Dried mosses (five moss species) were progressively extracted and subjected to a four-step Craig distribution. Seven pure flavonoids were isolated and identified. The flavonoids were the flavones apigenin, apigenin-7-O-triglycoside, lucenin-2, luteolin-7-O-neohesperidoside, saponarine and vitexin; and the biflavonoid bartramiaflavone and they were submitted to biological tests. The tests were performed in vitro on spore germination and protonemal growth of the moss Tortula muralis and on seed germination and root growth of Raphanus sativus. Flavonoids caused a decrease in the percentage of spore germination, protonemal development and root growth. In addition they caused morphological alterations, such as forked tips, swollen apices, rounded cells and early formation of brood cells in the protonemata. Data were discussed in relation to the presence of allelochemicals in mosses. PMID:12591270
Basile, Adriana; Sorbo, Sergio; López-Sáez, José Antonio; Castaldo Cobianchi, Rosa
Dried mosses (five moss species) were progressively extracted and subjected to a four-step Craig distribution. Seven pure flavonoids were isolated and identified. The flavonoids were the flavones apigenin, apigenin-7-O-triglycoside, lucenin-2, luteolin-7-O-neohesperidoside, saponarine and vitexin; and the biflavonoid bartramiaflavone and they were submitted to biological tests. The tests were performed in vitro on spore germination and protonemal growth of the moss
Adriana Basile; Sergio Sorbo; José Antonio López-Sáez; Rosa Castaldo Cobianchi
Th e embryological processes leading to seed formation in S. nemorosa are comprehensively studied for the fi rst time. A number of embryological specifi cities have been established, typical of the malesterile plants. Th ey show that the investigated species manifests a tendency for transition from hermaphrodite to the evolutionally more advanced unisexual fl owers in Magnoliophyta.
of the organisms we call plants do not produce axillary meristems. In their comprehensive and up-to-date review, the flowering plants (Phy- lum Magnoliophyta or Anthophyta). Although the possibility that the mechanisms precision of language in the title and the text of the article would have been welcome, eliminating any
Sideritis italica (Miller) Greuter et Burdet is a widespread Mediterranean Lamiacea. Essential oils from S. italica flowerheads and leaves were extracted by hydrodistillation and then tested for their potential allelopathic activity against Raphanus sativus L. (Magnoliophyta) and the moss Tortula muralis (Hedw.) (Bryophyta), two organisms already tested for allelopathy, and against two bryophytes growing in the same environment as S.
A. Basile; R. C. Cobianchi; D. Rigano; F. Senatore; M. Bruno; S. Rosselli; B. Conte; S. Sorbo
We compared the detergent fiber and dietary fiber methods to analyze the cellulose and hemicellulose contents of commelinid and non-commelinid magnoliophyta biomass. A good linear correlation was found between both methods. Compared to the more accurate dietary fiber method, the detergent fiber method overestimates the content of cellulose, whereas the detergent fiber method, as compared to the dietary fiber method, overestimates and underestimates the hemicellulose content in commelinid and non-commelinid magnoliophyta biomass, respectively. Because of the good linear correlations, conversion factors were determined to predict the cellulose, hemicellulose, and xylan contents to be expected from the dietary fiber method, on the basis of analyses made by the faster, cheaper, and more commonly practiced detergent fiber method. Nevertheless, the dietary fiber method offers the advantage of providing the detailed composition of the hemicelluloses (xylan, arabinan, hemicellulosic glucan, galactan, and mannan), and that is of interest for biorefining purposes. PMID:24841506
with some exceptions: the Quercus, Nyssa, Carya, Acer, Rubus, Sesbania, and Ilex species were combined into groups based on genus due to them residing in similar areas. Ilex opaca was given its own group from the rest of the Ilex species because... jupicai Rich. N P W ACANTHACEAE Magnoliophyta: Magnoliopsida Justicia ovata (Walt.) Lindau. N P W Ruellia caroliniensis (Gmel.) Steud. N P W ACERACEAE Acer rubrum L. N P C Acer saccharum Marsh. N P C ANACARDIACEAE...
With growing use of anticancer complementary and alternative medicines (CAMs) worldwide, there is a need to assess and screen commercially available natural products for relative tumoricidal properties under standard experimental conditions. In the current study, we screened and ranked 264 traditional Chinese and Egyptian herbal medicines for tumoricidal potency against malignant neuroblastoma in vitro. The data obtained show that tumoricidal potencies of plants were randomly dispersed throughout similar orders, families and genera under the Division: Magnoliophyta, class: Magnoliopsida, subclasses: Asteridae, Caryophyllidae, Dilleniidae, Hamamelididae, Magnoliidae and Rosidae. The most potent plant extracts (LC50 < 0.08 mg/ml) were prepared from gromwell root also known as ‘Hong Tiao Zi Cao’ (Lithospermum Erythrorhizon) Family (Boraginaceae) > beth root (Trillium Pendulum), Family (Liliaceae) and galbanum (Ferula Galbaniflua), Family (Apiaceae). Gromwell root is traditionally used in the preparation of Chinese medicinal tea. In addition, galbanum was highly regarded for its sacred and medicinal value according to ancient texts and the bible. Future research will be required to isolate and identify chemical constituents within these plants which are responsible for tumoricidal effects. PMID:20564497
Alternative oxidase (AOX) is a terminal ubiquinol oxidase present in the respiratory chain of all angiosperms investigated to date, but AOX distribution in other members of the Viridiplantae is less clear. We assessed the taxonomic distribution of AOX using bioinformatics. Multiple sequence alignments compared AOX proteins and examined amino acid residues involved in AOX catalytic function and post-translational regulation. Novel AOX sequences were found in both Chlorophytes and Streptophytes and we conclude that AOX is widespread in the Viridiplantae. AOX multigene families are common in non-angiosperm plants and the appearance of AOX1 and AOX2 subtypes pre-dates the divergence of the Coniferophyta and Magnoliophyta. Residues involved in AOX catalytic function are highly conserved between Chlorophytes and Streptophytes, while AOX post-translational regulation likely differs in these two lineages. We demonstrate experimentally that an AOX gene is present in the moss Physcomitrella patens and that the gene is transcribed. Our findings suggest that AOX will likely exert an influence on plant respiration and carbon metabolism in non-angiosperms such as green algae, bryophytes, liverworts, lycopods, ferns, gnetophytes, and gymnosperms and that further research in these systems is required. PMID:23664893
Neimanis, Karina; Staples, James F; Hüner, Norman P A; McDonald, Allison E