constitute some 75% of the "dissolved" pool. Depth integration of carbon inventory changes partly compensates the adverse effects of a deep WML due to its greater integration depths, decreasing the differences in responses between the eight experiments. About half of depth-integrated overall primary productivity is reflected in a decrease of DIC. The overall C/Fe efficiency of DIC uptake is DIC/Fe ˜ 5600 for all eight experiments. The increase of particulate organic carbon is about a quarter of the primary production, suggesting food web losses for the other three quarters. Replenishment of DIC by air/sea exchange tends to be a minor few percent of primary CO2 fixation but will continue well after observations have stopped. Export of carbon into deeper waters is difficult to assess and is until now firmly proven and quite modest in only two experiments.

de Baar, Hein J. W.; Boyd, Philip W.; Coale, Kenneth H.; Landry, Michael R.; Tsuda, Atsushi; Assmy, Philipp; Bakker, Dorothee C. E.; Bozec, Yann; Barber, Richard T.; Brzezinski, Mark A.; Buesseler, Ken O.; Boyé, Marie; Croot, Peter L.; Gervais, Frank; Gorbunov, Maxim Y.; Harrison, Paul J.; Hiscock, William T.; Laan, Patrick; Lancelot, Christiane; Law, Cliff S.; Levasseur, Maurice; Marchetti, Adrian; Millero, Frank J.; Nishioka, Jun; Nojiri, Yukihiro; van Oijen, Tim; Riebesell, Ulf; Rijkenberg, Micha J. A.; Saito, Hiroaki; Takeda, Shigenobu; Timmermans, Klaas R.; Veldhuis, Marcel J. W.; Waite, Anya M.; Wong, Chi-Shing

2005-09-01

365

Thrombocytopenia and Iron Deficiency Anaemia in a Patient with ?1Thalassaemia Trait. Response to Iron Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iron deficiency anaemia secondary to menorrhagia was observed in a woman of Greek Cypriot origin. Moderate thrombocytopenia was also present. Treatment with parenteral and oral iron produced a transient thrombocytosis, the platelet count then returning to normal. Subsequent analysis revealed that she also carried the ?1-thalassaemia trait. Previous reports of thrombocytopenia responsive to iron treatment are reviewed.Copyright © 1978 S.

M. E. J. Beard; S. A. N. Johnson

1978-01-01

366

Accumulation of storage iron in patients treated for iron-deficiency anaemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The repletion of iron stores after treatment was studied in 38 patients with uncomplicated iron-deficiency anaemia. The serum ferritin concentration rose significantly when oral treatment was continued for two months after the attainment of a normal haemoglobin concentration. Patients treated with a total-dose infusion of iron dextran had thehighest final serum levels, which were significantly greater than in patients given

D P Bentley; A Jacobs

1975-01-01

367

Serum bleomycin-detectable iron in patients with thalassemia major with normal range of serum iron.  

PubMed

"Free" iron, a potentially radical-generating low mass iron, and not found in normal human blood, was increased in the serum of blood-transfused thalassemia major patients seen in the Yangon General Hospital, Yangon, Myanmar (Burma). The low mass iron was detected by the bleomycin assay. Fifty-one blood samples were analyzed (from 28 males and 23 females). High "free" iron was detected in 47 sera samples from thalassemia patients. Serum ferritin, which reflects the body store iron, was higher than the normal range (10-200 ng/ml) in 49 patients. On the other hand, serum iron of 39 sera samples fell within the normal range (50-150 micrograms/dl). Four were less than 50 micrograms/dl and eight were more than 150 micrograms/dl. Almost all the patients' sera of normal or higher serum iron level contained "free" iron. Thus, almost all the sera from thalassemic patients from Myanmar contain bleomycin-detectable iron, even when serum iron is within the normal range. In developing countries where undernutrition is prevalent (serum albumin in these patients was 3.6 +/- 0.4 g/dl, P < 0.0001 vs. control value of 4.0 - 4.8 g/dl), normal serum iron does not preclude the presence of free iron in the serum. PMID:7545860

Han, K E; Okada, S

1995-06-01

368

Distinct mechanisms of ferritin delivery to lysosomes in iron-depleted and iron-replete cells.  

PubMed

Ferritin is a cytosolic protein that stores excess iron, thereby protecting cells from iron toxicity. Ferritin-stored iron is believed to be utilized when cells become iron deficient; however, the mechanisms underlying the extraction of iron from ferritin have yet to be fully elucidated. Here, we demonstrate that ferritin is degraded in the lysosome under iron-depleted conditions and that the acidic environment of the lysosome is crucial for iron extraction from ferritin and utilization by cells. Ferritin was targeted for degradation in the lysosome even under iron-replete conditions in primary cells; however, the mechanisms underlying lysosomal targeting of ferritin were distinct under depleted and replete conditions. In iron-depleted cells, ferritin was targeted to the lysosome via a mechanism that involved autophagy. In contrast, lysosomal targeting of ferritin in iron-replete cells did not involve autophagy. The autophagy-independent pathway of ferritin delivery to lysosomes was deficient in several cancer-derived cells, and cancer-derived cell lines are more resistant to iron toxicity than primary cells. Collectively, these results suggest that ferritin trafficking may be differentially regulated by cell type and that loss of ferritin delivery to the lysosome under iron-replete conditions may be related to oncogenic cellular transformation. PMID:21444722

Asano, Takeshi; Komatsu, Masaaki; Yamaguchi-Iwai, Yuko; Ishikawa, Fuyuki; Mizushima, Noboru; Iwai, Kazuhiro

2011-05-01

369

Combined Therapy of Iron Chelator and Antioxidant Completely Restores Brain Dysfunction Induced by Iron Toxicity  

PubMed Central

Background Excessive iron accumulation leads to iron toxicity in the brain; however the underlying mechanism is unclear. We investigated the effects of iron overload induced by high iron-diet consumption on brain mitochondrial function, brain synaptic plasticity and learning and memory. Iron chelator (deferiprone) and antioxidant (n-acetyl cysteine) effects on iron-overload brains were also studied. Methodology Male Wistar rats were fed either normal diet or high iron-diet consumption for 12 weeks, after which rats in each diet group were treated with vehicle or deferiprone (50 mg/kg) or n-acetyl cysteine (100 mg/kg) or both for another 4 weeks. High iron-diet consumption caused brain iron accumulation, brain mitochondrial dysfunction, impaired brain synaptic plasticity and cognition, blood-brain-barrier breakdown, and brain apoptosis. Although both iron chelator and antioxidant attenuated these deleterious effects, combined therapy provided more robust results. Conclusion In conclusion, this is the first study demonstrating that combined iron chelator and anti-oxidant therapy completely restored brain function impaired by iron overload. PMID:24400127

Sripetchwandee, Jirapas; Pipatpiboon, Noppamas; Chattipakorn, Nipon; Chattipakorn, Siriporn

2014-01-01

370

Reactive Iron and Iron-Reducing Bacteria in Louisiana Continental Shelf Sediments  

EPA Science Inventory

The Mississippi and Atchafalaya Rivers release sediments containing 15 x 106 t of iron onto the Louisiana continental shelf (LCS) each year. Iron oxides reaching the seafloor may be utilized as electron acceptors by iron-reducing bacteria for organic matter oxidation or become r...

371

Reductive iron uptake by Candida albicans: role of copper, iron and the TUP1 regulator  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-affinity iron uptake by a ferrous permease in the opportunistic pathogen Candida albicans is required for virulence. Here this iron uptake system has been characterized by investigating three distinct activities: an externally directed surface ferric reductase, a membrane-associated PPD ( p- phenylenediamine) oxidase and a cellular ferrous iron transport activity. Copper was required for the PPD oxidase and ferrous transport

Simon A. B. Knight; Emmanuel Lesuisse; Robert Stearman; Richard D. Klausner; Andrew Dancis

372

Iron, copper, and iron regulatory protein 2 in Alzheimer's disease and related dementias  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accumulating evidence implicates a role for altered iron and copper metabolism in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, imbalances in the levels of the various forms of iron at different stages of AD have not been examined. In this pilot study we extracted and measured the levels of loosely bound, non-heme and total iron and

Shino Magaki; Ravi Raghavan; Claudius Mueller; Kerby C. Oberg; Harry V. Vinters; Wolff M. Kirsch

2007-01-01

373

Iron supplementation in suckling piglets: how to correct iron deficiency anemia without affecting plasma hepcidin levels.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to establish an optimized protocol of iron dextran administration to pig neonates, which better meets the iron demand for erythropoiesis. Here, we monitored development of red blood cell indices, plasma iron parameters during a 28-day period after birth (till the weaning), following intramuscular administration of different concentrations of iron dextran to suckling piglets. To better assess the iron status we developed a novel mass spectrometry assay to quantify pig plasma levels of the iron-regulatory peptide hormone hepcidin-25. This hormone is predominantly secreted by the liver and acts as a negative regulator of iron absorption and reutilization. The routinely used protocol with high amount of iron resulted in the recovery of piglets from iron deficiency but also in strongly elevated plasma hepcidin-25 levels. A similar protocol with reduced amounts of iron improved hematological status of piglets to the same level while plasma hepcidin-25 levels remained low. These data show that plasma hepcidin-25 levels can guide optimal dosing of iron treatment and pave the way for mixed supplementation of piglets starting with intramuscular injection of iron dextran followed by dietary supplementation, which could be efficient under condition of very low plasma hepcidin-25 level. PMID:23737963

Starzy?ski, Rafa? R; Laarakkers, Coby M M; Tjalsma, Harold; Swinkels, Dorine W; Pieszka, Marek; Sty?, Agnieszka; Mickiewicz, Micha?; Lipi?ski, Pawe?

2013-01-01

374

Iron Supplementation in Suckling Piglets: How to Correct Iron Deficiency Anemia without Affecting Plasma Hepcidin Levels  

PubMed Central

The aim of the study was to establish an optimized protocol of iron dextran administration to pig neonates, which better meets the iron demand for erythropoiesis. Here, we monitored development of red blood cell indices, plasma iron parameters during a 28-day period after birth (till the weaning), following intramuscular administration of different concentrations of iron dextran to suckling piglets. To better assess the iron status we developed a novel mass spectrometry assay to quantify pig plasma levels of the iron-regulatory peptide hormone hepcidin-25. This hormone is predominantly secreted by the liver and acts as a negative regulator of iron absorption and reutilization. The routinely used protocol with high amount of iron resulted in the recovery of piglets from iron deficiency but also in strongly elevated plasma hepcidin-25 levels. A similar protocol with reduced amounts of iron improved hematological status of piglets to the same level while plasma hepcidin-25 levels remained low. These data show that plasma hepcidin-25 levels can guide optimal dosing of iron treatment and pave the way for mixed supplementation of piglets starting with intramuscular injection of iron dextran followed by dietary supplementation, which could be efficient under condition of very low plasma hepcidin-25 level. PMID:23737963

Starzynski, Rafal R.; Laarakkers, Coby M. M.; Tjalsma, Harold; Swinkels, Dorine W.; Pieszka, Marek; Stys, Agnieszka; Mickiewicz, Michal; Lipinski, Pawel

2013-01-01

375

Sodium ferric gluconate complex in sucrose: Safer intravenous iron therapy than iron dextrans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Use of recombinant human erythropoietin in patients with end-stage renal disease has highlighted iron deficiency as the major cause of resistant anemia. The current mainstay of intravenous (IV) iron replacement therapy, iron dextran, has been shown in prior studies to have a risk of serious life-threatening anaphylaxis of just under 1 per 100 patients exposed. The current study assessed the

Gerald Faich; Jur Strobos

1999-01-01

376

Bio-availability of iron from spinach ( Spanicia oleracea ) cultivated in soil fortified with graded levels of iron  

Microsoft Academic Search

In vitro availability of iron along with ascorbic acid, oxalic acid and phosphorus content of two varieties of spinach (Pusa Jyoti and Allgreen) cultivated in soil with different levels of added iron was determined. Addition of graded levels of iron to soil markedly increased the total iron and phosphorus contents and significantly decreased the bio-availability of iron, ascorbic acid and

N. Snehalatha Reddy; Vandana G. Malewar

1992-01-01

377

Integrated Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book upholds the idea of learning and education as a means to individual development and social empowerment. It presents a holistic picture, looking at learning as an integral part of one's social and physical life. Strongly differing from existing classroom perspectives, the book analyses integrated learning at its broadest possible…

Gnanakan, Ken

2012-01-01

378

Integrative Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In contrast with subject-bound education, integrative education promotes the construction of broad "mental programs" that require students to use skills and information in new, realistic contexts. Early childhood education has long been a model of integrative education, emphasizing the whole child and offering a wide range of experiences that…

Walker, Dean

1995-01-01

379

Integrated Networks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A strategy for integrated data and voice networks implemented at the University of Michigan is described. These networks often use multi-technologies, multi-vendors, and multi-transmission media that will be fused into a single integrated network. Transmission media include twisted-pair wire, coaxial cable, fiber optics, and microwave. (Author/MLW)

Robinovitz, Stewart

1987-01-01

380

Electrodynamics in Iron and Steel  

E-print Network

In order to calculate the reflected EM fields at low amplitudes in iron and steel, more must be understood about the nature of long wavelength excitations in these metals. A bulk piece of iron is a very complex material with microstructure, a split band structure, magnetic domains and crystallographic textures that affect domain orientation. Probing iron and other bulk ferromagnetic materials with weak reflected and transmitted inductive low frequency fields is an easy operation to perform but the responses are difficult to interpret because of the complexity and variety of the structures affected by the fields. First starting with a simple single coil induction measurement and classical EM calculation to show the error is grossly under estimating the measured response. Extending this experiment to measuring the transmission of the induced fields allows the extraction of three dispersion curves which define these internal fields. One dispersion curve yielded an exceedingly small effective mass of 1.8 10^{-39}kg (1.3 10^{-9} m_e) for those spin waves. There is a second distinct dispersion curve more representative of the density function of a zero momentum bound state rather than a propagating wave. The third dispersion curve describes a magneto-elastic coupling to a very long wave length propagating mode. These experiments taken together display the characteristics of a high temperature Bose-Einstein like condensation that can be initiated by pumping two different states. A weak time dependent field drives the formation of coupled J=0 spin wave pairs with the reduced effective mass reflecting the increased size of the coherent state. These field can dominate induction measurements well past the Curie temperature.

John Paul Wallace

2009-01-12

381

Integrative psychotherapy.  

PubMed

The main purposes of the article are to present the history of integration in psychotherapy, the reasons of the development integrative approaches, and the approaches to integration in psychotherapy. Three approaches to integration in psychotherapy exist: theoretical integration, theoretical eclecticism, and common factors in different psychotherapeutic trends. In integrative psychotherapy, the basic epistemology, theory, and clinical practice are based on the phenomenology, field theory, holism, dialogue, and co-creation of dialogue in the therapeutic relationship. The main criticism is that integrative psychotherapy suffers from confusion and many unresolved controversies. It is difficult to theoretically and methodologically define the clinically applied model that is based on such a different epistemological and theoretical presumptions. Integrative psychotherapy is a synthesis of humanistic psychotherapy, object relations theory, and psychoanalytical self psychology. It focuses on the dynamics and potentials of human relationships, with a goal of changing the relations and understanding internal and external resistances. The process of integrative psychotherapy is primarily focused on the developmental-relational model and co-creation of psychotherapeutic relationship as a single interactive event, which is not unilateral, but rather a joint endeavor by both the therapist and the patient/client. The need for a relationship is an important human need and represents a process of attunement that occurs as a response to the need for a relationship, a unique interpersonal contact between two people. If this need is not met, it manifests with the different feelings and various defenses. To meet this need, we need to have another person with whom we can establish a sensitive, attuned relationship. Thus, the therapist becomes this person who tries to supplement what the person did not receive. Neuroscience can be a source of integration through different therapies. We may say that both neuroscience and neurobiology offer yet another bridge for integration of different schools of thought and supports the importance of the developmental relational model during the developmental phases and relational process in psychotherapy in which the quality of therapeutic relationship is the primary healing process. Furthermore, the development of integrative psychotherapy in Croatia and the organization of the Croatian program, which is identical to the program of the European Association for Integrative Psychotherapy is shortly described. PMID:18827763

Kozari?-Kovaci?, Dragica

2008-09-01

382

Iron Indices in Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus)  

PubMed Central

Bottlenose dolphins can have iron overload (that is, hemochromatosis), and managed populations of dolphins may be more susceptible to this disease than are wild dolphins. Serum iron, total iron-binding capacity (TIBC), transferrin saturation, and ferritin were measured in 181 samples from 141 dolphins in 2 managed collections and 2 free-ranging populations. Although no iron indices increased with age among free-ranging dolphins, ferritin increased with age in managed collections. Dolphins from managed collections had higher iron, ferritin, and transferrin saturation values than did free-ranging dolphins. Dolphins with high serum iron (exceeding 300 ?g/dL) were more likely to have elevated ferritin but not ceruloplasmin or haptoglobin, demonstrating that high serum levels of iron are due to a true increase in total body iron. A time-series study of 4 dolphins with hemochromatosis that were treated with phlebotomy demonstrated significant decreases in serum ferritin, iron, and TIBC between pre- and posttreatment samples; transferrin saturation initially fell but returned to prephlebotomy levels by 6 mo after treatment. Compared with those in managed collections, wild dolphins were 15 times more likely to have low serum iron (100 ?g/dL or less), and this measure was associated with lower haptoglobin. In conclusion, bottlenose dolphins in managed collections are more likely to have greater iron stores than are free-ranging dolphins. Determining why this situation occurs among some dolphin populations and not others may improve the treatment of hemochromatosis in dolphins and provide clues to causes of nonhereditary hemochromatosis in humans. PMID:23561885

Mazzaro, Lisa M; Johnson, Shawn P; Fair, Patricia A; Bossart, Greg; Carlin, Kevin P; Jensen, Eric D; Smith, Cynthia R; Andrews, Gordon A; Chavey, Patricia S; Venn-Watson, Stephanie

2012-01-01

383

Plant mechanisms of siderophore-iron utilization  

SciTech Connect

Mechanisms of siderophore iron-utilization by plants were examined to determine whether plants have direct mechanisms for acquiring iron from microbially-produced hydroxamate siderophores or simply take up inorganic iron in equilibrium with the chelate (shuttle mechanism). Experiments were designed to determine whether the monocot plant species, oat (Avena sativa L. cv. Victory) could acquire iron from ferrichrome under hydroponic conditions in which iron uptake was most likely to occur by direct use of the chelating agent. Ten-day-old iron-deficient seedlings, grown in aerated Hoagland's nutrient solution (minus iron) buffered at pH 7.4 with CaCO/sub 3/, were placed in fresh nutrient solution containing 10/sup -7.4/M radioactive /sup 55/FeCl/sub 3/ (23.7 mCi/mg) with the synthetic chelate, EDDHA (10..pi../sup 5/M), ferrichrome (10/sup -5/M), or with no chelate. After 6 days, shoot content of /sup 55/Fe in shoots of plants provided with ferrichrome was 100-fold greater than that in shoots of plants provided with EDDHA. Therefore iron uptake by oat under these conditions not only indicates direct use of ferrichrome, but also suggest that oat may be better able to acquire iron from siderophores than from synthetic chelates. One possible mechanism for direct use of chelating agents, may involve siderophore binding sites on the plasmalemma of root cortical cells where iron is split from the chelate by enzymatic reduction of ferric to ferrous iron. To demonstrate hypothesized siderophore binding sites on oat roots, experiments examined possible competition for presumed siderophore binding sites by an inert analog of ferrichrome constructed by irreversible chelation with chromium.

Crowley, D.E.

1986-01-01

384

Maternal and Infant Iron Status and First Year Illness  

E-print Network

Abstract The primary research aims were to understand the relationship between maternal postpartum body iron and birth and 4-month infant body iron and to determine if maternal or newborn iron status was a predictor of ...

Douglas, Sarah E.

2011-04-20

385

Stable iron isotope tracing reveals significant brain iron uptake in adult rats.  

PubMed

Iron deposits in the brain are a common hallmark of Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. This has spurred the hypothesis that iron may play a functional role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders through free radical damage. Previous short-term studies using radiotracers suggested that brain iron uptake is small as compared to other tissues in adult rodents. This has led to the assumption that brain iron uptake must also be marginal in humans after brain development is complete. In this study we applied a novel approach to determine directly the fraction of iron that was transferred over time from diet to brain and other organs in adult rats. A known amount of a stable iron isotope ((57)Fe) was fed with drinking water to adult rats over 4 months. Uptake of the tracer iron and final iron content in tissues were assessed by Negative Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry (NTI-MS). We found that only a very small amount of dietary iron entered the brain (0.000537 ± 0.000076%). This amount, however, is considerable relative to the total brain iron content (9.19 ± 0.71%), which was lower but comparable to percentage uptake in other tissues. Whereas it remains unclear whether excessive dietary iron intake is a risk factor in neurodegenerative diseases or whether high systemic iron correlates with iron deposits in the brain, our study suggests that uptake of dietary iron is much higher than previously thought. This finding challenges current beliefs and points to a possible role of iron nutrition in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:23340610

Chen, Jie-Hua; Shahnavas, Shahreena; Singh, Nadia; Ong, Wei-Yi; Walczyk, Thomas

2013-02-01

386

Effect of iron upon cadmium-manganese and cadmium-iron interaction  

SciTech Connect

Increase cadmium production has enhanced the potential danger of this toxic metal including its effect upon the metabolism of some essential elements as, for instance, manganese of some essential elements as, for instance, manganese and iron. Relevant data about the cadmium-manganese interaction are rather scanty. Since there are more data of the effect of iron on the metabolism of either of these ions independently. The authors decided to investigate how the presence of iron affected the interaction between cadmium and manganese and how cadmium alone or in combination with the additional iron affected iron transfer and retention in the intestinal wall.

Gruden, N.; Munic, S.

1987-06-01

387

Investigation of Conventional- and Induction-Sintered Iron and Iron-Based Powder Metal Compacts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Induction sintering was developed as an alternative method to conventional sintering to sinter iron-based powder metal (PM) compacts. Several compositions of compact such as pure iron, 3 wt.% copper mixed iron, or 3 wt.% bronze mixed iron were sintered by using induction sintering machines with 12 kW power and 30 kHz frequency. The mechanical properties, microstructural properties, densities, and microhardness values were investigated for both processes. Iron-based PM compacts sintered at 1120°C by induction in 8.33 min (500 s) were found to be similar to those sintered conventionally in 30 min. The results were compared with the experimental studies.

Çavdar, U?ur; Atik, Enver

2014-06-01

388

Iron Transport Machinery of Human Cells: Players and Their Interactions  

PubMed Central

Organisms, like cells, maintain tight control of iron. In humans as well as other mammals, control is achieved through the regulation of iron uptake into the body rather than through the excretion of iron. The mechanisms by which humans and mice regulate both iron uptake and the distribution of iron within the body and cells are reviewed. Special emphasis is given to the iron transporters involved in this process. PMID:23046647

Zhao, Ningning; Enns, Caroline A.

2014-01-01

389

THE TISHOMINGO IRON: RELATIONSHIP TO IVB IRONS, CR CLAN CHONDRITES AND ANGRITES AND IMPLICATIONS FOR THE ORIGIN OF VOLATILE-DEPLETED IRON  

E-print Network

THE TISHOMINGO IRON: RELATIONSHIP TO IVB IRONS, CR CLAN CHONDRITES AND ANGRITES AND IMPLICATIONS FOR THE ORIGIN OF VOLATILE-DEPLETED IRON METEORITES. C.M. Corrigan1 , D. Rumble III2 , T.J. McCoy1 , R.D. Ash3 of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 USA. Introduction: Of the ~1,000 known iron meteor- ites, ~85% fall

Mcdonough, William F.

390

Systemic iron supplementation replenishes iron stores without enhancing colon carcinogenesis in murine models of ulcerative colitis: comparison with iron-enriched diet.  

PubMed

Ulcerative colitis (UC) patients frequently require iron supplementation to remedy anemia. The impact of systemic iron supplementation (intraperitoneal injection) on UC-associated carcinogenesis was assessed in mice subjected to cyclic dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) treatment and compared with dietary iron enrichment. Systemic iron supplementation, but not a twofold iron diet, remedied iron deficiency as indicated by the histochemical detection of splenic iron stores. A twofold iron diet, but not systemic iron, increased iron accumulation in colonic luminal contents, at the colonic mucosal surface, and in superficial epithelial cells. Colitis-associated colorectal tumor incidence after 15 DSS cycles was not affected by systemic iron (2/28; 7.1%) compared to nonsupplemented controls (4/28; 14.1%) but was significantly increased by the twofold iron diet (24/33; 72.7%) (P < 0.001). Mechanistic study revealed that systemic iron had no effect on DSS-induced inflammation, or colonic iNOS and COX-2 protein levels, compared to controls. Systemic iron supplementation for 16 weeks replenished splenic iron in a spontaneous colitis model (interleukin-2-deficient mice) and significantly reduced colonic inflammation compared to interleukin-2 (-/-) controls without increasing hyperplastic lesions. These results suggest that iron supplemented systemically could be used to remedy anemia in UC patients without exacerbating inflammation or enhancing colon cancer risk. These findings need to be verified in clinical studies. PMID:15844705

Seril, Darren N; Liao, Jie; Yang, Chung S; Yang, Guang-Yu

2005-04-01

391

Electrochemically controlled iron isotope fractionation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Variations in the stable isotope abundances of transition metals have been observed in the geologic record and trying to understand and reconstruct the physical/environmental conditions that produced these signatures is an area of active research. It is clear that changes in oxidation state lead to large fractionations of the stable isotopes of many transition metals such as iron, suggesting that transition metal stable isotope signatures could be used as a paleo-redox proxy. However, the factors contributing to these observed stable isotope variations are poorly understood. Here we investigate how the kinetics of iron redox electrochemistry generates isotope fractionation. Through a combination of electrodeposition experiments and modeling of electrochemical processes including mass-transport, we show that electron transfer reactions are the cause of a large isotope separation, while mass transport-limited supply of reactant to the electrode attenuates the observed isotopic fractionation. Furthermore, the stable isotope composition of electroplated transition metals can be tuned in the laboratory by controlling parameters such as solution chemistry, reaction overpotential, and solution convection. These methods are potentially useful for generating isotopically-marked metal surfaces for tracking and forensic purposes. In addition, our studies will help interpret stable isotope data in terms of identifying underlying electron transfer processes in laboratory and natural samples.

Black, Jay R.; Young, Edward D.; Kavner, Abby

2010-02-01

392

Preliminary Iron Distribution on Vesta  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The distribution of iron on the surface of the asteroid Vesta was investigated using Dawn's Gamma Ray and Neutron Detector (GRaND) [1,2]. Iron varies predictably with rock type for the howardite, eucrite, and diogenite (HED) meteorites, thought to be representative of Vesta. The abundance of Fe in howardites ranges from about 12 to 15 wt.%. Basaltic eucrites have the highest abundance, whereas, lower crustal and upper mantle materials (cumulate eucrites and diogenites) have the lowest, and howardites are intermediate [3]. We have completed a mapping study of 7.6 MeV gamma rays produced by neutron capture by Fe as measured by the bismuth germanate (BGO) detector of GRaND [1]. The procedures to determine Fe counting rates are presented in detail here, along with a preliminary distribution map, constituting the necessary initial step to quantification of Fe abundances. We find that the global distribution of Fe counting rates is generally consistent with independent mineralogical and compositional inferences obtained by other instruments on Dawn such as measurements of pyroxene absorption bands by the Visual and Infrared Spectrometer (VIR) [4] and Framing Camera (FC) [5] and neutron absorption measurements by GRaND [6].

Mittlefehldt, David W.; Mittlefehldt, David W.

2013-01-01

393

THE SOLAR FLARE IRON ABUNDANCE  

SciTech Connect

The abundance of iron is measured from emission line complexes at 6.65 keV (Fe line) and 8 keV (Fe/Ni line) in RHESSI X-ray spectra during solar flares. Spectra during long-duration flares with steady declines were selected, with an isothermal assumption and improved data analysis methods over previous work. Two spectral fitting models give comparable results, viz., an iron abundance that is lower than previous coronal values but higher than photospheric values. In the preferred method, the estimated Fe abundance is A(Fe) = 7.91 {+-} 0.10 (on a logarithmic scale, with A(H) = 12) or 2.6 {+-} 0.6 times the photospheric Fe abundance. Our estimate is based on a detailed analysis of 1898 spectra taken during 20 flares. No variation from flare to flare is indicated. This argues for a fractionation mechanism similar to quiet-Sun plasma. The new value of A(Fe) has important implications for radiation loss curves, which are estimated.

Phillips, K. J. H. [Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Holmbury St. Mary, Dorking RH6 5NT (United Kingdom); Dennis, B. R., E-mail: kjhp@mssl.ucl.ac.uk, E-mail: Brian.R.Dennis@nasa.gov [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

2012-03-20

394

21 CFR 186.1374 - Iron oxides.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...mixtures of iron (II) oxide (CAS Reg. No. 1345-25-1, black cubic crystals) and iron (III) oxide (CAS Reg. No. 1309-37-1, red-brown to black trigonal crystals). (b) In accordance with § 186.1(b)(1), the...

2013-04-01

395

21 CFR 186.1374 - Iron oxides.  

...mixtures of iron (II) oxide (CAS Reg. No. 1345-25-1, black cubic crystals) and iron (III) oxide (CAS Reg. No. 1309-37-1, red-brown to black trigonal crystals). (b) In accordance with § 186.1(b)(1), the...

2014-04-01

396

21 CFR 186.1374 - Iron oxides.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...mixtures of iron (II) oxide (CAS Reg. No. 1345-25-1, black cubic crystals) and iron (III) oxide (CAS Reg. No. 1309-37-1, red-brown to black trigonal crystals). (b) In accordance with § 186.1(b)(1), the...

2011-04-01

397

21 CFR 186.1374 - Iron oxides.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...mixtures of iron (II) oxide (CAS Reg. No. 1345-25-1, black cubic crystals) and iron (III) oxide (CAS Reg. No. 1309-37-1, red-brown to black trigonal crystals). (b) In accordance with § 186.1(b)(1), the...

2012-04-01

398

21 CFR 186.1374 - Iron oxides.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...mixtures of iron (II) oxide (CAS Reg. No. 1345-25-1, black cubic crystals) and iron (III) oxide (CAS Reg. No. 1309-37-1, red-brown to black trigonal crystals). (b) In accordance with § 186.1(b)(1), the...

2010-04-01

399

Research of semi solid casting of iron  

Microsoft Academic Search

One result of the research on semi solid casting of iron is the development of parts having qualities that combine the superior material properties of ferrous alloy with the dimensional accuracy of aluminum die-cast parts. Iron material composition, molding methods using optimal billet heating speeds and copper die materials and methods for the continuous casting of raw material billets were

Masayuki Tsuchiya; Hiroaki Ueno; Isamu Takagi

2003-01-01

400

Tannin biosynthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, iron oxide nanoparticles synthesized with gallic acid and tannic acid are characterized using High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM). Its size, form, and structure are compared with nanoparticles obtained previously using alfalfa biomass in order to find a simpler, consistent, and environmentally friendly method in the production of iron oxide nanoparticles.

Herrera-Becerra, R.; Rius, J. L.; Zorrilla, C.

2010-08-01

401

Genetics Home Reference: African iron overload  

MedlinePLUS

... in the Handbook. Where can I find additional information about African iron overload? You may find the following resources about African ... I still have specific questions about African iron overload? Ask the Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center . Where can I find general information about ...

402

Photophysiological expressions of iron stress in phytoplankton.  

PubMed

Iron is essential for all life, but it is particularly important to photoautotrophs because of the many iron-dependent electron transport components in photosynthetic membranes. Since the proliferation of oxygenic photosynthesis in the Archean ocean, iron has been a scarce commodity, and it is now recognized as a limiting resource for phytoplankton over broad expanses of the open ocean and even in some coastal/continental shelf waters. Iron stress does not impair photochemical or carbon fixation efficiencies, and in this respect it resembles the highly tuned photosynthetic systems of steady-state macronutrient-limited phytoplankton. However, iron stress does present unique photophysiological challenges, and phytoplankton have responded to these challenges through major architectural changes in photosynthetic membranes. These evolved responses include overexpression of photosynthetic pigments and iron-economic pathways for ATP synthesis, and they result in diagnostic fluorescence properties that allow a broad appraisal of iron stress in the field and even the detection of iron stress from space. PMID:22881354

Behrenfeld, Michael J; Milligan, Allen J

2013-01-01

403

Roman mystery iron blades from Serbia  

SciTech Connect

A First to Forth Century Roman spear blade from Serbia was found to have an unusual microstructure inconsistent with typical Roman Period iron. An analysis of the blade undertaken at Lehigh University in the US and at the Faculty of Technical Sciences in Novi Sad, Serbia established that it was metallic in appearance, magnetic and had an external layer of red rust. But as metallographically polished, it appeared to contain multiple internal phases and internal cracking. Even after aggressive etching, no typical low carbon microstructure was developed. Scanning electron microscopy, classical and energy dispersive X-ray analysis indicated that the specimen was essentially iron, although its microhardness was too high for typical Roman iron. It was then dubbed 'Mystery Iron.' Analysis of all the data led to the proposal that it was essentially a Roman iron 'fossil' in which the iron had been converted to high temperature iron oxide while retaining the form of the blade, conversion probably occurring in a fire. Subsequent X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed that the blade consisted of FeO and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and the mystery of the iron fossil was at least partially solved. A hypothesis is proposed regarding a potential cause for the fire.

Balos, Sebastian [Faculty of Technical Sciences, Novi Sad, Serbia (Serbia ); Benscoter, Arlan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA (United States); Pense, Alan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA (United States)], E-mail: awp0@lehigh.edu

2009-04-15

404

Formation and Reactivity of Biogenic Iron Minerals  

SciTech Connect

This objective of this research is to evaluate the formation and reactivity of biogenic iron minerals produced by dissimilatory iron-reducing bacteria, particularly with respect to the solid phase incorporation of metal contaminants (e.g., uranium, chromium, and nickel).

Ferris, F. Grant

1999-06-01

405

Is There an Ironic Tone of Voice?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on nonverbal vocal cues and verbal irony has often relied on the concept of an "ironic tone of voice". Here we provide acoustic analysis and experimental evidence that this notion is oversimplified and misguided. Acoustic analyses of spontaneous ironic speech extracted from talk radio shows, both ambiguous and unambiguous in written form,…

Bryant, Gregory A.; Fox Tree, Jean E.

2005-01-01

406

Voice modulations in German ironic speech.  

PubMed

Previous research has shown that in different languages ironic speech is acoustically modulated compared to literal speech,and these modulations are assumed to aid the listener in the comprehension process by acting as cues that mark utterances as ironic. The present study was conducted to identify paraverbal features of German 'ironic criticism' that may possibly act as irony cues by comparing acoustic measures of ironic and literal speech. For this purpose, samples of scripted ironic and literal target utterances produced by 14 female speakers were recorded and acoustically analyzed. Results showed that in contrast to literal remarks, ironic criticism was characterized by a decreased mean fundamental frequency (F0), raised energy levels and increased vowel duration, whereas F0-contours differed only marginally between both speech types. Furthermore, we found ironic speech to be characterized by vowel hyperarticulation,an acoustic feature which has so far not been considered as a possible irony cue. Contrary to our expectations, voice modulations in ironic speech were applied independently from the availability of additional, visual irony cues.The results are discussed in light of previous findings on acoustic features of irony yielded for other languages. PMID:22338786

Scharrer, Lisa; Christmann, Ursula; Knoll, Monja

2011-12-01

407

The Iron abundance in Galactic Planetary Nebulae  

E-print Network

We constrain the iron abundance in a sample of 33 low-ionization Galactic planetary nebulae (PNe) using [Fe III] lines and correcting for the contribution of higher ionization states with ionization correction factors (ICFs) that take into account uncertainties in the atomic data. We find very low iron abundances in all the objects, suggesting that more than 90% of their iron atoms are condensed onto dust grains. This number is based on the solar iron abundance and implies a lower limit on the dust-to-gas mass ratio, due solely to iron, of M_dust/M_gas>1.3x10^{-3} for our sample. The depletion factors of different PNe cover about two orders of magnitude, probably reflecting differences in the formation, growth, or destruction of their dust grains. However, we do not find any systematic difference between the gaseous iron abundances calculated for C-rich and O-rich PNe, suggesting similar iron depletion efficiencies in both environments. The iron abundances of our sample PNe are similar to those derived following the same procedure for a group of 10 Galactic H II regions. These high depletion factors argue for high depletion efficiencies of refractory elements onto dust grains both in molecular clouds and AGB stars, and low dust destruction efficiencies both in interstellar and circumstellar ionized gas.

G. Delgado-Inglada; M. Rodriguez; A. Mampaso; K. Viironen

2008-12-08

408

Rare earth-iron-boron-permanent magnets  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a neodymium-iron-boron permanent magnet containing added rare earth oxide. It is prepared by the method of comprising the steps of: mixing together components: a particulate alloy consisting essentially of neodymium, iron, cobalt, and boron; and a particulate rare earth oxide selected from the group consisting of gadolinium oxide, terbium oxide, dysprosium oxide, holmium oxide, and mixtures thereof;

Ghandehari

1990-01-01

409

Carburizer Effect on Cast Iron Solidification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the effect of carburizing materials on cast iron solidification and crystallization. The studies consisted of cast iron preparation from steel scrap and different carburizers. For a comparison, pig iron was exclusively used in a solid charge. Crystallization analysis revealed the influence of the carburizer material on the crystallization curves as well as differences in the solidification paths of cast iron prepared with the use of different charge materials. The carburizers' influence on undercooling during the eutectic crystallization process was analyzed. The lowest undercooling rate was recorded for the melt with pig iron, then for synthetic graphite, natural graphite, anthracite, and petroleum coke (the highest undercooling rate). So a hypothesis was formulated that eutectic cells are created most effectively with the presence of carbon from pig iron (the highest nucleation potential), and then for the graphite materials (crystallographic similarity with the carbon precipitation in the cast iron). The most difficult eutectic crystallization is for anthracite and petroleum coke (higher undercooling is necessary). This knowledge can be crucial when the foundry plant is going to change the solid charge composition replacing the pig iron by steel scrap and the recarburization process.

Janerka, Krzysztof; Kondracki, Marcin; Jezierski, Jan; Szajnar, Jan; Stawarz, Marcin

2014-06-01

410

Iron and Acinetobacter baumannii Biofilm Formation  

PubMed Central

Acinetobacter baumannii is an emerging nosocomial pathogen, responsible for infection outbreaks worldwide. The pathogenicity of this bacterium is mainly due to its multidrug-resistance and ability to form biofilm on abiotic surfaces, which facilitate long-term persistence in the hospital setting. Given the crucial role of iron in A. baumannii nutrition and pathogenicity, iron metabolism has been considered as a possible target for chelation-based antibacterial chemotherapy. In this study, we investigated the effect of iron restriction on A. baumannii growth and biofilm formation using different iron chelators and culture conditions. We report substantial inter-strain variability and growth medium-dependence for biofilm formation by A. baumannii isolates from veterinary and clinical sources. Neither planktonic nor biofilm growth of A. baumannii was affected by exogenous chelators. Biofilm formation was either stimulated by iron or not responsive to iron in the majority of isolates tested, indicating that iron starvation is not sensed as an overall biofilm-inducing stimulus by A. baumannii. The impressive iron withholding capacity of this bacterium should be taken into account for future development of chelation-based antimicrobial and anti-biofilm therapies.

Gentile, Valentina; Frangipani, Emanuela; Bonchi, Carlo; Minandri, Fabrizia; Runci, Federica; Visca, Paolo

2014-01-01

411

Hepcidin and iron homeostasis during pregnancy.  

PubMed

Hepcidin is the master regulator of systemic iron bioavailability in humans. This review examines primary research articles that assessed hepcidin during pregnancy and postpartum and report its relationship to maternal and infant iron status and birth outcomes; areas for future research are also discussed. A systematic search of the databases Medline and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health returned 16 primary research articles including 10 human and six animal studies. Collectively, the results indicate that hepcidin is lower during pregnancy than in a non-pregnant state, presumably to ensure greater iron bioavailability to the mother and fetus. Pregnant women with undetectable serum hepcidin transferred a greater quantity of maternally ingested iron to their fetus compared to women with detectable hepcidin, indicating that maternal hepcidin in part determines the iron bioavailability to the fetus. However, inflammatory states, including preeclampsia, malaria infection, and obesity were associated with higher hepcidin during pregnancy compared to healthy controls, suggesting that maternal and fetal iron bioavailability could be compromised in such conditions. Future studies should examine the relative contribution of maternal versus fetal hepcidin to the control of placental iron transfer as well as optimizing maternal and fetal iron bioavailability in pregnancies complicated by inflammation. PMID:25093277

Koenig, Mary Dawn; Tussing-Humphreys, Lisa; Day, Jessica; Cadwell, Brooke; Nemeth, Elizabeta

2014-08-01

412

Formation and Reactivity of Biogenic Iron Microminerals  

SciTech Connect

The overall purpose of the project is to explore and quantify the processes that control the formation and reactivity of biogenic iron microminerals and their impact on the solubility of metal contaminants. The research addresses how surface components of bacterial cells, extracellular organic material, and the aqueous geochemistry of the DIRB microenvironment impacts the mineralogy, chemical state and micromorphology of reduced iron phases.

Beveridge, Terrance J.; Glasauer, Susan; Korenevsky, Anton; Ferris, F. Grant

2000-08-08

413

Capturing phosphates with iron enhanced sand filtration.  

PubMed

Most treatment practices for urban runoff capture pollutants such as phosphorus by either settling or filtration while dissolved phosphorus, typically as phosphates, is untreated. Dissolved phosphorus, however, represents an average 45% of total phosphorus in stormwater runoff and can be more than 95%. In this study, a new stormwater treatment technology to capture phosphate, called the Minnesota Filter, is introduced. The filter comprises iron filings mixed with sand and is tested for phosphate removal from synthetic stormwater. Results indicate that sand mixed with 5% iron filings captures an average of 88% phosphate for at least 200 m of treated depth, which is significantly greater than a sand filter without iron filings. Neither incorporation of iron filings into a sand filter nor capture of phosphates onto iron filings in column experiments had a significant effect on the hydraulic conductivity of the filter at mixtures of 5% or less iron by weight. Field applications with up to 10.7% iron were operated over 1 year without detrimental effects upon hydraulic conductivity. A model is applied and fit to column studies to predict the field performance of iron-enhanced sand filters. The model predictions are verified through the predicted performance of the filters in removing phosphates in field applications. Practical applications of the technology, both existing and proposed, are presented so stormwater managers can begin implementation. PMID:22482494

Erickson, Andrew J; Gulliver, John S; Weiss, Peter T

2012-06-01

414

Dechlorination of TCE with palladized iron  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to various methods, such as an above-ground method and an in-ground method, of using a palladized iron bimetallic system for the dechlorination of chlorinated organic compounds from various effluents or contaminated soil containing the same. The use of palladized iron bimetallic system results in the dechlorination of the chlorinated organic compound into environmentally safe reaction products.

Fernando, Quintus (Tucson, AZ); Muftikian, Rosy (Tucson, AZ); Korte, Nic (Grand Junction, CO)

1997-01-01

415

Iron Fortification Technology Development: New Approaches1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of our fortification technology development has been to deliver meaningful levels of bioavailable iron via commonly consumed foods and beverages without compromising taste, appearance, and stability. However, fortification of foods is accompanied with unsolved problems such as unacceptable taste, color, stability, and bioavailability. To solve these problems, we developed a fortification technology that prevents the iron-mediated undesirable taste

Haile Mehansho

416

Helium Migration in Iron Christ's College  

E-print Network

Helium Migration in Iron Y. Zhang Christ's College Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy the achievement at all. ii #12;Abstract A theoretical model of helium migration in body centred cubic (BCC)structure irons has been developed using the concept of the effective helium diffusion coeffi- cient

Cambridge, University of

417

Ferroportin1: a new iron export molecule?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ferroportin1 is a newly discovered molecule that may play a role in iron export. It is expressed on the basolateral surfaces of mature enterocytes within the duodenum and in macrophages of the spleen and liver. Furthermore, this protein was found to be expressed in placental syncytiotrophoblasts and may be involved in the supply of maternal iron to the fetus. Sequence

Nghia T. V Le; Des R Richardson

2002-01-01

418

Iron deficiency: from diagnosis to treatment.  

PubMed

Iron deficiency is the most frequent cause of anaemia worldwide. It impairs quality of life, increases asthenia and can lead to clinical worsening of patients. In addition, iron deficiency has a complex mechanism whose pathologic pathway is recently becoming better understood. The discovery of hepcidin has allowed a better clarification of iron metabolism regulation. Furthermore, the ratio of concentration of soluble transferrin receptor to the log of the ferritin level, has been developed as a tool to detect iron deficiency in most situations. The cause of iron deficiency should always be sought because the underlying condition can be serious. This review will summarize the current knowledge regarding diagnostic algorithms for iron deficiency anaemia. The majority of aetiologies occur in the digestive tract, in men and postmenopausal women, and justify morphological examination of the gut. First line investigations are upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and colonoscopy, and when negative, the small bowel should be explored; newer tools such as video capsule endoscopy have also been developed. The treatment of iron deficiency is aetiological if possible and iron supplementation whether in oral or in parenteral form. New parenteral formulations are available and seem to have promising results in terms of efficacy and safety. PMID:23582772

Polin, Vanessa; Coriat, Romain; Perkins, Géraldine; Dhooge, Marion; Abitbol, Vered; Leblanc, Sarah; Prat, Frédéric; Chaussade, Stanislas

2013-10-01

419

Iron Deficiency, Fruit Yield and Fruit Quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iron deficiency is a major constraint for many fruit crops grown on calcareous soils. Iron deficiency is often assumed tacitly to affect negatively both fruit yield and fruit quality, but to our knowledge no review has been done so far on these specific issues. This review discusses first the negative effects of Fe deficiency in fruit yield, including as an

Ana Àlvarez-Fernàndez; Javier Abadía; Anunciación Abadía

420

Processing and applications of iron aluminides  

SciTech Connect

Iron aluminides are well known for their resistance to high- temperature sulfidizing and oxidizing environments. In order to take advantage of their excellent corrosion resistance, several methods for their processing have been identified. Issues with melting and processing are discussed detail. Effects of grain size and melting practice on low-temperature ductility are also presented. Many applications for iron aluminides are described.

Sikka, V.K.

1994-09-01

421

Hydrogen and deuterium trapping in iron  

SciTech Connect

The research described is directed at present almost exclusively to hydrogen transport, including both chemical and physical trapping, in iron and iron-base alloys. Some attention is directed to isotope effects. Efforts are made to clarify and understand hydrogen-related phenomena which are believed to be of direct importance to practical performance.

Johnson, H.H.; Lin, R.W.

1981-02-01

422

ARSENIC REMOVAL BY IRON REMOVAL PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

Presentation will discuss the removal of arsenic from drinking water using iron removal processes that include oxidation/filtration and the manganese greensand processes. Presentation includes results of U.S. EPA field studies conducted in Michigan and Ohio on existing iron remo...

423

The Corrosion and Preservation of Iron Antiques.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses general corrosion reactions (iron to rust), including corrosion of iron, sulfur dioxide, chlorides, immersed corrosion, and underground corrosion. Also discusses corrosion inhibition, including corrosion inhibitors (anodic, cathodic, mixed, organic); safe/dangerous inhibitors; and corrosion/inhibition in concrete/marble, showcases/boxes,…

Walker, Robert

1982-01-01

424

Nickel-iron spherules from aouelloul glass  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Nickel-iron spherules, ranging from less than 0.2 to 50 microns in diameter and containing 1.7 to 9.0 percent Ni by weight, occur in glass associated with the Aouelloul crater. They occur in discrete bands of siliceous glass enriched in dissolved iron. Their discovery is significant tangible evidence that both crater and glass originated from terrestrial impact.

Chao, E. C. T.; Dwornik, E. J.; Merrill, C. W.

1966-01-01

425

CONTROLLING ODOROUS EMISSIONS FROM IRON FOUNDRIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report discusses the control of odorous emissions from iron foundries. he main process sources of odors in iron foundries are mold and core making, casting, and sand shakeout. he odors are usually caused by chemicals, which may be present as binders and other additives to the...

426

Iron-Sulfur Cluster Synthesis, Iron Homeostasis and Oxidative Stress in Friedreich Ataxia  

PubMed Central

Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) is an autosomal recessive, multi-systemic degenerative disease that results from reduced synthesis of the mitochondrial protein frataxin. Frataxin has been intensely studied since its deficiency was linked to FRDA in 1996. The defining properties of frataxin—(i) the ability to bind iron, (ii) the ability to interact with, and donate iron to, other iron-binding proteins, and (iii) the ability to oligomerize, store iron and control iron redox chemistry—have been extensively characterized with different frataxin orthologues and their interacting protein partners. This very large body of biochemical and structural data [reviewed in (Bencze et al., 2006)] supports equally extensive biological evidence that frataxin is critical for mitochondrial iron metabolism and overall cellular iron homeostasis and antioxidant protection [reviewed in (Wilson, 2006)]. However, the precise biological role of frataxin remains a matter of debate. Here, we review seminal and recent data that strongly link frataxin to the synthesis of iron-sulfur cluster cofactors (ISC), as well as controversial data that nevertheless link frataxin to additional iron-related processes. Finally, we discuss how defects in ISC synthesis could be a major (although likely not unique) contributor to the pathophysiology of FRDA via (i) loss of ISC-dependent enzymes, (ii) mitochondrial and cellular iron dysregulation, and (iii) enhanced iron-mediated oxidative stress. PMID:22917739

Vaubel, Rachael A.; Isaya, Grazia

2012-01-01

427

Impact of iron overload and potential benefit from iron chelation in low-risk myelodysplastic syndrome.  

PubMed

Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDSs) are a group of heterogeneous clonal bone marrow disorders characterized by ineffective hematopoiesis, peripheral blood cytopenias, and potential for malignant transformation. Lower/intermediate-risk MDSs are associated with longer survival and high red blood cell (RBC) transfusion requirements resulting in secondary iron overload. Recent data suggest that markers of iron overload portend a relatively poor prognosis, and retrospective analysis demonstrates that iron chelation therapy is associated with prolonged survival in transfusion-dependent MDS patients. New data provide concrete evidence of iron's adverse effects on erythroid precursors in vitro and in vivo. Renewed interest in the iron field was heralded by the discovery of hepcidin, the main serum peptide hormone negative regulator of body iron. Evidence from ?-thalassemia suggests that regulation of hepcidin by erythropoiesis dominates regulation by iron. Because iron overload develops in some MDS patients who do not require RBC transfusions, the suppressive effect of ineffective erythropoiesis on hepcidin may also play a role in iron overload. We anticipate that additional novel tools for measuring iron overload and a molecular-mechanism-driven description of MDS subtypes will provide a deeper understanding of how iron metabolism and erythropoiesis intersect in MDSs and improve clinical management of this patient population. PMID:24923296

Shenoy, Niraj; Vallumsetla, Nishanth; Rachmilewitz, Eliezer; Verma, Amit; Ginzburg, Yelena

2014-08-01

428

Ferritin iron minerals are chelator targets, antioxidants, and coated, dietary iron.  

PubMed

Cellular ferritin is central for iron balance during transfusions therapies; serum ferritin is a small fraction of body ferritin, albeit a convenient reporter. Iron overload induces extra ferritin protein synthesis but the protein is overfilled with the extra iron that damages ferritin, with conversion to toxic hemosiderin. Three new approaches that manipulate ferritin to address excess iron, hemosiderin, and associated oxidative damage in Cooley's Anemia and other iron overload conditions are faster removal of ferritin iron with chelators guided to ferritin gated pores by peptides; more ferritin protein synthesis using ferritin mRNA activators, by metal complexes that target mRNA 3D structures; and determining if endocytotic absorption of iron from legumes, which is mostly ferritin, is regulated during iron overload to prevent excess iron entry while providing protein. More of a focus on ferritin features, including protein cage structure, iron mineral, regulatable mRNA, and specific gut absorption properties, will achieve the three novel experimental goals for managing iron homeostasis with transfusion therapies. PMID:20712793

Theil, Elizabeth C

2010-08-01

429

Iron Biofortification and Homeostasis in Transgenic Cassava Roots Expressing the Algal Iron Assimilatory Gene, FEA1  

PubMed Central

We have engineered the tropical root crop cassava (Manihot esculenta) to express the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii iron assimilatory gene, FEA1, in its storage roots with the objective of enhancing the root nutritional qualities. Iron levels in mature cassava storage roots were increased from 10 to 36?ppm in the highest iron accumulating transgenic lines. These iron levels are sufficient to meet the minimum daily requirement for iron in a 500?g meal. Significantly, the expression of the FEA1 gene in storage roots did not alter iron levels in leaves. Transgenic plants also had normal levels of zinc in leaves and roots consistent with the specific uptake of ferrous iron mediated by the FEA1 protein. Relative to wild-type plants, fibrous roots of FEA1 expressing plants had reduced Fe (III) chelate reductase activity consistent with the more efficient uptake of iron in the transgenic plants. We also show that multiple cassava genes involved in iron homeostasis have altered tissue-specific patterns of expression in leaves, stems, and roots of transgenic plants consistent with increased iron sink strength in transgenic roots. These results are discussed in terms of strategies for the iron biofortification of plants. PMID:22993514

Ihemere, Uzoma E.; Narayanan, Narayanan N.; Sayre, Richard T.

2012-01-01

430

Iron Biofortification and Homeostasis in Transgenic Cassava Roots Expressing the Algal Iron Assimilatory Gene, FEA1.  

PubMed

We have engineered the tropical root crop cassava (Manihot esculenta) to express the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii iron assimilatory gene, FEA1, in its storage roots with the objective of enhancing the root nutritional qualities. Iron levels in mature cassava storage roots were increased from 10 to 36?ppm in the highest iron accumulating transgenic lines. These iron levels are sufficient to meet the minimum daily requirement for iron in a 500?g meal. Significantly, the expression of the FEA1 gene in storage roots did not alter iron levels in leaves. Transgenic plants also had normal levels of zinc in leaves and roots consistent with the specific uptake of ferrous iron mediated by the FEA1 protein. Relative to wild-type plants, fibrous roots of FEA1 expressing plants had reduced Fe (III) chelate reductase activity consistent with the more efficient uptake of iron in the transgenic plants. We also show that multiple cassava genes involved in iron homeostasis have altered tissue-specific patterns of expression in leaves, stems, and roots of transgenic plants consistent with increased iron sink strength in transgenic roots. These results are discussed in terms of strategies for the iron biofortification of plants. PMID:22993514

Ihemere, Uzoma E; Narayanan, Narayanan N; Sayre, Richard T

2012-01-01

431

Insight of Iron Whisker Sticking Mechanism from Iron Atom Diffusion and Calculation of Solid Bridge Radius  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sticking temperatures of three kinds of iron particles with different morphologies were examined at an inert atmosphere in a fluidized bed, indicating that the sticking temperature of a fresh reduction iron particle was lower than that of reagent iron particles, and that the sticking temperature of an iron particle with a whisker was lower than that of an iron particle without a whisker. Cavity defects on the surface of an iron particle with different morphologies were examined by positron annihilation spectroscopy. The results indicated that cavity defects on the surface of an iron particle with an iron whisker were higher than with others, which resulted in an easier surface diffusion of Fe atoms. From the calculation of a critical solid bridge radius, the critical solid bridge radius lowered with the decreasing of gas velocity and particle size. And when an instantaneous solid bridge radius was bigger than a critical solid bridge radius, sticking of the iron particle happened. The iron whisker made the surface diffusion rate of Fe atoms occur more quickly, which resulted in a faster growth rate of the instantaneous solid bridge radius. Therefore, the iron whisker supported the sticking.

Gong, Xuzhong; Zhang, Ben; Wang, Zhi; Guo, Zhancheng

2014-07-01

432

Reconstruction of Gene Networks of Iron Response in Shewanella oneidensis  

SciTech Connect

It is of great interest to study the iron response of the -proteobacterium Shewanella oneidensis since it possesses a high content of iron and is capable of utilizing iron for anaerobic respiration. We report here that the iron response in S. oneidensis is a rapid process. To gain more insights into the bacterial response to iron, temporal gene expression profiles were examined for iron depletion and repletion, resulting in identification of iron-responsive biological pathways in a gene co-expression network. Iron acquisition systems, including genes unique to S. oneidensis, were rapidly and strongly induced by iron depletion, and repressed by iron repletion. Some were required for iron depletion, as exemplified by the mutational analysis of the putative siderophore biosynthesis protein SO3032. Unexpectedly, a number of genes related to anaerobic energy metabolism were repressed by iron depletion and induced by repletion, which might be due to the iron storage potential of their protein products. Other iron-responsive biological pathways include protein degradation, aerobic energy metabolism and protein synthesis. Furthermore, sequence motifs enriched in gene clusters as well as their corresponding DNA-binding proteins (Fur, CRP and RpoH) were identified, resulting in a regulatory network of iron response in S. oneidensis. Together, this work provides an overview of iron response and reveals novel features in S. oneidensis, including Shewanella-specific iron acquisition systems, and suggests the intimate relationship between anaerobic energy metabolism and iron response.

Yang, Yunfeng [ORNL; Harris, Daniel P [ORNL; Luo, Feng [Clemson University; Joachimiak, Marcin [Clemson University; Wu, Liyou [University of Oklahoma; Dehal, Paramvir [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Jacobsen, Janet [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Yang, Zamin Koo [ORNL; Gao, Haichun [University of Oklahoma; Arkin, Adam [Lawr