Science.gov

Sample records for main challenges long-term

  1. Esophageal replacement in children: Challenges and long-term outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Soccorso, Giampiero; Parikh, Dakshesh H.

    2016-01-01

    Replacement of a nonexistent or damaged esophagus continues to pose a significant challenge to pediatric surgeons. Various esophageal replacement grafts and techniques have not produced consistently good outcomes to emulate normal esophagus. Therefore, many techniques are still being practiced and recommended with no clear consensus. We present a concise literature review of the currently used techniques and with discussions on the advantages and anticipated morbidity. There are no randomized controlled pediatric studies to compare different types of esophageal replacements. Management and graft choice are based on geographical and personal predilections rather than on any discernible objective data. The biggest series with long-term outcome are reported for gastric transposition and colonic replacement. Comparison of different studies shows no significant difference in early (graft necrosis and anastomotic leaks) or late complications (strictures, poor feeding, gastro-esophageal reflux, tortuosity of the graft, and Barrett's esophagus). The biggest series seem to have lower complications than small series reflecting the decennials experience in their respective centers. Long-term follow-up is recommended following esophageal replacement for the development of late strictures, excessive tortuosity, and Barrett's changes within the graft. Once child overcomes initial morbidity and establishes oral feeding, long-term consequences and complications of pediatric esophageal replacement should be monitored and managed in adult life. PMID:27365900

  2. The Precise Orbit and the Challenge of Long Term Stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemoine, Frank G.; Cerri, Luca; Otten, Michiel; Bertiger, William; Zelensky, Nikita; Willis, Pascal

    2012-01-01

    the future remains a source of error. Other sources of omission error include the geocenter for which no consensus model is as of yet applied. Although progress has been made in nonconservative force modeling through the use of detailed satellite-specific models, radiation pressure modeling, and atmospheric density modeling remain a potential source of orbit error. The longer term influence of variations in the solar and terrestrial radiation fields over annual and solar cycles remains principally untested. Also the long term variation in optical and thermal properties of the space vehicle surfaces would contribute to biases in the orbital frame if ignored. We review the status of altimetric precision orbit determination as exemplified by the recent computations undertaken by the different analysis centers for ERS, Envisat, TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason, Cryosat2 and HY2A, and we provide a perspective on the challenges for future missions such as the Jason-3, SENTINEL-3 and SWOT.

  3. Social Justice: A Long-Term Challenge for Counseling Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivey, Allen E.; Collins, Noah M.

    2003-01-01

    Counseling psychology has a long history of interest and commitment to social justice and multicultural issues. This article discusses some of that history and, in addition, speaks to specifics of implementing a liberation psychology frame of reference into clinical practice along with the issues of implementation and challenges faced by those of…

  4. Benefits and Challenges of the Passport Broadcast Intervention in Long-Term Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wittenberg-Lyles, Elaine; Oliver, Debra Parker; Demiris, George; Shaunfield, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Creative activities are a challenge for long-term care facilities. The Passport intervention uses web-based video technology to provide long-term care residents with a virtual travel experience. Passport broadcasts were conducted and staff and residents were interviewed about the experience. A thematic analysis of interviews was used to discern…

  5. Long-term weight status in regainers after weight loss by lifestyle intervention: status and challenges.

    PubMed

    Stelmach-Mardas, Marta; Mardas, Marcin; Walkowiak, Jarosław; Boeing, Heiner

    2014-11-01

    After having participated in a weight loss trial, most participants do not stabilise the obtained weight loss but return to their initial weight. The aim of this review is to describe the main determinants of continued low weight status after weight loss, and the effectiveness of physical activity (PA), energy restriction and macronutrient composition of the diet for low long-term weight regain. Studies with intervention periods of at least 3 months duration of weight reduction measures and a follow-up at least 2 years after the intervention period were considered as eligible for the review. Owing to limited data, the studies describing the role of PA in weight management were eligible with a follow-up of 1 year only. It appears that a diet with self-regulation of dietary intake seems to be given a prominent role in the strategy of successful long-term weight loss among the obese. This measure could be combined with behaviour therapy and PA and tailored to the individual situation. However, considering available evidence it is difficult to conclude regarding unambiguous measures and to recommend a specific dietary intervention. Nevertheless, interventions should be effective in promoting intrinsic motivation and self-efficacy. The harmonisation and standardisation of data collection in the follow-up period of long-term weight loss studies is a major challenge. PMID:25192545

  6. Modified Vaccinia Ankara Virus Vaccination Provides Long-Term Protection against Nasal Rabbitpox Virus Challenge.

    PubMed

    Jones, Dorothy I; McGee, Charles E; Sample, Christopher J; Sempowski, Gregory D; Pickup, David J; Staats, Herman F

    2016-07-01

    Modified vaccinia Ankara virus (MVA) is a smallpox vaccine candidate. This study was performed to determine if MVA vaccination provides long-term protection against rabbitpox virus (RPXV) challenge, an animal model of smallpox. Two doses of MVA provided 100% protection against a lethal intranasal RPXV challenge administered 9 months after vaccination. PMID:27146001

  7. Extreme Precipitation along the Himalayan Slope - Main Processes and Long Term Trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohlinger, P.; Sorteberg, A.

    2014-12-01

    The precipitation climatology for the Himalayan slope is heavily influenced by the main topographic features of the region. The precipitation variability is strongly connected to variability in the large scale Indian monsoon. In Nepal the average annual precipitation ranges from a few hundred to over 5000 mm and has been shown to be strongly linked to orography.Based on daily measurements of precipitation we calculate a climatology and long term trends for 270 meteorological stations. Especially, extreme precipitation is of increasing interest due to social impacts. Therefore, we further investigate extreme events for each measurement station. Since precipitation is influenced by large scale weather situations we relate the appearance of typical synoptical patterns to corresponding occurances of extreme precipitation events. In order to form groups with similar characteristics in precipitation we performe a cluster analysis on the stations and synoptical situations revealing typical weather patterns responsible for extreme precipitation events.

  8. Changes in the long-term hydrological regimes and the impacts of human activities in the main Wei River, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongbo; Huang, Qiang; Zhang, Qiang; Gu, Lei; Chen, Keyu; Yu, Qijun

    2016-03-01

    Under the combined influence of climate changes and human activities, the hydrological regime of the Wei River shows remarkable variations which have caused many issues in the Wei River in recent decades, such as a lack of freshwater, water pollution, disastrous flooding and channel sedimentation. Hence, hydrological regime changes and potential human-induced impacts have been drawing increasing attention from local government and hydrologists. This study investigates hydrological regime changes in the natural and measured runoff series at four hydrological stations on the main Wei River and quantifies features of their long-term change by analysing their historical annual and seasonal runoff data using several approaches, i.e., continuous wavelet transform, cross-wavelet, wavelet coherence, trend-free pre-whitening Mann-Kendall test and detrended fluctuation analysis. By contrasting two different analysis results between natural and measured river runoff series, the impacts of human activities on the long-term hydrological regime were investigated via the changes of spatio-temporal distribution in dominant periods, the trends and long-range memory of river runoff. The results show : (a) that periodic properties of the streamflow changes are the result of climate, referring to precipitation changes in particular, while human activities play a minor role; (b) a significant decreasing trend can be observed in the natural streamflow series along the entire main stream of the Wei River and the more serious decrease emerging in measured flow should result from human-induced influences in recent decades; and (c) continuous decreasing streamflow in the Wei River will trigger serious shortages of freshwater in the future, which may challenge the sustainability and safety of water resources development in the river basin, and should be paid great attention before 2020.

  9. Long Term Stewardship Challenges at the St. Louis District FUSRAP Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Dell'Orco, L.; Chambers, D.

    2002-02-27

    Non-Federally owned radioactively contaminated sites in St. Louis, Missouri are currently being remediated by the St. Louis District Corps of Engineers under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). When FUSRAP remediation is complete, inaccessible soils which have levels of contamination greater than unrestricted use standards, will remain. The purpose of this paper is to document the initial challenges facing the project team during its development of the Long Term Stewardship plan for the management of these soils. These soils are located under buildings, roads, railroads and bridges. The Long Term Stewardship plan for the majority of the sites is being developed simultaneously with the remedy selection process. A living document, it will ultimately document the remedial action end state and location of inaccessible soils and implement the plan for ensuring these soils are not a threat to human health and the environment. Although these soils are protective in their current configuration, at some point in time, when activities such as maintenance, utility or property improvement occur, the soils will become accessible and need to be addressed by the federal government. Up until that point in time they will need to be effectively managed to ensure they remain protective. The St. Louis District is in the process of collaboratively developing this plan with its regulators, affected stakeholders and interested parties.

  10. Data-centric Science: New challenges for long-term archives and data publishers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stockhause, Martina; Lautenschlager, Michael

    2016-04-01

    In the recent years the publication of data has become more and more common. Data and metadata for a single project are often disseminated by multiple data centers in federated data infrastructures. In the same time data is shared earlier to enable collaboration within research projects. The research data environment has become more heterogeneous and the data more dynamic. Only few data or metadata repositories are long-term archives (LTAs) with WDS/DSA certificates, complying to Force 11's 'Joint Declaration of Data Citation Principles'. Therefore for long-term usage of these data and information, a small number of LTAs have the task to preserve these pieces of information. They replicate, connect, quality assure, harmonize, archive, and curate these different types of data from multiple data centers with different operation procedures and data standards. Consortia or federations of certified LTAs are needed to meet the challenges of big data storage and citations. Data publishers play a central role in storing, preserving, and disseminating scientific information. Portals of these federations of LTAs or data registration agencies like DataCite might even become the portals of the future for scientific knowledge discovery. The example CMIP6 is used to illustrate this future perspective of the role of LTAs/data publishers.

  11. Challenges and Opportunities of Long-Term Continuous Stream Metabolism Measurements at the National Ecological Observatory Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, K. J.; Lunch, C. K.; Baxter, C.; Hall, R.; Holtgrieve, G. W.; Roberts, B. J.; Marcarelli, A. M.; Tank, J. L.

    2013-12-01

    Recent advances in dissolved oxygen sensing and modeling have made continuous measurements of whole-stream metabolism relatively easy to make, allowing ecologists to quantify and evaluate stream ecosystem health at expanded temporal and spatial scales. Long-term monitoring of continuous stream metabolism will enable a better understanding of the integrated and complex effects of anthropogenic change (e.g., land-use, climate, atmospheric deposition, invasive species, etc.) on stream ecosystem function. In addition to their value in the particular streams measured, information derived from long-term data will improve the ability to extrapolate from shorter-term data. With the need to better understand drivers and responses of whole-stream metabolism come difficulties in interpreting the results. Long-term trends will encompass physical changes in stream morphology and flow regime (e.g., variable flow conditions and changes in channel structure) combined with changes in biota. Additionally long-term data sets will require an organized database structure, careful quantification of errors and uncertainties, as well as propagation of error as a result of the calculation of metabolism metrics. Parsing of continuous data and the choice of modeling approaches can also have a large influence on results and on error estimation. The two main modeling challenges include 1) obtaining unbiased, low-error daily estimates of gross primary production (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (ER), and 2) interpreting GPP and ER measurements over extended time periods. The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON), in partnership with academic and government scientists, has begun to tackle several of these challenges as it prepares for the collection and calculation of 30 years of continuous whole-stream metabolism data. NEON is a national-scale research platform that will use consistent procedures and protocols to standardize measurements across the United States, providing long-term

  12. Getting out of the house: the challenges mothers face when their children have long-term care needs.

    PubMed

    Yantzi, Nicole M; Rosenberg, Mark W; McKeever, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    In most industrialised countries, the care needs of those who are sick, disabled and frail are increasingly met in peoples' homes. One of the implications of this shift in the site of care is that individuals with long-term care needs and their family care providers experience social and spatial isolation. Many are housebound and most face considerable challenges in getting out of the house. This paper illuminates these challenges as they are experienced by mothers of children with long-term care needs, and the resulting isolation and disconnection that they experience. Eleven semistructured interviews were conducted in two regions of Ontario, Canada. Grounded theory informed the analysis of the mothers' accounts of their experiences of getting out of the house. The present findings are derived from a larger investigation of the meanings and experiences of the home as a place of caring for families with children who have long-term care needs. Secondary analysis of the data found that three main challenges restricted the mothers' abilities to leave their houses. Mothers experienced difficulties getting out of the house when they attempted to leave with the child, and when the child was left with an alternative care provider. Physical challenges were associated with the work and planning required in moving the child's equipment and supplies, meticulous planning of the outing within the daily schedule, and navigating barriers in the built and natural environments. Social challenges reflected the lack of people within the mothers' social network of family and friends who have the knowledge and expertise to care for the child. Service challenges resulted from the gaps between the policies and practices of paid respite, and the conditions that must be satisfied in order for mothers to be able and/or willing to leave the house. The authors also examined the reasons why some of the mothers worked from home, and the strategies that they used to get out of the house for

  13. Long-term Monitoring Program Optimization for Chlorinated Volatile Organic Compound Plume, Naval Air Station Brunswick, Maine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calderone, G. M.

    2006-12-01

    A long-term monitoring program was initiated in 1995 at 6 sites at NAS Brunswick, including 3 National Priorities List (Superfund) sites. Primary contaminants of concern include chlorinated volatile organic compounds, including tetrachloroethane, trichloroethene, and vinyl chloride, in addition to metals. More than 80 submersible pumping systems were installed to facilitate sample collection utilizing the low-flow sampling technique. Long-term monitoring of the groundwater is conducted to assess the effectiveness of remedial measures, and monitor changes in contaminant concentrations in the Eastern Plume Operable Unit. Long-term monitoring program activities include quarterly groundwater sampling and analysis at more than 90 wells across 6 sites; surface water, sediment, seep, and leachate sampling and analysis at 3 sites; landfill gas monitoring; well maintenance; engineering inspections of landfill covers and other sites or evidence of stressed vegetation; water level gauging; and treatment plant sampling and analysis. Significant cost savings were achieved by optimizing the sampling network and reducing sampling frequency from quarterly to semi- annual or annual sampling. As part of an ongoing optimization effort, a geostatistical assessment of the Eastern Plume was conducted at the Naval Air Station, Brunswick, Maine. The geostatistical assessment used 40 monitoring points and analytical data collected over 3 years. For this geostatistical assessment, EA developed and utilized a database of analytical results generated during 3 years of long-term monitoring which was linked to a Geographic Information System to enhance data visualization capacity. The Geographic Information System included themes for groundwater volatile organic compound concentration, groundwater flow directions, shallow and deep wells, and immediate access to point-specific analytical results. This statistical analysis has been used by the site decision-maker and its conclusions supported a

  14. Islet Transplantation in Type 1 Diabetes: Ongoing Challenges, Refined Procedures, and Long-Term Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, A.M. James

    2012-01-01

    Remarkable progress has been made in islet transplantation over a span of 40 years. Once just an experimental curiosity in mice, this therapy has moved forward, and can now provide robust therapy for highly selected patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D), refractory to stabilization by other means. This progress could not have occurred without extensive dynamic international collaboration. Currently, 1,085 patients have undergone islet transplantation at 40 international sites since the Edmonton Protocol was reported in 2000 (752 allografts, 333 autografts), according to the Collaborative Islet Transplant Registry. The long-term results of islet transplantation in selected centers now match registry data of pancreas-alone transplantation, with 6 sites reporting five-year insulin independence rates ≥50%. Islet transplantation has been criticized for the use of multiple donor pancreas organs, but progress has also occurred in single-donor success, with 10 sites reporting increased single-donor engraftment. The next wave of innovative clinical trial interventions will address instant blood-mediated inflammatory reaction (IBMIR), apoptosis, and inflammation, and will translate into further marked improvements in single-donor success. Effective control of auto- and alloimmunity is the key to long-term islet function, and high-resolution cellular and antibody-based assays will add considerable precision to this process. Advances in immunosuppression, with new antibody-based targeting of costimulatory blockade and other T-B cellular signaling, will have further profound impact on the safety record of immunotherapy. Clinical trials will move forward shortly to test out new human stem cell derived islets, and in parallel trials will move forward, testing pig islets for compatibility in patients. Induction of immunological tolerance to self-islet antigens and to allografts is a difficult challenge, but potentially within our grasp. PMID:23804275

  15. Long-term hand tele-rehabilitation on the PlayStation 3: benefits and challenges.

    PubMed

    Burdea, Grigore C; Jain, Abhishek; Rabin, Bryan; Pellosie, Richard; Golomb, Meredith

    2011-01-01

    Rehabilitation interventions for the hand have shown benefits for children with Hemiplegia due to cerebral palsy or traumatic brain injury. Longer interventions are facilitated if training is provided in the patient's home, due to easier access to care and reduced impact on school or work activities. Providing remote rehabilitation over lengthy periods of time has however its own challenges. This paper presents two pediatric patients with hemiplegia, who practiced virtual hand rehabilitation games using a modified PlayStation 3 and 5DT sensing gloves. Despite severe initial hand spasticity, and occasional technology shortcomings, the subjects practiced for about 14 months, and 6 months, respectively. Game performance data for the second patient is presented. Follow-up evaluations 14 months from the removal of the PlayStation 3 from the home of the child with cerebral palsy showed that the patient had good retention in terms of grasp strength, hand function and bone health. Challenges of long-term home tele-rehabilitation are also discussed. PMID:22254686

  16. Grand Challenges for Biological and Environmental Research: A Long-Term Vision

    SciTech Connect

    Arkin, A.; Baliga, N.; Braam, J.; Church, G.; Collins, J; Cottingham, R.; Ecker, J.; Gerstein, M.; Gilna, P.; Greenberg, J.; Handelsman, J.; Hubbard, S.; Joachimiak, A.; Liao, J.; Looger, L.; Meyerowitz, E.; Mjolness, E.; Petsko, G.; Sayler, G.; Simpson, M.; Stacey, G.; Sussman, M.; Tiedje, J.; Bader, D.; Cessi, P.; Collins, W.; Denning, S.; Dickinson, R.; Easterling, D.; Edmonds, J.; Feddema, J.; Field, C.; Fridlind, A.; Fung, I.; Held, I.; Jackson, R.; Janetos, A.; Large, W.; Leinen, M.; Leung, R.; Long, S.; Mace, G.; Masiello, C.; Meehl, G.; Ort, D.; Otto-Bliesner, B.; Penner, J.; Prather, M.; Randall, D.; Rasch, P.; Schneider, E.; Shugart, H.; Thornton, P.; Washington, W.; Wildung, R.; Wiscombe, W.; Zak, D.; Zhang, M.; Bielicki, J.; Buford, M.; Cleland, E.; Dale, V.; Duke, C.; Ehleringer, J.; Hecht, A.; Kammen, D.; Marland, G.; Pataki, D.; Riley, M. Robertson, P.; Hubbard, S.

    2010-12-01

    behaviors of complex biological and environmental systems, leading to robust solutions for DOE missions and strategic goals. In March 2010, the Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee held the Grand Challenges for Biological and Environmental Research: A Long-Term Vision workshop to identify scientific opportunities and grand challenges for BER science in the coming decades and to develop an overall strategy for drafting a long-term vision for BER. Key workshop goals included: (1) Identifying the greatest scientific challenges in biology, climate, and the environment that DOE will face over a 20-year time horizon. (2) Describing how BER should be positioned to address those challenges. (3) Determining the new and innovative tools needed to advance BER science. (4) Suggesting how the workforce of the future should be trained in integrative system science. This report lays out grand research challenges for BER - in biological systems, climate, energy sustainability, computing, and education and workforce training - that can put society on a path to achieve the scientific evidence and predictive understanding needed to inform decision making and planning to address future energy needs, climate change, water availability, and land use.

  17. Diagnosis and treatment of tracheal basal cell carcinoma in a Maine coon and long-term outcome.

    PubMed

    Green, Michael L; Smith, Julie; Fineman, Linda; Proulx, David

    2012-01-01

    A 6 yr old castrated male Maine coon presented with a 2 wk history of progressive dyspnea. Thoracic radiographs revealed a 2 cm diameter intratracheal mass at the level of the fourth rib. The tracheal mass was marginally excised via a combination of resection and anastomosis. Infiltrative basal cell carcinoma (BCC) with nodular osseous metaplasia was diagnosed. The thoracic trachea was then irradiated postoperatively for definitive treatment. The cat remained asymptomatic following surgical excision and radiation therapy for 32 mo when this report was written. The purpose of this report is to describe the treatment and long-term outcome of a Maine coon diagnosed with, and treated for, tracheal BCC. PMID:22611213

  18. A study of challenges and opportunities for long-term care dietitians in British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Black, Jennifer L; Dunham, Rebecca; Kafka, Tamar

    2013-01-01

    While demand for long-term care (LTC) in Canada is expected to grow in the coming years, little is known about the current LTC dietetic workforce or its members' practice-related concerns. A web-based survey was developed and distributed to and subsequently completed by 75 LTC dietitians in British Columbia. The survey was intended to characterize dietitians' demographic characteristics, educational and employment experiences, salaries and benefits, future employment plans, and concerns about current practice. Regression models were used to examine the associations between demographic, educational, and employment characteristics and self-reported hourly wages. The majority of respondents were employed at more than one facility (57%) and did not belong to a union (71%). The mean hourly wage for LTC dietetics positions was $37.50 ± $5.85, and was significantly higher for positions that did not provide additional employee benefits (p < 0.05). Hourly wages were not significantly higher for dietitians with more years of experience or graduate-level education. Concerns were raised about potential implications of revised residential care regulations for workload, and only 36% of respondents reported being committed to working in the area of LTC dietetics in the future. This study highlights practice-related challenges and future opportunities to build the LTC dietetic workforce, and can inform planning for training, recruitment, and retention. PMID:24018005

  19. Long-term effects of precommercial thinning on small mammals in northern Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Homyack, J.A.; Harrison, D.J.; Krohn, W.B.

    2005-01-01

    Precommercial thinning (PCT) is being practiced increasingly throughout the Acadian forest of eastern North America to meet silvicultural objectives; however, effects of this practice on wildlife, both immediately and several years post-treatment are not well understood. Forest dependent small mammals have ecological roles as prey for numerous avian and mammalian predators, dispersers of seeds, fruit, and spores, and contribute to nutrient cycling. Researchers in the northwestern USA have suggested that thinning of young, regenerating clearcuts may increase the abundance and diversity of some forest-dependent small mammals by increasing rates of forest development and enhancing the ecological representation of mid-successional stands across managed landscapes. We examined the effects of PCT within conifer-dominated forest stands 1-, 6-, 11-, and 16-years post-treatment, on abundances of mice, voles, and shrews, and on within-stand structure in the commercially managed, Acadian forests of northern Maine. We live-trapped small mammals on 24 herbicide-treated clearcuts treated with PCT and on 13 similar, unthinned stands during summers of 2000 and 2001. Thinning of mid-successional conifer stands resulted in increased abundances, (red-backed voles, Clethrionomys gapperi, P = 0.008; masked shrews, Sorex cinereus, P < 0.001) or had no detectable effect on (deer mice, Peromyscus maniculatus, P = 0.544; short-tailed shrews, Blarina brevicauda, P = 0.517) the 4 most common species of Muridae and Soricidae in northern Maine. In general, abundance of deer mice responded more positively to increasing development class and to the number of years since thinning than other species of small mammals. Several within-stand habitat characteristics associated with stand maturity, such as larger stem diameters and a partially open canopy, occurred in thinned stands. Thus, PCT may accelerate the development of habitat attributes typical of mid-successional conifer stands in intensively

  20. A Study of the Wide Main Sequence: The Long-Term Photometric Variability of Low Mass Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pewett, Tiffany; Henry, Todd J.; Hosey, Altonio D.; Dieterich, Sergio; Jao, Wei-Chun; Winters, Jennifer G.; Riedel, Adric R.; RECONS Team

    2016-01-01

    The RECONS (REsearch Consortium On Nearby Stars, www.recons.org) team has carried out a long-term photometric variability study using the SMARTS 0.9m telescope at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO). The program has obtained up to 15 years of observations in the V band for hundreds of M dwarf stars. This unique study has provided insight into how the ubiquitous M dwarfs change over decadal timescales, revealing their long-term magnetic cycles and how the presence or lack of such activity may affect their sizes and consequent luminosities, and thus their positions on the H-R Diagram.Using carefully vetted parallaxes and photometric colors, many measured by the RECONS team, we have created a highly accurate H-R Diagram of the nearest (within 25pc) stars using their V-K colors to represent temperatures and absolute V magnitudes as proxies for luminosities. We find that for M dwarfs, the main sequence widens significantly, by up to four magnitudes in MV, corresponding to a factor of almost 40 in optical flux. This spread implies a wide range of stellar radii for M dwarfs of the same temperature. Our study of long-term photometric variability indicates that there is a trend in cyclic activity that is highest for the most luminous red dwarfs and lowest for the rare, cool red subdwarfs. This provides valuable insight into the complex interplay of age, metallicity, and magnetic fields that molds the character of the red dwarfs.This effort has been supported by the NSF through grants AST-0908402, AST-1109445, and AST-1412026, STScI grant HST-GO-13724.001-A, and via observations made possible by the SMARTS Consortium.

  1. Interventions to improve long-term weight loss in patients following bariatric surgery: challenges and solutions

    PubMed Central

    McGrice, Melanie; Don Paul, Kathlene

    2015-01-01

    Bariatric surgery aims to provide long-term weight loss and improvement in weight-related comorbidities. Unfortunately, some patients do not achieve predicted weight loss targets and many regain a portion of their lost weight within 2–10 years postsurgery. A review of the literature found that behavioral, dietary, psychological, physical, and medical considerations can all play a role in suboptimal long-term weight loss. Recommendations to optimize long-term weight loss include ensuring that the patient understands how the procedure works, preoperative and postoperative education sessions, tailored nutritional supplements, restraint with liquid kilojoules, pureed foods, grazing and eating out of the home, an average of 60 minutes of physical activity per day, and lifelong annual medical, psychological, and dietary assessments. PMID:26150731

  2. Addressing challenges in cross-site synthesis of long-term ecological data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long-term ecological datasets are becoming increasingly abundant on the internet, and are available both on websites hosted by the originating sites and/or in online repositories. While sites and networks are increasingly conforming to adopted metadata standards (which themselves continue to evolve ...

  3. Long-Term Educational Programs in Nature Parks: Characteristics, Outcomes and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morag, Orly; Tal, Tali; Rotem-Keren, Tammy

    2013-01-01

    In this study on long-term educational programs (LTP) in nature, facilitated by an environmental agency we followed two distinct programs enacted in schools and in nature parks as case studies. Data were collected through observations of activities in schools and in the outdoors and through interviews with students, teachers and facilitators. In…

  4. Environmental bonds and the challenge of long-term carbon sequestration.

    PubMed

    Gerard, David; Wilson, Elizabeth J

    2009-02-01

    The potential to capture carbon from industrial sources and dispose of it for the long-term, known as carbon capture and sequestration (CCS), is widely recognized as an important option to reduce atmospheric carbon dioxide emissions. Specifically, CCS has the potential to provide emissions cuts sufficient to stabilize greenhouse gas levels, while still allowing for the continued use of fossil fuels. In addition, CCS is both technologically-feasible and commercially viable compared with alternatives with the same emissions profile. Although the concept appears to be solid from a technical perspective, initial public perceptions of the technology are uncertain. Moreover, little attention has been paid to developing an understanding of the social and political institutional infrastructure necessary to implement CCS projects. In this paper we explore a particularly dicey issue--how to ensure adequate long-term monitoring and maintenance of the carbon sequestration sites. Bonding mechanisms have been suggested as a potential mechanism to reduce these problems (where bonding refers to financial instruments used to ensure regulatory or contractual commitments). Such mechanisms have been successfully applied in a number of settings (e.g., to ensure court appearances, completion of construction projects, and payment of taxes). The paper examines the use of bonding to address environmental problems and looks at its possible application to nascent CCS projects. We also present evidence on the use of bonding for other projects involving deep underground injection of materials for the purpose of long-term storage or disposal. PMID:18619728

  5. ISS Regenerative Life Support: Challenges and Success in the Quest for Long-Term Habitability in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bazley, Jesse A.

    2011-01-01

    This presentation will discuss the International Space Station s (ISS) Regenerative Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) operations with discussion of the on-orbit lessons learned, specifically regarding the challenges that have been faced as the system has expanded with a growing ISS crew. Over the 10 year history of the ISS, there have been numerous challenges, failures, and triumphs in the quest to keep the crew alive and comfortable. Successful operation of the ECLSS not only requires maintenance of the hardware, but also management of the station resources in case of hardware failure or missed re-supply. This involves effective communication between the primary International Partners (NASA and Roskosmos) and the secondary partners (JAXA and ESA) in order to keep a reserve of the contingency consumables and allow for re-supply of failed hardware. The ISS ECLSS utilizes consumables storage for contingency usage as well as longer-term regenerative systems, which allow for conservation of the expensive resources brought up by re-supply vehicles. This long-term hardware, and the interactions with software, was a challenge for Systems Engineers when they were designed and require multiple operational workarounds in order to function continuously. On a day-to-day basis, the ECLSS provides big challenges to the on console controllers. Main challenges involve the utilization of the resources that have been brought up by the visiting vehicles prior to undocking, balance of contributions between the International Partners for both systems and resources, and maintaining balance between the many interdependent systems, which includes providing the resources they need when they need it. The current biggest challenge for ECLSS is the Regenerative ECLSS system, which continuously recycles urine and condensate water into drinking water and oxygen. These systems were brought to full functionality on STS-126 (ULF-2) mission. Through system failures and recovery

  6. Challenges Associated With Managing Suicide Risk in Long-Term Care Facilities

    PubMed Central

    O'Riley, Alisa; Nadorff, Michael R.; Conwell, Yeates; Edelstein, Barry

    2016-01-01

    Little information about suicidal ideation and behavior in long-term care (LTC) facilities is available. Nonetheless, the implementation of the Minimum Data Set 3.0 requires that LTC facilities screen their residents for suicide risk and have protocols in place to effectively manage residents’ responses. In this article, the authors briefly discuss the risk factors of suicide in the elderly and the problems that suicidal ideation and behavior pose in the LTC environment. The authors explain issues that arise when trying to manage suicide risk in the elderly LTC population with general, traditional approaches. These inherent issues make it difficult to develop an effective protocol for managing suicide risk in LTC facilities, leading the authors to propose their own framework for assessing and managing suicide risk in the LTC setting.

  7. Long Term Preservation of Earth Observation Data in Europe - Challenge and Cooperation Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molch, K.; Albani, M.

    2014-12-01

    Earth observation data are unique snapshots of the Earth and the atmosphere. As such they constitute a humankind asset in their importance for monitoring changes in global environmental conditions. With spaceborne Earth observation (EO) missions dating back to the 1970s, 40 years worth of observations are now available in EO data archives worldwide. Data holdings are growing exponentially, e.g. with the Sentinel series of high resolution EO satellites of the European Copernicus Program - which introduces a new dimension of data volumes to be handled. As other EO data holders around the globe, the European Space Agency (ESA) and its member states are committed to keeping the valuable EO data assets safe, accessible, and useable for an unlimited timespan. Rapidly evolving information technology and changing user requirements call for a dedicated and coordinated approach to EO data long term preservation. In Europe collaborative EO data stewardship activities are coordinated by ESA within the ESA long term data preservation (LTDP) program. With a view to the entire data set life cycle of historic and current missions an active LTDP working group addresses a wide range of relevant technical and organizational topics. Studies investigate archiving and access technologies, user expectations, or applicable standards; guidelines and best practices recommend preservation workflows, steps to take in curating individual data sets, the composition of the preserved data set, or concepts for introducing persistent identifiers. Fostering an active international exchange, the activities and documents developed within this European LTDP framework extend beyond Europe by being introduced to the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) and the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS). The paper describes the European LTDP cooperation framework, discusses individual focus areas and current activities, and highlights the interaction with global data stewardship initiatives.

  8. Current Understanding and Remaining Challenges in Modeling Long-Term Degradation of Borosilicate Nuclear Waste Glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Vienna, John D.; Ryan, Joseph V.; Gin, Stephane; Inagaki, Yaohiro

    2013-12-01

    Chemical durability is not a single material property that can be uniquely measured. Instead it is the response to a host of coupled material and environmental processes whose rates are estimated by a combination of theory, experiment, and modeling. High-level nuclear waste (HLW) glass is perhaps the most studied of any material yet there remain significant technical gaps regarding their chemical durability. The phenomena affecting the long-term performance of HLW glasses in their disposal environment include surface reactions, transport properties to and from the reacting glass surface, and ion exchange between the solid glass and the surrounding solution and alteration products. The rates of these processes are strongly influenced and are coupled through the solution chemistry, which is in turn influenced by the reacting glass and also by reaction with the near-field materials and precipitation of alteration products. Therefore, those processes must be understood sufficiently well to estimate or bound the performance of HLW glass in its disposal environment over geologic time-scales. This article summarizes the current state of understanding of surface reactions, transport properties, and ion exchange along with the near-field materials and alteration products influences on solution chemistry and glass reaction rates. Also summarized are the remaining technical gaps along with recommended approaches to fill those technical gaps.

  9. HDR opportunities and challenges beyond the long-term flow test

    SciTech Connect

    Duchane, D.V.

    1992-01-01

    The long term flow test (LTFT) of the world's largest, deepest, and hottest hot dry rock (HDR) reservoir currently underway at Fenton Hill, NM, is expected to demonstrate that thermal energy can be mined from hot rock within the earth on a sustainable basis with minimal water consumption. This test will simulate the operations of a commercial facility in some ways, but it will not show that energy from HDR can be produced at a variety of locations with different geological settings. Since the Fenton Hill system was designed as a research facility rather than strictly for production purposes, it will also not demonstrate economic viability, although it may well give indications of system modifications needed for economic HDR operations. A second production site must be constructed, ideally under the direction of the private geothermal community, to begin the process of proving that the vast HDR resources can be accessed on a worldwide scale. Finally, research and development work in areas such as reservoir interrogation, and system modeling must be accelerated to increase the competitiveness and geographical applications of HDR and the geothermal industry in general. This paper addresses the above issues in detail and outlines possible paths to future prosperity for the commercial geothermal industry.

  10. Creation of a long-term data record of total O3 - issues and challenges in prescribing the uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haffner, D. P.; Bhartia, P. K.; Li, J. Y.

    2012-12-01

    With the launch of the BUV instrument on NASA's Nimbus-4 satellite in April 1970, ozone became one of the first atmospheric variables to be measured from space with high accuracy. By 1980, the quality of total column ozone measured from the TOMS instrument on the Nimbus-7 satellite had improved to the point that it started to be used to identify poorly calibrated instruments in the venerable Dobson ground-based network. Now we have a total ozone record spanning 42 years created by more than a dozen instruments. We will discuss the issues and challenges that we have faced in creating a consistent long-term record and in providing uncertainty estimates. This work is not yet finished. We are currently developing a new algorithm (Version 9) that will be used to reprocess the entire record. The main motivation for developing this algorithm is not so much to improve the quality of the data, which is quite high already, but to provide better estimates of uncertainties when errors are spatially and temporally correlated, and to develop better techniques to catch "Black Swan" events (BSE). These are events that occur infrequently but cause errors larger than expected by Gaussian probability distribution. For example, the eruption of El Chichón revealed that our ozone algorithm had unexpected sensitivity to volcanic SO2, and evidence of the ozone hole was initially interpreted as a problem with the TOMS instrument. We also provide mathematical operators that can be applied by sophisticated users to compute their own uncertainties for their particular applications. This is necessary because uncertainties change in complex ways when the data are smoothed or averaged. The modern data archival system should be designed to accommodate such operators and provide software for using them.

  11. Case report: Benefits and challenges of long-term eculizumab in atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cullinan, Noelle; Gorman, Kathleen Mary; Riordan, Michael; Waldron, Mary; Goodship, Timothy H J; Awan, Atif

    2015-06-01

    Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) is caused by dysregulation of the complement system, leading to complement overactivation. A humanized anti-C5 monoclonal antibody, eculizumab, has been available for the treatment of aHUS since 2011. The long-term safety and efficacy of this novel drug in the pediatric population remain under review. We present a child with a hybrid CFH/CFHR3 gene who, having had multiple disease relapses despite optimal treatment with plasma exchange, commenced eculizumab therapy in August 2010. She remains relapse free in follow-up at 52 months, and treatment has been well tolerated. The risk of meningococcal disease during this treatment is recognized. Despite vaccination against meningococcal disease and appropriate antibiotic prophylaxis, our patient developed meningococcal bacteremia 30 months into treatment. She presented with nonspecific symptoms but recovered without sequelae with appropriate treatment. We recommend that children be vaccinated against invasive meningococcal infection before beginning eculizumab therapy and take appropriate antibiotic prophylaxis during treatment, and we suggest that vaccine responses should be checked and followed annually. Clinicians need to maintain a high index of suspicion for invasive meningococcal disease. Neither vaccination nor antibiotic prophylaxis provides complete protection in patients on eculizumab therapy. The appropriate dosage of eculizumab needed to achieve remission in aHUS in the pediatric population is unknown. Having achieved remission in our patient, we monitor eculizumab and CH50 levels to evaluate ongoing blockade of the terminal complement cascade. Such information may help guide dosing intervals in the future. PMID:25941307

  12. HDR Opportunities and Challenges Beyond the Long-Term Flow Test

    SciTech Connect

    Duchane, David

    1992-03-24

    The long term flow test (LTFT) of the worlds largest, deepest, and hottest hot dry rock (HDR) reservoir currently underway at Fenton Hill, NM, is expected to demonstrate that thermal energy can be mined from hot rock within the earth on a sustainable basis with minimal water consumption. This test will simulate the operations of a commercial facility in some ways, but it will not show that energy from HDR can be produced at a variety of locations with different geological settings. Since the Fenton Hill system was designed as a research facility rather than strictly for production purposes, it will also not demonstrate economic viability, although it may well give indications of system modifications needed for economic HDR operations. A second production site must be constructed, ideally under the direction of the private geothermal community, to begin the process of proving that the vast HDR resources can be accessed on a worldwide scale. This facility should be designed and engineered to produce and market energy at competitive prices. At the same time, a wide variety of techniques to advance the state-of-the-art of HDR technology must be pursued to develop this infant technology rapidly to its maximum potential. A number of design and operational techniques have been conceived which may lead to improved economics in HDR systems. After careful technical and economic scrutiny, those showing merit should be vigorously pursued. Finally, research and development work in areas such as reservoir interrogation, and system modeling must be accelerated to increase the competitiveness and geographical applications of HDR and the geothermal industry in general. This paper addresses the above issues in detail and outlines possible paths to future prosperity for the commercial geothermal industry.

  13. Engineering challenges to the long term operation of the international space station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Thomas; Albert, Thomas; Levin, George M.

    2001-03-01

    The U.S. Congress has maintained an intense interest in the ISS program since its inception. In the Appropriations Act of 1997, the Senate of the United States included language directing National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to have the National Research Council (NRC) under take a study that evaluates the engineering challenges posed by extravehicular activity (EVA) requirements, United States and non-United States space launch requirements, the potential need to upgrade or replace equipment and components after Assembly Complete, and the requirement to decommission and disassemble the facility. NASA and the NRC decided the focus should be on the anticipated challenges in the continuous operation and maintenance of the ISS after assembly of the on-orbit facility has been completed. This would encompass the operational years, from late 2004 (if the current schedule holds) to 2020 - 2025. This executive summary overviews the results of this NRC study. it focuses on the U.S. operation of the ISS after assembly Complete, including cooperative efforts by the United States and Russia. The paper summaries the primary findings and recommendations in each of the areas considered during this two-year NRC study.

  14. Challenges in long-term mechanical circulatory support and biological replacement of the failing heart.

    PubMed

    Lala, Anuradha; Joyce, Emer; Groarke, John D; Mehra, Mandeep R

    2014-01-01

    The burden of advanced heart failure is reaching epidemic proportions. Generally considered for cardiac transplantation, patients often cannot receive this therapy because of their advanced age, comorbidity or the scarcity of donors. Most transplants are concentrated in North America and Europe, with the average center performing fewer than 20 annual transplants. A search for nonbiological means of cardiac support has led to the advent of mechanical circulatory support (MCS), a concept now entrenched as a bridge to transplantation or, for those ineligible for transplantation, as lifetime therapy. In this review we discuss contemporary challenges posed by the changing epidemiology of cardiac transplant and MCS and outline the basis for an understanding of the future of this important therapeutic stance.   PMID:24451651

  15. Targeting thrombin long-term after an acute coronary syndrome: Opportunities and challenges.

    PubMed

    De Caterina, Raffaele; Goto, Shinya

    2016-06-01

    Patients after an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) are at increased risk of recurrent thrombotic events, justifying the search for additional antithrombotic treatments. The pathophysiology of ACS involves arterial thrombus formation, in turn occurring because of a combination of platelet activation and fibrin formation, with thrombin playing a key role in both. Antiplatelet therapy, targeting the thromboxane pathway and the ADP P2Y12 receptor has been widely accepted for secondary prevention after an ACS. Now, data from recent clinical trials in such patients also encourage the pursuit of inhibiting thrombin formation or thrombin-mediated platelet activation in addition to antiplatelet therapy. This "triple pathway inhibition", including inhibition of thrombin activity or thrombin receptor(s), is currently an option in pure ACS, but already a must in the setting of ACS accompanied by atrial fibrillation (AF), where anticoagulants have been shown to be much more effective than antiplatelet agents in preventing stroke. We here discuss the challenges of managing combined thrombin activity or receptor inhibition and antiplatelet therapy in all such patients. Translating this into practice still requires further studies and patient tailoring to fully exploit its potential. PMID:26994821

  16. Challenges to producing a long-term stratospheric aerosol climatology for chemistry and climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomason, Larry; Vernier, Jean-Paul; Bourassa, Adam; Rieger, Landon; Luo, Beiping; Peter, Thomas; Arfeuille, Florian

    2016-04-01

    Stratospheric aerosol data sets are key inputs for climate models (GCMs, CCMs) particularly for understanding the role of volcanoes on climate and as a surrogate for understanding the potential of human-derived stratospheric aerosol as mitigation for global warming. In addition to supporting activities of individual climate models, the data sets also act as a historical input to the activities of SPARC's Chemistry-Climate Model Initiative (CCMI) and the World Climate Research Programme's Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP). One such data set was produced in 2004 as a part of the SPARC Assessment of Stratospheric Aerosol Properties (ASAP), extending from 1979 and 2004. It was primarily constructed from the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment series of instruments but supplemented by data from other space-based sources and a number of ground-based and airborne instruments. Updates to this data set have expanded the timeframe to span from 1850 through 2014 through the inclusion of data from additional sources, such as photometer data and ice core analyses. Fundamentally, there are limitations to the reliability of the optical properties of aerosol inferred from even the most complete single instrument data sets. At the same time, the heterogeneous nature of the underlying data to this historical data set produces considerable challenges to the production of a climate data set which is both homogeneous and reliable throughout its timespan. In this presentation, we will discuss the impact of this heterogeneity showing specific examples such as the SAGE II to OSIRIS/CALIPSO transition in 2005. Potential solutions to these issues will also be discussed.

  17. Long-Term Response of Terrestrial Productivity to Elevated CO2 Remains a Grand Challenge in Terrestrial Biogeochemistry (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finzi, A.

    2013-12-01

    There is large variability in the long-term response of terrestrial net primary production (NPP) to elevated concentrations of atmospheric CO2 (eCO2). In some ecosystems productivity remains higher under eCO2 compared to aCO2 at the decadal time scale. In other ecosystem productivity under eCO2 increases transiently, returning to levels observed at aCO2 in a few years or less. The diversity of ecosystem responses is as fascinating as it is difficult to understand. A number of scientists, including this one, have postulated that soil water and nutrient supply constrain productivity responses and that in the absence of increases in soil resource uptake productivity must decline because there is little evidence for increases in resource use efficiency, with perhaps the exception of grassland water-use efficiency in some instances. This contention is challenged by the data as they are currently understood. As such there is no unifying explanation for the diversity of these responses and hence models cannot be reasonably expected to accurately predict the timing and magnitude of terrestrial-C sequestration over the next century. Research on the impacts of elevated CO2 has not yet answered a fundamentally important, policy-relevant question in global change science. In this talk I present an analysis of the NPP literature from long-term experiments at eCO2 published to date (>5 years duration) in an effort to stimulate a discussion of why productivity responses to eCO2 vary from ecosystem to ecosystem. Explaining variations in productivity response to eCO2 is a grand challenge in terrestrial biogeochemistry.

  18. Emerging trends in the finance and delivery of long-term care: public and private opportunities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Cohen, M A

    1998-02-01

    A number of key trends are emerging in long-term care related to financing, new models of service delivery, and shifts in consumer expectations and preferences. Taken together, changes occurring in these areas point to a rapidly transforming long-term care landscape. Financing responsibility is shifting away from the federal government to states, individuals, and their families; providers are integrating and managing acute and long-term care services and adding new services to the continuum of care; and consumers are thinking more seriously about how to plan and pay for their future care needs, as well as how to independently navigate the long-term care system. PMID:9499656

  19. Challenges Experienced by School Managers in the Nkangala District, Mpumalanga, Regarding the Provision of Long Term Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Niekerk, E. J.

    2012-01-01

    The long term leadership task of creating favourable circumstances for followers to excel are discussed in this article using narratives supplied by education managers in schools of the Nkangala District in Mpumalanga Province. Thereby deficiencies in the long term leadership proficiency of these managers are identified with a view to be able to…

  20. Long term responses of a subtropical rainforest ecosystem to logging in the Australian Main Range Volcanics CZO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santini, T.; Larsen, J.; Howell, S. R.

    2014-12-01

    The recently established Main Range National Park Critical Zone Observatory is located within the Australian Gondwana Rainforests remnant basalt volcanic landscape, which is the largest area of subtropical rainforest in the world and represents an excellent natural laboratory in which to investigate processes of landscape evolution, soil weathering, vegetation succession, and nutrient cycling. In 1962, permanent monitoring plots were established within the Main Range Volcanics rainforest to investigate the effects of logging on vegetation dynamics and hydrology. Establishment of the CZO site within the National Park includes these plots as well as a rainforest to eucalypt forest ecotone, and has extended the range of parameters being collected to include soil chemical and physical properties, micrometeorology, and fauna. Here, we present preliminary results from a study integrating vegetation dynamics with changes in soil chemistry, microbiology, and hydrology within the logging plots to gain a more holistic understanding of how the rainforest ecosystem responds to anthropogenic forcings such as logging.

  1. Formation Process of the Circumstellar Disk: Long-term Simulations in the Main Accretion Phase of Star Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machida, Masahiro N.; Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro; Matsumoto, Tomoaki

    2010-12-01

    The formation and evolution of the circumstellar disk in unmagnetized molecular clouds is investigated using three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations from the prestellar core until the end of the main accretion phase. In collapsing cloud cores, the first (adiabatic) core with a size of gsim3 AU forms prior to the formation of the protostar. At its formation, the first core has a thick disk-like structure and is mainly supported by the thermal pressure. After the protostar formation, it decreases the thickness gradually and becomes supported by the centrifugal force. We found that the first core is a precursor of the circumstellar disk with a size of >3 AU. This means that unmagnetized protoplanetary disk smaller than <3 AU does not exist. Reflecting the thermodynamics of the collapsing gas, at the protostar formation epoch, the first core (or the circumstellar disk) has a mass of ~0.005-0.1 M sun, while the protostar has a mass of ~10-3 M sun. Thus, just after the protostar formation, the circumstellar disk is about 10-100 times more massive than the protostar. In the main accretion phase that lasts for ~105 yr, the circumstellar disk mass initially tends to dominate the protostellar mass. Such a massive disk is unstable to gravitational instability and tends to show fragmentation. Our calculations indicate that the low-mass companions may form in the circumstellar disk in the main accretion phase. In addition, the mass accretion rate onto the protostar shows a strong time variability that is caused by the torque from the low-mass companions and/or the spiral arms in the circumstellar disk. Such variability provides an important signature for detecting the substellar mass companion in the circumstellar disk around very young protostars.

  2. FORMATION PROCESS OF THE CIRCUMSTELLAR DISK: LONG-TERM SIMULATIONS IN THE MAIN ACCRETION PHASE OF STAR FORMATION

    SciTech Connect

    Machida, Masahiro N.; Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro; Matsumoto, Tomoaki E-mail: inutsuka@nagoya-u.j

    2010-12-01

    The formation and evolution of the circumstellar disk in unmagnetized molecular clouds is investigated using three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations from the prestellar core until the end of the main accretion phase. In collapsing cloud cores, the first (adiabatic) core with a size of {approx}>3 AU forms prior to the formation of the protostar. At its formation, the first core has a thick disk-like structure and is mainly supported by the thermal pressure. After the protostar formation, it decreases the thickness gradually and becomes supported by the centrifugal force. We found that the first core is a precursor of the circumstellar disk with a size of >3 AU. This means that unmagnetized protoplanetary disk smaller than <3 AU does not exist. Reflecting the thermodynamics of the collapsing gas, at the protostar formation epoch, the first core (or the circumstellar disk) has a mass of {approx}0.005-0.1 M{sub sun}, while the protostar has a mass of {approx}10{sup -3} M{sub sun}. Thus, just after the protostar formation, the circumstellar disk is about 10-100 times more massive than the protostar. In the main accretion phase that lasts for {approx}10{sup 5} yr, the circumstellar disk mass initially tends to dominate the protostellar mass. Such a massive disk is unstable to gravitational instability and tends to show fragmentation. Our calculations indicate that the low-mass companions may form in the circumstellar disk in the main accretion phase. In addition, the mass accretion rate onto the protostar shows a strong time variability that is caused by the torque from the low-mass companions and/or the spiral arms in the circumstellar disk. Such variability provides an important signature for detecting the substellar mass companion in the circumstellar disk around very young protostars.

  3. Structural and mechanical defects of materials of offshore and onshore main gas pipelines after long-term operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruschak, Pavlo; Panin, Sergey; Danyliuk, Iryna; Poberezhnyi, Lyubomyr; Pyrig, Taras; Bishchak, Roman; Vlasov, Ilya

    2015-10-01

    The study has established the main regularities of a fatigue failure of offshore gas steel pipes installed using S-lay and J-lay methods.We have numerically analyzed the influence of preliminary deformation on the fatigue life of 09Mn2Si steel at different amplitudes of cyclic loading. The results have revealed the regularities of formation and development of a fatigue crack in 17Mn1Si steel after 40 years of underground operation. The quantitative analysis describes the regularities of occurrence and growth of fatigue cracks in the presence of a stress concentration.

  4. ISS Regenerative Life Support: Challenges and Success in the Quest for Long-Term Habitability in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bazley, Jesse

    2015-01-01

    The International Space Station's (ISS) Regenerative Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) was launched in 2008 to continuously recycle urine and crew sweat into drinking water and oxygen using brand new technologies. This functionality was highly important to the ability of the ISS to transition to the long-term goal of 6-crew operations as well as being critical tests for long-term space habitability. Through the initial activation and long-term operations of these systems, important lessons were learned about the importance of system redundancy and operational workarounds that allow Systems Engineers to maintain functionality with limited on-orbit spares. This presentation will share some of these lessons learned including how to balance water through the different systems, store and use water for use in system failures and creating procedures to operate the systems in ways that they were not initially designed to do.

  5. Long-term evolution of three-planet systems to the post-main sequence and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustill, Alexander J.; Veras, Dimitri; Villaver, Eva

    2014-01-01

    We study the stability of systems of three giant planets orbiting 3-8 M⊙ stars at orbital distances of >10 au as the host star ages through the main sequence (MS) and well into the white dwarf (WD) stage. Systems are stable on the MS if the planets are separated by more than ˜9 Hill radii. Most systems surviving the MS will remain stable until the WD phase, although planets scattered on to small pericentres in unstable systems can be swallowed by the expanding stellar envelope when the star ascends the giant branches. Mass-loss at the end of the asymptotic giant branch triggers delayed instability in many systems, leading to instabilities typically occurring at WD cooling ages of a few 100 Myr. This instability occurs both in systems that survived the star's previous evolution unscathed, and in systems that previously underwent scattering instabilities. The outcome of such instability around WDs is overwhelmingly the ejection of one of the planets from the system, with several times more ejections occurring during the WD phase than during the MS. Furthermore, few planets are scattered close to the WD, just outside the Roche limit, where they can be tidally circularized. Hence, we predict that planets in WD systems rarely dynamically evolve to become `hot Jupiters'. Nor does it appear that the observed frequency of metal pollution in WD atmospheres can be entirely explained by planetesimals being destabilized following instability in systems of multiple giant planets, although further work incorporating low-mass planets and planetesimals is needed.

  6. Long-term prognosis of patients with acute myocardial infarction due to unprotected left main coronary artery disease: a single-centre experience over 14 years

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Li; Sun, Hao; Wang, Le-Feng; Yang, Xin-Chun; Li, Kui-Bao; Zhang, Da-Peng; Wang, Hong-Shi; Li, Wei-Ming

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) due to unprotected left main coronary artery (ULMCA) disease is clinically catastrophic although it has a low incidence. Studies on the long-term prognosis of these patients are rare. METHODS From January 1999 to September 2013, 55 patients whose infarct-related artery was the ULMCA were enrolled. Clinical, angiographic and interventional data was collected. Short-term and long-term clinical follow-up results as well as prognostic determinants during hospitalisation and follow-up were analysed. RESULTS Cardiogenic shock (CS) occurred in 30 (54.5%) patients. During hospitalisation, 22 (40.0%) patients died. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that CS (odds ratio [OR] 5.86; p = 0.03), collateral circulation of Grade 2 or 3 (OR 0.14; p = 0.02) and final flow of thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) Grade 3 (OR 0.05; p = 0.03) correlated with death during hospitalisation. 33 patients survived to discharge; another seven patients died during the follow-up period of 44.6 ± 31.3 (median 60, range 0.67–117.00) months. The overall mortality rate was 52.7% (n = 29). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that the total cumulative survival rate was 30.7%. Cox multivariate regression analysis showed that CS during hospitalisation was the only predictor of overall mortality (hazard ratio 4.07, 95% confidence interval 1.40–11.83; p = 0.01). CONCLUSION AMI caused by ULMCA lesions is complicated by high incidence of CS and mortality. CS, poor collateral blood flow and failure to restore final flow of TIMI Grade 3 correlated with death during hospitalisation. CS is the only predictor of long-term overall mortality. PMID:27439434

  7. Long-Term Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Long-Term Care What Is Long-Term Care? Long-term care involves a variety of services ... the Escape (Esc) button on your keyboard.) Most Care Provided at Home Long-term care is provided ...

  8. Fatal fires associated with smoking during long-term oxygen therapy--Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Oklahoma, 2000-2007.

    PubMed

    2008-08-01

    Approximately 1 million persons in the United States receive long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT) annually through the Medicare program, most often for smoking-related lung disease. At 2:10 a.m. on December 14, 2007, a fire occurred in a public housing project for the elderly in Westbrook, Maine. Approximately 60 residents were evacuated; six were transported to a hospital for smoke inhalation. The fire was caused unintentionally by a woman aged 57 years who was an overnight guest of a relative who lived in the housing project. The visitor had ignited the fire while simultaneously smoking and using an oxygen concentrator. After this incident, the Maine Department of Health and Human Services, in collaboration with three other states, attempted to determine 1) how often this type of event results in fatalities and 2) factors common to these incidents that might be amenable to prevention. This report describes the results of that study, which found that, during 2000-2007, of the 38 deaths identified in the four states, 37 occurred in private residences, and the median age of the decedents was 67 years. Prevention of this type of fatality is dependent on smoking cessation, careful assessment of the need for LTOT, and strategies to prevent injuries from fires, such as smoke alarms and sprinklers. PMID:18685553

  9. Carbon sequestration in croplands is mainly driven by management leading to increased net primary production - evidence from long-term field experiments in Northern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kätterer, Thomas; Bolinder, Martin Anders; Börjesson, Gunnar; Kirchmann, Holger; Poeplau, Christopher

    2014-05-01

    Sustainable intensification of agriculture in regions with high production potential is a prerequisite for providing services for an increasing human population, not only food, animal feed, fiber and biofuel but also to promote biodiversity and the beauty of landscapes. We investigated the effect of different management practices on soil fertility and carbon sequestration in long-term experiments, mainly from Northern Europe. In addition, a meta-analysis on the effect of catch crops was conducted. Improved management of croplands was found to be a win-win strategy resulting in both increased soil fertility and carbon sequestration. We quantified the effect of different management practices such as N fertilization, organic amendments, catch crops and ley-arable rotations versus continuous annual cropping systems on soil carbon stocks. Increasing net primary productivity (NPP) was found to be the main driver for higher soil carbon storage. Mineral N fertilization increased soil carbon stocks by 1-2 kg C ha-1 for each kg of N applied to cropland. Ley-arable rotations, being a combination of annual and perennial crops, are expected to have C stocks intermediate between those of continuous grass- and croplands. A summary of data from 15 long-term sites showed that on average 0.5 Mg ha-1 yr-1 (range 0.3 to 1.1; median 0.4 Mg ha-1 yr-1) more carbon was retained in soils in ley-arable compared to exclusively annual systems, depending on species composition, management, soil depth and the duration of the studies. The annual C accumulation rate for catch crops determined in the meta-analysis was well within that range (0.32±0.08 Mg C ha-1 yr-1). Retention factors calculated for straw, manure, sawdust, peat, sewage sludge and composted household waste varied widely in a decadal time scale. Retention of root and rhizodeposit carbon was higher than for above-ground crop residues. We conclude that NPP is the major driver for C sequestration and emphasize that increased soil

  10. Current prevalence of multidrug-resistant organisms in long-term care facilities in the Rhine-Main district, Germany, 2013.

    PubMed

    Hogardt, M; Proba, P; Mischler, D; Cuny, C; Kempf, V A; Heudorf, U

    2015-01-01

    Multidrug-resistant organisms (MDRO) and in particular multidrug-resistant Gram-negative organisms (MRGN) are an increasing problem in hospital care. However, data on the current prevalence of MDRO in long-term care facilities (LTCFs) are rare. To assess carriage rates of MDRO in LTCF residents in the German Rhine-Main region, we performed a point prevalence survey in 2013. Swabs from nose, throat and perineum were analysed for meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), perianal swabs were analysed for extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing organisms, MRGN and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE). In 26 LTCFs, 690 residents were enrolled for analysis of MRSA colonisation and 455 for analysis of rectal carriage of ESBL/MRGN and VRE. Prevalences for MRSA, ESBL/MRGN and VRE were 6.5%, 17.8%, and 0.4%, respectively. MRSA carriage was significantly associated with MRSA history, the presence of urinary catheters, percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tubes and previous antibiotic therapy, whereas ESBL/MRGN carriage was exclusively associated with urinary catheters. In conclusion, this study revealed no increase in MRSA prevalence in LTCFs since 2007. In contrast, the rate of ESBL/MRGN carriage in German LTCFs was remarkably high. In nearly all positive residents, MDRO carriage had not been known before, indicating a lack of screening efforts and/or a lack of information on hospital discharge. PMID:26159310

  11. Long-term in situ dynamics of the fungal communities in a multi-contaminated soil are mainly driven by plants.

    PubMed

    Thion, Cécile; Cébron, Aurélie; Beguiristain, Thierry; Leyval, Corinne

    2012-10-01

    The fungal communities of a multi-contaminated soil polluted by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals (NM) were studied within a long-term in situ experiment of natural attenuation assisted by plants. Three treatments were monitored: bare soil (NM-BS), soil planted with alfalfa and inoculated with mycorrhizal fungi (NM-Msm), and soil with spontaneous vegetation (NM-SV). The same soil after thermal desorption (TD) was planted with alfalfa and inoculated with mycorrhizal fungi (TD-Msm). Twice a year for 5 years, the fungal abundance and the community structure were evaluated by real-time PCR and temporal temperature gradient gel electrophoresis targeting 18S rRNA genes. The fungal abundance increased over time and was higher in planted than in bare NM soil and in TD than in NM soil. The Shannon diversity index (H') increased during the first 2 years with the emergence of more than 30 ribotypes, but decreased after 3 years with the selection of a few competitive species, mostly Ascomycetes. H' was higher under complex plant assemblage (NM-SV) than in the NM-BS plots but did not differ between NM and TD soils planted with alfalfa. These results indicated that even in a highly polluted soil, the plant cover was the main driver of the fungal community structure. PMID:22587649

  12. The interRAI Pediatric Home Care (PEDS HC) Assessment: Evaluating the Long-term Community-Based Service and Support Needs of Children Facing Special Healthcare Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Charles D; Hawes, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The vast majority of assessment instruments developed to assess children facing special healthcare challenges were constructed to assess children within a limited age range or children who face specific conditions or impairments. In contrast, the interRAI Pediatric Home Care (PEDS HC) Assessment Form was specifically designed to assess the long-term community-based service and support needs of children and youth aged from four to 20 years who face a wide range of chronic physical or behavioral health challenges. Initial research indicates that PEDS HC items exhibit good predictive validity—explaining significant proportions of the variance in parents’ perceptions of needs, case managers’ service authorizations, and Medicaid program expenditures for long-term community-based services and supports. In addition, PEDS HC items have been used to construct scales that summarize the strengths and needs of children facing special healthcare challenges. Versions of the PEDS HC are now being used in Medicaid programs in three states in the United States. PMID:26401100

  13. Long-Term (≥10 Years) Safety of Percutaneous Treatment of Unprotected Left Main Stenosis With Drug-Eluting Stents.

    PubMed

    Sheiban, Imad; Moretti, Claudio; D'Ascenzo, Fabrizio; Chieffo, Alaide; Taha, Salma; Connor, Stephen O; Chandran, SujaySubash; de la Torre Hernández, J M; Chen, Sl; Varbella, Ferdinando; Omedè, Pierluigi; Iannaccone, Mario; Meliga, Emanuele; Kawamoto, Hiroyoshi; Montefusco, Antonio; Mervyn, Chong; Garot, Philippe; Sin, Lin; Gasparetto, Valeria; Abdirashid, Mohamed; Cerrato, Enrico; Biondi Zoccai, Giuseppe; Gaita, Fiorenzo; Escaned, Javier; Hiddick Smith, David; Lefèvre, Thierry; Colombo, Antonio

    2016-07-01

    Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) of unprotected left main disease (ULM) with drug-eluting stents (DES) is hampered by lack of information on long-term (≥10 years) safety data. All patients treated with PCI on ULM in 9 international centers with at least 10 years follow-up were enrolled. Baseline and procedural features were recorded. Repeat PCI (re-PCI) on ULM at 10 years was the primary end point. Secondary end points included major adverse cardiac events and its components (cardiac and noncardiac death, myocardial infarction, re-PCI not on ULM, and stent thrombosis). Sensitivity analysis was performed according to the presence of isolated ULM disease: 284 patients were enrolled. A total of 70 patients (21%) performed a re-PCI on ULM, 39 in the first year, and 31 between 1 and 10 years (only 5 overall performed for acute coronary syndrome). Patients with re-PCI on ULM did not show differences in baseline and procedural features, or experience higher rates of cardiovascular death (12% vs 11%, p 0.65), myocardial infarction (11% vs 6%, p 0.56), or of re-PCI on non-ULM disease (31% vs 27%, p 0.76) compared with those without re-PCI on ULM. At Kaplan-Meier analysis, patients with PCI in other coronary vessels were at higher risk of major adverse cardiac events, driven by target vessel revascularization (20.4% vs 32.9%, p 0.009), as confirmed at multivariate analysis (stenosis other than LM; hazard ratio 2, 1.4 to 2.7, all CI 95%). In conclusion, despite of using first-generation stents, PCI on ULM is safe, with low rates of recurrent events due to index revascularization. Progression of atherosclerotic lesions on other coronary vessels represents the only independent predictive factor for prognosis. PMID:27209125

  14. Modelling the long-term impacts on affected children of adult HIV: benefits, challenges and a possible approach.

    PubMed

    Desmond, Christopher; Bruce, Faikah; Tomlinson, M; Marlow, Marguerite B; Aber, J Lawrence; Ouifki, Rachid; Welte, Alex

    2014-07-01

    We outline the benefits, challenges and possible approaches to developing mathematical models that could be used to estimate the magnitude of negative consequences of adult HIV infection for children. Adult HIV infection can lead to numerous negative consequences for dependent children, including depression, anxiety, withdrawal from school and early sexual debut, among others. For advocacy and planning purposes, it is important to highlight and consider as many of these as possible. A focus solely on orphan numbers, which is the typical summary measure for children affected by HIV and AIDS, can be misleading. The complexity of child development that is characterized by the interaction of a multitude of proximal and distal factors, coupled with a significant lack of data on child development in the context of adult HIV infection make the development of models a challenging task. Although it may not be possible in the first attempt to develop a population-based model capable of examining family dynamics, the negative consequences together with the impact of interventions, steps in that direction can be taken. We propose approaches and assumptions that we believe will allow the development of a useful first set of models. We conclude with a brief discussion of the type of data that, if collected, would facilitate refinement and development of these models. PMID:24991900

  15. People challenges in biospheric systems for long-term habitation in remote areas, space stations, moon, and Mars expeditions.

    PubMed

    Allen, John

    2002-01-01

    People who participate in remote and difficult expeditions, such as the 2-year (1991-1993) Biosphere 2 experiment or a future biospheric system on Mars or other long voyages, will face individual psycho-physiological, social, and cultural value challenges. The individual psycho-physiological vectors include the lure of being a hero/heroine and pushing it to the maximum, concealment of problems with the belief that he/she can overcome the obstacle alone, as well as the difficulty of keeping intact the critical differentiation of the risks associated with the overall expedition as opposed to the experimental objectives. The social challenges occur as a group dynamic context as well as for the individual, resulting in regressions and the need to "act out" one's difficulties. Cultural areas of importance that must be taken into consideration will include esthetic, ethical, cosmological, and epistemological values. The epistemological values must involve the five methods of scientific inquiry for a comprehensive total systems project to succeed fully. PMID:11987305

  16. Taking stock of infections and antibiotic resistance in the elderly and long-term care facilities: A survey of existing and upcoming challenges

    PubMed Central

    Augustine, S.

    2011-01-01

    Treating elderly patients with infections represents one of the greatest challenges to health-care providers. Older adults are the largest growing sector of the population and suffer excessively from infectious diseases such as pneumonia, urinary tract infections (UTIs), and skin and soft-tissue infections. Often because of disabilities, the elderly require treatment of infectious diseases in long-term care facilities (LTCFs). As a result of antibiotic use, LTCFs have become “reservoirs of resistance” and multi-drug resistant (MDR) pathogens are frequently recovered. Clinicians also need to be aware of the impairment of immune function and other emerging chronic infections (HIV, HCV) that are now present in the elderly. Despite vigilance regarding this issue, delays in diagnosis and initiation of therapy are common. This article reviews the changing landscape of infections in the elderly and the challenge these syndromes present in the context of an increasing older population that requires dedicated resources. PMID:24516724

  17. Building long-term constituencies for space exploration: The challenge of raising public awareness and engagement in the United States and in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrenfreund, P.; Peter, N.; Billings, L.

    2010-08-01

    Space exploration is a multifaceted endeavor and will be a "grand challenge" of the 21st century. It has already become an element of the political agenda of a growing number of countries worldwide. However, the public is largely unaware of space exploration activities and in particular does not perceive any personal benefit. In order to achieve highly ambitious space exploration goals to explore robotically and with humans the inner solar system, space agencies must improve and expand their efforts to inform and raise the awareness of the public about what they are doing, and why. Therefore adopting new techniques aiming at informing and engaging the public using participatory ways, new communication techniques to reach, in particular, the younger generation will be a prerequisite for a sustainable long-term exploration program: as they will enable it and carry most of the associated financial burden. This paper presents an environmental analysis of space exploration in the United States and Europe and investigates the current branding stature of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the European Space Agency (ESA). We discuss how improved market research and new branding methods can increase public space awareness and improve the image of NASA and ESA. We propose a new participatory approach to engage the public as major stakeholder (along governments, the industrial space sector and the science community) that may provide sufficient resources for and sustainability of a long-term space exploration program.

  18. Long Term Preservation of Digital Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorie, Raymond A.

    The preservation of digital data for the long term presents a variety of challenges from technical to social and organizational. The technical challenge is to ensure that the information, generated today, can survive long term changes in storage media, devices, and data formats. This paper presents a novel approach to the problem. It distinguishes…

  19. Challenges of nurse delivery of psychological interventions for long-term conditions in primary care: a qualitative exploration of the case of chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The evidence base for a range of psychosocial and behavioural interventions in managing and supporting patients with long-term conditions (LTCs) is now well-established. With increasing numbers of such patients being managed in primary care, and a shortage of specialists in psychology and behavioural management to deliver interventions, therapeutic interventions are increasingly being delivered by general nurses with limited training in psychological interventions. It is unknown what issues this raises for the nurses or their patients. The purpose of the study was to examine the challenges faced by non-specialist nurses when delivering psychological interventions for an LTC (chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis [CFS/ME]) within a primary care setting. Methods A qualitative study nested within a randomised controlled trial [ISRCTN 74156610] explored the experiences and acceptability of two different psychological interventions (pragmatic rehabilitation and supportive listening) from the perspectives of nurses, their supervisors, and patients. Semi structured in-depth interviews were conducted with three nurse therapists, three supervisors, and 46 patients. An iterative approach was used to develop conceptual categories from the dataset. Results Analyses identified four sets of challenges that were common to both interventions: (i) being a novice therapist, (ii) engaging patients in the therapeutic model, (iii) dealing with emotions, and (iv) the complexity of primary care. Each challenge had the potential to cause tension between therapist and patient. A number of strategies were developed by participants to manage the tensions. Conclusions Tensions existed for nurses when attempting to deliver psychological interventions for patients with CFS/ME in this primary care trial. Such tensions should be addressed before implementing psychological interventions within routine clinical practice. Similar tensions may be found for other LTCs. Our

  20. Serum sample stability in ligand-binding assays: challenges in assessments of long-term, bench-top and multiple freeze-thaw.

    PubMed

    Macaraeg, Chris; Ortiz, Jessica; Calamba, Dominador; Ma, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Chris Macaraeg has been a lead scientist for method development, validation, and study support intended for regulated pre-clinical/clinical studies within the Pharmacokinetics and Drug Metabolism department at Amgen Inc, Thousand Oaks, CA. He joined Amgen in 2006. His expertise also includes automation and method transfer to CROs. Chris received his BS degree in Physiological Science and Neuroscience from the University of California, Los Angeles, CA and MS in Forensic Science from Pace University, New York, NY. Stability of therapeutic proteins in biological matrix is an important parameter to evaluate in bioanalytical support of regulated nonclinical or clinical studies. Despite industry guidance publications, many questions still arise as to how these practices are implemented to establish therapeutic protein stability in bioanalytical method validations. This article presents findings from long-term, bench-top and freeze-thaw stability assessments for three therapeutic monoclonal antibodies using either ELISA or electrochemiluminescent technology. Studies illustrate the principles and challenges in stability tests which represent scenarios that samples will likely encounter during sample analysis. Thoughtful consideration of each study requirements and a fit-for-purpose approach is essential in successful establishment of the sample stability parameters in method validation. PMID:26110709

  1. Long-term sequelae of electrical injury

    PubMed Central

    Wesner, Marni L.; Hickie, John

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To summarize the current evidence-based knowledge about the long-term sequelae of injuries from electrical current. Quality of evidence MEDLINE was searched for English-language articles published in the past 20 years using the following search terms: electrical, injuries, wound, trauma, accident, sequelae, long-term, follow-up, and aftereffects. For obvious reasons, it is unethical to randomly study electrical injury in controlled clinical trials. By necessity, this topic is addressed in less-rigorous observational and retrospective work and case studies. Therefore, the strength of the literature pertaining to the long-term sequelae of electrical injury is impaired by the necessity of retrospective methods and case studies that typically describe small cohorts. Main message There are 2 possible consequences of electrical injury: the person either survives or dies. For those who survive electrical injury, the immediate consequences are usually obvious and often require extensive medical intervention. The long-term sequelae of the electrical injury might be more subtle, pervasive, and less well defined, but can include neurologic, psychological, and physical symptoms. In the field of compensation medicine, determining causation and attributing outcome to an injury that might not result in objective clinical findings becomes a considerable challenge. Conclusion The appearance of these consequences of electrical injury might be substantially delayed, with onset 1 to 5 or more years after the electrical injury. This poses a problem for patients and health care workers, making it hard to ascribe symptoms to a remote injury when they might not arise until well after the incident event. PMID:24029506

  2. Space shuttle main engine: Interactive design challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarty, J. P.; Wood, B. K.

    1985-01-01

    The operating requirements established by NASA for the SSME were considerably more demanding than those for earlier rocket engines used in the military launch vehicles or Apollo program. The SSME, in order to achieve the high performance, low weight, long life, reusable objectives, embodied technical demands far in excess of its predecessor rocket engines. The requirements dictated the use of high combustion pressure and the staged combustion cycle which maximizes performance through total use of all propellants in the main combustion process. This approach presented a myriad of technical challenges for maximization of performance within attainable state of the art capabilities for operating pressures, operating temperatures and rotating machinery efficiencies. Controlling uniformity of the high pressure turbomachinery turbine temperature environment was a key challenge for thrust level and life capability demanding innovative engineering. New approaches in the design of the components were necessary to accommodate the multiple use, minimum maintenance objectives. Included were the use of line replaceable units to facilitate field maintenance automatic checkout and internal inspection capabilities.

  3. Long-term recording of olfactory and vomeronasal stimulant-induced waves from the turtle main olfactory bulb and accessory olfactory bulb.

    PubMed

    Kashiwayanagi, M; Taniguchi, M; Shoji, T; Kurihara, K

    1997-08-01

    Recording of stimulant-induced waves (bulbar responses) from the main olfactory bulb is a useful tool for measuring quantitative stable olfactory responses. There is a good relationship between the olfactory bulbar response, olfactory nerve response and electroolfactogram (EOG), suggesting that the bulbar response reflects events in receptor cells. The modern whole-cell recording technique offers direct information on olfactory transduction in single cells, but it requires long experimental periods and many animals. On the other hand, analysis of bulbar responses provides useful information and requires the use of few animals. For example, we found that cAMP-increasing and IP3-increasing odorants were not distinctly received by the turtle olfactory organ by measuring olfactory bulbar responses and analyzed with a multidimensional scaling from about 60 animals. However, to record similar odor responses from isolated turtle olfactory neurons, at least 200 animals would be necessary. Bulbar responses are recorded with electrodes implanted into or located on the main olfactory bulb. When electrodes are located on the olfactory bulb surface, it is possible to record stable responses over a period of 3 days. These methods were applied successfully to the accessory olfactory bulb. In this paper, we describe the protocols used for recording of the stimulant-induced waves from the main and accessory olfactory bulb. PMID:9385067

  4. Building Capacity for a Long-Term, in-Situ, National-Scale Phenology Monitoring Network: Successes, Challenges and Lessons Learned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weltzin, J. F.; Browning, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    The USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN; www.usanpn.org) is a national-scale science and monitoring initiative focused on phenology - the study of seasonal life-cycle events such as leafing, flowering, reproduction, and migration - as a tool to understand the response of biodiversity to environmental variation and change. USA-NPN provides a hierarchical, national monitoring framework that enables other organizations to leverage the capacity of the Network for their own applications - minimizing investment and duplication of effort - while promoting interoperability. Network participants can leverage: (1) Standardized monitoring protocols that have been broadly vetted, tested and published; (2) A centralized National Phenology Database (NPDb) for maintaining, archiving and replicating data, with standard metadata, terms-of-use, web-services, and documentation of QA/QC, plus tools for discovery, visualization and download of raw data and derived data products; and/or (3) A national in-situ, multi-taxa phenological monitoring system, Nature's Notebook, which enables participants to observe and record phenology of plants and animals - based on the protocols and information management system (IMS) described above - via either web or mobile applications. The protocols, NPDb and IMS, and Nature's Notebook represent a hierarchy of opportunities for involvement by a broad range of interested stakeholders, from individuals to agencies. For example, some organizations have adopted (e.g., the National Ecological Observatory Network or NEON) -- or are considering adopting (e.g., the Long-Term Agroecosystems Network or LTAR) -- the USA-NPN standardized protocols, but will develop their own database and IMS with web services to promote sharing of data with the NPDb. Other organizations (e.g., the Inventory and Monitoring Programs of the National Wildlife Refuge System and the National Park Service) have elected to use Nature's Notebook to support their phenological monitoring

  5. Alexandrium fundyense cysts in the Gulf of Maine: long-term time series of abundance and distribution, and linkages to past and future blooms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Donald M.; Keafer, Bruce A.; Kleindinst, Judith L.; McGillicuddy, Dennis J., Jr.; Martin, Jennifer L.; Norton, Kerry; Pilskaln, Cynthia H.; Smith, Juliette L.; Sherwood, Christopher R.; Butman, Bradford

    2014-01-01

    Here we document Alexandrium fundyense cyst abundance and distribution patterns over nine years (1997 and 2004–2011) in the coastal waters of the Gulf of Maine (GOM) and identify linkages between those patterns and several metrics of the severity or magnitude of blooms occurring before and after each autumn cyst survey. We also explore the relative utility of two measures of cyst abundance and demonstrate that GOM cyst counts can be normalized to sediment volume, revealing meaningful patterns equivalent to those determined with dry weight normalization. Cyst concentrations were highly variable spatially. Two distinct seedbeds (defined here as accumulation zones with>300 cysts cm−3) are evident, one in the Bay of Fundy (BOF) and one in mid-coast Maine. Overall, seedbed locations remained relatively constant through time, but their area varied 3–4 fold, and total cyst abundance more than 10 fold among years. A major expansion of the mid-coast Maine seedbed occurred in 2009 following an unusually intense A. fundyense bloom with visible red-water conditions, but that feature disappeared by late 2010. The regional system thus has only two seedbeds with the bathymetry, sediment characteristics, currents, biology, and environmental conditions necessary to persist for decades or longer. Strong positive correlations were confirmed between the abundance of cysts in both the 0–1 and the 0–3 cm layers of sediments in autumn and geographic measures of the extent of the bloom that occurred the next year (i.e., cysts→blooms), such as the length of coastline closed due to shellfish toxicity or the southernmost latitude of shellfish closures. In general, these metrics of bloom geographic extent did not correlate with the number of cysts in sediments following the blooms (blooms→cysts). There are, however, significant positive correlations between 0–3 cm cyst abundances and metrics of the preceding bloom that are indicative of bloom intensity or vegetative cell

  6. Alexandrium fundyense cysts in the Gulf of Maine: long-term time series of abundance and distribution, and linkages to past and future blooms

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Donald M.; Keafer, Bruce A.; Kleindinst, Judith L.; McGillicuddy, Dennis J.; Martin, Jennifer L.; Norton, Kerry; Pilskaln, Cynthia H.; Smith, Juliette L.; Sherwood, Christopher R.; Butman, Bradford

    2013-01-01

    Here we document Alexandrium fundyense cyst abundance and distribution patterns over nine years (1997 and 2004-2011) in the coastal waters of the Gulf of Maine (GOM) and identify linkages between those patterns and several metrics of the severity or magnitude of blooms occurring before and after each autumn cyst survey. We also explore the relative utility of two measures of cyst abundance and demonstrate that GOM cyst counts can be normalized to sediment volume, revealing meaningful patterns equivalent to those determined with dry weight normalization. Cyst concentrations were highly variable spatially. Two distinct seedbeds (defined here as accumulation zones with > 300 cysts cm−3) are evident, one in the Bay of Fundy (BOF) and one in mid-coast Maine. Overall, seedbed locations remained relatively constant through time, but their area varied 3-4 fold, and total cyst abundance more than 10 fold among years. A major expansion of the mid-coast Maine seedbed occurred in 2009 following an unusually intense A. fundyense bloom with visible red-water conditions, but that feature disappeared by late 2010. The regional system thus has only two seedbeds with the bathymetry, sediment characteristics, currents, biology, and environmental conditions necessary to persist for decades or longer. Strong positive correlations were confirmed between the abundance of cysts in both the 0-1 and the 0-3 cm layers of sediments in autumn and geographic measures of the extent of the bloom that occurred the next year (i.e., cysts → blooms), such as the length of coastline closed due to shellfish toxicity or the southernmost latitude of shellfish closures. In general, these metrics of bloom geographic extent did not correlate with the number of cysts in sediments following the blooms (blooms → cysts). There are, however, significant positive correlations between 0-3 cm cyst abundances and metrics of the preceding bloom that are indicative of bloom intensity or vegetative cell abundance

  7. Alexandrium fundyense cysts in the Gulf of Maine: long-term time series of abundance and distribution, and linkages to past and future blooms.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Donald M; Keafer, Bruce A; Kleindinst, Judith L; McGillicuddy, Dennis J; Martin, Jennifer L; Norton, Kerry; Pilskaln, Cynthia H; Smith, Juliette L; Sherwood, Christopher R; Butman, Bradford

    2014-05-01

    Here we document Alexandrium fundyense cyst abundance and distribution patterns over nine years (1997 and 2004-2011) in the coastal waters of the Gulf of Maine (GOM) and identify linkages between those patterns and several metrics of the severity or magnitude of blooms occurring before and after each autumn cyst survey. We also explore the relative utility of two measures of cyst abundance and demonstrate that GOM cyst counts can be normalized to sediment volume, revealing meaningful patterns equivalent to those determined with dry weight normalization. Cyst concentrations were highly variable spatially. Two distinct seedbeds (defined here as accumulation zones with > 300 cysts cm(-3)) are evident, one in the Bay of Fundy (BOF) and one in mid-coast Maine. Overall, seedbed locations remained relatively constant through time, but their area varied 3-4 fold, and total cyst abundance more than 10 fold among years. A major expansion of the mid-coast Maine seedbed occurred in 2009 following an unusually intense A. fundyense bloom with visible red-water conditions, but that feature disappeared by late 2010. The regional system thus has only two seedbeds with the bathymetry, sediment characteristics, currents, biology, and environmental conditions necessary to persist for decades or longer. Strong positive correlations were confirmed between the abundance of cysts in both the 0-1 and the 0-3 cm layers of sediments in autumn and geographic measures of the extent of the bloom that occurred the next year (i.e., cysts → blooms), such as the length of coastline closed due to shellfish toxicity or the southernmost latitude of shellfish closures. In general, these metrics of bloom geographic extent did not correlate with the number of cysts in sediments following the blooms (blooms → cysts). There are, however, significant positive correlations between 0-3 cm cyst abundances and metrics of the preceding bloom that are indicative of bloom intensity or vegetative cell abundance

  8. Alexandrium fundyense cysts in the Gulf of Maine: Long-term time series of abundance and distribution, and linkages to past and future blooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Donald M.; Keafer, Bruce A.; Kleindinst, Judith L.; McGillicuddy, Dennis J.; Martin, Jennifer L.; Norton, Kerry; Pilskaln, Cynthia H.; Smith, Juliette L.; Sherwood, Christopher R.; Butman, Bradford

    2014-05-01

    Here we document Alexandrium fundyense cyst abundance and distribution patterns over nine years (1997 and 2004-2011) in the coastal waters of the Gulf of Maine (GOM) and identify linkages between those patterns and several metrics of the severity or magnitude of blooms occurring before and after each autumn cyst survey. We also explore the relative utility of two measures of cyst abundance and demonstrate that GOM cyst counts can be normalized to sediment volume, revealing meaningful patterns equivalent to those determined with dry weight normalization. Cyst concentrations were highly variable spatially. Two distinct seedbeds (defined here as accumulation zones with>300 cysts cm-3) are evident, one in the Bay of Fundy (BOF) and one in mid-coast Maine. Overall, seedbed locations remained relatively constant through time, but their area varied 3-4 fold, and total cyst abundance more than 10 fold among years. A major expansion of the mid-coast Maine seedbed occurred in 2009 following an unusually intense A. fundyense bloom with visible red-water conditions, but that feature disappeared by late 2010. The regional system thus has only two seedbeds with the bathymetry, sediment characteristics, currents, biology, and environmental conditions necessary to persist for decades or longer. Strong positive correlations were confirmed between the abundance of cysts in both the 0-1 and the 0-3 cm layers of sediments in autumn and geographic measures of the extent of the bloom that occurred the next year (i.e., cysts→blooms), such as the length of coastline closed due to shellfish toxicity or the southernmost latitude of shellfish closures. In general, these metrics of bloom geographic extent did not correlate with the number of cysts in sediments following the blooms (blooms→cysts). There are, however, significant positive correlations between 0-3 cm cyst abundances and metrics of the preceding bloom that are indicative of bloom intensity or vegetative cell abundance (e

  9. Long-term seafloor monitoring at an open ocean aquaculture site in the western Gulf of Maine, USA: development of an adaptive protocol.

    PubMed

    Grizzle, R E; Ward, L G; Fredriksson, D W; Irish, J D; Langan, R; Heinig, C S; Greene, J K; Abeels, H A; Peter, C R; Eberhardt, A L

    2014-11-15

    The seafloor at an open ocean finfish aquaculture facility in the western Gulf of Maine, USA was monitored from 1999 to 2008 by sampling sites inside a predicted impact area modeled by oceanographic conditions and fecal and food settling characteristics, and nearby reference sites. Univariate and multivariate analyses of benthic community measures from box core samples indicated minimal or no significant differences between impact and reference areas. These findings resulted in development of an adaptive monitoring protocol involving initial low-cost methods that required more intensive and costly efforts only when negative impacts were initially indicated. The continued growth of marine aquaculture is dependent on further development of farming methods that minimize negative environmental impacts, as well as effective monitoring protocols. Adaptive monitoring protocols, such as the one described herein, coupled with mathematical modeling approaches, have the potential to provide effective protection of the environment while minimize monitoring effort and costs. PMID:25287226

  10. Long-term testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferber, M.; Graves, G. A., Jr.

    Land-based gas turbines are significantly different from automotive gas turbines in that they are designed to operate for 50,000 h or greater (compared to 5,000-10,000 h). The primary goal of this research is to determine the long-term survivability of ceramic materials for industrial gas turbine applications. Research activities in this program focus on the evaluation of the static tensile creep and stress rupture (SR) behavior of three commercially available structural ceramics which have been identified by the gas turbine manufacturers as leading candidates for use in industrial gas turbines. For each material investigated, a minimum of three temperatures and four stresses will be used to establish the stress and temperature sensitivities of the creep and SR behavior. Because existing data for many candidate structural ceramics are limited to testing times less than 2,000 h, this program will focus on extending these data to times on the order of 10,000 h, which represents the lower limit of operating time anticipated for ceramic blades and vanes in gas turbine engines. A secondary goal of the program will be to investigate the possibility of enhancing life prediction estimates by combining interrupted tensile SR tests and tensile dynamic fatigue tests in which tensile strength is measured as a function of stressing rate. The third goal of this program will be to investigate the effects of water vapor upon the SR behavior of the three structural ceramics chosen for the static tensile studies by measuring the flexural strength as a function of stressing rate at three temperatures.

  11. Long-term testing

    SciTech Connect

    Ferber, M.; Graves, G.A. Jr.

    1994-12-31

    Land-based gas turbines are significantly different from automotive gas turbines in that they are designed to operate for 50,000 h or greater (compared to 5,000--10,000 h). The primary goal of this research is to determine the long-term survivability of ceramic materials for industrial gas turbine applications. Research activities in this program focus on the evaluation of the static tensile creep and stress rupture (SR) behavior of three commercially available structural ceramics which have been identified by the gas turbine manufacturers as leading candidates for use in industrial gas turbines. For each material investigated, a minimum of three temperatures and four stresses will be used to establish the stress and temperature sensitivities of the creep and SR behavior. Because existing data for many candidate structural ceramics are limited to testing times less than 2,000 h, this program will focus on extending these data to times on the order of 10,000 h, which represents the lower limit of operating time anticipated for ceramic blades and vanes in gas turbine engines. A secondary goal of the program will be to investigate the possibility of enhancing life prediction estimates by combining interrupted tensile SR tests and tensile dynamic fatigue tests in which tensile strength is measured as a function of stressing rate. The third goal of this program will be to investigate the effects of water vapor upon the SR behavior of the three structural ceramics chosen for the static tensile studies by measuring the flexural strength as a function of stressing rate at three temperatures.

  12. Long-term environmental stewardship.

    SciTech Connect

    Nagy, Michael David

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this Supplemental Information Source Document is to effectively describe Long-Term Environmental Stewardship (LTES) at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM). More specifically, this document describes the LTES and Long-Term Stewardship (LTS) Programs, distinguishes between the LTES and LTS Programs, and summarizes the current status of the Environmental Restoration (ER) Project.

  13. Presynaptic long-term plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ying; Calakos, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    Long-term synaptic plasticity is a major cellular substrate for learning, memory, and behavioral adaptation. Although early examples of long-term synaptic plasticity described a mechanism by which postsynaptic signal transduction was potentiated, it is now apparent that there is a vast array of mechanisms for long-term synaptic plasticity that involve modifications to either or both the presynaptic terminal and postsynaptic site. In this article, we discuss current and evolving approaches to identify presynaptic mechanisms as well as discuss their limitations. We next provide examples of the diverse circuits in which presynaptic forms of long-term synaptic plasticity have been described and discuss the potential contribution this form of plasticity might add to circuit function. Finally, we examine the present evidence for the molecular pathways and cellular events underlying presynaptic long-term synaptic plasticity. PMID:24146648

  14. Comparison of Bare-Metal Stent and Drug-Eluting Stent for the Treatment of Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention for Unprotected Left Main Coronary Artery Disease – Long-Term Result from a Single Center Experience

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Chih-Hung; Lee, Wen-Lieng; Sung, Shih-Hsien; Hsu, Pai-Feng; Chen, Ying-Hwa; Chan, Wan-Leong; Lin, Shing-Jong; Lu, Tse-Min

    2015-01-01

    Background Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has become an alternative treatment for left main (LM) coronary artery disease. The aim of our study was to compare long-term clinical outcomes of patients undergoing unprotected LM PCI with bare-metal stent (BMS) or drug-eluting stent (DES) in a high-risk population. Methods and Results We enrolled 223 consecutive patients with unprotected LM coronary artery disease undergoing PCI (mean age: 71.1 ± 11.2 years, 187 male), including 94 patients receiving BMS and 129 patients receiving DES. The patients receiving DES had a significantly higher SYNTAX score (p = 0.05). During the mean follow-up period of 2.5 years, there were 31 cardiovascular deaths (BMS: 21 cases, DES: 10 cases, p = 0.04 by log-rank test), 56 major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE, including cardiovascular death, non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI) and clinical-driven target lesion revascularization; BMS: 33 cases, DES: 23 cases, p = 0.03 by log-rank test) and 6 cases with definite/probable stent thrombosis (BMS: 5 cases, DES: 1 cases, p = 0.09). In multivariate Cox analysis, the use of DES was identified as an independent protective factor against cardiovascular death [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.34, 95% confidence interval (Cl) = 0.15-0.79, p = 0.01] and MACE (HR = 0.50, 95% CI = 0.28-0.88, p = 0.02). The clinical outcome analyses in propensity-score matched the cohort (87 matched pair of patients receiving BMS and DES) and yielded similar results. Conclusions In the general practice among a high-risk population undergoing unprotected LM PCI, the use of DES appeared to be beneficial in reducing the risk of long-term cardiovascular death and MACE. PMID:27122897

  15. Main challenges for ITER optical diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vukolov, K. Yu.; Orlovskiy, I. I.; Alekseev, A. G.; Borisov, A. A.; Andreenko, E. N.; Kukushkin, A. B.; Lisitsa, V. S.; Neverov, V. S.

    2014-08-01

    The review is made of the problems of ITER optical diagnostics. Most of these problems will be related to the intensive neutron radiation from hot plasma. At a high level of radiation loads the most types of materials gradually change their properties. This effect is most critical for optical diagnostics because of degradation of optical glasses and mirrors. The degradation of mirrors, that collect the light from plasma, basically will be induced by impurity deposition and (or) sputtering by charge exchange atoms. Main attention is paid to the search of glasses for vacuum windows and achromatic lens which are stable under ITER irradiation conditions. The last results of irradiation tests in nuclear reactor of candidate silica glasses KU-1, KS-4V and TF 200 are presented. An additional problem is discussed that deals with the stray light produced by multiple reflections from the first wall of the intense light emitted in the divertor plasma.

  16. Long term complications of diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000327.htm Long term complications of diabetes To use the sharing ... sores and infections. If it goes on too long, your toes, foot, or leg may need to ...

  17. Abdominal Pain, Long-Term

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Abdominal Pain, Long-term See complete list of charts. Ongoing or recurrent abdominal pain, also called chronic pain, may be difficult to diagnose, causing frustration for ...

  18. Long-Term Use of Benzodiazepines

    PubMed Central

    Potts, Nicholas L.S.; Krishnan, K. Ranga R.

    1992-01-01

    Problems associated with physical dependence and abuse of benzodiazepines by a small percentage of patients have reduced their popularity from the most commonly prescribed psychoactive drug in the 1970s to being prescribed for mainly short periods. Patients who benefit from long-term benzodiazepine use are nearly ignored by the medical community as a whole. This article details what patient population can improve from long-term benzodiazepine therapy, the risks and benefits of treatment, and how to select appropriate candidates. PMID:21229127

  19. Architecture analysis for European Long-Term Archiving EO systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia Gil, I.; Perez Moreno, R.; Perez Navarro, O.; Leone, R.

    2012-04-01

    Over the last ten years there has been a strongly increased need for access to historical Earth Observation (EO) data series, mainly for long term science and environmental monitoring applications. As the contents of EO space data archives increases from a few years duration to a period of decades their scientific values increases dramatically. The main objective of this Long Term Data Preservation(LTDP) initiative is to guarantee the long term preservation of the data from all EO ESA and Third Parties ESA managed missions, while also ensuring their accessibility and usability, as part of a joint and cooperative approach in Europe aimed at preserving the EO European data from member states' missions. To allow the maximum value to be extracted from the data, it is well recognized that there is a need to preserve this data without time limitations, while keeping all archived data accessible and exploitable. This will be even more of a challenge in the coming years, as the large number of upcoming Earth Observation missions will lead to a major increase in the available volume of EO data The LTDP Impact Analysis and Architecture Definition project (for simplicity known as LTDP-IMPACTS) aims to define and consolidate the architecture of European Long-Term Archiving EO systems, especially in the context of ESA PDGS. To do this, we shall perform a complete assessment of the impacts of implementing the guidelines from the LTDP initiative. This assessment will be over all timescales, short, middle and long-term, and must take into account all systems involved, from the point of view of "System of System" (SoS), and their data flows, data sets and their related operational policies for LTDP implementation The LTDP guidelines, and the standards adopted as a result, will have various impacts on the legacy and future long term archiving systems, the systems used to access them, and on the overall operational concept. This will particularly apply to the ESA PDGS environment

  20. [Taiwan long-term care insurance and the evolution of long-term care in Japan].

    PubMed

    Huang, Hui-Wen; Liu, Shu-Hui; Pai, Yu-Chu

    2010-08-01

    The proportion of elderly (65 years of age and older) in Taiwan has exceeded 10% since 2008. With more elderly, the number of patients suffering from dementia and disabilities has also been rapidly increasing. Japan also has been facing increasing demand for long-term care due to an aging society. Prior to 2000, social welfare programs in Japan, working to cope with changing needs, typically provided insufficient services, and geriatric patients were hospitalized unnecessarily, wasting medical resources and causing undue patient hardship. In response, Japan launched its long-term care insurance program in April 2000. Under the program, city, town and village-based organizations should take responsibility for providing care to the elderly in their place of residence. The program significantly improved previous financial shortfalls and long-term care supply and demand has been met by existing social welfare organization resources. In Taiwan, the provision of long-term care by county / city authorities has proven inconsistent, with performance deemed poor after its first decade of long-term care operations. Service was found to be affected by differences in available resources and insufficient long-term care administration. The cultures of Taiwan and Japan are similar. The authors visited the Japan Long-Term Care Insurance Institute in August 2009. Main issues involved in the implementation and evolution of the Japan long-term Care Insurance are reported on in this paper. We hope such may be useful information to those working to develop long-term care programs in Taiwan. PMID:20661859

  1. Long Term Chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa Airway Infection in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Facchini, Marcella; De Fino, Ida; Riva, Camilla; Bragonzi, Alessandra

    2014-01-01

    A mouse model of chronic airway infection is a key asset in cystic fibrosis (CF) research, although there are a number of concerns regarding the model itself. Early phases of inflammation and infection have been widely studied by using the Pseudomonas aeruginosa agar-beads mouse model, while only few reports have focused on the long-term chronic infection in vivo. The main challenge for long term chronic infection remains the low bacterial burden by P. aeruginosa and the low percentage of infected mice weeks after challenge, indicating that bacterial cells are progressively cleared by the host. This paper presents a method for obtaining efficient long-term chronic infection in mice. This method is based on the embedding of the P. aeruginosa clinical strains in the agar-beads in vitro, followed by intratracheal instillation in C57Bl/6NCrl mice. Bilateral lung infection is associated with several measurable read-outs including weight loss, mortality, chronic infection, and inflammatory response. The P. aeruginosa RP73 clinical strain was preferred over the PAO1 reference laboratory strain since it resulted in a comparatively lower mortality, more severe lesions, and higher chronic infection. P. aeruginosa colonization may persist in the lung for over three months. Murine lung pathology resembles that of CF patients with advanced chronic pulmonary disease. This murine model most closely mimics the course of the human disease and can be used both for studies on the pathogenesis and for the evaluation of novel therapies. PMID:24686327

  2. Long Term Illness and Wages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandy, Robert; Elliott, Robert R.

    2005-01-01

    Long-term illness (LTI) is a more prevalent workplace risk than fatal accidents but there is virtually no evidence for compensating differentials for a broad measure of LTI. In 1990 almost 3.4 percent of the U.K. adult population suffered from a LTI caused solely by their working conditions. This paper provides the first estimates of compensating…

  3. Long-term data archiving

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, David Steven

    2009-01-01

    Long term data archiving has much value for chemists, not only to retain access to research and product development records, but also to enable new developments and new discoveries. There are some recent regulatory requirements (e.g., FDA 21 CFR Part 11), but good science and good business both benefit regardless. A particular example of the benefits of and need for long term data archiving is the management of data from spectroscopic laboratory instruments. The sheer amount of spectroscopic data is increasing at a scary rate, and the pressures to archive come from the expense to create the data (or recreate it if it is lost) as well as its high information content. The goal of long-term data archiving is to save and organize instrument data files as well as any needed meta data (such as sample ID, LIMS information, operator, date, time, instrument conditions, sample type, excitation details, environmental parameters, etc.). This editorial explores the issues involved in long-term data archiving using the example of Raman spectral databases. There are at present several such databases, including common data format libraries and proprietary libraries. However, such databases and libraries should ultimately satisfy stringent criteria for long term data archiving, including readability for long times into the future, robustness to changes in computer hardware and operating systems, and use of public domain data formats. The latter criterion implies the data format should be platform independent and the tools to create the data format should be easily and publicly obtainable or developable. Several examples of attempts at spectral libraries exist, such as the ASTM ANDI format, and the JCAMP-DX format. On the other hand, proprietary library spectra can be exchanged and manipulated using proprietary tools. As the above examples have deficiencies according to the three long term data archiving criteria, Extensible Markup Language (XML; a product of the World Wide Web

  4. Determination of Functional Capabilities, the Level of Physical Performance and the State of Main Physiological Body Systems in the First Hours after the Accomplishment of Long-term Space Flights ("Field Test")

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kozlovskaya, Inesa; Tomilovskaya, Elena; Rukavishnikov, Ilya; Kitov, Vladimir; Reschke, Millard; Kofman, Igor

    2014-01-01

    Long-term stay in weightlessness is accompanied by alterations in the activity of main physiological body systems including sensory-motor, skeletal-muscular disturbances and cardiovascular deconditioning. However, up to now, there are no data on the state and level of functional performance of cosmonauts/astronauts directly after flight, nor are there data to help define the dynamic recovery of functional characteristics and work efficiency which are greatly needed to provide the safety and planning of their activity once they reach space objects. The Russian and American scientists are currently engaged in a joint experiment known as the "Field Test" with the goal of studying the functional performance and the state of main physiological body systems directly after landing and their temporal recovery dynamics. The functional performance is identified during the test by temporal characteristics of the movements of spatial translation, the stability of the vertical stance for 3.5 min, and the kinematic characteristics of walking - non-complicated and complicated. The following characteristics are identified as physiological characteristics of the test: a) orthostatic tolerance during stand test, b) back muscle tone; c) vertical stability - by characteristics of the correction responses to unexpected perturbations of the vertical stance, and d) support reactions during the performance of the full battery of tests. To date, a pilot version of the "Field Test" has been conducted with participation from four Russian cosmonauts. The results of studies have shown that in 1 - 5 hours after landing the functional abilities of the cosmonauts are considerably reduced. All the test movements at this time are considerably slower than preflight and the more complicated the task is, the greater significant reduction in orthostatic tolerance: during the first test that occurs 1 - 5 hours after landing. two of four cosmonauts declined to continue the task after the orthostatic test

  5. Very Long-term Outcomes and Predictors of Percutaneous Coronary Intervention with Drug-eluting Stents Versus Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting for Patients with Unprotected Left Main Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xian-Peng; Wu, Chang-Yan; Ren, Xue-Jun; Yuan, Fei; Song, Xian-Tao; Luo, Ya-Wei; He, Ji-Qiang; Gao, Yue-Chun; Huang, Fang-Jiong; Gu, Cheng-Xiong; Sun, Li-Zhong; Lyu, Shu-Zheng; Chen, Fang

    2016-01-01

    Background: There are limited data on longer-term outcomes (>5 years) for patients with unprotected left main coronary artery (ULMCA) disease who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in the drug-eluting stents (DES) era. This study aimed at comparing the long-term (>5 years) outcomes of patients with ULMCA disease underwent PCI with DES and coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and the predictors of adverse events. Methods: All consecutive patients with ULMCA disease treated with DES implantation versus CABG in our center, between January 2003 and July 2009, were screened for analyzing. A propensity score analysis was carried out to adjust for potential confounding between the two groups. Results: Nine hundred and twenty-two patients with ULMCA disease were enrolled for the analyses (DES = 465 vs. CABG = 457). During the median follow-up of 7.1 years (interquartile range 5.3–8.2 years), no difference was found between PCI and CABG in the occurrence of death (P = 0.282) and the composite endpoint of cardiac death, myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke (P = 0.294). Rates of major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events were significantly higher in the PCI group (P = 0.014) in large part because of the significantly higher rate of repeat revascularization (P < 0.001). PCI was correlated with the lower occurrence of stroke (P = 0.004). Multivariate analysis showed ejection fraction (EF) (P = 0.012), creatinine (P = 0.016), and prior stroke (P = 0.031) were independent predictors of the composite endpoint of cardiac death, MI, and stroke in the DES group, while age (P = 0.026) and EF (P = 0.002) were independent predictors in the CABG group. Conclusions: During a median follow-up of 7.1 years, there was no difference in the rate of death between PCI with DES implantation and CABG in ULMCA lesions in the patient cohort. CABG group was observed to have significantly lower rates of repeat revascularization but higher stroke rates compared with PCI. EF

  6. The Long Term Agroecosystem Research Network - Shared research strategy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture faces tremendous challenges in meeting multiple societal goals, including a safe and plentiful food supply; climate change adaptation and mitigation; supplying sources of bioenergy; improving water, air, and soil quality; and maintaining biodiversity. The Long Term Agroecosystem Research...

  7. Reach Out to Enhance Wellness in Older Cancer Survivors (RENEW): Design, Methods and Recruitment Challenges of a Home-based Exercise and Diet Intervention to Improve Physical Function among Long-term Survivors of Breast, Prostate, and Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Denise Clutter; Morey, Miriam C.; Sloane, Richard; Stull, Valeda; Cohen, Harvey Jay; Peterson, Bercedis; Pieper, Carl; Hartman, Terryl J.; Miller, Paige E.; Mitchell, Diane C.; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy

    2009-01-01

    Objective Cure rates for cancer are increasing, especially for breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer. Despite positive trends in survivorship, a cancer diagnosis can trigger accelerated functional decline that can threaten independence, reduce quality-of-life and increase health care costs, especially among the elderly who comprise the majority of survivors. Lifestyle interventions may hold promise in reorienting functional decline in older cancer survivors, but few studies have been conducted. Method We describe the design and methods of a randomized controlled trial, RENEW (Reach out to ENhancE Wellness), that tests whether a home-based multi-behavior intervention focused on exercise, and including a low-saturated fat, plant-based diet, would improve physical functioning among 641 older, long-term (≥5 years post-diagnosis) survivors of breast, prostate, or colorectal cancer. Challenges to recruitment are examined. Results 20,015 cases were approached, and screened using a two-step screening process to assure eligibility. This population of long-term, elderly cancer survivors had lower rates of response (∼11%) and higher rates of ineligibility (∼70%) than our previous intervention studies conducted on adults with newly diagnosed cancer. Significantly higher response rates were noted among survivors who were white, younger, and more proximal to diagnosis and breast cancer survivors (p-values < 0.001). Conclusions Older cancer survivors represent a vulnerable population for whom lifestyle interventions may hold promise. RENEW may provide guidance in allocating limited resources in order to maximize recruitment efforts aimed at this needy, but hard-to-reach population. PMID:19117329

  8. [Long-term survival after severe trauma].

    PubMed

    Mutschler, W; Mutschler, M; Graw, M; Lefering, R

    2016-07-01

    Long-term survival after severe trauma is rarely addressed in German trauma journals although knowledge of life expectancy and identification of factors contributing to increased mortality are important for lifetime care management, development of service models, and targeting health promotion and prevention interventions. As reliable data in Germany are lacking, we compiled data mainly from the USA and Australia to describe life expectancy, risk factors, and predictors of outcome in patients experiencing traumatic spinal cord injury, traumatic brain injury, and polytrauma. Two years after trauma, life expectancy in all three categories was significantly lower than that of the general population. It depends strongly on severity of disability, age, and gender and is quantifiable. Whereas improvements in medical care have led to a marked decline in short-term mortality, surprisingly long-term survival in severe trauma has not changed over the past 30 years. Therefore, there is need to intensify long-term trauma patient care and to find new strategies to limit primary damage. PMID:27342106

  9. Long-Term Care Policy: Singapore's Experience.

    PubMed

    Chin, Chee Wei Winston; Phua, Kai-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Singapore, like many developed countries, is facing the challenge of a rapidly aging population and the increasing need to provide long-term care (LTC) services for elderly in the community. The Singapore government's philosophy on care for the elderly is that the family should be the first line of support, and it has relied on voluntary welfare organizations (VWOs) or charities for the bulk of LTC service provision. For LTC financing, it has emphasized the principles of co-payment and targeting of state support to the low-income population through means-tested government subsidies. It has also instituted ElderShield, a national severe disability insurance scheme. This paper discusses some of the challenges facing LTC policy in Singapore, particularly the presence of perverse financial incentives for hospitalization, the pitfalls of over-reliance on VWOs, and the challenges facing informal family caregivers. It discusses the role of private LTC insurance in LTC financing, bearing in mind demand- and supply-side failures that have plagued the private LTC insurance market. It suggests the need for more standardized needs assessment and portable LTC benefits, with reference to the Japanese Long-Term Care Insurance program, and also discusses the need to provide more support to informal family caregivers. PMID:26808468

  10. Long-term consequences of anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Meczekalski, Blazej; Podfigurna-Stopa, Agnieszka; Katulski, Krzysztof

    2013-07-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a psychiatric disorder that occurs mainly in female adolescents and young women. The obsessive fear of weight gain, critically limited food intake and neuroendocrine aberrations characteristic of AN have both short- and long-term consequences for the reproductive, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and skeletal systems. Neuroendocrine changes include impairment of gonadotropin releasing-hormone (GnRH) pulsatile secretion and changes in neuropeptide activity at the hypothalamic level, which cause profound hypoestrogenism. AN is related to a decrease in bone mass density, which can lead to osteopenia and osteoporosis and a significant increase in fracture risk in later life. Rates of birth complications and low birth weight may be higher in women with previous AN. The condition is associated with fertility problems, unplanned pregnancies and generally negative attitudes to pregnancy. During pregnancy, women with the condition have higher rates of hyperemesis gravidarum, anaemia and obstetric complications, as well as impaired weight gain and compromised intrauterine foetal growth. It is reported that 80% of AN patients are affected by a cardiac complications such as sinus bradycardia, a prolonged QT interval on electrocardiography, arrythmias, myocardial mass modification and hypotension. A decrease in bone mineral density (BMD) is one of the most important medical consequences of AN. Reduced BMD may subsequently lead to a three- to seven-fold increased risk of spontaneous fractures. Untreated AN is associated with a significant increase in the risk of death. Better detection and sophisticated therapy should prevent the long-term consequences of this disorder. The aims of treatment are not only recovery but also prophylaxis and relief of the long-term effects of this disorder. Further investigations of the long-term disease risk are needed. PMID:23706279

  11. NICE guidance on long-term sickness and incapacity.

    PubMed

    Gabbay, Mark; Taylor, Lorraine; Sheppard, Linda; Hillage, Jim; Bambra, Clare; Ford, Fiona; Preece, Richard; Taske, Nichole; Kelly, Michael P

    2011-03-01

    Long-term sickness absence and incapacity benefits (disability pension) rates have increased across industrialised countries. Effective measures are needed to support return to work. The recommendations of this guidance were informed by the most appropriate available evidence of effectiveness and cost-effectiveness. Public health evidence was provided by research using a variety of study designs that attempted to determine the outcome of a particular intervention by evaluating status before and after the intervention had been effected, and was not limited to randomised control trials. Where the evidence base was depleted or underdeveloped, expert witnesses were called to give their opinion on the best available evidence and emerging interventions. The process enabled challenge and contestability from stakeholder groups at different points as the guidance was developed. Forty-five heterogeneous studies were included in the review of interventions to reduce long-term sickness absence and transitions from short-term to long-term absence (mainly covering the former and also mainly examining musculoskeletal conditions). The analysis of evidence was restricted to descriptive synthesis. Three general themes emerged from an analysis of the studies that were more likely to report positive results: early interventions; multidisciplinary approaches; and interventions with a workplace component. Two further reviews were undertaken, one on interventions to reduce the re-occurrence of sickness absence, which identified seven studies on lower back pain, and concluded that early intervention and direct workplace input are important factors. The final evidence review focused on six studies of interventions for those in receipt of incapacity benefit. The evidence was that work-focused interviews coupled with access to tailored support are effective and cost-effective interventions. Practitioners should consider the impact of interventions and management options on work ability for

  12. NICE guidance on long-term sickness and incapacity

    PubMed Central

    Gabbay, Mark; Taylor, Lorraine; Sheppard, Linda; Hillage, Jim; Bambra, Clare; Ford, Fiona; Preece, Richard; Taske, Nichole; Kelly, Michael P

    2011-01-01

    Long-term sickness absence and incapacity benefits (disability pension) rates have increased across industrialised countries. Effective measures are needed to support return to work. The recommendations of this guidance were informed by the most appropriate available evidence of effectiveness and cost-effectiveness. Public health evidence was provided by research using a variety of study designs that attempted to determine the outcome of a particular intervention by evaluating status before and after the intervention had been effected, and was not limited to randomised control trials. Where the evidence base was depleted or underdeveloped, expert witnesses were called to give their opinion on the best available evidence and emerging interventions. The process enabled challenge and contestability from stakeholder groups at different points as the guidance was developed. Forty-five heterogeneous studies were included in the review of interventions to reduce long-term sickness absence and transitions from short-term to long-term absence (mainly covering the former and also mainly examining musculoskeletal conditions). The analysis of evidence was restricted to descriptive synthesis. Three general themes emerged from an analysis of the studies that were more likely to report positive results: early interventions; multidisciplinary approaches; and interventions with a workplace component. Two further reviews were undertaken, one on interventions to reduce the re-occurrence of sickness absence, which identified seven studies on lower back pain, and concluded that early intervention and direct workplace input are important factors. The final evidence review focused on six studies of interventions for those in receipt of incapacity benefit. The evidence was that work-focused interviews coupled with access to tailored support are effective and cost-effective interventions. Practitioners should consider the impact of interventions and management options on work ability for

  13. [Developing the core competencies of long-term care professionals].

    PubMed

    Chen, Huey-Tzy; Lee, Kuang-Ting

    2012-12-01

    Longer average life expectancies and an ageing society have made long-term care an urgent and important issue in Taiwan. Although the implementation of Long-Term Care Ten-year Project four years ago has begun showing success in terms of assessing Taiwan's needs in terms of long-term care services and resources, there has been little forward progress in terms of training, recruiting and maintaining more competent professionals in the long-term care sector. This paper explores the current state of long-term care competency in Taiwan and educational strategies in place to improve the competency of long-term care professionals. Results indicate that the term geriatric competency embraces sub-competencies in direct care, communication, assessment, teamwork, cultural sensitivities and career care competencies. The term long-term care competency embraces the sub-competencies of supervision, management, information technology, resource management, and organizational skill. As a main contributor to effective long-term care, the nursing profession must employ effective strategies to develop competency-based education. Also, the profession must have an adequate supply of competent manpower to effectively respond to Taiwan's aging society. PMID:23212250

  14. Influenza in long-term care facilities: preventable, detectable, treatable.

    PubMed

    Mossad, Sherif B

    2009-09-01

    Influenza in long-term care facilities is an ever more challenging problem. Vaccination of residents and health care workers is the most important preventive measure. Although vaccine efficacy has been questioned, the preponderance of data favors vaccination. Antiviral resistance complicates postexposure chemoprophylaxis and treatment. Factors that limit the choice of antiviral agents in this patient population include limited vaccine supplies and impaired dexterity and confusion in long-term care residents. PMID:19726556

  15. Stapedectomy - long-term report.

    PubMed

    Shea, J J

    1982-01-01

    The long-term results with large fenestra stapedectomy with vein graft and Teflon piston are compared with results with the small fenestra stapedectomy with teflon piston directly into the vestibule. There were 1,943 operations in the former group and 2,155 in the latter when compared in 1970. One hundred consecutive patients from the beginning of each group with follow-up to present were compared. Results were generally the same with no great change in 15 and 20 years as compared to those at 5 years. The complication of perilymph fistula was caused by creating an opening in the footplate much larger than the prosthesis and was eliminated by interposing a living oval window seal if the opening was much larger than the prosthesis and a flap of lining membrane from the promontory when it was not. Other factors that influence a good result are discussed, including the type and the diameter of the piston used, the type of living oval window seal and the method of attachment to the incus. The small fenestra operation was found to be superior to the large, not only for the hearing gain achieved, but the case of performance and the freedom from complications due to migration of the prosthesis and/or the oval window seal. At present we have done about all that can be done for the conductive components. What remains is the sensorineural component which our studies indicate may be due to an autoimmune response. PMID:6897157

  16. Long Term Surface Salinity Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitt, Raymond W.; Brown, Neil L.

    2005-01-01

    Our long-term goal is to establish a reliable system for monitoring surface salinity around the global ocean. Salinity is a strong indicator of the freshwater cycle and has a great influence on upper ocean stratification. Global salinity measurements have potential to improve climate forecasts if an observation system can be developed. This project is developing a new internal field conductivity cell that can be protected from biological fouling for two years. Combined with a temperature sensor, this foul-proof cell can be deployed widely on surface drifters. A reliable in-situ network of surface salinity sensors will be an important adjunct to the salinity sensing satellite AQUARIUS to be deployed by NASA in 2009. A new internal-field conductivity cell has been developed by N Brown, along with new electronics. This sensor system has been combined with a temperature sensor to make a conductivity - temperature (UT) sensor suitable for deployment on drifters. The basic sensor concepts have been proven on a high resolution CTD. A simpler (lower cost) circuit has been built for this application. A protection mechanism for the conductivity cell that includes antifouling protection has also been designed and built. Mr. A.Walsh of our commercial partner E-Paint has designed and delivered time-release formulations of antifoulants for our application. Mr. G. Williams of partner Clearwater Instrumentation advised on power and communication issues and supplied surface drifters for testing.

  17. Long term perfusion system supporting adipogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Abbott, Rosalyn D.; Raja, Waseem K.; Wang, Rebecca Y.; Stinson, Jordan A.; Glettig, Dean L.; Burke, Kelly A.; Kaplan, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Adipose tissue engineered models are needed to enhance our understanding of disease mechanisms and for soft tissue regenerative strategies. Perfusion systems generate more physiologically relevant and sustainable adipose tissue models, however adipocytes have unique properties that make culturing them in a perfusion environment challenging. In this paper we describe the methods involved in the development of two perfusion culture systems (2D and 3D) to test their applicability for long term in vitro adipogenic cultures. It was hypothesized that a silk protein biomaterial scaffold would provide a 3D framework, in combination with perfusion flow, to generate a more physiologically relevant sustainable adipose tissue engineered model than 2D cell culture. Consistent with other studies evaluating 2D and 3D culture systems for adipogenesis we found that both systems successfully model adipogensis, however 3D culture systems were more robust, providing the mechanical structure required to contain the large, fragile adipocytes that were lost in 2D perfused culture systems. 3D perfusion also stimulated greater lipogenesis and lipolysis and resulted in decreased secretion of LDH compared to 2D perfusion. Regardless of culture configuration (2D or 3D) greater glycerol was secreted with the increased nutritional supply provided by perfusion of fresh media. These results are promising for adipose tissue engineering applications including long term cultures for studying disease mechanisms and regenerative approaches, where both acute (days to weeks) and chronic (weeks to months) cultivation are critical for useful insight. PMID:25843606

  18. Long term thermoelectric module testing system.

    PubMed

    D'Angelo, Jonathan; Hogan, Timothy

    2009-10-01

    Thermoelectric generators can be used for converting waste heat into electric power. Significant interest in developing new materials in recent years has led to the discovery of several promising thermoelectrics, however, there can be considerable challenges in developing the materials into working devices. Testing and feedback is needed at each step to gain valuable information for identification of difficulties, quality of the materials and modules, repeatability in fabrication, and longevity of the devices. This paper describes a long-term module testing system for monitoring the output power of a module over extended testing times. To evaluate the system, we have tested commercially available thermoelectric modules over a one month time period. PMID:19895086

  19. Endoscopic Management of Attic Cholesteatoma: Long-Term Results.

    PubMed

    Alicandri-Ciufelli, Matteo; Marchioni, Daniele; Kakehata, Seiji; Presutti, Livio; Villari, Domenico

    2016-10-01

    The main application of endoscopic surgery relies on the middle ear cholesteatoma surgical treatment, although for a definitive validation and acceptance by scientific community, long-term results are needed about recurrent and residual rates of the pathology. The aim of the present paper was to analyze the single institution experience with the long-term results of surgical treatment of attic cholesteatoma. PMID:27565391

  20. Main results of the 4th International PIV Challenge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kähler, Christian J.; Astarita, Tommaso; Vlachos, Pavlos P.; Sakakibara, Jun; Hain, Rainer; Discetti, Stefano; La Foy, Roderick; Cierpka, Christian

    2016-06-01

    In the last decade, worldwide PIV development efforts have resulted in significant improvements in terms of accuracy, resolution, dynamic range and extension to higher dimensions. To assess the achievements and to guide future development efforts, an International PIV Challenge was performed in Lisbon (Portugal) on July 5, 2014. Twenty leading participants, including the major system providers, i.e., Dantec (Denmark), LaVision (Germany), MicroVec (China), PIVTEC (Germany), TSI (USA), have analyzed 5 cases. The cases and analysis explore challenges specific to 2D microscopic PIV (case A), 2D time-resolved PIV (case B), 3D tomographic PIV (cases C and D) and stereoscopic PIV (case E). During the event, 2D macroscopic PIV images (case F) were provided to all 80 attendees of the workshop in Lisbon, with the aim to assess the impact of the user's experience on the evaluation result. This paper describes the cases and specific algorithms and evaluation parameters applied by the participants and reviews the main results. For future analysis and comparison, the full image database will be accessible at http://www.pivChallenge.org Challenge.org" TargetType="URL"/> .

  1. Managing Records for the Long Term - 12363

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, John V.; Gueretta, Jeanie

    2012-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for managing vast amounts of information documenting historical and current operations. This information is critical to the operations of the DOE Office of Legacy Management. Managing legacy records and information is challenging in terms of accessibility and changing technology. The Office of Legacy Management is meeting these challenges by making records and information management an organizational priority. The Office of Legacy Management mission is to manage DOE post-closure responsibilities at former Cold War weapons sites to ensure the future protection of human health and the environment. These responsibilities include environmental stewardship and long-term preservation and management of operational and environmental cleanup records associated with each site. A primary organizational goal for the Office of Legacy Management is to 'Preserve, Protect, and Share Records and Information'. Managing records for long-term preservation is an important responsibility. Adequate and dedicated resources and management support are required to perform this responsibility successfully. Records tell the story of an organization and may be required to defend an organization in court, provide historical information, identify lessons learned, or provide valuable information for researchers. Loss of records or the inability to retrieve records because of poor records management processes can have serious consequences and even lead to an organisation's downfall. Organizations must invest time and resources to establish a good records management program because of its significance to the organization as a whole. The Office of Legacy Management will continue to research and apply innovative ways of doing business to ensure that the organization stays at the forefront of effective records and information management. DOE is committed to preserving records that document our nation's Cold War legacy, and the Office of Legacy

  2. Long-term solar-terrestrial observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The results of an 18-month study of the requirements for long-term monitoring and archiving of solar-terrestrial data is presented. The value of long-term solar-terrestrial observations is discussed together with parameters, associated measurements, and observational problem areas in each of the solar-terrestrial links (the sun, the interplanetary medium, the magnetosphere, and the thermosphere-ionosphere). Some recommendations are offered for coordinated planning for long-term solar-terrestrial observations.

  3. Long-term preservation of Anammox bacteria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Deposit of useful microorganisms in culture collections requires long-term preservation and successful reactivation techniques. The goal of this study was to develop a simple preservation protocol for the long-term storage and reactivation of the anammox biomass. To achieve this, anammox biomass w...

  4. Virtual Models of Long-Term Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phenice, Lillian A.; Griffore, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Nursing homes, assisted living facilities and home-care organizations, use web sites to describe their services to potential consumers. This virtual ethnographic study developed models representing how potential consumers may understand this information using data from web sites of 69 long-term-care providers. The content of long-term-care web…

  5. Paying for long-term care.

    PubMed Central

    Estes, C L; Bodenheimer, T

    1994-01-01

    Everyone agrees that insurance for long-term care is inadequate in the United States. Disagreement exists, however, on whether such insurance should be provided through the private or public sector. Private insurance generally uses the experience-rating principle that persons with higher risk of illness are charged higher premiums. For private insurance for long-term care, this principle creates a dilemma. Most policies will be purchased by the elderly; yet, because the elderly have a high risk of needing long-term care, only about 20% of them can afford the cost of premiums. A public-private partnership by which the government partially subsidizes private long-term-care insurance is unlikely to resolve this dilemma. Only a social insurance program for long-term care can provide universal, affordable, and equitable coverage. PMID:8128712

  6. Effects of Acute Exercise on Long-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labban, Jeffrey D.; Etnier, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we tested the effect of acute exercise on long-term memory, specifically the timing of exercise relative to the memory challenge. We assessed memory via paragraph recall, in which participants listened to two paragraphs (exposure) and recounted them following a 35-min delay. Participants (n = 48) were randomly assigned to one of…

  7. The Jornada Basin long term ecological research program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chihuahuan Desert landscapes exemplify the ecological conditions, vulnerability, and management challenges in arid and semi-arid regions around the world. The goal of the Jornada Basin Long Term Ecological Research program (JRN LTER) established in 1982 is to understand and quantify the key factors ...

  8. Long-term preservation of native arteriovenous dialysis fistulas.

    PubMed

    Mallios, Alexandros; Costanzo, Alessandro; Boura, Benoit; Combes, Myriam; Alomran, Faris; de Blic, Romain; Jennings, William C

    2014-04-01

    Preservation of native arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) in the long term can be technically challenging. Various anatomic or functional problems can occur and multiple open and/or endovascular interventions may be required for extended preservation of native accesses. In this report, we review vascular access maintenance in a 72-year-old woman during a 5-year period. Multiple complications of her native radiocephalic AVF included recurrent occlusions, a central venous stent fracture and symptomatic venous outflow stenosis. We present this case to illustrate the various techniques and combination of approaches used in the long-term preservation of a native AVF. PMID:24360937

  9. Alpine Soils as long-term Bioindicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nestroy, O.

    2009-04-01

    Alpine soils as long-term bioindicators The introductory words concern the definitions and peculiarities of alpine soils and their position in the Austrian Soil Classification 2000 in comparison with the World Reference Base for Soil Resources 2006. The important parameters for genesis and threats for these soils in steep and high positions are discussed. It must be emphasized that the main threats are the very different kinds of erosion e.g. by water, wind and snow, and also by skiing (end of season) as well as and mountain-biking (mainly summer-sport). Due the very slow regeneration and - in this connection - due to the very slow changes of the soil entities, these soils give an utmost importance as a long-time bioindicator. With regard to the climate change one can assume an increase in the content of organic matter on site, but also an increase of erosion and mass movement on the other site, e. g. in kind of "plaiken" (soil slide) as result of an increasing intensity of rainfall. It lies partly in our hands to diminish the number and the intensity of the threats, we can influence the soil development, but the result to reach a new ecological equilibrium is very long - in case of alpine soil more than two generations.

  10. Long-term predictions using natural analogues

    SciTech Connect

    Ewing, R.C.

    1995-09-01

    One of the unique and scientifically most challenging aspects of nuclear waste isolation is the extrapolation of short-term laboratory data (hours to years) to the long time periods (10{sup 3}-10{sup 5} years) required by regulatory agencies for performance assessment. The direct validation of these extrapolations is not possible, but methods must be developed to demonstrate compliance with government regulations and to satisfy the lay public that there is a demonstrable and reasonable basis for accepting the long-term extrapolations. Natural systems (e.g., {open_quotes}natural analogues{close_quotes}) provide perhaps the only means of partial {open_quotes}validation,{close_quotes} as well as data that may be used directly in the models that are used in the extrapolation. Natural systems provide data on very large spatial (nm to km) and temporal (10{sup 3}-10{sup 8} years) scales and in highly complex terranes in which unknown synergisms may affect radionuclide migration. This paper reviews the application (and most importantly, the limitations) of data from natural analogue systems to the {open_quotes}validation{close_quotes} of performance assessments.

  11. Short- and long-term (trophic) purinergic signalling.

    PubMed

    Burnstock, Geoffrey

    2016-08-01

    There is long-term (trophic) purinergic signalling involving cell proliferation, differentiation, motility and death in the development and regeneration of most systems of the body, in addition to fast purinergic signalling in neurotransmission, neuromodulation and secretion. It is not always easy to distinguish between short- and long-term signalling. For example, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) can sometimes act as a short-term trigger for long-term trophic events that become evident days or even weeks after the original challenge. Examples of short-term purinergic signalling during sympathetic, parasympathetic and enteric neuromuscular transmission and in synaptic transmission in ganglia and in the central nervous system are described, as well as in neuromodulation and secretion. Long-term trophic signalling is described in the immune/defence system, stratified epithelia in visceral organs and skin, embryological development, bone formation and resorption and in cancer. It is likely that the increase in intracellular Ca(2+) in response to both P2X and P2Y purinoceptor activation participates in many short- and long-term physiological effects.This article is part of the themed issue 'Evolution brings Ca(2+) and ATP together to control life and death'. PMID:27377731

  12. An European framework for the long term preservation of EO data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forcada, E.; Albani, M.; Beruti, V.

    2009-04-01

    The need for accessing historical Earth Observation (EO) data series strongly increased in the last ten years, mainly for long term science and environmental monitoring applications. This trend is likely to increase even more in the future in particular for the growing interest on global change monitoring that requires data time-series spanning 20 years and more, and for the need to support the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Content of EO data archives is extending from a few years to decades and their scientific value is continuously increasing hence is well recognized the need to preserve them without time limitation and to keep the archived EO data well accessible and exploitable as they constitute a humankind asset. The large amount of new Earth Observation missions upcoming in the next years will moreover lead to a major increase of EO data volumes. This fact, together with the increased demands from the scientific user community, marks a challenge for Earth Observation satellite operators, Space Agencies and EO data providers regarding coherent data preservation and optimum availability and accessibility of the different data products. Traditionally in Europe, there has been poor cooperation in this field with no common approach for long term preservation and access to EO space data even if cooperation and sharing are key aspects to be pursued for the benefit of the user community. Single organizations have difficulties to afford data preservation in the long term that calls for the need of optimising costs and efforts, identifying commonalities. In 2006, the European Space Agency (ESA) initiated a coordination action to share among all the European (and Canadian) stakeholders a common approach to the long term preservation of Earth Observation data. During 2007, the Agency started consultations with its Member States presenting an EO Long Term Data Preservation (LTDP) strategy targeting the preservation of all European

  13. Advanced nuclear fuel cycles - Main challenges and strategic choices

    SciTech Connect

    Le Biez, V.; Machiels, A.; Sowder, A.

    2013-07-01

    A graphical conceptual model of the uranium fuel cycles has been developed to capture the present, anticipated, and potential (future) nuclear fuel cycle elements. The once-through cycle and plutonium recycle in fast reactors represent two basic approaches that bound classical options for nuclear fuel cycles. Chief among these other options are mono-recycling of plutonium in thermal reactors and recycling of minor actinides in fast reactors. Mono-recycling of plutonium in thermal reactors offers modest savings in natural uranium, provides an alternative approach for present-day interim management of used fuel, and offers a potential bridging technology to development and deployment of future fuel cycles. In addition to breeder reactors' obvious fuel sustainability advantages, recycling of minor actinides in fast reactors offers an attractive concept for long-term management of the wastes, but its ultimate value is uncertain in view of the added complexity in doing so,. Ultimately, there are no simple choices for nuclear fuel cycle options, as the selection of a fuel cycle option must reflect strategic criteria and priorities that vary with national policy and market perspectives. For example, fuel cycle decision-making driven primarily by national strategic interests will likely favor energy security or proliferation resistance issues, whereas decisions driven primarily by commercial or market influences will focus on economic competitiveness.

  14. Mental Health in Long Term Care Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shore, Herbert

    1978-01-01

    There are many ways in which long-term care facilities attempt to cope with the mental health problems of the elderly. The author reviews five factors crucial to effective care for the aged in these facilities. (Author/RK)

  15. Asthma Medicines: Long-Term Control

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Asthma Medicines: Long-term Control Page Content Article Body Corticosteroids Synthetic ... and sprinkle forms are available for young children. Long-Acting Beta2-Agonists Medications in the beta 2 - ...

  16. Long Term Effects of Food Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... develop chronic arthritis. Brain and nerve damage A Listeria infection can lead to meningitis, an inflammation of ... brain. If a newborn infant is infected with Listeria , long-term consequences may include mental retardation, seizures, ...

  17. CO2 and CH4 fluxes along a latitudinal transect in Northern Alaska using eddy covariance technique in challenging conditions: first results of a long term experiment in the Arctic tundra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreaux, V.; Oechel, W. C.; Losacco, S.; McEwing, R.; Murphy, P.; Zona, D.

    2013-12-01

    the first year of a new long-term study that includes the results of the upgrading of 5 sites in Northern Alaska across a latitudinal transect (Barrow, Atqasuk, and Ivotuk) and across a moisture gradient (Barrow) in the Arctic. These sites are equipped with different eddy covariance systems to follow CO2 and CH4 fluxes, combined with a full data set of meteorological and soil measurements. The study summarizes a full analysis of energy balance, CO2 and CH4 fluxes correlated to changes in meteorological and soil conditions on the 5 sites of the transect. Based on the results available, CH4 fluxes averaged approximatively 8 mgC m-2 d-1 in the north (Barrow) to 13 mgC m-2 d-1 in the south (Ivotuk). In between these two sites, a daily value of about 20 mgC m-2 d-1 in the wetter, vegetated drained lake basin was observed. Surprisingly, from our preliminary data investigation, the southernmost and warmer site (Ivotuk) did not present the highest CH4 emission, which instead was the highest in the 200 km north site (Atqasuk) with a mean daily value of 25 mgC m-2 d-1. The importance of fall season CH4 emissions will also be presented and their importance relative to summertime emissions.

  18. [Long term adherence to HAART in Senegal].

    PubMed

    Bastard, M; Fall, M Basty Koita

    2014-10-01

    Adherence is one of the main predictors of antiretroviral treatment success. A governmental initiative was launched in 1998 for HIV-infected patients in Senegal to provide access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Adherence measurements, defined as pills taken/pills prescribed, were assessed between November 1999 and June 2010 using a pill count along with a questionnaire for 330 patients. Predictors of adherence and identification of adherence trajectories were explored through latent class mixed model. We also performed a survival analysis using Cox proportional hazard model. Three adherence behaviours were revealed as well as a better adherence for women. A third of patients had a high adherence trajectory over time and a third had an intermediate one. Male gender and low adherence behaviour over time were independently associated with a higher mortality rate. This study shows that an overall good adherence can be obtained in the long term in Senegal, suggests a better adherence for women and points out a large subsample of patients with intermediate level of adherence behaviour who are at risk for developing resistance to antiretroviral drugs. PMID:24615434

  19. Leadership: the Winnipeg Community and Long-Term Care Authority.

    PubMed

    Suski, M; Hack, T; Heaman, M

    1999-01-01

    The Winnipeg Community and Long Term Care Authority (WCA) was established in 1998 under the Regional Health Authorities Act of the Province of Manitoba. The WCA's role is to provide for the successful integration of Winnipeg's community-based healthcare delivery services through its three main portfolios: Community Care and Public Health, Home Care and Mental Health, and Long Term Care and Specialized Services. The WCA is dedicated to building a quality health future for Winnipeg. Various initiatives undertaken in the pursuit of quality are described. PMID:10538544

  20. Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. Maine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

  1. [Long-term evolution and complications of eating disorders].

    PubMed

    Nicolas, Isabelle

    2008-01-31

    Eating disorders long-term evolution is good in 50% of cases, middle in 25% (recovery from eating disorders, but still psychological suffering) and bad in 25% of cases, with chronic eating disorders, anxious or depressive comorbid disorder, and bad consequences in social patients' life. Anorexia nervosa has a considerably worse long-term outcome than bulimia nervosa or binge eating disorders. Never the less, purging bulimia nervosa is often associated with other impulsive symptoms, such as addictions and suicide attempts. Chronic undernutrition leads to main long-term medical complications of eating disorders: linear growth in adolescents with anorexia nervosa, infertility, and osteoporosis. These complications need a specific medical follow up, at least once a year, added to the psychiatric and psychotherapist follow-up. PMID:18361276

  2. NAEP Trends: Main NAEP vs. Long-Term Trend

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaton, Albert E.; Chromy, James R.

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this research are to (a) compare the trend lines after some adjustments for level and scale only and determine if and how they differ; (b) describe the methodology of each assessment and identify similarities and differences; and (c) attempt to explain any observed differences based on comparable subsets or on special analysis.…

  3. Long-term object tracking combined offline with online learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Mengjie; Wei, Zhenzhong; Zhang, Guangjun

    2016-04-01

    We propose a simple yet effective method for long-term object tracking. Different from the traditional visual tracking method, which mainly depends on frame-to-frame correspondence, we combine high-level semantic information with low-level correspondences. Our framework is formulated in a confidence selection framework, which allows our system to recover from drift and partly deal with occlusion. To summarize, our algorithm can be roughly decomposed into an initialization stage and a tracking stage. In the initialization stage, an offline detector is trained to get the object appearance information at the category level, which is used for detecting the potential target and initializing the tracking stage. The tracking stage consists of three modules: the online tracking module, detection module, and decision module. A pretrained detector is used for maintaining drift of the online tracker, while the online tracker is used for filtering out false positive detections. A confidence selection mechanism is proposed to optimize the object location based on the online tracker and detection. If the target is lost, the pretrained detector is utilized to reinitialize the whole algorithm when the target is relocated. During experiments, we evaluate our method on several challenging video sequences, and it demonstrates huge improvement compared with detection and online tracking only.

  4. Long-term Multiwavelength Observations of Polars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santana, Joshua; Mason, Paul A.

    2016-06-01

    Polars are cataclysmic variables with the highest magnetic field strengths (10-250 MG). Matter is accreted after being funneled by the strong magnetic field of the white dwarf. We perform a meta-study of multi-wavelength data of polars. Many polars have been observed in surveys, such as SDSS, 2MASS, ROSAT, just to name a few. Some polars have now been detected by the JVLA, part of an expanding class of radio CVs. A large subset of polars have long-term optical light curves from CRTS and AAVSO. We suggest that the long term light curves of polars display a variety of signature behaviors and may be grouped accordingly. Additional characteristics such a binary period, magnetic field strengths, X-ray properties, and distance estimates are examined in context with long-term observations.

  5. Scenarios for long-term analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Wolbers, Stephen; /Fermilab

    2009-01-01

    Data Preservation and Long-Term Analysis of High Energy Physics (HEP) Experiments data is described and summarized in this talk. The summary covers information presented at the First Workshop on Data Preservation and Long-Term Analysis. Experiments representing e{sup +}e{sup -} collisions (LEP, B Factories and CLEO), ep collisions (H1 and ZEUS), p{bar p} collisions (CDF and D0) and others presented interesting information related to utilizing the large datasets collected over many years at these HEP facilities. Many questions and issues remain to be explored.

  6. Long-term Outcomes after Severe Shock

    PubMed Central

    Pratt, Cristina M.; Hirshberg, Eliotte L.; Jones, Jason P.; Kuttler, Kathryn G.; Lanspa, Michael J.; Wilson, Emily L.; Hopkins, Ramona O.; Brown, Samuel M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Severe shock is a life-threatening condition with very high short-term mortality. Whether the long-term outcomes among survivors of severe shock are similar to long-term outcomes of other critical illness survivors is unknown. We therefore sought to assess long-term survival and functional outcomes among 90-day survivors of severe shock and determine whether clinical predictors were associated with outcomes. Methods Seventy-six patients who were alive 90 days after severe shock (received ≥1 mcg/kg/min of norepinephrine equivalent) were eligible for the study. We measured three-year survival and long-term functional outcomes using the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey, the EuroQOL 5-D-3L, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Impact of Event Scale-Revised and an employment instrument. We also assessed the relationship between in-hospital predictors and long-term outcomes. Results The mean long-term survival was 5.1 years: 82% (62/76) of patients survived, of whom 49 were eligible for follow-up. Patients who died were older than patients who survived. Thirty-six patients completed a telephone interview a mean of five years after hospital admission. The patients’ Physical Functioning scores were below US population norms (p<0.001), whereas mental health scores were similar to population norms. Nineteen percent of the patients had symptoms of depression, 39% had symptoms of anxiety and 8% had symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. Thirty-six percent were disabled, and 17% were working full time. Conclusions Early survivors of severe shock had a high three-year survival rate. Patients’ long term physical and psychological outcomes were similar to those reported for cohorts of less severely ill ICU survivors. Anxiety and depression were relatively common, but only a few patients had symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. This study supports the observation that acute illness severity does not determine long-term

  7. Long-Term Monitoring Research Needs: A DOE Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, B.; Davis, C. B.

    2002-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Management is responsible for dealing with the nation's legacy of Cold War radioactive and hazardous waste and contamination. Major efforts are underway to deal with this legacy; these are expected to last up to decades and cost up to billions of dollars at some sites. At all sites, however, active remediation must eventually cease; if hazards then remain, the site must enter into a long-term stewardship mode. In this talk we discuss aspects of long-term monitoring pertinent to DOE sites, focusing on challenges to be faced, specific goals or targets to be met, and research needs to be addressed in order to enable DOE to meet its long-term stewardship obligations. DOE LTM research needs fall into three major categories: doing what we can do now much more efficiently; doing things we cannot do now; and proving the validity of our monitoring programs. Given the enormity of the DOE obligations, it will be highly desirable to develop much more efficient monitoring paradigms. Doing so will demand developing autonomous, remote monitoring networks of in situ sensors capable of replacing (or at least supplementing to a large extent) conventional groundwater and soil gas sampling and analysis programs. The challenges involved range from basic science (e.g., inventing in situ sensors for TCE that do not demand routine maintenance) to engineering (attaining superior reliability in data reporting in remote networks) to ergonomics (developing decent ways of selecting and presenting the "right" information from the monitoring network) to regulatory affairs (presenting convincing evidence that the more efficient systems actually provide superior monitoring). We explore these challenges in some detail, focusing on the "long" in long-term monitoring as it applies to DOE sites. Monitoring system performance validation and, ultimately, regulator and stakeholder acceptance of site closure and long-term stewardship plans depend

  8. Long Term Care Aide. Course Outline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilbee, Judy

    This course outline is intended to assist the instructor in the development of a curriculum for a long-term care aide program by specifying one component of the curriculum--the objectives. These objectives, or competencies expected as outcomes for student performance on completion of the program, describe the capabilities an individual must…

  9. Who Recommends Long-Term Care Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Robert L.; Bershadsky, Boris; Bershadsky, Julie

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Making good consumer decisions requires having good information. This study compared long-term-care recommendations among various types of health professionals. Design and Methods: We gave randomly varied scenarios to a convenience national sample of 211 professionals from varying disciplines and work locations. For each scenario, we…

  10. Long-term fixed income market structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grilli, Luca

    2004-02-01

    Long-term fixed income market securities present a strong positive correlation in daily returns. By using a metrical approach and considering “modified” time series, I show how it is possible to show a more complex structure which depends strictly on the maturity date.

  11. Professionalism in Long-Term Care Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubinski, Rosemary

    2006-01-01

    Speech-language pathologists who serve elders in a variety of long-term care settings have a variety of professional skills and responsibilities. Fundamental to quality service is knowledge of aging and communication changes and disorders associated with this process, institutional alternatives, and the changing nature of today's elders in…

  12. LONG TERM HYDROLOGICAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT (LTHIA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    LTHIA is a universal Urban Sprawl analysis tool that is available to all at no charge through the Internet. It estimates impacts on runoff, recharge and nonpoint source pollution resulting from past or proposed land use changes. It gives long-term average annual runoff for a lan...

  13. NATIONAL LONG TERM CARE SURVEY (NLTCS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    National Long Term Care Surveys (NLTCS) are surveys of the entire aged population with a particular emphasis on the functionally impaired. Longitudinal study of the health and well-being of elderly Americans. Information about the population of chronically disabled elderly person...

  14. Long-Term Memory and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossland, John

    2011-01-01

    The English National Curriculum Programmes of Study emphasise the importance of knowledge, understanding and skills, and teachers are well versed in structuring learning in those terms. Research outcomes into how long-term memory is stored and retrieved provide support for structuring learning in this way. Four further messages are added to the…

  15. Long-Term Stability of Social Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyyppa, Markku T.; Maki, Juhani; Alanen, Erkki; Impivaara, Olli; Aromaa, Arpo

    2008-01-01

    The long-term stability of social participation was investigated in a representative urban population of 415 men and 579 women who had taken part in the nationwide Mini-Finland Health Survey in the years 1978-1980 and were re-examined 20 years later. Stability was assessed by means of the following tracking coefficients: kappa, proportion of…

  16. Long Term Treatment Concepts and Proactive Therapy for Atopic Eczema

    PubMed Central

    Ehmann, Laura Maximiliane

    2012-01-01

    Atopic eczema, also known as atopic dermatitis, is a frequent, highly pruritic, chronic skin disease, which is typically running in flares. The traditional treatment mainly consists of the reactive application of topical anti-inflammatory agents such as topical corticosteroids and topical calcineurin inhibitors. The short term benefit of this approach is well known, but long term remission between flares is difficult to achieve. Therefore, innovative long-term treatment strategies targeting flare prevention and skin barrier stabilization are needed. We and others have shown that normal looking, non-lesional skin of atopic dermatitis patients is immunobiologially not normal but characterized by an invisible inflammation and barrier defect. This has led to the novel concept of proactive therapy, which is defined as long-term, low-dose intermittent application of anti-inflammatory therapy to the previously affected skin, together with an ongoing emollient treatment of unaffected skin. This review article describes the most important long-term treatment options for atopic dermatitis, which includes emollient therapy, the novel concept of proactive treatment, the different ultraviolet light modalities and a selection of systemic immunosuppressive drugs and biologics. Current trial data, licensed indications, off-label use and relevant side effects of the different treatment modalities are summarized. PMID:22879707

  17. Influence of Palea and Lemma Removal on Seed Viability in Long Term Storage of Paspalum spp.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the greatest challenges in managing a germplasm collection is the loss of seed viability during long term storage. Many factors influence viability in long term storage including seed condition at harvesting (ripeness, vigor), drying seed prior to storage, and storage conditions (temperature...

  18. [High content screening in chemical biology: overview and main challenges].

    PubMed

    Brodin, Priscille; DelNery, Elaine; Soleilhac, Emmanuelle

    2015-02-01

    The last two decades have seen the development of high content screening (HCS) methodology and its adaptation for the evaluation of small molecules as drug candidates or their use as chemical tools for research purpose. HCS was initially set-up for the understanding of the mechanism of action of compounds by testing them on cell based-assays for pharmacological and toxicological studies. Since the last decade, the use of HCS has been extended to academic research laboratories and this technology has become the starting point for numerous projects aiming at the identification of molecular targets and cellular pathways for a given disease on which novel type of drugs could act. This screening approach relies on image capture of fluorescently labeled cells therefore generating a large amount of data that must be handled by appropriate automated image analysis methods and storage instrumentation. These latter in addition to the integration and data sharing are current challenges that HCS must still tackle. PMID:25744266

  19. Long-Term Observations of Her X-1 with BATSE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, R. B.; Scott, D. M.; Finger, M. H.

    1991-01-01

    Pulsed emission from Her X-1 has been observed by BATSE during each Main High state throughout the CGRO (Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory) mission . This long observation set by a single instrument provides new information on long-term behavior of the Her X-1 system. The luminosity varies by more than a factor of 3 between different 35d cycles. Frequency and flux histories do not show a simple relationship between the source intensity and spin behavior, but do show that only spindown occurs when the source is in its lowest intensity state. Orbital analyses will be presented, including tests for consistency of the observed orbital epoch with the long-term ephemeris reported by (Deeter 1991). The intensity profile and onset times of cycles observed by both BATSE and the RXTE ASM (All Sky Monitor) will be compared. Behavior of the cycle start times versus source Main High peak intensity will be presented.

  20. Long-Term Adherence to Health Behavior Change

    PubMed Central

    Middleton, Kathryn R.; Anton, Stephen D.; Perri, Michal G.

    2016-01-01

    The utility of lifestyle-based health promotion interventions is directly impacted by participant adherence to prescribed behavior changes. Unfortunately, poor adherence to behaviors recommended in lifestyle interventions is widespread, particularly over the long-term; thus, the “adherence problem” represents a significant challenge to the effectiveness of these interventions. The current review provides an overview of the adherence problem and describes a theoretical framework through which the factors that impact adherence can be understood. To further understand the difficulties individuals face when adhering to health behavior changes, we focus our discussion on challenges associated with adherence to lifestyle behaviors recommended for weight loss and healthy weight management (i.e., reductions in dietary intake and increases in physical activity). We describe strategies that improve long-term adherence to health behaviors related to healthy weight management, including the provision of extended care, skills training, improving social support, and strategies specific to maintaining changes in dietary intake and physical activity. Finally, we discuss difficulties involved in implementing long-term weight management programs and suggest practical solutions for providers.

  1. Long term prediction and the SSC (Superconducting Super Collider)

    SciTech Connect

    Talman, R.

    1990-09-01

    Successful operation of the Superconducting Supercollider (SSC) will depend on the stable circulation of particles for tens of millions of turns around the rings, in the presence of small nonlinear deflecting fields. One design challenge is to set specifications for the maximum allowable field imperfections of this sort, consistent with the required. stability. Another challenge is to plan for the inclusion of field compensating elements that will ameliorate the effects of errors. The tools'' available for projecting the long term stability are theoretical, both analytic and numerical, and experimental. These aspects are reviewed. 19 refs.

  2. Long term mortality in burned children

    PubMed Central

    Stamboulian, Daniel; Lede, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Studies about risk factors for mortality in burn children are scarce and are even less in the follow up of this population across time. Usually, after complete event attendance, children are not follow-up as risk patients, burn injury affects all facets of life. Integration of professionals from different disciplines has enabled burn centers to develop collaborative methods of assessing the quality of care delivered to patients with burns. In this editorial we comment the paper of Duke et al. The authors highlight the importance of maintaining a long-term monitoring of children who suffered burns. The importance of this original study is to promote the reconsideration of clinical guides of long-term follow-up of burn patients. PMID:26835375

  3. Long term mortality in burned children.

    PubMed

    Rosanova, María Teresa; Stamboulian, Daniel; Lede, Roberto

    2015-07-01

    Studies about risk factors for mortality in burn children are scarce and are even less in the follow up of this population across time. Usually, after complete event attendance, children are not follow-up as risk patients, burn injury affects all facets of life. Integration of professionals from different disciplines has enabled burn centers to develop collaborative methods of assessing the quality of care delivered to patients with burns. In this editorial we comment the paper of Duke et al. The authors highlight the importance of maintaining a long-term monitoring of children who suffered burns. The importance of this original study is to promote the reconsideration of clinical guides of long-term follow-up of burn patients. PMID:26835375

  4. Long-term safety of retinoid therapy.

    PubMed

    Vahlquist, A

    1992-12-01

    The concern about long-term toxicity of oral synthetic retinoids has developed because many patients, especially those with genodermatoses, require lifelong therapy. Several organ systems are at risk, especially the hepatic, skeletal, and cardiovascular systems. Although acute hepatotoxicity is a rare side effect of etretinate and acitretin therapy, prospective studies have not demonstrated chronic liver toxicity. The frequency of bone changes induced by retinoids is difficult to estimate, because this adverse effect is usually asymptomatic and requires x-ray or scintigraphic examination for detection. Atherosclerosis develops in many patients who receive long-term retinoid therapy, but the extent to which the process is aggravated by drug-induced hyperlipidemia is not known. Many patients have now been treated with either etretinate or isotretinoin continuously for as many as 15 years and have not developed any signs of severe chronic toxicity. However, continued intense surveillance is recommended for patients expected to require lifelong therapy. PMID:1460122

  5. Long-term orbital lifetime predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreher, P. E.; Lyons, A. T.

    1990-10-01

    Long-term orbital lifetime predictions are analyzed. Predictions were made for three satellites: the Solar Max Mission (SMM), the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF), and the Pegasus Boiler Plate (BP). A technique is discussed for determining an appropriate ballistic coefficient to use in the lifetime prediction. The orbital decay rate should be monitored regularly. Ballistic coefficient updates should be done whenever there is a significant change in the actual decay rate or in the solar activity prediction.

  6. Long-term Variation of AGNs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, J. H.; Xie, G. Z.; Adam, G.; Copin, Y.; Lin, R. G.; Bai, J. M.; Quin, Y. P.

    In this paper we will present the long-term variation in the optical and the infrared bands for some selected AGNs. 1. Some new optical data observed by us have been presented for BL Lacertae (1995-1996) and OJ 287 (1994-1995), and new infrared data are presented for OJ 287 (Nov=2E 1995), which corresponds to the second optical peak (Sillanpaa et al. 1996; Takalo et al. 1996) and during last outburst. 2. For objects with long term observations, the Jurkevich's method has been used to analyses the long-term variation period. It is interesting that the reported periods of AGNs are of the similar value of about 10 years: 3C 345 11.4 years (Webb et al. 1988), 3C 120 15 years (Belokon et al. 1987; Hagen-Thorn et al. 1997), ON 231 13.6 years (Liu et al. 1995), OJ 287 12 years (Sillanpaa et al. 1988; Kidger et al. 1992), PKS 0735+178 14 years (Fan et al. 1997), NGC 4151 15 years (Fan et al. 1998a), BL Lacertae 14.0 years (Fan et al. 1998b). Is the mechanism for the long-term variation the same for different AGNs? 3. The DCF method has been adopted to analysis the variation correlation in the optical and infrared bands for BL Lac object OJ 287, the results show that these two bands are strongly correlated, which suggest that the emission mechanism in the two bands is the same. 4. For the optical and infrared bands, the maximum variations are correlated.

  7. Long-term home hemodialysis in children

    PubMed Central

    Borra, Sonia; Kaye, Michael

    1971-01-01

    Experience with chronic hemodialysis as a definitive form of therapy is described for six children aged 11 to 15 years at the onset. Duration on dialysis in the home has been between one and 4½ years. All patients are alive and rehabilitated without serious complications. It is concluded that although transplantation is the most desirable form of treatment for children, long-term hemodialysis is an alternative acceptable second choice. ImagesFIG. 2 PMID:5150193

  8. Challenges Faced by Maine School Districts in Providing High Quality Public Education. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silvernail, David L.; Linet, Sarah R.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to: (1) identify challenges faced by Maine school districts in providing high quality public education; (2) describe the magnitude of the challenges; and (3) identify areas where school districts were experiencing some success in meeting these challenges. The School Districts Challenge Survey was distributed online to…

  9. Titanium for long-term tritium storage

    SciTech Connect

    Heung, L.K.

    1994-12-01

    Due to the reduction of nuclear weapon stockpile, there will be an excess of tritium returned from the field. The excess tritium needs to be stored for future use, which might be several years away. A safe and cost effective means for long term storage of tritium is needed. Storing tritium in a solid metal tritide is preferred to storing tritium as a gas, because a metal tritide can store tritium in a compact form and the stored tritium will not be released until heat is applied to increase its temperature to several hundred degrees centigrade. Storing tritium as a tritide is safer and more cost effective than as a gas. Several candidate metal hydride materials have been evaluated for long term tritium storage. They include uranium, La-Ni-Al alloys, zirconium and titanium. The criteria used include material cost, radioactivity, stability to air, storage capacity, storage pressure, loading and unloading conditions, and helium retention. Titanium has the best combination of properties and is recommended for long term tritium storage.

  10. The Long-Term Conditions Questionnaire: conceptual framework and item development

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Michele; Potter, Caroline M; Kelly, Laura; Hunter, Cheryl; Gibbons, Elizabeth; Jenkinson, Crispin; Coulter, Angela; Forder, Julien; Towers, Ann-Marie; A’Court, Christine; Fitzpatrick, Ray

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To identify the main issues of importance when living with long-term conditions to refine a conceptual framework for informing the item development of a patient-reported outcome measure for long-term conditions. Materials and methods Semi-structured qualitative interviews (n=48) were conducted with people living with at least one long-term condition. Participants were recruited through primary care. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed by thematic analysis. The analysis served to refine the conceptual framework, based on reviews of the literature and stakeholder consultations, for developing candidate items for a new measure for long-term conditions. Results Three main organizing concepts were identified: impact of long-term conditions, experience of services and support, and self-care. The findings helped to refine a conceptual framework, leading to the development of 23 items that represent issues of importance in long-term conditions. The 23 candidate items formed the first draft of the measure, currently named the Long-Term Conditions Questionnaire. Conclusion The aim of this study was to refine the conceptual framework and develop items for a patient-reported outcome measure for long-term conditions, including single and multiple morbidities and physical and mental health conditions. Qualitative interviews identified the key themes for assessing outcomes in long-term conditions, and these underpinned the development of the initial draft of the measure. These initial items will undergo cognitive testing to refine the items prior to further validation in a survey. PMID:27621678

  11. GEWEX Contributions to Long Term Global Data Sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Oevelen, P.; Kummerow, C.; Schulz, J.

    2012-04-01

    The Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) as part of the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) has a long history in the support and development of long term global data sets for energy and water cycle research based upon primarily earth observation data. The main panel under GEWEX responsible for these data sets is the GEWEX Data and Assessments Panel (GDAP) formally well known as the GEWEX Radiation Panel (GRP). GDAP has as its primary goal to guide production and evaluation of long term, globally complete atmospheric and surface water and energy budget products, including radiation, clouds, aerosols, precipitation and surface turbulent fluxes. In this presentation an overview of the history and future of the various data sets produced under GDAP is given along with an outlook on the individual data sets as well as the Integrated Data set.

  12. On long-term ozone trends at Hohenpeissenberg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Claude, H.; Vandersee, W.; Wege, K.

    1994-01-01

    More than 2000 ozone soundings and a large number of Dobson observations have been performed since 1967 in a unique procedure. The achieved very homogeneous data sets were used to evaluate significant long-term trends both in the troposphere and the stratosphere. The trend amounts to about plus 2 percent per year in the troposphere and to about minus 0.5 percent per year in the stratosphere. Extremely low ozone records obtained during winter 1991/92 are discussed in the light of the long term series. The winter mean of the ozone column is the lowest one of the series. The ozone deficit occurred mainly in the lower stratosphere. One cause may be the Pinatubo cloud. Even compared with the extreme winter mean following the El Chichon eruption the ozone content was lower. Additionally ozone was reduced by dynamical effects due to unusual weather situations.

  13. Economic evaluation in long-term clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Hlatky, Mark A; Boothroyd, Derek B; Johnstone, Iain M

    2002-10-15

    Economic endpoints have been increasingly included in long-term clinical trials, but they pose several methodologic challenges, including how best to collect, describe, analyse and interpret medical cost data. Cost of care can be measured by converting billed charges, performing detailed micro-costing studies, or by measuring use of key resources and assigning cost weights to each resource. The latter method is most commonly used, with cost weights based either on empirical regression models or administratively determined reimbursement rates. In long-term studies, monetary units should be adjusted to reflect cost inflation and discounting. The temporal pattern of accumulating costs can be described using a modification of the Kaplan-Meier curve. Regression analyses to evaluate factors associated with cost are best performed on the log of costs due to their typically skewed distribution.Cost-effectiveness analysis attempts to measure the value of a new therapy by calculating the difference in cost between the new therapy and the standard therapy, divided by the difference in benefit between the new therapy and the standard therapy. The cost-effectiveness ratio based on the results of a randomized trial may change substantially with longer follow-up intervals, particularly for therapies that are initially expensive but eventually improve survival. A model that projects long-term patterns of cost and survival expected beyond the end of completed follow-up can provide an important perspective in the setting of limited trial duration. PMID:12325104

  14. The development of Korea's new long-term care service infrastructure and its results: focusing on the market-friendly policy used for expansion of the numbers of service providers and personal care workers.

    PubMed

    Chon, Yongho

    2013-01-01

    One of the main reasons for reforming long-term care systems is a deficient existing service infrastructure for the elderly. This article provides an overview of why and how the Korean government expanded long-term care infrastructure through the introduction of a new compulsory insurance system, with a particular focus on the market-friendly policies used to expand the infrastructure. Then, the positive results of the expansion of the long-term care infrastructure and the challenges that have emerged are examined. Finally, it is argued that the Korean government should actively implement a range of practical policies and interventions within the new system. PMID:23548145

  15. Long-term EARLINET dust observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mona, Lucia; Amiridis, Vassilis; Amodeo, Aldo; Binietoglou, Ioannis; D'Amico, Giuseppe; Schwarz, Anja; Papagiannopoulos, Nikolaos; Papayannis, Alexandros; Sicard, Michael; Comeron, Adolfo; Pappalardo, Gelsomina

    2015-04-01

    Systematic observations of Saharan dust events over Europe are performed from May 2000 by EARLINET, the European Aerosol Research LIdar NETwork. EARLINET is a coordinated network of stations that make use of advanced lidar methods for the vertical profiling of aerosols. The backbone of EARLINET network is a common schedule for performing the measurements and the quality assurance of instruments/data. Particular attention is paid to monitoring the Saharan dust intrusions over the European continent. The geographical distribution of the EARLINET stations is particularly appealing for the dust observation, with stations located all around the Mediterranean and in the center of the Mediterranean (Italian stations) where dust intrusions are frequent, and with several stations in the central Europe where dust penetrates occasionally. All aerosol backscatter and extinction profiles related to observations collected during these alerts are grouped in the devoted "Saharan dust" category of the EARLINET database. This category consists of about 4700 files (as of December 2013). Case studies involving several stations around Europe selected from this long-term database have been provided the opportunity to investigate dust modification processes during transport over the continent. More important, the long term EARLINET dust monitoring allows the investigation of the horizontal and vertical extent of dust outbreaks over Europe and the climatological analysis of dust optical intensive and extensive properties at continental scale. This long-term database is also a unique tool for a systematic comparison with dust model outputs and satellite-derived dust products. Because of the relevance for both dust modeling and satellite retrievals improvement, results about desert dust layers extensive properties as a function of season and source regions are investigated and will be presented at the conference. First comparisons with models outputs and CALIPSO dust products will be

  16. Timber beams subjected to long - term loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sógel, K.

    2010-09-01

    Wood is a significant structural material, which is often used for timber bearing structures. Elements of timber structures must especially satisfy safety requirements, which are expressed by the ultimate limit states in the established standards. The structure must also satisfy the serviceability limit states. Local and global deformations make it impossible for the structure to serve the purpose it was designed for. It is important to take the deflections and their possible increase into account in the design to provide a structure which can be used during the whole period of service. Based on earlier examinations, it is known that a timber element over the course of long-term loading shows creep behavior. The structure of wood is able to adapt to the conditions of the surrounding environment. The properties of wood are especially affected by the relative humidity of the air and then by the type, intensity and duration of the loading. The most important factors affecting the serviceability of timber structures are volume changes caused by humidity and additional deflections caused by the effects of long-term loading. These phenomena emphasize the importance of serviceability limit states for timber structures. The paper deals with a long-term experimental investigation of timber girders that are currently often used. The aim was to obtain the deflection curves and mark the time dependence and the final deflections. The paper will also define the approximations for simulating the time-dependent deflections and obtain the creep coefficients for calculating the final deflections of the girders investigated.

  17. [Long-term treatment with amiodarone].

    PubMed

    Baedeker, W; Goedel-Meinen, L; Schmidt, G; Hofmann, M; Barthel, P; Blömer, H

    1991-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy and the side effects of a long-term treatment with amiodarone. We analyzed the data of 41 patients in whom amiodarone therapy had been initiated between 1974 and 1984. Twenty-one patients had dilative cardiomyopathy, 14 patients had chronic myocardial infarction, four patients suffered from WPW syndrome with intermittent atrial fibrillation, one patient had aortic valve surgery, whereas in one patient there was no clinical evidence of a heart disease. All patients had salvos of ventricular extrasystoles, ventricular tachycardia or documented intermittent ventricular fibrillation. There have been seven drop-outs up to the present time. In each patient, the lowest antiarrhythmically effective dose was applied, which was generally higher in patients with low ejection fraction. Effective treatment of the ventricular tachycardia was achieved in 55-92% of patients and did not depend on the duration of treatment. In 10 patients in whom amiodarone therapy had to be stopped for various reasons. Sudden cardiac death was slightly more frequent than in the 24 patients treated with amiodarone, though the difference was not significant. In cases with a history of syncope the prognosis was poor, even with amiodarone therapy. Due to side effects, a dosage reduction or discontinuation of amiodarone treatment became necessary in 14 patients. Amiodarone proved to be an effective drug also for the long-term treatment of ventricular tachycardia, and possibly for the prevention of sudden cardiac death. With the exception of blue skin color, there was no accumulation of side effects, even during long-term treatment of several years. PMID:1711739

  18. Long Term Archiving and CCSDS Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boucon, Danièle

    This article presents some conceptual and implementation CCSDS -Consultative Committee for Space Data Systemsstandards for long term archiving. It focuses on the most recent one, the Producer Archive Interface Specification (PAIS) standard. This standard, currently available as a draft on the CCSDS web site, will be published by the beginning of 2014. It will enable the Producer to share with the Archive a sufficiently precise and unambiguous formal definition of the Digital Objects to be produced and transferred, by means of a model. It will also enable a precise definition of the packaging of these objects in the form of Submission Information Packages (SIPs), including the order in which they should be transferred.

  19. Long-Term Wind Power Variability

    SciTech Connect

    Wan, Y. H.

    2012-01-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory started collecting wind power data from large commercial wind power plants (WPPs) in southwest Minnesota with dedicated dataloggers and communication links in the spring of 2000. Over the years, additional WPPs in other areas were added to and removed from the data collection effort. The longest data stream of actual wind plant output is more than 10 years. The resulting data have been used to analyze wind power fluctuations, frequency distribution of changes, the effects of spatial diversity, and wind power ancillary services. This report uses the multi-year wind power data to examine long-term wind power variability.

  20. Long-term outcomes in multiple gestations.

    PubMed

    Rand, Larry; Eddleman, Keith A; Stone, Joanne

    2005-06-01

    Children born from a multiple gestation are at increased risk for cerebral palsy, learning disability, and language and neurobehavioral deficits. With the increased incidence of multiple pregnancies and use of assisted reproductive technology (ART), these issues are more commonly affecting parents. Long-term outcomes are a critical part of preconceptual and early pregnancy counseling for parents faced with a multiple gestation or considering ART, and the provider should be well versed on issues surrounding zygosity, gestational age, higher-order multiples, and the effects of options such as multifetal pregnancy reduction. PMID:15922795

  1. Long-Term Solar Irradiance Variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pap, J. M.

    1996-01-01

    Measurements of the solar energy throughout the solar spectrum and understanding its variability provide important information about the physical processes and structural changes in the solar interior and in the solar atmosphere...The aim of this paper is to discuss the solar-cycle-related long-term changes in solar total and UV irradiances. The spaceborne irradiance observations are compared to ground-based indices of solar magnetic activity, such as the Photometric Sunspot Index, full disk magnetic flux, and the Mt. Wilson Magnetic Plage Strength Index.

  2. Performance considerations in long-term spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akins, F. R.

    1979-01-01

    Maintenance of skilled performance during extended space flight is of critical importance to both the health and safety of crew members and to the overall success of mission goals. An examination of long term effects and performance requirements is therefore a factor of immense importance to the planning of future missions. Factors that were investigated include: definition of performance categories to be investigated; methods for assessing and predicting performance levels; in-flight factors which can affect performance; and factors pertinent to the maintenance of skilled performance.

  3. Human Behaviour in Long-Term Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    In this session, Session WP1, the discussion focuses on the following topics: Psychological Support for International Space Station Mission; Psycho-social Training for Man in Space; Study of the Physiological Adaptation of the Crew During A 135-Day Space Simulation; Interpersonal Relationships in Space Simulation, The Long-Term Bed Rest in Head-Down Tilt Position; Psychological Adaptation in Groups of Varying Sizes and Environments; Deviance Among Expeditioners, Defining the Off-Nominal Act in Space and Polar Field Analogs; Getting Effective Sleep in the Space-Station Environment; Human Sleep and Circadian Rhythms are Altered During Spaceflight; and Methodological Approach to Study of Cosmonauts Errors and Its Instrumental Support.

  4. 47 CFR 54.303 - Long term support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Long term support. 54.303 Section 54.303... SERVICE Universal Service Support for High Cost Areas § 54.303 Long term support. (a) Beginning January 1... shall receive Long Term Support. Beginning July 1, 2004, no carrier shall receive Long Term Support....

  5. 47 CFR 54.303 - Long term support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Long term support. 54.303 Section 54.303... SERVICE Universal Service Support for High Cost Areas § 54.303 Long term support. (a) Beginning January 1... shall receive Long Term Support. Beginning July 1, 2004, no carrier shall receive Long Term Support....

  6. Home health, long-term care, and other compliance activities.

    PubMed

    Anderson, T D; Sadoff, J W

    1999-04-01

    The Federal government continues to crack down on fraud and abuse in the healthcare industry with such initiatives and tools as Operation Restore Trust and intermediate tax sanctions. Home health and long-term care organizations are the latest entities under study by the Office of Inspector General, and the result of these studies likely will be more antifraud and abuse measures being taken against these entities. All healthcare organizations should pay particular attention to their tax risk exposure. Healthcare organizations that put effective compliance programs in place should be able to reduce the overall risk of challenges to their financial practices. PMID:10557979

  7. Long-term motor cortex stimulation for phantom limb pain.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Erlick A C; Moore, Tom; Moir, Liz; Aziz, Tipu Z

    2015-04-01

    We present the long-term course of motor cortex stimulation to relieve a case of severe burning phantom arm pain after brachial plexus injury and amputation. During 16-year follow-up the device continued to provide efficacious analgesia. However, several adjustments of stimulation parameters were required, as were multiple pulse generator changes, antibiotics for infection and one electrode revision due to lead migration. Steady increases in stimulation parameters over time were required. One of the longest follow-ups of motor cortex stimulation is described; the case illustrates challenges and pitfalls in neuromodulation for chronic pain, demonstrating strategies for maintaining analgesia and overcoming tolerance. PMID:25340991

  8. Long-term Studies of Marine Halogen Release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tschritter, J.; Holla, R.; Frieß, U.; Platt, U.

    2009-04-01

    Institute of Enviromental Physics, Heidelberg, Germany. Long term measurements of atmospheric trace gases using multi-axis DOAS instruments are pursued at the new SOLAS observatory on the island of Sao Vicente, (Cape Verde). This research is part of the SOPRAN (Surface Ocean Processes in the ANthropocene) project (Fördernummer:03F0462F). Reactive halogen species (RHS) such as bromine- and iodine- containing species play major roles in the chemistry of ozone in both the troposphere and lower stratosphere and thus possibly influence the ozone budget on a global scale. In addition iodine-species emitted from the ocean surface have been shown to be responsible for the production of new atmospheric particles in the marine boundary layer. This may have an effect on cloud formation and radiation transfer on local and global scales. Long term measurements of RHS abundances will help to identify their key regions and processes for formation. A new long term Multi-MAX-DOAS instrument has been installed at the SOLAS observatory on the island of Sao Vicente, (Cape Verde). The main focus of these unique measurements is the investigation of reactive halogen chemistry in the subtropical marine boundary layer based on measurements of BrO, IO, and possibly OIO. Because of its wide spectral range also the use for O4-retrievals to gain aerosol profiles is possible. IO has been detected with mixing ratios up to 1.3 ppt. For BrO an upper limit of 2 ppt could be determined.

  9. Prokaryotic community structure and respiration during long-term incubations

    PubMed Central

    Baltar, Federico; Lindh, Markus V; Parparov, Arkadi; Berman, Tom; Pinhassi, Jarone

    2012-01-01

    Despite the importance of incubation assays for studies in microbial ecology that frequently require long confinement times, few reports are available in which changes in the assemblage structure of aquatic prokaryotes were monitored during long-term incubations. We measured rates of dissolved organic carbon degradation and microbial respiration by consumption of dissolved oxygen (DO) in four experiments with Lake Kinneret near-surface water and, concomitantly, we analyzed the variability in prokaryotic community structure during long-term dark bottle incubations. During the first 24 h, there were only minor changes in bacterial community composition. Thereafter there were marked changes in the prokaryotic community structure during the incubations. In contrast, oxygen consumption rates (a proxy for both respiration and dissolved organic carbon degradation rates) remained stable for up to 10–23 days. This study is one of the first to examine closely the phylo-genetic changes that occur in the microbial community of untreated freshwater during long-term (days) incubations in dark, sealed containers. Novel information on the diversity of the main bacterial phylotypes that may be involved in dissolved organic matter degradation in lake Kinneret is also provided. Our results suggest that, under certain ecological settings, constant community metabolic rates can be maintained as a result of shifts in community composition. PMID:22950026

  10. Sleep facilitates long-term face adaptation.

    PubMed

    Ditye, Thomas; Javadi, Amir Homayoun; Carbon, Claus-Christian; Walsh, Vincent

    2013-10-22

    Adaptation is an automatic neural mechanism supporting the optimization of visual processing on the basis of previous experiences. While the short-term effects of adaptation on behaviour and physiology have been studied extensively, perceptual long-term changes associated with adaptation are still poorly understood. Here, we show that the integration of adaptation-dependent long-term shifts in neural function is facilitated by sleep. Perceptual shifts induced by adaptation to a distorted image of a famous person were larger in a group of participants who had slept (experiment 1) or merely napped for 90 min (experiment 2) during the interval between adaptation and test compared with controls who stayed awake. Participants' individual rapid eye movement sleep duration predicted the size of post-sleep behavioural adaptation effects. Our data suggest that sleep prevented decay of adaptation in a way that is qualitatively different from the effects of reduced visual interference known as 'storage'. In the light of the well-established link between sleep and memory consolidation, our findings link the perceptual mechanisms of sensory adaptation--which are usually not considered to play a relevant role in mnemonic processes--with learning and memory, and at the same time reveal a new function of sleep in cognition. PMID:23986109

  11. Long Term Changes in the Polar Vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braathen, Geir O.

    2016-04-01

    As the amount of halogens in the stratosphere is slowly declining and the ozone layer slowly recovers it is of interest to see how the meteorological conditions in the vortex develop over the long term since such changes might alter the foreseen ozone recovery. In conjunction with the publication of the WMO Antarctic and Arctic Ozone Bulletins, WMO has acquired the ERA Interim global reanalysis data set for several meteorological parameters. This data set goes from 1979 - present. These long time series of data can be used for several useful studies of the long term development of the polar vortices. Several "environmental indicators" for vortex change have been calculated, and a climatology, as well as trends, for these parameters will be presented. These indicators can act as yardsticks and will be useful for understanding past and future changes in the polar vortices and how these changes affect polar ozone depletion. Examples of indicators are: vortex mean temperature, vortex minimum temperature, vortex mean PV, vortex "importance" (PV*area), vortex break-up time, mean and maximum wind speed. Data for both the north and south polar vortices have been analysed at several isentropic levels from 350 to 850 K. A possible link between changes in PV and sudden stratospheric warmings will be investigated, and the results presented. The unusual meteorological conditions of the 2015 south polar vortex and the 2010/11 and 2015/16 north polar vortices will be compared to other recent years.

  12. Long term changes in the polar vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braathen, Geir O.

    2015-04-01

    As the amount of halogens in the stratosphere is slowly declining and the ozone layer slowly recovers it is of interest to see how the meteorological conditions in the vortex develop over the long term since such changes might alter the foreseen ozone recovery. In conjunction with the publication of the WMO Antarctic and Arctic Ozone Bulletins, WMO has acquired the ERA Interim global reanalysis data set for several meteorological parameters. This data set goes from 1979 - present. These long time series of data can be used for several useful studies of the long term development of the polar vortices. Several "environmental indicators" for vortex change have been calculated, and a climatology, as well as trends, for these parameters will be presented. These indicators can act as yardsticks and will be useful for understanding past and future changes in the polar vortices and how these changes affect polar ozone depletion. Examples of indicators are: vortex mean temperature, vortex minimum temperature, vortex mean PV, vortex "importance" (PV*area), vortex break-up time, mean and maximum wind speed. Data for both the north and south polar vortices have been analysed at several isentropic levels from 350 to 850 K. A possible link between changes in PV and sudden stratospheric warmings will be investigated, and the results presented.

  13. Long-term intracranial pressure monitoring.

    PubMed

    de Jong, D A; Maas, A I; den Ouden, A H; de Lange, S A

    Continuous or intermittent measurement of intracranial pressure (ICP) is important in patients at risk for raised ICP. Indications exist for short- and long-term measurements. The various methods used for short-term monitoring are discussed with their relative advantages and disadvantages. For long-term measurements of ICP use of a completely implantable telemetric epidural pressure transducer is indicated. No such device is commercially available. We have developed an inexpensive passive telemetric transducer for this purpose. Results obtained up till now have demonstrated its reliability for measurements of two to three months duration. The life span of the device is limited by degrading of the epoxy utilized for sealing of the titanium pressure sensing part to the radiolucent ceramic cap of the transducer, causing leakage of water into the transducer and false low measurements. Because of these problems new hermetic sealing techniques were tested. Both active metal brazing and glass bonding yielded good results and hermetic sealing could be obtained. The metal to ceramic bonding presented is generally applicable within the design of implants. Besides the technical progress reported, the experience with clinical use in 12 patients is presented. PMID:6674738

  14. Orbits, Long-Term Predictions, Impact Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farnocchia, D.; Chesley, S. R.; Milani, A.; Gronchi, G. F.; Chodas, P. W.

    Methods to constrain the surface mineralogy of asteroids have seen considerable development during the last decade, with advancement in laboratory spectral calibrations and validation of interpretive methodologies by spacecraft rendezvous missions. This has enabled the accurate identification of several meteorite parent bodies in the main asteroid belt and helped constrain the mineral chemistries and abundances in ordinary chondrites and basaltic achondrites. With better quantification of spectral effects due to temperature, phase angle, and grain size, systematic discrepancies due to noncompositional factors can now be virtually eliminated for mafic silicate-bearing asteroids. Interpretation of spectrally featureless asteroids remains a challenge. This chapter presents a review of all mineralogical interpretive tools currently in use and outlines procedures for their application.

  15. Texture-Independent Long-Term Tracking Using Virtual Corners.

    PubMed

    Lebeda, Karel; Hadfield, Simon; Matas, Jiri; Bowden, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Long-term tracking of an object, given only a single instance in an initial frame, remains an open problem. We propose a visual tracking algorithm, robust to many of the difficulties that often occur in real-world scenes. Correspondences of edge-based features are used, to overcome the reliance on the texture of the tracked object and improve invariance to lighting. Furthermore, we address long-term stability, enabling the tracker to recover from drift and to provide redetection following object disappearance or occlusion. The two-module principle is similar to the successful state-of-the-art long-term TLD tracker; however, our approach offers better performance in benchmarks and extends to cases of low-textured objects. This becomes obvious in cases of plain objects with no texture at all, where the edge-based approach proves the most beneficial. We perform several different experiments to validate the proposed method. First, results on short-term sequences show the performance of tracking challenging (low textured and/or transparent) objects that represent failure cases for competing the state-of-the-art approaches. Second, long sequences are tracked, including one of almost 30 000 frames, which, to the best of our knowledge, is the longest tracking sequence reported to date. This tests the redetection and drift resistance properties of the tracker. Finally, we report the results of the proposed tracker on the VOT Challenge 2013 and 2014 data sets as well as on the VTB1.0 benchmark, and we show relative performance of the tracker compared with its competitors. All the results are comparable with the state of the art on sequences with textured objects and superior on non-textured objects. The new annotated sequences are made publicly available. PMID:26552087

  16. Managing soils for long-term productivity

    PubMed Central

    Syers, J. K.

    1997-01-01

    Meeting the goal of long-term agricultural productivity requires that soil degradation be halted and reversed. Soil fertility decline is a key factor in soil degradation and is probably the major cause of declining crop yields. There is evidence that the contribution of declining soil fertility to soil degradation has been underestimated.
    Sensitivity to soil degradation is implicit in the assessment of the sustainability of land management practices, with wide recognition of the fact that soils vary in their ability to resist change and recover subsequent to stress. The concept of resilience in relation to sustainability requires further elaboration and evaluation.
    In the context of soil degradation, a decline in soil fertility is primarily interpreted as the depletion of organic matter and plant nutrients. Despite a higher turnover rate of organic matter in the tropics there is no intrinsic difference between the organic matter content of soils from tropical and temperate regions. The level of organic matter in a soil is closely related to the above and below ground inputs. In the absence of adequate organic material inputs and where cultivation is continuous, soil organic matter declines progressively. Maintaining the quantity and quality of soil organic matter should be a guiding principle in developing management practices.
    Soil microbial biomass serves as an important reservoir of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and sulphur (S), and regulates the cycling of organic matter and nutrients. Because of its high turnover rate, microbial biomass reacts quickly to changes in management and is a sensitive indicator for monitoring and predicting changes in soil organic matter. Modelling techniques have been reasonably successful in predicting changes in soil organic matter with different organic material inputs, but there is little information from the tropics.
    Nutrient depletion through harvested crop components and residue removal, and by leaching and soil

  17. Long-term U. S. energy outlook

    SciTech Connect

    Friesen, G.

    1984-01-01

    Each year Chase Econometrics offers its clients a brief summary of the assumptions underlying the long-term energy forecast for the U.S. To illustrate the uncertainty involved in forecasting for the period to the year 2000, they choose to compare forecasts with some recent projections prepared by the Department of Energy's Office of Policy, Planning and Analysis for the annual National Energy Policy Plan supplement. Particular emphasis is placed on Scenario B, which is the mid-range reference case. As the introduction to the supplement emphasizes, the NEPP projections should not be considered a statement of the policy goals of the Reagan Administration. They represent an analysis of the possible evolution of U.S. energy markets, given current information and existing policies. The purpose of providing Scenario B as a reference case as well as Scenarios A and C as alternate cases is to show the sensitivity of oil price projections to small swings in energy demand.

  18. Long-term control of root growth

    DOEpatents

    Burton, Frederick G.; Cataldo, Dominic A.; Cline, John F.; Skiens, W. Eugene

    1992-05-26

    A method and system for long-term control of root growth without killing the plants bearing those roots involves incorporating a 2,6-dinitroaniline in a polymer and disposing the polymer in an area in which root control is desired. This results in controlled release of the substituted aniline herbicide over a period of many years. Herbicides of this class have the property of preventing root elongation without translocating into other parts of the plant. The herbicide may be encapsulated in the polymer or mixed with it. The polymer-herbicide mixture may be formed into pellets, sheets, pipe gaskets, pipes for carrying water, or various other forms. The invention may be applied to other protection of buried hazardous wastes, protection of underground pipes, prevention of root intrusion beneath slabs, the dwarfing of trees or shrubs and other applications. The preferred herbicide is 4-difluoromethyl-N,N-dipropyl-2,6-dinitro-aniline, commonly known as trifluralin.

  19. Long-term control of root growth

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, F.G.; Cataldo, D.A.; Cline, J.F.; Skiens, W.E.

    1992-05-26

    A method and system for long-term control of root growth without killing the plants bearing those roots involves incorporating a 2,6-dinitroaniline in a polymer and disposing the polymer in an area in which root control is desired. This results in controlled release of the substituted aniline herbicide over a period of many years. Herbicides of this class have the property of preventing root elongation without translocating into other parts of the plant. The herbicide may be encapsulated in the polymer or mixed with it. The polymer-herbicide mixture may be formed into pellets, sheets, pipe gaskets, pipes for carrying water, or various other forms. The invention may be applied to other protection of buried hazardous wastes, protection of underground pipes, prevention of root intrusion beneath slabs, the dwarfing of trees or shrubs and other applications. The preferred herbicide is 4-difluoromethyl-N,N-dipropyl-2,6-dinitro-aniline, commonly known as trifluralin. 7 figs.

  20. Advanced long term cryogenic storage systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Norman S.

    1987-01-01

    Long term, cryogenic fluid storage facilities will be required to support future space programs such as the space-based Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV), Telescopes, and Laser Systems. An orbital liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen storage system with an initial capacity of approximately 200,000 lb will be required. The storage facility tank design must have the capability of fluid acquisition in microgravity and limit cryogen boiloff due to environmental heating. Cryogenic boiloff management features, minimizing Earth-to-orbit transportation costs, will include advanced thick multilayer insulation/integrated vapor cooled shield concepts, low conductance support structures, and refrigeration/reliquefaction systems. Contracted study efforts are under way to develop storage system designs, technology plans, test article hardware designs, and develop plans for ground/flight testing.

  1. Withdrawal from long-term benzodiazepine treatment.

    PubMed Central

    Petursson, H; Lader, M H

    1981-01-01

    Long-term, normal-dose benzodiazepine treatment was discontinued in 16 patients who were suspected of being dependent on their medication. The withdrawal was gradual, placebo-controlled, and double-blind. All the patients experienced some form of withdrawal reaction, which ranged from anxiety and dysphoria to moderate affective and perceptual changes. Symptom ratings rose as the drugs were discontinued, but usually subsided to prewithdrawal levels over the next two to four weeks. Other features of the withdrawal included disturbance of sleep and appetite and noticeable weight loss. Electroencephalography showed appreciable reduction in fast-wave activity as the drugs were withdrawn, and an improvement in psychological performance was recorded by the Digit Symbol Substitution Test. Because of the risk of dependence on benzodiazepines these agents should probably not be given as regular daily treatment for chronic anxiety. PMID:6114776

  2. Long term performance of radon mitigation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Prill, R.; Fisk, W.J.

    2002-03-01

    Researchers installed radon mitigation systems in 12 houses in Spokane, Washington and Coeur d'Alene, Idaho during the heating season 1985--1986 and continued to monitor indoor radon quarterly and annually for ten years. The mitigation systems included active sub-slab ventilation, basement over-pressurization, and crawlspace isolation and ventilation. The occupants reported various operational problems with these early mitigation systems. The long-term radon measurements were essential to track the effectiveness of the mitigation systems over time. All 12 homes were visited during the second year of the study, while a second set 5 homes was visited during the fifth year to determine the cause(s) of increased radon in the homes. During these visits, the mitigation systems were inspected and measurements of system performance were made. Maintenance and modifications were performed to improve system performance in these homes.

  3. Long-term dynamics of Typha populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grace, J.B.; Wetzel, R.G.

    1998-01-01

    The zonation of Typha populations in an experimental pond in Michigan was re-examined 15 years after the original sampling to gain insight into the long-term dynamics. Current distributions of Typha populations were also examined in additional experimental ponds at the site that have been maintained for 23 years. The zonation between T. latifolia and T. angustifolia in the previously studied pond 15 years after the initial sampling revealed that the density and distribution of shoots had not changed significantly. Thus, it appears that previously reported results (based on 7- year old populations) have remained consistent over time. Additional insight into the interaction between these two taxa was sought by comparing mixed and monoculture stands in five experimental ponds that have remained undisturbed for their 23-year history. The maximum depth of T. latifolia, the shallow- water species, was not significantly reduced when growing in the presence of the more flood tolerant T. angustifolia. In contrast, the minimum depth of T. angustifolia was reduced from 0 to 37 cm when in the presence of T. latifolia. When total populations were compared between monoculture and mixed stands, the average density of T. angustifolia shoots was 59.4 percent lower in mixed stands while the density of T. latifolia was 32 percent lower, with T. angustifolia most affected at shallow depths (reduced by 92 percent) and T. latifolia most affected at the deepest depths (reduced by 60 percent). These long-term observations indicate that competitive displacement between Typha taxa has remained stable over time.

  4. Long-term Agroecosystem Research in the Northern Great Plains.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmer, M.; Sanderson, M.; Liebig, M. A.; Wienhold, B.; Awada, T.; Papiernik, S.; Osborne, S.; Kemp, W.; Okalebo, J. A.; Riedall, W.

    2015-12-01

    The Northern Great Plains is the bread basket of the United States, accounting for a substantial portion of U.S. agricultural production. This region faces critical challenges regarding balancing food needs, resource conservation (e.g Ogallala aquifer), environmental concerns, and rural economy development. Developing transformative, multifunctional systems will require equally imaginative and efficient tools to help farmers manage complex agroecosystems in a rapidly changing climate. The Northern Plains long-term agroecosystem research (LTAR) site at Mandan, ND and the Platte River High Plains LTAR (ARS/University of Nebraska-Lincoln) at Lincoln, NE in collaboration with USDA-ARS research units in Brookings, SD and Fargo, ND are collaborating to address the grand challenge of providing and sustaining multiple service provisions from Northern Great Plains agroecosystems. We propose to attain these goals through sustainable intensification based on the adoption of conservation agriculture principles including reduced soil disturbance, livestock integration, and greater complexity and diversity in the cropping system. Here, we summarize new concepts these locations have pioneered in dynamic cropping systems, resource use efficiency, and agricultural management technologies. As part of the LTAR network, we will conduct long-term cross-site research to design and assess new agricultural practices and systems aimed at improving our understanding of decision making processes and outcomes across an array of agricultural systems.

  5. [Long-term care services in Spain: an overview].

    PubMed

    Casado-Marín, David

    2006-03-01

    To date, both in Spain and virtually all the other European Union (EU) countries, dependency has been seen to be a fundamentally private problem to be dealt with by the family concerned. In this way, whether through informal carers or contracted professionals, in the domestic environment or in care homes, it is the dependent person themselves and their families who currently bear the majority of the costs. In light of this, current concern lies in the social change that is coming on, mainly the accelerated aging process and the increased participation of middle-aged women in the labour market, which heighten the need for collective organisation of that which until now has been resolved within family circles. In this context, at the same time that the Government announces to issue a <Long Term Care Law> by the end of 2005, our paper briefly analyzes what we consider the four crucial issues in this area: the current scope of dependency problems and its possible future evolution, the characteristics of the current spanish long-term care system and its main problems; the role that health services should have in the dependency issue; and finally, the benefits and drawbacks of the main alternatives that the Administration could manage in case it intends to increase its involvement in this field. PMID:16539976

  6. Long-Term Neurodevelopmental Outcome in Survivors of Twin-to-Twin Transfusion Syndrome.

    PubMed

    van Klink, Jeanine M M; Koopman, Hendrik M; Rijken, Monique; Middeldorp, Johanna M; Oepkes, Dick; Lopriore, Enrico

    2016-06-01

    Twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) is a severe complication of monochorionic (MC) twin pregnancies associated with high perinatal mortality and morbidity rates. Management in TTTS is a major challenge for obstetricians and neonatologists. Twins with TTTS are often born prematurely after an extremely distressing and highly hazardous fetal period. Follow-up studies report varying rates of cerebral palsy (CP) and long-term neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI). This review discusses the latest findings on the long-term outcome of TTTS survivors, possible risk factors for long-term impairment, and provides recommendations for future research. PMID:27137794

  7. Innovative use of tele-ICU in long-term acute care hospitals.

    PubMed

    Mullen-Fortino, Margaret; Sites, Frank D; Soisson, Michael; Galen, Julie

    2012-01-01

    Tele-intensive care units (ICUs) typically provide remote monitoring for ICUs of acute care, short-stay hospitals. As part of a joint venture project to establish a long-term acute level of care, Good Shepherd Penn Partners became the first facility to use tele-ICU technology in a nontraditional setting. Long-term acute care hospitals care for patients with complex medical problems. We describe describes the benefits and challenges of integrating a tele-ICU program into a long-term acute care setting and the impact this model of care has on patient care outcomes. PMID:22828067

  8. Long-term potentiation and long-term depression: a clinical perspective

    PubMed Central

    Bliss, Timothy V.P.; Cooke, Sam F

    2011-01-01

    Long-term potentiation and long-term depression are enduring changes in synaptic strength, induced by specific patterns of synaptic activity, that have received much attention as cellular models of information storage in the central nervous system. Work in a number of brain regions, from the spinal cord to the cerebral cortex, and in many animal species, ranging from invertebrates to humans, has demonstrated a reliable capacity for chemical synapses to undergo lasting changes in efficacy in response to a variety of induction protocols. In addition to their physiological relevance, long-term potentiation and depression may have important clinical applications. A growing insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying these processes, and technological advances in non-invasive manipulation of brain activity, now puts us at the threshold of harnessing long-term potentiation and depression and other forms of synaptic, cellular and circuit plasticity to manipulate synaptic strength in the human nervous system. Drugs may be used to erase or treat pathological synaptic states and non-invasive stimulation devices may be used to artificially induce synaptic plasticity to ameliorate conditions arising from disrupted synaptic drive. These approaches hold promise for the treatment of a variety of neurological conditions, including neuropathic pain, epilepsy, depression, amblyopia, tinnitus and stroke. PMID:21779718

  9. Automated long-term scheduling for the SOFIA airborne observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Civeit, Thomas

    The NASA Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is a joint US/German project to develop and operate a gyro-stabilized 2.5-meter telescope in a Boeing 747SP. SOFIA's first science observations were made in December 2010. During 2011, SOFIA accomplished 30 flights in the “ Early Science” program as well as a deployment to Germany. The next observing period, known as Cycle 1, is scheduled to begin in late fall 2012. It includes 46 science flights grouped in four multi-week observing campaigns spread through a 13-month span. Automation of the flight scheduling process offers a major challenge to the SOFIA mission operations. First because it is needed to mitigate its relatively high cost per unit observing time compared to space-borne missions. Second because automated scheduling techniques available for ground-based and space-based telescopes are inappropriate for an airborne observatory. Although serious attempts have been made in the past to solve part of the problem, until recently mission operations staff was still manually scheduling flights. We present in this paper a new automated solution for generating SOFIA's long-term schedules. We describe the constraints that should be satisfied to solve the SOFIA scheduling problem in the context of real operations. We establish key formulas required to efficiently calculate the aircraft course over ground when evaluating flight schedules. We describe the foundations of the SOFIA long-term scheduler, the constraint representation, and the random search based algorithm that generates observation and instrument schedules. Finally, we report on how the new long-term scheduler has been used in operations to date.

  10. Automated Long - Term Scheduling for the SOFIA Airborne Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Civeit, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The NASA Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is a joint US/German project to develop and operate a gyro-stabilized 2.5-meter telescope in a Boeing 747SP. SOFIA's first science observations were made in December 2010. During 2011, SOFIA accomplished 30 flights in the "Early Science" program as well as a deployment to Germany. The new observing period, known as Cycle 1, is scheduled to begin in 2012. It includes 46 science flights grouped in four multi-week observing campaigns spread through a 13-month span. Automation of the flight scheduling process offers a major challenge to the SOFIA mission operations. First because it is needed to mitigate its relatively high cost per unit observing time compared to space-borne missions. Second because automated scheduling techniques available for ground-based and space-based telescopes are inappropriate for an airborne observatory. Although serious attempts have been made in the past to solve part of the problem, until recently mission operations staff was still manually scheduling flights. We present in this paper a new automated solution for generating SOFIA long-term schedules that will be used in operations from the Cycle 1 observing period. We describe the constraints that should be satisfied to solve the SOFIA scheduling problem in the context of real operations. We establish key formulas required to efficiently calculate the aircraft course over ground when evaluating flight schedules. We describe the foundations of the SOFIA long-term scheduler, the constraint representation, and the random search based algorithm that generates observation and instrument schedules. Finally, we report on how the new long-term scheduler has been used in operations to date.

  11. Robotics for Long-Term Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Shahin, Sarkis; Duran, Celso

    2002-07-01

    While long-term monitoring and stewardship means many things to many people, DOE has defined it as The physical controls, institutions, information, and other mechanisms needed to ensure protection of people and the environment at sites where DOE has completed or plans to complete cleanup (e.g., landfill closures, remedial actions, and facility stabilization). Across the United States, there are thousands of contaminated sites with multiple contaminants released from multiple sources where contaminants have transported and commingled. The U.S. government and U.S. industry are responsible for most of the contamination and are landowners of many of these contaminated properties. These sites must be surveyed periodically for various criteria including structural deterioration, water intrusion, integrity of storage containers, atmospheric conditions, and hazardous substance release. The surveys, however, are intrusive, time-consuming, and expensive and expose survey personnel to radioactive contamination. In long-term monitoring, there's a need for an automated system that will gather and report data from sensors without costly human labor. In most cases, a SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) unit is used to collect and report data from a remote location. A SCADA unit consists of an embedded computer with data acquisition capabilities. The unit can be configured with various sensors placed in different areas of the site to be monitored. A system of this type is static, i.e., the sensors, once placed, cannot be moved to other locations within the site. For those applications where the number of sampling locations would require too many sensors, or where exact location of future problems is unknown, a mobile sensing platform is an ideal solution. In many facilities that undergo regular inspections, the number of video cameras and air monitors required to eliminate the need for human inspections is very large and far too costly. HCET's remote harsh

  12. LONG-TERM MONITORING SENSOR NETWORK

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen P. Farrington; John W. Haas; Neal Van Wyck

    2003-10-16

    Long-term monitoring (LTM) associated with subsurface contamination sites is a key element of Long Term Stewardship and Legacy Management across the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. However, both within the DOE and elsewhere, LTM is an expensive endeavor, often exceeding the costs of the remediation phase of a clean-up project. The primary contributors to LTM costs are associated with labor. Sample collection, storage, preparation, analysis, and reporting can add a significant financial burden to project expense when extended over many years. Development of unattended, in situ monitoring networks capable of providing quantitative data satisfactory to regulatory concerns has the potential to significantly reduce LTM costs. But survival and dependable operation in a difficult environment is a common obstacle to widespread use across the DOE complex or elsewhere. Deploying almost any sensor in the subsurface for extended periods of time will expose it to chemical and microbial degradation. Over the time-scales required for in situ LTM, even the most advanced sensor systems may be rendered useless. Frequent replacement or servicing (cleaning) of sensors is expensive and labor intensive, offsetting most, if not all, of the cost savings realized with unattended, in situ sensors. To enable facile, remote monitoring of contaminants and other subsurface parameters over prolonged periods, Applied Research Associates, Inc has been working to develop an advanced LTM sensor network consisting of three key elements: (1) an anti-fouling sensor chamber that can accommodate a variety of chemical and physical measurement devices based on electrochemical, optical and other techniques; (2) two rapid, cost effective, and gentle means of emplacing sensor packages either at precise locations directly in the subsurface or in pre-existing monitoring wells; and (3) a web browser-based data acquisition and control system (WebDACS) utilizing field-networked microprocessor-controlled smart

  13. Treatment for childhood cancer -- long-term risks

    MedlinePlus

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000849.htm Treatment for childhood cancer - long-term risks To use the sharing features on ... has. Being aware of your child's risk of long-term health problems can help you follow-up ...

  14. Long-term corrosion testing pan.

    SciTech Connect

    Wall, Frederick Douglas; Brown, Neil R.

    2008-08-01

    This document describes the testing and facility requirements to support the Yucca Mountain Project long-term corrosion testing needs. The purpose of this document is to describe a corrosion testing program that will (a) reduce model uncertainty and variability, (b) reduce the reliance upon overly conservative assumptions, and (c) improve model defensibility. Test matrices were developed for 17 topical areas (tasks): each matrix corresponds to a specific test activity that is a subset of the total work performed in a task. A future document will identify which of these activities are considered to be performance confirmation activities. Detailed matrices are provided for FY08, FY09 and FY10 and rough order estimates are provided for FY11-17. Criteria for the selection of appropriate test facilities were developed through a meeting of Lead Lab and DOE personnel on October 16-17, 2007. These criteria were applied to the testing activities and recommendations were made for the facility types appropriate to carry out each activity. The facility requirements for each activity were assessed and activities were identified that can not be performed with currently available facilities. Based on this assessment, a total of approximately 10,000 square feet of facility space is recommended to meet all future testing needs, given that all testing is consolidated to a single location. This report is a revision to SAND2007-7027 to address DOE comments and add a series of tests to address NWTRB recommendations.

  15. Long-term corrosion testing plan.

    SciTech Connect

    Wall, Frederick Douglas; Brown, Neil R.

    2009-02-01

    This document describes the testing and facility requirements to support the Yucca Mountain Project long-term corrosion testing program. The purpose of this document is to describe a corrosion testing program that will (a) reduce model uncertainty and variability, (b) reduce the reliance upon overly conservative assumptions, and (c) improve model defensibility. Test matrices were developed for 17 topical areas (tasks): each matrix corresponds to a specific test activity that is a subset of the total work performed in a task. A future document will identify which of these activities are considered to be performance confirmation activities. Detailed matrices are provided for FY08, FY09 and FY10 and rough order estimates are provided for FY11-17. Criteria for the selection of appropriate test facilities were developed through a meeting of Lead Lab and DOE personnel on October 16-17, 2007. These criteria were applied to the testing activities and recommendations were made for the facility types appropriate to carry out each activity. The facility requirements for each activity were assessed and activities were identified that can not be performed with currently available facilities. Based on this assessment, a total of approximately 10,000 square feet of facility space is recommended to accommodate all future testing, given that all testing is consolidated to a single location. This report is a revision to SAND2008-4922 to address DOE comments.

  16. Transuranic waste: long-term planning

    SciTech Connect

    Young, K.C.

    1985-07-01

    Societal concerns for the safe handling and disposal of toxic waste are behind many of the regulations and the control measures in effect today. Transuranic waste, a specific category of toxic (radioactive) waste, serves as a good example of how regulations and controls impact changes in waste processing - and vice versa. As problems would arise with waste processing, changes would be instituted. These changes improved techniques for handling and disposal of transuranic waste, reduced the risk of breached containment, and were usually linked with regulatory changes. Today, however, we face a greater public awareness of and concern for toxic waste control; thus, we must anticipate potential problems and work on resolving them before they can become real problems. System safety analyses are valuable aids in long-term planning for operations involving transuranic as well as other toxic materials. Examples of specific system safety analytical methods demonstrate how problems can be anticipated and resolution initiated in a timely manner having minimal impacts upon allocation of resource and operational goals. 7 refs., 1 fig.

  17. Long-term outcome in aqueductal stenosis.

    PubMed

    Villani, R; Tomei, G; Gaini, S M; Grimoldi, N; Spagnoli, D; Bello, L

    1995-03-01

    In this study, 78 patients with aqueductal stenosis were submitted to detailed neurodevelopmental assessment with a follow-up of 5-25 years. Sixty-eight percent of patients were categorized as normal; they either attended normal school courses or had regular jobs. Among these, 34% had some motor abnormalities (ataxia, mild hemiparesis, visual disturbances). Twenty-four percent (19 cases) were moderately disabled (trainable retardation) and 8% (6 cases) were severely handicapped. Epilepsy was observed in 13% of the cases. Incidence of recurrent and generalized seizures paralleled neurodevelopmental outcome (5% in normal, 16% in moderately disabled and 50% in severely disabled patients). Endocrine dysfunctions were evident in 28% of the cases and were characterized by precocious or delayed puberty, amenorrhea and somatic underdevelopment. No patient with ventricular enlargement and a cortical mantle width below 20 mm showed a good outcome. Large ventricles were compatible with normal mental development when compensated with a corresponding cranial vault enlargement. In patients with normal mental status and motor abnormalities, long-term CT scan findings revealed the presence of focal brain abnormalities (poroencephaly, brain atrophy, calcifications, extracerebral collections). PMID:7773981

  18. Neurological long term consequences of deep diving.

    PubMed Central

    Todnem, K; Nyland, H; Skeidsvoll, H; Svihus, R; Rinck, P; Kambestad, B K; Riise, T; Aarli, J A

    1991-01-01

    Forty commercial saturation divers, mean age 34.9 (range 24-49) years, were examined one to seven years after their last deep dive (190-500 metres of seawater). Four had by then lost their divers' licence because of neurological problems. Twenty seven (68%) had been selected by neurological examination and electroencephalography before the deep dives. The control group consisted of 100 men, mean age 34.0 (range 22-48) years. The divers reported significantly more symptoms from the nervous system. Concentration difficulties and paraesthesia in feet and hands were common. They had more abnormal neurological findings by neurological examination compatible with dysfunction in the lumbar spinal cord or roots. They also had a larger proportion of abnormal electroencephalograms than the controls. The neurological symptoms and findings were highly significantly correlated with exposure to deep diving (depth included), but even more significantly correlated to air and saturation diving and prevalence of decompression sickness. Visual evoked potentials, brainstem auditory evoked potentials, and magnetic resonance imaging of the brain did not show more abnormal findings in the divers. Four (10%) divers had had episodes of cerebral dysfunction during or after the dives; two had had seizures, one had had transitory cerebral ischaemia and one had had transitory global amnesia. It is concluded that deep diving may have a long term effect on the nervous system of the divers. PMID:2025592

  19. Long term prediction of flood occurrence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar, Cristina; Montanari, Alberto; José Polo, María

    2016-05-01

    How long a river remembers its past is still an open question. Perturbations occurring in large catchments may impact the flow regime for several weeks and months, therefore providing a physical explanation for the occasional tendency of floods to occur in clusters. The research question explored in this paper may be stated as follows: can higher than usual river discharges in the low flow season be associated to a higher probability of floods in the subsequent high flow season? The physical explanation for such association may be related to the presence of higher soil moisture storage at the beginning of the high flow season, which may induce lower infiltration rates and therefore higher river runoff. Another possible explanation is persistence of climate, due to presence of long-term properties in atmospheric circulation. We focus on the Po River at Pontelagoscuro, whose catchment area amounts to 71 000 km2. We look at the stochastic connection between average river flows in the pre-flood season and the peak flows in the flood season by using a bivariate probability distribution. We found that the shape of the flood frequency distribution is significantly impacted by the river flow regime in the low flow season. The proposed technique, which can be classified as a data assimilation approach, may allow one to reduce the uncertainty associated to the estimation of the flood probability.

  20. The long-term variability of Vega

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butkovskaya, V.; Plachinda, S.; Valyavin, G.; Baklanova, D.; Lee, B.-C.

    2011-12-01

    Over the time of 60 years Vega (α Lyrae = HD 172167, A0V) has been generally accepted as a standard star in the near-infrared, optical, and ultraviolet regions. But is the spectrophotometric standard Vega really non-variable star? Researchers give very different answers to this question. We aim to search a periodicity in our results of spectropolarimetric study of Vega, namely periodic variations in equivalent width of the spectral lines and longitudinal magnetic field measurements. High-accuracy spectropolarimetric observations of Vega have been performed during 26 nights from 1997 to 2010 using the Coudé spectrograph of the 2.6-m Shain reflector at the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory (CrAO, Ukraine) and during 4 nights in 2007 and 2008 using the echelle spectrograph BOES at the Bohyunsan Optical Astronomy Observatory (BOAO, South Korea). The long-term (year-to-year) variability of Vega was confirmed. It was concluded that this variability does not have magnetic nature. The paper is dedicated to the memory of V.P. Merezhin.

  1. Long-term intraperitoneal insulin delivery.

    PubMed Central

    Pitt, H A; Saudek, C D; Zacur, H A

    1992-01-01

    Over the past 5 years, 21 patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus have been managed at the Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions with variable rate, remotely controlled implanted insulin pumps. To date, nearly 70 patient-years of experience has been gained with intraperitoneal delivery of a new U-400 insulin with a surfactant. All 21 patients are alive after a mean of 39.3 months (range, 10 to 65 months) after insulin pump implantation. Nineteen of the 21 patients remain on intraperitoneal insulin, for a 5-year actuarial system survival of 90%. Glucose control was improved, especially during the first 16 months after pump implantation, without an increased incidence of severe hypoglycemia. Catheter blockage has been a significant problem, occurring in nine of the 21 patients (43%). Catheter occlusion has been successfully managed, however, with laparoscopic repair in seven of 10 attempts or with catheter change in four of five patients. Nevertheless, quality of life and patient acceptance remain excellent. Moreover, pre-existing nephropathy, neuropathy, and retinopathy have been surprisingly stable. With an aggressive policy of catheter change or laparoscopic clearance of catheter blockage, long-term intraperitoneal insulin delivery is now a safe and effective treatment for type I diabetics. PMID:1417197

  2. Intermediate- and long-term earthquake prediction.

    PubMed

    Sykes, L R

    1996-04-30

    Progress in long- and intermediate-term earthquake prediction is reviewed emphasizing results from California. Earthquake prediction as a scientific discipline is still in its infancy. Probabilistic estimates that segments of several faults in California will be the sites of large shocks in the next 30 years are now generally accepted and widely used. Several examples are presented of changes in rates of moderate-size earthquakes and seismic moment release on time scales of a few to 30 years that occurred prior to large shocks. A distinction is made between large earthquakes that rupture the entire downdip width of the outer brittle part of the earth's crust and small shocks that do not. Large events occur quasi-periodically in time along a fault segment and happen much more often than predicted from the rates of small shocks along that segment. I am moderately optimistic about improving predictions of large events for time scales of a few to 30 years although little work of that type is currently underway in the United States. Precursory effects, like the changes in stress they reflect, should be examined from a tensorial rather than a scalar perspective. A broad pattern of increased numbers of moderate-size shocks in southern California since 1986 resembles the pattern in the 25 years before the great 1906 earthquake. Since it may be a long-term precursor to a great event on the southern San Andreas fault, that area deserves detailed intensified study. PMID:11607658

  3. Intermediate- and long-term earthquake prediction.

    PubMed Central

    Sykes, L R

    1996-01-01

    Progress in long- and intermediate-term earthquake prediction is reviewed emphasizing results from California. Earthquake prediction as a scientific discipline is still in its infancy. Probabilistic estimates that segments of several faults in California will be the sites of large shocks in the next 30 years are now generally accepted and widely used. Several examples are presented of changes in rates of moderate-size earthquakes and seismic moment release on time scales of a few to 30 years that occurred prior to large shocks. A distinction is made between large earthquakes that rupture the entire downdip width of the outer brittle part of the earth's crust and small shocks that do not. Large events occur quasi-periodically in time along a fault segment and happen much more often than predicted from the rates of small shocks along that segment. I am moderately optimistic about improving predictions of large events for time scales of a few to 30 years although little work of that type is currently underway in the United States. Precursory effects, like the changes in stress they reflect, should be examined from a tensorial rather than a scalar perspective. A broad pattern of increased numbers of moderate-size shocks in southern California since 1986 resembles the pattern in the 25 years before the great 1906 earthquake. Since it may be a long-term precursor to a great event on the southern San Andreas fault, that area deserves detailed intensified study. Images Fig. 1 PMID:11607658

  4. Long-term adequacy of metal resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Singer, D.A.

    1977-01-01

    Although the earth's crust contains vast quantities of metals, extraction technologies and associated costs are inextricably bound to three fundamental geological factors - the amount of metal available in the earth's crust in each range of grades, the mineralogical form and chemical state of the metal, and the spatial distribution of the metal. The energy required to recover a given amount of metal increases substantially as grade declines. Most metal is produced from sulphide or oxide minerals, whereas most metal in the crust may be locked in the structures of the more refractory silicates. Recovery from silicate minerals could require orders of magnitude more energy than that used at present as also could exploitation of small, widely scattered or thin, deeply buried deposits. Although specific information on the fundamental factors is not available, each factor must in turn tend to further restrict exploitation. Independence of average grade and tonnage for many deposit types further reduces the availability of rock as a source of metal. In the long term, effects of these factors will be large increases in price for many metals. ?? 1977.

  5. Long Term Storage of Lyophilized Liposomal Formulations

    PubMed Central

    Payton, N.M.; Wempe, M.F.; Xu, Y.; Anchordoquy, T.J.

    2014-01-01

    Because aqueous liposomal formulations containing multiply unsaturated lipids are susceptible to chemical degradation, these formulations are often lyophilized. Despite their limited chemical stability, interest in the use of multiply unsaturated lipids to promote intracellular delivery has increased considerably in recent years. The goal of the current study was to examine the long term storage stability of lyophilized formulations containing lipids with increasing levels of unsaturation, and various strategies which can be employed to improve stability. Aqueous lipid-trehalose formulations containing 1,2-dilinolenoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DLPC), 1,2-dilinoleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DLinPC) or 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) were lyophilized and stored at temperatures ranging from 4°C to 60°C. We observed that the lipid degradation rate increased as the storage temperature and unsaturation level were increased. Even the cleanest sugars which are available commercially contain iron contaminants, and it was observed that the chelation of these iron contaminants significantly improved the stability of DLPC during storage. However, the glass transition temperature of the sugar which was included in the formulation, the reduction of the oxygen in the aqueous sample prior to lyophilization, the inclusion of helper lipids (i.e., cholesterol), and the rate of freezing did not significantly improve stability. PMID:25308534

  6. 22 CFR 228.12 - Long-term leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Long-term leases. 228.12 Section 228.12 Foreign... Transactions for USAID Financing § 228.12 Long-term leases. Any commodity obtained under a long-term lease..., a long-term lease is defined as a single lease of more than 180 days, or repetitive or...

  7. 22 CFR 228.12 - Long-term leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Long-term leases. 228.12 Section 228.12 Foreign... Transactions for USAID Financing § 228.12 Long-term leases. Any commodity obtained under a long-term lease..., a long-term lease is defined as a single lease of more than 180 days, or repetitive or...

  8. Norovirus Infections in Long-Term Care Facilities.

    PubMed

    Rajagopalan, Shobita; Yoshikawa, Thomas T

    2016-05-01

    Noroviruses have emerged as one of the leading causes of viral gastroenteritis worldwide, affecting community-dwelling and institutionalized older adults. Recent global epidemics present a growing challenge to the healthcare system and to long-term care facilities. Noroviruses spread readily and rapidly through multiple routes (e.g., person-to-person contact, contact with contaminated surfaces, airborne dissemination of vomitus) and thus are able to sustain an epidemic efficiently and successfully. Although norovirus gastroenteritis is a short self-limited illness in healthy immunocompetent individuals, it can result in significant morbidity and mortality in vulnerable compromised persons such as frail elderly persons and older residents of nursing homes. Diagnosis is made by clinical assessment and confirmed primarily by stool evaluation using polymerase chain reaction. Treatment is confined to supportive measures. Public health prevention and control strategies provide guidance regarding surveillance and the necessary steps to curb the clinical effect and spread of norovirus infections in various settings, including long-term care. PMID:27225361

  9. Multiobjective long-term planning of biopharmaceutical manufacturing facilities.

    PubMed

    Lakhdar, K; Savery, J; Papageorgiou, L G; Farid, S S

    2007-01-01

    Biopharmaceutical companies with large portfolios of clinical and commercial products typically need to allocate production across several multiproduct facilities, including third party contract manufacturers. This poses several capacity planning challenges which are further complicated by the need to satisfy different stakeholders often with conflicting objectives. This work addresses the question of how a biopharmaceutical manufacturer can make better long-term capacity planning decisions given multiple strategic criteria such as cost, risk, customer service level, and capacity utilization targets. A long-term planning model that allows for multiple facilities and accounts for multiple objectives via goal programming is developed. An industrial case study based on a large scale biopharmaceutical manufacturer is used to illustrate the functionality of the model. A single objective model is used to identify how best to use existing capacity so as to maximize profits for different demand scenarios. Mitigating risk due to unforeseen circumstances by including a dual facility constraint is shown to be a reasonable strategy at base case demand levels but unacceptable if demands are 150% higher than expected. The capacity analysis identifies where existing capacity fails to meet demands given the constraints. A multiobjective model is used to demonstrate how key performance measures change given different decision making policies where different weights are assigned to cost, customer service level, and utilization targets. The analysis demonstrates that a high profit can still be achieved while meeting key targets more closely. The sensitivity of the optimal solution to different limits on the targets is illustrated. PMID:17924645

  10. 26 CFR 1.460-1 - Long-term contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Long-term contracts. 1.460-1 Section 1.460-1...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Taxable Year for Which Items of Gross Income Included § 1.460-1 Long-term... the manufacture, building, installation, or construction of property is a long-term contract...

  11. 22 CFR 228.18 - Long-term leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Long-term leases. 228.18 Section 228.18 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RULES FOR PROCUREMENT OF COMMODITIES AND SERVICES FINANCED BY... USAID Financing § 228.18 Long-term leases. Any commodity obtained under a long-term lease agreement...

  12. 26 CFR 1.460-1 - Long-term contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Long-term contracts. 1.460-1 Section 1.460-1...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Taxable Year for Which Items of Gross Income Included § 1.460-1 Long-term... the manufacture, building, installation, or construction of property is a long-term contract...

  13. 22 CFR 228.18 - Long-term leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Long-term leases. 228.18 Section 228.18 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RULES FOR PROCUREMENT OF COMMODITIES AND SERVICES FINANCED BY... USAID Financing § 228.18 Long-term leases. Any commodity obtained under a long-term lease agreement...

  14. 26 CFR 1.460-1 - Long-term contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Long-term contracts. 1.460-1 Section 1.460-1...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Taxable Year for Which Items of Gross Income Included § 1.460-1 Long-term... the manufacture, building, installation, or construction of property is a long-term contract...

  15. 17 CFR 256.224 - Other long-term debt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Other long-term debt. 256.224 Section 256.224 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) UNIFORM... COMPANY ACT OF 1935 6. Long-Term Debt § 256.224 Other long-term debt. This account shall include all...

  16. 17 CFR 256.224 - Other long-term debt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Other long-term debt. 256.224 Section 256.224 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) UNIFORM... COMPANY ACT OF 1935 6. Long-Term Debt § 256.224 Other long-term debt. This account shall include all...

  17. 22 CFR 228.18 - Long-term leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Long-term leases. 228.18 Section 228.18 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RULES FOR PROCUREMENT OF COMMODITIES AND SERVICES FINANCED BY... USAID Financing § 228.18 Long-term leases. Any commodity obtained under a long-term lease agreement...

  18. 3 CFR - Long-Term Gulf Coast Restoration Support Plan

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Long-Term Gulf Coast Restoration Support Plan Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of June 30, 2010 Long-Term Gulf Coast... help the Gulf Coast and its people recover from this tragedy. A long-term plan to restore the...

  19. 78 FR 36449 - State Long-Term Care Ombudsman Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Administration on Aging 45 CFR Parts 1321 and 1327 RIN 0985-AA08 State Long-Term Care... request for comments, to implement provisions of the Older Americans Act, the State Long-Term Care... determining State compliance in carrying out the Long-Term Care Ombudsman program functions. This...

  20. The long-term health of vegetarians and vegans.

    PubMed

    Appleby, Paul N; Key, Timothy J

    2016-08-01

    Vegetarians, who do not eat any meat, poultry or fish, constitute a significant minority of the world's population. Lacto-ovo-vegetarians consume dairy products and/or eggs, whereas vegans do not eat any foods derived wholly or partly from animals. Concerns over the health, environmental and economic consequences of a diet rich in meat and other animal products have focussed attention on those who exclude some or all of these foods from their diet. There has been extensive research into the nutritional adequacy of vegetarian diets, but less is known about the long-term health of vegetarians and vegans. We summarise the main findings from large cross-sectional and prospective cohort studies in western countries with a high proportion of vegetarian participants. Vegetarians have a lower prevalence of overweight and obesity and a lower risk of IHD compared with non-vegetarians from a similar background, whereas the data are equivocal for stroke. For cancer, there is some evidence that the risk for all cancer sites combined is slightly lower in vegetarians than in non-vegetarians, but findings for individual cancer sites are inconclusive. Vegetarians have also been found to have lower risks for diabetes, diverticular disease and eye cataract. Overall mortality is similar for vegetarians and comparable non-vegetarians, but vegetarian groups compare favourably with the general population. The long-term health of vegetarians appears to be generally good, and for some diseases and medical conditions it may be better than that of comparable omnivores. Much more research is needed, particularly on the long-term health of vegans. PMID:26707634

  1. Demonstrating the Safety of Long-Term Dry Storage - 13468

    SciTech Connect

    McCullum, Rod; Brookmire, Tom; Kessler, John; Leblang, Suzanne; Levin, Adam; Martin, Zita; Nesbit, Steve; Nichol, Marc; Pickens, Terry

    2013-07-01

    Commercial nuclear plants in the United States were originally designed with the expectation that used nuclear fuel would be moved directly from the reactor pools and transported off site for either reprocessing or direct geologic disposal. However, Federal programs intended to meet this expectation were never able to develop the capability to remove used fuel from reactor sites - and these programs remain stalled to this day. Therefore, in the 1980's, with reactor pools reaching capacity limits, industry began developing dry cask storage technology to provide for additional on-site storage. Use of this technology has expanded significantly since then, and has today become a standard part of plant operations at most US nuclear sites. As this expansion was underway, Federal programs remained stalled, and it became evident that dry cask systems would be in use longer than originally envisioned. In response to this challenge, a strong technical basis supporting the long term dry storage safety has been developed. However, this is not a static situation. The technical basis must be able to address future challenges. Industry is responding to one such challenge - the increasing prevalence of high burnup (HBU) used fuel and the need to provide long term storage assurance for these fuels equivalent to that which has existed for lower burnup fuels over the past 25 years. This response includes a confirmatory demonstration program designed to address the aging characteristics of HBU fuel and set a precedent for a learning approach to aging management that will have broad applicability across the used fuel storage landscape. (authors)

  2. Long-term lumen depreciation behavior and failure modes of multi-die array LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayawardena, Asiri; Marcus, Daniel; Prugue, Ximena; Narendran, Nadarajah

    2013-09-01

    One of the main advantages of multi-die array light-emitting diodes (LEDs) is their high flux density. However, a challenge for using such a product in lighting fixture applications is the heat density and the need for thermal management to keep the junction temperatures of all the dies low for long-term reliable performance. Ten multi-die LED array samples for each product from four different manufacturers were subjected to lumen maintenance testing (as described in IES-LM-80-08), and their resulting lumen depreciation and failure modes were studied. The products were tested at the maximum case (or pin) temperature reported by the respective manufacturer by appropriately powering the LEDs. In addition, three samples for each product from two different manufacturers were subjected to rapid thermal cycling, and the resulting lumen depreciation and failure modes were studied. The results showed that the exponential lumen decay model using long-term lumen maintenance data as recommended in IES TM-21 does not fit for all package types. The failure of a string of dies and single die failure in a string were observed in some of the packages.

  3. Scientific Understanding from Long Term Observations: Insights from the Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gosz, J.

    2001-12-01

    The network dedicated to Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) in the United States has grown to 24 sites since it was formed in 1980. Long-term research and monitoring are performed on parameters thatare basic to all ecosystems and are required to understand patterns, processes, and relationship to change. Collectively, the sites in the LTER Network provide opportunities to contrast marine, coastal, and continental regions, the full range of climatic gradients existing in North America, and aquatic and terrestrial habitats in a range of ecosystem types. The combination of common core areas and long-term research and monitoring in many habitats have allowed unprecedented abilities to understand and compare complex temporal and spatial dynamics associated with issues like climate change, effects of pollution, biodiversity and landuse. For example, McMurdo Dry Valley in the Antarctic has demonstrated an increase in glacier mass since 1993 which coincides with a period of cooler than normal summers and more than average snowfall. In contrast, the Bonanza Creek and Toolik Lake sites in Alaska have recorded a warming period unprecedented in the past 200 years. Nitrogen deposition effects have been identified through long-term watershed studies on biogeochemical cycles, especially at Coweeta Hydrological Lab, Harvard Forest, and the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest. In aquatic systems, such as the Northern Temperate Lakes site, long-term data revealed time lags in effects of invaders and disturbance on lake communities. Biological recovery from an effect such as lake acidification was shown to lag behind chemical recovery. The long-term changes documented over 2 decades have been instrumental in influencing management practices in many of the LTER areas. In Puerto Rico, the Luquillo LTER demonstrated that dams obstruct migrations of fish and freshwater shrimp and water abstraction at low flows can completely obliterate downstream migration of juveniles and damage

  4. Long term cultivation of larger benthic Foraminifera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wöger, Julia; Eder, Wolfgang; Kinoshita, Shunichi; Antonino, Briguglio; Carles, Ferrandes-Cañadell; Hohenegger, Johann

    2015-04-01

    Benthic Foraminifera are used in a variety of applications employing numerous different methods, i.e. ecological monitoring, studying the effects of ocean acidification, reconstructing palaeo-bathymetry or investigating palaeo-salinity and palaeo-temperature to name only a few. To refine our understanding of ecological influences on larger benthic foraminiferal biology and to review inferences from field observations, culture experiments have become an indispensable tool. While culture experiments on smaller benthic foraminifera have become increasingly frequent in the past century, reports of the cultivation of symbiont bearing larger Foraminifera are rare. Generally, cultivation experiments can be divided into two groups: Culturing of populations and cultivation of single specimens allowing individual investigation. The latter differ form the former by several restrictions resulting from the need to limit individual motility without abridging microenvironmental conditions in the Foraminiferans artificial habitat, necessary to enable the individual to development as unfettered as possible. In this study we present first experiences and preliminary results of the long-term cultivation of larger benthic Foraminifera conducted at the 'Tropical Biosphere Research Station Sesoko Island, University of the Ryukyus', Japan, trying to reproduce natural conditions as closely as possible. Individuals of three species of larger benthic Foraminifera (Heterostegina depressa, Palaeonummulites venosus and Operculina complanata) have been cultured since April 2014. At the time of the general assembly the cultivation experiments will have been going on for more than one year, with the aim to investigate growth rates, longevities and reproduction strategies for comparison with results statistically inferred from application of the of the 'natural laboratory' method. The most important factor influencing foraminiferal health and development was found to be light intensity and light

  5. A new long-term care manifesto.

    PubMed

    Kane, Robert L

    2015-04-01

    This article argues for a fresh look at how we provide long-term care (LTC) for older persons. Essentially, LTC offers a compensatory service that responds to frailty. Policy debate around LTC centers on costs, but we are paying for something we really don't want. Building societal enthusiasm (or even support) for LTC will require re-inventing and re-branding. LTC has three basic components: personal care, housing, and health care (primarily chronic disease management). They can be delivered in a variety of settings. It is rare to find all three done well simultaneously. Personal care (PC) needs to be both competent and compassionate. Housing must provide at least minimal amenities and foster autonomy; when travel time for PC raises costs dramatically, some form of clustered housing may be needed. Health care must be proactive, aimed at preventing exacerbations of chronic disease and resultant hospitalizations. Enhancing preferences means allowing taking informed risks. Payment incentives should reward both quality of care and quality of life, but positive outcomes must be defined as slowing decline. Paying for services but not for housing under Medicaid would automatically level the playing field between nursing homes (NH) and community-based services. Regulations should achieve greater parity between NH and community care and include both positive and negative feedback. Providing post-acute care should be separate from LTC. Using the tripartite LTC framework, we can create innovative flexible approaches to providing needed services for frail older persons in formats that are both desirable and affordable. Such care will be more socially desirable and hence worth paying for. PMID:26035606

  6. Long-term Behavior of DNAPL Residuals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Illangasekare, T.; Kitanidis, P. K.

    2012-12-01

    Understanding and being able to predict the long-term behavior of DNAPL (i.e., TCE) residuals in the source zone are significant in the evaluation of plume spreading. We apply both theoretical analysis and pore-scale simulations to investigate the mass transfer and the effect of reductive dechlorination, in which the contaminant behaves as electron acceptor. At the upfront of the source zone, where the boundary layer has not fully developed, the mass transfer increases as a power-law function of the Peclet number, and is enhanced by biodegradation. These results are consistent with past findings. Under certain conditions, further downstream inside the source zone, the rate of dissolution is slower due to the diluted mass from upstream. Widely applied first-order biodegradation implicitly assumes that the reaction solely depends on the concentration of the contaminant. However, in the slow dilution region, the limitation of electron donor on biodegradation is not negligible. For the reaction between an electron donor and an electron acceptor with intrinsic second-order kinetics, the late-time bio-reaction demonstrates a first-order decay macroscopically with respect to the mass of electron donor, not with respect to that of the contaminant. The late-time decay rate only depends on the intrinsic rate and the solubility of the contaminant. During the intermediate time, affecting by both the concentrations of electron donor and electron acceptor, the first-order decay is not valid. We show that the electron donor decays as exp(-t^2), instead of exp(-t). Moreover, the intermediate-time decay rate is a function of the spatial distribution of DNAPL residuals and the initial conditions.he relationship of the Sherwood number and Peclet number (Comparison of pore-scale simulations and best-fitting curve) he decay of electron donor as a function of t^2

  7. LONG TERM IN SITU DISPOSAL ENGINEERING STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    ADAMS; CARLSON; BROCKMAN

    2003-07-23

    Patent application pulled per Ken Norris (FH General Counsel). The objective of this study is to devise methods, produce conceptual designs, examine and select alternatives, and estimate costs for the demonstration of long-term (300-year) in situ disposal of an existing waste disposal site. The demonstration site selected is the 216-A-24 Crib near the 200 East Area. The site contains a fission product inventory and has experienced plant, animal, and inadvertent than intrusion. Of the potential intrusive events and transport pathways at the site, potential human intrusion has been given primary consideration in barrier design. Intrusion by wind, plants, and animals has been given secondary consideration. Groundwater modeling for a number of barrier configurations has been carried out to help select a barrier that will minimize water infiltration and waste/water contact time. The estimated effective lifetime and cost of 20 barrier schemes, using a variety of materials, have been evaluated. The schemes studied include single component surface barriers, multicomponent barriers, and massively injected grout barriers. Five barriers with high estimated effective lifetimes and relatively low costs have been selected for detailed evaluation. They are basalt riprap barriers, massive soil barriers, salt basin barriers, multi-component fine/coarse barriers, and cemented basalt barriers. A variety of materials and configurations for marking the site have also been considered. A decision analysis was completed to select a barrier scheme for demonstration. The analysis indicated that the basalt riprap alternative would be the preferred choice for a full-scale demonstration. The recommended approach is to demonstrate the basalt riprap barrier at the 216-A-24 Crib as soon as possible. Methods and costs of assessing effectiveness of the demonstration are also described. Preliminary design modifications and costs for applying the five selected barrier schemes to other site types are

  8. Modeling Maintenance of Long-Term Potentiation in Clustered Synapses: Long-Term Memory without Bistability

    PubMed Central

    Smolen, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Memories are stored, at least partly, as patterns of strong synapses. Given molecular turnover, how can synapses maintain strong for the years that memories can persist? Some models postulate that biochemical bistability maintains strong synapses. However, bistability should give a bimodal distribution of synaptic strength or weight, whereas current data show unimodal distributions for weights and for a correlated variable, dendritic spine volume. Thus it is important for models to simulate both unimodal distributions and long-term memory persistence. Here a model is developed that connects ongoing, competing processes of synaptic growth and weakening to stochastic processes of receptor insertion and removal in dendritic spines. The model simulates long-term (>1 yr) persistence of groups of strong synapses. A unimodal weight distribution results. For stability of this distribution it proved essential to incorporate resource competition between synapses organized into small clusters. With competition, these clusters are stable for years. These simulations concur with recent data to support the “clustered plasticity hypothesis” which suggests clusters, rather than single synaptic contacts, may be a fundamental unit for storage of long-term memory. The model makes empirical predictions and may provide a framework to investigate mechanisms maintaining the balance between synaptic plasticity and stability of memory. PMID:25945261

  9. Management of the pregnant mare and long-term consequences on the offspring.

    PubMed

    Peugnet, Pauline; Robles, Morgane; Wimel, Laurence; Tarrade, Anne; Chavatte-Palmer, Pascale

    2016-07-01

    The study of early developmental conditioning of health and disease in adulthood is particularly relevant in the horse, which is bred mainly to perform in demanding sport challenges. On the basis of this concept, the management of the broodmare could be considered an effective means to produce animals with the desired features. Knowledge on the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease in the equine species remains relatively scarce, with some experimental studies and one single epidemiologic study. Data highlight the determinant role of the maternal environment for postnatal body conformation, immune response, energy homeostasis, osteoarticular status and thyroidal, adrenocortical, and cardiovascular functions of the foal. Most research, however, focuses on the first months/years after birth. Long-term effects on the adult horse phenotype have not been investigated so far. PMID:26954944

  10. Long-term archiving and data access: modelling and standardization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoc, Claude; Levoir, Thierry; Nonon-Latapie, Michel

    1996-01-01

    This paper reports on the multiple difficulties inherent in the long-term archiving of digital data, and in particular on the different possible causes of definitive data loss. It defines the basic principles which must be respected when creating long-term archives. Such principles concern both the archival systems and the data. The archival systems should have two primary qualities: independence of architecture with respect to technological evolution, and generic-ness, i.e., the capability of ensuring identical service for heterogeneous data. These characteristics are implicit in the Reference Model for Archival Services, currently being designed within an ISO-CCSDS framework. A system prototype has been developed at the French Space Agency (CNES) in conformance with these principles, and its main characteristics will be discussed in this paper. Moreover, the data archived should be capable of abstract representation regardless of the technology used, and should, to the extent that it is possible, be organized, structured and described with the help of existing standards. The immediate advantage of standardization is illustrated by several concrete examples. Both the positive facets and the limitations of this approach are analyzed. The advantages of developing an object-oriented data model within this contxt are then examined.

  11. Long term health consequences of Female Genital Mutilation (FGM).

    PubMed

    Reisel, Dan; Creighton, Sarah M

    2015-01-01

    Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) comprises various procedures which remove or damage the external female genital organs for no medical reason. FGM has no health benefits and is recognised to cause severe short and long term damage to both physical and psychological health. Although FGM is primarily performed in Africa, Asia and the Middle East, migration of FGM practising communities means that the health complications of FGM will have a global impact. It is important that health professionals world wide are aware of the damage FGM causes to long term health. In some cases it may be possible to offer interventions that will alleviate or improve symptoms. However whilst there is some high quality research on FGM and pregnancy outcomes, little is known about the effects on gynaecological, psychological and sexual function. Research is hampered by the problems of data collection on such a sensitive topic as well as the practical difficulties of analysis of studies based mainly on retrospect recall. Well planned hospital based studies of the impact of FGM on physical and psychological health are urgently need but are currently absent from the medical literature. Such studies could generate robust evidence to allow clinicians to benchmark clinical effectiveness and high quality medical care for survivors of FGM. PMID:25466303

  12. Ranked motives of long-term care providing family caregivers.

    PubMed

    Beneken Genaamd Kolmer, Deirdre; Tellings, Agnes; Gelissen, John; Garretsen, Henk; Bongers, Inge

    2008-03-01

    Family caregivers provide long-term care to their chronically ill loved ones and as a consequence they experience physical, relational and financial problems. This study investigates how long-term family caregivers rank 12 motives for caregiving. Motives are derived from the views of four philosophical anthropologists and are related to self-reported stress and joy and to several different background characteristics of respondents. Motives that focus on feelings concerning the relationship between caregiver and care recipient are more popular as a first choice than motives stemming from feelings of obligation or a general feeling of happiness and are also more popular than more self-directed motives. An analysis of full ranking data shows that two groups can be distinguished, one group of family caregivers with mixed motives and one group of family caregivers with motives that focus on reciprocal mutually equal relationships. The latter are mainly women taking care for a partner or a child, the former report high levels of stress. Implications for intervention programmes and health policy are being discussed. PMID:18269420

  13. Correcting Radial Velocities for Long-Term Magnetic Activity Variations.

    PubMed

    Saar; Fischer

    2000-05-01

    We study stars in the Lick planetary survey for correlations between simultaneous measurements of high-precision radial velocities vr and magnetic activity (as measured in an SIR emission index from Ca ii lambda8662). We find significant correlations in approximately 30% of the stars. After removing linear trends between SIR and vr, we find that the dispersion in vr in these stars is decreased by an average of 17%, or approximately 45% of the dispersion above the measurement noise. F stars and less active stars with variable Ca ii H and K lines are the most successfully corrected. The magnitude of the slope of the SIR versus vr relations increases proportional to vsini and (excepting M dwarfs) tends to decrease with decreasing Teff. We argue that the main cause of these effects is modification of the mean line bisector shape brought on by long-term, magnetic activity-induced changes in the surface brightness and convective patterns. The correlations can be used to partially correct vr data for the effects of long-term activity variations, potentially permitting study of planets around some (higher mass) younger stars and planets producing smaller stellar reflex velocities. PMID:10790082

  14. Long-term monitoring FBG-based cable load sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhichun; Zhou, Zhi; Wang, Chuan; Ou, Jinping

    2006-03-01

    Stay cables are the main load-bearing components of stayed-cable bridges. The cables stress status is an important factor to the stayed-cable bridge structure safety evaluation. So it's very important not only to the bridge construction, but also to the long-term safety evaluation for the bridge structure in-service. The accurate measurement for cable load depends on an effective sensor, especially to meet the long time durability and measurement demand. FBG, for its great advantage of corrosion resistance, absolute measurement, high accuracy, electro-magnetic resistance, quasi-distribution sensing, absolute measurement and so on, is the most promising sensor, which can cater for the cable force monitoring. In this paper, a load sensor has been developed, which is made up of a bushing elastic supporting body, 4 FBGs uniformly-spaced attached outside of the bushing supporting body, and a temperature compensation FBG for other four FBGs, moreover a cover for protection of FBGs. Firstly, the sensor measuring principle is analyzed, and relationship equation of FBG wavelength shifts and extrinsic load has also been gotten. And then the sensor calibration experiments of a steel cable stretching test with the FBG load sensor and a reference electric pressure sensor is finished, and the results shows excellent linearity of extrinsic load and FBG wavelength shifts, and good repeatability, which indicates that such kind of FBG-based load sensor is suitable for load measurement, especially for long-term, real time monitoring of stay-cables.

  15. Prediction of long-term aging of cellular plastics

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, Y.; Kokko, E.

    1995-09-01

    Chlorofluorocarbon(CFC)-based cellular plastics are facing the challenge of environmental protection. The cellular plastic industry has been looking for new blowing agents as alternatives for CFCs since the Montreal Protocol was signed in 1987. The prediction of long-term thermal performance of newly developed cellular plastics thus becomes apparent. In this paper, the model ACP aging of cellular plastic is introduced. This model was originally developed for evaluating the thermal performance of carbon dioxide, CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-22, n-Pentane, neo-Pentane and cyclo-Pentane. In comparison with short-term measurements, the ACP program now is able to predict the aging performance of cellular plastics is to combine the short-term measurements and model simulation. 21 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Improving students' long-term knowledge retention through personalized review.

    PubMed

    Lindsey, Robert V; Shroyer, Jeffery D; Pashler, Harold; Mozer, Michael C

    2014-03-01

    Human memory is imperfect; thus, periodic review is required for the long-term preservation of knowledge and skills. However, students at every educational level are challenged by an ever-growing amount of material to review and an ongoing imperative to master new material. We developed a method for efficient, systematic, personalized review that combines statistical techniques for inferring individual differences with a psychological theory of memory. The method was integrated into a semester-long middle-school foreign-language course via retrieval-practice software. Using a cumulative exam administered after the semester's end, we compared time-matched review strategies and found that personalized review yielded a 16.5% boost in course retention over current educational practice (massed study) and a 10.0% improvement over a one-size-fits-all strategy for spaced study. PMID:24444515

  17. Who owns the long term? Perspectives from global business leaders.

    PubMed

    Lévy, Maurice; Eskew, Mike; Bernotat, Wulf H; Barner, Marianne

    2007-01-01

    Day-to-day management is challenging enough for CEOs. How do they manage for the long term as well? We posed that question to four top executives of global companies. According to Maurice Levy, chairman and CEO of Publicis Groupe, building the future is really about building the present and keeping close to the front line--those who deal with your customers and markets. He also attributes his company's success in large part to knowing when to take action: In a market where clients' needs steer your long-term future, timing is everything. UPS Chairman and CEO Mike Eskew emphasizes staying true to your vision and values over the long run, despite meeting obstacles along the way. It took more than 20 years, and many lessons learned, to produce consistent profits in what is today the company's fastest-growing and most profitable business: international small packages. Wulf H. Bernotat, CEO of E.ON, examines the challenges facing business leaders and politicians as they try to balance energy needs against potential environmental damage. He calls for educating people about consumption and waste, and he maintains that a diverse and reliable mix of energy sources is the only way to ensure a secure supply while protecting our environment. Finally, Marianne Barner, the director of corporate communications and ombudsman for children's issues at IKEA, discusses how the company is taking steps to improve the environment and be otherwise socially responsible. For example, it's partnering with NGOs to address child labor issues and, on its own, is working to help mitigate climate change. IKEA's goals include using renewable sources for 100% of its energy needs and cutting its overall energy consumption by 25%. PMID:17642126

  18. Long-Term Space Astrophysics Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nowark, Michael A.

    2001-01-01

    This is the final report for our Long-Term Space Astrophysics Program (NRA 94-OSS-12) grant NAG 5-3225. The proposal is entitled 'Spectral and Temporal Properties of Black Hole Candidates', and began funding in May 1995, and ran through 31 Aug 2000. The project summary from the original proposal was as follows: 'We will study the spectral and temporal properties of black hole candidates (BHC) by using data from archival sources (e.g., EXOSAT, Ginga, ROSAT) and proposed follow-up observations with modern instruments (e.g., ASCA, XTE). Our spectral studies will focus on identifying the basic characteristics and luminosities of the emission components in the various 'states' of BHC. We hope to understand and quantify the global energetics of these states. Our temporal studies will focus on expanding and classifying our knowledge of BHC variability properties in each state. We will explore the nature of quasi-periodic oscillations in BHC. We will combine our spectral and temporal studies by analyzing time lags and variability coherence between energy channels. In addition, we will investigate ways of correlating observed variability behavior with specific emission components.' We have accomplished many of these goals laid out within the original proposal. As originally proposed, we have utilized both archival and proprietary satellite data. In terms of archival data, we have utilized data from the Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA), ROSAT, and the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). We also obtained proprietary data from ASCA, RXTE, and the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE). In terms of sources, we have examined a wide variety of both galactic black hole candidates and extra-galactic black holes. For the galactic black holes we have observed and analyzed both the low/hard state and the high/soft state. We have performed both spectral and timing analyses on all of these objects. In addition, we have also examined a number of neutron stars or

  19. Long term property prediction of polyethylene nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaito, Ali Al-Abed

    properties of the nanocomposites was analyzed by examining tensile and creep-recovery behavior of the films at temperatures in the range of 25 to -100°C. Within the measured temperature range, the materials showed a nonlinear temperature dependent response. The time-temperature superposition principle was successfully used to predict the long term behavior of LLDPE nanocomposites.

  20. LOP- LONG-TERM ORBIT PREDICTOR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwok, J. H.

    1994-01-01

    The Long-Term Orbit Predictor (LOP) trajectory propagation program is a useful tool in lifetime analysis of orbiting spacecraft. LOP is suitable for studying planetary orbit missions with reconnaissance (flyby) and exploratory (mapping) trajectories. Sample data is included for a geosynchronous station drift cycle study, a Venus radar mapping strategy, a frozen orbit about Mars, and a repeat ground trace orbit. LOP uses the variation-of-parameters method in formulating the equations of motion. Terms involving the mean anomaly are removed from numerical integrations so that large step sizes, on the order of days, are possible. Consequently, LOP executes much faster than programs based on Cowell's method, such as the companion program ASAP (the Artificial Satellite Analysis Program, NPO-17522, also available through COSMIC). The program uses a force model with a gravity field of up to 21 by 21, lunisolar perturbation, drag, and solar radiation pressure. The input includes classical orbital elements (either mean or oscillating), orbital elements of the sun relative to the planet, reference time and dates, drag coefficients, gravitational constants, planet radius, rotation rate. The printed output contains the classical elements for each time step or event step, and additional orbital data such as true anomaly, eccentric anomaly, latitude, longitude, periapsis altitude, and the rate of change per day of certain elements. Selected output is additionally written to a plot file for postprocessing by the user. LOP is written in FORTRAN 77 for batch execution on IBM PC compatibles running MS-DOS with a minimum of 256K RAM. Recompiling the source requires the Lahey F77 v2.2 compiler. The LOP package includes examples that use LOTUS 1-2-3 for graphical displays, but any graphics software package should be able to handle the ASCII plot file. The program is available on two 5.25 inch 360K MS-DOS format diskettes. The program was written in 1986 and last updated in 1989. LOP is

  1. Long term prognosis of reactive salmonella arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Leirisalo-Repo, M; Helenius, P; Hannu, T; Lehtinen, A; Kreula, J; Taavitsainen, M; Koskimies, S

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—Reactive joint complications triggered by salmonella gastroenteritis are increasingly reported, but the outcome and long term prognosis of the patients is incompletely known. This study looked at the prognosis of salmonella arthritis in patients hospitalised in 1970-1986.
METHODS—Hospital records from two hospitals in southern Finland were screened for patients with the discharge diagnosis of salmonellosis or reactive, postinfectious arthritis or Reiter's disease. For the patients with confirmed diagnosis of reactive salmonella arthritis, data about the acute disease were collected from the hospital records. A follow up study was performed.
RESULTS—There were 63 patients (28 women, 35 men, mean age 36.5 years) with salmonella arthritis. Urethritis occurred in 27%, eye inflammation in 13%, and low back pain in 44% of the patients. HLA-B27 was present in 88%. More men than women were HLA-B27 positive. HLA-B27 positive patients had higher erythrocyte sedimentation rate (mean 80.9 v 46.5 mm 1st h, p = 0.0180). Also, extra-articular features and radiological sacroiliitis were seen only in HLA-B27 positive patients. A follow up study was performed on 50 patients mean 11.0 (range 5-22 years) later. Twenty patients had recovered completely. Ten patients had mild joint symptoms, 11 patients had had a new acute transient arthritis, and five acute iritis. Eight patients had developed chronic spondyloarthropathy. Radiological sacroiliitis was seen in six of 44 patients, more frequently in male than in female patients (32% v 0%; p = 0.0289). Recurrent or chronic arthritis, iritis or radiological sacroiliitis developed only in HLA-B27 positive patients.
CONCLUSION—Joint symptoms are common after reactive salmonella arthritis. HLA-B27 contributes to the severity of acute disease and to the late prognosis.

 PMID:9370874

  2. Long-term evolution is surprisingly predictable in lattice proteins

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Michael E.; Moudgil, Arnav; Feldman, Marcus W.

    2013-01-01

    It has long been debated whether natural selection acts primarily upon individual organisms, or whether it also commonly acts upon higher-level entities such as lineages. Two arguments against the effectiveness of long-term selection on lineages have been (i) that long-term evolutionary outcomes will not be sufficiently predictable to support a meaningful long-term fitness and (ii) that short-term selection on organisms will almost always overpower long-term selection. Here, we use a computational model of protein folding and binding called ‘lattice proteins’. We quantify the long-term evolutionary success of lineages with two metrics called the k-fitness and k-survivability. We show that long-term outcomes are surprisingly predictable in this model: only a small fraction of the possible outcomes are ever realized in multiple replicates. Furthermore, the long-term fitness of a lineage depends only partly on its short-term fitness; other factors are also important, including the ‘evolvability’ of a lineage—its capacity to produce adaptive variation. In a system with a distinct short-term and long-term fitness, evolution need not be ‘short-sighted’: lineages may be selected for their long-term properties, sometimes in opposition to short-term selection. Similar evolutionary basins of attraction have been observed in vivo, suggesting that natural biological lineages will also have a predictive long-term fitness. PMID:23466559

  3. Long Term Storage of Mojave Seed Species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The increased occurrence of wildfires throughout the west is an extremely serious challenge for resource managers and researchers. In recent years the invasion of the exotic annual grass, red brome (Bromus rubens), has increased the ignition as well as the rate, spread and frequency of wildfires th...

  4. Incestuous Abuse: Its Long-Term Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Diana E. H.

    Despite the growing recognition of the prevalence of incest which is challenging traditional views about the family as a safe haven for children, there is a serious paucity of scientific research on incest in South Africa in the new field of family violence. Almost a century after Sigmund Freud dismissed most women's reports of incest…

  5. Cuts Threaten Long-Term Vision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etherington, Stuart

    2010-01-01

    All corners of the media are scrutinising David Cameron's "Big Society", from every conceivable angle. While the concept has caught the public's imagination, the greater challenge of fleshing out what the Big Society will actually offer and require of communities is unfinished business. The National Council for Voluntary Organisations (NCVO)…

  6. Long-term ozone monitoring from space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, S.; Johnson, J.; Serafino, G.; McPeters, R.

    Ultraviolet Spectrometer (SBUV), are archived at the Goddard DAAC and are freely available to the public. Standard products from TOMS include daily global total ozone and effective UV reflectivity of the earth-atmosphere system. Data products from future upper atmospheric research missions, e.g., the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS), and the High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS) aboard Aura, will also be archived at the Goddard DAAC. For ozone trend analysis, a long-term data set consisting of over twenty years of ozone measurements from space and some value added research products have been produced by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center scientists (Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Branch/ Code 916) and are made available to the research community (http://code916.gsfc.nasa.gov). Examples of some of these research products are:1) daily erythermal UV exposure -estimates of harmful UV-B radiation at the surface, 2) an index to track the global transport of ash and sulfur dioxide resulting from volcanic eruptions, 3) another index to track smoke emanating from large fires and dust plumes originating from desert regions, 4) aerosol optical depth, 5) tropospheric ozone obtained from cloud-slicing techniques, and 6) a merged total ozone data product consisting of monthly mean ozone merged from six satellite instruments. The Upper Atmospheric Data Support Team has been providing science and data support to assist users in accessing and using the upper atmospheric data products. A number of tools for data access, subsetting, reprojection and mapping of orbital (Level-2) products, visualization of global gridded (Level-3) products, and data analysis have been developed at the Goddard DAAC and are freely available to the data user (http://daac.gsfc.nasa.gov) This presentation will provide highlights of the standard and value-added ozone and ancillary products, and the data services provided by the DAAC Upper Atmosphere Data Support Team.

  7. Long-term Ozone monitoring from space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, S.; Johnson, J.; Serafino, G.; McPeters, R.

    Ultraviolet Spectrometer (SBUV), are archived at the Goddard DAAC and are freely available to the public. Standard products from TOMS include daily global total ozone and effective UV reflectivity of the earth-atmosphere system. Data products from future upper atmospheric research missions, e.g., the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS), and the High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS) aboard Aura, will also be archived at the Goddard DAAC. For ozone trend analysis, a long-term data set consisting of over twenty years of ozone measurements from space and some value added research products have been produced by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center scientists (Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Branch/ Code 916) and are made available to the research community (http://code916.gsfc.nasa.gov). Examples of some of these research products are:1) daily erythermal UV exposure -estimates of harmful UV-B radiation at the surface, 2) an index to track the global transport of ash and sulfur dioxide resulting from volcanic eruptions, 3) another index to track smoke emanating from large fires and dust plumes originating from desert regions, 4) aerosol optical depth, 5) tropospheric ozone obtained from cloud-slicing techniques, and 6) a merged total ozone data product consisting of monthly mean ozone merged from six satellite instruments. The Upper Atmospheric Data Support Team has been providing science and data support to assist users in accessing and using the upper atmospheric data products. A number of tools for data access, subsetting, reprojection and mapping of orbital (Level-2) products, visualization of global gridded (Level-3) products, and data analysis have been developed at the Goddard DAAC and are freely available to the data user (http://daac.gsfc.nasa.gov) This presentation will provide highlights of the standard and value-added ozone and ancillary products, and the data services provided by the DAAC Upper Atmosphere Data Support Team.

  8. Long-term reconstructions of total solar irradiance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krivova, Natalie; Solanki, Sami K.; Dasi Espuig, Maria

    2012-07-01

    Solar irradiance is the main external driver of the Earth's climate, although its relative contribution compared to other internal and anthropogenic factors is not yet well determined. Variations of total solar irradiance have being measured for over three decades and are relatively well understood. Reconstructions of the irradiance into the past remain, however, rather uncertain. In particular, the magnitude of the secular change is highly debated. The reason is the lack of direct and well-sampled proxies of solar magnetic activity on time scales longer than a few decades. Reconstructions on time scales of centuries rely on sunspot observations available since 1610. Reconstructions on millennial time scales use concentrations of the cosmogenic isotopes in terrestrial archives. We will review long-term reconstructions of the solar irradiance using the SATIRE set of models, compare them with other recent models and discuss the remaining uncertainties.

  9. Serotonin and NMDA receptors in respiratory long-term facilitation

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Liming

    2008-01-01

    Some have postulated that long-term facilitation (LTF), a persistent augmentation of respiratory activity after episodic hypoxia, may play a beneficial role in helping stabilize upper airway patency in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients. However, the neuronal and cellular mechanisms underlying this plasticity of respiratory motor behavior are still poorly understood. The main purpose of this review is to summarize recent findings about serotonin and NMDA receptors involved in both LTF and its enhancement after chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH). The potential roles of these receptors in the initiation, formation and/or maintenance of LTF, as well as the CIH effect on LTF, will be discussed. As background, different paradigms for the stimulus protocol, different patterns of LTF expression and their mechanistic implications in LTF will also be discussed. PMID:18606575

  10. Short-Term Plasticity and Long-Term Potentiation in Magnetic Tunnel Junctions: Towards Volatile Synapses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengupta, Abhronil; Roy, Kaushik

    2016-02-01

    Synaptic memory is considered to be the main element responsible for learning and cognition in humans. Although traditionally nonvolatile long-term plasticity changes are implemented in nanoelectronic synapses for neuromorphic applications, recent studies in neuroscience reveal that biological synapses undergo metastable volatile strengthening followed by a long-term strengthening provided that the frequency of the input stimulus is sufficiently high. Such "memory strengthening" and "memory decay" functionalities can potentially lead to adaptive neuromorphic architectures. In this paper, we demonstrate the close resemblance of the magnetization dynamics of a magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) to short-term plasticity and long-term potentiation observed in biological synapses. We illustrate that, in addition to the magnitude and duration of the input stimulus, the frequency of the stimulus plays a critical role in determining long-term potentiation of the MTJ. Such MTJ synaptic memory arrays can be utilized to create compact, ultrafast, and low-power intelligent neural systems.

  11. Long-term metapopulation study of the Glanville fritillary butterfly (Melitaea cinxia): survey methods, data management, and long-term population trends

    PubMed Central

    Ojanen, Sami P; Nieminen, Marko; Meyke, Evgeniy; Pöyry, Juha; Hanski, Ilkka

    2013-01-01

    Long-term observational studies conducted at large (regional) spatial scales contribute to better understanding of landscape effects on population and evolutionary dynamics, including the conditions that affect long-term viability of species, but large-scale studies are expensive and logistically challenging to keep running for a long time. Here, we describe the long-term metapopulation study of the Glanville fritillary butterfly (Melitaea cinxia) that has been conducted since 1991 in a large network of 4000 habitat patches (dry meadows) within a study area of 50 by 70 km in the Åland Islands in Finland. We explain how the landscape structure has been described, including definition, delimitation, and mapping of the habitat patches; methods of field survey, including the logistics, cost, and reliability of the survey; and data management using the EarthCape biodiversity platform. We describe the long-term metapopulation dynamics of the Glanville fritillary based on the survey. There has been no long-term change in the overall size of the metapopulation, but the level of spatial synchrony and hence the amplitude of fluctuations in year-to-year metapopulation dynamics have increased over the years, possibly due to increasing frequency of exceptional weather conditions. We discuss the added value of large-scale and long-term population studies, but also emphasize the need to integrate more targeted experimental studies in the context of long-term observational studies. For instance, in the case of the Glanville fritillary project, the long-term study has produced an opportunity to sample individuals for experiments from local populations with a known demographic history. These studies have demonstrated striking differences in dispersal rate and other life-history traits of individuals from newly established local populations (the offspring of colonizers) versus individuals from old, established local populations. The long-term observational study has stimulated the

  12. Stochastic Induction of Long-Term Potentiation and Long-Term Depression.

    PubMed

    Antunes, G; Roque, A C; Simoes-de-Souza, F M

    2016-01-01

    Long-term depression (LTD) and long-term potentiation (LTP) of granule-Purkinje cell synapses are persistent synaptic alterations induced by high and low rises of the intracellular calcium ion concentration ([Ca(2+)]), respectively. The occurrence of LTD involves the activation of a positive feedback loop formed by protein kinase C, phospholipase A2, and the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase pathway, and its expression comprises the reduction of the population of synaptic AMPA receptors. Recently, a stochastic computational model of these signalling processes demonstrated that, in single synapses, LTD is probabilistic and bistable. Here, we expanded this model to simulate LTP, which requires protein phosphatases and the increase in the population of synaptic AMPA receptors. Our results indicated that, in single synapses, while LTD is bistable, LTP is gradual. Ca(2+) induced both processes stochastically. The magnitudes of the Ca(2+) signals and the states of the signalling network regulated the likelihood of LTP and LTD and defined dynamic macroscopic Ca(2+) thresholds for the synaptic modifications in populations of synapses according to an inverse Bienenstock, Cooper and Munro (BCM) rule or a sigmoidal function. In conclusion, our model presents a unifying mechanism that explains the macroscopic properties of LTP and LTD from their dynamics in single synapses. PMID:27485552

  13. Stochastic Induction of Long-Term Potentiation and Long-Term Depression

    PubMed Central

    Antunes, G.; Roque, A. C.; Simoes-de-Souza, F. M.

    2016-01-01

    Long-term depression (LTD) and long-term potentiation (LTP) of granule-Purkinje cell synapses are persistent synaptic alterations induced by high and low rises of the intracellular calcium ion concentration ([Ca2+]), respectively. The occurrence of LTD involves the activation of a positive feedback loop formed by protein kinase C, phospholipase A2, and the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase pathway, and its expression comprises the reduction of the population of synaptic AMPA receptors. Recently, a stochastic computational model of these signalling processes demonstrated that, in single synapses, LTD is probabilistic and bistable. Here, we expanded this model to simulate LTP, which requires protein phosphatases and the increase in the population of synaptic AMPA receptors. Our results indicated that, in single synapses, while LTD is bistable, LTP is gradual. Ca2+ induced both processes stochastically. The magnitudes of the Ca2+ signals and the states of the signalling network regulated the likelihood of LTP and LTD and defined dynamic macroscopic Ca2+ thresholds for the synaptic modifications in populations of synapses according to an inverse Bienenstock, Cooper and Munro (BCM) rule or a sigmoidal function. In conclusion, our model presents a unifying mechanism that explains the macroscopic properties of LTP and LTD from their dynamics in single synapses. PMID:27485552

  14. Long-term outcome of abusive head trauma.

    PubMed

    Chevignard, Mathilde P; Lind, Katia

    2014-12-01

    Abusive head trauma is a severe inflicted traumatic brain injury, occurring under the age of 2 years, defined by an acute brain injury (mostly subdural or subarachnoidal haemorrhage), where no history or no compatible history with the clinical presentation is given. The mortality rate is estimated at 20-25% and outcome is extremely poor. High rates of impairments are reported in a number of domains, such as delayed psychomotor development; motor deficits (spastic hemiplegia or quadriplegia in 15-64%); epilepsy, often intractable (11-32%); microcephaly with corticosubcortical atrophy (61-100%); visual impairment (18-48%); language disorders (37-64%), and cognitive, behavioral and sleep disorders, including intellectual deficits, agitation, aggression, tantrums, attention deficits, memory, inhibition or initiation deficits (23-59%). Those combined deficits have obvious consequences on academic achievement, with high rates of special education in the long term. Factors associated with worse outcome include demographic factors (lower parental socioeconomic status), initial severe presentation (e.g., presence of a coma, seizures, extent of retinal hemorrhages, presence of an associated cranial fracture, extent of brain lesions, cerebral oedema and atrophy). Given the high risk of severe outcome, long-term comprehensive follow-up should be systematically performed to monitor development, detect any problem and implement timely adequate rehabilitation interventions, special education and/or support when necessary. Interventions should focus on children as well as families, providing help in dealing with the child's impairment and support with psychosocial issues. Unfortunately, follow-up of children with abusive head trauma has repeatedly been reported to be challenging, with very high attrition rates. PMID:25501726

  15. Bridge condition assessment based on long-term strain monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, LiMin; Sun, Shouwang

    2011-04-01

    In consideration of the important role that bridges play as transportation infrastructures, their safety, durability and serviceability have always been deeply concerned. Structural Health Monitoring Systems (SHMS) have been installed to many long-span bridges to provide bridge engineers with the information needed in making rational decisions for maintenance. However, SHMS also confronted bridge engineers with the challenge of efficient use of monitoring data. Thus, methodologies which are robust to random disturbance and sensitive to damage become a subject on which many researches in structural condition assessment concentrate. In this study, an innovative probabilistic approach for condition assessment of bridge structures was proposed on the basis of long-term strain monitoring on steel girder of a cable-stayed bridge. First, the methodology of damage detection in the vicinity of monitoring point using strain-based indices was investigated. Then, the composition of strain response of bridge under operational loads was analyzed. Thirdly, the influence of temperature and wind on strains was eliminated and thus strain fluctuation under vehicle loads is obtained. Finally, damage evolution assessment was carried out based on the statistical characteristics of rain-flow cycles derived from the strain fluctuation under vehicle loads. The research conducted indicates that the methodology proposed is qualified for structural condition assessment so far as the following respects are concerned: (a) capability of revealing structural deterioration; (b) immunity to the influence of environmental variation; (c) adaptability to the random characteristic exhibited by long-term monitoring data. Further examination of the applicability of the proposed methodology in aging bridge may provide a more convincing validation.

  16. Long-term care financing: options for the future.

    PubMed

    Mulvey, Janemarie; Li, Annelise

    2002-01-01

    The aging of the baby boomers will have an enormous impact on the future of long-term care costs. This article projects the magnitude of that impact, discusses sources of financing, and considers the cost and feasibility of three options for financing future long-term care services. The authors investigate the alternatives of increasing personal savings, raising payroll taxes and expanding employer-sponsored private long-term care insurance coverage, respectively. PMID:12004582

  17. Long-Term Monitoring of Global Climate Forcings and Feedbacks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, J. (Editor); Rossow, W. (Editor); Fung, I. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    A workshop on Long-Term Monitoring of Global Climate Forcings and Feedbacks was held February 3-4, 1992, at NASA's Goddard Institute for Space Studies to discuss the measurements required to interpret long-term global temperature changes, to critique the proposed contributions of a series of small satellites (Climsat), and to identify needed complementary monitoring. The workshop concluded that long-term (several decades) of continuous monitoring of the major climate forcings and feedbacks is essential for understanding long-term climate change.

  18. Long-term socioeconomic impacts of flooding in Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jina, A.

    2013-05-01

    Natural disasters lead to myriad negative impacts upon society, causing loss of life, property, and income. Among disasters, floods annually affect the most people, and lead to widespread negative outcomes, particularly in developing countries. While immediate effects of disasters are readily observed, long-term socioeconomic effects have received little attention. Recent work in development economics finds that environmental exposure in early life can have negative impacts upon later outcomes in health, education, and labor markets. Such research is problematic for disasters, however, as objective measurements of hazard exposure are difficult to obtain. This study develops a remote sensing method to detect flooding in Bangladesh, one of the most flood-prone countries, using MODIS 8-day composite data. This approach addresses one of the main problems in the literature on the social impacts of disasters by deriving an objective measure rather than using self-reported damages. Flood data from 2000-2012 is matched to geolocated social surveys conducted by the Bangladesh government to identify impacts of exposure to floods at critical periods of life. While flooding is noted to be a natural and important part of ecosystem functioning in Bangladesh, we aim to understand the impacts of a flood of greater than normal magnitude or abnormal timing to identify the effects on human capital formation. We find that an increase in flooding of one standard deviation (SD) above the mean in the birth month leads to a 3% increase in stunting (2 SD below cohort height). This has implications for physical and cognitive development, shown elsewhere to persist to adulthood. We find that children from households that are exposed to floods while in elementary school are more likely to drop out. Other impacts will be identified in the course of this research. The stated impacts suggest that the long-term health and economic fortunes of the rural poor in Bangladesh are significantly

  19. Determining long-term regional erosion rates using impact craters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hergarten, Stefan; Kenkmann, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    More than 300,000 impact craters have been found on Mars, while the surface of Moon's highlands is even saturated with craters. In contrast, only 184 impact craters have been confirmed on Earth so far with only 125 of them exposed at the surface. The spatial distribution of these impact craters is highly inhomogeneous. Beside the large variation in the age of the crust, consumption of craters by erosion and burial by sediments are the main actors being responsible for the quite small and inhomogeneous crater record. In this study we present a novel approach to infer long-term average erosion rates at regional scales from the terrestrial crater inventory. The basic idea behind this approach is a dynamic equilibrium between the production of new craters and their consumption by erosion. It is assumed that each crater remains detectable until the total erosion after the impact exceeds a characteristic depth depending on the crater's diameter. Combining this model with the terrestrial crater production rate, i.e., the number of craters per unit area and time as a function of their diameter, allows for a prediction of the expected number of craters in a given region as a function of the erosion rate. Using the real crater inventory, this relationship can be inverted to determine the regional long-term erosion rate and its statistical uncertainty. A limitation by the finite age of the crust can also be taken into account. Applying the method to the Colorado Plateau and the Deccan Traps, both being regions with a distinct geological history, yields erosion rates in excellent agreement with those obtained by other, more laborious methods. However, these rates are formally exposed to large statistical uncertainties due to the small number of impact craters. As higher crater densities are related to lower erosion rates, smaller statistical errors can be expected when large regions in old parts of the crust are considered. Very low long-term erosion rates of less than 4

  20. Neonatal tetanus--long-term residual handicaps.

    PubMed Central

    Teknetzi, P; Manios, S; Katsouyanopoulos, V

    1983-01-01

    Thirty-eight survivors of neonatal tetanus were assessed, 5 to 12 years after recovery, for neurological sequelae, physical growth, and maturation. Apart from appreciable handicaps (cerebral palsy, mental deficit, behavioural disturbances) in 4 cases, no harmful effect on physical growth or development was found. The fact that affected patients had frequent and prolonged bouts of spasms and apnoea suggests that anoxia was the main cause of brain damage. PMID:6187289

  1. Collaborative Establishment of a Long-Term Archive for Stewardship of Interdisciplinary Scientific Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downs, R. R.; Chen, R. S.; Cartolano, R. T.; Bose, R.

    2008-12-01

    Much of the scientific data that are being collected today cannot be recreated if they are not properly preserved and documented. Establishment of reliable long-term digital archives is essential to preserving these data and associated documentation beyond the working lifetimes of current scientists. Numerous challenges, both technical and institutional, need to be addressed before these data or their documentation become lost or inaccessible. Direct collaboration between university research libraries and active scientific data centers is one approach to addressing these challenges. We report here on the collaboration between the Columbia Libraries / Information Services and the Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN) to establish an interdisciplinary long-term archive for data from the NASA Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center (SEDAC). The SEDAC long-term archive serves as a trustworthy digital repository to support preparation, submission, appraisal, ingest, discovery, integration, and interoperability of scientific data that are expected to be of long-term interest to both natural and social scientists. Significant progress has been made in establishing the necessary policies and procedures, implementing needed standards and technologies, and assessing strengths and possible weaknesses in the long-term sustainability of the archive. Benefits have included sharing approaches and best practices for information technology solutions and scientific data stewardship. A key issue is the expected future integration of this specialized archive into the long-term digital repository currently being developed by the University. Planned activities include testing the migration of selected data from the SEDAC long-term archive to the forthcoming Libraries repository and the development of interfaces between the digital object management systems being implemented by SEDAC and the Libraries, which are both based on the Flexible Extensible

  2. Resistive magnetohydrodynamic reconnection: Resolving long-term, chaotic dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Keppens, R.; Restante, A. L.; Lapenta, G.; Porth, O.; Galsgaard, K.; Frederiksen, J. T.; Parnell, C.

    2013-09-15

    In this paper, we address the long-term evolution of an idealised double current system entering reconnection regimes where chaotic behavior plays a prominent role. Our aim is to quantify the energetics in high magnetic Reynolds number evolutions, enriched by secondary tearing events, multiple magnetic island coalescence, and compressive versus resistive heating scenarios. Our study will pay particular attention to the required numerical resolutions achievable by modern (grid-adaptive) computations, and comment on the challenge associated with resolving chaotic island formation and interaction. We will use shock-capturing, conservative, grid-adaptive simulations for investigating trends dominated by both physical (resistivity) and numerical (resolution) parameters, and confront them with (visco-)resistive magnetohydrodynamic simulations performed with very different, but equally widely used discretization schemes. This will allow us to comment on the obtained evolutions in a manner irrespective of the adopted discretization strategy. Our findings demonstrate that all schemes used (finite volume based shock-capturing, high order finite differences, and particle in cell-like methods) qualitatively agree on the various evolutionary stages, and that resistivity values of order 0.001 already can lead to chaotic island appearance. However, none of the methods exploited demonstrates convergence in the strong sense in these chaotic regimes. At the same time, nonperturbed tests for showing convergence over long time scales in ideal to resistive regimes are provided as well, where all methods are shown to agree. Both the advantages and disadvantages of specific discretizations as applied to this challenging problem are discussed.

  3. Resistive magnetohydrodynamic reconnection: Resolving long-term, chaotic dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keppens, R.; Porth, O.; Galsgaard, K.; Frederiksen, J. T.; Restante, A. L.; Lapenta, G.; Parnell, C.

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, we address the long-term evolution of an idealised double current system entering reconnection regimes where chaotic behavior plays a prominent role. Our aim is to quantify the energetics in high magnetic Reynolds number evolutions, enriched by secondary tearing events, multiple magnetic island coalescence, and compressive versus resistive heating scenarios. Our study will pay particular attention to the required numerical resolutions achievable by modern (grid-adaptive) computations, and comment on the challenge associated with resolving chaotic island formation and interaction. We will use shock-capturing, conservative, grid-adaptive simulations for investigating trends dominated by both physical (resistivity) and numerical (resolution) parameters, and confront them with (visco-)resistive magnetohydrodynamic simulations performed with very different, but equally widely used discretization schemes. This will allow us to comment on the obtained evolutions in a manner irrespective of the adopted discretization strategy. Our findings demonstrate that all schemes used (finite volume based shock-capturing, high order finite differences, and particle in cell-like methods) qualitatively agree on the various evolutionary stages, and that resistivity values of order 0.001 already can lead to chaotic island appearance. However, none of the methods exploited demonstrates convergence in the strong sense in these chaotic regimes. At the same time, nonperturbed tests for showing convergence over long time scales in ideal to resistive regimes are provided as well, where all methods are shown to agree. Both the advantages and disadvantages of specific discretizations as applied to this challenging problem are discussed.

  4. Enhanced Polyhydroxybutyrate Production for Long-Term Spaceflight Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putman, Ryan J.; Rahman, Asif; Miller, Charles D.; Hadi, Masood Z.

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic biology holds the promise of advancing long term space fight by the production of medicine, food, materials, and energy. One such application of synthetic biology is the production of biomaterials, specifically polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), using purposed organisms such as Escherichia coli. PHAs are a group of biodegradable bioplastics that are produced by a wide variety of naturally occurring microorganisms, mainly as an energy storage intermediate. PHAs have similar melting point to polypropylene and a Youngs modulus close to polystyrene. Due to limited resources and cost of transportation, large-scale extraction of biologically produced products in situ is extremely cumbersome during space flight. To that end, we are developing a secretion systems for exporting PHA from the cell in order to reduce unit operations. PHAs granules deposited inside bacteria are typically associated with proteins bound to the granule surface. Phasin, a granule bound protein, was targeted for type I secretion by fusion with HlyA signal peptide for indirect secretion of PHAs. In order to validate our secretion strategy, a green fluorescent protein (GFP) was tagged to the PHA polymerase enzyme (phaC), this three part gene cassette consists of phaA and phaB and are required for PHA production. Producing PHAs in situ during space flight or planet colonization will enable mission success by providing a valuable source of biomaterials that can have many potential applications thereby reducing resupply requirements. Biologically produced PHAs can be used in additive manufacturing such as three dimensional (3D) printing to create products that can be made on demand during space flight. After exceeding their lifetime, the PHAs could be melted and recycled back to 3D print other products. We will discuss some of our long term goals of this approach.

  5. Molecular early main group metal hydrides: synthetic challenge, structures and applications.

    PubMed

    Harder, Sjoerd

    2012-11-25

    Within the general area of early main group metal chemistry, the controlled synthesis of well-defined metal hydride complexes is a rapidly developing research field. As group 1 and 2 metal complexes are generally highly dynamic and lattice energies for their [MH](∞) and [MH(2)](∞) salts are high, the synthesis of well-defined soluble hydride complexes is an obvious challenge. Access to molecular early main group metal hydrides, however, is rewarding: these hydrocarbon-soluble metal hydrides are highly reactive, have found use in early main group metal catalysis and are potentially also valuable molecular model systems for polar metal hydrides as a hydrogen storage material. The article focusses specifically on alkali and alkaline-earth metal hydride complexes and discusses the synthetic challenge, molecular structures, reactivity and applications. PMID:23012695

  6. Long-Term Delivery of Protein Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Vaishya, Ravi; Khurana, Varun; Patel, Sulabh; Mitra, Ashim K

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Proteins are effective biotherapetics with applications in diverse ailments. Despite being specific and potent, their full clinical potential has not yet been realized. This can be attributed to short half-lives, complex structures, poor in vivo stability, low permeability frequent parenteral administrations and poor adherence to treatment in chronic diseases. A sustained release system, providing controlled release of proteins, may overcome many of these limitations. Areas covered This review focuses on recent development in approaches, especially polymer-based formulations, which can provide therapeutic levels of proteins over extended periods. Advances in particulate, gel based formulations and novel approaches for extended protein delivery are discussed. Emphasis is placed on dosage form, method of preparation, mechanism of release and stability of biotherapeutics. Expert opinion Substantial advancements have been made in the field of extended protein delivery via various polymer-based formulations over last decade despite the unique delivery-related challenges posed by protein biologics. A number of injectable sustained-release formulations have reached market. However, therapeutic application of proteins is still hampered by delivery related issues. A large number of protein molecules are under clinical trials and hence there is an urgent need to develop new methods to deliver these highly potent biologics. PMID:25251334

  7. Ensuring climate information guides long-term development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Lindsey; Dougill, Andrew; Jones, Richard G.; Steynor, Anna; Watkiss, Paul; Kane, Cheikh; Koelle, Bettina; Moufouma-Okia, Wilfran; Padgham, Jon; Ranger, Nicola; Roux, Jean-Pierre; Suarez, Pablo; Tanner, Thomas; Vincent, Katharine

    2015-09-01

    Many sub-Saharan countries are failing to include climate information in long-term development planning. Ensuring climate-resilient development requires a step change in how medium- to long-term climate information is produced, communicated and utilized in sub-Saharan Africa and elsewhere.

  8. Long Term Agroecosystem Research in the southern plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Southern Plains (SP) site of the Long Term Agroecosystem Research (LTAR) network is headquartered at USDA-ARS’s Grazinglands Research Laboratory (GRL) in El Reno, Oklahoma. The GRL was established in 1948. A long-term watershed and climate research program was established in the Little Washita ...

  9. 41 CFR 51-6.3 - Long-term procurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Long-term procurements. 51-6.3 Section 51-6.3 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public... § 51-6.3 Long-term procurements. (a) Contracting activities are encouraged to investigate...

  10. 41 CFR 51-6.3 - Long-term procurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Long-term procurements. 51-6.3 Section 51-6.3 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public... § 51-6.3 Long-term procurements. (a) Contracting activities are encouraged to investigate...

  11. 7 CFR 1773.44 - Long-term debt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Long-term debt. 1773.44 Section 1773.44 Agriculture... (CONTINUED) POLICY ON AUDITS OF RUS BORROWERS RUS Required Audit Procedures and Documentation § 1773.44 Long... 691, Confirmation Schedule—Long-term Obligation to RUS as of; or RTB Form 12, Confirmation...

  12. 7 CFR 1773.44 - Long-term debt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Long-term debt. 1773.44 Section 1773.44 Agriculture... (CONTINUED) POLICY ON AUDITS OF RUS BORROWERS RUS Required Audit Procedures and Documentation § 1773.44 Long... 691, Confirmation Schedule—Long-term Obligation to RUS as of; or RTB Form 12, Confirmation...

  13. 7 CFR 1773.44 - Long-term debt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Long-term debt. 1773.44 Section 1773.44 Agriculture... (CONTINUED) POLICY ON AUDITS OF RUS BORROWERS RUS Required Audit Procedures and Documentation § 1773.44 Long... 691, Confirmation Schedule—Long-term Obligation to RUS as of; or RTB Form 12, Confirmation...

  14. 7 CFR 1773.44 - Long-term debt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Long-term debt. 1773.44 Section 1773.44 Agriculture... (CONTINUED) POLICY ON AUDITS OF RUS BORROWERS RUS Required Audit Procedures and Documentation § 1773.44 Long... 691, Confirmation Schedule—Long-term Obligation to RUS as of; or RTB Form 12, Confirmation...

  15. 7 CFR 1773.44 - Long-term debt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Long-term debt. 1773.44 Section 1773.44 Agriculture... (CONTINUED) POLICY ON AUDITS OF RUS BORROWERS RUS Required Audit Procedures and Documentation § 1773.44 Long... 691, Confirmation Schedule—Long-term Obligation to RUS as of; or RTB Form 12, Confirmation...

  16. 41 CFR 51-6.3 - Long-term procurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Long-term procurements. 51-6.3 Section 51-6.3 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public... § 51-6.3 Long-term procurements. (a) Contracting activities are encouraged to investigate...

  17. 41 CFR 51-6.3 - Long-term procurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Long-term procurements. 51-6.3 Section 51-6.3 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public... § 51-6.3 Long-term procurements. (a) Contracting activities are encouraged to investigate...

  18. 41 CFR 51-6.3 - Long-term procurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Long-term procurements. 51-6.3 Section 51-6.3 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public... § 51-6.3 Long-term procurements. (a) Contracting activities are encouraged to investigate...

  19. Standards for Psychological Services in Long-Term Care Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow-Howell, Nancy; Lichtenberg, Peter A.; Smith, Michael; Frazer, Deborah; Molinari, Victor; Rosowsky, Erlene; Crose, Royda; Stillwell, Nick; Kramer, Nanette; Hartman-Stein, Paula; Qualls, Sara; Salamon, Michael; Duffy, Michael; Parr, Joyce; Gallagher-Thompson, Dolores

    1998-01-01

    Describes the development of standards for psychological practice in long-term care facilities. The standards, which were developed by Psychologists in Long-Term Care, address provider characteristics, methods of referral, assessment practices, treatment, and ethical issues. Offers suggestions for use of the standards. (MKA)

  20. Helping People Make Better Long-Term-Care Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Robert L.; Boston, Krista; Chilvers, Mary

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to describe an innovative online system to support long-term-care decision making. Design and Methods: The Long-Term Care Choices tool is a web-based system that uses expert opinion and structures decision making. Results: The system has been well accepted, and most users find it easy to use. Implications:…

  1. LONG TERM CARE FACILITIES: A CORNUCOPIA OF VIRAL PATHOGENS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our study sought to determine the frequency and types of respiratory viruses circulating in 33 Boston long term care facilities during a three year period and correlate rates of infection with serum zinc levels. Participants were residents of long term care that had previously participated in a tria...

  2. Developmental Dyslexia and Explicit Long-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menghini, Deny; Carlesimo, Giovanni Augusto; Marotta, Luigi; Finzi, Alessandra; Vicari, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    The reduced verbal long-term memory capacities often reported in dyslexics are generally interpreted as a consequence of their deficit in phonological coding. The present study was aimed at evaluating whether the learning deficit exhibited by dyslexics was restricted only to the verbal component of the long-term memory abilities or also involved…

  3. Long-term trends in precipitation and surface water chemistry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter shows long-term data and trends in precipitation and surface water chemistry for each site. It contains a brief introduction to the topic, and methods of measurements, selection of variables, and their data source. It consists primarily of a large number of figures showing long-term da...

  4. Factors Affecting Long-Term Abstinence from Substances Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elsheikh, Salah Elgaily

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study is to explore the attitudes of abstainers from drug use that relate to the factors leading to long-term abstinence. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional study was carried out in Al-Amal Hospital to examine, which attitudes of abstainers related to long-term abstinence. A random survey was conducted on 62…

  5. Collaboration in long-term stewardship at DOE Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Moren, R. J.; Zeisloft, J. H.; Feist, E. T.; Brown, D.; Grindstaff, K. D.

    2013-01-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site comprises approximately 1,517 km{sup 2} (586 mi{sup 2}) of land in southeastern Washington. The site was established in 1943 as part of the Manhattan Project to produce plutonium for the nation's nuclear weapons program. As the Cold War era came to an end, the mission of the site transitioned from weapons production to environmental cleanup. As the River Corridor area of the site cleanup is completed, the mission for that portion of the site will transition from active cleanup to continued protection of environment through the Long-Term Stewardship (LTS) Program. The key to successful transition from cleanup to LTS is the unique collaboration among three (3) different DOE Programs and three (3) different prime contractors with each contractor having different contracts. The LTS Program at the site is a successful model of collaboration resulting in efficient resolution of issues and accelerated progress that supports DOE's Richland Office 2015 Vision for the Hanford Site. The 2015 Vision for the Hanford Site involves shrinking the active cleanup footprint of the surface area of the site to approximately 20 mi{sup 2} on the Central Plateau. Hanford's LTS Program is defined in DOE's planning document, Hanford Long-Term Stewardship Program Plan, DOE/RL-2010-35 Rev 1. The Plan defines the relationship and respective responsibilities between the federal cleanup projects and the LTS Program along with their respective contractors. The LTS Program involves these different parties (cleanup program and contractors) who must work together to achieve the objective for transition of land parcels. Through the collaborative efforts with the prime contractors on site over the past two years, 253.8 km{sup 2} (98 mi{sup 2}) of property has been successfully transitioned from the cleanup program to the LTS Program upon completion of active surface cleanup. Upcoming efforts in the near term will include transitioning another large

  6. The relationship between interannual and long-term cloud feedbacks

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Chen; Zelinka, Mark D.; Dessler, Andrew E.; Klein, Stephen A.

    2015-12-11

    The analyses of Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 simulations suggest that climate models with more positive cloud feedback in response to interannual climate fluctuations also have more positive cloud feedback in response to long-term global warming. Ensemble mean vertical profiles of cloud change in response to interannual and long-term surface warming are similar, and the ensemble mean cloud feedback is positive on both timescales. However, the average long-term cloud feedback is smaller than the interannual cloud feedback, likely due to differences in surface warming pattern on the two timescales. Low cloud cover (LCC) change in response to interannual and long-term global surface warming is found to be well correlated across models and explains over half of the covariance between interannual and long-term cloud feedback. In conclusion, the intermodel correlation of LCC across timescales likely results from model-specific sensitivities of LCC to sea surface warming.

  7. Long-term variation of energetic electron precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asikainen, Timo

    2015-04-01

    The long-term evolution of energetic electron precipitation (EEP) is of considerable interest, e.g., because of its atmospheric and climatic effects. However, the long-term evolution of EEP over several solar cycles has been problematic due to the lack of reliable long-term data. The NOAA/POES satellites have measured energetic particles for more than 35 years. This dataset has been used widely but it has been plagued by several instrumental problems, which have restricted its use for long-term studies. However, we have recently corrected and recalibrated the entire NOAA/POES energetic particle dataset. Using this unique dataset we present here an overview of the long-term evolution of EEP paying particular attention to the role of different types of solar wind disturbances in driving the EEP.

  8. Prenatally diagnosed urinary tract abnormalities: long-term outcome.

    PubMed

    Thomas, D F M

    2008-06-01

    The long-term outcomes of prenatally detected uropathies are poorly documented. Limited data on fetal intervention show a possible reduction in early mortality from pulmonary hypoplasia, but no beneficial effect on long-term prognosis for renal function. Prenatally detected vesicoureteric reflux (VUR) is characterised by males with high-grade primary reflux, who are at long-term risk of renal impairment. Prenatal diagnosis and surgical intervention have contributed to a reduction in long-term morbidity in children with pelviureteric junction (PUJ) obstruction. By the same token, many children have almost certainly undergone unnecessary early pyeloplasty for an obstruction that would have resolved spontaneously. Multicystic dysplastic kidney (MCDK) carries a low (1%) risk of hypertension in childhood. The limited evidence on the long-term outcome of mild dilatation (pelvicaliectasis) indicates this is a largely innocent finding, which carries no increased risk of morbidity. PMID:18037084

  9. Long-Term Dynamics of Autonomous Fractional Differential Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tao; Xu, Wei; Xu, Yong; Han, Qun

    This paper aims to investigate long-term dynamic behaviors of autonomous fractional differential equations with effective numerical method. The long-term dynamic behaviors predict where systems are heading after long-term evolution. We make some modification and transplant cell mapping methods to autonomous fractional differential equations. The mapping time duration of cell mapping is enlarged to deal with the long memory effect. Three illustrative examples, i.e. fractional Lotka-Volterra equation, fractional van der Pol oscillator and fractional Duffing equation, are studied with our revised generalized cell mapping method. We obtain long-term dynamics, such as attractors, basins of attraction, and saddles. Compared with some existing stability and numerical results, the validity of our method is verified. Furthermore, we find that the fractional order has its effect on the long-term dynamics of autonomous fractional differential equations.

  10. Environmental Management Long-Term Stewardship Transition Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Kristofferson, Keith

    2001-11-01

    Long-term stewardship consists of those actions necessary to maintain and demonstrate continued protection of human health and the environment after the completion of facility cleanup. Long-term stewardship is administered and overseen by the U.S. Department of Energy Environmental Management Office of Science and Technology. This report describes the background of long-term stewardship and gives general guidance about considerations when ownership and/or responsibility of a site should be transferred to a long-term stewardship program. This guidance document will assist the U.S. Department of Energy in: (a) ensuring that the long-term stewardship program leads transition planning with respect to facility and site areas, and (b) describing the classes and types of criteria and data required to initiate transition for areas and sites where the facility mission has ended and cleanup is complete.

  11. Dignity Versus Dehumanization in Long-Term Care Settings for Older Persons: A Training Outline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kampfe, Charlene M.

    This paper describes the types of attitudes and behaviors that might be destructive to an individual's sense of self-worth, and suggests that counselors in long-term care settings face the challenge of changing these. One strategy for counteracting potential dehumanization, offering in-service training to all levels of staff and administrators, is…

  12. Effects of Long-Term Representations on Free Recall of Unrelated Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katkov, Mikhail; Romani, Sandro; Tsodyks, Misha

    2015-01-01

    Human memory stores vast amounts of information. Yet recalling this information is often challenging when specific cues are lacking. Here we consider an associative model of retrieval where each recalled item triggers the recall of the next item based on the similarity between their long-term neuronal representations. The model predicts that…

  13. Reintegration Services for Long-Term Dangerous Offenders: A Case Study and Discussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Andrew; Ward, Tony; Shirley, Lyn

    2011-01-01

    Successfully reintegrating long-term prisoners back into the community often presents significant challenges for service providers. Ex-prisoners typically experience high levels of social stigma; present with multiple needs; and can struggle to find meaningful employment, stable accommodation, and to maintain supportive relationships. There have,…

  14. Measuring Worker Turnover in Long-Term Care: Lessons from the Better Jobs Better Care Demonstration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piercy, Kathleen Walsh, Ed.; Barry, Theresa; Kemper, Peter; Brannon, S. Diane

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Turnover among direct-care workers (DCWs) continues to be a challenge in long-term care. Both policy makers and provider organizations recognize this issue as a major concern and are designing efforts to reduce turnover among these workers. However, there is currently no standardized method of measuring turnover to define the scope of the…

  15. Sustaining School Colleagues' Commitment to a Long-Term Professional Experience Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Judith

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents findings from a qualitative study that investigated school participants' perceptions of the benefits, challenges and supportive factors related to their involvement in a long-term school/university professional experience partnership. Data were collected through interviews with coordinators and a written survey completed by…

  16. Long-term agroecosystem research in the Central Mississippi River Basin: introduction, establishment, and overview

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many challenges currently facing agriculture require long-term data on landscape-scale hydrologic responses to weather, such as from the Goodwater Creek Experimental Watershed (GCEW), a 12-, 31-, and 73-km2 nested watershed located in northeastern Missouri, USA. The watershed is prone to surface run...

  17. Long term performance stability of silicon sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, R.; Betancourt, C.; Kühn, S.; Hauser, M.; Messmer, I.; Hasenfratz, A.; Thomas, M.; Lohwasser, K.; Parzefall, U.; Jakobs, K.

    2015-10-01

    The HL-LHC investigations on silicon particle sensor performance are carried out with the intention to reproduce the harsh environments foreseen, but usually in individual short measurements. Recently, several groups have observed a decrease in the charge collection of silicon strip sensors after several days, in particular on sensors showing charge multiplication. This phenomenon has been explained with a surface effect, the increase of charge sharing due to the increment of positive charge in the silicon oxide coming from the source used for charge collection measurements. Observing a similar behaviour in other sensors for which we can exclude this surface effect, we propose and investigate alternative explanations, namely trapping related effects (change of polarization) and annealing related effects. Several n-on-p strip sensors, as-processed and irradiated with protons and neutrons up to 5 ×1015neq /cm2, have been subjected to charge collection efficiency measurements for several days, while parameters like the impedance have been monitored. The probable stressing conditions have been changed in an attempt to recover the collected charge in case of a decrease. The results show that for the investigated sensors the effect of charge sharing induced by a radioactive source is not important, and a main detrimental factor is due to very high voltage, while at lower voltages the performance is stable.

  18. Antidepressants in long-term migraine prevention.

    PubMed

    Koch, Horst J; Jürgens, Tim P

    2009-01-01

    Migraine and depression coincide in some 20-30% of patients. Although antidepressants (namely tricyclics) are not considered as first-line prophylactic compounds in patients with migraine alone, several clinical trials support a remarkable benefit in the treatment of migraine and related headache disorders. However, treatment with one antidepressant alone often does not suffice to treat both disorders effectively. Therefore, combinations of classical antidepressants with both newer antidepressants and established prophylactic drugs (e.g. beta-adrenergic receptor antagonists [beta-blockers], topiramate and sodium valproate) are required. In addition, acute attack medication (such as triptans, ergotamines or analgesics) is regularly combined with the preventive medication, thus requiring elaborate knowledge about the complex network of potential interactions and contraindications. Fear of potentially serious interactions can frequently lead to insufficient treatment of both underlying disorders, with an enormous impact on the patient's life. Pathophysiologically, multiple neurotransmitters have been attributed an important role in the aetiology of migraine (mainly serotonin and calcitonin gene-related peptide) and depression (among others, serotonin, dopamine and noradrenaline [norepinephrine]). Most drugs used to treat both disorders influence at least one of these transmitter systems, such as classical tricyclics. This review discusses the efficacy of antidepressants in migraine prevention. In addition, recommended combinations in patients with concomitant depression and migraine are presented with regard to their proposed pharmacological mechanism of action and their potential interactions. PMID:19192933

  19. An electric propulsion long term test facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trump, G.; James, E.; Vetrone, R.; Bechtel, R.

    1979-01-01

    An existing test facility was modified to provide for extended testing of multiple electric propulsion thruster subsystems. A program to document thruster subsystem characteristics as a function of time is currently in progress. The facility is capable of simultaneously operating three 2.7-kW, 30-cm mercury ion thrusters and their power processing units. Each thruster is installed via a separate air lock so that it can be extended into the 7m x 10m main chamber without violating vacuum integrity. The thrusters exhaust into a 3m x 5m frozen mercury target. An array of cryopanels collect sputtered target material. Power processor units are tested in an adjacent 1.5m x 2m vacuum chamber or accompanying forced convection enclosure. The thruster subsystems and the test facility are designed for automatic unattended operation with thruster operation computer controlled. Test data are recorded by a central data collection system scanning 200 channels of data a second every two minutes. Results of the Systems Demonstration Test, a short shakedown test of 500 hours, and facility performance during the first year of testing are presented.

  20. Estimated long-term health effects

    SciTech Connect

    Cardis, F.; Okeanov, A.E.; Likthariev, I.; Prisyazhniuk; Anspaugh, L.R.; Mabuchi, K.; Ivanov, V.K.

    1996-04-01

    Apart from the dramatic increase in thyroid cancer in those exposed as children, there is no evidence to date of a major public health impact of the radiation exposure from the Chernobyl accident in the three most affected countries. Although some increases in the frequency of cancer in exposed populations have been reported, these results are difficult to interpret, mainly because of differences in the intensity and method of follow-up between exposed populations and the general population to which they are compared. If the experience of atomic bomb survivors and of other exposed populations is applicable, the major radiological impact of the accident will be cancer and the total lifetime numbers of excess cancers will be greatest among the liquidators and among the residents of contaminated territories, of the order of 2,000 to 2,500. These increases would be difficult to detect epidemiologically against an expected background number of 41,500 and 433,000 respectively (size of the exposed populations: 200,000 and 3,700,000, respectively). It is noted, however, that the exposures received by populations exposed as a result of Chernobyl are different (in type and pattern) from those of atomic bomb survivors. Predictions derived from these populations are therefore uncertain. Indeed, the extent of the increase in thyroid cancer incidence in persons exposed as children was not foreseen. In addition, only ten years have passed since the accident. It is essential therefore that monitoring of the health of the population be continued in order to assess the public health impact of the accident, even if, apart from leukemia among liquidators, little detectable increase of cancers due to radiation from the Chernobyl accident is expected.

  1. Approach to the E-ELT dome and main structure challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilbao, Armando; Murga, Gaizka; Gómez, Celia; Llarena, Javier

    2014-07-01

    The E-ELT as a whole could be classified as an extremely challenging project. More precisely, it should be defined as an array of many different sub-challenges, which comprise technical, logistical and managerial matters. This paper reviews some of these critical challenges, in particular those related to the Dome and the Main Structure, suggesting ways to face them in the most pragmatic way possible. Technical challenges for the Dome and the Main Structure are mainly related to the need to upscale current design standards to an order of magnitude larger design. Trying a direct design escalation is not feasible; it would not work. A design effort is needed to cross hybridize current design standards with technologies coming from other different applications. Innovative design is therefore not a wish but a must. And innovative design comes along with design risk. Design risk needs to be tackled from two angles: on the one hand through thorough design validation analysis and on the other hand through extensive pre-assembly and testing. And, once again, full scale integrated pre-assembly and testing of extremely large subsystems is not always possible. Therefore, defining a comprehensive test plan for critical components, critical subsystems and critical subassemblies becomes essential. Logistical challenges are linked to the erection site. Cerro Armazones is a remote site and this needs to be considered when evaluating transport and erection requirements. But it is not only the remoteness of the site that needs to be considered. The size of both Dome and Main Structure require large construction cranes and a well defined erection plan taking into account pre-assembly strategies, limited plan area utilization, erection sequence, erection stability during intermediate stages and, very specifically, efficient coordination between the Dome and the Main Structure erection processes. Managerial issues pose another set of challenges in this project. Both the size of the

  2. Abstracts 1987. New Horizons in Long Term Care: A Report on the Long Term Care Research and Demonstration Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Dept. of Public Aid, Springfield.

    This booklet provides a description of 14 projects which were awarded funds during fiscal year 1987 for collaborative research in long-term care to find new ways to treat long-term care patients in Illinois nursing homes. It includes the organization or institution receiving the award, an abstract of the research proposal, and the name of the…

  3. The Womanly World of Long Term Care: The Plight of the Long Term Care Worker. Gray Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Older Women's League, Washington, DC.

    Long-term care workers (those who are paid to provide custodial care for long-term patients in nursing homes or at home) must care for a growing number of increasingly disabled or dependent persons. They are working for agencies and institutions under growing pressure to increase productivity. They face new training and competency requirements,…

  4. Comment on ``Long-Term Global Heating From Energy Use''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleming, James R.

    2008-12-01

    In a prominent article published in Tellus in 1969, Mikhail I. Budyko, with the Main Geophysical Observatory, Leningrad, Soviet Union, wrote that ``all the energy used by man is transformed into heat, the main portion of this energy being an additional source of heat as compared to the present radiation gain'' [Budyko, 1969, p. 618]. He pointed out that this heating was over and above any climate forcing from anthropogenic greenhouse gases and-since energy use was growing geometrically-it was likely to result in the retreat of the cryosphere, accompanied by excessive and potentially damaging global warming, perhaps in 200 years or less. Eric J. Chaisson, in Eos (``Long-Term Global Heating From Energy Use,'' 89(28), 253-254, 2008), does not acknowledge Budyko's research. Chaisson cites cosmic history and the history of the human species, but he provides no references to the conceptual history of the idea that human energy use could result in global heating. Budyko first published on the Earth's heat budget in 1948 and in 1998 received the Blue Planet Prize, sponsored by the Asahi Glass Foundation, for his lifetime accomplishments in quantitative climatology. His work on the energy budget of the Earth and anthropogenic influences really should have been cited (see a selection of key articles in the online National Science Digital Library, at http://wiki.nsdl.org/index.php/PALE:ClassicArticles/GlobalWarming).

  5. Evans Syndrome in Children: Long-Term Outcome in a Prospective French National Observational Cohort.

    PubMed

    Aladjidi, Nathalie; Fernandes, Helder; Leblanc, Thierry; Vareliette, Amélie; Rieux-Laucat, Frédéric; Bertrand, Yves; Chambost, Hervé; Pasquet, Marlène; Mazingue, Françoise; Guitton, Corinne; Pellier, Isabelle; Roqueplan-Bellmann, Françoise; Armari-Alla, Corinne; Thomas, Caroline; Marie-Cardine, Aude; Lejars, Odile; Fouyssac, Fanny; Bayart, Sophie; Lutz, Patrick; Piguet, Christophe; Jeziorski, Eric; Rohrlich, Pierre; Lemoine, Philippe; Bodet, Damien; Paillard, Catherine; Couillault, Gérard; Millot, Frédéric; Fischer, Alain; Pérel, Yves; Leverger, Guy

    2015-01-01

    Evans syndrome (ES) is a rare autoimmune disorder whose long-term outcome is not well known. In France, a collaborative pediatric network set up via the National Rare Disease Plan now provides comprehensive clinical data in children with this disease. Patients aged less than 18 years at the initial presentation of autoimmune cytopenia have been prospectively included into a national observational cohort since 2004. The definition of ES was restricted to the simultaneous or sequential association of autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) and immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP). Cases were deemed secondary if associated with a primitive immunodeficiency or systemic lupus erythematosus. In December 2014, we analyzed the data pertaining to 156 children from 26 centers with ES whose diagnosis was made between 1981 and 2014. Median age (range) at the onset of cytopenia was 5.4 years (0.2-17.2). In 85 sequential cases, the time lapse between the first episodes of AIHA and ITP was 2.4 years (0.1-16.3). The follow-up period as from ES diagnosis was 6.5 years (0.1-28.8). ES was secondary, revealing another underlying disease, in 10% of cases; various associated immune manifestations (mainly lymphoproliferation, other autoimmune diseases, and hypogammaglobulinemia) were observed in 60% of cases; and ES remained primary in 30% of cases. Five-year ITP and AIHA relapse-free survival were 25 and 61%, respectively. Overall, 69% of children required one or more second-line immune treatments, and 15 patients (10%) died at the age of 14.3 years (1.7-28.1). To our knowledge, this is the first consistent long-term clinical description of this rare syndrome. It underscores the high rate of associated immune manifestations and the burden of long-term complications and treatment toxicity. Future challenges include (1) the identification of the underlying genetic defects inducing immune dysregulation and (2) the need to better characterize patient subgroups and second

  6. Evans Syndrome in Children: Long-Term Outcome in a Prospective French National Observational Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Aladjidi, Nathalie; Fernandes, Helder; Leblanc, Thierry; Vareliette, Amélie; Rieux-Laucat, Frédéric; Bertrand, Yves; Chambost, Hervé; Pasquet, Marlène; Mazingue, Françoise; Guitton, Corinne; Pellier, Isabelle; Roqueplan-Bellmann, Françoise; Armari-Alla, Corinne; Thomas, Caroline; Marie-Cardine, Aude; Lejars, Odile; Fouyssac, Fanny; Bayart, Sophie; Lutz, Patrick; Piguet, Christophe; Jeziorski, Eric; Rohrlich, Pierre; Lemoine, Philippe; Bodet, Damien; Paillard, Catherine; Couillault, Gérard; Millot, Frédéric; Fischer, Alain; Pérel, Yves; Leverger, Guy

    2015-01-01

    Evans syndrome (ES) is a rare autoimmune disorder whose long-term outcome is not well known. In France, a collaborative pediatric network set up via the National Rare Disease Plan now provides comprehensive clinical data in children with this disease. Patients aged less than 18 years at the initial presentation of autoimmune cytopenia have been prospectively included into a national observational cohort since 2004. The definition of ES was restricted to the simultaneous or sequential association of autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) and immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP). Cases were deemed secondary if associated with a primitive immunodeficiency or systemic lupus erythematosus. In December 2014, we analyzed the data pertaining to 156 children from 26 centers with ES whose diagnosis was made between 1981 and 2014. Median age (range) at the onset of cytopenia was 5.4 years (0.2–17.2). In 85 sequential cases, the time lapse between the first episodes of AIHA and ITP was 2.4 years (0.1–16.3). The follow-up period as from ES diagnosis was 6.5 years (0.1–28.8). ES was secondary, revealing another underlying disease, in 10% of cases; various associated immune manifestations (mainly lymphoproliferation, other autoimmune diseases, and hypogammaglobulinemia) were observed in 60% of cases; and ES remained primary in 30% of cases. Five-year ITP and AIHA relapse-free survival were 25 and 61%, respectively. Overall, 69% of children required one or more second-line immune treatments, and 15 patients (10%) died at the age of 14.3 years (1.7–28.1). To our knowledge, this is the first consistent long-term clinical description of this rare syndrome. It underscores the high rate of associated immune manifestations and the burden of long-term complications and treatment toxicity. Future challenges include (1) the identification of the underlying genetic defects inducing immune dysregulation and (2) the need to better characterize patient subgroups and second

  7. Long-term outcomes of children after solid organ transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jon Jin; Marks, Stephen D

    2014-01-01

    Solid organ transplantation has transformed the lives of many children and adults by providing treatment for patients with organ failure who would have otherwise succumbed to their disease. The first successful transplant in 1954 was a kidney transplant between identical twins, which circumvented the problem of rejection from MHC incompatibility. Further progress in solid organ transplantation was enabled by the discovery of immunosuppressive agents such as corticosteroids and azathioprine in the 1950s and ciclosporin in 1970. Today, solid organ transplantation is a conventional treatment with improved patient and allograft survival rates. However, the challenge that lies ahead is to extend allograft survival time while simultaneously reducing the side effects of immunosuppression. This is particularly important for children who have irreversible organ failure and may require multiple transplants. Pediatric transplant teams also need to improve patient quality of life at a time of physical, emotional and psychosocial development. This review will elaborate on the long-term outcomes of children after kidney, liver, heart, lung and intestinal transplantation. As mortality rates after transplantation have declined, there has emerged an increased focus on reducing longer-term morbidity with improved outcomes in optimizing cardiovascular risk, renal impairment, growth and quality of life. Data were obtained from a review of the literature and particularly from national registries and databases such as the North American Pediatric Renal Trials and Collaborative Studies for the kidney, SPLIT for liver, International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation and UNOS for intestinal transplantation. PMID:24860856

  8. Long-Term Cryogenic Propellant Storage for the TOPS Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mustafi, Shuvo; Francis, John; Li, Xiaoyi; Purves, Lloyd; DeLee, Hudson; Riall, Sara; McGuinness, Dan; Willis, Dewey; Nixon, Conor; Devine Matt; Hedayat, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Cryogenic propellants such as liquid hydrogen (LH2) and liquid oxygen (LOX) can dramatically enhance NASAs ability to explore the solar system because of their superior specific impulse (Isp) capability. Although these cryogenic propellants can be challenging to manage and store, they allow significant mass advantages over traditional hypergolic propulsion systems and are therefore technically enabling for many planetary science missions. New cryogenic storage techniques such as subcooling and the use of advanced insulation and low thermal conductivity support structures will allow for the long term storage and use of cryogenic propellants for solar system exploration and hence allow NASA to deliver more payloads to targets of interest, launch on smaller and less expensive launch vehicles, or both. Employing cryogenic propellants will allow NASA to perform missions to planetary destinations that would not be possible with the use of traditional hypergolic propellants. These new cryogenic storage technologies were implemented in a design study for the Titan Orbiter Polar Surveyor (TOPS) mission, with LH2 and LOX as propellants, and the resulting spacecraft design was able to achieve a 43 launch mass reduction over a TOPS mission, that utilized a conventional hypergolic propulsion system with mono-methyl hydrazine (MMH) and nitrogen tetroxide (NTO) propellants. This paper describes the cryogenic propellant storage design for the TOPS mission and demonstrates how these cryogenic propellants are stored passively for a decade-long Titan mission.

  9. Long-term outcomes of children after solid organ transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jon Jin; Marks, Stephen D.

    2014-01-01

    Solid organ transplantation has transformed the lives of many children and adults by providing treatment for patients with organ failure who would have otherwise succumbed to their disease. The first successful transplant in 1954 was a kidney transplant between identical twins, which circumvented the problem of rejection from MHC incompatibility. Further progress in solid organ transplantation was enabled by the discovery of immunosuppressive agents such as corticosteroids and azathioprine in the 1950s and ciclosporin in 1970. Today, solid organ transplantation is a conventional treatment with improved patient and allograft survival rates. However, the challenge that lies ahead is to extend allograft survival time while simultaneously reducing the side effects of immunosuppression. This is particularly important for children who have irreversible organ failure and may require multiple transplants. Pediatric transplant teams also need to improve patient quality of life at a time of physical, emotional and psychosocial development. This review will elaborate on the long-term outcomes of children after kidney, liver, heart, lung and intestinal transplantation. As mortality rates after transplantation have declined, there has emerged an increased focus on reducing longer-term morbidity with improved outcomes in optimizing cardiovascular risk, renal impairment, growth and quality of life. Data were obtained from a review of the literature and particularly from national registries and databases such as the North American Pediatric Renal Trials and Collaborative Studies for the kidney, SPLIT for liver, International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation and UNOS for intestinal transplantation. PMID:24860856

  10. Long term volcanic hazard analysis in the Canary Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becerril, L.; Galindo, I.; Laín, L.; Llorente, M.; Mancebo, M. J.

    2009-04-01

    Historic volcanism in Spain is restricted to the Canary Islands, a volcanic archipelago formed by seven volcanic islands. Several historic eruptions have been registered in the last five hundred years. However, and despite the huge amount of citizens and tourist in the archipelago, only a few volcanic hazard studies have been carried out. These studies are mainly focused in the developing of hazard maps in Lanzarote and Tenerife islands, especially for land use planning. The main handicap for these studies in the Canary Islands is the lack of well reported historical eruptions, but also the lack of data such as geochronological, geochemical or structural. In recent years, the use of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and the improvement in the volcanic processes modelling has provided an important tool for volcanic hazard assessment. Although this sophisticated programs are really useful they need to be fed by a huge amount of data that sometimes, such in the case of the Canary Islands, are not available. For this reason, the Spanish Geological Survey (IGME) is developing a complete geo-referenced database for long term volcanic analysis in the Canary Islands. The Canarian Volcanic Hazard Database (HADA) is based on a GIS helping to organize and manage volcanic information efficiently. HADA includes the following groups of information: (1) 1:25.000 scale geologic maps, (2) 1:25.000 topographic maps, (3) geochronologic data, (4) geochemical data, (5) structural information, (6) climatic data. Data must pass a quality control before they are included in the database. New data are easily integrated in the database. With the HADA database the IGME has started a systematic organization of the existing data. In the near future, the IGME will generate new information to be included in HADA, such as volcanological maps of the islands, structural information, geochronological data and other information to assess long term volcanic hazard analysis. HADA will permit

  11. Short-term Gains with Long-term Consequences: The Evolving Story of Sepsis Survivorship.

    PubMed

    Maley, Jason H; Mikkelsen, Mark E

    2016-06-01

    Sepsis is an acute, life-threatening condition that afflicts millions of patients annually. Advances in care and heightened awareness have led to substantial declines in short-term mortality. An expanding body of literature describes the long-term impact of sepsis, revealing long-term cognitive and functional impairments, sustained inflammation and immune dysfunction, increased healthcare resource use, reduced health-related quality of life, and increased mortality. The evidence challenges the notion that sepsis is an acute, transient illness, revealing rather that sepsis is an acute illness with lingering consequences. This article provides a state-of-the-art review of the emerging literature of the long-term consequences of sepsis. PMID:27229651

  12. Long-Term Stewardship Baseline Report and Transition Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Kristofferson, Keith

    2001-11-01

    Long-term stewardship consists of those actions necessary to maintain and demonstrate continued protection of human health and the environment after facility cleanup is complete. As the Department of Energy’s (DOE) lead laboratory for environmental management programs, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) administers DOE’s long-term stewardship science and technology efforts. The INEEL provides DOE with technical, and scientific expertise needed to oversee its long-term environmental management obligations complexwide. Long-term stewardship is administered and overseen by the Environmental Management Office of Science and Technology. The INEEL Long-Term Stewardship Program is currently developing the management structures and plans to complete INEEL-specific, long-term stewardship obligations. This guidance document (1) assists in ensuring that the program leads transition planning for the INEEL with respect to facility and site areas and (2) describes the classes and types of criteria and data required to initiate transition for areas and sites where the facility mission has ended and cleanup is complete. Additionally, this document summarizes current information on INEEL facilities, structures, and release sites likely to enter long-term stewardship at the completion of DOE’s cleanup mission. This document is not intended to function as a discrete checklist or local procedure to determine readiness to transition. It is an overarching document meant as guidance in implementing specific transition procedures. Several documents formed the foundation upon which this guidance was developed. Principal among these documents was the Long-Term Stewardship Draft Technical Baseline; A Report to Congress on Long-Term Stewardship, Volumes I and II; Infrastructure Long-Range Plan; Comprehensive Facility Land Use Plan; INEEL End-State Plan; and INEEL Institutional Plan.

  13. Japan's universal long-term care system reform of 2005: containing costs and realizing a vision.

    PubMed

    Tsutsui, Takako; Muramatsu, Naoko

    2007-09-01

    Japan implemented a mandatory social long-term care insurance (LTCI) system in 2000, making long-term care services a universal entitlement for every senior. Although this system has grown rapidly, reflecting its popularity among seniors and their families, it faces several challenges, including skyrocketing costs. This article describes the recent reform initiated by the Japanese government to simultaneously contain costs and realize a long-term vision of creating a community-based, prevention-oriented long-term care system. The reform involves introduction of two major elements: "hotel" and meal charges for nursing home residents and new preventive benefits. They were intended to reduce economic incentives for institutionalization, dampen provider-induced demand, and prevent seniors from being dependent by intervening while their need levels are still low. The ongoing LTCI reform should be critically evaluated against the government's policy intentions as well as its effect on seniors, their families, and society. The story of this reform is instructive for other countries striving to develop coherent, politically acceptable long-term care policies. PMID:17767690

  14. Cost considerations for long-term ecological monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Caughlan, L.; Oakley, K.L.

    2001-01-01

    For an ecological monitoring program to be successful over the long-term, the perceived benefits of the information must justify the cost. Financial limitations will always restrict the scope of a monitoring program, hence the program's focus must be carefully prioritized. Clearly identifying the costs and benefits of a program will assist in this prioritization process, but this is easier said than done. Frequently, the true costs of monitoring are not recognized and are, therefore, underestimated. Benefits are rarely evaluated, because they are difficult to quantify. The intent of this review is to assist the designers and managers of long-term ecological monitoring programs by providing a general framework for building and operating a cost-effective program. Previous considerations of monitoring costs have focused on sampling design optimization. We present cost considerations of monitoring in a broader context. We explore monitoring costs, including both budgetary costs--what dollars are spent on--and economic costs, which include opportunity costs. Often, the largest portion of a monitoring program budget is spent on data collection, and other, critical aspects of the program, such as scientific oversight, training, data management, quality assurance, and reporting, are neglected. Recognizing and budgeting for all program costs is therefore a key factor in a program's longevity. The close relationship between statistical issues and cost is discussed, highlighting the importance of sampling design, replication and power, and comparing the costs of alternative designs through pilot studies and simulation modeling. A monitoring program development process that includes explicit checkpoints for considering costs is presented. The first checkpoint occur during the setting of objectives and during sampling design optimization. The last checkpoint occurs once the basic shape of the program is known, and the costs and benefits, or alternatively the cost

  15. What nursing diagnoses do nurses use in long term care?

    PubMed

    Daly, J M; Maas, M; Buckwalter, K

    1995-01-01

    The results of this survey validate that the NANDA nursing diagnoses classification is appropriate for use in long term care. Although ninety three percent of the current NANDA nursing diagnoses are used in practice, there remains a need for the development and testing of additional nursing diagnoses to describe patient problems encountered in long term care. Nurses in education and practice settings must work collaboratively to continue to identify, refine and validate the nursing diagnoses that are most appropriate for frail, older and/or chronically ill residents of long term care facilities. PMID:7648273

  16. Space ventures and society long-term perspectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, W. M.

    1985-01-01

    A futuristic evaluation of mankind's potential long term future in space is presented. Progress in space will not be inhibited by shortages of the Earth's physical resources, since long term economic growth will be focused on ways to constrain industrial productivity by changing social values, management styles, or government competence. Future technological progress is likely to accelerate with an emphasis on international cooperation, making possible such large joint projects as lunar colonies or space stations on Mars. The long term future in space looks exceedingly bright even in relatively pessimistic scenarios. The principal driving forces will be technological progress, commercial and public-oriented satellites, space industrialization, space travel, and eventually space colonization.

  17. Breast Cancer Survivorship: A Comprehensive Review of Long-Term Medical Issues and Lifestyle Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Bodai, Balazs I; Tuso, Phillip

    2015-01-01

    Long-term survival rates after a diagnosis of breast cancer are steadily rising. This is good news, but clinicians must also recognize that this brings new challenges to the medical community. As breast cancer becomes a chronic condition rather than a life-threatening illness owing to advances in early diagnosis and more effective treatments, health care practitioners must recognize and manage the long-term sequelae of the constellation of therapeutic modalities. Survivors of breast cancer represent a unique and extremely complex group of patients; not only do they have the challenge of dealing with multiple long-term side effects of treatment protocols, but many are also forced to address the preexisting comorbidities of their therapies, which often include multiple other issues. Therapies have additional and/or additive side effects that may interfere with treatments directed toward the new primary diagnosis of breast cancer. Our mandate is to establish a smooth transition from patient with breast cancer to survivor of breast cancer while providing ongoing and future guidance. Certainly, the information and resources to accomplish this transition are readily available; however, they are scattered throughout the literature and therefore are not easily accessible or available to the primary care physician. It is imperative that the information available regarding survivorship issues be accessible in an organized and useful format. This article is a modest attempt to provide a comprehensive review of the long-term medical issues relevant to survivorship after the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer. A predicted shortage of oncologists by 2020 is well-recognized. Therefore, the bulk of long-term care will become dependent on the primary care physician. This shift of care means that these physicians will need to be well educated in the long-term medical issues related to breast cancer treatment. PMID:25902343

  18. Strategies to meet the need for long-term data.

    PubMed

    Chalmers, John; Woodward, Mark; Borghi, Claudio; Manolis, Athanasios; Mancia, Giuseppe

    2016-08-01

    Chronic diseases afflict patients for many years, often to the end of life, and there is increasing need for estimating lifelong risk and for evaluating the effects of treatment in the long term. Yet recommendations for lifelong treatment are most frequently based on findings from randomized clinical trials lasting only a few years. There is therefore a clear need for much longer term data, and here we present the advantages and disadvantages of many strategies, including the use of long-term posttrial follow-up, of long-term prospective cohort studies, registry databases, and of administrative databases. We also emphasize the need for long-term cost-effectiveness studies. One of the most promising strategies comes from linkage of data gathered through the ever-expanding pool of administrative databases worldwide with data from other sources, including randomized trials and the many forms of observational study. PMID:27270189

  19. Long-term monitoring for nanomedicine implants and drugs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendall, Michaela; Lynch, Iseult

    2016-03-01

    Increasing globalization means that traditional occupational epidemiological approaches may no longer apply, suggesting a need for an alternative model to assess the long-term impact of nanomaterial exposure on health.

  20. Earth's Long-Term Warming Trend, 1880-2015

    NASA Video Gallery

    This visualization illustrates Earth’s long-term warming trend, showing temperature changes from 1880 to 2015 as a rolling five-year average. Orange colors represent temperatures that are warmer th...

  1. Long-term Career Goals for Professional Women in Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klepper, Betty

    1986-01-01

    Encourages the formation of long-term career goals for women in agronomy. Offers perspectives and practical suggestions for obtaining positions, maintaining professional credentials, and managing personal and career related obligations. (ML)

  2. Kids' Mild Brain Injury Can Have Long-Term Effects

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160606.html Kids' Mild Brain Injury Can Have Long-Term Effects Early head ... 000 Swedes who suffered at least one traumatic brain injury (TBI) before age 25 with their unaffected ...

  3. Long-term Outcomes of Childhood Onset Nephrotic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hjorten, Rebecca; Anwar, Zohra; Reidy, Kimberly Jean

    2016-01-01

    There are limited studies on long-term outcomes of childhood onset nephrotic syndrome (NS). A majority of children with NS have steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome (SSNS). Steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) is associated with a high risk of developing end-stage renal disease. Biomarkers and analysis of genetic mutations may provide new information for prognosis in SRNS. Frequently relapsing and steroid-dependent NS is associated with long-term complications, including dyslipidemia, cataracts, osteoporosis and fractures, obesity, impaired growth, and infertility. Long-term complications of SSNS are likely to be under-recognized. There remain many gaps in our knowledge of long-term outcomes of childhood NS, and further study is indicated. PMID:27252935

  4. The market for long-term care services.

    PubMed

    Grabowski, David C

    2008-01-01

    Although a large literature has established the importance of market and regulatory forces within the long-term care sector, current research in this field is limited by a series of data, measurement, and methodological issues. This paper provides a comprehensive review of these issues with an emphasis on identifying initiatives that will increase the volume and quality of long-term care research. Recommendations include: the construction of standard measures of long-term care market boundaries, the broader dissemination of market and regulatory data, the linkage of survey-based data with market measures, the encouragement of further market-based studies of noninstitutional long-term care settings, and the standardization of Medicaid cost data. PMID:18524292

  5. Long term combination treatment for severe idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Affuso, Flora; Cirillo, Plinio; Ruvolo, Antonio; Carlomagno, Guido; Fazio, Serafino

    2010-01-01

    We report the long-term follow-up of 3 cases of severe idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension, in whom tadalafil plus sitaxentan combination therapy improved the clinical condition and exercise performance without any relevant adverse event. PMID:21160759

  6. Long-Term Quiescent Fibroblast Cells Transit into Senescence

    PubMed Central

    Marthandan, Shiva; Priebe, Steffen; Hemmerich, Peter; Klement, Karolin; Diekmann, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    Cellular senescence is described to be a consequence of telomere erosion during the replicative life span of primary human cells. Quiescence should therefore not contribute to cellular aging but rather extend lifespan. Here we tested this hypothesis and demonstrate that cultured long-term quiescent human fibroblasts transit into senescence due to similar cellular mechanisms with similar dynamics and with a similar maximum life span as proliferating controls, even under physiological oxygen conditions. Both, long-term quiescent and senescent fibroblasts almost completely fail to undergo apoptosis. The transition of long-term quiescent fibroblasts into senescence is also independent of HES1 which protects short-term quiescent cells from becoming senescent. Most significantly, DNA damage accumulates during senescence as well as during long-term quiescence at physiological oxygen levels. We suggest that telomere-independent, potentially maintenance driven gradual induction of cellular senescence during quiescence is a counterbalance to tumor development. PMID:25531649

  7. Long-Term Ecological Monitoring Field Sampling Plan for 2007

    SciTech Connect

    T. Haney R. VanHorn

    2007-07-31

    This field sampling plan describes the field investigations planned for the Long-Term Ecological Monitoring Project at the Idaho National Laboratory Site in 2007. This plan and the Quality Assurance Project Plan for Waste Area Groups 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10, and Removal Actions constitute the sampling and analysis plan supporting long-term ecological monitoring sampling in 2007. The data collected under this plan will become part of the long-term ecological monitoring data set that is being collected annually. The data will be used t determine the requirements for the subsequent long-term ecological monitoring. This plan guides the 2007 investigations, including sampling, quality assurance, quality control, analytical procedures, and data management. As such, this plan will help to ensure that the resulting monitoring data will be scientifically valid, defensible, and of known and acceptable quality.

  8. Long-term depot antipsychotics. A risk-benefit assessment.

    PubMed

    Barnes, T R; Curson, D A

    1994-06-01

    The main advantage of depot antipsychotic medication is that it overcomes the problem of covert noncompliance. Patients receiving depot treatment who refuse their injection or fail to receive it for any other reason can be immediately identified and appropriate action taken. In the context of a carefully monitored management programme, depot treatment can have a major impact on compliance and, consequently, the risk of relapse and hospitalisation can be reduced. Another major advantage is that the considerable individual variation in bioavailability and metabolism with oral antipsychotic drugs is markedly reduced with depot treatment. A better correlation between the dose administered and the concentration of medication found in blood or plasma is achieved with depot treatment, and thus, the clinician has greater control over the amount of drug being delivered to the site of activity. A further benefit of depot treatment is the achievement of stable plasma concentrations over long periods, allowing injections to be given every few weeks. However, this also represents a potential disadvantage in that there is a lack of flexibility of administration. Should adverse effects develop, the drug cannot be rapidly withdrawn. Furthermore, adjustment to the optimal dose becomes a long term strategy. The controlled studies of low dose maintenance therapy with depot treatment suggest that it can take months or years for the consequences of dose reduction, in terms of increased risk of relapse, to become manifest. When weighing up the risks and benefits of long term antipsychotic treatment for the individual patient with schizophrenia, the clinician must take into account the nature, severity and frequency of past relapses, and the degree of distress and disability related to any adverse effects. However, the clinical decision to prescribe either a depot or an oral antipsychotic for maintenance treatment will probably rest largely on an assessment of the risk of poor compliance

  9. Long-Term Course of Borderline Personality Disorder.

    PubMed

    Stone, Michael H

    2016-01-01

    Information concerning the longitudinal course of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) derives mainly from (a) long-term (10 to 25 year) retrospective follow-up studies, primarily those conducted during the 1980s/1990s, (b) brief (1 to 3 year) follow-up studies of recent randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of several different treatment approaches, and (c) prospective follow-up studies. The patients contacted in the retrospective studies had been treated mostly by psychoanalytically informed approaches or supportive. Though there was a significant suicide rate of 3 to 9%, about two-thirds of the BPD patients eventually achieved a global assessment score in the 60s or beyond. BPD represents a heterogeneous group of patients, whose outcome is a function of many variables, including personality traits (paranoid and narcissistic conducing to less favorable outcomes), cultural differences, socio-economic level, intelligence level, gender, and age of onset. The RCT studies focused on amelioration of the symptom components of BPD, especially tendencies to self-injury and suicide. The currently favored treatment methods showed in a large percentage of patients, a lessening of these self-destructive behaviors after a year or two of treatment. The time spans were too brief to allow assessment of improvement in key life areas (attainment of self-sufficiency in work, widening of the circle of friends, and success in forming satisfactory intimate partnerships). The prospective studies are based on reassessments at regular intervals of BPD patients and a control group with other personality disorders. Over the past 16 years the BPD patients, compared with controls, were slower to achieve remission, and more apt to show cognitive peculiarities initially-though they showed appreciable improvement over time. The "recovered" BPD patients, compared with the non-recovered patients, showed twice the likelihood of achieving a successful intimate relationship. At 16 years the Mc

  10. Long-term impact of pesticides use on vineyard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabatier, Pierre; Poulenard, Jérôme; Fanget, Bernard; Reyss, Jean-Louis; Develle, Anne-Lise; Ployon, Estelle; Wilhelm, Bruno; Naffrechoux, Emmanuel; Dorioz, Jean-Marcel; Montuelle, Bernard; Arnaud, Fabien

    2014-05-01

    Worldwide increase of pesticides uses in agriculture has been growing over the past decades but their long-term fate and effects on environment and ecosystem are poorly understood. Here, we present a retro-observation approach based on lake sediment record to monitor micropollutants and to evaluate the long term impact of pesticides treatments on a vineyard catchment in Savoie (France). In this study, we combined sedimentological and geochemical analyses to reconstruct the recent history of wine practices. The sediment sequence chronology, based on short-live radionuclides (210Pb/137Cs), provides a well constrain continuous age-depth relationship covering to the last century. Over this period, we reconstruct the succession of fungicides, insecticides and herbicides in relation to the appearance of new chemical substances and the banning of old ones. The first use of fungicide began at the end of the 19th century with the Bordeaux mixture (Cu). After the World War II, we observed an intensification of fungicides treatment against mildew, powdery mildew, Botrytis fungi and black rot with specific molecules succession. Insecticides used in vineyard treatment against tetranychid and eriophyid mites were observed since 1940 with a main increase in 1970. Dicofol, Bromopropylate, Bifenthrin succeed to DDT banning in 1972, but a secondary source of DDT appeared at the early of 90's. The first herbicides use was observed between 1960 and 1970 with the presence of Triazine metabolite (pre-emergence herbicide) and high value of AMPA (Glyphosate metabolite, Roundup®), used as post-emergence herbicide, were found since 1990. Two sedimentation rate increases in 1973 and 1994 could be directly assigned to wine practices. In early 70's, heavy farm machinery associated to the first application of pre-emergence herbicide, induced a first increase of soil erosion. In early 90's, post-emergence herbicide (Roundup®) treatment had a stronger impact on soil erosion with a huge

  11. Long-Term Memory for Affiliates in Ravens

    PubMed Central

    Boeckle, Markus; Bugnyar, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Summary Complex social life requires individuals to recognize and remember group members [1] and, within those, to distinguish affiliates from nonaffiliates. Whereas long-term individual recognition has been demonstrated in some nonhuman animals [2–5], memory for the relationship valence to former group members has received little attention. Here we show that adult, pair-housed ravens not only respond differently to the playback of calls from previous group members and unfamiliar conspecifics but also discriminate between familiar birds according to the relationship valence they had to those subjects up to three years ago as subadult nonbreeders. The birds' distinction between familiar and unfamiliar individuals is reflected mainly in the number of calls, whereas their differentiation according to relationship valence is reflected in call modulation only. As compared to their response to affiliates, ravens responded to nonaffiliates by increasing chaotic parts of the vocalization and lowering formant spacing, potentially exaggerating the perceived impression of body size. Our findings indicate that ravens remember relationship qualities to former group members even after long periods of separation, confirming that their sophisticated social knowledge as nonbreeders is maintained into the territorial breeding stage. PMID:22521788

  12. Electrophysiological Correlates of Long-Term Soto Zen Meditation

    PubMed Central

    Pasquini, Henrique Adam; Tanaka, Guaraci Ken; Basile, Luis Fernando Hindi; Velasques, Bruna; Lozano, Mirna Delposo

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to verify the electrophysiological correlates of the changes in long-term regular meditators. We use modern techniques of high-resolution electroencephalography applied to slow potentials, power spectra, and potencies related to the events. To obtain encephalographic records, we use an assembly of 128 channels in 31 subjects (17 Soto Zen Buddhist meditators). The motivation of this study was to determine whether the induced beta power would present an increase in meditators as well as a decrease in induced theta/beta ratio in absolute and relative values. However, opposite to what we expected, no significant change was found in the beta frequency. In contrast, the main findings of the study were correlations between the frequency of weekly meditation practice and the increased theta induced relative power, increase of induced power ratio (ratio theta/beta), and increase of the ratio of induced relative powers (theta/beta ratio) during our task that featured an “adapted meditation,” suggesting that the meditative state of “mindfulness” is much more related to the permittivity of “distractions” by the meditators, with a deliberate reduction of attention. PMID:25632397

  13. Long-term effects of cannabis on brain structure.

    PubMed

    Battistella, Giovanni; Fornari, Eleonora; Annoni, Jean-Marie; Chtioui, Haithem; Dao, Kim; Fabritius, Marie; Favrat, Bernard; Mall, Jean-Frédéric; Maeder, Philippe; Giroud, Christian

    2014-08-01

    The dose-dependent toxicity of the main psychoactive component of cannabis in brain regions rich in cannabinoid CB1 receptors is well known in animal studies. However, research in humans does not show common findings across studies regarding the brain regions that are affected after long-term exposure to cannabis. In the present study, we investigate (using Voxel-based Morphometry) gray matter changes in a group of regular cannabis smokers in comparison with a group of occasional smokers matched by the years of cannabis use. We provide evidence that regular cannabis use is associated with gray matter volume reduction in the medial temporal cortex, temporal pole, parahippocampal gyrus, insula, and orbitofrontal cortex; these regions are rich in cannabinoid CB1 receptors and functionally associated with motivational, emotional, and affective processing. Furthermore, these changes correlate with the frequency of cannabis use in the 3 months before inclusion in the study. The age of onset of drug use also influences the magnitude of these changes. Significant gray matter volume reduction could result either from heavy consumption unrelated to the age of onset or instead from recreational cannabis use initiated at an adolescent age. In contrast, the larger gray matter volume detected in the cerebellum of regular smokers without any correlation with the monthly consumption of cannabis may be related to developmental (ontogenic) processes that occur in adolescence. PMID:24633558

  14. Long term measurements of optical properties and their hygroscopic enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hervo, M.; Sellegri, K.; Pichon, J. M.; Roger, J. C.; Laj, P.

    2014-11-01

    Optical properties of aerosols were measured from the GAW Puy de Dôme station (1465 m) over a seven year period (2006-2012). The impact of hygroscopicity on aerosol optical properties was calculated over a two year period (2010-2011). The analysis of the spatial and temporal variability of the optical properties showed that while no long term trend was found, a clear seasonal and diurnal variation was observed on the extensive parameters (scattering, absorption). Scattering and absorption coefficients were highest during the warm season and daytime, in concordance with the seasonality and diurnal variation of the PBL height reaching the site. Intensive parameters (single scattering albedo, asymmetry factor, refractive index) did not show such a strong diurnal variability, but still indicated different values depending on the season. Both extensive and intensive optical parameters were sensitive to the air mass origin. A strong impact of hygroscopicity on aerosol optical properties was calculated, mainly on aerosol scattering, with a dependence on the aerosol type. At 90% humidity, the scattering factor enhancement (fσsca) was more than 4.4 for oceanic aerosol that have mixed with a pollution plume. Consequently, the aerosol radiative forcing was estimated to be 2.8 times higher at RH = 90% and 1.75 times higher at ambient RH when hygroscopic growth of the aerosol was considered. The hygroscopicity enhancement factor of the scattering coefficient was parameterized as a function of humidity and air mass type.

  15. Maintaining Engagement in Long-term Interventions with Relational Agents

    PubMed Central

    Bickmore, Timothy; Schulman, Daniel; Yin, Langxuan

    2011-01-01

    We discuss issues in designing virtual humans for applications which require long-term voluntary use, and the problem of maintaining engagement with users over time. Concepts and theories related to engagement from a variety of disciplines are reviewed. We describe a platform for conducting studies into long-term interactions between humans and virtual agents, and present the results of two longitudinal randomized controlled experiments in which the effect of manipulations of agent behavior on user engagement was assessed. PMID:21318052

  16. Long-term effects of sludge application to land

    SciTech Connect

    Geertsema, W.S. ); Knocke, W.R.; Novak, J.T.; Dove, D. . Dept. of Civil Engineering)

    1994-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term environmental effects of applying alum sludge to land. Investigations at the original field site included soil analysis, soil water monitoring, groundwater monitoring, and analysis of tissues from pine needles. No long-term (30 months) effects were observed, and the authors conclude that alum coagulant sludges can be applied to forest lands at loading rates of at least 1.5 to 2.5% by dry weight without adverse effect.

  17. Zambia : long-term generation expansion study - executive summary.

    SciTech Connect

    Conzelmann, G.; Koritarov, V.; Buehring, W.; Veselka, T.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2008-02-28

    The objective of this study is to analyze possible long-term development options of the Zambian electric power system in the period up to 2015. The analysis involved the hydro operations studies of the Zambezi river basin and the systems planning studies for the least-cost generation expansion planning. Two well-known and widely accepted computer models were used in the analysis: PC-VALORAGUA model for the hydro operations and optimization studies and the WASP-III Plus model for the optimization of long-term system development. The WASP-III Plus model is a part of the Argonne National Laboratory's Energy and Power Evaluation Model (ENPEP). The analysis was conducted in close collaboration with the Zambia Electricity Supply Corporation (ZESCO). On the initiative from The World Bank, the sponsor of the study, ZESCO formed a team of experts that participated in the analysis and were trained in the use of computer models. Both models were transferred to ZESCO free of charge and installed on several computers in the ZESCO corporate offices in Lusaka. In September-October 1995, two members of the ZESCO National Team participated in a 4-week training course at Argonne National Laboratory near Chicago, U.S.A., focusing on the long-term system expansion planning using the WASP and VALORAGUA models. The hydropower operations studies were performed for the whole Zambezi river basin, including the full installation of the Kariba power station, and the Cahora Bassa hydro power station in Mozambique. The analysis also included possible future projects such as Itezhi-Tezhi, Kafue Gorge Lower, and Batoka Gorge power stations. As hydropower operations studies served to determine the operational characteristics of the existing and future hydro power plants, it was necessary to simulate the whole Zambezi river basin in order to take into account all interactions and mutual influences between the hydro power plants. In addition, it allowed for the optimization of reservoir management

  18. Long-term tillage and cropping sequence influence on dryland soil aggregate-carbon dynamics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sequestration and transformation of soil C as a result of long-term management practices occur mainly in aggregates. This study evaluated the 21-yr effect of tillage and cropping sequence combinations on dryland soil C sequestration and transformation into various C fractions in aggregates at the 0-...

  19. Solving Long-Term Unemployment in Dublin: The Lessons from Policy Innovation. Policy Paper No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Eithne; Ingolsby, Brid; Daly, Fiona

    This report identifies what policies can be effective in eliminating hard-core unemployment in Dublin and preventing its re-emergence in a new generation. An executive summary precedes the main body of the report. Chapter 1 describes the background of economic boom against which the persistence of long-term unemployment appears paradoxical;…

  20. Long term contracts, expansion, innovation and stability: North Dakota's lignite mines thrive

    SciTech Connect

    Buchsbaum, L.

    2009-08-15

    North Dakota's lignite coal industry is mainly located in three countries in the central part of the state. Its large surface lignite mines are tied through long-term (20-40 years) contracts to power plants. The article talks about operations at three of the most productive mines - the Freedom mine, Falkirk mine and Center Mine. 4 figs.

  1. Private Financing Options for Long-term Care

    PubMed Central

    Brody, Barbara L.; Simon, Harold J.; Smallwood, Dennis E.

    1987-01-01

    Private financing for long-term care now comes almost exclusively from out-of-pocket payments. Long-term-care costs quickly impoverish most elderly, resulting in Medicaid dependency. The consequences are profound for the western Sun Belt with its rapidly growing elderly population. Key private financing options are long-term-care individual retirement accounts (LTC/IRAs), home equity conversion, social-health maintenance organizations and long-term-care insurance. Study of data from the past half century suggests that the LTC/IRA approach would prove unsatisfactory for the purpose despite the intuitive appeal of this mechanism. Experience with home equity conversions is still very limited, and unresolved questions limit this approach to the role of a reserve option for now. While promising, social-health maintenance organizations are still in the experimental stages and not yet commercially available. Long-term-care insurance is currently sold on a thin market and emphasizes nursing home coverage. New approaches to private financing through long-term-care insurance seem to offer the best approach for immediate implementation. PMID:3118576

  2. Commentary: The Broader Context of Long-Term Care Ethics.

    PubMed

    Lesandrini, Jason; O'Connell, Carol

    2016-07-01

    Ethical issues in long-term care settings, although having received attention in the literature, have not in our opinion received the appropriate level they require. Thus, we applaud the Cambridge Quarterly for publishing this case. We can attest to the significance of ethical issues arising in long-term care facilities, as Mr. Hope's case is all too familiar to those practicing in these settings. What is unique about this case is that an actual ethics consult was made in a long-term care setting. We have seen very little in the published literature on the use of ethics structures in long-term care populations. Our experience is that these healthcare settings are ripe for ethical concerns and that providers, patients, families, and staff need/desire ethics resources to actively and preventively address ethical concerns. The popular press has begun to recognize the ethical issues involved in long-term care settings and the need for ethics structures. Recently, in California a nurse refused to initiate CPR for an elderly patient in a senior residence. In that case, the nurse was quoted as saying that the facility had a policy that nurses were not to start CPR for elderly patients. 1 Although this case is not exactly the same as that of Mr. Hope, it highlights the need for developing robust ethics program infrastructures in long-term care settings that work toward addressing ethical issues through policy, education, and active consultation. PMID:27348841

  3. Methods for estimation of long-term non-carbonate neutralisation of acid rock drainage.

    PubMed

    Miller, Stuart D; Stewart, Warwick S; Rusdinar, Yuni; Schumann, Russell E; Ciccarelli, Joseph M; Li, Jun; Smart, Roger St C

    2010-04-01

    In the long-term phase of an acid rock drainage (ARD) evolution profile, after any short-term neutralisation capacity provided by carbonate minerals is exhausted, the net acid release is a product of a declining acid generation rate (AGR) and a slower, long-term acid neutralisation rate mainly provided by gangue silicate minerals. At some point, the AGR and the non-carbonate acid neutralisation rate (ANRnc) will be similar. Matching of the AGR and ANRnc near 10mg H(2)SO(4)/kg/week is demonstrated in data from 10-year columns. This long-term neutralisation is not measured at present in any accepted assessment tests. Methods to estimate ANRnc, based on silicate mineralogy and solution assays from long-term column leach tests, are compared. Good agreement is demonstrated between rates measured from the solution assay data and those calculated from mineralogy using kinetic databases. More rigorous analysis of the leachate chemistry of selected long-term leach tests also suggests possible cover design criteria based on the maximum AGR that will maintain a pH>4 in leachate from ARD materials. The data show a distinct break at an AGR of 3mg H(2)SO(4)/kg/week, below which no leachate pH is less than 4. The results indicate that an AGR of 10t H(2)SO(4)/ha/year is conservative and a suitable cover design target for ARD control that would be matched by ANRnc. PMID:20097405

  4. Long-term safety and efficacy of infliximab for the treatment of ankylosing spondylitis

    PubMed Central

    Elalouf, Ofir; Elkayam, Ori

    2015-01-01

    The introduction of TNFα blockers has revolutionized the treatment of ankylosing spondylitis (AS). The objectives of this review are to summarize the most up-to-date data on long-term efficacy and safety of infliximab in AS, with special emphasis on axial and extra-articular disease, predictors of response, and radiological response. The general consensus of this literature search was that infliximab is highly efficacious in the treatment of AS. Most studies have demonstrated good clinical outcomes after 3 years of treatment, as measured by Spondyloarthritis International Society response in 75%–85% of treated AS patients. Reports on the long-term effects of infliximab as documented by radiological findings, however, are controversial. While some studies reported a similar progression rate as that of the historical OASIS cohort, others have suggested that infliximab may halt new bone formation. The long-term safety of infliximab is well known, mainly from data stored in national registries. While it has been suggested that side effects of infliximab may be fewer in AS compared to rheumatoid arthritis, data on this issue are sparse, with most of the information on long-term safety pertaining to rheumatoid arthritis. It can however be concluded that the long-term efficacy of infliximab is apparently maintained in AS and with an acceptable safety profile. PMID:26640380

  5. Long-term degradation (or improvement?) of cementitious grout/concrete for waste disposal at Hanford

    SciTech Connect

    Piepho, M.G.

    1997-12-31

    If grout and/or concrete barriers and containments are considered for long-term (500 yrs to 100,000 ) waste disposal, then long-term degradation of grout/cement materials (and others) need to be studied. Long-term degradations of a cementitious grout monolith (15.4mW x 10.4mH x 37.6mL) and its containment concrete shell and asphalt shell (each 1-m thick) were analyzed. The main degradation process of the concrete shell was believed to be fractures due to construction joints, shrinkage, thermal stress, settlement, and seismic events. A scenario with fractures was modeled (flow and transport model) for long-term risk performance (out to a million yrs). Even though the concrete/grout is expected to fracture, the concrete/grout chemistry, which has high Ph value, is very beneficial in causing calcite deposits from calcium in the water precipitating in the fractures. These calcite deposits will tend to plug the fracture and keep water from entering. The effectiveness of such plugging needs to be studied more. It`s possible that the plugged fractures are more impermeable than the original concrete/grout. The long-term performance of concrete/grout barriers will be determined by its chemistry, not its mechanical properties.

  6. Contribution of recovery mechanisms of microstructure during long-term creep of Gr.91 steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghassemi-Armaki, H.; Chen, R. P.; Maruyama, K.; Igarashi, M.

    2013-02-01

    Creep rupture life and microstructural degradation have been studied in two heats of Gr.91 steels. The coarsening of subgrains and precipitates, mainly M23C6 and MX, has been evaluated during static aging and creep. Hardness of head (static aging) and gauge (creep) portions of crept samples were measured to know their relation with microstructural degradation during long-term exposure. The correlation between subgrain size and spacing of precipitates and hardness has been equated. As an example, there is a close correlation between hardness value and inverse subgrains size in Gr.91 steels, regardless of aging or creep conditions. The appearance of three recovery mechanisms was found during long-term creep, namely: strain-induced recovery, pure static recovery and strain-assisted static recovery. By equated correlations between subgrain size, precipitates and hardness, the contribution of three recovery mechanisms to subgrain coarsening and hardness drop were calculated for two creep conditions at 700 °C in long-term creep region, where breakdown of creep strength has happen. The calculated data accord well with experimental data obtained from aged and crept samples. The contribution of static recovery to the subgrain coarsening and consequent hardness drop during long-term creep increases with increasing creep time. The significant contribution of both static recovery mechanisms can result in the breakdown of creep strength in long-term creep region.

  7. X-rays from Pre-Main Sequence Stars: Recent Results and Future Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skinner, S.

    2016-08-01

    I will summarize recent results of X-ray observations of pre-main sequence (PMS) stars, focusing on XMM-Newton RGS and Chandra HETG observations of RY Tau. These observations provide the best grating spectra obtained so far of a jet-driving T Tauri star. I will also identify key questions regarding the origin and nature of X-ray emission from PMS stars that have emerged from 16 years of XMM-Newton and Chandra observations and which present challenges for the next decade.

  8. Numerical simulation of gender differences in a long-term microgravity exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Poch, Antoni

    The objective of this work is to analyse and simulate gender differences when individuals are exposed to long-term microgravity. Risk probability of a health impairment which may put in jeopardy a long-term mission is also evaluated. Computer simulations are becoming a promising research line of work, as physiological models become more and more sophisticated and reliable. Technological advances in state-of-the-art hardware technology and software allow nowadays for better and more accurate simulations of complex phenomena, such as the response of the human cardiovascular system to long-term exposure to microgravity. Experimental data for long-term missions are difficult to achieve and reproduce, therefore the predictions of computer simulations are of a major importance in this field. Our approach is based on a previous model developed and implemented in our laboratory (NELME: Numerical Evaluation of Long-term Microgravity Effects). The software simulates the behaviour of the cardiovascular system and different human organs, has a modular architecture, and allows to introduce perturbations such as physical exercise or countermeasures. The implementation is based on a complex electricallike model of this control system, using inexpensive software development frameworks, and has been tested and validated with the available experimental data. Gender differences have been implemented for this specific work, as an adjustment of a number of parameters that are included in the model. Women versus men physiological differences have been therefore taken into account, based upon estimations from the physiology bibliography. A number of simulations have been carried out for long-term exposure to microgravity. Gravity varying from Earth-based to zero, and time exposure are the two main variables involved in the construction of results, including responses to patterns of physical aerobical exercise, and also thermal stress simulating an extra-vehicular activity. Results show

  9. Long Term Discharge Estimation for Ogoué River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyler, F.; Linguet, L.; Calmant, S.

    2014-12-01

    Ogoué river basin is one the last preserved tropical rain forest basin in the world. The river basin covers about 75% of Gabon. Results of a study conducted on wall-to wall forest cover map using Landsat images (Fichet et al., 2014) gave a net forest loss of 0,38% from 1990 and 2000 and sensibly the same loss rate between 2000 and 2010. However, the country launched recently an ambitious development plan, with communication infrastructure, agriculture and forestry as well as mining projects. Hydrological cycle response to changes may be expected, in both quantitative and qualitative aspects. Unfortunately monitoring gauging stations have stopped functioning in the seventies, and Gabon will then be unable to evaluate, mitigate and adapt adequately to these environmental challenges. Historical data were registered during 42 years at Lambaréné (from 1929 to 1974) and during 10 to 20 years at 17 other ground stations. The quantile function approach (Tourian et al., 2013) has been tested to estimate discharge from J2 and ERS/Envisat/AltiKa virtual stations. This is an opportunity to assess long term discharge patterns in order to monitor land use change effects and eventual disturbance in runoff. Figure 1: Ogoué River basin: J2 (red) and ERS/ENVISAT/ALTIKa (purple) virtual stations Fichet, L. V., Sannier, C., Massard Makaga, E. K., Seyler, F. (2013) Assessing the accuracy of forest cover map for 1990, 2000 and 2010 at national scale in Gabon. In press IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote SensingTourian, M. J., Sneeuw, N., & Bárdossy, A. (2013). A quantile function approach to discharge estimation from satellite altimetry (ENVISAT). Water Resources Research, 49(7), 4174-4186. doi:10.1002/wrcr.20348

  10. Issues of Long-Term Cryogenic Propellant Storage in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muratov, C. B.; Osipov, Viatcheslav V.; Smelyanskiy, Vadim N.

    2011-01-01

    Modern multi-layer insulation (MLI) allows to sharply reduce the heat leak into cryogenic propellant storage tanks through the tank surface and, as a consequence, significantly extend the storage duration. In this situation the MLI penetrations, such as support struts, feed lines, etc., become one of the most significant challenges of the tanks heat management. This problem is especially acute for liquid hydrogen (LH2) storage, since currently no efficient cryocoolers exist that operate at very low LH2 temperatures (20K). Even small heat leaks under microgravity conditions and over the period of many months give rise to a complex slowly-developing, large-scale spatiotemporal physical phenomena in a multi-phase liquid-vapor mixture. These phenomena are not well-understood nor can be easily controlled. They can be of a potentially hazardous nature for long-term on-orbital cryogenic torage, propellant loading, tank chilldown, engine restart, and other in-space cryogenic fluid management operations. To support the engineering design solutions that would mitigate these effects a detailed physics-based analysis of heat transfer, vapor bubble formation, growth, motion, coalescence and collapse is required in the presence of stirring jets of different configurations and passive cooling devices such as MLI, thermodynamic vent system, and vapor-cooled shield. To develop physics-based models and correlations reliable for microgravity conditions and long-time scales there is a need for new fundamental data to be collected from on-orbit cryogenic storage experiments. Our report discusses some of these physical phenomena and the design requirements and future studies necessary for their mitigation. Special attention is payed to the phenomena occurring near MLI penetrations.

  11. Biocompatibility of Ti-alloys for long-term implantation.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Hady Gepreel, Mohamed; Niinomi, Mitsuo

    2013-04-01

    The design of new low-cost Ti-alloys with high biocompatibility for implant applications, using ubiquitous alloying elements in order to establish the strategic method for suppressing utilization of rare metals, is a challenge. To meet the demands of longer human life and implantation in younger patients, the development of novel metallic alloys for biomedical applications is aiming at providing structural materials with excellent chemical, mechanical and biological biocompatibility. It is, therefore, likely that the next generation of structural materials for replacing hard human tissue would be of those Ti-alloys that do not contain any of the cytotoxic elements, elements suspected of causing neurological disorders or elements that have allergic effect. Among the other mechanical properties, the low Young's modulus alloys have been given a special attention recently, in order to avoid the occurrence of stress shielding after implantation. Therefore, many Ti-alloys were developed consisting of biocompatible elements such as Ti, Zr, Nb, Mo, and Ta, and showed excellent mechanical properties including low Young's modulus. However, a recent attention was directed towards the development of low cost-alloys that have a minimum amount of the high melting point and high cost rare-earth elements such as Ta, Nb, Mo, and W. This comes with substituting these metals with the common low cost, low melting point and biocompatible metals such as Fe, Mn, Sn, and Si, while keeping excellent mechanical properties without deterioration. Therefore, the investigation of mechanical and biological biocompatibility of those low-cost Ti-alloys is highly recommended now lead towards commercial alloys with excellent biocompatibility for long-term implantation. PMID:23507261

  12. Wastewater treatment by soil infiltration: Long-term phosphorus removal.

    PubMed

    Eveborn, David; Kong, Deguo; Gustafsson, Jon Petter

    2012-10-01

    Phosphorus (P) leaching from on-site wastewater treatment systems may contribute to eutrophication. In developed countries the most common on-site treatment technique is septic systems with soil infiltration. However, the current knowledge about long term P removal in soil treatment systems is not well developed and the data used for estimation of P losses from such systems are unreliable. In this study we sampled four filter beds from community-scale soil treatment systems with an age of between 14 and 22years to determine the long-term P removal and to investigate the chemical mechanisms behind the observed removal. For one site the long-term P removal was calculated using a mass balance approach. After analysis of the accumulated P, it was estimated that on average 12% of the long-term P load had been removed by the bed material. This indicates a low overall capacity of soil treatment systems to remove phosphorus. Batch experiments and chemical speciation modelling indicated that calcium phosphate precipitation was not an important long-term P removal mechanism, with the possible exception of one of the sites. More likely, the P removal was induced by AlPO(4) precipitation and/or sorption to poorly ordered aluminium compounds, as evidenced by strong relationships between oxalate-extractable Al and P. PMID:22982614

  13. The relationship between interannual and long-term cloud feedbacks

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zhou, Chen; Zelinka, Mark D.; Dessler, Andrew E.; Klein, Stephen A.

    2015-12-11

    The analyses of Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 simulations suggest that climate models with more positive cloud feedback in response to interannual climate fluctuations also have more positive cloud feedback in response to long-term global warming. Ensemble mean vertical profiles of cloud change in response to interannual and long-term surface warming are similar, and the ensemble mean cloud feedback is positive on both timescales. However, the average long-term cloud feedback is smaller than the interannual cloud feedback, likely due to differences in surface warming pattern on the two timescales. Low cloud cover (LCC) change in response to interannual andmore » long-term global surface warming is found to be well correlated across models and explains over half of the covariance between interannual and long-term cloud feedback. In conclusion, the intermodel correlation of LCC across timescales likely results from model-specific sensitivities of LCC to sea surface warming.« less

  14. Long-Term Stewardship Program Science and Technology Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Joan McDonald

    2002-09-01

    Many of the United States’ hazardous and radioactively contaminated waste sites will not be sufficiently remediated to allow unrestricted land use because funding and technology limitations preclude cleanup to pristine conditions. This means that after cleanup is completed, the Department of Energy will have long-term stewardship responsibilities to monitor and safeguard more than 100 sites that still contain residual contamination. Long-term stewardship encompasses all physical and institutional controls, institutions, information, and other mechanisms required to protect human health and the environment from the hazards remaining. The Department of Energy Long-Term Stewardship National Program is in the early stages of development, so considerable planning is still required to identify all the specific roles and responsibilities, policies, and activities needed over the next few years to support the program’s mission. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory was tasked with leading the development of Science and Technology within the Long-Term Stewardship National Program. As part of that role, a task was undertaken to identify the existing science and technology related requirements, identify gaps and conflicts that exist, and make recommendations to the Department of Energy for future requirements related to science and technology requirements for long-term stewardship. This work is summarized in this document.

  15. Method for Water Management Considering Long-term Probabilistic Forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, J.; Kang, J.; Suh, A. S.

    2015-12-01

    This research is aimed at predicting the monthly inflow of the Andong-dam basin in South Korea using long-term probabilistic forecasts to apply long-term forecasts to water management. Forecasted Cumulative Distribution Functions (CDFs) of monthly precipitation are plotted by combining the range of monthly precipitation based on proper Probability Density Function (PDF) in past data with probabilistic forecasts in each category. Ensembles of inflow are estimated by entering generated ensembles of precipitation based on the CDFs into the 'abcd' water budget model. The bias and RMSE between averages in past data and observed inflow are compared to them in forecasted ensembles. In our results, the bias and RMSE of average precipitation in the forecasted ensemble are bigger than in past data, whereas the average inflow in the forecasted ensemble is smaller than in past data. This result could be used for reference data to apply long-term forecasts to water management, because of the limit in the number of forecasted data for verification and differences between the Andong-dam basin and the forecasted regions. This research has significance by suggesting a method of applying probabilistic information in climate variables from long-term forecasts to water management in Korea. Original data of a climate model, which produces long-term probabilistic forecasts should be verified directly as input data of a water budget model in the future, so that a more scientific response in water management against uncertainty of climate change could be reached.

  16. Characteristics of Long-Term Survivors of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cress, Rosemary D.; Chen, Yingjia S.; Morris, Cyllene R.; Petersen, Megan; Leiserowitz, Gary S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify characteristics associated with long-term survival forepithelial ovarian cancer patients using the California Cancer Registry. Methods A descriptive analysis of survival of all California residents diagnosed with epithelial ovarian cancer between 1994 and 2001 was conducted using patients identified through the cancer registry with follow up through 2011. Characteristics of the patients who survived more than 10 years (long-term survivors) were compared to three other cohorts: patients who survived less than 2 years, those who survived at least 2 but no more than 5 years, and those who survived at least 5 but no more than 10 years. Results A total of 3,582 out of 11,541 (31% CI=30.2%, 31.8%) of the patients survived more than 10 years. Younger age, early stage, low-grade, and non-serous histology were significant predictors of long-term survival, but long-term survivors also included women with high-risk cancer. Conclusion Long-term survival is not unusual in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer, even in those with high-risk disease. Many of the prognostic factors are well known, but it remains to be determined why some patients with advanced stage high-grade cancers survive longer than others with the same histology. These findings are important for patient counseling. PMID:26244529

  17. Wastewater treatment by soil infiltration: Long-term phosphorus removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eveborn, David; Kong, Deguo; Gustafsson, Jon Petter

    2012-10-01

    Phosphorus (P) leaching from on-site wastewater treatment systems may contribute to eutrophication. In developed countries the most common on-site treatment technique is septic systems with soil infiltration. However, the current knowledge about long term P removal in soil treatment systems is not well developed and the data used for estimation of P losses from such systems are unreliable. In this study we sampled four filter beds from community-scale soil treatment systems with an age of between 14 and 22 years to determine the long-term P removal and to investigate the chemical mechanisms behind the observed removal. For one site the long-term P removal was calculated using a mass balance approach. After analysis of the accumulated P, it was estimated that on average 12% of the long-term P load had been removed by the bed material. This indicates a low overall capacity of soil treatment systems to remove phosphorus. Batch experiments and chemical speciation modelling indicated that calcium phosphate precipitation was not an important long-term P removal mechanism, with the possible exception of one of the sites. More likely, the P removal was induced by AlPO4 precipitation and/or sorption to poorly ordered aluminium compounds, as evidenced by strong relationships between oxalate-extractable Al and P.

  18. Common Calibration Source for Monitoring Long-term Ozone Trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kowalewski, Matthew

    2004-01-01

    Accurate long-term satellite measurements are crucial for monitoring the recovery of the ozone layer. The slow pace of the recovery and limited lifetimes of satellite monitoring instruments demands that datasets from multiple observation systems be combined to provide the long-term accuracy needed. A fundamental component of accurately monitoring long-term trends is the calibration of these various instruments. NASA s Radiometric Calibration and Development Facility at the Goddard Space Flight Center has provided resources to minimize calibration biases between multiple instruments through the use of a common calibration source and standardized procedures traceable to national standards. The Facility s 50 cm barium sulfate integrating sphere has been used as a common calibration source for both US and international satellite instruments, including the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS), Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet 2 (SBUV/2) instruments, Shuttle SBUV (SSBUV), Ozone Mapping Instrument (OMI), Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) (ESA), Scanning Imaging SpectroMeter for Atmospheric ChartographY (SCIAMACHY) (ESA), and others. We will discuss the advantages of using a common calibration source and its effects on long-term ozone data sets. In addition, sphere calibration results from various instruments will be presented to demonstrate the accuracy of the long-term characterization of the source itself.

  19. Rural long-term care work, gender, and restructuring.

    PubMed

    Leach, Belinda; Joseph, Gillian

    2011-06-01

    Restructuring--the introduction of changes that alter the way health care is delivered for maximum efficiency and least cost--layered with rurality and with rural gender ideologies and practices, results in rural long-term care settings that have particular consequences for the women working in them, and for the residents and communities that they serve. This research investigated how rurality affects the implementation of patient classification in Ontario long-term care homes. Methods involved interviews and focus groups with front-line long-term care workers, administrators, and key participants. The findings revealed that rural long-term care delivery takes place when a restructured work environment intersects with gender ideologies and practices that take on particular characteristics when developed and sustained in a rural context. These factors shape the labor market and working conditions for rural women. We argue that this produces a uniquely rural experience for long-term care workers and conclude that those implementing classification systems must consider contextual factors as well as practical and financial exigencies. PMID:24650670

  20. Osteoporosis management in long-term care. Survey of Ontario physicians.

    PubMed Central

    McKercher, H. G.; Crilly, R. G.; Kloseck, M.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To survey physicians in Ontario regarding their approach to diagnosis and treatment of osteoporosis among residents of long-term care facilities. DESIGN: Mailed questionnaire covering physician demographics; current clinical practice relating to osteoporosis; and perceived barriers to prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of the disease. SETTING: Long-term care facilities in Ontario. PARTICIPANTS: Medical directors of long-term care facilities. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Demographic variables; physician attitudes; and practices concerning awareness, diagnosis, and treatment of osteoporosis. RESULTS: Respondents returned 275 of 490 questionnaires, for a response rate of 56.1%. Most respondents (92.4%) were family physicians; 28.7% were caring for more than 100 patients in long-term care. Most (85.8%) saw from one to 10 hip fractures yearly in their practices. Although 49.6% of respondents estimated the prevalence of osteoporosis to be 40% to 80% among their long-term care patients, 45.5% said that they did not routinely assess their patients for the disease, and 26.8% do not routinely treat it. Half (50.9%) of physicians would treat patients at high risk based on clinical history; 47.9% if patients had a vertebral compression fracture on plain x-ray examination; 43.8% if patients were highly functional; 42.0% if osteoporosis were confirmed with bone mineral densitometry; and 30.0% if patients had a recent fracture. Perceived barriers to initiating treatment included cost of therapy, patient or family reluctance to accept therapy, and time or cost of diagnosis. CONCLUSION: Although physicians are aware that patients in long-term care facilities are at high risk for osteoporosis and hip fractures, the disease remains underdiagnosed and undertreated. PMID:11143582

  1. Effect of labour market conditions on reporting of limiting long-term illness and permanent sickness in England and Wales.

    PubMed Central

    Haynes, R; Bentham, G; Lovett, A; Eimermann, J

    1997-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To identify any bias in the reporting of limiting long term illness and permanent sickness due to labour market conditions, and show the absence of the effect in mortality rates. DESIGN: A geographically based study using data from the 1991 census. Standardised ratios for mortality and long term illness in people aged 0-64 years and permanent sickness in people of working age were compared with Carstairs deprivation scores in multilevel models which separated the effects operating at three geographical scales: census wards, travel to work areas, and standard regions. Holding ward and regional effects constant, variations between travel to work areas were compared with long term unemployment rates. SETTING: Altogether 8690 wards and 262 travel to work areas in England and Wales. MAIN RESULTS: Variations in mortality, limiting long term illness, and permanent sickness were related to Carstairs deprivation scores and standard region. With these relationships controlled, limiting long term illness and permanent sickness were significantly related to long term unemployment levels in travel to work areas, but mortality was not affected. Self reported morbidity was more sensitive to variations in long term unemployment rates in conditions of high social deprivation than in affluent populations. CONCLUSIONS: Limiting long term illness and permanent sickness measures may reflect a tendency for higher positive response in difficult labour market conditions. For average social deprivation conditions, standardised limiting long term illness for people aged 0-64 years was 20% higher in travel to work areas where employment prospects were relatively poor compared with areas with relatively good employment prospects. This casts doubt on the use of limiting long term illness as an indicator of objective health care needs for resource allocation purposes at national level. PMID:9229058

  2. Investigation of in-vivo skin autofluorescence lifetimes under long-term cw optical excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Lihachev, A; Ferulova, I; Vasiljeva, K; Spigulis, J

    2014-08-31

    The main results obtained during the last five years in the field of laser-excited in-vivo human skin photobleaching effects are presented. The main achievements and results obtained, as well as methods and experimental devices are briefly described. In addition, the impact of long-term 405-nm cw low-power laser excitation on the skin autofluorescence lifetime is experimentally investigated. (laser biophotonics)

  3. GENERALIZED MILANKOVITCH CYCLES AND LONG-TERM CLIMATIC HABITABILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Spiegel, David S.; Dressing, Courtney D.; Raymond, Sean N.; Scharf, Caleb A.; Mitchell, Jonathan L.

    2010-10-01

    Although Earth's orbit is never far from circular, terrestrial planets around other stars might experience substantial changes in eccentricity. Eccentricity variations could lead to climate changes, including possible 'phase transitions' such as the snowball transition (or its opposite). There is evidence that Earth has gone through at least one globally frozen, 'snowball' state in the last billion years, which it is thought to have exited after several million years because global ice-cover shut off the carbonate-silicate cycle, thereby allowing greenhouse gases to build up to sufficient concentration to melt the ice. Due to the positive feedback caused by the high albedo of snow and ice, susceptibility to falling into snowball states might be a generic feature of water-rich planets with the capacity to host life. This paper has two main thrusts. First, we revisit one-dimensional energy balance climate models as tools for probing possible climates of exoplanets, investigate the dimensional scaling of such models, and introduce a simple algorithm to treat the melting of the ice layer on a globally frozen planet. We show that if a terrestrial planet undergoes Milankovitch-like oscillations of eccentricity that are of great enough magnitude, it could melt out of a snowball state. Second, we examine the kinds of variations of eccentricity that a terrestrial planet might experience due to the gravitational influence of a giant companion. We show that a giant planet on a sufficiently eccentric orbit can excite extreme eccentricity oscillations in the orbit of a habitable terrestrial planet. More generally, these two results demonstrate that the long-term habitability (and astronomical observables) of a terrestrial planet can depend on the detailed architecture of the planetary system in which it resides.

  4. Detecting Landslide Long-term Movements By Differential Photogrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldi, Paolo; Bitelli, Gabriele; Carrara, Alberto; Zanutta, Antonio

    The identification of the spatial and temporal evolution of landslides requires the in- tegration of geomorphological, topographical and geophysical surveys. Aerial pho- tographs flown in a long time span makes it possible to evaluate the morphological changes of the landscape, qualitatively (by photo-interpretation) and quantitatively (by photogrammetric techniques). In particular, the comparison of detailed DTMs, derived from aerial photographs and inserted in a unique reference system, may per- mit a quantitative reconstruction of landslide long-term movements. To generate high resolution DTMs, it is necessary to have a set of photogrammetric ground control points with adequate accuracy, located in an optimal way. However, in historical sur- veys, calibration certificates concerning the employed photogrammetric cameras, and ground control points are not available therefore it is not possible to calculate the ex- ternal orientation parameters of the photographs with the traditional methods. In such circumstances it turns out difficult to orient the stereoscopic models in a unique ref- erence system and approximate techniques are usually adopted (archival photogram- metric techniques). In the present research an archival photogrammetric technique has been applied to investigate a landslide located in Vergato (Bologna, Italy). Three DTMs obtained from three sets of aerial photographs, flown in 1971, 1976 and 2001, were generated through both an analytic stereoplotter and two different digital work- stations. The technique adopted to produce DTMs from historical photogrammetric models, the quantitative comparisons of the DTMs and some considerations concern- ing the main problems arisen are illustrated and discussed in the framework of setting forth a feasible procedure for monitoring landslide evolution over wide areas.

  5. Sexuality and Physical Intimacy in Long Term Care

    PubMed Central

    Lichtenberg, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    Sexuality and sexual needs in older adults remains a neglected area of clinical intervention, particularly so in long term care settings. Because older adults in medical rehabilitation and long term care beds present with significant frailties, and often significant neurocognitive disorders it makes it difficult for occupational therapists and other staff to evaluate the capacity of an older adult resident to participate in sexual relationships. The current paper reviews the current literature on sexuality and aging, examines some of the clinical practices and guidelines regarding sexual expression in long term care and presents two case examples. A semi-structured interview and decision tree is presented to assist therapists in making careful and informed decisions and thereby balancing needs for protection with needs for autonomy. PMID:24354331

  6. Long-term urological outcomes in cloacal anomalies.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, Brian T; Wilcox, Duncan T

    2016-04-01

    Cloacal anomalies are the most complex and severe form of congenital anorectal malformations (ARM) and urogenital malformations, and it has been well documented that increased severity of ARM leads to worse outcomes. While short-term data on persistent cloaca are available, a paucity of data on long-term outcomes exists, largely because of a lack of uniform terminology, inclusion with other ARM and evolution of the operative technique. On comprehensive review of the published literature on long-term urological outcomes in patients with cloacal anomalies, we found a significant risk of chronic kidney disease and incontinence, however, with improvements in surgical technique, outcomes have improved. Continence often requires intermittent catheterization and in some cases, bladder augmentation. The complexity of cloacal malformations and associated anomalies make long-term multidisciplinary follow-up imperative. PMID:26969235

  7. Data Analysis in the LOFAR Long Term Archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holties, H. A.; van Diepen, G.; van Dok, D.; Dijkstra, F.; Loose, M.; Renting, G. A.; Schrijvers, C.; Vriend, W.-J.

    2012-09-01

    The LOFAR Long Term Archive (LTA) is a distributed information system that provides integrated services for data analysis as well as long term preservation of astronomical datasets and their provenance. The data analysis capabilities are provided by a federated system that integrates a central catalog and client user interfaces provided by Astro-Wise with processing pipelines running on Grid based and University HPC clusters. The framework used for data analysis ensures that proper authorization and access rules are applied and that generated data products are ingested into the storage part of the Long Term Archive. The ingest process includes information about data provenance. This paper presents the architecture of the processing framework of the LTA.

  8. Long-term survival following emergency abdominal aortic aneurysm repair.

    PubMed

    Milner, Q J; Burchett, K R

    2000-05-01

    Survival following emergency surgery for ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm remains poor and is in stark contrast to that for elective repair. We have carried out a 5-year retrospective observational study to determine the long-term (5-year) survival of patients following emergency surgery for ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm at a district general hospital in East Anglia. A total of 99 patients presented to the operating theatre for emergency repair of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm in this 5-year study period. In-hospital mortality was 70% and was unchanged over the 5 years. Overall long-term survival in those patients discharged from hospital was good. The ICU cost per long-term survivor was calculated to be pound sterling 36750. PMID:10792133

  9. Forecasting demand for long-term care services.

    PubMed Central

    Lane, D; Uyeno, D; Stark, A; Kliewer, E; Gutman, G

    1985-01-01

    This article analyzes three methods used to forecast the transition of long-term care clients through a variety of possible home and facility placements and levels of care. The test population (N = 1,653) is derived from the larger population of clients admitted in 1978 to British Columbia's newly established Long-Term Care program. The investigators have accumulated 5 years of service-generated data on moves, discharges, and deaths of these clients. Results show that the first-order Markov chain with stationary transition probabilities yields a superior forecast to state-by-state moving average growth and state-by-state regression analyses. The results of these analyses indicate that the Markov method should receive serious consideration as a tool for resource planning and allocation in long-term care. PMID:3932260

  10. Long-term Internship through Cooperative Education with Regional Industries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Kenzo; Hase, Hiroyuki

    The long term internship is one of special educational programs for graduate students of Graduate School of Engineering in University of Fukui. This is a collaborative program between university and industries where selected post-graduate students are dispatched to companies for a long term and educated in real business environments. It is the final goal of the program to develop sophisticated specialists who would be able to catch the business strategy in industries and solve any problems by themselves. The program is managed in a semester (6 months) and contains 1.5 month prior education of preliminary special knowledge, ethics and secrecy, about 3 month dispatch with long-term internship, and 1.5 month post-education for complementary education and presentation. This paper presents the effect of this program which has been evolving since 2005.

  11. Long-term multipactor discharge in multicarrier systems

    SciTech Connect

    Anza, S.; Vicente, C.; Gimeno, B.; Boria, V. E.; Armendariz, J.

    2007-08-15

    A new mechanism of long-term multipactor in multicarrier systems is studied employing both analytical and numerical methods. In particular, the investigation is focused on the impact that a realistic secondary emission yield at low energies produces on the development of long term multipactor. A novel analytical model for this interperiod charge accumulation is presented using the traditional multipactor theory for parallel plates, and approximating the multicarrier signal as a single-carrier signal modulated by a pulsed signal envelope. The analytical predictions are verified by numerical simulations for a typical rectangular waveguide. The analytical and numerical results demonstrate that the susceptibility of the system to develop a long-term multipactor discharge increases with higher values of low-energy secondary emission yield.

  12. Stirling engine - Approach for long-term durability assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tong, Michael T.; Bartolotta, Paul A.; Halford, Gary R.; Freed, Alan D.

    1992-01-01

    The approach employed by NASA Lewis for the long-term durability assessment of the Stirling engine hot-section components is summarized. The approach consists of: preliminary structural assessment; development of a viscoplastic constitutive model to accurately determine material behavior under high-temperature thermomechanical loads; an experimental program to characterize material constants for the viscoplastic constitutive model; finite-element thermal analysis and structural analysis using a viscoplastic constitutive model to obtain stress/strain/temperature at the critical location of the hot-section components for life assessment; and development of a life prediction model applicable for long-term durability assessment at high temperatures. The approach should aid in the provision of long-term structural durability and reliability of Stirling engines.

  13. Long-term Use of Opioids for Complex Chronic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Von Korff, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    Increased opioid prescribing for back pain and other chronic musculoskeletal pain conditions has been accompanied by dramatic increases in prescription opioid addiction and fatal overdose. Opioid-related risks appear to increase with dose. While short-term randomized trials of opioids for chronic pain have found modest analgesic benefits (a one-third reduction in pain intensity on average), the long-term safety and effectiveness of opioids for chronic musculoskeletal pain is unknown. Given the lack of large, long-term randomized trials, recent epidemiologic data suggests the need for caution when considering long-term use of opioids to manage chronic musculoskeletal pain, particularly at higher dosage levels. Principles for achieving more selective and cautious use of opioids for chronic musculoskeletal pain are proposed. PMID:24315147

  14. Winning market positioning strategies for long term care facilities.

    PubMed

    Higgins, L F; Weinstein, K; Arndt, K

    1997-01-01

    The decision to develop an aggressive marketing strategy for its long term care facility has become a priority for the management of a one-hundred bed facility in the Rocky Mountain West. Financial success and lasting competitiveness require that the facility in question (Deer Haven) establish itself as the preferred provider of long term care for its target market. By performing a marketing communications audit, Deer Haven evaluated its present market position and created a strategy for solidifying and dramatizing this position. After an overview of present conditions in the industry, we offer a seven step process that provides practical guidance for positioning a long term care facility. We conclude by providing an example application. PMID:10179063

  15. The long-term alteration of borosilicate waste glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Ebert, W.L.; Bates, J.K.; Bradley, C.R.; Buck, E.C.; Dietz, N.L.; Brown, N.R.

    1993-06-01

    Prediction of the long-term durability of glass waste forms under potential disposal conditions is based on a mechanistic model of glass corrosion which has been derived from short-term laboratory tests. The model of glass reaction that has evolved identifies the hydrolysis of an Si-0 bond to release silicic acid as the step which controls the long-term glass reactivity. This reaction step is initially fast under dilute solution conditions, but slows as the silicic acid concentration in solution increases. An increase in the solution concentrations of glass components will occur with progressive glass corrosion, and so the solutions which contact waste glasses over long reaction times will have high concentrations of glass components. Therefore, the glass reactivity is usually expected to decrease with the reaction progress as the contacting solution becomes more concentrated. The corrosion behavior of glasses contacted by highly concentrated solutions must be characterized to assess the long-term glass stability.

  16. A case study comparing a randomized withdrawal trial and a double-blind long-term trial for assessing the long-term efficacy of an antidepressant.

    PubMed

    Mallinckrodt, Craig; Chuang-Stein, Christy; McSorley, Paul; Schwartz, Jeffrey; Archibald, Donald G; Perahia, David G; Detke, Michael J; Alphs, Larry

    2007-01-01

    Assessing long-term efficacy in psychiatric drugs involves a number of complex questions, and the priaority of these questions is different for different disorders and for different stakeholders. Therefore, it is essential that we not adopt a one-method-fits-all approach, but rather adapt the specific details of the designs and analysis of data from long-term trials to individual disease states. Randomized withdrawal (RW) designs, even though addressing a specific question of particular interest, face some difficult methodological and ethical challenges. A less common alternative design, termed the double-blind long-term efficacy (DBLE) design, is logistically similar to traditional responder extension designs. However, use of an analytic approach that includes all randomized patients rather than only the selected subset that continued beyond acute treatment avoids the major criticism of the extender design. The present paper illustrates the attributes of the RW and DBLE designs by analyzing data from trials adopting these designs. The RW and DBLE designs address different questions, and are thus not directly comparable. Potential benefits of the DBLE design include: (1) the parsimonious use of patients and the resultant reduced exposure to placebo as each patient can contribute to multiple developmental objectives; (2) the results are generalizable to actual clinical practice as the design matches treatment guidelines; and, (3) results of safety assessments are meaningful as they involve all randomized patients. Our case study suggests that the DBLE design can provide definitive answers to important questions and may be a useful design for assessing long-term treatment effects. PMID:17238129

  17. Highly Survivable Avionics Systems for Long-Term Deep Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alkalai, L.; Chau, S.; Tai, A. T.

    2001-01-01

    The design of highly survivable avionics systems for long-term (> 10 years) exploration of space is an essential technology for all current and future missions in the Outer Planets roadmap. Long-term exposure to extreme environmental conditions such as high radiation and low-temperatures make survivability in space a major challenge. Moreover, current and future missions are increasingly using commercial technology such as deep sub-micron (0.25 microns) fabrication processes with specialized circuit designs, commercial interfaces, processors, memory, and other commercial off the shelf components that were not designed for long-term survivability in space. Therefore, the design of highly reliable, and available systems for the exploration of Europa, Pluto and other destinations in deep-space require a comprehensive and fresh approach to this problem. This paper summarizes work in progress in three different areas: a framework for the design of highly reliable and highly available space avionics systems, distributed reliable computing architecture, and Guarded Software Upgrading (GSU) techniques for software upgrading during long-term missions. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  18. Long-term kinetics of uranyl desorption from sediments under advective conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Jianying; Liu, Chongxuan; Wang, Zheming; Zachara, John

    2014-02-01

    Long-term (>4 months) column experiments were performed to investigate the kinetics of uranyl (U(VI)) desorption in sediments collected from the Integrated Field Research Challenge site at the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford 300 Area. The experimental results were used to evaluate alternative multirate surface complexation reaction (MRSCR) approaches to describe the short and long-term kinetics of U(VI) desorption under flow conditions. The surface complexation reaction (SCR) stoichiometry and equilibrium constants and multirate parameters in the MRSCR models were independently characterized in batch and stirred flow-cell reactors. MRSCR models that were either additively constructed using the MRSCRs for individual size fractions, or composite in nature, could effectively describe short-term U(VI) desorption under flow conditions. The long-term desorption results, however, revealed that using the labile U concentration measured by carbonate extraction underestimated desorbable U(VI) and the long-term rate of U(VI) desorption. This study also found that the gravel size fraction (2-8 mm), which is typically treated as nonreactive in modeling U(VI) reactive transport because of low external surface area, can have an important effect on the U(VI) desorption in the sediment. This study demonstrates an approach to effectively extrapolate U(VI) desorption kinetics for field-scale application and identifies important parameters and uncertainties affecting model predictions.

  19. Caregiving families within the long-term services and support system for older adults.

    PubMed

    Qualls, Sara Honn

    2016-01-01

    Long-term care services and supports are primarily a family industry that warrants psychologists' involvement through practice, research, and policy advocacy. Families are poorly integrated into service systems despite the dominance of family caregiving work within health care and long-term care. This article positions family caregiving work within the context of family life across the life span, noting overlaps and distinctions between normal family life and caregiving work for older adults whose physical or cognitive challenges require assistance. The prevalence, work, and consequences of family caregiving for older adults are described. Families are identified as key partners in long-term care, despite substantial policy and practice barriers to integrating them into care structures and systems. Policy options for reducing or eliminating barriers are suggested, as are professional practice opportunities for psychologists to support caregiving families. Approaches to assessment and interventions for caregivers across a variety of settings are described. Gaps in research are highlighted, with a focus on how to understand caregiving as embedded within context of family, long-term care services and supports, and health care. Caregiving work presents an imperative for expanding psychologists' engagement in integrating and supporting the families whose caregiving is so critical to a rapidly aging society. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27159435

  20. Thermal manipulation during embryogenesis has long-term effects on muscle and liver metabolism in fast-growing chickens.

    PubMed

    Loyau, Thomas; Métayer-Coustard, Sonia; Berri, Cécile; Crochet, Sabine; Cailleau-Audouin, Estelle; Sannier, Mélanie; Chartrin, Pascal; Praud, Christophe; Hennequet-Antier, Christelle; Rideau, Nicole; Couroussé, Nathalie; Mignon-Grasteau, Sandrine; Everaert, Nadia; Duclos, Michel Jacques; Yahav, Shlomo; Tesseraud, Sophie; Collin, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Fast-growing chickens have a limited ability to tolerate high temperatures. Thermal manipulation during embryogenesis (TM) has previously been shown to lower chicken body temperature (Tb) at hatching and to improve thermotolerance until market age, possibly resulting from changes in metabolic regulation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term effects of TM (12 h/d, 39.5°C, 65% RH from d 7 to 16 of embryogenesis vs. 37.8°C, 56% RH continuously) and of a subsequent heat challenge (32°C for 5 h at 34 d) on the mRNA expression of metabolic genes and cell signaling in the Pectoralis major muscle and the liver. Gene expression was analyzed by RT-qPCR in 8 chickens per treatment, characterized by low Tb in the TM groups and high Tb in the control groups. Data were analyzed using the general linear model of SAS considering TM and heat challenge within TM as main effects. TM had significant long-term effects on thyroid hormone metabolism by decreasing the muscle mRNA expression of deiodinase DIO3. Under standard rearing conditions, the expression of several genes involved in the regulation of energy metabolism, such as transcription factor PGC-1α, was affected by TM in the muscle, whereas for other genes regulating mitochondrial function and muscle growth, TM seemed to mitigate the decrease induced by the heat challenge. TM increased DIO2 mRNA expression in the liver (only at 21°C) and reduced the citrate synthase activity involved in the Krebs cycle. The phosphorylation level of p38 Mitogen-activated-protein kinase regulating the cell stress response was higher in the muscle of TM groups compared to controls. In conclusion, markers of energy utilization and growth were either changed by TM in the Pectoralis major muscle and the liver by thermal manipulation during incubation as a possible long-term adaptation limiting energy metabolism, or mitigated during heat challenge. PMID:25180913

  1. Fast and long term lipid droplet tracking with CARS microscopy.

    PubMed

    Jüngst, Christian; Winterhalder, Martin J; Zumbusch, Andreas

    2011-06-01

    Photobleaching of organic fluorophores commonly used in fluorescence microscopy puts a limit to the number of images which can be acquired. Label-free imaging techniques therefore offer advantages both for rapid image acquisition and for long-term observations. CARS microscopy is a label-free imaging technique offering molecule specific contrast. Here we demonstrate that CARS microscopy allows video-rate tracking of intracellular transport of lipid droplets, but also continuous long-term observation of cells over several hours. PMID:21445955

  2. [Long-term effects of uterine cesarean section scar].

    PubMed

    Tihtonen, Kati; Nyberg, Reita

    2014-01-01

    During the last few decades the cesarean delivery rate has been around 15% in Finland. It has remained moderate compared with USA where 30% of women deliver by cesarean section. Compared with vaginal delivery, cesarean section is associated with a three- to sixfold risk of severe complications. Furthermore, it increases also long term gynecological morbidity, including intermenstrual bleeding, chronic pelvic pain and risk of secondary infertility. Scar pregnancy, uterine rupture, placenta previa and accrete are known risks after cesarean section. Because cesarean delivery is associated with increased long-term morbidity, the decision of performing cesarean section should always be carefully considered. PMID:24730196

  3. [Drug-eluting stents: long-term safety].

    PubMed

    Karpov, Iu A; Samko, A N; Buza, V V

    2009-01-01

    The review concerns the problem of late thromboses of drug-eluting stents and their influence on late prognosis of the patients; presents long-term results of the trial of sirolimus-eluting stents implanted to patients with coronary heart disease; analyses mechanisms of development of late stent thrombosis, data from different meta-analyses and registers comparing long-term outcomes in patients with implanted sirolimus-eluting stents and metallic stents; suggests risk factors of late thromboses of drug-eluting stents; presents original evidence on 3.5-year follow-up of patients with implanted sirolimus-eluting stents and metallic stents. PMID:19537584

  4. Early sound deprivation and long-term hearing.

    PubMed

    Welsh, L W; Welsh, J J; Healy, M P

    1996-11-01

    The long-term effects of hearing loss in early life were analyzed by tests of central auditory function. A majority of individuals failed the Compressed Speech identification with statistically significant results. There was an impact on a minority of individuals evaluated by Dichotic Sentences; little impairment was noted through Speech Reception in Noise. Delayed maturation of the central auditory complex may improve these findings, although during the period of investigation a negative impact was measured. Other issues of diagnosis, remediation, and the consequences of short- and long-term deafness are discussed. PMID:8916863

  5. Instrumentation of bridges for long-term performance monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Maria Q.; Kim, Doo-Kie; Sheng, Li-Hong; Fiji, Leonard M.; Kim, Yoo J.

    2001-08-01

    As the state of the art in bridge design is advancing toward the performance-based design, it becomes increasingly important to monitor and evaluate the long-term structural performance of bridges, including strains in critical structural members, soil pressures on the abutment back walls and footings, accelerations on the decks and bents, etc. Such information is essential in developing new performance criteria for design. In this research, sensor systems for long-term structural performance monitoring have been installed on two new highway bridges on Orange County, California: the Jamboree Road Overcrossing and the West Street On-Ramp.

  6. Long-term noise statistics from the Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eller, Anthony I.; Ioup, George E.; Ioup, Juliette W.; Larue, James P.

    2003-04-01

    Long-term, omnidirectional acoustic noise measurements were conducted in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico during the summer of 2001. These efforts were a part of the Littoral Acoustic Demonstration Center project, Phase I. Initial looks at the noise time series, processed in standard one-third-octave bands from 10 to 5000 Hz, show noise levels that differ substantially from customary deep-water noise spectra. Contributing factors to this highly dynamic noise environment are an abundance of marine mammal emissions and various industrial noises. Results presented here address long-term temporal variability, temporal coherence times, the fluctuation spectrum, and coherence of fluctuations across the frequency spectrum. [Research supported by ONR.

  7. Long-term plasma exchange in pediatric CIDP.

    PubMed

    Lucchetta, Marta; Vidal, Enrico; Sartori, Stefano; Campagnolo, Marta; Torre, Chiara Dalla; Marson, Piero; Manara, Renzo; Briani, Chiara

    2015-12-01

    Therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) is not frequently used in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) because it usually gives only a short-term benefit. We report on a 16-year-old boy with renal insufficiency undergoing hemodialysis who developed CIDP and underwent TPE with dramatic long-term response to therapy. Nerve ultrasound and MRI findings are also reported. In our patient TPE was chosen because he was already undergoing hemodialysis. Though it is not considered a first-line therapy in pediatric CIDP, TPE may be a good therapeutic choice also in long-term period. PMID:25663075

  8. The assessment of long-term orbital debris models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jonas, F. M.; Yates, K. W.

    1992-01-01

    Existing long-term orbital debris models are assessed as a first step in the Air Force's effort to develop an Air Force long-term orbital debris model which can perform the following functions: (1) operate with the necessary accuracy at the relevant altitudes and orbital parameters; (2) benefit from new Air Force and non-Air Force debris measurements; and (3) accommodate current and future Air Force space scenarios. Model assessment results are shown for the NASA engineering model. The status of the NASA EVOLVE model assessment is discussed.

  9. [Long-term-management of organ transplant recipients].

    PubMed

    Bürger, Christin; Schmidt, Martina; Maschmeier, Miriam; Stella, Jaqueline; Hüsing, Anna; Wilms, Christian; Schmidt, Hartmut Hans-Jürgen; Kabar, Iyad

    2016-07-01

    Due to advances in immunosuppressive therapy and surgical techniques, survival rates after solid organ transplantation have constantly improved over the last decades. In long-term care after transplantation, physicians need to focus as much on diagnosis and treatment of allograft-related complications as they should consider comorbidities and evaluate risk-factors and adverse events of immunosuppressive agents to prevent secondary diseases. In particular, cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, malignancy and infection play a major role in long-term survival. Therefore, screening of organ transplant recipients in regard to these complications and adverse events is a crucial part of follow up in these patients. PMID:27359310

  10. Catastrophic Incident Recovery: Long-Term Recovery from an Anthrax Event Symposium

    SciTech Connect

    Lesperance, Ann M.

    2008-06-30

    On March 19, 2008, policy makers, emergency managers, and medical and Public Health officials convened in Seattle, Washington, for a workshop on Catastrophic Incident Recovery: Long-Term Recovery from an Anthrax Event. The day-long symposium was aimed at generating a dialogue about restoration and recovery through a discussion of the associated challenges that impact entire communities, including people, infrastructure, and critical systems.

  11. Long-term results of compartmental arthroplasties of the knee: Long term results of partial knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Parratte, S; Ollivier, M; Lunebourg, A; Abdel, M P; Argenson, J-N

    2015-10-01

    Partial knee arthroplasty (PKA), either medial or lateral unicompartmental knee artroplasty (UKA) or patellofemoral arthroplasty (PFA) are a good option in suitable patients and have the advantages of reduced operative trauma, preservation of both cruciate ligaments and bone stock, and restoration of normal kinematics within the knee joint. However, questions remain concerning long-term survival. The goal of this review article was to present the long-term results of medial and lateral UKA, PFA and combined compartmental arthroplasty for multicompartmental disease. Medium- and long-term studies suggest reasonable outcomes at ten years with survival greater than 95% in UKA performed for medial osteoarthritis or osteonecrosis, and similarly for lateral UKA, particularly when fixed-bearing implants are used. Disappointing long-term outcomes have been observed with the first generation of patellofemoral implants, as well as early Bi-Uni (i.e., combined medial and lateral UKA) or Bicompartmental (combined UKA and PFA) implants due to design and fixation issues. Promising short- and med-term results with the newer generations of PFAs and bicompartmental arthroplasties will require long-term confirmation. PMID:26430081

  12. The impact of private long-term care insurance on the use of long-term care.

    PubMed

    Li, Yong; Jensen, Gail A

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of privately purchased long-term care insurance (LTCI) on three major types of long-term care services: nursing home care, paid home care, and informal care received from Family and friends. Using 2002-2008 data from the ongoing Health and Retirement Study, we analyze the determinants of long-term care utilization simultaneously with the determinants of holding LTCI. We find that LTCI has modest effects on the likelihood of using long-term care services. For the very frail elderly, private LTCI enhances their access to nursing home care. For those with moderate disability, LTCI makes it more likely that they can remain at home and receive home care services, instead of going to a nursing home. We find no evidence that formal care substitutes for informal care in the presence of LTCI. These findings suggest that if LTCI becomes much more prevalent in the future, many older adults will be able to choose the type of long-term care arrangement that best suits their needs. PMID:21634261

  13. Genetically modified crops and small-scale farmers: main opportunities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Azadi, Hossein; Samiee, Atry; Mahmoudi, Hossein; Jouzi, Zeynab; Khachak, Parisa Rafiaani; De Maeyer, Philippe; Witlox, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Although some important features of genetically modified (GM) crops such as insect resistance, herbicide tolerance, and drought tolerance might seem to be beneficial for small-scale farmers, the adoption of GM technology by smallholders is still slight. Identifying pros and cons of using this technology is important to understand the impacts of GM crops on these farmers. This article reviews the main opportunities and challenges of GM crops for small-scale farmers in developing countries. The most significant advantages of GM crops include being independent to farm size, environment protection, improvement of occupational health issues, and the potential of bio-fortified crops to reduce malnutrition. Challenges faced by small-scale farmers for adoption of GM crops comprise availability and accessibility of GM crop seeds, seed dissemination and price, and the lack of adequate information. In addition, R&D and production costs in using GM crops make it difficult for these farmers to adopt the use of these crops. Moreover, intellectual property right regulations may deprive resource poor farmers from the advantages of GM technology. Finally, concerns on socio-economic and environment safety issues are also addressed in this paper. PMID:25566797

  14. 42 CFR 412.536 - Special payment provisions for long-term care hospitals and satellites of long-term care...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... hospitals and satellites of long-term care hospitals that discharged Medicare patients admitted from a hospital not located in the same building or on the same campus as the long-term care hospital or satellite... payment provisions for long-term care hospitals and satellites of long-term care hospitals that...

  15. 42 CFR 412.536 - Special payment provisions for long-term care hospitals and satellites of long-term care...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... hospitals and satellites of long-term care hospitals that discharged Medicare patients admitted from a hospital not located in the same building or on the same campus as the long-term care hospital or satellite... payment provisions for long-term care hospitals and satellites of long-term care hospitals that...

  16. 42 CFR 412.536 - Special payment provisions for long-term care hospitals and satellites of long-term care...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... hospitals and satellites of long-term care hospitals that discharged Medicare patients admitted from a hospital not located in the same building or on the same campus as the long-term care hospital or satellite... payment provisions for long-term care hospitals and satellites of long-term care hospitals that...

  17. 42 CFR 412.536 - Special payment provisions for long-term care hospitals and satellites of long-term care...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... hospitals and satellites of long-term care hospitals that discharged Medicare patients admitted from a hospital not located in the same building or on the same campus as the long-term care hospital or satellite... payment provisions for long-term care hospitals and satellites of long-term care hospitals that...

  18. Artifact reduction in long-term monitoring of cerebral hemodynamics using near-infrared spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Vinette, Sarah A.; Dunn, Jeff F.; Slone, Edward; Federico, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a noninvasive neuroimaging technique used to assess cerebral hemodynamics. Its portability, ease of use, and relatively low operational cost lend itself well to the long-term monitoring of hemodynamic changes, such as those in epilepsy, where events are unpredictable. Long-term monitoring is associated with challenges including alterations in behaviors and motion that can result in artifacts. Five patients with epilepsy were assessed for interictal hemodynamic changes and alterations in behavior or motion. Based on this work, visual inspection was used to identify NIRS artifacts during a period of interest, specifically prior to seizures, in four patients. A motion artifact reduction algorithm (MARA, also known as the spline interpolation method) was tested on these data. Alterations in the NIRS measurements often occurred simultaneously with changes in motion and behavior. Occasionally, sharp shift artifacts were observed in the data. When artifacts appeared as sustained baseline shifts in the data, MARA reduced the standard deviation of the data and the appearance improved. We discussed motion and artifacts as challenges associated with long-term monitoring of cerebral hemodynamics in patients with epilepsy and our group’s approach to circumvent these challenges and improve the quality of the data collected. PMID:26158008

  19. Long-Term Follow-Up of Iliac Wallstents

    SciTech Connect

    Reyes, Ricardo; Carreira, Jose Martin Gude, Francisco; Gorriz, Elias; Gallardo, Laura; Pardo, Maria Dolores; Hermida, Maria

    2004-11-15

    We evaluated the long-term results of the iliac artery stent placement for the treatment of patients with intermittent claudication. From November 1988 to December 1998, 303 legs were treated with metal stents in 259 patients with iliac occlusive arterial disease in a follow-up study approved by the institutional review board. Stenoses (n = 162) were treated after failed angioplasty and occlusions (n = 141) were treated with primary stent placement. According to Fontaine's clinical classification of chronic ischemia, 266 (88%) legs presented stage IIB, 14 (5%) stage III, and 23 (7%) stage IV. In all legs, self-expandable stents (Wallstent) were implanted. The patients were followed up with clinical examination, ankle brachial- index examination measurement and intravenous angiography. The data were analyzed using the univariate analysis (Kaplan-Meier method) and multivariate analysis (Cox proportional model). The primary endpoint of the study was the identification of restenosis or reoclusion of the stenting arterial segment and a secondary endpoint that was an identification of the risk factors of restenosis and reoclusion. The mean {+-} SD ankle-brachial index pre-, post-procedure, and in the last control was 0.58 {+-} 0.18, 0.90 {+-} 0.23, and 0.86 {+-} 0.24, respectively. Primary cumulative patency rates were 70% {+-} 4 after 5 years, and 65% {+-} 5 after 7 years, and secondary patency rates were 92% {+-} 2 after 5 years, and 87% {+-} 4 after 9 years. Immediate complications in the first 24 hours appeared in 12 (4%) legs, thrombosis in 5 legs, 3 legs presented with distal embolism, 2 thrombi at the access site and pseudo aneurysm and artery rupture in 1 leg. A patient died in the first 24 hours. Within 30 days after the procedure seven complications, 3 thromboses and 4 stenosis appeared. During follow-up, 42 (16%) patients died of other causes. The main causes of death were cardiac disease (39%), cerebrovascular disease (15%), cancer (7%), respiratory diseases

  20. Current Perspectives on Long-term Obesity Pharmacotherapy.

    PubMed

    Wharton, Sean

    2016-04-01

    Approximately 1 in 4 adult Canadians are obese and, thus, are at an elevated risk for developing type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and other conditions. Current treatment guidelines recommend that obese individuals lose 5% to 10% of their starting weights to minimize the risk factors for cardiovascular disease and reduce the risk for developing type 2 diabetes or hypertension. All obesity-management strategies involve lifestyle management, but few patients will lose a significant amount of weight and manage to keep it off over the long term using just this strategy. Bariatric surgery is associated with significant long-term weight loss but is restricted to subjects with very high body mass indices, who often wait many years to undergo the procedure. Recent breakthroughs in understanding the mechanisms underlying the development and maintenance of elevated body fat have led to the arrival of new obesity pharmacotherapies. These novel antiobesity therapies, which work by reducing energy intake or through increasing satiety, decreasing hunger, or reducing absorption of calories, may be used indefinitely once patients have demonstrated significant responses (usually defined as ≥5% weight loss) over the first 12 weeks of treatment. To date, 2 long-term obesity pharmacotherapies have been approved and are available in Canada: liraglutide and orlistat. Here, I summarize the mechanisms and clinical features of medications for long-term obesity management that are available in Canada, as well as those available in other jurisdictions or are currently in development. PMID:26507402

  1. Immediate and Long-Term Impacts of Child Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briere, John N.; Elliott, Diana M.

    1994-01-01

    Summarizes what is currently known about the potential, immediate, and long-term impact of child sexual abuse. The various problems and symptoms described in the literature on child sexual abuse are reviewed in a series of broad categories including posttraumatic stress, cognitive distortions, emotional pain, avoidance, an impaired sense of self,…

  2. Relating Granger causality to long-term causal effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, Dmitry A.; Mokhov, Igor I.

    2015-10-01

    In estimation of causal couplings between observed processes, it is important to characterize coupling roles at various time scales. The widely used Granger causality reflects short-term effects: it shows how strongly perturbations of a current state of one process affect near future states of another process, and it quantifies that via prediction improvement (PI) in autoregressive models. However, it is often more important to evaluate the effects of coupling on long-term statistics, e.g., to find out how strongly the presence of coupling changes the variance of a driven process as compared to an uncoupled case. No general relationships between Granger causality and such long-term effects are known. Here, we pose the problem of relating these two types of coupling characteristics, and we solve it for a class of stochastic systems. Namely, for overdamped linear oscillators, we rigorously derive that the above long-term effect is proportional to the short-term effects, with the proportionality coefficient depending on the prediction interval and relaxation times. We reveal that this coefficient is typically considerably greater than unity so that small normalized PI values may well correspond to quite large long-term effects of coupling. The applicability of the derived relationship to wider classes of systems, its limitations, and its value for further research are discussed. To give a real-world example, we analyze couplings between large-scale climatic processes related to sea surface temperature variations in equatorial Pacific and North Atlantic regions.

  3. Long-Term Care: Common Issues and Unknowns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartz, Katherine; Miake, Naoko; Farag, Nadine

    2012-01-01

    All industrialized countries are grappling with a common problem--how to provide assistance of various kinds to their rapidly aging populations. The problem for countries searching for models of efficient and high-quality long-term care (LTC) policies is that fewer than a dozen countries have government-organized, formal LTC policies. Relatively…

  4. Long-Term Repetition Priming of Briefly Identified Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breuer, Andreas T.; Masson, Michael E. J.; Cohen, Anna-Lisa; Lindsay, D. Stephen

    2009-01-01

    The authors provide evidence that long-term memory encoding can occur for briefly viewed objects in a rapid serial visual presentation list, contrary to claims that the brief presentation and quick succession of objects prevent encoding by disrupting a memory consolidation process that requires hundreds of milliseconds of uninterrupted processing.…

  5. Long-Term Effects of Neurofeedback Treatment in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kouijzer, Mirjam E. J.; de Moor, Jan M. H.; Gerrits, Berrie J. L.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; van Schie, Hein T.

    2009-01-01

    Previously we demonstrated significant improvement of executive functions and social behavior in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) treated with 40 sessions of EEG neurofeedback in a nonrandomized waiting list control group design. In this paper we extend these findings by reporting the long-term results of neurofeedback treatment in…

  6. 40 CFR 52.29 - Visibility long-term strategies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ascribed to them in the Clean Air Act, or in the protection of visibility program (40 CFR 51.301). (c) Long... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Visibility long-term strategies. 52.29... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS General Provisions § 52.29 Visibility...

  7. 40 CFR 52.29 - Visibility long-term strategies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ascribed to them in the Clean Air Act, or in the protection of visibility program (40 CFR 51.301). (c) Long... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Visibility long-term strategies. 52.29... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS General Provisions § 52.29 Visibility...

  8. 40 CFR 52.29 - Visibility long-term strategies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ascribed to them in the Clean Air Act, or in the protection of visibility program (40 CFR 51.301). (c) Long... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Visibility long-term strategies. 52.29... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS General Provisions § 52.29 Visibility...

  9. 40 CFR 52.29 - Visibility long-term strategies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ascribed to them in the Clean Air Act, or in the protection of visibility program (40 CFR 51.301). (c) Long... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Visibility long-term strategies. 52.29... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS General Provisions § 52.29 Visibility...

  10. 40 CFR 52.29 - Visibility long-term strategies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ascribed to them in the Clean Air Act, or in the protection of visibility program (40 CFR 51.301). (c) Long... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Visibility long-term strategies. 52.29... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS General Provisions § 52.29 Visibility...

  11. The Long-Term Effects of Youth Unemployment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mroz, Thomas A.; Savage, Timothy H.

    2006-01-01

    Using NLSY data, we examine the long-term effects of youth unemployment on later labor market outcomes. Involuntary unemployment may yield suboptimal investments in human capital in the short run. A theoretical model of dynamic human capital investment predicts a rational "catch-up" response. Using semiparametric techniques to control for the…

  12. Long-term functionalization of optical resonance sensor spots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saetchnikov, Vladimir A.; Tcherniavskaia, Elina A.; Saetchnikov, Anton V.; Schweiger, Gustav; Ostendorf, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    New approach to increase density of sensing units for higher precision as well as the selectivity of biological components under investigation in microcavity evanescent wave optical sensor systems is proposed. Long-term functionalization results of array sensor cells by different agents are represented.

  13. Long-Term Psychosomatic Effects of Biofeedback vs. Relaxation Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowlis, David P.; Borzone, Ximena C.

    Differences were compared in the short-term and long-term responses of subjects with headache, insomnia, or hypertension to biofeedback training, relaxation, or a combination of both. Headache sufferers, insomniacs, and hypertensives were randomly assigned in equal numbers to biofeedback, relaxation training or a record-keeping control. Over 2…

  14. The Basics of Long-Term Debt Issuance and Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Meter, Christine M.

    2011-01-01

    Issuing long-term debt can be a complex, multifaceted process. Although the process varies by stare, typically the school business official and the district solicitor work with the financing ream, which includes a financial adviser, bond counsel, underwriter, raring agency, and possibly a bond insurance agent, paying agent, and architect.…

  15. Using Technology in Reggio-Inspired Long-Term Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trepanier-Street, Mary L.; Hong, Seong B.; Bauer, Jennifer C.

    2001-01-01

    Describes examples of use of technology in the implementation and documentation of long-term projects conducted as a part of the Reggio Emilia preschool curriculum. Considers use of digital camera, videotapes, and video prints; documentation of graphics with the computer scanner; use of computer software as a tool for representing ideas; and use…

  16. An Empirical Study of Long Term Effects of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harnqvist, Kjell

    A large-scale study of Swedish men and women, each of whose intelligence level at age 13 was above the 25th percentile and whose father's education was only at the elementary level, was conducted in order to determine what educational level the participants had achieved and to study long-term effects of schooling. Subjects were sent questionnaires…

  17. Long-Term Marriage and Late-Life Divorce.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Elana

    Projections, based on current rates, are that 40% of recent marriages will end in divorce. To investigate the factors associated with long term marriage stability and satisfaction among elderly persons, 60 California older adults (30 married, 30 divorced) were interviewed about their perceptions of the role of companionship, alternatives to…

  18. Post-Learning Arousal Change and Long-Term Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, V.K.; Farley, Frank H.

    This study examined the effects on long-term retention of variations in intensity and of temporal parameters of arousal following a single learning trial in a paired-associate task. The subjects were 56 female university students. Intensity of arousal was manipulated by using two levels of white noise--75 decibels and 90 decibels sound pressure…

  19. Consolidation of Long-Term Memory: Evidence and Alternatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meeter, Martijn; Murre, Jaap M. J.

    2004-01-01

    Memory loss in retrograde amnesia has long been held to be larger for recent periods than for remote periods, a pattern usually referred to as the Ribot gradient. One explanation for this gradient is consolidation of long-term memories. Several computational models of such a process have shown how consolidation can explain characteristics of…

  20. Children's Long-Term Memory for Autobiographical Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Carole

    2002-01-01

    Traces the origins of children's autobiographical memories, discussing research on infantile amnesia and young children's memory skills. Focuses on studies of children's long-term memory for autobiographical events that investigate delays of 1-2 years and delays of 4 years or more. Reports that a few studies have documented remarkably robust…

  1. Long-Term Outcome in Pyridoxine-Dependent Epilepsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bok, Levinus A.; Halbertsma, Feico J..; Houterman, Saskia; Wevers, Ron A.; Vreeswijk, Charlotte; Jakobs, Cornelis; Struys, Eduard; van der Hoeven, Johan H.; Sival, Deborah A.; Willemsen, Michel A.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The long-term outcome of the Dutch pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy cohort and correlations between patient characteristics and follow-up data were retrospectively studied. Method: Fourteen patients recruited from a national reference laboratory were included (four males, 10 females, from 11 families; median age at assessment 6y; range 2y…

  2. Long-Term Parental Illness and Children: Perils and Promises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Mona; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Discusses effects of long-term parental illness, focusing on effects on children. Describes effects on family homeostasis and family coping mechanisms. Discusses school counselor's role in bringing about a more balanced viewpoint of power and sharing within the family. Recommends establishing a strong therapeutic bond, assessing what the child is…

  3. A Plea for Long-term Orientation in Organizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwaninger, Markus; Ambroz, Kristjan

    2010-11-01

    The stress field between short- and long-term orientations is the epitome of organizational problematics: In many enterprises the latter is dominated by the former. The consequences of a dominant short-term orientation are negative in the best case, but the cases that result in destruction and catastrophe are legion. Few sustainable solutions for the conflict between the short- and long-term perspectives have been developed, and among those concerned many have not sufficiently reflected on this shortfall, or even become aware of it. Frequently, practical constraints obstruct a balance between short- and long-term orientations. The aim of this contribution is to enquire into this dilemma and to find a way of coping with it. Any progress in that direction would help to further the viability of organizations and the quality of life within them. As a pertinent contribution we present the Model of Systemic Control, a framework with a long-term view for the governance of organizations. Even though we are emphasizing the conceptual aspect, our theoretical statement is underpinned by an empirical approach and simulation experiments.

  4. Long-term field studies: positive impacts and unintended consequences.

    PubMed

    Strier, Karen B

    2010-09-01

    Long-term field studies of wild primates can have far-reaching impacts that transcend their contributions to science. These impacts can benefit not only the study animals, study areas, and local human communities, but they can also have unintended, potentially negative consequences. Examples of some of the positive impacts from the Northern Muriqui Project of Caratinga, in Minas Gerais, Brazil, include contributions to conservation efforts on behalf of this critically endangered species, capacity building through the training of Brazilian students, and employment opportunities for local people through our collaboration with a locally administered NGO that is facilitating ecotourism, education, and reforestation programs. Some concerns about unintended consequences of the research include the effects of our trails and trail traffic on surrounding vegetation and other aspects of the environmental "footprints" that both long-term researchers and short-term visitors may leave. In addition, although precautions against potential health risks from routine exposure to human observers are now standard protocol, little is known about the other ways in which our long-term research presence can affect the primates' experiences or alter their perceptions of their social and ecological environments. Risk analysis, which weighs both the positive and negative impacts can provide useful perspectives for addressing the ethical considerations that can arise during long-term field studies. PMID:20653002

  5. Gender-Based Violence in India: Long-Term Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simister, John; Mehta, Parnika S.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines long-term trends in Indian society regarding domestic violence between husband and wife, and attitudes to such violence. This article analyzes crime data and uses data from several Indian household surveys: "Work Attitudes and Spending" surveys (1992 to 2007); "World Values Survey" (1990, 1995, 2001, and 2006); and…

  6. Long-Term Effects of Peace Workshops in Protracted Conflicts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malhotra, Deepak; Liyanage, Sumanasiri

    2005-01-01

    The current study evaluates the efficacy of an intensive four-day contact intervention (a peace workshop) organized in Sri Lanka and represents an initial step toward understanding the long-term impact of such interventions on attitudes and behaviors in the context of protracted ethnic conflict. Compared with two control groups, the participant…

  7. Long-Term Adaptation to Institutionalization in Dementia Caregivers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaugler, Joseph E.; Pot, Anne Margriet; Zarit, Steven H.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Longitudinal research in dementia has acknowledged the importance of transitions during the course of family caregiving. However, long-term adaptation to institutionalization has received little attention. This study attempts to describe caregivers' adaptation (changes in stress, well-being, and psychosocial resources) to placement up to…

  8. The Insider's Experience of Long-Term Peer Victimisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackay, Graham J.; Carey, Timothy A.; Stevens, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    Bullying in schools continues to be a problem despite the best efforts of educators, researchers, and clinicians. Of most concern for the present study is that some children experience long-term victimisation by their peers. To improve our understanding in this area, the phenomenology of being bullied over the course of the school year was…

  9. Managing Tribal Assets: Developing Long-Term Strategic Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Joseph S.; Smith, Dean Howard

    1998-01-01

    The National Executive Education Program for Native American Leadership and the Center for American Indian Economic Development developed a method to help tribes create a long-term strategic community-development plan. Based on integrated analysis of six community subsystems, the method includes extensive interviews, secondary research, a workshop…

  10. FRESHWATER POTOMAC LONG-TERM BENTHIC MONITORING PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Maryland Department of the Environments Freshwater Potomac Long-Term Benthic Monitoring Program provides seasonal information on abundance and composition for the benthic fauna of the freshwater portion of the Potomac River for use in recommendations to State agencies accordi...

  11. Predictors of Home Based Long-Term Care Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luppens, Jean; And Others

    An attempt was made to determine predictors of service need, use, and outcome among chronically impaired adults and aged who were living in the community and using the home-based, long term care services of the Chronic Illness Center (CIC) of the Cuyahoga County Hospitals (Ohio). Randomly selected consumer service records (N=200) were coded for…

  12. Continental diatoms as indicators of long-term environmental change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradbury, J. Platt

    1999-01-01

    It is curious that diatoms, whose short lifespans and capacity for rapid regeneration make them especially suitable for short-term paleoenvironmental studies, would also have a significant role as indicators of long-term environmental change. This chapter explores the nature of long diatom records, their relation to global environmental changes, guidelines for their interpretation, and problems common to such records.

  13. Increasing long term response by selecting for favorable minor alleles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long-term response of genomic selection can be improved by considering allele frequencies of selected markers or quantitative trait loci (QTLs). A previous formula to weight allele frequency of favorable minor alleles was tested, and 2 new formulas were developed. The previous formula used nonlinear...

  14. Long-Term Effects of First-Grade Multitier Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Kim, Young-Suk; Wanzek, Jeanne; Petscher, Yaacov; Wagner, Richard K.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the long-term effects of 2 first-grade Response to Intervention (RTI) models (Dynamic and Typical RTI) on the reading performance of students in second and third grade. Participants included 419 first-grade students (352 in second grade and 278 in third grade after attrition). Students were classified based…

  15. Areas of Marital Dissatisfaction among Long-Term Couples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duba, Jill D.; Hughey, Aaron W.; Lara, Tracy; Burke, Monica G.

    2012-01-01

    To better understand relational dissatisfaction and duration of long-term married couples, this study surveyed 30 couples married at least 40 years with the Marital Satisfaction Inventory. Findings suggest various areas of dissatisfaction (e.g., affective communication, conflict over child rearing) and relationship among and link to other areas of…

  16. Long-term priming of the meanings of ambiguous words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodd, Jennifer M.; Lopez Cutrin, Belen; Kirsch, Hannah; Millar, Allesandra; Davis, Matthew H.

    2013-01-01

    Comprehension of semantically ambiguous words (e.g., "bark") is strongly influenced by the relative frequencies of their meanings, such that listeners are biased towards retrieving the most frequent meaning. These biases are often assumed to reflect a highly stable property of an individual's long-term lexical-semantic representations. We present…

  17. Autonomy and Acceptance of Long-Term Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Hui-Chuan; Ting, Yu-Shan; Jiang, Ting-Wen; Chien, Ming-Chih; Chien, Chih-Hsin

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between four types of autonomy (health autonomy, informational autonomy, living autonomy, and financial autonomy) and the acceptance of five types of long-term care (adult day care, respite care, assisted living, unit care, and group home) for the elderly in Taiwan. Data were collected from 167 middle-aged and…

  18. Going Solar Yields Long-Term Economical, Educational Benefits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Moos, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Going solar is not an easy decision, but a long-term investment with a potentially substantial up-front cost. While some schools have enough capital in reserve, can raise bond money, or can solicit sufficient donations, many schools rely on creative financial programs to make a solar energy system economically feasible. Thinking about going solar…

  19. Long-term Toxicity of Cancer Treatment in Older Patients.

    PubMed

    Shahrokni, Armin; Wu, Abraham J; Carter, Jeanne; Lichtman, Stuart M

    2016-02-01

    With earlier cancer diagnosis among older patients with cancer, the possibility of curing cancer increases. However, cancer treatment may have a long-lasting impact on older cancer survivors. It is vital to screen, diagnose, and properly manage the long-term toxicities of cancer treatment in order to maintain the quality of life of older cancer survivors. PMID:26614861

  20. Long-term Ecological Monitoring in Schools and Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doberski, Julian; Brodie, Iain D. S.

    1991-01-01

    The value and difficulties of long-term ecological monitoring studies undertaken in schools and colleges are reviewed. Rookeries, stream ecology, sand dune succession, fish population, and seed production and survival are presented as examples of successful studies. This is followed by a discussion of points to consider when setting up a long-term…

  1. Investment in Skills Must Be for the Long Term

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, John

    2009-01-01

    Since the 1980s, researchers have formed a much better understanding of how unemployment scars people's lives, not just in the short term, but sometimes for years ahead. Researchers differ on the details, but no one disagrees that the negative effects are serious and long term. In the recession of the 1980s, government schemes to improve people's…

  2. Concept Formation Skills in Long-Term Cochlear Implant Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castellanos, Irina; Kronenberger, William G.; Beer, Jessica; Colson, Bethany G.; Henning, Shirley C.; Ditmars, Allison; Pisoni, David B.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated if a period of auditory sensory deprivation followed by degraded auditory input and related language delays affects visual concept formation skills in long-term prelingually deaf cochlear implant (CI) users. We also examined if concept formation skills are mediated or moderated by other neurocognitive domains (i.e.,…

  3. Infection Control in the Long Term Care Facility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Sara

    This booklet is intended to increase the awareness of persons working in long-term care facilities regarding the danger of infectious disease and the ways in which it can be spread. Materials in this booklet include: (1) a brief discussion of historical events in the study of microorganisms; (2) information about how microorganisms cause infection…

  4. Long-term theranostic hydrogel system for solid tumors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jang Il; Lee, Beom Suk; Chun, Changju; Cho, Jung-Kyo; Kim, Sang-Yoon; Song, Soo-Chang

    2012-03-01

    The long-term theranostic hydrogel system for solid tumors was prepared via simple physical mixing, which consisted of three major parts: the thermosensitive/biodegradable poly(organophosphazene) hydrogel, PEGylated cobalt ferrite nanoparticles, and paclitaxel (PTX). The PEGylated cobalt ferrite nanoparticles showed extremely low cytotoxicity due to the surface modification using PEG chains. The long-term theranostic hydrogel system showed adequate properties to be used for long-term MR theragnosis. In particular, the theranostic hydrogel gradually degraded over 28 days, and the PTX was sustainedly released out from the theranostic hydrogel over the same period in vitro. Furthermore, the in vivo efficacy of long-term MR theragnosis using the theranostic hydrogel system was estimated successfully over 3 weeks by using high field (4.7 T) animal MRI and solid tumor-bearing mice. Based on our results, we expect that this system can supply multiple data regarding a) the progress of therapy and b) the treatment processes via one- or two-time i.t. administration for cases in which surgical approaches are difficult to apply. Meanwhile, cancer patients can be free from the pain of multiple surgical treatments and have the advantage of therapy through a simple i.t. administration. PMID:22189146

  5. Globalization, Women's Migration, and the Long-Term-Care Workforce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne, Colette V.; Braun, Kathryn L.

    2008-01-01

    With the aging of the world's population comes the rising need for qualified direct long-term-care (DLTC) workers (i.e., those who provide personal care to frail and disabled older adults). Developed nations are increasingly turning to immigrant women to fill these needs. In this article, we examine the impact of three global trends--population…

  6. Long-Term Teacher Effects on Pupils' Learning Gains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bressoux, Pascal; Bianco, Maryse

    2004-01-01

    Many studies have demonstrated that a teacher has a substantial impact on how much pupils learn. However, research on the long-term effects of teachers is scarce, and the results obtained so far are inconsistent. Some studies have concluded that teacher effects are relatively permanent, while others claim that they fade away more or less rapidly…

  7. Long-term prognosis of depression in primary care.

    PubMed Central

    Simon, G. E.

    2000-01-01

    This article uses longitudinal data from a primary care sample to examine long-term prognosis of depression. A sample of 225 patients initiating antidepressant treatment in primary care completed assessments of clinical outcome (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and the mood module of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IIIR) 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 months after initiating treatment. The proportion of patients continuing to meet criteria for major depression fell rapidly to approximately 10% and remained at approximately that level throughout follow-up. The proportion meeting criteria for remission (Hamilton Depression score of 7 or less) rose gradually to approximately 45%. Long-term prognosis (i.e. probability of remission at 6 months and beyond) was strongly related to remission status at 3 months (odds ratio 3.65; 95% confidence interval, 2.81-4.76) and only modestly related to various clinical characteristics assessed at baseline (e.g. prior history of recurrent depression, medical comorbidity, comorbid anxiety symptoms). The findings indicate that potentially modifiable risk factors influence the long-term prognosis of depression. This suggests that more systematic and effective depression treatment programmes might have an important effect on long-term course and reduce the overall burden of chronic and recurrent depression. PMID:10885162

  8. PLUME-SCALER-EVALUATING LONG-TERM MONITORING WELL NETWORKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's Subsurface Protection and Remediation Division is developing a new computer application called PLUME-SCALER to evaluate long term monitoring well networks using typically available historical site water level data. PLUME-SCALER can be used to determine if there are enough ...

  9. Long-Term Learning, Achievement Tests, and Learner Centered Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salinas, Moises F.; Kane-Johnson, Sarah E.; Vasil-Miller, Melissa A.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of achievement tests to measure long-term learning at the higher education level in traditional verses learner-centered classrooms. Volunteer instructors who use comprehensive achievement tests as an important component of their grading system were asked to complete an instrument that…

  10. Experiences of the Long Term Stability at SLS

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, F. Q.

    2007-01-19

    The long term stability on the scale from days to a year, besides the short term stability, is one of key performance indicators of a light source. The Swiss Light Source (SLS) was installed and commissioned in 2000. It has successfully worked for more than 5 years without re-alignment of the machine. Hydrostatic Leveling System (HLS) and Horizontal Position System (HPS) have been added at supports of the storage ring (48 girders). They made evidence that the position of SLS Storage Ring (SR) is very stable on the time scale of a day, a week, a month and a year. The evidence for the long term stability is also provided by frequency of the RF cavity. The HLS is a powerful tool. The analysis of the HLS data shows that the vertical displacements, which are adjusted to correct average orbit deviations, of the SLS storage ring foundation and of the girder supports were in the range of 0.15 mm in 2003. The site, the building foundation, the mechanical supports and the temperature control are important pre-conditions to get the good long term stability. The experience gained with the long term stability at SLS is presented.

  11. Planning for Long-Term Care: Concept, Definition, and Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedemann, Marie-Luise; Newman, Frederick L.; Seff, Laura R.; Dunlop, Burton D.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: This study explores the development and testing of an instrument to measure long-term-care planning behavior. Design and Methods: Researchers operationalized proposed constructs and response styles as statements in a questionnaire. A telephone survey involved 150 randomly selected residents of Miami-Dade County, Florida who were between…

  12. Global, long-term surface reflectance records from Landsat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Global, long-term monitoring of changes in Earth’s land surface requires quantitative comparisons of satellite images acquired under widely varying atmospheric conditions. Although physically based estimates of surface reflectance (SR) ultimately provide the most accurate representation of Earth’s s...

  13. Long-Term Sensitization Training Primes "Aplysia" for Further Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleary, Leonard J.; Byrne, John H.; Antzoulatos, Evangelos G.; Wainwright, Marcy L.

    2006-01-01

    Repetitive, unilateral stimulation of "Aplysia" induces long-term sensitization (LTS) of ipsilaterally elicited siphon-withdrawal responses. Whereas some morphological effects of training appear only on ipsilateral sensory neurons, others appear bilaterally. We tested the possibility that contralateral morphological modifications may have…

  14. Crystalline Concepts in Long-Term Mathematical Invention and Discovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tall, David

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces the notion of "crystalline concept" as a focal idea in long-term mathematical thinking, bringing together the geometric development of Van Hiele, process-object encapsulation, and formal axiomatic systems. Each of these is a strand in the framework of "three worlds of mathematics" with its own special characteristics, but all…

  15. Marketing in the long-term care continuum.

    PubMed

    Laurence, J Nathan; Kash, Bita A

    2010-04-01

    Today, long-term care facilities are composed of independent, assisted living, and skilled nursing facilities along with many variations of those themes in between. The clientele for these various types of facilities differ because of the level of care the facility provides as well as the amenities long-term care consumers are looking for. However, there many similarities and common approaches to how reaching the target audience through effective marketing activities. Knowing who the target audience is, how to reach them, and how to communicate with them will serve any facility well in this competitive market. Developing marketing strategies for long-term care settings is as important as understanding what elements of care can be marketed individually as a niche market. Determining the market base for a facility is equally crucial since the target populations differ among the three types of facilities. By reviewing current marketing articles and applying marketing practices, we have crafted some general principles for which each facility type can learn from. Finally, we will discuss the types of marketing and how they related to the spectrum of long-term care facilities. PMID:20446138

  16. Incidental Biasing of Attention from Visual Long-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fan, Judith E.; Turk-Browne, Nicholas B.

    2016-01-01

    Holding recently experienced information in mind can help us achieve our current goals. However, such immediate and direct forms of guidance from working memory are less helpful over extended delays or when other related information in long-term memory is useful for reaching these goals. Here we show that information that was encoded in the past…

  17. Coronal holes in the long-term cosmic rays modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lev, Dorman

    2016-07-01

    The present study of galactic CR modulation in the heliosphere through the 21-24 cycles continues the series of works, where long-term CR modulation was described using the multi-parametric model, including the solar activity (SA) characteristics. Initial data for modeling of CR variations are long-term observations of CR intensity, the characteristics of the solar global magnetic field and the short-time characteristic of SA (solar x-rays flares). Data of the CR intensity were obtained from the ground network of NM and stratospheric sounding. In order to improve the simulation of long-term CR variations we introduced into the model the characteristic of the regions with the open magnetic field - the coronal holes (CH). Location (latitude), the area and the magnetic flux of CHs were used. Modeling modulation is carried out for all period and separately for the periods with the same polarity of the global field of the Sun, taking into account the delay CR variations regarding changes of CA characteristics. The quality of the long-term variations description has been improved by including in the model the CH characteristics.

  18. Phytoavailability of Cadmium in Long-Term Biosolids Amended Soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agronomic use of biosolids has raised concern that plant availability of biosolids-Cd will increase with time following cessation of biosolids application. But it was demonstrated that long-term biosolids-amended soils have greater sorptive capacity for Cd than non-biosolids-amended soils. This stud...

  19. A Guide Through the Maze of Long-term Care

    PubMed Central

    Kane, Robert L.; Kane, Rosalie A.

    1981-01-01

    Complicated requirements regarding eligibility and coverage as well as variations in the availability of programs confuse even the most diligent physicians trying to advise elderly patients about health care services. Nevertheless, awareness of such government and community resources is critical because physicians play an essential role in assisting the elderly to receive maximum health care benefits, particularly during long-term illness. PMID:6801867

  20. Long-term outcomes in MPS-IH: throwing stars.

    PubMed

    Pulsipher, Michael A

    2015-03-26

    After a herculean data-gathering effort, in this issue of Blood, Aldenhoven and colleagues from Europe and North America provide an eye-opening assessment of long-term neurocognitive, organ, joint, and tissue function after allogeneic transplantation of children with mucopolysaccharidosis type I–Hurler syndrome (MPS-IH), along with an analysis defining a path to better these outcomes. PMID:25814488

  1. Medical Foster Care: An Alternative to Long-Term Hospitalization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Patricia H.; Whitworth, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    Describes a program model, Medical Foster Care, which uses registered nurses as foster parents who work closely with biological parents of abused and neglected children with acute health problems. The program reunites families, improves parenting skills, and saves money in long-term hospitalization. (Author/BB)

  2. Long-Term Impact of Service Learning in Environmental Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacFall, Janet

    2012-01-01

    Long-term impacts from a senior course in Environmental Studies were evaluated by a survey of program graduates (36 respondents, 50% response rate) who had participated in the course over an 8-year permiod. Each year, the Senior Seminar used a service-learning pedagogy with a different environmentally focused project ranging from web resource…

  3. Experimental protocols and preparations to study respiratory long term facilitation

    PubMed Central

    Mateika, Jason H.; Sandhu, Kulraj S.

    2011-01-01

    Respiratory long-term facilitation is a form of neuronal plasticity that is induced following exposure to intermittent hypoxia. Long-term facilitation is characterized by a progressive increase in respiratory motor output during normoxic periods that separate hypoxic episodes and by a sustained elevation in respiratory activity for up to 90 min after exposure to intermittent hypoxia. This phenomenon is associated with increases in phrenic, hypoglossal or carotid sinus nerve inspiratory-modulated discharge. The examination of long-term facilitation has been steadily ongoing for approximately 3 decades. During this period of time a variety of animal models (e.g. cats, rats and humans), experimental preparations and intermittent hypoxia protocols have been used to study long-term facilitation. This review is designed to summarize the strengths and weaknesses of the models, preparations and protocols that have been used to study LTF over the past 30 years. The review is divided into two primary sections. Initially, the models and protocols used to study LTF in animals other than humans will be discussed, followed by a section specifically focused on human studies. Each section will begin with a discussion of various factors that must be considered when selecting an experimental preparation and intermittent hypoxia protocol to examine LTF. Model and protocol design recommendations will follow, with the goal of presenting a prevailing model and protocol that will ultimately ensure standardized comparisons across studies. PMID:21292044

  4. Long term management practices influenced soil aggregation and carbon dynamics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil aggregation protects soil organic C (SOC) against rapid decomposition, improves soil quality, and reduces soil erosion potential. The objectives of this study are to evaluate the effects of long-term (21 yrs.) management practices on SOC, water stable aggregate (WSA), and aggregate-associated ...

  5. Sexuality and Aging: Implications for Long Term Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinkley, Nancy E.

    With increasing emphasis on treating the whole person, on the maintenance of an individual's former life style, and on patients' rights, long-term care personnel need to become aware that many nursing home residents experience needs related to their sexuality. A model two-day workshop is presented wlth a focus on the following topics: (1) a broad…

  6. Soil quality assessment in long-term direct seed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Producers in the Pacific Northwest are adopting direct seed farming to reduce soil erosion, improve soil quality and increase water infiltration. Some direct seed producers are concerned with reaching the yield and profit potential expected with long-term direct seed, and this may be due to soil st...

  7. Phototherapy for Neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia: Long-Term Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Audrey K., Ed.; Showacre, Jane, Ed.

    This book contains 16 papers from the 1974 conference held by the Pregnancy and Infancy Branch of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development to: (1) assess the photobiological processes involved in phototherapy used in treatment of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia, and (2) to document long term clinical experience with the treatment…

  8. Dying with Dementia in Long-Term Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloane, Philip D.; Zimmerman, Sheryl; Williams, Christianna S.; Hanson, Laura C.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To better understand the experiences and potential unmet need of persons who die in long-term care. Design and Methods: We conducted after-death interviews with staff who had cared for 422 decedents with dementia and 159 who were cognitively intact and received terminal care in U.S. nursing homes (NHs) or residential care-assisted living…

  9. Long term agro-ecosystem research: The Southern Plains partnership

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) is coordinating ten well-established research sites as a Long Term Agro-ecosystem Research (LTAR) Network. The goal of the LTAR is to sustain a land-based infrastructure for research, environmental management testing, and education, that enables understan...

  10. Soil Quality Change in Long-Term Organic Crop Rotations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Long-Term Agroecological Research (LTAR) site was established in 1998 on the Neely-Kinyon Research Farm near Greenfield, Iowa to evaluate agronomic and economic outcomes of certified organic and conventional grain-based cropping systems. The site was certified organic in 2000. This study evaluat...

  11. Idaho National Laboratory Site Long-Term Stewardship Implementation Plan

    SciTech Connect

    B. E. Olaveson

    2006-07-27

    The U.S. Department of Energy has established long-term stewardship programs to protect human health and the environment at sites where residual contamination remains after site cleanup. At the Idaho National Laboratory Site, Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERLA) long-term stewardship activities performed under the aegis of regulatory agreements, the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order for the Idaho National Laboratory, and state and federal requirements are administered primarily under the direction of the Idaho Cleanup Project. It represents a subset of all on-going environmental activity at the Idaho National Laboratory Site. This plan provides a listing of applicable CERCLA long-term stewardship requirements and their planned and completed implementation goals. It proffers the Long-Term Stewardship Environmental Data Warehouse for Sitewide management of environmental data. This plan will be updated as needed over time, based on input from the U.S. Department of Energy, its cognizant subcontractors, and other local and regional stakeholders.

  12. Suicidal Behavior in Long-Term Care Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osgood, Nancy J.; Brant, Barbara A.

    1990-01-01

    Surveyed administrators of 463 long-term care facilities concerning overt suicides and intentional life-threatening behaviors. Data revealed that White males were highest risk group. Refusal to eat, drink, or take medications were most common suicidal behaviors. Depression, loneliness, feelings of family rejection, and loss were significant…

  13. Research on the Long-Term Effects of Child Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elam, George A.; Kleist, David M.

    1999-01-01

    Explores recent quantitative and qualitative studies of the long-term effects of child abuse, specifically, how abuse in childhood affects adulthood. Many studies associate various forms of abuse experienced in childhood with a wide range of psychological, behavioral, and relational problems in adulthood. Articles reviewed may inform marriage and…

  14. Case Management Takes Hold in Long-Term Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Stephen M.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Includes "Empowering Case Management Clients" (Rose); "Case Management in Rural Japan" (Maeda, Takahashi); "Coordinated-Care Teams" (Brodsky, Sobol); "Comparing Practice in the United States and the United Kingdom" (Sturges); "Business of Case Management Flourishing in the U.S." (Cress); and "Community Options Bring Change to Long-Term Care in…

  15. Energy use in buildings in a long-term perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Urge-Vorsatz, Diana; Petrichenko, Ksenia; Staniec, Maja; Eom, Jiyong

    2013-06-01

    Energy services in and related to buildings are responsible for approximately one-third of total global final energy demand and energy-related greenhouse gas emissions. They also contribute to the other key energy-related global sustainability challenges including lack of access to modern energy services, climate change, indoor and outdoor air pollution, related and additional health risks and energy dependence. The aim of this paper is to summarize the main sustainability challenges related to building thermal energy use and to identify the key strategies for how to address these challenges. The paper’s basic premises and results are provided by and updated from the analysis conducted for the Global Energy Assessment: identification of strategies and key solutions; scenario assessment; and the comparison of the results with other models in the literature.

  16. Long-Term Care Financing: Lessons From France

    PubMed Central

    Doty, Pamela; Nadash, Pamela; Racco, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    Context An aging population leads to a growing demand for long-term services and supports (LTSS). In 2002, France introduced universal, income-adjusted, public long-term care coverage for adults 60 and older, whereas the United States funds means-tested benefits only. Both countries have private long-term care insurance (LTCI) markets: American policies create alternatives to out-of-pocket spending and protect purchasers from relying on Medicaid. Sales, however, have stagnated, and the market's viability is uncertain. In France, private LTCI supplements public coverage, and sales are growing, although its potential to alleviate the long-term care financing problem is unclear. We explore whether France's very different approach to structuring public and private financing for long-term care could inform the United States’ long-term care financing reform efforts. Methods We consulted insurance experts and conducted a detailed review of public reports, academic studies, and other documents to understand the public and private LTCI systems in France, their advantages and disadvantages, and the factors affecting their development. Findings France provides universal public coverage for paid assistance with functional dependency for people 60 and older. Benefits are steeply income adjusted and amounts are low. Nevertheless, expenditures have exceeded projections, burdening local governments. Private supplemental insurance covers 11% of French, mostly middle-income adults (versus 3% of Americans 18 and older). Whether policyholders will maintain employer-sponsored coverage after retirement is not known. The government's interest in pursuing an explicit public/private partnership has waned under President François Hollande, a centrist socialist, in contrast to the previous center-right leader, President Nicolas Sarkozy, thereby reducing the prospects of a coordinated public/private strategy. Conclusions American private insurers are showing increasing interest in long-term

  17. Energy scavenging for long-term deployable wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Mathúna, Cian O; O'Donnell, Terence; Martinez-Catala, Rafael V; Rohan, James; O'Flynn, Brendan

    2008-05-15

    The coming decade will see the rapid emergence of low cost, intelligent, wireless sensors and their widespread deployment throughout our environment. While wearable systems will operate over communications ranges of less than a meter, building management systems will operate with inter-node communications ranges of the order of meters to tens of meters and remote environmental monitoring systems will require communications systems and associated energy systems that will allow reliable operation over kilometers. Autonomous power should allow wireless sensor nodes to operate in a "deploy and forget" mode. The use of rechargeable battery technology is problematic due to battery lifetime issues related to node power budget, battery self-discharge, number of recharge cycles and long-term environmental impact. Duty cycling of wireless sensor nodes with long "SLEEP" times minimises energy usage. A case study of a multi-sensor, wireless, building management system operating using the Zigbee protocol demonstrates that, even with a 1 min cycle time for an 864 ms "ACTIVE" mode, the sensor module is already in SLEEP mode for almost 99% of the time. For a 20-min cycle time, the energy utilisation in SLEEP mode exceeds the ACTIVE mode energy by almost a factor of three and thus dominates the module energy utilisation thereby providing the ultimate limit to the power system lifetime. Energy harvesting techniques can deliver energy densities of 7.5 mW/cm(2) from outdoor solar, 100 microW/cm(2) from indoor lighting, 100 microW/cm(3) from vibrational energy and 60 microW/cm(2) from thermal energy typically found in a building environment. A truly autonomous, "deploy and forget" battery-less system can be achieved by scaling the energy harvesting system to provide all the system energy needs. In the building management case study discussed, for duty cycles of less than 0.07% (i.e. in ACTIVE mode for 0.864 s every 20 min), energy harvester device dimensions of approximately 2 cm on a

  18. Long-term solution to the imagery bandwidth problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, Dennis C.

    1996-11-01

    There are numerous technological challenges in the Tactical Reconnaissance (Tac Recce) arena as the digital imagery era dawns. Foremost among them are the problems of imagery transmission bandwidth and the storage of the collected imagery. In this paper I seek to address these problems in an interrelated manner. I do not propose any new technological innovation, but rather a fundamental change in the philosophy of the collection, transmission, and storage of tactical imagery. The core of the approach requires that the area being imaged has already been imaged before (old imagery). This is reasonable given satellite, long range, UAV, and tactical imagery collection systems presently planned for, anticipated data collection rates, and how hot spots are repeatedly imaged. In addition, the Defense Airborne Reconnaissance Office (DARO) expects to be imaging tens of thousands of square kilometers each day within the next decade. When new tasking to collect imaging is received, imagery collected before by some imagery collection system must be taken with the aircraft (A/C) or person sent out to collect new imagery. As the new imagery is collected, the old and new imagery of the same area would be automatically registered. The old imagery can be pre-scaled, pre-warped, pre-rotated, etc., in order to maximize the efficiency of this process. The registered images can be spatially and spectrally thresholded in order to isolate significant deltas. Automatic target cueing (ATC)/automatic target recognition (ATR) could be used on both images for comparison to further isolate new objects of interest. Segmentation techniques could then be used to extract objects or regions of interest from the new image and only these objects or regions would be transmitted to the ground, a relay aircraft, or a satellite. Once at the ground station or long-term storage site, the new information could be inserted into the original image, thus minimizing the amount of storage space required as areas

  19. Long-term particulate matter exposure and mortality: a review of European epidemiological studies

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Several studies considered the relation between long-term exposure to particulate matter (PM) and total mortality, as well as mortality from cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Our aim was to provide a comprehensive review of European epidemiological studies on the issue. Methods We searched the Medline database for epidemiological studies on air pollution and health outcomes published between January 2002 and December 2007. We also examined the reference lists of individual papers and reviews. Two independent reviewers classified the studies according to type of air pollutant, duration of exposure and health outcome considered. Among European investigations that examined long-term PM exposure we found 4 cohort studies (considering total and cardiopulmonary mortality), 1 case-control study (considering mortality from myocardial infarction), and 4 ecologic studies (2 studies considering total and cardiopulmonary mortality and 2 studies focused on cardiovascular mortality). Results Measurement indicators of PM exposure used in European studies, including PM10, PM2.5, total suspended particulate and black smoke, were heterogeneous. This notwithstanding, in all analytic studies total mortality was directly associated with long-term exposure to PM. The excesses in mortality were mainly due to cardiovascular and respiratory causes. Three out of 4 ecologic studies found significant direct associations between PM indexes and mortality. Conclusion European studies on long-term exposure to PM indicate a direct association with mortality, particularly from cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. PMID:19995424

  20. Long-term attendance at a family practice teaching unit. Qualitative study of patients' views.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, J. B.; Dickie, I.; Brown, L.; Biehn, J.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify the factors that contribute to patients' long-term attendance at a family practice teaching unit. DESIGN: Qualitative method of focus groups. SETTING: A community-based family practice teaching unit in southwestern Ontario. PARTICIPANTS: Patients who had been coming to St Joseph's Family Medical Centre for more than 15 years were purposefully selected to participate. METHOD: Five focus groups composed of patients who had been affiliated with one of the three practices at the Centre for more than 15 years explored factors contributing to long-term attendance. MAIN FINDINGS: Four key themes were identified as the primary factors contributing to long-term attendance: the relationship context, the team concept, professional responsibility and attitudes, and comprehensive and convenient care. CONCLUSION: The resource-rich era of medical care, during which participants formulated their views and opinions about the factors contributing to their long-term attendance at a family practice teaching unit, has come to a close. The findings of this study provide important information that could help maintain one of the basic tenets of family medicine-continuity of care. PMID:9154362

  1. Plastic mulching in agriculture. Trading short-term agronomic benefits for long-term soil degradation?

    PubMed

    Steinmetz, Zacharias; Wollmann, Claudia; Schaefer, Miriam; Buchmann, Christian; David, Jan; Tröger, Josephine; Muñoz, Katherine; Frör, Oliver; Schaumann, Gabriele Ellen

    2016-04-15

    Plastic mulching has become a globally applied agricultural practice for its instant economic benefits such as higher yields, earlier harvests, improved fruit quality and increased water-use efficiency. However, knowledge of the sustainability of plastic mulching remains vague in terms of both an environmental and agronomic perspective. This review critically discusses the current understanding of the environmental impact of plastic mulch use by linking knowledge of agricultural benefits and research on the life cycle of plastic mulches with direct and indirect implications for long-term soil quality and ecosystem services. Adverse effects may arise from plastic additives, enhanced pesticide runoff and plastic residues likely to fragment into microplastics but remaining chemically intact and accumulating in soil where they can successively sorb agrochemicals. The quantification of microplastics in soil remains challenging due to the lack of appropriate analytical techniques. The cost and effort of recovering and recycling used mulching films may offset the aforementioned benefits in the long term. However, comparative and long-term agronomic assessments have not yet been conducted. Furthermore, plastic mulches have the potential to alter soil quality by shifting the edaphic biocoenosis (e.g. towards mycotoxigenic fungi), accelerate C/N metabolism eventually depleting soil organic matter stocks, increase soil water repellency and favour the release of greenhouse gases. A substantial process understanding of the interactions between the soil microclimate, water supply and biological activity under plastic mulches is still lacking but required to estimate potential risks for long-term soil quality. Currently, farmers mostly base their decision to apply plastic mulches rather on expected short-term benefits than on the consideration of long-term consequences. Future interdisciplinary research should therefore gain a deeper understanding of the incentives for farmers

  2. The long-term costs of career interruptions.

    PubMed

    Ketsche, Patricia G; Branscomb, Lisette

    2003-01-01

    This article is based on a study that analyzed the long-term salary implications of career choices made by healthcare administrators. The study used a cohort of graduates from a single health administration program; these individuals had comparable levels of human capital at the outset of their careers. We estimated the effect of periods of part-time employment and job interruptions--voluntary and involuntary--on long-term salary progression. We also estimated the impact of other career choices, such as membership in a professional organization or the decision to relocate. After controlling for these choices, we estimated the residual effect of gender on salary. We found that voluntary interruptions had a greater effect on long-term salary growth than did involuntary interruptions of the same length or periods of part-time employment. Individuals evaluating options for balancing career and family constraints should understand the long-term cost of choosing a career interruption rather than part-time employment during periods of heightened responsibilities outside the workplace. Healthcare administrators should also be educated about the positive association between professional memberships and career advancement to make informed decisions about participation in such organizations. Surprisingly, after controlling for all choice variables, gender had no measurable effect on long-term salary growth. Half of those who indicated a voluntary interruption for dependent care reasons preferred part-time or flexible-hour work if it had been available. These results suggest that a pool of healthcare administrators might compete for positions if more part-time opportunities were available. PMID:12592867

  3. Long-term change in thermospheric temperature above Saint Santin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donaldson, J. K.; Wellman, T. J.; Oliver, W. L.

    2010-11-01

    The 1966-1987 Saint Santin/Nançay incoherent scatter radar database is analyzed to determine long-term trends beyond those associated with the "natural" variations of solar and magnetic activity, season, and time of day. Trends averaging some -3 K/yr are found in the F region. Positive trends in the E region may be explained by the subsidence of an overlying warmer regime of air. The trend line seems to change slope around the "breakpoint" year 1979, with the cooling changing from -0.8 K/yr before that time to -5.5 K/yr afterward at 350 km altitude. These trends greatly exceed those predicted by model simulations for increases in greenhouse gas concentrations. Further, carbon dioxide shows no such breakpoint year, but ozone does, near the time of the change in thermospheric trend, and a surface climatic regime shift has also been reported near this time. It is not clear that greenhouse gases are driving the long-term trend in thermospheric temperature. Restriction of analysis to a particular time of day results in greatly different trends, from near zero at midnight to -6 K/yr at noon at 350 km altitude. A separate analysis to determine the long-term trend in the amplitude of the 24 h tide at 350 km altitude shows a large change, with the amplitude diminishing from 136 K in 1966 to 89 K in 1988. Our results show the great need to remove all other natural variations from long-term data sets in determining long-term trends to avoid great ambiguity in trend interpretation.

  4. Physiological, Molecular and Genetic Mechanisms of Long-Term Habituation

    SciTech Connect

    Calin-Jageman, Robert J

    2009-09-12

    Work funded on this grant has explored the mechanisms of long-term habituation, a ubiquitous form of learning that plays a key role in basic cognitive functioning. Specifically, behavioral, physiological, and molecular mechanisms of habituation have been explored using a simple model system, the tail-elicited siphon-withdrawal reflex (T-SWR) in the marine mollusk Aplysia californica. Substantial progress has been made on the first and third aims, providing some fundamental insights into the mechanisms by which memories are stored. We have characterized the physiological correlates of short- and long-term habituation. We found that short-term habituation is accompanied by a robust sensory adaptation, whereas long-term habituation is accompanied by alterations in sensory and interneuron synaptic efficacy. Thus, our data indicates memories can be shifted between different sites in a neural network as they are consolidated from short to long term. At the molecular level, we have accomplished microarray analysis comparing gene expression in both habituated and control ganglia. We have identified a network of putatively regulated transcripts that seems particularly targeted towards synaptic changes (e.g. SNAP25, calmodulin) . We are now beginning additional work to confirm regulation of these transcripts and build a more detailed understanding of the cascade of molecular events leading to the permanent storage of long-term memories. On the third aim, we have fostered a nascent neuroscience program via a variety of successful initiatives. We have funded over 11 undergraduate neuroscience scholars, several of whom have been recognized at national and regional levels for their research. We have also conducted a pioneering summer research program for community college students which is helping enhance access of underrepresented groups to life science careers. Despite minimal progress on the second aim, this project has provided a) novel insight into the network mechanisms by

  5. Sequential water disinfection using UV irradiation and iodination for long-term space missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pennell, Kelly

    As part of the NASA Specialized Center of Research and Training for Advanced Life Support (NSCORT-ALS), a disinfection process, which uses ultraviolet (UV) radiation as the primary disinfectant and iodine as the secondary disinfectant, was investigated. The purpose of this research was to support NASA's goal of long-term space missions to destinations such as Mars. Long-term space missions typically refer to missions with durations of one (1) to five (5) years. For a hypothetical mission to Mars, the length of the mission is estimated to be 600 days. All of the items required for survival of the six person crew would need to be readily available during the mission, including safe potable water. Due to cost and logistical considerations associated with supplying the crew with earth-based potable water for the entire mission duration, closed-loop water treatment processes, in which a finite amount of water is continuously used and re-used, are being considered. Closed-loop treatment systems are comprised of many individual processes. The subject research is focused on the water disinfection process using ultraviolet (UV) radiation as the primary disinfectant and a chemical disinfectant (iodine) as the residual disinfectant. The four main research objectives completed as part of this research are summarized below. (1) Developed a tool that allowed iodine species and concentrations to be predicted based on system characteristics, such as pH and redox potential. (2) Investigated the disinfection efficacy of UV radiation and iodine using a challenge microorganism (Bacillus subtilis spores). Effort was placed on characterizing the response of B. subtilis spores to sequential disinfection (i.e. UV then iodine). Inactivation models were developed to describe the inactivation kinetics. (3) Evaluated a chemical actinometer to monitor the minimum dose within a UV reactor. A continuous-form irradiance field model was developed to estimate the output of a cylindrical non

  6. Long-Term Trends and Gleissberg Cycles in Aurora Borealis Records (1600 - 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vázquez, M.; Vaquero, J. M.; Gallego, M. C.; Roca Cortés, T.; Pallé, P. L.

    2016-02-01

    The long-term spatial and temporal variation of aurora borealis events from 1600 to the present were studied using catalogues and other records of these phenomena. Geographic and geomagnetic coordinates were assigned to approximately 45 000 auroral events with more than 160 000 observations. They were analysed separately for three large-scale areas: i) Europe and North Africa, ii) North America, and iii) Asia. Variations in the cumulative numbers of auroral events with latitude (in both geographic and geomagnetic coordinates) were used to distinguish between the two main solar sources: coronal mass ejections and high-speed streams from coronal holes. We find significant long-term variations in the space-time distribution of auroras. We mainly identify these with four Gleissberg solar activity cycles whose overall characteristics we examine. The Asian observations are crucial in this context, and therefore merit further studies and verifications.

  7. Long-term persistence of vaccine-derived aluminum hydroxide is associated with chronic cognitive dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Couette, Maryline; Boisse, Marie-Françoise; Maison, Patrick; Brugieres, Pierre; Cesaro, Pierre; Chevalier, Xavier; Gherardi, Romain K; Bachoud-Levi, Anne-Catherine; Authier, François-Jérôme

    2009-11-01

    Macrophagic myofasciitis (MMF) is an emerging condition, characterized by specific muscle lesions assessing long-term persistence of aluminum hydroxide within macrophages at the site of previous immunization. Affected patients mainly complain of arthromyalgias, chronic fatigue, and cognitive difficulties. We designed a comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests to prospectively delineate MMF-associated cognitive dysfunction (MACD). Compared to control patients with arthritis and chronic pain, MMF patients had pronounced and specific cognitive impairment. MACD mainly affected (i) both visual and verbal memory; (ii) executive functions, including attention, working memory, and planning; and (iii) left ear extinction at dichotic listening test. Cognitive deficits did not correlate with pain, fatigue, depression, or disease duration. Pathophysiological mechanisms underlying MACD remain to be determined. In conclusion, long-term persistence of vaccine-derived aluminum hydroxide within the body assessed by MMF is associated with cognitive dysfunction, not solely due to chronic pain, fatigue and depression. PMID:19748679

  8. Compensation for PKMζ in long-term potentiation and spatial long-term memory in mutant mice

    PubMed Central

    Tsokas, Panayiotis; Hsieh, Changchi; Yao, Yudong; Lesburguères, Edith; Wallace, Emma Jane Claire; Tcherepanov, Andrew; Jothianandan, Desingarao; Hartley, Benjamin Rush; Pan, Ling; Rivard, Bruno; Farese, Robert V; Sajan, Mini P; Bergold, Peter John; Hernández, Alejandro Iván; Cottrell, James E; Shouval, Harel Z; Fenton, André Antonio; Sacktor, Todd Charlton

    2016-01-01

    PKMζ is a persistently active PKC isoform proposed to maintain late-LTP and long-term memory. But late-LTP and memory are maintained without PKMζ in PKMζ-null mice. Two hypotheses can account for these findings. First, PKMζ is unimportant for LTP or memory. Second, PKMζ is essential for late-LTP and long-term memory in wild-type mice, and PKMζ-null mice recruit compensatory mechanisms. We find that whereas PKMζ persistently increases in LTP maintenance in wild-type mice, PKCι/λ, a gene-product closely related to PKMζ, persistently increases in LTP maintenance in PKMζ-null mice. Using a pharmacogenetic approach, we find PKMζ-antisense in hippocampus blocks late-LTP and spatial long-term memory in wild-type mice, but not in PKMζ-null mice without the target mRNA. Conversely, a PKCι/λ-antagonist disrupts late-LTP and spatial memory in PKMζ-null mice but not in wild-type mice. Thus, whereas PKMζ is essential for wild-type LTP and long-term memory, persistent PKCι/λ activation compensates for PKMζ loss in PKMζ-null mice. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.14846.001 PMID:27187150

  9. Private Long-Term Care Insurance: Value to Claimants and Implications for Long-Term Care Financing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doty, Pamela; Cohen, Marc A.; Miller, Jessica; Shi, Xiaomei

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to obtain a profile of individuals with private long-term care (LTC) insurance as they begin using paid LTC services and track their patterns of service use, satisfaction with services and insurance, claims denial rates, and transitions over a 28-month period. Design and Methods: Ten LTC insurance companies…

  10. Compensation for PKMζ in long-term potentiation and spatial long-term memory in mutant mice.

    PubMed

    Tsokas, Panayiotis; Hsieh, Changchi; Yao, Yudong; Lesburguères, Edith; Wallace, Emma Jane Claire; Tcherepanov, Andrew; Jothianandan, Desingarao; Hartley, Benjamin Rush; Pan, Ling; Rivard, Bruno; Farese, Robert V; Sajan, Mini P; Bergold, Peter John; Hernández, Alejandro Iván; Cottrell, James E; Shouval, Harel Z; Fenton, André Antonio; Sacktor, Todd Charlton

    2016-01-01

    PKMζ is a persistently active PKC isoform proposed to maintain late-LTP and long-term memory. But late-LTP and memory are maintained without PKMζ in PKMζ-null mice. Two hypotheses can account for these findings. First, PKMζ is unimportant for LTP or memory. Second, PKMζ is essential for late-LTP and long-term memory in wild-type mice, and PKMζ-null mice recruit compensatory mechanisms. We find that whereas PKMζ persistently increases in LTP maintenance in wild-type mice, PKCι/λ, a gene-product closely related to PKMζ, persistently increases in LTP maintenance in PKMζ-null mice. Using a pharmacogenetic approach, we find PKMζ-antisense in hippocampus blocks late-LTP and spatial long-term memory in wild-type mice, but not in PKMζ-null mice without the target mRNA. Conversely, a PKCι/λ-antagonist disrupts late-LTP and spatial memory in PKMζ-null mice but not in wild-type mice. Thus, whereas PKMζ is essential for wild-type LTP and long-term memory, persistent PKCι/λ activation compensates for PKMζ loss in PKMζ-null mice. PMID:27187150

  11. A novel concept for long-term pre-storage and release of liquids for pressure-driven lab-on-a-chip devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czurratis, D.; Beyl, Y.; Zinober, S.; Lärmer, F.; Zengerle, R.

    2015-04-01

    On-chip storage of liquids is one of the major challenges of polymer-based lab-on-a-chip (LoC) devices. To ensure long-term storage of even highly volatile reagents in polymer disposal LoC cartridges, robust reagent storage concepts are necessary. Tubular bags, so-called stick packs, are widely used in the packaging industry. They offer sufficient vapor barrier properties for liquid storage. Here we present a polymer multilayer LoC-stack with integrated stick packs for the long-term storage of liquid reagents required for diagnostic applications. The storage concept fulfils two main requirements: firstly, the long-term storage of reagents in stick packs without significant losses or interaction with the surroundings and secondly, the on-demand release of liquids, which is realized by the delamination of a stick pack’s peel seam through pneumatic pressure. Furthermore, effects on the opening behavior of stick packs through accelerated aging were investigated after different storage conditions to proof repeatability. This concept enables on-chip storage of liquid reagents at room temperature and allows the implementation in different pressure driven LoC devices or similar applications. Since liquid storage in stick packs is well-established, emerging fields such as lab-on-a-chip combined with novel reagent release mechanisms should be of great interest for the commercialization of life science products.

  12. Modelling long-term landscape evolution by subglacial quarrying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vej Ugelvig, Sofie; Lundbek Egholm, David; Iverson, Neal R.

    2016-04-01

    Glacial landscape-evolution models are useful tools when studying the mechanisms and long-term effects of glacial erosion. However, the difficulty of implementing the small-scale physics of abrasion and quarrying in large-scale landscape models has necessitated use of semi-empirical erosion laws, where sliding speed or total ice flux are the main parameters scaling the rate of erosion. Factors such as bed slope, effective pressure, and pre-existing fracture-density are known to also be of importance, however, especially for the mechanics of quarrying (Iverson, 2012). The objective of our study was to improve links between large-scale landscape models and the physics of subglacial quarrying. We used the quarrying model presented by Iverson (2012) to calculate the average efficiency of quarrying across many topographic steps. The computations were repeated for one million combinations of bed slope, effective pressure, and basal sliding speed. We then performed a power-law fit to the many resulting erosion rates in order to quantify the overall influence of the regional parameters (effective pressure, bed slope, and sliding rate). Based on these results we suggest a quarrying rule where, in addition to the strong influence of bedrock fracture-density, erosion rate scales with sliding speed to a power of 1, with bed slope to a power of 2, and with effective pressure to a power of 3. The high sensitivity to effective pressure implies a strong influence of meltwater hydrology on subglacial landscape evolution. To study this influence we implemented the new quarrying rule in a higher-order ice-sheet model coupled to a cavity-channel model for glacial hydrology. Computational experiments using steady-state hydrology predict that a well-drained glacier focuses quarrying in the upper parts of the glaciated catchment where water flux is small and slopes are steep, and in areas where ice is thick and the effective pressure high. Decreasing the hydraulic conductivity of

  13. Phylogenetic reconstruction of Bantu kinship challenges Main Sequence Theory of human social evolution

    PubMed Central

    Opie, Christopher; Shultz, Susanne; Atkinson, Quentin D.; Currie, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Kinship provides the fundamental structure of human society: descent determines the inheritance pattern between generations, whereas residence rules govern the location a couple moves to after they marry. In turn, descent and residence patterns determine other key relationships such as alliance, trade, and marriage partners. Hunter-gatherer kinship patterns are viewed as flexible, whereas agricultural societies are thought to have developed much more stable kinship patterns as they expanded during the Holocene. Among the Bantu farmers of sub-Saharan Africa, the ancestral kinship patterns present at the beginning of the expansion are hotly contested, with some arguing for matrilineal and matrilocal patterns, whereas others maintain that any kind of lineality or sex-biased dispersal only emerged much later. Here, we use Bayesian phylogenetic methods to uncover the history of Bantu kinship patterns and trace the interplay between descent and residence systems. The results suggest a number of switches in both descent and residence patterns as Bantu farming spread, but that the first Bantu populations were patrilocal with patrilineal descent. Across the phylogeny, a change in descent triggered a switch away from patrifocal kinship, whereas a change in residence triggered a switch back from matrifocal kinship. These results challengeMain Sequence Theory,” which maintains that changes in residence rules precede change in other social structures. We also indicate the trajectory of kinship change, shedding new light on how this fundamental structure of society developed as farming spread across the globe during the Neolithic. PMID:25422461

  14. Phylogenetic reconstruction of Bantu kinship challenges Main Sequence Theory of human social evolution.

    PubMed

    Opie, Christopher; Shultz, Susanne; Atkinson, Quentin D; Currie, Thomas; Mace, Ruth

    2014-12-01

    Kinship provides the fundamental structure of human society: descent determines the inheritance pattern between generations, whereas residence rules govern the location a couple moves to after they marry. In turn, descent and residence patterns determine other key relationships such as alliance, trade, and marriage partners. Hunter-gatherer kinship patterns are viewed as flexible, whereas agricultural societies are thought to have developed much more stable kinship patterns as they expanded during the Holocene. Among the Bantu farmers of sub-Saharan Africa, the ancestral kinship patterns present at the beginning of the expansion are hotly contested, with some arguing for matrilineal and matrilocal patterns, whereas others maintain that any kind of lineality or sex-biased dispersal only emerged much later. Here, we use Bayesian phylogenetic methods to uncover the history of Bantu kinship patterns and trace the interplay between descent and residence systems. The results suggest a number of switches in both descent and residence patterns as Bantu farming spread, but that the first Bantu populations were patrilocal with patrilineal descent. Across the phylogeny, a change in descent triggered a switch away from patrifocal kinship, whereas a change in residence triggered a switch back from matrifocal kinship. These results challenge "Main Sequence Theory," which maintains that changes in residence rules precede change in other social structures. We also indicate the trajectory of kinship change, shedding new light on how this fundamental structure of society developed as farming spread across the globe during the Neolithic. PMID:25422461

  15. Long-Term Environmental Research Programs - Evolving Capacity for Discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swanson, F. J.

    2008-12-01

    Long-term forestry, watershed, and ecological research sites have become critical, productive nodes for environmental science research and in some cases for work in the social sciences and humanities. The Forest Service's century-old Experimental Forests and Ranges and the National Science Foundation's 28- year-old Long-Term Ecological Research program have been remarkably productive in both basic and applied sciences, including characterization of acid rain and old-growth ecosystems and development of forest, watershed, and range management systems for commercial and other land use objectives. A review of recent developments suggests steps to enhance the function of collections of long-term research sites as interactive science networks. The programs at these sites have evolved greatly, especially over the past few decades, as the questions addressed, disciplines engaged, and degree of science integration have grown. This is well displayed by small, experimental watershed studies, which first were used for applied hydrology studies then more fundamental biogeochemical studies and now examination of complex ecosystem processes; all capitalizing on the legacy of intensive studies and environmental monitoring spanning decades. In very modest ways these collections of initially independent sites have functioned increasingly as integrated research networks addressing inter-site questions by using common experimental designs, being part of a single experiment, and examining long-term data in a common analytical framework. The network aspects include data sharing via publicly-accessible data-harvester systems for climate and streamflow data. The layering of one research or environmental monitoring network upon another facilitates synergies. Changing climate and atmospheric chemistry highlight a need to use these networks as continental-scale observatory systems for assessing the impacts of environmental change on ecological services. To better capitalize on long-term

  16. [Uncertainty of long term preservation of digital documents and how to cope with it].

    PubMed

    Huc, Claude

    2011-01-01

    The development of digital technologies in all activities sectors of our society leads to a growing number of digital documents. A significant part of these documents needs to be durably preserved. This long term preservation has to face the short life expectancy of the technologies and the digital storage media. Large national organizations have already take this problem into account and set up teams, skills and means to face this challenge. At the opposite, the small structures, doctor's offices, individuals, students, etc. are not generally aware of the problem or are stripped to face there. A certain number of simple actions, not requiring specific skills in data processing can nevertheless be undertaken. Without important expenditure, they increase to a significant degree, the security level of the documents over the long term. PMID:21880266

  17. Accountability in the City of Toronto's 10 long-term care homes.

    PubMed

    Wyers, Lindsay; Gamble, Brenda; Deber, Raisa B

    2014-09-01

    Long-term care (LTC) residential homes provide a supportive environment for residents requiring nursing care and assistance with daily living activities. The LTC sector is highly regulated. We examine the approaches taken to ensure the delivery of quality and safe care in 10 LTC homes owned and operated by the City of Toronto, Ontario, focusing on mandatory accountability agreements with the Local Health Integration Networks (LHINs). Results are based on document review and seven interviews with LTC managers responsible for the management and operation of the 10 LTC homes. One issue identified was the challenges associated with implementing new legislative and regulatory requirements to multiple bodies with differing requirements, particularly when boundaries do not coincide (e.g., the City of Toronto's Long-Term Care Homes and Services Division must establish 10 different accountability agreements with the five LHINs that span into the City of Toronto's geographic area). PMID:25305393

  18. Accountability in the City of Toronto's 10 Long-Term Care Homes

    PubMed Central

    Wyers, Lindsay; Gamble, Brenda; Deber, Raisa B.

    2014-01-01

    Long-term care (LTC) residential homes provide a supportive environment for residents requiring nursing care and assistance with daily living activities. The LTC sector is highly regulated. We examine the approaches taken to ensure the delivery of quality and safe care in 10 LTC homes owned and operated by the City of Toronto, Ontario, focusing on mandatory accountability agreements with the Local Health Integration Networks (LHINs). Results are based on document review and seven interviews with LTC managers responsible for the management and operation of the 10 LTC homes. One issue identified was the challenges associated with implementing new legislative and regulatory requirements to multiple bodies with differing requirements, particularly when boundaries do not coincide (e.g., the City of Toronto's Long-Term Care Homes and Services Division must establish 10 different accountability agreements with the five LHINs that span into the City of Toronto's geographic area). PMID:25305393

  19. Long-term survival of a semi-constrained implant following revision for infection.

    PubMed

    Wilke, Benjamin; Wagner, Eric; Trousdale, Robert

    2015-05-01

    Revision total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in prosthetic joint infections (PJI) is a challenging problem. We evaluated our institutional experience with a semi-constrained implant placed in a PJI setting. Seventy-eight TKAs in 75 patients with a history of a PJI were identified. The average follow-up was 7.5 years. Twenty-three (29%) underwent repeat revision surgery. Five and 10 year survivals were 71% and 64%, respectively. The most common reason for repeat revision surgery was recurrent infection (78%). Smoking and elevated BMI increased the risk of repeat revision surgery. Significant improvements were maintained long term in pain and range of motion (P < 0.01 and P = 0.02). In the absence of repeat infection, long term pain relief and improved function may be expected with the semi-constrained implant. PMID:25769740

  20. Long-Term Ozone Exposure Attenuates 1-Nitronaphthalene–Induced Cytotoxicity in Nasal Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Myong Gyong; Wheelock, Åsa M.; Boland, Bridget; Plopper, Charles G.

    2008-01-01

    1-Nitronaphthalene (1-NN) and ozone are cytotoxic air pollutants commonly found as components of photochemical smog. The mechanism of toxicity for 1-NN involves bioactivation by cytochrome P450s and subsequent adduction to proteins. Previous studies have shown that 1-NN toxicity in the lung is considerably higher in rats after long-term exposure to ozone compared with the corresponding filtered air–exposed control rats. The aim of the present study was to establish whether long-term exposure to ozone alters the susceptibility of nasal mucosa to the bioactivated toxicant, 1-NN. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to filtered air or 0.8 ppm ozone for 8 hours per day for 90 days, followed by a single treatment with 0, 12.5, or 50.0 mg/kg 1-NN by intraperitoneal injection. The results of the histopathologic analyses show that the nasal mucosa of rats is a target of systemic 1-NN, and that long-term ozone exposure markedly lessens the severity of injury, as well as the protein adduct formation by reactive 1-NN metabolites. The antagonistic effects were primarily seen in the nasal transitional epithelium, which corresponds to the main site of histologic changes attributed to ozone exposure (goblet cell metaplasia and hyperplasia). Long-term ozone exposure did not appear to alter susceptibility to 1-NN injury in other nasal regions. This study shows that long-term ozone exposure has a protective effect on the susceptibility of nasal transitional epithelium to subsequent 1-NN, a result that clearly contrasts with the synergistic toxicological effect observed in pulmonary airway epithelium in response to the same exposure regimen. PMID:17901409